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Animal Resources in Ancient Maya Economy and Exchange

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0042707/00001

Material Information

Title: Animal Resources in Ancient Maya Economy and Exchange Zooarchaeological and Isotopic Perspectives
Physical Description: 1 online resource (317 p.)
Language: english
Creator: THORNTON,ERIN
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: ANIMAL -- ARCHAEOLOGY -- MAYA -- STRONTIUM -- TRADE -- ZOOARCHAEOLOGY
Anthropology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Anthropology thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: ANIMAL RESOURCES IN ANCIENT MAYA ECONOMY AND EXCHANGE: ZOOARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ISOTOPIC PERSPECTIVES By Erin Kennedy Thornton May 2011 Chair: Kitty F. Emery Major: Anthropology In this study, I examined how animal resources were incorporated into ancient Maya economic and exchange systems. Although substantial research has been dedicated to understanding Maya economy and exchange, animals and animal products are one important category of natural resources that has not yet been fully explored in terms of economic research. With the exception of well-documented long-distance exchange of luxury goods, such as marine shells, the extent of animal resource exchange is poorly known, especially at local and regional scales. There is disagreement regarding whether trade in animal products was restricted to high status luxury goods, or whether subsistence and utilitarian resources were also transported and exchanged, and still unanswered is the question of how much control the Maya ruling elites maintained over the acquisition, distribution and consumption of animal resources as both subsistence and luxury goods. I addressed these issues through zooarchaeological and isotopic analysis of animal remains from Maya archaeological sites. First, I analyzed Late Classic (~A.D. 550?850) animal resource acquisition, production and exchange within the Motul de San Jos? and Petexbatun polities. I generated original zooarchaeological data for the polity?s possible trade centers: Trinidad de Nosotros (Motul polity) and Cancuen (Petexbatun polity). I then compared the Trindad de Nosotros and Cancuen assemblages to published zooarchaeological data available for other sites within their respective polities. Through the inter-site comparisons, I assessed the size of hunting catchment zones, the evidence for exchange between sites, and how a site?s economic role and status within the regional hierarchy influenced its access to local and non-local animal resources. I further considered the differential access to animal goods within each site according to social status to reconstruct how elite control over faunal resources influenced systems of animal acquisition, distribution and exchange. I found that although most animal goods were obtained from habitats located within 3 km of a site, animal goods were likely exchanged at local, regional and long-distance scales to fulfill elite demand for preferred dietary and ceremonial resources, and to redistribute raw materials used for crafting. Within sites and polities, status differences resulted in hierarchical access to select animal goods including exotic marine taxa, and symbolically charged animals acquired at the local and regional scale. However, the distribution of most animal resources was unregulated by the elite. Next, I conducted strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotope analysis on zooarchaeological remains from sites within and beyond the boundaries of the Motul de San Jos? and Petexbatun polities. The method was employed as a novel means of identifying and sourcing non-local animals at Maya archaeological sites. Evidence was found for trade in animals such as white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and peccaries (Tayassuidae), which are usually considered to be local resources. The isotopic results therefore contribute to our understanding of how animal products were integrated in to regional and long-distance exchange networks. The strontium isotope results are also relevant to human mobility studies in Meosamerica. The combined zooarchaeological and isotope datasets show that transport and exchange of animal products at local, regional and long-distance scales was more extensive than previously recognized in terms of both the quantity and diversity of goods being circulated. This finding refutes traditional perceptions of animals as simple domestic resources acquired and distributed primarily at the household level. The data also show that traditional economic models dichotomizing centralized prestige goods economies and decentralized subsistence goods economies are inappropriate for describing the diversity of ways faunal resources circulated through the Maya economy. Both high status and utilitarian goods were exchanged at multiple spatial scales, and elites maintained control over select dietary and non-dietary resources. My research further shows that zooarchaeological remains are an under-researched source of information about Maya economic and exchange systems.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by ERIN THORNTON.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2011.
Local: Adviser: Emery, Kitty F.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2012-04-30

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2011
System ID: UFE0042707:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0042707/00001

Material Information

Title: Animal Resources in Ancient Maya Economy and Exchange Zooarchaeological and Isotopic Perspectives
Physical Description: 1 online resource (317 p.)
Language: english
Creator: THORNTON,ERIN
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2011

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: ANIMAL -- ARCHAEOLOGY -- MAYA -- STRONTIUM -- TRADE -- ZOOARCHAEOLOGY
Anthropology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Anthropology thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: ANIMAL RESOURCES IN ANCIENT MAYA ECONOMY AND EXCHANGE: ZOOARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ISOTOPIC PERSPECTIVES By Erin Kennedy Thornton May 2011 Chair: Kitty F. Emery Major: Anthropology In this study, I examined how animal resources were incorporated into ancient Maya economic and exchange systems. Although substantial research has been dedicated to understanding Maya economy and exchange, animals and animal products are one important category of natural resources that has not yet been fully explored in terms of economic research. With the exception of well-documented long-distance exchange of luxury goods, such as marine shells, the extent of animal resource exchange is poorly known, especially at local and regional scales. There is disagreement regarding whether trade in animal products was restricted to high status luxury goods, or whether subsistence and utilitarian resources were also transported and exchanged, and still unanswered is the question of how much control the Maya ruling elites maintained over the acquisition, distribution and consumption of animal resources as both subsistence and luxury goods. I addressed these issues through zooarchaeological and isotopic analysis of animal remains from Maya archaeological sites. First, I analyzed Late Classic (~A.D. 550?850) animal resource acquisition, production and exchange within the Motul de San Jos? and Petexbatun polities. I generated original zooarchaeological data for the polity?s possible trade centers: Trinidad de Nosotros (Motul polity) and Cancuen (Petexbatun polity). I then compared the Trindad de Nosotros and Cancuen assemblages to published zooarchaeological data available for other sites within their respective polities. Through the inter-site comparisons, I assessed the size of hunting catchment zones, the evidence for exchange between sites, and how a site?s economic role and status within the regional hierarchy influenced its access to local and non-local animal resources. I further considered the differential access to animal goods within each site according to social status to reconstruct how elite control over faunal resources influenced systems of animal acquisition, distribution and exchange. I found that although most animal goods were obtained from habitats located within 3 km of a site, animal goods were likely exchanged at local, regional and long-distance scales to fulfill elite demand for preferred dietary and ceremonial resources, and to redistribute raw materials used for crafting. Within sites and polities, status differences resulted in hierarchical access to select animal goods including exotic marine taxa, and symbolically charged animals acquired at the local and regional scale. However, the distribution of most animal resources was unregulated by the elite. Next, I conducted strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotope analysis on zooarchaeological remains from sites within and beyond the boundaries of the Motul de San Jos? and Petexbatun polities. The method was employed as a novel means of identifying and sourcing non-local animals at Maya archaeological sites. Evidence was found for trade in animals such as white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and peccaries (Tayassuidae), which are usually considered to be local resources. The isotopic results therefore contribute to our understanding of how animal products were integrated in to regional and long-distance exchange networks. The strontium isotope results are also relevant to human mobility studies in Meosamerica. The combined zooarchaeological and isotope datasets show that transport and exchange of animal products at local, regional and long-distance scales was more extensive than previously recognized in terms of both the quantity and diversity of goods being circulated. This finding refutes traditional perceptions of animals as simple domestic resources acquired and distributed primarily at the household level. The data also show that traditional economic models dichotomizing centralized prestige goods economies and decentralized subsistence goods economies are inappropriate for describing the diversity of ways faunal resources circulated through the Maya economy. Both high status and utilitarian goods were exchanged at multiple spatial scales, and elites maintained control over select dietary and non-dietary resources. My research further shows that zooarchaeological remains are an under-researched source of information about Maya economic and exchange systems.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by ERIN THORNTON.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2011.
Local: Adviser: Emery, Kitty F.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2012-04-30

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2011
System ID: UFE0042707:00001


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ANIMAL RESOURCES IN ANCIENT MAYA ECONOMY AND EXCHANGE: ZOOARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ISOTOPIC PERSPECTIVES By ERIN KENNEDY THORNTON A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORID A IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2011 1

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2011 Erin Kennedy Thornton 2

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To Dan and Sam 3

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ACK NOWLEDGMENTS Funding for this project was generously provided by the Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies (grant # 06027), the National Science Foundation (grant #0622805), and the University of Florida Department of Latin American Studies. I would like to thank Antonia Foias, Matt Moriarty, Arthur Demarest, Toms Barrientos, Elizabeth Graham, Wendy Teeter, Diane Chase, Arlen Chase, and the Instituto Nacional de Antropologa e Historia de Guat emala (IDAEH) for granting permission to analyze the zooarchaeological rema ins used in this study. I would also like to thank Ann Heatherington, George Kamenov, John Krigbaum and Ben Valentine from the University of Flor ida for their assistance with t he strontium isotope analysis. Appreciation is also extended to the Flori da Museum of Natural History (Gainesville, Florida) for providing access to the modern comparative collections used to identify the zooarchaeological assemblages. I am indebted to my superb advisor, Kitty Emery, for her constant patience, support, guidance and friendship throughout my graduate career. Her insights and advice were invaluable. She also generously in volved me in her own research projects, which provided not only additional research and museum experience, but also paid employment, which allowed me to continue my graduate studies when other sources of funding were unavailable. I also extend my gratitude to my ot her committee members Susan deFrance, Susan Milbrath, John Kri gbaum and Mel Sunquist for their valuable feedback regarding various aspects of my re search. I am especially appreciative of Susan deFrance and John Krigbaum for their assistance with my previous masters research. Without their support, I never would have embarked on the Ph.D. 4

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Many other people ass isted with the comple tion of my research. Members of the Motul de San Jos Archaeological Project in cluding Antonia Foia s, Matt Moriarty, Christina Halperin, Elly Spensley, Crorey Lawton, Melanie Kingsley, and Carlos Alonzo provided friendship, as well as the space, materials, and archaeological assistance needed to conduct my study. From the Cancuen Archaeological Proj ect, I thank Brent Woodfill and Mirza Monterroso. Brent tot ed me around and kept me sane during my stay in Guatemala City, and also provided valuable information about archaeology in the Cancuen region. I also thank Carolyn Freiwald for her willingness to discuss and compare our isotopic datasets. Finally, I would like to extend gratitude to my family. I thank my parents for their encouragement and support to pursue an intere st Ive had since childhood. My husband Dan has been patient and supportive, and he gave me time to finish my dissertation by taking on more work himself. Along with ou r son, Sam, he also provided much needed perspective throughout the res earch and writing process. 5

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TABL E OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDG MENTS..................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES............................................................................................................9 LIST OF FI GURES ........................................................................................................11 ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................14 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUC TION....................................................................................................17 2 ANIMAL RESOURCES IN PRE-COLUMB IAN MAYA ECONOMIC AND EXCHANGE NE TWORKS......................................................................................24 Animals at the Intersection of Subs istence and Presti ge Economies.....................26 Food, Craft, Ritual and St atus: Animal Resource Use among the Ancient Maya....28 Faunal Resource Acquisition, Production an d Exchang e.......................................33 Long-Distance Exchange.................................................................................34 Local and Regional Exchange..........................................................................37 Bone and Shell Cra ft Producti on......................................................................40 Economic Complexity and the E xchange of Animal Products.................................42 Temporal Change in Maya Economy and Ex change.......................................43 Mechanisms of Excha nge................................................................................44 Trade Cent ers..................................................................................................47 Control and Power............................................................................................49 Summary ................................................................................................................50 3 METHODS: RECONSTRUCTING ANCIENT MAYA ECONOMY AND EXCHANGE THROUGH ZOOARCH AEOLOGICAL RE MAINS.............................52 Field Recovery of Zooa rchaeological Sa mples.......................................................52 Primary Zooarchaeological Analysis Methods ........................................................53 Sample Sele ction.............................................................................................54 Identificatio n Met hods......................................................................................54 Sample Quantif icatio n......................................................................................56 Secondary Zooarchaeologic al Analysis Methods ...................................................62 Status and Functi on Designat ions....................................................................62 Reconstructing Animal Resource Production and Dis tribution.........................65 Reconstructing Animal Resour ce Acquisition and Ex change...........................67 Habitat availability and fidelity ana lyses.....................................................68 Strontium isot ope analysis.........................................................................70 Defining local, regional and long-distance exchange.................................71 Zooarchaeological Interpreta tions of Economy and Exchange...............................73 6

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4 ANIMAL RESOURCE ECONOMY A ND EXCHANGE WITHIN THE MOTUL POLITY: ZOOARCHAEOLOGICAL RE SULTS FROM TRINIDAD DE NOSOTROS AND MOTU L DE SAN JOS.............................................................85 Site Descriptions and En vironmental Setting ..........................................................87 Trinidad de Nosotros........................................................................................87 Motul de S an Jos ............................................................................................90 Local Habitats and Anim al Availability..............................................................93 Result s....................................................................................................................96 Sample Descriptions and Comparabi lity...........................................................96 Taxonomic Com position...................................................................................97 Inter-site Comparisons: S pecies and Habi tat Use............................................99 Status and the Differential A ccess to Res ources............................................101 Bone and Shell Artifacts: Pr oduction and Consum ption.................................104 Discussio n............................................................................................................106 Polity-level Economics: Site St atus, Trade and Habi tat Use..........................106 Intra-Community Economics: Status and the Differential Access to Resources...................................................................................................109 Summary ..............................................................................................................113 5 ANIMAL RESOURCE ECONOMY AND EXCHANGE IN THE PASIN REGION: ZOOARCHAEOLOGICAL RESUSL TS FROM CANCUEN AND THE PETEXBATUN ......................................................................................................131 Site Descriptions and Environmental Se tting........................................................132 Cancuen .........................................................................................................132 Petexbatun Sites............................................................................................135 Local Habitats and Spec ies Availability..........................................................138 Results ..................................................................................................................140 Sample Descriptions and Comparabi lity.........................................................140 Taxonomic Com position .................................................................................144 Inter-site Comparisons: S pecies and Habita t Use..........................................148 Status and the Differential A ccess to Res ources............................................151 Bone and Shell Artifacts: Pr oduc tion and Consum ption.................................153 Discussio n............................................................................................................157 Regional Economics: Site Stat us, Trade and Habi tat Use.............................157 Intra-community Economics: Stat us and the Differential Access to Resources...................................................................................................162 Summary ..............................................................................................................166 6 IDENTIFYING AND SOURCING NO N-LOCAL MAYA ANIMAL REMAINS THROUGH STRONTIUM ISOTOPE (87Sr/86Sr) ANALYS IS.................................192 Strontium Isotope Geology in Mesoamer ica.........................................................195 Materials and Methods..........................................................................................198 Site and Sample De scriptions........................................................................198 Laboratory Me thods.......................................................................................200 7

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Definition of Local Str ontium Signat ures ........................................................202 Results ..................................................................................................................203 Motul de San Jos and Trinidad de Nosotros (Gua temala)............................203 Dos Pilas and Aguatec a (Guatemal a)............................................................205 Piedras Negras (Guatemala)..........................................................................206 Lamanai (Be lize)............................................................................................207 Caracol (Be lize)..............................................................................................207 Tipu (Beliz e)...................................................................................................208 Copan (Hondur as)..........................................................................................208 Discussio n............................................................................................................209 Site Interpretations: Geological Variat ion and Possible Sources of Non-local Animals .......................................................................................................210 Motul de San Jos and Tr inidad de Nosotros..........................................210 Pasin River sites: Dos Pilas, Aguateca and Cancuen ............................211 Piedras Ne gras........................................................................................213 Lamanai................................................................................................... 213 Sites bordering the Maya Mount ains: Caracol and Tipu ..........................217 Copan ......................................................................................................219 Faunal Resource Trade and Ac quisition Pa tterns..........................................221 Implications for Human Mobility Studies in Mes oamerica ...............................225 Summary ..............................................................................................................227 7 SUMMARY AND CO NCLUSION S........................................................................245 Results Summary: Faunal Resource Acquisition, Production and Exchange.......245 Local Acquisition an d Exchang e.....................................................................245 Regional Acquisition and Exchan ge...............................................................249 Long-Distance Acquisition and Exc hange...................................................... 254 Economic Complexity and the Acquisition and Exchange of Animal Goods.........258 Extent and Motivation of Exchange................................................................258 Elite Control over Faunal Resour ces..............................................................262 Integrating Animals into the Ancient Maya Ec onomy ............................................266 APPENDIX A TAXONOMIC CLASSIFICATION OF SPECIES IDENTIFIED IN THE ZOOARCHAEOLOGICAL AS SEMBLAGE S.........................................................267 REFERENCES CI TED................................................................................................272 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ..........................................................................................317 8

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LIST OF TABLES Table page 3-1 Trinidad de Nosotros zooarchaeologi cal assemblage quantified according to NISP and MN I.....................................................................................................77 3-2 Cancuen zooarchaeologi cal assemblage quantifi ed according to NISP and MNI.....................................................................................................................79 3-3 Artiodactyl skeletal elements classifi ed according to anatomical region for body portion analysis. .........................................................................................81 3-4 Habitat fidelity values assigned to identified taxa. Defined habitats include terrestrial (TER), rive rine/lacustrine (RIV) and wetland/swamp (WET)...............82 4-1 Ceramic complexes and chronological periods for Trinidad de Nosotros.........115 4-2 Classification of select faunal resource s as local, regional and exotic for the sites of Motul de San Jos and Trinidad de Nosotros......................................116 4-3 Taxa identified in the Late Classic Trinidad de Nosotros (Trinidad) and Motul de San Jos (Motul) zooarchaeo logical assemb lages. .....................................117 4-4 Distribution of Late Classic Trinidad and Motul faunal remains according to social status or rank..........................................................................................119 4-5 Late Classic bone and shell artifacts from Motul and Trinidad according to production stage and type. ...............................................................................120 4-6 Late Classic bone and shell artifacts fr om the Motul polity sites listed by production stage and soci al rank ......................................................................120 5-1 Basic ceramic chronology for the Petexbatun region (based on Emery 2010: pg. 4, Figur e 2.1)..............................................................................................169 5-2 Classification of select faunal resour ces as local, regional and exotic for Cancuen and the Pete xbatun site s...................................................................170 5-3 Proportion of faunal remains identifi ed to various taxono mic levels .................171 5-4 Proportion of zooarchaeological re mains from human burials..........................171 5-5 Taxa identified in the Lat e Classic Cancuen and Petexbatun zooarchaeological assemblages .......................................................................172 5-6 Proportion of freshwater mollusc taxa an d artifactually modified clam shell at each study si te..................................................................................................178 9

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5-7 Distribution of preferred and/or non-loca l taxa according to social rank...........179 5-8 Late Classic bone and shell artifacts from Cancuen and the Petexbatun sites by material and production st age...................................................................... 180 5-9 Bone and shell artifacts from C ancuen and Petexbatun sites listed by production stage and soci al rank ......................................................................181 5-10 White-tailed deer skeletal element and body portion distributions for Cancuen workshops and non-workshops compar ed to the Dos Pilas bone workshop (L4-3) and a standard deer skelet on.................................................................182 6-1 List of sites and zooarchaeological assemblages included in the study...........228 6-2 Summary of strontium isotope dataset including 87Sr/86Sr mean and range for primary and baseli ne sample s..........................................................................229 6-3 Home range size of non-domestic mammals included in the study..................230 6-4 Strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotope results for bone, enamel and shell from zooarchaeological and modern samp les..........................................................231 6-5 Copan 87Sr/86Sr data from archaeological fau na sampled by Krueger (1985)..236 10

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1-1 Map showing the location of the Mo tul de San Jos and Petexbatun polities, and sites with faunal remains sampled for strontium is otope analysis................23 3-1 Taxonomic class composition of the Trinidad de Nosotros faunal assemblage by percent NI SP and MN I...................................................................................83 3-2 Taxonomic class composition of t he Cancuen faunal assemblage by percent NISP and MN I.....................................................................................................84 4-1 Map showing a) the location of the Motu l polity sites in relation to Lake Petn Izta, b) location of archaeological site s within the Motul de San Jos polity and region. .......................................................................................................121 4-2 Map of major architectural groups at Trinidad de Nosotros showing density of zooarchaeological remains (with circles)..........................................................122 4-3 Site map of Motul de San Jos showing density of zooarchaeological remains (with circles) ........................................................................................123 4-4 Distribution of Late Classic faunal rema ins from Trinidad and Motul according to cultural context.............................................................................................124 4-5 Taxonomic class representation in the Trinidad and Motul assemblages.........124 4-6 Percent marine resources at Trinidad and Motul..............................................125 4-7 Relative % NISP of ceremonial, high status and potentially non-local regional resources at Trini dad and Motul. ......................................................................125 4-8 Comparison of animal use at Trin idad (TRI) and Motul (MSJ) according to social stat us......................................................................................................126 4-9 Distribution of preferred and regional taxa at Trinidad de Nosotros according to social rank /status..........................................................................................127 4-10 Distribution of marine taxa by social rank at Trinidad (TRI) and Motul (MSJ) calculated as percent of NISP per rank wit hin each site...................................127 4-11 White-tailed deer skeletal element distribution by anatomic al region...............128 4-12 Distribution of preferre d and regional taxa at Motul de San Jos according to social rank/s tatus..............................................................................................128 4-13 Late Classic bone and shell artifacts by production stage and material...........129 11

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4-14 Trinidad de Nosotros Late Cla ssic bone and shell debitage and finished artifacts by social rank/sta tus............................................................................129 4-15 Motul de San Jos Late Classic bone and shell debitage and finished artifacts by social rank/sta tus............................................................................130 5-1 Map of Rio Pasin and Petexbatun regi ons showing location of study sites....183 5-2 Map of Cancuen showing major ar chitectural groups and density of zooarchaeological remains (with circles)..........................................................184 5-3 Map of habitat zones within the Petexbatun region. .........................................185 5-4 Animal use by taxonomic class according to NISP. ..........................................186 5-5 Variation in habitat fidelity am ong Petexbatun a ssemblages............................186 5-6 Distribution of preferred and regional taxa in Petexb atun sites.........................187 5-7 Frequency of white-tailed deer, br ocket deer and peccary among sites calculated as the percent of all artiodactyl remains per site.............................187 5-8 Percent and number of marine taxa in Petexbatun site assemblages..............188 5-9 Distribution of artiodactyl species by stat us/rank. .............................................188 5-10 White-tailed deer skeletal element distri butions at major Petexbatun sites......189 5-11 Material of a) production debris a nd b) finished artifa cts by site.......................190 5-12 Material of a) producti on debris and b) finished arti facts by status rank in Petexbatun sites...............................................................................................191 6-1 Map of the Maya cultural region showing sites mentioned in the text and major strontium isotope regions ( delineated with dashe d lines). ......................237 6-2 Map showing 87Sr/86Sr ranges of baseline faunal sample s...............................238 6-3 Motul de San Jos 87Sr/86Sr values ..................................................................239 6-4 Trindad de Nosotros 87Sr/86Sr values ...............................................................239 6-5 Dos Pilas 87Sr/86Sr values .................................................................................240 6-6 Aguateca 87Sr/86Sr values .................................................................................240 6-7 Piedras Negras 87Sr/86Sr values .......................................................................241 6-8 Lamanai 87Sr/86Sr values ..................................................................................241 12

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6-9 Caracol 87Sr/86Sr values ...................................................................................242 6-10 Tipu 87Sr/86Sr val ues.........................................................................................243 6-11 Copan 87Sr/86Sr values.....................................................................................244 13

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Abstract of Dissertation Pr esented to the Graduate School of the University of Fl orida in Partial Fulf illment of the Requirements for t he Degree of Doctor of Philosophy ANIMAL RESOURCES IN ANCIENT MAYA ECONOMY AND EXCHANGE: ZOOARCHAEOLOGICAL AND ISOTOPIC PERSPECTIVES By Erin Kennedy Thornton May 2011 Chair: Kitty F. Emery Major: Anthropology In this study, I examined how animal re sources were incorporated into ancient Maya economic and exchange systems. Although substantial research has been dedicated to understanding Maya economy and ex change, animals and animal products are one important category of natural resources that has not yet been fully explored in terms of economic research. With the exception of welldocumented long-distance exchange of luxury goods, such as marine s hells, the extent of animal resource exchange is poorly known, especially at local and regional scales. There is disagreement regarding whether trade in animal products was restricted to high status luxury goods, or whether subsistence and ut ilitarian resources were also transported and exchanged, and still unanswered is the question of how much control the Maya ruling elites maintained over the acquisiti on, distribution and consumption of animal resources as both subsistence and luxury goods. I addressed these issues through zooarchaeological and isotopic analysis of animal remains from Maya archaeological sites. 14

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First, I analyzed Late Class ic (~A.D. 550) animal resource acquisition, production and exchange within the Motul de San Jos and Petexbatun polities. I generated original zooarchaeological data fo r the politys possible trade centers: Trinidad de Nosotros (Motul polity) and Cancuen (Petexbatun po lity). I then compared the Trindad de Nosotros and Cancuen assemb lages to published zooarchaeological data available for other sites within their re spective polities. Through the inter-site comparisons, I assessed the size of hunting catchment zones, the evidence for exchange between sites, and how a sites econom ic role and status within the regional hierarchy influenced its access to local and non-local animal resources. I further considered the differential access to anima l goods within each site according to social status to reconstruct how elite control over faunal resources influenced systems of animal acquisition, distribution and exchange. I found that although most animal goods were obtained from habitats located within 3 km of a site, animal goods were likely exchanged at local, regional and long-distance scales to fulfill elite demand for preferred dietary and ceremonial resources, and to r edistribute raw materials used for crafting. Within sites and polities, status differences resulted in hierarchical access to select animal goods including exotic marine taxa, and symbolically charged animals acquired at the local and regional scale. However, the distribution of most animal resources was unregulated by the elite. Next, I conducted strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotope analysis on zooarchaeological remains from sites within and beyond the boundaries of the Motul de San Jos and Petexbatun polities. The method was employed as a nov el means of identifying and sourcing non-local animals at Maya archaeological sites. Evidence was found for trade 15

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in animals such as white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) and peccaries (Tayassuidae), which are usually considered to be local res ources. The isotopic results therefore contribute to our understanding of how animal products were integrated in to regional and long-dist ance exch ange networks. The strontium isotope results are also relevant to human mobility studies in Meosamerica. The combined zooarchaeological and isotope datasets show that transport and exchange of animal products at local, regional and long-distance scales was more extensive than previously recognized in terms of both the quant ity and diversity of goods being circulated. This findi ng refutes traditional percept ions of animals as simple domestic resources acquired and distributed primarily at the household level. The data also show that traditional economic models dichotomizing centralized prestige goods economies and decentralized subsistence goods economies are inappropriate for describing the diversity of ways faunal resources circulated through the Maya economy. Both high status and utilitarian goods were exchanged at multiple spatial scales, and elites maintained control over select diet ary and non-dietary resources. My research further shows that zooarchaeological re mains are an under-researched source of information about Maya economic and exchange systems. 16

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CHA PTER 1 INTRODUCTION Investigations into the organization of ancient Maya economy, including systems of production, consumption and exchange, continue to provide insights into the overall structure of Maya society. Understanding how goods were acquired and distributed can answer important questions regarding the level of inter-site dependency, the function of exchange networks, and the exte nt to which different status groups, or community members controlled subsistence and non-su bsistence resources. Reconstructing resource acquisition and exchange pattern s is also significant to our broader understanding of ancient Maya socio-political organization. Economic exchanges occur within the context of social and political relationships that facilitate and maintain integration and connect ivity between individuals, gr oups, sites and regions (Berdan 1978; McAnany 1989; Polanyi et al. 1957; Voor hies 1973). Therefore, any analysis of resource use and exchange must be contextua lized within the framework of inter-site economic and political relations. In this study I examine ancient Maya animal use and exchange through the interdisciplinary field of zooarchaeology: the identification and analysi s of archaeological animal remains. Although recent archaeologi cal research has expanded our knowledge of lithic and ceramic production-distribution systems (e.g., Foias and Bishop 1997; Halperin et al. 2009; Hammond 1972; MoholyNagy 2003; Rice 1984, 1987; Santone 1997; Shafer and Hester 1983; Sheets et al. 1990; West 2002), we have less information about how other goods were incorporated into the Maya economy. Animals and animal products are one important category of natural resources that has not yet been fully explored in terms of economic research. The extent of animal resource 17

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exchange is poorly documented, and researchers disagree regarding whether trade in animal products was restricted to high st atus prestige items exchanged among the wealthiest or most powerful classes, or whether subsistence and utilitarian products were also transported and exchanged by a ll community members. The nature and extent of control over the distribution and consumption of various animal resources is also contested, and may be contextualized within a larger debate over whether the Maya ruling classes managed just the presti ge economy, or both the subsistence and prestige economies (Chase and Chase 1996; Demarest 1996; Hirth 1992; Masson and Freidel 2002; Rice 1987). The goal of my research is therefore to provide data that can begin to answer some of these questions abo ut how animal resources were integrated into ancient Maya economic and exchange systems. This research contributes to our understanding of the Maya econom y and its connection to socio-political organization. In the first part of my st udy of the economics of Maya animal use, I analyzed Late Classic (~A.D. 550) zooarchaeological asse mblages from the sites of Trinidad de Nosotros (Trinidad) and Cancuen (Figure 1-1). These sites were pivotal to my investigation because they are lo cated at the interface of tw o or more ecological zones, because well-documented paleoenvironmental dat a exists for each site, and because comparative zooarchaeological data were available for other settlements within their respective regional polities. These sites were also of particular interest because they are currently interpreted as prehistoric tr ade centers based on the presence of relatively high quantities of exotic ceramic and lithic artifacts, and the sites strategic geographic locations between resource zones and alon g known trade routes (Demarest 2000; Demarest et al. 2006; Moriarty 2004; Moriarty et al. 2008) I limited my analyses to the 18

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Late Classic period because this coincides with the peak of economic, social and politic al complexity within the southern Maya lowlands. Populations increased (Culbert and Rice 1990), settlements expanded, and the elite social ranks swelled to include not only site rulers, but also lower lords, re ligious and administrative officials, and craft specialists (Chase 1992; Culbert 1991). The Late Classic is also characterized by increases in elite political activity, tri bute demands, and craft specialization (McAnany 1992; Rice 1987), all of which could have in creased the amount of goods circulating though exchange. Comparison of Late Classic animal use and acquisition within these economically active sites and regions theref ore provides an ideal context for assessing how faunal resources were incorporated into complex local, regional, and long distance economic and exch ange networks. During the Late Classic period, the sites of Trinidad and Cancuen were each incorporated into broader polities through inter-site social, political and economic interactions; Trinidad within the Motul de S an Jos (Motul) polity, and Cancuen within the Petexbatun polity. I com pared zooarchaeological asse mblages from Trinidad and Cancuen to those from other sites within their polities1 to assess animal use and exchange within integrated regi onal economic systems. This approach allowed me to consider animal product exchange between sites, and how access to faunal resources varied within polities according to a sites economic role (e.g., as a trade center or political capital), or status within the regional hierarchy. Analyzing zooarchaeological assemblages at a regional scale also provid ed insight into the size of local animal resource catchment areas. Within each polity, sites varied in their proximity to various 1 Kitty Emery granted permission to analyze raw zooarchaeological data she compiled for the sites of Motul de San Jos, Dos Pilas, Aguateca, Arroyo de Piedra, Tamarindito and Quim Chi Hilan. 19

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habitats and microenvironmental zones. Quantifying inter-site differences in habitat use though zooarchaeological remains provided a means to identify how far people generally traveled to obtain faunal resources, and what resources were likely obtained through exchange. In addition to inter-site, po lity-level comparisons, I also considered the differential access to faunal resources wit hin each sit e according to social status. This allowed for analysis of how elite2 demand for, or control ov er, particular resources shaped systems of animal resources acquisiti on, distribution and exchange. Production and consumption of bone and she ll artifacts within the Motul and Petexbatun polity sites was investigated to understand how animal pr oducts circulated through the economy as both raw materials for crafting, and finished artifacts. The zooarchaeological results from the Motul and Petexbatun polites are reported in Chapters 4 and 5, respectively. As the second component of my study, I explored the potential for using strontium isotope analysis (87Sr/86Sr) as an additional method of investigating animal resource acquisition and exchange within the Maya ar ea. Traditional zooarchaeological methods for identifying and sourcing non-local animals rely on the identification of exotic animals found outside their natural ranges (e.g., marine species f ound at inland sites). Such methods are inadequate for identifying trade in species wit h large geographic distributions such as white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) and jaguars ( Panthera onca). Recent studies in Mesoamerica illustrat e the utility of isotope analysis in tracking human migration (Buikstra et al. 2003; Pric e et al. 2000; Price 2006; Price et al. 2008; Price et al. 2010; White et al 2000; White et al. 2007; White et al. 1998; White et al. 2 The term elite is a contentious term, but it is used in this dissertation to refer to a sites royal family, as well as nobles, bureaucrats, religious leaders, and other high ranking individuals. The distinction is a descriptive device used to discuss differences in eco nomic, social and political status, which may or may not correspond to actual divisions within ancient Maya society (discussion in Chase 1992). 20

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1998; White et al. 2002; White et al. 2004; Wright 2005a, 2005b, 2007), but si milar methods have not yet been applied to faunal res ources. In Chapter 6, I present results from the strontium isotope analysis of z ooarchaeological remains from sites located throughout the Maya lowlands (Fi gure 1-1). This investigati on serves as a novel means of identifying regional and long-distance exchange of anim al products, and aids in understanding how animals and anima l products were integrated into the ancient Maya economy at multiple scales. The dataset al so contributes baseline strontium isotope data relevant to studies of human migrat ion and mobility throughout Mesoamerica. Through the combined zooarchaeological a nd isotopic datasets, I investigated the extent of animal resource exchange at local, regional and long-distance scales.3 I considered the quantity, and types of anima l goods being exchanged, as well as the sites and groups of people involved in animal resource acquisition, production, and distribution. Identifying what animal resources were being exchanged and between whom, allowed me to further investigate the motivations for animal resource exchange, and whether subsistence and non-subsistence ani mal products differed in how far they were being transported. The differential access to animal resources both within and between sites was used to interpret how much control Maya elites maintained over resource distribution and exchan ge networks. At the polity level, I explored how a sites economic role and status within the regional hierarchy related to its access to high status and non-local anima l goods. At the site level, di fferential access was considered 3 In this discussion, local exchange is defined as the movement of goods over distances of <5 km. This type of exchange generally occurs between groups within sites. Regional exchange refers to the movement of goods between 5 and 25 km, which may occur between nearby sites within a polity or region. Long-distance exchange transports goods 50 km or more, and generally moves goods between regions, or distant polities. These definitions ar e purely heuristic devices employed to describe the relative effort required to obtain particular resources (further discussion in Chapter 3). 21

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primarily between site rulers and lower ranki ng groups. The nature of elite control over animal res ources is used as a stepping o ff point for broader discussions of how economic organization intersects with socio-political structures. In summary, this treatise addresses how animal resources moved through the Maya economy via a wide range of economic in teractions and structures, and whether greater quantities of faunal resources were exchanged over shor t, medium and longdistances than previously thought. Methodologically, the st udy reveals previously unrecognized exchange of animal products through inter-site zooarchaeological comparisons, and strontium isotope analysis. Such data provide a starting point for integrating animal resources into more detai led discussions of ancient Maya economy and exchange. 22

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Figure 1-1. Map showing the location of t he Motul de San Jos and Petexbatun polities, and sites with faunal remains sampled for strontium isotope analysis. Map modified from original by Kitty Emery. 23

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CHA PTER 2 ANIMAL RESOURCES IN PRE-COLUMBIA N MAYA ECONOMIC AND EXCHANGE NETWORKS Recent studies of pre-Columbi an Maya economy and exchange emphasize organizational complexity and diversity at community, polity and inter-polity scales (e.g., Chase and Chase 1996; Foias 2002; Mc Anany 1989, 2010; Potter and King 1995; Scarborough and Valdez 2003; Wells 2006). Of relevance to the current study are new indications of well-developed local and r egional exchange networks (Aoyama 2001; Dockall and Shafer 1993; Foias and Bishop 1997; Graham 1994; Hult and Hester 1995; Sheets 2000), regional and long distance exchange of subsistence goods (Graham 1994; Hamblin 1985; McKillop 2002; Wr ight 2005a), household and site-level specialization in resource extraction and production (Kunen and Hughbanks 2003; MacKinnon and Kepecs 1989; McAnany 1992; Scarborough and Valdez 2003; Shafer and Hester 1983; Sheets and Simmons 2002), and a variety of co-existing economic systems through which households and individual s provisioned themselves including tribute/taxation, redistribution, vertical and horizontal gifting, and market exchange (McAnany 2010; Rice 2009; Smith and Berdan 2003). The degree of control over various aspec ts of the Maya economy by different community members also appears to have been more complex and variable across space and time. According to classic model s of Maya economic organization, elites (defined herein as ruling family and nobl e class community me mbers) maintained centralized control over the produ ction and distribution of luxury or prestige goods, while the subsistence economy was decentralized with production and distribution organized at the household and local community level (Hirth 1992; Rice 1987). In contrast, new economic models of the ancient Maya emphas ize a diversity of ways in which raw 24

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materials and finished goods circulated through communities, polities and across social divis ions. Within this new theoretical framew ork, it is more difficult to describe goods and economic activities according to dic hotomized centralized prestige goods models versus decentralized subsistence goods models. Revised economic discussions are paralleled by recogniti on of greater complexity and diversity in ancient Maya social and political organization (e.g., McAnany 2010; Scarborough and Valdez 2003). This is not surp rising due to the widely recognized link between economic, social and political struct ures. Notions of the social nature of economic transactions were first articulated in the classic anthropol ogical writings of Mauss (1990 [1925]) and Malinowski (1961 [1922]). Subsequent works on premodern economies have continued to focus on the social relations and motiva tions that underlie exchange4 and other economic activities (e.g., Bourdieu 2005; Douglas and Isherwood 1996 [1979]; Polanyi 1957). Acknowledging that economic processes are fully embedded within a larger social matrix [McAnany 2010:14], many models of Mesoamerican economies employ political economy approaches, which discuss how control over the acquisition, production and consumption of goods may be used to create and maintain political power (Blant on et al. 1996; Masson and Freidel 2002; McAnany 2004; Scarborough and Clark 2007). More recently, researchers have used the related idea of ritual economy to expl ore how ritual and ideological systems shape and motivate economic activities in Mesoamerica (McAnany 2010; Wells 2006; Wells and Davis-Salazar 2007). Inherent to all of these approaches is the understanding that 4 Following Oka and Kusimba (2008:340-341), I define exchange as the economic interaction between groups or individuals, and trade as the material aspect of exchange. Throughout the dissertation, the term exchange will used more frequently to encompass both the material and social aspects of economic transactions. 25

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economy in this context is the materializ ation of social, political and ideologic al structures and relationships. Reconstructing how resources were acquired, distributed and consumed therefore can provide insight into not only an archaeological cultures economic organization, but also its social and political structur es, and the complex interactions taking place between sites, groups and individuals. This is not to say that economic behavior is subordinate to political and social motivations and structures (Oka and Kusimba 2008:352), but rather that the systems are interconnected, and that archaeologists can effectively approach thes e systems through the material remains of ancient economies. This chapter provides background informa tion pertinent to late r discussions of how animal resources were incorporated into a co mplexity of economic and social exchange networks existing at site, polity and inter-regional scales. I review what we currently know about ancient Maya animal use and exchange, and the mechanisms by which animal resources likely circulated through th e economy. This background information is followed by a consideration of the important intersection between economics and sociopolitical structure. Animals at the Intersection of S ubsistence and Prestige Economies Discussions of ancient Maya economy emphasize the existence of multiple systems of resource acquisition, produc tion and exchange (Graham 1987; McAnany 1993; Rice 1987). Within these discussions, re searchers commonly di stinguish between utilitarian and non-utilitarian, or subsistence and prestige economies (Brumfiel and Earle 1987). These distinctions are related to differences in how goods are exchanged, assigned value, and distributed across social classes. Utilitarian, subsistence, or domestic economies involve the acquisition, production and distribution of goods or 26

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resources used by all members of society to fulfill bas ic daily needs. In contrast, the prestige,5 non-utilitarian, wealth, or ritual economy involves luxury goods used by only certain members of society to create and disp lay status, wealth or power. Typically, utilitarian goods are thought to be acquir ed locally, while prestige items may be acquired through longdistance exchange. Use of these dichotomous terms is debated in the anthropological literature, based on the difficultly of separating quotidian or secular goods and activities from statusproducing or ritual goods and activities (e.g., Mills 2004; Plunket 2002; Spielmann 2002). Despite the contested nat ure of these terms, I will o ccasionally use subsistence or utilitarian goods to refer to animal products used as food and non-ornamental artifacts such as undecorated tools. Following the bulk of previous research in Maya archaeology, I will use prestige or luxury goods to refer to highly cr afted or high status goods such as quetzal feathers and marine-shell artifacts, which were primarily used by the Maya royal elite as displays of w ealth, status or political power. It is recognized, however, that in ancient Maya society, most animal resources were integrated into both the prestige and subsistence economies because they were used as staple resources and as symbols in Maya ritual and status definition. Moreover, single species usually cannot be classified as either subsistence or prestige resources, 5 Use of the term prestige goods has recently been criticized because it suggests that: 1) only elite members of society gained prestige through the produc tion and use of certain material goods, 2) that prestige and social differentiation was primarily defined according to goods with economic or exchange value (rather than from those with ideological or rit ual value), and 3) that the elites maintained strict control over the production and distribution of pr estige goods (Cobb 1993; Mills 2004; Pauketat 1992). The term social valuable has been suggested as an al ternative to prestige good in recent discussions of ritual economy (Helms 1993). Use of this new te rm emphasizes that not all valuables were controlled by elite members of society (Bay man 2002; Janusek 1999), and that a commoditys value is sociallyconstructed through a variety of means including its production, use and exchange history (Spielmann 2002). This means that seemingly utilitarian items c an in fact represent highly valuable commodities. 27

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since they had both dietary and ri tual or symbo lic value. Whether a particular animal or animal product served as a subsistence, or prestige good is contextual and related to how it was acquired, used and exchanged. The division between subsistence and prestige goods becomes even blurrier if we consider that a single item may move back and forth between the utilitarian and prestige economies throughout its use life. As a basis for later discussions, the varied uses of animals and animal products (e.g., meat, bone, shell, hide, feathers and fur) as dietary, craft production, statusdefining, and ritual resources are summarized in the following paragraphs. Food, Craft, Ritual and Status: Animal Resource Use among the Ancient Maya The Maya cultural region contains a tremendous diversity of vertebrate and invertebrate fauna used by humans. This di versity is often reflected in Maya zooarchaeological assemblages, which cont ain a wide range of mammal, bird, reptile, fish, and invertebrate taxa. In the absence of large domesticated animals, the preColumbian Maya relied primarily on the hunti ng and fishing of wild game. Prior to the introduction of Old World domesticates duri ng the Colonial period (post-A.D. 1500), the domestic dog ( Canis lupus familiaris ) and common turkey (Meleagris gallopavo ) were the only fully domesticated anima ls available to the Maya.6 Throughout Mesoamerica, dogs were used as companions, hunters, and sacrificial victims, but they were also consumed as food, particularly during the Lat e Preclassic (250 B.C.-A.D. 250) (CluttonBrock and Hammond 1994; Shaw 1999; Valadez Aza et al. 1999; Wing 1978). The domesticated turkey, which originated in the Mexican Highlands is non-local to the 6 The stingless bee ( Melipona beechieii ), which was used for producing honey, was also likely domesticated by the Late Preclassic (250 B.C-2 50 A.D.) (Crane 1999:291). Occasional husbandry, though not full domestication of white-tailed deer, peccary, and other species has also been suggested for the Maya (Carr 1996; Hamblin 1984; White et al 2001b; 2004). However, use of wild species appears to be the norm. 28

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Maya area (Schorger 1966; Steadm an 1980). This species is traditionally thought to have been introduced to the Maya region during the Postclassic (A.D. 1000) (Hamblin 1984), but recent ancient DNA analysis of remains from E l Mirador indicates that it may have been introduced nearly one-thousand years earlier in the Late Preclassic (Thornton and Emery in press). Wild species common in non-coasta l lowland Maya zooarchaeological assemblages include white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ), brocket deer (Mazama sp.), peccary (Tayassuidae), paca ( Agouti paca ), agouti ( Dasyprocta punctata ), armadillo ( Daspyus novemcinctus ), opossum ( Didelphis sp.), ocellated turkey ( Meleagris ocellata ), various species of turtles and freshwater fish, and freshwater molluscs such as jute ( Pachychilus sp.), river clams (Unionidae) and apple snails ( Pomacea flagellata ). These and other wild species commonly found in Maya zooarchaeological assemblages are listed in Appendix A. Most, if not all of these species represent dietary resources consum ed by the ancient Maya. Meat is not the only resource obtained from many of these animals and secondary products such as hides, feathers, fats, marrow, bone and shell also likely motivated their capture or collection. For example, the thick long bone shafts of medi um to large-bodied mammals were used to create a vast a rray of utilitarian items includi ng needles, picks, awls, fish hooks, spatulas, and pins (Emery 2008b; M oholy-Nagy 2003). These items were used by all segments of society, and include simp le, undecorated tools, as well as highly crafted specimens incised with glyphs, geometric designs, and other decorations. Personal adornments such as beads, pendants, pectorals, collars, and ear flares were also crafted from animal bone, tooth, and s hell. Animal products were also used as 29

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medicinals (Emery 2008a), wall adornments, containers, and instrum ents. For example, cut marine shells were used as small pai nt pots (Emery 2010:239), while the bony carapaces of turtles and armadillos were used as bowls, and instruments such as rattles and drums. Other examples of instrument s i nclude conch shell trumpets, and rasps made from deer metapodials (Healy 1988) Iconographic evidence from ceramic vessels, stelae and murals shows that quetzal ( Pharomachrus mocinno ) feathers, and animal hides of deer, spotted felids (e.g., ocelot and jaguar), and other species were also used as clothing and ritual regalia at least by some members of society. Animals and animal products also played a prominent role in Maya ritual. Ethnographic and iconogr aphic sources tell us that sy mbolically-charged species including deer, dogs, turkeys and felids were us ed as sacrificial victims, and offerings to the gods during ceremonies (Emery et al. 2009; Pohl 1981; Tozzer 1941; Tozzer and Allen 1910). Archaeologically, we find whole animals interred in burial and caches, confirming their use as sacrifices and offerings (Ballinger and Stomper 2000; Emery and Thornton 2008; Moholy-Nagy 2004; Pohl 1983). Whole fish and complete and artifactually-modified shells of freshwater and marine shellfish were also commonly placed in ritual burial and cache contexts likely based on their association with the watery Maya underworld (Beaubien 2004; Mohol y-Nagy 1985, 2004). In addition to the use of whole or live animals in ritual, the Maya also selected particular elements of species for ceremonial use. For example, stingray tail spines were employed in bloodletting ceremonies (Borhegyi 1961), and animal crania were used as part of ceremonial headdresses or costumes, and as major components in burial and cache deposits (Brown 2001:374; 2005; Pohl 1981, 1983). Young, sub-adult animals and 30

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anatomical elements or cuts of meat from a particular side of the body may also have been in greater demand for ceremonial use based on their cultural symbolism (Carr 1996; Emery 2003b, 2004a; Emery and Thornton 2008; Pohl 1981, 1983; Thornton 2008; Wing and Scudder 1991). Y oung animals are associated with ideas of renewal and rebirth, while portions fr om the left side of the body have a symbolic association with the underworld and the setting sun (Pohl 1990). We also should not forget the role of live animals in ancient Maya society. As in the Maya area today, a variety of specie s including dogs, monkeys, deer, peccaries, iguanas and colorful forest-dwelling birds were likely kept as pets or companions. Domestic dogs were also undoubtedly employed in hunting. The remains of these animals also end up in zooarchaeological deposits. Regardless of whether they were used for dietary, craft producti on, ceremonial, or other purposes, animals and animal products were also used to a great extent as status markers within Maya society. By maintainin g exclusive or prefer ential access to the consumption and display of parti cular faunal resources, Maya elite could use them to symbolize their wealth, and religious and politic al power. Species favored by the Maya elite (including the rulers, noble families, and wealthy non-nobles) include the whitetailed deer, peccary, domestic dog, turkey, a nd the giant Central American river turtle ( Dermatemys mawii) (Carr 1985; Emery 2006, 2007a; Teet er 2004). Additional species that are found almost exclusively in high status deposits include: quetzal, macaw ( Ara macao ), quail ( Colinus sp.), rabbit ( Sylvilagus sp.), large felids ( Puma concolor and Panthera onca ), and marine fish and shellfish when found at inland sites (Beaubien 2004; Carr 1985; Moholy-Nagy 1985, 2004; Pohl 1983). Maya elites may also have had 31

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preferential access to particular skeletal element s or c uts of meat. At some sites, elite deposits contain more major meat-bearing elements (e.g., bones of the fore and hind limbs) of preferred game species (Pohl 1990; Pohl 1985b). This may be especially true to deer hind limbs, or haunches, which have been identified in Maya codices and ethnohistoric accounts as a form of elite tribute (Tozzer 1941; Tozzer and Allen 1910). Demand for particular animal commodities ba sed on their rarity, symbolism or high status connotation means the Maya elite may have drawn more heavily on extended regional and inter-regional connections than local resources to obtain their desired dietary, ritual, and artifactual animal products. This cursory review of Maya animal use emphasizes that animals were much more than dietary resources and t hat animal products moved through the Maya economy in many different forms and for many different reasons. Although this observation seems intuitive, animal resources in their divers ity of roles have not yet been fully integrated into the new economic models that em phasize multiple systems of economic interaction, both hierarchical and heterarchical organiza tion, and greater community integration among the ancient Maya. Acknow ledging the diverse uses of and meanings attached to animal goods suggests that animal resource acquisition, production, distribution and consumption wa s organized in a complex fashion similar to that now recognized for other artifacts classes such as lithics and ceramics. This translates to more diversity in the economic relationshi ps and systems used to acquire and circulate animal resources at multiple spatial scales. It is this diversity that my research has attempted to reveal. 32

