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Planning for Sustainability in Heritage Tourism - the Case of a Beijing Hutongs

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0042651/00001

Material Information

Title: Planning for Sustainability in Heritage Tourism - the Case of a Beijing Hutongs
Physical Description: 1 online resource (66 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Cui, Xi
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: historic, hutongs, preservation, stakeholders, sustainable, tourism
Urban and Regional Planning -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Urban and Regional Planning thesis, M.A.U.R.P.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Significant literature discusses the relationship between historic preservation and sustainable tourism development. Historic and architectural heritage is a link to the past. Historic preservation has become a wide-ranging field for engaging cultural economy, policy and historical issues. In the past 20 years, the tourist industry in Beijing has grown rapidly, resulting in significant economic development activities. The growth of this industry has caused many to ponder the social and economic sustainability of historic preservation efforts in Bejiing.. This thesis examines the impacts of heritage tourism on the historic streets of Shi Cha Hai hutongs and explores a sustainable tourism planning model, which combines the protection and renovation of historic street and sustainable development of tourism.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Xi Cui.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.U.R.P.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Jourdan, Dawn.
Local: Co-adviser: Zwick, Paul D.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0042651:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0042651/00001

Material Information

Title: Planning for Sustainability in Heritage Tourism - the Case of a Beijing Hutongs
Physical Description: 1 online resource (66 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Cui, Xi
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: historic, hutongs, preservation, stakeholders, sustainable, tourism
Urban and Regional Planning -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Urban and Regional Planning thesis, M.A.U.R.P.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Significant literature discusses the relationship between historic preservation and sustainable tourism development. Historic and architectural heritage is a link to the past. Historic preservation has become a wide-ranging field for engaging cultural economy, policy and historical issues. In the past 20 years, the tourist industry in Beijing has grown rapidly, resulting in significant economic development activities. The growth of this industry has caused many to ponder the social and economic sustainability of historic preservation efforts in Bejiing.. This thesis examines the impacts of heritage tourism on the historic streets of Shi Cha Hai hutongs and explores a sustainable tourism planning model, which combines the protection and renovation of historic street and sustainable development of tourism.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Xi Cui.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.U.R.P.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Jourdan, Dawn.
Local: Co-adviser: Zwick, Paul D.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0042651:00001


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1 PLANNING FOR SUSTAINABILITY IN HERITAGE TOURISM THE CASE OF A BEIJING HUTONGS By XI CUI A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGR EE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2010

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2 2010 Xi Cui

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3 To my mother thank you for letting me be, To my father nothing is impossible, To my girlfriend whose love mad e m e who I am today

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4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am ext remely grateful to my chair of c ommittee, Dr. Da wn Jourdan and my co chiair of c ommittee, Dr. Paul D. Zwick for their commitment, valuable suggestions, and insights throughout this work. My deepest thanks to Dr. Jourdan for her support this research, she is the person who always gives me power and hope to keep doing on my work. This paper would not have been done without her helps. She provided me administrative support and advice to facilitate my work. I sincerel y appreciate Dr. Jourdan for her help with IRB applications, she taught me how to apply IRB, edited my questionnaire again and again. She suggested me to do a detailed timeline to keep tracking on my work. I extend my deepest appreciation to Dr. Paul, who taught me how to deal with the data. I thank him for his help with statistical analyses. His support helped me overcome the hassle of procedures. I wish to thank the community manager of Shi Cha Hai hutongs, for her co operation in this research, and for hosting the survey. The survey would not have been accomplished without her supports. She provided me a lot of information about the culture of hutongs. She organized the residents who live in hutongs to do my questionnaire. That was not only a time consum ing task, but also a tough challenge. I am blessed to have had the support of the residents. They welcomed me to visit their courtyard, they enjoyed talking with me, they was glad to have the opportunity to express their own views. I would not get the firs Words are not enough to express my appreciation for their hospitality, support and generosity.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................ ................................ ............................... 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 7 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 8 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ............................. 9 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 11 Background ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 11 Problem Statement ................................ ................................ ................................ 11 The Research Questions and Objectives ................................ ................................ 12 The Organization of Thesis ................................ ................................ ..................... 14 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 15 Overview of the Evolution of Hutongs Preservation in Beijing ................................ 16 1919 1 949 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 16 1949 1977 ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 17 1978 1980s ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 18 1990s ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 19 2000s ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 20 The Old and Dilapidated Housing Redevelopment (ODHR) in Beijing .................... 24 ODHR Prog ram Plan for Hutongs Development ................................ .............. 24 ODHR Program Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ......... 25 Financial burden ................................ ................................ ........................ 25 Conflicts among stakeholders ................................ ................................ .... 26 Changing Value of Stakeholders in the ODHR Program ................................ ......... 26 Government ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 26 Housing Development Companies ................................ ................................ ... 27 Residents ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 28 Criticism towards Hutong s Protection and Renovation ................................ ........... 30 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 33 Research Design ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 33 Data Collection Method ................................ ................................ ........................... 35 4 ANALYSIS AND RESULTS ................................ ................................ .................... 37

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6 Survey Findings and Results ................................ ................................ .................. 37 Education ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 37 Income ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 37 Characteristics of Population Distribution by Age ................................ ............. 38 Population ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 38 ................................ 39 Assessment of Living Con dition in Shi Cha Hai Hutongs ................................ 45 ........ 48 Pilot Sustainable Plan f or Shi Cha Hai Hutongs ................................ ..................... 50 Transportation ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 50 ................................ ................................ ......... 52 Government Should Reinforce the Management and Regulation Strength. ..... 53 Regulations on Unlicensed Operators ................................ .............................. 54 Con ................................ ................................ .......... 54 Strengthen the Management on Bars and Restaurants in Shi Cha Hai Hutongs ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 54 Security Issue ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 55 Improve the Tourism Service Personal Quality ................................ ................ 55 Government Contributions ................................ ................................ ................ 56 Community Support ................................ ................................ .......................... 57 5 CONCLUSIONS ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 58 Conclusion of This Research ................................ ................................ .................. 58 Recommendations for Future Research ................................ ................................ 59 APPENDIX : SURVEY QUESTIONS ................................ ................................ ............. 60 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................... 64 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 66

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4 1 Years of Respondents live in hutongs ................................ ................................ 40

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 3 1 Satellite picture of Shi Cha Hai hutongs area (use GoogleEarth) ....................... 33 4 1 Respondents by Education Level ................................ ................................ ....... 37 4 2 Respondents by Income ................................ ................................ ..................... 38 4 3 Respondents by Age ................................ ................................ .......................... 39 4 4 ................................ ......................... 46 4 5 ................................ ..... 48

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9 LIST OF ABBREVIATION S IR90 Use Right over the Urban Land in China LAL88 The Land Administrative Law NTAC National Tourist Administration of China NPCC ODHR Old and Dilapidated Housing Redevelopment REAL94 The Real Estate Administra tion Law SOE State Owned Enterprises

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10 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts in Urban and Regional Planning PLANNING FO R SUSTAINABILITY IN HERITAGE TOURISM THE CASE OF A BEIJING HUTONGS By Xi Cui December 2010 Chair: Dawn Jourdan Cochair: Paul D Zwick Major: Urban and Regional Planning Significant literature discusses the relationship between historic preservation an d sustainable tourism development. Historic and architectural herit age is a link to the past. Historic p reservation has become a wide ranging field for engaging cultural economy, policy and historical issues. In the past 20 years, the tourist industry in Beijing has grown rapidly resulting in significant economic development activities The growth of this industry has caused many to ponder the social and economic sustainability of historic preservation efforts in Bejiing. Th is thesis examines the impacts of heritage tourism on the historic street s of Shi Cha Hai hutongs and explores a sustainable tourism planning model, which combines the protection and renovation of historic street and sustainable development of tourism.

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11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Background Hutongs are a very important part of the cultural history of Beijing. These t raditional urban residential areas each have their own special history and are often associated with historic events. In modern t imes, the hutongs have become home to low income residents living in the heart of Old Beijing. Beijing was called Dadu when first made the Imperial Capital under the Mongol Yuan Dynasty in AD 1267, and then named Beiping by the Ming Dynasty in 1368. During this dynasty, the Forbidden City Imperial Palace was built at the centre with a north south axis aligned over it (Sit, 1995; Zhu & Kwok, 1997). Before 1949, there were about 11 million m2 of hutongs around the Forbidden City ( Wu, 1999, p. 39). A number of factors led to th e disappearance of these historic neighborhood, include redevelopment activities associated with the 2008 Olympic Games While some advocates work to preserve the hutongs, efforts to conserve these neighborhoods in the wake of revitalization activities are limited due to the narrow street patterns that run through these neighborhoods and clog city traffic flow. Prob lem S tatement The hutongs are deeply affected by the tourism. As tourists come to Bejiing, they are discovering the hutongs. This research address es the conflicts be tween historic preservation and tourism development and seeks to measure the impacts of tourism on residents of hutongs.

