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Reshaping the Layers of Green Roofing Systems

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0042599/00001

Material Information

Title: Reshaping the Layers of Green Roofing Systems
Physical Description: 1 online resource (88 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Morris, Amanda
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: environmental, green, healthier, impacts, layers, living, pervious, practical, sustainability, technology
Building Construction -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Building Construction thesis, M.S.B.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Building Construction RESHAPING THE LAYERS OF GREEN ROOFING SYSTEMS By Amanda L. Morris December 2010 Chair: Dr. Larry C. Muszynski Co chair: Dr. Raymond R. Issa Major: Building Construction; with a Concentration in Sustainable Construction 'Green design' is progressively working its way into the construction community's understanding and environmentally-responsive design is becoming less an option and more a requirement in the designs. Since the mid 1900?s green roofs have come back as a practical solution to address urgent environmental issues like increased storm water runoff, the urban heat island effect, deterioration of air and water quality, and loss of habitat and biodiversity facing urban centers. Another green technology that is also enjoying a new popularity that should be studied and assembled with living-green structures is pervious concrete which was first used in 1852. Pervious concrete pavement is a unique and effective means to address important environmental issues and support green, sustainable growth. Pervious concrete is not only ideal for parking areas, driveways, sidewalks, patios, roads, but also for erosion control and a variety of other uses. This research will explore these various components of green systems and how they impact the environment economically and physically throughout time, while also focusing on the basic construction methods and factors for designing these green systems. This topic was selected due to my interest in sustainable design for the future. While exploring the various components of these green systems, the hope is to establish that many factors can affect the outcome of any construction project, and that the secret to greener designs is in the understanding of the complexity and interaction of the various layers within the system. These types of projects need to succeed because this is could be a solution to our rising food shortage, and environmental impacts.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Amanda Morris.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.B.C.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Muszynski, Larry C.
Local: Co-adviser: Issa, R. Raymond.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2011-06-30

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0042599:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0042599/00001

Material Information

Title: Reshaping the Layers of Green Roofing Systems
Physical Description: 1 online resource (88 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Morris, Amanda
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: environmental, green, healthier, impacts, layers, living, pervious, practical, sustainability, technology
Building Construction -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Building Construction thesis, M.S.B.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Building Construction RESHAPING THE LAYERS OF GREEN ROOFING SYSTEMS By Amanda L. Morris December 2010 Chair: Dr. Larry C. Muszynski Co chair: Dr. Raymond R. Issa Major: Building Construction; with a Concentration in Sustainable Construction 'Green design' is progressively working its way into the construction community's understanding and environmentally-responsive design is becoming less an option and more a requirement in the designs. Since the mid 1900?s green roofs have come back as a practical solution to address urgent environmental issues like increased storm water runoff, the urban heat island effect, deterioration of air and water quality, and loss of habitat and biodiversity facing urban centers. Another green technology that is also enjoying a new popularity that should be studied and assembled with living-green structures is pervious concrete which was first used in 1852. Pervious concrete pavement is a unique and effective means to address important environmental issues and support green, sustainable growth. Pervious concrete is not only ideal for parking areas, driveways, sidewalks, patios, roads, but also for erosion control and a variety of other uses. This research will explore these various components of green systems and how they impact the environment economically and physically throughout time, while also focusing on the basic construction methods and factors for designing these green systems. This topic was selected due to my interest in sustainable design for the future. While exploring the various components of these green systems, the hope is to establish that many factors can affect the outcome of any construction project, and that the secret to greener designs is in the understanding of the complexity and interaction of the various layers within the system. These types of projects need to succeed because this is could be a solution to our rising food shortage, and environmental impacts.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Amanda Morris.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.B.C.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Muszynski, Larry C.
Local: Co-adviser: Issa, R. Raymond.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2011-06-30

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0042599:00001


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1 RESHAPING THE LAYERS OF GREEN ROOFING SYSTEMS By AMANDA L MORRIS A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2010

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2 2010 Amanda L. Morris

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3 This is a dedication t o all who nurtured my intellectual curiosity, academic interests, and sense of scholarship throughout my lifetime, making this milestone possible

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I want to first thank the chair and members of my supervisory committee for their mentoring throughout this entire educational development. I also, want to thank the staff and members at the U niversity of F lorida libraries fo r their as sistance and patience in understanding through this process, as well as, thank you to my friends for their generous support and help in building my mock up model Finally, I want to thank my parents for their loving encouragement and perseverance which mo tivated me to complete my sustainable study. Without each and every one of these individuals I probably would have not reached my full potential that I am capable of performing. The motivation and support were key components for my process of following thr ough with this thesis, which has concentration.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 8 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 9 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 14 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 16 Green Roofs ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 16 Defining Green Roofs ................................ ................................ ....................... 16 Historical Background Of Green Roofs ................................ ............................ 18 Performance / Implementation ................................ ................................ ......... 21 Design Factors ................................ ................................ ................................ 22 Applications ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 22 Benefits/Advantages ................................ ................................ ........................ 23 The Leadership In Energy And Environmental Design Credit Impacts ............. 28 Primary ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 28 Secondary ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 28 Disadvantages ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 28 Case Studies ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 29 Vertical Gardens ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 29 Defining Vertical Gardens ................................ ................................ ................. 29 Historical Background Of Vertical Gardens ................................ ...................... 30 Perfor mance ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 31 Applications/ Implementation ................................ ................................ ............ 32 Benefits /Advantages ................................ ................................ ....................... 32 The Leadership In Energy And Environmental Design Credit Impacts ............. 34 Disadvantages ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 34 Case Studies ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 34 Pervious Concrete ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 36 Defining Pervious Concrete ................................ ................................ .............. 36 Historical Background Of Pervious Concr ete ................................ ................... 38 Performance/ Implementation ................................ ................................ .......... 39 Applications ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 39 Benefits / Advantages ................................ ................................ ....................... 40 The Leadership In Energy And Environmental Design Credit Impacts ............. 41 Disadvantages ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 42 Case Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 42

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6 Methodology ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 42 Summary Of Aims ................................ ................................ ............................ 42 Literature Review ................................ ................................ ............................. 43 Lab Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 43 3 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 45 Costs ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 45 Initial Costs ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 45 Life Cycle Costs ................................ ................................ ............................... 45 Operation, mai ntenance, and repair costs ................................ ................. 46 Replacement costs ................................ ................................ .................... 46 Stormwater Management ................................ ................................ ........................ 46 Environmental Performance ................................ ................................ ................... 47 The Leadership In Energy And Environmental Design Credits Roofing ........... 48 Sustainable Sites ................................ ................................ ....................... 48 Energy And Atmosphere ................................ ................................ ............ 48 Materials And Resources ................................ ................................ ........... 48 Indoor En vironmental Quality ................................ ................................ ..... 48 Green Roof Study ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 49 Pervious Concrete Study ................................ ................................ ........................ 51 Crushed Concrete ................................ ................................ ............................ 52 Foundry Slag (a.k.a. Industrial Lava Rock) ................................ ....................... 52 ................................ ................................ 52 The Design Process ................................ ................................ ................................ 53 Summary Of Results ................................ ................................ ............................... 53 Integration Of Green Designs ................................ ................................ ................. 54 Environmental/ Economic Benefits ................................ ................................ ... 63 Water ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 63 Energy ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 64 Cost ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 64 4 CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 65 5 RECOMMENDATIONS ................................ ................................ ........................... 67 APP ENDIX A EDUCATIONAL GREEN ROOF STRUCTURES ................................ .................... 71 Green Roof Studies ................................ ................................ ................................ 71 UF Perry Construction Yard G reen Roof ................................ .......................... 71 Wildlands Conservancy ................................ ................................ .................... 75 Putney School Performing Arts Center ................................ ............................. 77 Wayne Community College ................................ ................................ .............. 79 Harvard Graduate Student Housing (29 Garden Street) ................................ .. 81 B EXAMPLES OF LIVING STRUCTURES FOUND ALL AROUND THE WORLD .... 83

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7 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................... 86 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 88

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 Extensive green roof scoring matrix ................................ ................................ ... 49 3 2 Life Cycle Cost ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 49 3 3 Pervious concrete scoring matrix ................................ ................................ ........ 51 3 4 Detail Product Descriptions used in t he mock up model are as follows .............. 57 3 4 Continued. ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 58

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9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 Diagram of a Green Roof System. (Source: http://inspiredeconomist.com/tag/green economy/ Last accessed October, 2010). ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 17 2 2 Photo of City Hall, Chicago (Source:http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/green science/green rooftop.htm. Last accessed October, 2010). ............................... 20 2 3 Sample run off reduction chart. (Source: Miller 2009) ................................ ........ 24 2 4 Temperature vs. Ozone (Source: Miller 2009) ................................ .................... 25 2 5 Comparative temperature chart (Source: Miller 2009) ................................ ........ 26 2.6 Epworth Retirement Home, Tyrone, Pennsylvania (2000). (Source: Miller 2009) ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 27 2 7 Photo of a vertical garden Source: (Chino 2008) ................................ ................ 31 2 8 Sample Irrigation Setup Diagram: (Source: ELT EASY GREEN 2009) .............. 31 2 9 Living Wall Modular (Source: ELT EASY GREEN 2009) ................................ .... 32 2 10 Living Wall Modular (Source: ELT EASY GREEN 2009) ................................ .... 35 2 11 Living Wall Modular (Source: ELT EASY GREEN 2009) ................................ .... 36 3 1 Extensive green roof quality model. ................................ ................................ .... 49 3 2 Pervious concrete qu ality model ................................ ................................ ......... 51 3 3 Green roof comparison study. ................................ ................................ ............ 56 3 4 This picture shows the impervious concrete layer, usually the deck of the roof, which has a waterproofing membrane added to protect the surface from any water or moisture that does happen to seep under the vapor barrier. ......... 58 3 5 This picture shows the vapor foam bar rier being added to the top of the impervious concrete layer. This is used to keep any water or as much of the moisture from leaking through to the impervious surface. ................................ .. 59 3 6 This picture show s the pervious concrete layer that is used as the primary drainage element.. ................................ ................................ .............................. 59

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10 3 7 This picture shows the section from impervious to pervious concrete as the layers progress upward. ................................ ................................ ..................... 59 3 8 This picture shows the additional drainage plate inserted to create an improved directionality for the water to drain as is passes through the previous layers either through the pipes or perviou s drainage layer below. ....... 59 3 9 This picture shows the sediment barrier being placed on top of an additional drainage plate to catch the smaller particles that would normally pass through and p ossibly contaminate the layers below. ................................ .......... 60 3 10 This picture shows the pipe lying on top of the sediments barrier in order to prevent any growing medium from passing through. ................................ .......... 60 3 11 This picture shows the advanced weed defense fabric used to prevent roots from penetrating into the drainage layer and obstructing the voids from allowing water to percolate. ................................ ................................ ................ 60 3 12 This picture shows the ends of the pipes used for extra drainage being covered with a sediment barrier in order to prevent the growing medium from flowing away from the site. ................................ ................................ ................. 61 3 13 This picture simply shows the growing medium starting to cover the pipe that is intended for extra drainage measures when copiousness amounts of rain encounter the area. ................................ ................................ ............................ 61 3 14 These pictures show the progression of layers adding the growing medium to the top.. ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 61 3 15 This picture shows the progression of layers adding the grass or even plants to the top. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 62 3 16 up model with pervious concrete as its drainage layer. ................................ ...................... 62 5 1 Preliminary Temperature Comparison Test Results Courtesy George Irwin .... 69 A 1 Top View of Perry Yard ................................ ................................ ..................... 71 A 2 Elevation View ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 71 A 3 Pictures of Plants used on the green roof ................................ ........................... 73 A 4 Digital Elevation of proposed idea. ................................ ................................ ..... 73 A 5 Section cut of proposed roof ................................ ................................ ............... 73 A 6 Photo of cisterns on site ................................ ................................ ..................... 74

