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Life Skills Development of Youth Participants in 4-H Clubs and Camping

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0042595/00001

Material Information

Title: Life Skills Development of Youth Participants in 4-H Clubs and Camping
Physical Description: 1 online resource (73 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Armstrong, Wendi
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: 4h, camping, club, lifeskills
Family, Youth and Community Sciences -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Family, Youth and Community Sciences thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Youth development occurs from the intentional process that promotes positive outcomes for young people by providing opportunities for youth to participate in learn by doing activities (National 4-H Headquarters, 2003). By using a variety of structured delivery methods to facilitate positive youth development, Florida 4-H helps youth become responsible, productive citizens through multiple learn by doing experiences. These experiences include youth engaged in community based clubs, residential and day camping, afterschool and other school based program. The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) determine if Florida 4-H club members with residential camping experience show an enhancement in life skills as compared to those who did not have this added experience and 2) determine if the adult support provided youth in club and camping environments differed. A total of 702 4-H club members, representing 24 of the 67 Florida counties, completed the survey instrument. Independent variable measured was those club members that did experience camping and those club members that did not experience camping, the level of adult support provided within the learning environments along with selected demographic characteristics such as age, gender, schooling and ethnicity of youth participants. Dependent variables of life skills was defined in four skill sets: 1) Tolerance, Diversity and Relationship with others; 2) Planning, Organizing and Teamwork Development; 3) Self-responsibility, Self-reliance and Ability to Make Positive Choices; and 4) Communication, Leadership and Workforce Preparation. T-tests revealed a gain in life skills for 4-H youth that participate in club and camping environment. Two-way ANOVAs did not show statistical differences in any of the demographic variables or club volunteer support. Comparison of the adult interactions between club volunteers and adults at camp, by 4-H ers who had experienced both club and residential camping, revealed higher levels of support from adult volunteers in club environment for individual support. There was no difference between the two groups for group behavior management. Therefore, this study does support many of the tenets of the 4-H program and current theories of positive youth development by offering multiple experiences for youth to acquire life skills. Likewise, the study provided significant findings regarding the role of adult volunteers within different learning environments.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Wendi Armstrong.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Jordan, Joy C.
Local: Co-adviser: Culen, Gerald R.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2011-06-30

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0042595:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0042595/00001

Material Information

Title: Life Skills Development of Youth Participants in 4-H Clubs and Camping
Physical Description: 1 online resource (73 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Armstrong, Wendi
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: 4h, camping, club, lifeskills
Family, Youth and Community Sciences -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Family, Youth and Community Sciences thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Youth development occurs from the intentional process that promotes positive outcomes for young people by providing opportunities for youth to participate in learn by doing activities (National 4-H Headquarters, 2003). By using a variety of structured delivery methods to facilitate positive youth development, Florida 4-H helps youth become responsible, productive citizens through multiple learn by doing experiences. These experiences include youth engaged in community based clubs, residential and day camping, afterschool and other school based program. The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) determine if Florida 4-H club members with residential camping experience show an enhancement in life skills as compared to those who did not have this added experience and 2) determine if the adult support provided youth in club and camping environments differed. A total of 702 4-H club members, representing 24 of the 67 Florida counties, completed the survey instrument. Independent variable measured was those club members that did experience camping and those club members that did not experience camping, the level of adult support provided within the learning environments along with selected demographic characteristics such as age, gender, schooling and ethnicity of youth participants. Dependent variables of life skills was defined in four skill sets: 1) Tolerance, Diversity and Relationship with others; 2) Planning, Organizing and Teamwork Development; 3) Self-responsibility, Self-reliance and Ability to Make Positive Choices; and 4) Communication, Leadership and Workforce Preparation. T-tests revealed a gain in life skills for 4-H youth that participate in club and camping environment. Two-way ANOVAs did not show statistical differences in any of the demographic variables or club volunteer support. Comparison of the adult interactions between club volunteers and adults at camp, by 4-H ers who had experienced both club and residential camping, revealed higher levels of support from adult volunteers in club environment for individual support. There was no difference between the two groups for group behavior management. Therefore, this study does support many of the tenets of the 4-H program and current theories of positive youth development by offering multiple experiences for youth to acquire life skills. Likewise, the study provided significant findings regarding the role of adult volunteers within different learning environments.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Wendi Armstrong.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Jordan, Joy C.
Local: Co-adviser: Culen, Gerald R.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2011-06-30

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0042595:00001


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1 LIFE SKILLS DEVELOPMENT OF YOUTH PARTICIPANTS IN 4 H CLUBS AND CAMPING By WENDI A ARMSTRONG A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGRE E OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2010

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2 2010 Wendi A Armstrong

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3 To all my family and friends

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This study would not have been possible without the support and guidance of several individuals I would first like to thank Joy Jordan who has been through this with me from the beginning to end, without her continued support this would never have been possible. I also would like to thank my mother, father, sister and grandmother for pushing me all the way and not letting me give up. Especially thanks to my husband, Gregg Armstrong, who was behind me telling me when times were rough that I could finish. Special thanks go to my committee members, Dr. Joy Jordan, Dr. Jerry Cullen, and Dr. Glenn Israel. I would li ke to thank them for their guidance and sticking with me through these many years. Special thanks goes to Joy Jordan who spent many hours teaching me about the research process and so much more. I would also like to give a special thanks to Dr. Jerry Cul len, who if had not given me that push I would have never gone to complete my masters. I thank Dr. Glenn Israel for helping me understand the statistical process and its important to complete this thesis. I would also like to thank Jesus for being ther e during the hard times and helping me complete this goal in my life.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................................................................. 4 LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................................ 7 ABSTRACT ..................................................................................................................... 8 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................... 10 Scope of 4 H Programming .................................................................................... 12 Problem Statement ................................................................................................. 12 Purpose .................................................................................................................. 13 Research Questions ............................................................................................... 14 Hypotheses ............................................................................................................. 14 Limitations ............................................................................................................... 14 Definitions of Terms ................................................................................................ 15 2 LITERATURE REVIEW .......................................................................................... 16 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 16 Theoretical Perspectives of Positive Youth Development ....................................... 16 4 H Programming as a Context for Positive Youth Development and Life Skill Development of Youth ......................................................................................... 20 4 H Clubs as a Positive Youth Development Learning Environment ...................... 22 Youth Residential Camping Experiences as a Context for Positive Youth Development ....................................................................................................... 24 4 H Residential Cam ping ........................................................................................ 26 Research Studies of Youth Life Skill Development Resulting from Camping .......... 26 Adult Interaction ...................................................................................................... 29 Summary ................................................................................................................ 31 3 METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................... 32 Purpose .................................................................................................................. 32 Research Questions ............................................................................................... 32 Hypotheses ............................................................................................................. 32 Research Design .................................................................................................... 32 Population and Sample ........................................................................................... 33 Survey Instruments and Data Collection ................................................................. 34 Survey Instrument ............................................................................................ 34 Data Collection ................................................................................................. 35 Data Analysis .......................................................................................................... 36

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6 4 RESEARCH RESULTS .......................................................................................... 42 Demographics ......................................................................................................... 42 Club Members Participation in 4H Summer Camp ................................................ 42 Life Skills of Club Members .................................................................................... 43 Tolerance, Diversity and Relationships with Others ......................................... 43 Self Responsibility, Self Reliance and Ability to Make Positive Decisions and Choi ces .................................................................................................. 45 Communication, Leadership, Workforce Preparation Skills .............................. 45 Summary of Life Skill Development .................................................................. 46 Youth Perceptions of Adult Interactions within Club and Camp Environments ....... 49 Summary of Findings .............................................................................................. 50 5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION ............................................................................ 53 Purpose of Study .................................................................................................... 53 Limitations ............................................................................................................... 53 Conclusions ............................................................................................................ 53 Life Skill Development from Club and Camp Experiences ............................... 53 Perceptions of Adults Support and Behavioral M anagement Skills .................. 56 Summary .......................................................................................................... 57 Educational Implications of the Study ..................................................................... 58 Recommendations for Further Study ...................................................................... 58 APPENDIX A CAMP ENROLLMENT ............................................................................................ 60 B FLORIDA 4 H YOUTH AND ADULT PROGRAM EVALUATION DATA COLLECTION PROTOCOL .................................................................................... 61 C CONSENT LETTER TO PARENTS/YOUTH SURVEY ........................................... 63 LIST OF REFERENCES ............................................................................................... 67 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ............................................................................................ 73

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 Tolerance, Diversity and Relationships (TDR) Development .............................. 37 3 2 Plannning, Organizing and Teamwork skills (POT) ............................................ 37 3 3 Self Responsibility, Self Reliance and Ability to Make Positive Decisions and Choices (SELF) .................................................................................................. 38 3 4 Communication, Leadership, Workforce Preparation Skills (CLW) ..................... 39 3 5 I ndividual Support for Youth N= 294 ................................................................... 40 3 6 Behavior Management Within Group Environment N=294 ................................. 40 4 1 Demographics of Participants ............................................................................. 42 4 2 TDR: Tolerance, Diversity and Relationships with Others .................................. 44 4 3 POT: Planning, Organizing and Teamwork Development .................................. 44 4 4 SELF: Self Responsibility, Self Reliance and Ability to Make Positive Decisions and Choices ....................................................................................... 46 4 5 CLW: Communication, Leadership, Workforce Preparation Skills ...................... 47 4 6 Life Skill Development between Club Members with and without Camping Experience .......................................................................................................... 48 4 7 L ife Skill Development of 4 Hers Adj usted for Club Volunteer Support ............. 49 4 8 Adult Individual Support for 4Hers within Club and Camp Environments ......... 51 4 9 Youth Rati ngs of Adult Behavior Management within Club and Camp Environments ...................................................................................................... 52 4 10 Differences in Club Members who camped Perceptions of Adults Interactions for Club and Camp Environments ....................................................................... 52

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8 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science TITLE OF THE WORK, CENTERED, SINGLE SPACED, IN ALL C APITAL LETTERS, EXACTLY AS ON TITLE PAGE By Wendi A Armstrong December 2010 Chair: Joy C. Jordan Major: Family, Youth, and Community Sciences Youth development occurs from the intentional process that promotes positive outcomes for young people by prov iding opportunities for youth to participate in learn by doing activities (National 4H Headquarters, 2003). By using a variety of structured delivery methods to facilitate positive youth development, Florida 4H helps youth become responsible, productive citizens through multiple learn by doing experiences. These experiences include youth engaged in community based clubs, residential and day camping, afterschool and other school based program. The purpose of this study was two fold: 1) determine if Fl orida 4H club members with residential camping experience show an enhancement in life skills as compared to those who did not have this added experience and 2) determine if the adult support provided youth in club and camping environments differed. A tot al of 702 4H club members representing 24 of the 67 Florida counties, completed the survey instrument. Independent variable measured was those club members that did experience camp ing and those club members that did not experience camp ing the level of adult support provided within the learning environments along with selected demographic characteristics such as age, gender, schooling and ethnicity of youth participants

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9 Dependent variables of life skills was defined in four skill sets: 1) Tolerance, D iversity and Relationship with others; 2) Planning, Organizing and Teamwork Development; 3) Self responsibility, Self reliance and Ability to Make Positive Choices; and 4) Communication, Leadership and Workforce Preparation. T tests revealed a gain in li fe skills for 4 H youth that participate in club and camping environment. Two way ANOVAs did not show statistical differences in any of the demographic variables or club volunteer support. Comparison of the adult interactions between club volunteers and adults at camp, by 4H members who had experienced both club and residential camping, revealed higher levels of support from adult volunteers in club environment for individual support. There was no difference between the two groups for group behavior managem ent. Therefore, this study does support many of the tenets of the 4H program and current theories of positive youth development by offering multiple experiences for youth to acquire life skills. Likewise, the study provided significant findings regarding the role of adult volunteers within different learning environments.

