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Creating the Creator

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0042453/00001

Material Information

Title: Creating the Creator Digital Spaces of Virtual Artistry
Physical Description: 1 online resource (194 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Solomon, Michael
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: composition,creativity,digitial,jankelevitch,music,piaget,virtual
Music -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Music thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Digitally assisted creativity often refers to the process of helping creators be creative in the digital domain. Taking this paradigm as a point of departure, the present document entertains the idea of digital assistants that help creators become more creative. After having first explored the etymological patrimonies of the words 'digitally,' 'assisted,' and 'creative' as they relate to music composition and the arts in general, the dissertation will then develop a theory of the processes through which one could possibly become more creative, concluding with the discussion of a digital tool that facilitates several aspects of the aforementioned theoretical framework.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Michael Solomon.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Koonce, PaulC.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0042453:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0042453/00001

Material Information

Title: Creating the Creator Digital Spaces of Virtual Artistry
Physical Description: 1 online resource (194 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Solomon, Michael
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: composition,creativity,digitial,jankelevitch,music,piaget,virtual
Music -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Music thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Digitally assisted creativity often refers to the process of helping creators be creative in the digital domain. Taking this paradigm as a point of departure, the present document entertains the idea of digital assistants that help creators become more creative. After having first explored the etymological patrimonies of the words 'digitally,' 'assisted,' and 'creative' as they relate to music composition and the arts in general, the dissertation will then develop a theory of the processes through which one could possibly become more creative, concluding with the discussion of a digital tool that facilitates several aspects of the aforementioned theoretical framework.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Michael Solomon.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Koonce, PaulC.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0042453:00001


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CREATINGTHECREATOR:DIGITALSPACESOFVIRTUALARTISTRY By MICHAEL THOMASSOLOMON ADISSERTATIONPRESENTEDTOTHEGRADUATESCHOOL OFTHEUNIVERSITYOFFLORIDAINPARTIALFULFILLMENT OFTHEREQUIREMENTSFORTHEDEGREEOF DOCTOROFPHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITYOFFLORIDA 2010

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c 2010 MichaelThomasSolomon 2

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Thisworkisdedicatedtomyparents,JeffandShannonSolomon,who oninnumerable SundaysduringmypreteenyearsletmetakethebusbymyselftoNewYorkCitysothat IcouldgetrushticketstoseeBroadwaymatinees. 3

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS First andforemost,IwouldliketothankmychairPaulKoonceforanticipatingthe composer,writer,andintellectualthatIwantedandneededtobecomeandadapting histeachingandadvisingtohelpmebecomethatperson.Morethanoncehaveothers whoappreciatewhatbothofusdotoldmethattheywereimpressed,ifnotastonished, thatmymusicandbrainfunctionedentirelyunlikehis.Thisisthemarkofanexcellent pedagogue.Iwouldalsoliketothankthemembersofmycommitteeforbringing diversitytomyeducationattheUniversityofFlorida.PaulRichardstaughtmemanifold lessonsaboutcomposition,counterpoint,post-modernism,orchestration,humor,and compassion.AlexReedtaughtmethattheprofessionofmusictheoryextendswell beyondRomanNumeralanalysis.AndJamesKeesling,afterhavingopenedupthe worldofmathtome,helpedmebehumbleandastuteenoughtogetusedtoit.Lastly, IwouldliketothankApollineRov ereforeffectuatingseveraltransatlanticvoyagesand careerchangesforthesakeofthisdocument.Ilookforwardtoreturningthefavorfrom 2011onwards. 4

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TABLEOFCONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ..................................4 LISTOFTABLES ......................................7 LISTOFFIGURES .....................................8 ABSTRACT .........................................10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ...................................11 2THEDIGITALISVIRTUAL ..............................12 2.1BeforeDigital,ThereWasVirtual .......................12 2.2TheDigitalSelf .................................16 2.3HowToMakeaDigitalTool ..........................21 2.4TowardsAssistance ..............................25 3ASSISTANTS .....................................26 3.1PhysicianAssistedSuicidefromanAssister'sPerspective .........26 3.1.1InappropriateBehavior .........................27 3.1.2PhysicianInadequacy .........................28 3.1.3MedicalParatopia ............................29 3.2AssistanceinCreativity ............................29 4COMPOSITIONI:THEBR UNIAN CREATOR ...................31 4.1CreativityStudies ................................32 4.2DigitalToolsforCreativity ...........................35 4.3Music-Composition-SpecicIssues ......................39 4.4Br unRevisited ................................43 5COMPOSITIONII:THECREATIVEMEDIARY ..................44 5.1TheStimulationofCreativeThought .....................45 5.2Self-ImposedCreativeConstraints ......................46 5.3Br unRe-Revisited ..............................49 5.4VirtualityinMediationandIntermediation ..................52 6COMPOSITIONIII:STRUCTURE/FORMOUTOFTIME/INTIME .....54 6.1StructureandOutofTime ...........................54 6.2FormandInTime ...............................58 6.3GraphTheory ..................................59 5

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7CHILDHOOD,DEATH,ANDCREATIVEBOOTSTRAPPING ...........61 7.1ChildhoodintheWorkofPiaget ........................63 7.2DeathintheWorkofJank el evitch .....................71 7.3FromPiagetandJank el evitch toCreativeBootstrapping ..........80 8DIGITALCOMPOSITIONTOOLS ..........................84 8.1CompositionToolsandConvergence .....................85 8.2ToolsforSketchingandOrganizingIdeas ..................89 8.3OrganizingDigitalCreativity:AFirst-OrderImplementation ofChapter Seven ......................................91 9ORGANDI:APYTHONTOOLKITFORCREATIVEBOOTSTRAPPING ...94 9.1AStructureinOrgandi ............................94 9.2AForminOrgandi ..............................104 9.3GreyZonesofFormandStructure ......................107 9.4OrgandiasaRevisitationoftheVirtualinthe'Pataphysic Hyperreal ..111 9.5Conclusion ...................................115 APPENDIX A ORGANDIDOCUMENTATIONANDSOURCECODE .............117 BINTERACTIVEORGANDISESSIONSLEADINGTOTHECREATIONOF NORMAN (AGE7)DREAMSOFBEINGAVIOLIN ................118 B.1July6 th 2010 ..................................118 B.2August31 st 2010 ................................120 B.3September10 th 2010 .............................121 B.4September10 th 2010 .............................124 B.5September10 th 2010 .............................125 B.6October2 nd 2010 ...............................126 B.7October20 th 2010 ...............................127 B.8GraphicalResults ...............................129 CNORMAN(AGE7)DREAMSOFBEINGAVIOLIN ................132 REFERENCES .......................................188 BIOGRAPHICALSKETCH ................................194 6

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LISTOFTABLES Table page 8-1Convergenceincontemporarymusicalsoftware. .................88 7

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LISTOFFIGURES Figure page 2-1Quadpartitedivisionoftherealandthepossible. .................15 9-1CodingstructureinOrgandi:arhapsodyinbirdsong. ..............95 9-2AstructuralgraphforthePythoncodeinFigure9-1. ...............96 9-3AnalternativerepresentationofthestructureinFigure9-1. ..........99 9-4Creatingorchestralclasses,andusingPython's`issubclass' methodtoverify classinheritance. ...................................101 9-5ArepresentationoftheclassinheritancescreatedinFigure 9-4. ........102 9-6Geographicregionsinheritinformationfromtheirparent classes. ........103 9-7CreationofanOrgandiobjectthatinheritsbehaviorfrom SuperColliderclasses aswell. ........................................103 9-8Severaltemporalpathsbetweendifferentbirdsongssuperimposed onthesame graph. .........................................105 9-9Oneofthreedifferenttemporalpathshighlightedshowing trajectoriesbetween birdsongs. .......................................106 9-10Oneofthreedifferenttemporalpathshighlightedshowing trajectoriesbetween birdsongs. .......................................107 9-11Oneofthreedifferenttemporalpathshilightedshowingtr ajectoriesbetween birdsongs. .......................................108 9-12Oneofmultipleinstantiationsofthesamebirdsongusing Python'sclass/instance distinction. ......................................109 9-13Oneofmultipleinstantiationsofthesamebirdsongusing Python'sclass/instance distinction. ......................................110 9-14Oneofmultipleinstantiationsofthesamebirdsongusing Python'sclass/instance distinction. ......................................111 9-15AlltheeventsreferredtoinBillyJoel'sWedidn'tstartthe rewithouttheir historicalordering. ..................................112 9-16AlltheeventsreferredtoinBillyJoel'sWedidn'tstartthe rewitharevisionist historicalordering. ..................................113 9-17Agraphwithclearpulltowardsthecenter,butnoidentied centralorganizing concept. ........................................114 8

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B-1Imageofthegraphmylife. ..............................129 B-2Imageofthegraphmydif. ..............................130 B-3Imageofthegraphmybikeride. ...........................130 B-4Imageofthegraphmycroaksequences. ......................131 9

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AbstractofDissertationPresentedtotheGraduateSchool of theUniversityofFloridainPartialFulllmentofthe RequirementsfortheDegreeofDoctorofPhilosophy CREATINGTHECREATOR:DIGITALSPACESOFVIRTUALARTISTRY By MichaelThomasSolomon December2010 Chair:PaulKoonce Major:Music Digitallyassistedcreativityoftenreferstotheprocessofhelpingcreatorsbe creativeinthedigitaldomain.Takingthisparadigmasapointofdeparture,thepresent documententertainstheideaofdigitalassistantsthathelpcreatorsbecomemore creative.Afterhavingrstexploredtheetymologicalpatrimoniesofthewordsdigitally, assisted,andcreativeastheyrelatetomusiccompositionandtheartsingeneral, thedissertationwillthendevelopatheoryoftheprocessesthroughwhichonecould possiblybecomemorecreative,concludingwiththediscussionofadigitaltoolthat facilitatesseveralaspectsoftheaforementionedtheoreticalframework. 10

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CHAPTER1 INTR ODUCTION Any bodycanhaveideasthedifcultyisto express themwithoutsquanderingaquireofpaperonanideathatoughttobereducedtooneglittering paragraph. MarkTwain,LettertoEmelineBeach,10February1868 Thisdissertationproposesanewparadigminwhichtheprocessofdigitallyassisted compositionmaybeconsideredandundertaken.Underlyingthisparadigmisthecore assertionthatdigitallyassistivecompositionaldevicesmustactasvirtualspacesthat enablethecomposertodevelopmusicalstructuresandformsfromvaryinglevels ofepistemologicalandontologicalcertitude.Thisassertionisrstdevelopedvia atheoreticalinquiryintothenatureofdigitallyassistivedevicesandsubsequently buttressedbyasoftwareimplementationofsaidinquiry'ssalientndings.Chapters TwothroughSixexplorethethreewords digitally, assisted,and composition (with ChaptersFourthroughSixfocusingspecicallyoncreativityandcomposition),delving intotheirseparatehistoriesandwindingacoherentthreadthroughallthreeideasin thedissertation'scapstone,ChapterSeven,viaanextendedmetaphorbasedonthe writingsofPiagetandJank el evitchonchildhoodanddeathrespectively.ChapterEight looksatcurrentimplementationsofdigitallyassistivecompositionaldevices,measuring theextenttowhichtheytwithintheframeworkadvancedinthisdissertation.Chapter Ninepresentsanimplementationofadigitallyassistivedevice,namedOrgandi,that actsasanexemplarofthegoalsstatedinChapterSeven,concludingwithsuggestions forfurtherresearch. Theepigraphtothischapterisdrawnfrom Booth (1947,226). 11

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CHAPTER2 THE DIGITALISVIRTUAL Levirtueld enitmaintenantunmoded'existenceabsolumentpositif.La dur ee,c'estlevirtuel;estr eeltelouteldegr edeladur ee,danslamesureo u cedegr esediff erencie....Sansdoutelevirtuelestensoilemodedece quin'agitpas,puisqu'iln'agiraqu'ensediff erenciant,encessantd' etreen soitoutengardantquelquechosedesonorigine.Maisparlem emeilestle modede cequiest. GillesDeleuze,Laconceptiondeladiff erencechezBergson Virtualnowdenesanabsolutelypositivemodeofexistence.Durationis virtual;itisrealwithrespecttoagivendegreeofdurationinsofarasthis degreedifferentiatesitself....Withoutanydoubt,thevirtualisinandof itselfthemodalityofthatwhichdoesnotact,becauseforit,actionisonly distinguishableviadifferentiation,whichmeansthatsomethingvirtualceases tobewhatitwaswhilekeepingsomethingfromitsorigin.Butbythesame logic,thevirtualisthemodalityof thatwhichis. 1 Thepresentchapterdenesthedigitalfromasociologicalstandpoint,evaluatinghow itisconstructedfromabroadernotionofthevirtual.Afterhavingestablishedthis,Iwill lookattheshorthistoryofthedigitalasvirtual,notinghowconstructionsoftheself aremadeinthisspace.Lastly,Iwilllookatwhatitmeanstocreateadigitaltoolforthe digitalselfanewconceptualizationofselfthatmustbeconsideredinitsownright whenadvancinganydiscourseondigitalproductionandexchange,includingdigitally assistedcreativity. 2.1BeforeDigital,ThereWasVirtual Themoderndiscourseonthevirtualnarrowlypredatesthecommercializationof digitaltechnology.Deleuze,inhisepochal Diff erenceetR ep etition (rstpublishedin 1968),constructsanotionofthevirtualthathasfewintellectualantecedents.Perhaps Theepigraphtothischapterisdrawnfrom Deleuze (2002,62). 1 This isatranslationoftheDeleuzequote.Allforeignlanguagetextsinthis documentarefollowedbytheauthor'sEnglishtranslations. 12

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theonlydirectlinkthatcanbedrawnisto Bergson (1906),whodiscussesthevirtualin his Mati ere etMemoire,stating: Nouspartonsd'un etatvirtuel,quenousconduisonspeu apeu, atravers unes eriede plansdeconscience diff erents,jusqu'autermeo uilse mat erialisedansuneperceptionactuelle,c'esta-direjusqu'aupointo uil devientun etatpr esentetagissant.( Bergson, 1906,268) We beginfromavirtualstatethatdrivesuslittlebylittlethroughaseriesof different planesofconsciousness tothepointwherethestatematerializesas acurrentperception,thatistosayastatethatbecomespresentandacting. WhileDeleuze'sdiscussionofthevirtualmakesthesamevirtual/actualdistinctionas Bergson'sdoes,Deleuze'sforticationofthevirtualismorerigorousandcomplete. Furthermore,Deleuzeistherstscholartocallforprecisionindeningtheterm: Wehaveceaselesslyinvokedthevirtual.Indoingso,havewenotfallen intothevaguenessofanotionclosertotheundeterminedthantothe determinationsofdifference?( Deleuze, 1994) Bergson, ontheotherhand,oftenusesvirtualinpassingandonlywithreferenceto pastevents(see Bergson1906,136,144,151). Deleuz e'sprecisioninhisdenitionofvirtualisaresponsetoaperceived oscillationinthephilosophyofLeibniz( Deleuze, 1994)concerningIdeas.Hewrites: The virtualisopposednottotherealbuttotheactual. Thevirtualisfullyreal insofarasitisvirtual.ExactlywhatProustsaidofstatesofresonancemust besaidofthevirtual:`Realwithoutbeingactual,idealwithoutbeingabstract'; andsymbolicwithoutbeingfunctional.Indeed,thevirtualmustbedenedas strictlyapartoftherealobjectasthoughtheobjecthadonepartofitself inthevirtualintowhichitplungedasthoughintoanobjectivedimension. (Deleuze, 1994,208) The otherpartofthisobject'sselfistheactual,andthus,anytransmogricationofthe virtualinthedomainoftherealrepresentsaprocessofactualization.Conversely,that whichbecomesrealis,accordingtoDeleuze,thepossible: Thepossibleisopposedtothereal;theprocessundergonebythepossibleis thereforea`realisation'.Bycontrast,thevirtualisnotopposedtothereal;it possessesafullrealitybyitself.(Deleuze, 1994,211) 13

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ItisherethatDeleuze'scritiqueofLeibnizbecomesmostapparent. Hecriticizesthe partofLeibniz'sphilosophythatpositstheIdeaasaPlatonicform,stating: Thepossibleandthevirtualarefurtherdistinguishedbythefactthatone referstotheformofidentityintheconcept,whereastheotherdesignatesa puremultiplicityintheIdeawhichradicallyexcludestheidenticalasaprior condition.( Deleuze, 1994,211) It isforthisreasonthatDeleuze'sscholarshipisalmostwithoutprecedent;hesees Leibniz'sworkasanintellectualbottleneckthatstiesdiscourseonthevirtualby confusingitwiththepossible. Thishesitationbetweenthepossibleandthevirtualexplainswhynoonehas gonefurtherthanLeibnizintheexplorationofsufcientreaons,andwhy, nevertheless,noonehasbettermaintainedtheillusionofasubordinationof thatsufcientreasontotheidentical.( Deleuze, 1994,213) Shields (2003)extendsDeleuze'slineofreasoningbydividingthepossible intothe abstractandtheprobable,statingthatthe abstract isa`possibleideal'(expressedas pureabstraction,concepts)( Shields, 2003,29)whereasthe probab le isan`actual possibility'usuallyexpressedmathematically,suchasapercentage( Shields, 2003, 29). HealsochangesDeleuze'sterminologyfromactualtoconcrete,allowinghimto positaquadpartitedivisionwhereactualcontainsbothconcreteandprobable. Inthistaxonomy,hedrawsanexhaustivegradientofpotentialtransformations betweenconcrete,virtual,abstract,andprobable,reprintedinFigure 2-1.Tosupport this categorizationscheme,Shieldsprovidesacomprehensiveliteraturereviewof scholarshiponthevirtualinhischapterThevirtualandthereal. Laterin TheVirtual,ShieldsbringsthedigitalintothefoldoftheDeleuzian discourseonthevirtual.Hestatesthatcomputer-mediatedcommunicationreintroduces virtualitiesasimportantpresencesintheformofdistantbutsignicantothersfriends, clients,teammatesandintheformofdigitalsimulationsforplayandbywhichfuture trendsandactualitiesareanticipatedandpreparedfor( Shields, 2003,44).Inthesame 14

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Dejavu vi rtual(past) SymbolsMythabstract Premonition Abstraction Chance Ritual concrete(present) Risk Fate probable(future) MiraclesForetelling Prediction Real(existing) Possible(not-existing) Ideal Actual Figure2-1.Quadpartitedivisionoftherealandthepossibleproposed by Shields (2003, 34). v einasDeleuze,Shieldsdoesnotcontrastthedigital-as-virtualwiththereal.Rather,he clumpsthetwointhesamecamp: Inthecontextofdigitaltechnologiesandtheirsocialformsatworkandinthe telecommunicationsofadvancedcapitalistsocieties,`virtual'comestoequal `simulated'.Ratherthanbeingsomethingwhichasanincompleteformof realitysomethingrealinessence,`almost,'`asif'andofferedasbeing`as goodas'thevirtualcomesintoitsownasanalternativetothereal.The virtualisnotmerelyanincompleteimitationoftherealbutanotherregisteror manifestationofthereal.( Shields, 2003,46) Although Shieldsneverexplicitlydevelopstheconceptofadigitalself,hehintsat itinmanifoldways.Perhapsmostprofoundly,heindicatesourwillingnesstobebored in ratherthan of digitalenvironmentsthatis,wewaitaroundindigitaliaforsomething toarriveinsteadofsimplyjettisoningthecomputerforbaseball.Itisclearthat,ifone concedesthatmultipleselvescanexistforthemultiplespacesinwhichonesituates oneself,thedigitalasanenvironmentcanbeacontainerofselvesinthesamemanner asritualsandrole-playinggames.Theextenttowhichsaidselvesresemblethatwhich constitutesone'sactualselfisthechoiceoftheindividualitisforthisreasonthatmy digitalavatarcan,withoutirony,bea15-year-oldfemalefromHongKongifIsochoose. Whatisimportantisthat,likeinanyenvironment,oneacknowledgesthereciprocal forcebywhichselvesshapetheenvironment(bothliterallyandasperceived)andhow 15

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theenvironmentshapesselves.Thiswill,inturn,createaspace inwhichtoolshave meaning,betheyresponsiveorpreemptive,deterministic,orexpressionistic. 2.2TheDigitalSelf Therearemanymonickersforthecontemporarydigitalvirtualenvironment,but sociology,bywayofsciencection,hasadoptedthetermcyberspacetodescribethis virtualscape.Whilethenotionofalternative,information-basedspacesofexchange hasexistedaslongashumanshavecreatedinformationalnetworks,thenotionof cyberspaceindigitaliagrowsfromlate20th-centuryutopianprose-odessuchas Gibson's Neuromancer,wherecyberspaceis: Aconsensualhallucinationexperienceddailybymillionsoflegitimate operators,ineverynation,bychildrenbeingtaughtmathematicalconcepts ...Agraphicrepresentationofdataabstractedfromthebanksofevery computerinthehumansystem.Unthinkablecomplexity.Linesoflightranged inthenonspaceofthemind,clustersandconstellationsofdata.Likecity lights,receding....( Gibson, 1984,51) The newnessofcyberspaceandthedigitalselfhasengenderedahostof anthropologicalwritingonthesubject,categorizingtheemergentmodalitiesof actionandinteractionthathavearisenfromthisparadigmshift.Todate,itseems likescholarshipfallsintotwoprincipalcampsbothofwhicharesuggestedbyGibson's prescientquote.Therst,Unthinkablecomplexity....clustersandconstellations ofdata,representstheinteractionbetweentheself,themyriadofdataavailablein cyberspace(information,or being ),andthecomputationalspeedofferedbycomputers (process,or doing ).Theincomprehensibilityofcomputers'operationalmechanisms hasledhumanstoanthropomorphizethesemachinesasagentsintheirownrightas technofeministWajcmannotes: Theconceptionofthenon-humanasactantservesasacorrectivetoarigid conceptionofsocialstructure.Itinvolvesaviewofsocietyasa doing rather thana being.Theconstructionoftechnologiesisalsoamoving,relational processachievedindailysocialinteractions:entitiesachievetheirformasa consequenceoftheirrelationswithotherentities.( Wajcman, 2004,39) 16

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Thecominglingofinformation(being)andtheprocessesthatcarr ysaidinformation (doing)hasbroughtustoattachnewvaluetothelatter.AsHobartandSchiffmanattest intheextreme: Substancehasvanishedentirelyfrominformation.Ourinformation technologystakesoutarealminwhichmeaningorcontentwhatearlier ageshadabstractedfromexperience...isreplacedbylogicalrules. Wehavedrawntheinformationidiomsofarawayfromtheimmediacyof experiencethatnocontentwhatsoeverisretainedinitsdigitalmeansof whichapieceofexperiencecanbeencodedandthusinformed.(Hobartand Schiffman 1998 ,203) This devaluationofinformationwithrespecttothemeansbywhichitistransmittedis perhapsthemostsalientmannerinwhichhumanbehaviorhaschangedasaresult ofinteractionswithdigitalagents.Thisisnot,however,tosaythatthenaturebehind thisbehaviorhaschangedhumanity'spenchantforprocessisasoldasconspicuous consumption,anditsnon-digitalformcanstillbeseeninwoodshedslledwithunused toolsandbookstores'overstuffedself-helpsections.However,thecheapnessof softwarecoupledwiththeeaseofdigitalpiracyhascreatedanagewherehumanity's zealforprocesscanrunvirtuallyunchecked(notethetriple-entendreembeddedinthis useofvirtual),amassingthrongsofinterconnectedtechnologieswithoutanyparticular concernfortheinformationthatwillrunthroughthem.AsIwillargueinSection3ofthe presentchapter,thisunderlyingobsessionwithprocessintersectswithmarketforcesin thetechnologysectortoformthefertilecrescentofdigitalcreativity. Asecondepochalmannerbywhichdigitaltechnologyrepresentsabreakfrom olderformsofvirtualityisinitsfacilitationofinter-humancommunicationGibson's consensualhallucinationexperienceddailybymillionsoflegitimateoperators.Likeany forumofhumanexchange,initialanarchisticendeavorshavegivenwaytocommon-law rulesthatgovernourcyberspacialinteractions.Benediktprovidesalistofkeydesign featuresbywhichcyberspacemaybedened: ThePrincipleofExclusionThecaseoftwo,nonidenticalobjectshavingthe sameextrinsicdimensionsanddimensionvalues,whetheratthesametime,or 17

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includingtimeasanextrinsicdimensionattheoutset,isforbidden, nomatterwhat othercomparisonsmaybemadebetweentheirintrinsicdimensionsandvalues (Benedikt, 1991,136). The PrincipleofMaximalExclusionGivenany N -dimensionalstateofa phenomenon,andallthevaluesactualandpossibleonthose N dimensions, chooseasextrinsicdimensionsas`spaceandtime'thatsetof(two,orthree, orfour)dimensionsthatwillminimizethenumberofviolationsofthePrincipleof Exclusion(Benedikt, 1991,139). The PrincipleofIndifferencethefeltrealnessofanyworlddependsonthe degreeofitsindifferencetothepresenceofaparticular`user'andonitsresistance tohis/herdesire( Benedikt, 1991,160). The PrincipleofScaletheamountof(phenomenal)spaceincyberspaceisthus afunctionoftheamountofinformationincyberspace( Benedikt, 1991,167). The PrincipleofTransittravelbetweentwopointsincyberspaceshouldoccur phenomenallythroughallinterveningpoints,nomatterhowfast(savewithinnite speed),andshouldincurcoststothetravelerproportionaltosomemeasureofthe distance(Benedikt, 1991,168). The PrincipleofPersonalVisibility(1)individualusersin/ofcyberspaceshould bevisible,insomenon-trivialform,andatalltimes,toallotherusersinthevicinity, and(2)individualusersmaychoosefortheirownreasonswhetherornot,and towhatextent,tosee/displayanyoralloftheotherotherusersinthevicinity (Benedikt, 1991,177). The PrincipleofCommonalityvirtualplaces[should]be`objective'ina circumscribedwayforadenedcommunityofusers( Benedikt, 1991,180). It shouldbeclearthatnoneoftheserulesareperforcestitchesintimeforcyberspacial interactionssome,suchastheprincipleoftransit,actuallyretardthepotentialspeed withwhichcommunicationtakesplace.Byforceofhabitandthewaxingofthecollective sub-conscience,usersofdigitaltechnologyhaveacquiescedtotheminotherwords, theyaretrulyaconsensualhallucination.Fromtheseruleshasgrownaveritable culturethatmixescertaincomfortabletrappingsofconcrete,day-to-daylifewithwhat Bellcallsanewutopianism,reectingourattentiontothewaysinwhichweassemble particularnarrativesabouthowthesenewtechnologieshavechanged,arechanging,or willchangeourlives( Bell, 2007).Thisisnotunlikeothercontemporaryvirtualspaces 18

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suchasBrazilianCarnival,CasualFriday,andFantasyFootballin additiontosimply creatingaspacewheredifferenceisacceptable,thesespacesaffordusasortofcritical Gedankenspielraum thatisallowedtoencroachuponthequotidian.Liketheinteraction betweentheselfandthemachine,theinteractionofselves through amachinehas givenrisetotworemarkablenoveltiesthatwillprovetobeessentialtodigitalcreativity. First,cybercultureprovidesasortofself-containedescapismbywhichitsinhabitants, becomingacclimated(ifnotdesensitized)toexploration,areperpetuallythinkingseveral movesahead: Sittingatacomputer,loggedontotheInternet,forexample,weare constantlyclickingbetweentheembodiedsensationsofstaringatascreen andtypingandthedisembodieddreamofsurngcyberspaceasuploaded consciousness,butalsoconnectingtootherstories,otherimagesandideas. (Bell, 2007,6) The secondideafollowsfromtherst;cybercultureismademore,notless,interesting asafunctionoftheextenttowhichitstopsbeingtotalizing( L evy, 2001 ).Unlikeother vir tualconstructswhosesuccessisdeterminedbytheextenttowhichtheyoffera holisticalternativetothecorporeal,cyberculture'sintrigueispreciselytheelusivityofits owntotalizabilityperhapsarstinthelonghistoryofthevirtual. Thisnoveltyofdigitaltechnologywithrespecttothevirtualismitigatedbytwo importantarguments.One,succinctlysummarizedbyL evy,statesthat: Itisimpossibletoseparatethehumanfromitsmaterialenvironment,orfrom thesignsandimagesthroughwhichhumanitygivesmeaningtolifeandthe world.Similarly,wecannotseparatethematerialworldevenlesssoits articialcomponentfromtheideasthroughwhichtechnologicalobjectsare conceivedandused,orfromthehumanswhoinvent,produce,andusethem. Moreover,images,words,andlinguisticconstructionsresideinthehuman mind,providinghumankindanditsinstitutionswithmeansandreasonsfor living,andaretransportedinturnbyorganized,tool-bearinggroups,justas theyarebycommunicationscircuitsandarticialmemories.( L evy, 2001 ,4) In thislight,theabove-enumeratedrulesofcyberspacearenot aposteriori digital ornamentsbutratherintegralelementsofcomputationaldesign,withoutwhichwecould nothavemadethesemachines(letaloneunderstandwhatwehavemade).Thesecond 19

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argument,moreproblematic,acknowledgesthatthehumanhand guidingtechnology preventsusersfromasortoftechnologicaldeterminism: Socialscientistshaveincreasinglyrecognizedthattechnologicalchange isitselfshapedbythesocialcircumstanceswithinwhichittakesplace. Thenewsociologyoftechnologysetouttodemonstratethattechnological artifactsaresociallyshaped,notjustintheirusage,butespeciallywith respecttotheirdesignandtechnicalcontent.Crucially,itrejectedthenotion thattechnologyissimplytheproductofrationaltechnicalimperatives; thataparticulartechnologywilltriumphbecauseitisintrinsicallythebest. (Wajcman, 2004,33) While bothofthesepointsmaybetrue,theyareonlyvalidinsofarastheyareconsidered overalongtimescale.Thena vet eofanycalltoarmsagainsttechnologicaldeterminism revealsitselfwhenoneconsidersthetechnicalcompetenciesof2010'sEveryman.As Bellwrites: Atthesymbolic(andthereforealsoattheexperiential)level,lotsofpeopledo feelthattheyareinadeterministicrelationshipwiththesenewtechnologies, thattheyarerelativelypowerless,thatthemakersandsellersofthesethings areincontrol,andthatsometimesthetechnologyitselfisincontrol,too.So Ithinkitisimportanttoregisterdeterminism,toacknowledgeitspotency asacommonsensewayinwhichlotsofusexperienceandarticulateour relationshipwiththeintimatemachineswelivewith.( Bell, 2007,8) This ismadeworse,notbetter,bytheandrocentricapproachestakenbydesignerswho trytohumanizecomputerinteractions.Theirconsolidationofpower,regardlessofany earnestintentions,createsthescenariodescribedbyL evy(inasardonicself-critiqueof sorts): Theypromisedyouutopia,electronicdemocracy,sharedknowledge,and collectiveintelligence.Youendedupbeingdominatedbyanewvirtualclass, madeupofmedia(lm,television,videogames),software,electronics,and telecommunicationsmagnates,ankedbythedesigners,scientists,and engineerswhooverseetheconstructionofcyberspace.Ultraliberaland anarchistideologues,highpriestsofthevirtual,serveastheirspokesmen andinterpreters,justifyingtheirpower.( L evy, 2001 ,203) Recently ,asatisfyingmiddle-groundhasoffereditselfasanoptionwherebyusers cansubstantiallyshapetheircyber-environmentbyusingprogramsthatallowfor modulardevelopmentanddesign(i.e.jEdit),permittingthemtoexertvaryingdegrees 20

