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A Comparison Study for Foods Advertised During Children's Television Programming

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0042662/00001

Material Information

Title: A Comparison Study for Foods Advertised During Children's Television Programming
Physical Description: 1 online resource (120 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Cho, Sung
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: advertisements, childhood, obesity, television
Food and Resource Economics -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Food and Resource Economics thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: With the increase in childhood obesity, there have been numerous studies regarding advertisements during television viewing and the possible relationship between the junk foods advertised during children s programming and childhood obesity. In 2007, the Better Business Bureauregistered trademark, along with 11 food corporations formed the Children s Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative, whose goals were to promote advertising messages to direct healthier dietary choices and lifestyles to children under 12 years old. The purpose of this study was to collect data and compare results with a similar study done Anne Jones in 2006 regarding food advertising during children s television programming. Using similar methodology as Jones, data was collected by videotaping children s programming for 125 hours on ABC, NBC, CBS, CW, Nickelodeon, and Cartoon Network. The data collected was then coded onto a spreadsheet and was filtered to focus mainly on the food advertisements. Nutritional information for food products advertised were gathered from Nutrition Facts labels and used to form composite labels , which took averages of nutrients for food products advertised on different televisions networks and program ratings. Using recommended daily values set by the Children s Nutrition Research Center at Baylor College of Medicineregistered trademark, a comparison was made between the advertised foods nutritional value and the children s recommended daily intake amount. Probit and tobit regression analyses were conducted to determine if relationships existed among the nutrients and television networks and program ratings. Results of the study showed both positives and negatives regarding the foods advertised. Total fats, saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol were all within recommended limits and the amount of protein exceeded the minimum amount for proper growth and development. Vitamin A, C, and Iron all exceeded the recommended daily value as well. However, sodium and sugar levels were too high, exceeding the daily recommended limits while fiber and calcium were below the amount needed. These results are similar to Jones s results in 2006, only difference being the magnitude of the excess of certain nutrients. In this study, the amount of sodium and sugar increased to levels higher than in 2006 while at the same time, the amount of fiber and calcium has also increased, but being still under the recommended daily amounts needed. Unrelated to food products directly, other differences included certain television networks such as NBC and CBS no longer advertising food advertisements during children s programming and the increase in the number of Public Service Announcements (PSA), including some related to healthy foods and lifestyles.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Sung Cho.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: House, Lisa O.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0042662:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0042662/00001

Material Information

Title: A Comparison Study for Foods Advertised During Children's Television Programming
Physical Description: 1 online resource (120 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Cho, Sung
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: advertisements, childhood, obesity, television
Food and Resource Economics -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Food and Resource Economics thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: With the increase in childhood obesity, there have been numerous studies regarding advertisements during television viewing and the possible relationship between the junk foods advertised during children s programming and childhood obesity. In 2007, the Better Business Bureauregistered trademark, along with 11 food corporations formed the Children s Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative, whose goals were to promote advertising messages to direct healthier dietary choices and lifestyles to children under 12 years old. The purpose of this study was to collect data and compare results with a similar study done Anne Jones in 2006 regarding food advertising during children s television programming. Using similar methodology as Jones, data was collected by videotaping children s programming for 125 hours on ABC, NBC, CBS, CW, Nickelodeon, and Cartoon Network. The data collected was then coded onto a spreadsheet and was filtered to focus mainly on the food advertisements. Nutritional information for food products advertised were gathered from Nutrition Facts labels and used to form composite labels , which took averages of nutrients for food products advertised on different televisions networks and program ratings. Using recommended daily values set by the Children s Nutrition Research Center at Baylor College of Medicineregistered trademark, a comparison was made between the advertised foods nutritional value and the children s recommended daily intake amount. Probit and tobit regression analyses were conducted to determine if relationships existed among the nutrients and television networks and program ratings. Results of the study showed both positives and negatives regarding the foods advertised. Total fats, saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol were all within recommended limits and the amount of protein exceeded the minimum amount for proper growth and development. Vitamin A, C, and Iron all exceeded the recommended daily value as well. However, sodium and sugar levels were too high, exceeding the daily recommended limits while fiber and calcium were below the amount needed. These results are similar to Jones s results in 2006, only difference being the magnitude of the excess of certain nutrients. In this study, the amount of sodium and sugar increased to levels higher than in 2006 while at the same time, the amount of fiber and calcium has also increased, but being still under the recommended daily amounts needed. Unrelated to food products directly, other differences included certain television networks such as NBC and CBS no longer advertising food advertisements during children s programming and the increase in the number of Public Service Announcements (PSA), including some related to healthy foods and lifestyles.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Sung Cho.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: House, Lisa O.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0042662:00001


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1 TELEVISION PROGRAMMING By SUNG J. CHO A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEG REE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2010

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2 2010 Sung J. Cho

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3 To my family

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS My deepest thanks to my parents, who have helped me every way possible. Even through tough times, they have supported unconditionally. I also thank Dr. Lisa House and Dr. Jeffrey Burkhardt for the guidance insight, and patience they have shown me throughout the duration of both my undergraduate and graduate studies.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDG MENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 7 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 9 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 12 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 16 Prior to 2006 Study ................................ ................................ ................................ 16 The 2006 Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 22 New Studies Since 2006 ................................ ................................ ......................... 29 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 34 Data ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 34 Recording Schedule ................................ ................................ ......................... 34 Television Ratings ................................ ................................ ............................ 36 Coding ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 36 Summary Statistics ................................ ................................ ........................... 39 Summary Statistics for Food Commercials ................................ ....................... 40 Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 42 Composite Label ................................ ................................ .............................. 42 Probit and Tobit Regression Analysis ................................ ............................... 43 4 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 50 Composite Labels ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 50 Probit / Tobit Regression Analysis ................................ ................................ .......... 51 Calories ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 52 Fat and Cholesterol ................................ ................................ .......................... 53 Sodium ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 53 Carbohydrates (Sugar and Fiber) ................................ ................................ ..... 55 Protein ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 55 Vitamins and Minerals ................................ ................................ ...................... 57 Comparisons between 2010 and 2006 Study ................................ ......................... 57 5 CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 73

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6 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 73 Conclusions and Recommendations ................................ ................................ ...... 75 Limitations and Further Studies ................................ ................................ .............. 77 APPENDIX A RECORDING SCHEDULE ................................ ................................ ..................... 79 B COMPLETE RECORDING SCHEDULE ................................ ................................ 81 C COMPLETE FOOD COMMERCIAL LOG ................................ ............................... 90 D ............................... 113 E NUTRITION FACTS LABELS FOR FOOD PRODUCTS ................................ ...... 114 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 118 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 120

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 Recorded ho urs of programming categorized by Networks and Ratings ............ 46 3 2 Commercials by Network ................................ ................................ .................... 46 3 3 Commercials by Rating ................................ ................................ ...................... 46 3 4 Commercials by Product Category ................................ ................................ ..... 47 3 5 Product Category by Networks ................................ ................................ ........... 47 3 6 Number of Food Commercials as a proportion of All Commercials .................... 47 3 7 Food Categories and frequency of Food Commercials ................................ ...... 48 3 8 Condensed table of Food Categories and frequency of Food Commercials ...... 48 3 9 Food Commercials by Network as a Proportion of All Commercials ................... 48 3 10 Food Commercials by Rating as a Proportion of All Commercials ..................... 49 3 11 Nutrition Facts label DVs and Children's DVs ................................ ..................... 49 4 1 Combined Composite Nutrition Facts Label ................................ ....................... 62 4 2 Composite Food 1700 Calorie Diet ................................ ................................ ..... 63 4 3 Composite La bels Calorie Density ................................ ................................ ...... 64 4 4 Standardized Calories Probit Results ................................ ................................ 64 4 5 Standardized Calories Probit Marginal Effects ................................ ................... 64 4 6 %DV Calories, Fat, and Cholesterol ................................ ................................ ... 65 4 7 100% DV Calories (1700) and % DV Sodium ................................ ..................... 65 4 8 Standardized Sodium Tobit Results ................................ ................................ ... 65 4 9 Calories, Total Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Fiber Content of Composite Labels ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 66 4 10 100% DV Calories (1700) and Protein (g) ................................ .......................... 66 4 11 Standardized Protein Probit Results ................................ ................................ ... 66

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8 4 12 Standard ized Protein Probit Marginal Effects ................................ ..................... 67 4 13 Daily Value Contribution of Vitamins and Minerals ................................ ............. 67 4 14 Standardized Calcium To bit Results ................................ ................................ ... 67

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9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 4 1 % Daily Calories and Fiber ................................ ................................ ................. 68 4 2 Sample Size Differences Between 2006 and 2010 ................................ ............. 68 4 3 Serving Size Differences Between 2006 and 2010 ................................ ............. 69 4 4 Calories Difference s Between 2006 and 2010 ................................ ................... 69 4 5 Trans Fat Differences Between 2006 and 2010 ................................ ................. 70 4 6 Cholesterol Differences Between 2006 and 201 0 ................................ ............... 70 4 7 Sugar Differences Between 2006 and 2010 ................................ ....................... 71 4 8 Dietary Fiber Differences Between 2006 and 2010 ................................ ............ 71 4 9 Protein Differences Between 2006 and 2010 ................................ ..................... 72 4 10 Calcium Differences Between 2006 and 2010 ................................ .................... 72

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10 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science TELEVISION PROGRAMMING By Sung J Cho December 2010 Chair : Lisa House Major: Food and Resource Economics With the increase in childhood obesity, there have been numerous studies regarding advertisements during television viewing and the possible relationship between the junk foods adv obesity. In 2007, the Better Business Bureau along with 11 food corporations formed the whose goals w ere to promote advertising messages to direct h ealthier dietary choices and lifestyles t o children under 12 years old. The purpose of this study was to collect data and compare results with a similar study done Anne Jones in 2006 television programming Usi programming for 125 hours on ABC, NBC, CBS, CW, Nickelodeon, and Cartoon Network. The data collected was then coded onto a spreadsheet and was filtered to focus mainly on the fo od advertisements. Nutritional information for food products took averages of nutrients for food products advertised on different

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11 televisions networks and prog ram ratings. Using recommended daily values set by the a comparison was daily intake amount. P robit a nd tobit regression analyses were conducted to determine if relationships existed among the nutrients and television networks and program ratings. Results of the study showed both positives and negatives regarding the foods advertised. Total fats, saturat ed fat, trans fat, and cholesterol were all within recommended limits and the amount of protein exceeded the minimum amount for proper growth and development. Vitamin A, C, and Iron all exceeded the recommended daily value as well. However, sodium and sug ar levels were too high, exceeding the daily recommended limits while fiber and calcium were below the amount needed. of the excess of certain nutrients. In this st udy, the amount of sodium and sugar increased to levels higher than in 2006 while at the same time, the amount of fiber and calcium has also increased, but being still under the recommended daily amounts needed. Unrelated to food products directly, other differences included certain television networks such as NBC and CBS no longer advertising food advertisements Announcements (PSA), including some related to healthy foods and l ifestyles.

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12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Childhood obesity has been an increasing problem in the past few decades. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted a National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES) in 2007 2008 and the re sults show that an estimated 17% of children and adolescents ages 2 19 years obese. The CDC also reports that while there has been a significant trend from 2000 to 2008. The trends show that among pre school age children (2 5 years old), there has been an increase in obesity rates from 5 % to % to 19.6% among 6 11 year olds. Regarding adolescents aged 12 19; there has been an in crease in obesity rates from 5 % to 18.1% in the same time period (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2010) Obesity is measured by an accepted method of estimation named the Body Mass Index, or BMI, which is obtained easily by measuring the weight in relation to the height. It is considered the easiest measurement method of determining overweight or obesity CDC, children and adolescents are considered overweight i f their BMI is at or above the 85th percentile and lower than the 95th percentile. They are considered obese if their BMI is at or above the 95th percentile for chi ldren of the same age and sex. Also according to the CDC, obese children are more likely to suffer from cause low self esteem which, in turn, can hinder academic and social functioning, and th mentally, it also

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13 carries a dangerous physical health risk as well. Children are obese are more likely to have risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), which includes high cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, and abnormal glucose tolerance wh ich can lead to type 2 diabetes. Additional health risks include asthma, hepatic steatosis, and sleep apnea (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2010) There are three main contributing facts that cause obesity. These include genetic factors, beha vioral factors, and environmental factors. Behavioral factors that contribute to obesity include the excess amount of energy intake, lack of physical activity, and considerable amount of sedentary behavior, such as watching television. Environmental fact ors such as the interactions within different environment such as home, school, and the community may contribute to childhood obesity depending on what type of influences children are exposed to (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2010) In 2006, A mission is to review the Un certain nutrients while containing not enough of some. More specifically, sodium and sugar were far above the recommended daily amounts to be considered healthy, while fiber and calcium contents were far below the minimum recommended amounts. There

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14 were no food advertisements f or healthy food such as fruits or vegetables, and cross promotion was used to promote junk food including Happy Meal s. Around the same time, with the increased awareness and concern for childhood obesity resulting from numerous studies on the same subject, the Council of Better Business Bureau with a transparent and accountable advertising self (Better Business Bureau 2010) The purpose of this initiative was to promote advertising messages to direct healthier dietary choices and lifestyles t o children under 12 years old. rtising Initiative states that participating c ompanies are required to use 50% of their advertising resources to target children under 12 to and advertise healthier dietary choices and to direct messages that encourage good nutrition or healthy lifestyles. for advertised must meet government standards such as the USDA Dietary Guidelines, MyPyramid, and the FDA standards. Each participating company writes a Pledge, a public document that specif (Better Business Bureau ) According to the Better Business Bureau participating companies also agree to: Reduce the use of third party licensed characters in advertising primarily directed or messaging criteria Not pay for or actively seek food and beverage product placement in editorial or entertainment content that is primarily directed to children under 12 Change interactive games that are primarily directed to children under that includ e for you foods or healthy lifestyle messages in the games

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15 At the time of its inception, the Initiative had 11 total participants including Campbell Soup Company, General Mills Inc., Kellogg Compa ny, Kraft Foods, USA, LLC, PepsiCo, Inc., Unilever United States, Cadbury Adams USA, LLC, The Coca Cola Company, The Hershey Company, and Mars. The last four companies listed chose to not advertise at all to children under 12. In 2010, the tot al number of participants has grown to 17, with the new participants being Burger King Corporation, ConAgra Foods, Inc., The Dannon Company, Nestle USA, Post Foods, and Sara Lee Corporation. According to the BBB, it is estimated that these companies ounted for more than two The purpose of this research project is to analyze food commercials during investigate whether or not there have bee n changes in nutritional content of television advertisements targeted at children since the 2006 study by Jones There has been numerous studies regarding this subject, but the main goal of this specific study is to repeat a similar study done in 2006 by Anne Jones. There are two main objectives to this study: First is to conduct a similar study in which the same methods are used to obtain updated data from 2006. This allows for valid comparisons between the two data sets. With the new data, composite labels will be created and the same regression tests from 2006 will be conducted on the new data. The second objective is to then use the results of the 2010 study to compare with the 2006 results to determine if there are any significant changes that oc curred since the study done by Jones in 2006.

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16 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Prior to 2006 Study There have been numerous studies done on the subject of television advertising using a combination of methods provided by previous studies on this subject. While they may not have been as extensive, it provides the necessary groundwork nevertheless. Here is a quick recap on the eight previous projects Anne studied in 2006 to formula te her own research project. While many of these studies may seem similar, they differ in the size of data, location of where the data was gathered from, and more importantly, the results. Krista Kotz and Mary Story in (1994) Method for this research in cluded 52.5 programming. This researched focused on how much food was being advertised du ring being marketed. Results showed that out of 997 commercials, 564 were food advertisements. One significant result showed that out of all th e food commercials, high su gar cereals were shown the most, being accounted for 33% of all products (188 out of 564). contains greater than 20% by weight but not the first ingredient by weight. Howard L Taras and Miriam Gage (1995) While the method was similar to Kotz

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17 of the method o f advertising, i.e. how food was being marketed, Taras and Gage only focused on the nutritional value of the foods that were being advertised to children. (two cable, one n ational, and one local) were being monitored during the weekdays and seven (ABC, CBS, NBC in addition to the same four channels during the week). Overall, 60 hours were recorded during the weekdays and 35 hours were recorded on Saturdays. Out of the 95 h ours, there were 2004 total commercials, and 958 of these were food related. Once again, the highest number of commercials was cereal For this study, the t would be restricted in weight loss or diabetic diets. Not only were majority of the foods 9% of all commercials were low in fat, sugar, and salt. In other words, less than one food that was low in fat, sugar, and salt were shown per hour. MK Lewis and AJ Hill (1998) This was a study done in Great Britain with the main focus being the method on how the message in the advertisements were being programming were recorded during both weekday afternoons and weekend mornings. A total of four television stations were used for this study, two of them being regional stations and the other two being cable (Nickelodeon and Cartoon Network). Food advertisements consisted of 49.4% of all commercials, and the method of advertising to children included using animation and st orytelling. One conclusion resulting from this

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18 Margaret Gamb le and Nancy Cotugna (1999) as a foundation, Gamble and Cotugna recorded 16 hours of advertisements from the following stations: ABC, CBS, Fox, and Nickelodeon. Of the 353 commercials recorded, 222 (62.8%) of the adverti sements were for food. One significant change compared to previous studies was that there has been an increase in advertisements for processed, convenient, and fast foods. As for recommendation, Gamble and Cotugna suggested the main problem was related t o marketing and that nutrition taste good, are easy to prepare, and will promote a positive self Jan Hill and Kathy Radimer (1997) In Australia, Hill and Radimer building on products were coded. More specifically, if one commercial was advertising two different food products, they were coded as two food commercials instead of only one as it was done in other studies. They also recorded on weekdays as well as Saturdays. Out of the 27 hours recorded, there were a total number of 869 commercials, 239 of them advertising food. Counting food separately, there were a total number of 275 foods advertised. Applying this methodology, one significant result showed that even though fast foods were reported as the most frequently shown advertisements, these commercials had individual food items that were advertised that met with the Dietary Gu idelines for Australians. However, similar to results of the previous studies, Hill and

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19 Carol Byrd Bredbenner an d Darlene Grasso (2000) Unlike any of the previous studies, Byrd Bredbenner and Grasso concentrated on children watching adult programming during prime time television hours. The type of programming they by the 2 to 11 year old segment according to Nielsen Media Research). Instead of focusing on the nutritional quality of food, they were more interested in looking for nutrition related information (NRI) present in commercials. According to the study, NR hours of recordings, NRI was found in 33% of all the commercials. I.G. Chestnut and F.J. Ashraf (2002) lth researchers from programming. Instead of focusing on nutrition, Chestnut and Ashraf were more interested in the possible detrimental effects of the advertised food pro ducts to oral health. What was considered detrimental was based on the sugar content of the food weekday afternoons and weekend morning along with 42 hours of prime time telev ision to use as a comparison between the two types of programming. Results showed that 62.5% of all commercials while food products for prime time television only accoun ted for 18.4%. To break down even further, nearly three quarters of the foods advertised

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20 time television food com merc ials were labeled as such. Julie Zuppa, Heather Morton, and Kaye Mehta (2003) Similar to other studies, Zuppa, Morton, and Mehta conducted research in Australia in 2001. Slight difference between this study and others is that in addition to comparing re sults regarding nutritional values to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE), this study focused r children to view important in this study because programs of different ratings had to comp ly with different regulations. Kristen Harrison and Amy Marske (2005) One of the most important studies in e results of their research, created nutritional information labels with using only the food products shown in the 11 year olds, 1424) of the advertisements were food related. One result of the study showed that if a of the composite food would undersupply some nutrients

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21 fiber, vitamin C, calcium, and iron, while the nutrients oversupplied were fat, saturated fat, and sodium. Harrison and Marske concluded that it should be the responsibility of parents to limit television dren from seeing a portion of 11,000 food ads they could potentially view, and thereby may reduce requests for advertised A combination of the studies discussed above and some new methods were the basis for how Anne Jones formulated the methodology for her thesis project in 2006. Zuppa fo time in researching this topic. In addition to the studies listed above, Anne also looked general public. These tools include the Food Guide Pyramid, the Nutrition Facts label, and the Dietary G uidelines for Americans (DGA). Food Guide Pyramid and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) will not be covered. However, the Nutrition Facts label will be covered due to the fact that working label.