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10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Youth development occurs from the intentional process that promotes positive outcomes for young people by providing opportunities for youth to participate in learn by doing activities (National 4H Headquarters, 2003). Much of the literature today (Blyth & Borden, 2003; Larson, 2000; Durlak & Weissberg, 2007; Eccles & Barber, 1999; Theokas, Lerner, Phelps, & Lerner, 2006) advocates that structured out of schoo l time is a critical context for promoting youth learning and development. 4 H, as a national youthserving organization, provides opportunities focused primarily on youth programs during out of school time such as clubs, residential camping, day camps, a nd special interest groups. The overall objective of Florida 4H is the development of youth as individuals to become responsible, productive citizens through learn by doing in aspects of life that can be more effectively learned through experience. Florida 4 H uses a variety of structured delivery methods to facilitate positive youth development and provide optimum experiences for youth engagement. The Florida 4H community club is one delivery method where young people participate in a minimum of s ix monthly meetings a year, along with additional beyond club activities with the support of an adult leader often over a long period of time. 4H club members may stay involved with the same club members or leaders for more than ten years. Other opportu nities these 4H members have include participating in supporting county, state, and national events beyond their club meetings. The 4H residential camping is an opportunity for young people to spend a shorter amount of time together living away from ho me for five days and four nights. Other experiences include: 1) project events and activities such as fairs,

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11 exhibits, shows and judging competitions; 2) leadership events such as county, district and state councils, training clinics and weekend retreats; and 3) civic engagement and citizenship activities such as community service projects. Youth programming is based on the premise that the more opportunities young people are given, youth will show an increase in youth development outcomes. Across the yea rs, 4 H programs have identified specific life skills of youth as the primary outcome of program participation. These life skills have been defined as the necessary skills for success in adulthood; i.e., skills that involve working with others, understandi ng self, communicating, making decisions, and leadership (Boyd, Herring, & Briers, 1992). The three primary tasks of youth development organizations are to promote the positive socialization of youth by providing challenges, experiences, and support. These tasks are provided through varied experiences provided by the 4H Youth Development Program. Additionally, the literature supports that residential experiences, like camping, are uniquely designed within the 4H program to provide youth challenges, experiences and support to develop life skills. It would seem logical then that youth that have both 4H club and a residential camping experience should show an increase in life skills rather than experiencing one of these programs alone. Every youth that has been through a 4H program has interacted in some way with a 4H adult volunteer. The life skills that are obtained by 4H youth members is very much dependent upon the adult mediator (Fogarty, Terry, Pracht, & Jordan, 2007). An adults volunteer rol e is to provide a safe learning environment where youth feel comfortable to try new things. Adults are involved with youth in clubs, camps, and other 4 H learning environments like fairs. Therefore, it seems likely that if youth experience

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12 differing level s of adult support in clubs or camps, their life skill development may also differ. Positive adult support to all youth, regardless of 4H environment, is the goal of all 4 H to maximize life skill deliverables. Scope of 4 H Programming National 4H s erves over 7 million members and 500,000 teen and adult volunteers (4H National Headquarters USDA, 2007). 4H empowers youth to reach their full potential, working and learning in partnership with caring adults (4H National Headquarters USDA, 2007). In Florida, 4H serves over 240,000 youth and 15,196 volunteer youth and adults, of those 19,841 youth are in organized clubs and 12,110 are in day camps and residential camps (20062007 Florida 4H Annual Statistical Snapshot, 2009). There are about 400,000 4H member s that attend 4 H residential camping annually (Duda, 2009). Florida serves about 2,234 youth through the Florida 4H summer residential camping program from 61 of the 67 counties that camp. Of the 24 counties that completed this survey 800 4 H members attended residential camping within 2007 alone. Goals of Florida 4H residential camping program are for youth to: 1) develop life skills of youth through a camping environment; 2) experience group living; 3) develop an environmental ethic; 4) en hance self image; 5) increase their level of independence; 6) make new friends; and 7) to have fun (Zimmerman, 2006). Camping reinforces learning experiences provided in groups, club, and county settings (pg 9). Problem Statement The problem lies in t he scarcity of research in the enhancement of life skills when other 4H activities have been added to the community club experience. This is especially true in adding 4H residential camping to the 4H community club experience.

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13 Blyth and Borden (2003) in a National Youth Development Research Response Initiative report called for studies that looked across contexts in additive and interactive ways. There are no published documents found that have compared life skills gained or enhanced as a result of 4H club members participating in the proposed added value experiences of 4H camping. This study will investigate how participating in these two delivery methods will enhance the perceived life skills developed as a result of participating within the 4H Y outh Development Program. This study is based upon the premise that youth participating as 4H community club members that have additionally participated in 4H residential camping will have increased life skill outcomes. This study will use data from a survey conducted in 2007 of Florida 4H community club participants. This data provides the researcher the opportunity to investigate the importance of youth engagement within 4H community club experiences and residential camping experiences on their li fe skill development as compared to youth with only club experiences. There were four constructs of life skills assessed with the 2007 club program evaluation survey. They were: 1) Tolerance, Diversity and Relationship Development; 2) Planning Organizing and Teamwork Development; 3) Self responsibility, Self reliance and Ability to Make Positive Choices; and 4) Communication, Leadership, Workforce Preparation Skills & Self efficacy. Likewise, the study will investigate whether youth participating in club and camp experiences perceived any differences in the quality of volunteer support within the two environments. Purpose The purpose of this study is to compare the perceived life skills of two groups of youth participants in the Florida 4H program. Group one: 4H club members that have

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14 participated in the Florida 4H residential experiences and group two: club members that have not participated in the Florida 4H residential camping experiences. In addition, the youths perception of adult support within these learning environments will be evaluated for any differences. Research Questions 1. To what degree do Florida 4H youth club members with residential camping experience show an enhancement in life skills compared to 4H club members that have no resi dential camping experience? 2. To what degree is there a difference in the perceptions of adult support in residential camping experience versus club experience for club members who attended both? Hypotheses Hypothesis 1: Florida 4 H Club members with camping experiences will exhibit higher life skills than those who only participated in club experiences. Hypothesis 2: There will be no significant difference in the perceptions of adult support for club members within club environments as compared to camp envi ronments. Limitations This study is limited to the Florida 4H program evaluation data from surveys conducted in the 2007 4H program year. The opportunities to participate in data collection were available statewide with a goal of 30 youth and 30 adult volunteers from each county. There were 24 counties that participated with either youth or adult respondents. Since the agent self selected to participate and also self selected the participants, the researcher had no control over the distribution of surv eys or follow up of non respondents. Therefore the results cannot be generalized beyond the scope of the available survey data.

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15 Definitions of Terms 4 H : 4 H is a national nonformal hands on learning program for youth ages 5 thru 18 years of age. In Fl orida it is the youth development of Florida Cooperative Extension, a part of the University of Florida IFAS. 4 H ADULTS VOLUNTEER: A person 19 years of age or older who is a qualified adult who leads or assists 4H community club meetings. An adult vol unteer is someone who voluntarily works without being paid. ADULTS AT CAMP: In the context of this study, adults at camp are referred to as volunteers and paid staff such as agents, state staff and camp summer staff. FLORIDA 4 H COMMUNITY CLUB: A 4 H community club is a group of five or more youth that meet at least six times a year for an hour of educational learning under the supervision of an adult volunteer. FLORIDA 4 H RESIDENTIAL CAMPING: 4 H youth that belong to a community club who are in a g roup living that includes five days and four nights of being away from home. Each day is a planned educational experience under the supervision of paid staff, usually college age. LIFE SKILLS: The necessary skills for success in adulthood; i.e., skills t hat involve working with others, understanding self, communicating, making decisions, and leadership (Boyd, Herring, & Briers, 1992). Life skills in this study are referred as four constructs as defined below: TOLERANCE, DIVERSITY AND RELATIONSHIP DEVELOPMENT: Tolerance, diversity and respect is the ability to be respectful and acceptance of others cultures, ethnicity, values, and beliefs. PLANNING ORGANIZING AND TEAMWORK DEVELOPMENT: The act or process of planning and giving structure for participant s for group and individuals acting together as a team. SELFRESPONSIBILITY, SELFRELIANCE AND ABILITY TO MAKE POSITIVE DECISIONS AND CHOICES: In the context of this study, this is defined as the ability of young people to be responsible and rely on ones self to make confident decisions from a number of possibilities.

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16 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction This study focuses on the premise that there will be increases in life skill development of 4H members that add the 4H residential camping experience to their 4 H community club activities. The purpose of this study is to compare the perceived life skills of two groups of participants within the Florida 4H programs: 1) club members that participate in the Florida 4H residential camping experi ence, and 2) club members that do not participate in the Florida 4H residential camping experience. Additionally, youth perceptions of adult volunteer support within these learning environments will be compared. Therefore, it is important to review the literature regarding: 1) theoretical perspectives of Positive Youth Development (PYD) and relationships between learning contexts and youth development; 2) 4H programming as a context for PYD and life skill development of youth; 3) life skill assessments in 4 H club and camping environments; and finally 4) the roles of adult support within learning environments youth development. Theoretical Perspectives of Positive Youth Development The perspective of Positive Youth Development (PYD) contrasts to prev ious preventative approaches that focused on the problems or deficits of youth. The PYD approach focuses on the potential that all youth possess furthering the focus on understanding, educating and engaging in productive activities rather than correcting, curing or treating them (Damon, 2004). Several comprehensive analyses of studies have identified contextual features likely to support positive youth development (Eccles and Gootman, 2002; Eccles and

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17 Templeton, 2002; Perkins and Borden, 2003; Catalano, e t al 1999). The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services research report Positive Youth Development in the United States identified 15 characteristics of effective positive youth development programs (Catalano, et al 1999). Effective programs f ostering positive youth development exhibited one or more of these characteristics: 1) promotes bonding; 2) fosters resilience; 3) promotes social competence; 4) promotes emotional competence; 5) promotes cognitive competence; 6) promotes behavioral compet ence; 7) promotes moral competence; 8) fosters self determination; 9) fosters spirituality; 10) fosters self efficacy; 11) fosters clear and positive identity; 12) fosters belief in the future; 13) provides recognition for positive behavior; 14) provides o pportunities for prosaically involvement; and 15) fosters prosaically norms. Eccles and Gootman (2002) narrowed the list to eight features of daily settings that are important to maximize positive development of youth. They were: 1) physical and psychol ogical safety; 2) clear and consistent structure and appropriate adult supervision; 3) supportive relationships; 4) opportunities to belong; 5) positive social norms; 6) support for efficacy and mattering; 7) opportunities for skill building and 8) integration of family, school and community efforts. Perkins and Borden (2003) identified these additional components that highquality youth programs should address: 1) highquality youth programs focus on the specific needs and interests of young people; 2) hi gh quality youth programs offer young people the opportunity to hold meaningful leadership roles within the program and organization; 3) highquality youth programs provide learning opportunities that are active and participatory; and 4) highquality youth programs focus on recruiting