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12 The Research Questions and O bjectives Cities whose economies rely heavily on tourism often seek to preserve historic traditional buildings and neighborhoods as a part of a strategy to encourage tourism. In 2000 the Beijing Municipal Planning Commission developed a plan for the 25 neighborhoods in Beijing. One of the major goals of the plan was to conserve the traditional residential neighborhoods hutongs. The Shi Cha Hai hutongs are one of the 25 historical protection areas Th is study seeks to understand: what kinds of conflicts exist between the local residents and tourists in the Shi Cha Hai hutong s and h ow to urism can be balanced with the conservation of the hutong s This research seeks to answer these questions qualitatively. In the summer of 2010, the researcher conducted a series of interviews and focus groups with Shi Cha Hai residents to understand these conflicts. The results of this analysis will serve as the basis for the sustainable tourism planning model proposed by the researcher One hundred residents in Shi Cha Hai hutongs will be picked up randomly, and will be asked to fill out a 19 question questionnaire which has already been translated into Chinese. There is no compensation to the interviewees for participation in the study. Their identity will be kept confidential, and their information will be assigned a code number, so their responses will be anonymous. There are no direct benefits or risks for participating in this study. Their participation in this study is co mpletely voluntary, they have the right to withdraw from the study at anytime without consequence. According to the data source from internet, http://www.bjta.gov.cn/lyzl/dybg/06slyjdybg/1 64599.htm there are approximate 64,800 residents living in Sh i Cha Hai hutongs. There is limitation which needs to be

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13 are too small. In addition, because of the limited time and limited labor, the tourists were not interviewed, which can be seen another limitation of the approach. If the researcher also get the information about what the needs of the tourists in Shi Cha Hai hutongs, the pilot sustainable plan will be more fea sible and practical. The purpose of this study is to examine attitudes of residents of Shi Cha Hai hutongs toward growth of tourism as tourists are drawn to this part of Beijing, and assess of the impacts of tourism development. The interviewees will be as ked: How long have you been living in hutongs? If you had the opportunity to live elsewhere, would you still want to live in the hutongs? Does tourism affect your quality of life in the hutongs? Do you think that tourists like to see hutongs life and hu tongs culture? Do you ever welcome tourists to enter your courtyards? Do you seek to prevent tourists from entering into your courtyards? Do they respect your privacy by leaving when asked? Do you think that tourism will directly benefit the hutongs commun ity and area? What should happen as a result of the increasing popularity of the hutongs? Do you think that hutongs life and tourism can co exist and prosper together? Has your quality of life diminished as a result of the rapid developed bars, restaurants and souvenir shops in the hutongs areas? Estimate the condition of your house How suitable are the hutongs for tourist activities, for the contemporary needs of its local residents, and for tourism related services? When looking at the hutongs that have r eceived historic preservation, what are the preserved houses used for?

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14 What is your age range, income per month, and education level? Do you work in a business that benefits from tourism in hutongs? The O rganization of T hesis The t hesis is organized into five chapters. Chapter I provides an introduction to this topic. Chapter 2 of fers a historical context for the Shi Chai Hai hutongs. In Chapter 3 the author identifies the research methodology that drives this study. Chapter 4 describes and analyzes the data obtained as part of the survey and interviews conducted in Bejiing in the summer of 2010. Chapter 5 presents the conclusions of this research within the policy recommendations, and offers recommendations for future research.

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15 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Chin ese hutongs consist of a series of narrow alleys and streets. Actually, as a colloquial term, they refer to the neighborhoods of housing and lanes. Hutongs of Beijin g because they constitute an essential part of the community, its traditional and p. 3). In this paper, this term is used as a place name. Beijing was called Dadu when first made the Imperial Capital under the Mongol Yuan Dy nasty in AD 1267, and then named Beiping by the Ming Dynasty in 1368. During this dynasty, the Forbidden City Imperial Palace was built at the centre with a north south axis aligned over it (Sit, 1995; Zhu & Kwok, 1997). Before 1949, there were about 11 mi llion m 2 of hutongs around the Forbidden City (Wu, 1999, p. 39). According to the data from The Beijing Municipal Place Name Office, from 1944 to 2002, the number of hutongs decreased from 3200 to 990. A number of factors led to this disappearance. Cu rrently, in the wake of the 2008 Olympic Games, redevelopment can be seen as the newest threat to these historic areas. Even if the hutongs can stimulate tourism development of Beijing, and provide lots of job opportunities for re sidents, the narrow streets cause traffic jams as private vehicles become more prevalent, which cause serious environmental pollution. There are tons of definitions of sustainable tourism. For example, Bramwell & positive approach intended to reduce the tensions and frictions created by the complex interactions between the tourism industry, visitors, the environment and the communities...an approach which involves working for the longer viability and quality of bot

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16 meeting the needs of present tourists and host regions while protecting and enhancing opportunity for the future, and leading t o management of all resources in such a way that we can fulfill economic, social and aesthetic needs while maintaining cultural (Inskeep, 1991, p.461). In order to u nderstand the complexities associated with preserving the hutongs, we must examine how the Old and Dilapidated Housing Redevelopment (ODHR) works in the process of hutong redevelopment programs Next, we will analyze what role the government, housing development companies and residents play in the ODHR program. Finally, we will examine the intersection between historic preservation and sustainable tourism in the context of the hutongs. Overview of the E volution of H utongs P reservation in Beijing 1919 1949 The modernization of Beijing began during the movement promoted Westernization as a model for moving China from a traditional economy to a modern country. Beijing was in a hurry to grow and expand. Urban planners began to pay more attention on road construction and high density building c onstruction. Unfortunately, the modern country needed to more roads, and the historic neighborhoods blocked traffic traversing the city. The movement attacked the traditions of Beijing. The Capital Administrative Office replaced a lot of historic neighbor hoods with new roads. The urban planners at that time just focused on the building urban transportation system, which can be seen as a very important element in the process of urban growth, and ignored that the preservation on the hutongs, and ruined Beiji

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17 urban composition. Actually, Beijing is seen as one of the cities which have plenty of unique architectural buildings; it could be ranked as a first class city like Rome or Paris. However, from July 1937, Beijing was occupied by Japanese for twelve ye ars; historic preservation issues were ignored in this period. Furthermore, because of the Chinese Civil War between 1945 and 1949, Beijing developed slowly and very little progress was made (Beatrice B. Chen, 2003). 1949 1977 In 1950s, China changed its economic structure, from a planned to a market economy. Beijing, which is directly controlled by the central government, is one of the four independent municipalities in China. The 1995 Urban Statistical Ye arbook of China estimated that there we re 6,838,400 people living in urban areas and 3,779,100 people living in outskirt areas of Beijing. As a result of economic restructuring, has increa sed drastically every year Beijing has experienced almost 10% growth (Sen Dou Chang, 1998). The urbanization rate of China increased by 12.5% from 1978 to 1998, and the urban population in China increased from 170 million in 1978 to 456 million in 2000 (Lin, 2004). which was advocated by Chairman Mao As Mao stated, leader of modern China did not appreciate that fact that Beijing is n ot only a valuable Dou Chang, 1998, p. 2). During the period to which he referred, a number of palace gates, walls, siheyuan were demolished Later, One of Tsinghua University professors named Liang Sichen, advocated that:

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18 We must first of all realize the value of the wonderful structure which gives the most int act anywhere in the world and as a most extraordinary and precious work of art, it still retains its vitality and maintains its tradition. This should be the point of departure for any attempt to understand the city. The majority of monuments in fact are n ot free standing buildings; rather they are often architectural complexes, each of which consists of quite a few most valuable contribution to art and architecture. (Beatri ce B. Chen, 2003, p. 8 9) In 1960s, as a part of the Cultural Revolution, the government sought to destroy (Beatrice B. Chen, 2003, p. 12 ). A lot of the hutongs were demolished during this period in the absence of an understanding and a full appreciation of their historic value. 1978 1980s Between 1978 and the 1980s the local government in Beijing realized that it was tourist would be drawn to preserved historic sites in Beijing. According to Sit, dealings with foreign countries and should be developed into one of the best cities of t he world in social order and morality, cleanliness and hygiene, culture, technology and level of education, economic prospe rity, convenience and stability (Sit, 1996, p 475). I n 1983 t he Beijing Municipal Pla nning Commission adopted a master plan which, among other things, emphasized the need to preserve the historic architecture. However, due to the deficiency of workers who were skilled in restoring the traditional architecture, h eritage tourism efforts were suspended. Subsequently the majority of the traditional urban residential areas or hutongs w ere replaced by high density buildings and high scale commercial areas. Beiji ng looked like a newly