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22 The 2006 Study Since the pu rpose of this research project was mainly to look for differences and fully understand wh at Jones did. More importantly, it was also crucial to follow her methodology as close as possible to keep the data consistent and to make the comparisons valid. of October and November of 2003 in Orlando, FL and Kansas City, KS. To select the television channels to include in her study, Jones first looked at network television channels as well as cable network channels. These included ABC, CBS, and NBC for the network channel s while the cable and other networks included PBS, WB, The Disney Channel, Cartoon Network, The Learning Channel, and Nickelodeon. Out of show commercials during middle o f programs, but instead airs an announcement at the end of a show to send a message to the viewers on who sponsored the previous show. program content promoting their programs, special Learning Channel was excluded due to its programming not showing any commercial advertisements. The result included six total channels, ABC, NBC, CBS, WB, The Cartoon Network, and Nickelodeon. Jones referred to the previous eight studies she used in her literature review to formulate a schedule for her own recording schedule. By referring to the number of television networks each of the studies used and the hours of programming they

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23 recorded, Jones divided th e average hours recorded by the number of networks used to figure out how many hours she would use for her study. Zuppa, Morton, and Mehtas method of using three networks to record 63 hours yielded 21 hours per network. Following this method, 125 hours w as chosen by using the same formula but with six networks instead. After deciding on the allotment of hours of recording per television station, the programming was recorded over a ten week period. Prior to recording the data, it was necessary to also dec ide on what type of shows would be recorded. While previous studies have used the Nielson Media Research to set by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to determine which shows to record. More specifically, Jones used the following TV ratings: TV Y, TV Y7, TV Y7 FV, and TV G. The ratings will be described in more detail in the Met hodology section of this study. In order to organize the information gathered from the data, a commercial log was used to organize the data. A note of importance: Jones chose not to include Public Service Announcements (PSA), network promotions for future programs, and sweepstakes in the study. The categories she used to organize the dat a were: Observation number, Videotape number, Da te, Time, Network, Program, TV R ating, Commercial, Cross promotion, Category, Duration and duration. Since most of these were also used in this present work, further description of these categories will be

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24 electronics, DVD, and other gift item observations than if a year long sample had be en The data from the recordings were further organized into food and non food categories. The food categories included bread and cereals, candy, sweets, and soft drinks, convenience and fast foods, and dairy. Out of the 2939 total number of comme commercial was also eliminated from the study if the message of the commercial was promoti on of a restaurant Pizza Hut and Golden Corral importance of these exclusions will be explained in the results section of this study. First step with the nutrition information obtained from Nutrition Facts label were to combine one occurrence of every type of food utritio n F the amount of nutrients needed by children, and the fact that two types of composite Nutrition Facts labels were created: one not taking account the frequency of a specific omposite Nutrition Facts labe l. Children have a different need in terms of macronutrients and micronutrients compared to adults. While a typical adult diet may be based on a 2,000 calorie diet, children need less than adults. To figure out how much nutrients children needs, Jones us Research Center at Baylor College of Medicine Using these DRIs, Jones created a

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25 new Daily Values (DVs) table for her study. The result was a DVs table for children with lower needed calorie value, being 1,700 versus 2,000 for an adult diet. This DVs table was also used fo r this present study as well The other note of interest is the frequency, or repetition, of the same food commercials. During the 125 hours recorded, there were 792 food commercials, but with only 71 unique ones being repeated. Jones calculated the mean, median, and mode of the serving size from the 114 grams, while the median was 62 grams, and the mode wa s 30 grams. Dividing the calories by the gram of serving size normalized the amount of calories. This normalization allowed for promoted products had the highest calorie density. This is partly due to the fact that while a major portion of cross promoted products advertised were high in calories (such as and Burger King ) there were a higher proportion of lesser calorie dense foods (such as cereals and potato chips). This lead to the conclusion that cross promoted foods had lower calorie density compared to non cross promoted foods. Usin CBS, NBC, WB, and NICK were all significantly more likely to have advertised foods differences for calorie density among th e different TV ratings. a new law making listing of trans fat on the Nutrition Facts label mandatory. However, due to the timing of the study, some companies did not yet l ist trans fats in their

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26 Nutrition Facts label, therefore trans fats were eliminated from the study. As for the fats in general and cholesterol, industry standards stated that less than 0.5 grams of fat per n 2 mg per serving for cholesterol was WB, and NICK had slightly higher fat content compared to the ones on TOON, and shows rated TV G showed advertisements for food products slightly h igher in fat compared to TV Y7. As for sodium, according to the composite label, if a child were to consume a full of calories, they would get an average of 170% of daily value of sodium. Jones used a tobit test to differentiate the amount of high sodium products by networks, network ratings, and cross/non cross promotion. Results of the test showed that while there were differences amongst the television, the difference was minor. More specifically, TOON had less sodium than all the other networks, but the amounts ranged from a 1.75 mg to 4.04 mg difference. Statistically this may be significant, but the amount of sodium in terms of DRI is quite small. As for the television ratings, TV G showed advertisements for food containing approximately 2.47 mg of sodium higher compared to the food products advertised during shows that were rated TV Y7. The re were no significant differences between foods that were cross promoted and non cross promoted. In the Nutrition Facts label, both Sugar and Fiber are under the Carbohydrates category. Since the government recommends a certain percentage of daily calori es intake to be from carbohydrates (45 % to 65%), this value was modified to be relevant to

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27 would need to get 765 to 1,105 calories from carbohydrates. Results from th e composite nutrition facts label show that the average sugar content in food products shown by every television station exceeds the recommended 25% of daily calories standard set by the National Academy of Sciences. Jones concluded that the reason for th e high sugar content is due to most food being highly processed. Unlike sugar, fiber content was low and below the recommended daily value at only 4% DV, across all television networks. Jones concluded that while this calculation is at only 10% DV of cal had positive results. Children targeted f or this study (7 10 years old) are in a growing stage when the amount of protein needed for proper development is constantly changing. As a child grows older, they require more protein and around puberty, boys start needing more protein than girls. An ad ult based on a 2,000 calorie diet requires 50 to eight year olds need 19 grams of protein and nine year olds need 34 grams of protein daily. The age group for this st udy falls between those two values, and the result of the study showed that almost all the television networks advertised foods that met or composite label, with the exception of NBC, represents a mix of advertised foods that provide daily protein in an amount of at least 26.5 grams the average recommended

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28 television networks, ratings, and the effect of cross promotion versus non cross promotion for food products. Results showed that all the networks had varying protein contents compared to TOON. On the contrary, same test looking at TV ratings did not show much variance. Shows rated Y7 FV a nd G were more likely to show advertisements with foods with higher protein content while there were no differences more protein than their non The last nutrients analyzed were the vitamins and minerals. While there are numerous types, Jones focused on the commonly reported vitamins and minerals on Nutrition Facts labels: vitamin A, vitamin C, iron, and calcium. Results show that while vitamin A vitamin C, and iron are overabundant in the advertised foods, calcium falls short of the recommended DV. Like protein, the needed amount of calcium varies C, and iro than what an adult needs. Jones notes that milk was omitted from her study even Had milk been included in th ese calculations vitamin A and calcium content of the composite labels would be higher as well as other nutrients such as protein and fat depending on the type to be a dded, it would increase the weighted average calcium content by 1.13% and increase vitamin A by 2.85%. Since calcium was the only mineral under the DV%, Jones ran a tobit test to analyze the differences between networks, ratings, and promotion method. Th e results showed that three networks: NBC, WB, and NICK

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29 showed significant differences compared to TOON. NBC advertised foods that were lower in calcium than TOON while WB and NICK advertised foods that were higher. Programs rated Y7 FV showed food that contained less calcium than shows rated Y7. Cross promoted products contained less calcium compared to non cross promoted products. Near the end of the study, Jones scaled the composite label to 1700 calories. More specifically, it answered the questions : What would the nutrition content be if a television advertisements? Would they get enough of some nutrients while either getting too much or too little of others? Re sults showed that such diet would result in too much sodium and sugar and not enough fiber and calcium. Jones concluded that the restricting specific television network viewing by children in fear of exposing them to note the trends indicated in the table (advertised foods contain too much sodium and sugar and lack calcium and fiber) and exercise caution and control when children request foods advertised on television New Studies S ince 2006 There have been numerous new research regarding food advertisements during differences between the new studies and the 2006 studies in regards to the methodology, results, as explained in this section, were similar to the study conducted Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative was formed.

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30 In March 2007, the Kaiser Family Foundation conducted the largest, most comprehensive study regarding food advertisements during television programming landscape of food advertising to children on TV, to help inform the efforts of policymakers and the food and media industries and to provide a benchmark for television programming, and covered programming watch ed by children, and not only television shows and other popular shows as determined by Nielson Media Research. Top 10 networks for the age groups 2 7. 8 12, and 13 17 we re used for the study, which included the commercial broadcast networks ABC, CBS, Fox, NBC, WB, UPN, and commercial cable networks ABC Family, BET, The Cartoon Network, Disney, MTV, and Nickelodeon. Researchers were trained prior to watching the recorded content to ensure reliability in coding the data. Total number of data included 40,152 advertisements and 996 PSAs. Of all the advertisements, 8,854 were for food or beverages (Gantz et al. 2007). Results showed that children ages 2 7 see an average of 12 foods ads in a day, while 8 12 year olds see an average of 21 foods ads per day, and teenagers ages 13 17 see an average of 17 food ads a day on television. Food advertisements accounted s the largest category followed by media and travel/entertainment (Gantz et al. 2007). Of the food advertisements, 34% were for candy and snacks, 28% were for cereal, and 10% were for fast food. On the contrary, only 4% were for dairy products and 1%

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31 was for fruit juices. There were no advertisements for fruits or vegetables. As for fitness or nutrition related PSAs, children ages 2 7 and 8 12 see an average of one PSA every 2 3 days while teenagers ages 13 17 see less than one PSA per week (Gantz et al. 2007). 12 watch so much television, and therefore see so many food ads, they may be the group most a dvertisements, accounting for 50% of all commercials. As for the type of foods children and teens see on TV are for foods that nutritionists, watchdog groups, and governm ent agencies argue should be consumed either in moderation, occasionally, or predomi nant part of the television advertising landscape for children, and that young Also in 2007, Powell, Szcypka, Chaloupka, and Braunschweig conducted a similar study regarding nutritional content of television food advertisements seen by children and adolescents. While the goal of this study was the same as all the other studies; i.e., to determine how healthy or u nhealthy the foods being advertised to children are, this study also analyzed the marketing affects to both black and white children in the United States (Powell et al. 2007).

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32 Nielson Media Research was also used for this study as the previous one to deter mine the top rated television programming viewed by children ages 2 11 and 12 17 years. For 2 11 year olds, a sample size of 50,351 food product advertisements was collected while a sample size of 47,955 advertisements was gathered for 12 17 year old adol commercial ( Powell et al. 2007). Similar to the 2006 study by Jones, this study also analyzed the different nutrient content such as fat, saturated fat, sugar, fiber, and sodium. Results showed that product advertisements viewed by children 2 to 11 years old of all foods in advertisements seen by children 2 to 11 years old and teens 12 to 17 were the average percentages for children ages 2 to 11 and adolescents 12 to 17, respectively. Saturated fats accounted for 5.9% and 6.9%, respectiv ely (Powell et al. 2007). The conclusion for this study was similar to all the other studies. Powell, product advertisements seen on television by American children and ad olescents are of an analysis between foods advertised to white children versus foods advertised to black

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33 sugar products were advertised towards black children ages 12 to 17 versus white children in the same age categ ory (Powell et al. 2007).

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34 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY In order to keep the comparison between the two different time periods valid, the majority of the spreadsheet and methods of coding have not changed, there are some minor changes to the spreadsheet and its content; therefore, the differences in coding will be covered in this chapter. Note that the actual differences in results will be covered in the next chapter. Data The pu rpose of this research project was to observe and analyze data from (ABC, NBC, CBS, and CW) and two cable television channels (Nickelodeon and Cartoon Network) were chosen for this project. Table 3 1 represents the breakdown of how many hours of programming was recorded for each channel. Most of the programming ran 30 minutes, and VCRs were used to record both the progr amming and the advertisements. Recording Schedule by Dr. Hous e and Dr. Burkhardt All recording were done in Gainesville, FL with the programming provided by Cox Cable. While the majority of the programming was recorded between the months of March of 2010 to May of 2010, a few technical

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35 difficulties and issues wit h the tapes resulted in re recording of several hours of programming in June. average of 20.8 hours per channel. More specifically, the allotment of hours for each channel was 22, 22.5, 19, 21.5, 20, and 20, for ABC, CBS, NBC, CW, NICK, and TOON, respectively. Weekend recordings were done on the networks ABC, CBS, NBC, and CW, while weekday recordings were done on NICK and TOON. More specifically, weekend recordings consisted of a combination of Saturdays and Sundays from anytime between 7:00 AM until 1:00 PM. Weekday recordings were done in the afternoons during the hours of 1:00 PM until 6:00 PM. The recording schedule nearly mber of exceptions. The complete table for recording schedule can be found in Appendix A. D ifferences from the 2006 study regarding recording schedule First, since the missi ng seven hours from Sundays were moved and recorded on Saturdays instead. Second, the WB merged with CBS to form the CW, so the CW channel was on Sundays, and none during t he weekdays; therefore all programming to be recorded programming available on CBS, three hours were moved to be recorded on ABC instead. This resulted in ABC having 22 h ours of recordings (up from 19) and CBS having 22.5 hours of recordings (down from 25.5).

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36 Television Ratings cartoon shows as long as they had the following TV ratings: G, Y, Y7, Y7 FV. The rest of the shows with higher rating such as TV PG, TV 14, and TV MA were not used for this study. The different TV ratings are explained further below ( Federal Communications Commission 2010 ) This study focuses on children up to seven years old, therefore focusing on TV shows and advertisements on this age group seemed ideal. TV Y (All Children -This program is designed to be appropriate for all children.) Whether animated or live action, the themes and elements in this program are specifically designed f or a very young audience, including children from ages 2 6. This program is not expected to frighten younger children. TV Y7 (Directed to Older Children -This program is designed for children age 7 and above.) It may be more appropriate for children who have acquired the developmental skills needed to distinguish between make believe and reality. Themes and elements in this program may include mild fantasy or comedic violence, or may frighten children under the age of 7. Therefore, parents may wish to con sider the suitability of this program for their very young children. Note: For those programs where fantasy violence may be more intense or more combative than other programs in this category, such programs will be designated TV Y7 FV. For programs designe d for the entire audience, the general categories are: TV G (General Audience -Most parents would find this program suitable for all ages.) Although this rating does not signify a program designed specifically for children, most parents may let younger c hildren watch this program unattended. It contains little or no violence, no strong language and little or no sexual dialogue or situations. Coding The gathered data was compiled and coded in Microsoft Excel Here are the different categories that were used to break up the information obtained from the advertisements. With all the data in place, simple statistical summary was calculated. Observation The number of commercials recorded and viewed.

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37 Tape number All the shows and advertisements were recorded on 26 VHS tapes, this number used to identify which tape contains which programs and commercials. Date When the programming or advertisement was recorded, not necessarily when it was viewed. Dates ranged from 3/20/2010 to 6/3/2010. Network Different net works in which the advertisements appeared. These include ABC, CBS, NBC, Cartoon Network, and Nickelodeon. Time Schedule time of the programming. Most programs were 30 minutes long with a few rare exceptions being an hour long. TV r ating TV program ra ting as set by the FCC. Ratings examples used in this study are TV G, TV Y, TV Y7, and TV Y7FV. Program Name of the show and its rating were obtained from TVGuid e.com and Commonsensemedi a.org Commercial Advertisem ent for the product or service. Cross p romotion Whether or not the advertisement also uses a well known trademarked character or theme to advertise the product. Examples being using a movie character or theme, such tory within the advertisement. Category What type of item was being advertised. The categories include Food, Electronics/Games, Boy Toy, Girl Toy, Movie, DVD, PSA, and Other. To clarify, these different cat egories are further explained below. Food details on food advertisements will be broken down further in the next spreadsheet category. Electronics/Games This category includes video g ames, board games, and the newer online games. Boy Toy This category includes any toys that were advertised specifically for boys. These include action figures, costumes, skateboards, and toy weapons. Girl Toy This category includes any toys that were adv ertised specifically for girls. These include dolls, makeup, and accessories. Movie These advertisements were mainly trailers for upcoming movies shown in theaters. Note that advertisements for movies on DVDs were included in a separate category.

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38 DVD The se advertisements were for movies on DVD and other media and not shown in theaters. PSA This category is for Public Service Announcements. Main difference between this category and all other categories are that PSA do not attempt to sell any product, but to spread awareness to its audience on variety of topics such as nutritional wellness, social and mental well being and encouragement for reading and learning. Other Any other product or service advertised not fit for the previous categories. Food Categor y Since the main focus of this study is on food advertisements, the food category has subcategories that further sorts the data into more specific categories. The categories used to code are: Beverage, Candy, Cereal, Chips, Frozen, Pasta, Pizza, Snack, M Other Fast Food, and Other. For analysis, these categories were condensed into the same categories Jones used in the 2006 study. The condensed categories include: Bread / Cereals, Candy / Sweets / Soft Drinks, Convenience / Fast Foods, and Da iry. The tables shown later in this section breaks down the different food categories and its proportion of all food commercials. The entire commercial log for fo od can be found in Appendix C. Start/Stop and Time The recorded time pertaining to each comm ercial. Durations of commercials were either 15 seconds, 30 se conds, 1 minute, or 2 minutes. Differences from the 2006 study regarding coding While most of the coding may be the same, there are a few key differences between the two studies. Regarding th e entire data including food products, Public Service Announcements (PSA) were not included in this study due to the number of total PSAs being significant when compared to all other categories of advertisements. Also, sweepstakes were not included in the 2006 study but included in this 2010 study. Sweepstakes, especially the ones for food products, still advertise the product in addition to offering a prize; therefore it was decided that these types of commercials are relevant to this study and thus was counted as a valid advertisement.

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39 There are a couple of criteria in which some data was excluded in this new study that were present in the 2006 study. For example, cross promotion was excluded in this 2010 study due to the majority of cross promoted products relevant to food being and Burger King Also, there was some confusion regarding certain cross promoted products (mainly non food) being advertised with a specific companies (i.e. Kodak cameras that are only available at Wal Mart ) that could have been labeled as cross promoted or non cross promoted. Regardless, non food products were irrelevant to this study therefore to avoid confusion and skewing of data, cross promotion and non cross promotion were excluded from this study. Summary Statistics Tables 3 2, 3 3, and 3 4 show the coded data in a more organized format. According to Table 3 2, the duration of commercials for each network were relatively s imilar. However, there is a difference in the length of the commercials explains why ABC and CW showed more than double the number of commercials CBS and NBC aired. Other than this, the proportion of commercial time to actual programming time was similar amongst all networks averaging between 17% and 19%. Table 3 3 shows that the majority of recorded shows were rated Y7 at around half consisting of 60 hours and 30 minutes. However, the commercial time to program time did not change, still ranging from 17 % to 19 % and being proportionate across all ratings. Shows rated Y had the lowest number of recorded content, accounting for only 26 hours out of 125 total hours. When sorted by product categories, Table 3 category consists of the highest number of commercials, accounting for 37.87% of all commercials. Second highest frequency of commercials is for food products, consisting

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40 of 24.19% of all commercials. The next highest category of commercials is distantly of the categories follows closely behind d ecreasing from 7.29% to 4.89%. belong in any of the categories lis ted in Table 3 4. Examples of such products included shoes, local commercials for events, infomercials, life insurance, and others. The significant percentages from Table 3 this study. Table 3 5 further b reaks down the number of advertisements for each television network, but this time by the different product categories. This table shows the contrast between the different networks for the number of food commercials and PSAs that were aired. For example, NICK, TOON, and ABC aired 130 to 238 food commercials while showing only 0 to 18 PSAs. In contrast, NBC aired a total number of 207 PSAs while only advertising 20 food commercials. Further analysis will omit those 20 food commercials, making the total n umber of food commercials aired on NBC to zero. Summary Statistics for Food Commercials Switching to the main focus of this study, next few tables show the coded data for food products only. Out of 3208 total commercials, 622 were for food products. Food related commercials consisted of little over four hours of recordings, accounting for 19.39% of all comm ercials. Note that in Table 3 6 the difference between Total Food Commercials and Total Food Commercials w/Exclusions is that the latter does not cou nt advertise a specific product or if the nutritional information for the products were unavailable. Other than the two fast food restaurants and Burger King

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41 rest of the restaurant/fast food commercials (Checker s IHOP Krystal Domino s Pizza Subway ) were not counted. Tables 3 7 and 3 8 show the same food products just o rganized differently. Table 3 7 shows the categories that were used to code the data from the recordings to the spreadsheet. Once organized into the correct categories, the table was then condensed into the same format Jones us ed in the 2006 study. Table 3 7 shows that the highest number of commercials is for cereals, accounting for 22.67% of all food commercials. In other words, out of nearly four hours of food commercials, a little over one hour were for cereals. follows closely at 20.10%, being the second most advertised type of food commercial, also accounting for a commercials. Results of Table 3 8 show the bread / cereals drinks category as being the highest numbe r of food commercials at 32.32 %. Candy / sweets / soft drinks follow very closely at 31.83 %. Convenience / fast food is third, a t 26.21%, fol lowed by dairy products at 9.65 %. The results from u sing the categories in Table 3 8 may be a bit too broad; therefore it is imp ortant to also include Table 3 7 for a list of more specific categories. Tables 3 9 and 3 10 show the breakdown of food commercials for each of the television networks and ratings. Most significant find is related to CBS and NBC. These two channels have one and zero food commercials recorded, respectively. This will be further discussed in later sections, but it is an important find nevertheless. The highest proportion of food commercials with respect to all commercials was recorded on ABC with 200 advertisements accounting for 33.26% of all commercials. Second highest was on NICK with 157 food commercials equalin g to 30.15% of all commercials.