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11 A 7 Left Top view of Conservancy. Right Elevation view of site ............................. 75 A 8 Sedum ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 76 A 9 Left and Right Shows Views of the green roof layout. ................................ ...... 76 A 10 Left and Right shows views the green roof installed ................................ ........ 77 A 11 Digital model of the proposed design layout for the struc ture. ............................ 78 A 12 Left shows a close up of plants after installation. Right shows how the plots were set up with different types of vegetation. ................................ .................... 79 A 13 A Variety of 10 combined species are planted on the Wayne Community College Greenroof. Some include the Left Delospmera nubigenum, Center Sedum reflexum, Right Sedum sexangulare. ................................ .................... 80 A 14 Pictures of plants within the green roof design ................................ ................... 80 A 15 A beautiful wooden walkway divides this green roof, predominantly composed of Sedum album and Sedum sexangulare ................................ ........ 81 A 16 Sedum album, Sedum sexangulare ................................ ................................ .... 82 A 17 Left and Right show different views of the overall layout of a secondary level green r oof. ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 82 B 1 Japan Vertical Garden ................................ ................................ ........................ 83 B 2 Canada vertical garden B 3. Section Cut of vertical garden ................... 84 B 4 India vertical garden ................................ ................................ ........................... 84 B 5 Las Vegas vertical garden ................................ ................................ .................. 85 B 6 Interior View of garde n ................................ ................................ ....................... 85

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12 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Building Construction RESHAPING THE LAYERS OF GREEN ROOFING SYSTEMS By Amanda L. Morris December 20 10 Chair: Larry C. Muszynski Cochair Raymond R. Issa Major: Building Construction 'Green design' is progressively working its way into the construction community's understanding and envir onmentally responsive design is becoming less an option and as a practical solution to address urgent environmental issues like increased storm water runoff, the urban heat island effect, deterioration of air and water quality, and loss of habitat and biodiversity facing urban centers. Another green technology that is also enjoying a new popularity that should be studied and assembled with living green structures is pervious concrete which was first used in 1852. Pervious concrete pavement is a unique and effective means to address important environmental issues and support green, sustainable growth. Pervious concrete is not only ideal for parking areas, driveways, sidewalks patios, roads, but also for erosion control and a variety of other uses. This research will explore these various components of green systems and how they impact the environment economically and physically throughout time, while also focusing on the bas ic construction methods and factors for designing these green systems. This topic was selected due to my interest in sustainable design for the future.

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13 While exploring the various components of these green systems, the hope is to establish that many factor s can affect the outcome of any construction project, and that the secret to greener designs is in the understanding of the complexity and interaction of the various layers within the system. These types of projects need to succeed because this is could b e a solution to our rising food shortage, and environmental impacts.

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14 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 'Green design' is progressively working its way into the construction community's understanding and environmentally responsive design is becoming less an option a nd as a practical solution to address urgent environmental issues like increased storm water runoff, the urban heat island effect, deterioration of air and water quality, an d loss of habitat and biodiversity facing urban centers. Other than green roofs a current innovative technology in the green world has been the living wall system, also referred to as a green wall, vertical garden, or sky farm These types of gardens are sometimes referred to as urban gardening, because they are well suited where natural ground is limited but vertical space is plentiful. Another green technology that is enjoying a new popularity that should be studied and assembled with living green structures is pervious concrete. Pervious concrete is a unique and an effective means to address important environmental issues and support g reen, sustainable growth. By capturing storm water and allowing it to percolate the ground, pervious concrete has been instrumental in meeting U.S. Environmental Protection Agency storm water regulations and helping to better the environment. Pervious con crete is not only ideal for parking areas, driveways, sidewalks, patios, roads, but also for erosion control and a variety of other uses. Numerous studies have been conducted to show the potential benefits of green structures and their applications. Howe ver, besides all the research that has been conducted, no information has actually been published about combining pervious concrete methods with green roof methods.

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15 This literature review presents an overview of the current information available on green r oofs and living structures within the construction industry, as well as, pervious concrete. It defines these green methods in its entirety and presents a brief history of its development. This literature review will also explore these various components of green systems and how they impact the environment economically and physically throughout time, while also focusing on the basic construction methods and factors for designing these green systems. The potential benefits associated with its implementation a re discussed as well as the potential risks that may arise during its implementation. The concept of cost analysis is presented and lastly, the results of similar case studies and examples are discussed to show how it may be applied within the environment.

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16 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Green Roofs Defining Green Roofs to begin incorporating the fifth faade into the architectural design, a new trend towards roof gardens is emerging. The more popular name for this is green roofs. Besides using the roof as a new space for a building, the other environmental benefits of green roofing system m performance roofing: Energy, roofs have come back as a practical solution to address environmental issues like increased storm water runoff, deteri oration of air and water quality, the urban heat island effect, and loss of habitat and biodiversity. Although green roofs are now becoming popular all over the world, green roofs are still not a design area that can be properly executed by the general pub lic and are not eagerly taken on by local builders either. Main concerns have usually pertained to the costs, regardless of the availability of materials and suitability of climate, but the economic benefits of green roofs tend to offset the initial costs enough to explore the option. specialized roof systems that support vegetation growth. The garden roof measures the following: Storm water runoff, temperature, heat flow across the roo f system, solar reflectance of the roof surface, soil moisture content, rooftop microclimate, relative humidity, rainfall, and solar radiation. With technical advance in roofing materials and

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17 components, garden roof systems can now be successfully installe d in most climates, providing an attractive design option, especially in urban areas where land available for Figure 2 1. Diagram of a Green Roof System. (Source: http://inspiredeconomist.com/tag/green economy/ Last accessed October, 2010). depth and vegetation type. An intensive green roof resemble s a roof garden, with both large and small plants. Intensive roofs accommodate human visitors with aesthetically

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18 pleasing plants, walking paths, observation decks, and park benches. Extensive green roofs are largely different than intensive roofs. Extens ive green roofs typically consist of low growth height; which are 6 inches or shallower, succulent plants (sedums) or native grasses. Extensive green roofs typically require less growing substrates and less maintenance than an intensive green roof and are not generally designed to accommodate frequent foot traffic by humans, but are frequently designed to satisfy specific engineering and performance goals (Scholz roofs, roof gardens, or eco roofs, have always been used withi n the design and construction industry, they just have not been given proper recognition and use through its function until the recent years. Taking advantage of green roofs allows for our society to incorporate sustainable construction in our world, thus improving the integrated building strategies necessary to achieve the overall green building goals Historical B ackground Of Green Roofs green roof structures date back to 600 BC in Mesopotamia. The first known historical references to manmade gardens about grade were the ziggurats, stone pyramidal steeped towers, of ancient Mesopotamia, built around 600 B.C It was the first structure built to specifically to hold plants ( Wark and include the hanging gardens of Babylon, Roman roof gardens, English tha tched roofs, sod roofs of the Great Plains settlers, and the earth shelters of the 20 th century (England one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. Some modern Europ ean green roof

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19 structures can be found in England, Austria, Switzerland, and Iceland. The modern style of green roofs first originated in Iceland. The rugged countryside consisted of sod roofs and walls due to lack of resources and because the people had to make do with what s, the famous architect Le Corbusier was the first designer to start integrating the idea of the roof garden into his architecture. This integration can be found in his Five Points of Arch itecture. These architectural points represent a fundamental new aesthetic. The five points are the Supports, the Free Ground Plane, the Horizontal Window, the Free Faade, and the Roof Garden. Le Corbusier believed that the roof garden would be the pri mary focus of a building in the future. His issues: a humid environment for veg etation and protection against changing inspired by the rugged sod roofs and walls that prevailed in Iceland for hundreds of years. Although there is increasing interest in the garden roof system as a sustainable building design option in North America today, green roofs are not well known in the United States due to the lack of recognition and awareness toward them popular they will become highly effective in resolving sustainable design issues of the present and near future. Through the development of sustainable design, looking at the history of green roofs, and analyzing programs and incentives to create the recognition

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20 needed for them, a better understanding of construction methods can be determined its negative impact, green roofs will become an increasingly important option for developers, owners, and even the citizens. there because the building needed a new roof. Chicago has recently implemented an ordinance requiring minimum levels of reflectivity on certain buildings in order to combat the urban heat island effect. Green roofs have now been included in the reflectivi ty ordinance in Chicago (Dowd 2005, p Led by Mayor Richard Daley, the city is turning the concrete jungle into an urban oasis. Chicago uses green building requirements grants, expedited permits, and other Figure 2 2. Photo of City Hall, Chicago (Source : http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/green science/green rooftop.htm Last accessed October, 2010).

