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Developing a Site-Appropriate Solar-Electric Powered Water Pumping System

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0042396/00001

Material Information

Title: Developing a Site-Appropriate Solar-Electric Powered Water Pumping System
Physical Description: 1 online resource (87 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Frederick, Kathryn
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: africa, bay, cost, critical, cultural, cycle, economic, electric, emissions, energy, environmental, factor, fuel, hydraulic, insolation, kakamega, kendu, kenya, kisii, kisumu, level, life, maintenance, nyangajo, operation, practicality, present, pumping, pv, radiation, replacement, salvage, socio, solar, success, technical, value, village, water, watts
Building Construction -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Building Construction thesis, M.S.B.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Solar-electric power has been used as a water distribution method in many parts of the world. This alternate is competitive to diesel and petroleum-powered options where there is ample solar resource, moderate demand and no access to the electric grid. This study investigated the use of solar-electric powered water pumping in remote areas. A literature review was conducted, and from this a criteria of the following six critical success factors was formed: 1) technical practicality, 2) economic feasibility, 3) environmental impact, 4) socio-cultural appropriateness, 5) adaptability and 6) resiliency. Previous solar-electric powered water pumping projects were reviewed and analyzed based on these critical success factors. A solar-electric powered water pumping project was planned for a selected site in rural Western Kenya. Data on site solar insolation was gathered by conducting a PV-Watts analysis, calculations for implementation were conducted and price quotes were collected. A life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis was conducted to compare the solar-electric powered water pumping option to that of a petroleum-electric powered water pumping system. The amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from using the petroleum-electric powered water pumping system was calculated. From this information, the six critical success factors were applied for the recommendation of a solution for the particular site. This study determined that implementing solar-electric powered water pumping systems that apply the six critical success factors would be more successful. For the selected site in Kenya, it was found that its location near the equator would provide uniform solar intensity throughout the year. The life-cycle cost analysis found that for the given site, a solar-electric powered water pumping system would break even in price within only one year when compared to the existing petroleum-electric powered water pumping system over a 20-year period. This study also found that using the existing petroleum-electric powered water pumping system to pump the daily water demand would result in the release of over 23 metric tons of CO2 per year.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Kathryn Frederick.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.B.C.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Obonyo, Esther.
Local: Co-adviser: Ries, Robert J.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0042396:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0042396/00001

Material Information

Title: Developing a Site-Appropriate Solar-Electric Powered Water Pumping System
Physical Description: 1 online resource (87 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Frederick, Kathryn
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: africa, bay, cost, critical, cultural, cycle, economic, electric, emissions, energy, environmental, factor, fuel, hydraulic, insolation, kakamega, kendu, kenya, kisii, kisumu, level, life, maintenance, nyangajo, operation, practicality, present, pumping, pv, radiation, replacement, salvage, socio, solar, success, technical, value, village, water, watts
Building Construction -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Building Construction thesis, M.S.B.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Solar-electric power has been used as a water distribution method in many parts of the world. This alternate is competitive to diesel and petroleum-powered options where there is ample solar resource, moderate demand and no access to the electric grid. This study investigated the use of solar-electric powered water pumping in remote areas. A literature review was conducted, and from this a criteria of the following six critical success factors was formed: 1) technical practicality, 2) economic feasibility, 3) environmental impact, 4) socio-cultural appropriateness, 5) adaptability and 6) resiliency. Previous solar-electric powered water pumping projects were reviewed and analyzed based on these critical success factors. A solar-electric powered water pumping project was planned for a selected site in rural Western Kenya. Data on site solar insolation was gathered by conducting a PV-Watts analysis, calculations for implementation were conducted and price quotes were collected. A life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis was conducted to compare the solar-electric powered water pumping option to that of a petroleum-electric powered water pumping system. The amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from using the petroleum-electric powered water pumping system was calculated. From this information, the six critical success factors were applied for the recommendation of a solution for the particular site. This study determined that implementing solar-electric powered water pumping systems that apply the six critical success factors would be more successful. For the selected site in Kenya, it was found that its location near the equator would provide uniform solar intensity throughout the year. The life-cycle cost analysis found that for the given site, a solar-electric powered water pumping system would break even in price within only one year when compared to the existing petroleum-electric powered water pumping system over a 20-year period. This study also found that using the existing petroleum-electric powered water pumping system to pump the daily water demand would result in the release of over 23 metric tons of CO2 per year.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Kathryn Frederick.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.B.C.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Obonyo, Esther.
Local: Co-adviser: Ries, Robert J.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0042396:00001


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1 DEVELOPING A SITEAPPROPRIATE SOLARELECTRIC POWERED WATER PUMPING SYSTEM By KATHRYN M. FREDERICK A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2010