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Faunal Resource Acquisition, Production and Exchange Archaeological and ethnographi c evidenc e documents the tr ansport and exchange of both luxury and utilitarian goods throughout t he Maya area at multiple spatial scales ranging from local to inter-regional. However, with a few exceptions (e.g., quetzals,7 and marine fish and shellfish,) most animal re mains are assumed to represent locally acquired resources when recover ed from Maya archaeological sites. This assumption is partially based on our inability to identify many non-local animals using standard zooarchaeological methods, but the assumpti on is also based on the widely held belief that utilitarian or subsistenc e resources were not widely exchanged within Mesoamerica prior to the Postclassic (Smith and Ber dan 2003). It is also often assumed that resources available locally were not also imported or exchanged fr om elsewhere. For the most part, this assumption is likely correct since exchange throughout Mesoamerica was at least in part driven by variation in resource availability across the landscape, particularly between ecologically distinct areas such as the coast and the interior, or the highlands and lowlands (Gt z 2008; Graham 1987; McAnany 1992). Nonetheless, the assumption of local acquisition is based in part on the idea that exchange is completely driven by resource scarcity or abundance. This is not the case. Site or household-level economic specialization in resource acquisi tion or production can be valued because it also creates inter-dependency and increases so cial interaction and material exchange (Costin 2004; Scarborough and Valdez 20 03). For animal resources, these specializations could take the form of specia lized hunters or fishers, or crafters of bone 7 The resplendent quetzal ( Pharomachrus mocinno ) inhabits the highland cloud forests of Mesoamerica. It is non-local to the lowland rainforests of Belize, Guatemala and Mexicos Yucatan Peninsula (Howell and Webb 1995:436) 33

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and shell artifacts. The exchange of even locally available products might al so be valued simply because of the meaning, or t he social relationships involved in the exchange. For example, a deer headdress gift ed from the ruler of a separate polity might be more valuable than one produced locally or purchased in a regional market. In this example, it is the soci al relationship established between the gifting and receiving parties that is important, and not the rarity of the resource exchanged. For these several reasons, it is clear that some examples of locally-available fauna could have been obtained non-locally for reasons other than local scarcity. In the following paragraphs, I briefly review previous research on the production, acquisition, distribution, and exchange of faunal resources among the Classic Period Maya. Evidence of exchange in animal good s is considered first, followed by a discussion of bone and shell crafting. This background information leads into a discussion of the economic mechanisms us ed to circulate faunal resources. Long-Distance Exchange Despite the evidence for local and r egional exchange, discu ssions of animal resource movement have focused largely on the long-distance exchange (>50 km) of exotic animals between distant regions and independent polities or states. Animal goods identified as long-distance exchange items are primarily marine resources imported to inland sites. Marine resources including stingray tail spines, seashells, pearls, coral, and marine fish are ubiqui tous at sites throughout Mesoamerica (Beaubien 2004; Cobos 1989, 1994; Emery 2005; Hamblin 1985; Lujan 1994; MoholyNagy 1985; Trubitt 2003), but t he amount of marine material s is generally small at settlements located more than 10 km from th e coast (Pohl 1985a:110). Exceptions to this are sites located along the lower reaches of major waterways emptying into the sea 34

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(Wing 1977). Inland sites distanc e from the coast may preclude the use of marine fish as common dietary resources, but bones of marine fish including grouper (Serranidae), snapper (Lutjanidae), snook (Centropomidae), grunt (Haemulonidae), tuna (Scombridae), catfish (Ariidae), and parrot fi sh (Scaridae), have been identified at many inland sites (e.g., Emery 1987; Emery et al in press; Gtz 2008; Masson and Peraza Lope 2008; Moholy-Nagy 2004; Pohl 1976; Pollock and Ray 1957; Powis et al. 1999; Teeter 2004; Thornton and Emery in press; Wing 1975; Wing and Scudder 1991; Wing and Steadman 1980). These likely represent fish imported for special dietary or ritual use primarily by high ranki ng individuals (Emery 2003b, 2004a; Emery et al. in press; Pohl 1995; Teeter and Chase 2004; White and Schwarcz 1989). To preserve the meat during transport, the fish may have been sa lted and dried, or roasted (Mock 1994; Tozzer 1941:190; Valdez and Mock 1991). Alt hough large-scale inland exchange of marine fish for dietary purposes has been suggested for the Maya area (Lange 1971), current zooarchaeological and isotopic ( 13C, 15N) evidence does not support this hypothesis (Gtz 2008; Pohl 1985a:110; Tycot 2002; van der Merwe et al. 2000; Wright and Schwarcz 1996). Exceptions include sites in northern Belize, which had increased access to marine habitats and fauna via the Ne w River (Coyston et al. 1999; Mecalf et al. 2009; White and Schwarcz 198 9; White et al. 2001a). Remains of marine shellfish are genera lly more abundant at inland sites than those of bony and cartilaginous marine fish This could be due to differential preservation, but it could also be due to greater demand for marine shell for artifact production. The distribution of marine shell is al so less limited to the elite social classes in comparison to marine fish. Marine she lls are found at both large and small inland 35

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settlements, and in both elite and non-elite c ont exts, but at least during the Classic, elites enjoyed much greater access to this resource (Moholy-Nagy 1985; Teeter 2004; Trubitt 2003). The meat of marine shellfis h may have been preserved and transported over long-distances particularly in associ ation with coastal salt-works (McKillop 2002), but it seems more likely that the shells were the goods targeted for exchange. Shells are common in Mesoamerican iconography as symbols of death and the watery underworld (Andrews 1969:48-53), and whole, unmodified marine shells are common in Maya burials and caches (Beaubien 2004; Ma xwell 2000; MoholyNagy 1985). Marine shells were also frequently modified into artifacts including trum pets, containers, and various personal adornments (e.g., Isaza Ai zpurua 2004; Emery and Aoyama 2007; Willey 1978). Other non-dietary marine goods transported and exchanged as isolated items, rather than part of mo re complete carcasses, include stingray tail spines and shark teeth, which may have been used as perfo rators for ritual bloodletting (Borhegyi 1961; Hamblin 1985:169), sea turtle carapac e (Thornton in press) and carved manatee bone (McKillop 1985). Non-marine animals traded over long-dist ances in Mesoamerica include longplumed, symbolically-charged birds such as quetzals ( Phaomachrus mocinno ) and scarlet macaws ( Ara macao ) (Emery 2005; Hamblin an d Rea 1985; Moholy-Nagy 2004). Finding skeletal remains of these s pecies outside their natural ranges implies that the birds were occasionally imported liv e, or reared on-site. Captive breeding of imported scarlet macaws has been identif ied as far from the Maya region as northwestern Mexico (Somerville et al. 2009) and the American Southwest (Minnis et al. 1993). Common turkeys, either in domestic or wild form, were also imported into the 36

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Maya lowlands from C entral Mexico as early are the Late Preclassic (Thornton and Emery in press). Modern observations of disp laced populations of great-tailed grackles ( Quiscalus mexicanus ) and painted jays ( Cyanocorax dickeyi ) have been interpreted as further evidence of pre-Columbian introductions of exotic species (Haemig 1978, 1979). Despite evidence for live transport, long-distance exchange of feathers was probably more widespread. Large numbers of plumes are included in royal regalia portrayed in Maya iconography, and bundles of feathers are listed as co mmon trade items in Aztec tribute lists (Berdan and Anawalt 1997). Oth er animals and animal products may also have been exchanged over long-distances without leaving clear archaeological evidence. For example, animal hides also ap pear as transported tribute items in the Codex Mendoza (Berdan and Anawalt 1997). Hides stripped of their identifiable skeletal elements are not visible in the archaeologica l record, although these can sometimes be inferred from the presence of terminal phalanges and other distal elements (MoholyNagy 2004:202; Teeter 2004:188). Similarly, det ection of imported individuals of species that are also locally available often cannot be done without the aid of chemical sourcing techniques such as strontium isotope (87Sr/86Sr) analysis. An example of this would be trade or gifting of white-tailed deer headdresses, or meaty hi nd haunches between sites. Zooarchaeological evidence of these items when recovered would often be assumed to represent local resources since white-tailed deer are ubiquitous throughout the Maya region. Local and Regional Exchange Evidence of long-distance exchange is o ften highlighted due to the complex and far-flung social and economic connections it implies. It is also im portant, however, to consider exchange occurring at the regional or local scale. For this dissertation, local 37

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exchange occurs over a distance of <5 km, and usually involves individuals within the same community or polity. Regional exchan ge refers to transport of goods between ~525 km, and exchange of goods between settl ements, or nearby polities (further discussion in Chapter 3). Extensive loca l and regional exch ange within the Maya lowlands has been identified for many goods, including ceramics (Foias and Bishop 1997; Fry 1980; Halperin 2007; Rands and Bishop 1980; Rice 1987; West 2002), chert (Dockall and Shafer 1993; Shafer and Hester 1983), ground stone (e.g., granite and basalt) (Graham 1987; Shipley and Graham 1989) pine (Lentz et al. 2005), and salt (McKillop 1 995; Mock 1994). The extent of intra-regional exchange may still be underestimated, however, partly due to the greater difficult y of identifying local and regional trade items. The difficulty of identifying local and regi onal exchange is evident in the far fewer zooarchaeological studies addr essing intra-regional transport of faunal resources. To date, much of the regional animal exchange has been identified between the coast and the interior, with coastal sites exchanging ma rine taxa for terrestrial fauna such as white-tailed deer and tapir ( Tapirus bairdii ) which were less available on the coast and barrier islands (Gtz 2008; Hamblin 19 84; Masson 2004; Masson and Peraza Lope 2008; Mock 1997; Shaw 1995; Wing and Scudder 1991). Some researchers further suggest that coastal sites specialized in ma rine shellfish or salt fish production for regional exchange with inland sites (Ma sson 2004; Masson and Peraza Lope 2008; McKillop 1996; Mock 1997). Evid ence of local or regional fauna exchange between inland communities is less well-documented but has been suggested for white-tailed deer, jaguars, turtles and peripheral mari ne fish (Ballinger and Stomper 2000; Carr 38

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1996; Emery 1999; Masson 2004; Pohl 1990). Suggested motivations for regi onal faunal exchange between inland sites include local scarcity (Ballinger and Stomper 2000; Carr 1996), site specialization in resour ce extraction (Emery 1999), and ritual use of select animal products (Masson and Peraza Lope 2008). Recent isotopic analysis of white-tailed deer from the Upper Belize Rive r Valley provides additional evidence for regional acquisition of white-tailed deer (Fre iwald 2010). Non-local deer were imported from the ecologically-disti nct Maya Mountains and Mountain Pine Ridge, upland areas visited to procure other natural resource s such as pine and granite. Although the deer may have been obtained through direct acquisition rather than regional exchange, this study provides additional documentation of non-local faunal procurement within regions. Due to shorter transport time s, perishable (e.g., meat) as well as non-perishable animal resources (e.g., hide, feathers, bone, shell) could have been exchanged through local and regional exchange networks. Cons equently, it is often thought that intraregional exchange networks distributed subsistence or utilitarian goods, while longdistance exchange networks circulated, rare or highly-crafted prestige goods intended for preferential use by the Maya royalty and elite (Andrews 1983; Hirth 1992; McAnany 1993; Sanders 1976). Prestige or luxury items, however, may also have been obtained locally, or though intra-regional exchange. Fo r example, highly-valued spondylus shells represent long-distance trade it ems at far inland sites such as Tikal and El Mirador, and local or regional resources at sites closer to the Caribbean and Pacific coasts. Exotic resources obtained through long-distance e xchange undoubtedly a ccrued value or status based on the effort requi red to obtain them, but cert ain prestige goods were also in demand for their symbolic, or social value regardless of whether they were local or 39

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non-local in origin (Graham 2002). Ceremonial and pres ti ge or luxury items were therefore integrated into exchange systems operating at multiple spatial scales. Bone and Shell Craft Production The organization of ancient Maya artifact production is also characterized by economic diversity and complexity. According to traditional models, most crafting was unspecialized and conducted at the household level for personal consumption. An exception to this was the semi-specialized production of highly crafted prestige items produced by elites for their own use, and fo r exchange with high ranking individuals at other sites (Masson 2002; McAnany 1993). Rec ent archaeological evidence, however, indicates that craft production may have been highly diverse, involving specialized and unspecialized production, crafting by both commoners and elites, and production of goods for both exchange and household or individual use (Aoyama 2007; Ball 1993; Inomata 1997, 2001; Kovacevich 2006; Mass on and Freidel 2002; Reents-Budet et al. 1994; Santone 1997; Shafer and Hester 1983). Relatively few studies focusing on bone and shell crafting have been conducted in the Maya area (Isaza Aiz purua 2004; Bartlett 2004; Emer y and Aoyama 2007; Emery 2001a, 2008b, 2009, 2010; Moholy-N agy 1997). This is partly due to the scarcity of bone and shell production debris (debitage) at mo st Maya sites. Production debris also tends to be distributed across Maya settlem ents, rather than being concentrated in particular areas identifiable as formal works hops or crafting areas (for exceptions see Aoyama 1995:136; Cobos 1994; Emery 2009; Po wis et al. 1999:369; Teeter 2004:191). The lack of bone and shell debitage reported for most Maya sites could be due to preservation, the re-use or recycling of raw materials (Moholy-Nagy 1997; Widmer 2009), or our inability to accurately identify bone and shell production waste. 40

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Significantly, evidence for craft production is greater at rapidly abandoned sites (Brown 1996; Inomata 2001; Sheets 2000; Sheets and Simmons 2002), which suggests that much of the evidence for cr afting is cleaned up and removed from the areas where it was taking place (Hayden and Cannon 1983). Even from these limited studies, it is evident that individuals of all social ranks, from nobles to commoners, engaged in animal product crafting. This corresponds with other lines of archaeological evidence for e lite craft production (Inomata and Stiver 1998; Miller and Martin 2004; Reents-Budet et al. 1994). During the Late Classic, high status households at the site s of Aguateca and Copan manuf actured luxury goods from bone and shell that were possibly intended for consumption by the sites royal families (Aoyama 1995, 2007; Emery and Aoyama 2007). D ue to the high value of either the raw material (e.g., spondylus shell), or the fi nished product, elites may have exclusively engaged in the production of high status luxury items. T here is emerging evidence, however, for the participation of non-elite h ouseholds in the crafting of jade and ceramic luxury goods (Kovacevich 2006; Reents-Budet et al. 1994). In addition to luxury items, high status households produced utilitarian items fo r subsistence use, or for use in other crafting activities. Fo r example, at the si te of Motul de San Jo s, elites may have produced basic bone tools including picks, pins and needles for textile working (Emery in press). For the most part, elite and non-elite mem bers of Maya society appear to have engaged in unspecialized bone and shell craft production on a part-time rather than fulltime basis. This statement is based on the small quantities of debitage recovered from most Maya sites. An exception to this is the Terminal Classic largescale utilitarian bone 41

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tool workshop from Dos Pilas, Guatem ala. Emerys (2008b, 2009, 2010: 187-267) analys is of the workshop revealed specia lized bone tool production intended for trade rather than household consumption. Her analysis also indi cates that raw materials were acquired from outside the household to meet the scale of production (Emery 2010:256). More subtle evidence for animal product cr aft specialization comes from Aguateca where nearby households contained non-overlappi ng tool sets, possibly indicating their engagement in separate crafting activities (Emery and Aoyama 2007). It also seems likely that many of the highly-crafted examples of bone and shell artifacts were produced by craft specialists since their pr oduction would have required a high level of craftsmanship to produce (Becker 1973). Economic Complexity and the E xchange of Animal Products In ancient Maya society, goods circ ulated among individuals, households and communities through multiple economic mechanisms including trade, tribute and taxation, gifting, redistribution, and mark et exchange (Hirth 1998; McAnany 2004, 2010; McKillop 1996; Smith and Berdan 2003; Wells 2006). Although it is beyond the scope of this investigation to define the ancient Maya exchange mechanisms, they are described briefly here to highlight the complex way animal products were integrated in the economy. The economic role of Maya trade centers is also considered to determine how active trade in other non-local resour ces might have influenced animal use at Cancuen and Trinidad de Nosotros within thei r respective polities. I conclude the section and chapter by discussing how econo mic activities and exchanges intersect with the creation and maintenance of po litical power and control. 42

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Temporal Change in May a Economy and Exchange Complexity is added to the discussion of Ma ya exchange when changes over time are considered. In my eval uation of zooarchaeological evidence, I have concentrated on Late Classic assemblages. In my investigation of isotopic evidence for exchange of animal products, however, I discuss temporally varied assemblages. It is thus important to consider evidence for temporal change in Maya economy and exchange. This consideration is necessarily brief, but it emphasizes the nature of ancient Maya economy and exchange as variable through ti me, and across various regions of the Maya world. Regional and long-distance ex change networks were operat ing in the Maya region by at least the Middle Preclassic (1000 B. C.) (Awe and Healy 1994; Bartlett et al. 2000). These as well as other systems of production and distribution became increasing complex with the rise of major cities during the Late Preclassi c (300 B.C.-A.D. 300) through Classic Period (~A.D. 300). During the Late Preclassic, two major longdistance trade routes flowed through Maya r egion: one running along the Pacific Coast of Central America between Central Me xico and the Maya highlands, and another skirting along the coast of the Yucatan Peninsula between the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. At the beginni ng of the Classic Period, shifts in population and political power reconfigured trade rout es. Throughout the Classic Period, goods were actively transported and exchanged via routes running directly between the Maya highlands and lowlands, and which emphasized the use of in land waterways. At the peak of Maya civilization in the Late Classic (~A.D. 550), there was also increasing social stratification and expanding numbers of elit es (Culbert 1991), which likely increased demand for high status luxury goods and ex otic resources. Along with increasing 43

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household and site-lev el economic speciali zation (Inomata 2001; Masson and Freidel 2002; McAnany 1992; McKillop 2002; Shafer and Hester 1983), this likely contributed to the elaboration of trade networks and incr eases in the quantity of goods being exchanged during this period. At the end of the Classic Period, Maya ec onomic, social and political organization underwent a major transformation and reconstruc tion, including the disruption of many major trade routes during the Terminal Classic (Demarest et al. 2004). The following Postclassic Period (~A.D. 950) was c haracterized by a more secular and commercialized (monetary) economy with more long-distance exchange of bulk subsistence resources and a well-developed market economy (Sabloff and Rathje 1975; Smith and Berdan 2003). This transition away from the Classic Period elite-focused economy resulted in wider dist ribution of resource across social ranks (Rice 1987). The Postclassic shift of populations and political power from the Central Petn to the northern Yucatan also reconf igured trade routes. Coastal-in land and highland-lowland exchange was important throughout the Classic and into the Postclassic, but they were eventually eclipsed in importanc e by maritime routes running along the coast of Belize and around the northern Yucat an Penninsula (Guderjan a nd Garber 1995; McKillop and Healy 1989). Mechanisms of Exchange During the Classic Period, when the elite so cial ranks swelled in numbers, tribute and taxation may have been particularly important in the movement of goods within and between communities. The Maya elites likely did not engage directly in agriculture or subsistence hunting, so dietary goods includi ng animal products would have flowed into the royal palace, and possibly into the households of lesser nobles, bureaucrats, and 44

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other high ranking individuals. Ma ya elites also would have extracted tribute or taxes in luxury goods such as jade, marine shell, jaguar pelts, cotton cloth (mantas), cacao seeds, and quetzal feathers. These goods would have included both finished products and raw material for elite crafting (Emery and Aoyama 2007; Halperin 2008; Inomata and Stiver 1998; Kova cevich 2007). In addition to fulfilling the material requirements of the Maya elite, these tax and tribute payments would have served as a display of subservience or allegiance between rulers and commoners, or between rulers of major and minor settlements (McAnany 2004:156). Archaeological evidence for tax and tribute payments to the Maya elite comes from textual and iconographic sources. Painted murals, and cylindrical polychrome vessels show elevated Maya rulers receiving platters, bags, bundles and baskets filled wit h tribute items (Houston 1997; Houston and Stewart 2001:69; Miller 2001). Hieroglyphic refe rences to tribute payments have also been found on ceramic vessels and st one monuments (Stuart 1995:356-358). Additional demands were created by elite-sponsored feasts, festivals and ceremonies since these would have r equired additional acquisition of goods beyond what would be normally accumulated and produced by royal and elite households (McAnany 2010:133). The same would be true fo r resources accumulated by non-elites for feasts and ceremonial us e. Animal products accumu lated for major ceremonial events could include live animals used as sacrifices, the meat of preferred dietary species such as deer and turkey, and bone and shell artifacts including musical instruments, containers, personal adornments, blood letters, or other ritual objects. Evidence for feasting in the archaeological record is often debated, but has been reported for the Maya area primarily based on ceramic evidence (Brown 2001; Dahlin et 45

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al. 2010; LeCount 2001; Moriarty and Thornton 2007; Reents-Budet 2000; Wells 2007). In addition to requiring the mo vement of resources into high ranking households, elite feasts and ceremonies also would have served to redistribute resour ces outward. In the case of public, rather than private or household ceremonies, goods and resources may have been gifted, or otherwise redistributed to other parti cipants. These exc hanges could have taken place between individuals of similar rank (horizontal gifting), or between higher and lower ranking individuals (vertical gifting and redistribution) (Polanyi et al. 1957). Such economic and social interact ions could serve as displays of wealth and power, as payment for tribute and labor, or to cement political alliances. In the archaeological record, gifting, feasting, and other forms of redistribution are difficult to differentiate from other types of exchange (e.g., market exchange or tribute), but are important mechanisms through wh ich high status and prestige items, as well as basic resources, were distributed among the elite (Foias 2002) and across multiple social classes (LeCount 1999). To date, evidence fo r the role of animal products in such exchanges is limited. Recent discussion has highlighted the possible role of market exchange in Maya economics. The importance of markets throughout Mesoamerica today, along with 16th Century ethnohistoric accounts (Tozzer 1941) suggests that market exchange may have operated in the past. Archaeological evidence for markets dating back to the Classic Period is mounting, but is far fr om definitive. Researchers have identified possible marketplaces and market exchange systems based on artifact distributions (Braswell and Glascock 2002; Fry 1980; Halperin et al. 2009; Hirth 1998), architectural and plaza configurations (Jones 1996; Wu rtzburg 1991), and most recently, soil 46

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chemistry (Bair and T erry in press; Dahlin et al. 2010; Dahlin et al. 2007; Wells 2004). Goods distributed and exchanged through market s would have been widely available to both elite and non-elite members of society, although higher rankin g individuals likely had greater purchasing power and therefore incr eased access to high status items (Hirth 1998:456). If modern and historic regional Mesoamerican markets can be used as an analogy, a wide variety of animal products ranging from live animals and cuts of meat to finished bone or shell artifact s could have been exchanged in ancient marketplaces. Sellers of market goods could have included me mbers of nearby communities as well as wider ranging professional traders, an occupation welldocumented from the Postclassic. These various mechanisms of exchange likely operated in conjunction to circulate animal resources through the Maya economy. Moreover, they all could have functioned as mechanisms of exchange at local, regional and inter-regional scales. As discussed in Chapter 3, distinguishi ng between various exchange mechanisms based on archaeological evidence is extremely difficult, and is not within the bounds of this analysis. Nonetheless, these models lie at t he foundation of my interpretations of the zooarchaeological evidence for exchange of animal products. Trade Centers Many discussions of the mechanisms and st ructure of Maya exchange are based on economically active sites interpreted as Maya trade centers. Trade centers are usually identified by the presence of relative ly high quantities of exotic artifacts, and their strategic locations between resource zones and along known trade routes (Andrews 1990; Dahlin et al. 1998; McKillop 1996). To date, the majority of published research on Maya trading centers has focus ed on coastal ports of trade (e.g., Andrews 47

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1990; Andrews et al. 1988; Dahlin et al 1998; Guderjan and Ga rber 1995; McKillop 1996; McKillop an d Healy 1989; Sabloff and Freidel 1975), while possible inland trade centers (e.g., Cancuen and Trinidad de Nosotr os) have received much less attention. Discussions of trading center economies ar e therefore biased towards their function within coastal trade networks. Several different interpretations of trading centers have been proposed. Early models of trade centers as politically neutra l places where foreign traders met to engage in the exchange of elite luxury goods (Chapman 1957) have been rejected based on evidence for less restricted distributi ons of exotic resources (Hammond 1972), and the potential use of trading ports as out posts for larger Maya centers (Andrews 1990; Berdan 1978). Other interpretations of Maya trade centers emphasize their utility as transshipment ports where long-dis tance trade goods are accumulated and then diverted inland for distribution (Andrews et al. 1988; Guderjan et al. 1989; McKinnon 1989). This model has only been applied to coastal trade ports, but similar roles can be inferred for inland trade centers that may ha ve served to distribute trade goods away from major waterway transporta tion routes. Besides serving as important accumulation and distribution hubs for exotic resources, Maya trade centers may also have been involved in the specialized extraction or production of exchange goo ds including faunal resources (Chase and Chase 1989; McKillop 1996) At sites along the coast of Belize, excess processing of marine fish for exchange has been i dentified at the sites of Cerros, Northern River Lagoon, and Wild Cane Cay (Carr 1986; Masson 2004; McKillop 1996), and remains at Caye Coho suggest specialized production of marine shell artifacts for export (Masson 2002). It is unk nown whether inland trade centers also 48

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engaged in specialized extraction of local faunal resour ces such as freshwater fish or shellfish, large felids, and large or brightly-colored bird species. Maya trade centers also may have enjoyed elevated economic or political status based on their active participation in region al and long-distance exchange. For example, the size of Cancuens royal palace and the weal th of its ruling family may be related to its control over highland-lo wland exchange of goods such as jade, obsidian and quetzal feathers (Demarest and Barrientos 2003; Dema rest et al. 2006). Similarly, unexpected quantities of high status exotic goods incl uding gold, copper, obsidian and jade have been found at small coastal trade centers (Guderjan and Garb er 1995; McKillop 1996). Studies have not yet revealed how animal products were integrated into the economies of Maya trade centers, and whether acce ss to other exotic goods corresponds to greater access to exotic or high status faunal resources. Control and Power Based on the idea that economy is the ma terialization of social, political and ideological structures and relationships, many archaeologists draw a correlation between a cultures economic and socio-politic al organization. Within the Maya region, discussions of the intersection between eco nomic and political organization have traditionally focused on whether the Maya were economically and politically centralized or decentralized. Supporters of a more centra lized view of ancient Maya society argue that the elite managed both the prestige and subsistence economies (Chase and Chase 1996; Fox and Cook 1996; Marcus 1993). In contrast, proponents of decentralized organization maintain that the elite only controlled the prestige economy and that production and exchange of subsis tence goods was weakly organized at the regional and local level (Ball 1993; Demarest 1996; McAnany 1993; Tourtellot and Sabloff 1972). 49

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In terms of animal res ources, these t heories hinge upon whether Maya rulers only controlled access to exotic, prestige goods obtained primarily through long-distance exchange (e.g., marine shells, and quetzal feat hers), or whether they also controlled regional exchange networks and access to subsis tence goods such as meat and hides. More recent discussions of Maya econom ic and socio-political organization suggest that power is a contract between ruler and ruled that is constantly being renegotiated. Some of these nego tiations take place in the economic realm where the use and exchange of goods, labor and services are used to create, maintain, and display control, status and power. Su ch explanations move beyond strict characterizations of Maya society as ei ther centralized or dec entralized and instead allow for spatial and temporal diversity and dynamism in both economic and political organization (Demarest 1996; Foias 2007; Foias and Emery in press; Iannone 2002; Marcus 1998; Sharer and Golden 2004). In light of these new models, the differential access to faunal resources according to social status may vary considerably between sites, polities or regions. The quantity of animal products exchanged at regional and long-distance scales may be equally variable depending upon a polity or regions degree of site specialization and integration, and the extent to which local rulers were able to consolidate control over resour ce production and/or exchange networks. Summary In ancient Maya society, animals and anima l products were used as food, clothing, medicine, pets, hunters, instrume nts, ritual items, status symbols, tools, and ornaments among other things. Due to their diversity of uses, animal products likely circulated through the Maya economy at many different scales, and through a variety of economic mechanisms and relationships. Such complexity and diversity in Maya animal resource 50

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acquis ition, production, and exchange has not yet been fully recognized in the archaeological literature. Improved reconstr uctions of animal resource acquisition, consumption and exchange patterns may contribute to our broader understanding of ancient Maya socio-political organizati on, due to the inferred connection between economic and political organization. 51

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CHA PTER 3 METHODS: RECONSTRUCTING ANCI ENT MAYA ECONOMY AND EXCHANGE THROUGH ZOOARCHAEOLOGICAL REMAINS Zooarchaeological remains may be used to study a diversity of topics including past environments, dietary habits, hunting te chnology, seasonal movements, and ritual practices. In the present study, I focus on the additional question of how they may be used to interpret ancient economy and exc hange. As preparation for the results-based chapters that follow, this chapter outli nes the basic zooarchaeological methods employed in the analyses, provides a discu ssion of sample quantification methods, and briefly defines how primar y identification data were translated into economic interpretations. Laboratory procedures employed in the isotopic analysis are reported in Chapter 6. Field Recovery of Zooarchaeological Samples Faunal remains were collected as standard procedure during general excavation. At Motul and Trinidad, project personnel re covered remains by processing excavated soil through 1/4-inch mesh screens. Zooar chaeological remains from Cancuen and the Petexbatun region were recovered through trowel excavation and selective 1/4-inch screening of middens, occupation surfaces and special deposits (e.g., burials and caches). Excluding intrusive l and snails, all vertebrate and invertebrate remains were collected during excavation. Since it is generally accepted that fi ne-screen sieving methods (e.g., 1/8 or 1/16inch mesh) are the most effective means of recovering zooarchaeological materials (James 1997; Quitmyer 2004; Shaffer 1992; Shaffer and Sanchez 1994; Wake 2004), recovery method tests were conducted at Motu l and Trinidad to quantify the effects of recovery procedures on the zooarchaeologica l samples. A series of 5-10 liter soil 52

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samples was gently water-screened through nested 1/4, 1/8 and 1/16-inch mesh. A total of 116 soil samples (749 liters) from Trinidad and 40 soil samples (364 liters) from Motul were analyzed. The samples were taken from a variety of contexts including floor surfaces, middens, burials and fill deposits. I processed all of the water-screened samples with the help of two Guatemal an field assistants between 2004 and 2006 following protocols developed by Kitty Emery. After water-screening, all cultural and non-cultural materials (e.g., small rocks) captured in the screens were dried and then collected for sorting in a labor atory setting. I recovered f aunal remains from the nested screen samples by sorting through the materials with a paint brush and forceps. Due to time constraints, intrusive land snails were not collected from every sample. Discussion of the effects of fine screen recovery procedures on the Motul assemblages can be found in other publications (Thornton in press). Similar recovery method tests conducted by Kitty Emery on screened and un screened samples from the Petexbatun sites indicate that faunal recovery was comp lete using trowel ex cavation (Emery 1997). Primary Zooarchaeological Analysis Methods I identified faunal assemblages from Tr inidad de Nosotros and Cancuen between 2004 and 2008 and analyzed the resu ltant datasets. As part of a comparative regional analysis, I also analyzed zooarchaeological dat asets from Motul de San Jos and five sites within the Petexbatun polity, which were primarily identified by Kitty Emery (Florida Museum of Natural History). Details of the zooarchaeological methods used to identify the Motul de San Jos and Petexbatun samples may be found in previous publications (Emery 1997, 1998, 2001b, 2003a, 2010, in press). My own dat a collection and recording procedures were modeled on t hose used by Emery. Consequently, the 53

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zooarchaeological methods r eported here are similar to t hose employed for the other sites used in the comparative analyses. Sample Selection Since animal use and exchange in the Maya lowlands changed significantly through time, the analyses only include faunal remains from well-dated Late Class ic (~A.D. 550) deposits. Although this reduces the sample sizes significantly, it provides temporal control over the samp les. The Late Classic period was selected as the focus of my comparative analyses because it is characterized by growing populations and increasingly complex social economic and political systems. This period also coincides with t he peak of political and econom ic power within the Motul (including Trinidad) and Petexbatun (including Cancuen) polities. Diachronic analysis of the entire Trinidad, Motul and Petexbatun f aunal assemblages is available in other publications (Emery 1997, 2010, in pre ss; Thornton in press). Chronological designations were based on information provided by the sites project directors and lead excavators. Identification Methods Preliminary sorting and identification of the Trinidad and Cancuen zooarchaeological remains took place in Guatemala during field seasons conducted between 2004 and 2007. I then exported remains requiring additional analysis to the Florida Museum of Natural History Environmental Archaeology l aboratory (FLMNH-EA), with permission from the Guatemalan Institut o de Arqueologa e Histr ia (IDAEH). At FLMNH-EA, I identified faunal remains primarily using modern comparative collections housed in the museums Environmental Ar chaeology collection. More specialized identifications were made using the museums Ornithology, Malacology and 54

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Mammalogy collections with the assistanc e of David Steadman, John Slapc insky, and Candace McCaffery, respectively. I identifie d all vertebrate and invertebrate faunal remains including bone and shell artifacts. However, potentially modern rodents and land snails have been omitted fr om the current analysis since they could have burrowed into the archaeological deposits. Small rodents were deemed to be intrusive when the skeletal remains appeared to be much better pr eserved than those found in the same or nearby contexts. It was much more difficult to determine whether the remains of other burrowing species such as armadillos and gophers ( Orthogeomys hispidus ) were archaeological or intrusive. For these taxa, I used both archaeological context and visual inspection of preservation characters to determine if they were intrusive. Standard zooarchaeological procedures were used to analyze the faunal assemblage (Grayson 1984; Klein and Cruz-U ribe 1984; Reitz and Wing 2008). Data collected for each specimen include: closest taxonomic identification, element, element side, portion/completeness, pathology, and age and sex characteristics. Cultural and natural modification of the remains was also noted, including observations of butchery, artifactual modification, burning, rodent or carnivore gnawing, root etching, and extensive weathering. Current taxonomic nomenclature was confirmed using the website www.itis.gov (last accessed January 2011). Kitty Emery provided permission to us e the Motul de San Jos (Motul) and Petexbatun polity zooarchaeologic al datasets for comparative analysis. The Motul faunal remains were primarily identified by Emery, but a portion of the collection was identified by me and several other University of Florida graduate students working under Dr. Emerys supervision. All identifications were comple ted using FLMNH comparative 55

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collections. Emery identified the Petexbatun assemblages using comparative collections housed in the Royal Ontario Museum Ve rtebrate Paleontology Laboratory. Sample Quantificat ion All zooarchaeological assemblages were quantified according to the number of identified specimens (NISP) Although NISP tallies have the potential to overestimate the contribution of species wit h large numbers of identifiable elements, such as turtles and armadillos, derived quantification measures, including the minimum number of individuals (MNI), tend to overes timate the contribution of rare species that may only be represented in the assemblage by one or two specimens (Grayson 1984; Lyman 2008:29-31,47; Reitz and Wing 2008:207-208). MNI tallies, which are calculated according to the frequency of the most abun dant skeletal element per taxa, are also inappropriate for many non-coastal Maya faunal assemblages due to their high taxonomic diversity, and extens ive fragmentation. This results in few repeating elements per vertebrate taxa. The lack of repeating elements per taxa at each site causes MNI tallies in Maya faunal assemblages to in crease significantly when MNI tallies are calculated per unique spatial and/or chronological provenience, rather than for an assemblage as a whole. This occurs because the element used to calculate MNI changes for each unique spatially or temporally-defined unit (e.g., in one provenience right astragali might be the most frequent elements, while left humeri are the most abundant in another). Consequently, each new spatial a nd temporal division used the by the analyst, contributes at least one individual per taxa present in the unit to the sites MNI. In these cases, MNI may be more a measure of sample aggregation than taxonomic abundance (Lyman 2008:66). Decidi ng how to aggregate or divide the sample to calculate MNI is further complic ated by the possibility of carcass sharing 56

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between structures, resident ial groups, or even sites. We do not yet have a good understand ing of Maya food sharing, and our MNI tallies will be inaccurate if sample aggregation units do not match the cultural units within which animal foods were shared. Using NISP rather than MNI tallies is also more appropriate for conducting intersite comparisons among faunal assemblages sinc e sites differ in the number of spatially and temporally distinct proveniences re cognized by the archaeologists. Sample aggregation for the purposes of calculating MNI therefore may differ significantly among samples, which can in turn influence the MNI abundance ratios of animal taxa (Grayson 1984; Lyman 2008:57-66; Ringrose 1993:127-128). Faunal analysts also differ in how conservative they are when calculating MN I. Some analysts take into account overall element size, and age and sex characteristics, in addition to element side, but other analysts do not. Although similar differences may be encountered when comparing NISP tallies recorded by different re searchers (Gobalet 2001; Lyman 2008:46), calculation of NISP tallies involves fewer subjective decisions about sample aggregation and how to tally taxa abundance (Lyman 2008:81) It is therefore a slightly less subjective means of comparing zooarchaeological assemblages excavated and identified by different researchers. Eventhough I have argued for the use of NI SP for sample quantification in the current analyses, the method is not without its imperfect ions (Grayson 1984:16-92; Klein and Cruz-Uribe 1984:24-38 ; Lyman 2008:29-38). One criticism of using NISP tallies for inter-site assemblage comparisons, is that samples may differ in their degree and pattern of bone/shell fragmentation rates due to natural taphonomy, or cultural practices (e.g., butchery or disposal patterns) (Chase and Hagaman 1987; Ringrose 57

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1993). This is a valid critique, but inter-s ite comparisons are lim ited to contemporary Late Classic assemblages from si tes located in similar environmental settings. The sites are therefore not expe cted to differ significantly in their depositional environments or cultural treatment of faunal re mains. Another major criticism of NISP is the problem of specimen inter-dependence, or the concern that an individual animal is represented by multiple elements, or multip le fragments of a single element, and thus counted several times. To address this issue, fragments of the same element were re-fit and counted as a single specimen (NISP=1) whe never possible. Mandibles or maxillas with teeth were also counted as single specimens instead of counting each tooth as a separate element or specimen. Isolated teeth were also re-fit whenever possible with mandibles or maxillas found in the same or nearby prov eniences. When large numbers of armadillo ( Dasypus sp.) scutes were recovered from the same context, they were tallied conservatively in terms of NISP (i.e., c onsidering each scute to be part of a single carapace). Similar procedures were used when counting very small fragments of mollusc shell. Although these methods are s lightly subjective, they help prevent the over-counting of remains from a single, but highly fragmented element or individual. NISP tallies for animal internments were also modified to prevent over-representation. This primarily applies to a Late Classic dog burial discovered at Cancuen. Although nearly all skeletal elements were present, this individual was only counted as one specimen. A final criticism of NISP that shoul d be mentioned is that it cannot adequately measure taxonomic abundance across taxa that differ in their number of identifiable elements (Reitz and Wing 2008:203). For exampl e, a freshwater gastropod has only 58

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one main e lement that is identifiable, whil e an armadillo has well over a hundred. NISP tallies therefore have the potential to ove r-represent taxa with larger numbers of identifiable elements. Since the faunal assemblages reported here contain a diverse range of taxa that differ significa ntly in their number of identif iable elements, the effect of my selected quantification method on taxonomic abundance is worth investigating. To briefly address this issue, I compare tax onomic abundance in the Trinidad and Cancuen faunal samples according to both NISP and MNI to evaluate which species may be under, or over estimated in the assemblages when NISP tallies are employed. For MNI calculations, the assemblages were divided by architectural group (i.e., associated structures surrounding a shared patio or plaza). This aggregation method accounts for food sharing within households and residential groups, but not between residential groups and different settlements. This method was chosen because ethnographic data show that subsistence goods are primarily shared at the household level (Wilk 1991). The rank order of taxa (from most to least abundant) does not change in most cases when the Cancuen and Trinidad assembl ages are calculated according to NISP or MNI (Tables 3-1 and 3-2). Exceptions to this include several of the freshwater and marine mollusc species. In particular, jute ( Pachychilus sp.) are more abundant in both assemblages when the samples are quantified by MNI. This occurs because few of the jute shells at Cancuen and Trinidad we re fragmented beyond the usual butchery pattern, which removes the ti p of the apex. Due to the la ck of fragmentation, each new jute specimen added an additional MNI to the samples. The same pattern was observed for Olive and Olivella shells at both sites, and for Psoronaias sp. (river clam) at Cancuen. In contrast, apple snails ( Pomacea flagellata ) at Trinidad are less abundant 59

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according to MNI counts. Apple snails hav e thinner shells than jute, and exhibited more fragmentation. Therefore, this species may be slightly over-represented at Trindad according to NISP tallies. This is not true fo r Cancuen where apple snails are relatively rare in the assemblage. High le vels of fragmentation also re sulted in higher NISP tallies for river clams (Unionidae) at Trin idad, and in river clams, conch ( Strombus sp.) and spondylus shells ( Spondylus sp.) at Cancuen. Specimens of these taxa also were often artifactually-modified, which obliterated anatomical landmarks useful for distinguishing separate individuals. When c ounted conservatively, NISP ta llies may therefore provide a more accurate abundance measure for these taxa than MNI. In most cases, the relative abundance of vertebrate taxa varied less between the two quantification methods. At Trinidad, the armadillo ( Dasypus novemcinctus ) is the only species whose abundance is significantly altered when the sample is quantified according to MNI rather than NISP. Dermal scutes, of which armadillos have hundreds, represent slightly over 50% of the skeletal remains identified for this species in the Trinidad assemblage. Even though these el ements were counted conservatively when they were found in large quantities within any single provenience, NISP tallies may over-estimate the abundance of this taxa at Trindad. In the Cancuen assemblage, the C entral American river turtle ( Dermatemys mawii ) is much more abundant according to NISP (19. 37%) than MNI (2.23%) tallies. This is due to deposition of several whole carapaces (some of them modified into drums or other artifacts) in a ritual pool outside the sites royal palace. Since the carapaces were not re-fit to generate an adjust ed NISP for this context, NISP tallies likely over-represent the abundance of this species at Cancuen. The same may be said for the site of 60

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Aguateca, where the majority of river turtle remains (76.5%) were recovered from two elite residences. Quantifying the assemblages us ing NISP rather than MNI may also affect how the remains are distributed according to taxono mic class. As previously mentioned, MNI tallies do not include most remains that ar e only identifiable to higher taxonomic categories. Since many Maya faunal assemblages contain large numbers of unidentifiable turtle and large mammal remain s, MNI counts exclude a large portion of the assemblages. When the Trinidad assembl age is quantified usi ng MNI, freshwater molluscs dominate the sample (76%), while mammals, reptiles, fish and marine molluscs each constitute significantly less (4-10%) (Figure 3-1). The same pattern emerges when the sample is tallied using NISP, but only including those taxa which can be counted using MNI. In contrast, when a ll of the Trinidad remains identified to taxonomic class or lower are included, NISP tallies show a very different pattern of animal use. Mammals are the most abundan t taxa (42%), with slightly lesser contributions from freshwater molluscs (30%), and fish (23%). The pattern is similar at Cancuen, with greater number s of freshwater molluscs and fewer reptiles and mammals using MNI calculations (Figure 3-2). In my opinion, skewed results emerge when using NISP and MNI tallies that exclude remains such as unidentified mammal and turtle bone. The sheer quantity of bones only identif iable to higher taxonomic categories (Tables 4-3 and 5-5) suggests that this material contains the remains of more individual animals than can be accounted for in the MNI tallies for lower taxonomic identifications. Moreover, MNI tallies for freshwater gastrop ods are artificially inflated within the 61

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Trinidad and Cancuen assemblage due to their lesser degree of fragmentation, and their greater number of redundant elements. Secondar y Zooarchaeologi cal Analysis Methods To understand how faunal resources were incorporated into the ancient Maya economy, I examined animal resource ac quisition, production, consumption and exchange at both the polit y and community level. I compared sites at the polity level to address how a sites environmental setting and status within a regional hierarchy influenced animal use. Within-site comparisons were employed to examine how resource use and consumption varied by social rank (e.g., elite versus sub/non-elite). Status and Function Designations I based all architectural group chronologic al, functional and status designations on information provided by the sites project di rectors and lead excavators (Demarest 2004, 2006; Emery 2010; Foias 1998, 1999; Foias and Cast ellanos 2000; Foias et al. in press; Inomata 1995, 2008; Kovacevich 2006; Moriarty 2004, in press; Moriarty et al. 2007; Palka 1995, 1997; Valdez 1997; Van Tuere nhout 1996). At the sites of Motul and Trinidad, the archaeologists divided architectural groups into three status categories (ranks 1-3, with rank 1 represent ing the highest elite) (Foias et al. in press). All major architectural groups were considered, with t he exception of the Tr inidad harbor area, which did not contain residential groups easily cl assified according to rank. At Trinidad, status divisions were based on the overall size of an architectural group (i.e., number and size of structures, mounds and patios), while more fo rmal volumetrics (i.e., the metric volume of a group based on both surface dimensions and architecture height) were used for Motul (Foias et al. in press). 62

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For the Petexbatun polity sites, status classification was primarily based on architectural size (e.g., platform heigh t, number of rooms) and elaboration (e.g., presence or absence of stone masonry) (Inomata 1995; Kovacevich 2006; Palka 1995). The archaeologists used buria ls and artifacts found in asso ciation with structures to confirm social status assignations. Exca vators defined between two and ten social ranks. I maintained status divisions defined by the archaeologists fo r the sites classified according to two or three ranks (Aguat eca, Tamarindito and Arroyo de Piedra). However, at Aguateca, very few faunal remains were found in rank 1 contexts (NISP=19). I therefore pooled zooarchaeologica l remains from rank 1 and 2 deposits at this site. To simplify inter-site comparisons, I reduc ed the social rank divisions to three (ranks 1-3, with rank 1 represent ing the highest elit e) for sites divided into more than three ranks (Cancuen and Dos Pilas). At C ancuen, the reclassification grouped the three lowest ranking architectural types (ty pes 3, 4 and 5) into a single rank (rank 3). This reclassification is consistent wit h evidence from burial treatments and the differential access to lithic resources, wher e the main status distinctions are between ranks 1 and 2, and all lower ranks (Kovacevich 2006:488). In this analysis, all Cancuen rank 3 structures consist of relatively low earthen platforms, with or without stone retaining walls, topped by perishable s uperstructures. These may have housed the sites non-elite residents. Rank 1 and 2 stru ctures at Cancuen are characterized by greater labor investment in cluding masonry platforms a nd staircases, stone walls, and corbelled vaults (rank 1 only) (Kovacevich 2006:36). Rank 1 contexts likely represent 63

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the sites royal elite, while rank 2 contexts belong to lower ranking nobility, or politic al and religious officials. Similar status reclassifications were done for the site of Dos Pilas, which was originally classified according to ten social ranks (Palka 1995). I reclassified the Dos Pilas assemblage according to social rank us ing roughly the same architectural features defined for Cancuen8. Palka found significant differences in status good distributions primarily between the architectu ral contexts I classify as rank 1 versus ranks 2 and 3 (Palka 1997:368). Rank 1 contexts at Dos Pila s therefore likely repres ent the royal elite. The small settlement of Qu im Chi Hilan does not contain any elite architectural groups. The entire site is therefore classified as non-elite. Similarly, Arroyo de Pieda yielded few faunal remains (NISP=4) from ar chitectural groups classified as non-elite. Consequently, both Quim Chi Hilan and Arroyo de Piedra were eliminated from intrasite comparisons of animal use according to social rank. Within both the Motul and Pete xbatun polities, study sites vary in size and political power. Therefore, t he status categories defined for each site are not necessarily equivalent. In other words, the highest elite (rank 1) contexts at capital sites such as Dos Pilas and Motul de San Jos likely repres ent higher ranking individuals than rank 1 contexts at secondary sites such as A rroyo de Piedra and Trinidad de Nosotros. Status classifications used in this analysis rely on the assumption that architectural size and elaboration are a reflection of labor investment, socio-economic status, wealth, and power (Abrams 1989, 1994; Palka 1997; Tourtellot et al. 1992). The division of architectural groups into three socio-economi c ranks is a descriptive device that may 8 Palka (1997) defines ten status levels (level 10 = highest elite) for the site of Dos Pilas. In my reclassification, levels 7 and above = rank1, levels 5 and 6 = rank 2, levels 4 and below = rank 3. 64

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not coincide with actual status divisions with in ancie nt Maya society, which were likely more complex than this three-tiered divisi on can reflect (Chase 1992). However, the divisions are used as heuristic devices for discussing the differential access to resources according to social, political or economic status. Although I divided the assemblages accordin g to social status I assume a broad overview of animal use without sub-dividi ng the assemblages according to function (e.g., ceremonial versus residential/subsistence). Alt hough certain spatially discrete contexts such as burials and caches may be cl early classified as ceremonial, it is much more difficult in assign faunal remains found on floor surfaces, or in residential middens to a functional category. This is largely due to the widespread use of domestic space for ritual activities in ancient Mesoameric a (Plunket 2002). Moreover animals may have been used simultaneously as both dietary and ceremonial resources as part of ritual feasting (e.g., Brown 2001; Dietler and Ha yden 2001; Joyce and Henderson 2007; LeCount 2001; Moriarty and Thornton 2007). Based on current understanding of the lack of separation between residential and ceremonial spaces, and subsistence and non-subsistence animal uses, I did not subdivi de the assemblages according to dietary versus ritual categories. Faunal found pr imarily in burial contexts, however, are considered to be primarily ritual resources. Reconstructing Animal Resource Production and Distribution Interand intra-site differences in the ani mal use were first quantified according to taxonomy. Very broad patterns of anima l use were compared by quantifying the assemblages according to taxonomic class (e .g., mammal, bird, fish). The differential use of specific non-local, high status, or ce remonial taxa was al so considered. I based 65