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19 1990s Municipal Planning Commission carried out the 1993 master plan, which stated that in areas (Beatrice B. Chen, 2003). However, the preservation objective of the master plans could not prevail against the emerging market forces of the 1990s rehabilitation of old and dilapidated housing in Beijing, was seen as a successful housing model. However, this project eventually failed. This is a good example to demonstrate that und er the ODHR Program, the local government and the local State Owned Enterprises (SOEs) only focused on gaining profit and ignored the need for adequate hous ing In 1987, due to the municipal governme nt lacking adequate funding, which was only 10 million RMB, the East District government chose to redevelop the located in the northeast of the inner city of Beijing of the the 25 historic neighborhoods designated by the Beijing Municipal Planning keeping the traditional style of one story and one family courtyard, p. 82 103). During the period from 1988 to 1992, the East District government made a remarkable achievement. According to their report, there were 44 or iginal households, 13 of them moved back to their rehabilitated houses. 17 of them got compensation from the housing development companies, and the housing development companies provided affordable housing, which was located in other inner city of Beijing, 14 of them

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20 moved to other areas of their own accords, where were provided by the East District Development Companies. Meanwhile, the East District Development Companies sold pment costs. Through the implementation of this financial strategy, the East District Development Companies proved the financial feasibility of this project. Later, this project got six domestic and international honors (Fang & Zhang, 2003). However, due to a real estate boom that lasted from 1992 to 1994, housing s price Hutongs that suffered constructi on delays. Even though the East District Development Companies transferred a small parcel to a Taiwanese developer, it failed, which means 2000s In 2000, the Beijing Municipal Planning Commission carried out a plan for the remaining 25 historic areas in Beijing as a part of the implementation of its preservation plan The goals of the preservation plan were: to preserve the traditional cityscape and hutongs; to ensure the authenticity of the preserved heritage; to implement preservation using a gradual and measured method; to improve the infrastructure and living conditions of the local residents; to encourage public participation (Beatrice B. Chen, 2003, p. 2). T he Beijing Municipal Planning Commission issued the following guidelines for the preserv ation areas: New or renovated buildings must be compatible with the style of the key conservation areas and cannot negatively impact the environment of the key conservation areas; when embarking on renovation, careful

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21 consideration must be given to the na ture of the land use, the height, scale, forms and color of the architectures, as well as the floor area ration and the proportion of green space; renovations must not result in large scale demolition and special attention must be paid to historic continui ty; valuable historic architecture, hutongs and old trees must be preserved. (Beatrice B. Chen, 2003, p. 19) culturally significant city. Its planning and construction must preserve the ci The Shi Cha Hai hutongs, which is the largest program, is one of the 25 historical protection areas. With the development of Shi Cha Hai tourism, visiting hutongs became more popular (Gu & Ryan 2008). Significant literature discusses the relationship between historic preservation and sustainable tourism development. Historic and architectural heritage, which is a part of our daily living, can be seen as a link to our past. Currentl y, historic preservation is much more important at both a personal level and a public level, and has become a wide ranging field for engaging cultural economy, policy, and historic issues. Historic preservation of hutongs can serve as a tool of sustainabil ity because of its connections to culture sustainability, environmental sustainability, and economic sustainability. A majority of the architecture of the past are designed by the greatest artists and architects. It is for this reason that the historic pre servation act can stimulate the growth of historical tourism of cities. Tourism development frequently occurs on a large scale. At the same time, historic neighborhoods often have been built for the small scale, or pedestrian scale of travel. Hutongs tour ism development depends upon bringing large numbers of people into a single area. The needs of these tourists may be in conflict with the needs of the

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22 local residents in the historic neighborhoods. Thus, what kinds of conflicts exist between residents and tourists in hutongs? Hutongs tourism can be seen as a source of employment, and it stimulates economic development. However, in a majority of developing countries, especially in China, it provides infrastructure development with the associated high fixed c osts. Thus, the hutongs tourism development easily focuses Physical sustainability and cultural sustainability are threatened because of the uncontrolled tourism dev elopment involve pollution issues. local identity to visitors, to reduce the negative impact of modernization upon local traditions and traditional styles of houses, and to satisf authenticity ( p. 1). The Shi Cha Hai hutongs are well preserved, and can serve as the most successful example of hutongs tourism. The Shi Cha Hai hutongs were not much specific hutong not only possessed the homes of lower income groups but also houses belonging to court officials and members of t Gu & Ryan 2008 ). There are two, three or four stone lions standing outside of the each house that mark the officials of the palace. In the Qing dynasty, many royal families lived in the Shi Cha Hai hutongs. This particular style of house shows the distinctiveness of the local cultural in Beijing. In 1990, the National Tourist Administration of China (NTAC) iden tified the hutongs as a tourist product. Beijing sought to preserve historic traditional buildings and neighborhoods as a part of a strategy to encourage tourism. In order to promote the tourism development in Beijing, the NTAC presented six themes from 19 92 to 1997;

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23 1992 was the Friendly Visiting Year, 1993 was Mountains and Water Scenery Year, 1994 was the Antiques and Heritage Year, 1995 was the Folklore and Customs Year, 1996 was the Leisure and Holidays Year, and 1997 was the China Tourism Year. In 19 95, the hutongs were presented as an attraction to tourists, who were from all over the world. Shi Cha Hai hutongs tourism was one of the most representative examples. tourism was promoted by the Beijing Hutong Tour Agency. It was very successful, and got plenty of positive comments from the media, and even the overseas media. According to the report from the Beijing Hutong Tour Agency, there were around 10,000 tourists had visited the hutongs by November 1995. There were 17 tour companies have gotten involved in the huton gs tourism ( Gu & Ryan 2008 ). Faced with the increasing number of visitors from all over the world, the Beijing Tourism Administration remains involved in the tourism planning. In 2005, the East District government began to enhance the construction of public infrastructure and repair the dilapidated hutongs in Shi Cha Hai hutongs became the first task. In 2007, there were about 20 blocks being reconstruc ted. Hutongs tourism can be seen as a connection between tradition and modernization. Because of the booming real estate market, and the increasing urban population, it becomes a controversial issue that whether to preserve the historic neighborhoods or t crisis of the quadrangle and hutongs under the pressure of urban modernization entails p. 8). There were a lot of hutongs have been demolished. In 1993, the municipal

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24 government issued a policy, which advocated for preserving the historic neighborhoods. Thus, the hutongs tourisms benefited from cultural survival and preservation. However, even if the hutongs tourism gets big success, it is not only an economic enterprise, it is also a cultur al industry (Wang, 1997). Actually, hutongs tourism, which involves direct interaction between the residents and the tourists is such a fragile industry. Altho ugh, this kind of tourism industry does stimulate the economic development, and create a lot of jobs, it becomes a problem when the needs and rights of residents in hutongs are taken into consideration. The following questions arise: Do the local r esidents support hutongs tourism? Do the local residents think that their lives are disturbed under the development of hutongs tourism? Do the residents want their houses to be toured, and their private lives to be introduced? While the city as a whole gets benefits from this type of tourism, much of that economic is done at the expense of the environment, such as traffic congestion, environmental pollution. The major ity of job opportunities, which were brought by hutongs tourism, are not high valued jobs. Beijing is known as the political and cultural center of China, and not a tourist city. The question remains: Is it reasonable for Beijing to vigor ously develop hutong tourism at the expanse of socio sustainability and physical sustainability? The Old and Dilapidated Housing Redevelopment (ODHR) in Beijing ODHR Program P lan for H utongs D evelopment The S oviet s suggested that China should follow M oscow chang ing Beijing livelihood second housing development was not a priority (Fang & Zhang, 2003, p. 3). In or der to achieve the goal of changing Beijing to an industrial city, amount of workers moved in Beijing. In addition, after the Tangshan earthquake in 1976,

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25 numerous people became homeless, and moved to Beijing, so Beijing faced with a serious shortage of ho using supply (Beatrice B. Chen, 2003). Thus, faced with the increasing population, housing resettlement became a serious problem (Wu, L., 1999). In 1990, in order to provide enough housing for inner city residents who had been ignored for a long time, the dilapidated housing renewal and provide adequate dwellings for inner (Fang, 2000, p. 25). However, this program led to a huge loss in cultural and social values of these traditional residenti al areas because of irrational demolition and massive displacement, what is worse, this program caused passive impacts on environmental and socio economic sustainability. ODHR Program D ata A nalysis Financial burden there were two important laws, which and the other one is Land Administrative Law, which allowed that the land use rights e decentralization of fiscal authority, lower tiers of government have gained increasing autonomy over economic p. 150 151). Faced with the pressure from the municipal government and the financia l burden, the district government officials sold the land use rights to the housing developers at a low price. There is no doubt that the housing developers were only focused on profit. They story buildings, and re placed them with high density buildings, which were sold at unaffordable prices. For example, the Bull Street, which was one of the 25 historic neighborhoods listed in 1990 by the Beijing Municipal