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18 and retaining young people from diverse backgrounds by intentionally designing activities that address their needs (p 334). Developmental theories based on adolescence needs and competencies are still a mainstay of positiv e youth developmental approaches (Cantalano, Hawkins, Berglund, Pollard, and Authur, 2002). Some researchers cite development needs of adolescents that should be met. They are positive social interaction with peers and adults, structured clear limits, physical achievement, meaningful participation in home, school, and community, and self determination (Garst & Bruce, 2003; Marsh 1999). These are all based in some of the fundamental theories such as attachment theory (Ainsworth, 1989), serving as the basi s for sense of belonging and bonding with significant adults, or Ericksons identity development theory (Erickson, 1968). If youths developmental needs such as secure attachment, clear identities, and self competence are not met they can become vulnerabl e to risks or have difficulties developing positive skills. Learner (2005) has defined positive youth development competencies of youth in terms of 5 Cs: competence, confidence, connection, character, and caring. These traits lead to a sixth C: contr ibution (civic engagement) within his framework. The framework of life skills is another means for addressing individual competencies as youth grow and develop. Community youthbased programs, like 4H, focus on building life skills such as increase s sel f esteem in the individual, enhancing youth leadership, problem solving, goal setting, team work and social skills, as well as responsible social behavior. The theory of intentionality framework, promoted by Walker, Marczak, Blyth, Borden (2005), advocates focusing on the specific and explicit life skills necessary to

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19 engage young people as they shape themselves into caring, competent, contributing, confident, and connected individuals. Another dimension of positive youth development promoted is the inter action of the environment and the individual (Catalano, et al 2002; Learner, 2002, 2005; Mahoney et al 2005; Kress, 2007). Advocates of this dimension suggest that the socializing influences within the contexts of environments are as important to yout h development as norms and values of the cultural groups and communities in which youth belong. There is mounting evidence in studies of out of school youth programs correlating to positive behaviors and outcomes of youth (Theokas, Lerner, Phelps, & Lerner, 2006; Eccles & Barber, 1999; Durlak & Weissberg, 2007). Durlak and Weissbergs (2007) study of after school programs focused on social and moral development rather than academic success outside of normal school hours. In their study, each site was compared against a control group. Findings showed an increase in self perception (i.e., self confidence, self esteem, and sense of self efficacy). Eccles and Barbers (1999) analysis of published and unpublished studies focused on, Does Youth Participation in Out of School Time Activities Make a Difference? found positive youth development outcomes for youth engaged in after school programs. These studies were put through a screening by Eccles and Barber for scientific merit: 1) activities that provided a safe environment; 2) taught specific skills, beliefs and behaviors; and 3) created relationships between peers and mentors that impacted youth in becoming responsible adults. Studies that focused on nonacademic

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20 positive youth development outcomes reported that youth gained friendships, communication skills, positive and social development. Recent research of 4H youth who we are also involved in out of school activities such as sports, academic clubs, and student government have shown that 4H made a difference in their lives (Lerner, R., Learner, J., Phelps, E. and et al., 2008). Out of school activities such as Future Farmers of America (now called FFA) community based art programs, and girls high school leadership clubs show that youth can be the producers of their own development (Dworkin, Larson, and Hansen, 2003). Youth are given opportunities to explore identity, make plans, problem solving, manage feelings, build a network or friends accept differences, social skills, and build relationships with adults. 4 H Programming as a Context for Positive Youth Development and Life Skill Development of Youth As early as the 1900s 4H was meeting the needs of youth in agriculture through club experiences. Clubs provide experience for youth in a learn by doing environment. The first National 4H Club Camp was held in Washington D.C. in 1927 where delegates were housed in tents on the grounds of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. At these early beginnings, the 4H program was providing multiple e xperiences to increase youth opportunities for growth and development. Today, 4H offers youth a varied set of learning environments through after school and community clubs, classroom enrichment, day camps, special interest clinic/workshops, and resident ial camps. This program design maximizes the opportunities to meet the needs and interests of a diverse group of youth in any given community.

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21 The National 4H Impact Assessment (2001) focused youth development outcomes into eight key elements for posi tive youth development: 1) Positive Relationship with caring adults; 2) An emotionally and physically safe environment; 3) A welcoming environment that encourages belonging; 4) Opportunities to engage in meaningful and fun learning experiences; 5) Opportunities to build mastery and competence; 6) Opportunities for self determination; 7) Opportunities to see oneself as an active participant in the future; and 8) Opportunities to value and practice service. The above eight key elements of 4H represent very similar concepts to the previously mentioned characteristics of positive youth development programs identified by Catalano, et al (1999); Eccles and Gootman (2002) and Perkins and Borden (2003). From this study it is evident that 4H uses a positive yout h development theoretical framework and characteristics within the context of its program experiences. Additionally, through Extensions programs, 4H programs have been able to enhance specific life skills of youth through delivery modes such as 4H clubs 4 H camps, and 4H youth leadership retreats (Garst, Hunnings, Jamison, Hairston, & Meadows, 2006). In Florida 4H, selected skill sets supporting a broad array of life skills have been targeted and evaluated across youth engaged within the 4H Youth De velopment Program (Jordan, 2007). These skills focus on: 1. Tolerance, Diversity and Relationship Development (respecting ideas from others; treating people who are different with respect; and learning relationshipbuilding skills). 2. Planning, Organizing and Teamwork Skills (goal setting skills; learning to organize time, money and other resources; and improving decisionmaking skills). 3. Self Responsibility, Self Reliance and Ability to Make Positive Decisions and Choices (thinking before acting; being res pectful of the rights and property of self and others; learning to trust others and be trustworthy, following through with commitments, and learning to be more responsible for personal actions).

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22 4. Communication, Leadership, Workforce Preparation Skills & Self efficacy (communication and public speaking skills; leadership skills and workforce and career development skills and demonstrating independence and self confidence) 4 H Clubs as a Positive Youth Development Learning Environment Clubs build these life skills through experience such as sewing, raising animals, science, and electing officers for their clubs to name a few. Clubs also facilitate mastering content, forming organizations, group decisionmaking and leadership (Van Horn, Flanagan, & Thomson, 1 998). The 4H club program experiences help young people to form lasting social networks and life skills that build the foundation for adulthood. Life skills provide the essential qualities that help individual youth to become productive well socialized adults (Fox, Schoeder, Lodl, 2003). A number of studies have demonstrated that 4H has a positive impact on youths life skills as a result of being in a 4H club (Montana 4H, n.d.; Thomas, 2004; Diem & Devitt, 2003; Rodriguez, Hirschl, Mead, & Goggin, 1999; Boyd, Herring, & Briers, 1992). The majority of studies have used nonexperimental surveys assessing perceptions of skill development from youth participants. Some of these same studies show that 4H members do better in school, try new things, and make an effort to help others, make lasting friendships, demonstrate leadership by example and have more self esteem (Diem & Devitt, 2003; Rodriguez, Hirschl, Mead, & Goggin, 1999). Studies from Montana, North Carolina, and New York, (Rodriguez, Hirschl Mead & Groggin, 1999; Astroth & Haynes, 2002; Gregoire, 2004) have shown that youth who participated in 4H clubs showed a positive influence in youth development. Youth do better in public speaking, self esteem, school, planning, and making lasting fri ends. These and other life skills increase in youth who spend more than one year in 4H. It is

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23 these life skills that alumni often cite that they use later in life (Ladwig & Thomas, 1987; Mass, 2004; Thomas, 2004). It has been found that when comparing 4 H members and non4 H member s, there is a positive increase in life skill development associated with 4 H (Boyd, Herring, & Briers, 1992; Lewis, Murphy, & Baker, 2009; Astroth & Haynes, 2002). Boyd, Herring, & Briers also found that the level of life skill incr eased with the increase in the level of participation. Heinsohn and Cantrell (1986) found that leadership life skills increased with increased level of youth participation in 4 H along with school leadership roles There have been several studies that h ave focused on the life skill impacts of 4H from an adult perspective, either adult volunteers or alumni (Fitzpatrick et al 2005; Mass, 2004; Fox, Schroeder, Lodl, 2003, Ladwig & Thomas, 1987). Some surveys showed that there were differences between 4H members and youth that joined other organizations (Ladewig & Thomas, 1987). There were similar life skills that 4H members and youth from other organizations experienced including community service, leadership, receiving responsibilities, self worth and goal setting. Ladewig and Thomas findings also revealed 4H alumni rated these skills higher than did the other youth organization members. The number of years the alumni spent in 4H was also a factor, with more years resulting in higher life skills development. Adults who were asked for their view on what 4H did for youth reported that they saw positive outcomes in public speaking, community service and public demonstration (4H National Headquarters USDA, 2007). Fox, Schroeder and Lodl (2003) us ed a mixed methods evaluation design to study 4H alumni. The purpose was to see how 4H alumni evaluated themselves on life skills gained through 4H Clubs. Alumni reported that 4H club

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24 involvement had the most influence in areas of responsibility, subject matter product skills, and ability to handle competition. The study showed that 4H Club membership affected all 32 life skills. A number of studies also show that youth carry life skills and attitudes learned throughout 4H to adulthood (Fox, Schroeder and Lodl, 2003; Fitzpatrick et al., 2005; Mass, 2004). Fox, Schroeder and Lodls (2003) study examined 32 life skills that were divided into subgroups: Technical skills, Communication skills, Personal/social skills, and Leadership skills and the resul ts showed responsibility ranked first; leadership ranked sixth; and self confidence and willingness to try new things ranked tenth. While Foxs findings rated willingness to try new things in a club perspective tenth, other studies show this to be one of the top life skills learned in a camping environment (Garst and Johnson, 2003; Garst and Bruce, 2003; Duncan, 2000) One alumnus stated, You can learn a lot by meeting new people and being exposed to new experiences. A study on 4H club animal scienc e projects by Ward (1996) showed that alumni developed skills in record keeping, public speaking, and accept ing responsibility. 4 Hers with swine projects showed that projects had a positive effect on life skills (Gamon & Dehegedus Hetzel, 1994) A five point Likert scale was used with reported means for swine skills (3.44) being lower than life skills (4.07) learned. Youth Residential Camping Experiences as a Context for Positive Youth Development Every year, millions of youth in the United States p articipate in some kind of residential experience through sports, church, youth organization, and environmental camps. The American Camping Association (ACA) defines residential camping as hands on experience where youth spend at least 4 nights under 24hour supervision of

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25 camp staff and counselor s (Arnold, Bourdea, and Nagele 2005). The popularity of residential experiences is growing each year. Professionals recognize residential programs as an instrument of positive youth develop experience (Garst & Br uce, 2003; Marsh, 1999). The ACA research provides evidence that camp is a positive force in youth development (American Camping Association, 2005). The top reasons why youth attend residential programs are to have fun and make new friends. According t o the ACA Directions report, parents reported that they would send their kids to camp because my child talks to other kids who are different from him/her (p. 9). Another parent reported that his/her child was more willing to try new things. Residential experiences help promote positive youth development by providing a safe environment for youth to try new things such as archery, canoeing, and recreational activities. Special emphasis over the past five years has been placed on training staff and using curricula in residential experiences that focus on specific life skills in the Targeting Life Skills Model (Hendricks, 1998). The life skills model is used to incorporate appropriate learning opportunities to maximize the impact of life skills development (Hendricks, 1998). The 2005 American Camping Associations annual report indicates four domains of youth outcomes resulting from camping: positive identity, social skills, physical & thinking skills, and spirituality. ACA reports ten constructs within the four domains: self esteem, independence (positive identity), leadership, friendship skills, social comfort, peer relationships (social skills), adventure & exploration, environmental awareness

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26 (physical & thinking skills), values & decisions, and spir ituality (positive values & spirituality). 4 H Residential Camping 4 H is one of the largest providers of residential camping programs in the U.S., reaching approximately 400,000 youth (Garst & Bruce 2003). 4H residential camping is an intensive and int entional learning environment that addresses several specific skill sets. Some of these skill sets that the Florida 4H Camping program targets are self responsibility; self confidence; social skills; and diversity and respect (Jordan, et.al., 2008). Therefore, residential camping could have multiple positive impacts on youth. Camps are recognized as a place youth can improve life skills such as self esteem, self concept, social, and physical development (Garst & Bruce, 2003). Today residential camping has become an integral part of the 4H program in many states. Research Studies of Youth Life Skill Development Resulting from Camping Many studies have been done on the impact of residential camping (American Camping Association; 2005; Duda, 2009; Hendrick, Homan & Dick, 2009; Garst & Bruce, 2003). American Camping Associations research show that the 4H residential camping program impacts on youth include: sense of belonging in an inclusive environment; develop and maintain positive relationships wit h each other; actively engaged in their own development; and develop skills they need to succeed for work and family life (American Camping Association; 2005). Similarly, a study by Cornell University concludes that camping is a benefit to youth by helping them become more confident, develop social skills, growing more independent and showing leadership qualities, willingness to trying new things, and acting more helpful and respectful (Cornell University Cooperative Extension, 2007).