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all measur es of taxonomic abundance on relative rather than absolute frequencies to account for differences in assemblage sizes. I also conducted skeletal element dist ribution analyses for white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ). These represent the most common large-bodied prey species in the assemblages. As such, they may have been butchered, and then distributed as cuts of meat rather than as whole carcasses. Although cultures vary in their preference for particular parts of an animal, the upper fr ont and hind limbs tend to bear the largest quantities of meat. In terms of skeletal elements, these por tions are represented by the femur and innominate (hind limb) and the humer us and scapula (forelim b). Ethnohistoric descriptions mention particular preferenc e for deer hind haunches among the Maya (Tozzer 1941). Artiodactyl skeletal elements were also preferred materials for bone tool production (Emery 2001a, 2010). After the meat was consumed, elements with high crafting utility may have been re-distributed within or between sites for artifact production. Previous analyses of Maya bone tool production indicate that preferred deer elements for crafting include the tibia and me tapodial (metatarsal/metacarpal) (Emery 2008b; 2010:200). To quantify differential access to particu lar white-tailed deer skeletal elements and body portions, I compared the observed frequen cy of skeletal elements to the expected frequency of elements in a single complete skeleton (Reitz and Wing 2008:223). Elements were grouped according to anatomical region: cranial, axial, fore limb, hind limb and distal (Table 3-3). Since skeletal portion frequencies can be related to taphonomic factors and differential survivor ship (Grayson 1989; Kreutzer 1992; Lyman 1984, 1992), the relationshi p between white-tailed deer sample NISP and element 66

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volume density (VD) was evaluated. If el ement distributions are primarily due to differential preservation, a positive correla tion between sample NISP and ele ment VD is expected. This occurs because the densest elements would survive in greater numbers and thus be over-represented in the assemblage. A lack of correlation indicates that cultural factors, such as butchery pattern s, and the preferential use of particular elements or cuts of meat, could be re sponsible for the element frequencies. Since the bones, teeth and shells of anima ls also circulated through the Maya economy as modified remains and as raw materials for crafting, I also briefly consider the production and consumption of animal remain artifacts. I compare the proportion of bone and shell production debris (debitage) to finished artifacts both within and among sites. The artifact material (e .g., bone, freshwater shell, mari ne shell) is also considered. This allows discussion of what resour ces might have moved through the economy as non-meat bearing items, and how social gr oups differed in their production and consumption of bone and shell arti facts. Quantities of producti on debris were fairly low at all sites, but this may be partially due to the difficulty of i dentifying evidence of modification on zooarchaeological remains. This is especially true for the early stages of production, which may involve shattering and snapping, rather than cutting, sawing or polishing. Reconstructing Animal Resource Acquisition and Exchange Early discussions of resource use and exchange in the Maya lowlands portrayed the region as ecologically homogeneous an d redundant in resources (e.g., Coe 1961; Cowgill 1960; Parsons and Price 1971; Rathje 1972; Tourtellot and Sabloff 1972). This simplified view of the lo wlands has largely been ove r-turned and researchers now recognize extensive ecological variation wit hin this large cultural area (Fedick 1996; 67

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Graham 1987). Differences acro ss the Maya lowlands in pr ecipitation, hydrology, elevation, soil type, and vegetation result in s patial variat ion in the distribution of faunal resources across the landscape. Animal resource availability therefore would have varied considerably among lowland Maya sites based on local micro-environmental conditions. More detailed considerations of paleoenvironmental research and a sites proximity to various forest, savannah, and aquatic habitats therefore allow us to define local and regional resources more specifically than was previously possible. Reconstructing how archaeological settlement s differ in terms of local resource availability is critical to our understanding of which animal resources could have been obtained locally through direct procurem ent, and which were likely obtained through intra-regional or long-distance exchange. Habitat availability and fidelity analyses Extensive environmental and paleoenvironmental research has been conducted for both the Petn Lakes region (Brenner 2003; Brenner et al. 2002; Emery 2001b, 2003a; Jensen et al. 2007; Webb et al. 2007) and the Petexbatun (Dunning and Beach 1994; Dunning et al. 1997; Dunning et al. 1998; Emery 2010:75-82). As reviewed in the relevant chapters, these studies form t he basis for reconstructing microhabitat conditions surrounding the study sites. Relati ve use of the habitats located at varying distances from sites was reconstructed by correlating the taxa identified in the zooarchaeological assemblages with their known habitat r equirements and preferences. I based species habitat associations on curr ent ecological literature for neotropical fauna (e.g., Eisenberg 1989; Emmons 1990; Howell and Webb 1995; Lee 2000; Reid 1997; Thornton 2010). 68

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The Motul polity sites (Trinidad de Nosotros and Motul de San Jos ) primarily differ in their access to major water bodies including Lake Petn Itz and the San Pedro River. Vertebrate and invertebrate taxa prim arily restricted to these large aquatic habitats form the basis for comparisons of regional faunal resource exchange and habitat use. I also discuss the small number of taxa known to prefer undisturbed, primary forest such as jaguar ( Panthera onca ), brocket deer (Mazama sp.) and curassow ( Crax rubra ), since this habitat was not likely found in close proximity to larger human settlements. In the Petexbatun region, site s differ in their access to rivers and lakes as well as wetlands. I therefore calculated basic habitat fidelity statistics to compare aquatic versus terrestrial habitat use at a slightly finer sca le. These calculations are based on the idea that the relative abundance of fauna serves as a proxy for past habitat use. Broad habitat types I evaluated include wetland/swamp (WET), riverine/lacustrine (RIV) and terrestrial (TER) (Table 3-4). Terrestrial habi tats were not divided according to type (e.g., mature forest, secondary forest, agricul tural land) because it is less clear how the sites differed in their relati ve proximity to these habitat types. However, I do discuss the distribution of specific taxa with high fidelity for mature forest. More detailed habitat fidelity statistics are available for many of these taxa in a previous publication (Emery and Thornton 2008). Faunal specimens that could not be identified to at least the level of taxonomic family were excluded from the analysis since these cannot be reliably associated with any particular habitat. Assi gned fidelity values were then used create indices of relative habitat representation. This was done by multiplying each speciess habitat type fidelity values by the number of identified specimens (N ISP). For example, 69

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the apple snail ( Pomacea sp.) is classified as: WET=0. 8, RIV = 0.2. Therefore, if an assemblage contains ten specimens of appl e snail, the weighted NISP across habitat types would be: WET = 8, RIV = 2, TER = 0. For each site, I tallied the weighted NISPs for each habitat type and conver ted them to percentages. Assigning weighted habitat fidelit y values to taxa is somewhat subjective, but the method allows for generalized descriptions of habitat use and hunting catchment zones. The use of only three broad habitat categories also reduces the amount of subjectivity in the analysis since they are primarily used to cla ssify taxa as either terrestrial or aquatic. Although this prevents over-dividing taxa across numerous categories, this broad approach does not account for t he hunting of terrestrial taxa in mixed terrestrial/aquatic habitats such as the shorelines of lakes, rivers and wetlands. Strontium isotope analysis Although species habitat pr eferences may be used to identify where many taxa were acquired, this approach is limited in its ability to distinguish between the local or non-local acquisition of important terrestrial habitat generalists such as white-tailed deer and collared peccary ( Pecari tajacu ). These species are found in a variety of habitats including agricultural fields and secondary forest, which would have been available at local, regional and inter-regional scales. To address this problem, I employed strontium isotope analysis (87Sr/86Sr) as a means to identify additional non-local animals. This method has previously been used to study hum an migration in Mesoamerica (Buikstra et al. 2003; Price et al. 2000; Price et al 2010; Price et al. 2007; Wright 2005a, 2005b), and is based on the principle that as an animal feeds and drinks in a particular area, the local 87Sr/86Sr signature is incorporated into its body tissues (Graustein 1989; Sealy et al. 1991; Sillen and Kavanagh 19 82). Zooarchaeological remain s therefore contain the 70

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strontium value of the animals origin. Chapter 6 includes a more detailed description of strontium isotope analysis, as well as the l aboratory procedures used in this study. To date, strontium isotope ratios have not been reported for a large collection of archaeological or modern fauna from Mesoam erica. The dataset therefore included small-bodied fauna with restricted home ranges (e.g., rodents, te rrestrial snails), studied to establish local baseline 87Sr/86Sr values, as well as larger-bodied species such as deer, peccary, tapir ( Tapirus bairdii) and domestic dog ( Canis lupus familiaris ) to test the methods potential for study ing regional and long-distance acquisition, or exchange of animal resources. Faunal samples from a ll of the Motul and Pete xbatun polity study sites were analyzed in addition to other sa mples drawn from sites throughout the southern and northern Maya lowlands. In order to increase sample size and geographic coverage, the strontium isotope samples we re not limited to those dated to the Late Classic. The primary goal of this analysis was to determine whether traditional zooarchaeological methods underestimate the regional and long-distance exchange of fauna. Defining local, regional and long-distance exchange Studies of modern subsistenc e hunters in the neotropics, indicate that hunters generally use habitats located wit hin 1-5 km of a site (Escamilla et al. 2000; Jorgensen 1995), and that hunting efforts are most intensiv e within 1-3 km of a settlement (Parry et al. 2009). However, these studies also s how that hunting catchment areas are not purely defined as concentric circles extending out from a community. Instead, landscape features as well as the location of other se ttlements, determine community hunting territories. During pre-Columbian times, the location of nearby Maya communities also likely determined a sites access to particular habitats and resource 71

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zones. This may have been especially true during the Late Classic when population and settlement expansion would hav e placed as strain on natural resources, including animal populations (Emery 2007b) Therefore, in consideri ng an archaeological sites proximity to particular habitats, we need to also consider the location of other sites in the region. For example, the si te of Motul de San Jos is located only ~3 km northwest of Lake Petn Itz (Figure 4-1). However, Mo tuls access to the lake could have been restricted by the presence of other settlemen ts, such as Trinidad de Nosotros, located along the lakeshore. If territorial hunting and gathering boun daries were in place, the distance to an unsettled and unclaimed section of lakeshore could have be much farther than 3 km. Taking this into consideration, local habi tats and animal resources were defined as those available within 3-5 km of a si te (Figures 4-1 and 5-4). Since no major topographic features within the Petn Lakes and Petexbatun regions would have hampered over-land navigation, the shortest path to a resource was considered be a straight line. However, paths were adjust ed if the end point (i.e ., the closest access point to a habitat or resource zone) landed within 1.5 km of t he center of another contemporary site. This method only affected the defined access distance of Motul de San Jos to Lake Petn Itz, which was greater than 5 km when Trinidad de Nosotross territorial claim over the northern lakeshor e area was factored in. Regional habitats and resources were defined as those ava ilable between 5 and 25 km away. This approximates the distance able to be traveled by foot in a day, although the estimate has been expanded upward to account for fast er travel via canoe. Faunal resources acquired or exchanged over l ong-distances are defined as those moving 50 km or more. 72

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At this scale, resources are generally moving between regions, or between polities. These definitions of local, regional and long-distance resources are heuristic devices employed to describe the relative effort requi red to obtain particular resources. As such, they may not accurately reflec t the true extent of Maya resource catchment zones. This is especially true for the di stinction between local and regi onal resources, which both may have been obtained through direct procur ement rather than inter-community regional exchange. Zooarchaeological Interpretations of Econom y and Exchange This study brings toget her zooarchaeological and isotopi c evidence to reconstruct acquisition, production, consumption and exchange of faunal resources in the Maya lowlands. Although identifying the exact mechani sms of exchange (e.g., gifting, tribute, market exchange) through artifact frequencies and distribution is an important goal, this dissertation does not attempt to provide def initive answers regarding which mechanisms were used to circulate goods through the anci ent Maya economy. Instead, I focus more on aspects of Maya economic and political or ganization by reconstructing where faunal resources were acquired, how often and in what form they were exchanged, and the distribution of both local and non-local reso urces within and across sites according to social status. This approach emphasizes the complexity and diversity of Maya economic and sociopolitical organization, as well as the social relationships inherent in economic exchanges. The acquisition source of faunal resource s is reconstructed through both species habitat preferences and isotopic data. Ident ifying where goods were acquired forms the basis for discussing the extent of Maya faunal resource exchange at local, regional and long-distance scales. If r egional and long-distance exchange of fauna is uncommon, we 73

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would expect to see a high degree of variat ion in anim al use across sites based on their microenvironmental settings. In contrast, great er faunal resource exchange would result in more similarity across sites since animal use would be determined less by local environmental conditions. I employ strontiu m isotope data to determine whether more traditional species habitat analyses under-estimate the amount of non-local fauna being acquired or exchanged. Strontium analysis is also able to identify potential source locations of non-local resources, which informs our understanding of trade routes and regional or inter-regional connections. Previous zooarchaeological st udies indicate that social status and political power influenced Maya faunal resource consumpt ion (Emery 2003b; Pohl 1994; Pohl 1995; Teeter 2004). I therefore consi der the effects of social, political and economic status, defined at both the polity and site level, on animal use patterns. If there is less correlation between high status animal use and lo cal habitat or resource availability, this indicates that elite members of society were less tied to local resources for subsistence and non-subsistence use. Elite demand for ce rtain goods may theref ore have promoted regional and long-distance exch ange, regardless of whether the goods were acquired via tribute, horizontal gifti ng, or market exchange. The differential access to faunal resources according to social status is also used to interpret the degree of elite control over acquisition, consumption, and exch ange. Zooarchaeological data can reveal whether the elite maintained exclusive or pr eferential access to particular resources. This is informative regarding whether elites controlled only long-distance or luxury exchange networks, or w hether they also yielded signific ant power over the distribution of utilitarian or subsistence resources at the regional and local level. 74

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Analys is of zooarchaeological remains a ccording to social status may also be used to interpret whether the value of faunal goods was defined primarily by their cultural value and symbolism, or by the effort required to obtain them. Acquiring resources available at regional and long-di stance scales requires more physical effort, or engagement in economic transactions involv ing non-local individua ls or communities. If high status items were primarily defined by their non-local origins, we would expect all regional and exotic items to be concentrated in high status contexts. This would also promote greater faunal resource exchange. The strontium isotope results can also shed light on this issue through identification of non-local acquisition of locally-available goods. For example, white-tailed deer are fo und throughout the Maya cultural region. Despite their ubiquity, this high status and ceremonial species may have been exchanged within or between regions through tri bute payments, or elit e gifting. In these instances, the non-local source of the anima l likely added to its social and economic value. In addition to status-based differences in resource consumption, zooarchaeological remains can be used to address the degree of different social groups involvement in artifact production. The distribution of bone and shell debitage within and between sites indicates who parti cipated in the crafti ng of utilitarian and prestige goods, and to what degree they might hav e specialized in this activity. In terms of faunal resource exchange, evidence of artifact production can suggest what elements may have been exchanged after the meat wa s removed or extracted, and what particular elements might have been exchanged most frequently due to their utility as crafting materials. Moreover if crafting is very specialized and concentrated among 75

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76 particular social groups it could suggest great er faunal resource exchange, to not only concentrate raw materials in the hands of cra ft specialists, but also to distribute the finished products more widely. The combined zooarchaeological and isot opic methods provide a means for reconstructing how animal resources circulated through the Maya economy at multiple spatial scales. Although specific emphasis is placed on the acquisition and exchange of animal resources, bone and shell artifact pr oduction is also addressed. In terms of broader Maya economic and political organizati on, the data are relevant to current questions regarding elite control over t he production, distribut ion and exchange of natural resources used as both subsist ence and status-defin ing prestige goods.

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Table 3-1. Trinidad de Nosotros zooarchaeological asse mblage quantified acc ording to NISP and MNIa. Scientific name Common name NISP % NISP MNI % MNI Rank NISPb Rank MNIb Pomacea flagellata Apple snail 291 44.91 48 19.92 1 2 Pachychilus indiorum Jute 98 15.12 97 40.25 2 1 Unionidae River cl am 80 12.35 9 3.73 2 3 Oliva sp. Olive shell 10 1.54 10 4.15 3 3 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer 34 5.25 7 2.90 3 3 Dasypus novemcinctus Nine-lined armadillo 19 2.93 6 2.49 3 3 Canis lupus familiaris Domestic dog 11 1.70 3 1.24 3 3 Strombus sp. Conch 7 1.08 4 1.66 3 3 Tayassuidae Peccary 7 1.08 3 1.24 3 3 Mazama sp. Brocket deer 7 1.08 3 1.24 3 3 Olivella sp. Dwarf olive shell 6 0.93 6 2.49 4 3 Pachychilus glaphyrus Jute 6 0.93 6 2.49 4 3 Trachemys scripta Common slider turtle 6 0.93 2 0.83 4 4 Cichlidae (2 species) Cichlid 5 0.77 1 0.41 4 4 Sylvilagus sp. Rabbit 5 0.77 1 0.41 4 4 Psoronaias semigranosus River clam 4 0.62 2 0.83 4 4 Didelphis sp. Opossum 4 0.62 2 0.83 4 4 Bufo/Rana sp. Frog/toad 3 0.46 2 0.83 4 4 Atractosteus tropicus Tropical gar 3 0.46 1 0.41 4 4 Lacertilia Lizard 3 0.46 1 0.41 4 4 Kinosternon sp. Mud/musk turtle 3 0.46 1 0.41 4 4 Serpentes Snake 3 0.46 1 0.41 4 4 Meleagris sp. Turkey 3 0.46 1 0.41 4 4 Colinus sp. Quail 3 0.46 1 0.41 4 4 Dentaliidae Tusk shell 2 0.31 2 0.83 4 4 Decapoda Crab 2 0.31 2 0.83 4 4 Dasyprocta punctata Agouti 2 0.31 2 0.83 4 4 Staurotypus triporcatus Giant musk turtle 2 0.31 1 0.41 4 4 77

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Table 3-1. Continued. Scientific name Common name NISP % NISP MNI % MNI Rank NISPb Rank MNIb Rhinoclemmys areolata Furrowed wood turtle 2 0.31 1 0.41 4 4 Bassariscus sumichrasti Cacomistle 2 0.31 1 0.41 4 4 Puma concolor Puma 2 0.31 1 0.41 4 4 Oliva sayana Lettered olive 1 0.15 1 0.41 4 4 Prunum apicinum Marginella 1 0.15 1 0.41 4 4 Spondylus sp. Spondylus 1 0.15 1 0.41 4 4 Asaphis deflorata Gaudy sanguin 1 0.15 1 0.41 4 4 Lampsilis sp. River clam 1 0.15 1 0.41 4 4 Rhamdia sp. Catfish 1 0.15 1 0.41 4 4 Synbranchidae Swamp eel 1 0.15 1 0.41 4 4 Cichlosoma sp. Cichlid 1 0.15 1 0.41 4 4 Petenia splendida Blanco 1 0.15 1 0.41 4 4 Dermatemys mawii C. Am. river turtle 1 0.15 1 0.41 4 4 Orthogeomys hispidus Pocket gopher 1 0.15 1 0.41 4 4 Nasua narica Coati 1 0.15 1 0.41 4 4 Urocyon cinereoargenteus Grey fox 1 0.15 1 0.41 4 4 Totals 648 100.00 241 100.00 Notes: a Table only includes taxa that are able to be quantified according to both NISP and MNI. This excludes most higher taxonomic categories such as Mammalia and Testudines (Table 4-3 for comparison). b Rank 1 >40%, rank 2 = 10%, rank 3 = 1%, rank 4 <1%. 78

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Table 3-2. Cancuen zooarchaeo logical assemblage quantifi ed acc ording to NISP and MNIa. Scientific name Common name NISP % NISP MNI % MNI Rank NISP Rank MNI Dermatemys mawii C. Am. river turtle 409 19.37 8 2.23 1 3 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer 322 15.25 27 7.54 1 2 Unionidae River clam 281 13.30 13 3.63 1 3 Spondylus sp. Thorny oyster 222 10.51 27 7.54 1 2 Strombus sp. Conch 160 7.58 4 1.12 2 3 Psoronaias semigranosus River clam 153 7.24 68 18.99 2 1 Psoronaias sp. River clam 146 6.91 52 14.53 2 1 Canis lupus familiaris Domestic dog 87 4.12 16 4.47 3 3 Tayassuidae Peccary 83 3.93 3 0.84 3 4 Crocodylus sp. Crocodile 43 2.04 2 0.56 3 4 Pachychilus pleuristriatus Jute 22 1.04 22 6.15 3 2 Pecari tajacu Collared peccary 16 0.76 5 1.40 4 3 Mazama sp. Brocket deer 15 0.71 8 2.23 4 3 Pomacea flagellata Apple snail 11 0.52 6 1.68 4 3 Rhinoclemmys areolata Furrowed wood turtle 10 0.47 1 0.28 4 4 Oliva sayana Lettered olive 9 0.43 9 2.51 4 3 Agouti paca Paca 9 0.43 5 1.40 4 3 Oliva sp. Olive shell 8 0.38 8 2.23 4 3 Pachychilus sp. Jute 8 0.38 5 1.40 4 3 Trachemys scripta Common slider turtle 8 0.38 4 1.12 4 3 Kinosternon sp. Mud/musk turtle 7 0.33 1 0.28 4 4 Tapirus bairdii Baird's tapir 6 0.28 2 0.56 4 4 Megalonaias stolli River clam 4 0.19 4 1.12 4 3 Didelphis sp. Opossum 4 0.19 2 0.56 4 4 Dasyprocta punctata Agouti 4 0.19 3 0.84 4 4 Strombus pugilis Fighting conch 3 0.14 2 0.56 4 4 Prunum apicinum Marginella 3 0.14 3 0.84 4 4 Nephronaias sp. River clam 3 0.14 3 0.84 4 4 79

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80 Table 3-2. Continued. Scientific name Common name NISP % NISP MNI % MNI Rank NISP Rank MNI Serpentes Snake 3 0.14 2 0.56 4 4 Meleagris sp. Turkey 3 0.14 3 0.84 4 4 Urocyon cinereoargenteus Fox 3 0.14 1 0.28 4 4 Dentaliidae Tusk shell 2 0.09 2 0.56 4 4 Strombus gigas Queen conch 2 0.09 2 0.56 4 4 Trivia sp. Trivia 2 0.09 1 0.28 4 4 Trivia pediculus Coffeebean trivia 2 0.09 2 0.56 4 4 Pachychilus indiorum Jute 2 0.09 2 0.56 4 4 Lampsilis sp. River clam 2 0.09 2 0.56 4 4 Kinosternon cf. acutum Tabasco mud turtle 2 0.09 1 0.28 4 4 Kinosternon cf. leucostomum White-lipped mud Turtle 2 0.09 1 0.28 4 4 Aves (medium) Bird (e.g., duck) 2 0.09 1 0.28 4 4 Dasypus novemcinctus Nine-lined armadillo 2 0.09 1 0.28 4 4 Sylvilagus sp. Rabbit 2 0.09 2 0.56 4 4 Nasua narica Coati 2 0.09 2 0.56 4 4 Felidae (large) Felid (jagu ar/puma) 2 0.09 1 0.28 4 4 Panthera onca Jaguar 2 0.09 2 0.56 4 4 Leopardis pardalis Ocelot 2 0.09 2 0.56 4 4 Melongena sp. Whelk 1 0.05 1 0.28 4 4 Cypraea cf. cervus Atlantic deer cowrie 1 0.05 1 0.28 4 4 Cypraea cf. zebra Measled cowrie 1 0.05 1 0.28 4 4 Chamidae Jewelbox 1 0.05 1 0.28 4 4 Codakia sp. Lucine 1 0.05 1 0.28 4 4 Lampsilis discus River clam 1 0.05 1 0.28 4 4 Nephronaias yzabalensis River clam 1 0.05 1 0.28 4 4 Atractosteus tropicus Tropical gar 1 0.05 1 0.28 4 4 Synbranchidae Swamp eel 1 0.05 1 0.28 4 4 Anura Frog/toad 1 0.05 1 0.28 4 4

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Table 3-2. Continued. Scientific Name Common Name NISP % NISP MNI % MNI Rank NISP Rank MNI Iguana iguana Iguana 1 0.05 1 0.28 4 4 Staurotypus triporcatus Giant musk turtle 1 0.05 1 0.28 4 4 Alouatta pigra Howler monkey 1 0.05 1 0.28 4 4 Totals 2,112 100.00 358 100.00 Notes: a Table only includes taxa that are able to be quantified according to both NISP and MNI. This excludes most higher taxonomic categories such as Mammalia and Testudines (Table 5-5 for comparison). b Rank 1 =10%, rank 2 = 5%, rank 3 = 1%, rank 4 <1%. Table 3-3. Artiodactyl skeletal elements classified according to anatomical region for body portion analysis. Anatomical region Skeletal elements Cranial Neurocranium mandible, teeth Axial Vertebrae, ribs, sternum Fore limb Scapula, humerus, radius, ulna Hind limb Innominate, femur, tibia, fibula, patella Distal Metapodials, carpals, tarsals, phalanges 81

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Table 3-4. Habitat fidelity values assigned to identified taxa. Defined habitats include terrestrial (TER), riverine/lacust rine (RIV) and wetland/swamp (WET). Scientific name Common name TER RIV WET Pachychilus sp. Jute 0 1 0 Pachychilus indiorum Jute 0 1 0 Pachychilus pleuristriatus Jute 0 1 0 Pomacea flagellata Apple snail 0 0.2 0.8 Unionidae River clam 0 1 0 Lampsilis sp. River clam 0 1 0 Lampsilis discus River clam 0 1 0 Megalonaias stolli River clam 0 1 0 Nephronaias sp. River clam 0 1 0 Nephronaias yzabalensis River clam 0 1 0 Psoronaias sp. River clam 0 1 0 Psoronaias semigranosus River clam 0 1 0 Atractosteus tropicus Tropical gar 0 0.5 0.5 Synbranchidae Swamp eel 0 0.5 0.5 Bufo marinus Marine toad 0.8 0.1 0.1 Crocodylus sp. Crocodile 0 1 0 Iguana iguana Green iguana 0.25 0.5 0.25 Dermatemys mawii C. Am. river turtle 0 1 0 Kinosternon sp. Mud/musk turtle 0 0.5 0.5 Kinosternon acutum Tabasco mud turtle 0 0.5 0.5 Kinosternon leucostomum White-lipped mud turtle 0 0.5 0.5 Staurotypus triporcatus Giant musk turtle 0 0.7 0.3 Emydidae Pond turtle 0 0.5 0.5 Rhinoclemmys areolata Furrowed wood turtle 0.8 0.2 0 Trachemys scripta Common slider turtle 0 0.5 0.5 Crax rubra Great curassow 1 0 0 Colinus virginianus Quail 1 0 0 Meleagris sp. Turkey 1 0 0 Didelphidae Opossum 0.8 0.2 0 Didelphis sp. Opossum 0.8 0.2 0 Alouatta pigra Howler monkey 1 0 0 Sylvilagus sp. Rabbit 1 0 0 Sciuridae Squirrel 1 0 0 Dasypus novemcinctus Nine-lined armadillo 1 0 0 Agouti paca Paca 0.6 0.2 0.2 Dasyprocta punctata Agouti 1 0 0 Nasua narica Coati 1 0 0 Procyon lotor Raccoon 0.5 0.25 0.25 Urocyon cineoargenteus Grey fox 1 0 0 Panthera onca Jaguar 0.8 0.2 0 Felis pardalis Ocelot 0.8 0.1 0.1 82

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Table 3-4. Continued. Scientific name Common name TER WET Tayassuidae Peccary 1 0 0 Pecari tajacu Collared peccary 1 0 0 Cervidae Deer 1 0 0 Mazama sp. Brocket deer 0.9 0 0.1 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer 1 0 0 Tapirus bairdii Tapir 0.2 0.4 0.4 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%%NISP (all)%NISP (MNI taxa only) %MNIQuantification MethodPercent (%) Marine Mollusc Freshwater Mollusc Fish Reptile Bird Mammal Figure 3-1. Taxonomic class compositi on of the Trinidad de Nosotros faunal assemblage by percent NISP and MNI. 83

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84 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% %NISP (all)%NISP (mni taxa only)%MNI Quantification MethodPercent (%) Marine mollusc Freshwater mollusc Firsh Reptile Bird Mammal Figure 3-2. Taxonomic class composition of the Cancuen faunal assemblage by percent NISP and MNI.

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CHA PTER 4 ANIMAL RESOURCE ECONOMY AND EXCHANGE WITHIN THE MOTUL POLITY: ZOOARCHAEOLOGICAL RESULTS FROM TRINIDAD DE NOSOTROS AND MOTUL DE SAN JOS The goal of this zooarchaeological study is to evaluate the role of animal products in the ancient Maya economy within the Late Classic Motul de San Jos (Motul) economic and political sphere. The Motul polity is located along the northern shore of Lake Petn Itz in the Central Petn Lakes region of northern Guat emala (Figure 4-1). Communities within the Motul polity are know n to have been actively integrated into strong economic networks duri ng the Late Classic. Recent archaeological research within the Motul region revealed one of the fe w known pottery production workshops or "schools" (Foias et al. in press) where the detailed Ik vessels that are found in elite contexts throughout the Maya lowlands (Reent s-Budet et al. 1994) were likely crafted. The polity also includes one of very few in land trade ports in the Maya region (Moriarty 2004, 2005), and several subsidiary sites stra tegically located near particular natural resources (Emery 2003a). These characteristics make this polity valuable for consideration of animal resource economics and exchange through inter and intra-site zooarchaeological comparisons. The Motul polity is relatively small (~78.5-153.9 km2) (Emery and Foias in press) in comparison to the estimated average si ze of other Maya polities (2500 km2) (Mathews 1991). Despite its small size, hieroglyphic inscriptions indicate that the polity had significant political power. The sites lar gest settlement, Motul de San Jos (Motul), bears its own emblem glyph, and has been identified through textual analysis and ceramic sourcing as the capital city of the Ik polity (Foias 2003; Halperin 2007; ReentsBudet et al. 2006), which is mentioned along with other major powers such as Tikal and 85

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Calakmul in monumental inscriptions at site s including Dos Pilas, Seibal and Yaxchilan (Houston 1993; Schele and Mathews 1991; Stuar t and Houston 1994). The Motul polity is also situated in an economically active z one characterized by extensiv e movement of goods and people. Lake Petn Itz served as a major east-to-west and north-to-south transportation and trade route running through the Maya lowlands (Rice 1996; Rice and Rice 2004). The politys active engagement in t hese trade and transportation routes is apparent at the politys second largest site, Trinidad de Nosotros (Trinidad). Trinidad is located approximately 3 km south of Motu l and directly on the nor thern shore of Lake Petn Itz (Figure 4-1). Based on the sites location, it has been interpreted as a Maya port site, which likely participated in coastalinland trade moving east to west across the lake, and farther into the interior of the Pe tn (Moriarty 2004a). Arti ficially-constructed dock facilities, as well as quantities of exotic goods including obsidian, marine shell, and non-local chert and ceramics, have been uncov ered at Trinidad, thus supporting the sites interpretation as a trade port (Moriarty et al. 2004; Moriarty et al. 2008; Spensley 2007). Although Trinidad likely played a major role in local or regional trade and transportation networks, the site is still cons idered to be a secondary center within the larger Motul de San Jos polity based on its overall small spatial extent, and the reduced size and number of its architectural features (Moriarty 2004b). In addition to Trinidad, the regional capital of Motul likely maintained political and economic influence over several other secondary and tertiary si tes including Akte, Chchkluum, Chkokot, Buenavista, Kantetul and La Estrella (Figure 4-1). Comparative analysis of zooarchaeological assemblages recovered from the two largest Motul polity sites (Motul de San Jos and Trinidad de No sotros) provides an 86

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opportunity to explore how animal resour ces circulated through the ancient Maya economy at both the site and polity level. Th e details of faunal resource acquisition, production, consumption and exchange both wit hin and between sites, is used to understand elite control over t he differential access to resour ces, the extent of regional and inter-regional exchange, and the nature of intercommunity relationships, integration and interdependence. Specific attention is paid to reconstructing: 1) the extent to which Motul polity residents used local, regional an d non-local resources, 2) how acquisition and production and use of animal commodities varied according to social rank, and 3) how Trinidads possible role as a trade port for the Motul polity may have influenced its access to high status or non-local animal resources. Site Descriptions and Environmental Setting Trinidad de Nosotros Excavation of Trinidad de Nosotros was directed by Ma tt Moriarty (Tulane University) in 2003 and 2005 under the auspices of the larger Motul de San Jos Archaeological Project (project directors: Antonia Foias, Williams College and Kitty Emery, Florida Museum of Natural History). The site covers an area of approximately 1 km2, and includes at least 150 structures organi zed into thirty distinct architectural groups (Moriarty et al. 2008). Wi th the exception of the por t/harbor facilities, most the sites architectural features are clustered on top of a high ridge overlooking Lake Petn Itz (Figure 4-2). The ceremonial precinct includes the sites 10 meter tall radial pyramid (Group A, structure A-1), smaller temples, ball court (Group F), public plazas, and attached high elite residential gr oups (Groups C, U and Y). F our of the plazas in the ceremonial core are surrounded by range stru ctures, temples and other architectural features, while the fifth plaza (Plaza V) is a large, open and mostly unmodified area 87

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located dir ectly to the west of the sites principle struct ure (Moriarty et al. 2004). Based on architectural features and soil phosphorou s levels, Plaza V may have been used as an ancient marketplace (Bair and Terry in pr ess; Dahlin et al. 2010). Just outside the ceremonial precinct, there are a number of low to middl e status residential groups (Groups G, H, K, KK, O, Q, S, T and Z), which are located at varying distances from the sites ceremonial core. Despite Trinidads status as a smaller secondary center, the site has two unique features that distinguish it from other minor centers. First of a ll, it is the only site within the Motul polity with a ball court (Moriar ty et al. 2004). Based on the ceramic assemblage recovered from middens adjacent to the sites ball cour t (Group F), this architectural feature may have been associat ed with feasting or other public rituals (Moriarty and Foias 2006; Moriarty et al. 2008; Moriarty and Thornton 2007). Trinidad also contains an unexpectedly large am ount of public plaza space (19,030 m2), which is close to the amount found at the much lar ger site of Motul de San Jos (~23,000 m2) (Moriarty 2004b:33; in press). As Moriarty notes, these feat ures point to the potential regional importance of Tr inidad as a center for economic and ritual activity (Moriarty et al. 2008). Ceramic analysis and radiocarbon dates indi cate that Trinidad had a long history of pre-colonial occupation running from the Middle Preclassic (600 B.C.) through Postclassic (A.D. 950) (Table 4-1) (Moriart y 2004; Moriarty et al. 2007). Trinidad was therefore occupied both befor e and after the fairly rapid Late Classic florescence of the site of Motul de San Jos, which became the dominant political center in the region during its peak. Trinidad appears to have ex panded during the Late Classic period, but 88

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there is also evidence for substantial construction and occupation activity at the site during the Preclassic and Postcl assic periods, before and afte r the florescence of the capital site of Motul. Material remains dating to the Preclassic and Late Classic are found dispersed across a large portion of t he site, while Postclassic features are clustered near the sites harbor. Survey and excavation of Trinidads har bor area uncovered platforms and terraces on the slope down to the lakeshore. The most prominent of these platforms (platform FF) is elevated 11 m above the lake level and 25 m NE of the sites harbor facilities. Excavation results suggest that the platform was used for resident ial activities late in the sites occupation history (Spensley 2007). At t he level of the lakeshore, excavation units were placed in the long, low platform stru cture (platform EE), which forms the sites interior harbor wall. A portion of this pla tform extends out into the harbor and may have been used as a dock (Moriarty 2004; Moriarty et al. 2004). The other major feature excavated in the harbor area is a peninsula or breakwater, which runs parallel to the interior harbor wall. The breakwater and inte rior wall are separated by a low-lying area that is inundated when lake levels are hi gh, and which was likely inundated in the past (Spensley 2004). Although the breakwater was originally thought to be a natural feature, subsequent excavation revealed that the Maya built up and m odified the western side of the peninsula during pre-Hispanic times (Spens ley 2007). The presence of port facilities at Trinidad is not surprising considering its lo cation. The site is situated along one of the most accessible stretches of Lake Petn Itz s northern shoreline, and at the closest point of the lake to major rivers flowi ng westward out of the Petn Lakes region (Moriarty 2004a). In historical times, Trinid ad was also used as one of the major ports 89

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on the lake for transporting chicle due to it s proximity to one of the easiest overland routes running northward toward sites such as Tikal and Uaxaktun (Moriarty 2004b). Motul de S an Jos Excavation of the major political cent er of Motul de San Jos was conducted between 1998 and 2005. To date, over 400 structures have been identified at the site, which spans an area of approximately 4.2 km2 (Moriarty 2004:30). The monumental architecture in Motuls central precinct is si gnificantly larger than th at found at Trinidad. Major architectural features within the sites monumental core (Gr oups A-E) include nine pyramid-type ceremonial structures, a 200 m-long raised avenue or via running north-tosouth through the center of t he site, several elite resident ial groups, and six carved stelae (Figure 4-3). The Motul Acropolis (G roup C), which likely functioned as the royal place or court is adjacent to the sites main plaza (Plaza 1). During excavation, a large midden from a polychrome pottery workshop wa s identified along t he northwest edges of the the Acropolis (Halperin and Foias in press). The ceramic workshop abuts Motuls Plaza 2, an expansive open area that may have served as a marketplace (Bair and Terry in press). Outside of Motuls monument al core, smaller, possibly lower status residential groups are clustered in areas to the north and east. According to ceramic and AMS radiocarbon dating, Motul was occupied from the Middle Preclassic through Early Postclassic (600 B.C.A.D. 1200). However, the site does not appear to have been a major center prior to the late Late Classic period (A.D. 700) when Motuls population and political power rapidly increased. Unlike Trinidad, which has substantial Postclassi c settlement, Motul declined rapidly after the Terminal Classic. 90

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As the capital site, Motul housed the polity s highest ranking individuals, or royal elite, in addition to lower ranking adminis trators, bureaucrats, priests and commoners. Status divis ions at the site were defined acco rding to three social ranks by the sites archaeologists (Foias et al. in press). Rank 1 (highest elite) architectural groups are the largest at Motul (volume > 6,797 m3), and ar e primarily found within the sites epicenter in association with the major public plazas temple-pyramid complexes, and carved monuments. Rank 2, or middle class, architectural groups have volumes of 4,443-1,100 m3. Groups of this size are located both within the sites epicenter and in more peripheral areas. Rank 3 groups (volume <1,100 m3) are found scattered across the site, but primarily outside the monumental co re. These may represent the residences of the lowest ranking individuals (e.g., comm oners) (Foias et al. in press). Based on current evidence, the biggest difference in terms of wealth and status at Motul was between the royal elite (rank 1) and all other lower ranks (Foias et al. in press). The relationship between social groups, howev er, is more complex than a simple hierarchical dichotomy between elites and non-elites. While some high value and exotic goods (e.g., pyrite and jade) were concentrat ed in the hands of the royal elite, other high value commodities such as polychrome vases, obsidian and marine shell, were found across all three social ranks (Emery in press; Foias et al. in press). The Motul royal elites also engaged in pottery, textile, and food production to supply themselves with goods, beyond what they likely extracted fr om lower social classes through tribute or taxation (Emery and Foias in press; Halperin 2008). Within the Motul polity, social ranks were not equivalent across sites. Motul rank 1 architectural groups likely repr esent the royal elites, while individuals living in rank 1 91

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groups at the secondary center of Trinidad may be more com parable in terms of status and role to the those living in rank 2 groups at Motul. The fairly large tier of people under the royal elites (i.e., Motul rank 2, Trinidad rank 1) may have been subsidiary elites, or non-elite political administrators known as sahals9 (Emery and Foias in press). The site of Motul must also be considered in terms of its relationships to the other regional sites since it served as the polity ca pital. Results from su rvey and/or excavation of minor centers located within 2-5 km of th e capital (Figure 4-1) suggest that some of these subsidiary sites may have served as specialized, or semi-s pecialized resource extraction or production centers. For exam ple, physical and isotopic analysis of soils within the Motul region indicate that the site of Chkokot focused on maize agriculture (Jensen et al. 2007; Webb et al. 2007), while chert tool analysis suggests that Buenavista, Trinidad and La Estrella (Chak Ma man Tok) were chert extraction and tool production sites (Lawton in press). Based on their proximity to specific environmental resource zones, the sites of Trinidad and Chchkluum may also have served as specialized acquisition sites for lacustri ne and savanna resources, respectively. As a trade port on Lake Petn Itz, the site of Trinidad also likely served as a gateway for products moving into or out of the Motul polity. Coastal Maya ports serving similar functions often had pr eferential access to high value or non-local commodities such as obsidian, jade, previous me tals, and imported cera mics (Andrews 1990; Graham and Pendergast 1989; Guderjan 1995; McKillop 1996). Analysis of obsidian core and blade distribution with the Motul po lity indicates that Trinidad also enjoyed 9 The title sahal is used in Maya hieroglyphic inscriptions to refer to subsidiary nobles governing secondary centers. Other administrative titles falling below the rank of ajaw (lord/king/ruler) and sahal include ah kuhun and yajaw kak which may be high ranking priestly positions (Jackson and Stewart 2001; Houston and Stewart 2001). 92

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greater access to this exot ic good than would be expect ed based on the communitys size, and its inferred subordinat e status to Motul de San Jo s (Moriarty et al. 2008). When combined with evidence for the sites extensive plaza space and possession of the politys only ball court, the economic, political and social relationships between Motul and Trinidad appear to be more co mplex than a simple hierarchical and exploitative relationship between a primary and secondary center. Local Habitats and Animal Availability Both Motul and Trinidad are located in the Petn Lakes region of northern Guatemala. The area has a long history of continuous human occupation from the Middle Preclassic through Colonial period (Culbert and Rice 1990) with pre-Hispanic populations possibly exceeding those presen t in the area today (Turner 1990). The region is characterized by a series of lake s, which formed along a geological fault line running east-to-west through t he region. Lake Petn Itz is the largest of these lakes with an area of approximately 99 km2. In terms of faunal resource s, Lake Petn Itz would have provided a diversity of lacustrine taxa including apple snails ( Pomacea sp.), crabs, fish, turtles, crocodiles ( Crocodylus sp.), and wading birds or waterfowl. Another source of aquatic resources within the Motul polity is the Arroyo Kantetul (approximately 2 km north of Motul and 5-7 km north of Trinidad). This water system coul d have supplied riverine resources such as jute (Pachychilus sp.), which prefer fast-moving, well-aerated waters of creeks and rivers to the more stagnant water found in lakes (Goodrich and van der Schalie 1937; Healy et al. 1990:174). Although the Arroyo Kantetul is now ephemeral, geological features and local informants confirm that the drainages flow was higher in the past (Moriarty 2004b:23). However, the Arroyo K antetul it not thought to have been large 93

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enough dur ing pre-Hispanic times to support taxa that favor larger bodies of water such as crocodiles, the giant Central American river turtle ( Dermatemys mawii ), the giant musk turtle (Staurotypus triporcatus ) and large freshwater clams (Unionidae: e.g., Psoronaias sp., Nephronaias sp., Lampsilis sp.) (Goodrich and van der Schalie 1937; Lee 2000). Terrestrial habitats surrounding Trinidad and Motul may have been a patchwork of milpas (agricultural plots) and secondary fo rest in various st ages of regeneration. Primary, or mature, rainforest habitat was al so probably present in the area, but it may have been located a substantial distance aw ay from the archaeological sites. Paleolimnological studies fr om the heavily-populated Petn Lak es region indicate largescale environmental disturbance in the ar ea, which increases from the Middle Preclassic to Terminal Classic (ca. 600 B. C. A.D. 950) as populations increased (Binford 1983; Deevey et al. 1979; Leyden 2002; Vaughn et al. 1985; Wiseman 1985). Large-scale deforestation by rapidly expanding Maya populations presumably occurred due to the clearance of more land for swi dden (i.e., slash-and-burn) agriculture, and the increased harvesting of trees for fuel and construction mate rial (Abrams and Rue 1988). Tracts of mature forest habitat may therefore have been cleared for some distance around the Maya settlements. Species primarily found in mature fores t, such as jaguars ( Panthera onca ), brocket deer ( Mazama sp.) and white-lipped peccaries ( Tayassu pecari ), may also been scarce or unavailable in areas close to human settlements. Isolated pockets of savanna habitat with lo wer growth and highly weathered soils are also found in the Petn Lakes region both north and south of Lake Petn Itz. The closest savanna habitats to Motul and Trinidad are near the site of Chchkluum (~5 94

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km east of Motul). Animal species fidelic to savanna habitats include the nin e-banded armadillo ( Dasypus novemcinctus ), rabbits ( Sylvilagus sp.) (Reid 1997), and rattlesnakes ( Crotalus durissus ) (Lee 2000). However, with the exception of the rattlesnake, these taxa are also common in agricultural plots, secondary forest, and along forest edges. Despite their proximity, Trinidad and Motu l differ slightly in their access to the habitats described in the paragraphs above. The primary difference between the two centers is their distance from aquatic habitats. Trinidad is located directly on the shores of Lake Petn Itz, therefore providing dire ct access to all major lacustrine fauna. Although Motul is only located 3 km from the lake, their access to this habitat zone could have been restricted by Trinidads territ orial claim over the portion of lakeshore located closest to Motul (Chapter 3 contains a discussion of Maya political territories and hunting catchment zones). Ba sed on the sites political and economic relationship, and relative distance from the lake, it has been suggested that Trinidad provided animal resources such as lake fish, turtles, cr ocodiles and molluscs to Motul (Emery 2003a:44). In contrast, Motul could have had slightly greater access to riverine species such as jute, which likely were most common in the fa ster moving waters of the Arroyo Kantetul or San Pedro River. However, the presence of jute in certain portions of Lake Petn Itz has been documented (Von Martens 1899), and evidence for a small river outlet that once flowed north out of the lake near Trinidad has recently been identified from regional satellite images (Moriarty in pre ss). Table 4-2 summarizes the differences between Trindad and Motul in terms of habitat and animal availability at local, regional, and long-distance scales. 95

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Results Sample Descriptions and Comparability Since archaeological assemblages can differ in terms of taphonomy, as well as the proportion of remains represent ative of particular chrono logical periods, cultural activities, and status designations, it is important to consider aspects of sample comparability when conducting inter-site com parative analyses (Emery 1997:77; 2004). The degree of sample comparability ma y be assessed by comparing recovery procedures, sample sizes, preservation, and the representation of different types of temporal, functional and status-based c ontexts in each assemblage. These comparisons can identify where bias is introduced due to differences in sample composition. The Motul and Trinidad assemblages were recovered by the same archaeological project, which employed similar excavation an d recovery procedures at both sites. This increases overall sample comparability. T hese excavations yielded 1,467 Late Classic faunal remains from Trinidad, and 2,324 fr om Motul (Table 4-3) Although the Motul assemblage is slightly larger, t he samples are generally comparable. Assemblage preservation may be roughly compared using the percentage of specimens identified to a particular taxonomic level (Emery 1997:84) since identification rates are often related to levels of specimen fragmentation and erosion. The portion of each assemblage identified to the level of taxonomic class or above (Trinidad = 55%, Motul = 61%), and to the level of family or below (Trinidad = 44%, Motul = 37%) is similar at both sites. This supports the ex pectation of similar taphonomic conditions and cultural treatment of animal remains (e.g., disposal and butchery patterns) at both Motul and Trinidad. 96

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The samples are also highly comparable in t erms of the status groups represented (Table 4-4). The Late Classic samples from both sites contain similar quantities of remains from high status (rank 1) and middl e to lower status (rank 2-3) contexts. Although rank 1 groups at Motul and Trinidad are not equivalent, the zooarchaeological assemblages primarily reflect animal use patterns of each sites highest ranking members. Context type representation is slightly mo re variable between the two sites (Figure 4-4). The Trinidad sample contains more re mains recovered from middens, whereas the Motul sample contains more from architectura l fill deposits. However, these contexts are likely comparable since midden material was oft en incorporated into structural fill. The samples also contain roughly equivalent percentages of remains from floor or occupation surfaces. Remains from specia l deposits including caches and burials are not common at either site, but Motul contains slightly more than Trinidad. The distinction between faunal remains deposited in middens vers us wall fall, or fill contexts tells us little about how the animal remains were used for various subsistence and nonsubsistence activities at the site. What is important from these co ntextual comparisons is that neither the Trinidad nor Motul faunal assemblage is dominated by animal remains recovered from burial or cache deposits, as these often contain very different types of elements and fauna than other types of contexts (e.g., Beaubien 2004; Emery 2003b; Emery 2004a; Emery and Thornton 2008; Masson 1999; Moholy-Nagy 2004; Teeter 2004). Taxonomic Composition The Trinidad and Motul faunal assemblages contain a total of 52 taxa spread across nine classes (mammals, birds, r eptiles, bony fishes, cartilaginous fishes, 97

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bivalv es, gastropods, scaphopods, and crustac eans) (Table 4-3). Appendix A lists the full taxonomic classification of the s pecies present in the samples. Common invertebrate taxa include freshwater molluscs such as jute, apple snails, and clams. These species were likely consumed, but fres hwater clam shells were also valued for production of shell artifacts (Powis 2004), and ju te were often incorporated into ritual deposits throughout the Maya area (Halperin et al. 2003; Healy et al. 1990). Nine species of marine molluscs were also found. They include small species (e.g., Olivella sp., Prunum sp., and Dentaliidae), used primarily as beads, as well as larger species (e.g., Strombus sp., Oliva sp., Asaphis deflorata and Spondylus sp.), which were crafted into bulkier artifacts such as pendants, tinklers, shell disks and other adornments. With the exce ption of a single stingray tail spine found at Motul, all of the fish identified at both Motul and Trinidad are freshwater species such as cichlids (Cichlidae: Petenia esplendida Cichlasoma uropthalmus ), catfish ( Rhamdia sp.), gar ( Atracosteus tropicus ), and swamp eels (Synbranchidae). The vast majority (>80%) of reptilian remains found at the Motul polity sites were fragm ents of turtle carapace or plastron. Terrestrial and aquatic turtle spec ies in the assemblages include small musk turtles ( Kinosternon sp.), common slider turtle ( Trachemys scripta ), furrowed wood turtle ( Rhinoclemmys areolata ), giant Central American river turtle, and giant musk turtle. Crocodile, iguana (Iguanidae), and snake (Serpent es) were present, but uncommon, in the samples. Few avian remains were found in the assemblages, and the majority of them were unidentifiable long bone shaft fragments of large-bodied species. Based on the size and thickness of the long bones they likely come from turkeys ( Meleagris sp.), or large cracids such as the curassow ( Crax rubra ), guan ( Penelope purpuracens ) or 98