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26 Planning Commission had been demolished and replaced as hi gh scale and high to live in these new complexes. However, the urban housing reform highly promoted the real estate market development. Conflicts among stakeholders T he real estate market was abnormal, the housing prices were determined by secret negotiations between local governments and the housing developers. In this way, the housing developers could save a lot of money on pursuing land. What is worse, local governm which limited the fiscal interests of the local government (Fang & Zhang, 2003). Thus, modernization that f ocused on development and resettlement with very little attention to p. 17). Changing V alue of S takeholders in the ODHR Program Government In the beginning, the redevelopment of city housing was totall y control l ed by the government. Plans were set up by the municipal government to improve the living conditions of residents in hutongs (Fang & Zhang, 2003), and the local government played an important role in the process of meeting housing needs and avoid ing financial estate market, the local government only focused on the profits brought from real estate development, they did not pay attention to the house building issues for the ODHR program In order to free up the land, the residents, who relocated, were forced to live on the outskirts of Beijing. Beijing highly depended on the housing investor to develop urban land, so the municipal

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27 government induced inability to gain revenues from land d evelopment (Sen Dou, economic sustainability were jeopardized because municipal government could not be able to get profits of land use development and lost the legal control of land use (Sen Dou, Chang, 1998). Even if t he municipal government explored plans to preserve and restore the traditional urban residential housing in the form of hutongs, it failed because of deficient in funding. In October 1993, the Beijing municipal government carried out a policy called the land for free first, and then pay for the land (Fang & Zhang, 2003, p. 7). This policy sped up the process of redevelopment under the O DHR Program. However, this policy bidding was ridiculous when the housing developers have already gotten the land use rights. For example, the good housing projects, such as big box, shopping malls, luxury hotels, have already been assigned secretly before the public bidding. The land price, which was negotiated under the counter between the local government and the ODHR Program developers, was far below the market price. In this way, the housing developer saved a lot of money, but they did not take advanta ge of it for free, they provide housing for the local government. Furthermore, the local government did not want to share the revenue with the central government (Fang & Zhang, 2003). Housing Development C ompanies From the perspective of housing developmen t companies at least in the early stages, rehabilitation of hutongs attracted a lot of housing development companies H owever, in the wake of booming real estate, housing development companies directed their attention to the more profita ble housing projects, such as, high density apartment and large scale commercial housing. Redevelopment of the hutongs was carried out

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28 primarily by the State. State Owned Enterprises (SOEs) became housing development companies when the ODHR Progr p. 8). Basically, SOEs are pretty the same as the priva te housing companies, which serve revenue as the fundamental task. Due to the good relationship between SOEs and the local government and the local government monopolized the means of selling land in the inner city, the SOEs can always get a first class la nd from the ODHR developers. However, the other housing development companies have to choose the land in the secondary market. In this process, the ODHR Program developer could gain huge profits through transferring the land from a housing developer to ano ther housing developer (Fang & Zhang, 2003). Actually, Beijing does not have a proper policy on urban land ownership and management. Basically, the person, who has the ownership of house, has the responsibility to pay the property tax (Sen Dou Chang, 1998) However, the housing development companies do not want to pay any property tax. The enterprises think that they own the same rights to the land as to other fixed capi Dou Chang, 1998, p. 4). Residents Official statistics for the ODHR program show that there are around 500,000 local residents have been influenced by this program. Due to the overcrowed living space and lack of publ ic infrastructure, the living conditions of the historic neighborhoods are poor. There is no natural gas, drainage system, heating network system, and private

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29 restrooms (Fang, 2000). The inconvenient living conditions compelled the high income residents to move out of the historic neighborhoods, so the low income residents became the main population in the hutongs. According to the report of the Beiji ng Municipal Planning Commission, in 2000, the average monthly hutongs resident income was 1,608 RMB, while the average monthly income of Beijing residents was 6,909 RMB. In the beginning, the local residents viewed the ODHR as an efficient way to im prove their living quality, such as the Air condition, drainage system (Fang, 2000). However, the local residents did not take any advantages of the ODHR Program. In 1990s, the price of new housing in the inner city increased to twenty times the average annual income of the local residents, which means, most of the local residents cannot get affordable housing in the inner city of Beijing (Fang, 2000). The majority of housing cooperatives sought to make a profit by selli ng these areas for commercial development T he displaced residents cried injustice, started fighting against the unfair housing renewal process. As Xinhua News Agency reported, there has been a trend of the local residents rose up in revolt against the ODHR Program since 1995 (Fang & Zhang, 2003). It wa s so common to see a group of householders gathered outside of the municipal government offices and required public hearing, but they usually ended up in defeat. Furthermore, the worke rs and farmers were ignored, there were no proper plans to solve the issues of their relocation. They did not have convenient public transportation Actually, the ODHR Program served the local residents as an obstacle to gain revenue. Beijing Municipal Government passed several laws, the Land Administrative

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30 Law (LAL88), Use Rights over the Urban Land in China (IR90), and the Real Estate Administration Law (REAL94) to regulate the land allocation and land leas ing process (NPCC, 1994). It seemed that the laws were to create an equitable market, actually they were not. According to the laws, if the government wants to take land back from residents, the residents should get an appropriate compensation. Even if the residents could get compensation, it was not enough for the residents to buy a new house. What is worse, in reality, the government always ignored the residents, and then negotiated the land price between and the ODHR Program developer directly. Lastly, t he residents to inform the residents that their houses would be demolished recently. What is worse, the residents were only given less than one week to move. Thus, the la ws were not fair at all. ownershi p. use, they had to move at any time when the owner of the house increases the rent. Thus, this was not a fair policy. Criticism towards Hutongs Protection and R enovation Significant literature exists on the impacts of hutong protection and renovation. H. du Cros et al. (2005) examine two cases in Beijing, one is the Great Wall at Huanghua, and the other one is hutongs in historic streets. The journal states that sustainable tourism is like a double edged coin, that means, on one side, it is positive, however, on the other side, it is negative. Furthermore, the sustainability of hutongs, which are seen

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31 t al., 2005, p. 171). heritage development policy, which is closer to urban regeneration, and that will keep long term residents in place, still allow economic gain throu gh gentrification and public p. 191). The idea can provide a broader stage for the future sustainable tourism development in Beijing. Wang, Ning (1997) p. 573). pressure from modernization on these traditional houses, and enhance the communication between tourists and local cultural heritage. Furthermore, there are two are discussed extensively in this paper. H. Gu, C. Ryan (2008) states that hutong cy and efficacy studies show how a strong sense of place and living heritage informs re sponses to tourism. Policy did play a significant role as an essential consideration in attitudes towards sustainable tourism development. It is easy to find the gap among them. It is unreasonable to do this analysis separately on the public sector, privat e sector, NGO, or other agencies. Thus, based on the literature reviewing, the redevelopment of the hutongs raise a significant number of issues, such as the physical damage the social cost of redevelopment of hutongs, forced evic tion issues, community and family breakup

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32 issues, low compensation issues, absence of property rights issues. Although the municipal government and the local government have carried out preservation strategies, it still lacks holistic approach.

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33 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOG Y The paper aims to explore a sustainable tourism planning model, which combines the protection and renovation of historic street and sustainable development of tourism. The paper examines the impacts of tourism on the historic streets of Shi Cha Hai hutongs in Beijing as a case study. Shi Cha Hai hutongs represents a potential tourism resource of historical value. A variety of data can be collected from interviews, second hand materials and observations in this research area. Figure 3 1. Sate llite picture of Shi Cha Hai hutongs area (use GoogleEarth) Research Design Interviews serve as the primary source of data for this study. One hundred hutong s permanent residents were in terviewed, they kno w hutongs well, and can

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34 provide as much as information about Shi Cha Hai hutongs. Data will be collected as a form of questionnaire Shi Cha Hai hutongs, which attracts tons of tourists from all over the world to visit, is the one of th e well preserved historic residential neighborhoods in inner city of Beijing. Shi Cha Hai hutongs can be seen as one of the most popular attractions in China. There is only one researcher conducted this survey, by interviewing over 50 families in Shi Cha H ai area. This is a very tough and time consuming task, which must be completed in half of one mont h, so only ninety valid que stionnaires were collected. The interviewees were picked up randomly from various locations, where accommodated the business activi ties related to tourism industry, and were asked to fill out a 19 question questionnaire which has already been translated into Chinese. Each confidential and their responses wer e anonymous. Their participations in this survey were completely voluntary, and they were interviewed in their courtyards. The selection of interviewees was to obtain the accurate attitudes regarding to the tourism development in Shi Cha Hai hutongs area. The purpose out of these interviews was to help understand : attitudes of residents of Shi Cha Hai hutongs toward growth of tourism as tourists are drawn to this part of Beijing, and assess of the impacts of tourism development; understand the hutongs community in Shi Cha Hai area; the houses building condition; the concerns of residents of Shi Cha Hai hutongs regarding conservation in Shi Cha Hai hutongs area. am ount of relative literature reviewing. Residents of the Shi Cha Hai hutongs were