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ofcontrolfromthecosmetictothecomputational.However,one' scontroloveraspects ofcertaintechnologiesdoesnotimplyasenseofcontrolovertechnologicalprogress andtechnologicalcreation.Itisthisdeterminismthat,beitactualorperceived,actsasa principalfactorintheconvergenceofdigitaltoolstobediscussedinChapterEight. 2.3HowToMakeaDigitalTool Theideathatadigitaltoolmaybeconsideredapartfromitsusersisanapocryphal notion:allofthescholarshipcitedaboveconatesdiscussionsofdigitalavatarswith discussionsofthetools(orprocesses)towhichsaidavatarsavailthemselves.This section,then,doesnotaimtoseparatetheconceptofatoolfromtheconceptofa self,nordoesitanswerthehowbehindadigitaltool(meaningbestpractices,orwhat atoolshoulddo).Rather,itaddressesthewhybehindthesetools'generalexistence. Thiswill,inturn,frameasubsequentdiscussionthatelaboratestheuniquehowsof digitalcreativitytools. Likethedesignofmosttools,thedrivingforcebehindthecreationofmost digitaltechnologyismoney,whetheritbethemakingordeliberateeschewalofit. Bydeliberateeschewal,Iaminvokingtheideaofonewhoworksonanopensource projectbecauseshebelievesthatacertaintechnologyshouldbefreeorshefeels thatagiventechnologycannotfullydevelopinacapitalistsystem(orboth).Ineither case,itisrarethataprocessofcreatingadigitaltoolsidestepstheuseofcommercial softwareorhardware.Inordertounderstandthesetools,therefore,itisimportantthat oneunderstandstheeconomicpressuresthatgivebirthtothem.First,intellectual propertycourtsinAmericaandEuropehavebeenreticenttoupholdpatentsfornew software,leadingcompaniestoreconsiderthetraditionallycentralroleofresearchand development visa-vis thepotentialsuccessaproductwillhave.AsParkernotes: Undernormalcircumstances,ifacompanydevelopsaninnovation, commercialsuccesswilldependongeneratinganadequatemarketfor thenewproduct.Ahighproportionofthenon-technicalfailuresarefound tobeduetolackofinteractionbetweenthemarketingandtheRandD functions.( Parker, 1978,58) 21

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Themarketingdivisionsofdigitalrms,farfrombeingdisadv antagedbyalackof copyrightprotection,actuallythriveinthisenvironmentacompanymaymarketaline ofproductsasbeingostensiblyuniquewithoutworryingaboutthedeeperingenuityof itscodebase.Itisnotsurprising,then,thatpeoplearewaryofasortoftechnological determinism;onelosesasenseofworthandfairnessinamarketwherethereisno truemetricofsubstitutability.Thisinculcatedregurgitationofself-similartechnologies hasnotonlyshapedconsumercondence;itisthebasicdriverbehindthemorphology oftoolsincyberspace.Becausemarketforceshavecreatedaculturewhereearlier knowledgefeedswhatfollows(Parker, 1978,55),usershavecometoacceptthis cannibalization ofthepastasatechnologicalpedigreeofsorts.Thus,toolsretaina cachetbyactivelymimicking(ifnotcompletelyplagiarizing)othertools,independentof theiractualefcacy.Evenopen-sourceprojectsbuyintothis,aimingtoprovidepieces ofsoftwarethatfeelliketheirfee-basedcounterpartsinsteadofusingtheiroutsider statustobeexperimentalandinnovative.Itisagainstthisbackdropthatdesignmoves in,dictatingcertainbroadpreceptsthatgovernhowthesetoolslookandfeel. Specically,Mandelhasidentiedseveraldesignconstraintsthat,whilethey intersectwithothertechnologies,persistentlycropupinthedigitalrealm: QualityofExperience:Takentogether,thecriteriaraiseonekey question:Howdoeseffectiveinteractiondesignprovidepeoplewith asuccessfulandsatisfyingexperience? UnderstandingofUsers:Howwellwasthedesignteamgroundedin understandingtheneeds,tasks,andenvironmentsofthepeoplefor whomtheproductwasdesigned?Howwellwasthatlearningreected intheproduct? EffectiveDesignProcess:Istheproductaresultofawell-thought-out andwell-executeddesignprocess?Whatwerethemajordesignissues thataroseduringtheprocessandwhatwastherationaleandmethod forresolvingthem?Howwerebudgeting,schedulingandotherpractical issues,suchasinterpersonalcommunications,managedtosupportthe goalsofthedesignprocess? 22

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Needed:Whatneeddoestheproductsatisfy?Doesitmakeasignicant social, economic,orenvironmentalcontribution? LearnableandUsable:Istheproducteasytolearnanduse?Doesthe productcommunicateasenseofitspurpose,howtobegin,andhow toproceed?Isthislearningeasytoretainovertime?Aretheproduct's featuresself-evidentandself-revealing?Howwelldoestheproduct supportandallowforthedifferentwayspeoplewillapproachanduseit, consideringtheirvariouslevelsofexperience,skills,andstrategiesfor problem-solving? Appropriate:Doesthedesignoftheproductsolvetherightproblemat therightlevel?Doestheproductserveusersinefcientandpractical ways?Howdidconsideringsocial,cultural,economic,andtechnical aspectsoftheproblemcontributetoanappropriatesolution? AestheticExperience:Isusingtheproductanaestheticallypleasingand sensuallysatisfyingone?Istheproductcohesivelydesigned,exhibiting continuityandexcellenceacrossgraphic,interaction,information,and industrialdesign?Isthereaconsistencyofspiritandstyle?Doesthe designperformwellwithintechnologicalconstraints?Doesitaccomplish anintegrationofsoftwareandhardware? Mutable:Havethedesignersconsideredwhethermutabilityis appropriateornot?Howwellcantheproductbeadaptedtosuitthe particularneedsandpreferencesofindividualsandgroups?Does thedesignallowtheproducttochangeandevolvefornew,perhaps unforeseen,uses? Manageable:Doesthedesignoftheproductmovebeyondunderstanding usemerelyasfunctionalityandsupporttheentirecontextofuse?For example,doestheproductaccountforandhelpusersmanageneeds suchasinstallation,training,maintenance,costs,andsupplies?Have theseneedsandothersbeenconsideredinanindividualaswellas anorganizationalsense?Doesthedesignoftheproducttakeinto accountissuessuchasnegotiatingcompetitionforuseandtheconcept ofownership,includingrightsandresponsibilities?( Mandel, 1997,6) Were onetoacceptthislistuncritically,onewouldassumethatitcouldapplytoany eldofdesign.However,afewcorefeaturesprecipitatedirectlyfromthemarketforces thatshapethesetools.Aproduct'sabilitytocommunicateitsownsenseofpurpose is,savenoveltyitemsateamarkets,anoverwhelminglydigitalphenomenonthat stemsfromdigitaltechnologiesbeingmarketedtoimpulsebuyers(oneneedonly thinkoftheopennessofacomputerstorecontrastedwiththeclosedandpackaged 23

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natureofthegoodsinasupermarket).Thishas,inturn,shaped thetastesandneeds ofconsumerswhocansubstitutebetweenmanydifferentalternativesinboththe softwareandhardwaredomain.Asaresult,aestheticissueshavebecomeincreasingly important,spawninganentireliteratureonbest-designpracticesforuserinterfaces (UdsenandJorgensen2005, GiaccardiandFischer2008).Recallingthedigitalself constr uctedintheprevioussection,oneseesasynergybetweentheselfandtoolthat parallelsman'searlyeffortstoshapeweaponsintheimageofhisownextremities.The obsessionwithprocess(doing)overinformation(being)invariablyleadstoapermissivity regardingtheunaggingnewnessofsoftware(meaninganacceptancebyconsumersof rapidtechnologicalprogress)thatisnecessaryforthewellbeingofanindustrywhose marketforcesdriveittoconstantlycreatenewproductsintheabsenceofintellectual propertyprotections.Furthermore,likeanysocialspace,theprincipleofvisibility andprincipleofcommonalitydescribedabovefeedintoaculturewherethewaya productlooks(andthewayitismarketed)areasimportanttoitstradabilityaswhat theproductactuallydoes.Inspiteofthesurface-levelcynicismonemayfeeltowards themarket-orientedundercurrentsthatpotentiallyshapecyberspace(or,evenworse, Westernsocieties'complacencywith,orevendesirefor,marketsthatcanpreyupon andultimatelyfabricateitsneeds),themarket'sgloricationofprocessisnotinherently negativeand,insomedomains,mayactuallyberefreshingandbenecial.AsIwill argueinChapterFive,creativityisoneoftheseareasthus,wendourselvesina uniquesituationwhereaseeminglynefariousmarketpractice,inextricablylinkedtothe formationofavirtualself(digital)andavirtualspace(cyber),provestobesympathetic withtheadvancementofcreativity.Thiskeypoint,however,cannotbefullydeveloped untiloneseesexactlywhataffordancesareprovidedbysaidcreativitytoolsinpractice andintheory. 24

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2.4TowardsAssistance In thisChapter,Ihavedenedthedigitalasasubsetofthevirtual,examiningtwo importantaspectsofthedigitaluniverse:thedigitalselfandthedigitaltool.These ideaswillberevisitedinChapterNine,whereIproposeanewdigitaltoolandargue howthecreativeself,asdenedinChaptersFourthroughSeven,canbeexpressed throughthistool.Acornerstoneofthistoolwillbethemannerthatitassistscomposers toreectuponandconstructthesedigitalselves.However,thisideaofassistanceis non-trivial:whatdoesitmeantoassist?Althoughmostdigitaltoolsassumedlyexist toassistsomeoneindoingsomething,mostscholarshipondigitaltechnology(such as Mandel (1997)discussedabove)startswithcertainunstated apr ioris aboutwhat assistanceis,developingstandardssuchasmanageableandneededfromideasof whathumansfeelwillbeusefulasassistance.Butwhendoesthisassistancebecome interference,andtowhatextentisassistancedenedbytheneedsofanindividual agentasopposedtoasetofexpertswhounderstandthewaythatpeopleneedto beassisted?Thenextchapterwillexplorethesequestionsthroughaninquiryinto acontroversialcontemporaryformofassistanceassistedsuicide.Fromthis,Iwill developageneralnotionofassistancethat,whenmixedwithdigital,canbebroughtto thecreativeprocessandtheprocessofbecomingcreative. 25

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CHAPTER3 ASSIST ANTS Thewisesettingofboundariesisbasedondiscerningtheexcessestowhich thepower,unrestrained,isprone.Appliedtotheprofessions,thisprinciple wouldestablishstrictouterlimitsindeed,involabletaboosagainstthose `occupationalhazards'towhicheachprofessionisespeciallyprone. LeonKass,NeitherforLovenorMoney:WhyDoctorsMustNotKill Assistance,asageneralphenomenon,isvirginacademicterritory.Thatis,while thereisampleliteratureonwhatitmeansforsomebodytoassistsomebodyelsewith respecttoagiventask(buyingacar,scoringagoal,organizingacalendar),theideaof whatitmeanstoassistisrarelyproblematizedinandofitself.Theonlycontemporary debatethathasengenderedascholarlydiscourseonthesubjectisthatofPhysician AssistedSuicide(hereafterPAS).Clearly,theassistanceonewouldreceiveduring theprocessofdigitallyassistedcompositionhaslittletodowiththeassistancethata physicianmaygivesomeonetohelpherdie.However,therearemanysalientlessons onecangleanfromthiseldthatareapplicabletothepresentinquiry.Thischapter surveysselectliteratureonassistedsuicide,concludingwithadiscussionaboutthe mannerinwhichissuesofintrusion,inadequacy,andmiscommunicationinthePAS debateareanalogoustoproblemsthatarisewhencreatorsseekassistancefromdigital devices. 3.1PhysicianAssistedSuicidefromanAssister'sPerspective EveninthePASliterature,thedebateoftenveerstowardsthesamesetof philosophicalquestionsthatonewouldndinarticlesabouteuthanasiaanexamination ofthemoralandtheologicalunderpinningsofpatients'righttodieaswellasphysician's legalresponsibilitiesandliabilitieswithrespecttothisissue.However,threecentral Theepigraphtothischapterisdrawnfrom Kass (1989,36). 26

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issuesemergeconcerningthephysician'sabilitiestoassist: inappropriatephysician behavior,physicianinadequacy,andthepotentiallyparatopicroleofthephysician. 3.1.1InappropriateBehavior OnerecurrentquestionthatarisesinPASscholarshipistheextenttowhich physicians,ifallowedtohelppatientsdie,willover-fullltheirrolesasassistants. Puttingasidetheissueofwhatphysicianassistedsuicideisorshouldbe,Iwillusethe operativedenitionposedbyBaron,whostates: Endingone'slifeinsolitudecanbealonelyandfrighteningundertaking, fraughtwithuncertainty,ambivalence,andopportunitiesforfailure.Wehope thattheresponsiblephysicianwillbepresentatthepatient'sdeathinorder toreassurethepatientandtomakecertainthattheprocessiscarriedout effectively.(Baron, 1996,21) Against thisbackdrop,Dworkinwrites: Actions[suchasplacingapillowoverthefaceofapatient],eventhoughthey maybeviewedasmerelyhelpingtonishtheactofsuicideundertakenby thepatient,clearlycrossthelinetoeuthanasia.(Dworkin, 1998,130) The motivationforsuchbehaviorvaries,butoftenstemsfromthebondthatarises betweenadoctorandapatient: Therelationshipofaphysiciantoapatientwithfar-advanceddiseasedoes notconformtotheCartesianmetaphorofawatchmaker'srelationshipto abrokenwatch.Physicianspracticewithinacontextofmutualitythathas emotionalaswellasclinicalcomponents.Attentionmustbeaccordedthe realpossibilitythataphysician'sinabilitytoperceiveanalternativemeans ofrespondingtoadyingpatient'sdistresscomprisesanimportantfactor contributingtothesuicidalideationonthepartofthepatient.( Byock, 1997, 117) One interestingaspectofthisobservationisthereversalofthedirectionofinuence typicallyidentiedinPAS.Here,patient'sideasareinadvertentlyformedbythe preferencesoftheirdoctor,andthus,theirsuicidemaynotbevoluntaryatall.Even worse,theymaybeconvincedthatthisdesiretodie is oftheirownvolitionduetoa combinationoflackofpersonalreectionandtheimplicitesteeminwhichtheirdoctoris held. 27

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3.1.2PhysicianInadequacy Independent ofaphysician'sactionsandintentwithrespecttoaparticularpatient, severalfactorsexistthatimpingeuponthephysician'sgeneralabilitytoprovideassistive care.Byockwrites: Therearesubstantiveconcernsregardingtheimpactthatapatient'ssuffering andfeelingsofdepressionandhopelessnesscanhaveonthephysician,as wellastheimpactthatthephysician'semotionalhistoryincludingprevious experiencewiththedeathofalovedone,recentexperienceofmultiple losses,personalvaluesoremotionaldepressionandcurrentfeelingsof sadness,grief,frustration,helplessness,fatigueandpreviouspersonal experiencemayhaveonthepatient.( Byock, 1997,118) This observationisborneoutbystatisticsregardingcommonmaladiesthatariseinthe physiciancommunity: Anyoneraisingthequestionofphysician-assistedsuicideamongagroup ofdoctorscomestorecognizetheirconictedresponse.Allmayrecognize theanguishofindividualsuffererspleadingforrelease.Therearereluctant proponentsofphysician-assistedsuicideinthemedicalprofession,butfew outrightenthusiasts.Whenitcomestosinglingouttheirownprofessionto carryouta practice ofassistedsuicide,bothproponentsandopponents shareasenseofworriedunease.Thesenseofapprehensioninthehealth carecommunityisheightenedbyaconsiderationthatphysiciansrarely discussinpublic:thelevelsofimpairmentwithintheirownprofessionthat couldaffectpatientswhoseexpressionsofadesiretodiewouldcallforthe mostscrupulousandskilledexamination.Alcoholismanddependencyon otherdrugsafictapproximately10percentand7percent,respectively,of healthprofessionalswithsymptomslabeledstressimpairmentsyndrome; between6and20percentofthecasesreportedtostatephysicianhealth programsconcernimpairmentduetomentalillness.( Dworkin, 1998, 133) Medical problemsaside,alackofpropertrainingcanalsobeacontributingfactorto physicianinadequacy: Anotherpotentialfactorinuencingapatient'sdispositionregardingsuicide isthetreatingphysician'slevelofpalliativemedicalexpertise;whereone physicianmayseeapatient'spainsyndromeasintractableandthusconsider thepatienthelpless,anothermayrecognizethesyndromeasanindication foraneurolyticblock,spinalanesthesia,urgentradiotherapy,highdoseopiod infusion,orotherintensivepalliativeinterventions.( Byock, 1997,117) 2 8

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Oneoftheproblemsidentiedintheprevioussubsectionthat patients'trustof physicianscaninadvertentlyleadtounderthoughtanduncriticalconclusionsregarding theirowndeathisonlyfurthermagniedbyproblemsthatplagueaphysician's behavior.Assumingthatthetroubledphysicianiseitherunawareoftheseproblemsor unconcernedbythem,shehasthepotentialtoinadvertentlycreateareputationthat, becauseofherreveredstatus,implicitlyvalidatesandevenendorsesthepracticeinthe eyesofpatients. 3.1.3MedicalParatopia AnesoterictheoryonPASclaimsthattheroleofphysiciansinsocietymakeit suchthat,whenPASispermissible,peoplecanuseitasasociallevertoexpressother sentimentsbesidesaliteraldesiretocommitsuicide. Physiciansaretrainedtorespondtopatientreferencestosuicideas constitutingcriesforhelp.Byanalogy,mightthedebateabouteuthanasia andsuicideconstitutesuchanappealonasociety-widescale?Justas revealingone'sintentiontocommitsuicideisoftenacryforhelponthepart ofthepersonsnotyetreadytodie,despairingofsecuringhumaneattention andreliefofsufferinginanyotherway,soitmaybethatthedebatesabout physician-assistedsuicidealsohaveovertonesofacryforhelp.Theysound analarmabouttheneedlesspainandsufferingattheendoflifethatis nowthelotofsomanyinoursociety,meanttocallattentiontowhatmore adequatetreatmentwouldmean.( Dworkin, 1998,136) Here ,thesphereofPASisthelocusofadisplaceddebateconcerninggeneralissuesin patientcarethathavemoretodowithlivingthandying.Thepotentialdanger,likethatof acryforhelp,isthatpatientscaninadvertentlybecomerecipientsofPASinaculture whenthey,atsomeleveloftheirsubconscious,weremerelyseekingmoredigniedand effectiveterminalcare. 3.2AssistanceinCreativity Ananalogycanbereadilydrawnbetweenseveraloftheproblemsthatarisein PASanddigitallyassistedcreativity.Assistivedevicescanbecomecreativelyintrusive whentheyideateinthecreatorafeatureoftheirbehaviorthatthecreatorsubsequently confusesfortheirowncreativity.Attheworstextreme,acertainpieceofsoftware 29

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mayguideagroupofcreatorstocreatesimilarworkwithouttheir realizingit,atwhich pointtheworkbecomesamanifestationofthetool'sbehavior(whichitselfmaybe creative,butisonlyareectionofthecreativityofthepersonorpeoplewhomadethe tool)ratherthanthelocalizedcreatedactthattheindividualartistssoughttomake. Decienciesinthetools,eitherthroughbugsorlackofknowledge,canhaveasimilar effect;acreatorwhoimplicitlytrustsatoolanditsmakersmayunknowinglyacquiesce tosubstandardperformanceforlackofcriticaldistance.Likethemedicalexample,this problemisonlyexacerbatedbyahistoryofsuccessfuluserswhothemselveshave failedtodisambiguatebugsfromfeatures.Lastly,assistivedevicesallowcreatorsto expresscriesforhelpthatwouldotherwiseneverhaveemerged.Forexample,the useofalgorithmissometimesapurgativethroughwhichacreatorrealizesthather engagementwithdigitaltechnologiescouldhavecreatedmoreinterestingresultsthan thealgorithmbycomposinginamoreintuitivemanner.Severalcomposers,including BoulezandBr un,haveengagedinthispracticeinthenalstagesofmakingwork. Theoppositecasewouldbethecomposerwhoneverrealizesthatsheissoundingan alarmaboutthedifcultiesincontemporarycreation,whichrobsherofanopportunity toaddnuanceandmultivalencetoherwork. Noneofthisistosaythatdigitallyassistedcreativityshouldbeavoidedforthese threereasons,justasPAS'snegativeattributesarenotsodissuasivethatthey conclusivelyserveasanargumentagainstit.Rather,byanticipatingtheproblems thatcomealongwithsuchassistance,makersofthetoolsthatprovideassistancecan betterdelimittheirtools'boundariesasassistersandbetterencouragethosewhoseek assistancetobeself-reectiveabouttheiractualneeds. 30

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CHAPTER4 COMPOSITION I:THEBR UNIANCREATOR Thecomposerhasbeguntorecognizethattechnologyisnotmerelythe providerofinstruments,ofdevices,ofconveniences;inshort,thecomposer islearningthattechnologyisnotjusttechniquesandengineering.Thecomposernowdenestechnologyasthescienceandartofapplyingknowledge tothedesireforproblemsolving. HerbertBr un,TechnologyandtheComposer WereaclairvoyanttoinformVoltaireoftheyet-to-be-inventedeldofdigital creativity,thesatirist'srsttwoquestions(innoparticularorder)mightbewhatis digitalandwhatiscreativity?Whiletheformeristobeexpectedgiventhatthe conceptofthedigital(whichtranslatesintoFrenchas num erique )didnotexistin1756 (apartfrom,ofcourse,thingshavingtodowiththenumberten),theinsouciancewith whichhewouldaskthesecondquestion,inthesamemannerastherst,wouldgivethe psychicpause.ThisisbecauseVoltaire,history'ssecondgadyafterSocrates(whoone couldimaginehavingstartedwiththemorefundamentalquestionWhyareyoutalking tome?),wasarigorousdefenderofthedenitionofterms,arguingthatameaningful discussioncouldnotbehadwithoutafunctionalunderstandingofwhatwordsmean. Infact,hefeltthattheonlymeaningfuldiscussions were attemptstocreatefunctional denitions.Thisisthemotivatingimpetusbehindmyattempttodenecreativitya conceptthathasbeeninexistencefarlongerthanthedigitalandyethasonlybeen rigorouslyexploredinthelate20thcentury,mostnotablyby Csikszentmihalyi (1996). One wonderswhycreativityhasbeenrelativelyunexploredbeforethe1990sinspiteof thefactthatthetermhasbeenusedextensivelyinWesternsocietieswhendescribing itsvariousdiscipline-specicvicissitudes.Afterdiscussingthisetymologicalpaucity,I willexplorethescantliteraturethatconsiderscreativityinaholisticmanner,usingthisto frameasubsequentdiscussionaboutdigitalcreativity. Theepigraphtothischapterisdrawnfrom Br un ( 1970). 31

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4.1CreativityStudies The difcultyonendsinsummarizingascantcorpusofscholarship,suchasthe digital-as-virtualfromChapterTwo,isdwarfedbythedifcultyoneencounterswhen attemptingtodescribeabodyofscholarshipthat doesnot exist.Itisforthisreason thatthefollowingparagraph,whilepresentingsomeconcretefacts,containsafair bitofspeculationtoconnectthedots.Shouldthereadernotacceptmyintermediary hypotheses,hopefullythefactsprovidedaresubstantialenoughtovalidatethiscentral claim:thatcreativitystudiesascontemporarilydeneddidnotexistbefore1990 becauseofstrongdiscipline-centricnotionsofwhatcreativitymeant.Thus,inaway, scholarswereneversidesteppingtheissuetheysimplysawitasirrelevantbecause itwasalreadybeingstudied,albeitinamorefragmented(andthereforeperhapsmore relevant)manner. 1 Saidstudiesfallintotwobroadcamps:professionalcreativity (howtobemorecreativeinaspecicdomain)andcreativitypedagogy(howtoteach peopletobemorecreativeingeneral).Theformercanbeseeninmanifoldelds, especiallyartisticonesashortcentennialbibliographyofmusiccompositionmethods (Amerus1271, Tinctoris1477, Zarlino1571, Charpentier1693, Bordier1770) 2 reveals a historicalpreoccupationwithcreativityor,attheveryleast,withhowtocreate.The lattercanbeseeninpedagogytextssuchas Kagan (1967), Gowanetal. (1967), RothenbergandHausman (1976),and Sawyer (2003).Discussionsaboutcreativity as anumbrellaconceptbeginwithtwodevelopmentsthatareinextricablylinkedtothe digitaltools(andthereforemarketforces)discussedinChapterTwo.First,companies 1 This discipline-specicapproachisstillpartofthecontemporarycreativity landscapesee Bohm (1998)(business)and SyrettandLammiman (2002)(science). 2 These arejusttextswithwhichIamfamiliar.The PatrimoinesetLangagesMusicaux labattheUniversityofParis4countsnolessthan153ofthesecomposition treatisesconcerningvariousinstruments,styles,andtheoreticalpersuasionsbetween 900and1950. 32

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soughttomarkettoolsthatfacilitatedcreativityforwide sectorsofsociety,whichmade itnecessarytodenecreativityinthebroadesttermspossible.Second,ithasbecome increasinglyimportantforprofessionalstohavecreativecompetenciesinseveral eldsabsentofthehierarchicallyorganizedlabormarketthatcharacterizedtheperiod fromthebeginningofthepost-agrarianIndustrialRevolutionuntiltheTechnological Revolutionofthelate20thcentury.Itisnotsurprising,therefore,thattheseminaltexts oncreativityofthepasttwentyyearsspendasignicantamountoftimediscussing emergingtechnologiesfarfromamalgamatingacurrentfadintoanage-olddialogue, thesescholarsunderstandthatdiscussionsaboutcreativitywouldbemootwithout acknowledging,atleastinpart,thetechnologicalprogressthathasbroughtaboutthis modeofthinking. Hewett,oneoftherstwriterstorecognizetheimportanceofCsikszentmihalyiand extendhisworkintotherealmofthedigital,denescreativityasadancebetweenthe constraintsofaproblemandtheaptitudesofthesolver(s),wherethemostimportant ingredientis: thedevelopmentofavisionthepatternofrelationshipsamongbuilding blocksthatbecomestransformedintosomesortofreality.Thecreative processmustthenconsistinpartofbringingallthesethingstogetheratone timeandplaceinanappropriatecombinationtoproduceacreativeresult. (Hewett, 2005,388) It isthislastaspectthat,forHewett,distinguishescreativityfromintelligencea distinctionthatheacknowledgesasbeingproblematicforcertaincriticsofcreativity studieswhoseecreativityasamanifestationofintelligence.Sidesteppingthis terminologicaldebate(forwhichVoltarewillhavetoforgiveme),forthepurposesof thisdissertation,therestofthischapterwilladoptCsikszentmihalyi'soperativedenition thatcombinesaptitude,constraint,andvision,concedingthatifcreativityisinfact 33

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justintelligence,thenitisatleastaspecialformofintelligence 3 Csikszentmihalyi and Sawyer (1995)feelthatthistypeofholisticproblem-solvingvantagepoint requires ,paradoxically,ahermeticengagementwiththeproblemcoupledwithintense socializationwherebypeopleattempttoarticulatenascentsolutionsorprovethevalidity offullyformedones.Creativityalsoobligestheeffectiveuseofanalogy,metaphor, fantasy,play,andinnovation,asitisoftendifculttoencapsulate(letalonesolve)an ill-denedproblemwithstandardtermsofmediation( Csikszentmihalyi, 1996). Aspre viouslyindicated,thisscholarshipsuggeststhatcertaincapabilities ofemergingtechnologiesarebenecialfor,ifnotnecessaryto,creativityinthe contemporaryera.Hewettwrites: Muchofthediscussionofinsightprovidesclearjusticationfortheimportance ofprovidingacreativeworkerwithaccesstoalibraryofstoredanalogs ofbothendproductsandofcomponentpartsandprocesses.Multiple alternativerepresentationsofthedomaincontentand/orstructureplaya roleinallowingthecreativeworkertoexploredifferentvisionsor`whatif?' coursesofactionsneededtoaddtoexistingknowledge.( Hewett, 2005,397) Of thislibrary'slayout,hewrites,Theimportanceoftailorabilityofaworkingenvironment forcreativeworkhasbeenstressedintheworkofseveralpeoplereviewedearlier,as hastheimportanceofallowingcreativeworkerstoshiftworkfromoneproblemdomain toanotherrelateddomainwithdifferentconstraints(Hewett, 2005,397).Perhapsmost impor tantly,thecreatorneedswaystochartherprogressthroughthisvirtualterritory: [Thecreativewriter]needssomemechanismforbeingabletocaptureideas thatoccurduringthewritingprocess.Themostusefulsolutionisonethat allowsforaneffortless,almostreexivecaptureoftheideainawaythatdoes notdisrupttheworkowbutwhichallowsthewritertoquicklycapturethe ideaorinsight,returningtoitlaterforevaluation,etc.Thissametypeofneed existsforacomposerdevelopinganewwork.Theparticularinstantiation andformofthe`ideas'willdiffer,buttheneedforeasycapturethatdoesnot disrupttheworkowisthereforboth.( Hewett, 2005,398) 3 Cer tainly,alltaskstowhichintelligencemustbeapplieddonotrequirethesethree characteristics. 34