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42 Note that CW actually had a higher number and longer duration of food commercials than NICK (166 equaling 1:03:45 versus 157 equaling 1:01:45, respectively), but CW only accounted for 27.44% of all commercials. Television programs rated Y only contained two food comme rcials accounting for less than 1% out of over four hours of all commercials. The majority number of food commercials was on television programs rated Y7 with 337 food commercials, followed by rated G at 186 t hen Y7 FV at 97. Proportion wise, shows rated G had the highest percentage of food commercials to all commercials at 31.47%. Second highest was Y7 FV at 20.74% and closely behind are shows rated Y7 with 19.73% of all commercials being food commercials. M ethods Composite Label Next step after gathering and coding the data was to collect nutritional information of every food product in order to create a composite label as Jones did in the 2006 study. An aggregate table containing all the information gather ed from every Nutrition Facts label is called a combined composite nutrition facts label and is shown in the next section. Food products that did not have nutritional information available in the form of a Nutrition Facts label were omitted from this stud y. These include food products that could not be identified, restaurants advertising their brand and not a specific product, and restaurants that did not have any nutr itional information available. Once the nutritional information was obtained, pertinent information from the Nutrition Facts label such as serving size, calories, calories from fat, total fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrates including dietary fiber and sugar, protein, and four most reported vitamins includin g vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and

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43 iron were recorded onto a spreadsheet to create the composite label. In some cases, averages had to be taken when a product had multiple flavors and when the commercial did not specify exactly what flavor was being adv ertised. This was the case for certain snacks and fast food restaurants such as and Burger King Note that the vitamin and mineral values on the Nutrition Facts label were reported t consisting of 2,000 calories, a couple of extra steps were necessary for the conversion. By using the same table Jones used in the 2006 study, the percentage value based on 2,000 calories were converted from percentages to units (mg and IU). Then the converted values were values for a child. Table 3 11 ference Intakes (DRI) table formed College of Medicine The full table has sets of increasing age ranges and the values shown in the table below were formed by taking an average of two adjacent groups relevant to this study. The targeted age group for this study is shown in Table 3 11 The full table by Baylor College of Medicine can be found in Appendix D. Probit and Tobit Regression Analysis Since the purpose of this study is to obtain updated data and check for differences compared to the 2006 study, the type of regression (probit/tobit) analysis was the same as the ones that were used by Jones in the 2006 study. While the actual results of the regressions are shown in the next section of this study, this section will briefly describe the tests that were used for different nutrients. For the regression analyses, the different nutrients were a function of networks and ratings as shown by this equation:

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44 Networks, Ratings). More specifically, the dependent variables were the different nutrients (calories, fat, cholesterol, sodium, carbohydrates, protein, vitamins and minerals) while the independent variables were the different networks (ABC, NBC, CBS, TOO N, and NICK) and television ratings (G, Y, Y7, and Y7 FV). The following section explains in detail the probit or tobit tests that were condu cted on each of the nutrients. Prior to any probit or tobit testing, serving size information from the combined co mposite nutrition facts label (Table 4 1 in the results section) was used to calculate basic summary statistics such as mean, median, and mode. Using this information and the average number calories, calorie density was calculated to normalize the data al lowing for simple comparison. Doing this also allowed for identifying which television network and ratings advertised the most calorie dense foods. The normalization step was applied to every nutrient that was analyzed. An ordered probit test was also us ed for calories to further analyze the relationship between calories and amongst variables such as the different television networks and ratings. Note that while Jones also ran tests for cross and non cross promotion for each nutrient in the 2006 study, s uch test s were omitted for this study. For fats and cholesterol, no regression tests were conducted since Jones had not run a test in the 2006 study. The test was not used due to fat and cholesterol being within the recommended daily amount for children. Since the study in 2006, trans fat labeling requirement has fully been implemented starting January 2006 ( United States Department of Health and Human Services and the Food and Drug Administration 2010 ). But only one advertisement instance of one product ( Frappe) out

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45 of 622 unique food products had one gram of trans fat, therefore no tests were run on trans fat. Polyunsaturated fats and monounsaturated fats were also not analyzed, as not all Nutrition Facts labels re ported on these types of f ats. A tobit test was used for sodium in order to determine any relationships among sodium content and television networks and ratings. Further results are shown in the next section. No tests were conducted for carbohydrates including added sugar and fibe r. However, an analysis was conducted to determine if the amount of carbohydrates needed by children was met and if added sugar did not exceed the daily amount. In the 2006 study, Jones used the values from the Institute of Medicine of the National Acade mies which stated that carbohydrates should make up for 45 65% of daily calories (765 to 1,105 calories for children) and added sugar intake be restricted to 25% of daily calories or less. For protein, an ordered probit test was used to determine any rela tionships among protein content and television networks and ratings. Also, the protein content was analyzed to see if the different categories in the combined composite labels contained at least 26.5 grams of protein (for a of calories), whic h was the benchmark for the average recommended daily intake for protein in the 2006 study. For vitamins and minerals, more specifically vitamin A, vitamin C, iron, and calcium, the only regression analysis was used for calcium, which was the only mineral lacking in both of the 2006 and 2010 study. While vitamin A had a few categories in conducted since the value was close enough to 100%. Calcium on the other hand, had

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46 percent age values rang which were far too low, and thus a tobit test was conducted to determine any relationships among calcium and television networks and ratings. Table 3 1. Recorded hours of programming cate gorized by Networks and R a tings Network # of Programs % of Programs Duration of Programs ABC 44 17.89% 22:00:00 CBS 45 18.29% 22:30:00 NBC 38 15.45% 19:00:00 CW 43 17.48% 21:30:00 NICK 40 16.26% 20:00:00 TOON 36 14.63% 20:00:00 Total 246 100.00% 125:00:00 Rating # of Programs % of Programs Duration of Programs Y 52 21.14% 26:00:00 Y7 121 49.19% 60:30:00 Y7 FV 33 13.41% 16:30:00 G 40 16.26% 22:00:00 Total 246 100.00% 125:00:00 Table 3 2. Commercials by Network Network Duration of Programs # of Commercials Dur ation of Commercials % Commercials ABC 22:00:00 709 3:56:45 17.94% CBS 22:30:00 307 3:56:15 17.50% NBC 19:00:00 369 3:28:00 18.25% CW 21:30:00 742 3:52:20 18.01% NICK 20:00:00 554 3:24:50 17.07% TOON 20:00:00 527 3:48:00 19.00% Total 125:00:00 3208 22:26:10 17.95% Table 3 3 Comm ercials by Rating Rating Duration of Programs # of Commercials Duration of Commercials % Commercials Y 26:00:00 399 4:25:15 17.00% Y7 60:30:00 1637 11:04:05 18.29% Y7 FV 16:30:00 515 3:03:15 18.51% G 22:00:00 657 3:53: 35 17.70% Total 125:00:00 3208 22:26:10 17.95%

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47 Table 3 4. Commercials by Product Category Product Category # of Commercials Duration of Commercials % Total Commercials Electronics / Games 157 0:52:35 4.89% Boy Toy 184 1:02:15 5.74% Girl Toy 234 1:13 :00 7.29% Movie 222 1:08:45 6.92% DVD 158 0:49:15 4.93% Food 776 4:43:05 24.19% PSA 262 1:50:30 8.17% Other 1215 10:46:45 37.87% Total 3208 22:26:10 100.00% Table 3 5. Product Category by Networks Network Electronic / Games Boy Toy Girl Toy Movie DVD Food PSA Other Total ABC 59 16 56 71 35 238 18 216 709 CBS 0 2 36 0 20 32 0 217 307 NBC 2 0 10 0 0 20 207 130 369 CW 41 56 27 45 59 185 31 298 742 NICK 28 45 65 75 22 171 0 148 554 TOON 27 65 40 31 22 130 6 206 527 Total 157 184 234 222 158 776 262 1215 3208 Table 3 6 Number of Food C omm ercials as a proportion of All C ommercials Count Duration % of Total Commercials Total Commercials 3208 22:26:10 Total Food Commercials 776 4:43:05 24.19% Total Food Commercials w/Exclusions 622 4:03:15 19.39%

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48 Table 3 7 Food C ategories and frequency of Food C ommercials Food Category Count % of Food Commercials Total Duration 125 20.10% 1:01:30 Other Fast Food 17 2.73% 0:05:30 Pizza 0 0.00% 0:00:00 Beverage 104 16.72% 0:31:0 0 Snacks 74 11.90% 0:33:30 Candy 90 14.47% 0:22:30 Frozen 2 0.32% 0:00:30 Pasta 50 8.04% 0:14:30 Cereal 141 22.67% 1:05:00 Chips 0 0.00% 0:00:00 Other 19 3.05% 0:09:15 Non food 0 0.00% 0:00:00 Total 622 100.00% 4:03:15 Table 3 8 Condensed tabl e of F ood C ategories and frequency of Food C ommercials Condensed Food Category Count % of Food Commercials Total Duration Bread / Cereals 201 32.32% 1:19:30 Candy / Sweets / Soft Drinks 198 31.83% 0:53:30 Convenience / Fast Food 163 26.21% 1:16:45 Dair y 60 9.65% 0:33:30 Total 622 100.00% 4:03:15 Table 3 9 Food Commercials by Network as a Proportion of All Commercials Network Duration of Total Commercials # of Food Commercials Duration of Food Commercials % Food Commercials ABC 3:56:45 200 1:18:45 33.26% CBS 3:56:15 1 0:00:30 0.21% NBC 3:28:00 0 0:00:00 0.00% CW 3:52:20 166 1:03:45 27.44% NICK 3:24:50 157 1:01:45 30.15% TOON 3:48:00 98 0:38:30 16.89% Total 22:26:10 622 4:03:15 18.07%

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49 Table 3 10 Food Commercials by Rating as a Proportio n of All Commercials Rating Duration of Total Commercials # of Food Commercials Duration of Food Commercials % Food Commercials Y 4:25:15 2 0:00:45 0.28% Y7 11:04:05 337 2:11:00 19.73% Y7 FV 3:03:15 97 0:38:00 20.74% G 3:53:35 186 1:13:30 31.47% Total 22:26:10 622 4:03:15 18.07% Table 3 11 Nutrition Facts label DVs and Children's DVs Nutrition Facts label DV Children's DV Calories 2,000 1,700 Fat (g) 65 62 Saturated Fat (g) 20 19 Cholesterol (mg) 300 300 Sodium (mg) 2,400 1,700 Fiber (g) 23 24 Protein (g) 50 27 Vitamin A (IU) 5,000 1,667 Vitamin C (mg) 60 35 Calcium (mg) 1,000 1,050 Iron (mg) 18 9

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50 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Composite L abels Using the values obtained from the Nutrition Facts label for all food products, two major tables were cr eated. Table 4 1 is the combined composite nutrition facts label, a complete composite label with the aggregate data gathered from individual Nutrition Facts labels on every food product. Averages and weighted averages of nutritional values were taken fo r every food product with in its corresponding category. Weighted averages were included to bring to attention the significance of multiple airings of the same product. The normal average reported on the combined composite nutrition facts label takes one i nstance of every food product and calculates the value this way, but the weighted average value is derived by multiplying by the number of times each product has aired before taking the average. For instance, out of 622 total advertisements, 121 were for Happy Meal When the extra instances of repeated commercials were taken into account, the results showed a higher number across all nutrients. The composite food 1,700 calorie diet (Table 4 2) shows the proportion of nutrients a child would h from the combined composite nutritional facts label (Table 4 1) were scaled to 1,700 calories and the other nutrients were multiplied by the same factor. Significant differences between the results of the 2006 and 2010 study in regards to the composite food 1,700 calorie diet table will be discussed in the next section.

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51 Note that in Table 4 2, the television ne tworks NBC and CBS and the rating of Y were dropped. NBC was dropped due to the network not showing any food related reason, as only one instance of food commercial was shown. Shows rated Y were also dropped for the same reason, only having two instance of food. Dropping these three categories allowed for a more consistent data, as having a larger sample p roduces more reliable results. Most nutrients were further studied in the next part of this section with regression analysis to determine, if any, relationship exists between the nutrients and the television networks and ratings. Not all nutrients were tested, and the omitted ones include trans fats, polyunsaturated fats, mono unsaturated fats, and potassium. Probit / Tobit Regression Analysis As Jones had done in the 2006 study, simple statistical functions such as mean, median, and mode were generated to achieve a better understanding of the serving size for the food in advert isements that children are exposed to during programming. Mean was calculated to be 162.8 grams, median was 70 grams, and the mode was 429.4 grams. Mean being higher than the median was an indicator that the majority of serving sizes were less than 162.8 grams. Also similar to the 2006 study, all the nutrients of interest for this study were normalized before further analysis. Each nutrient was divided by the serving size to obtain a standardized unit for ease of comparison by not having to reference th e scales of different observations. Once normalized, regression analysis was used for the following nutrients.

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52 Calories Prior to regression tests, a simple table showing calorie density values for each category was created to analyze which television netw ork and rating advertised food advertisements with the highest calorie density (calories per gram). According to Table 4 3, the average calorie density was 1.5. The television network with the highest calorie density was NICK at 1.54, being slightly hig her than the average while the lowest was CW at 1.15 kcal per gram. Shows rated Y7 had the food advertisements with the highest calorie density at 1.32 while shows rated Y7 FV had the lowest at 1.19. Next, an ordered probit test was conducted on the norma lized calories to determine its relationship with television networks and ratings. By using the same method Jones used in 2006, the omitted dummy variables were the television network TOON and rating Y7. Both the nave prediction and actual prediction fr equenc y were calculated to be 57.56%. Results from the regression analysis are presented in Table 4 4 and marginal effects are shown in Table 4 5. Two of the three variables representing channels were significantly different from zero and negative, indica ting that ABC and CW are statistically significant and are more likely to show less calorie dense food advertisements than shown on TOON. The television network ABC was 10% more likely to show an advertisement for a food product in the lowest calorie dens ity (less than 3 kcal / g) group than TOON, 4% less likely to show an advertisement for a food product in the middle calorie density (between 3 and 4 kcal / g) group than TOON, and 7% less likely to show an advertisement for a food product in the highest c alorie density (equal or greater than 4 kcal / g) group than TOON. The television network CW was 17% more likely to show an advertisement for a food product in the lowest calorie

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53 density group than TOON, 6% less likely to show an advertisement for a food product in the middle calorie density group than TOON, and 10% less likely to show an advertisement for a food product in the highest calorie density group. There were no statistically significant results among television ratings for calorie density. Fat and Cholesterol The result of this study showed the values for fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol were within the recommended daily limits. While no regression tests were conducted, a table was constructed revealing the relationship between the amount of calories and the three nutrients. Results of Table 4 6 show the television network with the highest and lowest amounts of fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol. Note that Jones also had similar results and thus had not run regression tests on the nutrient s listed above. The percentages of daily value of calories are higher than the percentages of daily value for fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol as shown in Table 4 6. For television networks, CW showed advertisements for food products containing the hig hest amount of fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol at 10%, 11%, and 5% of daily values, respectively. NICK showed advertisements for food products containing the lowest amount of fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol at 7%, 7%, and 3% of daily values, respec tively. Programs rated Y7 FV showed advertisements of food products containing the highest amount fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol at 10%, 11%, and 4% of daily values, respectively. Programs rated G showed the advertisements with the lowest amount of fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol at 7%, 8%, and 3% of daily values, respectively. Sodium Similar results to the 2006 study, the amount of sodium contained in the foods advertised over exceeded the recommended daily value. Results from Table 4 7 show

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54 th calories of the food shown in the advertisements. For example, if a child were to consume 1,700 calories of the foods advertised on CW, they would be getting 164% of the rec ommended daily value of sodium. Results show every television network and rating over exceeding the daily recommended value. For further analysis, a tobit test was conducted on the sodium content to determine its relationship with television networks and ratings. The omitted dummy variables were the television network TOON and rating Y7. The result of the test is shown in Table 4 8. Results from the regression analysis show all of the television networks were statistically significant while none of the p rogram rating were. More specifically, food products advertised on the three networks ABC, CW, and NICK contained more sodium content than the foods advertised on TOON. Foods shown on ABC contained 3.3 milligrams more sodium than TOON, foods advertised o n CW contained 2.4 milligrams more sodium, and the foods advertised on NICK contained 4.9 milligrams more sodium than TOON. No conclusions could be drawn regarding sodiu m content and program ratings. Note that even though the results show ed statistical significance, practically, the amount of sodium difference is almost negligible. To explain, the recommended daily intake amount of sodium is 1,700 mg. The results showed the differences among networks and ratings being less than 5 milligrams which is l ess than 1% of the recommended daily intake amount.

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55 Carbohydrates (Sugar and Fiber) No regression tests were conducted for carbohydrates including sugar and fiber, but a table was created to show the excess amount of sugar content and lack of fiber content same guidelines Jones did in 2006 as a comparison, the National Academy of Sciences recommended that added sugar intake be no more than 25% of daily calories. According to the D ietary Guidelines for Americans, approximately 4 calories are in a gram of sugar. Table 4 9 below breaks down carbohydrates, sugar, and fiber and shows how much in excess or shortage each nu trient is to its daily limits. The results of Table 4 9 shows sug ar as a percentage of calories exceeded the recommended daily intake value of 25% of calories from sugar for every television network and rating. On the contrary, fiber content is far below the recommended daily intake amount of 24 grams, as established i calories from the 2006 study. The Figure 4 1 shows fiber content and how much it lacks as a proportion of calories to fiber. Results show fiber content merely composes of half the amount of calories, meaning if a of the recommended amount of fiber they need. Protein While the amount of protein a child needs constantly changes throug hout their chosen for this study to be the minimum amount of protein a child needs for proper growth. Note that this amount was the same value used in the 2006 study.

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56 T able 4 10 shows that all television networks and ratings meet and exceed the recommended daily intake of protein of 26.5 grams. An ordered probit test was conducted on the amount of protein to determine its relationship with television networks and rating s. Once again, the omitted dummy variables were the television network TOON and rating Y7. The nave prediction was calculated to be 59.00% whereas the actual pre diction frequency was 53.22%. Results from the regression ana lysis are presented in Table 4 11 and margina l effects are shown in Table 4 12 Two of the three variables representing channels were significantly different from zero and positive indicating that CW and NICK are statistically significant and are more likely to show advertisements for food products with higher protein content than shown on TOON. The television network CW was 17% less likely to show an advertisement for a food product in the lowest standardized protein content ( zero grams of protein ) category than TOON, 7% more likely to show an advertisement for a food produ ct in the middle standardized protein content ( between 0.02 and 0.05 grams of protein per gram of serving size) category than TOON, and 10% more likely to show an advertisement for a food product in the highest stan dardized protein content (equal or greater 0.05 g rams of protein per gram of serving size ) category than TOON. The television network NICK was 26 % less likely to show an advertisement for a food product in the lowest standardized protein content category than TOON, 9 % more likely to show an advertisement for a food product in the middle standardized protein content category than TOON, and 17 % more likely to show an advertisement for a food product in the highest standardized protein content category Ther e were no statistically significant results among television ratings for protein.

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57 Vitamins and Minerals Table 4 13 shows the results for vitamin and mineral content in foods advertised y, vitamin A, vitamin C, and Iron exceeds the minimum daily requirement for a child, while calcium content is lower than the recommended amount. In the 2006 study, Jones hypothetically added the calcium amount from milk due to a majority of the food prod ucts advertised being cereals. The result of adding milk showed an increase in weighted average calcium content by 1.13%. While the same hypothetical scenario has not been used in this study, it is important to note that even with an approximate 1% incre ase in the weighted average for calcium, the value would still be under the recommended daily amount. Since calcium was the only mineral lacking, a tobit test was conducted on the calcium content to determine its relationship with television networks and r atings. The omitted dummy variables were the televisi on network TOON and rating Y7. Results from Table 4 14 show all of the television networks being statistically significant while none of the program rating were. More specifically, foods advertised on ABC and CW contained less calcium than TOON. Foods advertised on ABC contained 0.66 grams less calcium and foods advertised on CW contained 0.60 grams less than food products shown on TOON. Food products shown on NICK contained 0.60 grams more calcium th an the foods advertised on TOON. No conclusions could be drawn regarding calcium content and program ratings. Comparisons between 2010 and 2006 Study By using the results and composite labels data from both 2006 and 2010 studies, graphs were created to sh ow the differences and changes in the amount of nutrients

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58 since the 2006 study is lack of food advertisements on certain channels and ratings. The results of this study sho wed NBC aired no food commercials while CBS only aired one total. Also, there were only two recorded food commercials on television programs rated Y. For these reasons, NBC, CBS, and Y were omitted in all the figures for more consistent graphs, and compa risons were made for categories that only existed in both the 2006 and 2010 studies. Note that both the average and weighted average categories on the composite label takes the commercials from the omitted categories (NBC, CBS, Y) into account making the a nalysis between 2006 and 2010 averages still valid. The total number of food advertisements has gone down from 792 in 2006 to 622 in 2010. As stated before, food advertising on CBS, NBC, and programs rated Y have essentially disappeared. The results in F igure 4 2 show the highest number of food commercials was on shows rated Y with 350 commercials in 2006. In 2010, that category has been reduced down to only two commercials According to Figure 4 3, the average serving size is nearly the same while the w eighted average of serving size has gone up since 2006. Note of interest here is that the average for each of the individual categories shows an increase in serving size. With these results, it can be concluded that the serving size has increased since 20 06 in general across all categories due to a higher frequency of airing of larger serv ing sized food advertisements. The results for calories are similar to serving sizes. Figure 4 4 shows that while the average has not changed much since 2006, the weight ed average has increased a

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59 significant amount in 2010. The average calories for all of the categories except rating G have gone up since 2006. Once again this can be explained by the higher frequency of advertisements that were higher in calories. While the food types advertised may be similar between 2006 and 2010 (as explained by the average), the more frequently repeated number of high calorie containing food commercials will result in an overall increase in calories (as explained by the weighted aver age). Out of fat, saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol, the only significant different findings between the two studies have been for trans fat and cholesterol, as shown in Figures 4 5 and 4 6. Individual composite label for food products containing trans fat only shows a minimal amount, usually ranging from zero to one gram. When based on s, the total amount of trans fat in foods advertised was between zero and one gram in 2010. The combined foods advertised in 2006 contained one to five grams of trans fat. The average amount of cholesterol has increased since 2006 as shown on Figure 4 6. Following the similar trend of serving size and calories, the total average amount has gone slightly down while the weighted average and the individual categorical averages have increased. Therefore it can be concluded that the amount of cholesterol has increased since 2006 across all categories due to an increased frequency of commercials advertising hig her cholesterol food products. Note that trans fat became a mandatory labeling requirement in 2006 at around it is safe to assume the data in 2006 may be missing some trans fat values. Hypothetically, even if the missing data were to be

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60 filled in, the amount of trans fat could only increase for the 2006 study, therefore not affecting the validity of Figure 4 5. The results of Figure 4 7 show the average amount of sugar in foods advertised including both the average and the weighted average. The small individual dietary fiber amoun worth of 1,700 calories diet, as shown on Figure 4 8. The results then show dietary fiber amounts having increased since 2006 for almost every category, including the av erage and weighted average. According to Figure 4 9, the amount of protein increase follows the trend of serving size, calories, and cholesterol. The average decreased slightly since 2006 while the weighted average and the individual categorical averages has increased. It can be concluded that the amount of protein has increased since 2006 across all categories due to an increased frequency of commercials advertising higher protein food products. Both of the results in the 2006 and 2010 studies showed the only vitamins and minerals lagging in the recommended daily amount were calcium. The results of Figure 4 10 shows an improvement, and increase in calcium content in all categories, including average and weighted average. The average amount of calcium mo re than doubled in some categories and an overall increase has been reported for rest of the categories. TOON has shown the biggest improvement for advertising foods with calcium by having gone from 2% in 2006 to 9% in 2010. Note that these results are w ithout milk, which

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61 would further increase the calcium content. However, as stated in the previous section, calcium values reported in 2010 were still lower than the recommended daily amounts. Rest of the nutrients including total carbohydrates, total fat, saturated fat, sodium, vitamin A, vitamin C, and iron showed no significant differences b etween the 2006 and 2010 data.