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35 asked how long they had been living in the hutongs. Based on the data, it is easy to figure out what the mean number is, what the minimum number is, what the maximum number is what the standard deviation is, and what the median is. Residents were provided extra space to write down their comments towards different questions, and given an opportunity to express their own suggestions. The survey was conducted in Chinese (Pu Tong Hua). In order to protect the understanding of the problems in the area of Shi Cha Hai hutongs, housing conditions, stainable tourism planning model, which combines the conservation of historic street and sustainable development of tourism. Data Collection M ethod Within the framework of case study analysis, the research methodology uses the quantitative method, and data collection method combines questionnaires, secondary hand material, observations. Secondary hand material search for this research started in January of 2009. The materials were very important because it helped build initial knowledge about the Beijing hu concerns. The questionnaire provides the latest data, which presents an initial Observation gave the researcher a richer picture of the situation. Most of the residen ts are very friendly, they like to hang out with the researcher. After they figured out what the project was about, they were very supportive and cooperative. The researcher spent half a month with the local residents of Shi Cha Hai hutongs. In order to ge t as much as information, the researcher lived in Shi Cha Hai hutongs area, chatted with the local residents, had meals with the local

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36 residents, and played chess, ma hjong with the local residents. Verbal descriptions of the hutongs in surveys, observation s, conversation with the local residents make sure

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37 CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS AND RESULTS Survey Findings and R esults Education According to the survey regarding education level, 27% of the interviewees are lower than high sch ool, 28% of them just have high school degree, and only 9% of them have Graduate d egree (Check Figure 4 1 ). It shows that the average education level of the residents in the S hi Cha Hai hutongs is low. Figure 4 1. Respondents by Education Level Income The majority of the residents survey between 1500RMB and 2500RMB ($214 income is a little higher, which is 2500RMB and 3500RMB ($ 214 $500). However, there are still 4% of them, whose monthly income is less than 500RMB ($71). According to the article from the internet, http://scholarsupdate.zhongwenlink.com /news_read.asp?NewsID=2442 it states that

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38 the average monthly income of the middle class in Beijing is around 5923.18RMB average level line. It is so sad to identify hutongs is at a very low level. Figure 4 2. Respondents by Income Characteristics of Population Distribution by Age Figure 4 3 uses a bar chart to compare the percentage population by age in the area of Shi Cha Hai hutongs. This shows that many residents, who are between 30 and 35, live in the area of Shi Cha hutongs. Moreover, there are 14% of respondents, who are between 54 and 59, live in this area, residents over 60 also live in this area. On the other ha nd, there are only 1% of the respondents live in this area. Population According to data source from internet, in the area of Shi Cha Hai hutongs, there are roughly 64,800 permanent residents ( http://www.bjta.gov.cn/lyzl/dybg/06slyjdybg/164599.htm ). According to the survey data, 57% of the residents in the surveyed area have lived in hutongs for more than 20 years.

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39 The average of years they live in hutongs is about 24.7 years. This shows that the roote d community (See the Table 4 1). Figure 4 3. Respondents by Age In addition, the Median of years is 20, the Mode of years is 50, the Maximum of years is 65, the Minimum of years is 1, the range is 64, and Standard Deviation is 16.63. egarding Tourism D evelopment 54% of the interviewees think that tourism affects their quality of life in the hutongs. It can be positive effects and negative effects. And 66% of the interviewees think that the tourists like to see hutongs life and hutongs culture, the tourists are curious about the hutongs culture, they desire to get an understanding of Beijing history and culture though visiting their courtyards. Actu ally, according to the survey result, 36% of interviewees welcome the tourists to enter their courtyards, 34% of them do not like the tourists to visit their courtyards, and 30% of them do not care about it. It shows that the majority residents do not inte nt to prevent tourists from entering into their

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40 courtyards. When the residents were asked that whether the tourists respect their privacy by leaving when asked, 57% of them said yes. However, some local residents said that, the hutongs tours do bother the m too much sometimes because the tour conductors use speaker, which is too loud. Table 4 1. Years of Respondents live in hutongs Years No. of respondents <20 years 39 20 24 12 25 29 1 30 34 10 35 39 2 40 44 10 45 49 1 50 54 14 >55 1 Sum 90 Mor eo ver, 56% of the interviewees think that tourism will directly benefit the hutongs community and area, and 66% of the interviewees think that hutongs life and tourism can co exist and prosper together. There are extra spaces for the residents to write dow n their own opinions. Some of them think that hutongs tourism development will definitely bring huge profit, so their living condition and surround environment will be improved; some of them think that in order to motivate the hutongs tourism development, government will pay more attention on the hutongs conservation; some of them think that the life in hutongs will become fantastic because of hutongs tourism development, the income level of residents will go up as well; some of them also think that it seem other hand, 44% of the interviewees still think that there is no direct relationship between hutongs tourism development and the development of hutongs community;

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41 some of them eve n state that hutongs tourism development is in conflict with the needs of local residents, they will interference mutually; some of them also think that the tourism will not benefit the hutongs community due to the failure of government regulation and poli cy. During the interviews, many residents complained that the government did not take care of any major housing repair works. Thus, according to result of this question, there are three main points can be concluded. First, more people believe that tourism will directly benefit the hutongs community and area and they can co exist and prosper together. Second, the residents in hutongs comparatively more concern about the living conditions and environment. Third, there are problems with the government regulati ons regarding management in world, and we also hope that the hutongs culture can be understood and continued, but In the are a of Shi Cha Hai hutongs, there is one of the most famous bar streets in Beijing. Shi C ha H floating on its surface. Willows line the bank like a misty green curtain, as a trickle of people cr oss the 1,000 year old bridge. The lakeshore is always packed with tourists chatting, drinking and generally relaxing as wood pigeons coo overhead. However, according to the survey result, 57% of the interviewees think that their quality of life has dimini shed as a result of the rapidly developed bars, restaurants and souvenir shops in the hutongs areas. Shi Cha Hai is well known as a night spot in Beijing, even in China. When mention the night life of Beijing, Shi Cha Hai Bar Street should be the top one a ttraction to the tourists, not only the bars but also the local restaurants which serve

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42 traditional food. It is also a perfect place, which is a mixture of an ancient Beijing and modern Western culture. There are plenty of trendy bars and unique pubs. All of the restaurant are privately owned and have their own style. So many bars and restaurants are quite particular about decorating. When night falls and the moon shines on the Shi Cha Hai lake, the narrow lanes comes alive lit up by a multitude of lamps am idst the hustle and bustle of the partrons and hawkers. Tourists like to come there because they love the night view of Shi Cha Hai hutongs and enjoy the bar street which is a mixture of traditional Chinese and modern Western ambiances. However, most of th e interviewees think that their life has been disturbed by those bars, restaurants and souvenir shops. There are several reasons. First, tons of tourists are crowded in the narrow lanes every night. Residents used to take a stroll after dinner along the s hores of lake and enjoy the night scene. The local residents think that the narrow lanes are one of the most important elements in their daily life, where they like doing their exercises, playing chess, chatting with neighbors, the lanes are seen as a plea sant environment, where they can relax. In fact, preservation of the community is a crucial factor of the preservation of the hutongs. However, now they cannot, because the narrow lanes are already overcrowded. It causes traffic jam as all kinds of vehicle s get stuck in the narrow lanes. It is pretty common to see touring pedicab, which is one of the most popular tourism activities in Shi Cha Hai hutongs. There are 19 formal tour companies in Shi Cha Hai hutongs. Each of them is limited to own at most 20 to uring pedicabs, except one, which is supported by the government, is allowed to own relatively more pedicabs. The tour conductors and pedicab workers are attached to the tour companies, their salaries are calculated by the

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43 numbers of the tourists they rece ive and the time length of the tour sightseeing, roughly 5RMB 10RMB each time ($0.7 $1.4), and add the tips which is given by the foreign tourists. According to the survey data, every touring pedicab workers can accept about 80 tourists every day during th e busy season; and about 50 tourists every day during the off season. Most of the touring pedicabs workers are not well educated, and are made of alien workers. The competition is fierce, in order to accept more tourists, they ride so fast among the narrow lanes. There are no detailed regulations to restrain their conducts. Some interviewees mention that they nearly knock over by the touring pedicabs. Second, it is super noisy every night, especially in weekend. In order to attract tourists, most of bars p owners of the bars do not care about that if the music bothers the residents or not. The only thing they care about is how much profit they can create. People lie on the curve of street, yell in the middle night when they get drunk. The sleep quality of the residents in Shi Cha Hai hutongs has diminished. Third, it is easy to find empty cans, empty glasses of beer floating on the Shi Cha Hai lake. Some of interviewees said that the waiters and t he waitress throw the empty the bottles into the lake directly in order to increase the speed of cleaning up the tables and the tour boats. It does not only destroy the beautiful night scene of Shi Cha Hai, but also ignore the importance of environmental s ustainability. It will definitively lead to a loss of distinctiveness and the unsustainability of the hutongs as tourism product. It is very interesting that when the interviewees being asked that if they own or work in a business that benefit from touris m in hutongs or not. 100% of the answers are