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chachalaca ( Ortalis vetula ). Well-preserved and more comp lete remains of turkey and quail ( Colin us sp.) were identified at both sites. The remains of seventeen separate species of mammals were identified in the assemblages. The most common taxa are armadillo, white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ), domestic dog ( Canis lupus familiaris ), brocket deer, and peccary (Tayassuidae) These all represent favored prey species at many inland Maya sites (Eme ry 2004c, 2007; Pohl 1990; Pohl 1985a). Less common taxa include opossum ( Didelphis sp.), squirrel (Sci uridae), rabbit, pocket gopher ( Orthogeomys hispidus), paca ( Agouti paca ), agouti ( Dasyprocta punctata ), cacomistle (Bassariscus sumichrasti), coati ( Nasua nasua ), fox ( Urocyon cinereoargenteus ), ocelot ( Leopardus pardalis ), jaguar, and puma ( Puma concolor ). Inter-site Comparisons: Species and Habitat Use Although a similar suite of species was used at both Trinidad and Motul, animal use patterns differ between the two sites. Mo tul residents used terrestrial resources such as mammals to a much greater ext ent, whereas the inhab itants of Trinidad employed a broader pattern of animal use, exploiting both mammals and freshwater molluscs in relatively equal quantities (Fi gure 4-5). Locally-available apple snails account for approximately 27% of the Trinidad assemblage, but jute are also wellrepresented (9.5% of NISP ident ified to taxonomic class or lower). Despite Motuls closer proximity to the Arro yo Kantetul and San Pedro River, the sites residents used jute less frequently (1.7% of NISP identified to taxonomic class or lower). The two sites are relatively equal in their use of riveri ne clams, but clams compose a much greater percentage of the fres hwater molluscs at Motul (60%) th an at Trinidad (18%). More of the clam shells at Motul are also artifactually modified (Motul = 67% modified, Trinidad = 23% modified). The sites may also be contrast ed in their use of freshwater fish, which 99

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are much more common in the Trinidad assemb lage. This is not surprising c onsidering Trinidads lakeside location, and the recove ry of numerous ceramic fishing weights during excavation (Moriarty et al 2004). Most of the fish found at Trinidad are very small individuals, likely prepared and eaten whole rather than filleted or smoked. In contrast, few fish remains were recover ed from Motul, all of which represent larger individuals. Fish remains at this more inland site in clude both cranial and post-cranial elements. Despite the greater overall representation of aquatic taxa at Trinidad, large-bodied turtle ( Dermatemys mawii and Starotypus triporcatus ) and crocodile remains are more common at Motul. Large-turtles are r epresented by both carapace and long-bone elements in the Motul assemblage, while cr ocodile remains include both dermal scutes and limb girdle elements. Exotic marine resources including seashells and stingray tail spines are also more common at Motul (Figure 4-6). The majority (>80%) of marine shells at both sites are artifactually modified. Small quantities of marine shell debitage at both Motul and Trinidad suggest some artifact production, but most of the marine shell artifacts are finished products. Based on Motuls status as a regional capi tal, we could also expect the sites residents to have greater access to other preferred faunal resources for subsistence, artifact production and ritual or ceremonial use. Previous zooarchaeological research suggests that species favored by the Maya elite include the white-tailed deer, peccary, domestic dog, turkey, and the giant river turt le (Carr 1985; Emery 2006, 2007; Teeter 2004; White et al. 2004). Additional non-ma rine species that are found almost exclusively in high status and ritual depos its include: rabbit, quail, and large felids 100

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( Pum a concolor and Panthera onca ) (Carr 1985; Emery 2004a, 2005, 2007; Emery and Thornton 2008; Moholy-Nagy 2004; Pohl 1990; Pohl 1983). In ter-site comparisons show that Motul had greater access to these preferred species (Fi gure 4-7). The difference is especially pronounced for lar ge meat-bearing taxa such as artiodactyls (deer and peccaries) (Motul = 12%, Trinidad = 4%) and the Central American river turtle (Motul = 5%, Trinidad = <1%). White-tailed deer com pose a larger proportion off the artiodactyl remains at Motul (82%) than at Trinidad ( 67%), where smaller-bodi ed brocket deer and peccary were more common (Trinidad: brocket deer = 14%, peccary = 14%; Motul: brocket deer = 9%, peccary = 3%). Deer a nd peccary were represented by both cranial and post-cranial elements at all sites. Dogs, felids and galliform birds (e.g., turkeys and quails) were not common at either site, but Motul had greater access to both dogs and felids. Jaguar skeletal elements identified at Motul are limited to tarsals and metatarsals, but limb and tail elements from an unidentif ied large felid were found in the same proveniences. At Trinidad, over 73% of the remains of high st atus or ritual fauna (e.g., deer, peccary, dog, felid, rabbit, turkey, quail, and river turtle) come from the sites ballcourt midden. Status and the Differential Access to Resources Access to particular taxa as favored dietar y, ritual, or crafting commodities also varies within each site according to social status. At the peak of the Motul polity, the highest status (rank 1) residents of Trini dad had preferential access to galliform birds, turtles, and various mammals such as white-tailed deer and dog, while the lower ranking status groups at t he site relied on freshwater molluscs and fish to a much greater extent (Figures 4-8 and 4-9). Animal use among the highest ranks at Trinidad is therefore more similar to the overall animal use pattern obser ved at Motul. In contrast, 101

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the distribution of non-local marine molluscs at Trinidad does not show any clear trend across social ranks (Figure 4-10). Rank 2 contexts have slightly les s marine shell than rank 1 and rank 3 contexts, but the difference is not statistically significant (Figure 4-10). A large portion (~58%) of the Trinidad rank 1 remains come from a midden associated with the sites ball court (G roup F). The ball court midden is more taxonomically diverse (33 taxa) than faunal samples from other architectural groups. Several preferred sacrificial or feasting animals including turkey, white-tailed deer, rabbit, puma and quail (Pohl 1983; 1985) are also either exclusively present, or present in much greater quantities in the ball cour t midden than in other Late Classic deposits at Trinidad. The Group F middens are also distin ct in terms of skeletal element and age class distributions. Subadult animals are unco mmon in the Trinidad assemblage, but all of them come from the ball court midden. Young indivi duals of white-tailed deer, peccary, agouti/paca, and two species of emydid turtle are among those identified. Within rank 1 groups, white-tailed deer hind li mb elements are present in much greaterthan-expected frequencies (Figure 4-11). Fore limb elements are also slightly overrepresented. Since nearly 80% of the Trinidad rank 1 white-tailed deer remains were found in the ball court midden, these skeletal el ement distributions may primarily reflect activities such as feasting occurring in or around the ball court (M oriarty and Thornton 2007). White-tailed deer elem ent frequencies were not corre lated with element density (VD) (p=0.78). Differences in animal use between social ranks are less pronounced at the higher ranking site of Motul (Fi gure 4-8). Mammals dominate a ll elite and sub-elite samples (69-77%), with turtles and fres hwater molluscs comprising relatively equal portions of 102

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the remaining 25-30% of the samples. More subtle differences appear between the Motul social ranks when we consider the s pecific taxa present in each ranked sample. Aquatic resources such as fish and crocod ile are uncommon in the Motul assemblage, but all remains of these animals are found in high elite contexts wit hin, or immediately adjacent to the main acropo lis (operations 2A and 15A) Freshwater clams are also more common in rank 1 deposits. Unlike the pa ttern observed at Trinidad, taxa favored by the elite for dietary and ceremonial purpo ses do not show consistent distributions according to status (Figure 4-12). Dogs ar e most abundant in Motul rank 1 architectural groups, but deer and peccaries and galliform bi rds (turkeys and quail) are nearly equally represented in both rank1 and rank 3 groups. Sm all numbers of large felids are found in association with both rank 1 and rank 2 contexts The large Central American river turtle also appears to be distributed equally across all social ranks at Motul. However, a greater percentage of the turtle remains in rank 1 groups (72%) belong to large species such as Dermatemys and Staurotypus, than in rank 2 (54%) or rank 3 (39%) contexts. Rank 1 residents also have preferred access to exotic marine resources (Figure 4-10). However, rank 1 groups did not have exclusiv e access to these resources since they are also present in rank 2 and rank 3 deposits (Figure 4-8). Skeletal element distributions for white-tailed deer differ across social ranks (Figure 4-11). The large meat-bearing fore and hind limbs are greatly over-represented in Motul rank 1 groups. To a lesser extent, hind limbs are over-represented in rank 2 and 3 contexts, and fore limbs are over-represented in rank 3 contexts. A greater portion of the rank 1 hind limb elements are also upper limb elements, which bear the most meat (rank 1 = 81%, rank 2 = 60%, rank 3 = 33%). Cr anial and axial elements are 103

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under-represented across the site, but they are most u nder-represented in rank 1 groups. White-tailed deer element frequencies were not correlated with element density (VD) at Motul (p=0.91). Bone and Shell Artifacts: Production and Consumption To understand how faunal resources circulated through the Motul polity, we also have to consider evidence for the production and consumption of bone and shell artifacts. Artifactually modified remains account for 7 and 16% of the Late Classic Trinidad and Motul assemblages, respectively. The majority of modified remains were adornments ( adornos ), but musical instruments (e.g ., rasps, drum s, rattles), and utilitarian items including bone pi cks, awls and needles were also identified (Table 4-5). In general, adornments were made of marine or freshwater shell, whereas utilitarian items were made of bone. Ex ceptions include a small number of bone beads and perforated animal teeth that were used as je welry or other types of adornments. It is also possible that some of the bone picks an d needles were used to fasten clothing, or as hair ornaments (Emery in press). Evidence of Late Classic bone and shell cr afting was identified at both sites. However, Motul has a greater proportion of finished artifacts to production debris (debitage) than Trinidad (Table 4-5). The two sites also differ in the types of materials being crafted. Motul residents produced mu ch more bone debitage, while Trinidad residents worked both bone and shell in relative ly equal quantities (F igure 4-13). In terms of finished artifacts, the Late Classic Motul assembl age contains slightly more bone and freshwater artifacts, and the Trinidad assemblage contains more marine shell artifacts. The proportion of marine shell debitage versus finished artifacts is higher at 104

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Trinidad (debitage = 24%, finished = 62%) than it is at Motul (debitage = 6%, finished = 90%). Within eac h site, artifact production and co nsumption differs according to social status (Table 4-6). Although the proportion of bone or shell debitage to finished artifacts is approximately equal across social divisions at both Motul and Trinidad, the types of materials being crafted and consumed varies bet ween ranks at each site. At Trinidad, evidence of bone tool production and use is onl y found in rank 1 architectural groups (Figure 4-14). Over 90% of these bone artifacts were recovered from the ball court midden in Group F. Rank 1 residents at Trin idad also crafted and consumed freshwater shell artifacts, but these were used to an even greater extent in rank 3 contexts. All artifacts from rank 2 groups were made from marine shell, but marine shell debitage and finished artifacts are dist ributed across all social ranks. At Motul, evidence of bone tool production and consumption is distributed more evenly across status divisions than it is at Trinidad (Figure 4-15). The propor tion of bone debitage, however, is highest in rank 1 and rank 3 groups. Rank 1 and rank 3 groups at Motul also have more freshwater shell debita ge, whereas marine shell debitage is much more common in rank 2 deposits. The highest proportion of finished marine shell artifa cts is also found in rank 2 groups, whereas the highest proportion of fini shed freshwater shell artifacts are found in rank 1 contexts. Unfortunately, at both Trinidad and Motul, t he small number or artifacts recovered from rank 2 and rank 3 contexts complicates some of these intra-site comparisons according to social status. 105

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Discussio n Polity-level Economics: Site Status, Trade and Habitat Use The nearby sites of Trinidad de Nosotros and Motul de San Jos contrast sharply in their overall use of aquatic habitats fo r faunal acquisition. Animal use at Motul focused strongly on terrestrial resources, while Trinidad residents used locally-abundant aquatic taxa to a much greater extent. Thes e broad differences suggest that animal use within the Motul polity was primarily determined by the availability of local habitats and resources located within less than 3 km of ea ch site. Despite the greater overall use of local aquatic taxa at Trinidad, the sites residents had less a ccess to some of the largest and meatiest animal resources available in nearby Lake Petn Itz. Crocodiles, largebodied freshwater turtles, river clams, and large fish are equally, or more common at inland Motul than at the lakeside site of Tr inidad. Most of thes e items ended up in the hands of Motuls royal elite, suggesting the preferential distribution of favored aquatic taxa to Motul through tribute payments, or elite-controlled intrapolity regional exchange. However, the quantity of lacustrine resources being directed from Trinidad to Motul is relatively small, which argues against inte rpreting Trinidad as a specialized production or extraction site for aquatic resources within the Motul polity. Based on skeletal element distributions, Motul received prefer red aquatic taxa as whole animals, rather than secondary products such as turtle shells, crocodile hides, or fish fillets. Other animal resources prefer entially funneled toward Motu l residents include high status and ceremonial taxa such as deer, domestic dogs, and felids. In comparison to Trinidad, white-tailed deer are particularly ab undant at Motul. This could be due to the use of this species as a preferred elite diet ary, tribute, and ceremonial good (Carr 1996; Pohl 1985b; Pohl 1983; White et al. 2001b). At Trinidad, similar, but smaller-bodied 106

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game species including brocket deer and pe ccary substituted for w hite-tailed deer. Primary forest-dwelling brocket deer may have been more difficult to obtain in the largely anthropogenic habitats surrounding the Motul polity, than the disturbancetolerant white-tailed deer. In this case, t he relative effort needed to acquire a species was less influential on the distri bution of resources across the Motul polity sites than the cultural value of a species. In contrast, the capital site of Motul may have exercised greater control over the distribution of marine resources acquired through long-distance exchange. Based on Trinidads role as a harbor or trade port, and its access to signi ficant quantities of other non-local resources such as obsidian, it was expected that the site also used its trade connections and possible elevated economic pos ition to obtain more high status nonlocal marine commodities. However, this do es not appear to be the case, and Trinidad in fact has fewer marine resources than t he site of Motul de San Jos. Trinidads strategic port location and involvement in long distance exchange networks therefore does not appear to have substantially increased its access to exotic, or other high status faunal resources. This cont rasts with evidence for Trinidads privileged access to obsidian within the Motul de San Jos polit y (Moriarty et al. 2008; Moriarty and Spensley 2009). Motul may therefore have ma intained less economic control over the regional or intra-polity distri bution of obsidian, than it did over high status animal commodities such as marine shell. As a non-local, but utilitari an good, obsidian may have moved through different economic networ ks than non-local items used primarily as prestige, or status-defining commodities such as marine shell. 107

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Evidenc e of bone and shell artifact production and consumption also differs between the two sites. The proportion of finis hed artifacts to production debris is higher at Motul, suggesting a greater use of non-locally produced arti facts at the capital site. Surprisingly, marine shell composed a sm aller portion of the production debris and finished artifacts at Motul. Since Motul had greater overall access to marine shell than Trinidad, this result reflects Motuls gr eater production and use of bone and freshwater clam artifacts, rather than a lack of marine shell artifacts. Many of the bone and freshwater shell items at Motu l may be associated with textile production taking place in rank 1 residential groups (Emery in press; Halperin and Foias in press). These include bone picks, pins and other perforators, as well as pieces of highly nacreous clam shell used as textile adornments. The differential access to faunal res ources between Motul and Trinidad implies a hierarchical relationship between the two si tes. Current zooarchae ological and lithic evidence indicates that preferr ed aquatic resources, as well co rn flour (Foias et al. in press), chert tools (Lawton in press), and other animal products (Emery in press) may have been funneled toward to the Motul rulers through tribute or taxation. However, other archaeological evidence suggests that the economic and political relationships between Motul and its subsidiary settlements were complex, and heterarchical as well as hierarchical (Emery and Foias in press). The Motul rulers did not exert direct control, or maintain exclusive access to all high va lue, exotic resources circulating through the polity. Even though the Motul royal elite had gr eater access to marine shell, this good is found at even the smallest and least wealthy sites in the polity (Emery in press). Moreover, Trinidad maintained pr eferential access to obsidian, likely due to its role as a 108

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trade port (Moriarty et al. 2008) Trinidads political, economic and even religious role within the Motul polity may also have been elevated through the hosting of polity-wid e markets, feasts and ceremonies in its ex tensive public plazas, and the politys only ballcourt (Moriarty in press; Moriarty and Spensley 2009). Intra-Community Economics: Status and the Differ ential Access to Resources Broad inter-site comparisons are informative regarding economic relationships at the polity level, butintra-site analysis of animal use provides more detailed information about the differential access to resources according to social role and rank. Within the Motul polity, animal use varies by social st atus at both Motul and Trinidad, but it does not always vary predictably and consistently across social divisions. This likely reflects the complexity of economic networks used to acquire, produce, and distribute animal resources within the Motul polity. During the Late Classic, the highest ranki ng groups at Trinidad had preferential access to favored dietary and ceremonial commodities, including white-tailed deer, dogs, birds, and large turtles. These specie s replace the locally-abundant freshwater fish and shellfish, which compose the majority of animal remains in lower status rank 2 and 3 groups. Overall, the types and quantities of species present in Trinidad rank 1 deposits are more similar to those observe d at Motul. Local habitat and resource availability may therefore have exerted less influence on animal use by the elite and secondary elite since high status animal us e patterns at Trindad and Motul are more similar despite differences in the sites environmental settings. For higher ranking members of society, dietary and cerem onial animal use therefore may have been determined less by resource availability, and mo re by cultural ideas about what species are imbued with high stat us and ritual meaning. 109

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A large portion of the rank 1 zooarchaeolog ic al remains from Trinidad comes from dense middens associated with the sites ball court. These middens contain greater quantities of high status taxa (e.g., deer, tu rkey, dog, puma), as well as other preferred animal resources including subadult animals, deer haunches, and finely crafted bone and shell artifacts. The ball court middens may be distinct from other deposits at Trinidad because they may primarily represen t polity-wide feasting, or other ceremonial activities. Since the politys only ball court is located at Trinidad, the Motul royal elite may have sponsored, participated in or offici ated some of the ceremonies, feasts, or other public spectacles taking place at Tr inidad (Moriarty in press; Moriarty and Spensley 2009). The collection of possibl e feasting and ceremonial animal remains found near the ball court may t herefore reflect animal use activities by Motuls royal court as well as lower ranking secondary admini strators and religious officials from other polity sites. The greater representation of ma ny preferred commodities in Trindad rank 1 groups could be mainly due to the preferential use of these items in feasting or other ceremonial events associated with the ball court. In contrast to the pattern observed at Tr inidad, preferred and ceremonial taxa are distributed less predictably at Motul according to social status. Both rank 1 and rank 3 groups at Motul had greater ac cess to important species such as white-tailed deer, and turkeys than rank 2 groups. Emery (in press) suggests that this pattern could be due to the provisioning of Motuls roya l elite (rank 1) by rank 3 h unters. Rank 2 residents could have either acquired their own meat, or c ould have received a smaller quantity of these preferred taxa from the sites lower rank ing groups. Deer and peccary skeletal element distributions according to social rank support the hypothesis that preferred cuts of meat 110

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(e.g., fore and hind limbs) were preferentially distribut ed to Motuls highest ranking indiv iduals. Access to regional and exotic faunal re sources at both Motul and Trinidad does not appear to be clearly determined by social st atus. Marine resources obtained through long-distance exchange are most common in the highest ranking groups at each site, but they are distributed across all social ranks. This distribution is consistent with either elite gifting of marine shell to lower ranking individuals in exchange for labor, goods, and political allegiance (LeCount 19 99), or market exchange in which all social ranks have access, but elites have greater purchasing po wer (Hirth 1998). The distribution of nonlocal obsidian within the Motul polity is sim ilar to marine shell, with greater but not exclusive access appearing in higher rankin g groups (Foias et al. in press). This suggests that the Maya rulers did not main tained absolute control over access to high value non-local resources. The royal elites appear have maintained even less control over resources possibly acquired at the regional level. Mature fore st species such as brocket deer are less common in rank 1 groups at both sites despite the greater travel di stance likely required to obtain them. This species may have subs tituted for the larger and symbolicallycharged white-tailed deer in lower ranking households. Therefore, although the Trinidad and Motul high elite maintained preferential access to certain animal resources, the local, regional or inter-r egional availability of a resource did not solely determine whether access was open or restricted accordi ng to social status In other words, restricted access to animal commodities ma y have been determined more by a species 111

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cultural meaning and symbolism, than the travel distance, ex change networks, or effort required to obtain them. Evidenc e of bone and shell artifact production is distributed across all social ranks within the Motul polity sites, but there are differences in the types of faunal artifacts being produced and consumed. At Trinidad, bone tool manufacture and use was restricted to the highest r anking architectural groups. So me of the artifacts are instruments (e.g., rasps and rattles) likely associated with ceremonial activities, but utilitarian awls, pins and needles are also re stricted to rank 1 groups. Since most of these implements come from t he sites ball court midden they could represent ritually disposed artifacts, or evidence of craft pr oduction activities taking place in the sites monumental core near the ball court. At Motu l, bone tool manufacture and use was also identified within the sites monumental core (acropolis). Other li nes of archaeological evidence indicate that these bone tools may be related to textile production by the Motul royal elite (Emery in press; Halperin 2008) Textile production may also explain the greater percentage of freshwater shell artifacts in rank 1 Motul contexts since the highly nacreous shells of river clams were likely us ed as textile adornments (Emery in press). Marine shell artifacts were produced and consum ed by all social ranks at both Trinidad and Motul. Again, higher r anking individuals clearly had greater access to non-local marine resources, but lower ranking individuals were also able to acquire and use these high status symbols possibly through elite gifting, or market exchange. Therefore, in the Motul polity, both royal elites and lower r anking individuals were involved in the production of luxury goods (e.g., marine shell adornments) and utilitarian tools (e.g., bone picks and needles). This conforms to other recent reports of both elite and non112

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elite produ ction of high stat us and utilitarian commoditi es (Aoyama 1995; Emery and Aoyama 2007; Emery 2009; Kovacevich et al. 2005; Reents-Budet et al. 1994). Summary Within the Motul polity, the local environments surrounding each site largely determined animal use by the sites i nhabitants. However, animal use among the highest ranking members of society was dict ated less by local resource availability. Instead, they drew upon a greater diversity of resources acquired at regional and interregional scales. Although the Motul polity elit es used more non-local resources overall, the local versus non-local avai lability of animal goods did not solely determine restricted elite access. Instead, the cult ural value or symbolism of a species was more important in determining its distribution across social r anks. Preferential elite use of certain local and non-local animal goods sugges ts that elite demand for particular resources was a primary motivation for anima l resource exchange at loca l, regional and long-distance scales. For most preferred animal resources, elite access was greater, but not exclusive. This is even true for high value marine s hell obtained through long-distance exchange. This could suggest a lack of strong elite control over regional and long-distance exchange networks. More likely, it could indicate that elites strategically gifted high status items to lower ranking individuals in exchange for labor, tribute payments, or social and political allegiance. If this were the case, goods would flow first to the elites before being redistributed. Evidence of bone and shell craft production is also distributed across all social ranks. As a raw material, marine shell was not limited to the elites. Although its possible that lower ranking households were producing marine shell items for royal consumption, 113

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114 the distribution of finished mari ne shell products in all status groups suggests that these households also consumed luxury items, although in much lower quantities. Evidence of artifact production in rank 1 households at bot h Motul and Trinidad confirms active elite and even royal engagement in crafting activi ties. High status households at Motul and Trinidad produced both utilitarian and luxury items, although many of the bone and shell artifacts may be associated with ot her crafting activities, specifically textile production. At the polity level, Trinidads possible role as a port site along the major Petn Lakes transportation route, did not increase it s access to exotic or high status faunal resources. This may be contrasted with Trinidads privileged access to non-local obsidian with the Motul polity. This suggests diversity and flexibility in control over exchange networks, and in the rules governing the differential access to resources according to social status.

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Table 4-1. Ceramic complexes and chronolog ical periods for Trinidad de Noso tros. Trinidad ceramic phase (Uaxactun ceramic phase) Chronological period A pproximate date ranges Aj Wo (Pre-Mamom) Early Middle Preclassic 800 B.C. Ix Cha (Mamom) Late Middle Preclassic 650 B.C. Chukan (Chicanel) Late Pr eclassic 350 B.C. A.D. 150 Pich Ayim Terminal Preclassic A.D. 150 Ayim-tun (Tzakol) Early Classic A.D. 200 Siku I-II (Tepeu 1-2) Late Classic A.D. 550 Yaljobach (Tepeu 3) Termi nal Classic A.D. 830 Sk-tunich Postclassic A.D. 950 115

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Table 4-2. Class ification of select faunal res ources as local, regional and exotic for the sites of Motul de San Jos and Trinidad de Nosotros. Taxaa Preferred habitat Trinidad Motul Marine molluscs (Multiple species) Marine Exotic Exotic Stingray (Rajiformes) Marine Exotic Exotic Jute ( Pachychilus sp.) Creeks/rivers Local?/Regional Local?/Regional River clams (Unionidae) Major lakes/rivers Local Regional Large freshwater fish (Multiple species) Lakes/major rivers Local Regional Crocodile ( Crocodylus sp.) Lakes/major rivers Local Regional Giant musk turtle ( Staurotypus triporcatus ) Lakes/major rivers Local Regional C. American river turtle ( Dermatemys mawii ) Lakes/major rivers Local Regional Jaguar ( Panthera onca ) Mature/primary forest Regionalb Regionalb Brocket deer ( Mazama sp.) Mature/primary forest Regionalb Regionalb NOTES: aThis table only includes taxa that can be classified as either regional or exotic resources for at least one of the archaeological sites. bSpecies highly dependent on mature/primary rainforest are considered to be regional resources at both sites due to the likely conversion of primar y forest to agricultural l and or regenerating/secondary forest in areas surrounding pre-Hispanic settlements. 116

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Table 4-3. Taxa identified in the Late Classic Trinidad de Nosotros (Trinidad) and Motul de San Jos (Motul) zooarchaeologic al assemblages. Trinidad Motul Scientific name Common name NISP % NISP % Mollusca Mollusc 28 1.9 8 0.3 Gastropoda Gastropod 99 6.7 0.0 Bivalvia Bivalve 3 0.2 0.0 Mollusca (marine) Marine mollusc 12 0.8 12 0.5 Gastropoda (marine) Marine gastropod 2 0.1 8 0.3 Dentaliidae Tusk shell 2 0.1 2 0.1 Strombidae Conch 0.0 50 2.2 Strombus sp. Conch 7 0.5 1 0.0 Strombus alatus Fighting conch 0.0 1 0.0 Strombus gigas/costatus Queen/milk conch 0.0 0.0 Jenneria pustulata Pustulate cowrie 0.0 1 0.0 Olividae Olive shell 0.0 1 0.0 Oliva sp. Olive shell 10 0.7 0.0 Oliva sayana Lettered olive 1 0.1 2 0.1 Olivella sp. Dwarf olive 6 0.4 9 0.4 Olivella perplexa Dwarf olive 0.0 1 0.0 Olivella/Prunum sp. Dwarf olive/marginella 0.0 10 0.4 Prunum apicinum Marginella 1 0.1 2 0.1 Spondylus sp. Thorny oyster 1 0.1 6 0.3 Asaphis deflorata Gaudy sanguin 1 0.1 0.0 Pachychilus sp. Jute 2 0.1 0.0 Pachychilus glaphyrus Jute 6 0.4 5 0.2 Pachychilus indiorum Jute 98 6.7 29 1.2 Pomacea flagellata Apple snail 291 19.8 59 2.5 Unionidae River clam 80 5.5 5 0.2 Lampsilis sp. River clam 1 0.1 0.0 Psoronaias sp. River clam 1 0.1 136 5.9 Psoronaias semigranosus River clam 4 0.3 0.0 Decapoda Crab 2 0.1 0.0 Vertebrata Vertebrate 218 14.9 295 12.7 Rajiformes Stingray 0.0 1 0.0 Actinopterygii Fish 90 6.1 15 0.6 Atractosteus tropicus Tropical gar 3 0.2 0.0 Siluriformes Catfish 1 0.1 0.0 Rhamdia spp. Catfish 1 0.1 0.0 Synbranchidae Swamp eel 1 0.1 0.0 Cichlidae (2 especies) Cichlid 5 0.3 0.0 Cichlosoma sp. Cichlid 1 0.1 0.0 Petenia splendida Blanco 1 0.1 0.0 Bufo sp. Toad 0.0 1 0.0 Bufo/Rana sp. Frog/toad 3 0.2 2 0.1 117

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Table 4-3. Continued. Trinidad Motul Scientific name Common name NISP % NISP % Reptilia/Amphibia Reptile/amphibian 1 0.1 2 0.1 Reptilia Reptile 1 0.1 3 0.1 Crocodylus sp. Crocodile 0.0 5 0.2 Lacertilia Lizard 3 0.2 11 0.5 Iguanidae Iguana 0.0 1 0.0 Testudines Turtle 5 0.3 44 1.9 Testudines(medium/large) Turtle (medium/large) 3 0.2 0.0 Testudines (small/medium) Turtle (small/medium) 1 0.1 0.0 Kinosternidae Mud/musk turtle 4 0.3 6 0.3 Kinosternon sp. Mud turtle 3 0.2 0.0 Staurotypus triporcatus Giant musk turtle 2 0.1 7 0.3 Dermatemys mawii C. Am. river turtle 1 0.1 124 5.3 Emydidae Pond turtle 1 0.1 7 0.3 Rhinoclemmys areolata Furrowed wood turtle 2 0.1 0.0 Trachemys scripta Common slider turtle 6 0.4 8 0.3 Serpentes Snake 3 0.2 9 0.4 Aves Bird 1 0.1 6 0.3 Aves (large) Bird (e.g., turkey) 5 0.3 2 0.1 Aves (medium/large) Bird (e.g., duck, turkey) 0.0 1 0.0 Aves (medium) Bird (e.g., duck) 2 0.1 1 0.0 Aves (small/medium) Bird (e.g., duck, quail) 0.0 1 0.0 Aves (small) Bird (e.g., quail) 0.0 4 0.2 Galliformes Galliform bird 0.0 2 0.1 Meleagris sp. Turkey 3 0.2 5 0.2 Colinus sp. Quail 3 0.2 1 0.0 Passeriformes Perching bird 0.0 2 0.1 Mammalia Mammal 31 2.1 388 16.7 Mammalia (very large) Mammal (e.g., tapir) 4 0.3 3 0.1 Mammalia (large) Mammal (e.g., deer) 212 14.5 348 15.0 Mammalia (medium/large) Mammal (e.g., dog, deer) 49 3.3 62 2.7 Mammalia (medium) Mammal (e.g., dog) 16 1.1 177 7.6 Mammalia (small/medium) Mammal (e.g., rabbit, dog) 7 0.5 7 0.3 Mammalia (small) Mammal (e.g., rabbit) 13 0.9 27 1.2 Didelphidae Opossum 1 0.1 2 0.1 Didelphis sp. Opossum 4 0.3 7 0.3 Dasypodidae Armadillo 0.0 1 0.0 Dasypus novemcinctus Nine-lined armadillo 19 1.3 33 1.4 Rodentia Rodent 1 0.1 0.0 Sciuridae Squirrel 0.0 1 0.0 Sylvilagus sp. Rabbit 5 0.3 13 0.6 Orthogeomys hispidus Pocket gopher 1 0.1 1 0.0 118

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119 Table 4-3. Continued. Trinidad Motul Scientific name Common name NISP % NISP % Agouti/Dasyprocta sp. Paca/agouti 2 0.1 0.0 Agouti paca Paca 0.0 6 0.3 Dasyprocta punctata Agouti 2 0.1 4 0.2 Carnivora Carnivore 0.0 2 0.1 Bassariscus sumichrasti Cacomistle 2 0.1 0.0 Nasua narica Coati 1 0.1 0.0 Canidae Dog, coyote, fox 0.0 3 0.1 Canis sp. Dog, coyote 0.0 1 0.0 Canis lupus familiaris Domestic dog 11 0.7 34 1.5 Urocyon cinereoargenteus Fox 1 0.1 1 0.0 Felidae (large) Felid (e.g., jaguar) 0.0 6 0.3 Leopardus pardalis Ocelot 0.0 1 0.0 Panthera onca Jaguar 0.0 2 0.1 Puma concolor Puma 2 0.1 1 0.0 Artiodactyla Artiodactyl 0.0 1 0.0 Tayassuidae Peccary 7 0.5 8 0.3 Cervidae Deer 3 0.2 16 0.7 Mazama sp. Brocket deer 7 0.5 25 1.1 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer 34 2.3 229 9.9 Totals 1,467 100.0 2,324 100.0 Table 4-4. Distribution of Late Classic Trin idad and Motul faunal remains according to social status or rank. Trinidad de Nosotros: Motul de San Jos: Social Ranka NISP % NISPb NISP % NISPb Rank 1 977 83.0 1,626 82.3 Rank 2 147 12.5 274 12.1 Rank 3 53 4.5 111 5.6 a rank 1 = highest elite, rank 2 = sub-e lite/non-elite, rank 3 = commoner. Ranks represent intra-site hierarch ies that are not necessarily equivalent across sites. For example, rank 1 groups at Trinidad may be comparable to Motul rank 2 groups in terms of social status. b Percent of NISP classified per time period and rank (i.e., does not include remains not assigned to a chronological perio d or rank).

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Table 4-5. Late Classic bone and shell artifa cts from Motul and Trinidad according to production stage and type. Trinidad Trinidad Motul Motul NISP %NISPa NISP %NISPa Production stage: Production (debitage) 34 32 59 16 Finished 60 57 299 80 Unknown 11 11 16 4 Artifact type: Adornment/instrument 70 67 219 59 Utilitarian 17 16 90 24 Unknown 18 17 17 17 a Percent total number of ar tifacts per site (Trinidad n=105; Motul n= 374). Table 4-6. Late Classic bone and shell artifact s from the Motul polity sites listed by production stage and social rank. % NISP production (debitage) % NISP finished artifacts % NISP unknown production stage Trinidad de Nosotros: Rank 1 (n=93) 31 58 11 Rank 2 (n=4) 50 50 0 Rank 3 (n=8) 38 50 12 Motul de San Jos: Rank 1 (n=319) 15 80 5 Rank 2 (n=35) 23 77 0 Rank 3 (n=20) 15 85 0 120

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Figure 4-1. Map showing a) t he location of the Motul polity sites in relation to Lake Petn Itz, b) location of archaeologica l sites within the Motul de San Jos polity and region. Figure by Ellen Spensley (courtesy of the Motul de San Jos Archaeological Project). Reprint ed with permission from Foias, Antonia E. and Kitty F. Emery in press. Politics, History, and Economy at the Classic Maya Center of Motul de San Jos, Guatemala University of Florida Press, Gainesville. 121

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Figure 4-2. Map of major arch itectural groups at Trinidad de Nosotros showing density of zooarchaeological remains (with circ les). NISP: red circ les=300+, blue=50 300, green=<50. Map by Matt Moriarty (courtesy of the Motul de San Jos Archaeological Project). A dapted from Foias, Antonia E. and Kitty F. Emery in press. Politics, History, and Economy at the Classic Maya Center of Motul de San Jos, Guatemala University of Florida Press, Gainesville. 122

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123 Figure 4-3. Site map of Motul de San Jo s showing density of zooarchaeological remains (with circles). NISP: red ci rcles=300+, blue=50, green=<50. Map by Antonia Foias (courtesy of the Motul de San Jos Archaeological Project). Adapted from Foias, Antonia E. and Kitty F. Emery in press. Politics, History, and Economy at the Classic Maya Center of Motul de San Jos, Guatemala University of Florida Press, Gainesville.

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Fl o or 1 % Spial Desit 2% Other 8% Fill 11% Midden 67% 2 ec po Special Deposit 8% Floor 13% Other 11% Fill 26% Midden 42%Motul de S an Jos Trindad de Nosotros Figure 4-4. Distribution of Late Classic faunal remains from Trinidad and Motul according to cultural context. (Note: other category includes wall fall and unclass ified deposits). 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Trinidad de Nosotros (n=1117) Motul de San Jose (n=2021)% NISP Marine Mollusc Freshwater Mollusc Fish Reptile Bird Mammal Figure 4-5. Taxonomic class representation in the Trinidad and Motul assemblages. 124

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0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 Trinidad de NosotrosMotul de San JosePercent (%) NISP Figure 4-6. Percent marine resources at Trinidad and Motul. Error bars show 95% confidence interval. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14Deer/ PeccaryDog FelidGalliform BirdCA River TurtleRiver Clam% NISP Trinidad Motul82% wtd 67% wtd Figure 4-7. Relative percent NISP of ceremo nial, high status and potentially non-local regional resources at Trin idad and Motul. The percent of white-tailed deer (wtd) within the deer/peccary ca tegory is noted above the bars. 125

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0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%TRI Rank 1 (n=737) TRI Rank 2 (n=128) TRI Rank 3 (n=53) MSJ Rank 1 (n=1626) MSJ Rank 2 (n=274) MSJ Rank 3 (n=111)Percent (%) NIS P Marine Mollusc Freshwater Mollusc Fish Reptile Bird Mammal Figure 4-8. Comparison of animal use at Trinidad (TRI) and Motul (MSJ) according to social status (rank 1 = highest elite, r ank 2 = sub-elite/n on-elite, rank 3 = commoner). Distribution calculated as percent of site NISP identified to taxonomic class of lower. Note: ranks r epresent intra-site hi erarchies that are not necessarily equivalent across site s. For example, rank 1 groups at Trinidad may be comparable to Motul rank 2 groups in terms of social status. 126

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0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18Deer/PeccaryDogFelidsGalliform BirdsCA River Turtle All TurtleRiver Clam% NIS P Rank 1 Rank 2 Rank 3 70% wtd 25% wtd Figure 4-9. Distribution of pref erred and regional taxa at Trin idad de Nosotros according to social rank/status. The percent of white-tailed deer (wtd) within the artiodactyl category (deer/peccary) is listed above the bars. -2.0 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0TRI Rank 1 (n=977) TRI Rank 2 (n=147) TRI Rank 3 (n=53) MSJ Rank 1 (n=1913) MSJ Rank 2 (n=281) MSJ Rank 3 (n=130)Percent (%) NIS P Figure 4-10. Distribution of marine taxa by so cial rank at Trinidad (TRI) and Motul (MSJ) calculated as percent of NISP per rank within each site. Bars indicate 95% confidence interval. 127

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-6-4-2024681012 Observed/Expected RatioAnatomical region MSJ rank 1 MSJ rank 2 MSJ rank 3 TRI rank 1Cranial A xial Forelimb Hindlimb Distal over-represented under-represented Figure 4-11. White-tailed deer skeletal elem ent distribution by anatomical region. Positive values are anatomical regions over-represented in the sample, while negative values are under-represented r egions. Values falling within the dashed box are not statistically significant. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16Deer/PeccaryDogFelidsGalliform Birds CA River Turtle All TurtleRiver Clam% NIS P Rank 1 Rank 2 Rank 3 83 % wt d 84 % wtd 58 % wtd Figure 4-12. Distribution of pr eferred and regional taxa at Motul de San Jos according to social rank/status. The percent of white-tailed deer (wtd) within the artiodactyl category (deer/pecca ry) is listed above the bars. 128

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0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% TRI Production (n=34) TRI Finished (n=60) MSJ Production (n=59) MSJ Finished (n=299)% NISP Freshwater shell Marine shell Bone Figure 4-13. Late Classic bone and shell artifa cts by production stage and material. TRI = Trinidad, MSJ = Motul. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Rank 1 production (n=29) Rank 1 finished (n=54) Rank 2 production (n=2) Rank 2 finished (n=2) Rank 3 production (n=3) Rank 3 finished (n=4)% NISP Freshwater shell Marine shell Bone Figure 4-14. Trinidad de Nosotros Late Cla ssic bone and shell debitage and finished artifacts by social rank/status. 129

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130 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Rank 1 production (n=48) Rank 1 finished (n=255) Rank 2 production (n=8) Rank 2 finished (n=27) Rank 3 production (n=3) Rank 3 finished (n=17)% NISP Freshwater shell Marine shell Bone Figure 4-15. Motul de San Jos Late Cla ssic bone and shell debitage and finished artifacts by social rank/status.

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CHA PTER 5 ANIMAL RESOURCE ECONOMY AND EXCHANGE IN THE PASIN REGION: ZOOARCHAEOLOGICAL RESUSLTS FROM CANCUEN AND THE PETEXBATUN In this chapter I evaluate animal resour ce economy and exchange at a regional scale through interand intra-site comparisons of Late Classic settlements located along the Pasin River system in southwestern Petn, Guatemala (Figure 5-1). During the Classic Period, the Pasin River served as a major trade and transportation route connecting the volcanic highlands to the tropical lowlands. The locations of many of the regions settlements are thought to be related to use of the river as a major economic thoroughfare (Demarest 2006:27). In particular, t he site of Cancuen is located only 8 km from the foothills of the Maya highlands, an d near the start of wh ere the Pasin River becomes navigable by canoe. The site is therefore ideally situated to participate in, or control the movement of re sources along this major trans portation route. Important commodities moving through this corridor are suggested to have included highland resources such as obsidian, jade, basalt, and quetzal feathers, as well as lowland resources including salt, cacao, animal pel ts, and marine shells harvested from both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts (Andrews 1983; Arnauld 1990; Demarest 2006:134; Feldman 1974; Hammond 1972; Hammond et al. 1977; Kovacevich 2006; McKillop 2002; Moholy-Nagy 1985). During the Late Classic, Cancuen is thought to have become a part of the Petexbatun polity located downriver. Canc uens strong economic, social and political connections to the Petexbatun may hav e been forged through military conquest, intermarriage, or both (Demarest 2006:13; Wo lley and Wright 1990). During the Late Classic, the core of the Pe texbatun polity included the twin capitals of Dos Pilas and Aguateca, as well as several smaller secon dary and tertiary settlements (Figure 5-1). 131

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Comparativ e analysis of the Petexbatun polity zooarchaeolog ical assemblages thus provide an opportunity to assess differences in animal resource acquisition, production, consumption and exchange within a regional hierarchy of sites located in the Pasin region, an economically active area of the Maya lowlands. The goal of this comparative regional zooarchaeological analysis is: 1) to determine how faunal resources circulated through local, regional and long-distance economic networks within the Pa sin region, and 2) to assess the degree of elite control over the differential access to various faunal resources both within and across the Petexbatun polity sites. I use broad inter-sit e comparisons among the Pasin River sites to assess variation in animal use and procurem ent at a regional scale Specific attention is paid to evaluating how site size, status and location determined access to preferred animal goods, and animal resources likely obtained through regional and long-distance exchange networks. Cancuens pr oposed role as a trade center is also evaluated in terms of its access to non-loca l animal resources in comparison to other regional sites. Within each site, I further assess the differential access to faunal resources according to social rank. This allows for an analysis of how elite demand for particular resources might have influenced resource procurement strategies and exchange. Production and consumption of bone and shell artifacts is also considered to understand how animal remains circulated through the economy as raw material for artifact production, and as finished utilitarian and non-utilitarian items. Site Descriptions and Environmental Setting Cancuen Recent excavation of Cancuen wa s conducted by the Cancuen Regional Archaeological Project co-directed by Art hur Demarest (Vanderbilt University) and 132

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Toms Barrientos (Universidad del Valle, Guatemala). Extens ive ex cavations began in 1999 and are on-going. The zooarchaeological re mains analyzed in this study were recovered between 1999 and 2006. Although Cancuen lies in close proximit y to the cooler and mountainous Maya highlands, the site is situated fully within the low elevation tropical forests characteristic of the most of the Maya lowlands. The si te is located on a peninsula surrounded by the Pasin River on three sides. Several ports ha ve been identified along the sites eastern and western borders with the Pasi n River. These natural gullies extending into the site provided ideal locations where watercraft could be docked and loaded or unloaded. Although no formal dock features have been i dentified, one of Canc uens principle ports is connected to the sites palace via a sacbe, or raised causeway, suggesting that this area served as the primary gateway in to the sites ceremonial core. Ceramic and epigraphic evidence indicate that the site had a relatively short occupation history limit ed primarily to the Late Classic Period (A.D. 650) (Table 51) (Demarest 1999, 2004). Cancuen was founded circa A.D. 656 under the sponsorship of the lowland capital of Calakmul (Demar est et al. 2006). Strong ties with Dos Pilas were later forged through the marriage of a high ranking woman from Cancuen to Dos Pilass Ruler 3, who held power from A.D. 727-740. Their son (Ruler 4) would govern Dos Pilas from A.D. 741 until the sites defeat in ~A.D. 761. This familial connection would have integrated Cancuen with the core of the Petexbatun polity during this time. However, the majority of the sites major architectural co mplexes date to the between A.D. 750 during the reigns of Canc uen rulers Taj Chan Ahk and Kan Maax (Barrientos and Demarest 2007). This post-dat es Cancuens strong connections to the 133

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Dos Pilas. Cancuens short apogee ended around A.D. 830 when the site was attacked and then abandoned. The violent end of Cancuens power is marked by the hasty burial of the sites final ruler, and the dumping of over 20 dismembered bodies, pos sibly belonging to the royal court, in a ritual pool in front of the sites palace (Barrientos 2008; Barrientos and Demarest 2007). Evidence for later occupation of the site is limited to a few scattered Terminal Classic (A.D. 830) households (Demarest, personal communication). Cancuens monumental core is dominat ed by a large royal palace and other associated buildings, which likely served ce remonial and administrative, as well as residential purposes (Figure 5-2). A stone and stucco-lined pool was constructed directly in front of the sout hern entrance to the royal palace. The pool is spring-fed, and although it could have served as a source of fresh water from the palace inhabitants, the feature was also used for ceremonial pu rposes (Barrientos 2008). The palace pool contained large quantities of both human and animal bone, as well as high status artifacts including jade and spondylus beads, polychrome plates, and part of a carved alabaster vessel incised with glyphs. Outside the ceremonial core are numerous residential groups of varying social status. Jade, obsidian and pyrite workshops have been identified in several of these residential units. Detailed analysis of Canc uens jade and pyrite workshops revealed that lower status households were involved in the initial stages of production, while the final stages of production as well as the ultima te consumption of the finished artifacts, was limited to more elite members of societ y (Kovacevich 2006). In addition to the sites involvement in trade networks, Cancuns economic prosperity and power therefore 134

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may have also been based on craft specializati on in the production of jade, pyrite and obsidian artifacts (Kovacevich et al. 2002; Kovacevich et al. 2001). Petexbatu n Sites Sites of the Petexbatun region are clustered along a western tributary of the Pasin River (Figure 5-1). The zooarchaeol ogical remains reported in this analysis come from excavations conducted by the Petexbatun Regional Ar chaeological Project (PRAP) co-directed by Arthur Demare st and Stephen Houston between 1989 and 1990 and Demarest and Juan Antonio Valds between 1991 and 1996 (Demarest 2006). Project members excavated major settlem ents including Dos Pilas, Aguateca, Tamarindito, and Arroyo de Piedra, as well as minor settlements such as Quim Chi Hilan and Bayak. Zooarchaeological remains fr om all of these sites are considered except Punta de Chimino and Bayak, wh ich did not yield adequate Late Classic zooarchaeological assemblages. The zooar chaeological remains were identified and analyzed by Kitty Emery (1997, 2010). Although settlement in the Petexbatun dat es back to the Preclassic (Table 5-1), the region peaked in political and economic power during the Late Classic (Demarest 2006), following the founding of Dos Pilas around A.D. 625 by the rulers of Tikal (Houston 1993). During the Late Classic, Dos Pilas served as the primary regional capital within the Petexbatun polity. Dos Pila s is the largest site within the Petexbatun region, and also contains the greatest num ber of carved monuments and large temple pyramid complexes (Palka 1995:83). The site was excavated by PRAP personnel under the supervision of Joel Palka (Palka 1995, 1997). Although most of the Petexbatun sites are situated on high escarpment s adjacent to the regions waterways, Dos Pilas is several kilometers removed from the Pete xbatun River. Freshwater at the site is 135

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provided by two natural springs, and the site is bordered to the southwest by an area of seasonal swamps (Emery 2010:83). Soil and botanical research has shown that the landscape surrounding Dos Pilas has poor agricultural potential, leading to the suggestion that the sites residents relied he avily on food stuffs acquired through trade and tribute payments (Dunning et al. 1997). Dos Pilas shared political power with the major site of Aguateca during the Late Classic and particularly during the latest phas e of this period. Aguateca is located southwest of Dos Pilas, and near the edge of a high escarpment overlooking the Petexbatun River. The site is bisected by a narrow, but deep natural limestone crevasse or grieta. Most of the sites elite and monumental architecture was constructed between the escarpment and the grieta, sugges ting that these featur es functioned as a system of natural defenses (Inomata 1995:48) Although Aguateca is classified as a major or primary center within the Petexbat un region, it has fewer major temples or pyramids in comparison to Dos Pilas. Instead monumental architecture within the sites ceremonial core primarily consists of palace structures and e lite residential groups (Inomata 1995). After the fall of Dos Pilas (ca. A.D. 760), Aguateca may have served as final refuge of the polity s royal elite (Houston and Mathews 1985). An extensive system of defensive walls was constructed around por tions of Aguateca ne ar the end of the Late Classic after the collapse of Dos Pilas. Despite these efforts, the site was catastrophically burned and then rapi dly abandoned around A. D. 800 (Inomata 2008). The faunal remains evaluated here resulted from excavations at Aguateca supervised by Takeshi Inomat a under the auspices of the larger Petexbatun Regional Archaeological Project (Inom ata 1997, 2008). Inomata and co-directors Triadan, 136