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62 Table 4 1. Combined Composite Nutrition Facts Label Label Sample Size Serving Size (g or mL) Calories (kCal) Fat Calories (kCal) Tot al Fat (g) Saturated Fat (g) Trans Fat (g) Polyunsaturated Fat (g) Monounsaturated Fat (g) Cholesterol (mg) Sodium (mg) Potassium (mg) Total Carbohydrates (g) Dietary Fiber (g) Sugar (g) Protein (g) % DV based on 1700 calorie diet Vitamin A Vitamin C Calcium Iron Average 42 100 149 29 3 1 0 0 0 7 199 53 26 1 13 3 15% 20% 6% 17% Weighted Average 622 163 207 45 5 2 0 0 0 11 306 57 34 1 17 6 13% 85% 9% 17% ABC 200 162 195 39 4 1 0 0 0 11 262 29 32 1 17 5 10% 105% 9% 15% CBS 1 29 110 10 1 1 0 0 0 0 135 35 25 3 12 1 30% 43% 0% 50% NBC 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0% 0% 0% 0% CW 166 216 249 56 6 2 0 0 0 14 407 114 40 2 19 8 14% 114% 10% 19% NICK 157 120 185 39 4 1 0 0 0 9 256 37 30 1 15 5 15% 45% 8% 20% T OON 98 144 198 47 5 2 0 0 0 11 302 47 32 1 14 6 14% 61% 9% 17% Y 2 16 60 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 68 18 14 2 7 1 15% 21% 0% 25% Y7 337 157 208 45 5 2 0 0 0 11 322 66 34 2 16 6 14% 76% 9% 19% Y7 FV 97 201 239 55 6 2 0 0 0 13 353 75 38 2 19 7 13% 113% 10% 17% G 186 154 191 40 5 1 0 0 0 10 254 31 31 1 17 5 10% 88% 9% 15%

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63 Table 4 2. Composite Food 1700 Calorie Diet Label Total Mass (g) Calories (kCal) Fat Calories (kCal) Total Fat (g) Saturated Fat (g) Trans Fat (g) Polyunsaturated Fat (g) Monounsaturated Fat (g) Cholesterol (mg) Sodium (mg) Potassium (mg) Total Carbohydrates (g) Dietary Fiber (g) Sugar (g) Protein (g) % DV based on Chilren's 1700 calorie diet Vitamin A Vitamin C Calcium Iron Average 1137 1700 325 36 13 0 1 1 7 6 2266 603 299 12 152 39 172% 223% 65% 191% Weighted Average 1334 1700 368 42 13 1 0 0 91 2504 465 276 12 137 49 105% 697% 73% 143% ABC 1411 1700 342 39 13 1 0 0 93 2284 253 279 10 149 48 83% 911% 81% 127% CW 1475 1700 382 43 15 1 0 0 97 2782 779 271 15 129 51 93% 777% 65% 128% NICK 1103 1700 362 40 12 0 1 1 79 2348 342 279 10 140 46 140% 415% 73% 179% TOON 1232 1700 399 45 15 1 0 0 92 2591 406 271 12 123 51 123% 522% 74% 148% Y7 1284 1700 365 41 13 1 0 1 90 2627 538 277 12 131 50 117% 616% 73% 155% Y7 FV 1432 1700 394 45 14 1 0 0 94 2511 532 270 13 135 48 95% 807% 68% 122% G 1373 1700 357 41 13 1 0 0 91 2258 277 276 10 150 47 89% 786% 78% 130%

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64 Table 4 3. Composite Labels Calorie Density Composite Label Serving Size (g) Calorie (kcal) Calorie Dens ity (kcal / g) Average 100 149 1.50 Weighted Average 163 207 1.27 ABC 162 195 1.20 CW 216 249 1.15 NICK 120 185 1.54 TOON 144 198 1.38 Y7 157 208 1.32 Y7 FV 201 239 1.19 G 154 191 1.24 Table 4 4. Standardized Calories Probit Results Variable Co efficient P[|Z|>z] ABC 0.261 0.037 CW 0.429 0.000 NICK 0.130 0.182 Y7 FV 0.074 0.599 G 0.026 0.844 Table 4 5. Standardized Calories Probit Marginal Effects Variable X < 3 kcal / g ABC 0.102 0.037 0.065 CW 0. 165 0.064 0.102 NICK 0.051 0.017 0.035 Y7 FV 0.029 0.010 0.020 G 0.010 0.003 0.007 Equation 4 1. Standardized Calories Probit Standardized Calor

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65 Table 4 6. %DV Calories, Fat, and Cholesterol Composite L abel Calories (% DV) Fat (% DV) Saturated Fat (% DV) Cholestero l (% DV) Average 9% 5% 6% 2% Weighted Average 12% 8% 9% 4% ABC 11% 7% 8% 4% CW 15% 10% 11% 5% NICK 11% 7% 7% 3% TOON 12% 8% 9% 4% Y7 12% 8% 9% 4% Y7 FV 14% 10% 11% 4% G 11% 7% 8% 3% Table 4 7. 100% DV Calories (1700) and % DV Sodium Composite Label % DV Sodium at 100% DV Calories Average 133% Weighted Average 147% ABC 134% CW 164% NICK 138% TOON 152% Y7 155% Y7 FV 148% G 133% Table 4 8. Standardized Sodium Tobit Results V ariable Coefficient P[|Z|>z] ABC 3.320 0.000 CW 2.419 0.000 NICK 4.854 0.000 Y7 FV 1.312 0.120 G 1.308 0.101 Equation 4 2. Standardized Sodium Tobit

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66 Table 4 9. Calories, Total Carbohydrates, Sugar, and Fiber Content of Composite Labels Composite Label Calories (% DV) Total Carbohydrate s (g) Sugars (g) Sugars (% calories) Fiber (g) Fiber (% DV) Average 9% 26 13 36% 1 4% Weighted Average 12% 34 17 32% 1 6% ABC 11% 32 17 35% 1 5% CW 15% 40 19 30% 2 9% NICK 11% 30 15 33% 1 5% TOON 12% 32 14 29% 1 6% Y7 12% 34 16 31% 2 6% Y7 FV 14% 38 19 32% 2 8% G 11% 31 17 35% 1 4% Table 4 10. 100% DV Calories (1700) and Protein (g) Composite Label Protein (g) at 100% DV Calories Average 39 Weighted Averag e 49 ABC 48 CW 51 NICK 46 TOON 51 Y7 50 Y7 FV 48 G 47 Table 4 11. Standardized Protein Probit Results Variable Coefficient P[|Z|>z] ABC 0.199 0.102 CW 0.473 0.000 NICK 0.770 0.000 Y7 FV 0.033 0.805 G 0.017 0.891

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67 Table 4 12. Standardiz ed Protein Probit Marginal Effects Variable 0 grams protein 0.0 ABC 0.072 0.036 0.036 CW 0.165 0.070 0.095 NICK 0.255 0.086 0.169 Y7 FV 0.012 0.006 0.006 G 0.006 0.003 0.003 Equation 4 3. Standardized Protein Probit Table 4 13. Da ily Value Contribution of Vitamins and Minerals Mean DV 1700 cal 1667 IU 35 mg 1050 mg 9 mg Composite Label Calories (% DV) Vitamin A (% DV) Vitamin C (% DV) Calcium (% DV) Iron (% DV) Average 9% 15% 20% 6% 17% Weighted Average 12% 13% 85% 9% 17% ABC 1 1% 10% 105% 9% 15% CW 15% 14% 114% 10% 19% NICK 11% 15% 45% 8% 20% TOON 12% 14% 61% 9% 17% Y7 12% 14% 76% 9% 19% Y7 FV 14% 13% 113% 10% 17% G 11% 10% 88% 9% 15% Table 4 14. Standardized Calcium Tobit Results Variable Coefficient P[|Z|>z] ABC 0.6 55 0.009 CW 0.596 0.005 NICK 0.596 0.002 Y7 FV 0.001 0.998 G 0.006 0.981 Equation 4 4. Standardized Calcium Tobit

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68 Figure 4 1. % Daily Calories and Fiber Figure 4 2. Sample Size Differences Between 2006 and 2010

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69 Figure 4 3. Serving Size Differences Between 2006 and 2010 Figure 4 4. Calories Differences Between 2006 and 2010

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70 Figure 4 5. Trans Fat Differences Between 2006 and 2010 Figure 4 6. Cholesterol Differences Between 200 6 and 2010

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71 Figure 4 7. Sugar Differences Between 2006 and 2010 Figure 4 8. Dietary Fiber Differences Between 2006 and 2010

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72 Figure 4 9. Protein Differences Between 2006 and 2010 Figure 4 10. Calcium D ifferences Between 2006 and 2010

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73 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION Summary The purpose of this research project was to repeat a similar study done in 2006 by Jones regarding television advertisements. There were two main objectives to this study: First was to conduct a similar study in which the methods wer e kept the same in order to obtain updated versions of the data from 2006. This allowed for valid comparisons between the two data sets. With the new data, composite labels were created and the same regression tests from 2006 were conducted on the new da ta. The second objective was to then use the results of the 2010 study to compare with the 2006 results to determine if there were any significant changes that occurred since the study done by Jones in 2006. In gathering the data, VCRs were used to record programming with an average of 20 hours of recording per channel. The channels used for this study were the same ones used in 2006 with the exception of WB. Recently the WB became a part of CBS to become CW (The CW 2010) The lo cal network television channels used for this study included ABC, NBC, CBS, and CW, while the cable networks consisted of Cartoon Network and the Nickelodeon. The recordings were then coded onto a spreadsheet where it was separated into food commercials a nd non food commercials. Out of a total of 3208 commercials, 622 were food commercials that were used for further analysis. Once coded, nutritional information were obtained for every food product in the form of a composite label. Then the aggregate comp osite labels were formed into two main tables for this study, the combined composite nutrition facts label and the

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74 composite food 1,700 calorie diet. The latter used the former table and adjusted all the 1,700 calories. The Nutrition Facts adults, a new standard had to be developed. For this study, the same standard from the 2006 study by Jones was used, a table created from the Dietary Reference Intakes of Medicine The two tables presented averages of the different nutritional values, including serving size, calories, fat, saturated fat, trans fat, cholesterol, sodium, carbohydrates, sugar, fiber, protein, and vitamins and minerals for every television networks and program ratings. Further analyses of the composite labels showed fat and cholesterol content in the foods advertised were within the recommended daily amount, while it also showed excess in the amount of sodium. Similar to the 2006 study, sugar content was above the recommended daily amount whil e fiber was below the amount needed. Protein content was above the minimal amount needed for proper growth as set by the minimal recommended daily amount while calcium wa s once again below the needed amount. Regression analysis such as ordered probit and tobit tests were used to determine any statistical significance and its marginal effects regarding the different nutrients and categories such as television networks and p rogram ratings. The results of the

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75 regression showed, if any existed, relationship amongst the different categories and the nutrient contents. Last part of this study included a comparison analysis between the new results gathered from the 2010 study with the old data from the 2006 study. Column graphs were used to visually compare the nutrient content, such as calorie, trans fat, cholesterol, sugar, dietary fiber, protein, and calcium content from both of the studies. Sample size and serving sizes were also compared and was concluded that while the sample size overall has decreased, the serving sizes increased. The average amount of trans fat has decreased while dietary fiber saw an increase. The general trend for the result of this study showed that a higher frequency of high calorie, high cholesterol, and high protein commercials resulted in an increase in overall weighted average and the average of individual categories. Conclusions and Recommendations It is interesting to see the comparison between the two studies because much has changed since 2006. Perhaps the biggest difference between the two years is the lack of food commercials on NBC, CBS, on programs rated Y. Unrelated directly to food, the number of Public Service Announcements (PSA) has i ncreased. The majority of the commercials on NBC were either PSAs or infomercials aimed at adults, with some PSAs being about the importance of a healthy diet and exercising. There is a n interesting correlation between the different television networks an d the shows rated Y. The reason for omitting the variable Y in the results section was due to the lack of food advertisements shown during these shows. Further investigation showed that most of the shows rated Y were only aired on television networks NBC and CBS, who removed

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76 all but four television shows rated Y were either on CBS or NBC, with the four being aired on NICK. This may help explain why there were such few (only two total) foo d advertisements shown during television shows rated Y. had much of a change. The amount of sodium in advertised foods still far exceed the recommended daily amount and th e same goes for sugar as well. Even with increases since the 2006 study, dietary fiber is still below the recommended amount, as is calcium. The amount of protein has increased, but this may be a result of higher repetition of commercials for fast food s uch as For this reason, not only have protein increased, but the serving sizes and calorie content has increased as well. have decreased since 2006. More Public Service Announcements on television regarding exercising and being active along with PSAs educating about nutrition could raise awareness to children about the importance of staying healthy. It is not possible, nor is it sensible to completely rest rict children from watching television. Instead, the message they see while they watch television could improve to be more positive and the foods advertised could be healthier. It is a matter of ethics versus revenue for the food advertisers and televisi on networks that choose to advertise to children. While some networks such as programming, it does not solve the problem since other networks still advertise junk foods. Networks c ould air more PSAs and less food advertisements overall or could pressure the food companies to follow certain guidelines in order to be allowed to

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77 advertise on their networks. Marketing to children is a source of revenue for food companies but they could also choose to advertise healthier options. There is no one solution to childhood obesity. While television advertisers may take partial blame, it is a combination of fitness activity, parental guidance, and ethical responsibility of both the television networks and the food advertisers to limit junk food advertisement to children that will bring down the childhood obesity rate in this country. In the end, parents still have the responsibility to purchase healthier food options and to limit junk food to children. Limitations and Further Studies programming. Children obviously watch more than just morning cartoons. In choosing which television programming to study, industry dat a such as Nielson Media Research should be used to determine which programming is popular to a certain age group, and should be using those programs for data, even if they are prime time shows aimed at adults. This would allow for broader range of adverti sement types, and thus would result in a more valid study. Another limitation was in regards to sample size. While the 125 hours or programming resulted in a total number of 3208 commercials, only 622 were food related. A larger sample size means more va lid results, and less chance for skewed data. An increase in the variety of channels would not only help in increasing the sample size, it would add further variety to the types of programs and advertisements children are exposed to. More cable televisio n channels such as MTV, BET and Comedy Central could be added in addition to the local television networks.

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78 An idea for a future study is regarding the duration and repetition of food advertisements. More specifically, what is the effect a 30 second food commercial shown 10 times has versus a 60 second commercial only shown five times? Could the repeated commercials have more of an effect on children when they are at the age where they are constantly learning? What about 15 second commercials versus two minute commercials? In an age where Internet, social networking, and online games are getting increasingly popular, advertising to children with such media goes unchecked. There is a need for studies to be conducted on how these methods of advertisements affect children and their decision offers free games online with advertisements. The more time a child spends a game, the more advertisements they are exposed to. Should these types of advertisemen ts be monitored or even regulated?

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79 APPENDIX A RECORDING SCHEDULE Tape # Day Date Time Start Time End ABC (Ch 7) CBS (Ch 4) NBC (Ch 2,9) CW (Ch 10) NICK (Ch 41) TOON (Ch 43) 1 Saturday 3/20/2010 7:00 AM 10:30 AM 3.5 1 Sunday 3/28/2010 7:00 AM 8:00 AM 1 1 Sunday 4/11/2010 7:00 AM 8:00 AM 1 2 Saturday 3/20/2010 7:00 AM 9:00 AM 2 2 Sunday 5/16/2010 7:00 AM 8:00 AM 1 2 Sunday 4/4/2010 7:00 AM 8:00 AM 1 2 Sunday 4/4/2010 10:30 AM 12:00 P M 1.5 3 Saturday 3/27/2010 7:00 AM 9:00 AM 2 3 Sunday 3/28/2010 7:00 AM 8:00 AM 1 3 Sunday 3/28/2010 10:30 AM 12:00 PM 1.5 3 Sunday 4/4/2010 7:00 AM 8:00 AM 1 4 Saturday 4/3/2010 7:00 AM 9:00 AM 2 4 Saturday 4/10/2010 7:00 AM 9:00 AM 2 4 Saturday 4/10/2010 10:00 AM 12:00 PM 2 5 Saturday 4/17/2010 7:00 AM 10:00 AM 3 5 Saturday 4/17/2010 10:00 AM 12:00 PM 2 6 Saturday 4/17/2010 9:00 AM 1:00 PM 4 6 Sunday 4/18/2010 10:30 AM 12:00 PM 1.5 7 Saturday 4/24/2010 9:00 AM 1:00 PM 4 7 Sunday 4/25/2010 7:00 AM 8:00 AM 1 8 Saturday 4/17/2010 7:00 AM 9:00 AM 2 8 Sunday 4/18/2010 7:00 AM 8:00 AM 1 8 Saturday 4/24/2010 7:00 AM 9:00 AM 2 9 Sunday 4/11/2010 7:00 AM 8:00 AM 1 9 Sunday 4/11/2010 10:30 AM 12:00 PM 1.5 9 Sunday 4/18/2010 7:00 AM 8:00 AM 1

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80 9 Saturday 4/24/2010 10:00 AM 12:00 PM 2 10 Saturday 4/3/2010 7:00 AM 12:00 PM 5 11 Saturday 3/27/2010 7:00 AM 12:00 PM 5 12 Saturday 4/10/2010 7:00 AM 12:00 PM 5 13 Thursday 4/15/2010 1:00 PM 6:00 PM 5 14 Thursday 4/8/2010 2:00 PM 6:00 PM 4 14 Thursday 5/27/2010 3:00 PM 4:00 PM 1 15 Thursday 3/25/2010 1:00 PM 6:00 PM 5 16 Thursday 6/3/2010 1:00 PM 6:00 PM 5 17 Tuesday 3/23/2010 1:00 PM 6:00 PM 5 18 Tuesday 3/30/2010 2:00 PM 6:0 0 PM 4 18 Tuesday 4/6/2010 4:00 PM 5:00 PM 1 19 Monday 4/5/2010 1:00 PM 6:00 PM 5 20 Friday 4/2/2010 2:00 PM 6:00 PM 4 20 Friday 4/9/2010 5:00 PM 6:00 PM 1 21* Saturday 3/27/2010 10:00 AM 12:00 PM 2 22** Saturday 3/27/2010 9:00 AM 11:00 AM 2 23** Saturday 4/3/2010 9:00 AM 1:00 PM 4 24** Saturday 4/10/2010 9:00 AM 1:00 PM 4 25** Saturday 4/24/2010 9:00 AM 1:00 PM 4 26 Saturday 5/1/2010 7:00 AM 9:00 AM 2 26 Sunday 5/2/2010 7:00 AM 8:00 AM 1 26 Sunday 5/2/2010 10:30 AM 11:30 AM 1 26 Saturday 5/8/2010 7:00 AM 8:30 AM 1.5 22 22.5 19 21.5 20 20 125 % Weekend 100 100 100 100 0 0 % Wee kday 0 0 0 0 100 100