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Here,Csikszentmihalyi'swritingbecomeslessandlessholistic andcategorical,moving fromnecessarypriorsofcreativeengagementtoaspectsofcontemporarycreativity thatseemimpossiblewithoutcomputerassistance,showingtheextenttowhichmodern creators(ifnotmodernacademics)conceiveoftheirproblem-solvingneedswithrespect totheplethoraofnewtechnologies(andtechnologicalpossibilities)thatcanservice them. 4.2DigitalToolsforCreativity AlreadyinCsikszentmihalyi,certainaspectsofdigitaltoolsforcreativityare elucidatedinacategoricalmannerthatanticipatesalientandrecurringissuesin theeldofdigitalcreativity.However,tonarrowthescopeofdigitalcreativityforthe purposeofthisdissertation,therestofthischapterisorganizedaroundthefollowing motivatingquestion: Whatarethebestmannersbywhichthecreatormayexpress hercreativeself? Thisrequiresmoreexplanationsofuniquelydigitalphenomena thanCsikszentmihalyi'swork(whichispaintedinbroadstrokesabsentofarobust digitalscapethatcouldsupportorcontradicthispredictions),surveyingthevastliterature ondigitalcreativityfromthe2000stoascertainthemostpervasivetheoreticaltrendsin softwaredesign.Asidefromarticlesofferinglistsofwhatdigitalcreativitytoolsshould offertheirusers(ofwhichtherearemanyandwhosecontentsoverlapagreatdeal), threemainissuesemerge:mutabilityandmetadesign,inter-humancommunication,and humancomputerinteraction. Theneedformutability,perhapsthemostsalientissueidentiedintheliterature, stemsfromthedesiretomakemorepeoplemorecreativemoreoften,enablingthem tosuccessfullycopewithawidervarietyofchallengesandevenstraddledomains (Shneiderman, 2002,116).Echoingthepreviouslydescribedmarketforcesthatbring about thismulti-functionality,Shneidermannotesthatgatekeepersinacademia (journals,critics,curators,etc.)havebegunshapingtheirstandardsoncertain measuresofdigitalcompetencyanddiversity,evenrequiringcertainspecicpieces 35

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ofsoftwareforformattingpurposes,whichhasincreasedthedemand formutabilityin softwaredesign.Thishasledtointer-domainanalogies( BonnardelandMarm eche 2005,423)wherebycreators,presentedwithmutableandmulti-functional piecesof software,mayengageinlateralcreativethoughtthatispotentiallymorerobustthan domain-specicsoftwarewouldpermit(recallHewett'scallforanalogiesandludic exploration).Recently,theconceptofmetadesignhasextendedthisinterdisciplinarity byenablinguserstoexplore,withincreasingmeasuresofcertainty,ill-denedproblems whosesolutionsrequiresuchthinking.Metadesignalsoacknowledgesthatthe convergenceofseveralcompetenciesisatemporalprocesswhoseorderingiscriticalto thesuccessofaproject: User-centeredandparticularlydesignapproacheshavefocusedprimarily onactivitiestakingplaceatdesigntime.Theseapproacheshavenotgiven enoughemphasisandtheyhaveprovidedfewmechanismstosupport systemsaslivingentitiesthatcanevolveovertime.Metadesignisa uniquedesignapproachconcernedwithopeningupsolutionspacesrather thancompletesolutions,...andaimedatcreatingsocialandtechnical infrastructuresinwhichnewformsofcollaborativedesigncantakeplace. (GiaccardiandFischer, 2008,19) Metadesign callsintoquestionthedividebetweendesigntimeandusetime, creatingintermediarylayerswhereuserscanmodifyaprogram'scorefunctionality andencouragingmarketmechanismsallowinguserstocommerciallyredistributesaid functionality.Ofcourse,anyprocessoftemporalmutabilityoffersthepossibilityfor constructiveerrors,whichmetadesignaimstoincorporateintosoftwarebyprivileging solutionsthatpreventusersfromunintentionallyretracing fauxpas (Edmonds, 2000). The ultimategoal,albeitdifculttoconceive(letalonerealize)isthatmutablesoftware shouldpermitthecreatortoactually transform herownspaceinsteadofsimply exploringit( Ritchie, 2006).Thisheightenedsenseofmutabilityaccentuatesthe inherently transformativequalitiesofthecreativeprocessjustastheartistmust sometimesrecongureherphysicalworkspacetoachievenewresults,sotoomust 36

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thedigitalcreatorfeelthissensationofcreativedestruction (evenifitis,toanextent,a miragefacilitatedbyagivendigitaltechnology). Inter-humancommunication,toucheduponinthelastchapter'sexplorationof cyberspace,extendsthisnotionofinterdisciplinaritybyprovidingforumswhereby human-to-humaninteractionsacrossdisciplinesarepossible,creatinganideological (andlexicographical) linguafranca.Thisissueisnotuniquetocreativitysoftwaresocial computingingeneralseekstofacilitatecommunicationinwhichthetechnological platformisnotanegativeinterferent(or,inotherwords,wheretechnologyiseither transparentorapositiveinterferent).Manyofthepreviously-discussedprinciplesof cyberspacethataimtoreplicateperson-to-personinteractionsandsocialinstitutions havefocusedontransparency,whichseemslikeareasonablerststepfortools thatenablecreativedialogue.Thisisnottosaythattransparencyexistedbefore cyberspacelanguage,sound,drawings,andanyotherpre-digitalintermediariesare imperfectlexicalcontainersofone'screativevision(andevenpoorercommunicators ofone'screativeuncertaintiesorcuriosities).Rather,cyberspacehastoconfrontthe dualtaskofreplicatingtraditionalmeansofinterpersonalexchangetomollifypeople's inherentmistrustofthenewwhilecreatingnovel,potentiallybetter,waysoffacilitating thetransparentexchangeofideas.Recalling Hewett (2005),insofarassocializationis necessar yforcreativity,thesimpleexistenceoftheseforumsisalreadyasignicant boonunliketheissueofmutabilitydiscussedabove,theneedforinnocuousspaces wherechit-chatandbanalitycanoccurbetweencreatorsisasimportantas(ifnotmore importantthan)aspacewhereprofunditycanbearticulatedandtransmitted.However, thereexistssomeliteraturecallingforcreativity-specicmodicationstoforumsofdigital exchange. Lubart (2005)recognizestheneedforcomputerstoactastrafccopsin the creativeprocess,coordinatingthemulti-stepprocessofcreativecommunication inadditiontoactingasatransparentconduitofideas.This,toanextent,fallsunder theauspicesofmetadesign;ratherthanseparatinginter-humancommunicationfrom 37

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theproblemofdesign,itcanbeconsideredasadesignproblemin andofitselfby requiringthatcommunicationnetworksdevelopsimultaneouslywiththesolutiontothe problemthatnecessitatesthesenetworks( GiaccardiandFischer, 2008).Ingrowing said networks,specialattentionneedstobegiventoboundaryobjectsthatis,objects thateitherdelimitusers'personalcreativespaceorcreatetheillusionthatsuchaspace exists(Fischeretal., 2005).Inacknowledgingthis,onearrivesatamiddleground betw eenthecomputer-as-intermediaryandthecomputer-as-mediary.Oneexampleof saidboundaryexistsinaesthetic-basedapproachestohuman-computerinteraction. Theargumentgoesasfollows:technologyfavorabletohuman-computerinteraction needstofacilitatecreativepracticesthatinspireuserstobecreative.Goingeven further,thesedigitalsurroundingsmaypossesstheabilitytoappealtouseremotions, changingthevoicewithwhichtheycreate( UdsenandJorgensen, 2005,208).Linking this tothepreviousconceptofmutability,thereisinaestheticengagementatemporal dimensionwherebycreators'decisionsarelinkedtotheorderinwhichinformationis processed( Taylor, 2002).Atanextreme,thisrequiresblurringtheboundariesbetween inf ormation(whatcounts)andcontainersofinformation(aninterface)( Yamamotoand Nakak oji 2005). Asa recapitulativeofthethreedigitalhot-spotsidentiedintheliterature(mutability andmetadesign,inter-humancommunication,andhumancomputerinteraction),what followsarethelistsbywhichseveralauthorshavesoughttodescribedigitaltoolsfor digitalcreativity.Insteadofcombiningseveraloft-citedlists(i.e. Bowen (2003), Lubart (2005), Shneiderman (2002)),Iwilluse Greene (2002)asapointofreference,whose wor kisitselfanamalgamationofseveralpriorarticlesonthesubjectofbest-practices indigitalcreativitysoftwarecreation.Hersevenrequirementsforcreativetoolsarethat they: Supportpain-freeexplorationandexperimentation; Supportengagementwithcontenttopromoteactivelearninganddiscovery; Supportsearch,retrieval,andclassication; 38

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Supportcollaboration; Suppor titeration; Supportandperhapsencourageinstructivemistakes; Supportthedomain-specicactionsthatmustbedone.( Greene, 2002,102) This listisparticularlyappropriatetothechapterathandbecauseofitsoperativeverb support.Bycontrast,theverbencouragewill,inthenextchapter,bejoinedwith wordssuchasproliferate,contradict,andunagginglyinsisttodescribethemeans bywhichadigitaltoolmaybecomeamediary. 4.3Music-Composition-SpecicIssues Bynow,thereadershouldbethoroughlyunconvincedthatthistreatiseisprincipally concernedwiththecompositionofmusic.Itisherethatsaidskepticreceivespartof herpayoffhavingdenedtermssuchascreativity,digitalself,anddigitaltool,one cannowmeaningfullydiscussuniquelymusicalissuesindigitalcreativity.Indoingso, noparticulartechnologicalinnovationsarediscussed(saveone),insteaddiscussing broadtechnologicalinnovationsthathaveenabledcomposersto,as Br un ( 1970) wistfully suggests,havetheirdreamsmaterialize,theirintentionsimplemented,and theirproblemssolved. Themostrecurrentdebateaboutthecomposerandtechnologyisareformulation ofanolderquestionconcerningtheextenttowhichcomposers,aspractitioners, shouldplayorevencreatetheinstrumentsforwhichtheywrite.Thebodyofreceived knowledgeregardinginstrumentationandorchestrationobviatesthecomposer,toa certainextent,frombeingintimatelyfamiliarwiththeinstrumentsthatappearinher scores.Suchfamiliarity,attheextreme,mayhaveadetrimentaleffectoncomposition, bothbecauseitsignicantlyimpedesthelearningprocessrequiredtocompletea workontime(ifeverycomposerneededtoknoweveryinstrumentoftheorchestra asintimatelyasaplayerofthatinstrument,feworchestralworkswouldeverget written)and,assumingcomposershavelimitedcognitiveresources,becauseiteffaces heuristicssuchasorchestrationbooksonwhichcomposersmustrelytocreateworks 39

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forlargeinstrumentalforces.Ontheoppositeextreme,works bycomposerssuchas LachenmannandEsslaretheresultofanintimateromancewiththecapacitiesand restraintsofparticularinstruments,allowingharmonic,rhythmic,andformalconcerns togrowoutofthedesignoftheinstrumentanditsplayer.Insofarasthecomputeris aninstrument(bothofsoundproductionandsoundorganization),contemporary theoriststypicallyextendthisdebatebycontrastingavirtuositywithend-usersoftware (surfaceknowledge)withtheabilitytocode(deeperknowledge).However,these binarydistinctionsfallapartundercloserscrutiny.End-usersoftwaredoesnotlockits usersintomaintainingaformofcreativedistancebetweenthemselvesandthecore ofmusicmaking.Instead,treatingend-usersoftwareasafoundobjectallowsone toapproachitasaninstrumentinandofitselfwithacoresoundandperipheralor extendedtechniques.Toemployanexamplefromthecommercialrealm,thereare severalartistswhosidestepeasiercreationprocessesandchoosetobendReason intodoingarbitrarilydifcultDSPtasksthatpushitslimitsasasequencer(andeven requireextendingitsfunctionality) 4 ,effectivelyreplicatingthedifcultytheywould ndinpushinganinstrument(alist)tothelimitsofits(her)expressiveandtechnical capacities. 5 Ontheothersideofthespectrum,codingdoesrequireafamiliaritywith theinstrumentofthecomputer,andmayevenprovidethecomposerwithasortof creativeinertiathattransferstodecisionsintherealmofsound-making( Smith, 2006). 4 Listen to,forexample,toProdigy'salbum AlwaysOutnumbered.LiamHowlettof ProdigywritesAndthatsoundwegotoutofReasonissomethingthatwenowand againhadtogobacktoReasontoduplicate;sometimeswed[sic ]doathinginProTools anditjustdidntrockitlikeReasondid,sowedtakeitoutofProToolsandtrytoduplicate itinReasoninstead( H agglund, 2003 ). 5 One isremindedofNancarrow'swork,whichdidthesametotheelectro-mechanical controlofaplayerpianooneofthemissinglinksinthissetofexamplesfromextended human-playedinstrumentstoextendeddigitalsimulationsofthem.See Drott (2004), which arguesthatNancarrowundoubtedlyrecognizedthattheinstrumentimposeda numberofconstraintsevenasitremovedothers( Drott, 2004,534). 40

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However,codingcanresultinthecreationofaconstrictiveend-user interfacethatrobs thecomposerofthesupposedopen-endednessofcodinglanguages.Thus,while digitalcreativitytoolsperpetuatethisinstrumentaldebate,theyeffectivelyblurthelines betweencomposerasmechanist,composerasinterpreter,andcomposerasinstrument builder.Recently,thisdebatehasbeencomplicatedevenfurtherbyintermediary approachestodigitalcreativitythatmixend-userinterfaceswithcodingorscripting. Farfromrejectingtheaestheticallymindedimmersiveworldssuggestedintheprevious section,thisenvironmentisactuallycomfortableforartistswhohave,forhundreds ofyears,communicatedtheirideasthroughasymboliclanguageentirelyabstracted fromtheactualmechanismsofsoundproduction( Herrema, 2006).Furthermore,the inherently iterativeprocessesthatformthebasisofmanycompositionaltechniques, new-and-old,ndahappyhomeinenvironmentsthatprovidemacrosforcodeloops andtheabilitytoinstantiatemultiplecopiesofanobjectatonce. Anothercompositionaldebatethathasbeencarriedintotheageofdigitalcreation isthatofthedifferencebetweenimprovisationandcomposition.Composers'ability tousecomputerstocultivateandarrangeimprovisedmaterialisacontemporary extensionoftheprocessbywhichcomposers,improvisingonaninstrument,accrue asetofmaterialsandproceduresthatultimatelyformapiece.Onemanifestationof thistrendisasortofarticialintelligencethat,basedoncertainrules,improvises musicasynchronously 6 orinrealtime.Amorerecentdevelopmentbringsthe improviserintotheloop,creatingafeedbackcyclewherebytheimproviserresponds todigitally-generatedmaterialandviceversa.Thisrevealstheinherentlyfuzzy linebetweenimprovisationandcompositionliketheclassicalcadenzaorthe Cageanhappening,thecomposercomposesaspaceinwhichimprovisationoccurs. 6 The mostfamousbeingCope's ExperimentsinMusicalIntelligence,whichanalyzes acomposer'soeuvreandattemptstogeneratestylisticallyviablereplicasofherworks. 41

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Furthermore,improvisatoryfeedback,insofarasitcanshape thewayanimproviser orcomposerresponds,makesthecomputeralternatebetweenanintermediary (logofthecomposer'sideas)andamediary(what Sawyer (2003)callsanagent pro vocateur). Alasttrend,whichtouchesuponallartformsthatexistedbeforethedigitalage,has todowiththeincorporationofsensoralityintotheprocessofcreatingandactualizing digitalmedia.Only Bowen (2003)exploresthisproblemindepthand,whileherstudy is connedtotheplasticarts,manyofherconclusionsextendtothephysicalprocess ofwritingmusic,whetheritbeworkingoutideasonaninstrument,touchingpento paper,orburningdecientdrafts(or,inthecaseofPaulDukas,completeworks). Bowenidentiesthissentimentasthetug-of-warbetweentheseductiveauthorityof digitalimagingprogramsandtheweb,andtheartists'yearningforthephysicalityof thematerialartobject[inthiscase,ascoreorrecording]andbeingimmersedinits hand-maderealisation( Bowen, 2003,224).Inthephysicalworld,things are created and deleted,butinthedigital,thingshavethesemblanceofbeingcreatedanddeleted (L evynotesthiswhenhespeaksofthecomputercrashasthemostpainfulreminder thatcomputerusersmustreconsiderwhatthedenitionofisis).Thus,thesense ofabandonmentwithwhichanartistgivesherselfovertoherworkismitigated,toa certainextent,bythefeelingthatoneiscollaboratingwith(ifnothandingovercontrol to)anOther.Thisconscientiousnessoftheprogramasaformofcollaboratorinthat process(Bowen, 2003,223)hasapsychologicalimpactonthecreationofnewwork, perhaps evenextendingtoone'saestheticpsycheingeneral.However,asBowennotes, thisdifcultyisonlyencounteredbythosewhohavemovedfromtheconcreteintothe digitalthosewhohavegrownupwiththetwosimultaneously(orthosewhoonlyknow thedigital)donotbemoanthelackoftactilityincreation.Thus,thissentimentmay betransitoryandirrelevanttofuturegenerationsofartistswhousedigitaltechnology. 42

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However,insofarasthisissueiscertainlypertinentin2010(and insofarastheart createdtodaywillhavesomebearingontheartoftomorrow),itisimportanttonote. 4.4BrunRevisited Themoderndigitalcreativityenvironmentasdescribedinthischapteractualizes manyaspectsofBr un'sspeechTechnologyandtheComposer,whereheadvocates theideaoftechnologyastheintermediatingconduitthroughwhichcomposerscan makeworkandbringaboutsocialchange.Whenhearticulatesourneedforthecontrol ofacousticaleventsforapurpose,andourwaysofcateringtothisneedthrougha mazeofapparentlycontinuouschainsofeitherobservedorstipulatedproblems,and eitherfoundorinventedorstipulatedsolutions(Br un, 1970 ),heexpressesadesirefor technological progressthathasbeenpartiallyrealizedsincehisdeathbytheconcept ofmetadesigndiscussedabove.Theideaofmetadesignalsoanswershiscallthatall peoplehaveattheirdisposaladevicethatwillrespondtoeachperson'sinputaccording tothelanguagestipulatedbythatperson(Br un, 1970 ).Lastly,hisnalutopianimageof ab uildingwheretheartsinvestigate,stipulate,create,andexploitsystemshasbeen realizedinthenon-physicalspaceofcyberspace. Butwhatifthearrowoftechnology'seffectinBr un'sprincipaldiscoursewere reversed?Whatif,insteadofuspouringouringenuityintomachines,weasked machinestopouringenuityintous?Thiswillbethesubjectofthenextchaptera subjectthatisunder-examinedbythecreativecommunityandyetwhoseimportanceis inestimablewithrespecttothecontinualformationofacreative,letalonedigital,self. 43

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CHAPTER5 COMPOSITION II:THECREATIVEMEDIARY Inanycreativeprocesstherewillbesupportingtangibleandconceptual structuresthatremainstaticandprovidethebasisfromwhichmalleable constraintsarebuilt....Byconsideringthestaticconstraintsinanygiven situation,wecandifferentiateandanalyzetheareasinwhichpractitioners consciouslyexploreconstraintsandtheunderlyingstructuresusedtoframe thisexploration. TimCoughlanandPeterJohnson,AnExplorationofConstraintsand EndUserDevelopmentinEnvironmentsforCreativeTasks Withinaspanof25years,threemoviesandatelevisionseriesaboutsupercars emergedintheAmericanpopularculturelandscapethatreectedman'sdeepest desires,andfears,withrespecttothisincreasinglyuniversaltechnology.Onlyone,Gary Larson'sKnightRiderfromtheeponymoustelevisionseries,offeredacar(Kit)whose raisond' etre wastoaiditsownerinstoppingcrime.TwocarsfromAnglo-American cinema,Chitty-Chitty-Bang-BangbyIanFlemmingandTheLoveBug(akaHerbie) byDisney,treatedthecarasacapriciouscompanionwithamindofitsownalways willingtohelpbutalsodemandingaformofattentionandrespectfromitsowners. Lastly,StephenKing'sChristine,vengefullywreakedhavoconthesleepercommunityof Libertyville.Acontinuumarrayingthecarsfromintermediarytomediarywouldread asfollows: Kit(effectivelyaslave)!Chitty-Chitty-Bang-Bang(occasionallypassive aggressive,butgenerallyhelpful)!Herbie(confusedandmisunderstoodin spiteofhisbestintentions)!Christine(blood-thirstypsychopath). Interestingly,thiscontinuumalsocorrespondstothedegreeofhumanitytheauthors builtintothesemachines:Kitwasamechanicalodetothegodsoftechnology,whereas Christinewasthereincarnationofagirlwhowasbrutallymurdered.Whatabout technology,then,becomesmorehumanasafunctionofitsabilitytogetintheway Theepigraphtothischapterisdrawnfrom CoughlanandJohnson (2008,447). 44

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ofman'sdesires?Howdoesthishumanizationoftechnologycorrespond withthe endeavorsofthedigitalcreatorasdiscussedintheprevioustwochapters?Finally, howarethesedesiresfullledordeniedbythemarketforcesthatcontroltheevolutionof technology?Thischapterwilldevelopalongthesamelinesasmyautomotiveanalogy, startingwithminimallyintrusivetechnology( ala Chitty-Chitty-Bang-Bangthereader shouldrealizebynowthatKitwasthesubjectofthelastchapter)andmovingonto digitalChristinesthathavethepotentialtonegativelyaffectthepathosoftheuser. 5.1TheStimulationofCreativeThought Themostbenignwaythatacomputercanactasamediaryisintheroleof catalyst.Edmondswrites: Increasingly,however,adifferentroleisbeingfoundforthecomputer.Itis theroleofacatalyst,orastimulant,toourowncreativethinking.Insuch casesthecomputerisnotprimarilyperformingataskforusandgenerating ananswerwithinitself,ratheritishelpingustogenerateanswerswithin ourselves.Thecomputerhelpsusthinkcreatively.( Edmonds, 2000,193) This extendsbeyondaunimodalnotionofcreativeagencytothemultiplecreativities toucheduponinthepreviouschapter,enablinglateralanalogiesandthoughtprocesses: Afundamentalrequirementofanenvironmentforcreativepracticeisthatit supportsandenablesthedevelopmentofnewformsandthenewknowledge thatisrequiredtoachievesuchoutcomes.Thepointisthatcreativityrequires circumstancesthatenhancedevelopmentpossibilities.Thequestionishow doweensurethatboththecreativityandthetechnologydevelopmentare fosteredintandem?Thetechnologyrequirementsgatheringforcreativity mustbeahighlyresponsive,iterativeprocesswherenewinsightsarefed backquicklyintothedevelopmentprocess.Thisco-evolutionaryprocessis aformofpractice-basedresearchwheretheexistingtechnologyisusedina newwayandfromwhichtechnologyresearchderivesnewanswers:inturn, theuseofnewdigitaltechnologymayleadtotransformationofexistingforms andtraditionalpractices.( Edmondsetal., 2005,458) Fur thermore,inbothlateralandprofoundthought,theneedemergesforpeopleto maximizetheirlimitedcognitivecapabilities,whichcomputerscanhelpeffectuateby monitoringtheworkinghabitsandprogressofcreators.Lubartwrites: 45

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Infact,asurveyofsuccessfulinventorsshowedthatperserver ancewas themostfrequentlycitedattributeneededforcreativity.Itispossiblethat computerscanencouragecreativitybymonitoringtheworkingprocess andsupportingthepotentiallycreativepersonasheorsheproceeds. Forexample,Burlesonproposes...thatcomputerscanhelppeopleto handletimepressureby'setting'deadlinestokeepaprojectonschedule andremindingtheuserofthiscontract,orbymonitoringtheuser'swork andpointingoutproblemsofprocrastination,orproblemsoftoomany interruptions.Alackofbreakscanitselfleadtofatigueandsub-optimal performance,socomputerscouldimproveusers'qualityoflifeandperhaps fostercreativeincubationbyproposingbreakstotheirusers.( Lubart, 2005, 366) Ultimately ,thisliberationfromthetediumofcomputinghelpsartistsfocusontwo importantgoals:structureandprocess( Edmonds, 2000).Thissoftformofmediazation is transferableacrossprojectsaswellthecomputer,rememberingthemeansby whichanartistworks,candispensewithdigitalacquaintancesandimmediatelybeginto supportthewayinwhichanartistcreates. 5.2Self-ImposedCreativeConstraints Verymuchlikethetermcreativity,theideaofconstraintisoftendiscussedwith respecttoaspecicdomain.Forexample,constraint-basedoptimizationhasledto breakthroughsindiverseeldssuchasphysics,economics,andbiology.Inthearts, stylisticandtechnicalconstraints(thefugue,thestilllife,iambicpentameter)provide acreativechallengethatallowstheartisttoexpressheringenuitybyexploring(and evenextending)theexpressivecapacitiesofaconstrainedspace.Perhapstheoldest constraintcommontoalltheartsisthatoftimeanditsDoppelg angermoney,which forcestheartisttomakecreativedecisionsthatarguablycouldnothavecomeintobeing withouttheselimitingfactors.Unfortunately,almostnoliteratureexistsonthegeneral efcacyofself-imposedconstraintsinthecreativeprocess, 1 andevenlessondigital 1 See Stok es (2006)fortheonlycomprehensivebookonthesubject. 46

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constraints.Itisforthisreasonthatthefollowingsectionwill besupplementedwith reectionsoncreativeconstraintsinmyowncreativework. Atrstglance,digitalconstraintsseemlikethosethatonewouldexpecttoseein thearts.Thatis,theyresembledevicessuchasatwelve-toneroworcolormatrix,but transplantedintothedigitalrealm.Candywrites: Animportantcharacteristicofdigitaltechnologyisthattouseittoitsfull [potential],youhavetobepreparedtomakeexplicittheimplicitassumptions thatareinourmindasyoudevelopthework.Itistheveryneedfor explicitnessthatmakesitbothchallengingandrewardingtomanyartists. Inordertoworkdigitally,theconstraintshavetobespeciedinsuchaway astomakethecomputergenerateanoutcomethatissatisfyingtotheartist. But,moreimportantly,theprocessofspecifyingtheconstraintsindigital formcanbebestunderstoodasanintegralpartofthecreativeprocess.The choiceofwhethertoprogramortouseasoftwareapplicationcanbecritical tohowmuchtheartisthascontroloverthecharacteroftheconstraintstobe specied.( Candy, 2007,366) These constraintsarenotstaticbut,likethecreativeprocess,evolveasthework develops.AsCoughlanandJohnsonwrite: Creativeworkisdenedasacyclical,iterativeprocessofideation,the generationandrepresentationofnovelthoughts,andevaluation,reection onthevalueofgeneratedideas.Thesecyclesareinterspersedperiods ofconstraintdevelopment,asubprocessthatconsidersboththetof existingconstraintsandhowconstraintscouldaffecttheoutcomeandthen implementschangestotheconstraintstructure.Themodelhasdevelopedto aidgeneralunderstandingofcreativitysupportneedsandtodenetherole ofconstraintdevelopment.( CoughlanandJohnson, 2008,446) The renementofconstraintsnotonlyhelpsinrealizingatangiblecreativegoal,butalso begetsnewconstraintsthathelponeachieveadesiredoutcome. Candy (2007)and CoughlanandJohnson (2008)discusslocal,project-specicand process-specic digitalboundariesthattheartistcanusetoshapeherwork.However, insofarasglobalworkspace-basedconstraintsintheartist'slifeshapethenatureof herproduction,sotoocanconstraintsinadigitalenvironmentleadtoholisticchanges inone'sapproachtowardsartisticcreation.Thepsychologyofworkspaceconstraints ishithertounstudiedintheliterature,butmanifoldexamplesofemergenttechnologies 47

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attesttosociety'squizzicaldesiretoconstrainhowandwhere wework.Asacasestudy, considertheadventofdigitalrecording.Afterrsttransferringaudiofromanaloguetape todiskpackdrivesthatdisplayedawaveformoftheaudioonanoscilloscope,onewould thensendcommand-lineinstructionsfromaDigitalEquipmentCorporationPDP-11to asoftwarepackageentitledDigitalAudioProcessor(DAP)toperformmixingprocesses suchassplicingandfades( Easton, 1976).Thisapproachisnotonlyindebtedto tr aditionalanalogtapeprocessesitnevertrulyescapedfromthem,somuchsothat Soundstream,thecompanyatwhichDAPwascreated,followedtheinventionofthis DigitalAudioWorkstation(DAW)withadigitaltoanalogconverterthatallowedfor writeoperationsdirectlyonthetapesthemselves.Thedispensingofthediskpack,in termsoftheevolutionofintegrateddigitaltechnologies,wasactuallyastep backwards. However,users'comfortwiththisworkspaceconstraintcreatedthedemandfora seeminglyantiquatedpracticeaphenomenonsimilartoJaredDiamond'sdocumenting ofcivilizationswhoabandonedagriculturetotakeupthehuntingandgatheringfrom whichtheyassumedlyevolved.WhileDAWtechnologyhasadvancedconsiderablysince then,currentDAWsstillreplicatecertaintrappingsofanalogtapetechnology.Thisisnot tosaythatallofthesepracticesshouldbegivenuptheideaofcuttingandsplicing, inaway,seemsessentialtosoundediting,irrespectiveofthetechnologybeingused. However,thefactthatthesetermsandfunctionalitiespersistintotechnologiesinwhich theyarenotnativeisproofoftheextenttowhicholdertechnologiesleaveanindelible markontheiruserbase,evenifsaiduserscoulddobetterworkbyadoptinganew practice. Notallself-imposedconstraints,however,areinitiallychosenbytheuser.An exampleisthetechnologicalrestrainttowhichIamcurrentlysubjectedIamwriting thisdissertationonacomputerwherethebottom2/7ofthescreenisbroken,forcing metoundergoinnumerablemachinationstoseethecontentsofwhatIwrite,letalone whatIread.Withthisdigitalhandicap,thegraphic-basedcompositionenvironments 48

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havebecomemostlyuseless(mostoftheseenvironmentsputessential informationat thebottom-mostpartofthescreen).Thus,IhaveoptedtocomposeoutoftheTerminal, ameager,easily-resizableprogramthathasintroducedmetotheworldofUnix.This, inturn,hasledmetousingPython,SuperCollider,ImageMagick,andLilypondto generatescores,whichhasbroughtmetonewrealmsofalgorithmiccompositionand programming.Inowcannotrememberhowitfelttocreate without abrokenscreen and,iftomorrowIwokeupandmyscreenweremiraculouslyxed,inspiteofany feigneddelight,Iwouldsecretlytrytosubjectittotheforcesnecessarytoreplicate thebumpytrainrides,spilledcoffee,andunfortunateexperimentswithalternating currentthathavecausedthisproblem.Thus,workspace-basedconstraints,bethey intentionalorfortuitous,havethepotentialtopushtheartist'spsycheinthesameway thatcompositionalrestraintscanshapeawork. 5.3BrunRe-Revisited Itwouldbeintellectuallydishonesttosuggestthattechnology-as-constraintas describedaboveistheconceptualantipodetotechnology-as-intermediaryasdiscussed inthepreviouschapter.However,thisconceptionoftechnologydoesprovidean alternativeviewpointtotheidealisticandutopianvisionofthecomposer'srelationship withtechnology,expressedinitiallyandmostfamouslybyHerbertBr uninTechnology andtheComposer.Thisspeech,deliveredattheUNESCOin1970,callsforaformof creativetechnologicalaccessandopportunitythatisnotunlikethatwhichiscurrently affordedbytheinternetandsimilartechnologies.Init,hecategorizeswithBrechtian gustothosewhoheconsiderstheopponentsofthistechnologicalfreedom: Technologywouldhaveafarmorebenecialimpactonsocietyifits potentialswerecontrolledbythetechnologistsratherthanbyindustrialists andpoliticians.( Br un, 1970 ) Here ,Br unisnotspeakingofanylocalizablegroupofindustrialistsandpoliticians,but ratherthearchetypeofthosethathefeelsimpedetechnologicalprogress.Itiseffectively anasidethatactsasabackdroptohismainpointabouttechnology'srelationshipwith 49