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2 2010 Kathryn M. Frederick

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3 To my family

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank my committee consisting of Dr. Esther Obonyo, Dr. Robert Reis and Dr. Charles Kibert for their guidance and support I thank Dr. Obonyo for being an excellent teacher and always challenging me to better myself Also, I thank Dr. Reis and Dr. Kibert for their inspiration. I gratefully acknowledge the National Science Foundation for giving me the opportunity to conduct research abroad in the IRES 2010 research program I am appreciative of my foreign professors Dr. Mwea, Dr. Munga, Dr. Odira and Professor Oonge at the University of Nairobi I thank Joseph, Eunice, Lucissa, Ogallo, Martin, Peter, Kenneth and Eli for their assistance in the UoN labs I thank Vincent Sika and the family of Dr. Obonyo for all of their help and support while travelling abroad. I thank Nyangajo Girls Secondary School for allowing me to use their school as a case study f or this research. I thank Norman Chege at Davis and Shirtliff, and Nawir Ibrahim and Leonard Mwangi at the Center for Alternative Technology in Nairobi for their time Additionally, I am grateful my family for always being supportive of my decisions, and my friends for being there for me.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................................................................. 4 LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................................ 8 LIST OF FIGURES .......................................................................................................... 9 ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................... 10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................... 12 Research A im and Objectives ................................................................................. 13 Contributions ........................................................................................................... 13 Hypothesis .............................................................................................................. 13 Limitations on Research ......................................................................................... 14 Guide to the Rest of the Thesis .............................................................................. 14 2 LITERATURE REVIEW .......................................................................................... 15 Contextual Background ........................................................................................... 16 Critical Success Factors ......................................................................................... 16 Technical .......................................................................................................... 17 Village Level Operation and Maintenance (VLOM) .......................................... 19 Economic Factors ............................................................................................. 20 Life Cycle Cost (LCC) ....................................................................................... 21 Environmental / Ecological ............................................................................... 22 Socio Cultural ................................................................................................... 23 Case Studies .......................................................................................................... 24 Guatemala Orphanage: Back Up Source at Existing Well ................................ 24 Mvuleni Village, Tanzania: LargeScale Village Supply .................................... 25 University of Wyoming Motor Testing and Training Center: Rural Irrigation ..... 27 Kyeleni Heath Centre and the Primary School: SmallScale Village Supply ..... 28 Kuwait: Computer Simulation Program ............................................................ 29 Jordan .............................................................................................................. 30 Literature Review Summary .................................................................................... 32 3 METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................... 34 Aim and Objectives ................................................................................................. 34 Timeline .................................................................................................................. 35 Site Selection .......................................................................................................... 36

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6 Assessment ............................................................................................................ 38 Site Solar Insulation ......................................................................................... 38 Calculations for Implementation ....................................................................... 40 Life Cycle Cost Analysis ................................................................................... 41 Emissions Calculations ..................................................................................... 42 4 RESULTS ............................................................................................................... 44 Results of PVWatts Analysis ................................................................................. 44 Resu lts of Calculations for Implementation ............................................................. 46 Results of Life Cycle Cost Analysis ........................................................................ 47 Results of Emissions Calculations .......................................................................... 50 5 DISCUSSION ......................................................................................................... 52 A Critique of Case Studies ...................................................................................... 52 A Critique of Research Activities ............................................................................. 55 PVWatts Analysis ............................................................................................ 55 Calculations f or Implementation ....................................................................... 55 Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Analysis ........................................................................ 56 Results of Emissions Calculations .................................................................... 57 6 CONCLUSION ........................................................................................................ 58 Critical Success Fac tor 1: Technical / Village Level Operation and Maintenance (VLOM) ................................................................................................................ 58 Critical Success Factor 2: Economic Feasibility ...................................................... 58 Critical Success Factor 3: Environmental Impact .................................................... 59 Critical Success Factor 4: SocioCultural Appropriateness ..................................... 59 Critical Success Factor 5: Adaptability .................................................................... 59 Critical Success Factor 6: Resiliency ...................................................................... 60 Conclusion Summary .............................................................................................. 60 7 RECOMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH .............................................. 63 APPENDIX A N OTES FROM NYANGAJO GIRLS SECONDARY SCHOOL ................................ 65 B PVW ATTS ANALYSIS ........................................................................................... 68 C MEETING MINUTESD AVIS & SHIRTLIFF ............................................................ 70 D MEETING MINUTES C ENTER FOR ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES ............ 72 E PRICE QUOTE AND SPECIFICATIONS DAVIS & SHIRTLIFF ........................... 74

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7 F PRICE QUOTE AND SPECIFICATIONS CENTER FOR ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES ................................................................................................... 81 LIST OF REFERENCES ............................................................................................... 84 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ............................................................................................ 87

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4 1 Data for fixed panels at various roof pitches in Kisumu ...................................... 44 4 2 Comparison of price quotes for solar electric powered water pumping systems. ............................................................................................................. 47 4 3 Twenty year life cycle costs for solar and petroleum electric powered water pumping .............................................................................................................. 49 5 1 Summary of system characteristics .................................................................... 52 6 1 Checklist for future solar ele ctric powered water pumping projects .................... 61

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9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 Solar electric powered village water supply ........................................................ 15 2 2 Series of pump sets. A) submerged multistage centrifugal motor, B) submerged pump with surface mounted motor, C) reciprocating positive displacement pump, D) floating motor pump set and E) surface water pump set ....................................................................................................................... 18 2 3 Series of images from installation at orphanage. A) storage tank and B) construction site .................................................................................................. 25 2 4 Series of photos from Mvuleni project. A) solar panels and pipes and B) solar panels ................................................................................................................. 26 2 5 Solar panel on trailer to be used at multiple boreholes ....................................... 28 2 6 Series of Kyeleni project images. A) solar water pumping system and B) merry goround ................................................................................................... 29 2 7 Map of 10 sites in Jordan ................................................................................... 31 2 8 Annual water output ............................................................................................ 32 3 1 Timeline of research activities ............................................................................ 35 3 2 Exemplary deployment context ........................................................................... 37 3 3 Nyangajo school site plan ................................................................................... 38 3 4 Towns in Kenya selected for PV Watts analysis ................................................. 40 4 1 Solar radiation at latitude by month .................................................................... 45 4 2 Solar radiation for Kisumu using fixed mounting, singleor doubleaxis tracking ............................................................................................................... 46 4 3 Cost comparison of components for price quotes from two companies .............. 48 4 4 Twenty year LCC comparison ............................................................................ 49 4 5 Cumulative system costs for pumping water using solar versus petroleum ........ 50 4 6 Metric tons of CO2 emissions over 20 years of pumping water daily with a petroleum generator ........................................................................................... 51