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21 Performance / Implementation multi layer structu ral components which include: vegetation, a growing medium, drainage, aeration, water storage, and root barrier, insulation, membrane protection, roofing membrane, and structural support. Various types of materials can be used depending on the environment the green roof is in. The secret to the green roof structure in understanding the complexity and interaction of the various layers. Maintenance should be a minimal as possible as long as the green roof is designed of benefits whether on the ground, submerged patios, outdoor furniture, lighting, buried electrical cables, water features, and fire Whether extensive or intensive, the style of green roof to use is extremely onto an existing building will either result in the roof being restricted to the capacity of the existing load or the owner must upgrade the structure to increase the load bearing capacity with possible significant costs. Since there are two types of green roofs the weigh load varies. The typical loading ranges of ex tensive roof systems vary from 16 31 pounds per square foot. Contrasting enough, an intensive green roof loading can range from 61 205 pounds per square foot. Differences in weight are largely a result of substrate and construction materials (Dowd 2005, p range for an extensive green roof is $15 to $20 per square foot. The Intensive green roofs range in price from $50 to $60 and higher per square foot. These costs include the construction industries of the commercial, i ndustrial and highly density residential

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22 areas. The costs also encompass everything from the roof development, waterproofing, Design Factors There are many interactive factors that green roof designer must t ake into account, balancing many considerations for optimal performance in each setting, including: (Miller 2009) Climate, especially temperature and rainfall patterns Strength of the supporting structure Size, slope, height, and directional orientation of the roof Type of underlying waterproofing Drainage elements, such as drains, scuppers, buried conduits, and drain sheets Accessibility and intended use Visibility, compatibility with architecture, and owner's aesthetic preferences Fit with other "green" s ystems, such as solar panels Cost of materials and labor Applications A variety of places usually seen with green roofs depending on the environment are: Urban Areas Office buildings, parking structures, housing blocks, restaurants Residential For sin gle and multi family communities. Industrial and Commercial Malls, gas stations, factories, warehouses, shopping centers Local, State, and Federal Structures Schools, recreational facilities, restrooms, maintenance buildings

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23 Environmental Centers Rec ycling centers, botanical gardens, conservatories Airports Terminals, maintenance buildings, hangers Entertainment Industry Resorts, cruise ships, theme parks, specialty businesses Care Facilities Hospitals, daycare centers, nursing homes, rehab faci lities Benefits/Advantages associated with green roofs. These include: Controlling storm water runoff Improving water quality Mitigating urban heat island effects Prolonging the ser vice life of roofing materials Conserving energy Reducing sound reflection and transmission Creating wildlife habitat, and Improving the aesthetic environment in both work and home settings. As a result green roofs may be appropriate as an addition to man y types of buildings, including commercial, industrial, institutional, and residential settings (Miller 2009). 1. Controlling Storm Water Runoff The rapid runoff of storm water from paved areas and roofs contributes to destructive flooding, erosion, pollut ion, and habitat destruction. The capacity of green roofs to moderate this runoff through both retention (water holding) and detention (flow slowing) properties has been well documented in Europe and increasingly in the United States. Green roofs share man y engineering features with conventional storm water management basins, and compared to many at grade storm water management practices, vegetated roof covers are unobtrusive, low maintenance, and reliable. Green roofs may offer the only practical "at sourc e" technique for controlling runoff in areas that already are highly urbanized. Vegetated roof covers are particularly effective at controlling runoff on the large roofs typical of commercial and institutional buildings. They can be designed to achieve spe cified levels of storm water runoff control, including

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24 reductions in both total annual runoff volume (reductions of 50 to 60 percent are common) and peak runoff rates for storms. Figure 2 3 Sample run off reduction chart. (Source: Miller 2009) Reliable techniques for predicting the rate and quantity of runoff from vegetated roof covers have been used successfully to design integrated storm water management measures in Germany, where large zero discharge developments that rely heavily on green roofs are already operating. For example, the Bondorf transportation center (PDF 473 KB) in Sindelfingen achieves net zero storm water runoff discharge, large ly through the use of 516,000 square feet (11.8 acres) of green roofs. 2. Improving Water Quality By reducing both the volume and the rate of storm water runoff, green roofs benefit cities with combined sewer overflow (CSO) impacts. In cities with combined storm and waste water sewer systems, storm water dilutes the sanitary waste water, rendering treatment less efficient. During heavy rainfalls these systems also overflow, discharging raw sewage mixed with runoff into the receiving streams resulting in eco logical damage and human health hazards. Therefore, important water quality benefits are achieved by controlling runoff. In addition, in urban areas, up to 30% of total nitrogen and total phosphorus released into receiving streams is derived from dust that accumulates on rooftops. Acting as natural bio filtration devices, green roofs reduce this water contamination. In the Potsdamer Platz (PDF 205 KB) district of Berlin, extensive green roofs have been employed on a large scale in an effort to reduce pollut ion of the River Spree. This program has demonstrated that extensive green roofs can achieve large reductions in nutrient releases from roofs; however, the research also shows that the correct choices of growing medium and plant types are essential for suc cess.

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25 3. Mitigating Urban Heat Island Effects Covering dark conventional roofs with green roofs can significantly reduce the temperature above the roof. Green roofs have been shown to out perform white or reflective roof surfaces in reducing the ambient ai r temperature. If sufficient urban surfaces are covered, this cooling (and attendant improvement of air quality) can have significant positive effects on human health, especially for the young and elderly in congested urban areas. Higher albedo pavements a nd roofs, plus trees, result in lower air temperatures and decreased ozone like in Picture. Figure 2 4 Temperature vs. Ozone (Source: Miller 2009) 4. Prolonging the Service Life of Roofing Materials Thirty five years of experience with green roofs in G ermany have demonstrated their value in protecting waterproofing materials. The multiple layers of the green roof protect the underlying roof materials from the elements in three ways: by protecting from mechanical damage (mostly from humans, but also from wind blown dust and debris, and animals); by shielding from ultraviolet radiation; and by buffering temperature extremes, minimizing damage from the daily expansion and contraction of the roof materials. A roof assembly that is covered with a green roof c an be expected to outlast a comparable roof without a green roof by a factor of at least two, and often three. Although modern green roof systems have not yet been in place longer than 35 years, many researchers expect that these installations will last 50 years and longer before they require significant repair or replacement. For a building owner with a long term investment in the roofing system, this benefit factor goes a long way toward paying back the initial investment in a green roof. 5. Conserving En ergy

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26 Not all benefits will be equally important in every project or climate. For instance, the capacity of green roofs to reduce heat flow, and therefore energy demand in buildings, is mostly a warm season phenomenon. As a result, this benefit will be real ized most fully in warm climates, where energy expenditures on air conditioning are an important concern. Energy related benefits will also be less important in multi story buildings, due to the low ratio of roof area to the total of exposed building skin. Because green roofs are more complex than simple insulators, project specific building envelope analysis is required to predict energy conservation under specific project conditions. Figure 2 5 Comparative temperature chart (Source: Miller 2009) 6. Red ucing Sound Reflection and Transmission Green roofs can absorb a portion of the sound that otherwise bounces off hard roofing surfaces At the Frankfurt International Airport, green roofs were employed successfully as a means of sound abatement along new ru nway approaches. A simple 3 inch deep vegetative cover can be expected to reduce sound transmission by a minimum of 5 decibels. Sound abatement of up to 46 decibels has been measured on thicker roofs. 7. Creating Wildlife Habitat Green roofs can be used to create wildlife habitats to supplement or replace diminishing open space in developing areas. With thoughtful planting and avoiding pesticides, a mature, self sustaining ecosystem will teem with insects, spiders, snails, and songbirds. Using native specie s can recreate lost prairies, as at the Oaklyn Branch Library in Indiana. 8. Improving the Aesthetic Environment Green roofs offer interesting new opportunities for architectural design. A green roof can allow a structure to merge with the surrounding land scape, provide a dramatic accent, or reinforce the defining aspects of the structure's geometry. In Germany and increasingly in the United States

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27 green roofs are frequently integrated into the design of hospitals and care facilities in order to provide a m ore restful and restorative environment for patients. Similarly, multi unit residences and hotels will find that green roof tops views substantially enhance property values. In commercial settings, job satisfaction and effectiveness can be enhanced by prov iding window views of meadows or flower beds or relaxing garden areas for breaks or meetings. Figure 2.6 Epworth Retirement Home, Tyrone, Pennsylvania (2000). (Source: Miller 2009) Projects constructed using truly waterproof concrete for the base roof f rom the beginning allow for the elimination of membranes, and therefore a simplification of the design, construction, and maintenance processes (Frentress 2009) which cannot be punctured, torn or damaged in the constr uction phase or during service, or deteriorate with age. Such green roofs are more financially viable, with less exposure risk for the owner and designer, which increases return on investment and project value. No need for the design and detailing of memb ranes results in reduced design time and costs for concrete green roof projects. Once a structural concrete roof is designed, standard details for construction joints and service penetrations can follow. Construction savings proo contract works can be eliminated, advancing construction schedules by several weeks. Green roof decks do not require protection and are utilized as working platforms during construction. Faster construction directly enhances project viability. A lower square foot cost saves money with concrete green roofs, compared to green roof membranes. Since there is nothing to wear out or replace, these projects have higher sustainability and a lower life cycle cost.

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28 Cracks are quickly repaired with a simp le injection from the bottom side of the green roof deck, which does not disturb growing medium or plants. The Leadership In Energy And Environmental Design Credit Impacts Primary Sustainable Sites credits 6.1, 6.2 Storm water Management Rate, Quantity, an d treatment Sustainable Sites credit 7.2 Design to Reduce Heat Islands Water Efficiency credit 1.1 Water Efficient Landscaping Energy and Atmosphere credit 1. 0 Optimizing Energy Performance Materials and Resources credits 4.1, 4.2 Recycled Content (roof sy stem components) Materials and Resources credits 5.1, 5.2 Local/Regional Materials (roof components and plants) Secondary Water Efficiency credit 2 Inn ovative Wastewater Technologies Water Efficiency credits 3.1, 3.2 Water Use Reduction (20%, 30%) Disadvan tages While most of the impacts that green roofs have on the environment are drawback of rooftop garden is that they initially cost more than a traditional roof. But the initial c ost is offset by the fact that garden roofs last longer, because they are shielded co ncern with extensive or intensive roof types is leaks, but new technologies have improved the leakage. Such as by using electric field vector mapping technology, which can pinpoint minute holes the may occur in the waterproofing layer very accurately

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29 (Dowd minimized, by following general principles for design: Considering all requirements, both individually and as a whole, and do not sacrifice one requirement for another without ident ifying the consequences for that assessment. Design the structure to keep movements and deflections to an economic minimum, and make allowances for shifting or other movements of associated constructions that will certainly occur over time. Also know the e nvironment in which each material must be used and the effect the environment is going to take on it over time (Williams, unpublished manuscript, 2007). Case Studies While looking at this study of green roofs one major interest that was focused on was the educational aspect. This was a significant interest because the educational system has the largest impact on the nation when it comes to information being implemented into the communities and is constantly trying to motivate future generations. So several educational facilities were examined to see how they have implemented their views of sustainable design; and green roofs seem to be the primary focus for most facilities. In the appendix one will find the educational facilities focused on in this research with an overview of each facility. Vertical Gardens Defining Vertical Gardens explore alternative exterior and interior applications of green planting technology, such as green walls, and green screens. Vertical planting presents challenges to proper innovative technology in the green world has been the living wall system, also referred

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30 to as a green wall, vertical garden, or sky farm These types of gardens are compatible for an urban environment where space is very lim ited, but vertical spaces are plentiful, and tend to be quite spectacular in appearance, as well as, cater a more sustainable environment. Vertical gardens have been seen to be grown on just about any type of wall; whether it is outdoor related such as: st ucco, concrete block, wood siding, or interior walls. This is can be done with or without the use of soil, and as long as the area is drought tolerant, no soil is usually required. Vertical gardens are also a great investment that can literally bring life to an old rundown building, as long as, the exterior structure is sound. Buildings will almost instantly see a difference in the amount of Heat or AC needed to make the area comfortable, and add an extra layer of sound proofing depending on the density of the system. Vertical gardens are also becoming increasingly popular inside office buildings, homes, and retail stores because of their outstanding beauty and their natural sustainable properties, which include air purification. There are many amazing examp les of vertical gardens around the world, only increasing in number every year due to the ease of implementation. Historical Background Of Vertical Gardens Blanc. The Verti cal Garden System is a lightweight support and irrigation system that allows buildings to recapture the benefits of green roofs on all sides. Most are soil free living walls that can provide thermal and acoustic insulation, purify the air, and add a lovely dose of beauty to dense urban spaces. Living walls have fast become an art form for many people; because of the pioneering vertical garden artists is Patrick Blanc FIGURE 2 7 Photo of a vertical garden Source: (Chino 2008)