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81 APPENDIX B COMPLETE RECORDING S CHEDULE Obs Tape # Date Network Time TV Rating Program 1 1 3/20/2010 CW 7:00 AM Y7 Winx Club 2 1 3/20/2010 CW 7:30 AM Y7 Winx Club 3 1 3/20/2010 CW 8:00 AM Y7 FV Dinosaur King 4 1 3/20/2010 CW 8:30 AM Y7 FV Dinosaur King 5 1 3/20/2010 CW 9:00 AM Y7 Yu Gi Oh! 6 1 3/20/2010 CW 9:30 AM Y7 Yu Gi Oh! 7 1 3/20/2010 CW 10:00 AM Y7 Sonic X 8 1 3/28/2010 NBC 7:00 AM Y7 Willa's Wild Life 9 1 3/28/2010 NBC 7:30 AM Y Jane and the Dragon 10 1 4/11/2010 NBC 7:00 AM Y7 Willa's Wild Life 11 1 4/11/2010 NBC 7:30 AM Y Jane and the Dragon 12 2 3/20/2010 CBS 7:00 AM Y Busytown Mysteries 13 2 3/20/2010 CBS 7:30 AM Y Noonbory and the Super 7 14 2 3/20/2010 CBS 8:00 AM Y Busytown Mysteries 15 2 3/20/2010 CBS 8:3 0 AM Y7 Sabrina, the Animated Series 16 2 5/16/2010 CBS 7:00 AM Y7 Sabrina, the Animated Series 17 2 5/16/2010 CBS 7:30 AM Y7 Sabrina, the Animated Series 18 2 4/4/2010 CBS 7:00 AM Y7 Sabrina, the Animated Series 19 2 4/4/2010 CBS 7:30 AM Y7 Sabrina, t he Animated Series 20 2 4/4/2010 NBC 10:30 AM Y7 Willa's Wild Life 21 2 4/4/2010 NBC 11:00 AM Y Jane and the Dragon 22 2 4/4/2010 NBC 11:30 AM Y7 Teen Kids News 23 3 3/27/2010 CBS 7:00 AM Y Busytown Mysteries 24 3 3/27/2010 CBS 7:30 AM Y Noonbory and the Super 7 25 3 3/27/2010 CBS 8:00 AM Y Busytown Mysteries 26 3 3/27/2010 CBS 8:30 AM Y7 Sabrina, the Animated Series 27 3 3/28/2010 CBS 7:00 AM Y Noonbory and the Super 7 28 3 3/28/2010 CBS 7:30 AM Y Busytown Mysteries 29 3 3/28/2010 NBC 10:30 AM Y7 Willa's Wild Life

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82 30 3 3/28/2010 NBC 11:00 AM Y Jane and the Dragon 31 3 3/28/2010 NBC 11:30 AM Y7 Teen Kids News 32 3 4/4/2010 NBC 7:00 AM Y7 Willa's Wild Life 33 3 4/4/2010 NBC 7:30 AM Y Jane and the Dragon 34 4 4/3/2010 CBS 7:00 AM Y Noonbory and the Super 7 35 4 4/3/2010 CBS 7:30 AM Y Busytown Mysteries 36 4 4/3/2010 CBS 8:00 AM Y Doodlebops Rockin' Road 37 4 4/3/2010 CBS 8:30 AM Y Strawberry Shortcake 38 4 4/10/2010 CBS 7:00 AM Y Noonbory and the Super 7 39 4 4/10/2010 CBS 7:30 AM Y Busytown Mysteries 40 4 4/10/2010 CBS 8:00 AM Y Doodlebops Rockin' Road 41 4 4/10/2010 CBS 8:30 AM Y Strawberry Shortcake 42 4 4/10/2010 NBC 10:00 AM Y7 Turbo Dogs 43 4 4/10/2010 NBC 10:30 AM Y7 Shelldon 44 4 4/10/2010 NBC 11:00 AM Y 3 2 1 Penguins! 45 4 4/1 0/2010 NBC 11:30 AM Y Babar 46 5 4/17/2010 CW 7:00 AM Y7 Winx Club 47 5 4/17/2010 CW 7:30 AM Y7 Winx Club 48 5 4/17/2010 CW 8:00 AM Y7 FV Dinosaur King 49 5 4/17/2010 CW 8:30 AM Y7 FV Dinosaur King 50 5 4/17/2010 CW 9:00 AM Y7 Sonic X 51 5 4/17/2010 CW 9:30 AM Y7 Sonic X 52 5 4/17/2010 NBC 10:00 AM Y7 Turbo Dogs 53 5 4/17/2010 NBC 10:30 AM Y7 Shelldon 54 5 4/17/2010 NBC 11:00 AM Y 3 2 1 Penguins! 55 5 4/17/2010 NBC 11:30 AM Y Babar 56 6 4/17/2010 ABC 9:00 AM G Emperor's New School 57 6 4/17/2010 ABC 9:30 AM G The Replacements 58 6 4/17/2010 ABC 10:00 AM G That's So Raven 59 6 4/17/2010 ABC 10:30 AM G That's So Raven 60 6 4/17/2010 ABC 11:00 AM G Hannah Montana 61 6 4/17/2010 ABC 11:30 AM Y7 FV Suite Life of Zack & Cody 62 6 4/17/2010 ABC 12: 00 PM Y7 Mighty Morphin Power Rangers 63 6 4/17/2010 ABC 12:30 PM Y7 Mighty Morphin

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83 Power Rangers 64 6 4/18/2010 NBC 10:30 AM Y7 Willa's Wild Life 65 6 4/18/2010 NBC 11:00 AM Y Jane and the Dragon 66 6 4/18/2010 NBC 11:30 AM Y7 Teen Kids News 67 7 4/2 4/2010 ABC 9:00 AM G Emperor's New School 68 7 4/24/2010 ABC 9:30 AM G The Replacements 69 7 4/24/2010 ABC 10:00 AM G That's So Raven 70 7 4/24/2010 ABC 10:30 AM G That's So Raven 71 7 4/24/2010 ABC 11:00 AM G Hannah Montana 72 7 4/24/2010 ABC 11:30 A M Y7 FV Suite Life of Zack & Cody 73 7 4/24/2010 ABC 12:00 PM Y7 Mighty Morphin Power Rangers 74 7 4/24/2010 ABC 12:30 PM Y7 Mighty Morphin Power Rangers 75 7 4/25/2010 CBS 7:00 AM Y7 Sabrina, the Animated Series 76 7 4/25/2010 CBS 7:30 AM Y7 Sabrina, the Animated Series 77 8 4/17/2010 CBS 7:00 AM Y Noonbory and the Super 7 78 8 4/17/2010 CBS 7:30 AM Y Busytown Mysteries 79 8 4/17/2010 CBS 8:00 AM Y Doodlebops Rockin' Road 80 8 4/17/2010 CBS 8:30 AM Y Strawberry Shortcake 81 8 4/18/2010 CBS 7:00 AM Y7 Sabrina, the Animated Series 82 8 4/18/2010 CBS 7:30 AM Y7 Sabrina, the Animated Series 83 8 4/24/2010 CBS 7:00 AM Y Noonbory and the Super 7 84 8 4/24/2010 CBS 7:30 AM Y Busytown Mysteries 85 8 4/24/2010 CBS 8:00 AM Y Doodlebops Rockin' Road 86 8 4/24/2010 CBS 8:30 AM Y Strawberry Shortcake 87 9 4/11/2010 CBS 7:00 AM Y7 Sabrina, the Animated Series 88 9 4/11/2010 CBS 7:30 AM Y7 Sabrina, the Animated Series 89 9 4/11/2010 NBC 10:30 AM Y7 Willa's Wild Life

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84 90 9 4/11/2010 NBC 11:00 AM Y Jane and the Dragon 91 9 4/11/2010 NBC 11:30 AM Y7 Teen Kids News 92 9 4/18/2010 NBC 7:00 AM Y7 Willa's Wild Life 93 9 4/18/2010 NBC 7:30 AM Y Jane and the Dragon 94 9 4/24/2010 NBC 10:00 AM Y7 Turbo Dogs 95 9 4/24/2010 NBC 10:30 AM Y7 Shelldon 96 9 4/24/2010 NBC 11:00 AM Y 3 2 1 Penguins! 97 9 4/24/2010 NBC 11:30 AM Y Babar 98 10 4/3/2010 CW 7:00 AM Y7 Winx Club 99 10 4/3/2010 CW 7:30 AM Y7 Winx Club 100 10 4/3/2010 CW 8:00 AM Y7 FV Dinosaur King 101 10 4/3/2010 CW 8:30 AM Y7 FV Dinosaur King 102 10 4/3 /2010 CW 9:00 AM Y7 Yu Gi Oh! 103 10 4/3/2010 CW 9:30 AM Y7 Yu Gi Oh! 104 10 4/3/2010 CW 10:00 AM Y7 Sonic X 105 10 4/3/2010 CW 10:30 AM Y7 Sonic X 106 10 4/3/2010 CW 11:00 AM Y7 FV Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles 107 10 4/3/2010 CW 11:30 AM Y7 FV Teenag e Mutant Ninja Turtles 108 11 3/27/2010 CW 7:00 AM Y7 Winx Club 109 11 3/27/2010 CW 7:30 AM Y7 Winx Club 110 11 3/27/2010 CW 8:00 AM Y7 FV Dinosaur King 111 11 3/27/2010 CW 8:30 AM Y7 FV Dinosaur King 112 11 3/27/2010 CW 9:00 AM Y7 Yu Gi Oh! 113 11 3 /27/2010 CW 9:30 AM Y7 Yu Gi Oh! 114 11 3/27/2010 CW 10:00 AM Y7 Sonic X 115 11 3/27/2010 CW 10:30 AM Y7 Sonic X 116 11 3/27/2010 CW 11:00 AM Y7 FV Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles 117 11 3/27/2010 CW 11:30 AM Y7 FV Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles 118 12 4/1 0/2010 CW 7:00 AM Y7 Winx Club 119 12 4/10/2010 CW 7:30 AM Y7 Winx Club 120 12 4/10/2010 CW 8:00 AM Y7 FV Dinosaur King 121 12 4/10/2010 CW 8:30 AM Y7 FV Dinosaur King 122 12 4/10/2010 CW 9:00 AM Y7 Yu Gi Oh! 123 12 4/10/2010 CW 9:30 AM Y7 Yu Gi Oh! 124 12 4/10/2010 CW 10:00 AM Y7 Sonic X 125 12 4/10/2010 CW 10:30 AM Y7 Sonic X 126 12 4/10/2010 CW 11:00 AM Y7 FV Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles 127 12 4/10/2010 CW 11:30 AM Y7 FV Teenage Mutant

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85 Ninja Turtles 128 13 4/15/2010 NICK 1:00 PM Y Ni Hao, Kai Lan 129 13 4/15/2010 NICK 1:30 PM Y The Fresh Beat Band 130 13 4/15/2010 NICK 2:00 PM Y7 SpongeBob SquarePants 131 13 4/15/2010 NICK 2:30 PM Y7 SpongeBob SquarePants 132 13 4/15/2010 NICK 3:00 PM Y7 Back at the Barnyard 133 13 4/15/2010 NICK 3:30 PM Y 7 Fanboy and Chum Chum 134 13 4/15/2010 NICK 4:00 PM Y7 Drake & Josh 135 13 4/15/2010 NICK 4:30 PM G BrainSurge 136 13 4/15/2010 NICK 5:00 PM Y7 SpongeBob SquarePants 137 13 4/15/2010 NICK 5:30 PM Y7 SpongeBob SquarePants 138 14 5/27/2010 NICK 1:00 PM Y Ni Hao, Kai Lan 139 14 5/27/2010 NICK 1:30 PM Y The Fresh Beat Band 140 14 5/27/2010 NICK 2:00 PM Y7 SpongeBob SquarePants 141 14 5/27/2010 NICK 2:30 PM Y7 SpongeBob SquarePants 142 14 5/27/2010 NICK 3:00 PM Y7 Adventures of Jimmy Neutron, Boy Geniu s 143 14 5/27/2010 NICK 3:30 PM Y7 Fanboy and Chum Chum 144 14 5/27/2010 NICK 4:00 PM G The Penguins of Madagascar 145 14 5/27/2010 NICK 4:30 PM G BrainSurge 146 14 5/27/2010 NICK 5:00 PM Y7 SpongeBob SquarePants 147 14 5/27/2010 NICK 5:30 PM Y7 Spon geBob SquarePants 148 15 3/25/2010 TOON 1:00 PM G Tom and Jerry 149 15 3/25/2010 TOON 2:00 PM Y7 Hero: 108 150 15 3/25/2010 TOON 2:30 PM Y7 FV Pokemon: DP Galactic Battles 151 15 3/25/2010 TOON 3:00 PM Y7 The Garfield Show 152 15 3/25/2010 TOON 3:30 P M Y7 The Garfield Show 153 15 3/25/2010 TOON 4:00 PM Y7 Codename: Kids Next Door

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86 154 15 3/25/2010 TOON 4:30 PM Y7 Codename: Kids Next Door 155 15 3/25/2010 TOON 5:00 PM Y7 FV Chowder 156 15 3/25/2010 TOON 5:30 PM Y7 FV Chowder 157 16 6/3/2010 TOON 1:0 0 PM G Tom and Jerry 158 16 6/3/2010 TOON 2:00 PM Y7 Hero: 108 159 16 6/3/2010 TOON 2:30 PM Y7 FV Pokemon: DP Galactic Battles 160 16 6/3/2010 TOON 3:00 PM Y7 The Garfield Show 161 16 6/3/2010 TOON 3:30 PM Y7 Totally Spies 162 16 6/3/2010 TOON 4:00 PM Y7 Codename: Kids Next Door 163 16 6/3/2010 TOON 4:30 PM Y7 Codename: Kids Next Door 164 16 6/3/2010 TOON 5:00 PM Y7 FV Amazing Spiez 165 16 6/3/2010 TOON 5:30 PM Y7 FV Chowder 166 17 3/23/2010 TOON 1:00 PM G Tom and Jerry 167 17 3/23/2010 TOON 2:00 PM Y7 The Super Hero Squad Show 168 17 3/23/2010 TOON 2:30 PM Y7 FV Pokemon: DP Galactic Battles 169 17 3/23/2010 TOON 3:00 PM Y7 The Garfield Show 170 17 3/23/2010 TOON 3:30 PM Y7 The Garfield Show 171 17 3/23/2010 TOON 4:00 PM Y7 Codename: Kids Next Door 172 17 3/23/2010 TOON 4:30 PM Y7 Codename: Kids Next Door 173 17 3/23/2010 TOON 5:00 PM Y7 FV Chowder 174 17 3/23/2010 TOON 5:30 PM Y7 FV Chowder 175 18 3/30/2010 NICK 2:00 PM Y7 SpongeBob SquarePants 176 18 3/30/2010 NICK 2:30 PM Y7 SpongeBob Sq uarePants 177 18 3/30/2010 NICK 3:00 PM Y7 SpongeBob SquarePants 178 18 3/30/2010 NICK 3:30 PM Y7 SpongeBob SquarePants 179 18 3/30/2010 NICK 4:00 PM Y7 Fanboy and Chum Chum 180 18 3/30/2010 NICK 4:30 PM G BrainSurge 181 18 3/30/2010 NICK 5:00 PM Y7 S pongeBob SquarePants 182 18 3/30/2010 NICK 5:30 PM G Kids' Choice 2010

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87 183 18 4/6/2010 NICK 4:00 PM Y7 Fairly OddParents 184 18 4/6/2010 NICK 4:30 PM G BrainSurge 185 19 4/5/2010 TOON 1:00 PM G Tom and Jerry 186 19 4/5/2010 TOON 2:00 PM Y7 Hero: 108 187 19 4/5/2010 TOON 2:30 PM Y7 FV Pokemon: DP Galactic Battles 188 19 4/5/2010 TOON 3:00 PM Y7 The Garfield Show 189 19 4/5/2010 TOON 3:30 PM Y7 The Garfield Show 190 19 4/5/2010 TOON 4:00 PM Y7 Codename: Kids Next Door 191 19 4/5/2010 TOON 4:30 PM Y7 Codename: Kids Next Door 192 19 4/5/2010 TOON 5:00 PM Y7 FV Chowder 193 19 4/5/2010 TOON 5:30 PM Y7 FV Chowder 194 20 4/2/2010 NICK 2:00 PM Y7 SpongeBob SquarePants 195 20 4/2/2010 NICK 2:30 PM Y7 SpongeBob SquarePants 196 20 4/2/2010 NICK 3:00 PM Y7 SpongeBob SquarePants 197 20 4/2/2010 NICK 3:30 PM Y7 SpongeBob SquarePants 198 20 4/2/2010 NICK 4:00 PM Y7 Fanboy and Chum Chum 199 20 4/2/2010 NICK 4:30 PM G BrainSurge 200 20 4/2/2010 NICK 5:00 PM Y7 SpongeBob SquarePants 201 20 4/2/2010 NICK 5:30 PM Y7 SpongeBob SquarePants 202 20 4/9/2010 NICK 5:00 PM Y7 SpongeBob SquarePants 203 20 4/9/2010 NICK 5:30 PM Y7 SpongeBob SquarePants 204 21 3/27/2010 NBC 10:00 AM Y7 Turbo Dogs 205 21 3/27/2010 NBC 10:30 AM Y7 Shelldon 206 21 3/27/2010 NBC 11:00 A M Y 3 2 1 Penguins! 207 21 3/27/2010 NBC 11:30 AM Y Babar 208 22 3/27/2010 ABC 9:00 AM G Emperor's New School 209 22 3/27/2010 ABC 9:30 AM G The Replacements 210 22 3/27/2010 ABC 10:00 AM G That's So Raven 211 22 3/27/2010 ABC 10:30 AM G That's So Rav en 212 23 4/3/2010 ABC 9:00 AM G Emperor's New

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88 School 213 23 4/3/2010 ABC 9:30 AM G The Replacements 214 23 4/3/2010 ABC 10:00 AM G That's So Raven 215 23 4/3/2010 ABC 10:30 AM G That's So Raven 216 23 4/3/2010 ABC 11:00 AM G Hannah Montana 217 23 4/ 3/2010 ABC 11:30 AM Y7 FV Suite Life of Zack & Cody 218 23 4/3/2010 ABC 12:00 PM Y7 Mighty Morphin Power Rangers 219 23 4/3/2010 ABC 12:30 PM Y7 Mighty Morphin Power Rangers 220 24 4/10/2010 ABC 9:00 AM G Emperor's New School 221 24 4/10/2010 ABC 9:30 AM G The Replacements 222 24 4/10/2010 ABC 10:00 AM G That's So Raven 223 24 4/10/2010 ABC 10:30 AM G That's So Raven 224 24 4/10/2010 ABC 11:00 AM G Hannah Montana 225 24 4/10/2010 ABC 11:30 AM Y7 FV Suite Life of Zack & Cody 226 24 4/10/2010 ABC 12: 00 PM Y7 Mighty Morphin Power Rangers 227 24 4/10/2010 ABC 12:30 PM Y7 Mighty Morphin Power Rangers 228 25 4/24/2010 ABC 9:00 AM G Emperor's New School 229 25 4/24/2010 ABC 9:30 AM G The Replacements 230 25 4/24/2010 ABC 10:00 AM G That's So Raven 231 25 4/24/2010 ABC 10:30 AM G That's So Raven 232 25 4/24/2010 ABC 11:00 AM G Hannah Montana 233 25 4/24/2010 ABC 11:30 AM Y7 FV Suite Life of Zack & Cody 234 25 4/24/2010 ABC 12:00 PM Y7 Mighty Morphin Power Rangers 235 25 4/24/2010 ABC 12:30 PM Y7 Mig hty Morphin Power Rangers 236 26 5/1/2010 CBS 7:00 AM Y Noonbory and the Super 7 237 26 5/1/2010 CBS 7:30 AM Y Busytown Mysteries 238 26 5/1/2010 CBS 8:00 AM Y Doodlebops Rockin' Road 239 26 5/1/2010 CBS 8:30 AM Y Strawberry Shortcake 240 26 5/2/2010 CBS 7:00 AM Y7 Sabrina, the

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89 Animated Series 241 26 5/2/2010 CBS 7:30 AM Y7 Sabrina, the Animated Series 242 26 5/2/2010 NBC 10:30 AM Y7 Willa's Wild Life 243 26 5/2/2010 NBC 11:00 AM Y Jane and the Dragon 244 26 5/8/2010 CBS 7:00 AM Y Noonbory and the Super 7 245 26 5/8/2010 CBS 7:30 AM Y Busytown Mysteries 246 26 5/8/2010 CBS 8:00 AM Y Doodlebops Rockin' Road

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90 APPENDIX C COMPLETE FOOD COMMER CIAL LOG Obs Date Network Time TV Rating Commercial Duration 1 4/10/2010 ABC 9:00 AM G Apple Jacks 0:00:30 2 4/10/2010 ABC 9:00 AM G Apple Jacks 0:00:30 3 3/20/2010 CW 7:30 AM Y7 Apple Jacks 0:00:30 4 3/20/2010 CW 9:00 AM Y7 Apple Jacks 0:00:30 5 3/20/2010 CW 9:30 AM Y7 Apple Jacks 0:00:30 6 3/27/2010 CW 7:00 AM Y7 Apple Jacks 0:00:30 7 3/27/2010 CW 7:30 AM Y7 Apple Jacks 0:00:30 8 3/27/2010 CW 10:30 AM Y7 Apple Jacks 0:00:30 9 4/10/2010 CW 10:30 AM Y7 Apple Jacks 0:00:30 10 5/27/2010 NICK 5:30 PM Y7 Apple Jacks 0:00:30 11 3/25/2010 TOON 4:00 PM Y7 Apple Jacks 0:00:30 12 3/23/2010 TOON 4:00 PM Y7 Apple Jacks 0:00:30 13 4/5/2010 TOON 4:00 PM Y7 Apple Jacks 0:00:30 14 3/25/2010 TOON 5:00 PM Y7 FV Apple Jacks 0:00:30 15 4/17/2010 ABC 9:00 AM G Baby Bottle Pop 0:00:15 16 4/17/2010 ABC 9:30 AM G Baby Bottle Pop 0:00:15 17 4/17/2010 ABC 1 0:00 AM G Baby Bottle Pop 0:00:15 18 4/10/2010 ABC 9:00 AM G Baby Bottle Pop 0:00:15 19 4/10/2010 ABC 9:30 AM G Baby Bottle Pop 0:00:15 20 4/10/2010 ABC 10:30 AM G Baby Bottle Pop 0:00:15 21 4/10/2010 ABC 11:00 AM G Baby Bottle Pop 0:00:15 22 4/1 5/2010 NICK 4:30 PM G Baby Bottle Pop 0:00:15 23 4/2/2010 NICK 4:30 PM G Baby Bottle Pop 0:00:15 24 4/17/2010 CW 9:30 AM Y7 Baby Bottle Pop 0:00:15 25 4/10/2010 CW 9:00 AM Y7 Baby Bottle Pop 0:00:15 26 4/10/2010 CW 10:00 AM Y7 Baby Bottle Pop 0:00 :15 27 4/10/2010 CW 10:30 AM Y7 Baby Bottle Pop 0:00:15