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27 4 H summer camp p lays an important role in the development of life skills in a hands on setting (Arnold, Bourdeau, and Nagele, 2005). Oregon State University found that the top three life skills campers reported were: 1) to learn new things that they liked to do ; 2) to make them want try new things and 3) to feel good about themselves. Other research showed campers indicated that 4H residential camp helped them make new friends, develop new skills, and become more independent and able to take care of themselves (Gar st and Bruce, 2003). West Virginias (2000) study used the Hendricks Life Skills Model to examine life skills and leadership through 4H camps. Hendricks defines life skills as those skils that help an individual to be successful in living a productiv e and satisfying life (Duncan, 2000). One of the purposes of this study was to study the existence between leadership life skills and 4H camp participation. P articipants who attended camp four to five days or long were 13 to 15 years old. The respondents self perceptions were assessed using the West Virginia Youth Leadership and Life Skills Development Scale (YLLSDS). The life skills focused on seven domains with 30 indicators: 1) communication; 2) decision making 3) skills in getting along with others; 4) learning skills; 5) management skills; 6) skills understanding self; 7) skills in working in groups. P articipants were found to rate themselves having high leadership experiences and engaging in teen leadership projects. However, campers that serv ed in roles of leadership, such as officers in clubs, vers u s those that did not, when compared on leadership life skills, revealed no differences (Duncan). T he nine life skills studied by Garton, Miltenberger, & Pruett, ( 2007) campers showed a higher increase in life skills such as accepting differences, responsible

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28 citizenship, leadership, and communication. Studies conducted in other states such as Virginia (Garst & Bruce, 2003) and Washington State (Bailey & Deen, 2002), support the results of increas ed citizenship, accepting differences, accepting responsibility and team work as a result of camping experiences. Several camping studies have focused on the life skill outcomes of youth as counselors during camping programs (Duda, 2009; Ferrari & McNe ely, 2007, Garton, Milt e nberger, & Pruett, 2007; Garst & Johnson, 2003, Garst & Johnson, 2005). In the summer of 2002, Virginia 4H conducted a 12week study with 1,126 adolescent teens who attended residential camp in a leader capacity (Garst & Johnson). Qualitative methods were used with 68 teen counselors that participated in focus groups. Results were that 4H camp leadership helped teens to, 1) become more responsible for themselves and the youth under their supervision; 2) overcome shyness and beco me more confident talking in front of a large groups; 3) communicate effectively to campers and to adults in camp, and 4) how to manage; and 5 ) problem solve stressful situations. Many studies show the benefit of camping on positive youth development of li fe skills. Youth development is the natural process of youth learning what is going on around them and using these skills to interact with their peers and adults (Martz, 2007). Research has been done on the individual life skills such as self esteem, self construct, and positive identity as well within camp settings (Marsh, 1999; Duncan, 2000, ACA Directions). The West Virginia 4H camp program studied six to twenty year old participants in 4H residential camping programs (Duncan, 2000). Over 60% youth said they always learned life skills in communication, leadership, citizenship, marketable skills, healthy life skills, and accepting differences. Younger 4H members

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29 said yes on the above same life skills. Paired t tests revealed positive difference in both age groups in five of seven leadership and teamwork skills measured. A control group of youth who had not experienced residential camping was used as a comparison group for this study. Adult Interaction Every youth that has been through a 4H program has interacted in some way with a 4H adult volunteer. Volunteers are the foundation of the 4H program. They allow youth to try new things in a safe environment. In a residential camping program, experienced adults interact with youth on a day to day basis. At a club level, adult interaction is a minimum of once a month for about 1 hours. Training volunteers is one reason leadership development has become an integral part of the 4H program (Van Horn, Flanagan, & Thomson, 1998). Adult vol unteers that contribute directly and indirectly affect youth through community clubs by carrying out many roles (Fogarty, Terry, Pracht, & Jordan, 2009). The life skills that are obtained by 4H youth members is very much dependent upon the adult facilita tor An adult volunteer job is to provide a safe learning opportunity where youth feel comfortable to try new things. Adult volunteers are involved with youth in clubs, camps, other residential experiences, and fairs. For quality programs, practition ers need to pay attention to human development in the environment in which 4H members grow. The quality of adult leadership and group climate depends on the adult leadership (Astroth, 1996). A program is classified as promoting bonding if one or more of its components focused on developing the childs relationship with healthy adult, positive peers, school, community, or culture.

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30 It is recognized that youth relationships with adults are important for youth to reach their fullest potential (Paisley & Fer rari, 2005; Eccles & Gootman, 2002; Fogarty, Terry, Pracht & Jordan, 2009). In a study of youthadult relationships in a 4H after school program by Paisley and Ferrari (2005), scores were found to range from 2.63 to 2.79 on a 3point scale in categories of trust in adults, adults encourage me, adults care about me, and emotional support. The adult interaction was mainly oneon one or a ratio of 1:6. Based on the findings, these researchers support the benefits of long term interaction with adults. Jones and Perkins, (2005) advocate a fivepoint continuum of youthadult relationships: adult centered leadership, adult led collaboration, youthadult partnership, youthled collaboration, and youthcentered leadership. Adult centered is defined as adult led, adult led collaboration is where adult provide guidance, youthadult partnership equal decisionmaking skills are used, youthled collaboration youth primary lead activities, and youthcentered are youth only led activities with no adults. The researcher s found that youthadult partnership interaction had the highest positive outcome. In addition a ny interaction with adults is perceived to be the better than no relationships with adults in a youth program (Jones and Perkins, 2005; Flage, Vettern, Schmidt and Eighmy, 2010; and Bruce, Webster, and Hoover, 2006). For youth to obtain their fullest potential from the Florida 4H programs quality int eraction between youth and adults needs to take place. Adults in 4H can have a relationship with youth, directl y or indirectly, providing youth a safe environment to practice their skills. The best results for positive youth development occur in youthadult partnerships (Paisley and Ferrari, 2005).

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31 Summary In this literature review, all objectives have been represented: club, camping, and adult interaction. Professionals recognize 4H clubs (Astroth & Haynes, 2002 ; Learner, et al., 2005; Rodriguez, et al. 1999; Thomas, 2004) and residential camping programs (Duncan, 2000; Garst & Bruce, 2003; Marsh, 1999) as an instrument of a positive youth development experience. Florida 4H promotes the development of multiple life skill outcomes within the club program. The core set of skills include communication; relationship skills, including tolerance, diversity; planning organizing and teamwork; leadership and civic engagement (Jordan, 2007). Some of the skill sets that the Florida 4 H Camping program targets are self responsibility; self confidence; social skills; and diversity and respect (Jordan, et al., 2008). Th erefore, residential camping could have added positive impacts on youth. The interaction that youth have with adults also plays an important role in helping youth obtain these life skills (Fogarty et al ., 2009; Paisley and Ferrari, 2005). Club and cam ping environments for p ositive y outh d evelopment and life skill development are fundamental program deliveries in Florida 4H. From literature of previous studies, both community clubs and camping programs can have an effect on the life skills obtain through being involved in these programs. However, no research was found that demonstrated that youth life skills increased as a result of the combined experiences of youth within the 4H program. The intention of this study is to investigate the difference i n life skills obtained in those club members that participate in the camping program.

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32 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Purpose The purpose of this study is to compare the perceived life skills of two groups of participants within the Florida 4H program. Group one: Florida 4H participants with club and camping experiences, and Group two: Florida 4H participants with only club experiences. Additionally, youth perceptions of adult volunteer support within these learning environments will be studied. Research Qu estions 1. To what degree do Florida 4H youth club members with residential camping experience show an enhancement in life skills compared to 4H club members that have no residential camping experience? 2. To what degree is there a difference in the perceptions of adult support in residential camping experience versus club experience for club members who attended both? Hypotheses Hypothesis 1: Florida 4 H Club members with camping experiences will exhibit higher life skills than those who only participated in club experiences. Hypothesis 2: There will be no significant difference in the perceptions of adult support for club members within club environments as compared to camp environments. Research Design This descriptive research uses an ex post facto comparat ive group design to investigate the differences of reported life skill development between 4H participants with club experiences and camp experience and those participants with club only experiences. This study used existing data collected from the 2007 s tatewide program evaluation. The participants in the evaluation were not randomly selected and include only data from counties and youth that voluntarily participated. Therefore, the results

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33 cannot be generalized beyond the participating respondents and sc ope of the available survey data. In addition to exploring the differences in life skills between those club members who had additional camping experience compare to those who did not, a twoway ANOVA was run to see if demographics and the support from adult volunteers had an impact on the life skill learned for campers and noncampers. Population and Sample Within the Florida 4H Youth Development Program during 2007 program year, there were 263,000 youth involved as 4H members. In Florida, 67 counties of fer 4 H club programs and 61 counties offer 4H residential camping programs (91%) to the 4H members in their county. There is an average of six weeks of county and specialty camps at each of the four 4H residential camping centers. Each county is assi gned a week at one of the four Florida 4H Camping Centers that are geographically accessible to youth across the state. During any given week of residential camp, one to six counties will participate together in a camping program that involves intentional skill building experiences with lots of fun. There are a total of 26,063 4 H members enrolled in 2007 program year in organized clubs (community, inschool, after school, and military) and 10,008 adult volunteers. This represents the population of youth for this study. Within this study a convenience sample was used to collect programmatic evaluation data of youth 4H club members and their adult volunteers during the 2007 program year. A total of 702 4H club members and 363 adult volunteers completed and returned the instrument. These respondents represented 24 of the 67 Florida counties. Appendix A provides a table of the actual 4H club members and camping

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34 participants during the program year, representing the potential population of participants w ith a breakdown of the club members participating in the survey. Youth respondents to the survey, however could have participated in camping for more than one year, therefore this one year snapshot of camping participation may not be reflective of the t rue population under study. Overall of the 702 club members, 294 replied yes to going to overnight camp (44.3%) and 368 did not camp (55.7%). Survey Instruments and Data Collection Survey Instrument In the fall of 2005, the Florida 4H Program Evaluati on of Positive Development of Youth was designed to assess 4H youth club member and adult club volunteers perceptions of the skills, opportunities and learning environments provided to youth through the Florida 4H Youth Development Program. In 200506, this study focused solely on the 4H club members and the life skills of club participation. The survey was used to collect self reported data on participants perceptions and opinions about: 1) skills they have learned as a result of their 4H experiences; 2) their perceptions of the learning environments; 3) adult support within their 4H club experiences; and 4) their 4H activities and event participation for the year. Th i s researcher, between the 20042005 4H program years, also pilot tested a sim ilar instrument with 4H camp participants, staff and volunteers regarding life skills of youth participating in the camping program and added changes to the 2007 instrument. As a result of these studies, a refined instrument combining the two learning environments was developed, cross indexing the two instruments and revising the listing of life skills. The annual 4 H Program Evaluation survey was revised, in collaboration with this researcher in 2007, to support inclusion of broader skill sets for