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thecomposer.Thatsaid,thesingling-outofthesegroupsreveals aprofounddistrust ofmoneyandpowerthatexistedintheearlydaysofcomputermusic.Fortyyears later,irrespectiveofwhetherornotindustrialistsorpoliticianscontinuetomeritthe distrustthatunderliesBr un'sstatement,theactualeffectthatthesegroupshavehad (andcontinuetohave)onthedisseminationoftechnologyisnotonlyofparamount importance,butalsoofabsolutenecessity.Thepresentsectionseeksto(re)dene theroleofthesetwoarchetypestheindustrialistandthepoliticianatthetopofthe technologicalmediarytotem.Themannerinwhichtheybringconstrainttotechnology notonlycreatesanall-encompassingsocialcreativeconstraint,butalsofacilitatesthe creationofintermediatingsoftware.Farfromposingaproblem,theyactuallyforge opportunitiesforcomposerstocreativelydistinguishthemselves,leadingmetoclaim thattechnologyhasafarmorebenecialimpactonsocietywhenitspotentialsare controlledbyindustrialistsandpoliticiansthanbythetechnologists. Globalmarkets,whosesupplychainisassumedlyfurnishedbyindustrialists, areinterconnectedandimpersonal.Classicaleconomicsdictatesthatthissupply meetsconsumerdemandatapriceaboveorbelowwhichthesupplierwouldnot maximizeitsprotmargin.Inthemostpessimisticscenario,demandismerelythe collectiveassertionofapreferencethattheindustrialist/supplierhassubconsciously inculcatedinitsdemanders.Irrespectiveofthemotivatingforcesbehinddemand,itis clearthatdemandforpersonaldigitaltechnologieshasrisenoverthepastfortyyears. Industrialists,whobenetfromalimentingthisdemandandwhoareincompetition withotherindustrialists, 2 arethrustintoacycleofcontinuousresearch,development, andproduction.BecausetheUnitedStatesandEuropeanUnionarevigilantintheir breakingupoftechnologicalmonopolies,thistrendisonlylikelytoaccelerateuntildigital 2 Acompetition thatishigherthanotherindustriesduetothepreviouslydiscussed difcultiesinpatentingdigitaltechnologies. 50

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technologyissupplantedbysomethingelse.Whilethesepressures onindustrialists resultinanoverproductionoftechnologywithrespecttoconsumers'actualabilityto buynewversionsofthesetechnologies,itdoesfuelinnovationanddrivedowncosts. Composers,inBr un'smodel,benetimmenselyfromthis.Theyarepreciselythose whoneedtechnologiststobeconstantlyinnovative,andwhileBr unonlymentions moneycursorily,Iwouldassumethathewouldsupportthegreateraccessthatcheaper technologyaffordstothosewhoseentryintocompositioniscontingentonthecostof theirtools.Thistypeofphenomenonwouldnotnecessarilyarriveweretechnologists tocontroltechnologypolicy.Whilethetechnologistwouldlikelywanttodevelop technologiesthatshefeltwereinteresting,onlyanartistically-mindedoraltruistic technologistwould,giventheopportunitytocontrolthepotentialsofthetechnology shecreates,dedicateherworktothebettermentofcomposers'lives.Relatingthisto theabovediscussionofmediaries,theworkspacemediarybecomesa linguafranca inthecreativecommunity;composersarecollectivelyconstrainedbythetechnological frameworksintowhichtheybuyunlessthecomposeriswillingtowriteherownsoftware. Inthisway,industrialistscontextualizethecomposer'screativeresponseinthesame waythattheCEOofFenderisultimatelyresponsibleforthemass-disseminationofa collectionofnormstowhichcomposerswishingtowriteforelectricguitarrefer. Underthisanalyticlens,politiciansarenomoreguiltythanindustrialistsin thedevelopmentoftechnology.Governmentspendingrepresentsauniquesortof regulationcosttopreemptivelyorreactivelycorrectmarketsinthesamewaythat umpiresofciatebaseballplayerstomakesurethattheykeepplayingthegameas dened.Indoingthis,governmentspendingfundstechnologicalresearch(amongst otherthings),whichwindsupbenetingthepublicdirectly:infact,manypopular open-sourceprojectswerelaunched(andaresustained)undertheauspicesof universitiesthatreceivesignicantamountsofgovernmentfunding,assumedlyto correctamarketerrorwherebyprivateindustryandsocietydonotadequatelyfundthe 51

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universitiesfromwhichtheybenet.Thistendencyisonlyexacerbated, notquelled, bythequestionablepoliticalpracticesaboutwhichBr unislikelythinkingwhenhe diametricallyopposesthepoliticiantothetechnologist.Porkbarrelingandlogrollingfor one'sstateeffectivelyossifylineitemsforthedisparateuniversitiesandthinktanksthat writeopen-sourcecode. Lookingattheindustrialandpoliticalrealitiesof1970,itisclearwhyBr unwould havebeenwaryofindustrialistsandpoliticians;theextenttowhichtheymediateda creativeresponsewassoseverethatiteffectivelydisenfranchisedallbutaprivileged fewcomposerswhohadaccesstomainframecomputers.However,ashappensin manyindustries(tulipcirca1650,riecirca1810,automobilecirca1950),competitive forcesateawayatthisauraofexclusivityuntilthetechnologiesthatBr undreamsabout inTechnologyandtheComposerbecameunremarkableformanyofuswhodidnot livethroughtheeraduringwhichhewascreativelyactive.IdonotbelievethatBr un's skepticismaboutindustrialistsandpoliticiansreectsalackofforesightaboutpatterns ineconomicbehavior,butratheradesiretousethelanguageofthedaytomakehis pointviadialecticsthathisaudiencewouldunderstandpreciselybecausesaidaudience was,inpart,responsibleforcreatingthesedialectics. 5.4VirtualityinMediationandIntermediation Interestingly,portionsofBr un'sessayanticipatecertainconceptsinthecontemporary digitallandscapethatIwilldiscussinsubsequentchapters: Whatifitweretruethat composition simplyisthegeneratorofrelevance,and thatcomposers,nomatteroforinwhat,arepeoplewhodesirethatwhatever theycreateberelevanttowhatevertheyconsiderimportant?Ifthisweretrue (andIstipulateitis),thenIcouldgoonandstate:ThethoughtsIconsider important,andthemediuminwhichItrytocreatewhatotherwisemight neverhappen,arerelatedthroughmydesireforrelevance;thustheybecome representativesoftwosystemswhichoughttoshowahighdegreeofmutual analogy,onceastructurecomposedbymeisappliedtoboth.( Br un, 1970 ) To speakofcreatingrelevanceiseffectivelytoconjureuptwolayersofvirtuality.Onone level,thereisthecreatedrelevancethatformsintime,whichhumansmustidentifyas 52

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realbutnotconcrete(ifitwerepartoftheirquotidianlivesin themostunadulterated sense,itwouldnotbecreatedrelevanceasBr unmentionsbutmerelyrelevance) andthereforevirtual.Onadifferentplane,thereisthethoughtspacefromwhichthe artist'sideasandstructuresemanateaspacethatstructuresinformationinlattices ofrelevancethatarenotnecessarilylinkedtothemusicalsurface.Thesetwovirtual spacesofrelevancearevitalinthecompositionprocessandarethesubjectofthenext chapter. 53

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CHAPTER6 COMPOSITION III:STRUCTURE/FORMOUTOFTIME/INTIME Astructureislikeabridgefrom nowhere. JohnCage, 45' foraspeaker D esquelediscourscontientl'avantoul'apr es,onesten-temps. IannisXenakis, K ele utha Assoonasthediscoursecontainsbeforeorafter,oneisintime. Movingfromgeneralissuesaboutcreativeintermediariesandmediariestothemore specicdomainofmusiccomposition,thischapterdenestwotermsthatare ritornelli throughoutcontemporarywritingabouthowcomposerscomposestructureand form.Whiletheseideasaretwoofmanythatarisewhendiscussingcontemporary composition,theyaresocentraltothecompositionallexiconthatbydeningthem, oneisabletotouchuponmanyheuristicsthroughwhichmusicalcreativethoughtis organized.ThischapterlooksatthethesetwoideasthroughthewritingsofJohnCage andIannisXenakis, 1 concludingwithadiscussionoftheirconceptualnexusviathe keystoneofgraphtheory. 6.1StructureandOutofTime Perhapsthemostdifcultpartofdeningstructureinmusiccompositionis disambiguatingthetermfromthewordasdenedinmusictheoryandanalysis.When thelatterdisciplineswriteofstructure,therearetwoprincipalideasthatareatplay. Theepigraphstothischapteraredrawnfrom Cage (1966a,181)and Xenakis (1994,67)respectively. 1 Man yothercomposershavewrittenaboutformandstructure.Ihavechosento focusonthewrittenworksofCageandXenakisbecausetheyprovideasuccinctand comprehensiveoverviewofthetermsascurrentlyused. 54

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TherstiswhatIcallgenericmetaphoricthatis,auseofthe wordstructurethat gleansitssignicancefromanothereld.Forexample,when LerdahlandJackendoff (1996)describegenerativearborealstructuresinShoenberg'sOp.11 No.1,itisclear thattheyarerelyingimplicitlyonabiologicalmetaphortocommentuponthework's structuralcharacteristics.Thesamemetaphoricalword-playcanbeseenin Forte (1973),whousesmathematicallanguagefromsettheorytodescribethe transmutations thatvariousmusicalstrainscouldgo.Neo-Schenkeriansemploythistechniqueaswell, usingarchitecturalmetaphorstodescribehowaworkisconstructed. 2 Thesecond useofthewordstructure,whichisuniquelymusical,hastodowiththestructures retainedfromone'slisteningofaworkthatare independent ofthewayaworkforms. Thatis,severalwritershaveengagedinspeculativetheoryontheresidualnetwork thatoneusestorepresentaworkoutsideofitstemporalcomportment. Wolff (1998) and F eldmanetal. (2004)bothtalkaboutprocessbywhichaworkbecomesatemporal upon reection,allowingonetoconceiveofwhattheycallstructuralrelationships. Whilethisdialogislimitedinsofarasitonlypertainstoaspecicstyleoflistening(ifnot music-makingingeneral),itdoesatleastimplythatonecancreatecognitiveheuristics tospeakstructurallyofmusicwithoutnecessarilylikeningmusictosomethingelse. Structureastalkedaboutaboveisprimarilyconcernedwiththetraceofawork. However,as Nattiez (1976)argues,thestructuralrelationshipsperceivedbylisteners in atracearenot ipsofacto relatedorequivalenttothecreativestructuresthatgave birthtothetrace.WhatIamconcernedaboutarethestructuresthatacomposerusesin thecreationofawork,whichundoubtedlyresultinthistrace,butarenotweddedtothe 2 Numerous examples,includingmanyarticlesinthe JournalofSchenkerianStudies, showthemannerinwhichthismetaphoricallanguageisputintopractice. Katz (1935) and Schachter ( 1976)showearlyexamplesinwhichthewordstructureisusedin extended architectureanalogies. 55

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anti-communicativediscourse(toevokeaBr unian term)thattheworkinspires.Instead, theycomefromtheideaspaceinwhichthecomposermustoperatetocreatethework. Tofurtherdevelopauniquelycompositionaldenitionofstructure,Iturntothe writingoftwocomposerswhooftenmadeexplicitstructure/formdistinctions:Xenakis andCage.Xenakis,inspeakingof horstemps (outoftime),writes: Cequiselaissepensersanschangerparlavantoulapr esesthors-temps. Lesmodestraditionnelssontpartiellementhors-temps,lesrelationsoules oprationslogiquesiniges adesclassesdesons,dintervalles,decaract eres, sontaussihors-temps. Xenakis (1994,68) All thatcanbereecteduponwithoutbeingchangedbywhatcomesbefore orafterisoutoftime.Thetraditionalmodesarepartiallyoutoftime,the relationsorlogicaloperationsusedondifferentclassesofsounds,intervals, charactersarealsooutoftime. Whilethisdenitionresonateswiththepreviously-denedusesofstructureinmusical analysis,itistheuseofthesethingsondifferentclassesofsoundsinsteadof generalizingaboutclassesofsoundsthatisofparamountimportance.Alsonotableis thefactthatXenakisomitsanyrelationshipbetweenthesestructuresandthemusical surfaceoftheworkonesensesthattheyareprincipallycreativedispositives. Cage'swritingonstructureismoreproblematicbecauseheproposesdifferent denitionsoftheterm,evengoingsofarastoexplicitlynullifycertaindenitionsof structurefromhisearlyperiodinfavoroflate-periodones.Whenspeakingofhis percussionworksfromthe30sand40s,Cagesays: Ithought,ifI'mnotgoingtohavetonalityinmymusic,I'llneedsomethingto makeanalternativestructure;andthatwasrhythm.Iexaminedthenatureof sound,whichhaspitch,duration,overtoneandamplitude.ThenIexamined silence;andofthosefourthings,silencehadonlyduration.Therefore,in discoveringtheneedforarhythmicstructureIwasndingacorrectstructure formusicwhereastheEuropeanstructure,basedontonality,wouldnot admitnoisesorpitchesoutsidethemajorandminorscale,andwasincorrect. (Kostelanetz, 2002,64) Here ,structureislinkedtoalternativeparameterizationsofmusicthatpermithimto privilegetheorganization(andperhapsperception)oftheseparametersoverothers. 56

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However,oneseesadistancingfromthemusicalsurfacewhenCage writeslaterof structure: Iunderstandthewordstructureasthedivisionofthewholeintoparts.And Iwouldapplytheusefulnessoftheideaofstructuretoaworkofartthatsets outtobeanobject,namely,tohaveabeginning,middle,andend.Andif oneismakingawork,whichIdooften,thatisnotanobject,butaprocess, thenthatconcerndoesn'tenterinandthequestionofwhetheritisbetteror notbetter,isnottothepoint.Ithink,perhaps,ifyouwerenotinvolvedwith process,asIoftenam,butwereinvolvedwithobject,thatthequestionof whatwouldbeabetterobjectthananotherobjectisveryhardtodecide. (Kostelanetz, 2002,231) Thus ,thedivisionalschemesinhisthoughtarenolongernecessarilylinkedtothe processbywhichaworkforms.Inperhapshismostpoeticyetfocuseddenitionofthe term,Cagewritesin Silence thatstructureislikeabridgefromnowhere,emphasizing thelinkingnatureofstructuralphenomenawhileatthesametimeexpressingthat theselinksareself-containedthatis,notpartofasequence.InspiteofCage'sown recantationofthestructure-basedprocessesusedinhisearlyworks,hisshifting denitionofstructuredoesnotinvalidatethestructuresthatgavebirthtothe Imaginary Landscape suite.Rather,whatbeganasamultifrucationofEuropeanpitchstructures becamesoconceptuallysupplethatitcouldnolongerbeconsideredasbeingsolely usefulfortheparameterizationofagivenwork.Inaway,thisbroadconceptionof structurewasalwayslatentinCage'slisteningwhenhewritesofWeberncomparedto Satie,hesays: IwasalwaysdevotedtoErikSatie'smusic,andIstillam.Youdon'treally havetobeinterestedinitinordertoenjoyit.WhereasinthecaseofWebern, Ithinkyou'reobligedtobesomewhatinterested.[Onemustbeinterestedin theconstruction]andalloftheideasandeverything.Otherwise,Idon'tthink it'sthatseductive.(Kostelanetz, 2002,48) This intrepidlisteningspiritndsitswayintohiscompositionalmethodashegrewolder, imbuinghiswritingprocesswiththerichnessofthemusicalandnaturalnetworksthat fascinatedhimfromhisearlydays. 57

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6.2FormandInTime If deningstructurerequireda disambiguation ofsorts,deningformcallsfor a reambiguation ofatermwhoseambiguity(andIuseambiguityinthesameway thatMessiaenusescharmtodescribeacertainvitalityinherentinuncertainty)has beenenervatedduetothecasualwayinwhich form and structure areoftenused interchangeablytodescribeawork'scomportmentaboveacertaindurationalthreshold. Toestrange form fromitserstwhilekissing-cousinstructure,then,Ilookagaintothe writingofXenakison entemps (intime)andCageonform. Xenakis's entemps istheproper verso tothe recto thatis horstemps.Hewrites, D esquelediscourscontientlavantoulapr es,onesten-temps.Lordres erielest en-temps,unem elodietraditionnelleaussi( Xenakis, 1994,68).(Assoonasthe discourse containsbeforeorafter,oneisintime.Serialorderisintime,asisa traditionalmelody.)Thecategoricalnatureof entemps,encompassingallthathasa beforeand/orafter,ispreciselywhatmakesthisdistinctionremarkablegiventheerain whichitwascoined,whenintegralserialismwasoftenreferredtoasstructurewithout theacknowledgmentthattheresultsofserialprocesses,ifnottheseriesthemselves, unfoldintimejustastraditionalcounterpointandmelodydoes. Cage'sdenitionofform,whileagainmorecomplicated,effectivelymakesthesame distinction.Earlyinhiscareer,hedenedformasthemorphologyofacontinuityand expressivecontent( Cage, 1966b,35),statingthattheprincipleofformwillbeouronly constant connectionwiththepast( Cage, 1966c,5).Laterinhiscareer,hedeniedhis use offormalconsiderationsinhiswork,stating[Myearlier]attitudetowardsformissort ofinthemiddlebetweenmypresentthoughtandmyearlythought.NowIdon'tbotherto usetheword form,sinceIaminvolvedinmakingprocesses,thenatureofwhichIdon't foresee.HowcanIspeakof form ?(Kostelanetz, 2002,72).Itispreciselythisnegation of formthatxesitspositivedenitionasthatwhichunfoldsintimeCagethoughtthatit wasuselesstospeakofformbecausehefeltitwasoutofhiscontrol. 58

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6.3GraphTheory What structureandformshareistheirrelationalnature.Structuralrelationships existinaneutralspacewhererelevancyiscreatedbythelinksforgedbetweensaid space'sconstituentelements.Formalrelationships,whiledifferentinthattheyare alwaystemporalinnatureandthereforebecomerelevantthroughmetricsinwhich thepassageoftimeisdened,arerelationshipsnonetheless.Thus,toeffectuatea comparisonbetweenstructureandform,onemustemployatheorythatfacilitatesthe articulationofrelationships.Currently,themostpowerfulsetoftoolsthatcandescribe relationalnetworksisgraphtheory,whichIwilldenebelowbeforebringingittobearon theideasofstructureandform. Graphtheory,aeldthatbeganwith Euler (1741)inhissolvingoftheK onigsberg Br idgeproblem,hassincebeendevelopedindisparateeldsboththeoretically 3 andcomputationally 4 intothecontemporarypracticeofdigitalgraphexplorationand manipulation.Graphscomprisedofverticesandedgesshowtheuserthelinks(edges) betweenvariousstates(vertices)inseveraldifferentlayoutandcoloringcongurations. Traditionally,thecoloringandshapingofverticesandedgesrepresentinformation thatisspecictothenatureofthephenomenabeinggraphed(forexample,involtage diagrams,vertexandedgepresentationoftenchangesinfunctionofthecapacityand resistanceofdifferentpartsofasystem(Paul, 2001)).Coloringisalsousedtoshow emergent communalorganizationsofverticesasdeterminedbyvariousGestalt-based parameters(see GirvanandNewman (2002), ReichardtandBornholdt (2006), Palla et al. (2007)forpopularclusteringalgorithmssuchasedge-betweenness ,network modularity,and k -cliquepercolationrespectively).Severallayoutalgorithmsexistto 3 See Biggs etal. (1986)foracomprehensivebibliographydatinguntil1936and West (2001)forasummaryofmorecontemporarycontributions. 4 See Battista etal. (1998)foracomprehensivebibliographydatinguntil1998. 5 9

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spacializetheseverticesandedgesinmultipledimensions,and certainpublicdomain librariesofferdynamiclayoutsbasedonphysicalmodelssuchasBrownianmotionand attractive/repulsiveforces. Usingstructureinthesensedenedabove, horstemps linksbetweenideascan bevisuallyrepresentedbygraphswithdirectionaledgesthatconnectrelatednodes. Thesignicanceoftheseedgescanalsoinuencethecoloringandlayoutschemes denedabove,allowingonetomanipulatethegroupingofone'sideasbothstaticallyand dynamically.Additionally,graphscanalsobeusedtorepresentthewaythatnetworks form,wherethepathsactastemporalcircuitsbetweenevents.Tracksinarecording session,forexample,canbethoughtofasgraphswiththeaudiorepresentingnodes andsilencerepresentingedges.Thus,whileitisclearthatstructureandformhave distinctconceptualpatrimonies,graphtheoryprovidesacommongroundwherethe twocanberepresentedvisually.Furthermore,asChapterNinewillargue,graphtheory allowsthecreatortoexploretheintersectionsbetweenthetwoconcepts,morphing representationsofstructuresintoformsandviceversa. 60

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CHAPTER7 CHILDHOOD ,DEATH,ANDCREATIVEBOOTSTRAPPING Supposonsun etrequiignoretoutdeladistinctionentrelapens eeetles corps.Cet etreprendraconsciencedesesd esirsetdesessentiments, maisassur ementilauradeluiunenotionbeaucoupmoinsclairequenous denous-m emes.Ilsesentira,pourainsidire,moinsint erieur alui-m eme quenous,moinsind ependantdumondeext erieur.Laconscienceque nousavonsdepensernousd etache,eneffet,deschoses.Maissurtout, lesconnaissancespsychologiquesd'untel etreseronttoutesdiff erentes desn otres.Lesr eves,parexemple,luipara trontuneirruptiondudehors danslededans.Lesmotsserontli esauxchosesetparlerconsistera aagir directementsurlescorps.Inversement,lescorpsext erieursserontmoins mat eriels:ilsserontp en etr esd'intentionsetdevolont e. JeanPiaget, Larepr esentationdumondechezl'enfant Letusimagineahumanwhoisignorantofalldistinctionsbetweenthought andbody.Thisbeingwouldbecompletelyconsciousofhisdesiresand hissentiments,butcertainlylessclearlythanwewouldbe.Inotherwords, hewouldfeellessinsidehimselfthanwedo,lessindependentfromthe externalworld,forourawarenessofourownthinkingprocesseseffectively detachesusfromthings.Aboveall,suchabeing'spsychologicalknowledge wouldbecompletelydifferentthanours.Dreams,forexample,wouldappear tohimlikeaninternaleruptionoftheoutside.Wordswouldbelinkedto thingsandspeakingwouldbetantamounttoactingonthebodiesofthings. Inversely,exteriorbodieswouldbelessmaterial:theywouldbepenetrated byintentionsandwill. Pourquoicefrontsoucieux?Lar eponseParcequ'ilaunemaladiedefoie estbienuner eponse,uner eponsequiassignelacaused etermin eeet circonstancielledusouci:leParce-queneutraliseeneffetlePourquoiet comblel'interrogation.Maislar eponseParcequ'eng en eralilmourraun journ'estpasuner eponse,carc'estuner eponsequir epondparlaquestion elle-m eme,carc'estunParce-quequiram enecirculairementauPourquoi:la n ecessit edemourirn'est-ellepasl'essencem emedelavie?Devoirmourir n'estdoncpas aproprementparlerunmotifd'inqui etude:lamortestplut ot lasourcedetouteslesinqui etudesempiriquesetnaturelles;lamortest l'inqui etantentouteinqui etudeetcequidonne achaquesoucisadimension detrag edie. VladimirJank el evitch, LaMort Whythelongface?TheresponseBecausehehasasicknessoftheliveris agoodresponse,aresponsethatassignsadeterminateandcircumstantial causetoaconcern:theBecauseeffectivelyneutralizestheWhyandsatises theinterrogation.ButtheresponseBecause,ingeneral,hewilldieoneday 61

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isnotaresponse,foritisaresponsethatrespondswiththequestion itself, foritisaBecausethatcircularlybringsbacktheWhy:isnotthenecessity todietheessenceoflife?Thefactthatonemustdieisnotstrictlyspeaking areasontoworry:deathisratherthesourceofallempiricalandnatural worries;deathisthatwhichisworrisomeineveryworryandthatwhichgives everypreoccupationitstragicaldimension. Althoughthepreviousvechaptersdened digitally, assisted,and creativity as constituentpartsofdigitallyassistedcreativity,theyhavefailedtodene digitallyassistedcreativity.Thisisrectiedpresently. Digitallyassistedcreativity istheeffectuation ofthecreativeprocess(asdenedinChaptersFourthroughSix)byuseofassistive digitaltools(whereassistivecorrespondstotheroleofanassisterasdescribedin ChapterThree)usedbythedigitalselfinthedigitalvirtualspaceconstructedinChapter Two.Asafoiltothisconcept,thepresentchapterentertainsanotionofsecond-order assistedcreativitythatIcallcreativebootstrappingtheactofamelioratingone's owncreativefacultiesbyvirtueofone'sowncreativity. 1 Thatis,thischapterseeksto laythegroundworkforaninquiryintotheextenttowhichassistivetechnologieshelp thecomposertobecomemorecreative.Thecruxofmyargumentliesintheclaim thatcreativebootstrappingcanmoveinoneoftwodirectionsfromanassemblageof ostensiblyunrelateddatainwardstowardsthegenerationofmeaning(whatIcall ontologicallypoorandepistemologicallyrich,hereafterabbreviatedO-E+),orfromaposition ofgreatinternalcertitudeoutwardstowardsdatathatconrmsthevalidityofthisintuition (ontologicallyrichandepistemologicallypoor,hereafterabbreviatedO+E-).Ashuman perceptionandcognitionareattheheartofbothofthesestates,itisimperativethatthey Theepigraphstothischapteraredrawnfrom Piaget (2003,35)and Jank el evitch ( 1993,55)respectively. 1 The termbootstrappingisborrowedfromcomputerscience,wheresincethe 1950scomputershaveexecutedimportanttaskslikestartingupbycreatinglesand processesthatthencreateotherlesandprocesses.Or,inotherwords,theypull themselvesupbytheirownbootstraps. 62

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bedenedthroughexplorationsofmodalitiesofhumanthought. Todoso,Ihavechosen twocasestudiesthatrepresentimmersiveandextremeexamplesofO-E+andO+Erespectively:JeanPiaget'swritingsonchildhoodandVladimirJank el evitch'streatise ondeathentitled LaMort.Thechapterwillconcludebylinkingthesevirtualspacesto theconceptofcreativebootstrappinginthedigitalrealm,framingthesubsequenttwo chapters'discussionsofsoftwaredesignindigitallyassistedcomposition. 7.1ChildhoodintheWorkofPiaget ThissectionwilldevelopanO-E+virtualspacebyexploringtheconceptof childhoodintheworkofPiaget,oneoftherstthinkerstobreakwithTeutonicpositivism inchildpsychologyandlookatthesubjectempiricallyandtemporally.Insteadof answeringthequestionwhatarechildrenthinking?,helookedinsteadatthemore dynamicissueofhowchildrenbecomethinkers.Hisfundamentalargumentisthatthe child'sdevelopmentcanbeseenasaprocessofcognitivestabilizationtowardsthe equilibremobile (mobileequilibrium)ofadulthood(Piaget, 1964,12).Thisequilibrium per mitstheadulttoaffrontdiversesituationsbydrawinguponasteadyselfthatis inuencedby,butultimatelyseparatefrom,theoutsideworld.Creativity,asdescribedin ChaptersFourthroughSix,isexclusivelyaproductofthismobileequilibrium,whereas thepresentchapterseekstovisittheinitialontologicalimpoverishmentofthechildas wellasthesuccessivestatesofdevelopmentthatleadtoitseventualunderstandingof interrelatedphenomena.Then,Iwillexploretheepistemologicalrichnessofthisspace, arguingthatthechildhasaheightenedsensitivitytowhatknowledgeisinspiteofthe factthatitlackswaystostructurethisknowledge. Toconstructthisontologicallypoorspace,Ibreakfromthetemporalorderinwhich Piagetpresentsthechild'sdevelopment,movinginsteadfrominternal/individualto external/socialsothatsimilarmilestonesofontologicaldevelopmentmaybediscussed concurrently.Arstontologicalfascinationofthechildisthatofvariationasseparated fromtheperceptionofanoriginalevent.Piagetwrites: 63

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Lesconduitespr ec edentes [del'enfant]semultiplientetsediff erencientde plusenplus,jusqu' aacqu erirunesouplessesufsantepourenregistrerles r esultatsdel'exp erience.C'estainsiquedanssesr eactionscirculaires,le b eb enesecontenteplusdereproduiresimplementlesmouvementsetles gestesquiontconduit auneffetint eressant:illesvarieintentionnellement pour etudierlesr esultatsdecesvariationsetselivreainsi adevraies explorationsouexp eriencespourvoir.( Piaget, 1964,22) The child'sactionsmultiplyanddiversifyuntiltheyreachacertainnumerical thresholdpermittinghimtocommitagivenexperimenttomemory.Here,in whatwemaycallcircularreactions,thebabyisnotcontentwiththesimple reproductionoftheactionsthatledtoaninterestingeffect:hevariesthese actionsintentionallytostudytheresultsandbeginsaprocessofexploration, undertakingdifferentlet's-see-what-happens-when-I...experiments. Ifthisprocessrepresentsoneofproliferation,anegativeversionofitexistsinthechild's recognitionofabsence. L'onn'observepasavantlecoursdelasecondeann eedeconduite impliquantl' evocationd'unobjetabsent.Lorsqueseconstituevers9-12mois lesch emedel'objetpermanent,ilyabienrecherched'unobjetdisparu: maisilvientd' etrepercu,ilcorresponddonc auneactiond ej aencoursetun ensembled'indicesactuelspermettentdeleretrouver.( PiagetandInhelder, 2004,53) One doesnotseeuntilthesecondyearanyindicationthatthechildsearches foranabsentobject.From9-12months,whileheisconstructingtheidea ofapermanentobject,onecanseethatthechildhastheabilitytosearch, butthesesearchesareforobjectsthathavejustbeenseen.Thesearch, thus,canbelinkedtoanactionthatthechildhasalreadyundertakenandthe ensembleofcluespresentthatwouldpermithimtondtheidentiedobject. Thechild'sinteractionwithobjectsandhismentalinternalizationofthemeventually leadstothedevelopmentofathoughtprocessthatisincreasinglyindependentfromthe objects/eventsthatinitiateit.Piagetwrites: Avecl'imagementale,ensuite,l'imitationn'estplusseulementdiff er eemais int erioris eeetlarepr esentationqu'ellerendpossible,dissoci eeainsidetoute acteext erieurauprotdeces ebauchesouesquissesinternesd'actionsqui lasupporterontdor enavant,estalorspr ete adevenirpens ee.( Piagetand Inhelder 2004 ,57) With mentalimages,then,imitationisnolongerjustdifferentiatedbut alsomovedtotheinterior.Therepresentationthatthismakespossible, disassociatedfromexternalactionsandcominginsteadfrominternaldesigns 64