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91 28 4/15/2010 NICK 3:30 PM Y7 Baby Bottle Pop 0:00:15 29 4/2/2010 NICK 2:00 PM Y7 Baby Bottle Pop 0:00:15 30 4/2/2010 NICK 2:30 PM Y7 Baby Bottle Pop 0:00:15 31 4/2/2010 NICK 3:00 PM Y7 Baby B ottle Pop 0:00:15 32 4/2/2010 NICK 3:30 PM Y7 Baby Bottle Pop 0:00:15 33 4/2/2010 NICK 4:00 PM Y7 Baby Bottle Pop 0:00:15 34 4/2/2010 NICK 5:00 PM Y7 Baby Bottle Pop 0:00:15 35 4/2/2010 NICK 5:30 PM Y7 Baby Bottle Pop 0:00:15 36 4/9/2010 NICK 5:0 0 PM Y7 Baby Bottle Pop 0:00:15 37 4/10/2010 ABC 11:30 AM Y7 FV Baby Bottle Pop 0:00:15 38 4/17/2010 CW 8:30 AM Y7 FV Baby Bottle Pop 0:00:15 39 4/10/2010 CW 11:30 AM Y7 FV Baby Bottle Pop 0:00:15 40 5/27/2010 NICK 4:00 PM G Burger King Kid's Meal /Marmaduke toy 0:00:30 41 6/3/2010 TOON 1:00 PM G Burger King Kid's Meal/Marmaduke toy 0:00:15 42 5/27/2010 NICK 5:30 PM Y7 Burger King Kid's Meal/Marmaduke toy 0:00:30 43 6/3/2010 TOON 4:00 PM Y7 Burger King Kid's Meal/Marmaduke toy 0:00:15 44 4/15 /2010 NICK 4:30 PM G Burger King Kid's Meal/SpongeBob SquarePants watch 0:00:15 45 4/5/2010 TOON 1:00 PM G Burger King Kid's Meal/SpongeBob SquarePants watch 0:00:15 46 4/15/2010 NICK 3:00 PM Y7 Burger King Kid's Meal/SpongeBob SquarePants watch 0:00: 30 47 4/15/2010 NICK 3:30 PM Y7 Burger King Kid's Meal/SpongeBob SquarePants watch 0:00:15 48 4/15/2010 NICK 3:30 PM Y7 Burger King Kid's Meal/SpongeBob SquarePants watch 0:00:30 49 4/15/2010 NICK 4:00 PM Y7 Burger King Kid's Meal/SpongeBob SquarePan ts watch 0:00:15 50 4/15/2010 NICK 4:00 PM Y7 Burger King Kid's Meal/SpongeBob SquarePants watch 0:00:30 51 4/6/2010 NICK 4:00 PM Y7 Burger King Kid's Meal/SpongeBob SquarePants watch 0:00:15 52 4/5/2010 TOON 2:00 PM Y7 Burger King Kid's Meal/SpongeB ob 0:00:15

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92 SquarePants watch 53 4/5/2010 TOON 5:00 PM Y7 FV Burger King Kid's Meal/SpongeBob SquarePants watch 0:00:15 54 3/30/2010 NICK 5:30 PM G Burger King Kids Meal/Pinkalicious toy 0:00:15 55 3/30/2010 NICK 5:30 PM G Burger King Kids Meal/Stewar t Haas Racing toy 0:00:15 56 3/23/2010 TOON 4:30 PM Y7 Burger King Kids Meal/Stewart Haas Racing toy 0:00:15 57 5/27/2010 NICK 4:30 PM G CapriSun 0:00:15 58 4/15/2010 NICK 3:30 PM Y7 CapriSun 0:00:15 59 3/30/2010 NICK 3:00 PM Y7 CapriSun 0:00:15 6 0 3/30/2010 NICK 5:00 PM Y7 CapriSun 0:00:15 61 4/6/2010 NICK 4:00 PM Y7 CapriSun 0:00:15 62 4/2/2010 NICK 4:00 PM Y7 CapriSun 0:00:15 63 6/3/2010 TOON 3:00 PM Y7 CapriSun 0:00:15 64 6/3/2010 TOON 3:30 PM Y7 CapriSun 0:00:15 65 6/3/2010 TOON 4:00 PM Y7 CapriSun 0:00:15 66 6/3/2010 TOON 4:30 PM Y7 CapriSun 0:00:15 67 4/5/2010 TOON 3:00 PM Y7 CapriSun 0:00:15 68 4/5/2010 TOON 3:30 PM Y7 CapriSun 0:00:15 69 3/20/2010 CW 7:00 AM Y7 Chef Boyardee 0:00:30 70 3/20/2010 CW 7:30 AM Y7 Chef Boyard ee 0:00:15 71 3/20/2010 CW 9:00 AM Y7 Chef Boyardee 0:00:30 72 3/20/2010 CW 9:30 AM Y7 Chef Boyardee 0:00:30 73 3/20/2010 CW 10:00 AM Y7 Chef Boyardee 0:00:15 74 4/17/2010 CW 7:30 AM Y7 Chef Boyardee 0:00:15 75 4/17/2010 CW 9:00 AM Y7 Chef Boyard ee 0:00:15 76 4/17/2010 CW 9:30 AM Y7 Chef Boyardee 0:00:15 77 3/27/2010 CW 7:00 AM Y7 Chef Boyardee 0:00:15 78 3/27/2010 CW 7:30 AM Y7 Chef Boyardee 0:00:30 79 3/27/2010 CW 9:30 AM Y7 Chef Boyardee 0:00:15 80 3/27/2010 CW 10:00 AM Y7 Chef Boyard ee 0:00:15

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93 81 3/27/2010 CW 10:30 AM Y7 Chef Boyardee 0:00:15 82 4/10/2010 CW 7:00 AM Y7 Chef Boyardee 0:00:15 83 4/10/2010 CW 7:30 AM Y7 Chef Boyardee 0:00:15 84 4/10/2010 CW 9:00 AM Y7 Chef Boyardee 0:00:15 85 4/10/2010 CW 9:30 AM Y7 Chef Boyard ee 0:00:15 86 4/10/2010 CW 10:00 AM Y7 Chef Boyardee 0:00:15 87 4/10/2010 CW 10:30 AM Y7 Chef Boyardee 0:00:15 88 3/25/2010 TOON 3:30 PM Y7 Chef Boyardee 0:00:15 89 3/23/2010 TOON 3:00 PM Y7 Chef Boyardee 0:00:15 90 3/23/2010 TOON 4:30 PM Y7 Chef Boyardee 0:00:15 91 3/20/2010 CW 8:00 AM Y7 FV Chef Boyardee 0:00:30 92 3/20/2010 CW 8:30 AM Y7 FV Chef Boyardee 0:00:15 93 4/17/2010 CW 8:00 AM Y7 FV Chef Boyardee 0:00:15 94 4/17/2010 CW 8:30 AM Y7 FV Chef Boyardee 0:00:15 95 3/27/2010 CW 8:00 AM Y7 FV Chef Boyardee 0:00:15 96 3/27/2010 CW 8:30 AM Y7 FV Chef Boyardee 0:00:30 97 3/27/2010 CW 11:00 AM Y7 FV Chef Boyardee 0:00:30 98 3/27/2010 CW 11:30 AM Y7 FV Chef Boyardee 0:00:30 99 4/10/2010 CW 8:00 AM Y7 FV Chef Boyardee 0:00:15 100 3/25/2010 TOON 2:30 PM Y7 FV Chef Boyardee 0:00:15 101 3/30/2010 NICK 5:30 PM G Cinnamon Toast Crunch 0:00:30 102 4/15/2010 NICK 2:00 PM Y7 Cinnamon Toast Crunch 0:00:30 103 4/15/2010 NICK 5:30 PM Y7 Cinnamon Toast Crunch 0:00:30 104 5/27/2010 NICK 3:30 PM Y7 Cinnamon Toast Crunch 0:00:15 105 3/30/2010 NICK 5:00 PM Y7 Cinnamon Toast Crunch 0:00:30 106 4/2/2010 NICK 2:00 PM Y7 Cinnamon Toast Crunch 0:00:30 107 4/2/2010 NICK 2:30 PM Y7 Cinnamon Toast Crunch 0:00:30 108 4/5/2010 TOON 5:00 PM Y7 FV Cinnamon Toast Crunch 0:00:30 109 4/6/2010 NICK 4:30 PM G Cocoa Pebbles 0:00:30 110 5/27/2010 NICK 4:00 PM G Cocoa Puffs 0:00:30 111 6/3/2010 TOON 1:00 PM G Cocoa Puffs 0:00:30 112 4/15/2010 NICK 2:30 PM Y7 Cocoa Puffs 0:00:30

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94 113 4/15/2010 N ICK 5:30 PM Y7 Cocoa Puffs 0:00:30 114 4/6/2010 NICK 4:00 PM Y7 Cocoa Puffs 0:00:30 115 4/2/2010 NICK 4:00 PM Y7 Cocoa Puffs 0:00:30 116 4/5/2010 TOON 2:00 PM Y7 Cocoa Puffs 0:00:30 117 4/5/2010 TOON 4:30 PM Y7 Cocoa Puffs 0:00:15 118 6/3/2010 TO ON 3:30 PM Y7 Cookie Crisp 0:00:15 119 4/15/2010 NICK 4:30 PM G Cookie Crisp 0:00:30 120 5/27/2010 NICK 4:30 PM G Cookie Crisp 0:00:15 121 4/15/2010 NICK 4:00 PM Y7 Cookie Crisp 0:00:30 122 5/27/2010 NICK 5:30 PM Y7 Cookie Crisp 0:00:30 123 4 /2/2010 NICK 2:30 PM Y7 Cookie Crisp 0:00:15 124 4/2/2010 NICK 3:30 PM Y7 Cookie Crisp 0:00:30 125 3/27/2010 ABC 10:00 AM G Corn Pops 0:00:30 126 4/10/2010 ABC 12:00 PM Y7 Corn Pops 0:00:30 127 4/10/2010 ABC 12:30 PM Y7 Corn Pops 0:00:30 128 4/ 10/2010 ABC 12:30 PM Y7 Corn Pops 0:00:30 129 3/27/2010 CW 9:30 AM Y7 Corn Pops 0:00:30 130 4/10/2010 CW 7:00 AM Y7 Corn Pops 0:00:30 131 4/10/2010 CW 7:30 AM Y7 Corn Pops 0:00:30 132 4/10/2010 CW 9:00 AM Y7 Corn Pops 0:00:30 133 4/10/2010 CW 9:3 0 AM Y7 Corn Pops 0:00:30 134 3/25/2010 TOON 4:00 PM Y7 Corn Pops 0:00:30 135 4/10/2010 ABC 11:30 AM Y7 FV Corn Pops 0:00:30 136 3/27/2010 CW 11:00 AM Y7 FV Corn Pops 0:00:30 137 4/10/2010 CW 8:30 AM Y7 FV Corn Pops 0:00:30 138 4/10/2010 CW 11:30 AM Y7 FV Corn Pops 0:00:30 139 4/15/2010 NICK 5:30 PM Y7 Cupcake Pebbles 0:00:15 140 3/30/2010 NICK 2:00 PM Y7 Cupcake Pebbles 0:00:15 141 3/30/2010 NICK 3:00 PM Y7 Cupcake Pebbles 0:00:15 142 4/2/2010 NICK 4:00 PM Y7 Cupcake Pebbles 0:00:15 143 4/2/2010 NICK 5:30 PM Y7 Cupcake Pebbles 0:00:30 144 3/25/2010 TOON 3:30 PM Y7 Cupcake Pebbles 0:00:15

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95 145 3/25/2010 TOON 4:00 PM Y7 Cupcake Pebbles 0:00:15 146 3/23/2010 TOON 3:30 PM Y7 Cupcake Pebbles 0:00:15 147 4/5/2010 TOON 4:00 PM Y7 Cupcake Pebbles 0:00:15 148 4/5/2010 TOON 4:30 PM Y7 Cupcake Pebbles 0:00:15 149 4/17/2010 ABC 9:00 AM G Dannon Danimals 0:00:30 150 4/17/2010 ABC 9:30 AM G Dannon Danimals 0:00:30 151 4/17/2010 ABC 10:00 AM G Dannon Danimals 0:00:30 152 4/17/2010 AB C 10:30 AM G Dannon Danimals 0:00:30 153 4/17/2010 ABC 10:30 AM G Dannon Danimals 0:00:30 154 4/17/2010 ABC 11:00 AM G Dannon Danimals 0:00:30 155 4/17/2010 ABC 11:00 AM G Dannon Danimals 0:00:30 156 4/24/2010 ABC 9:00 AM G Dannon Danimals 0: 00:30 157 4/24/2010 ABC 9:30 AM G Dannon Danimals 0:00:30 158 4/24/2010 ABC 10:00 AM G Dannon Danimals 0:00:30 159 4/24/2010 ABC 10:30 AM G Dannon Danimals 0:00:30 160 4/24/2010 ABC 11:00 AM G Dannon Danimals 0:00:30 161 4/10/2010 ABC 9:00 AM G Dannon Danimals 0:00:30 162 4/10/2010 ABC 9:30 AM G Dannon Danimals 0:00:30 163 4/10/2010 ABC 10:00 AM G Dannon Danimals 0:00:30 164 4/10/2010 ABC 10:30 AM G Dannon Danimals 0:00:30 165 4/10/2010 ABC 11:00 AM G Dannon Danimals 0:00:30 166 4/24/2010 ABC 9:00 AM G Dannon Danimals 0:00:30 167 4/24/2010 ABC 9:30 AM G Dannon Danimals 0:00:30 168 4/24/2010 ABC 10:00 AM G Dannon Danimals 0:00:30 169 4/24/2010 ABC 10:30 AM G Dannon Danimals 0:00:30 170 4/24/2010 ABC 11:00 AM G Dannon D animals 0:00:30 171 3/23/2010 TOON 1:00 PM G Dannon Danimals 0:00:30 172 4/5/2010 TOON 1:00 PM G Dannon Danimals 0:00:30 173 4/5/2010 TOON 1:00 PM G Dannon Danimals 0:00:30 174 4/17/2010 ABC 12:00 PM Y7 Dannon Danimals 0:00:30 175 4/17/2010 A BC 12:30 PM Y7 Dannon Danimals 0:00:30 176 4/24/2010 ABC 12:00 PM Y7 Dannon Danimals 0:00:30

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96 177 4/24/2010 ABC 12:30 PM Y7 Dannon Danimals 0:00:30 178 4/10/2010 ABC 12:00 PM Y7 Dannon Danimals 0:00:30 179 4/10/2010 ABC 12:30 PM Y7 Dannon Danim als 0:00:30 180 4/24/2010 ABC 12:00 PM Y7 Dannon Danimals 0:00:30 181 4/24/2010 ABC 12:30 PM Y7 Dannon Danimals 0:00:30 182 4/15/2010 NICK 3:30 PM Y7 Dannon Danimals 0:00:30 183 4/15/2010 NICK 4:00 PM Y7 Dannon Danimals 0:00:15 184 4/15/2010 NICK 5:00 PM Y7 Dannon Danimals 0:00:15 185 3/30/2010 NICK 5:00 PM Y7 Dannon Danimals 0:00:30 186 4/6/2010 NICK 4:00 PM Y7 Dannon Danimals 0:00:30 187 4/2/2010 NICK 3:00 PM Y7 Dannon Danimals 0:00:15 188 4/9/2010 NICK 5:30 PM Y7 Dannon Danimal s 0:00:15 189 3/23/2010 TOON 4:30 PM Y7 Dannon Danimals 0:00:30 190 6/3/2010 TOON 1:00 PM G Dannon Danonino 0:00:30 191 3/30/2010 NICK 4:30 PM G Extinguisher Candy 0:00:15 192 4/15/2010 NICK 2:30 PM Y7 Extinguisher Candy 0:00:15 193 3/30/2010 N ICK 2:00 PM Y7 Extinguisher Candy 0:00:15 194 4/2/2010 NICK 4:00 PM Y7 Extinguisher Candy 0:00:15 195 4/17/2010 ABC 10:00 AM G Froot Loops 0:00:30 196 4/17/2010 ABC 10:30 AM G Froot Loops 0:00:30 197 4/24/2010 ABC 9:00 AM G Froot Loops 0:00:30 19 8 4/24/2010 ABC 9:30 AM G Froot Loops 0:00:30 199 3/27/2010 ABC 9:30 AM G Froot Loops 0:00:30 200 3/27/2010 ABC 10:30 AM G Froot Loops 0:00:30 201 4/10/2010 ABC 9:30 AM G Froot Loops 0:00:30 202 4/10/2010 ABC 11:00 AM G Froot Loops 0:00:30 203 4/ 24/2010 ABC 9:00 AM G Froot Loops 0:00:30 204 4/24/2010 ABC 9:30 AM G Froot Loops 0:00:30 205 5/27/2010 NICK 4:30 PM G Froot Loops 0:00:30 206 3/23/2010 TOON 1:00 PM G Froot Loops 0:00:30 207 4/10/2010 CBS 7:00 AM Y Froot Loops 0:00:30 208 4/24/2 010 ABC 12:00 PM Y7 Froot Loops 0:00:30

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97 209 4/24/2010 ABC 12:30 PM Y7 Froot Loops 0:00:30 210 4/24/2010 ABC 12:00 PM Y7 Froot Loops 0:00:30 211 4/24/2010 ABC 12:30 PM Y7 Froot Loops 0:00:30 212 3/20/2010 CW 10:00 AM Y7 Froot Loops 0:00:30 213 4/1 7/2010 CW 7:00 AM Y7 Froot Loops 0:00:30 214 4/15/2010 NICK 3:00 PM Y7 Froot Loops 0:00:30 215 4/6/2010 NICK 4:00 PM Y7 Froot Loops 0:00:30 216 3/25/2010 TOON 3:00 PM Y7 Froot Loops 0:00:30 217 3/23/2010 TOON 3:00 PM Y7 Froot Loops 0:00:30 218 3/ 20/2010 CW 8:30 AM Y7 FV Froot Loops 0:00:30 219 3/27/2010 CW 8:00 AM Y7 FV Froot Loops 0:00:30 220 3/27/2010 CW 8:30 AM Y7 FV Froot Loops 0:00:30 221 3/27/2010 CW 11:30 AM Y7 FV Froot Loops 0:00:30 222 4/10/2010 CW 8:00 AM Y7 FV Froot Loops 0:00: 30 223 4/10/2010 CW 11:00 AM Y7 FV Froot Loops 0:00:30 224 4/17/2010 ABC 9:00 AM G Frosted Flakes 0:00:30 225 4/17/2010 ABC 10:00 AM G Frosted Flakes 0:00:30 226 4/24/2010 ABC 9:30 AM G Frosted Flakes 0:00:30 227 4/24/2010 ABC 10:00 AM G Frosted F lakes 0:00:30 228 4/10/2010 ABC 10:00 AM G Frosted Flakes 0:00:30 229 4/24/2010 ABC 9:30 AM G Frosted Flakes 0:00:30 230 4/24/2010 ABC 10:00 AM G Frosted Flakes 0:00:30 231 4/17/2010 ABC 12:00 PM Y7 Frosted Flakes 0:00:30 232 4/10/2010 ABC 12:00 PM Y7 Frosted Flakes 0:00:30 233 4/10/2010 ABC 12:00 PM Y7 Frosted Flakes 0:00:30 234 3/20/2010 CW 7:00 AM Y7 Frosted Flakes 0:00:30 235 4/17/2010 CW 9:30 AM Y7 Frosted Flakes 0:00:30 236 3/27/2010 CW 9:00 AM Y7 Frosted Flakes 0:00:30 237 3/27/20 10 CW 10:00 AM Y7 Frosted Flakes 0:00:30 238 4/10/2010 CW 10:00 AM Y7 Frosted Flakes 0:00:30 239 5/27/2010 NICK 2:30 PM Y7 Frosted Flakes 0:00:30 240 4/24/2010 ABC 11:30 AM Y7 FV Frosted Flakes 0:00:30