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Aoyama, Ponciano, and Pinto continued this work under the Aguateca Archaeology Project until 2005 (Ponciano et al. 2005), but remains from the later work are not included in this study. Prior to the Late Classic expansion of Do s Pilas and Aguateca, political power in the Petexbatun was centered at Tamarindito and Arroyo de Piedra. The larger site of Tamarindito is located 6 km west of the Petexbatun River, but only 1 km from Lake Tamarindito. Arroyo de Piedra is located fart her inland, and only 3 km east of Dos Pilas. These two slightly smaller settlements served as twin regional capitals during the Early Classic. At the beginning of the Late Classic, they transferred alliance to Dos Pilas and became secondary centers within the Petexbatun polity. This political situation lasted until the ruler of Tamarindito/Arroyo de Pi edra conquered and exiled the final ruler of Dos Pilas, ending the sites power in the region (Houston and Mathews 1985). The small residential site of Quim Ch i Hilan is located on the Petexbatun escarpment, just west of w here the river broadens out to form Lake Petexbatun. The Late Classic residential groups at this site likely housed middle to low status agriculturalists (Van Tuerenhout 1996). The site may have had economic ties with the larger site of Aguateca, which lies only 1.5 km to the south. Fiel d excavation of Quim Chi Hilan was led by Dirk Van Tuerenhout (Van Tuerenhout 1996). As seen at Cancuen, the late Late Classi c (A.D. 760) in the Petexbatun is marked by violence, rapid site abandonm ent and political upheaval (Demarest 2006). Despite the construction of defensive walls at Dos Pilas, Aguateca and Quim Chi Hilan (Inomata 1997; Palka 1995; Van Tuerenhout 1996), major settlement in the region came to an end around A.D. 830 (Demarest 2006; Foias 1996). Minor occupations were 137

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maintained at Dos Pilas, Tamarindito, and A rroyo de Piedra, but Punta de Chimino was the only major Terminal Class ic settlement in the Petexbatun. Local Habitats and Species Availability The Pason region of southern Petn, Guatemala is ge ographically delimited by the Salinas and Usumacinta rivers to the west, the foothills of the Maya highlands to the south, and Mopan Maya hills to the east. Th is area represents the southernmost portion of the area commonly referred to as the Maya lowlands. The regions two major rivers, the Pasin and Salinas, both dr ain into the larger Usumacinta River, which flows northwest to the Gulf of Mexi co. The Petexbatun River, which or iginates near the site of Aguateca, is a tributary of the Pasin. Along its course, the Petexbatun widens out to form Lake Petexbatun. Several smaller lakes ar e located east and west of the river, with the largest of these being Lake Tamarindi to. Seasonal and perennial wetlands extend along portions of the rivers shorelines (Figure 5-3). Besides serving as major trade and transpor tation routes, the lakes and rivers of the Pasin region provided im portant animal resources such as turtles, fish and shellfish. Species that favo r large or fast-moving river systems such as the Pasin and Petexbatun include crocodiles ( Crocodylus sp.), the Central American river turtle ( Dermatemys mawii), the giant musk turtle ( Staurotypus triporcatus ), jute ( Pachychilus sp.) and freshwater clams belonging to the family Unionidae (e.g., Nephronaias sp., Psoronaias sp.) (Goodrich and van der Schalie 1937; Lee 2000). Wetlands and slower moving portions of the lakes and rivers could have provided additional species of turtle, as well as apple snails ( Pomacea sp.), and fauna that favor sh oreline habitats such as iguana ( Iguana iguana ), tapir ( Tapirus bairdii ) and wading birds. 138

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Terrestrial habitats surrounding Cancuen and the Petexbatun sites were likely a mixture of agricultural fields ( milp as ) and secondary or regenerating forest. Mature, or primary, forest was also likely present in the region, but it may have been located relatively far away from human settlements. Species that preferentially inhabit mature tropical forest include the jaguar ( Panthera onca ), brocket deer ( Mazama sp.), whitelipped peccary ( Tayassu pecari ), agouti ( Dasyprocta punctata ), howler monkey ( Alouatta pigra ), spider monkey ( Ateles geoffroyi ), grison ( Galictis vittata ), great curassow ( Crax rubra ), and macaw ( Ara macao ). The conversion of mature tropical forest to agricultural fields, gardens, and human occupation areas may have caused these species to be very rare near sites of human occupation. Acquiring these taxa may therefore have required trade connections, or extended hunting trip s to less populated areas of the region. Species that thrive in secondary forest or disturbed habitats, such as white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ), opossum ( Didelphis marsupialis/virginianus ), and armadillo ( Dasypus novemcinctus ) (Emmons 1990; Reid 1997) were likely more abundant in terrestri al habitats immediately surrounding the Pasin region sites. Although hunting pressure could have caused local scarcity in preferred prey, previous zooarchaeological res earch indicates relative stability in prey availability in the region ov er time (Emery 2007b, 2010). The Pasin region sites considered in this st udy vary primarily in their proximity to major riverine and lacustrine resources. Although none of the sites are located more than ~10 km from a major waterway, the site s can be classified as either inland or riverine settlements (Emery 2010:89). Dos Pilas is the site located farthest from major rivers or lakes, followed by Arroyo de Piedra and Tamarindito. The riverine sites of 139

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Cancuen, Aguateca and Quim Ch i Hilan are all located in cl ose proximity to shorelines of either the Pasin or Petexbatun River. In terms of faunal resour ce availability, the riverine sites would have had greater access to major riverine f auna including fish, crocodiles, the Central American river turt le, and freshwater clams. Residents of Dos Pilas and Arroyo de Piedra would have had to travel farther for these resources, or obtain them through ex change with other communities. Fr eshwater clams, which are primarily found in fast-moving rivers (Goodrich and van der Schalie 1937) would also be more difficult to obtain for residents of Tamarindito. Howeve r, the sites proximity to Lake Tamarindito could have provided local a ccess to other important aquatic resources such as crocodiles, apple snails, and large turtles (e.g., Dermatemys mawii, Staurotypus triporcatus, and Trachemys scripta ). The presence of a small stream near Arroyo de Piedra, and both a small stream and an area of seasonal wetlands near Dos Pilas means that certain aquatic species w ould have been locally available at these inland sites. Species favoring such smalle r aquatic habitats include apple snails, and mud/musk turtles ( Kinosternon sp.). Table 5-2 summarizes which common fauna were available at each study site at lo cal, regional and inter-regional scales. Results Sample Descriptions and Comparability Regional comparison of zooarchaeological assemblages may be complicated by differences in sample size, recovery or excavation procedures, and site taphonomy or preservation (Emery 2004b; 2010:33). Some of this variation is controlled by the fact that a single archaeologist (Arthur Demarest) directed excavations at all of the sites considered in this analysis. Similar recovery methods were employed at all sites, and excavation focused on uncovering a broad spec trum of contexts including residential 140

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and non-residentia l structures of both high and low status. However, it is still necessary to evaluate assemblage characteristics to identify how they may influence sample interpretations. In particular, it is useful to consider sample size, preservation, and the distribution of faunal remains across functional deposit types. The Cancuen faunal assemblage contains 3545 specimens, while the combined Late Classic Petexbatun sample contains 4778 specimens spread across five sites. The largest samples from the Petextatun come from Aguateca (NISP=2981) and Dos Pilas (NISP=1103). Much smaller samples were recovered from Tama rindito (NISP=355), Arroyo de Piedra (NISP=238) and Quim Chi Hilan (NISP=101). Since the sites considered in this study vary in spatial ex tent and population size, the absolute size of the faunal assemblages cannot be used as a m easure of sample preservation. Instead, assemblage preservation may be indirectly assessed through the proportion of remains identified below the level of taxonomic class. In general, the poorer the preservation, the greater number of remains ident ified to higher taxonomic categories such as Mammalia or Vertebrata. Between 24 and 68% of the remains from the Pasin region sites were identified to the level of ta xonomic class or above (Table 5-3). This range is typical for non-coastal, lowland Maya sites where preservation is generally poor (e.g., Emery et al. in press; Thornton in press; Thornton and Emery in press). Arroyo de Piedra has the greatest proportion of remains only identifiabl e to class or above. A large portion (63% of total site NISP) is co mposed of highly fragmented, unidentifiable mammal bones. Since the density of faunal remains (NISP/num ber of excavation units) at Arroyo de Piedra is not significantly lower than at other Petexbatun sites, the low identifiability of 141

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the assemblage may be due to pre-depositi onal factors such as intentional bone breakage rather than post-depos itiona l preservation (Emery 2010:69). The Pasin region assemblages also differ in the types of archaeological contexts they represent. Of particular concern is t he proportion of faunal remains recovered from burials since these often contain more high status and non-diet ary faunal remains (Beaubien 2004; Emery 2003b; Emery and Thornton 2008; Masson 1999; Teeter 2004). A larger portion of the faunal assemblages from Dos Pi las (25%), Quim Chi Hilan (17%), and Cancuen (11%) come from human burials (Table 5-4). At Dos Pilas and Cancuen, faunal samples from human burials are primarily distinguished by their greater numbers of marine shel l. In contrast, burials at Quim Chi Hilan contain few faunal remains, and similar taxa are present in both burial and non-burial deposits. Petexbatun faunal remains not from burials were primarily recovered from residential contexts (>92% of non-burial NISP at each site). At Dos Pilas, a large percentage (56%) of the residential remains comes from a high elite (rank 1) complex known as the Bat Palace group, which served as the sites political center in the period prior to its collapse (A.D. 725-761) (Demarest 2006). Smaller quantities of remains were recovered from other residential groups of vary ing status located across the site (rank 1 = 9%, rank 2 = 8%, rank 3 = 19%). The Aguateca zooarchaeological assemblage was primarily recovered from elite residences located along a causeway connecting the sites royal palace and main plaza (NISP= 90%). The three causeway residences with the most faunal remains are M8-10 (House of the Scribe, NISP=59%); M8-11 (16.0%) and M7-35 (House of the Niches, 8.5%). Rapi d abandonment of thes e elite residences left evidence of food production as well as cra fting activities (e.g., weaving, scribing, 142

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lithic, bone and shell working) (Emery and Aoyama 200 7; Inomata and Stiver 1998). Other elite residential groups within the sites epicenter (Granada Group, 2.2%), as well as more peripheral, lower ranking groups (5.3 %) yielded small quantit ies of remains. At the smaller sites of Tamarindito (74.3%) and Arroyo de Piedra (89. 1%), most the Late Classic remains were again recovered from elite residential gr oups. Non-residential temple or ceremonial mounds in the sites main plazas yielded few remains (~7% per site). Archaeologists recover ed faunal material from non-elit e (rank 3) residential groups at Tamarindito (16.6%), but there are very fe w remains (1.7%) from non-elite contexts at Arroyo de Piedra. The smallest Petexbatun si te included in this study, Quim Chi Hilan, does not contain any elite ceremonial or residential architecture. Consequently, all faunal remains come from middle or low status residential groups. More detailed provenience descriptions for the Petexbatun sa mples are available in other publications (Emery 1997, 2010). Excavation in and around Cancuens substantial royal palace produced a large proportion of the sites zooarchaeological assemblage (47.7%). Faunal remains were especially numerous in the stone-lined pool built at the base of the palaces south entrance (NISP=918, 54.5% of palace NISP). A burial cont aining the remains of Kan Maax, Cancuens last known ruler, also cont ributed a significant po rtion of the palace faunal sample (18.1%). Nearly all of the re mains from Kan Maaxs burial are fragments of a large marine and freshwater shell mo saic headdress (Barrientos et al. 2006). An elite plaza group (M9) connected to the palace precinct via a sacbe also yielded relatively large quantities of faunal rema ins (NISP=709, 20.0%). This elite group contains a small palace (M9-1, rank 1) and several slightly less elaborate (rank 2) 143

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residential structures. Re sidents of this group were actively engaged in crafting of jade, chert, obsidian, bone and possibly bark paper (Jackso n 2003). To the north of Group M9, is a cluster of lower status (rank 3) residences and workshops (Group M10). Excavation of this group uncovered a subst antial number of faunal remains (NISP=358, 10.1%) found in association with jade, c hert and pyrite artifact production debitage (Kovacevich 2006). Similar rank 3 residentia l groups with evidence of lithic craft production are located south of the palace (Group M6, 3.1%; Groups K6 and K7, 1.8%). Other contexts containing sm aller quantities of faunal rema ins include the sites three ballcourts (3.2%), Cancuens primary port (3.1%), the North Plaza (2.0%), and a termination ritual deposit on top of a high elite (rank 1) residence (structure N10, 3.4%). Fewer than 50 fragments (<1.5%) were found in other residential groups located across the site (Groups K8, K9 L6, L8, L9, N10, and N11). Taxonomic Composition The Cancuen and Petexbatun faunal assemblages contain a total of 64 taxa spread across ten classes (Mammalia, Av es, Reptilia, Amphibia, Actinopterygii, Chondrichthyes, Malacostraca, Bivalvia, Gastropoda and Scaphopoda (Table 5-5, Appendix A). The fauna are typical of those found at other lowland, non-coastal Maya sites. The samples include animals and animal products likely used as food, pets, hunting companions, ceremonial items, tools, medici nes, adornments and status symbols (Emery 2000; 2010:58-65). The most common taxa identified in the assemblages are briefly reviewed in taxono mic order beginning wit h the invertebrates. Nearly all of the invertebrate taxa in the Late Classic Pasin region samples are either freshwater or marine mollu scs. The freshwater molluscs include riverine/lacustrine clams, and gastropods such as jute and apple snail. All of these 144

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species were consumed by the ancient Maya, but they were also used as ceremonial items in burials and caches, and freshwater cl am shells were frequently modified into adornments (Emery 1989; Harrigan 2004; Healy et al. 1990; Moholy-Nagy 1978; Powis 2004). Apple snails were found at all sites except Arroyo de Piedra, while jute were only present at the major riverine sites of Aguatec a and Cancuen. At Aguatec a, all of the jute (NISP=82) were butchered (i.e ., with the spires snapped off) and deposited in a single location within the elite residence known as the House of the Scribe. Jute from Cancuen were both whole and butchered, and they we re present in both residential and nonresidential contexts. Freshwater clams were identified in all assemblages. Shells of these species were found in all types of cont exts, including burials where they usually appear as whole, unmodified shells, or carv ed adornments. At Cancuen, whole clam shells were also used as construction fill within the sites architectural core. A diverse suite of non-local marine molluscs was also used at the sites. All of the molluscs are Atlantic coast species, except Oliva porphyria which comes from the Pacific. Spondylus or thorny oyster ( Spondylus sp.) was the most highly valued ceremonial mollusc among the ancient Maya, and several species are found along both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of Central America. Its va lue likely stemmed from its colorful appearance, as well as its the ef fort required to obtai n it. Although spondylus shells can be found washed up on beaches, uneroded specimens with intact spines can only be acquired through offshore diving. However, it was not possible in most cases to identify spondylus shells to the species level. Species-level identific ation of spondylus is often hindered by artifactual modification of the shells, which may obliterate diagnostic features. Olive ( Oliva sp., Olivella sp.) and marginella ( Prunum apicinum ) shells used as 145

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decorative tinklers attached to clothing or other textiles were also common in the samples. Various artifacts were also m ade from the thick, non-nacreous shells of conchs, while the shells of other species were used as beads (e.g., Dentaliidae, Trivia sp.), paint pots ( Xancus angulatus ) and mosaic pieces (e.g., Spondylus sp.). As at most inland Maya sites, the majori ty of marine shells in the Pasin region samples were artifactually modified, but whole, unmodified shells ( Noetia ponderosa, Mercenaria sp., Spondylus sp.) were also placed in buria l and other ceremonial deposits. As at most inland Maya si tes, remains of bony and cart ilaginous marine fish were less common than those of marine shellfish. Stingray tail spines are the only examples of marine fish found in the Pasin regi on assemblages. Small numbers of stingray spines were found exclusively in burials at Dos Pilas and Tamarindito, and in a possible shrine structure (M8-17) at Aguateca (Inomata 1997). These im portant ceremonial items were likely used in bloodletting or self-mu tilation ceremonies (Borhegyi 1961; Tozzer 1941). With the exception of the tropical gar ( Atractosteus tropicus ), all bony fish in the samples were identified to the level of ta xonomic class (Actinopterygii). It is possible that some of these remains are marine fish, but based on their size, Emery feels it is more likely that they represent local freshwater species such as cichlids (Cichlidae) and catfish (Ictaluridae). Despite the abundant freshw ater habitats in the Pasin region, fish remains are uncommon in the assemblages. This could be due to differential preservation, recovery procedures (Gor don 1993; James 1997; Masson 2004; Shaffer 1992), or ancient disposal prac tices (Emery and Brown 2008). The presence of amphibians and aquatic reptiles in the assemblages provides evidence for extensive use of the regions aquatic habitats. Several species of large146

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and smallbodied turtles dominate the reptilian assemblages from all sites. The giant Central American river turtle is the most comm on turtle in the samples. The ubiquity of the Central American river turtle may be due to the use of this very large-bodied species as a favored elite dietary resource. Other less common species include small mud/musk turtles, common slider ( Trachemys scripta ), giant musk turtle, and furrowed wood turtle ( Rhinoclemmys areolata ). Besides their value as a meat source, turtles also provided bony carapaces that were used as musical instruments, and cont ainers. The Cancuen palace pool contains at least three examples of turtle shell drums or rattles. Less common reptiles identified in the sample s include crocodile, snake (Serpentes) and iguana. Most of the crocodile remains we re perforated teeth worn as pendants or attached to clothing. The small numbers of amphibians found at the sites are all frogs and toads, many of which may be intr usive rather than archaeological. Despite a great diversity of avian species in the Maya region, birds were rare in the Cancuen and Petexbatun assemblages. However, birds may be under-represented in the samples due to fragile nature of many of their skeletal elements. Nearly all of the identified bird specimens come from large-bodied species such as turkeys ( Meleagris sp.) and curassows. These were favored game birds during Precolumbian times, but they were also used as sacrificial victim s and ceremonial offerings (Aguilera 1983; Tozzer and Allen 1910). Quails ( Colinus sp.), which are common inclusions in Maya burials and caches, were also f ound in royal tombs at Dos Pilas. Eighteen species of mammal were identified in the Pasin region assemblages. The most common taxa were white-tailed de er, brocket deer, peccary (Tayassuidae), and domestic dog ( Canis lupus familiaris ). These species served as important sources 147

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of meat, but they were also valued as ce remonial items and sacrificial victims (Tozzer 1941; Tozzer and Allen 1910; White et al 2001b, 2004). In te rms of secondary products, the sharp canines of peccaries and dogs were used as pendants, while deer antlers and long bones were modified into ut ilitarian tools and adornments. Tapir, as well as small-bodied game species including opossum, armadillo, paca ( Agouti paca ), and agouti were less common. The regions la rger sites (Dos Pilas, Aguateca, Cancuen) also contained remains of lar ge and medium-bodied spotted felids (jaguar and ocelot: Leopardus pardalis ). The hides and teeth of t hese species were important status symbols among the ancient Maya, and their remains are often found in elite tombs and caches. Mammals identified in trac e amounts (NISP<5) at only a few of the study sites include howler monkey, rabbit ( Sylvilagus sp.), squirrel (Sciuridae), coati ( Nasua narica ), raccoon ( Procyon lotor ), and fox ( Urocyon cinereoargenteus ). Inter-site Comparisons: Species and Habitat Use Late Classic residents of Cancuen and t he Petexbatun used a common set of vertebrate and invertebrate taxa. However, the settlements differ in their broad patterns of animal and habitat use. Mammals dominate t he assemblages from the farthest inland sites of Dos Pilas and Arroyo de Piedra (Figur e 5-4). Reptiles (primar ily turtles), and to a lesser extent freshwater molluscs, form a greater percentage of samples from the riverine sites of Aguateca and Cancuen and t he near-lacustrine site of Tamarindito. Although Quim Chi Hilan is also located on the river, turtles are rare Instead, freshwater molluscs compose the majority of faunal remains at this site. According to habitat fidelity values tallied for each zooarchaeological as semblage, the sites closest to major lakes and rivers contain greater percentages of aquatic taxa (riverine/lacustrine and wetland) than more inland sites (Figure 5-5). Between t he inland sites, Dos Pilas contains more 148

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wetland and riverine/lacustine fauna, such as turtles a nd freshwater molluscs, than Arroyo de Piedra. The difference in riverine/lacustrine habitat use between the two inland sites is greater than the difference in wetland use. Overall, the Pasin region zooarchaeological assemblages largely reflect local habitats located in close proximity (<3 km) to each site. A high correlation between the Petexbatun zooarchaeological assemblages and local availability of aquatic/s emi-aquatic habitats was also reported in Emerys previous analysis (Emery 2010:115). The sites also differ in their access to, and use of, particular dietary, ceremonial and craft production resources. The riverine/lacustrine sites use a diversity of freshwater mollusc species including apple snail, jute and clam, while nearly all (>94%) of the freshwater molluscs at Dos Pilas and Arroyo de Piedra are clams (T able 5-6). A greater proportion of the clam shells at inland sites are also artifactually modified. Access to favored dietary and ceremonial taxa includ ing the Central American river turtle, domestic dog, turkey, felid (jaguar, ocelot), and artiodactyl (deer and peccary) also varies across sites (Figure 5-6). Large site s located close to major water bodies (Aguateca, Cancuen and Tamarindito) used more Central American river turtle than farther inland sites. Despite Quim Chi Hilans location next to the Petexbatun River, this small, non-elite site did not contain any remains of this species. The residents of Dos Pilas and Arroyo de Piedra used the regi onally-available, but non-local Central American river turtle in roughly equal proportions. Unlike riverine sites, which contained both limb and carapace skeletal elements, the Central American river turtle was only represented by carapace/plastron fragments at inland sites. Major ceremonial taxa including dogs and felids are most common at the regions twin capitals of Dos Pilas 149

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and Aguateca. Dogs are also fairly common at Cancuen, where alm ost half (49.0%) of the dog remains come from subadult indivi duals likely sacrificed and then deposited in the palace pool. Smaller quantities of dogs are found at Tamarindito, Arroyo de Piedra and Quim Chi Hilan. Felids are more limited in their distribution across sites, with most of the felid remains being found at Dos P ilas and Aguateca. Smaller quantities were also found at Cancuen and Tamarindito, but felid remains from these sites also include the much smaller-bodied ocelot in addition to jaguar. Galliform birds (turkey, curassow, quail) are most common at Ta marindito, with small numbers found at all other regional sites except Quim Chi Hilan. Sites within t he regional hierarchy are also expected to differ in their use of large-bodied artiodacty ls (e.g., deer and peccary). Although they served as favored dietary and ceremonial resources, artiodactyls are less common at the regions largest capital sites. This could be due to the greater use of other species such as dogs and felids at Dos Pilas and larg e turtles at Aguateca. Artiodactyls were more common at Cancuen, Arroyo de Pied ra and Tamarindito, but no artiodactyl remains were recovered from the regions smallest and lowest ranking settlement, Quim Chi Hilan. However, the distri bution of artiodactyl taxa within each site reveals that Dos Pilas, followed by Aguateca and Cancuen had greater access to white-tailed deer (Figure 5-7). In contrast, a greater percentage of the arti odactyls at Arroyo de Piedra and Tamarindito come from brocket deer and peccary. Exotic marine resources obtained thr ough long-distance exchange are more common and more diverse at the regions lar gest and most economically and politically powerful sites (Figure 5-8). Among the sma ller regional settlements, Quim Chi Hilan has the greatest percentage of marine shellfish. However, due to small sample size, the 150

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proportion of marine shell at Quim Chi Hila n is not statistically different from the proportions found at Arroyo de Piedra and Tamarindito. Highly-valued spondylus shells were most common at Dos Pilas (17.0% to tal NISP, 84.7% of all marine shell) and Cancuen (6.3% total NISP, 48.9% of all marine shell). The ma jority of marine shells at all sites (71-100%) are artifactually-modified. Status and the Differential Access to Resources Faunal resource use also varies within each site according to social status. This intra-site analysis does not include the site s of Arroyo de Piedra and Quim Chi Hilan, which only contain high and low status cont exts, respectively. During the Late Classic, access to non-local marine resources was la rgely restricted to the highest ranking status groups at each site (Table 5-7). Howe ver, since small quantities of marine shell are present in lower-ranking contexts, includ ing those belonging to subor non-elites, these resources were not the exclusive priv ileges of the Maya royal elites. Spondylus shells and stingray spines had the most re stricted distribution. These goods were only recovered at Dos Pilas, Aguateca, Cancuen and Tamarindito, and nearly all of them (>99%) were found in the highest ranking contex ts at each site. With the exception of Aguateca, they were also primarily limit ed to human burials. Other marine resources such as conch and olive shells are distributed more evenly across social ranks and functional contexts. Higher ranking individuals (royal elite and elite) at the Pasin region sites also had preferred access to other faunal resources including white-tailed deer, domestic dog, felids, and Central American river turtle (Table 5-7). However, this pattern is not completely consistent across all sites. At Aguateca and Cancuen, felids are equally common in rank 1 and rank 3 deposits. Dogs ar e also most common in rank 3 (sub/non151

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elite) contexts at Aguateca. The large Centra l American river turtle was also used to a greater extent by elite mem bers of society, al though this pattern is reversed at Dos Pilas. Acquiring river turtle would have requir ed additional effort at inland sites since this species was regionally rather than locally available. Despite this, the highest ranking individuals at Dos Pilas did not maintain pr eferential access to this species. However, river turtle composes a greater percentage of a ll turtle remains in rank 1 groups at Dos Pilas (62.5%) than in rank 2 (0.0%) and rank 3 contexts (5.6%). This is true for all study sites (Aguateca: rank 1=26.3%, rank 2=11.4% ; Cancuen: rank 1=90.9%, rank 2=78.5%, rank 3=11.5%; Tamarindito: rank 1=50.0%, rank 2=4.6%). Unionid clams are an additional resource that was r egionally, but not locally, avail able at Dos Pilas. At this inland site, clams are most common in rank 1 and rank 2 contexts. River clams were also used more frequently by elites at A guateca and Canucen, but not at the slightly smaller settlement of Tamarindito. At Dos Pilas, Aguateca and Cancuen, a greater percentage of clam shells are artifactually m odified in rank 1 than rank 2 or 3 contexts. No clam shell artifacts were identified at Tamarindito. Differential access to large-bodied game species such as deer and peccary is also apparent in the samples. In general, sub/nonelite groups used fewer white-tailed and brocket deer than higher ranking groups, while peccaries are more common in sub/nonelite contexts (Table 5-7, Figure 5-9). At Cancuen, the pattern is slightly different. Peccaries are most common in rank 1 c ontexts, and brocket deer are distributed relatively equally across all social ranks. Sk eletal element distributions for white-tailed deer, the most common large-bodied game specie s, were also calculated across social ranks for Dos Pilas, Aguateca, and Cancuen (F igure 5-10). Similar calculations were not 152

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done for Tamarindito, Arroyo de Piedra and Qu im Chi Hilan because the assemblages did not contain deer remains from both high and low status contexts. Rank 2 contexts at Dos Pilas were also omitted from t he analysis due to an insufficient number of specimens. Hind limb elements are greatly over-represented in elite contexts from Aguateca (rank 1/2) and Canc uen (ranks 1 and 2). At Dos Pi las, hindlimb elements are also more common in rank 1 than rank 3 co ntexts, but the differ ence between ranks is less pronounced. Upper hind lim b elements (f emur and innominate) account for the majority of hind limb specimens in rank 1 contexts at these si tes (Dos Pilas = 77%, Aguateca = 83%, Cancuen = 61% of all hind limb elements). Forelimb elements are slightly over-represented in rank 1 groups at Dos Pilas and in all Cancuen status groups. Cranial, axial and distal elements represent body portions with lower meat yields than the fore and hind limbs. These body portions do not show a clear distribution pattern according to social rank, alt hough they are most commonly under-represented in high status groups (Dos Pilas rank 1, Aguateca rank 1/2, Cancuen ranks 1 and 2). White-tailed deer element frequencies were not correlated with element density (VD) (Cancuen p=0.97, Aguateca p=0. 73, Dos Pilas p=0.67). Bone and Shell Artifacts: Production and Consumption Between 5 and 24% of the Late Classic10 remains from Cancuen and the Petexbatun sites are artifactually-modified (T able 5-8). The majority of artifacts are adornments (e.g., beads, tinklers, pendants, ear spools), but the assemblages also contain musical instruments (e .g., trumpets, rasps, drums) fish hooks, small bowls, 10 As reported by Emery (2008, 2009, 2010), the Termi nal Classic sample of worked animal remains from the Petexbatun is very different. Most significantly, a large-scale Terminal Cl assic bone tool production workshop was identified at Dos Pila s (group L4-3). No comparable work shops dating to the Late Classic, the focus of this study, were identified. 153

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mosaic pie ces, and utilitarian tools (e.g., pi ns, needles awls, antler billets). Marine and freshwater shells were primarily craft ed into adornments, wh ile bone and antler was used to make tools. However, bone beads a nd tooth pendants were also common in the assemblages. Detailed descriptions of the Petexbatun bone and shell artifacts are available in previous publications (Emery 1997, 2008b, 2009, 2010). Artifacts made from non-local marine s hell are most common at Dos Pilas, followed by Quim Chi Hilan, Aguateca and Cancuen (Table 5-9). In contrast, bone artifacts dominate the samples from Tamarindito and Arroyo de Piedra. With the exception of Quim Chi Hilan, the sites with the most polit ical and economic power have artifact assemblages dominated by marine she ll. Very few artifacts of any kind were found at Quim Chi Hilan (n=9). The prevalen ce of marine shell in this sample may therefore be due to sample size, as this si te contains only 0.6% of all marine shell artifacts found at the Pasin region sites. Similar quantities were found at Tamarindito (0.30%) and Arroyo de Piedra (0.79%). Tamarindito, followed by Canuen and Dos Pilas, had the greatest portion of artifacts made fr om freshwater shell. Freshwater shell artifacts were made from unionid clams, exce pt at Tamarindito where they were all made from apple snails. Evidence of bone and shell crafting was ident ified at all sites except Quim Chi Hilan (Table 5-9). Artifact assemblages from the twin capitals of Dos Pilas and Aguateca contained greater proportions of finished artifacts and less production debris. Bone and shell debitage composed a lar ger portion of the Arroyo de Piedra, Tamarindito and Cancuen samples. The sites also differ in the types of materials being crafted and used as finished artifacts. Evi dence of marine shell crafting was only 154

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identified at Cancuen, while freshwater clam shell debita ge was found at several sites (Cancuen, Dos Pilas, Aguateca, Arroyo de Piedra) (Figure 5-11a). Howev er, more recent excavations at Aguateca by the Agua teca Archaeological Project (Takeshi Inomata and Daniela Triadan, directors) uncovered evidence of Late Classic marine shell artifact production in elite residential structures (Emery and Aoyama 2007). These zooarchaeological rema ins were not included in Emerys (1997) original zooarchaeological analysis, which is reported here. Freshwater shell was the most commonly crafted material at Dos Pilas. At all other sites, bone composes the majority of artifact producti on debris. In terms of finished artifacts, the Late Classic artifact assemblages from Dos Pilas, Canc uen and Aguateca contain more marine shell artifacts, while the samples from Tamari ndito and Arroyo de Piedra contain more bone artifacts (Figure 5-11b). Artifact ually-modified freshwater shells are present in relatively equal proportions across all site s, but they are slightly mo re common at Tamarindito, and least common at Aguateca. Intra-site comparisons of artifact production and consumption among status groups may also be drawn for the sites of Dos Pilas, Aguateca, Cancuen and Tamarindito. Evidence for bone and shell artifact production is inconsistently distributed according to social rank across the Pa sin region sites. The proportion of bone and shell debitage to finished artifacts is great er in lower ranking groups at Cancuen and Aguateca, but the opposite it true at Dos Pilas and Tamarindito, where bone and shell crafting is only associated with high status architectural groups (Table 5-9). There is also variation among ranks in the types of materials being crafted and consumed as finished artifacts. At Cancuen, evidence of marine shell production wa s limited to rank 1 155

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contexts, while lower ranking groups pr imarily produced bone and some freshwater clam shell artifacts (Figure 5-12a). At Do s Pilas and Aguateca, the elite worked both bone and freshwater clam shell, but there is no evidenc e for marine shell artifact production. Craft production was limited to bone working at Tamarindito and in lower status contexts at Aguateca. Social rank also affected access to finished artifacts. Higher ranking contexts contain the greatest proportion of artifacts made from marine shell (Figure 5-12b). Tamarindito shows the opposite pattern, but this may be due to the small number of artifacts found in rank 2 deposits at this si te (n=2). Consumption of freshwater shell items is less consistent across sites. Elites at Cancuen, Dos Pilas and Tamarindito had preferential access to clam shell artifacts, but at Aguateca clams composed a greater proportion of the artifa cts from rank 3 architectural groups. Evidence of bone and shell craft production was spatially dispersed across the sites, and no large-scale, specialized bone or shell artifact production workshops were identified. However, 73% of all clam she lls from Aguateca came from a single elite household (House of the Scribe) where they were found in various stages of production (Emery and Aoyama 2007). At Cancuen, larger quantities of bone debitage were also found in association with several previously identified lithic workshops (groups K6/7, M9, and M-10). The largest faunal assemblage came from group M9 an elite (rank 1/2) residential complex (63.0% of all workshop NISP), whil e smaller samples were recovered from the two non-e lite (rank 3) workshops (M 10 = 31.43%, K6/7 = 5.53%). These groups also contained bone tools likel y used in crafting such as antler billets (n=6, 54.5% of all worked antler), and sharpened bone awls, picks and pins (n=15, 52.0% all bone awls/picks/pins ). Particular skeletal elem ents with high crafting utility 156

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could have been select ively concentrated in these areas due to bone tool manufacturing. Based on t he contents of a Terminal Classic Maya bone workshop identified at Dos Pilas (group L4-3), elem ents favored for bone artifact production include the femur, tibia and metapodials of la rge artiodactyls, such as white-tailed deer (Emery 2008b, 2009; 2010:200). At C ancuen, workshop and non-workshop proveniences contained simila r quantities of white-tail ed deer hind limb long bones including the femur and tibia (Table 5-10). Ho wever, distal hind limb elements such as the calcaneus, astragalus, and cubonavicular (t arsal centrali) were more common in the workshops, especially in group M9, while meta tarsals were more slightly more common outside the workshops. When upper, lower and di stal hind limb elements are combined, hind limb elements compose a greater porti on of the white-tailed deer remains in workshops (workshops = 56.73%, non-works hops = 37.43%). Through the production process, bone artifacts may lose features that allow them to be identified as a particular species or skeletal element. The quantities of many white-tailed deer long bones used in crafting may therefore be underestimated in areas of active bone tool production. This may be true of the Cancuen workshops, which contained a larger quantity of unidentifiable large mammal long bone shaft fragments (workshops = 57.1% of NISP, non-workshops = 27.7% of NISP). Discussion Regional Economics: Site Stat us, Trade and Habitat Use Although Cancuen and the Pete xbatun sites are all locat ed within a fairly small, circumscribed region of the southern Maya lo wlands, they differ in terms of microhabitat availability. Differences in the local habitats surrounding each site are reflected in the zooarchaeological assemblages. Riverine/la custrine taxa were less common at the 157

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farthest inland sites (Dos Pilas and Arro yo de Piedra), and more common at sites located wit hin 1 km of the regions major lakes and rivers. This suggests that at a broad, site-level scale Late Classic animal use within the Pasin region was primarily determined by the availability of local habitats located within less than 3 km of each site. Highly localized patterns of animal use argue against extensive regional trade and acquisition of faunal resources. However, there is limited evidence for the use of regionally-available fauna at most study sites. At Dos Pilas and Arroyo de Piedra, riverine/lacustrine species such as large ri ver turtles and unionid clams were available at a regional rather than local scale. Based on Dos Pilas greater political and economic power in the region, we might expect that t he site had greater access to regional aquatic resources than the smaller settlement of Arro yo de Piedra. However, the sites only differ slightly in their use of t hese regional aquatic taxa. The primary difference between the two inland sites is their use of freshwater clams, which are more abundant and more frequently modified at Dos Pilas. At both site s, the proportion of artifactually-modified clam shell is higher than at the regions riverine sites. Therefore, although on-site consumption should not be ruled out, the item exchanged or acquir ed at the regional scale may have been the meatless shells (i n modified or unmodified form). Purely dietary use of freshwater clams may have been more comm on at riverine sites where this species was a locally-available resource The large carapaces of Central American river turtles are another secondary animal product that may have been regionally exchanged, since inland sites do not contain lim b bones of this species. At Maya sites, river turtle carapaces were used as in struments and containers, and would have been a valuable exchange items even in the absence of the animals meat. However, since limb 158

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bones of this species are also uncommon at ri verine sites, their absence at inland sites could be due to preservation or sampling bias. Species fidelic to mature forest habita ts represent additional regionally acqu ired resources. During the Late Classic, population levels an d settlement sizes expanded, which likely decreased the availability of matu re forest in the region. This decrease is likely to have been consistent around all si tes in the small Petexbatun core, so differences in species fidelic to mature ve rsus secondary forests did not likely result from different habitats around t hese sites. Species present in the assemblages that are fidelic to mature forest habitats include jaguar, curassow, howler monkey, and brocket deer. With the exception of brocket deer, these species were only found at the regions largest and most economically powerful si tes (Dos Pilas, Aguateca and Cancuen). In contrast, brocket deer were most abundant at Arroyo de Piedra and Tamarindito. Since these sites also had fewer white-tailed deer than other regional settlements, it is possible that lower ranking sites used the smaller-bodied brocket deer, in addition to peccary, as a dietary and/or ceremonial substitute fo r the larger and symbolically charged white-tailed deer. The white-tailed deer was likely more abundant and easier to obtain in the secondary forest and agricultu ral plots surrounding human settlements, but the cultural value of this species ma y have placed restrictions on its hunting and consumption (Carr 1996; Emery 2003b; Masson and Peraza Lope 2008; Montero-Lopez 2009; Pohl 1985b; White et al. 2001b, 2004). Ov erall, the lack of correlation between settlement size (and inferr ed political and economic pow er) and the quantity of regionally acquired resources s uggests that the relative dist ance and effort required to 159

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obtain a species was less influent ial than its cu ltural value on its di stribution within the regional hierarch y of sites. Although a sites political and economic power within the Pasin region does not correspond with its access to regional faunal re sources, it is correlated with a sites access to marine fauna obtained through long-di stance exchange. The concentration of exotic marine resources at t he most politically powerful sites is a common Late Classic pattern throughout the Maya lowlands. Most in land Maya sites contain at least a small quantity of marine shell, but major centers and regional capitals often have larger and more diverse collections of marine taxa than smaller secondary, tertiary and rural sites. The unequal distribution of marine taxa towa rd larger, higher status inland sites may be due to elite control over trade networks, t he extraction of marine resources as royal tribute, increased ceremonial activity at major sites, or gr eater overall elite wealth and purchasing power. Among the Pasin region sites, it is therefore not surprising that the capital sites of Dos Pilas and Aguateca had the greatest access to exotic marine resources, while other Petexbatun sites had substantially less. Cancuen is slightly removed from the Petexbatun and may have served as the regional capital for the upper Pasin River region. However, in comparison to the Petexbatun core capitals, Cancuen is smal ler and less politically active. Despite this, Cancuens important economic role in highland-lowland trade moving through the region could have increased its access to high st atus, non-local goods beyond what would be expected for a site of its si ze and standing. Cancuen clearly had more marine shell than minor centers in the Petex batun, but it still had less than Dos Pilas and Aguateca. Its role as a trade center therefore did not provide privileged access to marine shell 160

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equivalent to that found at major regional ca pitals. Canc uens assemblage of marine shell, however, was very diverse and cont ained a large quantity of spondylus shells. Unfortunately, nearly all of the spondylus sh ells from Cancuen were highly modified, which precluded their identif ication as either Atlant ic or Pacific in origin. Therefore, it is not currently possible to test whether C ancuen maintained elevated access to Pacific coast spondylus moving across and out of the highlands. Future isotopic or trace element analysis of spondylus shell may be able to resolve this issue. The majority of other marine taxa in the Cancuen and Petexb atun assemblages came from the Atlantic. Cancuen would have been less i deally situated to control access to Atlantic coast commodities since these could enter the Ma ya lowlands via several major waterways emptying into both the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. With the exception of the Sarstun River and the Rio Dulce, Cancuen w ould have been in the middle or at the end of the distribution line for marine resources mo ving along these routes. A final point that must be considered is the propor tion of faunal remains recove red from burial contexts. Spondylus is most common at Cancuen and Dos P ilas, but a larger po rtion of the faunal assemblages from these two sites comes from elite burials. Since the distribution of spondylus shell is often weighted toward e lite burial contexts (Andrews 1969; MoholyNagy 1985), this could affect the quantity of marine shell, and in particular spondylus shell, recovered at these two sites. Most of the marine shells from all study sites were artifactually modified. The greater quantity of marine s hell at Dos Pilas, Aguatec a and Cancuen therefore translated to larger numbers of marine shell artifacts at thes e sites. Nearly all of the marine shell artifacts were finished items, but limited evidence of marine shell 161

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production was identified at Cancuen. The scarcity of mari ne shell debitage c ould mean that most items were impor ted in modified form, but fe w marine shell workshops have been identified at either coastal or inland sites (for exceptions see Aoyama 1995:136; Cobos 1994; Powis et al. 1999:369). This sugges ts that cultural re-use or disposal practices could inhibit the recovery of marine shell production debris at Maya settlements (Moholy-Nagy 1997). Within the Pasin region, there is more evidence for the production of utilitarian bone artifacts, an activity that seems to have been most common at the regions smaller sites. T he Petexbatun capitals contain smaller quantities of bone artifact production debris and finished artifacts, but previous research suggests that bone artifact production was also an important economic activity at these sites (Emery and Aoyama 2007; Emery 2008b, 2009, 2010). Intra-community Economics: Status and the Differen tial Access to Resources Comparisons drawn across sites are usef ul for understanding species and habitat use within the regional hierarchy of sites, but intra-community analyses are needed to assess the differential access to resources wit hin communities according to social rank. Within the Pasin region, animal use varied a ccording to social status within each site, but the variation was inconsistent across site s. This likely reflects complexity in how faunal resources were distributed at the community level, as well as a lack of strict elite control over the distribution of most faunal resources. Marine taxa were the only faunal resource s consistently distributed toward the highest ranking individuals at each site. Elite control over the distribution of marine resources is likely related to the symbolic association of marine shells with death and rebirth (Andrews 1969:48-53), as well as t he effort and extended economic connections needed to import them to non-coastal sites. Ho wever, with the exception of spondylus 162

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and stingray spines, Maya royal elites did not maintain exclusive acc ess to these goods. Instead, smaller quantities are distributed across all social ranks at both major and minor centers. It is more difficult to det ermine how lower ranking individuals obtained non-local marine shell since the distribution pattern is cons istent with either market exchange (Hirth 1998) or elite gifting to lower ranking individuals in exchange for labor, goods, or political support (LeCount 1999). Elite social classes maintained less c ontrol over the distribution of resources possibly acquired at a regional scale. Mature or primary forest-d welling brocket deer were more common in rank 1 deposits, ex cept at Cancuen where they were evenly distributed across elite and non-el ite architectural groups. Since brocket deer were also more common than white-tailed deer at smaller, secondary sites within the region, this argues against strong elit e control over this potential non-local resource. At Dos Pilas, riverine clams and large river turtles represent additional regional rather than local resources. Acquiring these taxa would have involved ex tended hunting trips, or exchange with other regi onal communities. Despite the extra acquisition effort, these taxa were not clearly concentrated in higher ranking contexts at Dos Pilas. Moreover, river turtle and clam were more frequent in higher ranking architec tural groups at the riverine sites of Aguateca and Cancuen, where these taxa represent local resources. Therefore, the differ ential distribution of animal goods according to social rank was determined less by whether they were locally or regionally available, and more by their specific cultural value as diet ary or non-dietary resources. In addition to clams and river turtles, other non-marine taxa preferentially used by the Pasin region elite include domestic dog, white-tailed deer, and felids. These taxa 163

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have been identified as favored di etary, ceremonial and high status resources at other lowland sit es (e.g., Carr 1996; Emery 2003b, 2006, 2007a; Pohl 1994; Pohl and Feldman 1982; Shaw 1991; Teet er 2001; Teeter 2004; White et al. 2001b). In general, these taxa are most common in high status architectural groups at major regional centers (Dos Pilas, Aguateca and Cancuen), and they may have been provided to the Maya elite as tribute payments. Analysis of white-tailed deer skeletal element distributions according to social rank indicates that the hind haunches of white-ta iled deer may also have been preferentially supplied to higher ranking individuals at major sites. However, there is no clear evidence for large-scale provisioning by lo wer ranking groups since hind limb elements are not significantly under-represented in nonelite (rank 3) contexts. Small sample sizes, especially from non-e lite households, could be ske wing these results, but the Petexbatun elite also could have received haunches of deer that were butchered, or otherwise consumed off-site. Regardless of how the additional hind li mb portions were obtained, the overrepresentation of hind limb elements, in higher ranking groups could be due to preferential elite consumption of hind haunch deer meat, or the use of these skeletal elements in bone artifact production. Since the majority of over-represented elements are from the meaty upper hind limb (innominat e, femur) rather than lower hind limb (tibia, fibula), meat may hav e been the good preferentially di stributed to elite social classes. However, body portion distributions may also have been determined in part by crafting. Upper tarsals (calcaneus, astr agalus, cubonavicular) were greatly overrepresented in an elite craft production workshop at Cancuen (group M9). The 164

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cubonav icular was also common in the Te rminal Classic Dos Pilas bone workshop (Emery 2010: 201), and these elements c ould represent the remainders of more complete deer hind limbs, which were select ively imported for thei r crafting utility. At Cancuen, the larger bones suitable for bone arti fact production, such as the femur, tibia and metatarsal, may have been under-identified due to their modification into artifacts. This possibility is supported by the lar ge quantity of modified large mammal long bone shaft fragments in the M9 workshop. If this is the case, the preferential distribution of either whole or partial deer hind limbs to the Cancuen el ites, or other individuals involved in crafting, could be greater than currently estimated. Most of the bone and antler tools produced and used in the Cancuen M9 workshop were likely associated with lithic craft production. Bone and shell artifact production and c onsumption also varied within sites according to social status. Crafting debris was found in both elite and sub-elite groups at Cancuen and Aguateca, but only in elite contexts at Dos Pilas and Tamarindito. Evidence for possible household-level craft s pecialization was identif ied in the Cancuen faunal samples associated with the sites lithic workshops, and at Aguateca where a single elite household produced mo st of the sites freshwater clam shell artifacts. Previous analysis of the Petexbatun bone and she ll artifact collection indicated that elite craft production increased during the Late Classic (Emery 2010:243). The lack of bone and shell debitage in non-elite c ontexts at some sites may therefore represent reduced artifact production by non-elites. However, si nce lower ranking contexts from the Pasin region have fewer artifacts and fewer faunal re mains overall, the lack of production debris could also be due to differential pres ervation. At major centers including Dos 165

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Pilas, Aguateca, and Cancuen, elit es also wo rked a greater diversity of faunal materials (bone, freshwater shell and marine shell) t han lower ranking groups, which primarily engaged in bone working. This reflects elite production of both utilitarian and luxury items, as suggested by an in-depth study of elite crafting in Aguateca households (Emery and Aoyama 2007). Evidence for marine shell artifact production was only found at Cancuen, where it was limited to rank 1 architectural groups. This contrasts with evidence at Cancuen for segmentary production of high status jade and pyrite artifacts that divided production across both low and high status groups (Kovacevich 2006). Consumption of finished artifacts, especially shell adornments, was also greater among higher ranking status groups in the Pasin region, but elite access to these goods was not absolute. Non-elite individuals acquired much smaller numbers of high status shell adornments, but it is unclear to what degree the ruling elite directly controlled their access to these resources since both open ma rket exchange and elite gifting can result in the unequal distribution of resources across social classes. Summary Animal use in the Petexbatun polity was la rgely determined by the availability of local habitats and fauna. Despite the hea vy dependence on local resources, there was evidence of regional acquisition or exchange of animal products for dietary and craft production purposes. Regionally ac quired taxa were not cons istently found in greater quantities in elite contexts, or at the politys largest sites. The Maya elites therefore did not likely control regional exchange of animal goods. No common elite animal use pattern was identified within the Petexbatun, but higher ranking individuals at major sites maintained pref erential access to particular ceremonial and high status species. This suggests that royals and elites used a 166

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common suite of high value anim al goods for occasional use, but that they also drew upon the local resources for dietary and non-di etary purposes. The regional versus local availability of a species was less important than it s symbolic or high status connotations, in determining its distribution across social ranks. Although elites had preferred access to some difficult to obtain species such as jaguars, they also used greater quantities of abundant and widely available species such as white-tailed deer and domestic dogs. High ranking households likely obtained some t hese preferred resources through tribute or taxation paid by satellite communities, and lower ranking inhabitan ts of major sites. However, the lack of clear evidence for elite provisioning by lower ranked groups suggests that elite households obtained faunal resources through multiple economic channels. Petexbatun elites maintained the most control over access to marine resources acquired through long-distance exchange. Larger, more polit ically active sites had greater quantities of marine taxa than lower r anking communities within the polity. Trade networks flowing through region may therefore have been controlled by the rulers of major sites. Despite its proposed role as a trade center, Cancuen had less access to marine resources than the capital sites of Dos Pilas and Aguateca. Marine resources may not have been the focus of trade and crafti ng activities at Cancuen, or social and political status within the regional hier archy may have been the main determinant of access to marine resources. Despite the clear concentration of marine resources among the Petexbatun elite, smaller quantities of marine shell were found in even the lowest status contexts. It is unclear whether elites re-distributed these it ems through gifting, or whether these goods 167

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168 could have been obtained through economic networks operating independently of elite control. Although certain marine resources we re widely circulated across social ranks, spondylus shells and stingray spines were rest ricted to rank 1 contexts at major sites. Elite and even royal households within the Petexbatun engaged in active craft production of bone and shell artifacts. The goods produced include both decorative luxury items and utilitarian tools. At Cancuen, utilitarian bone tool manufacturing in a high status workshop is likely associated with elite production of jade and pyrite luxury goods. Although Classic Period bone and shell work ing in the Petexbatun is primarily small-scale and unspecialized, animal produ cts with high crafting utility may have been exchanged at the local or regional level to supply craft workers with necessary raw materials.