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10 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Building Construction DEVELOPING A SITEAPPROPRIATE SOLARELECTRIC POWERED WATER PUMPING SYSTEM By Kathryn M. Frederick December 2010 Chair: Esther Obonyo Co chair: Robert Ries Major: Building Construction Solar electric power has been used as a water distribution method in many parts of the world. This alternate is competitive to diesel and petroleum powered options wh ere there is ample solar resource, moderate demand and no access to the electric grid This study investigated the use of solar electric powered water pumping in remote areas. A literature review was conducted, and from this a criteria of the following six critical success factors was formed: 1) technical practicality, 2) economic feasibility, 3) environmental impact, 4) sociocultural appropriateness, 5) adaptability and 6) resiliency. Previous solar electric powered water pumping projects were reviewed and analyzed based on these critical success factors. A solar electric powered water pumping project was planned for a selected site in rural Western Kenya. Data on site solar insolation was gathered by conducting a PV Watts analysis, calculations for impl ementation were conducted and price quotes were collected. A life cycle cost (LCC) analysis was conducted to compare the solar electric powered water pumping option to that of a petroleum electric powered water pumping

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11 system. The amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from using the petroleum electric powered water pumping system was calculated. From this information, the six critical success factors were applied for the recommendation of a solution for the particular site. This study determined that i mplementing solar electric powered water pumping systems that apply the six critical success factors would be more successful. For the selected site in Kenya, it was found that its location near the equator would provide uniform solar intensity throughout the year. The lifecycle cost analysis found that for the given site, a solar electric powered water pumping system would break even in price within only one year when compared to the existing petroleum electric powered water pumping system over a 20year period. This study also found that using the existing petroleum electric powered water pumping system to pump the daily water demand would result in the release of over 23 metric tons of CO2 per year.

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12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION In many arid countries rainfall is decreasing, making surface water scarce (Argaw 2006). This has increased the demand for groundwater, but the water table is also decreasing. Due to this, manual pumping has become more difficult. Diesel, petroleum, kerosene and windmills have traditionally been used to pump water from deeper levels, but solar photovoltaic and wind turbine pumps are becoming more common. In the rural areas of East Africas Arid and Semi Arid Lands (A SALs), women and children may spend up to eight hours a day collecting water (UN 1997) T his reduces their time spent in school or earning an income (Ray 2007). Additionally, this results in adverse health effects due lack of access and transporting water daily (Ray 2007), and puts girls and wome n at risk for harassment (Short and Thompson 2003). In response to this, several nongovernment al organizations (NGOs) and religious groups have installed boreholes While these efforts have greatly increased the quality of life for some rural villagers, m any people still must travel great distances to obtain water and carry it home. Previous research conducted found that solar power in r ural areas of the ASALs would be a viable option for water supply The following rea sons support this : Kenya lies within moderately favorable solar resource due to location within 15 degrees of the equator resulting in a uniform solar intensity throughout the year. ( Acra et al. 1990) S ince 1976, costs have dropped about 20 percent for each doubling of i nstalled photovoltaic ( PV) capacity, or about five percent per ye ar (Fischlowitz Roberts 2002). P V sources of electricity are most competitive where small amounts of energy are required in areas far from the grid (Markvart 2000)

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13 Research Aim and Objectives The aim of this thesis is to investigate the feasibility of implementing PV based water pumping system for domestic water use within the context of developing country Specific objectives are as follows : 1. To critique existing solar electric powered water pumping systems 2. To develop critical success factors for a solar based water pumping system 3. To assess the feasibility of a proposed system using the specifications for a selected use case Contributions This research contributes to ongoing studies related to the development of sustainable water infrastructure systems in the third world The findings of this thesis are intended to benefit a specific site in Kenya. Additionally, it provides an example of solar electric powered water pumping used for i rrigation benefiting rural areas of the United States Lastly, the state of Florida is located in a favorable location for solar resource, and the methodology used to determine suitability of a solar electric powered water pumping system could be used to benefit the planning of various solar based projects within the state. Overall, the guidelines developed for critical success factors are applicable to the planning of a solar energy project anywhere in the world. Hypothesis T he following hypothesi s was adopted for the study: Solar based water pumping projects will be economically competitive when compared to other options. Given the appropriate climate, this technology will be applicable anywhere.

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14 Limitations on Research There are many important aspec ts to further investigate in water infrastructure for developing countries including the design of structural materials for water storage, purification and distribution. However, this thesis will focus on water distribution, specifically in the form of sol ar power. Guide to the Rest of the Thesis Chapter 2 presents a literature review on the technical, economic, environmental and socioeconomic success factors of solar electric powered water pumping systems. Additionally, it provides a review of some case studies. Chapter 3 is the Methodology, consisting of aims and objectives, a timeline, site selection and an assessment for the proposed solar electric powered water pumping system compared to other options Chapter 4 provides results of the methodology and Chapter 5 provides a discussion. Chapter 6 concludes the research and Chapter 7 provides recommendations for further investigation.