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31 Figure 2 7 Photo of a vertical garden Source: (Chino 2008) Performance modular living wall panel that can be either pre grown or planted in place Its rugged construction and ease of installation makes it a perfect choice for people looking to expand their gardens in new and exciting ways; ei ther using it as art pieces scattered throughout a building or possibly an insulation barrier for the external structure. Each panel is designed to have water flow through the panel without pulling the soil along with it. This is achieved through the use o f a series of grooves that channel the water towards the back of the panel ensuring complete saturation with a minimum amount of effort and water. The design also leaves a small reservoir of water in each cell to help the plants through droughts. Panels ar e designed to be irrigated from the top using either a simple soaker hose or a drip tray system, and some plants may benefit from additional foliar feeding using a misting spray bottle (ELT EASY GREEN 2009). Figure 2 8 Sample Irrigation Setup Diagram: (Source: ELT EASY GREEN 2009)

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32 Figure 2 9 Living Wall Modular (Source: ELT EASY GREEN 2009) Applications/ Implementation Applications of the vertical gardens are similar to the green roofs and depend on the environment in which they are intended. Benefi ts /Advantages As stated by the Philly green wall http://www.phillygreenwall.com/benefitsCell.html Air Quality Improvement Gaseous pollutants are absorbed through photosynthesis and airbo rne particulate matter is trapped in the leaves. Gas exchange by the plants helps to add oxygen to the air therefore helping to reduce smog. Rooftop microclimate is produced with cooler due to transpiration of the plants therefore reducing the cost of the air transfer hot to cool in air conditioning = less expensive air conditioning. Less air conditioning means less electricity consumption which means less power generation from nuclear and fossil fuel burning plants which improves air quality further Living walls cool the ambient air temperature (reduce the Urban Heat Island Effect) in cities which means less smog days. Studies have shown that 150 sq m of plant surface area produces enough oxygen for one person for 24 hours. Cleaner air is a direct benefit t o asthma sufferers the elderly and young who are limited to indoor activities on "Bad Air" days

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33 Temperature Regulation Living Walls help address the Urban Heat Island Effect which is the phenomenon of thermal gradient differences between developed and undeveloped areas. Most of the sun's energy is re radiated as heat. Planted areas only reflect 20% of the sun's energy. Living walls insulate buildings by external shading, cool industrial buildings and create microclimates, which can alter the climate o f a city as a whole. Reduction of storm water run off Living walls can be used as part of a storm water retention system to help slow the flow off the roof during a storm event. Moderation of water temperatures and natural water filters. Currently we hav e between 80 100 % drainage in most cities In a Natural Cycle 30% of the water is used by plants, 30% percolates to aquifers, 40% returned to the atmosphere therefore No surface runoff In a Metropolitan/Urban Cycle 5% to goes to aquifers, 15% to the atmos phere and 75% to surface runoff Major 2" rainstorm generates about 1.25 gallons per square foot of rainwater. Improvement of building performance German studies show that plant material growing on a roof and walls can help a building retain up to 50% of the heat typically lost to convection. Living Walls have the capacity to provide Sound insulation. Additional visual amenity space. Additional thermal insulation. Habitat and Ecological benefits Possibilities for habitat preservation and protectio n. Replaces land taken by buildings. Beautifies our cityscape and provide unique opportunities for design and creativity. Increased urban habitat for nature.

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34 Health and horticultural therapy. Movement, color, sound and texture adds to the overall health of citizens. The community overall will also benefit from the environmental improvements. The Leadership In Energy And Environmental Design Credit Impacts LEED credits for vertical gardens are interrelated to that of the green roofs since they have the same course of action in designing for a healthier building using natural resources on the exterior of the structure. Disadvantages There are also a few disadvantages to vertical gardening; obviously you need enough light, whether artificial or natural. The siz e of plants you grow in a vertical garden might also be a problem, since the space and depth may be limited. Eliminating tall plants or those elevated on structures that will cast shadows, and placing shade tolerant plants near them will make sure nearby p lants get enough light. The difficulty when plants are grown vertically is that they are often exposed to more sun and wind, so they can dry out quickly, which leads to the need for more frequent watering and fertilizing. Fundamentally the success of a ver tical garden is related to a reliable strong structure and a good working irrigation system, which may lead to a higher initial cost depending on the quality of the materials. Case Studies A Grassy Green Showroom Springs up in Beijing China for the temporary Guanganmen G reen Technology Exhibit. The gorgeous green roofed structure was designed by Vector Architects and is situated in the central lawn of a residential project by CR Land. Vertical grass walls envelope its steel frame, maintaining heat efficiency and minimizin g rainwater runoff. Blanketed in greenery, the showroom will float as an extension of the public lawn, allowing pedestrian traffic to flow freely

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35 through it and learn about the new green technology at this time. The exhibit was designed to go up and down q uickly and with minimal impact. Set for deconstruction in 2011, the steel frames will be salvaged for future projects and the grass panels will be moved to a permanent home on an adjacent fence at the residence compound. The idea is to develop the concept rather like a piece of installation floating in the garden. The vertical grass wall and roof not only assist to reduce the heat gain/loss, also visually harmonize the temporary structure with the existing garden with so called (Kain 2008). Figure 2 10. Living Wall Modular (Source: ELT EASY GREEN 2009) For hundreds of years humans have recorded their impressions about their surroundings including our interactions with other people, species, and resources in these environments. These interactions, in turn, provide us with who we are and how study and explore the living and nonliving nat ural resources that surround us and to better understand the complexities of their interactions, to quantify their existence, and assure their viability; all while fostering a sense of responsibility and respect for all of those resources, is the best way to promote responsibility and respect in the development of environmental education in the context of providing a greater society. A hands on approach is needed and pr eferred over discussing the matter in the architects, but students, teachers and others all around the world.

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36 K 12 Green Roof and Green Wall Unit Plan and The Harley Schoo l (Rochester NY) Description and Photos; cited from: http://www.buildinggreentv.com/user/green living technologies llc/blog Licensed teacher George Irwin, aka "The Gree n Wall Editor" and CEO of Green Living Technologies has developed a 9 week unit plan that can be tailored for Kindergarten through college. The current class meets for 2 hours a week as the unit takes the students through the education and hands on approac h to green roofs and green walls. Complete with a 95 page teachers guide to complement the 75 page student handbook, rubrics and assessment materials, the unit was designed around the National Learning Standards and provides plenty of curriculum interactio n including math, science, social studies and writing. At the end of the unit the students have to prepare a persuasive argument complete with facts and research, present it to the group to decide what project their class will install for an additional 3 4 week hands on lab. The same presentation is graded by their peers using the provided rubric. The students will conduct an installation of a green roof or green wall and perform basic data collection or prepare an edible garden as part of the Urban Farming Food Chain. The pilot program goes into effect late March at the Harley School in Rochester NY; upon revisions the Unit Plan will be available to the public (Building Green 2009). Figure 2 11. Living Wall Modular (Source: ELT EASY GREEN 2009) Other exa mples and studies presented o n Living Structure found all around the world are shown in the appendix. Pervious Concrete Defining Pervious Concrete Standard concrete has been in use in various forms for as long time now, whether as a structural finish or as a bonding agent for block structures and is continuing to be

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37 rediscovered in new applications. On the other hand pervious concrete has only started to resurface and become one of the latest green innovations. Pervious concrete is definitely not new; throu gh research it was established that pervious concrete was first used in 1852. Although, now pervious concrete is enjoying its new popularity, to the point that pervious concrete pavement is one of the hottest topics in today's sustainable development tryin g to re invent ways it can be integrated. Pervious concrete pavement is definitely a unique and very effective means to address important environmental issues that support a green, sustainable growth. Pervious concrete pavement is primarily known to consis t of a mixture of Portland cement, pea gravel or smaller rock, which makes the material look a bit like a rice cake. Pervious concrete is so similar to conventional concrete but its main difference being manufactured without most or all of the sand in order to create the voids allowing water to percolate through the concrete. By capturing the storm water and allowing it to seep into the ground, porous concrete is becoming in strumental in recharging groundwater, reducing storm water runoff and meeting U.S. Environmental Protection Agency storm water regulations. This pavement technology sets out to create a more efficient land use by eliminating the need for retention ponds, a nd other storm water management devices. In doing so, pervious concrete has the ability to lower the overall project costs on a first cost basis, but not as intended as a finished product; it is intended to be implemented along with other designs as a "recipe" for sustainable concrete project, which can be generally made to

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38 concrete is u sually installed without rebar, but the thickness is minimum 6 inches for most applications, and can be uniquely coordinated for any project by adding color to the mix if desired ( Green Building R ating System will normally reward registered projects with points through the appropriate use of pervious concrete pavement if the intentions are for sustainable growth. Pervious concrete pavement is ideal and most frequently found used for parking areas, driveways, sidewalks, sports courts, storm water management uses, and roads not intended for heavy highway use. Historical Background Of Pervious Concrete earning excellent record s of durability and high performance. Still, the history of the material stretches even further back abroad in Europe immediately following the Second World War; substantial amounts are still intact today. Originally, 100 years ago in Europe it was used as structural insulation in buildings. Since the past 80 years, it has been used as a paving material in Europe ( Huffman 2005). Naples and Sarasota, Florida. The sandy soil conditions under the previous pavement made these locations ideally suited for its application. Multiple concrete cores and field evaluations were conducted on these sites throughout Florida to evaluate the per meability, infiltration rate and durability of the pervious concrete after years of service. The test results of the pavement sections showed that under actual field service conditions pervious concrete continued to demonstrate its ability to function as a stormwater system while also providing a

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39 structural pavement for traffic loadings (Florida Concrete & Products Association, Performance/ Implementation mix tru ck. It must be placed within an hour of mixing. It must be poured from the truck directly into the forms; it cannot be pumped due to its low water content and coarse texture. Once in place, it is leveled with a vibrating screed and then compacted with a sp ecial heavy steel roller. Although control joints are not necessary in many cases, they can easily be made with a flanged roller. The slab is covered with plastic sheeting as soon as it is completed, and it is allowed to cure under the sheeting for one wee k. Because of its texture, there is no finishing required or possible. If a smoother finish is desired, the material can be ground off with a standard pavement grinder ( Applications Pervious Concrete has continued to gain acceptance as a produ ct that is used to demand for Pervious Concrete is largest for parking and paving areas, it has also been used as a solution for the following circumstances: (City o A sound absorption pavement. An underlayment to relieve hydrostatic pressure under asphalt or impervious concrete paving. Light aircraft runways or tarmacs to make us e of its ability to prevent sloshing and enhance the grip of rubber tir es on pavements. A base for playgrounds where it is covered with shredded rubber tire mulch or other pervious soft materials. To reduce the need for retention and detention ponds, especially when used in conjunction with a sub base designed with void con taining soils and aggregates.