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Table 5-1. Basic ceramic chronology for the Petexbatun regi on (based on Emery 2010: pg. 4, Figure 2.1) Petexbatun ceramic phase Chronologi cal period Approximate date ranges Excarvado Middle Preclassic 800 B.C. Faisan Late Preclassic 300 B.C.A.D. 300 Jordan Early Classic A.D. 300 Nacimiento Late Classic A.D. 600 Sepens Terminal Classic A.D. 830 Tamarindo Postclassic A.D. 950 169

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Table 5-2. Class ification of se lect faunal resources as local, regional and ex otic for Cancuen and the Petexbatun sites. Taxaa Preferred habitat DP AP TA AG QCH CAN Marine molluscs (Multiple species) Marine Exotic Exotic Exotic Exotic Exotic Exotic Jute ( Pachychilus sp.) Creeks/rivers Regional Regional Regional Local Local Local Freshwater clams (Unionidae) Major rivers Regional Regional Regional Local Local Local Crocodile ( Crocodylus sp.) Lakes/major rivers Regional Regional Local Local Local Local Giant musk turtle ( Staurotypus triporcatus ) Lakes/major rivers Regional Regional Local Local Local Local Central American river turtle ( Dermatemys mawii ) Lakes/major rivers Regional Regional Local Local Local Local Jaguar ( Panthera onca ) Mature forest Regionalb Regionalb Regionalb Regionalb Regionalb Regionalb Brocket deer ( Mazama sp.) Mature forest Regionalb Regionalb Regionalb Regionalb Regionalb Regionalb NOTES: DP = Dos Pilas, AP = Arroyo de Piedra, TA = Tamari ndito, AG = Aguateca, QCH = Quim Chi Hilan, CAN = Cancuen. aThis table only includes taxa that can be classified as either regional or exotic resources for at least one of the archaeological s ites. bSpecies highly dependent on mature/primary rainforest are considered to be regional resources at the sites due to the likely conversion of primary forest to agricultural land or regenerati ng/secondary forest in areas surrounding pre-Hispanic settlement s. 170

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Table 5-3. Proportion of faunal remains i dent ified to various taxonomic levels. Identified to class or above Identified below class Site NISP % NISP NISP % NISP Cancuen 1241 35.01 2304 64.99 Dos Pilas 507 45.97 596 54.03 Aguateca 716 24.02 2265 75.98 Tamarindito 161 32.96 239 67.04 Arroyo de Piedra 117 67.65 77 32.35 Quim Chi Hilan 24 23.76 77 76.24 Total 2766 33.23 5777 66.77 Table 5-4. Proportion of zooarchaeologic al remains from human burials. Site # Burials with faunal remains Burial context NISP Burial context % NISP Cancuen 11 387 10.92 Dos Pilas 11 277 25.11 Aguateca 3 12 0.40 Tamarindito 2 10 2.82 Arroyo de Piedra 2 11 4.62 Quim Chi Hilan 7 17 16.83 171

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Table 5-5. Taxa identified in the Late Classic C ancuen and Petexbatun zooarchaeol ogic al assemblages. Cancuen Dos Pilas Aguateca Tamarindito Arroyo de Piedra Quim Chi Hilan Scientific name (common name) NISP % NISP % NISP % NISP % NISP % NISP % Mollusca (mollusc) 12 0.34 2 0.18 4 0.13 0.00 0.00 0.00 Gastropoda (gastropod) 10 0.28 0.00 1 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 Gastropoda, marine (marine gastropod) 36 1.02 3 0.27 17 0.57 0.00 2 0.84 2 1.98 Dentaliidae (tusk shell) 2 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Graptacme eborea (ivory tusk shell) 0.00 3 0.27 0.00 1 0.28 0.00 0.00 Cassidae/Strombidae (conch) 0.00 8 0.73 11 0.37 0.00 0.00 0.00 Strombus sp. (conch) 160 4.51 5 0.45 10 0.34 0.00 1 0.42 0.00 Strombus alatus (Florida fighting conch) 0.00 0.00 3 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 Strombus gigas (queen conch) 2 0.06 0.00 4 0.13 0.00 0.00 0.00 Strombus pugilis (fighting conch) 3 0.08 1 0.09 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Trivia sp. (trivia shell) 2 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Trivia pediculus (coffeebean trivia) 2 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Cypraea cf. cervus (Atlantic deer cowrie) 1 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Macrocypraea cf. zebra (measled cowrie) 1 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Turbinella angulata (West Indian chank) 0.00 0.00 3 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 Busycotypus spiratus (pear whelk) 0.00 0.00 1 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 Melongena sp. (whelk) 1 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Haustellum rubidum (red murex) 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 0.99 Oliva sp. (olive shell) 8 0.23 3 0.27 4 0.13 0.00 0.00 0.00 172

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173 Table 5-5. Continued. Cancuen Dos Pilas Aguateca Tamarindito Arroyo de Piedra Quim Chi Hilan Scientific name (common name) NISP % NISP % NISP % NISP % NISP % NISP % Oliva reticularis (netted olive) 0.00 0.00 78 2.62 0.00 0.00 3 2.97 Oliva porphyria (tent olive) 0.00 1 0.09 13 0.44 0.00 2 0.84 0.00 Oliva caribbeansis/sayana (lettered/Caribbean olive) 0.00 1 0.09 27 0.91 0.00 2 0.84 1 0.99 Oliva sayana (lettered olive) 9 0.25 0.00 0.00 1 0.28 1 0.42 0.00 Olivella perplexa (dwarf olive) 0.00 0.00 292 9.80 0.00 0.00 0.00 Prunum apicinum (marginella shell) 3 0.08 0.00 1 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 Noetia ponderosa (ponderous ark) 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2 0.84 0.00 Pteriidae (pearly oyster) 0.00 8 0.73 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Spondylus sp. (spondylus) 222 6.26 188 17.04 10 0.34 1 0.28 0.00 0.00 Chamidae (jewelbox shell) 1 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Dinocardium robustum (Atlantic giant cockle) 0.00 1 0.09 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Mercenaria cam pechiensis (southern quahog) 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 0.42 0.00 Codakia sp. (lucine) 1 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Pachychilus sp. (jute) 8 0.23 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Pachychilus indiorum (jute) 2 0.06 0.00 82 2.75 0.00 0.00 0.00 Pachychilus pleuristriatus (jute) 22 0.62 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Pomacea flagellata (apple snail) 11 0.31 3 0.27 31 1.04 8 2.25 0.00 20 19.80 Bivalvia (bivalve) 29 0.82 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Unionidae (river clam) 281 7.93 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Lampsilis sp. (river clam) 2 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Lampsilis discus (river clam) 1 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

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Table 5-5. Continued. Cancuen Dos Pilas Aguateca Tamarindito Arroyo de Piedra Quim Chi Hilan Scientific name (common name) NISP % NISP % NISP % NISP % NISP % NISP % Megalonaias stolli (river clam) 4 0.11 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Nephronaias sp. (river clam) 3 0.08 2 0.18 12 0.40 0.00 1 0.42 8 7.92 Nephronaias yzabalensis (river clam) 1 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Psoronaias sp. (river clam) 146 4.12 46 4.17 131 4.39 9 2.54 6 2.52 37 36.63 Psoronaias semigranosus (river clam) 153 4.32 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Brachyura (crab) 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 0.28 0.00 0.00 Vertebrata (vertebrate) 69 1.95 19 1.72 25 0.84 10 2.82 6 2.52 0.00 Dasyatidae/Myliobatidae (stingray) 0.00 2 0.18 3 0.10 1 0.28 0.00 0.00 Actinopterygii (boney fish) 1 0.03 3 0.27 6 0.20 2 0.56 0.00 3 2.97 Atractosteus tropicus (tropical gar) 1 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Synbranchidae (swamp eel) 1 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Anura (frog/toad) 1 0.03 0.00 0.00 1 0.28 0.00 0.00 Ranidae (frog) 0.00 4 0.36 0.00 11 3.10 1 0.42 0.00 Bufo marinus (marine toad) 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 0.28 0.00 0.00 Reptilia (reptile) 0.00 0.00 1 0.03 2 0.56 0.00 0.00 Crocodylus sp. (crocodile) 43 1.21 0.00 3 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 Serpentes (snake) 3 0.08 0.00 0.00 1 0.28 0.00 0.00 Lacertilia (lizard) 0.00 0.00 1 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 Iguana iguana (green iguana) 1 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Testudines (turtle) 182 5.13 48 4.35 75 2.52 14 3.94 6 2.52 2 1.98 Dermatemys mawii (C. Am. river turtle) 409 11.54 14 1.27 315 10.5 7 46 12.96 3 1.26 0.00 174

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Table 5-5. Continued. Cancuen Dos Pilas Aguateca Tamarindito Arroyo de Piedra Quim Chi Hilan Scientific name (common name) NISP % NISP % NISP % NISP % NISP % NISP % Dermatemydidae/ Kinosternidae (mud/musk turtle) 0.00 6 0.54 421 14.12 11 3.10 2 0.84 0.00 Kinosternon sp. (mud turtle) 7 0.20 5 0.45 140 4.70 14 3.94 1 0.42 0.00 Kinosternon cf. acutum (Tabasco mud turtle) 2 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Kinosternon cf. leucostomum (white-lipped mud turtle) 2 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Staurotypus triporcatus (giant musk turtle) 1 0.03 1 0.09 7 0.23 4 1.13 0.00 0.00 Kinosternon/Trachemys sp. (mud/musk/slider turtle) 0.00 6 0.54 173 5.80 6 1.69 0.00 0.00 Emydidae (pond turtle) 1 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Rhinoclemmys areolata (furrowed wood turtle) 10 0.28 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Trachemys scripta (common slider turtle) 8 0.23 14 1.27 90 3.02 18 5.07 1 0.42 0.00 Aves (bird) 0.00 7 0.63 7 0.23 3 0.85 3 1.26 0.00 Aves, medium/large (bird e.g., turkey, duck) 1 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Aves, medium (bird e.g., duck) 2 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Crax rubra (curassow) 0.00 0.00 1 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 Colinus virginianus (quail) 0.00 3 0.27 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Meleagris sp. (turkey) 3 0.08 0.00 5 0.17 6 1.69 1 0.42 0.00 Mammalia (mammal) 155 4.37 448 40.62 534 17.91 83 23.38 133 55.88 14 13.86 Mammalia, very large (mammal e.g., tapir) 0.00 2 0.18 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Mammalia, large (mammal e.g., deer) 790 22.28 13 1.18 97 3.25 8 2.25 11 4.62 1 0.99 175

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Table 5-5. Continued. Cancuen Dos Pilas Aguateca Tamarindito Arroyo de Piedra Quim Chi Hilan Scientific name (common name) NISP % NISP % NISP % NISP % NISP % NISP % Mammalia, large/medium (mammal e.g., deer/dog) 70 1.97 9 0.82 4 0.13 2 0.56 6 2.52 0.00 Mammalia, medium (mammal e.g., dog) 58 1.64 1 0.09 17 0.57 5 1.41 0.00 4 3.96 Mammalia, small (mammal e.g., rabbit) 8 0.23 0.00 3 0.10 1 0.28 0.00 0.00 Didelphidae (opossum) 4 0.11 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Didelphis sp. (opossum) 4 0.11 2 0.18 0.00 1 0.28 0.00 0.00 Dasypus novemcinctus (nine-lined armadillo) 2 0.06 4 0.36 14 0.47 3 0.85 0.00 0.00 Natalus stramineus (funnel-eared bat) 0.00 1 0.09 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Alouatta pigra (howler monkey) 1 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Sylvilagus sp. (rabbit) 2 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 0.42 0.00 Sciuridae (squirrel) 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 0.99 Agouti paca (paca) 9 0.25 18 1.63 7 0.23 4 1.13 1 0.42 0.00 Dasyprocta punctata (agouti) 4 0.11 4 0.36 3 0.10 7 1.97 0.00 1 0.99 Carnivora (carnivore) 0.00 1 0.09 2 0.07 1 0.28 0.00 0.00 Nasua narica (coati) 2 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Procyon lotor (raccoon) 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 0.28 0.00 0.00 Canidae/Felidae (dog/cat) 0.00 1 0.09 97 3.25 2 0.56 0.00 2 1.98 Canidae (dog, coyote, fox) 0.00 0.00 3 0.10 5 1.41 0.00 0.00 Canis lupus familiaris (domestic dog) 87 2.45 96 8.70 19 0.64 2 0.56 3 1.26 1 0.99 Urocyon cinereoargenteus (grey fox) 3 0.08 1 0.09 0.00 1 0.28 0.00 0.00 Felidae (cat) 0.00 2 0.18 8 0.27 1 0.28 0.00 0.00 Felidae, large (cat e.g., jaguar/puma) 2 0.06 0.00 6 0.20 0.00 0.00 0.00 Felidae, medium (cat e.g., ocelot) 0.00 1 0.09 7 0.23 0.00 0.00 0.00 176

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177 Table 5-5. Continued. Cancuen Dos Pilas Aguateca Tamarindito Arroyo de Piedra Quim Chi Hilan Scientific name (common name) NISP % NISP % NISP % NISP % NISP % NISP % Panthera onca (jaguar) 2 0.06 23 2.09 3 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 Leopardus pardalis (ocelot) 2 0.06 0.00 0.00 1 0.28 0.00 0.00 Artiodactyla (deer/peccary) 6 0.17 0.00 4 0.13 2 0.56 2 0.84 0.00 Tayassuidae (peccary) 83 2.34 9 0.82 11 0.37 5 1.41 8 3.36 0.00 Pecari tajacu (collared peccary) 16 0.45 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Cervidae (deer) 5 0.14 4 0.36 13 0.44 4 1.13 4 1.68 0.00 Mazama sp. (brocket deer) 15 0.42 4 0.36 28 0.94 11 3.10 8 3.36 0.00 Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer) 322 9.08 51 4.62 93 3.12 31 8.73 19 7.98 0.00 Sirenia/Perissodactyla (manatee/tapir) 0.00 0.00 0.00 2 0.56 0.00 0.00 Tapirus bairdii (Bairds tapir) 6 0.17 1 0.09 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Totals 3,545 1,103 2,981 355 238 101

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Table 5-6. Proportion of freshwater mollusc taxa and artifactually modified clam shell at each study site. Site (environmental setting) % NISPa Jute (Pachychilus sp.) % NISPa Apple snail (Pomacea sp.) % NISPa Clam (Unionidae) % Clam artifactually modifieda Dos Pilas (inland) 0.0 5.9 94.1 64.6 Arroyo de Piedra (inland) 0.0 0.0 100.0 33.3 Tamarindito (near lacustrine) 0.0 47.1 52.9 0.0 Aguateca (riverine) 32.0 12.1 55.9 17.5 Quim Chi Hilan (riverine) 0.0 30.8 69.2 2.2 Cancuen (riverine) 4.8 1.7 89.1 11.5 a Percent (%) of all freshwater mollusc NISP per site (freshwater mollusc NISP: Dos Pilas = 51, Arroyo de Piedra = 7, Tamarindito = 17 Aguateca = 256, Quim Chi Hilan = 7, Cancuen = 663). 178

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Table 5-7. Distribution of preferred and/or non-local taxa according to social rank. Site and rank [sample size]a % NISPb felid % NISPb dog % NISPb white-tailed deer % NISPb brocket deer % NISPb peccary % NISPb river turtle % NISPb clam % NISPc marine taxa Dos Pilas: Rank 1 (royal elite) [n=835] 4.28 14.64 7.40 0.49 0.00 1.64 5.59 25.15 Rank 2 [n=75] 0.00 0.00 1.33 0.00 0.00 0.00 9.33 12.00 Rank 3 (sub/non-elite) [n=168] 0.00 2.67 3.33 0.00 6.00 2.67 0.67 2.98 Aguateca: Rank 1/2 (elite) [n=2787] 2.86d 2.34d 3.85 1.21 0.43 13.41 6.01 17.19 Rank 3 (sub/non-elite) [n=164] 2.44 6.71 2.44 0.00 0.61 3.05 2.44 0.00 Cancuen: Rank 1 (royal elite) [n=2081] 0.19 3.41 10.92 0.25 6.83 19.18 29.36 21.24 Rank 2 [n=701] 0.00 2.11 15.38 0.60 1.36 11.01 8.75 1.43 Rank 3 (sub/non-elite) [n=649] 0.31 0.94 4.40 0.16 0.31 3.30 6.07 0.77 Tamarindito: Rank 1 (elite) [n=293] 1.02 1.71 10.58 3.75 1.37 15.36 1.71 0.00 Rank 2 (sub/non-elite) [n=62] 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.67 1.67 6.67 3.23 a NISP per site and rank identified to taxonomic class or below, but excluding exotic marine taxa. b Percent NISP per site and rank identified to taxonomic class or below, excluding exotic marine taxa. c Percent NISP per site and rank identified to taxonomic class or below. d Rank 1 deposits at Aguteca contained 92 fragments identified as Canidae/Felidae, which were divided equally across the felid and dog categories (46 NISP each). 179

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Table 5-8. Late Classic bone and shell arti facts from Cancuen and the Pe texbatun sites by material and produc tion stage. Cancuen: Dos Pilas: Aguateca: Tamarindito: Arroyo de Piedra: Quim Chi Hilan: NISP %a NISP %a NISP %a NISP %a NISP %a NISP %a All artifacts 572 16.14 264 23.93 718 24.09 63 17.75 31 13.03 9 8.91 Material: Marine shell 322 56.29 220 83.33 456 63.51 3 4.76 8 25.81 6 66.67 Freshwater shell 74 12.94 31 11.74 25 3.48 17 26.98 3 9.68 1 11.11 Bone 175 30.59 11 4.17 234 32.59 43 68.25 20 64.52 2 22.22 Production stage: Production 74 12.94 7 2.65 36 5.01 22 34.92 8 25.8 0 0.00 Finished 431 75.35 255 96.59 654 91.09 41 65.08 23 74.19 9 100.00 Unknown 67 11.71 2 0.76 28 3.90 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 a Calculated as percent (%) total site NISP for all artifacts, and as percent (%) total number of artifacts per site for material and production state categories. 180

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Table 5-9. Bone and s hell artifacts from Cancuen and Petexbatun sites listed by production stage and social rank. Production debris: Finished ar tifacts: Unknown stage: Site and rank (number of artifacts) NISP %a NISP %a NISP %a Cancuen: Rank 1 (n=467) 25 5.35 406 86.94 36 7.71 Rank 2 (n=40) 18 45.00 16 40.00 6 15.00 Rank 3 (n=45) 30 66.67 11 24.44 4 8.89 Dos Pilas: Rank 1 (n=244) 4 1.64 238 97.54 2 0.82 Rank 2 (n=9) 0 0.00 9 100.00 0 0.00 Rank 3 (n=7) 0 0.00 7 100.00 0 0.00 Aguateca: Rank 1/2 (n=698) 27 3.87 649 92.98 22 3.15 Rank 3 (n=18) 9 50.00 9 50.00 0 Tamarindito: Rank 1 (n=61) 22 36.07 39 63.93 0 0.00 Rank 2 (n=2) 0 0.00 2 100.00 0 0.00 a Percent (%) all artifacts per rank within each site. 181

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Table 5-10. White-tailed deer skeletal element and body portion distributions for Cancuen workshops and nonworkshops compared to the Dos Pilas bone wor kshop (L4-3) and a standard deer skeleton. Cancuen non-workshops Cancuen workshopsa Dos Pilas workshop (L4-3)b Standard deer skeleton Anatomical region Element NISP % NISP NISP % NISP NISP % NISP NISP % NISP Head 31 18.13 8 7.69 1 0.48 63 27.39 Antler 8 5 Other cranial 23 3 1 Axial Vertebrae/ribs 41 23.98 3 2.88 0.00 73 31.74 Fore limb 11 6.43 13 12.50 24 11.43 8 3.48 Upper fore limb Scapula 2 1 0 Humerus 5 4 10 Lower fore limb Radius 1 6 12 Ulna 3 2 2 Hind limb 39 22.81 23 22.12 119 56.67 14 6.09 Upper hind limb Innominate 14 6 0 Femur 11 8 39 Lower hind limb Patella 13 6 0 Tibia 0 3 63 Fibula 1 0 17 Distal 49 28.65 57 54.81 66 31.43 72 31.30 Hind distal Calcaneus/astragalus 8 23 3 Cubonavicular (tarsal centrali) 2 6 23 Metatarsal 15 7 0 Fore distal Metacarpal 8 1 1 Fore/hind distal Metapodial 8 5 19 Phalanges 8 14 2 Other carpal/tarsal 0 1 18 Total 171 104 210 230 a Cancuen workshops include: groups K6/7, M9 and M10. bDos Pilas tallies from Emery (2010:196, Table 7.2) 182

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Figure 5-1. Map of Rio Pasin and Petexbatun region showing location of study sites. Adapted from Emery, Kitty F. 2010. Dietary, Environmental and Societal Implications of Ancient Maya Animal Use in the Petexbatun: A Zooarchaeological Pers pective on the Collapse (page 3, Figure 1.1). Vanderbilt Institute of Mesoamerican Archaeology Series, Volume 5, Vanderbilt University Press, Nashville, TN. 183

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Figure 5-2. Map of Cancuen showing majo r architectural groups and density of zooarchaeological remains (with circ les). NISP: red circles=300+, blue=50 300, green=<50. Map adapted fr om original by Marc Wolf (courtesy of the Cancuen Archaeological Project). 184

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185 Figure 5-3. Map of habitat zones within the Petexbatun region. A dapted from Emery, Kitty F. 2010. Dietary, Environmental and Societ al Implications of Ancient Maya Animal Use in the Petexbatun: A Zooarchaeological Perspective on the Collapse (page 75, Figure 5.1). Vanderbi lt Institute of Mesoamerican Archaeology Series, Volume 5, Vanderbilt University Press, Nashville, TN.

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0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% CANDPAGTAAPQCH% NISP Freshwater mollusc Fish Reptile Bird Mammal Figure 5-4. Animal use by taxonomic cla ss according to NISP. Calculations exclude marine taxa. 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% DPAPAGCANTAQCH% NISP Wetland Riverine Terrestrial Figure 5-5. Variation in habitat fidelit y among Petexbatun assemblages. CAN = Cancuen, AP = Arroyo de Piedra, AG = Aguateca, CAN = Cancuen, TA = Tamarindito, QCH = Quim Chi Hilan. 186

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0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 CANDPAGTAAPQCH% NISP (class + no exotics) Galliform Dermatemys Felidae/Canidae Dog Felid Artiodactyl Figure 5-6. Distribution of pr eferred and regional taxa in Petexbatun sites. CAN = Cancuen, DP = Dos Pilas, AG = Aguat eca, TA = Tamarindito, QCH = Quim Chi Hilan. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%CANDPAGTAAPQCH% Artiodactyl NISP Peccary Brocket deer White-tailed deer Figure 5-7. Frequency of white-tailed deer, brocket deer and peccary among sites calculated as the percent of all artiodac tyl remains per site. CAN = Cancuen, DP = Dos Pilas, AG = Aguateca, TA = Tamarindito, QCH = Quim Chi Hilan. 187

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188 0 5 10 15 20 25 DPAGCANAPTAQCH% NISP (3 taxa) (5 taxa) (12 ta xa) (7 taxa) (3 taxa) (10 taxa) Figure 5-8. Percent marine taxa in Pete xbatun site assemblages. CAN=Canc uen, DP=Dos Pilas, AG=Aguateca, TA=Tamar indito, QCH=Quim Chi Hilan. Error bars show 95% confidence interval. The number or marine ta xa identified at each site appears in parentheses under the site name. 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%CAN rank 1 (n=309) CAN rank 2 (n=116) CAN rank 3 (n=33) DP rank 1 (n=50) DP rank 2 (n=2) DP rank 3 (n=15) AG rank 1/2 (n=140) AG rank 3 (n=5) TA rank 1 (n=52) TA rank 2 (n=1)% Artiodactyl NISP Peccary Brocket Deer White-tailed deer Figure 5-9. Distribution of artiodactyl spec ies by status/rank. CAN=Cancuen, DP=Dos Pilas, AG=Aguateca, TA=Tamarindito.

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-8-6-4-20246810Observed/Expected RatioAnatomical Region AG1/2 AG3 DP1 DP3 CAN1 CAN2 CAN3 Cranial Axial Fore limb Hind limb Distal Figure 5-10. White-tailed deer ske letal element distributions at major Petexbatun sites. CAN=Cancuen, DP=Dos Pilas, AG=Aguateca. Values falling within the dashed box are not statistically significant. 189

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0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%CAN (n=74) DP (n=7) AG (n=36) TA (n=4) AP (n=8) QCH (n=0)% Production debris Freshwater shell Marine shell Bone a 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% CAN (n=431) DP (n=255) AG (n=654) TA (n=14) AP (n=23) QCH (n=9)% Finished artifact s Freshwater shell Marine shell Bone b Figure 5-11. Material of a) production debr is and b) finished artifacts by site. CAN=Canc uen, DP=Dos Pilas, AG=Aguat eca, TA=Tamarindito, QCH=Quim Chi Hilan. 190

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191 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% CAN 1 (n=25) CAN 2 (n=18) CAN 3 (n=30) DP 1 (n=4) DP 2 (n=0) DP 3 (n=0) AG 1 (n=29) AG 3 (n=9) TA 1 (n=22) TA 2 (n=0) AP 1(n=8) QCH (n=0)% Debitage NIS P Freshwater shell Marine shell Bone a 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% CAN 1 (n=405) CAN 2 (n=17) CAN 3 (n=11) DP 1 (n=238) DP 2 (n=9)DP 3 (n=7)AG 1 (n=645) AG 3 (n=9) TA 1 (n=39) TA 2 (n=2)% Artifact NIS P Freshwater shell Marine shell Bone b Figure 5-12. Material of a) production debris and b) finished ar tifacts by status rank in Petexbatun sites. CAN=Cancuen, DP=Dos Pilas, AG=Aguateca, TA=Tamarindito, QCH=Quim Chi Hilan.

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CHA PTER 6 IDENTIFYING AND SOURCING NON-LOCA L MAYA ANIMAL REMAINS THROUGH STRONTIUM ISOTOPE (87SR/86SR) ANALYSIS Traditional zooarchaeological approaches to identifying regional and long-distance acquisition and exchange of faunal resources are based on the identif ication of exotic animals found outside their natural geograph ic ranges, or habitat zones. Within the Maya cultural region, this technique has primarily been used to identify movement of species such as quetzals ( Pharomachrus mocinno ), large felids and crocodiles ( Crocodylus sp.) between the highlands and lowlands of Mesoamerica (Emery 2002; Emery et al. in press; Moholy-Nagy 2004), and trade in marine and terrestrial species between the coast and the interior (e.g., Andrews 1969; Beaubien 2004; Emery 2003b, 2005, 2007; Gtz 2008; Hamblin 1984:97-141; Masson and Peraza Lope 2008; MoholyNagy 2004; Pollock and Ray 1957:650; Teeter 2004; Thornton and Emery in press). However, such methods are inadequate fo r identifying trade in species with large geographic distributions or broad habitat requirements, su ch as white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) and collared peccary ( Pecari tajacu ). When recovered at Maya archaeological sites, these species are often assumed to be local resources, but this assumption is questioned by ethnographic accounts of trade in deer haunches (Tozzer 1941) and suggestions of specialized hunting in less populated areas such as the Maya Mountains of Belize (McAnany 1989). These species may also have been exchanged and moved across the landscape through their use as tribute and ritual commodities. Highly modified bone artifacts are also difficult to classify as local versus non-local resources since these specimens often cannot be identified below the level of taxonomic class (e .g., Mammalia). 192

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Chemical analysis of zooarchaeological remains is one methodological adv ance with potential for identifying and sourcing non-local animal goods. Within Mesoamerica, trace element and stable isotope analysis has been used to successfully track prehistoric patterns of human mi gration (Buikstra et al. 2003; Price 2006; Price et al. 2000; Price et al. 2008; Price et al. 2010; Whit e et al. 2000; White et al. 2007; White et al. 1998; White et al. 2002; White et al. 2004; Wright 2005a, 2005b, 2007), and trade in ceramic (e.g., Cecil 2004; Foias and Bishop 1997; Halperin et al. 2009; Joyce et al. 2006; Nichols et al. 2002) and lithic commoditi es (e.g., Guderjan et al. 1989; Hammond et al. 1977; Healy et al. 1984; Kovacevich et al. 2005; Moholy-Nagy 2003; Rice 1984; Sheets et al. 1990; Smith et al. 2007). At archaeological sites outside Mesoamerica, such methods have also been used to source non-local fish (Dufour et al. 1999), fallow deer (Dama dama ) (Sykes et al. 2006) and shellfish (Claassen and Sigmann 1993; Eerkens et al. 2007; Shackleton and El derfield 1990; Vanhaerena et al. 2004). The application of similar methods to identify and source non-local animal resources in the Maya area has recently been suggested (Marcus 2003; White 2004), but this approach has not been adequately tested or implemented. Strontium isotope analysis is a promisi ng means of identifying and sourcing nonlocal faunal remains in Mesoamerica. Strontium ratios (87Sr/86Sr) in rock, soil, groundwater and vegetation vary according to a regions underlying bedrock (Faure and Powell 1972). As an animal feeds and drinks, the local 87Sr/86Sr value of the water, plants and animals consumed is recorded in its skeletal tissues (Graustein 1989; Sealy et al. 1991; Sillen and Kavanagh 1982). This o ccurs because strontium (Sr) substitutes for calcium (Ca) during bone mineralization (Likins et al. 1960; Nelson et al. 1986). 193

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Unlike light stable isotopes (e.g., 13C/12C, 15N/14N and 18O/16O), strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr) are incorporated into animal body tissues such as tooth, bone and shell without measurable fractionation, so signatures do not vary according to a species diet, body size, or metabolism (Blum et al. 2000; Pr ice et al. 2002). Theref ore, they closely match local plant, soil and water signatures. This makes strontium isotopes appropriate for use across a wide range of species using t he same baseline data. Moreover, distinct isotopic regions have already been ident ified within the Maya area based on the characterization of strontium isotope rati os in soil, water, bedrock and vegetation (Hodell et al. 2004). We can use these signatures as a starting point for identifying nonlocal animal resources at Maya archaeological sites. In the present study, I conducted an exploratory strontium isotope (87Sr/86Sr) analysis of Maya zooarchaeological remains to evaluate the potential of this method for studying ancient hunting ranges and exchange networks. Ar chaeological and modern faunal samples were tested from Maya ar cheological sites across the lowlands of Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras and Belize (F igure 6-1). The datas et includes microfauna with small home ranges such as rodents and terrestrial snails, assayed to confirm local baseline strontium signatures as well as larger-bodied species such as deer and peccaries, which may represent non-local co mmodities. The study provides a novel means of identifying regional and long-distance acquisition, or trade of animal resources, and also contributes to the growing body of bas eline strontium isotope data we currently have for Mesoamerica, thus in creasing our ability to use isotopic signatures to study the movement of prehistoric people and resources across the landscape. 194

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Strontium Isotope Geol og y in Mesoamerica The stable isotope 87Sr derives from the radioactive decay of rubidium (87Rb). In geological materials, t he relative abundance of 87Sr in comparison to 86Sr varies according to a rocks age and original 87Rb/87Sr composition. Although the 87Sr/86Sr value of rocks changes over time, this occurs at a timescale irrelev ant to archaeological investigations (87Rb half life = 4.88 x 1010 years). Therefore, the 87Sr/86Sr composition of rocks, soil, plants and animals in the arc haeological past is assumed to be the same as today. Within the Maya cult ural area, regions of distinct geology that vary in their 87Sr/86Sr signatures include the Northern and S outhern Lowlands, Volcanic Highlands, Pacific Coast, Maya Mountains, and the Me tamorphic Province (Figure 6-1). As background information for this study, I revi ew the isotopic geology of these major regions. A large portion of the Maya area is underlain by limestone bedrock. In general, the age of the limestone increases along a no rth to south gradient with more recent Eocene-Pleistocene limestone in Mexico s Yucatan Peninsula and older Late Cretaceous to Paleocene carbonates in the lowlands of Belize and northern Guatemala. The 87Sr/86Sr of marine carbonate rocks, such as limestone, is largely determined by the isotopic composition of seawater at the time the rock was formed. Since the 87Sr/86Sr of seawater has increased 0.0018 over the pas t 100 million years from 0.7074 in the Late Cretaceous to 0.7092 in modern seawater (Howarth and McArt hur 1997), strontium ratios also generally increase from south to north as the age of the carbonate bedrock decreases. In terms of cultural regions, this means that 87Sr/86Sr can be used to broadly distinguish between animals or iginating in the Northern (87Sr/86Sr = ~0.7080.7092, = 0.7088) versus Southern Lowlands (87Sr/86Sr = ~0.7070.7085, =0.7077) with some 195

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isotopic ov erlap (Hodell et al. 2004). Certain areas of the Maya lowlands, including northern Belize, and the Depar tments of Campeche, Quin tana Roo and Chiapas in Mexico have not yet been extensively studied. The Volcanic Highlands lie to the south of the Maya lowlands in what is now southern Guatemala. This area is characterized by relatively young volcanic rocks with the lowest 87Sr/86Sr values recorded within the Maya region (87Sr/86Sr = ~0.70380.7050, =0.7041) (Hodell et al. 2004). Similar strontium values are also found along the Pacific coast of Guatemala where soils ar e derived from highland volcanics. Although the volcanic highlands and Pacific coast are readily distinguis hed from most other regions of the Maya world, similar 87Sr/86Sr values are also found in the highland regions of Central Mexico near the site of Teotihuacan (Price et al. 2000; Price et al. 2008; White et al. 2007). Since the Maya are known to have had cultural interaction and exchange with societies in Central Mexico, th is area cannot be ruled out as a possible source location of humans and animals with 87Sr/86Sr values indicative of the volcanic highlands. Between the Volcanic Highlands and the carbonate lowlands, lies the Metamorphic Province (Hodell et al. 2004). 87Sr/86Sr in this area varies greatly (87Sr/86Sr = ~0.7041-0.7202, x =0.7074), but a narrower range has been reported for the Motagua River valley near the major archaeological site of Copan (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7042-0.7073, x =0.7060) (Hodell et al. 2004). Although the geol ogical diversity of the Metamorphic Province complicates strontium sourcing, non-local people or animals should be identifiable, especially at sites within the Motagua Valley. 196

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The high 87Sr/86Sr values (>0.7110) reported for certain pockets of the Metamorphic Province can also be found in the Maya Mountains of Belize (87Sr/86Sr = ~0.7119-0.7151, x = 0.7133) (Hodell et al. 2004). These represent the highest 87Sr/86Sr values reported for all of Mesoamerica. Since the volcanic and metamorphic Maya Mountains are surrounded by marine carbonates with much lower 87Sr/86Sr signatures, this region has great potentia l for identifying individuals and commodities which moved over relatively short distances between t he uplands of the Maya Mountains and the lowland areas surrounding them. Few baseli ne samples have been run from the margins of the Maya Mountains, where mi xed or highland-like st rontium signatures might occur due to the deposition of eroded ma terials derived from Maya Mountain formations. This possibility is supported by a preliminary study of archaeological humans and fauna from the upper Belize River Valley w here signatures of 0.7090 .07096 were observed (Freiwald and Price 2008; Yaeger and Freiwald 2006). Within Mesoamerica, strontium isotopes should therefore distinguish broadly between faunal resources originating in the Northern Lowlands, Southern Lowlands, Volcanic Highlands or Central Mexico Metamorphic Province, the Copan/Motagua River Valley, and the Maya Mountai ns. Depending on the scale of 87Sr/86Sr variation surrounding an archaeological site, fauna exhibiting significant variation from the local strontium signature may represent indivi duals acquired through trade, or extended longdistance hunting expeditions. The method has the greatest potential for application at archaeological sites located in transitional environmental and geological zones, or along major trade routes. 197

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Materials and Methods Site and Sample Descriptions I tested 131 zooarchaeological s pecimens drawn from four teen archaeological sites distributed across the Maya cultural region (Tables 6-1 and 6-2, Figure 6-1). The dataset includes taxa with small home ranges (<0.2 km2) such as landsnails and small mammals (Table 6-3), as well as largerbodied mammals including deer (Cervidae: Odocoileus virginianus Mazama sp.), dogs ( Canis lupus familiaris ), peccaries (Tayassuidae: Pecari tajacu Tayassu pecari ), and tapirs ( Tapirus bairdii ). With two exceptions (DP-8, Muridae; MSJ-16, Orthogeomys hispidus ) the vertebrate remains are archaeological, while the landsnails are re cent/modern. The landsnails (n = 23) and small-bodied mammals (n = 23) provide bas eline data for the si tes included in the analysis. Although geological (e.g., soil, bedr ock), hydrological and botanical samples may also be used to establish local 87Sr/86Sr values, low mobility animals with restricted home ranges more accurately reflect the expected local 87Sr/86Sr range for larger animal species such as deer or humans (Blum et al. 2000; Burton et al. 1999; Price et al. 2002; Sillen et al. 1998). This is true because as animals feed and drink, the more heterogeneous 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the local water, soil and plant resources are averaged in their skeletal tissues. The larger mammalian samples (n = 85) in my dataset represent important subsistence and ritual species that may have been traded, or acquired in areas far away from their eventual use and deposition. I cla ssify these specimens as primary samples and use the derived isotopic values to invest igate patterns of local versus non-local animal use. Large and medium-sized mammals include white-tailed deer, brocket deer, dogs, collared peccaries, white-lipped peccaries and tapirs. The samples range in age 198

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from Late Preclassic to Coloni al, although the majority of samples date to the Late and Terminal Classic. Samples were also sele cted from a wide range of residential and nonresidentia l contexts (e.g., middens, floor surfaces, fill deposits, burials, caches, and caves). Since the taxa selected as primary sample s may range over relatively large areas, it is first necessary to review these spec ies expected natural mobility based on home range size (Table 6-3) and dispersal distanc e. White-tailed deer, brocket deer, collared peccary, and tapir all have home range sizes of <3 km2 (Foerster and Vaughan 2002; Keuroghlian et al. 2004; Maffei and T aber 2003; Saenz and Vaughan 1998; SanchezRojas et al. 1997), while white-lipped peccari es range over larger areas (mean home range = ~24 km2) in search of food and water (Carr illo et al. 2002; Reyna-Hurtado et al. 2009). Dispersal distances for these species in tropical habitats are less well-known. In temperate regions of North America, male collared peccaries and white-tailed deer disperse <10 km (Halls 1984; Porter 2006). Tapirs in Costa Rica are reported to disperse an average of 18 km, but have been known to disperse as far as 30 km from their place of birth (A Brief His tory of Baird's Tapir Research www.fieldtripearth.org ). Dispersal distances for brocket deer are not report ed, but are inferred to be smaller than those of white-tailed deer. The dispersal di stance for white-lipped peccaries is also unreported. However, considering this s pecies large home range, i ndividuals may disperse over very long distances. In most areas of Mesoamerica, the scale at which strontium ratios vary across the landscape is greater than the inferred home range of these species. Therefore, strontium isot ope analysis should be able to distinguish between animals acquired locally, and thos e imported into a site through human 199

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agency. However, the wide-r anging behavior of white-lipped pecc aries may make them difficult to classify as local versus non-local animals in areas where strontium ratios vary significantly over distances of less than 50 km. For all primary samples, 87Sr/86Sr was measured from tooth enamel due to its greater resistance to diagenetic contaminat ion than bone (Koch et al. 1997; Nelson et al. 1986; Schwarcz and Schoeninger 1991; Si llen and Kavanagh 1982). Unlike bone, which remodels over time, the isotopic com position of tooth enamel is fixed after formation. The measured isotopic ratio theref ore reflects the local signature of where the animal fed and drank when the enamel mineralized. Six of the small mammal baseline samples were also run on tooth enam el, but the remaining nine samples (one modern and eight archaeological) were bone. To test the accuracy of my laboratory met hods, replicates were run on four primary white-tailed deer samples. In one case, samples were tak en from the same tooth (LA4), but in the remaining three specimens (L A-8, CO-4, DP-3), samples were collected from different teeth within the same mandibl e. Since the two teeth sampled from within each mandible mineralize at different ages, this procedure also served as a limited test of whether mobility within an individual animals lifetime could significantly affect their 87Sr/86Sr signature. Laboratory Methods Sample processing and preparation was don e in the Bone Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Anthropology at the University of Florida. Samples were manually cleaned with a toothbrush and dental pick to remo ve visible dirt and debris, sonicated in distilled water, and then mechanically cl eaned under 10x magnification with a fine dental drill (170 taper fissure carbide drill bit) to remove any discolored surfaces. 200

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Landsnail s pecimens were not mechanically cl eaned due to the fragile nature of their shells. After initial cleaning, enamel sample s (30mg) were removed from each tooth under magnification with a dental drill and further abraded to remove any adhering dentine. The samples were collected along t he entire crown height from the occlusal surface to slightly above the root. W henever possible, bone samples (~100mg) were taken from a fragment of co mpact cortical bone in an elements mid-shaft region. The exception to this was one modern baseline samp le (DP-8) from a rat (Muridae), in which the entire skeletal element wa s used. All bone samples were gently crushed into a fine powder with a mortar and pestle. Drill bits were changed between each sample, and the mortar and pestle was soaked in 1.0M hydrochl oric acid (HCl) to reduce the possibility of cross-sample contamination. The Department of Anthr opology Stable Isotope Laboratory at the University of Florida (J ohn Krigbaum, supervisor) provided all sample drilling and processing equipment. Sample pretreatment and strontium isolation was done in a University of Florida Department of Geological Sciences cl ass 1000 clean lab. Clean enamel pieces and bone powder were pretreated for 30 minutes in a 5% acetic acid solution to remove post-depositional contaminants, and rinsed to neutral with 4x distilled water. This method is generally considered to be an ef fective means of removing contaminants (e.g., Koch et al. 1997; Nielsen-Marsh and H edges 2000; Price et al. 1992; Sillen and Sealy 1995). Landsnail shells were pretreated with acetic acid for a slightly shorter time (20 minutes) to prevent excessive sample lo ss. After pretreatment, the samples were transferred to sterile Teflon beakers and hot-digested in 3 ml of 50% HNO3 (optima). 201

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Once diges ted, the samples were uncapped and le ft overnight in a sterile laminar flow fumehood to evaporate. Dried samples were re-dissolved in 3.5N HN03 the following day and loaded into cation exchange columns packed with strontium-selective crown ether resin to isolate strontium from other ions. Dissolved samples (200 l each) were added to each column and rinsed through four times with 100 l of 3.5N HNO3. After a final rinse with 1ml HNO3, the isolated strontium was colle cted in 1.5 ml 4x distilled H2O, which evaporated overnight. Sample 87Sr/86Sr was measured with at Microma ss Sector 54 thermal ionization mass spectrometer (TIMS) housed in the University of Florida, Gainesville Department of Geological Sciences. Multiple samples of the strontium st andard NBS-987 were run to confirm instrument accu racy. External precision of analysis was 0.00002 (2 sigma absolute) based on 314 analyses of NBS987. Eight additional baseline samples reported in this study were run by T. Dougl as Price in the Laboratory for Archaeological Chemistry at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. Definition of Local Strontium Signatures Local strontium values can be defined according to the absolute 87Sr/86Sr range observed in baseline geological or faunal samp les, but a more conservative approach is to define the local range as two standard deviations above and below the sites mean 87Sr/86Sr value (Price et al. 2002). For the majority of archaeol ogical sites in this study (n=10), the more conservative method was employed, with non-local animals identified as those falling outside two standard dev iations from the mean baseline fauna 87Sr/86Sr signature. Baseline data from sites within close proximity to each other (<15 km apart) were pooled. Local 87Sr/86Sr ranges were defined according to published baseline data 202

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for the sites of Caracol, Colha, El Mirador and Lubanntun due to a lack of available zooarchaeological baseline samples (Freiw ald and Price 2008; Hodell et al. 2004; Price et al. 2008; Price et al. 2010). Results All baseline data fell within the broad 87Sr/86Sr ranges defined for each geographic region (e.g., Northern Lowlands, Southern Lowla nds, Maya Mountains, etc.) by Hodell et al. (2004). In comparison to the baseline dat a, the majority of primary faunal samples (n = 66) were acquired locally, or in areas isot opically similar to their site of deposition. However, nine of the fourteen sites contain is otopic outliers (n = 19), including the sites of Lamanai, Motul de San Jos, Trinidad de Nosotros, Piedras Negras, Dos Pilas Aguateca, Caracol, Tipu and Copan. The fi ve remaining sites (Cancuen, Colha, Dzibilchaltun, El Mirador, and Lubaantun) do not show evidence of isotopic outliers. All of the baseline and primary samples from these five si tes closely match the local 87Sr/86Sr values reported in previous studies (H odell et al. 2004; Price et al. 2008; Price et al. 2010; Wright 2005a, 2007). Summary statistics for each site are presented in Table 6-2, and 87Sr/86Sr results are listed in Table 6-4. Figure 6-2 plots the observed baseline sample 87Sr/86Sr variation on a map of the Maya region. The following paragraphs will discuss results from sites with isotopic outliers in more detail. Motul de San Jos and Trinidad de Nosotros (Guatemala) The neighboring sites of Motul de San Jos (hereafter referred to as Motul) and Trinidad de Nosotros (hereafter referr ed to as Trinidad) were politically and economically linked through their participation in the larger Motul de San Jos polity. The larger site of Motul was the politys primary center, while the smaller lakeside 203

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community of Trinidad served as a secondar y satellite center, and possibly as a port for the movement of goods and materials through the Petn Lakes region of northern Guatemala (Moriarty 2004, 2004; Spensley 2007). These two sites will be discussed together due to their close geographic, political and economic associations. Pooled baseline samples (n = 14) from Motul and Trinidad generated a local 87Sr/86Sr range of 0.7073-0.7081 ( x = 0.7077) (Figures 63 and 6-4). One modern landsnail (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7069) was exclu ded when calculating the si tes local signature. The specimens low 87Sr/86Sr value was considered to be anomalous because it falls well below the average 87Sr/86Sr value ( x =0.7077) for the entir e Southern Lowlands (Hodell et al. 2004). Moreover, the Pet n Lakes region has been relatively wellsampled, with water, soil, bedrock and plant samples rangi ng from 0.7074-0.7081. Similar values have also been recorded ~30 km north of the lake at the site of Tikal (0.7078-0.7081) (Wright 2005a). C onsidering that all of the other baseline samples, including those recovered from proveniences near the anomalous landsnail, fall within the expected strontium range fo r the region, this landsnail is likely anomalous and not representative of the strontium values expected for larger animals in the region. Since landsnails burrow into the soil and have highly restricted home ranges, it is possible that this individual represents a very small isolated pocket of strontium variation. Although most of t he primary samples from Motul and Trinidad may be classified as local commodities, one wh ite-tailed deer from Motu l and one from Trinidad fall slightly below the local 87Sr/86Sr range (Figures 6-3 and 6-4). Two other deer from Motul and one from Trinidad also have relatively low 87Sr/86Sr values falling just within the local range, but below the minimum value recorded in the baseline samples (87Sr/86Sr = 204

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0.7075). These indiv iduals are identified as lo cal, but they may co me from outside the local area or region. When compared, the mean 87Sr/86Sr value of the Motul and Trinidad primary samples is significantly different from the mean of the baseline samples (p=0.009) even when the anomalous baseline sample (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7069) from Motul is included. The lowest Motul outlier comes from a Late Classic midden deposited within the sites main acropolis. However, other deer tested from nearby contexts within the acropolis have local signatures. The Trinid ad outlier was recovered from a residential group attached to the sites largest public plaza. This residential group has not been well-studied, but the deer may come from an elite or ritual deposit based on its association with other high st atus faunal remains including marine shells, crocodile and small felid remains, and several polished bon e artifacts (Thornton in press). A separate deer sampled from this same residentia l group also yielded a slightly lower 87Sr/86Sr value of 0.7073, falling just within the local range. Dos Pilas and Aguateca (Guatemala) Baseline samples from Dos Pilas (n=3) define the local 87Sr/86Sr range as 0.70730.7081 ( x = 0.7077) (Table 6-2, Figure 6-5). This is similar to other values (0.70750.7078) previously reported for the Pasin River region of the southwestern Petn (Hodell et al. 2004; Price et al. 2010). Appl ying these baseline data to the neighboring Petexbatn polity sites of Dos Pilas and Agua teca, one deer from each site is identified as non-local (Figures 6-5 and 6-6) In both cases, the deer have 87Sr/86Sr values (0.7066, 0.7069) falling slightly below those typical of the Southern Lowlands. The isotopic outlier from Aguateca was recover ed from the grieta a narrow, but deep limestone chasm bisecting the site. Archaeological investigation of the Aguateca grieta 205

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suggest that it was pri marily used for rit ual purposes (Ishihara 2007:372), similar to Maya cave sites (e.g., Brady 1997; Brady et al. 1997; Emery 2004a; Ishihara 2007). Another deer recovered from t he greita yielded a local signat ure, as did two perforated dog canine pendants found near the residence of an elite scribe living within the sites epicenter (Inomata and Stiver 1998:441). The non-local deer fr om Dos Pilas came from a Late Classic elite residentia l midden within the sites ep icenter, while the local deer and peccary remains came from a separate e lite residential midden, and ritual cave deposits located near the site. Piedras Negras (Guatemala) The site of Piedras Negras is located along the Usumacinta River near the modern border between Petn, Guatemala and Chiapas, Mexico. Landsnail and small mammal samples (n=7) from Piedras Negras have 87Sr/86Sr values ranging between 0.7075 and 0.7083 ( x = 0.7079) (Table 6-2, Figur e 6-7), similar to other 87Sr/86Sr averages reported for the site ( x = 0.7080) (Price et al. 2010:26 Figur e 10). Seven white-tailed deer and two peccaries were also sampled from t he site. All of the deer and one peccary have local 87Sr/86Sr signatures, while another pecca ry is outside the local range (87Sr/86S = 0.7072), identifying it as potent ially non-local (Figure 6-7). The non-local peccary comes from a Late Classic (A.D. 730) burial (burial 83) within the sites acropolis. Despite the burials location, the single adult fema le interred within the grave may have been sub-elite or non-elite in status due to the lack of grave goods and formal burial features (Golden 2002:269). The local animals at Pi edras Negras were recovered from residential and non-residential cont exts within the sites epicenter. The local animals come from non-burial contexts. 206