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44 negative. Based on the literature review, tourism industry will stimulate the local economic development, and bring tons of job opportunities to local residents. However, obviously, according to the survey resul with the tourism in hutongs, and do not benefit from it. When the interviewees were asked that what result of the increasing popularity of the hutongs will happen. This is a multiple choice. 72 intervie wees think that the government would need to pay more attention to the area and improve the infrastructure; 44 interviewees think that the tourists would spend money in Shi Cha Hai hutongs, like shopping, eating, entrance fee and so forth; 41 interviewees think that the rents in Shi Cha Hai hutongs would like to increase; 40 surveyed resident think that the government would absorb the benefits with little left for the local residents. Furthermore, couple interviewees wrote down their own comments, they thin k that the government should set up proper policy to regulate the tourism developers in Shi Cha Hai hutongs. Based on the answers, it is easy to find out that the local residents do like the tourism development in Shi Cha Hai area, and they believe that t his would bring money and create profit. However, the local residents will not directly benefit from that, which is largely absorbed by the government and the tourism developers, like the bar owners, the restaurant owners, the real estate developers and so on. The local residents more concern about the issue of the infrastructure construction. The public spaces are limited because it is usually occupied by tons of tourists every day. Facing to the increasing popularity of the hutongs, it is easy to understa nd the trend of land price increasing in Shi Cha Hai hutongs. The more popular the Shi Cha Hai hutongs is, the more expensive the land price will be. In addition, in order to achieve the sustainable tourism

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45 development in Shi Cha Hai hutongs, there is nece ssarily to regulate the tourism Assessment of Living Condition in Shi Cha Hai H utongs 80% of the interviewees do not want to live in the hutongs if they have the opportunity to live elsewhere. It shows that the local reside nts do not satisfied with the living in hutongs. See the Figure 4 4 it shows that only 1% of the interviewees think that the condition of their houses is excellent, and no people think that the care of their houses is excellent. On the other hand, most of the local residents think that their living During the talk with couple interviewees, they simply blamed that their living quality. First of all come with water issue. There is only one water tap in every courtyard, which is shared with several families. In order to use water more convenience, some families extended waterlines into their own homes. However, facing with the increasing water fee, a plenty of residents complained a bout the water bills. They think that each family should have their own waterlines to avoid the disagreement about water usage. Furthermore, taking shower everyday is a dream for the residents in hutongs. Majority of the residents pay about 10 RMB to the p ublic shower places to take shower. Even though some families install their own solar shower machines which only can be used during summer, currently the machines do not work because of the restriction of space and poor condition of drainage systems.

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46 F igure 4 Secondly, it is unbelievable that there is no private restroom in each family. The residents in hutongs are using the public restroom, which are owned by the government, and located nearby their house. It is not convenience for using during night and cold winters. They are not connected to any sewage system, and cleaned by pump trucks. Some residents try to install their own restroom in their house, but it is impossible because of the limited house space, lack of drainage system, and high cost of building sewage systems. Thirdly, coal heating is the most popular heating system in hutongs. Even though the coal price is pretty low, it causes air pollution. Faced with the 2008 Olympic Games was coming up, the municipal government forbid using of coal heating system. Some families use air conditioner or electrical heater which is expensive as compared to the coal heating system. Fourthly, due to the limited house space, many residents extend their houses by the ir own, usually make shift constructions out of bricks with asbestos or tin sheet roofs.

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47 The preservation process of the historic neighborhoods was out of control and the people who broke the regulation rules could not be penalized. For example, the Shi Ch a Hai hutongs was seen as one of the historical cultural scenic areas. A bathhouse was planned to be a three story building. There is no doubt that the three story building is not matched with the other one boss grudgingly agreed to lower the building to two stories. But, the bathhouse finally was built into a three example, the residents in the hutongs used very cheap materials to re con struct their houses. Undoubtedly, the buildings were deficient in funding and lacking in modern wooden frames and the interior walls were ruined, which directly induced hi storic value reduction in hutongs (Beatrice B. Chen, 2003). In addition, some residents of the hutongs expanded their houses without permission; they made the narrow corridors impossible to get through. In the case of emergency, the fire engines were not a ble to enter the narrow alleys at all, the historic neighborhoods were unsafe for living. Lastly, come with the structural problems. Most of the structural problems are about timber damages. They were damaged by humidity, water, and insects because of lon g time lack of maintenance. In sum, the hutongs are not compatible with the contemporary needs of the local residents any more.

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48 Figure 4 egarding Hutongs Preservation and O wnership There are the hutongs in Shi Cha Hai hutongs, which have received historic preservation treatment. 52% of the interviewees think that the owners after preservation are richer than the previous ones. Rich people like to buy the houses, they are not used for themselves, but for renting, because the rents increase as a result of the increasing popularity of the hutongs. 64% of the interviewees say that the hutongs are converted to service that serve tourists only after preservation. However, unfort unately, the new uses of the hutongs for tourism related services are not suit able at all (See Figure 4 5 ). In fact, most of the preserved hutongs are re built for business function. They are converted to bars, restaurants, and souvenir shops. The bars pla y load music every night, there are always drunk people yelling, and lying on the road curb, which definitely disturb the local

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49 rs, smelly waste food is dumped everywhere and empty bottles are thrown into the river directly. In addition, some preserved buildings are re built as grocery stores and souvenir shops, which sale counterfeit and shoddy products, and are owned by the loca l residents in hutongs. Even though this kind of business only creates small profits, but it will get quick returns. But the counterfeit and shoddy products are not only off quality, but also inevitably bring about many negative impacts to the tourism deve lopment in Shi Cha Hai hutongs. Based on the survey data, the average living years in hutongs area of the interviewees is 24.7, and the mode is 50. Most of them have already spent almost half of their lives in hutongs, but most of the residents present th at they actually do not satisfied with their living conditions, they would not like to live in hutongs if they have the chance to live elsewhere. Thus, why do they still live in there? Why do they have that strong place attachment? The reason is, they have no choice, and they have to stay there. The inconvenient living conditions kicked the high income, well educated people out of the Shi Cha Hai hutongs area. In 1990s, the price of new housing increased to twenty times the average annual income of the loc al residents, nearly all of the local residents cannot afford new houses if they move out. Beijing Municipal Government However, the objectives of the laws were to re gulate the land allocation and land leasing process, but actually, they were not useful at al l. I t shows directly the differences between the land relocation process stipulated by law and the actual process. Even if

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50 the original residents get the housing compensation, they still cannot afford a new house, because the compensation is negotiated secretly between the government and Pilot Sustainable P lan for Shi Cha Hai H utong s Based on the survey results and findings in Shi Cha Hai hutongs area, the objectives of this sustainable plan is to solve traffic problems, to take into consideration the opinions of the local residents, to produce a new mode of cooperation among the sta keholders to achieve a balance between the tourism development and conservation Transportation According to the survey results, the transportation situation in Shi Cha Hai huto ngs area was not rated well. There are no specific parking lots, parking garages in this area. The majority of the local residents do not have their own cars, they are still using bicycles to do their shopping, to go working and so on. They think that ridi ng bicycle is their most convenient mode of transportation, because it will not only bring traffic congestion issues, but also environmental issues. The most vehicles are from outside of Shi Cha Hai hutongs areas. They bring too much cars into the narrow l anes, causing air pollutions, noisy pollutions, traffic accidents and traffic congestions. Thus, it is necessary to set up some forms of traffic control. It will be a good way to implement congestion tolls at every entrance of Shi Cha Hai hutongs areas. A congestion pricing or congestion charge is a system of surcharging users of a transport network in periods of peak demand to reduce traffic congestion. The congestion pricing makes a critical milestone to provide a better quality of life for the local resi

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51 public health and make critical improvement to the public transportation system in Shi Cha Hai hutongs area. Implementation of congestion pricing will reduced congestion in Shi Cha Hai hutongs are a. The traffic congestion in Shi Cha Hai hutongs area is virtually impossible to reduce without some sort of congestion pricing to more efficiently allocate limited roadway capacity. In most cases, increasing the capacity of a road does not in the end redu ce congestion because motorists who previously used other roads, traveled at off peak times, or took public transit tend to abandon those routes and modes for the rebuilt road. Before long, despite their higher capacity, the roads are as congested as befor e. In this case, it is impossible to cut more roads through the Shi Cha Hai hutongs area, because the historic buildings are already there. Even though it is feasible, that will bring much more cars into the hutongs area, and then it will be more difficult to solve traffic problems. In order to reduce the traffic congestion cost, implementation of congestion pricing is necessary. Traffic Congestion Costs consist of incremental delay, driver stress, vehicle costs, crash risk and pollution resulting from inte rference between vehicles in the traffic stream, particularly as a roadway system approaches its capacity. Congestion pricing provides a number of potential benefits, such as Reduced traffic congestion: Reduced traffic congestion, especially peak period c ongestion. Increased road savings: Reduced new road construction to serve peak period demand. Increased parking savings: If total car trips are reduced, there will be less of a parking demand in hutongs area. Increased safety: Congestion pricing when pa ired with traffic reduction strategies like ride sharing, has shown a reduction in automobile accidents. In urban areas, pilot congestion pricing studies have shown a general decrease in traffic accidents involving injuries.