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40 Generally, soils that will support septic systems will also support Pervious Concrete. Benefits /Advantages In general, the initial costs for pervious concrete pavements are usually higher than those for impermeable concrete o r asphalt paving, but total costs can be advantages include: Water budget retention and pollution removal; less need for curbing and storm sewers; improved road safety beca use of better skid resistance; and permeable factor and a lower density due to voids, which means it, absorbs less heat and will cool more rapidly in hot environments earning more points with both the consumers and LEED. Lower installation costs According to the Center for Watershed Protection, installing traditional curbs, gutters, storm drain inlets, piping, and retention basins can cost two to three times more than low impact strategies for handling water runoff, such as pervious concrete. Projects that use pervious concrete typically don't need storm sewer ties ins, which eliminates the cost of installing underground piping and storm drains. Grading requirements fo r the pavement are also reduced because there is no need to slope the parking area to storm drains (Balogh 2001). Permits the use of existing sewer systems Pervious concrete may also reduce the need for municipalities to increase the size of existing stor m sewer systems to accommodate new residential and commercial developments. Cities love pervious concrete because it reduces the need to rebuild storm sewer systems when new developments Increased land utilization Becaus e a pervious concrete pavement doubles as a storm water management system, there is no need to purchase additional land for installing large retention ponds and other water retention and filtering

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41 systems. That means developers and property owners can use land more efficiently and maximize the return on their investment (Balogh 2001). Lower life cycle costs Pervious concrete is a sustainable paving material, with a life expectancy equal to that of regular concrete. Most parking areas, when properly constru cted, will last 20 to 40 years, according to the Southern California Ready Mixed Concrete Association (Balogh 2001). Example: Benefit of using pervious concrete In early 2005, the designers of a light industrial facility project for a wood structural build ing component manufacturer in Westminster, Maryland, had an approximately 5 ha (l2 acre) site, which included a 3.2 ha (8 acre) parking lot. Through the specification of pervious concrete for the entire lot, the 0.6 ha (1.5 acre) retention pond and undergr ound drainage system were eliminated from the original design plans (which called for an asphalt parking lot), allowing the team to recover about 13 percent of the site. This move saved $400,000 in underground drainage construction costs alone (Huffman 200 5). The Leadership In Energy And Environmental Design Credit Impacts choice for sustainability. Sustainability is defined by meeting present needs without compromising the abili ty of future generations to meet their own needs ( NRMCA 2009). The U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) system gives credit to the effective use of pervious concrete in: Sustainable Sites (SS) Prerequisite 1, Erosion and Sedimentation Control. Sustainable Sites (SS) Credit 6, Stormwater Management. Due to its potential to be used for slope protection, Sustainable Sites (SS) Credit 7, Heat Island Effect Concrete has much higher albedo, which contributes to its ability to earn points within LEED relative to heat island mitigation

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42 Disadvantages weather problems, lack of Some s ituations where pervious concrete should not be used are percent because they present special problems for pervious pavement. Any site that is at risk of siltation from adjacent areas would be a poor choice for pervious concrete unless sp ecial measures are taken to protect the pavement ( Case Study Patent application title: LIGHTWEIGHT DRAINABLE CELLULAR CONCRETE Formulations for a lightweight, pervious, pumpable cellular concrete and methods for making the cellular concrete ar e provided. The cellular concrete has an internal structure comprising a network of interconnected capillaries, resulting in a cellular concrete with a permeability K value of about 1 to about 110 5 a density range of between about 10 to about 100 pounds per cubic foot, with a compressive strength of between about 10 to about 1000 psi (Masloff and Palladino 2007). Read more: http://www.faqs.org/patents/app/20090071376#ixzz0V4zgKFN J Methodology Summary O f A ims This study set out to understand and identify: The benefits that green roofs/vertical gardens and pervious concrete offer. The importance of green roofs and pervious concrete in effectively improving the quality of environmen tal issues. The incentives to encourage integration of green systems to influence greater sustainability Several primary means of evaluating these aspects will be used: a literature review, a mock up model and analyses

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43 Literature R eview It is not the int ention to knowingly repeat research, but data has been collected through reviews on green systems, and how they affect the environment while studying their advantages and disadvantages to provide a more sustainable outcome. The aim of the Literature Review was to establish the existing state of knowledge of green roofs, and pervious concrete while focusing on their trends, and built examples, particularly in the form of understanding their concepts in the sustainable environment. Notable examples of green r oofs and pervious concrete have been identified throughout Europe and North America. So the intended goal is to identify and establish if there is a growing number of interested public, organizations, and academia in support of innovative green systems. La b R esults Various components of green systems are used in construction projects but we will focus on green roofs and pervious concrete. They impact the environment economically and physically throughout time. So while focusing on the basic construction met hods and factors for designing these green systems, the primary focal point will be put on the integration of these green systems. Through this process water will be able to percolate through the layers like a normal green roof, to reshape its layers towar ds a more sustainable outcome. Some research has been conducted in this area but most of them are focused on individual methods. No special research work on integrated green methods within these boundaries has been found during the preliminary literature r eview. The objectives of this study are: Determine if pervious concrete can create the drainage layer of the green roof system that could reduce the roof membrane layers and also extend their life cycle.

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44 Determine if integration of these green systems will produce a more sustainable outcome. innovative method of composing the layers of a green roofed building. It may help to reveal some of the current problems encountered with green roofs. As well as, identify a variety of unusual techniques that may introduce a more sustainable method. Information on each example would be gathered from lab experiments, books, periodical articles and the internet where available.

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45 CHAPTER 3 RESULTS The criteria chosen to look at in considering a Green Roof integrating with Pervious Concrete as an alternative are A.) Initial capital cost, B.) Life cycle cost, C.) Stormwater management and D.) Environmental performance (LEED). Costs There are numerous costs associated with acquiring, operating, maintaining, and disposing of a building or building system. Building related costs usually fall into the following categories: Initial Costs Purchase, Acquisition, Construction Costs Fuel Costs Operation, Maint enance, and Repair Costs Replacement Costs Residual Values Resale or Salvage Values or Disposal Costs Finance Charges Loan Interest Payments Non Monetary Benefits or Costs Initial Costs Initial costs may include capital investment costs for land acquisiti on, construction, or renovation and for the equipment needed to operate a facility. Initial Costs in some situations may be the most important criteria due to limited funds for a particular project. So in many cases the initial costs play a major role in d eciding what material can be used and how much can be used toward a specific area. Life Cycle Costs Life cycle costs usually follow equations that will help in determining the value of a certain material either for future or past worth. Such as by using fi rst costs, operation and maintenance, repair, replacement and salvage costs. Example: PV LCC A = PVI A + PVE A + PVM A + PVR A PVS A

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46 Operation, maintenance, and repair c osts Non fuel operating costs, and maintenance and repair (OM&R) costs are often more diff icult to estimate than other building expenditures. Operating schedules and standards of maintenance vary from building to building; there is great variation in these costs even for buildings of the same type and age. Replacement c osts The number and timi ng of capital replacements of building systems depend on the estimated life of the system and the length of the study period. This is done by using the same sources that provide cost estimates for initial investments to obtain estimates of replacement cost s and expected useful lives. Stormwater Management Stormwater management is seen as an ongoing concern when developing building systems. The more land that is developed the more stormwater runoff becomes a greater concern within the environment. So there have been multiple methods designed to control stormwater problems some directly linked to the roof structure itself and others that connect to the interior/exterior of the building. Stormwater programs are made up of the following components: administr ation and financial management operations and maintenance regulation and enforcement engineering and planning capital investment water quality public involvement and education technology For advanced stormwater programs the three biggest cost items tend to be operations and maintenance, capital investment, and water quality. The cost of

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47 managing stormwater can be quantified in terms of cost per developed acre per year. It is indicated that there is a wide range of potential cost, from about $1.50 per person per year to about $8.00. However, the costs can go much higher depending on what components are considered part of the program. Annual Cost = $1,525 + population/2.62 $8.93 Environme ntal Performance Environmental performances of roofs today have come a long way from the traditional roofs that provided protection from Mother Nature herself. Today the people are trying to protect Mother Nature from the harmful effects some of the materi als are causing to the overall planet. By developing new roof systems a lot of benefits are starting to come about, but some roofing systems are simply better than others and in the end usually cost more. So one needs to decide where the fine line needs t o be drawn between quality and cost when looking at alternatives, and if one is truly better than the other. High Performance Roofing (HPR) systems and powerful economic factors can satisfy traditional performance criteria such as: Installed cost, perfo rmance and longevity as well as newer criteria such as life cycle costs, energy efficiency, and preservation of the environment. The Department of Energy (DOE) has established a High Performance Building initiative that focuses on promoting energy effic iency nationwide. The DOE defines the benefits and objectives of High Energy consumption reductions of 50 percent or more Reduced maintenance and capital costs Reduced environmental impact Increased occupant comfort and health

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48 Increased employee productivity And, contrary to some popular myths, high performance roof systems that are sustainable do not necessarily involve additional costs. In fact, an essential decisive factor of High Performance Ro ofing systems is that they reduce life cycle costs (LCC) significantly without substantial tradeoffs in performance or longevity. The Leadership In Energy And Environmental Design Credits Roofing LEED NC CREDITS (Based on LEED NC Version 3) Possible Poi nts Sustainable Sites Heat Island Effect: Roof (credit 7.2): Use roofing materials on at least 75% of the roof area that have a Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) of at least 78 for a roof with a slope less than or equal to 2:12 (low sloped) or an SRI of 29 fo r a roof with a slope greater than 2:12 (steep sloped). 1 point Energy And Atmosphere Minimum Energy Performance (prerequisite 2): Establish a minimum level of building energy performance to exceed ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1 2007 by 10% for new constructi on or 5% for major renovations to existing buildings. REQ Optimize Energy Performance (credit 1): Achieve increasing levels of building energy performance above required minimum performance standards. 1 9 points Materials And Resources Recycled Content (cr edit 4): Use materials with recycled content such that the sum of post consumer recycled content plus one half of the pre consumer content constitutes at least 10% or 20% (based on cost) of the total value of the materials in the project. 1 2 points Region al Materials (credit 5): Use building materials or products that have been extracted, harvested or recovered, as well as manufactured, within 500 miles of the project site for a minimum of 10% or 20% (based on cost) of the total materials value. 1 2 points Indoor Environmental Quality Thermal Comfort (credit 7.1): Design HVAC system and building envelope to comply with the requirements of ASHRAE Standard 55 2004, Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy. 1 point