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Lamanai (Belize) Eight white-tailed deer were tested as pr imary samples from Lamanai. All of the deer were recovered from a large 15th c entury cache deposited inside a small (~5x5 m) ritual platform (structure N 10) in the middle of one of t he sites main ceremonial plazas. The cache contained the remains of over 34 white-tailed deer and several smashed Mayapan-style figurines, in addition to other faunal remains, ceramic artifacts, and lithic projectile points and blades (Stanchly 2007). Baseline data from the site define the local 87Sr/86Sr range as 0.7072-0.7087 ( x = 0.7080) (Table 6-2, Figure 6-8). Despite this broad range, four of the sampled deer have higher strontium values (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7092-0.7094), which identify them as non-local (Figure 6-8). The other four deer all fall within the local range for Lamanai, although one individual (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7074) is slightly lower then any of the sites baseline samples. This sample was tested twice with identical results (Table 6-4). This deer may also be non-local, but for this study, the criteria identify the deer as a locally acquired commodity. Caracol (Belize) Caracol is located approximately 15-20 km away from the fringes of the Maya Mountains. Ten deer and peccary samples from the site cluster closely around the mean 87Sr/86Sr value (0.7077) reported for m odern fauna collected in and around the archaeological site (Yaeger and Freiwald 2006). The local animals come from a variety of non-burial contexts within the sites epicenter. One pe ccary had a non-local strontium value (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7131) (Figure 6-9), which matches the elevated 87Sr/86Sr ratios found in the Maya Mountains. The animal was recovered from a Late Classic burial within the sites epicenter. 207

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Tipu (Belize) The site of Tipu is also located near the Maya Mountain s. However, unlike Caracol, which shows a lowland, carbonate-like 87Sr/86Sr signature, baseline specimens from Tipu are more similar to those from the Maya Mountains (87Sr/86Sr >0.710). One white-tailed deer and one collared peccary fall just below the local 87Sr/86Sr range (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7082, 0.7085), while two deer and one collared peccary fall above (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7202, 0.7282, 0.7316) (Figure 6-10). All of the local and non-local animals from Tipu come from Postcla ssic or Colonial residential c ontexts. There is no correlation between 87Sr/86Sr signatures and archaeologi cal structure, context or site location, as animals with both local and non-local 87Sr/86Sr values were found in closely associated deposits near several of the sites main structures. Copan (Honduras) Although Copan is located in the geolog ically diverse Metamorphic Province where strontium values can vary greatly, previous studies have identified a much narrower local strontium signature for the site (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7063-0.7074) (Buikstra et al. 2003; Price et al. 2008; Price et al. 2010; Price et al. 2007). According to this previously established range, three of t he four white-tailed deer are non-local. Tw o individuals fall above this range (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7089, 0.7123), while one falls below (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7046) (Figure 6-11). Two separate teeth (M1 and M3) were run from the deer with the lowest strontium value. Both teet h yielded nearly identical 87Sr/86Sr results (Table 6-4). Significantly, one of t he baseline samples (Agouti/Dasyprocta sp., 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7054) also falls below the local range usua lly reported for the site. Including this individual in the calculation of the local Copan 87Sr/86Sr signature results in a broader range (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7046-0.7079) than that used by previous studies. Using this 208

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broader, more conservative estimate, only two of the deer are non-loca l, and they both fall above the local range (Figure 6-11). All of the Copan baseline and primary faunal samples were recovered from the sites main acropolis. Most of the remains were interred within structural fill deposits, which mak es it difficult to assign them to par ticular cultural time period. However, based on ceramic and construction sequence chronolo gies, the remains are likely from the Early Classic (A.D. 400) (Bell et al. 2004). The deer with the highest 87Sr/86Sr signature was found in a disturbed royal tomb containing the remains of a middle-aged male (burial 92-2). Other grave goods found in the tomb include two complete ceramic vessels, jade and shell mosaic earflares, j ade and shell beads, whole spondylus shells, remnants of textiles or other organic material s, and a large marine shell collar (Patella mexicana) decorated with a j ade and shell mosaic depicting the bird deity Itzamnah (Bell et al. 2004:147-149). A similar mosaic collar was found in the Hunal tomb (burial 95-2), which is thought to contain the sites dynastic founder, Kinich Yax Kuk Mo (Bell et al. 2004:132-135). Discussion The 87Sr/86Sr isotope results presented above demonstrate that the data are a promising means to identify and source non-local animal remain s. Although most of the faunal resources in the sample were acquire d locally, non-local isotopic outliers were present at the sites of Motul de San Jos, Trinidad de Nosotros, Dos Pilas, Aguateca, Piedras Negras, Lamanai, Caracol, Ti pu, and Copan. Regiona l and long distance acquisition and exchange of faunal resource s among the ancient Maya, may therefore have been more common than previously assumed. As a whole, the dataset also expands our knowledge of 87Sr/86Sr variation across the Maya lowlands. The results 209

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indic ate that local 87Sr/86Sr variation in certain areas of the Maya lowlands may be greater than previously repor ted. Moreover, the animals c onsumed as dietary resources may have had fairly diverse 87Sr/86Sr signatures as a result of local and regional geological variation, or long-distanc e acquisition of animal commodities. In the following paragraphs, I will first discuss the site-specific interpretations of the 87Sr/86Sr results. The results will then be cont extualized within a discussion of how the findings contribute to our under standing of ancient Maya trade and acquisition of animal resources. Finally, I will discuss how the dataset may be used to inform future studies of human migration and mobility in Mesoamerica, by establishi ng the biological strontium signature of known dietary commodities. Site Interpretations: Geological Variat ion and Possible Sources of Non-local Animals Motul de San Jos and Trinidad de Nosotros One explanation for the isotopic outliers at Motul and Trinidad is that they come from somewhere outside the S outhern Lowlands. If this is the case, the most likely source location is the Metamorphic Provin ce near Copan, which has lower strontium values than those recorded for the Southern Lowlands. The distance from the Petn Lakes region near Motul and Trinidad to t he Metamorphic Province (~200+ km) precludes the possibility that these animals were directly procured by the sites inhabitants through extended, long-distance hunting trips. Inst ead, it seems more likely that these faunal resources were obtained through long distance exchange networks. However, another possible expla nation for the isotopic outliers is that there is an area of lower strontium values within the Sout hern Lowlands, and possibly within the Petn Lakes region that has not ye t been identified through baseline sampling. This possibility 210

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is partially supported by the lack of correlation between the mean 87Sr/86Sr values for the sites primary and baseline samples. Although most of the primary samples fall within two standard deviations of the mean baseline value, the primary samples cluster at the lower end of this r ange. This could mean that 87Sr/86Sr values found within a few kilometers of these sites average clos er to 0.7072-0.7074 rat her than 0.7076-0.7079 since larger-bodied mammals with larger hom e ranges will average strontium values over a broader area than those with smaller home ranges. The results could also mean that large-bodied deer and peccary were hunt ed in forested areas located at some distance from the sites due to the local ex tirpation of these species through hunting pressure, and/or deforestation. Although previous research has not recorded local 87Sr/86Sr values below 0.7074 from within the Petn Lakes region, nor within most of the Southern Lowlands (Hodell et al. 2004; Price et al. 2008; Price et al. 2010; Wright 2005a), we cannot completely rule out the po ssibility that there is a larger area of slightly lower strontium values located somew here in the Petn Lakes region. If such an area is identified through future testing, it w ould further facilitate fi ne-grained analysis of human migration, trade and hunti ng catchment areas within th is important and heavily populated region of the ancient Maya world. Pasin River sites: Dos P ilas, Aguateca and Cancuen Strontium outliers from the Pasin River sites of Dos Pilas and Aguateca also have lower 87Sr/86Sr values (<0.7070) similar to those found in the Metamorphic Province. Unlike the site of Motul, where all of the primary samples trend towards the lower end of the local stront ium range, the other deer and peccaries tested from Dos Pilas and Aguateca all have 87Sr/86Sr signatures that closely match the local baseline. The two isotopic outliers therefore likely represent non-local deer obtained through long 211

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distance exchange, as the Metamorphic Pr ovince is located over 100 km away. Acquis ition of non-local resour ces from the Metamorphic r egion should not be surprising since the Pasin River served a major tr ade route connecting the geologically and ecologically distinct volcanic highlands and southern lowlands. The movement of highland commodities such as jade, obsidi an, and ceramics into the Pasin River sites and beyond is already well-documented (Arnaul d 1990; Demarest 2006; Kovacevich et al. 2005). It is also possible that animal pr oducts such as meat, hides, feathers and bone artifacts were traded along this route, but prior to this study, it has not been possible to document the movement of anima l commodities between resource zones. The site of Cancuen is also thought to have played an import ant role in the highland-lowland trade route following the course of the Pasin River. Cancuen is strategically located near the boundary between these two resource zones, and at the start of where the Pasin River becomes navi gable via canoe. Previous investigations at the site also suggest that Cancuen might have served as a trade hub, which gained its economic power and status through the control of resources moving along this route (Demarest 1999; Demarest and Barrientos 2003; Kovacevich 2007; Kovacevich et al. 2005). However, no primary faunal samples fr om Cancuen were obtained from outside the Southern Lowlands even though a larger num ber of primary samples (n = 12) was tested from this site. It is possible that animal commodities from the Metamorphic region entered Cancuen, but were then di stributed to larger, primary centers in the region such as Dos Pilas and Aguateca. Regardless, bas ed on the current dataset, there is no evidence that the inhabitants of Cancuen acquired animal commodities from the 212

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highland or metamorphic regi ons to the south, despite their proximity and economic connections to these resource zones. Piedras Negras Located along the Usumacinta River, the site of Piedras Negras is also strategically situated along a major trade route running between the highlands and lowlands and on to the Atlantic Gulf coast. Si milar to the Pasin River sites, the isotopic outlier from Piedras Negras may be from the Metamorphic Province. Other possible source locations include an unidentified r egion of the Southern Lowlands with slightly lower 87Sr/86Sr values as suggested for the site s of Motul and Trinidad. The region surrounding Piedras Negras has not been extens ively sampled so the local and regional 87Sr/86Sr range is not well-known. This is espec ially true for the D epartment of Chiapas in southern Mexico, which borders the site of Piedras Negras to the west. However, since average 87Sr/86Sr values for human and/or moder n fauna from a few isolated noncoastal sites in eastern Chiapas typicall y range from 0.7077 to 0.7082 (Price et al. 2010:26 Figure 10), it may be equally likely that the isotopic outlier at Piedras Negras was acquired from outside the local area, and possibly from within the highland metamorphic regions located over 100 km away. Lamanai The strongest evidence for non-local animal acquisition comes from the site of Lamanai, where four of the ei ght white-tailed deer sampled from a Postclassic cache were identified as non-local. Based on t heir association with trade goods from the northern Yucatan, and specific ally the site of Mayapan (Norbert Stanchly, personal communication), the non-local deer found in the cache were also expected to come from the Northern Lowlands. Moreover, ceramic and iconographic evidence indicates 213

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that Lamanai maintained strong trade connect ions with the coastal site of Marco Gonzalez located on Ambergris Caye (Graham and Pendergast 1989; Pendergast 1990). Through this economic association, Lamanai had access to trade goods moving along maritime trade routes connecting centers in the northern Yucatan Penninsula with sites in the Southern Maya Lowlands. At first glance, the four non-local deer from Lamanai appear to fall within the upper end of the 87Sr/86Sr range reported for the Northern Lowlands (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7080 0.7092, x = 0.7088) (Hodell et al. 2004). Although t he deer may come fr om the northern Yucatan, the direct association with t he site of Mayapan is less clear. Five archaeological white-tailed deer sampled from Mayapan all had 87Sr/86Sr values below 0.7090 ( x = 0.70886) (Wright 2007). This agrees with values obtained from plant, soil, water, and bedrock samples surrounding the site (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70896-0.70908), although slightly lower values (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7078-0.7080) were also recorded ~15-20 km south of Mayapan (Gilli et al. 2009). In contrast, the Lamanai deer all have 87Sr/86Sr values similar to, or slightly above that of modern seawater (0. 7092). If they were acquired from the northern Yucatan, they th erefore likely came from a site located closer to the coast were soils are derived from recent Pleistocene carbonate deposits. Another possible source location that has not been widely discussed in the strontium isotope literature for Mesoamerica, is the upper Belize River Valley. This area is located ~70 km southwest of Lamanai, and includes the transitional zone between the Maya Mountains and the lowland areas of northern Belize. Fi ve archaeological white-tailed deer reported from the site of San Lorenzo, Belize have 87Sr/86Sr values (0.7090 0.7096) similar to the outliers found at Lamanai (Yaeger and Freiwald 2006). 214

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Although it is possible that these deer are also non-loc al co mmodities obtained from the northern Yucatan, the 87Sr/86Sr values could also repres ent a mixed isotopic signature from the Maya Mountains and the limestone areas su rrounding them. This seems feasible as other deer from San Lorenzo have 87Sr/86Sr values that fall slightly lower and higher than these intermediate signatures. Moreover, th ree of the four non-local Lamanai deer have 87Sr/86Sr values exceeding those of modern seawater, and the maximum values reported for geological sample s from the northern lowlands (Gilli et al. 2009; Hodell et al. 2004). The most parsimonious explanation therefor e may be that the non-local deer from Lamanai orig inated from sites bordering t he Maya Mountains in the Upper Belize River Valley, rather than fr om the northern Yuca tan. Regardless of whether the non-local deer with elevated strontium values at Lamani originated from the northern Yucatan, or the Belize River Valley, it is clear that they were brought into the site as trade or tribute items since the high strontium values cannot have been derived from the local geology. However, it is less clear whether they entered the site as part of whole carcasses, which were possibly used in feasting, or as isolated crania, which may have been used as ceremonial item s or as part of costumes. The other four white-tailed deer sampled from the Lamanai cache appear to be locally-acquired resources, although they c ould originate from any where within northern Belize since strontium isotopes cannot distin guish between animals from different areas with equivalent isotopic ratios. The deer with the lowest strontium value (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7074) could also have come from the cent ral or southern Petn region of Guatemala because it also matches 87Sr/86Sr values found in that area. This possibility should not be ruled out considering the presence of other non-local deer in the cache. As a 215

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feasting or other ritual-based deposit, the cache may contain items extracted as tribute, or presented as gifts from other si tes or regions. Local scarcity of deer due to hunting pressure could also have necessitated acquisi tion of deer from outside the local area to meet dietary or ritual demands. The low strontium values (i.e., <0. 7080) found in one deer and three baseline samples from Lamanai are somewhat unex pected based on the local geology, since they appear more similar to carbonate rock a nd soil values found in the slightly older limestone regions of central and southern Petn, Guatemala. The lower signatures also fall below values reported for other sites in northern Belize (e.g., Colha = 0.7083, Nohmul = 0.7086) (Thornton, orig inal data; Price et al. 2010) However, northern Belize is one of the least sampled areas of the Ma ya world in terms of strontium isotope analysis. Hodell et al. (2004) do not report geological, plant or water samples from this area, and the closest human and animal str ontium isotope studies have been conducted in the upper Belize River Valley (Freiwald and Price 2008). The baseline samples from Lamanai therefore expand our knowledge of local strontium variation in this underreported region. There could be a geologic al boundary near Lamanai that has not yet been identified isotopically, or the variation could be derived from local water resources. Three water samples from southern Quintana Roo, Mexico had 87Sr/86Sr values of ~0.7076, while a local surface bedrock sample had a much higher value of 0.7085 (Hodell et al. 2004). It is ther efore possible that some of the local water sources near Lamanai reflect the signature of subsurfa ce bedrock, which may differ in age and isotopic composition from the surface geology. More baseline sampling is needed within the region to confirm the areas range of isotopic variation. If distinct isotopic boundaries 216

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can be identified within a relatively short dist ance from the site, it w ould allow us to study small-scale movement s of people and animals acro ss the landscape. However, since the lower strontium values at the site overlap with those c haracteristic of the central and southern Petn, it could be difficult to differentiate between people and resources originating from t hese two neighboring regions. Sites bordering the Maya Mountains: Caracol and Tipu Archaeological sites located in and ar ound the Maya Mountains of Belize have great potential in terms of strontium isotope research bec ause the Maya Mountains are isotopically distinct from the lowland areas surrounding t hem. This allows for the sourcing of people and resources over a relatively small geographic scale. Ancient populations are already known to have used the Maya Mountains as an important source of resources such as granite (Shi pley and Graham 1989), quartz and slate. The area may also have served as a source of wild game (McAnany 1989), since it is relatively less populated t han the surrounding lowlands. At the site of Caracol, a single peccary had a 87Sr/86Sr signature characteristic of the Maya Mountains. Although the animal was acquired non-locally, the animal does not represent a long-distance trade item since Ca racol lies in close proximity to the Maya Mountains. It is possible that the animal was obtained through regional excursions into the highland areas specifically for hunti ng, or for obtaining other resources. Unfortunately, the peccary could not be identi fied to the species level, which further complicates the definition of this resource as a non-local commodity. The distance between Caracol and the Maya Mountains (~1520 km) exceeds the typical home range and dispersal distance of collared peccaries, but is smaller than t hose reported for the much wider ranging white-lipped peccary. If the specimen comes from a white-lipped 217

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peccary, the animal may have been born in the Maya Mountains before moving out of the highlands and towards the site of Cara col where it could have been captured and killed. Without a large portion of the mandible or maxilla, it is difficult to identify archaeological peccar y remains to the specieslevel. In regions where strontium values vary at relatively small scales (i.e., <50 km) isolated peccary teeth may not be appropriate samples to source using stront ium isotopes. Despite the peccarys possible local provenance, the fact t hat the individual was found in an elite human burial context means that more effort could have gone into obtaining this commodity through longdistance hunting excursions, or regional trade and tribute netwo rks. This possibility is reinforced by the local 87Sr/86Sr signatures found in all other animals from the sites nonburial contexts. The five non-local deer and peccaries identifi ed at Tipu also represent local and/or regional resources rather than long-distance trade items since 87Sr/86Sr values surrounding Tipu, and other sites on the nor thern edge of the Maya Mountains, vary over relatively short distances. With addition al baseline sampling, it may be possible to reconstruct hunting territories and resource ca tchment areas at a very fine scale within the region. For example, t he deer and peccaries with lower 87Sr/86Sr values (i.e., <0.7090) likely to come from the lowland valleys surrounding Tipu, while the deer and peccaries with higher values (>0.7090) come from upland regions closer to the site, and from within the mountain pine ri dge habitats found at higher elevations. In particular, the extremely high 87Sr/86Sr values (>0.7200) found in some of the Tipu fauna may be from a geographically constrained r egion with distinct geology wit hin the Maya Mountains. This suggestion would have to be confirm ed through extensive isotopic sampling. 218

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The existence of a mi xed isotopic zone in the upper Belize River valley with 87Sr/86Sr values intermediate between those of the Maya Mountains, and the carbonate lowlands is also confirmed in the Tipu sample. Two tapirs had 87Sr/86Sr ratios between 0.7095 and 0.7099, and slightly lower mix ed values (e.g., 0.7090.7094) have been reported for other archaeological fauna from the area (Yaeger and Freiwald 2006). At sites located outside of west-central Belize, humans and animals with such signatures could be misinterpreted as or iginating from the northern Yucatan. Previous isotopic studies of human mobility in Mesoameric a have not addressed this possibility. Copan Despite its location in the geologically di verse Metamorphic Province, the site of Copan has received considerab le attention in terms of strontium isotope analysis (Hodell et al. 2004; Krueger 1985; Price et al. 2008; Price et al. 2010; Price et al. 2007). The earliest application of str ontium isotopes at Copan, and in fact all of Mesoamerica, was conducted by Hal Krueger (1985) on se ven archaeological faunal samples including three deer, two peccaries, one pum a (Puma concolor) and one paca (Table 65). Five of these samples fall within, or sli ghtly below the local range typically cited for Copan (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7063-0.7074) (Buikst ra et al. 2003; Hodell et al. 2004; Price et al. 2010), but the puma and one of the deer have much higher values (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7089 and 0.7090). Based on these signatures, t he puma and deer have been interpreted as non-local commodities (Krueger 1985) possibl y obtained from the northern Yucatan or from somewhere south of the Maya cult ural region (Price et al. 2010). The two peccaries with lower values (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7055-0.7058) were interpreted as local resources (Krueger 1985) alt hough they fall below the local range used by studies of 219

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human mobility at Copan (Buikstra et al. 2003; Price et al. 2008; Price et al. 2010; Price et al. 2007). Interestingly, the range of strontiu m values found in Kruegers original zooarchaeological dat aset from Copan is very similar that observed in my own. The two clear isotopic outliers in my dataset have 87Sr/86Sr values falling well above the currently established baseline signature fo r Copan. The highest signature (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7123), comes from a white-tailed deer in a disturbed royal tomb. Based on its strontium value, the tomb deer could have come from the Maya Mountains in Belize. The white-tailed deer with the second highest signature (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7089) may also come from a distant region such as the northern Yucatan, or somewhere to the east, outside of the Maya region. Although technically not an outlier, the white-tailed with the lowest 87Sr/86Sr value (0.7046) may also be non-local since its signature matc hes that of the volcanic highlands, and falls below many of t he values previously reported for Copan. In all cases, animals originating from any of these distant regions would be considered long-distance trade items. The presence of numerous non-local animal commodities at Copan could be attributed to the sites economic and political power and vast trade connections. However, there is strong ev idence for deforestation and environmental degradation within the Copan valley (Abrams et al. 1996; Whittington and Reed 1997; Wingard 1996). When combined with hunting pressure, these environmental factors could have resulted in a scarcity of lar ge game species such as deer. Although the Maya could have turned to other, perhaps sm aller-bodied prey, the importance of deer to the Maya elite as a ritual and dietar y commodity (Emery 2003b, 2006; Pohl 1985b, 220

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1985; Pohl 1981, 1983) could have motivated t hem to obtain this preferred resource through ext ended tribute or trade networks. However, there are other locations closer to Copan that could have served as the source for these isotopic outliers. Within the Metamorphic Province, and even within the Motagua Valley, 87Sr/86Sr values as low as 0.7043, and as high as 0.7202 have been recorded in plant, rock and water samples (Hodell et al. 2004). Although animals within a region should show more homogeneous 87Sr/86Sr values than those found in geological, or plant samples (Price et al. 2002), the presence of highly variable 87Sr/86Sr values within 25-50 km of Copan suggests t hat the isotopic outliers could have been obtained in an area of the Metamor phic region to the north or west of Copan. If this is the case, the fauna still represent non-local res ources, but ones that were acquired at a regional, rather than long-distance or inter-regional scale. Although it is impossible to say for sure, it seems likely that all of the isotopic outliers came from areas outside the Copan Valley, but within the relative ly nearby Metamorphic Province. Faunal Resource Trade and Acquisition Patterns To interpret the strontium isotope results more broadly in terms of ancient Maya animal resource acquisition patterns and exchange networks, it is necessary to consider how far the animal resources were moving across the landscape, what parts of the animals were moving, and what the motiva tion might have been for acquiring non-local animal commodities. Of these three questions, the distance at which animal resources were acquired is the most important, sinc e the distance may determine the types of animal commodities that were moved and t he level and type of economic organization involved in obtaining them. Fo r example, faunal resources originating from within 15-20 km of a site could have been acquired directly through extended hunting excursions, or 221

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through regional tribute and exch ange networks established at th e polity-level. At these distances, perishable subsistenc e resources such as meat could have been moved and, or traded. In contrast, resour ces originating from over 50 km away were likely obtained through long-distance trade networks designed to move resources between polities, or between the major ecological resource zones of the Maya world. Although salt may have been used to preserve meat (Valdez and Mock 1991), faunal resources transported over very long distances more likely included non-dietary commodities such as bone and shell that could have been used as ritual items, parts of costumes or regalia, personal adornments, containers, or tools. Depending on a regions geolog y, strontium isotopes in Mesoamerica may be able to identify resources obtained within just a fe w kilometers from a site, all the way up to several hundred kilometers away. The method therefore has applications to study both regional (e.g., <25-30 km from a site), and long-distance, or inter-regional (e.g., >50 100 km from a site) faunal acquisition and exchange. However, it is important to emphasize that the method c annot distinguish between loca l and non-local resources obtained from areas that ar e isotopically similar. The best evidence for acquisition of faunal resources from source areas over at least 50 km away was found at the site of Lamanai where wh ite-tailed deer were acquired from either the northern Yucatan, or the upper Belize River Valley. Other probable examples of long distance acquisiti on were identified at the Usumacinta and Pasin River sites of Piedras Negras, Do s Pilas and Aguateca, and possibly at the Petn Lakes sites of Motul de San Jos and Tr inidad de Nosotros. In these cases, the likely source area of the non-local animals was the Metamorphic Province. At the site of 222

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Copan, the isotopic outliers could represent extreme cases of long-distance trade between the northern Yuca tan and the Metamorphic Province over 600 km to the south. However, additional baseline sampling needs to be done in the areas surrounding Copan to determine whether the isotopic out liers could also represent regionallyacquired resources, and if so, how far aw ay from Copan they likely originated. Evidence for regional faunal acquisition or exchange comes from the sites of Caracol and Tipu, which are located near a boundary between two isotopically distinct areas. At a regional scale, it is more diffi cult to determine whether the animals were directly procured by the sites inhabitants through long-distance hunting excursions, or indirectly through trade and tribute networks. Direct procurement may seem like the simpler explanation, but the existence of c onscripted hunting territories within densely settled regions of the Maya lowlands cannot be discounted. Hunter s might be physically capable of traveling very l ong distances, but political an d economic boundaries could have limited their movement to smaller terri tories around a particular site. Moreover, other lines of archaeological evidence suggest exchange of goods and commodities, including faunal resources (Carr 1996; Em ery 1999; Hamblin and Rea 1985; Pohl 1990; Wing and Scudder 1991) at t he regional level. Based on the current dataset, it is clear that faunal resources such as deer and peccary were not exclusively local commodities However, it is less clear whether these animals were being moved and traded as whol e or partial caracasses for dietary consumption, or as secondary animal products (e.g., hides crania, teeth) intended for use as ceremonial items, or raw material for artifact production. To avoid potential problems of diagenesis in bone, tooth enamel wa s used for all primary samples. Due to 223

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this methodological c onstraint, the current dataset can only prov ide evidence for the local or non-local acquisition of animal teeth or crania. In the case of regional resources, the teeth and/or crania could have entered a site as part of a whole animal, but over greater distances this may not have been the case. An example of this can be seen in the Lamanai cache, which contained mainly cranial remains (Stanchly 2007). It is possible that each of the cache deer entered the site whole, and the cranial and postcranial remains were disposed of differently, but it is also possible that the crania were specifically brought into the si te and deposited in the cache as ceremonial items, or as part of ceremonial costumes. All other non-local deer and peccary were found in association with post-cranial remains that may or may not belong to the non-local individual. Future applications of str ontium isotope analysis to zooarchaeological remains should include the analysis of major meat-bearing elements as well as modified bone artifacts to determine what animal products were being transported and exchanged. Although diagenesis could be an i ssue, this problem could be controlled through measurement of elemental uranium (e.g., Price et al. 2000; Stuart-Williams and Schwarcz 1997), or Ca/P ratios (e.g., Knudson and Buikstra 2007; Lee-Thorp and Sponheimer 2003; Price et al. 1994). Nearly all of the primary samples came from deposits within the various sites epicenters. The dateset theref ore primarily reflects elite animal acquisition and trade. Non-local deer and peccaries were found in a variety of contexts including burials (Copan, Piedras Negras, Caracol), elite resident ial middens (Dos Pilas, Tipu, Trinidad de Nosotros), a ceremonial cache ( Lamanai) and a cave-like deposit (Aguateca). Significantly, all of the anima ls tested from human burials or tombs were identified as 224

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non-local commodities The small number of burials (n = 3) in cluded in this study could skew the results, but this is an area that requires further inve stigation. Elite burials often contain other non-local animal resources such as marine shells, pearls and stingray tail spines (Beaubien 2004; Coe 1959; Emery 2 005; Moholy-Nagy 2004; Pohl 1983). It would be interesting to dete rmine whether many of the ot her taxa often included in human burials such as deer, turkeys, dogs, pe ccaries and large felids were also nonlocal. If so, this would suggest that the distan ce and effort involved in obtaining burial goods, or the personal and community relationships that such acquisition implied, was as if not more important than the types of species interred. Similar questions arise from the non-local white-tailed deer identified in the Lamanai ceremonial cache. Larger samples of fauna drawn from a wide variety of contexts are needed to pursue this line of inquiry. Combined with an expanded analysis of faunal remains r epresenting dietary and non-dietary resources, strontium isot ope analysis could be used to determine whether regional and long-distan ce trade in animal products primarily served to supply the Maya elite with high status ceremonial it ems or preferred dietar y resources, or as a more practical means of redistributing subsis tence resources to all social classes. Implications for Human Mobili ty Studies in Mesoamerica At the majority of sites tested, arc haeological animal remains had more variable 87Sr/86Sr values than predicted by previous isotopic research focused on human mobility (Price et al. 2008; Price et al. 2010; Wright 2005a). This was especially true for largebodied prey species such as deer and peccaries. This finding is not all together unexpected since large-bodied species tend to range over wider, and possibly more geologically varied areas than smaller-bodies taxa (Price et al. 2002). However, the isotopic outliers identified in the sample exceed the amount of local variation we would 225

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expect to fi nd in the fauna from around each archaeological site. The observed variation is likely due to the use of non-local anima l resources, and previously unrecognized areas of isotopic variation within the Maya region. Based on these results, the strontiu m isotope composition of human dietary resources may have been much broader than pr eviously thought. A similar possibility has been suggested by Wright (2005) who hypothesized that consumption of imported marine salt could elevate human 87Sr/86Sr values above the expec ted local geological signature. These findings have consequences for human mobility and migration studies within Mesoamerica. If dietary commodities with non-local 87Sr/86Sr signatures were included in the ancient human di et with any regularity, it c ould inflate the number of nonlocal human individuals identified at each si te. The findings therefore suggest the need for increased baseline sampling of both large and small-bodied animals as a basis for human isotope interpretation. Moreover, the f auna should be archaeological rather than modern since we cannot assu me that the fauna consumed by ancient populations were acquired in the immediate vici nity of the site. Both of the these suggestions have been made previously (Price et al. 2002; Price et al. 1994; Sillen et al. 1998), but studies of human migration in Mesoamerica still often re ly on small-bodied (Price et al. 2000), and/or modern (Price et al. 2010; Wright 2005a) fauna collected at or near the site to establish biogenic strontiu m isotope ratios. The current dataset is also relevant to studies of human mobility by providing baseline data from previously under-sampled ar eas of the Maya lowlands. In particular, strontium data is provided for northern Belize (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7075-0.7086), the Upper Belize River Valley (0.7082-0.7134), and the Usumacinta River valley near Piedras 226

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227 Negras (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7072-0.7083). The results bot h confirm and expand previous estimates of local 87Sr/86Sr values for these regions. Ar chaeological fauna reported from Copan may also expand the local 87Sr/86Sr signature previously reported from geological samples, human skeletal remain s, and modern fauna (Buikstra et al. 2003; Hodell et al. 2004; Price et al. 2010). Summary Strontium isotope analysis of Maya zooarc haeological remains confirms that most faunal resources were acquired locally. Howe ver, isotopic outliers at the sites of Lamanai, Caracol, Tipu, Copan, Motul de San Jos, Trinidad de Nosotros, Dos Pilas, Aguateca, and Piedras Negras indicate that regional and long di stance exchange of faunal resources may have been more common than previously assumed. As baseline data for the Maya region increases, this method may shed additional light on faunal resource acquisition and exch ange, especially since this method may be applied to highly modified bone and toot h artifacts, and wide-rangi ng species such as deer, peccaries, large felids, and dogs, which we are usually unable to source using traditional zooarchaeological methods. As a whole, the stront ium dataset also contributes to the rapidly growing database of strontium isotope data available for the Maya area. This will inform future studies of human migration in Mesoamerica, by establishing the biological strontium signature of known dietary commodities.

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Table 6-1. List of sites and zooarchaeologi c al assemblages included in the study Site (country) Primary zooarchaeologista,b Location of comparative collections used to identify the zooarchaeological assemblage Reference(s) Dzibilchaltun (Mexico) Wing Florida Museum of Natural History Wing and Steadman (1980) Colha (Belize) Wing Florida Museum of Natural History none Lamanai (Belize) Emery Royal Ontario Museum Emery (1990; 1999) Tipu (Belize) Emery Royal Ontario Museum Emery (1990; 1999) Caracol (Belize) Teeter Florida State Museum, UCLA Fowler Museum Teeter (2001) Lubaantun (Belize) Wing Florida Museum of Natural History Wing (1975) El Mirador (Guatemala) Thornton Florida Museum of Natural History Thornton and Emery (in press) Motul de San Jos (Guatemala) Emery Florida Museum of Natural History Emery (in press) Trinidad de Nosotros (Guatemala) Thornton Florida Museum of Natural History Thornton (in press; this volume) Dos Pilas (Guatemala) Emery Roya l Ontario Museum Emery (1997) Aguateca (Guatemala) Emery Royal Ontario Museum Emery (1997) Piedras Negras (Guatemala) Emery Royal Ontario Museum Emery (2007a) Cancuen (Guatemala) Thornton Florida Museum of Natural History Thornton (this volume) Copan (Honduras) Emery Florida Museum of Natural History Emery (2005) NOTES: a Wing=Elizabeth S. Wing (Curator Emeritus, Environmental Ar chaeology, Florida Museum of Natural History), Emery=Kitty F. Emery (Associate Curator, Environmental Archaeology, Florida Museum of Natural History), Teeter=Wendy Giddens Teeter (Curator of Archaeology, Fowler Museum of Cultural History, University of California Los Angeles), Thornton=Erin Kennedy Thornton (Dept. of Anthropology, University of Florida). b Thornton used Florida Museum of Natural History comparative collections to verify all taxonomic identifications made by other researchers. 228

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229 Table 6-2. Summary of stront ium isotope dataset including 87Sr/86Sr mean and range for prim ary and baseline samples Primary samples: Baseline samples: Site (country) Total # of samplesa # Primary samplesa # Baseline samples 87Sr/86Sr range Mean 87Sr/86Sr 87Sr/86Sr range Mean 87Sr/86Sr Dzibilchaltun (Mexico) 2 2 3b 0.7089 0.7089 0.7089-0.7090 0.7090 Colha (Belize) 2 2 1b 0.7082-0.7083 0.7083 0.7082 Lamanai (Belize) 14 8 6 0.7074-0.7094 0.7087 0.7076-0.7086 0.7080 Tipu (Belize) 14 11 3 0.7082-0.7316 0.7140 0.7106-0.7134 0.7116 Caracol (Belize) 11 11 0 0.7076-0.7131 0.7082 Lubaantun (Belize) 4 4 1b 0.7074-0.7078 0.7076 0.7069 El Mirador (Guatemala) 2 2 1b 0.7080 0.7080 0.7079 Motul de San Jos (Guatemala) 15 6 9 0.7072-0.7074 0.7074 0.7069-0.7081c 0.7077c Trinidad de Nosotros (Guatemala) 5 5 6b 0.7069-0.7076 0.7074 0.7075-0.7078c 0.7076c Dos Pilas (Guatemala) 8 5 3 0.7066-0.7078 0.7074 0.7075-0.7079 0.7077 Aguateca (Guatemala) 4 4 0 0.7069-0.7077 0.7074 Piedras Negras (Guatemala) 16 9 7 0.7072-0.7078 0.7077 0.7075-0.7083 0.7079 Cancuen (Guatemala) 15 12 3 0.7073-0.7076 0.7074 0.7072-0.7076 0.7074 Copan (Honduras) 7 4 3 0.7046-0.7123 0.7081 0.7054-0.7070 0.7063 TOTAL 131 85 46 NOTES: a Tallies do not include four duplicate samples run from Copan (n=1), Dos Pilas (n=1) and Lamanai (n=2) to confirm methodological and sample quality. b Includes samples from the FLMNH Environmenta l Archaeology Program collections run by T. Douglas Price reported here under a data-sharing agreement. c Pooled baseline samples from Motul de San Jos and Trinidad de Nosotros had a local 87Sr/86Sr range of 0.7073-0.7081 ( x = 0.7077) with removal of one anomalous baseline sample.

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Table 6-3. Home range size of non-dom estic mammals i ncluded in the study Taxa (scientific name) Common name Home range (km2) Reference Didelphis sp. Opossum 0.12 Thornton (2010: Table 2-1) Dasypus novemcinctus None-banded armadillo 0.06 Thornton (2010: Table 2-1) Sylvilagus sp. Rabbit <0.01 Walker (1999) Orthogeomys hispidus Pocket gopher <0.01 Walker (1999) Ototylomys phyllotis Big-eared climbing rat <0.01 Walker (1999) Agouti paca Paca 0.02 Thornton (2010: Table 2-1) Dasyprocta punctata Agouti 0.02 Thornton (2010: Table 2-1) Tapirus bairdii Tapir 1.25 Thornton (2010: Table 2-1) Pecari tajacu Collared peccary 2.49 Thornton (2010: Table 2-1) Tayassu pecari White-lipped peccary 23.87 Thornton (2010: Table 2-1) Mazama sp. Brocket deer 0.52 Thornton (2010: Table 2-1) Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer 2.84 Thornton (2010: Table 2-1) 230

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Table 6-4. Strontium (87Sr/86Sr) isotope results for bone, enamel and shell from zooarchaeological and modern samples Lab # Taxa (scientific name) Common name Element (side) Sample type 87Sr/86Sr Precision (1 sigma, permil) Dzibilchaltun (Mexico) DZ-3 Tapirus bairdii Tapir Upper molar Primary 0.7089 0.0009 DZ-4 Tayassuidae Peccary PM4 (left) Primary 0.7089 0.0009 Dasyprocta/Agouti sp. Agouti/paca Incisor Baseline 0.7089 Sylvilagus sp. Rabbit Mandible Baseline 0.7089 Heterogeomys hispidus Gopher Incisor Baseline 0.7090 Colha (Belize) CL-1 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M2 (left) Primary 0.7082 0.0008 CL-2 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M3 (left) Primary 0.7083 0.0008 Agouti paca Paca Mandible (left) Baseline 0.7082 Lamanai (Belize) LA-1 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M1 (left) Primary 0.7092 0.0008 LA-2 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M1 (left) Primary 0.7094 0.0008 LA-3 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M1 (left) Primary 0.7083 0.0027 LA-4 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M1 (left) Primary 0.7074 0.0007 LA-4Ba Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M1 (left) Primary 0.7074 0.0017 LA-5 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M1 (left) Primary 0.7084 0.0011 LA-6 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M1 (left) Primary 0.7093 0.0008 LA-7 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M1 (left) Primary 0.7091 0.0010 LA-8 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M2 (right) Primary 0.7084 0.0008 LA-8Ba Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M1 (right) Primary 0.7084 0.0007 LA-9 Orthalicus sp. Land snail Shell Baseline 0.7081 0.0008 LA-10b Neocyclotus dysoni Land snail Shell Baseline 0.7076 0.0009 LA-11b Orthalicus sp. Land snail Shell Baseline 0.7086 0.0008 LA-13 Dasypus novemcinctus Armadillo Femur Baseline 0.7079 0.0009 LA-14 Agouti paca Paca Femur (left) Baseline 0.7076 0.0010 LA-15 Agouti paca Paca Molar Baseline 0.7080 0.0008 Tipu (Belize) TP-1 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M2 (left) Primary 0.7084 0.0011 TP-2 Tayassu pecari White-lipped peccary M2 (left) Primary 0.7117 0.0016 TP-3 Mazama sp. Brocket deer M2 (right) Primary 0.7087 0.0010 TP-4 Mazama sp. Brocket deer M2 (left) Primary 0.7088 0.0010 TP-5 Pecari tajacu Collared peccary M3 (right) Primary 0.7082 0.0009 231

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Table 6-4. Continued Lab # Taxa (scientific name) Common name Element (side) Sample type 87Sr/86Sr Precision (1 sigma, permil) TP-6 Pecari tajacu Collared peccary M3 (left) Primary 0.7085 0.0012 TP-7 Mazama sp. Brocket deer M1 (right) Primary 0.7282 0.0009 TP-8 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer PM4 (right) Primary 0.7202 0.0008 TP-9 Tapirus bairdii Tapir Lower molar Primary 0.7099 0.0009 TP10 Tapirus bairdii Tapir Molar Primary 0.7095 0.0021 TP-11 Pecari tajacu Collared peccary M3 (right) Primary 0.7316 0.0009 TP-12b Neocyclotus dysoni Land snail Shell Baseline 0.7106 0.0008 TP-13b Neocyclotus dysoni Land snail Shell Baseline 0.7107 0.0008 TP-14b Orthalicus sp. Land snail Shell Baseline 0.7134 0.0009 Caracol (Belize) CR-1 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M3 (left) Primary 0.7077 0.0008 CR-2 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer PM4 (left) Primary 0.7076 0.0009 CR-3 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M3 (left) Primary 0.7076 0.0007 CR-4 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M2 (left) Primary 0.7079 0.0009 CR-5 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M1 (left) Primary 0.7077 0.0008 CR-6 Mazama sp. Brocket deer M2 (left) Primary 0.7076 0.0008 CR-7 Mazama sp. Brocket deer M3 (right) Primary 0.7076 0.0008 CR-8 Tayassuidae Peccary M1 (left) Primary 0.7131 0.0008 CR-9 Tayassuidae Peccary I2 (left) Primary 0.7076 0.0008 CR-10 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M1 (right) Primary 0.7077 0.0009 CR-11 Tayassuidae Peccary M1 (left) Primary 0.7077 0.0007 Lubaantun (Belize) LU-1 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M2 (left) Primary 0.7074 0.0008 LU-2 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M3 (right) Primary 0.7076 0.0009 LU-3 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M2 (right) Primary 0.7078 0.0010 LU-4 Mazama sp. Brocket deer M1 (left) Primary 0.7074 0.0013 Rodentia Rodent Incisor Baseline 0.7069 El Mirador (Guatemala) EM-1 Cervidae Deer M1 (right) Primary 0.7080 0.0009 EM-2 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M2 (right) Primary 0.7080 0.0012 Ototylomys phyllotis Climbing rat Mandible (left) Baseline 0.7079 Motul de San Jos (Guatemala) MSJ-1 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M1 (right) Primary 0.7075 0.0008 232

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Table 6-4. Continued Lab # Taxa (scientific name) Common name Element (side) Sample type 87Sr/86Sr Precision (1 sigma, permil) MSJ-3 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M3 (left) Primary 0.7073 0.0009 MSJ-4 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M1 (right) Primary 0.7072 0.0009 MSJ-5 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M1 (right) Primary 0.7073 0.0008 MSJ-6 Tayassuidae Peccary I1 Primary 0.7075 0.0008 MSJ-13 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M2 (left) Primary 0.7075 0.0008 MSJ-7b Neocyclotus dysoni Land snail Shell Baseline 0.7077 0.0008 MSJ-8b Neocyclotus dysoni Land snail Shell Baseline 0.7069 0.0012 MSJ-9b Neocyclotus dysoni Land snail Shell Baseline 0.7081 0.0008 MSJ-10b Neocyclotus dysoni Land snail Shell Baseline 0.7078 0.0008 MSJ-11b Orthalicus sp. Land snail Shell Baseline 0.7079 0.0008 MSJ-12b Neocyclotus dysoni Land snail Shell Baseline 0.7079 0.0008 MSJ-14 Agouti paca Paca Molar Baseline 0.7075 0.0008 MSJ-15 Dasypus novemcinctus Armadillo Metapodial Baseline 0.7075 0.0008 MSJ-16b Orthogeomys hispidus Gopher Incisor Baseline 0.7078 0.0012 Trinidad de Nosotros (Guatemala) TRI-1 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M1 (left) Primary 0.7074 0.0009 TRI-2 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M3 (left) Primary 0.7069 0.0009 TRI-3 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer PM4 (left) Primary 0.7073 0.0011 TRI-4 Tayassuidae Peccary M3 (right) Primary 0.7075 0.0009 TRI-8 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer PM4 (left) Primary 0.7076 0.0009 TRI-5b Neocyclotus dysoni Land snail Shell Baseline 0.7076 0.0008 TRI-6b Drymaeus tropicalis Land snail Shell Baseline 0.7076 0.0008 TRI-7b Neocyclotus dysoni Land snail Shell Baseline 0.7075 0.0008 TRI-10 Agouti paca Paca Molar Baseline 0.7078 0.0008 Dasyprocta punctata Agouti Upper incisor Baseline 0.7075 Orthogeomys hispidus Gopher Mandible (right) Baseline 0.7075 Piedras Negras (Guatemala) PN-1 Tayassuidae Peccary M3 (right) Primary 0.7072 0.0009 PN-2 Tayassuidae Peccary M2 (right) Primary 0.7078 0.0009 PN-3 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M1 (left) Primary 0.7077 0.0009 PN-4 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M1 (left) Primary 0.7077 0.0009 PN-5 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M1 (left) Primary 0.7078 0.0009 PN-6 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M1 (right) Primary 0.7078 0.0008 233

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Table 6-4. Continued Lab # Taxa (scientific name) Common name Element (side) Sample type 87Sr/86Sr Precision (1 sigma, permil) PN-7 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer PM4 (right) Primary 0.7077 0.0008 PN-11 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M3 (right) Primary 0.7076 0.0008 PN-12 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M3 (right) Primary 0.7077 0.0009 PN-8b Orthalicus sp. Land snail Shell Baseline 0.7083 0.0009 PN-9b Orthalicus sp. Land snail Shell Baseline 0.7079 0.0008 PN-10b Euglandina sp. Land snail Shell Baseline 0.7079 0.0008 PN-14 Dasypus novemcinctus Armadillo Femur Baseline 0.7078 0.0017 PN-15 Didelphis sp. Opossum Mandible (right) Baseline 0.7078 0.0010 PN-16 Dasyprocta sp. Agouti Humerus (right) Baseline 0.7079 0.0009 PN-17 Agouti paca Paca Molar Baseline 0.7075 0.0009 Dos Pilas (Guatemala) DP-1 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M2 (right) Primary 0.7066 0.0008 DP-2 Tayassuidae Peccary Upper canine Primary 0.7075 0.0013 DP-3 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M3 (right) Primary 0.7077 0.0230 DP-3Ba Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M1 (right) Primary 0.7077 0.0009 DP-4 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M3 (left) Primary 0.7078 0.0008 DP-7 Tayassuidae Peccary M3 Primary 0.7076 0.0009 DP-5b Orthalicus sp. Land snail Shell Baseline 0.7075 0.0009 DP-6b Orthalicus sp. Land snail Shell Baseline 0.7079 0.0010 DP-8b Muridae Rat/mouse Femur Baseline 0.7077 0.0009 Aguateca (Guatemala) AG-1 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M1 (left) Primary 0.7074 0.0008 AG-2 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M3 (left) Primary 0.7069 0.0008 AG-5 Canis lupus familiaris Domestic dog Canine (modifiedc) Primary 0.7077 0.0008 AG-6 Canis lupus familiaris Domestic dog Canine (modifiedc) Primary 0.7076 0.0009 Cancuen (Guatemala) CAN-1 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M2 (left) Primary 0.7073 0.0012 CAN-2 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M3 (left) Primary 0.7076 0.0007 CAN-3 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M2 (right) Primary 0.7075 0.0009 CAN-4 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M3 (left) Primary 0.7075 0.0008 CAN-5 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M3 (left) Primary 0.7073 0.0008 CAN-6 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M3 (right) Primary 0.7076 0.0008 CAN-7 Mazama sp. Brocket deer M1 (left) Primary 0.7073 0.0009 234

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235 Table 6-4. Continued Lab # Taxa (scientific name) Common name Element (side) Sample type 87Sr/86Sr Precision (1 sigma, permil) CAN-8 Tayassu pecari White-lipped peccary PM3 Primary 0.7074 0.0017 CAN-9 Pecari tajacu Collared peccary M2 (left) Primary 0.7074 0.0008 CAN-10 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M3 (right) Primary 0.7074 0.0011 CAN-11 Tayassuidae Peccary M1 (left) Primary 0.7074 0.0009 CAN-12 Pecari tajacu Collared peccary M3 (right) Primary 0.7074 0.0008 CAN-13b Orthalicus sp. Land snail Shell Baseline 0.7076 0.0270 CAN-14b Euglandina sp. Land snail Shell Baseline 0.7075 0.0010 CAN-15b Neocyclotus dysoni Land snail Shell Baseline 0.7072 0.0010 Copan (Honduras) CO-1 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M3 (right) Primary 0.7067 0.0008 CO-2 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M2 (left) Primary 0.7089 0.0013 CO-3 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer PM3 (left) Primary 0.7123 0.0010 CO-4 Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M3 (left) Primary 0.7046 0.0009 CO-4Ba Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer M1 (left) Primary 0.7047 0.0008 CO-5 Orthogeomys sp. Gopher Ulna (left) Baseline 0.7070 0.0013 CO-7 Sylvilagus sp. Rabbit Tibia (left) Baseline 0.7064 0.0012 CO-8 Agouti/Dasyprocta sp. Paca/agouti Innominate (right) Baseline 0.7054 0.0009 a Repeat sample run on same individual as sample listed above (f or example, CO-4 and CO-4B represent different teeth sampled from the same animal. b Modern faunal sample. c Canines with biconical perforation through root.