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52 Reduced emissions of pollutan ts, greenhouse gases, and energy consumption: Reduced congestion will reduce emissions of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide; reduced congestion will also reduce fuel consumption. If overall trips are reduced, emissions of nitrogen oxides w ill be reduced as well. Congestion pricing, when paired with strategies for decreasing vehicles on the road and promoting alternative forms of travel like walking, bicycling, or public transit, show a marked increase in public health and wellness. Gener ate funding for projects, including projects that improve public transportation, which will also collect money to work on the conservation of historic buildings in the Shi Cha Hai hutongs area. articipation In order to create comfortabl e living conditions for the local residents in Shi Cha operation is also very important. Because the government and the hutongs community pay less attention on the local resident, pre sently the residents are not likely to participate in any conservation project. They do not know how the conservation plan goes, they also do not care about that what the regulation and policy is working, which make the any works harder to be accomplished in hutongs area. At this point, the hutongs community will play an important role in publishing any information to the local residents about the conservation plan, detailed conservation regulations, infrastructure improvement, and the role that they are su pposed to play. What is more, especially compensation for moving out, the local residents must participate and are given opportunities to present their own opinions in this process. For instance, the longer of years the original residents live in hutongs a rea, the more compensation they can get. The whole process should be inspected by a third party to make sure the original residents can get reasonable compensation by the government.

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53 action by p. 1). Each of these groups can take advantages of it in public participation process. There are several advantages as follows: Public participation allows individuals participate in t he environmental decision making process. People can learn about the environmental issues, how the environmental protection process is going on. Furthermore, the people who get involved can feel that they do have a positive influence in the public partici pation process (Odette, 2005). Public participation can let industry know about the impacts of their operations on the environment. It is a requirement for industry to do a detailed assessment of their pollution producing process and activities, then the industrial companies can figure out how much bad influences they impact on environment (Odette, 2005). Moreover, public participation enables the industrial companies to consider the more efficiently. Because people can get the immediate information of their communities, they can share the information with government, which enables government to can make much more efficiency decision (Odette, 2005). In this way, a bridge is built betw een citizens and government. Even though people do not agree with the final decision, they understand what is going on. Government Should Reinforce the Management and Regulation S trength. The local government needs to carry out detailed policies to regul ate the touring pedicabs. Even though the local government has issued license plates for each touring pedicab, there are still plenty of touring pedicab workers, who do not own license plates, accept tourists at night without permission. Most of the unlice nsed workers are laid off people, who live in Shi Cha Hai hutongs area. Laid off people fall into penury. Because they are not well educated, it is pretty hard to find a new job. In addition, the hutongs laid off residents have to do that due to the limite d number of pedicabs for each tour corporation. Thus, in order to solve this problem, the local government needs to settle the issue of re employment of the hutongs laid off workers immediately.

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54 Regu lations on Unlicensed O perators It is pretty common to see some unlicensed individual traders and pedlars, who are from outside of the hutongs area. They sell counterfeit and shoddy products to the tourists. The products are not qualified, and there is no criterion to evaluate that whether the price is reason Cha Hai hutongs, but also bring bad effects on the businesses, which own their business plates. The government should use its administrative power to issue a detailed criterion to contr apacity Here is one point must be mentioned. The Shi Cha Hai hutongs are not only for tourism developed, but also for human habitation. According to the survey results, even though most of the interviewees do support tourism development in Shi Cha Hai hutongs, 54% of them still think that the tourism affects their quality of life in hutongs. It is not difficult to understand that negative effects will be created if there are too many tourists crowded in hutongs area every day. Thus, the government should strictly limit the tourist capacity in hutongs, especially the amount of tourists who take touring pedicabs. It can be seen as an efficient way to traffic relieving in hutong s area. Strengthen the Management on Bars and Restaurants in Shi Cha Hai H utongs of life has diminished as a result of the rapidly developed bars and restaurants. In or der to attract much more tourists, the fancy bars do not stop playing loud music until early in morning. The local residents have already been fed up with this kind of night life in Shi Cha Hai hutongs. They cannot sleep well in the midnight and even canno t listen clearly

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55 Cha Hai hutongs, the government should set up rules to limit the music volume. Moreover, refuse pollution caused by the bars and restaurant is anothe r issue which needs to be solved immediately. Empty bottles and leftovers are thrown into the lake and put in the backyard of the restaurants. Smelly food from the backyard bothers the local resident too much. It will definitely create a bad impression to the tourists as well. Thus, facing to the huge amount of garbage from the bars and restaurants every day, a specific and systemic refuse treatment is strongly needed. Security I ssue Except the bar street, there are barely few street lamps along the narrow lane. The light is too dark to see clearly. It is not convenient and unsafe for the local residents to go to the public restroom during the night. Thief easily hides in the shadows. It is necessary to build more street lamps in hutongs area. The lamps wil l come on at dust still using the old fashioned door lockers, which is pretty easy to be opened. Thief can easily break into the houses. In order to protect the local guard against theft and alarm system in each family is recommended. Improve the Tourism Service Personal Q uality Basically, the quality of the service people involving tourism in Shi Cha Hai hutongs is very low, majority of them are not well educated. For example, some tour conductors cannot speak fluent English, and the foreigners hardly understand what they say; some tour conductors cannot even speak standard mandarin; the waiters and waitresses in the bars and restauran ts will get extra bonus if they can bring more customers, so they solicits foreign tourists with English at a very loud, and wired accent, which is really annoying the tourists; some peddlers wheedle money out of the foreign

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56 tourists, ask a preposterous pr ice for their counterfeit and shoddy products. Thus, the tour corporation in Shi Cha Hai hutongs area should set up strict assessment criteria on every tour conductor to enhance the service quality; the government should implement that the solicitation is prohibited; otherwise the bosses of the bars and restaurants will be fined for soliciting. Lastly, a normalized market regulation is needed, all the tourism products should be unified price setting, and launched after quality inspection and quality monitor ing. Government C ontributions sense of place attachment, and the present community is deep rooted. Actually, they do not want to live in the hutongs any more if they have other opportunity to live elsewhere. However, unfortunately, they cannot afford a new house in other place after getting compensation for voluntarily moving out. The lifestyle of present low income residents fits into the hutongs community, the residents tend t o use nearby shops and market within walking or bicycling. They desire to improve their living condition, but failure in funding. At this point, the government should enact strong regulation laws for the conservation of historic buildings in Shi Cha Hai hu otngs; the government should also control the amount of new residents moving into the Shi Cha Hai hutongs areas because this area has reached saturation point. It will not only protect the local term inhabitation, but also can the tourism development in Shi Cha Hai hutongs sustainably. It is pretty difficult and non practical to install new infrastructure in hutongs area, like public restroom, heating system, A/C system, and drainage system and so on, when the funding issue is taken into consideration. Thus, the solution is, to upgrade the

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57 existed public restrooms. They can be re built to become the advanced public service centers, which included sanitary restrooms, bathrooms, and laundry rooms with heating and A/C systems. Installing small game rooms and gyms can also be considered. Community S upport The community can be seen as a bridge between the government and the local residents. After carrying out any conservation laws, regulations, and conservation projects, the commu nity needs to disseminate and explain patiently to every family in community office should check the historic buildings maintenance at regular intervals. In other hand, the residents should be made responsible for upkeep their historic buildings, and maintenance. They are not allowed to destroy extent or repair their houses without permission. In addition, the community office should set up strict controls to prevent using h istoric buildings for commercial uses or sub leasing the public houses.