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15 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Worldwide, there are over 10,000 solar electric powered water pumps installed to provide villages with water from boreholes, wel ls, rivers and canals (Markvart 2000) A solar electric powered water pumping system uses a photovoltaic (PV) array that powers an electrical motor which operates a pump. The water is pumped into an elevated storage tank This converts the energy from the PV array into potential energy, eliminating the need for battery storage of the generated electricity Figure 2 1 illustrates this process. Figure 2 1 Solar electric powered village water supply Source: Markvart 2000 Many solar electric p umping systems are powered by wind generators or photovoltaic arrays; however, solar pumps are best suited for small villages of 100 to 1,000 people and moderate agricultural uses (Ghoneim 2006) PV is preferable where there is ample solar resource, moderate dem and and no access to the electric grid. Stand alone photovoltaic systems (as opposed to gridconnected systems) often rely on Photovoltaic array Power conditioning Water storage Water point Stock watering Water level Pump Motor

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16 a set of back up batteries for night time and outages (Ghoneim 2006) Solar energy is ideal for water pumping as the water require ment tends to peak during hot weather periods when solar radiation intensity is high, resulting in maximum array output (Ghoneim 2006) Similarly, the water requirement decreases during cooler weather when the sunlight is less intense. This literature revi ew provides an overview of the current research and case studies available on the use of solar power for water pumping. It is divided into the following sections: Contextual Background, Critical success factors (Technical, Economic Environmental / Ecologi cal, Socio Cultural, Adaptability and Resilience), Case Studies and a Summary Contextual Background In 1976, the NASA Lewis Research Center began installing 83 photovoltaic power systems on every continent except Australia, which provided electricity for many different applications including water pumping (U.S. DOE nd) In 1978, the center installed the worlds first village PV system on the Papago Indian Reservation of Southern Arizona (USA) The 3.5 kilowatt PV system was used to pump water and provide electricity for 15 houses until 1983 when the community was connected to the electric grid The PV system was then solely dedicated for water pumping from a well. Critical Success Factors Many aspects are to be considered when planning for a solar electric powered water pumping system These include, but are not limited to: technical, economic, environmental / ecological and sociocultural factors.

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17 Technical While manual pumping has been the most common supply method in rural areas there are many disadvant ages to this including regular maintenance and attendance. Additionally, this method can only be used where small volumes are required at low or moderate pumping heights (Ghoneim 2006) There are many advantages to using PV for water pumping, includ ing the fact that it is a reliable technology, requires little maintenance, is easy to install, and is proportional in terms of power generated and water demand (Ghoneim 2006) The system can be equipped with storage tanks instead of back up batteries to supply water at night or during cloudy periods and the water can be used for househol d and irrigation needs (Ghoneim 2006) The main components to a solar electric powered water pumping system include the PV array, the pump, the pumpmotor and the controller There are three main categories of sol ar cells: monocrystalline at 17 percent ef ficiency, polycrystalline at 15 percent and amorphous at seven percent (Meah, et al. 2008) In selecting a pump for this system, the main factors to consider include water requirement, water height and water quality (Meah, et al. 2008) Currently available motor types include AC, DC, permanent magnet, brushed, brushless, synchronous and asynchronous, variable reluctance, and others. There are five types of pumps to which can b e used in solar water pumping systems (Markvart, 2000): 1. Submerged multistage centrifugal motor pump sets (Figure 22 A ) are the most common. They are easy to install and the motor pump set is submerged away from potential damage.

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18 2. Submerged pumps with surf ace mounted motors (Figure 2 2B ) were common in Sahlelian West Africa in the 1970s This configuration provides easy access to the motor, but submersible motors have become more common over the years 3. Reciprocating positive displacement pumps (Figure 2 2C ) are suitable for highhead, low flow applications where they are often more efficient than centrifugal pumps. 4. Floating motor pump sets (Figure 2 2D ) are ideal for irrigation pumping from canals and open wells. 5. Surface water pump sets (Figure 2 2E ) can only be used when an operator is always present A B C D E Figure 2 2. S eries of pump sets A) s ubmerged multistage centrifugal motor B) submerged pump with surface mounted motor C) r eciprocating positive displacement pump, D) floating motor pump set and E) surface water pump set Source: Markvart 2000 PV array Water outlet Drawdown Water table Electric cable Submerged pump & motor PV array Motor Electric cable Submerged pump Pump drive shaft Water outlet Submerged pump cylinder Motor & gear box inside Cable from PV array Water outlet Pump drive shaft Portable PV array Float Motor Electric cable Water outlet Pump PV array Cable Water outlet Motor Pump Suction pipe Primary chamber

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19 Pump sizing requires three basic pieces of information: water requirement (m3/day), total water head and continuous water flow or recharge rate of the well (Meah, et.al 2008) Cloudy days should be considered by allowing for five percent over design of the pump. The two main types of pumps that are used in conjunction with photovoltaic panels (PVPs) are centrifugal and positive displacement as seen in Figures 22A and 2 2C (Short and Thompson 2003) Centrifugal pumps use high speed rotation of an impeller to suck water in through the middle pump, throwing water out at the edge. Positive displacement pumps transfers discrete packets of water by a primary mover The high cost of PV panels, often leads t o the selection of the lowest costing pump, which is usually the centrifugal However, it is more recently believed that positive displacement piston pumps using the induced flow principle are more effective in that they are able to pump over a wide range of heads This differs from the centrifugal pump, which is very sitespecific Conversely neither pump is currently designed to work at Village Level Operation and Maintenance (VLOM) (Short and Thompson 2003) Village Level Operation and M aintenance (VLOM) Village level operation and maintenance (VLOM) refers to the capability of a village to have the aptitude to maintain and repair equipment (Short and Thompson 2003) This level may vary regionally or nationally For example, some hand pumps have maintenance demands similar to that of bicycle repair In a village where bicycles are common, skilled bike repair mechanics are likely available; whereas, in a village where bicycles are not common, skilled mechanics may be scarce.