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236 Table 6-5. Copan 87Sr/86Sr data from archaeological fauna sampled by Krueger (1985) Sample # Common name 87Sr/86Sr CAB-1 Deer 0.70663 CAB-2 Deer 0.70904 CAB-3 Deer 0.70612 CAB-18 Peccary 0.70554 CAB-19 Peccary 0.70576 CAB-34 Puma 0.70895 CAB-36 Paca 0.70632

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237 Figure 6-1. Map of the Maya cultural region showing si tes mentioned in the text and major strontium isotope regions (del ineated with dashed lines). Regional 87Sr/86Sr ranges defined according to Hodell et al. (2004). M ap modified from original by Kitty Emery.

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238 Figure 6-2. Map showing 87Sr/86Sr ranges of baseline faunal samples. Range for Caracol from Freiwald and Price (2008). Map modified from original by Kitty Emery.

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239 0.7064 0.7066 0.7068 0.7070 0.7072 0.7074 0.7076 0.7078 0.7080 0.7082s n a il a rm a d ill o p aca s n a il g oph e r snail snail snail snail d e er d e er dee r p eccary dee r dee r87Sr/86Sr Motul de San Jos Figure 6-3. Motul de San Jos 87Sr/86Sr values. Grey bars are baseline samples and black bars are primary sa mples. The expected loca l range for the site is delineated by the shaded grey box. Any sa mples falling outside this box may be non-local. 0.7064 0.7066 0.7068 0.7070 0.7072 0.7074 0.7076 0.7078 0.7080 0.7082agouti g o p h er snail s n a il s n a i l p a c a deer deer d e e r peccary d e e r87Sr/86Sr Trinidad de Nosotros Figure 6-4. Trindad de Nosotros 87Sr/86Sr values. Grey bars are baseline samples and black bars are primary sa mples. The expected loca l range for the site is delineated by the shaded grey box. Any sa mples falling outside this box may be non-local.

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240 0.7058 0.7060 0.7062 0.7064 0.7066 0.7068 0.7070 0.7072 0.7074 0.7076 0.7078 0.7080 snailsnailratdeerpeccarypeccarydeerdeer87Sr/86Sr Dos Pilas Figure 6-5. Dos Pilas 87Sr/86Sr values. Grey bars are bas eline samples and black bars are primary samples. The expected local range for t he site is delineated by the shaded grey box. Any samples falling outside this box may be non-local. 0.7058 0.7060 0.7062 0.7064 0.7066 0.7068 0.7070 0.7072 0.7074 0.7076 0.7078 0.7080 deerdeerdogdog87Sr/86Sr Aguateca Figure 6-6. Aguateca 87Sr/86Sr values. Grey bars are bas eline samples and black bars are primary samples. The expected local range for the site (based on values from Dos Pilas) is delineated by t he shaded grey box. Any samples falling outside this box may be non-local.

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241 0.7066 0.7068 0.7070 0.7072 0.7074 0.7076 0.7078 0.7080 0.7082 0.7084pac a armadillo o p o s sum a g out i s nail s n a i l s nail peccary d e e r d e e r deer d eer deer deer pe c cary deer87Sr/86Sr Piedra s Negras Figure 6-7. Piedras Negras 87Sr/86Sr values. Grey bars are baseline samples and black bars are primary samples. The expected local range for the site is delineated by the shaded grey box. Any samples falling outside this box may be non-local. Lam a n a i0. 70 60 0. 70 65 0. 70 70 0. 70 75 0. 70 80 0. 70 85 0. 70 90 0. 70 95 0. 71 00pa c a sn a i l ar m ad i ll o pa c a sn a i l sn a i l de er de er de er de er de er de er de er de er Sr Sr /86 87 Figure 6-8. Lamanai 87Sr/86Sr values. Grey bars are bas eline samples and black bars are primary samples. The expec ted local range for the site is delineated by the shaded grey box. Any samples falling outside this box may be non-local.

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242 Caracol0.7060 0.7070 0.7080 0.7090 0.7100 0.7110 0.7120 0.7130 0.7140de er deer deer deer peccary de e r de er de er p e cc ar y deer peccary87Sr/86Sr Figure 6-9. Caracol 87Sr/86Sr values. Grey bars are base line samples and black bars are primary samples. The expected local range for the site (Freiwald and Price 2008) is delineated by the shaded grey box. Any samples falling outside this box may be non-local.

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243 Tipu0.7050 0.7070 0.7090 0.7110 0.7130 0.7150 0.7170 0.7190 0.7210 0.7230 0.7250 0.7270 0.7290 0.7310 0.7330s n a il s n ail sn a il peccary de er peccary deer de er tapir t api r pe c c a ry d e er deer pecc a ry87Sr/86Sr Figure 6-10. Tipu 87Sr/86Sr values. Grey bars are basel ine samples and black bars are primary samples. The expected local range for the site is delineated by the shaded grey box. Any samples falling outside this box may be non-local.

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244 Copan0.7020 0.7030 0.7040 0.7050 0.7060 0.7070 0.7080 0.7090 0.7100 0.7110 0.7120 0.7130agoutirabbitgopherdeerdeerdeerdeer87Sr/86Sr Figure 6-11. Copan 87Sr/86Sr values. Grey bars are bas eline samples and black bars are primary samples. The expected local range based on this studys baseline data is delineated by the shaded grey box with a solid border. Any samples falling outside this box may be non-loca l. The dashed box shows the local Copan 87Sr/86Sr range cited by Price et al. (2010:27).

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CHA PTER 7 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The purpose of this study has been to exam ine the movement of animal products within and between Maya communities and to explore the meaning of these movements for our understanding of Maya economics. I have used seve ral methods to examine animal product movement bot h across the broad Maya worl d and within two polities, each of which include a "trade center" among their interconnect ed sites. In this chapter I will first summarize the results of my studies by reviewing the data from all methods and datasets at three levels of exchange: local, regional, and long-distance.11 Within each category, I summarize where materials came from and ended up, where materials were secondarily modified, and what sites and gr oups of people were involved in the movement, modification, and use of the products. I follow this summary with a discussion of the possible interpretations of these results. Results Summary: Faunal Resource Acquisition, Production and Exchange Local Acquisition and Exchange Among the ancient Maya, most subsistence resources are thought to have been acquired locally by individual households for their own use. Consequently, there has been little to no discussion of local animal pr oduct exchange. It is further assumed that access to local resources was largely unreg ulated, and that locally acquired products were utilitarian or subsistence goods, rather than high status or prestige goods. These assumptions gloss over the potential movement of animal resources through elite tribute 11 In this discussion, local exchange is defined as the movement of goods over distances of <5 km. This type of exchange generally occurs between groups within sites. Regional exchange refers to the movement of goods between 5 and 25 km, which may occur between nearby sites within a polity or region. Long-distance exchange transports goods 50 km or more, and generally moves goods between regions, or distant polities. These definitions ar e purely heuristic devices employed to describe the relative effort required to obtain particular resources (discussion in Chapter 3). 245

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networks, and the need to exch ange natural resources wit hin com munities due to household-level craft or occupational specialization. The data from my combined zooarchaeological and isotopic datasets indicate that most animal goods were obtained locally wit hin approximately 3 km of a site. This results in inter-site heterogeneity in animal us e based on local habitats. The finding held true for both elites and non-elites, and for all si tes in this study, regardless of a sites political power, or status as a trade center. Within the Motu l polity, the lakeside site of Trinidad depended heavily on locally-abundant lacustrine res ources, while residents of the inland site of Motul primarily used terre strial fauna. Similar patterns were observed in the Petexbatun polity assemblages, with rive rine sites using significantly more aquatic resources than sites removed just a few kilome ters from the river. My isotopic results confirm the zooarchaeological data, since mo st of the samples yielded local strontium (Sr87/Sr86) values. Significantly, my inter-site r egional comparisons and consideration of local micro-environmental conditions show a dr op-off in the use of particular resources and habitat zones at relatively close scales (<5k m), and therefore reveal highly localized patterns of animal use better than single si te studies. Zooarchaeological assemblages from sites within a region may contain the same basic taxa, but differences in the quantities of resources being used reveal variation in habitat use and access to resources based on distance. My research therefore reveals site heterogeneity and reliance on micro-environmental conditions at very fine scales, which complements and expands upon previous zooarchaeol ogical studies that identif ied inter-site heterogeneity in animal use between broad environmental z ones such as the coast and the interior, 246

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and the Maya highlands and lowlands (Eme ry 2004c, 2004d; Gtz 2008; Masson 2004; Masson and Peraza Lope 2008; Mock 1997). Although animal use was largely determi ned by a sites local environmental setting, my data also show unequal access to particular local resources based on a sites status and position with a regional hier archy. Access to preferred local resources would have been equal at all sites in terms of acquisition distance, but sites with greater political power had preferential access to them. The largest and most politically powerful centers in both the Motul and Petexbatun polit es more frequently used white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) and domestic dogs ( Canis lupus familiaris ). The Central American river turtle ( Dermatemys mawii ) was also preferentially acquired by the Petexbatuns largest riverine sites (Aguateca, Cancuen and Tamarindito), while the lower ranking settlement along the river (Quim Ch i Hilan) did not use this species at all, and instead primarily used fish and freshwater shellfish. These results contrast with the traditional idea that access to local resources was unregulated and homogeneous across sites. Within each site, the highest ranking indi viduals (elites) also often maintained preferential access to certain local animal resources. For example, white-tailed deer hind limb elements were over-represented in r ank 1 contexts at all sites where status comparisons were possible (Motul, Trinidad, Dos Pilas, Aguateca, Cancuen). Most of the hind limb elements were upper limb bones, wh ich represent the m eatiest portion of the hind haunch. Preferred cuts of deer m eat may therefore hav e been funneled to the Maya elite from lower ranking households within or beyond the sites boundaries. Similarly, animal remains associated with Tr inidads ballcourt indicate that young, 247

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subadult individuals of local species may also have been preferentially provided to elites for use as dietary or ceremonial items. However, intra-site variation in preferred animal use according to social status was not comple tely consistent across sites. White-tailed deer were more common in elite contexts at some sites (Trinidad, Dos Pilas, and Arroyo de Piedra), but less common in elite contex ts at others (Aguatec a, Cancuen). Dogs were more consistently distributed towards elite social groups, but at Aguateca, they were most common in rank 3 households. Production remains from the crafting of local faunal materials (bone and freshwater shell) were found in a wide range of contexts including royal palaces, and smaller households of various rank. My study sites contained relatively small quantities of bone and shell debitage, and no large, specia lized bone or shell artifact production workshops were identified. Although the current datasets do not show extensive evidence of production, the raw material r equirements for crafting could have motivated local exchange of faunal resources if househol ds within sites specialized in different crafting activities. In my datasets, the strongest evidence for local exchange of faunal materials to meet the raw ma terial requirements of crafti ng, comes from the site of Cancuen. Lithic workshops at this site contained relatively large quantities of bone debitage and bone and antler tools possibly asso ciated with lithic production. Deer hind limb elements were also more common in these contexts, suggesting that deer elements with high crafting utility were concentr ated in the workshops. Similarly, in the Petexbatun, white-tailed deer hind limb elements were most over-represented in high status contexts at Aguateca and Cancuen, two sites with good evidence for active elite engagement in crafting (Emery and Aoya ma 2007; Inomata 2001; Kovacevich 2006, 248

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2007). At Aguateca, a large quant ity of shells from local river clam s (Unionidae), in various stages of artifact production, was al so found in a single high status household (House of the Scribe). This suggests that th e shells were brought to this particular household from other par ts of the site for artifact production. Regional Acquisition and Exchange At a regional level, transport and ex change of faunal resources throughout the Maya lowlands is also thought to have been rela tively limited. This is in part due to original portrayals of the lowlands as an ecologically homogenous landscape that varied little in the spatial distribution of natural resources (Cowgill 1960; Parsons and Price 1971; Rathje 1972; Tourtellot and Sabloff 1972). However, researchers now acknowledge more environmental variation throughout the lowlands, which corresponds to inter-site variation in faunal resour ce availability (Fedick 1996; Graham 1987). Despite this change in thinking, discussions of regional animal exchange within the Maya lowlands are uncommon (for exceptions see Emery 1999, 2010; Freiwald 2010; Gtz 2008; Hamblin 1984; Masson 2004; Masson and Peraza Lope 2008; Mock 1997). Besides being limited in frequency or scale regional animal acquisition and exchange is also thought to have been largely unregulated or restricted by the ruling elite. This perception is related to the belief that regional ex change networks functioned primarily for the movement of subsistence or utilitarian goods rather than for the transport of high status prestige items. Un like long-distance exchange, which may take days or weeks to move goods from their site of origin to the si te of consumption, exchange within polities and regions could have included more perishable items such as fresh, unpreserved meat. 249

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In the archaeological record, it is often difficult to disti nguish direct acquis ition from exchange for goods that were available at local or regional scales. However, the observed decline in resource use beyond 3-5 km of a site, along with archaeological evidence for a densely populated Late Classi c landscape, and economically and politically well-integrated polities, suggests that animal products were likely exchanged between groups, sites and individuals. Terri tories claimed by neighboring sites and polities could have restricted community a ccess to even relatively nearby resource zones (discussion in Chapter 3). At the very least, neighboring sites could have granted each other hunting or fishing ri ghts within their territories, wh ich is a form of exchange itself. Evidence of regional animal exchange was i dentified in both my zooarchaeological and isotopic datasets. Many of the taxa identified as r egional exchange items are often assumed to be local resources. For exampl e, based on Motuls relative proximity to Lake Petn Itz (~3 km), aquatic taxa might be considered local at this site. However, inter-site regional comparisons suggest that the lake is outside Motuls primary catchment zone, and the Trinidad may have s upplied the site with preferred aquatic animals including crocodile ( Crocodylus sp.), Central American river turtle, and large freshwater fish. Based on skeletal element distributions, Motul received the entire animal, rather than just secondary products su ch as hides, or turtle carapaces. Whole fish were also transported to inland sites in the Petexbatun, but it is less clear whether Central American river turtles were also exchanged as whole animals, or as defleshed carapaces. River clams are another aquatic resource acquired at a regional rather than local scale in both the Motul and Petexbatun po lities. Nearly all sites show evidence of 250

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clam shell artifact production, but a greater percent age of the clam shell is modified at sites where they are non-local (Dos Pilas, Arroyo de Piedra, Motul de San Jos ). Since the shells were being modified on-site, whole shells were likely the good being transported rather than finis hed clam shell artifacts. Taxa fidelic to primary forest (e .g., jaguar, brocket deer, howler monkey, curassow) were also potentially available at a regional rather than local scale at all study sites. These are generally unrecogni zed as regional resources despite paleoenvironmental evidence for widespread conver sion of primary fore st to agricultural plots and secondary forest throughout the Maya lowlands (Anselmetti et al. 2007; Beach 1998; Beach et al. 2006; Brenner et al. 2002; Curtis and Hode ll 1996; Dunning and Beach 2004; Dunning et al. 1998; Rue et al. 2002). Despite their potential scarcity in comparison to the disturbance-tolerant white-tailed deer, brocket deer ( Mazama sp.) were present at all but one of the study sites (Quim Chi Hilan). Based on the abundance of post-cranial remains, this species was ac quired as whole carcasses. The ability for sites to acquire whole jaguars ( Panthera onca ) is less clear since the majority of elements from this species are teet h and foot bones. These could have been exchanged as isolated skeleta l elements (teeth), or as pelts (foot bones). Major limb bones of large felids (Felidae) are also present at some site s, but these may come from pumas (Puma concolor ) as well as jaguars. Regardless, since both species were likely scarce around areas of active human settlement, large felids were potentially transported and exchanged as whole carcasses, as well as secondary products (e.g., pelts, teeth). 251

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Through strontium isotope analys is, I ident ified additional unr ecognized examples of regional faunal exchange. Non-local whit e-tailed deer and peccary (Tayassuidae) were found at sites bordering the isotopica lly distinct Maya Mountain region of Belize (Tipu and Caracol). Additional evidence for regional faunal exchange comes from the sites of Copan, Trinidad and Motul de San Jos. Although the non-local white-tailed deer at these sites were classified as long-distance exchange items based on current baseline data, future isotopic testing may reveal that thes e individuals originated from within the sites regions. Str ontium analysis was only conducted on teeth, so it is difficult to determine how much of the animal was transported or exchan ged. However, bulk transport of entire animals cannot be ruled out since post-cranial remains were found in association with the all of t he teeth identified as non-local individuals. Future isotopic testing of associated cranial and postcranial remains may be able to resolve this issue. Within the Motul and Petexbatun polities, a sites political power or status as a trade center did not correspond to greater overall access to regional faunal resources. Capital sites (Dos Pilas, Aguateca, Motu l de San Jos) in addition to Cancuen, used more jaguar and other rare primary fore st taxa such as howler monkey ( Allouata pigra ) and curassow ( Crax rubra ), but less brocket deer, which were more common in the polities lower status sites (except for Aguat eca). The Central American river turtle was equally abundant at both inland sites within the Petexbatun (Dos Pilas and Arroyo de Piedra) despite Dos Pilass greater political status. The relative distance and effort required to obtain a species was therefore less important than its cultural value or symbolism in determining its distributi on within regional site hierarchies. 252

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The use of regional fauna was also incons is tent across stat us categories within sites. Brocket deer were more common in higher ranking status groups in the Petexbatun, but less common in elite contexts in the Motul polity. Animals identified as non-local through strontium isot ope analysis were found in an elite burial at Caracol, and spread across a variety of burial and nonburial contexts at Tipu. However, since the Tipu animals may eventually be reclassifi ed as local rather than regional resources as more baseline data emerges, isotopic evi dence for regional faunal acquisition is limited to a single individual fr om an elite ceremonial cont ext. Considered together, the combined zooarchaeological and isotopic data show variation in access to regional resources according to social status within sites. This again suggests that cultural symbolism was more important than acquisition distance in determining preferred elite access and use. Freshwater clam shell debitage found at sites where this species is non-local (Motul, Dos Pilas, Arroyo de Piedra) provi des evidence for artifact production using regional faunal resources. Finished clam shell artifacts are found at all of these sites, but the presence of shell production debris i ndicates that at least some clams were imported as whole, unmodified shells. It is un known whether the meat of these taxa was also being exchanged, but the value of clam shell for artifact production may have been the primary motivation for regional acquisition. At these inland sites, clams accounted for the vast majority of all freshwater mo lluscs, suggesting select importation of clams rather than other freshwater shellfish. A greater percentage of the clam shell is also artifactually modified at sites where clam s are non-local. Percent modification was greatest at the capital sites of Dos Pilas and Motul. 253

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Long-Distance Acquisition and Exchange In contrast to local and regional ex change, long-distanc e faunal exchange is typically thought to involve non-dietary, hi gh status prestige goods Although there is limited zooarchaeological and ethnohistoric evidence for long-distance transport of marine fish (Emery et al. in press; Moholy-Nagy 2004; Pohl 1976; Teeter 2004; Thornton and Emery in press; Tozzer 1941; Valdez and Mock 1991), it is generally believed that food and other per ishable products did not circulate through long-distance exchange. Moreover, long-distance exchan ge networks are believed to have been controlled by the Maya elites as a means of acquiring prestige goods, and maintaining economic and political connec tions with distant regions. In my zooarchaeological datasets, st ingray (Rajiformes) spines and marine shellfish provide evidence of long-distance animal product exchange. Nearly all of the marine shells are artifactually modified, and a ll of the stingray elements are tail spines, which are believed to have functioned as perforators in bloodletting ceremonies (Borhegyi 1961). Marine products imported into the Motul and Petexbatun polities may therefore have been limited to meatless shells, and isolated stingray spines. However, at other inland sites, skeletal element distri butions of bony and cartilaginous marine fish (rays) show that entire animals were transpor ted (Beaubien 2004; Emery et al. in press; Teeter 2004; Thornton and Emery in press). This could indica te dietary use of marine taxa in non-coastal areas, or ceremonial us e involving the entire animal. Regardless, although marine taxa are pres ent at most Maya sites, stable isotope studies ( 13C, 15N) confirm that marine foods did not contri bute significantly to Maya diets at far inland locales (Gerry and Krueger 1997; T ykot 2002; White and Schwarcz 1989; Wright et al. 2010; Wright and White 1996). 254

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Strontium isotope analysis of zooarchaeolo gical remains revealed that peccary and white-tailed deer were also occasional long-distance exchange goods. These taxa are almost always classified as locally ac quired resources at non-coastal sites. My isotopic dataset therefore provides novel evidence for exchange of large-bodied terrestrial mammals within the interior of the Maya lowl ands. White-tailed deer from Motul, Trinidad, Dos Pilas, Aguatec a, and Piedras Negras had strontium (87Sr/86Sr) values similar to the Metamorphic Regi on located between the Maya highlands and lowlands. At Lamanai, white-tailed deer deposit ed in a ritual cache originated from either the Northern Yucatan, or more likely the Belize River Valley. One additional individual from the cache may be from the Petn r egion of Guatemala. In the strontium isotope dataset, it is unclear whether whol e animals or just portions of animals (e.g., hides, teeth, crania), were exchanged since post-cranial remains were not tested. Although m eat may be salted and dried, long-term preservation poses a problem in the humid tropics. This argues for transport of secondary animal products such as hi des or defleshed bone. There is also zooarchaeological and ethnographic evidence for exchange (Masson and Peraza Lope 2008) and ritual caching of select animal elements such as crania within the Maya region (Brown 2005). As suggested for the uncommonly preserved site of Cern,12 El Salvador, these could represent parts of pelts, robes, or d ance costumes (Brown 2001). In the Lamanai cache, white-tailed deer cr ania are greatly over-represented (Stanchly 2007). The non-local deer may th erefore represent imported skulls, or pelt costumes. Distal elements including phalanges and metapodial s may also be retained in pelts, but 12 The site of Cern was catastrophically buried under volcanic ash in ~A.D. 590. Often referred to as the New World Pompeii, the site exhibits extraordinary preservation of archaeological features and remains. 255

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the few white-tailed deer postcranial remains in the Lamanai cache are all from major fore and hind limb bones (e.g., femur, tibi a, humerus). It is unknown whether the postcranial remains belong to the same indivi duals as those represented by crania. In contrast, the non-local deer and peccary teet h identified at all other sites through strontium isotope analysis were all found in association with post-cranial remains. These should be tested as part of future re search to determine how much and/or what parts of these animals might have been exch anged. However, this determination could be confounded by meat sharing, and differential disposal behaviors, which result in the deposition of different parts of an animal in separate locations. At the polity level, the largest most politically powerful sites used more longdistance animal goods than lo wer ranking settlements. This was even true for trade centers (Trinidad and Cancuen) which had fewer exotic animal remains than sites of greater rank. In the Motul polity, the capital site of Motul de San Jos had significantly more marine taxa than Trinidad. Howeve r, both Trinidad and Motul contained one nonlocal deer identified through isotopic analysis. In the Petexbatun, the twin capitals of Dos Pilas and Aguateca had the most marine taxa. Cancuen also had a fairly large amount of marine goods in comparison to lower ranking sites in the region, but it still had less than the capital sites. Strontium isotope analysis also failed to identify any nonlocal animals at Cancuen, despite its pr oximity and known trade connections to the isotopically distint Maya Highlands and Meta morphic Region. The number of animals sampled from Dos Pilas and Aguateca wa s smaller than the number tested from Cancuen, but non-local animals we re identified at both sites. 256

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Within sites, higher ranking groups also enjoyed preferential acces s to fauna obtained through long-distance exchange. Elit e households at Motul, Dos Pilas, Aguateca and Cancuen contained many mo re remains of marine taxa than lower ranking households within their sites. The pattern was altered at Trinidad, where social ranks had relatively equal access to mari ne shell, and at Tamarindito where marine shell was most common in non-elite contex ts. Small sample sizes (NISP<150) from non-elite contexts at Trinidad and Tamarindito could account for this observation. Since nearly all of the samples in my strontium isot ope dataset came from elite contexts, it is difficult to comment on whether or not lower ranking individuals also had access to such long-distance exchange items. However, it is worth noting t hat all of the elite burial and cache contexts I sampled contained non-local animals. At both the polity and site leve l, there were further differ ences in the distribution of particular marine taxa according to social rank. Access to spondylus shells ( Spondylus sp.) and stingray spines was the most rest ricted. The Motul polity had few examples of spondylus and stingray, possibly due to its relati vely small size in comparison to other regional polities such as Tika l and Calakmul, but nearly all of these remains were found in contexts within or adjac ent to Motuls main acropolis With the exception of two specimens, all spondylus and stingray elements in the Petexbatun were restricted to Dos Pilas, Aguateca and Cancuen. Based on t he regional hierarchy of sites, we would expect Dos Pilas and Aguateca to have the more of these two taxa than any other site. This is true for Dos Pilas, but the site of Cancuen had more spondylus than Aguateca. Cancuens status as a trade c enter could have increased its access to this high status resource. However, Cancuens large quantity of spondylus could also be related to the 257

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large portion of faunal remains recovered fr om elite burials, since spondylus is most common in elite burial contexts at inla nd Maya sites (Andrews 1969; Moholy-Nagy 1985). Other marine taxa were much less rest ricted in their distribution across social ranks. Although elites and capi tal sites nearly always had gr eater quantities, smaller amounts of other marine molluscs includi ng conch (Strombidae) and olive shells (Olividae), were found in even the lowest ranking sites and households. The distribution of some exotic marine products was ther efore more controlled than others. The majority of exotic marine shells recovered from the Motul and Petexbatun polities were artifactually modified. Since mo st the modified marine shells are finished artifacts, they could have been imported in modified form. However, whole marine shells found in burials, and small quantities of marine shell production debris show that shells were also transported in whole, unmodified form. Although marine shells artifacts were present at all sites, marine shell debitage was only identified at Motul, Trinidad, and Cancuen. Later excavations also uncov ered evidence for marine shell artifact production at Aguateca (Emery and Aoya ma 2007). The absence of marine shell debitage at Dos Pilas is puzzling, but with this exception, marine shell working only took place at polity capitals and trade centers. These sites may have had greater access to raw unmodified shells as they first enter ed the regional or polity-level economic networks. At the intrasite level, marine shell crafting took place in nearly all ranks of society in the Motul polity, but was restrict ed to the high elites in the Petexbatun. Economic Complexity and the Acquisition and Exchange of Animal Goods Extent and Motivation of Exchange Although locally-acquired animals form ed a large portion of the fauna used at Classic Period Maya sites, my data suggest that the quantity of animal goods being 258

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exchanged at local, regiona l and long-distance scales has been underestimated. This finding questions the traditional assumption t hat with a few exc eptions, such as quetzal feathers and marine taxa, few animals and animal products were exchanged within and between groups, sites and regions. Instead, my data show that a variety of dietary, crafting and high status animal goods were transported and exchanged at multiple spatial scales. Greater exchange implies a more complex economic organization for the acquisition and distribution of faunal resources. Animal goods were not simply acquired, or produced by households for their own use. Instead, they were acquired, produced and distributed via multiple economic mechanisms and networks, which connected people within sites and polities, and across regions. This further implies greater economic, as well as social and politic al, interaction, integration and dependency between households, sites, polities and regions. Animal exchange at all spatial scales may also have included dietary as well as high status or prestige goods. This findi ng refutes traditional dichotomies that characterize long-distance exchange goods as prestige items, and local or regional resources as subsistence goods. Instead, my data show that high status goods were exchanged at local, regional and long-distance scales, and t hat subsistence goods were exchanged locally, regionally, and possibly ev en between regions. Future applications of strontium isotope analysis to zooarchaeological remains may refine our understanding of what animal products were exchanged over various distances. Isotopic testing of highly crafted bone or toot h artifacts can reveal the extent to which finished faunal artifacts were exchanged, while testing of unmodified post-cranial 259

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skeletal elements may be able to tell us whet her entire animals wer e being transported, or only secondary animal products. My data further show that animal goods we re actively exchanged at the local and regional level, and within the interior of the Maya lowlands. This expands upon previously recognized regional and long-di stance exchange of animals between major resource zones (i.e., coastal-inland and highland-lowland exchange). Exchange between resource zones is thought be moti vated by the need to acquire locallyunavailable resources. In my own datasets, demand for taxa not found in local habitats was clearly a motivation for faunal resource exchange. However, faunal resources were also transported and exchanged for other reasons, including the need to form and cement relationships or alliances within and between sites. For example, animal goods that could have been locally acquired or pr oduced, such as white-tailed deer, were occasionally exchanged at regional or long-distance scales. This means that longdistance exchange moved locally-unavailable pr estige goods such as marine shell, in addition to items such as deer crania or headdresses, which could have just as easily been produced on-site. The value of the economic interaction or relationship itself may therefore be as, if not more important than the value or rarity of the good changing hands. Some of the imported animal goods may represent s pecific exchanges between the rulers of different sites in the form of tr ibute payments, or gift s to form or reaffirm alliances. These faunal resource exchanges may be similar to those documented for highly crafted ceramics between site rulers (Ball 1993; Bishop 1994; Foias and Bishop 1997; Reents-Budet et al. 1994; Reents-Budet et al. 2007). Su ch economic interactions 260

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between sit es and polities may have been critical components of Maya power strategies. Elite demand for particular preferred dietar y, crafting or cerem onial resources was also a major motivation for faunal resource exchange at all scales. Elite animal use varied across sites based on local habitat availa bility, but elites consistently used a common suite of preferred taxa in greater quantities than lower r anking individuals. Taxa included in this suite are white-tail ed deer, domestic dog, large felid, and various marine taxa. Preferred elite taxa included both local and non-local animals, which suggests that the cultural symbolism of an anim al was more important to its definition as a high status, or prestige good than whether it was a local or non-local resource. This supports other evidence from the Maya ar ea for a lack of correspondence between an artifacts local or non-local origin and its use as a prestige or utilitarian artifact (Graham 2002; Moholy-Nagy 1997:296). Despite a lack of evidence for extensive bon e or shell artifact production in my samples, local and even regional exchange ma y have also functioned to redistribute raw materials for crafting. At the site le vel, crafting was unspecialized in terms of production material, or intensity, but craft specialization may have occurred at the intrasite or household level as seen at Aguat eca and Cancuen (Emery and Aoyama 2007; Kovacevich 2006). Some of the bone and shell crafting taking place in the Motul and Petexbatun polities also may have been related to site or household specialization in other crafts such as textil es (Motul) and lithics (Cancuen) (Halperin 2008; Kovacevich 2006). Therefore, the tools and raw materials required for various craft activities may have shaped the demand for, and exchange of select animal resources. The suites of 261

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bone and s hell artifacts associated with different crafting activities is a topic that warrants further research. Elite Control over Faunal Resources The combined isotopic and zooarchaeological datasets also speak to the question of how much control Maya rulers and elit es asserted over exchange networks and the acquisition and distribution of animal resources. Within polities, the largest and most politically powerful sites had some level of control over many preferred and non-local taxa. These goods were likely funneled toward major sites through the extraction of tribute from lower ranking settlements, as in the movement of preferred aquatic taxa from Trinidad to Motul. In addition to tr ibute extraction, elites may have controlled access to species such as white-tailed deer, Central American river turtle and domestic dog through hunting restrictions or captiv e rearing (Carr 1996; White et al. 2001b, 2004). There is a lack of evidence for centraliz ed elite control or administration over most other animal resources, especially th ose acquired at local and regional scales. Capital sites also may have used greater quant ities of preferred taxa such as deer, and dogs due to their active engagement in ce remony and ritual. Major sites would have hosted large ceremonial events, such as feas ting, as a display of power, or as a means of creating community or po lity economic integration and political solidarity (Brown 2001; Fox and Cook 1996; Halperin et al. 20 09; LeCount 2001). An example of this can be seen in the middens associated with Trini dads ballcourt. The large number of high status animal goods including marine shell and subadult animals in these contexts could represent polity-wide feasts sponsored by th e rulers of Motul (Moriarty and Thornton 2007). 262

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Within the Motul and Petexbatun polities, sites interpreted as trade centers (Trinidad and Cancuen) were larger and more prosperous than other secondary settlements in the polities, but their access to high stat us and non-local animal goods was not equal to that of the polity capitals. The zooarchaeological data contrast with evidenc e for the trade centers preferred access to non-local lithic materials (Kovacevich et al. 2002; Moriarty et al. 2008). This suggests diversity in elite control over various resources and aspects of the economy. The results could also mean that trade in nonlocal lithic materials was the main focus of the trade centers economic activities, and that other non-local resource s were not imported in great er quantities. Regardless, according to the zooarchaeological data, t he Motul and Petexbatun polities had some degree of hierarchical economic organization that trumped any independent wealth or status accumulated by trade centers through their role in regional and long-distance exchange. Capital sites wielded the most control over the distribution of marine taxa obtained through long-distance exchange. This confo rms to traditional models that contrast centralized prestige good and decentralized subsistence good economies. Future strontium isotope research should invest igate whether non-marine animals exchanged over long-distances were also distributed pr imarily to the elite residents of capital centers. The current isotopic dataset supports the idea that capital sites had greater access to long-distance exchange items, but the sample lacks sufficient data from minor settlements and non-elite contexts. If applied to zooarchaeological samples from a wider variety of settlements, and both e lite and non-elite contexts, strontium isotope analysis may be able to tell us whether capital sites controlled just the distribution of 263

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marine resources, perhaps based on their cultural symbolism, or whether they controlled all animal products circulating through long-distance exc hange. This could inform us regarding whether the rulers of pol ity capitals controlled trade networks, and therefore all the resources moving through them or just the distribution of specific resources. Comparisons according to social rank wit hin sites also showed hierarchical access to marine resources. As observed at the po lity level, spondylus an d stringray spines were the most restricted trade items, and were rare outside high elite contexts. However, elite access to marine resources was not absolute, and the shells of other species of marine mollusc were found in ev en the lowest ranking sites and contexts. Marine resources that trickled down may have been gifted or redi stributed at elitesponsored feasts or festival s in exchange for tribute payments (e.g., goods and labor), or political allegiance. Similar mechanism s have been suggested for the distribution of polychrome vessels from elite to non-elite groups at the site of Xunantunich, Belize (LeCount 1999). Market exchange of mari ne resources could also explain the distribution of marine shell ac ross social classes, since all ranks had access, but elites had greater quantities (Hirth 1998). Items with more restri cted distributions (e.g., spondylus shells and stingray spines) coul d have been kept out of the market economy, and exchanged through different mechanisms. However, it should be noted that markets may have been sponsored or administrat ed by elites or polity capitals, so market exchange of marine shell does not necessarily imply unregulated access to these resources (Dahlin et al. 2010:194). Id entifying the economic mechanisms used to acquire and distribute long-distance exch ange items is beyond the scope of this 264

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investigation. Instead, I want to emphasize that there is greater complexity in the acquis ition and distribution of long-distance exchange goods than is often discussed. In the case of marine resources, different types were subjected to various degrees of elite control, which could mean that they circ ulated through different economic networks and mechanisms. At inland sites, marine taxa also reveal more about ancient Maya economy exchange than just the existence of long-distance trade networks between coast and the interior. These goods may al so represent local and regional market exchange, or gifting taking place between ru lers and lower social ranks within and between communities to build and renegotiate economic and socio-political relations. Elite access to other preferred and non-lo cal fauna was less consistent within sites than it was for marine resources. This findi ng supports models of dynamic and variable elite control over the acquisition, producti on and distribution of goods (Demarest 1996; Foias and Emery in press; Iannone 2002; Marcus 1998). Site rulers would have varied in how much power they were able to exert over different aspects of the economy, and how economic control figured into their political strategies and basis for power. Animals products are just one piece of the economy, but one that has not been fully explored in terms of economic organization and the degree of elite management. Considering the combined evidence for polity and site-level differences in access to faunal resources according to social status, it is not appropriate to strictly dichotomize long-distance exchange as elite controlled, and local and r egional exchange as unregulated. Instead, capital site s, and elite within sites maintained control over select resources obtained at multiple spatial scales (local, regional and long-distance). While my data support hierarchical control over lo ng-distance prestige goods such as marine 265

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266 shell, the distribution of select faunal res ources obtained at the lo cal and regional scale also may have been regulated by the elite. Integrating Animals into the Ancient Maya Economy I provide zooarchaeological and isot opic data showing that transport and exchange of animals and animal products at local, regional and long-distance scales was more extensive than previously recogn ized. Greater quantities of faunal resources were exchanging hands, and a wider range of animal goods were circulated. This refutes traditional perceptions of animal pr oducts as simple domestic resources available to and acquired by everyone. In plac e of this, I present a picture of complex acquisition and exchange networks motivated by demands for symbolically valued taxa, craft goods, preferred dietary re sources. My data further indi cate that simple models of centralized prestige good economies and dec entralized subsistence good economies are not appropriate for describ ing the diversity of ways faunal resources circulated through the ancient Maya economy. High status and utilitarian animal goods were exchanged at multiple spatial scales, and elites maintained control over the distribution of select resources used for both dietary and non-dietary purposes. Spatial variation in the degree of hierarchical control over ani mal resources further suggests flexibility and dynamism in elite control over the economy. In summary, my re search shows that zooarchaeological remains are an under-re searched source of information about ancient Maya economy and exchange. Future insights may be gained through expanded use of strontium isotope (87Sr/86Sr) analysis to identify and source non-local animal remains, and greater inter-site regional comparisons of zooarchaeological assemblages.

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APPENDIX A TAXONOMIC CLASSI FICATIONa OF SPECIES IDENTIFIED IN THE ZOOARCHAEOLOGICAL ASSEMBLAGES Phylum/ subphylum Class/ subclass Order/ suborder Family Genus Species Common name Mollusca Mollusc Mollusca Scaphopoda Dentaliida Dentaliidae Tusk shell Mollusca Scaphopoda Dentaliida Dentaliidae Graptacme eborea Ivory tusk shell Mollusca Gastropoda Gastropod Mollusca Gastropoda Neotaenioglossa Cassididae/ Strombidae Conch/ helmet shell Mollusca Gastropoda Neotaenioglossa Strombidae Conch Mollusca Gastropoda Neotaenioglossa Strombidae Strombus Conch Mollusca Gastropoda Neotaenioglossa Strombidae Strombus alatus Florida fighting conch Mollusca Gastropoda Neotaenioglossa Strombidae Strombus gigas/costatus Queen/milk conch Mollusca Gastropoda Neotaenioglossa Strombidae Strombus gigas Queen conch Mollusca Gastropoda Neotaenioglossa Strombidae Strombus pugilis Fighting conch Mollusca Gastropoda Neotaenioglossa Cypraeidae Jenneria pustulata Pustulate cowrie Mollusca Gastropoda Neotaenioglossa Cypraeidae Cypraea cervus Atlantic deer cowrie Mollusca Gastropoda Neotaenioglossa Cypraeidae Macrocypraea zebra Measled cowrie Mollusca Gastropoda Neotaenioglossa Triviidae Trivia Trivia shell Mollusca Gastropoda Neotaenioglossa Triviidae Trivia pediculus Coffeebean trivia Mollusca Gastropoda Neotaenioglossa Turbinellidae Turbinella angulata West Indian chank Mollusca Gastropoda Neogastropoda Melongenidae Busycotypus spiratus Pear whelk Mollusca Gastropoda Neogastropoda Melongenidae Melongena Whelk Mollusca Gastropoda Neogastropoda Muricidae Haustellum rubidum Red mure x Mollusca Gastropoda Neogastropoda Olividae Olive shell Mollusca Gastropoda Neogastropoda Olividae Oliva Olive shell Mollusca Gastropoda Neogastropoda Olividae Oliva caribbeansis/ sayana Caribbean/ lettered olive Mollusca Gastropoda Neogastropoda Olividae Oliva porphyria Tent olive 267

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Phylum/ subphylum Class/ subclass Order/ suborder Family Genus Species Common name Mollusca Gastropoda Neogastropoda Olividae Oliva reticularis Netted olive Mollusca Gastropoda Neogastropoda Olividae Oliva sayana Lettered olive Mollusca Gastropoda Neogastropoda Olividae Olivella Dwarf olive Mollusca Gastropoda Neogastropoda Olividae Olivella perplexa Dwarf olive Mollusca Gastropoda Neogastropoda Olividae/ Marginellidae Olivella/Prunum Olive/margin shell Mollusca Gastropoda Neogastropoda Marginellidae Prunum apicinum Marginella Mollusca Gastropoda Mesogastropoda Pleuroceridae Pachychilus Jute Mollusca Gastropoda Mesogastropoda Pleuroceridae Pachychilus glaphyrus Jute Mollusca Gastropoda Mesogastropoda Pleuroceridae Pachychilus indiorum Jute Mollusca Gastropoda Mesogastropoda Pleuroceridae Pachychilus pleuristriatus Jute Mollusca Gastropoda Architaenioglossa Ampullariidae Pomacea flagellata Apple snail Mollusca Gastropoda Caenogastropoda Poteriidae Neocyclotus dysoni Milpa snail Mollusca Gastropoda Stylommatophora Bulimulidae Orthalicus Tree snail Mollusca Bivalvia Bivalve Mollusca Bivalvia Arcoida Arcidae Noetia ponderosa Ponderous ark Mollusca Bivalvia Pterioida Pteriidae Pearly oyster Mollusca Bivalvia Ostreoida Spondylidae Spondylus Spondyus/thorny oyster Mollusca Bivalvia Veneroida Chamidae Jewelbox shell Mollusca Bivalvia Veneroida Cardiidae Dinocardium robustum Atlantic giant cockle Mollusca Bivalvia Veneroida Lucinidae Codakia Lucine Mollusca Bivalvia Veneroida Psammobiidae Asaphis deflorata Gaudy sanguin Mollusca Bivalvia Veneroida Veneridae Mercenaria campechiensis Southern quahog Mollusca Bivalvia Unionoidae Unionidae River clam Mollusca Bivalvia Unionoidae Unionidae Lampsilis River clam Mollusca Bivalvia Unionoidae Unionidae Lampsilis discus River clam Mollusca Bivalvia Unionoidae Unionidae Megalonaias stolli River clam Mollusca Bivalvia Unionoidae Unionidae Nephronaias River clam Mollusca Bivalvia Unionoidae Unionidae Nephronaias yzabalensis River clam Mollusca Bivalvia Unionoidae Unionidae Psoronaias River clam Mollusca Bivalvia Unionoidae Unionidae Psoronaias semigranosus River clam Arthropoda Malacostraca Decapoda Crab 268

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Phylum/ subphylum Class/ subclass Order/ suborder Family Genus Species Common name Vertebrata Vertebrate Vertebrata Chondrichthyes Rajiformes Stingray Vertebrata Chondrichthyes Rajiformes/ Myliobatiformes Dasyatidae/ Myliobatidae Stingray Vertebrata Actinopterygii Ray-finned fish Vertebrata Actinopterygii Lepisosteiformes Lepisosteidae Atractosteus tropicus Tropical gar Vertebrata Actinopterygii Siluriformes Catfish Vertebrata Actinopterygii Siluriformes Heptapteridae Rhamdia Freshwater catfish Vertebrata Actinopterygii Synbranchiformes Synbranchidae Swamp eel Vertebrata Actinopterygii Perciformes Cichlidae Cichlid Vertebrata Actinopterygii Perciformes Cichlidae Cichlosoma Cichlid Vertebrata Actinopterygii Perciformes Cichlidae Petenia splendida Blanco Vertebrata Amphibia Anura Frog/toad Vertebrata Amphibia Anura Ranidae Rana Frog Vertebrata Amphibia Anura Bufonidae Bufo marinus Marine toad Vertebrata Reptilia Reptile Vertebrata Reptilia Crocodilia Crocodylidae Crocodylus Crocodile Vertebrata Reptilia Serpentes Snake Vertebrata Reptilia Lacertilia Lizard Vertebrata Reptilia Lacertilia Iguanidae Iguana Vertebrata Reptilia Lacertilia Iguanidae Iguana iguana Green iguana Vertebrata Reptilia Testudines Turtle Vertebrata Reptilia Testudines Dermatemydidae Dermatemys mawii Central American river turtle Vertebrata Reptilia Testudines Kinosternidae Mud/musk turtle Vertebrata Reptilia Testudines Kinosternidae Kinosternon Mud turtle Vertebrata Reptilia Testudines Kinosternidae Kinosternon acutum Tabasco mud turtle Vertebrata Reptilia Testudines Kinosternidae Kinosternon leucostomum White-lipped mud turtle Vertebrata Reptilia Testudines Kinosternidae Staurotypus triporcatus Giant musk turtle Vertebrata Reptilia Testudines Emydidae Pond turtle Vertebrata Reptilia Testudines Emydidae Rhinoclemmys areolata Furrowed wood turtle 269

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Phylum/ subphylum Class/ subclass Order/ suborder Family Genus Species Common name Vertebrata Reptilia Testudines Emydidae Trachemys scripta Common slider turtle Vertebrata Aves Bird Vertebrata Aves Galliformes Gallinaceous birds Vertebrata Aves Galliformes Cracidae Crax rubra Great curassow Vertebrata Aves Galliformes Phasianidae Colinus Quail Vertebrata Aves Galliformes Phasianidae Turkey Vertebrata Aves Passeriformes Perching birds Vertebrata Mammalia Marsupialia Didelphidae Mammal Vertebrata Mammalia Marsupialia Didelphidae Didelphis Opossum Vertebrata Mammalia Edentata Dasypodidae Armadillo Vertebrata Mammalia Edentata Dasypodidae Dasypus novemcinctus Nine-lined armadillo Vertebrata Mammalia Chiroptera Natalidae Natalus stramineus Funnel-eared bat Vertebrata Mammalia Primata Hominidae Alouatta pigra Howler monkey Vertebrata Mammalia Lagomorpha Leporidae Sylvilagus Rabbit Vertebrata Mammalia Rodentia Rodent Vertebrata Mammalia Rodentia Sciuridae Squirrel Vertebrata Mammalia Rodentia Muridae Ototylomys phyllotis Big-eared climbing rat Vertebrata Mammalia Rodentia Geomyidae Orthogeomys hispidus Pocker gopher Vertebrata Mammalia Rodentia Agoutidae Agouti paca Paca Vertebrata Mammalia Rodentia Dasyproctidae Dasyprocta punctata Agouti Vertebrata Mammalia Carnivora Carnivore Vertebrata Mammalia Carnivora Procyonidae Bassariscus sumichrasti Cacomistle Vertebrata Mammalia Carnivora Procyonidae Nasua narica Coati Vertebrata Mammalia Carnivora Procyonidae Procyon lotor Raccoon Vertebrata Mammalia Carnivora Canidae Dog, coyote, fox Vertebrata Mammalia Carnivora Canidae Canis Dog, coyote Vertebrata Mammalia Carnivora Canidae Canis lupus familiaris Domestic dog Vertebrata Mammalia Carnivora Canidae Urocyon cinereoargenteus Fox Vertebrata Mammalia Carnivora Felidae Felid (cat) Vertebrata Mammalia Carnivora Felidae Leopardus pardalis Ocelot Vertebrata Mammalia Carnivora Felidae Panthera onca Jaguar 270

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Phylum/ subphylum Class/ subclass Order/ suborder Family Genus Species Common name Vertebrata Mammalia Carnivora Felidae Puma concolor Puma Vertebrata Mammalia Artiodactyla Artiodactyl Vertebrata Mammalia Artiodactyla Tayassuidae Peccary Vertebrata Mammalia Artiodactyla Tayassuidae Pecari tajacu Collared peccary Vertebrata Mammalia Artiodactyla Tayassuidae Tayassu pecari White-lipped peccary Vertebrata Mammalia Artiodactyla Cervidae Deer Vertebrata Mammalia Artiodactyla Cervidae Mazama Brocket deer Vertebrata Mammalia Artiodactyla Cervidae Odocoileus virginianus White-tailed deer Vertebrata Mammalia Sirenia/ Perissodactyla Manatee/tapir Vertebrata Mammalia Perissodactyla Tapiridae Tapirus bairdii Bairds tapir a Latest taxonomy based on www.itis.gov (data retrieved January 26, 2011) 271

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316 Wright, Lori E., Juan Antonio Valdes, James H. Burton, T. Douglas Price, and Henry P. Schwarcz 2010 The Children of Kaminaljuyu: Isotopic Insight into Diet and Long Distance Interaction in Mesoamerica. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 29:155-178. Wright, Lori E., and Henry P. Schwarcz 1996 Infrared and isotopic evidence for diagenesis of bone apatite at Dos Pilas, Guatemala: palaeodiet ary implications. Journal of Archaeological Science 23: 933944. Wright, Lori E., and Christine D. White 1996 Human Biology in the Classic Maya Collapse: Evidence from Paleopathology and Paleodiet. Journal of World Prehistory 10:147-191. Wurtzburg, Susan 1991 Sayil: Investigations of Urbanism a nd Economic Organization at an Ancient Maya City Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, D epartment of Anthropology, State University of New York, Albany. Yaeger, Jason, and Carolyn Freiwald 2006 Identifying Environmen tal and Hunting Practices at San Lorenzo, Belize Using Strontium, Carbon, and Ox ygen Isotopes. Paper presented at the International Council for Archaeozoology Conference, Mexico City, August 23-28, 2006.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Erin Kennedy Thornton grew up in Waus au, Wisconsin. She earned her B.A. i n 1998 from Carleton College (North field, MN) where she star ted pursuing a degree in English, until a study abroad experience in Belize convinced her to change her major to sociology/anthropology. Er in later enrolled in a graduate degree program in anthropology at the University of Florida, and earned her M.A. in 2003. During her graduate career at the Univer sity of Florida, Erin had the opportunity to work on archaeological projects in Peru, Belize, and Guatemala. She gained additional research experience as a zooarchaeological research assi stant at the Florida Museum of Natural History, where she studied zooarchaeological collections from Central America, the Caribbean, and the southeastern United States. Erin is married to another graduate of the University of Florida (Daniel Thornton, Ph.D., Department of Wildlife Ecology and C onservation). They met as undergraduates at Carleton College in 1997. T hey have been married for eight years and had their first child in 2009. 317