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andsketchesofactionsthathereaftermakeimitationpossible ,isreadyto becomewhatonewouldidentifyasthought. Thisinternalseparationofthingsandtheirformsisanimportantstepinseveral theoriesofontology, 2 anditisforthisreasonthatIidentifyalackofthisseparationin theyoungchildasbeingontologicallypoor. Fascinationsalsoexistwithrespecttothechild'scommunity,botholdandyoung. Concerningtheyoung,Piagetwrites: Lorsque[lesenfants]cherchent asefournirdesexplicationslesunsaux autres,ilsparviennentavecpeine aseplaceraupointdevuedeceluiqui ignorecedontils'agit,etparlentcommepoureux-m emes.Etsurtoutil leurarrive,entravaillantdansunem emechambreou aunem emetable, deparlerchacunpoursoitoutencroyants' ecouteretsecomprendreles unslesautres,cettesortedemonologuecollectifconsistant as'exciter mutuellement al'actionplusqu' a echangerdespens eesr eelles.( Piaget, 1964,34) When childrenlooktoexplainthingstoeachother,theystruggletoput themselvesintheshoesofsomeonewhodoesnotalreadyknowwhatthey arethinkingtheyspeakasiftheywerespeakingtothemselves.Above all,whiletogetherinthesameroomoratthesametable,theybeginasort ofloquaciouseverymanforhimself,allthewhilethinkingthateveryone understandseachother.Thistypeofcollectivemonologueismoreinthe domainofthemutualexcitementofactionthanthecommunicationofreal thoughts. Later,oncechildrenbegintoentertheadultworldofinterpersonalexchange,they stillendeavortoretainthispersonalvocabularyandperspective,albeitincreasingly internalized.Piagetcallsthisthejeusymbolique(symbolicgame ): Lejeusymboliquemarquesansdoutel'apog eedujeuenfantin....Oblig e des'adaptersanscesse aunmondesociald'a n es,dontlesint er etsetles r eglesluirestentext erieurs,et aunmondephysiquequ'ilcomprendencore mal,l'enfantneparvientpascommenous asatisfairelesbesoinsaffectifset m emeintellectuelsdesonmoidanscesadaptations,qui,pourlesadultes, sontplusoumoinscompl etes,maisquidemeurentpourluid'autantplus inachev eesqu'ilestplusjeune.Ilestdoncindispensable ason equilibre 2 T he mostfamousexamplebeingPlato'sdiscussionofformsinhis Republic. 65

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affectifetintellectuelqu'ilpuissedisposerd'unsecteurd' activit edontla motivationnesoitpasl'adaptationour eelmaisaucontrairel'assimilation dur eelaumoi,sanscontraintesnisanctions.( PiagetandInhelder, 2004, 58) The symbolicgamemarks,withoutadoubt,theapogeeofchildren'sgames. ...Obligatedtoadaptwithoutceasetoaworldofsocialelders,whose interestsandrulesareexteriortothechild,compoundedbyaphysicalworld thathedoesnotcompletelyunderstand,thechilddoesnotsucceedlike usinfulllingtheemotionalandevenintellectualneedsofhisegointhese institutionsthat,foradults,aremoreorlesscomplete,butthatrestestranged fromthechildasafunctionofhisinexperience.Itis,thus,indispensable tohisemotionalandintellectualequilibriumthathecanretainasectorof activitywherethemotivatingforceisnotadaptationorrealitybutratherthe assimilationofrealityintotheego,withoutconstraintsorsanctions. Thissymbolicgameis,forthechild,aghtagainstthedissolutionandassimilation ofitsworldintothatofolderadults.Itrecreatesmanyofthephenomenadiscussed above,butthechildrecognizesthattheserecreationsareinherentlyinternal.Itisdata aboutthissymbolicgamegleanedfromolderchildrenthatformthebasisofPiaget's speculativetheoryaboutearlychildhood;onewaythatobserverscanmentallyrecreate theontologicallypoorstateofachildistoimaginethisgameasatotalizing,holistic paradigminwhichthechildlivesbeforeitsintegrationintotheworldofolderchildren andadults. Havingestablishedthemannerinwhichachild'sfascinationsleadtogreater ontologicalcertitude,Inowturntotheepistemologicalbasisfromwhichthese fascinationsoccur.Piagetarguesthatthechild'smotiontowardsequilibriumisin factamotionawayfromtheequilibriumoftautologisticaffectiveunity.Thatis,inthe beginning,everythingisinternalforthechild,includingtheexternalworld. Aupointded epartdel' evolutionmentaleiln'existe acoups uraucune diff erenciationentrelemoietlemondeexterieur,c'esta-direqueles impressionsv ecuesetpercuesnesontrattach eesni auneconscience personnellesentiecommeunmoi,ni adesobjetsconcuscomme ext erieurs:ellessontsimplementdonn eesenunblocindissoci e,oucomme etal eessurunm emeplan,quin'estniinterne,niexterne,mais ami-chemin entrecesdeuxp oles.(Piaget, 1964,23) 6 6

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Atthebeginningofachild'smentalevolution,thereexistsnodiff erentiation betweentheselfandtheoutsideworld,meaningthathislivedandperceived impressionsareneitherlinkedtoapersonal,consciousselfnortoobjects conceivedofasbeingexterior:theyaresimplydatainanundistinguished bloc,orspreadoutonthesameblueprint,thatisneitherinternalnorexternal butrathermidwaybetweenthesetwopoles. Thisconfusionofworldsmanifestsitselfinthreedifferentways: Toutd'abord,lesenfantsconfondentlesigneetlesigni eoul'objetmental etlachosequ'ilrepr esente.Encequiconcernelapens eeeng en eral, l'id eeetlenomdusoleil,parexemple,sontconcuscommefaisantpartie dusoleiletcomme emanantdelui.Toucheraunomdusoleil,c'esttoucher ausoleillui-m eme.Encequiconcerneler eve,nousavonstrouv equelque chosedetr esvoisin:l'imager ev eeestcens ee emanerdelachoseoudela personnequirepr esentecetteimage.Ler eved'unmonsieur ecras evientde cemonsieurlui-m eme,etc.Enoutre,lorsqu'onr evedel' ecoleler eveest a l' ecole,commelorsqu'onpenseausoleillemotoulenomquel'onpense sontausoleil.Ilyaconfusiondur eveaveclachose alaquelleonr eve. (Piaget, 2003,103) First, childrenconfusethesignierandthesigniedorthementalobject andthethingthatitrepresents.Withrespecttothoughtsingeneral,the ideaofandthenameofthesun,forexample,arethoughtofasbeingpart ofthesun,asiftheyemanatedfromit.Touchingthenameofthesun, then,istouchingthesunitself.Withrespecttodreams,weseeasimilar phenomenon:thedreamedimageissupposedtoemanatefromthethingor thepersonwhorepresentsthisimage.Thedreamofsomebodybeingrun overcomesfromthatpersonhimself,etc.Or,forexample,whileonedreams ofschoolthedreamisatschool,justasonethinksofthewordornamesun asbeinginthesun.Thereisaconfusionbetweendreamsandthethings thataredreamed. Unesecondeconfusionestcelledel'interneetdel'externe.Lesmotssont situ esprimitivementdansleschoses,puispartout,enparticulierdansl'air ambiant,puisdanslaboucheseuleetenndanslat ete.Lesr evesob eissent aunprocessusexactementsemblable:d'abordsitu esdansleschoses ...,ilssontensuitelocalis esdanslachambre,quandm emeils emanent delat ete(commelesmotssontsitu esdansl'airambiant,quandm eme ils emanentdelabouche);lesr evessontennlocalis esdanslesyeux,et, end enitive,danslapens eeetdanslat eteelles-m emes.( Piaget, 2003, 103) A secondconfusionisthatoftheinternalandexternal.Wordsareprimitively situatedinthings,theneverywhereintheambientsurroundings,theninthe mouthandnallyinthehead.Dreamsobeytheexactsameprocess:rst 67

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situatedinthings...,theyarethenlocalizedinaroom,evenif theycome fromthehead(aswordsarelocalizedintheambientsurroundings,evenif theycomefromthemouth);dreamsarenallylocalizedintheeyesandthen, denitively,inthethoughtsofthechildandinthechild'sheaditself. Ennunetroisi emevari et eder ealismedonnelieu auneconfusionentrela pens eeetlamati ere.Lapens eeest,pourceuxdesenfantsquisesontpos e laquestion,unsoufe, etantdonn equ'onpenseaveclavoix.Elleestaussi unefum ee,pourautantquel'haleineestconfondueaveclavoix.Lar eve, pourceuxdesenfantsquisesontpos elaquestion,est egalementenairou enfum ee.Chezlespetitsquin'ontpasencorecomprisl'originesubjective desr eves...,ilestsimplementennuitouenlumi ere.(Piaget, 2003,104) Finally ,athirdvarietyofrealismtakesplaceviaaconfusionbetween thoughtsandmaterialobjects.Thoughtsare,forchildrenthathaveposedthis questiontothemselves,abreath,asifitwerewhatonethinkswiththevoice. Thoughtsarealsosmokeinsofarasthebreathisconfusedwiththevoice. Dreams,forchildrenthathaveaskedthemselvesthisquestion,arealsoinair orinsmoke.Forchildrenwhodonotyetunderstandthesubjectiveoriginof dreams...,theyaresimplyinthenightorinthelight. Thisunityofinside/outsideperception,accordingtoPiaget,leadsadultstothe conclusionthatchildrenareselsh.Inreality,thisselshnessrepresentstheyet-unbroken self-centricsubsumptionoftheoutsideworldintothechild'sinternalthoughtprocesses. Selshnessis,then,avirtue.Infact,itis the virtueitistantamounttoaltruismand, paradoxically,isasynonymforselessness.Piagetwrites: Ilyadoncdeux egocentrismes,l' egocentrismelogiqueetl' egocentrisme ontologique.Dem emequel'enfantfaitsav erit e,ilfaitsar ealit e:iln'a paspluslesentimentdelar esistancedeschosesqu'iln'aceluidela difcult edesd emonstrations.Ilafrmesanspreuveetilcommandesans limitation.Lamagiesurleplanontologiqueetlacroyanceimm ediatesur leplanlogique,laparticipationsurleplandel' etreetlatransductionsurle planduraisonnement,sontdonclesdeuxproduitsconvergentsdum eme ph enom ene.Alaracinedelamagieetdelacroyanceimm ediatesetrouvela m emeillusion egocentrique:laconfusiondelapens eepropreetdecelledes autresetlaconfusiondumoiaveclemondeext erieur.( Piaget, 2003,142) There exists,therefore,twoformsofselshnesslogicalandontological.In thesamemannerthatthechildconstructshistruth,heconstructshisreality: heresiststhingsnomorethanhehasdifcultymakinghimselfunderstood. Heafrmswithoutproofandgivesorderswithoutlimits.Ontologicalmagic andhisimmediatebeliefinlogic,hisparticipationinhumanaffairsandhis transductionwithrespecttoreason,arebothconvergentproductsofthe 68

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samephenomenon.Attherootofthismagicandthesebeliefslies thesame egocentricillusion:theconfusionofone'sownthoughtsandthoseofothers aswellastheconfusionoftheselfandtheexternalworld. Thus,farfromlackingknowledgeaboutthings,childrenseemtoliveinthesame epistemologically-richstateasadults.Itisalackofontologicalloci,then,forwhichthe processdescribedaboveservesasacorrective.Furthermore,itisforthisreasonthat IcallthisO-E+space virtual itisrealinsofarasitislledwithperceptualknowledge, butnotactualknowledgeaccordingtothetermsbywhichadults,thevanguardofthe actual/virtualdividediscussedinChapterTwo,constructtheactual.Onemayevengo sofarastosaythatthechild'sworldisneithervirtualnoractualbutsimplyrealbecause itcannotmakethedistinction. Ofcourse,thereisadifferencebetween identifying thatanO-E+stateexistsin childrenandarguingthatadultscansomehowinternallyrecreatethisstateforthe purposeofcreativeboostrapping.Tounderstandhowthismaybepossible,Iturnto Piaget'swritingonadultpsychology: Ilsemblequel'onpuissetirerdeuxconclusionsdesanalysesquipr ec edent. Lapremi ereestquel'enfantn'estgu eremoinsconscientducontenudesa pens eequenousnelesommesdun otre....Justeperceptiondesdonn es delaconscience,maisinconsciencedelavoieparlaquellecesdonn eesont et eacquises,telestleparadoxedecetteintuition.( Piaget, 2003,107) It seemsthatonemaydrawtwoconclusionsfromthepreviousanalyses.The rstisthatthechildishardlylessconsciousofthecontentofhisthoughts thanweareofours....Theparadoxofthisintuitionisthatitispredicated ontheaccurateperceptionofhisconscience'sdatawhileheremains unawareofthepathbywhichthesedatawereacquired. Thisisnottosaythatadultsarenecessarilyconsciousofhowtheyacquirecertaindata, butratherthatadultshavetheabilitytosortthroughthisdataonceacquired.Piaget followsthisanalysiswithadenitionofthespacialelementoftheO-E+virtualspace: Ceparadoxeestli e etroitement alaparticularit equevoici(ceseranotre deuxi emeconclusion).Sil'enfantaconsciencedesm emescontenusde pens eequenous,illeslocalisetoutautrement.Ilsituedansl'univers,ou chezlesautres,cequenoussituonsennous,etilsitueenluicequenous localisonsenautrui.C'estceprobl emedelalocalisationdescontenusqui 69

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esttoutleprobl eme delaconsciencedesoichezl'enfant,etc'estfautedele poserclairementquel'onsimpliecequi,enfait,esttr escomplexe.Onpeut, eneffet,supposerunesprittr essensibleauxmoindresremousdelavie affective,tr esobservateurencequiconcernelesparticularit esdulangage, descoutumesetdelaconduiteeng en eral,maistr espeuconscientdeson propremoi,parcequ'ilprendsyst ematiquementcommeobjectivechacune desespens ees,etcommecommun atouschacundesessentiments. Laconsciencedumoina t,eneffet,deladissociationdelar ealit etelle quelaconcoitlaconscienceprimitiveetnondel'associationdecontenus d etermin es.Noterchezl'enfantunvifint er etpourlui-m eme,un egocentrisme logiqueetsansdoutemoral,cen'estpasprouverquel'enfantsoitconscient desonmoi,c'estaucontraireindiquerqu'ilconfondsonmoiavecl'univers, c'esta-direqu'ilestinconscientdelui-m eme.( Piaget, 2003,108) This paradoxisstronglylinkedtothefollowingparticularity(whichwillbeour secondconclusion).Ifthechild'sconsciousnessofhisthoughtsissimilarto ours,helocalizesthemcompletelydifferently.Heputsintheuniverse,orin others,thatwhichwesituateinourselves,andsituatesinhimselfthatwhich welocalizeinothers.Itisthisproblemofthelocalizationofthoughtcontent thatisthefundamentalproblemofthechild'sconsciousnessofhimself,and itisourfaultfornothavingclearlyaskedthisquestionthatwesimplifya verycomplexprocess.Itisentirelyappropriatetosupposethatthechildis sensitivetothesmallesteddiesofhisemotionallife,perceptivewithrespect totheparticularitiesoflanguage,customs,andgeneralbehavior,butunconsciousofhisownego,becausehesystematicallyconrmstheobjectivity ofallofhisthoughts,andthushefeelsthatthesethoughtsarecommonto everyone.Theeventualconsciousnessofhisegoiseffectivelybornfrom thedissociationofrealityasperceivedbyaprimitiveconsciousnessandnot thelinkingtogetherofdenitivethoughts.Onemustnotethatthechildhas alivelyself-interest,alogicalandundoubtedlymoralselshness.Thisdoes notprovethatthechildisconsciousofhisego,butratheritindicatesthathe confuseshisegowiththeuniverseheisunconsciousofhimself. Piaget'suseofthetermthedissociationofrealityisofparamountimportanceinsofar astheconcreteandvirtualcreatethereal,itisasyllogismthat,toperceiveconcreteness andvirtualityasconceptuallydistinct,realitymustbedisassociated.Inthechild'smind, thiscognitiveunravelingisbornfromanalreadyactiveandaffectiveidentityrather thanfromadevelopmentalquantumleap.Thus,inanO-E+space,theadultcanretain alloftheemotionsandobservationsthatonehasinnon-ambiguous,concrete,or virtualspaces.Itisthearrangementofthisspace'sterrain,andnotitscontents,that createsanontologicaldisparity.Contrastthiswithperhapsthemostpoorly-named 70

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virtualexerciseinrecenthistory:virtualreality.Virtualreality isnothingmorethanan immersivevirtualspacethat,technologypermitting,cancausetheusertotemporarily confusevirtualityforconcretenessandevenfor irreality dependingonthewaythatthe programisdesigned.Thereisnothingaboutvirtualrealitythatconfoundsvirtualityand concretenessintoauniformrealitybecausetheuserisneverencouragedtoundercut theirconceptionofvirtualityandconcreteness,butrathertoeffortlesslysojournbetween thetwo.TheaspectofPiaget'swritingthatwouldbepertinenttoanyadultattempting tomentallyrecreateachildlikeO-E+virtualspaceisthatchildrennotonlyconfusethe concreteandthevirtual,buttheyarealsoindifferenttohowthetwoaredistinct.This cannotbebornofsometypeofapathy,butratherofaconation 3 andconfounding 4 of anagent'smindscapethatrenderstheimportoftraditionalconcrete/virtualdistinctions immaterial. Why thisisimportantwillbediscussedattheendofthischapteraftera discussionregardingJank el evitch,and how thiscanbedoneisthebusinessofChapter Nine.Fornow,wecanconcludethatPiaget'schildhoodisamanifestationofanO-E+ virtualspacethat,becauseofalackofdistinctionsbetweenthevirtualandtheconcrete, isgovernedbyabenevolentselshness. 7.2DeathintheWorkofJank el evitch Ifchildhoodisastate,deathisanothingnotastate,notevenamoment,buta purenon-thing.AsPlatowritesinhisApology,deathistheonlythingaboutwhichwe canknownothingbecausethereisnothingtoknow( Jank el evitch 1993,39).Vladimir Jank el evitch, aFrenchmusicologistandphilosopher,wrote LaMort asareaction againstsociety'sbizarretreatmentofthisnaturalevent. 3 Conation meaningassimilationofpartsintoanimprobablewhole. 4 Confoundingmeaningtheconfusionandsubstitutionofelementsthatwouldnotbe substitutableintheadultworld. 71

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Pourquoilamortdequelqu'unest-elletoujoursunesortedescandale? P ourquoicet ev enementsinormal eveille-t-ilchezceuxquiensontles t emoinsautantdecuriosit eetd'horreur?Depuisqu'ilyadeshommes,et quimeurent,commentlemorteln'est-ilpasencorehabitu e acet ev enement natureletpourtanttoujoursaccidentel?Pourquoiest-il etonn echaquefois qu'unvivantdispara t, etonn ecommesipareil ev enementarrivaitpourla premi erefois?(Jank el evitch 1993,8) Why whensomeonediesisitalwaysasortofscandal?Whydoesthiseverso-normaleventawakensomuchcuriosityandhorrorinthosewhowitness it?Sincethedawnofmankind(whichisalsothedawnofdeath),whyhave mortalsnotyetbecomeaccustomedtothisnaturalandyetalwaysaccidental event?Whyisitsurprisingeverytimesomeonepassesaway,surprisingasif asimilarthinghadneverhappenedbefore? ThissectionsummarizesJank el evitch'sanswerstothesequestions,pinpointingwhat deathisand,moreimportantly,lookingatthewaythatlivinghumansconfrontdeath (bothconsciouslyandsubconsciously)andhowthisconfrontationlendsitselftothe constructionofanO+E-virtualspace. AccordingtoJank el evitch,itisimportanttorstestablishthenatureofdeath beforeelaboratingthemyriadofhumanthoughtsandemotionsthatsurrounddeath. Hewrites:Lamortest alafoislan egationpureetsimpledel'essenceetlan egation pureetsimpledel' etre,etelleestdoublementantidivineencela;ellen'estnileRien fondateurnileN eantcr eateur,maiselleestleplatnon-sensdusensetlepuretsimple nonetredel' etre(Jank el evitch 1993,69). Deathisboththepureandsimplenegation ofrealityandthepureandsimplenegationofbeing,anditisdoublyanti-divinein doingthis;deathisneitherthepartitiveNothingnorthecreativeOblivion,butitisthe plainnon-senseofsenseandthepureandsimplenon-beingofbeing. Jank el evitch, alwaysexactinhisterminology,drawsadistinctionbetweentheconceptofnothing assomesortofinversionoflifeorcounterbalancetolife(aconceptthatheconcedes mayexist,butisbeyondthescopeofthequestion)andinsteadcategorizesdeathasthe meaninglessend.Literallymeaningless,becauseeverythingtowhichahumanattaches meaning(bothobjectsandactions)ceasestohavemeaning.Furthermore,deathdoes 72

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nothavealocusofhappeningasatemporaleventwould.Wecan onlyunderstandit intermsofwhatcomesbeforeit(life)andwhatcomesafterit(biologicaldecomposition and,dependingonone'sreligiouspersuasion,somesortoftransmigration).Death is not dying,whichisactuallyawayofliving.Moreprecisely,dyingisaninstitution wherebythestatisticallikelinessofdeathbecomesapreoccupation.Dansetparle vieillissement,l'impalpableje-ne-sais-quoidelatemporalit eserendvisiblecomme processusconcretetcaract eris e(Jank el evitch 1993,189). Inandthrougholdage,the impalpab leje-ne-sais-quoioftemporalitymakesitselfvisibleasaconcreteandcharacterizedprocess. ItisinthiswaythatJank el evitchconstructsacontinuumbetween lifeanddeathfarfromtreatingitlikeabinary,heactuallylikensdeathtosleepthe samewaythatPlatodoes.Justasweabandonthesenseofourconcretelivesforthe non-senseofsleep,wecanconscientiouslyabandonthesenseandmeaningofbeingto variousdegrees,eventothepointofdenialofself-awareness.Orconversely,ashecites fromBichat,lifeisl'ensembledefonctionsquir esistent alamort( Jank el evitch 1993, 93) (thegroupoffunctionsthatresistdeath ).Itisforthisreasonthatwecannottrulytalk orthinkofdeathbecausetalkingandthinkingusuallycarriesamodicumofsense,and deathistheultimatenon-sense.Jank el evitchwrites: Fautedepenserlamort,ilnenousreste,semble-t-il,quedeuxsolutions: oubienpensersurlamort,autourdelamort, aproposdelamort;oubien penser aautrechosequ' alamort,etpartexemple alavie.Lapremi ere solutionnoieleprobl emedansl'oc eandesg en eralit esinoffensives....Et quant aladeuxi emesolution,est-ceseulementunesolution?Onnepense jamaislamort,carlamortestproprementimpensable;parcontre,onpeut penserdes etresmortels,etces etres, aquelquemomentqu'onlespense, sontdes etresvivants.(Jank el evitch 1993,41) Incapab leofthinkingdeath,weareleftwith,itseems,onlytwosolutions: eitherthinkondeath,arounddeath,aboutdeath,orthinkofsomethingelse like,forexample,life.Therstsolutiondrownstheprobleminanoceanof inoffensivegeneralities....Asforthesecond,isitjustasolution?Wedo noteverthinkdeath,becauseitisproperlyunthinkable;however,wecan thinkofmortalbeings,andthesebeings,atthemomentduringwhichweare thinkingaboutthem,arelivingbeings. 73

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Thesetwowaysofdeectingdeathrepresentourengagementwith thesubjectwhenit comesintowhatJank el evitchidentiesasthecentral-mostframeofconsciousnessthe framethathelinkswiththeabsurdscandalizationandsentimentalizationthataccompanies death.However,thisdoesnotcharacterizeourdailyrelationshipwithdeatha relationshipthatJank el evitchdescribesasomnipresentandomnipotent. Jank el evitch'scharacterizationofthisrelationshipgoesasfollows.First,he associatesdeathwiththeelevatedformofconsciousnessthroughwhichhumans denethemselves. L'hommecharnelpenseseulement acequ'ilvoit.Maisl'hommeprofond, voyantlespr esents,penseauxabsents,pense acequ'ilnevoitpas,et quin'estpasl a,etquipeutetren'existeabsolumentpas,voitdonc, asa mani ere,cequ'ilnevoitpas,voitl'invisibleparunevuedel'esprit:cettevue surnaturelleousuprasensiblep en etreselonPlatonaudel adesapparences peliculariesets'oppose alaperceptiondecesapparencescommel'intuition intelligibledel'essence al'intuitionsensible.(Jank el evitch 1993,48) The manoftheeshthinksonlyofwhathesees.Butthedeepman,seeing whatispresent,thinksofwhatisabsent,thinksofwhathedoesnotsee, andwhatisnotthere,andwhatmaynotevenexist.Hesees,inhisownway, whathedoesnotsee,seestheinvisiblebywayofhismind:thissupernatural orsupersensitiveviewpenetrates,accordingtoPlato,beyondearthen appearancesandopposesitselfagainsttheperceptionoftheseappearances likeone'sintuition,knowingtheessenceofthings,opposesitselftothe sensory. Thisforesightmanifestsitselfasapreoccupation(heusesthetermsouci,which roughlytranslatestoworry)aboutthingstocome.Thisevenexistsforfutureand presenthappiness:Lebonheurestlesouciduplaisir.Aconditiondenepassurvoler lepr esent,l'hommesepla t asonplaisir,parunecomplaisancesansm elange;maisil sesouciedulendemainetdescons equencesdeceplaisir( Jank el evitch 1993,49). Happiness isapreoccupationwithpleasure.Inorderthatthepresentmomentisnot overlooked,man'spleasurewithhispleasureisasortofunbridledcomplacency;but heisstillpreoccupiedwiththeconsequencesthispleasurewillhavecometomorrow. If mancannothelpbutworryaboutwhatwillhappen(forthisisthehumancondition), 74

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andifdeathistheultimatehappening,thenbydenition,death istheultimate worry.Thisdoesnotmeanthatdeathisapreoccupation,northatitisparticularly distracting,butratherthatitisaworryofadifferentorderdeathisadeeplyburied,dull, inextinguishable,anddiffuseanguish.Becauseofthis: Lar eexionsurlamortn'a-t-elleriendecommunavecuneconcentration d'attention:l'attention,etsurtoutl'attentionsensorielle,d esignelelieudans l'espace;c'estadirequ'ellerep ere,localise,d eterminelepluspr ecis ement possible,enabscisseetordonn ee,lapr esencedel'objetoulasourcedu bruit;etelleestanalytiqueencela; al'aff utdesd etailselle epie,guette, scruteouausculte;sasurveillances'exercesurcertainsobjetssp eciaux ousurcertainsindicessuspectifsetsignicatifsqu'ils'agitded epister. (Jank el evitch 1993,52) One' sreectionsondeathhavenothingincommonwithaconcentrationof one'sattention:attention,andespeciallysensoryattention,designatesa placeinspace,meaningthatitpinpoints,localizes,determinesasprecisely aspossible,inCartesiancoordinates,thepresenceoftheobjectorthe sourceofthenoise;anditisanalyticindoingso;alerttodetails,itspies, looksout,scrutinizesorpalpitates;itssurveillanceexertsitselfoncertain specialobjectsorcertainsignicantandsuspectcluesthatitseekstotrack down. Itisforthisreasonthat,bydenition,deathmustbeburiedandmustbeomnipresent: ifitwerelocalizablelikeothereventsinlife,itwouldnotbedeath,andifitweresimply absent,itwouldbelongtoamanwhoignoredhisownmortalitythisspecialcase is,oddly,somethingthatJank el evitchneverentertains,althoughwecanassumethat thismanwouldleadalifestylesoalientoourownthatitwouldbeastretchtocallhim human. Ofcourse,worriesaboutourquotidianlifeandthediffuseanguishofdeathmean nothingwithoutaconceptualizationoftime.Jank el evitchmakesthisclearwhenhe citesourabilitytolivebeyondaformofpresent-orientedhedonism:End'autres termes,lapr evoyanceestlaformetemporelledelaclairvoyance:lasecondevue denotredoublevueestunevisionnonpoint atraversoupardessous,maisen avant;c'estunevisionprospectivedescons equences,plut otqu'unevisionpercantde l'essence(Jank e l evitch 1993,48). Inotherwords,foresightisthetemporalformof 75

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clairvoyance:thesecondofourtwoviews[meaningouruniquely humanperspective] isnotonlyavisionthroughorontopofbutbefore;itisaprospectivevisionof consequencesratherthanapiercingvisionoftheessenceofthings. Heseestime andbecoming(whathumansdointime)asaconceptualintermediarybetweenlife anddeathinsofaraswebecomeintime,timeisacontaineroflife.However,la successiondesmomentscondamnel' etreendevenir an'avoirqu'unseulpr esent,un seulMaintenant alafois....Letempsemp echeraitl'hommed' etreenacte achaque instanttoutcequ'ilpeut etre( Jank el evitch 1993,103). Thesuccessionofmoments condemns thebecominghumantoonlyeverhavingonesingularNowatanygiventime. ...Timewouldpreventthemanfrombeingateveryinstanteverythingthathecanbe. Underliningthisparadoxmoresuccinctly,Jank el evitchwrites: Ledevenirquinoussertnonseulement araccourcirtouslesd elaisdela r ealisationvitale,maisencore afairereculerlen eant,nousachemine,en somme,verscen eant....D emenantsanscesselar ealisationdel' etre,la marcheaunonetredoublecetter ealisationavecleprocessusinversequiest commeunelignesouterrainecontrepoint ee alapremi ere....Destructeuret constructeur,letempsestunemortquiestunevie,maiscettevieestunevie quiestunemort.( Jank el evitch 1993,105) The futurethatnotonlyshortensallofthedelayspreventingone'svital realization,butmakestheimpendingoblivionretreat,bringsus,insum, towardstheoblivion....Ceaselesslychargingforwardwiththehuman's self-realization,themarchtowardsnon-beingafxestorealizationthe inverseprocesslikeasecondarycontrapuntallineisattachedtotherst.... Destructorandconstructor,timeisadeaththatisalife,butthislifeisalife thatisadeath. Itisthisdualnatureoftimethatputsmaninaconstantsenseofoscillationbetween condenceinandfearofhisfuture. Ledevenirquifaitadvenirl'autreparalt erationcontinu eeestdonc ala foisagogieetd etour,bonconducteuretcausederetard;lasuccession uidedesmoments,qued'aucunsappellerontpeutetreunedialectique, repr esenteassezbiencetitin erairedel'unicationentrav ee.Lapossibilit e nonr ealis eenousfaitdouloureusementressentirlan egativit edutemps opaquequinousbarredur eeletnousend enielajouissance;maisdu m emecoupellefaitmiroiterauxyeuxdel'hommel'espoirdelatentante r ealisation. 76