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35 the 4H camping program and to dually assess the adult support within the camping program environments in addition to clubs. Additional life skill statements, resulting from the literature, relating to self responsibility and an increased focus on tolerance and respecting the rights of others were added for a total of 37 items representing life skills. The 37 statements were designed to capture 4H members assessment of life skills developed or enhanced as result of their experiences in 4H. The survey used a 4point Likert scale with 1 being not at all; 2 a little; 3 some; and 4 a lot asking youth their perceptions. The second major revision to the 2005 survey instrument was the addition of a second set of the 21 questions used for youth to rate the volunteer adult support in clubs. This column was repeated for those youth who attended summer residential camps to rate the adult support they received within this additional 4H experience. Likewise, a 4point scale used the same response categories with 1 being not at all; 2 a little; 3 some; and 4 a lot to items related to the support youth received from the adults in the program. A copy of the revised survey is included in Appendix B. The survey collected demographic information regarding gender, residence, schooling and ethnicity to be used to describe the respondents. It also asked 4H participants their participation, using yes or no responses, to various supplemental experiences, including 4 H residential camping. Data Collection The data accessible to the researcher was gathered from 4H club members age 8 to 18 during 2007 4H program year. All 67 counties in Florida were invited to participate in the study; the goal was 30 youth and 30 adult volunteers from each county. This study used a convenience sample. The survey was distributed to county

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36 faculty statewide, 24 counties replied. Agents self selected participants and distributed the survey to the participants within their counties. The researcher did not have control over the dist ribution and acknowledges this as a major limitation of the study. Without any distribution lists accessible, the researcher had no control of nonrespondents and was unable to follow up with them. A Youth Data Collection Protocol was provided und er IRB 2006U 0713 to the facilitator to review before distributing the survey. Some of the protocol included checking consent forms, how to fill out a bubble sheet, and letting participants know they did not have to fill out the evaluation and may stop w ithout any consequences. The data collection protocol is presented in Appendix C. Data Analysis For the dependent variable of life skills under study, the researcher began by using the previously developed constructs created and reported by Jordan, et al (2007). The four skill sets defined by previous reports were: 1) Tolerance, Diversity and Relationships with others (TDR); 2) Planning, Organizing and Teamwork Development (POT); 3) Self responsibility, Self Reliance and Ability to Make Positive Choices (SELF); 4) Communication, Leadership and Workforce Preparation (CLW). The researcher conducted a factor analysis of each construct using SPSS Version 18. Tables 31 through 34 present the factor loadings of the five life skills constructs resulting from the factor analysis. Tolerance, Diversity and Relationships with Others (TDR). The construct of Tolerance, Diversity and Relationships with Others measures the ability to be respectful and acceptance of others cultures, ethnicity, values, and belief s. After running factor analysis on this set of variables one component was derived. The

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37 component had an Eigenvalue of 3.021 and it represented 43.2% of the variation within the model (Table 31). Table 31 Tolerance, Diversity and Relationships (TDR) Development Item Factor Loading Relationship skills .435 .450 .370 .496 .457 .461 .352 Try to see anothers point of view Friends with people different from me Get along better with youth and adults Respects others different ideas Treat people t hat are different with respect Make and keep friends The factor analysis yielded an Eigenvalue of 3.021 which explained 43.2% of the model variation. Alpha index reliability was .79. Planning, Organizing and Teamwork (POT). The construct of Planning Organizing and Teamwork nine items measured the skills or process of planning and giving structure for participants for group and individuals acting together as a team. After running factor analysis on this set of variables one component was derived. The component had an Eigenvalue of 3.729 and it represented 41.44% of the variation within the model (Table 32). Table 32 Plannning, Organizing and Teamwork skills (POT) Item Factor Loading Planning ahead .332 .373 .485 .462 .462 .377 .387 .443 .408 Willing to follow others for team success Listen to what other have to say Accept different opinions Make decisions for myself Organization time, money, etc Better at set and reach goals Flexible and open to change Improved ability to work as team The factor analysis yielded an Eigenvalue of 3.729 which explained 41.4% of the model variation. Alpha index reliability was .84.

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38 Self responsibility, Self Reliance and Ability to Make Positive Choices (SELF). The construct of Self Responsibility Self Reliance and Ability to Make Positive Decisions and Choices is defined as the ability of young people to be responsible and rely on ones self to make confident decisions from a number of possibilities. There were eight items that was included in t his construct. After running factor analysis on this set of variables one component was derived. The component had an Eigenvalue of 3.477 and it represented 43.46% of the variation within the model (Table 33). Table 33 Self Responsibility, Self Relian ce and Ability to Make Positive Decisions and Choices (SELF) Item Factor Loading Think about actions others .407 .476 .580 .474 .368 .349 .423 .399 Show responsibility for actions Respects rights and property of others Say no to risks and dangers Think before acting Stay away from trouble Trust others and be trustworthy Follow through with commitments The factor analysis yielded an Eigenvalue of 3.477 which explained 43.5% of the model variation. Alpha index reliability was .83. Communic ation, Leadership and Workforce Preparation (CLW). The construct of Communication, Leadership, Workforce Preparation is defined in this study as skills related to public speaking, learning different leadership skills that can help with future career choices. After running factor analysis on this set of 11 variables one component was derived. The component had an Eigenvalue of 4.977 and it represented 45.25% of the variation within the model (Table 34). Likewise, factor analysis was used to analyze the 21 items rating the youths perceptions of volunteer support. In previous reports of this study, two factors were

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39 used Adult Individual Support or Mentoring to youth and Adult Behavior Management with the group environments. Table 34 Communication, Lea dership, Workforce Preparation Skills (CLW) Item Factor Loading Public speaking .470 .565 .461 Learning different leaderships situations Value service to my community Self confidence .494 .471 .375 .467 .455 .380 .458 .381 Future career choices L earning to delegate responsibilities others Leadership skills among peers Improving communications skills Help other youth lead a group activity Learning work related skills Conflict skills/better at dealing with conflicts The factor analysis yielded an Eigenvalue of 4.98 which explained 45.3% of the model variation. Alpha index reliability was .88. In this analysis, factor analysis resulted in two factors but with a shift in two items falling more effectively in the construct of Individual S upport rather than in the Group Management Construct. The items that were a better fit in the first construct were: adults provide age appropriate and fun, interesting things I can do and adults understand a youths point of view. Table 35 and 36 p resents the factor loadings on these two constructs. Internal reliability of these scales of measurement was analyzed producing a Cronbachs alpha coefficient for each respectively: Adult Individual Support with 15 items has an alpha coefficient of .95; Adult Behavior Management with the Group Environment (6 items) has an alpha coefficient of .85. To answer the research questions and test the hypotheses of this study, the data analyses consisted of descriptive statistics of the demographics (age, gender, et hnicity, location and education) of the two groups under study: 4H participants with only club experiences and participants with club and camp experiences.

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40 Table 35 Individual Support for Youth N= 294 Scale Items Factor Loadings Encourages me to take leadership roles and help succeed .804 Helps me feel important .737 Recognizes me for my accomplishments .785 Invite to share what they think about things .796 Helps me with goal setting, decisions, recordkeeping .781 Helps me feel important .737 Age appropriate provides fun, interesting things I can do .734 Feel like belongs to a special group .740 Listens to us .764 Talks with me/members when we have problems .755 Understands a youth point of view .736 Encourage youth participation o utside of county .672 Sets high expectations for me .687 Provide info and skills to help with projects .690 The factor analysis yielded an Eigenvalue of 7.82 for the Individual Support explaining 55.8% of the variance of the model. Table 36 Behavior Management Within Group Environment N=294 Scale Items Factor Loadings Keeps youth from bullying each other .759 Manages conflict between youth .768 Keeps youth from hurting other feelings .759 Makes us act appropriately .677 Make sure activities are safe .638 Involves different cultural/ethic youth .634 The Eigenvalue for Behavior Management was 4.14, explaining 51.71% of the variance. Independent t tests were the statistical analyses conducted to compare the differences for these two groups on th e dependent variables to answer the first research question under study. Twoway ANOVAs were used to test for the interaction effects of the demographic variables on the life skill development. To answer the second research question regarding the percepti ons of adult support comparison with club and camping

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41 experiences, a paired t test was used to test for differences. To further explore any differences due to the volunteer club support, a oneway ANCOVA was used to test for the interaction effects of over all club volunteer support between those youth who camped and those who did not.

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42 CHAPTER 4 RESEARCH RESULTS Demographics There were 702 youth that responded from 24 counties. There were 412 female and 189 males. There were 466 Caucasian (79%), 30 Af rican Americans (5%), 16 Hispanics (2.7%), 6 Asian (1%), and 71 (12.1%) other. Youth were between 8 and 18 years of age, with an average age of 13 years. There were 320 (58%) youth in public schools, 60 (11%) in private and 173 (31%) were in home school. The majority of youth resided in rural areas (285), 179 in small towns, 141in urban areas and 2 in other. Table 4.1 presents the demographic findings. Table 4 1 Demographics of Participants Club Members Participation in 4 H Summer Camp A core objective was to find out how many club members had participated in overnight camping. The participants were asked to check 4H activities they had Number of Participants Percentage Mean Gender (n=601) Female 412 68.6 Male 189 31.4 Ethnic Group(n=589) Caucasian 466 79.1 African American 30 5.1 Hispanic 16 2.7 Asian 6 1.0 Other 71 12.1 Age 13 School (n=553) Public 320 57.9 Private 60 10. 8 Home 173 31.3 Residence (n=607) Rural 285 47.0 Small town 179 29.5 Urban area 141 23.2 Other 2 0.3

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43 participated in during the year. There were 294 (44.3%) that said they had experienced 4 H overnight camp(s) and 368 (55.4%) that had not. Youth response to t his survey question formed the two groups for comparison as the independent variable used in testing the hypotheses of this study. Life Skills of Club Members Youth responded to 37 statements indicating a rating of their perceptions of life skills acquire d as a result of their 4H experiences. T he life skills items were divided into four skill sets: Tolerance, Diversit y and Relationships Development ; Planning, Organi zing and Teamwork ; Self responsibility and Ability to Make Positive Choices; and Communica tion, Leadership and Workforce Preparation. Tolerance, Diversity and Relationships with Others The seven statements that created this skill set are presented in T able 42. For each item the means are presented for those 4H members who only participated in club experiences and those youth who did both. An independent t test was run to see if there was a significant difference in life skills of the two groups for this skill set. The t value was 2.50 with a pval ue of p youth who participate in 4H club and 4 H overnight camp experiences (mean=24.66), as compared to those who only participated in club experiences (mean =24.01). Planning, Organizing and Team work Development The nine statements creating the Planning, Organizing and Teamwork (POT) skill set, with individual item means, are presented in T able 43. The scale mean for those members who camped was 31.02 compared to 30.15 for those who did not. An independent t test was run t o see if there was a significant difference in life skills of the two groups. The t value was 2.67 with a pvalue of p