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49 Green Roof Study Figure 3 1. Extensive green roof quality model. Table 3 1. Extensive green roof scoring matrix Criteria: A B C D Totals A GR Alt. total A. Initial Capital Cost 1 2 1 4 5 20 B. Life Cycle Cost 0 1 0 1 4 4 C. Storm Water Manag ement 0 0 0 1 3 3 D. Environ me ntal Performance 1 1 2 4 5 20 Score 47 Example: The life cycle cost of the following roofing alternatives of green roof in a given 50 years study period and a 6% discount rate: For 20 Squares (1 Square = 100SF) Table 3 2. Life Cycle Cost Item First cost [$] O + M [$ / yr] Repair [$|in year] Salvage [$] Low End GR 38,000 25 38,000 / 35 years 0 Average GR 5 5,000 33 55,000 / 35 years 0 High End GR 72,000 40 72,000 / 35 years 0 Extensive Green Roof

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50 Example: PV LCC A = PVI A + PVE A + PVM A + PVR A + PVS A Alt. A Low End Green Roof Cost: PV LCC L = PVI L + UPV L 50 + PVR = = 38,000 + 25 + = = 38,000 + 25 (15.762) + 4,94 4 = $ 43,338 Alt. B Average Green Roof Cost: PV LCC AVG = PVI AVG + UPV AVG 50 + PVR = = 55,000 + 33 + = =55,000 + 33 (15.762) + 7,156 = $ 62,676 Alt. C High End Green Roof Cost: PV LCC H = PVI H + UPV H 50 + PVR = = 72,000 + 40 + = = 72,000 + 40 (15.762) + 9,368 = $ 81,998 Already one of the more environmentally friendly materials, concrete can be used on a wide variety of projects. Although the initial cost of pervious installation may be slightly higher, concrete saves money in the long run due to its greater durability and strength. It requires fewer repairs than asphalt, and has a longer overall lifespan as well. Some other advantages to concrete are that the elements used to create concrete are abundant all over the world, it usually does not off gas anything harmful, and its production is not as energy intensive as other materials since you do not have to change the entire composition of the ready material. Although many still think it can be m is very economical in that it minimizes the need for runoff managing, reducing property fees and costs. There is also very little overproduction since it is made directly on site and as needed, and it can be recycled once it has reached the end of its life cycle. Thus, pervious concrete is widely recognized as the low life cycle cost option available

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51 for projects. So many developers are designing recipes with the idea to r educe its Pervious Concrete Study Figure 3 2. Pervious concrete quality model Table 3 3 Pervious concrete scoring matrix Criteria: A B C D Totals A GR Alt. total A. Initial Capital Cos t 2 2 2 6 3 18 B. Life Cycle Cost 0 1 1 2 5 10 C. Storm Water Management 0 1 1 2 5 10 D. Environmental Performance 0 1 1 2 5 10 Score 48 Advantage(s) being that th ere are three practicable alternates for sand and gravel: crushed concrete, foundry slag Pervious Concrete

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52 Disadvantage(s) being that all of these substitutes have a downside: Concrete made with alternates a re not as strong as with the standard sand and gravel And usually requires additional reinforcement. Crushed C oncrete additional benefit from using crushed concrete aggregate sin ce it will weigh close or the same as standard concrete. Foundry Slag (a.k.a. Industrial Lava R ock) Advantages Slag is very porous Lightweight Disadvantage(s) Weaker lass Another lightweight porous material is formed during smelting of recycled glass. Advantage(s) It is fibrous and Spongy Disadvantage(s) Little compressive strength Usually, only a small part of normal aggregate is r eplaced with a slag alternate in a standard concrete mix design; however when working with a pervious design, it is possible to replace all of the aggregate provided that the bonding component of the

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53 concrete is higher performance rated, and has a water/ce ment ratio below 30%, so when made with 100% of the slag alternate aggregate concrete could be about 30% lighter than the standard mix design. The Design Process Throughout this study of exploring the alternatives to the systems that make up a green roof s tructure, many outcomes could have been tried, but due to limits and constraints of product and material availability only one method is being tested. That method is using an alternate of pervious concrete as the overall drainage structure of the green roo f. This method uses a slag aggregate vs. normal gravel and keeps the water/cement ratio low to compensate for the voids needed so the strength does not become a problem. Products incorporated within the integrated design are listed as their intended use b elow in the comparison diagram of a basic green roof and a green roof with pervious concrete design. Take note that weight(s) associated in the diagram are approximated, due to the lack of sufficient testing equipment available. Summary Of Results This moc k up model which is approximately 4 SF. in area and around 8 to 9 inches in total depth which averages around $45 to $50 due to its small scale; but only 5 to 6 inches being the pervious concrete drainage layer up to the growing medium and plants. Material s would be cheaper if bought in bulk causing a larger square foot area to possibly average less then this 4 square foot area. Extensive green roofs usually cost around $8 to $20 per SF, so this mock up model definitely falls within the cost of an average g reen roof, but with a more sustainable design. All the materials used in this

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54 that the integration of these two green systems definitely can work together with pervious con crete as its drainage layer in a green roof system to produce a more sustainable outcome. This could reduce the layers needed for an ordinary green roof and possibly extend the life cycle due to the materials used already have a longer life span than the p lastics other elements are designed with. By creating this model without all the expensive, latest tools shows that it can be easier to develop a green roof anywhere, and can also be done by the average developer without any extra training to provide a sus tainable design all over the world. Based on research this design could be used in retrofitting older roofs, as long as, the support is there and no extra beams are needed, otherwise the cost would rise to supply support for the additional weight. The pri mary interest in developing this design was for new commercial construction, so that there could be more sustainable methods that could be easily applied to areas like office building, schools, and even more sky scrapers. If more buildings could use this p rocess then we could definitely start seeing a difference in the amount of energy needed to run the building and a difference in the ozone depletion that has been on a rise due to the increase in CO2 produced. By having more vegetation to absorb the CO2 mo re oxygen could be produced to provide a healthier atmosphere. Also by making the installation of this design easier to produce by developers, in the future this could be a mandatory feature introduced into the building world. Integration Of Green Designs Sustainability's influence of development decisions is growing rapidly. More and more money is ending up in sustainable development. Sustainability drives LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design). LEED is a set of green building

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55 specifications being adopted by growing numbers of governments and other large developers. environmental, a developing area is severely impacted by the increase in impervious surface areas from roofs, roads and parking areas. These structures and storm sewers increase the total volume of ru noff and increase peak stream flows that leads to an imbalance in the natural ecosystem and leads to a host of problems including downstream flooding, Green roofs can already be designed in conjunction with solar panels and work very well in combination with other 'low impact' actions, such as rain gardens, bio retention systems, cisterns and rain barrels. Another material which could provide promising characteristics is pervious concrete durability and low life cycle costs of a typical concrete pavement while retaining storm pervious pavement assists the process by capturing rainwater in a network of voids and allowing it to percolate into capture of rainfall within the green roof, return it to the ground after filtration or be re used for irrigation, toilet flushing, etc.

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56 Figure 3 3. Green roof comparison study.

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57 Table 3 4 Detail Product Descriptions used in the mock up model are as follows Product name Product Description Average Cost Locality Gainesville, Fl. NDS Sediment Shield Helps prevent clogging due to sediment $45 $60 DuPont Landscape Plus weed defense fabric Landscape fabric designed for annual plantings Easy to inst all Helps control weeds Weed control, permeability, durability $20 $30 QUIKRETE 10 lb. Hydraulic Water Stop Concrete Repair Blocks running water or leaks in cracked masonry or concrete surfaces Can be used on swimming pools, foundations, and for sealing around concrete pipe Use for above and below grade applications High Strength $9 $15 0.5 Cu. Ft. Red Lava Rock Conserves soil moisture and reduces watering Serves as natural insulation Deters new growth of weeds Forms a protec tive barrier around trees and shrubs $3 $4 Scotts 1.5 Cu. Ft. Turf Builder Lawn Soil Great for sod and grass plugs For lawn repair or over seeding Starter Fertilizer already mixed in Grows Grass up to 50% thicker $5 $6 Centipede grass plugs Plugs used as Fillers or for Small areas, use Sod or seed to for large areas $1 $3 QUIKRETE 80 Lb. Pro Finish 5000 Concrete Mix Superior finishing characteristics and workability Used for building sidewalks, patios, steps and drivewa ys Sets up in 10 12 hours Gets stronger faster, reaches 5000 psi $5 $6

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58 Table 3 4. Continued. Product name Product Description Average Cost Locality Gainesville, Fl. 3' White Vinyl Gutter Guard Not used as a gutter guard in this project, b ut as an additional drainage plate to keep sediment from passing through $1 $3 Mister Landscaper Patio and Potted Plant Easy Watering Kit Each adjustable dripper stakes waters from a drip up to a 10gph small stream spray and has a shut off featu re $20 $25 Figure 3 4. This picture shows the impervious concrete layer, usually the deck of the roof, which has a waterproofing membrane added to protect the su rface from any water or moisture that does happen to seep under the vapor barrier.

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59 Figure 3 5. This picture shows the vapor foam barrier being added to the top of the impervious concrete layer. This is used to keep any water or as much of the moisture f rom leaking through to the impervious surface. Figure 3 6. This picture shows the pervious concrete layer that is used as the primary drainage element. The pervious concrete will allow the excess water not absorbed into the vegetation to drain out while eliminating the extra impurities so the water that does come out can be used to re water the plants above. Figure 3 7. This picture shows the section from impervious to pervious concrete as the layers progress upward. Figure 3 8. This picture shows the additional drainage plate inserted to create an improved directionality for the water to drain as is passes through the previous layers either through the pipes or pervious drainage layer below.

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60 Figure 3 9. This picture shows the sediment barrier b eing placed on top of an additional drainage plate to catch the smaller particles that would normally pass through and possibly contaminate the layers below. Figure 3 10. This picture shows the pipe lying on top of the sediments barrier in order to prev ent any growing medium from passing through. Figure 3 11. This picture shows the advanced weed defense fabric used to prevent roots from penetrating into the drainage layer and obstructing the voids from allowing water to percolate.

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61 Figure 3 12. Thi s picture shows the ends of the pipes used for extra drainage being covered with a sediment barrier in order to prevent the growing medium from flowing away from the site. Figure 3 13. This picture simply shows the growing medium starting to cover the pipe that is intended for extra drainage measures when copiousness amounts of rain encounter the area. Figure 3 14. These pictures show the progression of layers adding the growing medium to the top. This soil layer helps support the vegetation in our g reen roof system and will only be from two to three inches. Having plants with short but fibrous roots allows for more water to be retained and hold the soil in place.

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62 Figure 3 15. This picture shows the progression of layers adding the grass or even plants to the top. This is not only is a great way to provide a more aesthetic looking roof that does not generally increase the cost of the roof system but also serves a main purpose of reducing the heat island effect and control storm water runoff. Figure 3 16. up model with pervious concrete as its drainage layer. This mock up model is placed with a drip irrigation system to show ease of watering a small area or larger area. This irr igation can also be used in conjunction with recycled water caught in a cistern.