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20 Thus, the technology mus t be appropriate for the selected context The principle aims of appropriate technology for sustainable developm ent include the following (Dunn 1978): 1. To improve the quality of life of the people. 2. To maximize the use of renewable resources. 3. To create w ork places where the people now live These goals can be achieved by incorporating the following criteria (Dunn 1978): 4. Employ local skills. 5. Employ local material resources. 6. Employ local financial resources. 7. Be compatible with local culture and practices 8. Sa tisfy local wishes and needs. Failure to comply with the five criteria may result in an unsustainable project A photovoltaic water pumping system manufactured at village level would use local skills and local materials, and would therefore result in a more sustainable end product in which the community would have confidence in the VLOM Economic Factors Most PV systems are designed in developed countries where cost is the main concern (Short & Thompson 2003) Components to plan for include the solar panels, the water pump, storage tank and distribution piping. The solar panels and the pump are contingent upon one another As the efficiency of the pump system is improved, the number of PV panels can be reduced. This maximizes the water output, while d ecreasing the cost of the technology The same can be said for pipe lines A one kilometer distribution line extension costs between US $10,000 and US $16,000, but a complete small scale solar water pumping system costs only $ 3,000 to $ 1 0,000 (Meah et.al. 2008) The fact that solar water pumping systems do not require battery backup,

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21 makes them maintenance free and reduces the complexity and capital costs (Meah et al. 2008) Life Cycle C ost (LCC) The lifecycle cost (LCC) analysis can be used to compare a PV water pumping system to other options such as diesel or wind powered systems This involves calculating all estimated project costs over a specified period to the present value. The LCC calculation is as outlined by ( ASTM E 917 89): (2 1) = + + + Where: PVLCC = Present Value Life Cycle Cost IC = Initial Cost PVM = Present Value Maintenance and R epairs PVR = Present Value Replacements PVF = Present Value Fuel PVS = Present Value Salvage M aintenance costs are constant over time and need to be converted to present value. This can be calculated using the following ( Ruegg and Marshall 1990): ( 2 2 ) = ( 1 + ) 1 ( 1 + ) Where: P = Present Value A = Annual Amount

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22 D = Discount Rate n = Number of Years Future estimated replacement costs and salvage value need to be converted to present value by ( Ruegg and Marshall 1992) (2 3) = ( 1 + ) Fuel costs need to be converted to present value by (Ruegg and Marshall 1992) (2 4) = 1 + 1 1 1 + 1 + Where: P = Present value AO = Initial value of a periodic amount which occurs over n periods E = Constant periodic rate of change (escalation) P = Present v alue D = Discount r ate n = Number of periods Environmental / Ecological In many arid countries rainfall is decreasing, making surface water scarce (Argaw 2006) This has increased the demand for groundwater, but the water table is also decreasing Due to this, manual pumping has become more difficult. Diesel, petroleum kerosene and windmills have traditionally been used to pump water from deeper levels,

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23 but solar photovoltaic and wind turbine pumps are becoming more common. These renewable resources are ideal for rural applications off of the electric grid where fuel so urce is unreliable and r epairpersons are scarce. Solar is a clean and renewable source, as its utilization produces no greenhouse gases or hazardous wastes (Ghoneim 2006). SocioCultural One major concern associated with water and development is the issue of gender In many developing countries, women and children are primarily responsible for the provision of domestic water (Ray 2007) This reduces the time spent in school or earning an income. The chore also has adverse health effects due lack of access and transporting wat er daily (Ray 2007), and puts the girls and women at risk for harassment (Short and Thompson 2003) Another sociocultural factor in the installation of a solar electric powered water pumping system is that of theft and vandalism This can be prevented t hrough hiring security guards, installing surveillance cameras or keeping the equipment out of reach. Boreholes can have a lockbox installed to protect the pump and panels can be surrounded by a fence with barbwire at the top. Oftentimes, solar panels are soldered to roofs, mounted on top of water tanks or installed above steel poles This is also ideal for meeting space constraints; however, locating the panels up high makes cleaning more difficult Dusty panels can result in an inefficiency of 2030 percent (Center for Alternative Technologies meeting, 2010) Although this was made known, some clients of the Center for Alternative Technologies in Kenya have opted to install solar panels out of reach, due to more pressing concerns of theft

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24 Case Studies Solar electric powered water pumping systems of various scales have been researched and implemented in different parts of the world. The following case studies summarize some of these projects. Guatemala Orphanage: BackUp Source at Existing Well Civil eng ineering students from Marquette University designed and implemented a solar powered water pumping system for the Santa Maria de Guadalupe Orphanage in Guatemala. The project site was approximately located at 14.79 latitude and longitude and was 2,200m above sea level (Borg and Zitomer 2008) S olar resource at this location is estimated to be 5 kWh/m2/day (UNEP, 2005) The site was relying on water from two sources: a municipal supply and an existing well on site. The existing precast concrete well was 15m deep, had a capacity of 7,000L, and pumped water approximately 24m above ground This pump was powered by an electric utility provider, but the supply was unreliable. The solar water pump system was expected to increase reliability, while decreasing operating costs The water storage tank and construction site are shown in Figures 2 3 A and 2 3 B A positive displacement piston cylinder water pump powered by a direct current (DC) motor was selected because of its simplicity in installation, high flow rate, high head required and durability Due to potential energy provided by the elevated tank, the system did not require inverter or battery storage. The new pumping system supplied 76L of water per person per day for a population that was expec ted to increase from 90 to 140 people over the next 20 years These specifications exceeded the World Health Organizations minimum requirements of 20L per person per day from a source within

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25 one kilometer of the persons dwelling (WHO 2008) The design fl ow rate was approximately 36.4L/ min. The pipe system consisted of 320m of five centimeter PVC pipe. For this flow rate, losses were estimated to be 0.12 to 0.58m. A B Figure 2 3. Series of images from installation at orphanage. A) storage tank and B) construction site Source: Borg and Zitomer, 2008 Overall, the equipment cost was $4,486 USD This included solar panels, a pump, pump switches, valve, linear current booster, pipes and fittings The team assembled this system in the United States and shipped it to Guatemala. The Marquette team worked on a limited scope, in that the solar pumping system would only provide some of the water and the pumping distance was within the property of the orphanage. In doing this, the team was able to fulfill their objectives, and the project could serve as a pilot for more involving future projects Mvuleni Village, Tanzania: LargeScale Village Supply A nonprofit organization constructed a solar electric powered water pumping system, shown in Figures 2 4A and 2 4 B from two existing boreholes in Mvuleni