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44 enhancement of life skills in youth who have participated in 4H club and 4H overnight camp activitie s. Table 4 2 TDR: Tolerance, Diversity and Relationships with Others Means for Youth with Club and Camping Experiences Means for Youth with Only Club Experiences Sig. (2 tailed) Group Statistics 24.66 24.01 .013 Respect ideas from others 3.57 3.4 5 Am friends with people who are different from me 3.58 3.45 Treat people who are different from me with respect 3.66 3.60 Try to see another persons point of view 3.35 3.24 Am making and keeping new friends 3.55 3.41 Am learning relationships b uilding skills 3.36 3.20 Can get along better with other youth and adults 3.59 3.51 Table 4 3 POT: Planning, Organizing and Teamwork Development Means for Youth with Club and Camping Experiences Means for Youth with Only Club Experiences Sig. (2 t ailed) Group Statistics 31.02 30.15 .008 Improved my ability to work as a member of a team/group 3.62 3.48 Am better at setting and reaching my own goals 3.39 3.18 Am learning to be flexible and open to change 3.35 3.29 Am learning to organize my t ime, money and other resources 3.25 3.23 Am improving my decision making skills 3.50 3.23 Have learned to accept opinions different from mine 3.41 3.48 Am willing to follow others for the success of the team 3.57 3.41 Am learning to listen carefull y to what others have to say 3.48 3.30 Am better at planning ahead 3.29 3.31

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45 It is interesting to note that youth who did not have the camping experiences did have a higher mean in two items, have learned to accept opinions different from mine and are better at planning ahead which may reflect that these skills are more suitable outcomes from youth experiences in club work where they do more planning of their own events and work more closely with peers over time to discover and experience differences of opinions. Self Responsibility, Self Reliance and Ability to Make Positive Decisions and Choices The eight statements creating the Self Responsibility sub scale, with individual scale item and group means, are presented in Table 44. The one item t hat the noncamping group reported as higher was staying away from people who might get me in trouble. For this life skill subset, the overall mean for those members who camped was 24.59 as compared to 24.10 for those who did not camp. An independent t test was run to test for statistical differences in life skills of the two groups. The t value was 1.87 with a pvalue of.062, indicating no statistical difference at a 95% confidence level. Communication, Leadership, Workforce Preparation Skills The 11 statements that made up this life skill set are presented in Table 45 with means calculated for each item for both groups of youth participants in the study. An independent t test was use to determine if there was a significant difference in life ski ll means (37.77 and 36.04) of the two groups. The t value was 3.59 with a pvalue of p .003; this indicates a perceived increase of life skills in youth who participate in 4H club and 4H overnight camp activities.

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46 Summary of Life Skill Development For each subscale analysis, while only slight practical ch anges in measures were evident in the mean scores between the two groups, when t tests were conducted these changes were statistically significant for three out of the four subscales. As expected overall, the life skills of youth did seem to be enhanced by their added involvement of camping experiences, as reflected in the total means of 122.7 and 118.6. An independent t test was run on the combined totals of the two groups to test the hypothesis under study. The overall t test resulted in t value of 3.06 which was statistically significant (p. T able 45. This finding supports the first hypothesis of this study. Table 4 4 SELF: Self Responsibility, Self Reliance and Ability to Make Positive Decisions and Choices Means for Youth wit h Club and Camping Experiences Means for Youth with Only Club Experiences Sig. (2 tailed) Group Statistics 24.59 24.10 .062 Stay away from people who might get me in trouble 3.33 3.37 Have learned to trust others and be trustworthy 3.52 3.40 Learne d to follow through with my commitments 3.54 3.46 Can think through the good and bad results of different decisions before acting 3.35 3.27 Learned to be more responsible for my own actions 3.49 3.41 Respect the rights and property of others 3.65 3.5 8 Think about how my actions will affect others 3.51 3.44 Can say no when someone wants me to do things I know are wrong and dangerous 3.61 3.58

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47 Table 4 5 CLW: Communication, Leadership, Workforce Preparation Skills Means for Youth with Club and Camping Experiences Means for Youth with Only Club Experiences Sig. (2 tailed) Group Statistics 37.77 36.04 .000 Help other youth to lead a group activity 3.34 3.10 Am better at dealing with conflicts 3.25 3.08 Am improving my communication skil ls 3.45 3.38 Am learning work related skills 3.45 3.31 Learned about future career choices 3.38 3.18 Am learning different styles of leadership for different situations 3.53 3.38 Am learning to delegate or share responsibilities with others 3.50 3. 31 Improved my public speaking skills 3.57 3.24 Increased my confidence in myself 3.53 3.38 Am more involved in providing service to my community 3.50 3.31 Have gained skills to be a leader among any peers 3.57 3.24 Since differences in life ski ll development did exist for those members who camped and did not, further analyses were used to explore any interaction effects between life skill development and the demographics of the participants and the amount of club vo lunteer support they received. To explore the impact of demographics: age, gender, ethnicity, school and residency on life skills of club members who camped, a two way ANOVA analysis was calculated. As recommended by Pallant (2007) a significance level of .01 was used for evaluating t hese analyses.

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48 Table 4 6 Life Skill Development between Club Members with and without Camping Experience Group Statistics For Life Skills Participated In Camp N Mean Standard Deviation df Sig. (2 tailed) TDR yes 285 24.66 2.94 625 .013 no 342 24.01 3 .49 POT yes 277 31.02 3.72 612 .008 no 337 30.15 4.42 SELF yes 277 24.59 2.89 628 .062 no 353 24.10 3.72 CLW yes 272 37.77 5.32 608 .003 no 338 36.04 6.32 Total Life Skills yes 243 122.7 12.77 534 .001 no 293 118.6 16.89 Ages of the youth participants were 8 to 18 yrs of age. For the interaction effect, there was no statistical significance for age F (12,488) =1.27 and p =.23 and the main effect F(12,488) = 1.05 and p = .35. Gender was stated as male or female. For the interaction effect, there was no statistical significance, F (2,467) = 0.59 and p=.56 and the main effect F (2,467) = .07 and p = .80. Ethnicity was recoded and divided into two groups white and other ethnicities. Other ethnicities included African American, Hispan ic, Asian, and youth who consider their ethnicity to other/mixed. There was no statistical significance for the interaction effects, F (1,463) = 3.13 and p=.08. There was not a significant difference for the main effect of ethnicity F= (2,463) = 1.33 and p=.25, revealing no differences between the two groups of youth in 4H environments regarding ethnicity. School was divided into public school, private school or home school. There was no statistical significance for the interaction effects F (3,437) =1. 32 and p=.27. There was no statistically significant main effect for schooling F (2,437) = 1.06 and p= .20. Residence was divided into 4 groups: group 1 rural; group 2 small town; group 3 urban; group 4 other. There was no statistical significance, F (3,465) =.12 and p=

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49 0.95 for the interaction effect between residence of youth and the two groups. Testing for the main effects F (3,465) =.29 and p=.84, the twoway ANOVA results revealed none for residence of the youth. A one way between group analys es of covariance was conducted to test if there were differences in life skill outcomes of club members who camped or did not camp due to the level of volunteer support. The independent variable was camping versus noncamping. The dependent variable was the total life skill score. Preliminary checks were conducted to ensure that there was no violation of the assumptions of normality, linearity, homogeneity of variances, homogeneity of regression slopes and reliable measurement of the covariate. After adjusting for level of volunteer support, there was no significant differences existing between the two groups of life skill F (2, 349) = 2.095, p=.125, partial eta squared = .01. There was a moderate relationship between the volunteer support and life ski ll development scores indicated by a partial eta squared value of .326. Table 46 shows the unadjusted mean and standard deviation and the adjusted mean and the standard error for the two groups. Table 47 Life Skill Development of 4Hers Adjusted f or Club Volunteer Support Overnight Camped N Unadjusted Mean Std. Deviation Adjusted Mean Std. Error Yes 177 122.67 12.86 122.72 .92 No 174 120.38 16.83 120.41 .93 Youth Perceptions of Adult Interactions within Club and Camp Environments The youth per ceptions of the adults within the two learning environments were assessed with 21 items on the survey. These items were factor analyzed, as previously presented in Chapter 3, resulting in two subscales of youthadult interactions and being

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50 referred to as Adult Individual Support to youth and Adult Behavior Management within the group environments. To address the second research question under study, the responses of only those who participated in both club and camping are used in this analysis. Descri ptive statistics were used to analyze each subscale representing the youth perceptions of adult support in clubs and camps. Table 46 presents the mean scores for each of the 16 items representing adults individual mentoring and support to youth in both c lub and camping environments. Means scores for individual scale items reveal slightly higher ratings of adult support from their club volunteers than they experienced for adults within the camp environment. Likewise, Table 47 presents the individual item scores of club members rating the adults behavior management within the group environments. To test the second hypothesis of the study regarding perceived adult interactions between the two 4H environments, a paired t test was used. Youth mean ratings of adults Individual Support of club volunteers was 54.5 compared to 53.4 for the Individual Support received from adults at camp. This difference was statistically significant (t=3.36, df=194, p=.001); however, they did not report any statistically significant changes (t=.78, df=214, p=.438) for the Behavior Management by adults within the groups; therefore, failing to support the hypothesis completely. Table 48 presents the paired t test results. Summary of Findings Descriptive analyses and t tests re vealed a gain in life skills for 4H youth that participate in club and camping environments. Twoway ANOVAs were used to investigate the interaction and main effects of the demographic variables with the life

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51 skill development of club members that camped and those that did not. No statistical differences existed for any of the demographic variables or club volunteer support. Comparison of the adult interactions between club volunteers and adults at camp, by 4Hers who had experienced both environments, revealed higher levels of support from adult volunteers in the club environment than camp for the area Individual Support while Group Behavior Management skills of the adults was consistent between the two environments, revealing no differences. Further conclusions and interpretations will be presented in Chapter 5. Table 48 Adult Individual Support for 4Hers within Club and Camp Environments Scale Items Adult Support for Club Environment Adult Support for Camp Environment N Mean N Mean Encourage me to take leadership roles and helps succeed 226 3.64 208 3.52 Helps me feel important 225 3.57 207 3.50 Recognizes me for my accomplishments 226 3.65 208 3.57 Invite to share what they think about things 226 3.51 206 3.48 Helps me with goal setti ng, decisions, recording 226 3.54 209 3.47 Encourages me to take leadership roles and helps succeed 226 3.63 207 3.53 Helps me feel important 224 3.56 213 3.46 Age approp provides, fun, interesting things I can do 226 3.69 206 3.73 Feel like belong s to a special group 226 3.56 213 3.46 Listens to us 226 3.58 209 3.52 Talks with me/members when we have problems 223 3.60 207 3.49 Understands a youth point of view 226 3.51 208 3.45 Encourage youth participation outside of county 226 3.58 209 3.39 Sets high expectations for me 225 3.64 206 3.54 Provide info and skills to help with projects 223 3.57 211 3.48

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52 Table 49 Youth Ratings of Adult Behavior Management within Club and Camp Environments Scale Items Adult Support for Club Environment Adult Support for Camp Environment N Mean N Mean Keeps youth from bullying each other 225 3.62 210 3.58 Manages conflicts between youth 226 3.62 211 3.55 Keeps youth from hurting other feelings 226 3.50 212 3.51 Makes us act appropriately 224 3.67 20 9 3.68 Makes sure activities are safe 226 3.76 211 3.73 Involves different cultural/ethnic youth 225 3.56 213 3.58 Table 4 10 Differences in Club Members who camped Perceptions of Adults Interactions for Club and Camp Environments Paired Sample Statis tics N Mean Std. Deviation Mean Difference Sig. (2 tailed) Pair 1 Adult Individual Support in Clubs Adult Individual Support at Camp 195 195 54.5 53.4 7.05 7.80 1.11 .001 Pair 2 Adult Behavior Management in Clubs Adult Behavior Manag ement at Camp 215 215 21.7 21.6 2.73 3.04 .10 .438