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63 By taking a concrete roof and making the top impermeable, will help to protect the underlyi ng structure of the building. Then using pervious concrete to create the drainage layer of the green roof and providing a filter membrane for sedimentation control will not only reduce the rest of the roof membrane layers but also out last their life cycle Finally the soil and plants will rest on top providing an aesthetically pleasing view. Through this process water will be able to percolate through the layers like a normal green roof, but by reshaping its layers to produce a more sustainable outcome. En vironmental/ Economic Benefits Water The need to reduce water consumption is becoming critical, especially in the United States, since the water deficit is currently estimated at about 3,700 billion gallons more than the return to the natural water syste m that would primarily recharge aquifers and other water sources. Designing water efficient landscapes to decrease irrigation by 50%, helps to conserve the regional potable water resources, as well as, eliminate the need to abuse the potable water. Therefo re maintaining the natural aquifer conditions, and providing reliable water sources for future generations. Another benefit of clean water conservation is using less energy use at water treatment plants. Strategies like these will help protect the natural water cycle and save water resources for future generations. Many of the water conservation strategies involve either no added costs or swift paybacks; therefore showing that water efficiency is proving to be a valuable impact, at this time, on the ecosyst em.

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64 Energy emissions associated with the production of that energy, resulting in positive effects on climate change and the environment as well as in cost (Liu and Baskaran 2005, p Cost The production of pervious concrete with green roofs may have higher initial costs, but the overall cost should be lower since most of the various membrane layers needed to control roots, sediment, and moisture will not be needed if more sustai nable materials can take their place.

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65 CHAPTER 4 CONCLUSION While exploring the various components of the se green systems, it was established that many factors can affect the outcome of any construction project. We are in an age where gardens are getting smaller, especially in towns and in cities; surely it makes sense to use vertical surfaces as well as horizontal. The secret to the pervious concrete green roof design is in understanding the complexity and interaction of the various layers within the syst em, and by understanding these concepts maintenance then should be minimal if designed properly. While investigating methods to construct a pervious green roof a few questions should be taken into consideration such as: What factors affect the environmenta l severity regarding the depth, growth, availability or irrigation and nutrients?, What is the intended function of the pervious concrete green roof?, and What are the most efficient means for acquiring the proper materials and vegetation for a particular project? So through extensive research, considerable information was found that pervious concrete green roofs can act as practical solutions to addressing environmental issues such as: storm water runoff, the urban heat island effect, deterioration of air and water quality, and loss of habitat and biodiv ersity facing urban centers. With the integration of a pervious concrete green roof there could be a greater sustainability influence of development in the construction industry. Essentially the i ntegration with green designs already established could ultimately start producing building as well as helps improve the environment by bringing nature back into ay lives again, therefore becoming the ultimate in sustainable design. A crucial proposition as our world enters into a new era of scientific and technical

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66 achievement is that the need for understanding the fundamentals in those environments where we live, work, and play becomes much more critical. This study and research has primarily been prepared to provide a step in the right and use. This study should not be used as a n established cause for design, but intended to further other studies heading in a direction of green integrations, which could work hand in hand in changing for a more sustainable result. But to be able to establish a result that may work in numerous regi ons one needs to focus on using simulation tools to reach a broader understanding and more precise answers.

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67 CHAPTER 5 RECOMMENDATIONS Just as technology has changed the world, and almost every aspect of modern society, including scientific research, educ ation, and scholarship s in general, there is a promise to continue this evolutionary process that was created by humans and the world of information. With a growing set of needs and opportunities in mind, following some initial explorations by rapidly deve loping technologies which may become the standard interface to the informational world, could profoundly change the way humans interact with information constructs and with each other. The developments of computer simulation models capable of analyzing gr een studies have proven to be an essential need. This modeling capability enables one to fully evaluate different alternative design and control strategies in determining a system solution to environmental impacts. These designs can be simulated, refined, and expanded to incorporate various geometric and control modifications in developing a desired design/control strategy. In using simulated models, it could reveal results that would have gone unnoticed using traditional analysis techniques. In addition it could support cost savings by eliminating the design and construction of a proposed idea that may eventually fail. This does not even begin to account for the tangible savings of lost time for contractors that would have to change designs mid way throug h the project due to faulty designs or unforeseen conditions. The simulation tools are also vital in exploring new techniques and systems that could prepare for the future. Techniques and software development technology has allowed new levels of performan ce, new levels of integration and ease of use. For

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68 example; porous pavement is an alternative to impermeable pavement. It allows stormwater to drain through the pavement and infiltrate into the soils. The benefits of using porous pavement include reduction in peak flows and volumes of runoff, removal of pollutants from stormwater, reduction in soil erosion, and others. The reason to study pervious concrete is to address some concerns on porous pavement and to make further improvements. Simulations can atte mpt to optimize the proportioning of pavement materials and to use fibers from recycled materials to improve its strength. In addition, waste or recycled materials could be tested for their potential use as base materials. Simulations could also try to loo k for ways to modify the pavement surface color, sequentially to improve its solar reflectance index when it is insight. Simulations are anticipated to make porous pavement more affordable and environmentally friendly. In addition of simulation tools to op timize the uses and capability of pervious concrete, possibly proposing load testing for both new construction and retrofitting will help in the initial designs for pervious concrete, which then could be considered in making a precast panel(s) that could b e used for new higher elevated construction and the best result for retrofitting, so that the existing structure would not risk harm to the interior or exterior building envelopes in the process of implementing the new sustainable designs. Some o ther infor mation technology that can be beneficial are green globes, energy audits, and the easy to use design tool the Green Roof Energy Calculator which assesses the buildings energy use implications of green roof design decisions. The calculator will be based o n output from numerous, detailed building energy simulations. This project will have two key outcomes. First, it will develop refined green roof energy models for use by the building energy modeling community. Second, it will create a stand alone Green Roo f

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69 Energy Calculator integrated with an existing; web enabled life cycle assessment framework developed for the industry association Green Roofs for Healthy Cities. The release of a quantitative, user friendly green roof energy modeling tool for use by non energy experts will break down barriers to market penetration and efficient design of green roof technologies. The result also has potential to inform technical advisory groups at USGBC with respect to LEED credits for implementation of green roofs. http://www.usgbc.org/ShowFile.aspx?DocumentID=4698 Example: The preliminary short living wall provides similar results under the same environmental variables painted black (behind the living wall) to match the EPDM rubber membrane. Figure 5 1. Preliminary Temperature Comparison Test Results Courtesy George Irwin The prelim inary testing shows an average surface temperature difference of 75 F (41.7 C) between the exposed rubber roof and the protected green living wall. This observation supports more advanced research. With more detailed testing and longer trials comparing 3 ", 4" and 6" rooting depths, I feel confident that the findings will show even better data as a direct result of evapotranspiration and shading. http://www.greenroofs.com/content/green_wall s003.htm

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70 Overall exploring the potential use of computer simulation and information technology in green designs proves to be rather beneficial due to many circumstances that need the constant data recorded in order to gather results in the first place. Si mulations also help in comparing alternative design strategies and selecting the appropriate model for a specific project. Thus, it is providing a more affordable and environmentally friendly proposal from the start.

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71 APPENDIX A EDUCATIONAL GREEN RO OF STRUC TURES Green Roof Studies UF Perry Construction Yard Green Roof Figure A 1. Top View of Perry Yard Firgure A 2. Elevation View Type of Building: Educational Location: Gainesville, Florida Green Roof Size: 2,600 square feet Type of Roof: Extensive Media Depth: 5 inches Public Access: No (visible from ground and from adjacent building) Water Harvesting: 3,100 gal. via (2) 1,550 gal. above ground cisterns Backup Water Supply: Reclaimed water Irrigation: Drip

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72 Overview The green roo f for the Charles R. Perry Construction Yard is an interdisciplinary research project to demonstrate the benefits of sustainable design through eco roofs. Rainwater runoff from the green roof will be monitored to quantify the differences in runoff between a conventional roof and a green roof. In a green roof, rainfall must travel through a soil like roof media where part of the water is absorbed and is eventually released back into the atmosphere through evaporation and transpired through the plants. Rai nfall that passes through the media and off the roof is captured by two 1,550 gallon cisterns that temporarily store the water to be used later for irrigation on the roof. Additional benefits include improved air quality, insulation, aesthetics, wildlife diversity and decreased heat island effect. Plants Used Blanketflower ( Galliardia pulchella Blazing Star ( Liatris spicata ) Blue Eyed Grass ( Sisyrinchium atlanticum ) Coreopsis (Coreopsis grandif lora) Dune Sunflower ( Helianthus debilis ) Gopher Apple (Licania michauxii) Matchstick Weed/Capeweed (Phyla nodiflora) Muhly Grass ( Muhlenbergia capillaris ) Perennial Peanut (Arachis glabrata) Tropical Sage ( ) Other Credits Building Owner: University of Florida/M.E. Rinker, Sr. School of Building Construction Building Designers: Gould Evans Architects Contractor: PPI (General Contractor), Resource Recovery, Inc. (Pump & Cistern s), Gainesville Landscape Contractors (Landscape & Irrigation) Green Roof Designers: Glenn Acomb (University of Florida), Sylvia Lang (University of Florida) Mark Clark (University of Florida), American Hydrotech, Inc. Product Suppliers: American Hydrot ech, Inc. Rain Bird

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73 Additional Funding Provided by: Florida Department of Transportation Kimley Horn and Associates, Inc. Florida Chapter of the American Society of Landscape Architects Other Images Figure A 3. Pictures o f Plants used on the green roof Figure A 4. Digital Elevation of proposed idea. Figure A 5. Section cut of proposed roof

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74 Figure A 6. Photo of cisterns on site CONTACT: Glenn Acomb, ASLA Department of Landscape Architecture Colle ge of Design, Construction and Planning Tel: 352.392.6098 x 315 ( acomb@ufl.edu )

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75 Wildlands Conservancy Figure A 7. Left Top view of Conservancy. Right Elevation view of site Type of Building: Educational Location: Emmais. Pennsylvania Green Roof Size: 3,000 square feet Type of Roof: Extensive Public Access: Accessible, Public Overview Wildlands Conservancy's Land Conservation and Planning Program is committed to protecting and enhancing both the quality of the environment and life though a rational, holistic, and integrated approach to land conservation, planning and stewardship, and municipal and public outreach and education. Services provided include the following: Education about and assistanc e to landowners with conservation easements and farmland preservation Assistance with the environmental related updates of municipal comprehensive, open space, park, and recreational plans, Promotion, establishment, and participation in environmental advisory councils (EACs), Education about and the development of conservation development designs, Education about and promotion of native plants Plants Used

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76 Wildlands Conservancy is dedicated to educating and promoting the environmental benefits of native plants Figure A 8. Sedum Other Cre dits Building Owner: non profit, member supported organization Building Designers: community Contractor: Installer: Thomco Green Roof Designers: Roofscapes, Hydrotech Product Suppliers: Plant Supplier: Emory Knoll Farms, Soil Supplier: Satalite Other Images Figure A 9. Left and Right Shows Views of the green roof layout. CO NTACT: Wildlands Conservancy Director of Land Conservation and Planning Debra Lermitte (610) 965 4397 ext.11