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98 241 4/24/2010 ABC 11:30 AM Y7 FV Frosted Flake s 0:00:30 242 3/20/2010 CW 8:00 AM Y7 FV Frosted Flakes 0:00:30 243 3/23/2010 TOON 2:30 PM Y7 FV Frosted Flakes 0:00:30 244 6/3/2010 TOON 1:00 PM G Frosted Flakes /Toy Story 3 toy 0:00:15 245 5/27/2010 NICK 3:30 PM Y7 Frosted Flakes /Toy Story 3 toy 0:00:15 246 5/27/2010 NICK 5:00 PM Y7 Fruity Pebbles 0:00:30 247 6/3/2010 TOON 3:00 PM Y7 Fruity Pebbles 0:00:30 248 6/3/2010 TOON 4:00 PM Y7 Fruity Pebbles 0:00:15 249 4/15/2010 NICK 2:00 PM Y7 Go Gurt /Shrek Forever After 0:00:15 250 5/27/2010 N ICK 2:00 PM Y7 Go Gurt /Shrek Forever After 0:00:15 251 3/30/2010 NICK 5:30 PM G Go Gurt Sweepstakes 0:00:30 252 3/30/2010 NICK 3:30 PM Y7 Go Gurt Sweepstakes 0:00:30 253 4/2/2010 NICK 2:00 PM Y7 Go Gurt Sweepstakes 0:00:30 254 4/2/2010 NICK 5:30 PM Y7 Go Gurt Sweepstakes 0:00:30 255 3/25/2010 TOON 3:00 PM Y7 Go Gurt Sweepstakes 0:00:30 256 3/25/2010 TOON 5:30 PM Y7 FV Go Gurt Sweepstakes 0:00:30 257 3/30/2010 NICK 4:30 PM G Goldfish 0:00:30 258 4/6/2010 NICK 4:30 PM G Goldfish 0:00:30 259 4/5/2010 TOON 1:00 PM G Goldfish 0:00:30 260 5/27/2010 NICK 2:00 PM Y7 Goldfish 0:00:15 261 4/5/2010 TOON 5:00 PM Y7 FV Goldfish 0:00:30 262 3/25/2010 TOON 5:00 PM Y7 FV Goldfish Grahams 0:00:30 263 3/23/2010 TOON 1:00 PM G Goldfish Sweepstakes 0: 00:15 264 4/15/2010 NICK 5:00 PM Y7 Goldfish Sweepstakes 0:00:15 265 3/25/2010 TOON 2:00 PM Y7 Goldfish Sweepstakes 0:00:15 266 3/23/2010 TOON 5:30 PM Y7 FV Goldfish Sweepstakes 0:00:15 267 4/6/2010 NICK 4:30 PM G Honey Nut Cheerios 0:00:15 268 4/ 15/2010 NICK 3:00 PM Y7 Honey Nut Cheerios 0:00:15 269 4/15/2010 NICK 5:00 PM Y7 Honey Nut Cheerios 0:00:30 270 5/27/2010 NICK 2:00 PM Y7 Honey Nut Cheerios 0:00:30 271 5/27/2010 NICK 2:30 PM Y7 Honey Nut Cheerios 0:00:15 272 3/30/2010 NICK 2:30 PM Y7 Honey Nut Cheerios 0:00:30

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99 273 4/2/2010 NICK 5:00 PM Y7 Honey Nut Cheerios 0:00:30 274 4/9/2010 NICK 5:30 PM Y7 Honey Nut Cheerios 0:00:30 275 4/5/2010 TOON 4:00 PM Y7 Honey Nut Cheerios 0:00:30 276 4/17/2010 CW 9:00 AM Y7 Juicy Drop Pop 0:00: 15 277 4/17/2010 CW 9:30 AM Y7 Juicy Drop Pop 0:00:15 278 3/27/2010 CW 9:00 AM Y7 Juicy Drop Pop 0:00:15 279 3/27/2010 CW 10:00 AM Y7 Juicy Drop Pop 0:00:15 280 4/9/2010 NICK 5:00 PM Y7 Juicy Drop Pop 0:00:15 281 4/9/2010 NICK 5:30 PM Y7 Juicy Dro p Pop 0:00:15 282 4/17/2010 CW 8:30 AM Y7 FV Juicy Drop Pop 0:00:15 283 3/27/2010 CW 8:00 AM Y7 FV Juicy Drop Pop 0:00:15 284 3/27/2010 CW 8:30 AM Y7 FV Juicy Drop Pop 0:00:15 285 3/27/2010 CW 11:00 AM Y7 FV Juicy Drop Pop 0:00:15 286 3/27/2010 C W 11:30 AM Y7 FV Juicy Drop Pop 0:00:15 287 5/27/2010 NICK 5:00 PM Y7 Kid Cuisine /Shrek Forever After Sweepstakes 0:00:15 288 4/24/2010 ABC 9:00 AM G Kool Aid Fun Fizz 0:00:15 289 4/24/2010 ABC 10:00 AM G Kool Aid Fun Fizz 0:00:15 290 3/27/2010 A BC 9:00 AM G Kool Aid Fun Fizz 0:00:15 291 3/27/2010 ABC 10:30 AM G Kool Aid Fun Fizz 0:00:30 292 4/3/2010 ABC 9:00 AM G Kool Aid Fun Fizz 0:00:30 293 4/3/2010 ABC 9:30 AM G Kool Aid Fun Fizz 0:00:30 294 4/3/2010 ABC 10:00 AM G Kool Aid Fun Fi zz 0:00:30 295 4/10/2010 ABC 9:00 AM G Kool Aid Fun Fizz 0:00:30 296 4/10/2010 ABC 11:00 AM G Kool Aid Fun Fizz 0:00:30 297 4/24/2010 ABC 9:00 AM G Kool Aid Fun Fizz 0:00:15 298 4/24/2010 ABC 10:00 AM G Kool Aid Fun Fizz 0:00:15 299 3/30/2010 NICK 4:30 PM G Kool Aid Fun Fizz 0:00:30 300 3/30/2010 NICK 5:30 PM G Kool Aid Fun Fizz 0:00:30 301 4/6/2010 NICK 4:30 PM G Kool Aid Fun Fizz 0:00:30 302 4/2/2010 NICK 4:30 PM G Kool Aid Fun Fizz 0:00:30 303 4/24/2010 ABC 12:30 PM Y7 Kool Aid Fun Fizz 0:00:15 304 4/3/2010 ABC 12:00 PM Y7 Kool Aid Fun Fizz 0:00:30

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100 305 4/3/2010 ABC 12:30 PM Y7 Kool Aid Fun Fizz 0:00:30 306 4/24/2010 ABC 12:30 PM Y7 Kool Aid Fun Fizz 0:00:15 307 4/17/2010 CW 9:30 AM Y7 Kool Aid Fun Fizz 0:00:30 308 4/15/2010 NICK 3:00 PM Y7 Kool Aid Fun Fizz 0:00:15 309 3/30/2010 NICK 3:00 PM Y7 Kool Aid Fun Fizz 0:00:30 310 3/30/2010 NICK 3:30 PM Y7 Kool Aid Fun Fizz 0:00:15 311 3/30/2010 NICK 4:00 PM Y7 Kool Aid Fun Fizz 0:00:15 312 3/30/2010 NICK 5:00 PM Y7 Kool Aid Fun Fizz 0:00:15 313 4/2/2010 NICK 3:00 PM Y7 Kool Aid Fun Fizz 0:00:15 314 3/25/2010 TOON 3:00 PM Y7 Kool Aid Fun Fizz 0:00:15 315 3/25/2010 TOON 3:30 PM Y7 Kool Aid Fun Fizz 0:00:15 316 3/25/2010 TOON 4:00 PM Y7 Kool Aid Fun F izz 0:00:30 317 3/25/2010 TOON 4:30 PM Y7 Kool Aid Fun Fizz 0:00:15 318 3/23/2010 TOON 3:00 PM Y7 Kool Aid Fun Fizz 0:00:30 319 3/23/2010 TOON 3:30 PM Y7 Kool Aid Fun Fizz 0:00:30 320 3/23/2010 TOON 4:00 PM Y7 Kool Aid Fun Fizz 0:00:15 321 3/ 23/2010 TOON 4:30 PM Y7 Kool Aid Fun Fizz 0:00:15 322 3/27/2010 CW 8:00 AM Y7 FV Kool Aid Fun Fizz 0:00:30 323 3/25/2010 TOON 5:30 PM Y7 FV Kool Aid Fun Fizz 0:00:30 324 3/23/2010 TOON 5:30 PM Y7 FV Kool Aid Fun Fizz 0:00:30 325 4/17/2010 ABC 1 0:30 AM G Kraft Macaroni & Cheese Spirals 0:00:15 326 4/17/2010 ABC 10:30 AM G Kraft Macaroni & Cheese Spirals 0:00:15 327 4/24/2010 ABC 9:00 AM G Kraft Macaroni & Cheese Spirals 0:00:15 328 4/24/2010 ABC 10:00 AM G Kraft Macaroni & Cheese Spirals 0 :00:15 329 4/24/2010 ABC 9:00 AM G Kraft Macaroni & Cheese Spirals 0:00:15 330 4/24/2010 ABC 10:00 AM G Kraft Macaroni & Cheese Spirals 0:00:15 331 4/17/2010 ABC 12:00 PM Y7 Kraft Macaroni & Cheese Spirals 0:00:15 332 4/17/2010 ABC 12:00 PM Y7 Kraft Macaroni & Cheese Spirals 0:00:15 333 4/24/2010 ABC 12:30 PM Y7 Kraft Macaroni & Cheese Spirals 0:00:15 334 4/10/2010 ABC 12:00 PM Y7 Kraft Macaroni & Cheese Spirals 0:00:15 335 4/10/2010 ABC 12:00 PM Y7 Kraft Macaroni & Cheese Spirals 0:00:15 336 4/24/2010 ABC 12:30 PM Y7 Kraft Macaroni & Cheese Spirals 0:00:15

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1 01 337 3/27/2010 CW 7:00 AM Y7 Kraft Macaroni & Cheese Spirals 0:00:15 338 3/27/2010 CW 7:00 AM Y7 Kraft Macaroni & Cheese Spirals 0:00:15 339 3/27/2010 CW 7:30 AM Y7 Kraft Macaroni & C heese Spirals 0:00:15 340 3/27/2010 CW 7:30 AM Y7 Kraft Macaroni & Cheese Spirals 0:00:15 341 4/15/2010 NICK 5:30 PM Y7 Kraft Macaroni & Cheese Spirals 0:00:15 342 4/15/2010 NICK 5:30 PM Y7 Kraft Macaroni & Cheese Spirals 0:00:15 343 4/2/2010 NICK 4 :30 PM G Lucky Charms 0:00:30 344 4/15/2010 NICK 3:30 PM Y7 Lucky Charms 0:00:15 345 3/30/2010 NICK 5:00 PM Y7 Lucky Charms 0:00:30 346 4/2/2010 NICK 3:00 PM Y7 Lucky Charms 0:00:30 347 4/2/2010 NICK 5:30 PM Y7 Lucky Charms 0:00:30 348 5/27/2010 NICK 4:00 PM G Lucky Charms 0:00:30 349 5/27/2010 NICK 5:00 PM Y7 Lucky Charms 0:00:30 350 4/15/2010 NICK 2:30 PM Y7 Lucky Charms /Shrek Forever After toy 0:00:30 351 4/3/2010 CW 7:00 AM Y7 Lunchables Turkey and Cheddar Sub 0:00:30 352 4/3/2010 CW 7:30 AM Y7 Lunchables Turkey and Cheddar Sub 0:00:30 353 3/27/2010 CW 10:00 AM Y7 Lunchables Turkey and Cheddar Sub 0:00:30 354 4/10/2010 CW 7:00 AM Y7 Lunchables Turkey and Cheddar Sub 0:00:30 355 4/10/2010 CW 7:30 AM Y7 Lunchables Turkey and Cheddar S ub 0:00:30 356 4/10/2010 CW 10:30 AM Y7 Lunchables Turkey and Cheddar Sub 0:00:30 357 3/30/2010 NICK 3:00 PM Y7 Lunchables Turkey and Cheddar Sub 0:00:30 358 3/30/2010 NICK 3:30 PM Y7 Lunchables Turkey and Cheddar Sub 0:00:30 359 3/30/2010 NICK 4:00 PM Y7 Lunchables Turkey and Cheddar Sub 0:00:30 360 4/2/2010 NICK 5:00 PM Y7 Lunchables Turkey and Cheddar Sub 0:00:30 361 4/9/2010 NICK 5:30 PM Y7 Lunchables Turkey and Cheddar Sub 0:00:30 362 3/25/2010 TOON 3:30 PM Y7 Lunchables Turkey and Cheddar Sub 0 :00:30 363 3/23/2010 TOON 3:30 PM Y7 Lunchables Turkey and Cheddar Sub 0:00:30 364 4/5/2010 TOON 3:00 PM Y7 Lunchables Turkey and Cheddar Sub 0:00:30 365 4/5/2010 TOON 3:30 PM Y7 Lunchables Turkey and Cheddar Sub 0:00:30 366 4/5/2010 TOON 4:30 PM Y7 Lu nchables Turkey and Cheddar Sub 0:00:30 367 4/3/2010 CW 8:30 AM Y7 FV Lunchables Turkey and Cheddar Sub 0:00:30 368 5/27/2010 NICK 5:00 PM Y7 Lunchables Turkey and Cheddar Sub 0:00:30

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102 Sweepstakes 369 3/27/2010 CW 10:00 AM Y7 Frappe 0:00:15 370 3/27/2010 CW 8:30 AM Y7 FV Frappe 0:00:15 371 3/27/2010 CW 9:00 AM Y7 Happy Meal 0:00:30 372 3/27/2010 CW 9:30 AM Y7 Happy Meal 0:00:30 373 4/10/2010 CW 7:30 AM Y7 Happy Meal 0:00:30 374 4/10/2010 CW 9:00 AM Y7 Happy Meal 0:00:30 375 4/10/2010 CW 9:30 AM Y7 Happy Meal 0:00:30 376 3/27/2010 CW 11:00 AM Y7 FV Happy Meal 0:00:30 377 4/10/2010 CW 8:00 AM Y7 FV Happy Meal 0:00:30 378 3/27/2010 CW 10 :00 AM Y7 Iced Sweet Tea 0:00:15 379 3/27/2010 CW 8:30 AM Y7 FV Iced Sweet Tea 0:00:15 380 4/24/2010 ABC 9:00 AM G Happy Meal 0:00:30 381 3/27/2010 ABC 9:00 AM G Happy Meal 0:00:30 382 3/27/2010 ABC 9:3 0 AM G Happy Meal 0:00:30 383 4/3/2010 ABC 9:30 AM G Happy Meal 0:00:30 384 4/10/2010 ABC 10:00 AM G Happy Meal 0:00:30 385 4/24/2010 ABC 9:00 AM G Happy Meal 0:00:30 386 3/25/2010 TOON 1:00 PM G McDo Happy Meal 0:00:30 387 4/24/2010 ABC 12:00 PM Y7 Happy Meal 0:00:30 388 4/24/2010 ABC 12:30 PM Y7 Happy Meal 0:00:30 389 4/3/2010 ABC 12:30 PM Y7 Happy Meal 0:00:30 390 4/10/2010 ABC 12:00 PM Y7 s Happy Meal 0:00:30 391 4/24/2010 ABC 12:00 PM Y7 Happy Meal 0:00:30 392 4/24/2010 ABC 12:30 PM Y7 Happy Meal 0:00:30 393 3/20/2010 CW 7:30 AM Y7 Happy Meal 0:00:30 394 3/20/2010 CW 9:00 AM Y7 Happy Meal 0:00:30 395 4/17/2010 CW 7:00 AM Y7 Happy Meal 0:00:30 396 4/3/2010 CW 9:00 AM Y7 Happy Meal 0:00:30 397 4/3/2010 CW 9:30 AM Y7 Happy Meal 0:00:30 398 5/27/2010 NICK 5:30 PM Y7 Happy Meal 0:00: 30 399 3/25/2010 TOON 3:30 PM Y7 Happy Meal 0:00:30

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103 400 4/5/2010 TOON 3:00 PM Y7 Happy Meal 0:00:30 401 4/3/2010 CW 8:00 AM Y7 FV Happy Meal 0:00:30 402 3/25/2010 TOON 5:00 PM Y7 FV Happy Meal 0:00:30 403 6/3/2010 TOON 2:30 PM Y7 FV Happy Meal 0:00:30 404 4/5/2010 TOON 5:30 PM Y7 FV Happy Meal 0:00:30 405 4/24/2010 ABC 9:30 AM G Happy Meal /Barbie in A Mermaid Tale toy 0:00:30 406 4/24/2010 ABC 10:00 AM G McDon Happy Meal /Barbie in A Mermaid Tale toy 0:00:30 407 4/24/2010 ABC 9:30 AM G Happy Meal /Barbie in A Mermaid Tale toy 0:00:30 408 4/24/2010 ABC 10:00 AM G Happy Meal /Barbie in A Mermaid Tale toy 0:00:30 409 4/24/2010 ABC 11:30 AM Y7 FV Happy Meal /Barbie in A Mermaid Tale toy 0:00:30 410 4/24/2010 ABC 11:30 AM Y7 FV Happy Meal /Barbie in A Mermaid Tale toy 0:00:30 411 4/24/2010 ABC 10:30 AM G Happy Meal /Hot Wheels Battle Force 5 toy 0 :00:30 412 4/24/2010 ABC 11:00 AM G Happy Meal /Hot Wheels Battle Force 5 toy 0:00:30 413 4/24/2010 ABC 10:30 AM G Happy Meal /Hot Wheels Battle Force 5 toy 0:00:30 414 4/24/2010 ABC 11:00 AM G Happy Meal /Hot Wheels Battle Force 5 toy 0:00:30 415 4/17/2010 ABC 9:00 AM G Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 416 4/17/2010 ABC 9:30 AM G Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 417 4/17/2010 ABC 10:00 AM G Happy M eal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 418 4/17/2010 ABC 10:30 AM G Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30

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104 419 4/17/2010 ABC 11:00 AM G Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 420 3/27/2010 ABC 10:00 AM G Mc Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 421 3/27/2010 ABC 10:30 AM G Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 422 4/3/2010 ABC 9:00 AM G Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 423 4/3/2010 ABC 10:00 AM G Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 424 4/3/2010 ABC 10:30 AM G Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 425 4/3/2010 ABC 11:00 AM G Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 42 6 4/10/2010 ABC 9:00 AM G Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 427 4/10/2010 ABC 9:30 AM G Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 428 4/10/2010 ABC 10:30 AM G Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 429 4/10/2010 ABC 11:00 AM G Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 430 3/30/2010 NICK 4:30 PM G Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 431 4/6/2010 NICK 4:30 PM G Happy Meal /How to Tr ain Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 432 4/5/2010 TOON 1:00 PM G Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 433 4/17/2010 ABC 12:00 PM Y7 Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 434 4/17/2010 ABC 12:30 PM Y7 Hap py Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 435 4/3/2010 ABC 12:00 PM Y7 Happy Meal /How to Train Your 0:00:30

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105 Dragon toy 436 4/10/2010 ABC 12:30 PM Y7 Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 437 4/17/2010 CW 7:30 AM Y 7 Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 438 4/17/2010 CW 9:00 AM Y7 Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 439 4/17/2010 CW 9:30 AM Y7 Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 440 4/3/2010 CW 7:00 AM Y7 Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 441 4/3/2010 CW 7:30 AM Y7 Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 442 4/3/2010 CW 10:00 AM Y7 Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 443 4/3/2010 CW 10:30 AM Y7 Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 444 3/27/2010 CW 7:00 AM Y7 Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 445 3/27/2010 CW 7:30 AM Y7 Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 446 3/27/2010 CW 10:00 AM Y7 Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 447 3/27/2010 CW 10:30 AM Y7 Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 448 4/10/2010 CW 7:00 AM Y7 Happy Meal /How to T rain Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 449 4/10/2010 CW 10:00 AM Y7 Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 450 4/10/2010 CW 10:30 AM Y7 Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 451 4/15/2010 NICK 2:30 PM Y7 Ha ppy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30

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106 452 4/15/2010 NICK 3:00 PM Y7 Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 453 4/15/2010 NICK 4:00 PM Y7 Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 454 4/15/2010 NICK 5:00 PM Y7 Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 455 3/30/2010 NICK 2:30 PM Y7 Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 456 3/30/2010 NICK 3:00 PM Y7 Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 457 3/30/2010 NICK 4:00 PM Y7 Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 458 3/30/2010 NICK 5:00 PM Y7 Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 459 4/6/2010 NICK 4:00 PM Y7 Happy Meal /How to Train Your Drago n toy 0:00:30 460 4/2/2010 NICK 4:00 PM Y7 Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 461 4/2/2010 NICK 5:00 PM Y7 Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 462 4/2/2010 NICK 5:30 PM Y7 Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 463 4/9/2010 NICK 5:30 PM Y7 Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 464 4/17/2010 ABC 11:30 AM Y7 FV Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 465 4/3/2010 ABC 11:30 AM Y7 FV McDona Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 466 4/10/2010 ABC 11:30 AM Y7 FV Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 467 4/17/2010 CW 8:00 AM Y7 FV Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 468 4/17/201 0 CW 8:30 AM Y7 FV Happy Meal /How to Train Your 0:00:30

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107 Dragon toy 469 4/3/2010 CW 8:30 AM Y7 FV Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 470 4/3/2010 CW 11:00 AM Y7 FV Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 471 4/3/2010 CW 11:30 AM Y7 FV Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 472 3/27/2010 CW 8:00 AM Y7 FV Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 473 3/27/2010 CW 8:30 AM Y7 FV Happy Meal /How t o Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 474 3/27/2010 CW 11:30 AM Y7 FV Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 475 4/10/2010 CW 8:30 AM Y7 FV Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 476 4/10/2010 CW 11:00 AM Y7 FV McDo Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 477 4/10/2010 CW 11:30 AM Y7 FV Happy Meal /How to Train Your Dragon toy 0:00:30 478 3/23/2010 TOON 1:00 PM G Happy Meal /iCarly toy 0:00:30 479 3/20/2010 CW 9:30 AM Y7 McD Happy Meal /iCarly toy 0:00:30 480 3/20/2010 CW 10:00 AM Y7 Happy Meal /iCarly toy 0:00:30 481 3/23/2010 TOON 2:00 PM Y7 Happy Meal /iCarly toy 0:00:30 482 3/23/2010 TOON 3:00 PM Y7 Happy Meal /iCarly toy 0:0 0:30 483 3/23/2010 TOON 3:00 PM Y7 Happy Meal /iCarly toy 0:00:30 484 3/23/2010 TOON 4:30 PM Y7 Happy Meal /iCarly toy 0:00:30 485 3/20/2010 CW 8:00 AM Y7 FV Happy Meal /iCarly toy 0:00:30 486 3/23/2010 TOON 2:30 PM Y7 FV Happy Meal /iCarly toy 0:00:30 487 5/27/2010 NICK 4:30 PM G Happy Meal /Shrek Forever After toy 0:00:30 488 5/27/2010 NICK 2:30 PM Y7 Happy Meal /Shrek Forever After toy 0:00:30 489 6/3/2010 TOON 3:00 PM Y7 McDo Happy Meal /Shrek Forever After 0:00:30