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53 CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION Purpose of Study The purpose of this study was to determine if Florida 4H club members were enhancing their life skill development by including residential camping into their method of learning. Existing data was used from a 2007 program year statewide evaluation. The youth participants were ages eight to eighteen who were enrolled as Florida 4H Community Club members. There were 702 youth and adult respondents from 24 of the 67 counties (36%) in Florida that responded to an annual Florida 4H Program Evaluation survey. The independent variables in the study were the 4H club member respondents that camped and those that did not camp. The dependent variables m easured were life skills and respondents perceptions of adult support and interaction. Data collection procedures were followed precisely as described in Chapter 3. Limitations The participants in the evaluation were not randomly selected and include only data from counties and youth that voluntarily participated. Therefore, the results cannot be generalized beyond the participating respondents and scope of the available survey data. Measurement of life skills through youth self reports may have more measurement error than other measurements of life skills. Conclusions Life Skill Development from Club and Camp Experiences The first objective of this study was to investigate the enhancement of life skills of youth engagement in both club and camp experiences by 4H members as

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54 compared to clubonly experiences. Life skills were categorized into four skill sets: Tolerance, Diversity and Relationships Development; Planning, Organizing and Teamwork; Self responsibility and Ability to Make Positive Choices ; and Communication, Leadership and Workforce Preparation. The overall means for the Life skills of youth engaged in club and camping was 122.7 compared to a mean of 118.6 for those members who did not camp. An independent t test was used to test for diff erences between these groups, revealing a significant difference (p< .01). This finding supports the first hypothesis of this study. While no other studies have been done providing evidence of the enhancement of life skills through valueadded program experiences like camping, there have been other studies that have identified aspects of the 4H program that has produced increased life skills (Ward, 1996; Boyd, Herring, and Briers, 1992; and Garst, et. al., 2006). Camp can contribute to a childs devel opment (Marsh, 1999). Through the camping experience youth learn more life skills through fun activities without realizing they are engaged in intentionally planned educational experiences. At camp, they get outdoors to enjoy nature and leave behind the television, computers, video games, and cell phones. They take risk by trying new things in a safe environment while having fun. The 4 H camping program brings about positive change in youth (Garst and Johnson, 2005; Garton, Miltenbergere, and Pruett, 2007; American Camp Association, 2005; and Garst and Johnson, 2003). For example, 4H alumni said that they gained life skills such as accepting differences, teamwork, self responsibility, and public speaking while involved in 4H (Maass, Wilken, Jordan, Culen, and Place, 2006; Fitzpatrick, Gagne, Jones, Lobley, and Phelps, 2005). While Garton, Miltenberger, and Pruetts (2007)

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55 study reported that campers said they learned self responsibility, leadership, and to accept differences as a part of their camping experience. Descriptive analyses and t tests were used to compare the mean scores of the groups and revealed two significant findings. However, it is important to know that while statistical differences existed in three out of the four skill sets, overall the practical differences in the scores were very slight. The researcher recognizes that residential camping, while intense, remains a oneweek experience and any added value resulting from this additional youth experience might be slight. Of the f our skill sets, the greatest gain in life skills for 4H youth with club and camp experience was in Communication, Leadership, and Workforce Preparation Skills & Self efficacy (p and workforce preparation skills were a result from the program via club and camping experiences. In Florida 4H, camping is often promoted to youth as a leadership opportunity. Many ca mpers strive to become a camp counselor and likewise county faculty often uses this camp leadership opportunity to recruit new teens into the program. The least enhancement of life skills was in the skill set Self responsibility, Self Reliance and Abi lity to Make Positive Decisions and Choices resulting in no statistical differences for this subset of life skills for those club members with or without camping. In a club experience the youth have more self responsibility and decisions to make; i.e., choosing a project to engage in and following through with commitments for a variety of club responsibilities. Because of the longevity of a club member (sometimes up to eight years), youth learn about how their actions will affect others within their group and learn

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56 how to trust others and be trustworthy. However, the camping environment does provide an opportunity for youth for to learn about respecting the property of others. Young people are put in a small space with 4 to 9 other youth in a shared room with little privacy or security for personal property. This experience creates the need for personal ethics and ability to trust others with your property. What seems even more significant is that further analyses of demographics or the volunteer s upport that club members experienced had any associations with the life skill development differences between the youth who camped and those that not. Thus while no causality can be established from this study, associations due exist that suggests the value added experience of camp can influence youths greater sense of skill accomplishments among the variables tested. Perceptions of Adults Support and Behavioral Management Skills The second objective of this study was to determine the youths perspective of adults roles in club and camp environments. This was measured by 21 items on the survey that were categorized into two factors referred to as Adult Individual Support to youth and Adult Behavior Management within the group environment. Results fr om a paired t test revealed that youth perceived slightly more individual support in a club environment (p the hypothesis was only partially supported. Youth perceptions that they had a s lightly higher level of individual support within their club environments than they experienced at camp is not surprising when one takes into consideration that most club youth are able to have a oneto one relationship with their adult club volunteer prov iding them help on projects over a long period of time. In contrast, in the camp environment youth are put into groups to participate in activities and have limited contact with an adult oneon one.

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57 Adults roles are to provide a safe learning opportunity for youth to feel comfortable and try new things in club and residential camping experiences. Within the area of adult management of behavior within the group environments, a very positive outcome is that youth experienced no differences in how adults manage behavior characteristics. Many of these adult roles are necessary for youth to experience a safe and secure environment for maximizing positive youth development. Adults who run an autonomy oriented club are effective in helping youth develop life skills such as decisionmaking, how to get along with others, and responsibility (Astroth, 1996). Camps are more closely monitored for risk factors due to the residential camp setting. Long term clubs have had time to set guidelines of what is expected from its members; this could explain the similarities in perceptions of behavioral management. Summary In summary, this study does support many of the tenets of current theories of positive youth development by offering more than one method of learning life skills that will help participants develop competencies that will enable them to grow to develop their skills and become healthy, responsible, and caring youth and adults (Roth and Brooks Gunn, 2003). Roth identified three characteristics of theory and research that set youth programs apart. They are: 1) program goals (intentionality as defined by Walker, 2006); 2) program atmosphere (club or residential camp); 3) program activities (specifically designed for skill development). This study suppor ts these three areas in that camping has a program goal to increase life skill development of youth. The camping environment provides specific activities that teach youth teamwork such as canoeing and other outdoor adventure challenges. Self responsibilit y is taught by a youth being responsible for cleaning up after oneself in a cabin setting at camp.

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58 Residential camp appears to contribute to higher levels of tolerance, diversity and relationships. Educational Implications of the Study The following program implications are recommended as a result of this study: Continue to identify and focus on specific life skills that can be enhanced through specific activities within a week of residential camping experience. Market information from this study to par ents of the importance of residential camping experiences added to their childs club experience. Market information from this study to potential donors of the importance of the residential camping experiences as added life skill development among youth cl ub experiences. Seek more scholarship funding for minority youth to attend camp, since for many families the cost may be the primary reason for limited attendance. Recommendations for Further Study The first recommendation would be to conduct a more comprehensive and longitudinal study establishing an experimental design to investigate more closely the valueadded benefits of camping for 4H club members. Additionally increasing the ability to generalize findings by randomly selecting club members withi n future studies would be recommended and increasing the population to include members across states. The second recommendation would be to expand the study to other intensive residential events and activities, such as Congress, Legislature and teen leadership weekends, to determine if they enhance youth development life skill outcomes as does multiple delivery methods of camp or afterschool programs. Regarding adult support and interactions with youth, new mandatory chaperone training for residential experiences (being implemented statewide beginning in 2010)

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59 may provide further opportunities to design more extensive studies to monitor youth perceptions and experiences with adults within the 4H learning environments.

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60 APPENDIX A CAMP ENROLLMENT COUNTY 2007 ACTUAL ENROLLMENT SURVEY PARTICIPANTS CLUB MEMBERS CAMPERS CLUB MEMBERS THAT CAMP CLUB MEMBERS THAT DID NOT CAMP Hernando 308 37 11 9 Pinellas 473 21 14 13 St. Lucie 292 0 15 23 Hillsborough 721 41 3 26 Marion 732 44 22 40 St. Johns 230 52 35 15 Lake 573 84 12 9 Bay 130 42 13 17 Lee 447 25 6 9 Leon 218 97 11 9 Osceola 498 50 2 3 Palm Beach 419 0 0 5 Santa Rosa 206 36 22 8 Seminole 278 39 0 0 Taylor 226 64 3 9 Volusia 579 36 15 10 Pasco 541 45 17 37 Citrus 336 24 10 10 Nassau 245 3 3 10 6 Manatee 560 100 41 55 Liberty 63 38 3 0 Okaloosa 75 22 6 17 Sumter 170 13 7 16 Gadsden 71 28 13 22

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61 APPENDIX B FLORIDA 4 H YOUTH AND ADULT PROGRAM EVALUATION DATA COLLECTION PROTOCOL

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63 APPENDIX C CONSENT LETTER TO PARENTS/YOUTH SURVEY

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67 LIST OF REFERENCES 20062007 Florida 4H Annual Statistical Snapshot. (2009) Gainesville, University of Florida, Department on Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Extension 4H Program. 4 H National Headquarters USDA. Join 4H!! Retrieved January 22, 2007, from http://www.national4hheadquarters.gov/about/4h_join.htm American Camp Association. (2005). Directions: Youth development outcomes of the camp experience American Camp Association. www.acacamps.org/research/enhance/directions Ainsworth, M. (1989). Attachments beyond infancy. American Psychologist, 44. 709 716. Arnold, M., Bourdeau, V. D., & Nagele, J. (2005). Fun and friendship in the natural world: The impact of Oregon 4H residential camping programs on girl and boy campers. Journal of Extension [On line], 46(6), Article No. 6RIB1. Available at http://www.joe.org/joe/2005december/rb1.shtml Astroth, K. (1996). Leadership in Nonformal Youth Groups: Does Style Affect Youth Outcomes? J ournal of Extension 34(6), [Online] Available at: http://www.joe.org/joe/1996december/rb2.php Astroth, Kirk and Haynes, George. (2002). More than cows and cooking: Newest research shows the i mpact of 4H. Journal of Extension 40 (4) [Online] Available at: http://www.joe.org/joe/2002august/a6.php Bailey, S. J., & Deen, M. Y. (2002). Development of a webbased evaluation system: a tool for measuring life skills in youth and family programs. Family Relations 51, 138 147. Boyd, B. L., Herring, D. R., & Briers, G. E. (1992). Developing life skills in youth. Journal of Extension[On line], 30(4). Available at: http://www.joe.org/joe/1992winter/a4.html Blyth, D., and Borden, L. (2003, September). Final Report of the National Youth Development Research Response Initiative. Stimulating Research, Promoting Youth Development. Bruce, J., Webster, N. & Hoover, T. (2006). Developing Youth Voice in Service Learning Projects. Journal of Extension [Online], 44(4). Available at: http://www.joe.org/joe/2006august/tt1.php Cornell Un iversity Cooperative Extension. Camping has a positive impact on youth. Retrieved January 22, 2007, from http://www.4hcampsny.org/