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77 Putney School Perform ing Arts Center Figure A 10. Left and Right shows views the green roof installed Type of Building: Educational Location: Putney, VT Green Roof Size: 5,830 square feet Type of Roof: Extensive Roof Slope: 8% Public Access: Inac cessible, Private Overview The Putney School is an independent, co educational boarding and day school for grades 9 12. The Putney School has never made a distinction between learning that takes place in the classroom and learning that takes place outside of the classroom. The school's educational program has emphasized the value of labor, art, community, and scholarship for individual growth since its founding. The commitment to environmental sustainability is realized in all phases of our educational pr ogram. In keeping with the school's objectives, the building is designed to be environmentally attuned and the school is hoping it will receive a LEED rating from the U.S. Green Building Council with its green roof providing for insulation and ecological r unoff

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78 management This project also provided the subject matter for a course in which students traced the origins of all the materials used in the construction. Plants Used Sod Other Credits Building Owner: The Putney School Building Designers: Archi tect: Charles Rose Architects, Inc., Richmond So Engineers Inc. Contractor: DEW Construction Corp. Green Roof Designers: American Hydrotech, Sarnafil roofing system Product Suppliers: Plant Supplier: Green Roof Plants/Emory Knoll Farms, American Hydrote ch, Inc. Other Images Figure A 11. Digital model of the proposed design layout for the structure. CONTACT: Charles Rose Architects Inc. 115 Willow Ave. Somerville, MA 02144 Tel: 617 628 5033 Fax: 617 628 7033 www.charlesrosearchitects.com Judy Sheridan jsheridan@putneyschool.org Brian Morgan (Director) The Putney School (VT)

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79 Wayne Community C ollege Figure A 12. Left shows a close up of plants after installation. Right shows how the plots were set up with different types of vegetation. Type of Building: Educational Location: Goldsboro, NC Green Roof Size: 1100 square feet Type of Roof: Extensive, Test/Research Roof Slope: 1.5% Public Access: Accessible, Public Overview Wayne community college is conducting research to study stormwater retention for flood peak mitigation, water quality, soil depth, and plant survival for the greenroofs. The data retrieved from each gre enroof site includes flow data so we may show the retention time for stormwater on the greenroof when compared to an average rooftop. They are also analyzing the stormwater for nitrogen and phosphorus loadings to determine water quality benefits of greenro ofs for atmospheric deposition. Plants Used:

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80 Figure A 13. A Variety of 10 combined species are planted on the Wayne Community College Greenroof. Some include the Left Delospmera nubigenum, Center Sedum reflexum, Right Sedum sexangulare. De lsoperma nubigemum Sedum album murale Delosperma Blossoms, Summer Blossoms Figure A 14. Pictures of plants within the green roof design Other Credits Contractor: North Carolina State University Green Roof Designers: American Hydrotech, Inc. Product Suppliers: Plant Supplier: Green Roof Plants, Growing Media: Carolina Stalite, American Hydrotech, Inc. CONTAC T: Bill Hunt NC Cooperative Extension Services Phone: 919 515 6751 Email: wfhunt@eos.ncsu.edu

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81 Harvard Graduate Student Housing (29 Garden Street) Figure A 15. A beautiful wooden walkway divides this green roof, predominantly composed of Sedum album and Sedum sexangulare Type of Building: Educational Location: Cambridge, MA Green Roof Size: 5,000 square feet Type of Roof: Extensive Roof Slope: 1.5% Media Depth: 6 8 inches Public Access: Accessible, Private Ove rview The intention was to create a garden with a varied and changing two dimensional composition given the considerable constraint of a limited soil loading capacity. A patterned ground plane was created to comprise of two cohorts of extensive vegetation, alternating in bands of greens and reds for most of the growing season. A wide variety of sedum species were carefully chosen for their hardiness in extensive planting systems as well as their ability to create year round interest. Paths of wood decking a nd concrete unit pavers cut through the vegetation beds and allow for areas of strolling and seating along the way. Intensive planters support Arnold Promise Witch hazels and

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82 Junipers for screening purposes where the garage structure can accommodate the ad ded load needed for the three foot soil depth. Plants Used Figure A 16. Sedum album, Sedum sexangulare Other Credits Building Owner: The President and Fellows of Harvard College Building Designers: Jonathan Levi Architects, Bergmeyer Associates (Associate Architect), Richard Burck Associates (Landscape Architect) Contractor: Bond Brothers, Chapman Waterproofing, Foye & Letendre Landscaping Green Roof Designers: Hydrotech Applicators, Valley Crest Product Suppliers: American Hydrotech, Inc., Gree n Roof Plants/Emory Knoll Farms Other Images Figure A 17. Left and Right show different vie ws of the overall layout of a secondary level green roof. CONTACT: Richard Burck Associates, Inc. 7 Davis Square Somerville, MA 02144 Phone +1 617 623 2300 Fax +1 617 623 2322 office (at) richardburck.com www.richardburck.com

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83 APPENDIX B EXAMPLES OF LIVING S TRUCTURES FOUND ALL AROUND THE WORLD Description and Photos; cited from : http://amazingdata.com/15 living walls vertical gardens sky farms/ ACROS Fukuoka Prefectural International Hall, Japan Figure B 1. Japan Vertical Garden The 100,000 square foot rooftop at the ACROS Fukuoka building is definitely one of a kind. The 18 story building features 15 stepped terraces that can actually be climbed to the top. The terraces are meant to promote a se rene and peaceful environment in the middle of the city with lots green plants and even waterfalls and small pools to add to the calming effect of

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84 SkyFarm, Toronto, Canada Figure B 2. Canada vertical garden Figure B 3. Section Cut of vertical garden A new vertical farm in the downtown area of Toronto, called Sky Farm, could help to feed 35,000 area residents each year. The advantage of the Sky Farm is that the proposed building would only require about 1.32 hectares of land for the 58 story building to sit on. However, it will have about 8 million square feet of growing space for crops, bringing in the same amount of produce as a 420 hectar farm. The 714 foot structure would bring in an estimated $23 million of revenue each year Residence Antilia, Mumbai, India Figure B 4. India vertical garden

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85 This new eco building was scheduled to be completed by the end of 2008, and upon its completion will hold the world record for the largest and tallest living wall not just in India, but on the planet. This 200 meter tall building, called Residence Antilia, will feature vertical gardens all the way up its exterior walls. Costing, $1 billion, the revolutionary design will make it not aper, but also one of the most unique and beautiful structures in the world. Sky Farm, Las Vegas Figure B 5. Las Vegas vertical garden Figure B 6. Interior View of garden A proposed $200 million sky farm in the city of Las Vegas would be the story vertical farm. This building would have 30 floors of indoor farm land, and it is estimated that a vertical farm such as this one could produce enough food to feed 72,000 people per year. This proposed vertical sky farm would grow approximately 100 different crops, and would bring in an estimated $40 million in annual revenue via produce sales and tourism to the one of a kind structure. This sky farm is only in the preliminary stages of design, and it could be quite a while before this awesome vertical farm is actually built.

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86 LIST OF REFERENCES ConcreteNetwork.com < http://www.concretenetwork.com/pervious/ > (Oct 25, 2009). 12 Green Roof and Green Wall Unit Plan and The Harley < http://www.buildinggreentv.com/user/green living technologies llc/blog > (Oct. 24, 2009). Preamble 9 < http://www.oaklandpw.com/Asset1609.aspx > (Oct. 25, 2009). Chino, M. (2008). < http://www.inhabitat.com/2008/04/02/oulu bar and eco lounge/ > ( Oct. 25, 2009). DELL, O. County Landscape & Design < http://www.owendell.com/perviouscon.html#faq1 > (Oct 24, 2009). ncrete Jungle to Urban Oasis with Mayor Richard http://www.drummajorinstitute.org/events/unique_event.php?ID=59 > (Oct. 25, 2009). Dowd, S., (2005). Green Roof Constructi on Techniques and Their Impact on the Environment: Abstract of Master Report, Graduate School of the University of Florida, Fl., 12 80. < ELT EasyGreen.com ELT GreenRoofs.com ELT LivingWalls.com > (Oct. 25, 2009). England, E., et al. (2003). Vegetated Roofing Technology: An Evaluation OH. Water Resources Bulletin 18(2), 265 270. www.fcpa.org > (Oct. 24, 2009). National Ready Mixed Concrete Association < http://www.greenrooftops.org/Index.htm > (Oct 25, 2009). Hu The Construction Specifier 41 49, < http://www.concreteparking.org/PDFs/Pervious%20Concrete%20 %20CS I%20mag.article.12 05.pdf > (Oct. 23, 2009).

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87 Kain, A. < http://www.inhabitat.com/2008/12/18/green technol ogy showroom by vector architects/ > ( Oct. 24, 2009). Liu, K.Y., and Baskaran, A. (2005). Construction Technology Update No. 65: Using Garden Roof Systems to Achieve Sustainable Building Envelopes, National Research Council of Canada, Canada, 1 4. Masloff Hensley Kim & Holzer, LLC Denver, Co., < http://www.faqs.org/patents/app/20090071376#ixzz0V4zgKFNJ > (Oct. 26, 2009). Roofscapes, Inc. < http://www.wbdg.org/resource s/greenroofs.php#app > (Oct. 23, 2009). New England Construction article, (2008). Engineering, Construction, and Transportation magazines < http://www.highbeam.com/New+England+Construc tion/publications.aspx > (Oct. 24, 2009). NRMCA, (2009). < http://nrmca.org/GreenConcrete/default.asp > (Oct. 23, 2009) Environmental Health Perspectives 113(5), A300. Proceedings Sustaining Water Resources in the 21 st Century ASCE, Malm o, Sweden, 196 211. Schol z Environmental Design and Construction Work in Progress: Green Walls, Reception and Panel http://www.archdaily.com/17566/work in progress green walls reception and panel discussion/ > (Oct. 24, 2009). Environmental Health P erspectives 110(11), A668. Electronic Green Journal 1(26), < http://escholarship.org/uc/item/7h12c5zp > (Oct. 12, 2009). The Construction Specifier, 56(8).

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88 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH This candidate goes by the name Amanda L. Morris; she has accomplished several prestigio us acknowledgements throughout her years of study while attending the University of Florida, and has been a student at the University of Florida since the fall of 2004. From 2004 to 2008 she earned a Bachelor of Design degree in a rchitecture; as well as, a minor in landscape a rchitecture overall graduating with honors. Since 2008 she has been furthering her education in the Building Construction program. She will have graduated in the fall of 2010 with a Master of Science in Building Construction w ith a sustainable concentration also with honors. After this accomplishment she has been looking into trying to further her education a step further by mastering in a department associated with Civil Engineering focusing on Pavements and Materials in order to relate her thesis to her future studies. This second masters came to mind as an option when she had the opportunity to intern with an asphalt construction company and had seen that many improvements still need to be taken into consideration when using pave ments and ways to be more sustainable in the environment. Learning these new studies will also help research more ways to incorporate this current thesis into future development. Although there have already been many accomplishments in her past she is st ill convinced that there are still more out there to achieve in her future and a saying she follows is; knowledge only ends when you choose to end it.