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26 Village, which is in the Moshi District of Tanzanias Kilimanjaro Region. The project site was located at a longitude of 03723.550 E and latitude of 0317.200 S In 2003, this village had an estimated population of 6,893 and 1,416 houses ( Mvuleni Water Project 2006) Many res idents walked three kilometers to fetch contaminated water from the nearest spring. A B Figure 2 4 Series of photos from Mvuleni project. A) solar panels and pipes and B) solar panels Source: URL 1 Initially, the main constraint was finances This was addressed by encouraging each villager to contribute US $2.00 and sponsorship from Sweden. Equipment was imported from Germany through Kenya. A total of 4,800m was excavated for piping. O ver 20 tap connections were installed, a water pump house was built, a hand pump was constructed and installed in one borehole, 20 towers were constructed and water storage tanks were installed. The water pumps were custom built to be powered by solar energy from the 32 solar panels with a total area of nearly 30sq m The solar panels were mounted on a solar tracker that follows the sun for optimal efficiency The

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27 water is pumped to the center of the village approximately 2,000m through 110 mm plastic pipes From this location, the water is then pumped to plastic w ater tanks using 50 and 63 mm pipes The final project cost was US $53,400, which was almost US $6,000 more than anticipated. University of Wyoming Motor Testing and Training Center: Rural Irrigation A solar water pumping initiative was started at the University of Wyoming Motor Testing and Training Center (UWMTTC) to supply ground water for irrigation purposes to Wyomings rural ranches where longterm drought has tended to impact surface water more severely than ground water This project investigated the technical, environmental and economic benefits of using solar over electrical utility or a generator Special attention was paid to local level operation and maintenance, and some of the goals to facilitate this include d (a) modifying the system based on local materials, (b) using materials from local suppliers and (c) educating people through the workshop, training and demonstration. It compared carbon dioxide emissions of coal, diesel and natural gas options used for generating 1000W over a 25year period. In a life cycle analysis solar electric powered water pumping was found to be the most cost effective and pay back at eight years Many of the PV panels were installed on trail er s to be used at multiple water source locations, as shown in Figure 2 5 A ppropriate gaps between the solar panels were to be provided to prevent wind loading from becoming an issue, and at each site, the array was adjusted according to the azimuth throughout the year The program also evaluat ed systems that were one, five and fifteen year(s) old. At fifteen years, seven systems were surveyed to evaluate performance. All of the systems w ere still operating,

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28 although eleven replacements had been done. The pump/motor was determined to be the most vulnerable component of the system Overall, the ranchers were satisfied with these pumping systems S ome were even able to add more livestock, due to the efficiency of the solar electric powered water pumping system The UWMTTC initiative has installed 88 solar electric powered pumping systems statewide, and has recognized that this technology could be applied at similar sites in other states Figure 2 5 Solar panel on trailer to be used at m ultiple b oreholes Source: Meah, et al. 2008 Kyeleni Heath Centre and the Primary School : Small Scale Village Supply Global company, Nov Mono teamed up with African non government organization (NGO) Water for All to install a Fun Pump solar electric powered water pumping system (Shown in Figures 2 6 A and 2 6B ) in the Kyeleni community 100 km outside Nairobi The pump is located between the Kyeleni Heath Centre and the Primary School The community has approximately 7,000 residents and their main source of water had been the nearby Athi River and shallow hand dug wells The 160watt solar panel can pump 5,000 liters of water per day from a borehole; however, when

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29 children play on the systems integrated merry goround, the efficiency increases by 20 percent This solar ele ctric powered water pumping system has two taps and serves local residents, as well as the clinic and the school of 1,200 students and 17 teachers Previously, the school relied on rainwater harvesting, which was effective during only three months of the y ear Since the installation of the system, the clinic has observed a decrease in waterborne diseases such as typhoid, ringworm and diarrhea. A B Figure 2 6 Series of Kyeleni project images. A) solar water pumping system and B) merry go round Source: URL 2 Kuwait : Computer Simulation Program A computer simulation program was developed to evaluate the performance of a long term photovoltaic water pumping system in the Kuwait climate. This program takes into account the solar array, motor, pump, storage tank and a maximum power point tracker (MPPT). This proved to be accurate when compared to the manufacturers program. It was determined that head height was an important factor in the economic feasibility of solar electric powered water pumping projects Using this computer

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30 simulation program, it was also found that there was no significant difference in system performance for panels within tilted 20 degrees of latitude. A life cycle cost analysis was conducted for the Kuwait region compari ng a solar electric powered water pumping system to one powered by a diesel electric generator. This system would serve domestic water from a deep well to 300 people at 40 liters per person per day or 12m3. Even with diesel prices as low as US $0.30 per li ter, the solar electric powered water pumping system was still determined to be the most cost effective. The findings of this study could be used to encourage nations to choose sustainable solar energy systems over conventional methods. Jordan Ten potent ial sites in Jordan were considered for solar water pumping systems, in lieu of the common pumps powered using diesel Jordan is located between 29 11 N and 33 22 N, and between 34 19 E and 39 18 E The city locations are shown in Figure 2 7 The countrys average annual rainfall ranges from under 50 mm in the north to 600 mm in the south (Hrayshat and Al Soud 2004) Eighty percent of this rainfall occurs in December through March. The combination of low annual rainfall and seasonal drought classif ies over 80 percent of Jordan as arid.