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Becoming,whichmakesonebecomesomethingelseviacontinualalter ation, isthusbothmarkeranddetour,gooddriverandthecauseoflateness;the uidsuccessionofmoments,thatperhapsnoonewouldcalladialectic, representsratherwellthisitineraryoffetteredunication.Possibility unrealizedmakesuspainfullyawareofthenegativityofopaquetimethat barsusfromtherealanddeniesusenjoyment;butatthesametimeitmakes thehopeoftemptingrealizationickerinman'seyes. Thisambivalenceis,accordingtoJank el evitch,themannerbywhichhumansindirectly confrontdeathintheirday-to-daylife.Inmakingthisargument,heborrowssignicantly fromhisteacher,Bergson,whowroteextensivelyontheanxietyofchoiceintheface ofdeath.Firstly,manisabletooccupyhimselfwithahostoftrivialproblems,some psychosomatic,whoseexistenceallowsforthelocalizationofsolutionsthattemporarily ghtagainsttheinsolubilityandnon-senseofdeath.Lesrhumatismesetlesimp ots sontunev eritableaubainepourl'hommeanxieux:commedesimpleseuph emismes, ilsservent ad etournerlaconversation,entretiennentlebabillagequinousemp echede penser anotremis ere(Jank el evitch 1993,55) Rheumatismandtaxesareaveritable godsend fortheanxiousman:likesimpleeuphemisms,theyservetorerouteour conversations,facilitatingthechatterthatpreventsusfromthinkingaboutourmisery. Second,andthisisdirectlyfromBergsonianthought,manavoidsmakingchoicesthat conrmthepassageoftimetowardsdeaththatis,choicesthatrevealtheirownfutility and,byextension,man'sownnality.Jank el evitchwrites: Lamati erevide,lamati eresansmati eredenotresourdeetg en erale inqui etude,c'estdonclan egativit equi, alalimiteetend enitive,bouche lescheminsdel'avenir,barrelelointainhorizon,emp echeleshommesde faires erieusementdetropvastesprojets,oud'envisagerdes ech eancestrop tardives,d'entreprendre afondetsansaucunearri ere-pens ee,c'esta-dire nousd ecouraged'allerjusqu'auboutetdetoucherlesextr emes(carlamort, ev enementultime,estelle-m emecetextr eme).( Jank el evitch 1993,56) The emptysubject,thesubjectlesssubjectofourdeafandgeneralinquietude,isthusthenegativitythat,atthelimit,denitivelyblocksthepaths towardsthefuture,barsthedistanthorizon,preventsmenfromseriouslyundertakingvastprojects,orfromenvisioningfaroffdaysofreckoning,orfrom livingwithrecklessabandonandwithoutafterthought.Inotherwords,this 77

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negativitydiscouragesusfromtakingourpursuitofextremes tothehighest order(fordeath,theultimateevent,isitselfthisextreme). Jank el evitchnotesthatcertainpeople,mostnotablyartists,areabletoescapeboththe reicationofthetrivialandthebanalizationoftheimportant: Dem emequel'hommed'actionn'aboutiraitjamaisdanssesentreprises sanslecouperetd'une ech eanceterminale,dem emequelecr eateurne termineraitjamaissonuvres'iln' etaitlimit eparletemps,dem emele vivanteng en eralneviendrait aboutderiens'iln' etaittalonn eparlamort, press eparletermefataletparlaprognoseintuitivedesacourtecarri ere: vou eauprovisoireetdisposantpourtantdecertainsd elais,lecondamn e ensursisdevientcapabled'entreprendredegrandeschoses....Quisaitsi l'entrevisiondelamortnedonnepasauxviesbr evesleurtempopr ecipit e, leurrythmepress eetnerveux,leurintensit epath etique?Telleseraitlavie fulguranted'unChopin,oupeutetred'unPouchkine.( Jank el evitch 1993, 96) In thesamemannerthatthemanofactionwouldnevernishanything withouttheguillotineofaterminaldayofreckoning,thecreatorwould nevernishhisworkwerehenotlimitedbytimeandthelivingmanin generalwouldneverreachtheendofanythingwerehenotspurredon bydeath,pressedbythefataltermandintuitiveprognosticofhisshort career:consecratedtothetemporaryandyetbridledbycertaindelays,the manwhosesentenceiscommutedforanindeterminatedurationbecomes capableofundertakingambitiousthings....Whoknowsiffurtiveglances ofdeathgivebrieflivestheirprecipitoustempo,theirhasteningandnervous rhythm,andtheirpatheticintensity?Suchwouldbethedazzlinglifeofa Chopin,orperhapsaPushkin. UnlikePiaget,andratherunlikethePlatonicphilosophicaltraditioninwhich Jank el evitchsituateshimself,Jank el evitchprivilegesacertainaffectivecomportment overthecommonplaceavoidancemechanismsthatmenusetoavoiddeathand generalmelancholythatdeathimposesonlife.Frivolityandpessimismoccupyasortof ideologicalmiddlegroundbetweenpurblindpassivityandsublimeserenity:henotesthat Pascaladvocatedalifewhereonewasconstantlydistractedbyarticialandsupercial agitations,whileSchopenhauermacabrelyfeltthatlasurnaturalit emortelle...est commeunreliefint erieurdelapositivit evitale(Jank el evitch 1993,46)(mortalsupernatur ality...islikeaninteriorreliefofvitalpositivity ).However,hearguesthatthese 78

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sentimentsrequireasortofescapismandevennegligencethat drasticallyaltersthe qualityofone'slife.Toretainamodicumofnormalcy,headvocatesasolutionthat combinesseriousnesswithinner-calm.Withrespecttothelatter,hewrites: Nousavionsd'abordenvisag elad ecouverte,danslapositivit evitale,d'une r ealit en egativequienseraitl'inversion;noussoupconnionsensuite,d'accord avecleph enom enisme,quecetteinversionpourraitbien etrelefruitd'une sortedeperversionmanich eenne;etmaintenantlar ealit ecit erieuredela mortnousappara traitplut otdansunecertaineconversionmoraledelavie asapropreetsecr eteint eriorit e.Paradoxalement,c'estcetteconversionqui nousdonnelas er enit e;commec' etaientlasuperstitiondelapl enitudevitale etlerefusdereconna trel'ombreport ee,joints alabrusqued ecouverte del'ennemicach eennous,quiengendraientl'affolementetled esarroi.Le vivantconverti alamortdesaproprevienepassepassontempsautrement queleprofane;sesaffairesnesontpasdiff erentes,nisesoccupations: c'estl'accentuationetc'estl' eclairagedesondevenirquisonttransgur es. (Jank el evitch 1993,59) First wehadenvisionedthediscovery,invitalpositivity,ofanegativereality thatwouldbeitsinversion;wethenhadthesuspicion,inaccordancewith Phenomenalism,thatthisinversioncouldinfactbethefruitofasortof Manicheanperversion;andnowtheproximalrealityofdeathappearstous ratherlikeacertainmoralconversionofone'slifetoitsown,secretinteriority. Paradoxically,itisthisconversionthatgivesusserenity;asifitwerea superstitiousbeliefinvitalplenitudeandtherefusalofrecognizingthenowbroughtshadowcoupledwiththebrusquediscoveryoftheenemyhiddenin us,anenemythatengendersconfusionanddisarray.Thelivingconverted tohisownlife'sdeathdoesnotpasshistimedifferentlythantheprofane;his affairsarenotdifferent,norarehisoccupations:itistheaccentuationandthe illuminationofhisownbecomingthataretransgured. Thisheightenedawarenessofone'sbecomingreducesdeathtosomethingthatis treatedseriouslythatis,earnestlyandhonestlyinsteadoflaterally. Sanscessesurlepointdesombrerdanslenonetre,sanscesserep ech e a laderni ereminuteetsauv einextremisdelamortquileguette,l' etretrouve dansledevenirunesolutionorageuse asoninsolubleprobl eme.Gr aceau devenir,letragiquedud esespoirseratoutsimplement s erieux.( Jank el evitch 1993,115) Ceaselessly onthepointoffounderinginnon-being,ceaselesslyshedout ofwateratthelastminuteandsavedinextremisfromthedeaththatwatches him,manndsinhisbecomingastormysolutiontohisinsolvableproblem. 79

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Thankstohisbecoming,thatwhichistragicabouthisdespairbecomes simply ser ious. Or,conversely,alateralawarenessofdeath(ifonecanevencallthisanawareness) abetsdeath'sprofundityandpervasiveness,whichinculcatesthemundanesentiments thatoneusestondtemporary,butultimateuntenable,relieffromthedullpainofone's ownmortality. Themanifoldarticesdenedabovebywhichweavoidand/orburydeathareall waysthathumansconfronttheultimateepistemologicalimpoverishment(E-)fromwhich theywillneverbeabletoescape.Withdeath,theinabilityandabsurdityofconstructing adeath-spacepreventsusfromevenbeginningtheprocessofknowledgeacquirement, forsuchanapproachrequiresadestination,andasdeathisno-whereandno-thing, movingtowardsitlosesanytypeoforientationormeaning.Asavirtualspacethen, death(andmoregenerallyO+E-)isthevirtualspacethathumans must constructforan ideawithoutknowledgetobeentertainable.Jank el evitchhimselfhintsattheinherent virtualityofthisdeathspacewhenhesays:tantquel' etreestenvie,lan egativit e l etalerestevirtuelleetlatente( Jank el evitch 1993)(solongasmanisalive,lethal negativity restsvirtualandlatent ).Becauseitispointlesstotalkofmanbeing inside thisspace,Jank el evitchinsteadtalksaboutthehumansentimentsthat surround this spacebetheyabsurd,defeatist,hedonistic,pessimist,orserene. 7.3FromPiagetandJank el evitchtoCreativeBootstrapping HavingconstructedO-E+andO+E-virtualspaces,thissectionseekstodetermine theextenttowhichsaidspacescaninuencethedevelopmentofone'screativefaculties viatheprocessofcreativebootstrapping.Tobeginthisargument,Irstcallthereader's attentiontotheassertionsbyPiagetandJank el evitchthatachild'sdevelopmentand aman'srationalizationsaboutdeathbothrequireasignicantdegreeofintellectual andaffectivemomentum.Intheformercase,thechildisconstantlycreatingitsown ontologicaltoolstoorganizeaperceivedepistemologicalfecundity.Inthelatter,man's 80

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wantofepistemologicaldatasurroundingdeathispreciselythat whichstimulates theomnipresentandunagginginquietudethatlurksbehindhisquotidianproblems. However,thisintellectualmobilitydoesnotnecessarilyleadonetothebettermentof one'screativefaculties.Toarriveatthatend,twoissuesmustbeaddressed.Therst isaratherpragmaticoneinorderforthislinkbetweenontology,epistemology,and creativebootstrappingtohavepracticalrelevance,adultsmustsomehowbeableto recreatethesenseofmentalinertiabetweenO-E+andO+E-denedinPiaget'sand Jank el evitch'swork.Thesecondissueisoneofsimilitude;shiftingbetweenvarying degreesofontologicalandepistemologicalcertitudemustbelikenedtothetypeof thought-playthatisexcitedwhenoneisbeingcreative.Itshouldbeevidentthatthe rstproblemistrivialwithrespecttoJank el evitcharecurringthemethroughout La Mort isthatadultscannothelpbutthinkofdeathallthetimeatsomeleveloftheir consciousness.However,tosaythatadultscanthinklikechildrenismoreproblematic. Whileadultscancertainlyspeculateabouthowchildrenthink,thisspeculationdoes notnecessarilymeanthatadultscanengageinsaidthoughtprocesses.However, certainelementsofPiaget'sworksuggestthatsuchashiftofone'scognitiveframe ofreferenceisinfactpossible.Forexample,Piagetclaimsthatyoungchildrenareas perceptiveasadultsbutcannotyetcategorizetheirperceptionsinthewaythatanadult would.Furthermore,heclaimsthatolderchildren,viathesymbolicgame,cancrafta ludicspaceinwhichtheycanfreelycategorizetheworldastheyseet.WhilePiaget doesnotofferanysuggestionsastowhenchildrenstopplayingthesymbolicgame,its fantasticalandescapistnatureisakintothatwhicholderchildrenandadultsattainwhen theydream.Thissuggeststhatadults,ifplacedinanenvironmentwheretheirtraditional modesofmentalorganizationwereirrelevant,wouldhavenothingtofallbackon but sensorialdata.Inordertomakesenseoftheworld,theywouldbeforcedtoreason likeachild,forgingnewcognitiveconnectionsbetweenobservedphenomena.While Icannotprovethatadultshavethecapacitytodothis,thereisnoreasontothinkthat 81

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theywouldhaveeverlostititissimplydulledbyyearsofhaving triedtoassimilate intoadultlifecoupledwiththeiradoptionofheuristicsthatpermitthemtotriageand compartmentalizetheotherwiseoverwhelmingdiversityofdailyexternalstimuli. WhatImustshow,then,isthatmovementalongagradientofontologicaland epistemologicalrichnessandpoornesshasthepotentialtostrengthenone'screative self.GoingbacktoChapterFour,creativityis(accordingto Csikszentmihalyi (1996)) the developmentofavisionthepatternofrelationshipsamongbuildingblocks. Bringingthisdenitionintothefoldofthepresentchapter,onecanclearlyseethe ontological(developmentofavision)andepistemological(relationshipsamong buildingblocks)factorsatplayinone'screativework.Whatislessclear,butvitally important,isCsikszentmihalyi'suseoftheem-dash:apunctuationmarkthat,when usedwithoutatrailingem-dash,effectuatesanon-sequential,non-conjunctive relationshipbetweentwoideasthatnonethelessbelongtogether.Csikszentmihalyi isnotsayingthatcreativity is eitherofthesethings,norisheimplyinganythingabout theirsequenceintime.Instead,heissuggestingthatcreativitycanbemademanifest through questsforontologicalandepistemologicalcertitude. Ifoneacceptsthatadults'engagementinthetypeofreasoningdenedaboveis amannerbywhichonecanbecomeabettercreatorindependentofthatwhichone iscreating,onemayask:towhatextentcananindividualseparatetheactofbeing creativefromtheprocessofmakingcreations?Insofarastrainingismeanttoisolate andperfectthegesturesthatcompriseagivenactivity,itismybeliefthatconsiderations ofontologicalandepistemologicalrichnessrepresentaformoftraininginwhichone maypantomimethementalprocessofbeingcreative.Thisdoesnotmeanthatone becomes ipsofacto morecreativebyputtingoneselfinO-E+orO+E-statesforthe samereasonthatstretchingisnotnecessarilyhelpfulfortheathletewhodoesnot knowhowtostretchproperly.Indrawingthisanalogywithtraining,myargumentisthat 82

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uidmotionthroughvariousstatesofontologicalandepistemological certitudehasthe potentialtoactuateboththepositiveandnegativeeventualitiesthattrainingimplies. Astraininginasportcentersaroundadifferentsetoftoolsandplacesthanthe sportproper,sotoocanoneconceiveofcreativetrainingtoolsthatarenotnecessarily usedtomakework.Thequestionthenarises:Howcanshiftingstatesofontologicaland epistemologicalcertitudebesystematizedandrevisitedbyonewishingtobootstraptheir creativityoutsideofawork-makingcontext,andhowcanthisvirtualspacebesetapart fromotherspacesinwhichcreativeworkisusuallymade?ChapterNinesuggestsa specicexerciseinthedigitalspacethat,Iwillclaim,allowsforoneformofinteractive creativebootstrapping.Inordertodiscussthisexercise,however,itisrstnecessary tounderstandthemyriadofdigitalcreationtoolsinwhichanynewassistantofdigital creativityinvariablysituatesitself.Thecategorizationofthesetoolsisthebusinessof thenextchapter. 83

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CHAPTER8 DIGIT ALCOMPOSITIONTOOLS Inextremis,allthattypewritingcanwriteistherecordofitsowndestruction. DarrenWershler-Henry, TheIronWhim:AFragmentedHistoryofTypewriting Anauthoritativehistoryofthetypewriterby Wershler-Henry (2007)showsus the peculiaritiesofanepochwhereanancientformofculturalproduction(writing) comesintocontactwithanewmeansofactualizingsaidproduction(typing).Like manyemergenttechnologies,thetypewriterwentthroughamyriadofunmarketable evolutionsuntilthearrivaloftherstmass-produceabletypewritersinthelate19th century.Onthetailsofthetypewriter'spopularizationcamethevilicationofitsplumitive precursorthetermslaverywasoftenusedtodescribehumanity'senchainment toantiquatedhand-writingdevices.Ahostofculturalinstitutions,fromaccredited typewritinginstitutionstothesportofspeed-typing,mademanifestaninteresting collectiveassumption(dare-sayhallucination)sharedbytheWesternworld;that thereexistednobenetofhand-writingthatcouldpossiblyoffset(oratleastcallinto question)theadvantagesofthetypewriter.Asisthecaseformanytechnologiesafter aninitialfecundityandpopularity,marketforcesencroachedupontheconceptual largessoftypewriterness,andthedevicebecamesynonymouswiththeexemplars generatedbyahandfulofindustrymoguls(Remingtonbeingthemostpowerful).While Wershler-Henrymakesnocontentionthatthisconsolidationspurredabacklashfrom thetypewriter'susers,itisinterestingthatthishistoricalmomentalsosignaledthe literati'sprogressivedisillusionmentwiththetypewriter.Itsdescentintomundanity isencapsulatedbyGuinsberg'slamentWhatcanIdotoHeavenbypoundingona Typewriterbesidesthetext'sobviousairofresignation,thecapitalizationofTypewriter readsasanattestationtoitsdeiedstatusandubiquitousimprint.Perhapsnothing Theepigraphtothischapterisdrawnfrom Wershler-Henry (2007,1). 8 4

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chroniclesthisdescentfromnoveltonoveltybetterthantheuse ofthetypewriterinhigh artWershlerHenrynotestheuseofthetypewriterinItalianFuturismtorepresentthe soundofmechanicalprogresswhereas,bythe1960sand1970s,itwastheobjectof Fluxussatireandabsurdity. Theabovesummaryactsduallyasapreludetothechaptertofollow;wewillsee, inthesubsequentsections,amusic-compositionlandscapeindigitaliathatisnotunlike Wershler-Henry'sdepictionofthetypewriter.Iwillarguethatwearecurrentlyseeing aprocessofconvergencethatparallelstheinventionoftheelectrictypewriterinthe early20thcentury.ItiswithrespecttothislandscapethatIcouchmytoolasasortof left-turnfromstandardpracticealeftturnthataffordsacriticalcomponentofcreative bootstrappingasdenedinChapterSeven. 8.1CompositionToolsandConvergence Severalhistories, 1 technological/lexicographicalprimers, 2 andcomposite-texts 3 existonthedevelopmentofelectronicanddigitalcomposition.Tosummarizethis literature,Iwilltakeadifferentapproachthantheauthorscitedabove,lookinginstead atthedevelopmentofdigitaltechnologiesfromtheperspectiveoftechnological convergence.Byconvergence,Imeanthetendencybothfortechnologiesto resembleeachother(Yofe, 1997)andfortheneedsofdisparateuser-constituancies (and thereforeculturalgroups)toalsoresembleeachother. 4 Thisrequiresrstthe establishmentoftraditionalclassicationschemesusedtodescribemusiccomposition 1 See Shapiro ( 2000), Katz (2004), Evens (2005), Th eberge ( 1997).Thislatteris par ticularlyexcellent,asitfocusesnotonlyonthesocialforcesthatgaverisetothese technologies,butalsoonthecommercialandproductionforcesthatalimentsaidsocial tendencies.ThisintegratedapproachisclosesttotheonethatIwilltake. 2 See Holmes (2006), Boulanger (2000). 3 See Leider ( 2004). 4 See P az (2009), Barbero (2009),and Kleinberg (2008). 8 5

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software,lookingthenatepochalmomentsinthedevelopments ofthesetechnologies andthemarketsinwhichtheyareexchangedtounderstand why convergenceoccurred andwhateffectthisphenomenonhashadonmusicalcreators. Asarststeptowardsexplainingconvergence,itisimportanttodenekeytermsin digitaltechnologythatwillformthebulwarkofthehybridtechnologiestobediscussed inthischapter.Thesetermsrepresentataxonomicalconsolidationderivedfrom(and oftenadvocatedby)thesurveytextscitedabove.Therstis synthesis/analysis,or thegenerationanddecompositionofsignalsusingdigitalsignalprocessing. Leider (2004)notesthatthistraditionstemsfromnon-digitalunitgenerators (UGens)that effectuatedbasicanalogsignalprocessingoperations.Themajorityofcontemporary digitalunit-generatorssharenameswiththeirnon-digitalancestors( Boulanger, 2000), including themixingmechanismstomakecompositeprocesses.Thesecondterm isthe DigitalAudioWorkstation (DAW),initiallyanextensionofanalogrecording technologythathas,toalargeextent,cometoreplaceitspredecessor. Leider (2004) notes thatcomposersusethistechnologytoarrangesoundsintime.Athirdtypeof compositionaltechnologyisthe sequencer,discussedatlengthby Emmerson (2000) and Dar terandArmbruster (1984).Thisisthemostpopularformofdigitalcompositional technology ,mostlyduetotheeaseofuseofsequencingdevicescoupledwiththe emergentcollage-basedpopularelectronicaartforms( Butler (2006), Gaillot (1998)). 5 A last formofdigitalcompositiontechnologytakesrootinamucholdertraditionof music engraving.Noscholarshiplookscloselyatthemannerinwhichcomposersusedigital 5 Note thatalreadyherethereisaformofconvergenceatplaythesequencermust triggersomething,beitrecordedorsynthesizedsounds.However,insayingsequencer, Iamreferringtosoftwareandhardwarewhoseprincipalfunctionisthetriggeringof events. 86

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typesettingtomakework,andverylittlesituatesthistechnology inahistoricaldialogue onwritingandengravingpractices. 6 Asinthetypewriterindustry,asingleenterpriseisresponsibleforthemajorityof convergencesintheabove-mentionedtechnologies.Thisindustry,Digidesign,created therstcommerciallymarketableDigitalAudioWorkstation(SoundDesigner)whose entryintothemarketportendedanaffordablealternativetoprohibitivelyexpensive high-enddigitalrecordingsuites.Duringthelate1980sandearly1990s,ProTools succeededSoundDesignerasDigidesign'spremieresuite,andwiththeevolutionof ProToolscametwoofthemostimportantstepstowardsindustryconvergencethe incorporatorofaMIDIsequencerintoProToolsandthecreationofathird-party Plug-InAPI,permittingtheincorporationofpost-processing(andeventuallyreal-time) unit-generatorsintoProTools( Payne, 2006).ThesetwofeaturesofProToolshave since beenincorporatedintoandextendedbyseveralotherDAWs.In2006,theparent companyofProTools(Avid)boughtthepopulartypesettingprogramSibelius,which portendsthepotentialincorporationoffully-functionaldigitaltypesettingintherealmof theDAW. 7 Thistendencytowardstheconvergenceoffunctionalityhasbeenapproached fromotherdirectionsbesidestheDAW. Leider (2004)notesthatCSoundhas,since its inception,usedasequencer-likesyntaxtotriggertheinteractionofvariousDSP processes.Othercontemporarydigitalmusiccompositionsoftware,suchasChuckand SuperCollider,allowforinteractionwithMIDIsequencingdevicesandprovideseveral 6 See P owell (2007)fortheonlyextantstudyonthesubject,anditislimitedmostly to astudyoftwodominanttechnologies. 7 Tosubstantiatethisclaim,theauthorcanonlyofferapaltryreferencetoachat threadinwhichaSibeliusemployeeannouncesyoucanbesurethatweareworking closelytogetherwithourparentcompanyonawholebunchofthingsinrelationtothis question.Whilethisishardlyconvincingorsubstantial,itdoessuggestthepossibility thatsuchamergeroffunctionalitymayhappen( Spreadbury, 2008). 87

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Table8-1.Convergenceincontemporarymusicalsoftware.Chec kmarksindicatethe domaininwhicheachpieceofsoftwarebegan,whiledashesindicatethe domainsintowhichapieceofsoftwarehassubsequentlyspread. SoftwareSynthesisDAWSequencingTypesetting ProToolsX Logic X AbletonLive-X ReasonX Reason X X SuperCollider X -Finale -X RosegardenX meanstoscripttheorderofevents.Fromanothervantagepoint, typesettingprograms suchasFinaleandRosegardenhavefornearlytwo-decadesofferedMIDI-sequencing abilitiesandarenowbeginningtoallowmulti-trackrecordingtoaccompanyatypeset part,convergingtowardstheProToolsmodel.Table 8-1 showsthistendencythrough asampling ofpopularcompositionsoftware.Whileasof2010thereisonlyonepiece ofsoftwarethatcomprehensivelyprovidesthefunctionalityofallfourabove-dened domains,thistrendinconvergencesuggeststhattheindustrywilleventuallypropose suites,ifnotsinglepiecesofsoftware,thatintegratefunctionalitieswhoseprovenance residesintheabove-discussedtraditions. Twonotableexceptiontotheabove-describedtrendareMax/MSPandOpenMusic. Bothprojects,developedatthe InstitutdeRechercheetCoordinationAcoustique/Musique (IRCAM),weredesignedfortheorganizationandgenerationofcompositional materials.Theirgraphicalinterfacesmakethestructureofone'sideasmorereadily availablebyvirtueoftheirproximityonthecomputerscreen:visualclumpingofmedia, text,andmusicallowsforthoughtplayinthestructuraldomainindependentofan eventualformalresult.Whileothertext-basedprogramssuchasSuperCollideralso allowforthevisualorganizationofideasthroughsyntaxthatpermitsinterrelatedbits ofcodetoexistindisparatepartsofthesamedocumentandindifferentdocuments altogether,thismarkuplanguageorientedapproachtothegenerationandorganization 88

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ofmaterialdoesnotallowfortherichnessandinstantaneityof visualandaudiomedia thatcanbeachievedingraphicalprograms.However,whileideas can beorganizedin bothOpenMusicandMax/MSP,thisisnottheirexpresspurposetheybothexistfor thecreationandorderingofmaterialinacousticandelectroacousticmusicrespectively. Thenextsectionwillexplorethisdigitallacunainorganizationtechnology,lookingat contemporarymodesoforganizingcreativethought. 8.2ToolsforSketchingandOrganizingIdeas Iftheprevioussectionendeavorstoweaveacoherentnarrativethrougha fecundandinterrelatedsoftware-scape,thissectiontakesasitspointofdeparturea paucitythelackoftoolswhoseexpresspurposeistohelptheuserorganizeideas. Afterhavingreviewedthescantliteraturethatexistsonthesubject,Iwillconcludeby entertainingideasastowhythecreativecommunityhasavoideddiscussingthisissue andwhatthisavoidancemeansfordigitallyassistedcreativity,especiallywithrespectto thecompositionofmusic. First,onemustdispensewitharathertrivialbutobviousnotionofwhatthe representationofanidea is indigitalia.Amyriadofprogramscanbeinvokedto representideas,sketches,drafts,mock-ups,andgenerallyfuzzyconceptionsofa thingsimplybyvirtueofthefactthattheseprogramsare apriori meanttorepresent fullyformedversionsofsaidthing.Forexample,shouldIwishtomakeanoutlineofa poem,acollectionofmusicalmotifsthatwillconstitutea ricercare,orasetofshapes thatwillformapieceofweb-art,Icanmakeallofthesethingsinpiecesofsoftware inwhichpoetry,music,andwebsitescanbecomposed.Ratherthanentertainingthe ideaofhowsketchescanbemadeinanyoneofthesesystems,Iinsteadendeavor todiscusssystemswhoseexpresspurposeisthecontainmentofideasthatarenot, andmayneverbe,fullyformed.Thereareveryfewarticlesintheliteraturethatdeal 89

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withtheissueof ho w digitally-basedcomposersandartistssketch, 8 andthosethat doareboundtoeldswhoseterminalproducts are sketches.Thatis,scholarshipby Johnson (2005)(design)and ElliottandHearst (2002)(architecture)pertaintoeldsthat render asketchofathingtosomeonewhosejobitistocreateanalrealization.This isnotanindemnicationoftheireffortsinterestingly,thepeculiarnatureoftheseelds forcesthemtotakeamoresketch-attunedapproachintheevaluationofsoftware.Itis ratheratestamenttothefactthatsketching,asanactivityseparatefromcreating,has yettocomeintofullfruitioninthedigitalage.Thisisespeciallytrueformusic,whose structuresandformsaredigitallyunsketchableunlessonechoosestouseapieceof softwareinawaythatitwasnotmeanttobeused. Evenacceptingthefactthatsensitivitytotherepresentationofquasimodalideas hasbeenill-providedandunder-researchedindigitalscholarship,evenwhenideas are fullyformed,themannerinwhichtheirrelationshipispresentedisoftenbeholdento acarry-overfromnon-digitaltechnology.Wordprocessorsdelimittextbyparagraphs andpagesbecausethisishowtheywillbeshowninprintform.Thesameholdstrue formusicalscoresinpartorder.Heuristicsdoexistfortheanalysisofbothdocuments (iewordcounts,keydetectors,etc.),buttheseareconsideredancillarytothemain functionalityofthesystemathand.Perhapstheonlytechnologythathasbeguntobreak fromthismodelisthePersonalInformationManager(PIM),whichtradesontheease withwhichitrepresentsdatainmultipleways.Buteveninthisrareexample,thepoverty ofscholarshipisastoundingasidefrom Jones (2008),thereisnoliteraturethattreats the organizationofpersonaldatainthedigitaldomain.EvenJonesdoesnotfullytreat thisproblemalthoughhisbookisintimatelyinter-woundwithdigitalia,itisnothisgoal 8 Tak e HallandSallis (2004)asanexamplewhilesuperlativelywritten,itstitleis misleading. Ahandbooktotwentieth-centurymusicalsketchesstopsinthe1950sand connesitselfmostlytowrittensketches. 90