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58 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS Conclusion of This R esearch The changes of dynasties have witnessed both the city and hutongs through thick and thin over the past 700 years and the formation o f the unique hutongs cultures and the historic changes that have taken place in Beijing. At the same time, hutongs has undergone an earth shaking chang e urban development. In addition, in order to make Beijing more sustainable by preserving and restoring hutongs, the urban function and economic structure need to be modified. However, in order to modify the urban function and economic structure, finding an efficient way to improve the local government to share t he profits with the central government is the first task. From the case of the Shi Cha Hai hutongs, hutongs tourism are too fragile to be developed, and to some degree, its development would jeopardize the physical sustainability and culture sustainability Thus, the issue that whether it is reasonable for Beijing to vigorously develop the hutongs tourism at the expanse of socio sustainability and physical sustain ability is a controversial one. In order to fix the transportation issue in Shi Cha Hai hutongs implement participation is very important, because residents can get the immediate information, they can share the information with the community and government, which let gov ernment make much more efficiency decision. Government should enhance the regulation strength on touring pedicabs, bar owners, restaurants owners, and unlicensed The

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59 Old and Dilapida ted Housing Development (ODHR) Program only focused on the profits, and paid little attention on preservation of hutongs. It is necessary to carry out a proper policy to prevent the ODHR Program from using government authority to make p. 10). Government contributions are necessary; the government should take charge of infrastructure improvement and living conditions improvement. The local representation in tourism planning is an important element in the su stainability of the hutongs, so it is necessary to improve the tourism service personal quality. In the past 20 years, the high speed growth of tourism in Beijing was unbelievable, and the tourism industry can be seen as a pillar industry for economic dev elopment. However, it is presumptuous to greatly focus on the economic value; when the issue of sustainability is taken into consideration. Thus, only sustainable development is the way to make a long term lasting improvement, even if the social costs and benefits, which are from the cultural resources, cannot be obviously observed in markets. Historic preservation should not only emphasize on the economic sustainability, but also focus on the socio culture sustainability and sustainability. Furthermore, it is easy to find that the historic neighborhoods are to be preserved, not only for their specific historical significance, but also for their aura. Recommendations for Future Research It is pretty interesting to use benefit cost analysis to evaluate and a ssess the value of preserving Shi Cha Hai hutongs, and to provide a decision support process for preservation of the traditional residential areas. The financial input for the pilot sustainable plan needs to be considered.

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60 APPENDIX : SURVEY QUESTIONS Pleas e read the following questions carefully and mark your answer according to your response. 1. How long have you been living in hutongs? _____________ If you had the opportunity to live elsewhere, would you still want to live in the hutongs? A. Yes B. No 2. Does tourism affect your quality of life in the hutongs? A. Yes B. No 3. Do you think that tourists like to see hutongs life and hutongs culture? A. Yes B. No 4. Do you ever welcome tourists to enter your courtyards? A. Yes B. N o C. Do you ever seek to prevent tourists from entering into your courtyards? A. Yes B. No Do they respect your privacy by leaving when asked? A. Yes B. No 5. Do you think that tourism wil l directly benefit the hutongs community and area? A. Yes, If yes, why ?

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61 ____________________________________________________________ B. No If no, why? ____________________________________________________________ 6. What should happen a result of the increasing popularity of the hutongs? (multiple choice) A. The government would need to pay more attention to the area and improve the infrastructure B. The government would offer tax reduction to business in the area C. The tourists would spend money in the area, like shopping, eating, entrance fee etc D. The government would absorb the benefits with little left for the residents E. The rents in the area would like to increase F. Other:________________________ ______ ___________________________ 7. Do you think that hutongs life and tourism can co exist and prosper together? A. Yes If yes, how? ___________________________________ ___________________________ B. No If no, why not? _________________________ __________ __________________________ 8. Has your quality of life diminished as a result of the rapidly developed bars, restaurants and souvenir shops in the hutongs areas ? A. Yes B. No 9. In the hutongs areas, what is the level of the following ( please check one the box to reflect your opinion): Excellent Very Bad 5 4 3 2 1 A. B.

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62 10. How strongly do you agree or disagree with the followin g statements about the hutongs (please check one box to indicate your answer): Stro ngly Strong Agree Disagree 5 4 3 2 1 A. The historic preservation and t projects represent to tourists the history of local residents. B. Local residents are able to through the historic preservation and tourism development projects. C. The hutongs represent to about the contemporary life of local residents. D. Current preservation and E. Local residents own most o service. F. There is a balance between the servic 11. In your opinion, how suitable are: Very Not Suitable Suitable at all 5 4 3 2 1 A. The hutongs for tourist activities? B. The hutongs for the con residents? C. The new uses of the huton gs for tourism related services? 12. Looking at the hutongs that have re ceived any historic preservation treatment, do you think that their residents/owners after preservation are: A. The same ones as before preservation B. New ones who are richer than the previous ones C. New ones who are poorer than the previous ones D. New ones who are at the same social and economic levels as the previous ones 13. When looking at the hutongs that have received some historic preservation. Do you think that after preservation they: A. Continue to serve as houses

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63 B. Are converted to service that serve tourists only C. Are converted to services that serve local residents only D. Are converted to services that serve both residents and tourists Demographics: 14. What is your gender? A. Male B. Female 15. What is your race? A. Chinese B. Non Chinese 16. What is your age range? A. 18 23 B. 2 4 29 C. 30 35 D. 36 41 E. 42 47 F. 48 53 G. 54 59 H. 60+ 17. What is your income per month? A. 500RMB 1500RMB B. 1500RMB 2500RMB C. 2500RMB 3500RMB D. 3500RMB 4500RMB E. More than 4500RMB 18. Your highest level of education? A. Some high school B. High school degree C. Some college D. College degree E. Gradua te degree (Masters or PHD) 19. Do you own/work in a business that benefits from tourism in hutongs? A. Yes If yes, what type of business/job you are involved? _________________________________________________ B. No

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64 LIST OF REFERENCES Beatrice B. Chen (2003). Pre Historic Conservation Planning Bramwell, B ., & Lane, B. (1993) Sustainable tourism: an evolving global approach. J. Sustain Tourism 1(1), 1 5. Fang, K. (2000) Contemporary Redevelopment in the Inner C ity of Beijing: Survey Analysis and Investigation, China Construction Industry Publishing Housing, Beijing. Gu, Huimin and Ryan, Chris. (2008). Place attachment, identity and community impacts of tourism the case of a Beijing hutong, Tourism Management, 29 637 647 Hsueh, F., & Sit, V. F. (1995). Beijing: The Nature and Planning of a Chinese Capital City (World Cities Series). New York: John Wiley & Sons. Inskeep, E., (1991) Tourism Planning: An Integrated and Sustainable Development Approach, Routledge, Lo ndon Lin G.C.S. ( 2004 ) a nd Progress in Planning Vol. 61, p. 143 157. Liangyong, W., & Wu, L. (1999). Rehabilitating the Old City of Beijing: A Project in the Ju'E r Hutong Neighbourhood (Urbanization in Asia Series). Vancouver: Univ Of British Columbia Pr. Sen Dou Chang (1998). Beijing: perspectives on preservation, environment, and Development Town planning review 67(4): 457 484 Sit, V. F. S. (1995) Beijing: The Nature and Planning of a Chinese Capital City Chichester: Wiley. Thomas Bauer, Carlos Lo, Song Rui. (2005). Cultural Heritage Assets in China as Sustainable Tourism Products: Case Studies of the Hutongs and the Huanghua Section of the Great Wall. Journal of Sustai nable Tourism, 13, 171 194 Vognimary Marie Odette (2005). Public Participati on Applied to the Environmental Planning. June 2005, 8,2

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65 Wang, Ning. (1997). Vernacular house as an attraction: illustration f rom hutong tourism in Beijing. Tourism Management, 18, 573 580 Wu, L. (1999) Rehabilitation the Old City of Beijing. A Project in the Ju,er Neighborhood. Vancouver: UBC Press. Zhang, Y & Fang, K. (2003 ). Plan and market mismatch: Urban redevelopment in Beijing during a period of transition. Asia Pa cific Viewpoint, 44(2), 149 162 Zhang, Y & Fang, K. (2003). Politics of housing redevelopment in China: The rise and fall of the Ju'er Hutong project in inner city Beijing. Journal of Housing and the Built Environment 18 ( 1 ), 75 87. Zhu, Z & Kwok, Y.W (1997) Beijing: The expression of national political ideology. In W. B. Kim, M Douglass and K. W. Ho (eds) Culture and the City in East Asia ( p. 125 150). Oxford: Clarendon.

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66 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Xi Cui was born in Jilin Province, China. In 2004, Xi received her Bachelor of Degree in Urban & Regional M anagement and a second b achelor s d egree in Economics from Peking University in Ch ina. In 2008, Xi was admitted to the University of Florida. She is currently pursuing a degree in Master of Arts in Urban and Regional Planning in the College of Design, Construction, and Planning at the University of Florida. Her specialization is historic preservation.