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31 Figure 2 7 Map of 10 sites in Jordan Source: Adapted from Hrayshat and Al Sou d 2004 Data on solar irradiance was collected for each city The annual average for all the cities ranged between five and seven kWh/m2/day. The average low was between two to five kWh/m2/day in December through January, and the average high was between six and nine kWh/m2/day during May through July The ten cities were categorized into three groups according to their average solar irradiance: adequate, promising and poor It was estimated that the four cities categorized as adequate would produce 62 percent of water pumped from all locations The predicted annual water output (pumping at a height of 20 m) for each location is shown in Figure 2 8 It was determined that the solar radiation for the cities Deir Alla, Baqura and Wadi Yabis Baqura Deir Alla Wadi Ya bis Ras Muneef Mafraq H 4 H 5 Hasa Taffielle h Queira

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32 would not result in a sufficient water output. Therefore, other water pumping options would need to be considered. Figure 2 8 Annual water o utput Source: Adapted from Hrayshat and Al Sou d 2004 Literature Review Summary Solar electric powered water pumping has been effective in many cases throughout the world. When planning a project the following success factors should be considered: technical practicality (including VLOM), economic feasibility, environmental / ecological impact, sociocultur al appropriateness, adaptability and resiliency Six unique case studies were reviewed. These case studies showed that the use of this technology can vary in scale and can be used for human or livestock consumption. The systems can be designed to be portable, as in the Wyoming study, or can serve other functions that increase efficiency, as in the Kyeleni project In each instance some, but not all of the critical success factors are known to have been applied. In an ideal system all critical success facto rs sh ould be considered. The methodology section of 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 Annual Amount of Water Output (m3)Location

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33 this thesis applied these criteria to recommend a solar electric powered water pumping system for a selected site in Kenya.

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34 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Solar electric powered water pumping systems can be an effective means of water supply The Literature Review presented cases from different parts of the world where the research and / or implementation of these systems focused on some, but not all of the following critical success factors : Technica l Practicality Village Level Operation and Maintenance (VLOM), Economic, Environmental and Sociocultural Appropriateness The research activities outlined here were designed for a case study approach to facilitate an in depth investigation of the feasibi lity of implementing a system at a specific site in Kenya. Aim and Objectives The overall aim of this thesis, as stated in Chapter 1, was to investigate the feasibility of implementing PV based water pumping system for domestic water use within the context of developing country Specific objectives and subsequent research tasks were as follows: 1. To critique existing solar electric powered water pumping systems Case studies of previous projects were reviewed in terms of technical, economic, environmental, socio cultural appropriateness, adaptability and resiliency. 2. To develop critical success factors for a solar based water pumping system Data on site solar insolation was gathered by conducting a PV Watts analysis. Required hydraulic power and solar array were calculated for the specific location. A Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Analysis was conducted to compare solar electric powered water pumping to that of petroleum electric powered water pumping.

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35 Calculations were conducted to determine the amount of carbon di o xide emissions from the petroleum electric powered alternate. 3. To assess the feasibility of a proposed system using the specifications for a selected use case Price quotes were collected, analyzed and a recommendation was made. Timeline The timeline in Figure 31 shows the research objectives that took place over the duration of the research. A literature review took place January through March 2010 and was followed by the development of the methodology The site was selected prior to departure for Kenya. From the site selection, geographic information was gathered and economic and environmental impacts were calculated. Research abroad took place over a 10week period from May through July, and meetings with representatives of solar installation companies were held. Upon returning to the U.S., findings were summarized and documented. Figure 31. Timeline of research a ctivities

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36 Site Selection The site considered was the Nyangajo Girls Secondary School in the Rachuonyo District The nearest town is Kendu B ay (Figure 3 2) Approximate coordinates are 0 24' 13" South and 34 39' 0" East. The schools elevation ranges from 1,186 to 1,204m The school has 450 students The school is not connected to the countrys utility grid The school has used rainwater harvesting in the past, but has not done this for the last two to three years due to a leak in the concrete reservoir The school has a 70m deep borehole, which uses a petroleum electric powered generator to pump water into a 15,000L tank 150m away These are show n in the school plan in Figure 33 The change in elevation between the ground surface of the borehole and the ground surface of the water tank is 15.24m Additionally, there is a 5,000L overflow tank connected to the 15,000L tank that fills once the 15,000L tank is three quarters full. The school intended to sell some of this water to the community This system was installed in May 2010. There had been some issues with the compatibility between the pump and generator, and since the original pump was replaced and the generator was repaired, the system had only been used once as of July 2010. This is partly due to the high cost of petroleum Fuel required for the electric pump powered by a petroleum generator to fill the 15m3 water tank costs 2,000Ksh It takes eight hours to fill the water tank. Nyangajo School is currently using the pumped water primarily for cooking and drinking. For bathing and washing clothes, the students fetch water from the nearby Awach Kibuo R iver using buckets There is a small generator house located adjacent to the pump, as shown in Figure 33 It has a roof pitch of approximately 7/12 and has east and west facing slopes However, much of

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37 the northeast side is shaded by a tree and the struc ture is most likely too small to support solar panels for this project T he feasibility of using a solar electric powered system was determined. The borehole has a limit of 20m3 of water extracted per day. This quantity was used for the daily water demand. With a population of about 500, this is 40L per person per day This exceeds the World Health Organizations minimum requirement of 20L per person per day for basic access ( Howard and Bartram 2003) Figure 3 2. Exemplary deployment c ontext Source: Adapted from Kendu Bay Map (1963)

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38 F igure 3-3 Nyangajo s chool site p lan Upon meeting with the principal and vice principal of Nyangajo Girls Secondary School, it was noted that the issues of water and recruitment of students were the two most important concerns Notes from this site visit have been enclosed in Appendix A. Assessment Site Solar Insulation PVWatts is a calculator provided by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory that determines the energy production for proposed PV systems th roughout the world (NREL, 2010) Using this resource, an analysis was conducted to find the available solar insolation at the site. Data for Kendu Bay is not available from PVWatts, so nearby towns or those with similar climates where used for the analysis Kisii,