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68 Catalano, R., Berglund, M., Ryan, J., Lonczak, H., & Hawkins, J. (1999). Posit ive youth development in the United States: Research findings on evaluations of positive youth development programs. Prevention & Treatment 5 (1), doi:10.1037/15223736.5.1.515a. Catalano, R. F., Hawkins, M., Berglund, L. Pollard, J.A. and Arthur, M.W. (20 02) Journal of Adolescent Health, 31:230239. Damon, W. (2004). What Is Positive Youth Development? Annals of the American Acadamy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 591, Positive Development: Relizing the Potential of Youth (Jan., 2004), pp. 1324. Retrieved September 30, 2010, from http://www.jstore.org/stable/4127632 Diem K. G. and Devitt, A. (2003). Shifting the focus of 4H recording keeping from competition and subject matter to youth development and life skills. Journal of Extension [Online], 41(6). Available at: http://www.joe.org/joe/2003december/iw1.php Duda, S. L. (2009). Leadership and group facilitation skills in Florida 4 H camp counselors. Unpublished Masters theses, Gainesville, FL: University of Florida. Duncan, R.D. (2000). Youth Leadership Life Skills Development of Participants in the West Virginia 4H Camping Program, West Virginia: Morgantown. Durlak, J.A. and W eissberg, R. P. (2007). The impact of after school programs that promote personal and social skills. Chicago.IL: Collaborative for Academic, Social and Emotional Learning Dworkin, J.B., Larson, R. & Hansen, D. (2003). Adolescents Accounts of Growth Experi ences in Youth Activities. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, Vol. 32, No.1, February 2003, pp. 1726. Eccles, J.S. & Barber, B.L. (1999). Student council, volunteering, basketball, or marching band: What kind of extracurricular matters? Journal of Adolesc ent Research. 14: 1043. Eccles, J. S., & Gootman, J. A. (Eds.). (2002). Community programs to promote youth development Washington, DC: National Academy Press Eccles, J.S., & Templeton, J. (2002). Extracurricular and other after school activities for yo uth. Review of Research in Education, 26, 113180. Erickson, E. (1968). Identity, youth and crisis New York: Norton. Ferrari, T.M and McNeely, N.N (2007). Positive Youth Development: Whats Camp Counseling Got to Do With It? Findings from a Study of Ohio 4 H Camp Counselors, Journal of Extension[OnLine]45(2). Available at: http://www.joe.org/joe/2007april/rb7.php

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69 Fitzpatrick,C., Gagne,K.H., Jones, R. and Lobley, J and Phelps, L. (2005) Life Skil ls Development in Youth: Impact Research in Action, Journal of Extension. [Online] 43(3).Available at: http://www.joe.org/joe/2005june/rb1.php Flage, L., Vettern, R., Schmidt, M., and Eighmy, M. (2 010) Can adults accept youth as equal partners in communities? Journal of Extension 48(1). [Online] Available at: http://www.joe.org/joe/2010february/rb5.php Fogarty, K., Terry, B. Pracht, D. and Jordan, J. (2009). Organizational Supports and Youth Life Skill Development: Adult Volunteers as Mentors, Managers and Mediators, Journal of Youth Development 4 (4) [on line] Available at: http://data.memberclicks.com/site/nae4a/JYD_090404final.pdf Fox, J. Schroeder, D. and Lodl, K. (2003) Life Skill Development Through 4H Clubs: The Perspective of 4H Alumni. Journal of Extension [online], 41(6). Available at: http://www.joe.org/joe/2003december/rb2.php Gamon, J., and Dehegedus Hetzel, P. (1994) Swine project skill development Journal of Extension. 32(1) Garst, B. A., & Bruce, F. A. (2003). Identifying 4 H camping outcomes using a standardized evaluation process across multiple 4H educational centers Journal of Extension [On line], 41 (3). Available at: http://www.joe.org/joe/2003june/rb2.shtml Garst, B. A., Hunnings, J.R., Jamison, K., Hairston,J., Meadows, R.R. and Herman, W. (2006). Exploring the adolescent life skill outcomes of state 4H congress participation and the different outcomes of gender and race groups. Journal of Extension [On line], 44(6). Available at: http://www.joe.org/joe/2006december/rb2.php Garst, B., & Johnson, J. (2003). Impacts of residential camp counseling on adolescent leadership skills development. Retrieved from the American Camp Association http://www.acacamps.org/research/03symposium.pdf Garst, B., & Johnson, J. (2005). Adolescent leadership skill development through residential 4H camp counseling Journal of Extension [On line], 43(5), Article No. 5RIB5. Available at: http://www.joe.org/joe/2005october/rb5.shtml Garton, M. S., Miltenberger, M., & Pruett, B. (2007). Does 4H camp influ ence life skill and leadership development? Journal of Extension [On line], 45(4) Article 4FEA4. Available at: http://www.joe.org/joe/2007august/a4.php Gregoire, H. (2004). Gathering Wisdom from 4 H Youth Development Clubs. Journal of Extension [On line], 42(3) Article 3FEA5. Available at: http://www.joe.org/joe/2004june/a5.php

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70 Hedrick, J., Homan, G. and Dick, J. (2009). Exploring the positive impact of the 4H camp on youth: Identifying differences based on a campers gender, years of attendance and age, Journal of Extension. [On line] 47 (6). Available at: http://www.joe.org/joe/ 2009december/a5.php Hendricks, P. (1998). Targeting life skills model. Available at: http://www.extension.iastate.edu/4H/lifeskills/homepage.html Heinsohn, A. L., & Cantrel l, M, J. (1986). Pennsylvania 4H impact study: An evaluation of teen's life skill development. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University. Jones, K. and Perkins, D. (2005). Determining the Quality of YouthAdult Relationships Within Community Bas ed Youth Programs. Journal of Extension [On line] 43 (5). Available at http://www.joe.org/joe/2005october/a5.php Jordan, J. (2007) 2007 Florida 4H Program Evaluation Summar y, Gainesville, FL: Un iversity of Florida Extension. Jordan, J. and Duda, S. (2008). 2008 Florida Residential Camping Evaluation Summary. Retrieved September 30, 2010, from http://florida4h.org/camps/files/ FINALCampEVAL2008.pdf Kress, Cathann A. ( 2007) Frames, Frameworks and Foundations in Youth Development Outreach, Presentation to CYFAR Preconference Ladwig, H. and Thomas, J. K. (1987). Assessing the Impact of 4H on Former Members. The Texas A & M Univ ersity System. Larson, R. W. (2000). Toward a psychology of positive youth development American Psychologist 55 170183. Lerner, R.M. (2005). Promoting Positive Youth Development: Theoretical and Empirical Bases, Institute for Applied Research in Youth Development: Tufts University: A White Paper Prepared for a Workshop on the Science of Adolescent Health and Development, National Research Council, Washington D.C. September Lerner, R., Lerner, J., Almerigi, J., Theokas, C., Phelps, E., Gestsdottir, S., et al. (2005). Positive youth development, participation in community youth development programs, and community contributions of fifthgrade adolescents: Findings from the first wave of the 4H study of positive youth development. Journal of Early Adolesc ence 25 (1), 17 71. doi:10.1177/0272431604272461. Lerner, R., Learner, J., Phelps, E. and et. al. (2008). The Positive Development of Youth. Medford, MA: Tufts University, Institute for Applied Research in Youth Development.

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71 Lewis, S., Murphy, T. and Bak er, M. (2009). The Impact of the 4H Program on Nevada Public School Youth. Journal of Extension [On line] 47 (3). Available at: http://www.joe.org/joe/2009june/rb3.php Mahoney, J. L. Larson, R. W. and Eccles, J. S. (Eds.)( 2005). Organized activities as developmental contexts for children and adolescents. In J.L. Mahoney, R.W. Larson and J.S Eccles (Eds), Organized activities as contexts of development: Extracurricular activities, after school and community programs. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum & Associates, 322. Marsh, P. (1999). What does camp do for kids? Unpublished master's thesis, Indiana University, Bloomington. Retrieved from the American Camp Association Web site http://www.acacamps.org/research/marsh Martz,J. (2007) The camp setting, setting campers up for success. The Camping Magazine, July August Mass, S. E. (2004) A Study of Life Skill Development of the Oklahoma 4H Alumni during the Years of 4H Participation 19691998. Unpublished Masters Thesis: University of Florida. Maass, Wilken, Jordan, Culen, and Place, 2006; Research Findings Show the Impact of 4 H: Montana 4H Research Summary (no date) Bozeman, MT: Published by Montana State University Extension Service National 4H Impact Study. (2001). Prepared and engaged youth. Washington, DC: CSREES/USDA. Paisley, J. and Ferrari, T. (2005). Extent of Positive YouthAdult Relationships in a 4H After School Program. Jou rnal of Extension [On line] 43 (2). Available at: http://www.joe.org/joe/2005april/rb4.php Pallant, J. (2007). SPSS Survival manual. Two Penn Plaza, New York, NY: McGraw Hill Open University Pre ss. Rodriguz, E., Hirschl, T.A., Mead, J.P., & Goggins, S.E. (1999). Understanding the difference 4H clubs make in the lives of New York youth: How 4H contributes to positive youth development. Retrieved November 9, 2010 from http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:http://nys4hstaff.cce.cornell.edu/4 HClubStudy.htm Roth, J. L. & Brooks Gunn, J. (2003). What exactly i s a youth development program? Answers from research and practice. Applied Developmental Science, 7, 94 111.

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72 Simpkins, S. Does Youth Participation in Out of School Time Activities Make a Difference? The Evaluation Exchange: The Harvard Family Research Project, [on line].10(1) Available at: http://www.hfrp.org/evaluation /the evaluation exchange/issuearchive/evaluating out of school time/does youthparticipationin out of school time activities make a difference Theokas, C., Lerner, J., Phelps, E. and Lerner, R. (2006). Cacophony and Change in Youth After School Acti vities: Findings from the 4H Study of Positive Youth Development. Journal of Youth Development, 1, 1 9. Thomas, S. Z. (2004). Positive Youth Development Outcomes among Florida 4H Members Unpublished Masters Thesis, Gainesville, FL: University of Flori da Van Horn, B. E., Flanagan, C. A. & Thomas, J. S. (1998). The first fifty years of the 4H program (Part 1). Journal of Extension [On line]. 36(6). Available at: http://www.joe.org/joe/199 8december/comm2.html Walker, J. (2006). Intentional youth programs: Taking theory to practice. New directions for youth development. 112, 75 92. Walker, J., Marczak, M., Blyth, D., & Borden, L. (2005). Designing youth development programs: Toward a theory of developmental intentionally. In J. Mahoney, R. Larson, & J. Eccles (Eds.), Organized activities as contexts of development Extracurricular activities, after school and community programs (pp. 399418). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Ward C. (1996). Life skill development related to participation in 4H animal science projects. Journal of Extension [On line], 34(2). Available at: http://www.joe.org/joe/1996april/rb2.html Zimmerma n, (2006). Florida 4H Camping Handbook 2006. Retrieved September 30, 2009, from University of Florida, Florida 4H Web site: http://florida4h.org/staff/Files/06_CampingHandbook.pdf

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73 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Wendi Ann Armstrong was born in Dayton, OH in July, 1968. While growing up she participated in soccer, basketball, and softball through high school. She went on to play basketball and softball in college. Wendi attended Valencia Community College, where she received her Associate of Arts degree. She also attended Rollins College where she received her Bachelor of Arts in e nvironmental sciences. While working on her masters degree, Wendi was working at one of the Florida 4 H Cam ping Centers (Camp Ocala) as a Program Director. She was then promoted to Camp Director for one year. She then accepted a job at the University of Florida IFAS Florida 4H as the State Coordinator, Youth Partnership. This position has been a great pleas ure to work with youth in a youth/adult partnership. She plans on continuing her employment with Florida 4H. Wendi has been married to Gregg Armstrong for 1 years and has two children Molly and Trevor Zimmerman.