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toexploretheefcacyofdigitalcontainersofinformationbut ratherthepsychology aboutwhyoneattachesmeaningtoinformationinthedigitalage. Thus,absentofanydebateonthesubject,butnotwantingtoinitiateoneforfear ofsprawloutsidethescopeofthisdissertation,Iwillendeavortoexplainwhysuch littleattentionhasbeengiventothedigitalorganizationofcreativeideas,especially inthearts.Therstpossibility,whichisto-dateunstudied,isthatcreatorssimplyuse non-digitalsketchingandidea-organizingmechanisms,enteringdigitaliaonlytofashion fullworks.Werethistobethecase,thequestionariseswhatcandigitalmeansoffer thattraditionalidea-hashingideascannot?Anotherpossibility,alsountested,isthat creatorsmaketheirsketcheswithwhatevertoolstheyusetomakeanalwork,often timesleavingbackupsofintermediarydraftsastheonlytracesofone'ssketchwork. Here,anotherquestionarisesarethereanyaspectsofsketchinginthesamesandbox inwhichonecomposesthatcompromisestheconceptualbreadthofone'sideas?A thirdpossibility,linkedtothesecond,isthatmakingsketcheshasbecomeoutmoded withthearrivalofdigitaltechnology.Theinteractivityandversatilityofagivenprogram maygivethecreatortheabilitytotestoutcertainideasinamannerthatshefeelsis sufcienttohaveprototypedawork,meaningthatshewillnotresorttootheravenues oftestingbeforethenalproductiscreated.Moreresearchmustbedonetoascertain whichoneofthesethreepossibilitiesholdstrueinmusiccomposition.However,faced withthispresentlackofinformation,Imaketherelativelysafeclaimwithrespecttothis dissertationthatmusiccompositioninparticularhasawealthofsoftwareinwhichwork canbemadebutnosoftwareinwhichworkcanbesketchedinamannerdivorcedfrom thatinwhichitisnallyrealized. 8.3OrganizingDigitalCreativity:AFirst-OrderImplementationofChapter Seven Ifdigitalcompositionsoftwareisgoingthewayofthetypewriter,itsstandardization isreinforcedasmuchbytheconvergenceoffeaturesasbytheextenttowhichalmost 91

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allprogramsomitmeanstoeffectuatecertaincrucialaspects ofthecomposition processnamelysketchingandideaorganizing.Butwhatdoesthishavetodowith thebusinessofPartIanddigitalcreativity?Ostensibly,thelackofsketchingsoftware posesnoproblemforthecreatorofChapter3,assheisusingdigitalcreatorsasa meansofexpressionofsomepre-existingconceptthatmerelyneedstoberealized indigitalform.FortheseekerofcreativemediariesfromChapter4,themajorityof compositiontoolsprovidenoovertmechanismfortheinternalizationofcompositional challengesandroadblocksasidefrompotentialdesignawsand/orlimitationswithinthe program.However,thereisagrowingtendencyforprogramstoallowforscriptingthis isespeciallytrueinopensourcelanguagesbasedonextantprogramminglanguages suchasLilypond(whichisbasedonScheme)andSuperCollider(whichisbased onSmallTalk).Scriptingisawaytoincorporateuser-denedconstraintsintothe compositionprocess,especiallyusingsomeformofcontrolledrandomness.Thus,the composerdoeshaveatherdisposalameansbywhichtheconstructionofcreative barriersmaybeinternalizedinthedigitalcontext. ThecreatordescribedinChapter5,however,hasnoexpressmeansbywhich shemayengageinaformofcreativebootstrappingusingthetoolwithwhichsheis working.ThisproblemexistsbothfortheO+E-creatorwhohasanirrefutableinternal understandingofthatwhichshewantstocreatebutnointuitionastohowthisshould(or evencould)bemademanifest and fortheO-E+creatorwhoisattractedtoamyriadof datathattheyfeeltobeaffectivelysignicantwithoutknowinghoworwhythesethings belongtogetherandwhatthebestcontainerisforthesethings.Isayexpressmeans becauseitisundeniablethatcomposersundergosuchsearchesincountlessways usingextanttechnologyeveryaddition,deletion,andmodicationinaMaxMSPpatch, Finalescore,orReasonjamcanbeseenasastepinthissearch towards something. However,thereisnosoftwarethatismade expressly toengagecomposersinthis search,whichIwillargueinthesubsequentchapterisfacilitatedbytheinitialdecoupling 92

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ofsaidprocessfromthecreationofafully-formedcomposition. Whilesketchingand idea-organizationisnotthesoledomaininwhichthissearchcanbeeffectuated,I arguethatspaceswhereonecansketch,organize,andexploreone'sowncreative ideasare necessary fortheprocessofcreativebootstrapping.Thatis,regardlessof thedirectiononetravelsalongtheO/Egradient,thecontinualre-presentationand re-organizationofonesideasmustbepartofthisprocess.Or,inotherterms,insofaras creativeaggrandizementispredicatedonsomeformofinternalsearch,themeansby whichonetraversesthislandscapeandthesupportsonwhichandthroughwhichsaid landscapeismademanifestarecrucialaspectsofanycreativejourney.Ataminimum, onecansimplybeuncriticalaboutthisprocess.Buteventhemostshallowinquiriesinto theselfrequiresomeabrogationofontologicalandepistemologicaldisparities,anditis thisabrogationfromwhichideare-presentersandre-organizersasdenedabovetake ight.So,intakingtheabove-promisedleft-turnfromtheconvergenceofcomposition software,Iendeavortoimplementaspacewherethe necessary,thoughoftenignored, businessofChapter5canbecomeofparamountimportance. EnterOrgandi,atoolforsketchingmusicalcompositions.Andperhapseven atoolforsketchingingeneral.InPartII,whichtreatsthetheoreticalandpractical considerationsonwhichOrgandiisbased,Imakenoclaimthatthisis the modelby whichideasketchingandorganizing,asdenedinthischapter,canbeeffectuated. Rather,Organdiisan implementation ofsaidtool.Byimplementation,Imeanthat itprovidesa sufcient,butnot necessary,digitalspaceforideaorganizationand,by logicalextension,representsonemeansofattackinganecessaryaspectofcreative bootstrappingtheclassicationofone'sowncreativedigitalself. 93

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CHAPTER9 ORGANDI: APYTHONTOOLKITFORCREATIVEBOOTSTRAPPING Intothis,structureandall,anythinggoes.Thestructurewasnotthepoint. Butitwaspractical:youcouldactuallyseethateverythingwashappening withoutanything'sbeingdone.Beforesuchemptiness,youjustwaittosee whatyouwillsee. JohnCage,OnRobertRauschenberg,Artist,andHisWork OrgandiisaPythontoolkitthataidswiththeprocessofcreativebootstrapping asdenedoverthecourseofthisdissertation.Specically,itallowsforassisted compositioninsofarasitprovidescomposerswithawaytoorganizebothstructures andformsthatvaryintheirdegreeofontologicalandepistemologicalcertitude.More simply,onemaythinkofitasaspacewhereprecompositionoccursifoneaccepts thedenitionofprecomposition,advancedbyMarkApplebaum,asasetofprocesses thatleadtothecreationofamusicalworkbutwouldnotbeconsideredcomposition. Thischapterwillstartwithtwosimpleexamplesthatportrayacomposerwho,through Organdi,createsstructuralandformallatticesthatactasbasesforcreativework.The subsequentsectionwillshowhowOrgandicanbeusedtoexploretwoextremecases thatrepresentthephilosophicalmilieusofPiagetandJank el evitchrespectively. 9.1AStructureinOrgandi Organdi'sfacilitationofthecreationofstructuretakesitsimpetusfromthe graphtheoreticalconceptsdiscussedinChapterSix:relationshipsbetweennodesare indicatedbylabelededges. 1 Thenodesmayrepresentanything,includingcollectionsof othernodes,allowingforaformofstructuralnesting.AseachnodeisaPythonobject, nodesmaythemselveshaverichfunctionalitythatisoutsidethepurviewofOrgandi. Certainfunctionalitiesare,however,built-inforcertainnodetypes:bygenerating Theepigraphtothischapterisdrawnfrom Cage (1966d,107). 1 These edgelabelsareonlyvisibleinasvg-enabledbrowser,wheretheyappearas tooltipswhenhoveredoverbythemouse. 94

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1 >>> from organdiae import 2 >>> soundlib=ng('soundlibrary') 3 >>> mysoundlib=soundlib('birdsongsoundlibrary') 4 >>> g=DiGraph() 5 >>> g.av(mysoundlib) 6 >>> birdsongs=[] 7 >>> for x in range(10): 8...birdsongs.append(ng('birdsong'+str(x)+'.au')) 9... 10 >>> for x in range(10): 11...mysoundlib.av(birdsongs[x]) 12... 13 >>> visoundlib=soundlib('violinsoundlibrary') 14 >>> g.av(visoundlib) 15 >>> vibirds=[] 16 >>> for x in range(4):vibirds.append(ng('vibird'+str(x)+'.au')) 17... 18 >>> for x in range(4):visoundlib.av(vibirds[x]) 19... 20 >>> mimick=ng('mimickry') 21 >>> bs('birdsong') 22 >>> g.ae(visoundlib,mysoundlib,sb(mimick)) 23 >>> angelou=ng('angelou caged bird.txt') 24 >>> g.av(angelou) 25 >>> whip=ng('whip poor will.jpg') 26 >>> g.av(whip) 27 >>> emilie=ng('EmilieLesbros') 28 >>> imitator=ng('imitator') 29 >>> g.av(emilie) 30 >>> g.ae(emilie,whip,sb(imitator)) 31 >>> loc=ng('summerlocation') 32 >>> macon =ng('Macon,GA') 33 >>> g.av(macon) 34 >>> g.ae(macon,whip,sb(loc)) 35 >>> me=ng('MikeSolomon') 36 >>> ub=ng('ubiquitous,recurringthought') 37 >>> g.av(me) 38 >>> whip 39 >>> g.ae(whip,me,sb(ub)) 40 >>> summer=ng('summervacation2009') 41 >>> g.ae(g.g(0,5),me,sb(summer)) 42 >>> gv(g) 43 >>> pick() Figure9-1.CodingstructureinOrgandi:arhapsodyinbirdsong. 95

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Figure9-2.AstructuralgraphforthePythoncodeinFigure 9-1.Rednodesare themselv esgraphsthat,whenclickedon,taketheusertothisgraph's visualization.Greennodesrepresentmediathatwillbeopenedwhenthe nodeisclickedupon. ScalableVectorGraphics(svgs)viaitsGraphVizbackend,Organdiisabletodraw uponwebbrowsertechnologytoallowthedisplayingofmanymedia.Figure 9-1 shows asimple exampleofsaidstructuringmechanism'sOrgandicode,andFigure 9-2 displaysthisusingtheOrgandiGraphVizbackend. It isimportanttonotethatthisexampledoesnotrepresentamusicalwork perse. Rather,itrepresentsanidiosyncraticstructuringofideas,notunlikeCage'scomment aboutRauschenberg'suseofstructure.Theconnectingofideasintangentialand obliquewaysispartofthethoughtplaythatgoesintoanycreativeprocessasdened inChapterFour,andfurthermore,makingtheseconnectionsfromdifferingvantage pointsofepistemologicalandontologicalcertitudeallowsforcreativebootstrappingas denedinChapterSeven.Tobuttressthisclaim,AppendixBgivesamoreelaborated versionofanOrgandisessionthatledtothecreationofamusicalwork,andAppendix AprovidesalinktoOrgandi'sdocumentationforthosewishingtolearnaboutanduse it.However,forthereaderdesiringtoseetheutilityofsuchanendeavorbeforediving intothesemoreinvolvedandcategoricalsources,below,Iwillexpounduponelements ofFigure 9-1,showingthemannerinwhichthisgraphactsasastructuralcontainer for myowncreativethought. Torepresentalibraryoftenbirdsongssounds,Ieffectuatethecommandsonlines 7ofFigure 9-1.Thissequenceofcommandscreatesrepresentationsofthese bird 96

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soundsinOrgandi.Now,theyarereadytobecomepartofastructure .Onemay saythatthisengagementwiththecomputerstartsfromapositionofO-E+thatis, afecundityofdatawhoseontologicalcomportmentisweaklydened.Thisissimilar tothe magieontologique (ontologicalmagic)describedin Piaget (2003);dataare non-heir archicallyenteredintoasysteminwhichtheydonotyethavemeaningsave theoverarchingcategoryintowhichtheyareentered,called mysoundlib inthecode. Aftercreatingasimilarpoolofviolinsounds,Ithenconnectthebirdtoviolinsoundsvia thecommandonline22ofFigure 9-1.Thisuseofedgesinbuildingmygraph(ae is shor tforaddedge) 2 issimilartothatwhichonewouldndinmind-mapping,where onelinksideasinanarborealandhierarchicalmanner.WhatisuniqueaboutOrgandi isthatitdoesnotprivilegetreestructuresoverotherformsofgraphsthatoneusesto representstructure(seeFigure 9-17 foranexampleofacircularstructure).Byproviding adigital forumwherecreatorscangrowtheirstructuresinmanifolddirections,Organdi facilitatesthetypeoflateralmentalconnectivitydescribedinChaptersFourandSeven. EquallypermissiblearethediscontinuitiesthatOrgandiaffords.Nodesinthe graphaboutMacon,GAandMayaAngelouare,forme,waystostructurethoughtabout birdswithoutbeingforcedtoforgeconnectionsbetweenthingswhoserelationship remainsmysticalandopaque.Thatis,Iperceivetheseideasasbeingconnectedto theextentthatIhavechosentoincludetheminthesamegraph,butatthesametime, IhavechosennottodeneanyexplicitconnectionbetweenAngelouandMaconwithin thecontextofthisgraph.Thisharkensbacktothepoint,madeinChapterTwo( Shields, 2003),aboutthevirtualwithinthevirtual;ononehand,allelements inOrgandiare relatedinsofarastheyarewithinOrgandi,butwithinOrgandi,theycanbeentirely unrelated.Thatthesethoughtsbecomepartofamusicalworkisincidentaltomyhaving representedtheminFigure 9-2.Anyrelationthattheyhavewithaneventualpiece 2 F or moreaboutthefunctionalityofOrgandi,youmayvisit http://www.organdiae.com 9 7

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ofmusicwouldbemade aposter iori,ifatall.Rather,byvirtueofthefactthatIama musicallycreativeperson,thesethoughtswillinvariablyeffectthewaythatImakework. TheirpresenceinOrgandi,then,isamanifestationofmydesiretoattendtothem dialecticallythroughtechnologyinhopesthathavingdonesowillmakemeabetter creatorofmusic. Thosewhoarefamiliarwithinteractiveprogrammingmayquestiontheutilityof Organdiwhencomparedtothenativedata-organizationcollectionmechanisms,such aslists,sets,anddictionaries,thatareofferedbymostprogramminglanguages.Rather thansupplantingthesemethodsoforganization,Organdiseekstocomplementthem withasetofgraphtheoreticaltoolsthroughwhichuserscandeneidea-containing structuresthatfalloutsidetheauspicesoftheselanguages'defaultbehavior.In Figure 9-2,forexample,clickingon violin soundlibrary takestheusertoacollection offourpiecesofaudio.Onemaylikenthismeansoforganizationtoasetagroup ofunorderedelements.However,thesamedatacouldhavebeenrepresentedby thedrawinginFigure 9-3.Thisradialstructurenolongerresemblessetnessinthe same waythatFigure 9-2 doesdespitethefactthatitrepresentsthesameidea.By alter natingbetweendifferentstructuralrepresentationsofoneidea,thelinebetween themediumandmessagebecomesblurredratherthanassumingthatstructureisa neutralcontainerofchargedelements,Organdi'sexistenceispredicatedontheidea thatstructuresthemselvesconveymeaningandthattheelaborationofstructureshas aneffectonone'sperceptionoftheinformationthatstructurescontain.Thiscreates acircuitwheretheuser,inmodifyingherstructuralcontainers,isforcedtoreconsider theelementsheldwithinherstructure,whichthennecessitatesnewapproachesto structurefortheserevampedideas.OnemaysaythatnetworksinOrgandiare partially cybernetic;Organdienablestheusertogovernmultiplestructuresastheyevolve overtheprocessofmakingcreativework.However,anetworklikethisisclearlynotas complexasthecyberneticmindthat Bateson (1967)describesinsofarasitdoesnot 9 8

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Figure9-3.AnalternativerepresentationofthestructureinFigure 9-1 endogenously admitthepossibilityofrandomness(meaningthatanyrandomnesswithin itmustbecreatedbytheuser).Rather,itactsasasortofsandboxintowhichelements ofacreator'sinternalstructuringmechanismscanbemademanifestthroughdigital technology. AssmallasFigure 9-1 andFigure 9-2 are,theyshowthebreadthofpossibilities and thelimitationsofOrgandi.Onecanimagineanetworkcontainingmanymore zonesofideascoalescingaroundcertainthemes,someofwhichgivewaytosub-graphs thathaveentirelydifferentinternalorganizations.Indoingso,oneengagesinaprocess oflateralconnectionmakingthatengagesandamelioratesthecreativefacultiesthatare usedincomposition.Or,inotherwords,onecreativelybootstraps.Organdicaneven beusedfortheoutrightstructuringofacompositionbyrepresentingtransformations ofmusicalmaterial.However,themapisnottheterritory( Korzybski, 2000,750);the vital necessityforOrganditoremainamapcomespreciselyfromtheexistenceof othersoftwareandmediathroughwhichtheterritory(music)ismademanifest.Atthe extreme,Organdiprovidesthecomposerwithaspectrumalongwhichshecandene themapness andteritoryness ofanygivenendeavor,shiftingbetweenthetwoasa networkbecomesmoreorlessrelatedtotheactualizationofamusicalwork. Conversely,thelimitationsofOrgandi'sabilitytoallowforcreativebootstrapping inmusicalstructurearesimilartothosethatonendswhensuspendingone'sdisbelief intheenteringofanydigital(andthusvirtual)space.AsistrueforSecondLife,those 99

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whoarenotwillingtobecomeconversantthroughOrgandiwill simplynotuseit. RatherthanarguingthatOrgandiportendsanytypeofuniversalutilityinwhatit affordscreators,Iarguethatforthecreatorwhoisfacilewithinteractiveprogramming (oriswillingtobecomefacile),Organdiprovidesaspacethroughwhichmanyofthe aforementionedideasaboutcreativitycanbeexplored. OnelastpointtonoteregardingstructureinOrgandiisahiddenlevelofstructural playpresentviatheuseoftheclassinheritancemechanismsdiscussedabove.All ofOrgandi'sobjectsareclassesthat,viaPython'smetaclasscapabilities,can inheritfromanyPythonclassandbetheparentofanyPythonclasstobecreated. Forexample,inthePythonterminal,thelinesofcodeshowninFigure 9-4 openan Organdi sessionandcreateanorchestralinheritancescheme.Thisschemecan berepresentedgraphicallyviaOrgandi'sGraphVizbackendshouldonesochoose. However,therealpowerofthisstructuralinterplayliesnotinitsabilitytobevisualized butratherinitsuseofobject-orientedprogrammingtoallowforthesharingofdataand theautomaticinheritanceofproperties.Forexample,Figure 9-6 showshowOrgandi can encodegeographicalbelongingviaclassinheritancemechanisms. Whilevisualizationsofstructureareinvaluabletowork-makingcomposers,a visualrepresentationofdataisonlyonewayinwhichrelationshipsmaybeobserved. Object-orientedstructuringofOrgandiclassesallowsforcreatorstofullyintegrate OrgandiintothemanifoldcreationsuitesthatcurrentlyexistinthePythonprogramming language,sothatOrgandiitselfcanbenestedinalargercompositionalstructure. InFigure 9-7,OrgandiclassesinheritfromSuperColliderSynthDefsandcan subsequently beusedinthecreationofaudio.ThereasonthatIpayparticularattention tothisinthepresentchapterisbecausethisisoneofthefew,ifnotonly,waysinwhich 100

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1 >>> from organdiae import 2 >>> bs('orchestra') 3 >>> orchestra=ng('orchestra') 4 >>> strings=ng('strings',dg=orchestra) 5 >>> winds=ng('winds',dg=orchestra) 6 >>> brass=ng('brass',dg=orchestra) 7 >>> percussion=ng('percussion',dg=orchestra) 8 >>> violin=ng('violin',dg=strings) 9 >>> viola=ng('viola',dg=strings) 10 >>> cello=ng('cello',dg=strings) 11 >>> bass=ng('bass',dg=strings) 12 >>> violinI=ng('violinI',dg=violin) 13 >>> violinII=ng('violinII',dg=violin) 14 >>> flute=ng('flute',dg=winds) 15 >>> oboe=ng('oboe',dg=winds) 16 >>> clarinet=ng('clarinet',dg=winds) 17 >>> bassoon=ng('bassoon',dg=winds) 18 >>> trumpet=ng('trumpet',dg=brass) 19 >>> horn=ng('horn',dg=brass) 20 >>> trombone=ng('trombone',dg=brass) 21 >>> tuba=ng('tuba',dg=brass) 22 >>> timpani=ng('timpani',dg=percussion) 23 >>> triangle=ng('triangle',dg=percussion) 24 >>> cymbal=ng('cymbal',dg=percussion) 25 >>> bassdrum=ng('bassdrum',dg=percussion) 26 >>> issubclass(bassdrum,percussion) 27True 28 >>> issubclass(bassdrum,orchestra) 29True 30 >>> issubclass(bassdrum,strings) 31False 32 >>> issubclass(violin,strings) 33True 34 >>> issubclass(violinI,strings) 35True 36 >>> issubclass(violinI,violin) 37True 38 >>> issubclass(violinI,winds) 39False 40 >>> issubclass(orchestra,orchestra) 41True Figure9-4.Creatingorchestralclasses,andusingPython's`issubclass' methodtoverify classinheritance. 101

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Figure9-5.Arepresentationoftheclassinheritancescreat ed inFigure 9-4. 102

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1 >>> from organdiae import 2 >>> bs('geography') 3 >>> earth=ng('earth',neighboring planets=['mars','venus']) 4 >>> north america=ng('north 5america',dg=earth,neighboring continents=['southamerica','asia']) 6 >>> usa=ng('unitedstates', 7dg=north america, 8neighboring countries=['cuba','mexico','canada','russia']) 9 >>> nj=ng('newjersey',dg=usa,neighboring states= 10['pennsylvania','deleware','newyork']) 11 >>> nj.neighboring states 12['pennsylvania','deleware','newyork'] 13 >>> nj.neighboring countries 14['cuba','mexico','canada','russia'] 15 >>> nj.neighboring continents 16['southamerica','asia'] 17 >>> nj.neighboring planets 18['mars','venus'] Figure9-6.Geographicregionsinheritinformationfromtheir parentclasses. 1 >>> from sc import 2 >>> from organdiae import 3 >>> sc.start() 4 >>> o synth=ng('organdiaescsynth',dg=(DiGraph,sc.Synth)) 5 >>> issubclass(o synth,DiGraph) 6True 7 >>> issubclass(o synth,sc.Synth) 8True Figure9-7.CreationofanOrgandiobjectthatinheritsbehavior fromSuperCollider classesaswell. structurescanbeelaboratedoutsideofOrgandithathaveanintimatebearingonits functionality. 3 3 Excepting, ofcourse,absurdexamplessuchasstructuresthatcutcomputers' power,etc. 103

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9.2AForminOrgandi Any formisapaththroughinstantiatedexemplarsofelementsofapre-existant structure. 4 Formsareonlyglimpsesofthestructuresfromwhichtheywerecreatedand certainlydonotsuggestthemultiplicityofformstowhichthatstructuremaygivebirth. Furthermore,ifstructuresholdpointerstocertainobjects(texts,sounds,ideas,etc.),a formcanonlyholdsinglereferencesofthesethingsatonetime.Withrespecttosound, anytwoplayingsofamaterialwillbedifferent,andeveninthemostsimilarofcases (i.e.xedmediawithunchangingatmosphericpressureandnoambientnoise),any twohearingsofsaidmaterialwillinvariablybedifferent.Organdiisabletorepresent thesetransientaspectsofforminitsabilitytofocusoncertainpathsthroughastructure andtocreatesingleinstancesofstructuralitemsbyusingtheclass/instancedistinction availableinPythonandmostobject-orientedlanguages. Take,forexample,thefollowingcollectionoftenbirdsongmaterials.Figure 9-8 isagroupofproposedformsthroughthosematerials.Becausethe imagesofthese formsaresuperimposedontopofeachother,itisimpossibletodistinguishwhichedges signifywhichformalrelationships.Tomakedifferentsuccessionsofeventsclearer, Organdiallowsforthecompressionofcertainformalchoicesandtheexpansionof others.Figures 9-9, 9-10,and 9-11 highlightthreedifferentformsinthenetwork,with the otherformsrenderedusingdottedlines.Theextenttowhichnodesandedgesin Organdiactascontainersforsmallereventsisdenedbytheuserforexample,the macawabovecouldtheoreticallybecomprisedofseveralsuccessivepartsofamacaw call,inwhichcaseexchangingsinglemacawwithseriesofnotessubdividingmacaw inOrgandiisastraightforwardoperationasitwouldbeinmanysequencingprograms. 4 Byinstantiated exemplars,Imeantheephemeralinstanceintimethatrepresents astructuralidea.Aformformsviasuccessionsofsinglesonicrealizationsofcanonical, structuralsupportssuchasscoresandCD. 104

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Figure9-8.Severaltemporalpathsbetweendifferentbirdsongs superimposedonthe samegraph. Formcanalsobemanifestthroughobject-orientedprogrammingbyusinginstances ofstructuralclassestoshowtheuniquenessofaparticularevent.Forexample, ifoneweretocreatethreeclassesrepresentingthreeaudioles,onecouldthen createseveralinstancesofeachaudioleanduseedgesinthenetworktorepresent thesequencingoftheseinstancesintime,asinFigures 9-12, 9-13,and 9-14. This conceptualizationofclassesandtheirinstancesisasoldasobject-oriented programmingitselfanddrawsitsinspirationfromPlatonicthoughtabouttheformandits terrestrialexemplars:theclassisatemplateforathingthatwillexist,andaninstance 105

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Figure9-9.Oneofthreedifferenttemporalpathshighlighted showingtrajectories betweenbirdsongs. drawsitsmeaningfromthefactthatitexempliesorganizationandbehaviorbuiltintoits class. Thus,inadditiontoprovidingawaytorepresentstructures,Organdiallows forthecreationofpathsthroughtime,orforms,thatcansubsequentlybemadeinto compositions.Alternatively,theseformscansimplybepartofstructures,meaningthat formalconnectionsbetweentemporaleventscanbeasubjectuponwhichonereects instructuringone'screativeself,thusblurringthelinebetweenthesetwoconcepts. 106

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Figure9-10.Oneofthreedifferenttemporalpathshighlighted showingtrajectories betweenbirdsongs. 9.3GreyZonesofFormandStructure PerhapsthemostpowerfulaspectofOrgandiisitsabilitytoallowtheuserto movebetweenformalandstructuralsignicationinquestsofcreativebootstrappingnot unlikethosedescribedinChapterSeven.Becauseanythingcanbecalledanythingand subsequentlyconnectedtoanything,allnotionsofformandstructureareuserdened. Thisallowsuserstoengageinprocessesofcreationthatvacillatebetweenthetwoover thecourseofacreativeprocess. TakethePiagetexampleofacreatorwhoisabundantlystimulatedbutlacksthe abilitytoforgemeaningfulrelationshipsbetweenstimuliinthenetwork.Suchanetwork 107

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Figure9-11.Oneofthreedifferenttemporalpathshilightedsho wingtrajectories betweenbirdsongs. mayresemblethatofFigure 9-15.Tocallthisaformorstructurewouldbeastretch, but itiscertainlysomethingthatcould become eitherofthosethings.Furthermore,just asthechildgoesthroughaperiodofdenitionalentanglement,sotoocananetwork likethisbesubjectedtodenitionalimpossibilitiesthatresistinterpretationandact astheirownsortofanti-communicativestatementagainstwhichthecomposeris supposedtomakemeaning.Anabsurdistapproachtostructure,complementedby themorenormalstructuresdiscussedabove,allowsthecomposertoexperimentwith what Vaggione (2001)wouldcallalternativeontologieswhoseprosodycouldresult in thecreationofwork.Furthermore,thefactthatsuchaconundrumcanbesuccinctly 108

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Figure9-12.Oneofmultipleinstantiationsofthesamebirdsong usingPython's class/instancedistinction. articulatedinOrganditriggersaprocessofcreativebootstrappingthattranscendsthe individualworklevel:forcedtomakemeaningoutofabsurdity,thecomposerimprovises aresponsethatgivesbirthtoamorestablecreativenetworkthatactsasbasisfor severalworks. ThesameistrueoftheJank el evitchianmodel,wherebyadevelopednetworkof sharedmeaningpointstoaregionofthecreativeconscienceaboutwhichthecreator isignorant.Here,theincompletenessofthegraphatitscenterishermeneutically problematic:inanypartofthestructureonecanunderstandthesignicanceof localrelationships,butgloballythelackofclearlydenedlociisthesamelackthat pushesJank el evitchtoquestionwhy,insociety,therearesomanyritualssurrounding aphenomenonaboutwhichnoneofusareultimatelyaware.Bringingthisideatothe 109

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Figure9-13.Oneofmultipleinstantiationsofthesamebirdsong usingPython's class/instancedistinction. structure/formparadigm,thelackofaconvincingomphalusintherock!paper!scissor graphactsasatacitchallengetoitscreator:ratherthangraftingmeaningontoa networkofdisparatestimuli,herethecreatorisfacedwithpocketsofconcentrated meaningthatultimatelyleavesomeseminalquestionunanswered.Thoughtprocesses suchasthisdonotlendthemselvesto`works' perse,buttheyengageacreatorin thetypeofself-criticismthatultimatelypusheshertomakeworkfromastatethatis, toborrowatermfromJank el evitch, serious.Thatis,thecomposersearchesforan ineffableinnertranquilitythatcomestotermswithalackof concrete centralitythatis subsequentlylledwitha virtual response. 110

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Figure9-14.Oneofmultipleinstantiationsofthesamebirdsong usingPython's class/instancedistinction. 9.4OrgandiasaRevisitationoftheVirtualinthe'PataphysicHyperreal IfChapterTwopositsthevirtualasasubsetofthereal,thenOrgandiisavirtual toolthatallowsonetocelebratethegenesisof'pataphysicalspacesasanafrmationof thehyperreal. Jarry (1972)denes'pataphysicsasfollows: La pataphysiqueestlasciencedessolutionsimaginaires,quiaccorde symboliquementauxlin eamentslespropri et esdesobjectsd ecritsparleur virtualit e.(Jarry, 1972,669) Pataph ysicsisthescienceofimaginarysolutionsthatsymbolicallyaccordsthepropertiesofobjectsdescribedbytheirvirtualitytosaidobjects' lineaments. Thisquoteisofparamountimportancetoone'sunderstandingofOrgandi'spurpose: thetoolinvitesusersintoaconsensualhallucinationwheretheymayreadilyconfuse realobjects(bothconcreteandvirtual)withlineamentsoftheseobjects.Itisonly 111