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108 toy 490 3/20/2010 CW 7:00 AM Y7 Happy Meal /Star Wars toy 0:00:30 491 3/23/2010 TOON 3:30 PM Y7 Happy Meal /Star Wars toy 0:00:30 492 3/20/2010 CW 8:30 AM Y7 FV Happy Me al /Star Wars toy 0:00:30 493 3/23/2010 TOON 2:30 PM Y7 FV Happy Meal /Star Wars toy 0:00:30 494 6/3/2010 TOON 3:00 PM Y7 Melt Downs 0:00:30 495 6/3/2010 TOON 4:00 PM Y7 Melt Downs 0:00:30 496 6/3/2010 TOON 5:30 PM Y7 FV Melt Downs 0:00:15 497 4/24/2010 ABC 9:00 AM G Push Pop 0:00:15 498 4/24/2010 ABC 9:30 AM G Push Pop 0:00:15 499 4/24/2010 ABC 10:00 AM G Push Pop 0:00:15 500 4/24/2010 ABC 10:30 AM G Push Pop 0:00:15 501 4/24/2010 ABC 11:00 AM G Push Pop 0:00:15 502 4/3/2010 ABC 10:00 AM G Push Pop 0:00:15 503 4/3/2010 ABC 10:00 AM G Push Pop 0:00:15 504 4/3/2010 ABC 11:00 AM G Push Pop 0:00:15 505 4/24/2010 ABC 9:00 AM G Push Pop 0:00:15 506 4/24/2010 ABC 9:30 AM G Push Pop 0:00:15 507 4/24/2010 ABC 10:00 AM G Push Pop 0:00:15 508 4/24/2010 ABC 10:30 AM G Push Pop 0:00:15 509 4/24/2010 ABC 11:00 AM G Push Pop 0:00:15 510 5/27/2010 NICK 4:30 PM G Push Pop 0:00:15 511 4/3/2010 ABC 12:00 PM Y7 Push Pop 0:00:15 512 4/3/2010 ABC 12:30 PM Y7 Push Pop 0:00:15 513 4/ 3/2010 CW 10:00 AM Y7 Push Pop 0:00:15 514 4/15/2010 NICK 5:00 PM Y7 Push Pop 0:00:15 515 4/15/2010 NICK 5:30 PM Y7 Push Pop 0:00:15 516 5/27/2010 NICK 2:30 PM Y7 Push Pop 0:00:15 517 3/25/2010 TOON 3:30 PM Y7 Push Pop 0:00:15 518 4/24/2010 ABC 1 1:30 AM Y7 FV Push Pop 0:00:15 519 4/24/2010 ABC 11:30 AM Y7 FV Push Pop 0:00:15 520 4/3/2010 CW 8:00 AM Y7 FV Push Pop 0:00:15

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109 521 4/3/2010 CW 11:30 AM Y7 FV Push Pop 0:00:15 522 4/15/2010 NICK 4:30 PM G Reese's Puffs 0:00:15 523 4/17/2010 ABC 1 0:00 AM G Ring Pop 0:00:15 524 4/17/2010 ABC 10:30 AM G Ring Pop 0:00:15 525 4/17/2010 ABC 11:00 AM G Ring Pop 0:00:15 526 3/27/2010 ABC 9:30 AM G Ring Pop 0:00:15 527 4/3/2010 ABC 9:30 AM G Ring Pop 0:00:15 528 4/3/2010 ABC 10:00 AM G Ring Pop 0:00:15 529 4/3/2010 ABC 10:30 AM G Ring Pop 0:00:15 530 4/3/2010 ABC 11:00 AM G Ring Pop 0:00:15 531 4/17/2010 CW 9:00 AM Y7 Ring Pop 0:00:15 532 4/3/2010 CW 10:00 AM Y7 Ring Pop 0:00:15 533 4/3/2010 CW 10:30 AM Y7 Ring Pop 0:00:15 534 3/27/201 0 CW 10:00 AM Y7 Ring Pop 0:00:15 535 4/17/2010 ABC 11:30 AM Y7 FV Ring Pop 0:00:15 536 4/17/2010 CW 8:30 AM Y7 FV Ring Pop 0:00:15 537 4/3/2010 CW 11:30 AM Y7 FV Ring Pop 0:00:15 538 3/27/2010 CW 8:30 AM Y7 FV Ring Pop 0:00:15 539 3/27/2010 CW 1 1:30 AM Y7 FV Ring Pop 0:00:15 540 4/15/2010 NICK 2:00 PM Y7 Sour Punch Straws 0:00:15 541 6/3/2010 TOON 4:00 PM Y7 Sour Punch Straws 0:00:15 542 3/23/2010 TOON 3:00 PM Y7 Sour Punch Straws 0:00:15 543 4/5/2010 TOON 2:00 PM Y7 Sour Punch Straws 0: 00:15 544 4/5/2010 TOON 2:30 PM Y7 FV Sour Punch Straws 0:00:15 545 4/5/2010 TOON 5:30 PM Y7 FV Sour Punch Straws 0:00:15 546 4/15/2010 NICK 1:30 PM Y Sun Crystals Sweetner 0:00:15 547 4/17/2010 ABC 9:00 AM G Sunny D 0:00:15 548 4/17/2010 ABC 9:00 AM G Sunny D 0:00:15 549 4/17/2010 ABC 9:00 AM G Sunny D 0:00:15 550 4/17/2010 ABC 9:30 AM G Sunny D 0:00:15 551 4/17/2010 ABC 9:30 AM G Sunny D 0:00:15 552 4/17/2010 ABC 9:30 AM G Sunny D 0:00:15

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110 553 4/17/2010 ABC 10:00 AM G Sunny D 0:00:15 5 54 4/17/2010 ABC 10:00 AM G Sunny D 0:00:15 555 4/17/2010 ABC 10:30 AM G Sunny D 0:00:15 556 4/17/2010 ABC 10:30 AM G Sunny D 0:00:15 557 4/17/2010 ABC 11:00 AM G Sunny D 0:00:15 558 4/17/2010 ABC 11:00 AM G Sunny D 0:00:15 559 4/17/2010 ABC 11:0 0 AM G Sunny D 0:00:15 560 4/3/2010 ABC 9:00 AM G Sunny D 0:00:15 561 4/3/2010 ABC 9:00 AM G Sunny D 0:00:15 562 4/3/2010 ABC 9:30 AM G Sunny D 0:00:15 563 4/3/2010 ABC 9:30 AM G Sunny D 0:00:15 564 4/3/2010 ABC 10:00 AM G Sunny D 0:00:15 565 4 /3/2010 ABC 10:00 AM G Sunny D 0:00:15 566 4/3/2010 ABC 10:30 AM G Sunny D 0:00:15 567 4/3/2010 ABC 10:30 AM G Sunny D 0:00:15 568 4/3/2010 ABC 11:00 AM G Sunny D 0:00:15 569 4/3/2010 ABC 11:00 AM G Sunny D 0:00:15 570 4/17/2010 ABC 12:00 PM Y7 S unny D 0:00:15 571 4/17/2010 ABC 12:30 PM Y7 Sunny D 0:00:15 572 4/3/2010 ABC 12:00 PM Y7 Sunny D 0:00:15 573 4/3/2010 ABC 12:30 PM Y7 Sunny D 0:00:15 574 4/3/2010 ABC 12:30 PM Y7 Sunny D 0:00:15 575 3/20/2010 CW 7:00 AM Y7 Sunny D 0:00:15 576 3/20/2010 CW 7:30 AM Y7 Sunny D 0:00:15 577 3/20/2010 CW 9:00 AM Y7 Sunny D 0:00:15 578 3/20/2010 CW 9:30 AM Y7 Sunny D 0:00:15 579 3/20/2010 CW 10:00 AM Y7 Sunny D 0:00:15 580 4/17/2010 CW 7:00 AM Y7 Sunny D 0:00:15 581 4/17/2010 CW 7:30 AM Y7 S unny D 0:00:15 582 4/17/2010 CW 9:00 AM Y7 Sunny D 0:00:15 583 4/17/2010 CW 9:30 AM Y7 Sunny D 0:00:15 584 4/3/2010 CW 7:00 AM Y7 Sunny D 0:00:15

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111 585 4/3/2010 CW 7:30 AM Y7 Sunny D 0:00:15 586 4/3/2010 CW 9:00 AM Y7 Sunny D 0:00:15 587 4/3/2010 CW 9:30 AM Y7 Sunny D 0:00:15 588 4/3/2010 CW 10:00 AM Y7 Sunny D 0:00:15 589 4/3/2010 CW 10:30 AM Y7 Sunny D 0:00:15 590 4/17/2010 ABC 11:30 AM Y7 FV Sunny D 0:00:15 591 4/17/2010 ABC 11:30 AM Y7 FV Sunny D 0:00:15 592 4/3/2010 ABC 11:30 AM Y7 FV Sunny D 0:00:15 593 4/3/2010 ABC 11:30 AM Y7 FV Sunny D 0:00:15 594 3/20/2010 CW 8:00 AM Y7 FV Sunny D 0:00:15 595 3/20/2010 CW 8:30 AM Y7 FV Sunny D 0:00:15 596 4/17/2010 CW 8:00 AM Y7 FV Sunny D 0:00:15 597 4/17/2010 CW 8:30 AM Y7 FV Sunny D 0:00:15 598 4/3/2010 CW 8:00 AM Y7 FV Sunny D 0:00:15 599 4/3/2010 CW 8:30 AM Y7 FV Sunny D 0:00:15 600 4/3/2010 CW 11:00 AM Y7 FV Sunny D 0:00:15 601 4/3/2010 CW 11:30 AM Y7 FV Sunny D 0:00:15 602 3/25/2010 TOON 1:00 PM G Tootsie Roll Pop 0:00 :15 603 3/25/2010 TOON 3:00 PM Y7 Tootsie Roll Pop 0:00:15 604 6/3/2010 TOON 1:00 PM G Trix Swirls 0:00:30 605 5/27/2010 NICK 3:00 PM Y7 Trix Swirls 0:00:30 606 3/30/2010 NICK 2:00 PM Y7 Trix Swirls 0:00:30 607 4/2/2010 NICK 5:00 PM Y7 Trix Swirl s 0:00:30 608 3/23/2010 TOON 2:00 PM Y7 Trix Swirls 0:00:30 609 3/23/2010 TOON 5:30 PM Y7 FV Trix Swirls 0:00:30 610 4/15/2010 NICK 4:00 PM Y7 Trix Swirls/Shrek Forever After toy 0:00:30 611 3/30/2010 NICK 4:30 PM G Trix Yogurt 0:00:30 612 4/2/201 0 NICK 4:30 PM G Trix Yogurt 0:00:30 613 4/2/2010 NICK 3:30 PM Y7 Trix Yogurt 0:00:30 614 4/15/2010 NICK 3:30 PM Y7 Trix Yogurt Frozen Sticks 0:00:30 615 5/27/2010 NICK 5:00 PM Y7 Trix Yogurt Frozen Sticks 0:00:30 616 4/9/2010 NICK 5:00 PM Y7 Trix Yogurt Frozen Sticks 0:00:30

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112 617 4/5/2010 TOON 5:30 PM Y7 FV Trix Yogurt Frozen Sticks 0:00:30 618 4/2/2010 NICK 2:30 PM Y7 Van de Fish Sticks 0:00:15 619 4/15/2010 NICK 3:00 PM Y7 Win One, Give One (Laptop) Sweepstakes/Fruit Snacks 0:00:15 620 3/30/2010 NICK 4:00 PM Y7 Win One, Give One (Laptop) Sweepstakes/Fruit Snacks 0:00:15 621 4/2/2010 NICK 3:00 PM Y7 Win One, Give One (Laptop) Sweepstakes/Fruit Snacks 0:00:30 622 4/2/2010 NICK 4:00 PM Y7 Win One, Give One (Laptop) Sweepstakes/Fruit S nacks 0:00:30

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113 APPENDIX D TRITION COMPARISON T ABLE Nutrient Recommendations by Age (DRI)* Nutrient DV 2 3 years 4 8 years 9 13 years 14 18 yr girls 14 18 yr boys Protein (grams) 50 13 19 34 46 52 Iron (mg) 18 7 10 8 15 11 Calcium (mg) 1,000 500 800 1300 1300 1300 Vitamin A (IU) 5000 1000 1333 2000 2333 3000 Vitamin C (mg) 60 15 25 45 65 75 Fiber (g) 23 14 19 19 23 23 28 (girls) 23 31 34 25 31 (boys) So dium (mg) 2400 1000 1500 1200 1900 1500 2200 1500 2300 1500 2300 Cholesterol (mg) 300 <300 for over age 2 <300 <300 <300 <300 Total Fat (g)** 65 33 54 39 62 62 85 55 78 61 95 (30 35% of calories) (25 35 % of calories) (25 35% calories) (25 35% calories) (25 35% of calories) Saturated Fat (g)** 20 12 16 16 to 18 girls: 22 24 27 (> age 2 ) 18 22 (<10% calories) boys: (<10% calories) (<10% calories) (<10% calories) 20 24 (<10% calories) Calories*** 2000 1000 1400 1400 1600 girls: 2000 2200 2400 (2 3 years) 1600 2000 boys: 1800 2200 Source: 1999 2002 Dietary Reference Intakes, Institutes of Me dicine, 2005 Dietary Guidelines. Children's Nutrition Research Center at Baylor College of Medicine. Last modified: March 4, 2005

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114 APPENDIX E NUTRITION FACTS LABELS FOR FOO D PRODUCT S Label (Sub category, Type Advertised) Serving Size (g or mL) Calori es Calories from Fat Total Fat (g) Saturated Fat (g) Trans Fat (g) Polyunsaturated Fat (g) Monounsaturated Fat (g) Cholesterol (mg) Sodium (mg) Potassium (mg) Total Carbohydrates (g) Dietary Fiber (g) Sugars (g) Protein (g) Vitamin A ( DV) Vitamin C ( DV) Calcium ( DV) Iron ( DV) Beverage CapriSun (Original/Any Flavor, General) 177 60 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 0 16 0 16 0 0 0 0 0 Kool Aid Fun Fizz (Original/Red, Specific) 2 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 60 0 0 0 0 0 0 17 0 0 Sunny D ( Original/Tangy Original, General) 240 90 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 170 0 22 0 20 0 0 171 0 0 Candy Baby Bottle Pop (Original/Any Flavor, General) 31 140 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 25 0 25 0 0 0 0 0 Extinguisher Candy 43 160 15 2 1 0 0 0 0 130 0 37 0 25 1 0 0 0 4 Juicy Drop Pop 26 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 35 0 23 0 16 1 0 0 0 0 Push Pop (Original, General) 14 70 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 0 13 0 9 0 0 0 0 0

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115 Ring Pop (Original, General) 14 70 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 0 14 0 11 0 0 0 0 0 Sour Punch Straws 40 150 5 1 1 0 0 0 0 5 0 34 1 18 0 0 0 0 0 Tootsie Roll Pop 17 60 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 0 10 0 0 0 0 4 Cereal (Without Milk) Apple J acks 28 100 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 130 35 25 3 12 1 30 43 0 50 Cinnamon Toast Crunch 31 130 30 3 1 0 1 2 0 220 45 25 1 10 1 30 17 10 50 Cocoa Pebbles 30 120 10 1 0 0 0 0 0 190 50 26 0 11 1 45 0 0 20 Cocoa Puffs 27 100 10 2 0 0 1 1 0 150 70 23 2 11 1 30 17 10 50 Cookie Crisp 26 100 10 1 0 0 1 0 0 150 40 22 1 10 1 30 17 10 50 Corn Pops 32 120 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 125 45 29 3 10 1 30 17 0 20 Cupcake Pebbles 30 120 10 1 1 0 0 0 0 200 20 26 0 11 1 45 0 0 20 Froot Loops (Original, Specific) 29 110 10 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 35 35 25 3 12 1 30 43 0 50 Frosted Flakes (Original, Specific) 30 110 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 140 20 27 1 11 1 30 17 0 50 Fruity Pebbles 30 120 10 1 0 0 0 0 0 190 20 26 0 11 1 45 17 0 20 Honey Nut Cheerios 28 110 15 2 0 0 1 1 0 190 115 22 2 9 2 30 17 10 50 Lu cky Charms (Original, Specific) 27 110 10 1 0 0 0 0 0 190 45 22 1 11 2 30 17 10 50 Puffs 29 120 30 3 1 0 1 2 0 180 60 22 1 11 2 30 17 10 50 Trix Swirls 32 120 15 2 0 0 1 1 0 190 50 28 1 11 1 30 17 10 50 Fast food/Restaurants Burger King Kids Meal 440 511 150 17 6 0 0 0 32 802 0 72 3 33 18 Happy Meal 429 532 160 18 5 0 0 0 38 734 0 73 3 33 18 21 323 30 27

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116 (Average, General) Frappe (Average, General) 493 562 217 24 15 1 0 0 68 164 0 78 1 72 8 50 0 25 6 Iced Sweet Tea (Average, General) 599 74 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 0 19 0 19 0 0 0 0 0 Pasta Chef Boyardee Stuffed Beef Ravioli 260 250 50 6 3 0 0 0 15 750 640 39 5 10 11 12 0 4 20 Kraft Macaroni and Cheese Spirals 70 260 30 4 2 0 0 0 15 580 0 47 1 6 10 0 0 10 20 Snacks (Includes Dairy) Dannon Danimals (Crush Cup, Specific) 113 100 10 2 1 0 0 0 10 55 160 17 0 14 5 0 0 14 0 Dannon Danonino (Original/Any flavor, General) 50 60 15 2 1 0 0 0 5 20 70 7 0 7 3 6 0 19 0 Go Gurt (Original/Any Flavor, General) 64 70 5 1 0 0 0 0 5 30 90 13 0 10 2 18 0 10 0 Goldfish (Original/Cheddar, General) 30 140 45 5 1 0 0 0 5 250 0 20 1 1 4 0 0 4 4 Goldfish Grahams (Original/Average, General) 30 138 43 5 1 0 0 0 0 134 0 22 1 9 1 0 0 2 14 Melt Downs (Original/Nacho, 19 45 20 3 2 0 0 0 10 240 0 2 0 1 4 12 0 24 0

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117 General) Trix Yogurt (Original/Any Flavor, General) 113 90 5 1 1 0 0 0 5 50 160 18 0 14 4 30 0 10 0 Fruit Snacks (Original/Average, General) 21 78 6 1 0 0 0 0 0 46 0 18 0 10 0 0 21 0 0 Other Kid Cuisine 240 411 111 12 4 0 0 0 23 621 447 60 7 16 15 30 33 12 22 Lunchables Turkey and Cheddar Sub 93 190 45 5 2 0 0 0 15 520 0 25 1 3 10 6 17 14 16 Sun Crystals Sweetner 2 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 Van de Fish Sticks (Original, General) 103 240 100 11 3 0 0 0 35 460 0 22 0 0 12 0 0 0 4

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118 LIST OF REFERENCES Better Business Bureau Available at http://www.bbb.org/us/chi ldren food beverage advertising initiative/ (accessed October 12, 2010) Centers for Dis ease Control and Prevention 2010. Childhood Overweight and Obesity. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/childhood/ (accessed on October 30, 2010) Common Se nse Media. 2010. TV Reviews: Available at http://www.commonsensemedia.org/tv reviews (accessed on March 15, 2010) Federal Communications Commission. 2003. The TV Parental Guidelines. Available at: http://fcc.gov/vchip/#guidelines (access ed June 31, 2010). MS thesis, University of Florida. Gantz, W., N. Schwartz, J. R. Angelini, and V. Rideout. 2007. Food for Thought: Television Food Advertising to Children in the United States. A Kaiser Family Foundation Report. Powell, L. M., G. Szczypka, F. J. Chaloupka, and C. L. Braunschweig. 2007. Nutritional Content of Television Food Advertisements Seen by children and Adolescents in the United States. Pediatrics 120: 576 583 The CW. 2010. About the CW. http://www.cwtv.com/thecw/about the cw (accessed August 14, 2010) TV Guide. 2010. TV Listings. Available at: http://www.tvguide.com/Listings/ (accessed March 10, 2010) United States Departm ent of Health and Human Services and Department of Agriculture. A Healthier You: Based on the Dietary G uidelines for Americans Available at : http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2005/healthieryou/ contents.htm (accessed September 30, 2010). Un ited States Department of Health and Human Services and the Food and Drug Administration. 2010. Labeling & Nutrition: Food Labeling and Nutrition Overview Available at http://www.fda.gov/Food/LabelingNutrition/default.htm (accessed October 21, 2010 ).

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119 Research Center at Baylor College of Medicine. 2005. How do the Daily Values found on food labels compare to the nutritional recommendations for children? Available at: ht tp://www.bcm.edu/cnrc/consumer/ archives/perce ntDV.htm (accessed on June 20, 2010)

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120 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Sung Cho attended the University of Florida for his underg raduate studies and majored in food and resource economics and minored in agricultural and natural resources l aw. He received hi s undergraduate degree in 2008, then continued on to graduate school and received a Master of Science degree i n food and resource e conomics in 2010.