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Ayatollah's in Iran Liston beats Patterson Zhou Enlai Nasser and Prokofiev Davy Crockett Mickey Mantle Mafia Dylan Terror on the airline Marilyn Monroe Stranger in a Strange Land Syngman Rhee Doris Day television England's got a new queen Dacron Khrushchev Palestine Reagan Marciano Panmunjom Johnnie Ray Juan Peron Rockefeller Peter Pan Kerouac Hula Hoops Berlin Edsel is a no-go Rock and Roller cola wars Malcolm X Dien Bien Phu Falls Castro Psycho punk rock Eichmann Brando Eisenhower Campanella Alabama Watergate AIDS Trouble in the Suez South Korea Liberace Rock Around the Clock Peyton Place Bernie Goetz Elvis Presley Walter Winchell Belgians in the Congo Budapest Bay of Pigs invasion South Pacific Joe DiMaggio Hypodermics on the shores The King and I Crack Begin Lawrence of Arabia Princess Grace Richard Nixon back again Sputnik heavy metal suicide Santayana goodbye Einstein Buddy Holly Red China homeless Vets Woodstock Pope Paul Sugar Ray Joe McCarthy China's under martial law The Catcher in the Rye Roy Cohn Children of Thalidomide Bardot Bridge On The River Kwai British Beatlemania Birth control California Baseball Moonshot Starkweather homicide Foreign debts Rosenbergs Josef Stalin James Dean Little Rock Ben Hur J.F.K. blown away Ho Chi Minh Hemingway Richard Nixon British Politician sex Chubby Checker Ole Miss Disneyland H-Bomb Wheel of Fortune Sally Ride Malenkov Brooklyn's got a winning team Pasternak Space Monkey Lebanon Russians in Afghanistan U2 Harry Truman Studebaker vaccine Toscanini North Korea Charles de Gaulle payola and Kennedy John Glenn Communist Bloc Figure9-15.AlltheeventsreferredtoinBillyJoel'sWedidn't starttherewithouttheir historicalordering. 112

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Ayatollah's in Iran Bay of Pigs invasion Liston beats Patterson Moonshot Zhou Enlai England's got a new queen Nasser and Prokofiev Marciano Davy Crockett Khrushchev Mickey Mantle U2 Mafia Hypodermics on the shores Dylan vaccine Terror on the airline Space Monkey Marilyn Monroe Harry Truman Stranger in a Strange Land Johnnie Ray Syngman Rhee Little Rock Doris Day television Santayana goodbye Bridge On The River Kwai Dacron Josef Stalin Pasternak Palestine Charles de Gaulle Reagan Malenkov Begin Panmunjom Richard Nixon back again Ben Hur Juan Peron Rockefeller Hula Hoops Peter Pan Lawrence of Arabia Kerouac Berlin Bardot Edsel is a no-go Budapest Rock and Roller cola wars Richard Nixon Malcolm X Woodstock Dien Bien Phu Falls Belgians in the Congo Castro Psycho Rock Around the Clock punk rock Joe McCarthy Eichmann Alabama Brando Sally Ride Eisenhower Campanella South Pacific South Korea Watergate Starkweather homicide AIDS Red China Trouble in the Suez Toscanini Lebanon Liberace Peyton Place The King and I Bernie Goetz H-Bomb Elvis Presley Walter Winchell heavy metal suicide James Dean Russians in Afghanistan Joe DiMaggio Foreign debts Buddy Holly Crack Children of Thalidomide Princess Grace Sputnik Einstein Communist Bloc homeless Vets Pope Paul Sugar Ray California Baseball China's under martial law Rosenbergs The Catcher in the Rye Roy Cohn John Glenn British Beatlemania Birth control Chubby Checker Brooklyn's got a winning team Wheel of Fortune J.F.K. blown away Ho Chi Minh Studebaker Hemingway British Politician sex Ole Miss North Korea Disneyland payola and Kennedy Figure9-16.AlltheeventsreferredtoinBillyJoel'sWedidn't starttherewitha revisionisthistoricalordering. 113

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Figure9-17.Agraphwithclearpulltowardsthecenter,butnoidentied central organizingconcept. bydoingthisthatthespacebecomesimmersiveenoughtomeaningfullyattainthe ontologicalmagicthatPiaget'schildfeelswhendiscoveringmeaningbetweenthings. Furthermore,itisonlybydoingthisthatthecentrality,omnipresence,andlatencyofan idea'subiquitycanpenetratetheconsciousnessofanOrgandiuserinthesameway thatdeathisthefundamentofallaffectivethoughtintheworkofJank el evitch.Thistype ofdialecticalengagementleadstoahyperrealstateasdenedby Baudrillard (1981): La simulationn'estpluscelled'unterritoire,d'un etrer ef erentiel,d'une substance.Elleestlag en erationparlesmod elesd'unr eelsansorigineni r ealit e:hyperr eel.Leterritoirenepr ec edepluslacarte,nineluisurvit.C'est d esormaislacartequipr ec edeleterritoire.(Baudrillard, 1981,10) Sim ulationisnolongerthatofaterritory,ofareferentialbeing,ofasubstance.Itisthegenerationbymodelsofarealwithoutoriginorreality: hyperreal.Theterritorydoesnotcomebeforethemapanymore,nordoesit surviveit.Fromnowon,itisthemapthatcomesbeforetheterritory. 114

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TheprocessofsimulationthatOrgandifacilitatesispataphor icallywithoutorigin 5 becausewemustforgetwhereideascomefromtoremember(literallyre-member, meaninggivethemmembershipagain,albeitinavirtualmind)whytheyhavemeaning. 6 ThisprocessisalsowithoutrealitybecauseneitherO-E+norO+E-arereal;theformer isunrealbecauseitistautologicalinitsinclusivenessandthusresistscomparison, whereasthelatterevadesrealityasasingularitywithoutasupportinglatticeof knowledgethroughwhichitsrealvicissitudescanbeconstructedinanythingother thancircumambulatoryways.CreativebootstrappinginOrgandiisthusa primaface afterwhichtheterritoryofacreativeworkfollows.Thisisamuchmoreoptimisticview ofhyperrealitythantheemptinessonefeelswhenreadingBaudrillard.Itechoes acornerstoneofDeleuzianthought:tothinkistocreate( Deleuze, 1994,147). Through thecomputer'sassistance,thedigitalvirtualallowscreatorstofashiontheir ownimaginaryhyperrealityfromwhichcreativeworkspringsforth. 9.5Conclusion Toclaimthatthissoftwareisinanysenseaholisticanswertotheepistemological andontologicalquandariesraisedoverthecourseofthisdissertationwouldbe reductionistandunfairtothephilosophicalbreadthofthoseconcepts.Assuch,thislast sectionofthedissertationisinnowaymeanttoclosethedebateontheseideas,but rathertoofferonewayinwhichtheymaybeconsidered.Mostly,thisdissertationstands inoppositiontotheideathatcomputer-assistedcompositionshouldexistinasingle pieceofsoftwarethathelpsmovethecomposerfromconceptualizationtocreation. 5 Pataphor beingatermusedbyPaulAvionthroughouthiswebsite,denedinthe essayCloset'Pataphysicsasfollows:Themomentofpataphoroccurswhenthe metaphorhasbecomesoembellisheditnolongerrelatestothatwhichitwasmeant toembellish(Avion, 2006). 6 As Davenport (1997)states:Theimaginationislikethedrunkmanwholosthis watch andmustgetdrunkagaintondit( Davenport, 1997,5). 1 15

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Anysuchprogramisultimatelyassistingsaidcomposertocompose alongtheterms ofengagementthatarebuiltintothatassistingdevice,evenifsaidtermsarerelatively benignandopen-ended.Rather,thisdissertationseekstodeneinbroadtermshow creativitymaybeassisted(digitallyornot),subsequentlyofferingonevirtualspace inwhichcertainapproachesofassistedcompositioncanbeusefullyconceptualized. Harkeningbackto L evy ( 2001),digital-virtualphenomenaresisttotalizationbyvirtueof their expansiveness,andgiventheexpansivenatureoftheissueathand,theuniverse oftoolsthatcantreatitisinherentlyill-denedandeverexpanding.Itisthehopesofthe authorthatOrgandibeseenasnot the but a toolthataidscomposersinthecontinual pursuitofthisquest.Bydoingso,thecreator,beyondreceivingassistanceinthemaking ofacreation,iswalkingthroughaprocessthatcontributestothecontinualcreationof hercreativeself. 116

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APPENDIXA ORGANDI DOCUMENTATIONANDSOURCECODE Organdi'sdocumentationandsourcecodeisavailableonlineat: http://www.organdiae.com 117

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APPENDIXB INTERA CTIVEORGANDISESSIONSLEADINGTOTHECREATIONOF NORMAN (AGE7)DREAMSOFBEINGAVIOLIN AsexplainedinChapterNine,Organdiisaclearinghouseforthecreationof structuresandformsfromvaryingvantagepointsofontologicalandepistemological certitude.Indoingso,issuesthatseemtangentially(ifnotentirelyun)relatedtothe compositionofmusicare,infact,pointerstozonesofaffectivemeaningthathelped mecreativelybootstrapmymindsothatitcouldultimatelycompose norman(age7) dreamsofbeingaviolin.OtherexamplesofnetworksinOrgandicanbefoundon http://www.organdiae.com B.1 July6 th ,2010 1 >>> from organdiae import 2 >>> bs('dissertation') 3 >>> dif=ng('difficultfrenchwords') 4 >>> mydif=dif() 5 >>> translation=ng('translation') 6 >>> ng('barbouiller',name=True) 7 < class organdiae.core.core.barbouiller' > 8 >>> barbouiller 9 < class organdiae.core.core.barbouiller' > 10 >>> ng('todaub,likeshavingcream',name=True) 11 < class organdiae.core.core.todaub,likeshavingcream' > 12 >>> ng('badigeonner',name=True) 13 < class organdiae.core.core.badigeonner' > 14 >>> daub=ng('todaub,likeshavingcream') 15 >>> daub 16 < class organdiae.core.core.OMqvDEjSMzVh9cIX4BSp4QzYaDNM1PXQpnJsUkyx' > 17 >>> ng('maculer',name=True) 18 < class organdiae.core.core.maculer' > 19 >>> whitewash=ng('towhitewash') 20 >>> ng('togetstainson',name=True) 21 < class organdiae.core.core.togetstainson' > 22 >>> stains=ng('togetstainson') 23 >>> to 24Traceback(mostrecentcalllast): 25File < st din > ,line1, in < module > 26NameError:name'to' is not defined 27 >>> m ydif.ae(stains,maculer,sb(translation)) 28 >>> m ydif.ae(whitewash,badigeonner,sb(translation)) 29 >>> m ydif.ae(daub,barbouiller,sb(translation)) 30 >>> transpairs=[ 31...('trapu','heady,strong'), 32...('refluer','flowintheotherdirection') 33...('chiner','becheap,beannoying') 118

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34...('terne','kindameh') 35...('maroquinier','leathermaker') 36...('juron','swearword')] 37Traceback(mostrecentcalllast): 38File < st din > ,line4, in < module > 39TypeError:'tuple'object is not callable 40 >>> transpairs=[ 41...('trapu','heady,strong'), 42...('refluer','flowintheotherdirection'), 43...('chiner','becheap,beannoying'), 44...('terne','kindameh'), 45...('maroquinier','leathermaker'), 46...('juron','swearword'), 47...('coasser','croaklikeafrog'), 48...('decocher','shootoff(anarrow,remark)'), 49...('avoirlatrouille','bereallyscared'), 50...('seformaliserde','besurprisedabout'), 51...('fripouille','scoundrel')] 52 >>> frng=[ng(x[0]) for x in transpairs] 53 >>> enng=[ng(x[1]) for x in transpairs] 54 >>> len(frng)==len(enng) 55True 56 >>> for x in range(len(frng)): 57...mydif.ae(enng[x],frng[x],sb(translation)) 58... 59 >>> m ydif.p() 60VERTICES 610.maculer 621.kindameh 632.juron 643.bereallyscared 654.coasser 665.heady,strong 676.togetstainson 687.maroquinier 698.swearword 709.avoirlatrouille 7110.croaklikeafrog 7211.scoundrel 7312.becheap,beannoying 7413.badigeonner 7514.todaub,likeshavingcream 7615.shootoff(anarrow,remark) 7716.fripouille 7817.terne 7918.trapu 8019.leathermaker 8120.decocher 8221.towhitewash 8322.refluer 8423.besurprisedabout 8524.flow in t heotherdirection 8625.chiner 8726.barbouiller 1 19

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8827.seformaliserde 89EDGES 900.towhitewash > b adigeonner 911.becheap,beannoying > c hiner 922.bereallyscared > a voirlatrouille 933.besurprisedabout > s eformaliserde 944.kindameh > t erne 955.scoundrel > f ripouille 966.leathermaker > m aroquinier 977.togetstainson > m aculer 988.swearword > j uron 999.croaklikeafrog > c oasser 10010.todaub,likeshavingcream > b arbouiller 10111.heady,strong > t rapu 10212.shootoff(anarrow,remark) > d ecocher 10313.flow in t heotherdirection > refluer 104 >>> p ick() 105WRITINGmydifTOdissertation.oie B.2August31 st 2010 1 >>> from dissertation import 2 >>> bikeride=ng('bikeride') 3 >>> mybikeride=bikeride('bikeridehome') 4 >>> ribbit=ng('ribbit') 5 >>> chirp=ng('chirp') 6 >>> croak=ng('croak') 7 >>> powerlines=ng('buzzofthepowerlines') 8 >>> mosquito=ng('mosquito') 9 >>> mybikeride.av(ribbit) 10 >>> m ybikeride.av(chirp) 11 >>> m ybikeride.av(croak) 12 >>> m ybikeride.av(powerlines) 13 >>> m ybikeride.av(mosquito) 14 >>> m ybikeride.p() 15VERTICES 160.ribbit 171.chirp 182.buzzofthepowerlines 193.croak 204.mosquito 21EDGES 22 >>> beauty=ng('themostbeautifulsoundever') 23 >>> descriptor=ng('descriptor') 24 >>> descriptors= 25['m harm37.au','haunting','harmonics', 26'calm','contemplative','eternal'] 27 >>> life=ng('life') 28 >>> m ylife=life('mylife') 29 >>> for x in descriptors:mylife.ae(ng(x),beauty,sb(descriptor)) 30... 31 >>> m ylife.av(mybikeride) 32 >>> m ylife.av(mydif) 120

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33 >>> m ylife.p() 34VERTICES 350.eternal 361.themostbeautifulsoundever 372.harmonics 383.contemplative 394.bikeridehome 405.m harm37.au 416.haunting 427.difficultfrenchwords(hash17128464) 438.calm 44EDGES 450.haunting > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 461.eternal > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 472.calm > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 483.harmonics > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 494.m harm37.au > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 505.contemplative > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 51 >>> m ylife.g(0,7).ilsagitde 52'difficultfrenchwords(hash17128464)' 53 >>> m ylife.g(0,7).ilsagitde='difficultfrenchwords' 54 >>> m ylife.p() 55VERTICES 560.eternal 571.themostbeautifulsoundever 582.harmonics 593.contemplative 604.bikeridehome 615.m harm37.au 626.haunting 637.difficultfrenchwords 648.calm 65EDGES 660.haunting > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 671.eternal > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 682.calm > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 693.harmonics > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 704.m harm37.au > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 715.contemplative > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 72 >>> pick() 73WRITINGmybikerideTOdissertation.oie 74WRITINGmydifTOdissertation.oie 75WRITINGmylifeTOdissertation.oie B.3September10 th 2010 1 >>> from dissertation import 2 >>> mybikeride.p() 3VERTICES 40.ribbit 51.chirp 62.croak 73.mosquito 121

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84.buzzofthepowerlines 9EDGES 10 >>> help(ng) 11 12 >>> bosscroak=ng('bosscroak',dg=mybikeride.g(0,2)) 13 >>> m ybikeride.p() 14VERTICES 150.ribbit 161.chirp 172.croak 183.mosquito 194.buzzofthepowerlines 20EDGES 21 >>> wimpycroak=ng('wimpycroak',dg=mybikeride.g(0,2)) 22 >>> m ybikeride.av(wimpycroak) 23 >>> m ybikeride.av(bosscroak) 24 >>> sequences=ng('sequences') 25 >>> croaksequences=ng('croaksequences',dg=sequences) 26 >>> mycroaksequences=croaksequences('possiblecroaksequences') 27 >>> follows=ng('follows') 28 >>> followsshort=ng('followswithashortgap',dg=follows) 29 >>> followslong=ng('followswithalonggap',dg=follows) 30 >>> mycroaksequences.ae(bosscroak(),bosscroak(),sb(followslong)) 31 >>> newseq=[bosscroak(),bosscroak(),wimpycroak()] 32 >>> mycroaksequences.ae(newseq[0],newseq[1],sb(followslong)) 33 >>> mycroaksequences.ae(newseq[1],newseq[2],sb(followsshort)) 34 >>> followsmedium=ng('followswithamediumsizedgap',dg=follows) 35 >>> m ybikeride.p() 36VERTICES 370.ribbit 381.chirp 392.bosscroak 403.mosquito 414.croak 425.wimpycroak 436.buzzofthepowerlines 44EDGES 45 >>> ribbit Traceback(mostrecentcalllast): 46File < st din > ,line1, in < module > 47NameError:name'ribbit' is not defined 48 >>> ribbit=mybikeride.g(0,0) 49 >>> newseq=[bosscroak(),bosscroak(),wimpycroak(), 50ribbit(),ribbit(),ribbit(),ribbit(),ribbit(),ribbit (),ribbit()] 51 >>> newgaps=[followlslong,followsshort,followsshort, 52followsmedium,followsmedium,followsmedium, 53followsmedium,followsmedium,followsmedium] 54Traceback(mostrecentcalllast): 55File < st din > ,line1, in < module > 56NameError:name'followlslong' is not defined 57 >>> newgaps=[followslong,followsshort,followsshort, 58followsmedium,followsmedium,followsmedium, 59followsmedium,followsmedium,followsmedium] 60 >>> len(newgaps) 619 1 22

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62 >>> len(newseq) 6310 64 >>> for x in range(len(newgaps)): 65mycroaksequences.ae(newseq[x],newseq[x+1],sb(newgap s[x])) 66... 67 >>> mycroaksequences.p() 68VERTICES 690.ribbit(hash19315536) 701.bosscroak(hash17245008) 712.ribbit(hash19315600) 723.bosscroak(hash17246256) 734.bosscroak(hash17246320) 745.wimpycroak(hash17247536) 756.bosscroak(hash17244816) 767.ribbit(hash19315568) 778.bosscroak(hash19315280) 789.bosscroak(hash19315344) 7910.wimpycroak(hash19315376) 8011.ribbit(hash19315408) 8112.ribbit(hash19315440) 8213.ribbit(hash19315472) 8314.ribbit(hash19315504) 84EDGES 850.ribbit(hash19315472) > r ibbit(hash19315504) 861.bosscroak(hash17246256) > b osscroak(hash17246320) 872.bosscroak(hash19315280) > b osscroak(hash19315344) 883.ribbit(hash19315504) > r ibbit(hash19315536) 894.ribbit(hash19315536) > r ibbit(hash19315568) 905.bosscroak(hash19315344) > w impycroak(hash19315376) 916.bosscroak(hash17244816) > b osscroak(hash17245008) 927.wimpycroak(hash19315376) > r ibbit(hash19315408) 938.ribbit(hash19315408) > r ibbit(hash19315440) 949.ribbit(hash19315440) > r ibbit(hash19315472) 9510.bosscroak(hash17246320) > w impycroak(hash17247536) 9611.ribbit(hash19315568) > r ibbit(hash19315600) 97 >>> m ylife 98 < organdiae.core.core.KgLlL8UUbSt5jfHIBgObPXyOmIuMI6rTLbNJ3bErobjectat 990x106e9f0 > 100 >>> m ylife.av(mycroaksequences) 101 >>> m ylife.p() 102VERTICES 1030.eternal 1041.themostbeautifulsoundever 1052.contemplative 1063.harmonics 1074.m harm37.au 1085.bikeridehome 1096.difficultfrenchwords 1107.possiblecroaksequences 1118.calm 1129.haunting 113EDGES 1140.eternal > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 1151.m harm37.au > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 123

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1162.contemplative > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 1173.haunting > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 1184.calm > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 1195.harmonics > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 120 >>> p ick() 121WRITINGmycroaksequencesTOdissertation.oie 122WRITINGmybikerideTOdissertation.oie 123WRITINGmydifTOdissertation.oie 124WRITINGmylifeTOdissertation.oie 125 >>> g v(mylife) B.4September10 th 2010 1 >>> from dissertation import 2 >>> mylife.p() 3VERTICES 40.eternal 51.themostbeautifulsoundever 62.contemplative 73.harmonics 84.m harm37.au 95.bikeridehome 106.calm 117.haunting 128.difficultfrenchwords 139.possiblecroaksequences 14EDGES 150.m harm37.au > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 161.harmonics > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 172.haunting > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 183.eternal > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 194.contemplative > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 205.calm > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 21 >>> dsys=ng('dynamicalsystems') 22 >>> kees=dsys('dynamicalsystemswithkeesling') 23 >>> model=ng('usetomodel') 24 >>> chirping=ng('chirpingchoir') 25 >>> m ychirping=chirping('mychirpingchoir') 26 >>> m ylife.ae(kees,mychirping,sb(model)) 27 >>> m ylife.p() 28VERTICES 290.eternal 301.themostbeautifulsoundever 312.mychirpingchoir 323.contemplative 334.harmonics 345.m harm37.au 356.dynamicalsystemswithkeesling 367.bikeridehome 378.calm 389.haunting 3910.difficultfrenchwords 4011.possiblecroaksequences 124

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41EDGES 420.m harm37.au > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 431.harmonics > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 442.dynamicalsystemswithkeesling > m ychirpingchoir 453.haunting > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 464.eternal > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 475.contemplative > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 486.calm > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 49 >>> pick() 50WRITINGmycroaksequencesTOdissertation.oie 51WRITINGmybikerideTOdissertation.oie 52WRITINGmydifTOdissertation.oie 53WRITINGmychirpingTOdissertation.oie 54WRITINGmylifeTOdissertation.oie 55WRITINGkeesTOdissertation.oie B.5September10 th 2010 1 >>> from dissertation import 2 >>> ng('gig',name=True) 3 < class organdiae.core.core.gig' > 4 >>> ICP=gig('InternationalComposersPyramidgig') 5 >>> mylife.av(ICP) 6 >>> mylife.p() 7VERTICES 80.eternal 91.themostbeautifulsoundever 102.dynamicalsystemswithkeesling 113.calm 124.haunting 135.InternationalComposersPyramidgig 146.mychirpingchoir 157.difficultfrenchwords 168.contemplative 179.harmonics 1810.possiblecroaksequences 1911.m harm37.au 2012.bikeridehome 21EDGES 220.contemplative > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 231.harmonics > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 242.calm > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 253.m harm37.au > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 264.dynamicalsystemswithkeesling > m ychirpingchoir 275.eternal > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 286.haunting > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 29 >>> pick() 30WRITINGmycroaksequencesTOdissertation.oie 31WRITINGICPTOdissertation.oie 32WRITINGmybikerideTOdissertation.oie 33WRITINGmydifTOdissertation.oie 34WRITINGmychirpingTOdissertation.oie 35WRITINGmylifeTOdissertation.oie 125

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36WRITINGkeesTOdissertation.oie B.6October2 nd 2010 1 >>> from dissertation import 2 >>> ng('documentation',name=True) 3 < class organdiae.core.core.documentation' > 4 >>> vgs=ng('Lilypondvectorgraphicpackage') 5 >>> vgsonline=ng('http://www.apollinemike.com/lilypond/vgs/') 6 >>> mylife.ae(vgsonline,vgs,sb(documentation)) 7 >>> pick() 8WRITINGmycroaksequencesTOdissertation.oie 9WRITINGICPTOdissertation.oie 10WRITINGmybikerideTOdissertation.oie 11WRITINGmydifTOdissertation.oie 12WRITINGmychirpingTOdissertation.oie 13WRITINGmylifeTOdissertation.oie 14WRITINGkeesTOdissertation.oie 15 >>> proof=ng('proofsofconcept') 16 >>> sketches=ng('sketches') 17 >>> vgssketches=sketches('sketchesformyvectorgraphicspanner') 18 >>> vgssketches.av(ng('gliss.ly')) 19 >>> vgssketches.av(ng('pick3.3.ly')) 20 >>> vgssketches.av(ng('down.ly')) 21 >>> announcement=ng('announcement') 22 >>> lyannounce=announcement('announcementofvgstothelilypondlist') 23 >>> m ylife.ae(vgssketches,vgs,sb(proof)) 24 >>> m ylife.ae(ng('lymail.eml'),vgs,sb(lyannounce)) 25 >>> pick() 26WRITINGICPTOdissertation.oie 27WRITINGlyannounceTOdissertation.oie 28WRITINGmybikerideTOdissertation.oie 29WRITINGvgssketchesTOdissertation.oie 30WRITINGmydifTOdissertation.oie 31WRITINGmychirpingTOdissertation.oie 32WRITINGmylifeTOdissertation.oie 33WRITINGmycroaksequencesTOdissertation.oie 34WRITINGkeesTOdissertation.oie 35 >>> m ylife.p() 36VERTICES 370.eternal 381.themostbeautifulsoundever 392.http://www.apollinemike.com/lilypond/vgs/ 403.lymail.eml 414.contemplative 425.dynamicalsystemswithkeesling 436.m harm37.au 447.harmonics 458.InternationalComposersPyramidgig 469.sketches fo r myvectorgraphicspanner 4710.Lilypondvectorgraphicpackage 4811.difficultfrenchwords 4912.calm 126

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5013.haunting 5114.possiblecroaksequences 5215.bikeridehome 5316.mychirpingchoir 54EDGES 550.harmonics > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 561.lymail.eml > L ilypondvectorgraphicpackage 572.sketches fo r myvectorgraphicspanner > 58Lilypondvectorgraphicpackage 593.calm > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 604.http://www.apollinemike.com/lilypond/vgs/ > 61Lilypondvectorgraphicpackage 625.dynamicalsystemswithkeesling > m ychirpingchoir 636.contemplative > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 647.eternal > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 658.m harm37.au > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 669.haunting > t hemostbeautifulsoundever B.7October20 th 2010 1 >>> from dissertation import 2 >>> norman=ng('norman(age7)dreamsofbeingaviolin') 3 >>> mylife.av(norman) 4 >>> mylife.p() 5VERTICES 60.eternal 71.themostbeautifulsoundever 82.norman(age7)dreamsofbeingaviolin 93.contemplative 104.Lilypondvectorgraphicpackage 115.harmonics 126.m harm37.au 137.sketches fo r myvectorgraphicspanner 148.dynamicalsystemswithkeesling 159.possiblecroaksequences 1610.InternationalComposersPyramidgig 1711.http://www.apollinemike.com/lilypond/vgs/ 1812.calm 1913.haunting 2014.mychirpingchoir 2115.bikeridehome 2216.difficultfrenchwords 2317.lymail.eml 24EDGES 250.lymail.eml > L ilypondvectorgraphicpackage 261.m harm37.au > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 272.haunting > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 283.contemplative > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 294.harmonics > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 305.eternal > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 316.calm > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 327.dynamicalsystemswithkeesling > m ychirpingchoir 338.http://www.apollinemike.com/lilypond/vgs/ > 127

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34Lilypondvectorgraphicpackage 359.sketches fo r myvectorgraphicspanner > 36Lilypondvectorgraphicpackage 37 >>> ng('material' 38...,name=True) 39 < class organdiae.core.core.material' > 40 >>> m ylife.ae(mylife.g(0,14),norman,sb(material)) 41 >>> m ylife.p() 42VERTICES 430.eternal 441.themostbeautifulsoundever 452.norman(age7)dreamsofbeingaviolin 463.contemplative 474.Lilypondvectorgraphicpackage 485.harmonics 496.m harm37.au 507.sketches fo r myvectorgraphicspanner 518.dynamicalsystemswithkeesling 529.possiblecroaksequences 5310.InternationalComposersPyramidgig 5411.http://www.apollinemike.com/lilypond/vgs/ 5512.calm 5613.haunting 5714.mychirpingchoir 5815.bikeridehome 5916.difficultfrenchwords 6017.lymail.eml 61EDGES 620.lymail.eml > L ilypondvectorgraphicpackage 631.m harm37.au > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 642.haunting > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 653.contemplative > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 664.harmonics > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 675.eternal > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 686.calm > t hemostbeautifulsoundever 697.mychirpingchoir > n orman(age7)dreamsofbeingaviolin 708.dynamicalsystemswithkeesling > m ychirpingchoir 719.http://www.apollinemike.com/lilypond/vgs/ > 72Lilypondvectorgraphicpackage 7310.sketches fo r myvectorgraphicspanner > 74Lilypondvectorgraphicpackage 75 >>> m ylife.ae(mylife.g(0,9),norman,sb(material)) 76 >>> pick() 77WRITINGmycroaksequencesTOdissertation.oie 78WRITINGICPTOdissertation.oie 79WRITINGmybikerideTOdissertation.oie 80WRITINGvgssketchesTOdissertation.oie 81WRITINGmydifTOdissertation.oie 82WRITINGlyannounceTOdissertation.oie 83WRITINGmychirpingTOdissertation.oie 84WRITINGmylifeTOdissertation.oie 85WRITINGkeesTOdissertation.oie 86 >>> gv(mylife) 128

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FigureB-1.Imageofthegraphmylife. B.8 GraphicalResults 129

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FigureB-2.Imageofthegraphmydif. FigureB-3.Imageofthegraphmybikeride. 1 30

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FigureB-4.Imageofthegraphmycroaksequences. 131

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APPENDIXC NORMAN (AGE7)DREAMSOFBEINGAVIOLIN Whatfollowsisthescoreof norman(age7)dreamsofbeingaviolin inits entirety. 132

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BIOGRAPHICALSKETCH Mik eSolomonhasearneddegreesinmusiccompositionfromTheUniversity ofFlorida(Ph.D.),Queen'sUniversityBelfast(Masters),andStanfordUniversity (Bachelors).Hismusicexploresthemannersinwhichtechnologycandialogically engageacomposer'screativitybymeansofanalyticandstochasticalgorithms. Mike'sworkshavebeenperformedateventssuchastheSoundsNewFestival's InternationalComposerPyramid(ICP),theInternationalComputerMusicConference (ICMC),andtheSocietyofComposers,Inc.(SCI)AnnualConferenceaswellas numerouseventsattheUniversityofFlorida.Hehasreceivedcommissionsfrom StanfordUniversityandtheTownshipofEastBrunswick,andhewasanalistinthe AmericanSocietyofComposers,AuthorsandPublishers(ASCAP)FoundationMorton GouldYoungComposerAwardsandtheMusicAtTheAnthology(MATA)Festival. HehaspresentedpapersattheSocietyofMusicAnalysis'sTheoryandAnalysis GraduateStudents'(TAGS)Day,MusicTheorySoutheast(MTSE),andICMC.He recentlycompletedayear-longresearchresidencyattheUniversit ePierreetMarie Curie(UPMC),whereheexaminedsymbolicrepresentationsofinternalizedacoustic representations. 194