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39 Kakamega, Kisumu and Makindu were used to collect data. The locations of t hese towns are shown in Figure 34 Additionally, various angles representing typical roof pitches were compared to that of the latitude angle (the optimum angle) to determine if using a typical roof slope would make any difference in the effectiveness of the solar electric powered pumping system PV system specifications are assumed to have a DC rating of 4.0 kW and DC to AC derate factor of 0.77. Kisii town is 47 km south of Kendu Bay. The coordinates for Kisii are 0.67S and 34.78E with an elevation of 1, 493 m Based on the Kisii location, the ideal array tilt would be 0.67 degrees and face north at zero degrees. Kakamega is about 100 km across Lake Victoria and northeast of Kendu Bay. Its coordinates are 0.28N and 34.78E with an elevation of 1,530 m Based on this location, the ideal array tilt would be 0.28 degrees and face south at z ero degrees. Kisumu is approximately 50 km across Lake Victoria and northeast of Kendu Bay. Its coordinates are 0.10S and 34.75E with an elevation of 1,146 m Based on this location, the ideal array tilt would be 0.10 degrees and face north at zero degr ees. Makindu is far from Kendu Bay (520 km) in the Southeastern Savannahs, but has a similar climate. Its coordinates are 2.28S and 37.83E with an elevation of 1,000 m The ideal array tilt would be 2.28 degrees and face north at zero degrees.

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40 F igure 3 4 Towns in Kenya selected for PV Watts a nalysis Calculations for Implementation Hydraulic energy and the subsequent solar array power required were calculated using the following formulas (Markvart 2000) : (3 1) ( ) = ( 3 ) ( ) ( 3 ) ( 2 ) Using a water density of 1,000 kg/m3 with gravity at 9.8 m/s2 and a conversion factor of one Joule to 2.78 x 107 kWh the hydraulic energy equation can be reduced as follows: Kakamega Kisii Kisumu Makindu Nairobi Kendu Bay

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41 (3 2) ( ) = 0 .0027 ( 3 ) ( ) Where: (3 3) ( ) = + + + Required solar array power is calculated as follows (Markvart 2000) ( 3 4 ) ( ) = ( ) ( 2 ) Where: F = array mismatch factor, 0.85 average E = daily subsystem efficiency Life Cycle Cost Analysis Price quotes and equipment specifications were collected from two different solar companies in Nairobi These were compared and then used to determine the break even point at which solar electric powered water pumping surpasses the petroleum electric powered generator as more cost effective A life cycle cost (LCC) analysis was conducted over a 20year period to compare present day costs of solar power to that of the petroleum generator option. Equation 21 was used to calculate LCC. Annual maintenance to the solar electric powered water pumping system was estimated to cost one percent of the initial cost per year The same method was used to account for maintenance of a petroleum electric powered water pumping system Since

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42 this was considered to be a constant cost over time, it needed to be converted to present value. This was calculated using equation 22. In meeting with the solar suppliers, it was revealed that corrosive water in a borehole would require the pump to be partially replaced every three years This was estimated to cost onethird of the original pump price each time. Since the quality of the water at the Nyangajo borehole is unknown, this factor will be applied to both the solar electric and petroleum electric pow ered water pumps Salvage value at the end of the 20 year life cycle was estimated to be worth 50 percent of the ori ginal value of the solar panels (URL 3). Future estimated r eplacement costs and salvage value were converted to present value by using equation 2 3 The discount rate used was seven percent (OMB Circular A94 1992) Energy inflation was assumed to be three percent. Since there is no energy cost associated with solar electric powered water pumping, this only applies to the petroleum generator powered option. Fuel costs were converted to present day value by using equation 24. Emissions Calculations Carbon dioxide ( CO2) emissions resulting from the use of a petroleum powered electricity generator were calculated. The following equation shows the weight of resulting CO2 emissions released per volume of petroleum consumed by the generator (U.S. EPA 2010): (3 5) 2 ,421 0 .99 44 12 3 .785 = 2311 = 2 .32 /

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43 Where: 2,421 g = the mass of carbon per gallon of petroleum 0.99 = 99% oxidation factor 44/12 = ratio of the molecular weight of CO2 ( one carbon atom at 12 and two oxygen atoms at 16 each, equaling 44) to the molecular weight of carbon (12) Gallon / 3.785L = conversion from gallons to liters This figure was then multiplied by the volume of petroleum needed to operate the electric water pump.

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44 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Results of PV Watts Analysis A PVWatts analysis was conducted to determine approximate solar insulation. Data was collected was for fixed tilt panels, followed by single and double axis tracking systems. Of the towns analyzed, Kisumu is the closest to Kendu Bay and is very similar in climate Therefor e, Table 41 shows solar radiation, AC energy and energy value data for the Kisumu region for an array at latitude as compared to one at various roof pitches (Data for Kisii, Kakamega and Makindu can be found in Appendix B.) Table 4 1 Data for fixed panels at various roof pitches in Kisumu Slope Elevation (Degrees) Direction Array Type Solar Radiation kWh /m2/day AC Energy ( kW h ) Energy value (KSH) Latitude 0.7 North (0) Fixed 5.67 5730 38505.60 4/12 18.4 North (0) Fixed 5.48 5540 37228.8 5/12 22.6 North (0) Fixed 5.37 5427 36469.44 6/12 26.6 North (0) Fixed 5.25 5297 35595.84 7/12 30.3 North (0) Fixed 5.12 5155 34641.60 8/12 33.7 North (0) Fixed 4.98 5007 33647.04 9/12 36.9 North (0) Fixed 4.84 4853 32612.16 10/12 39.8 North (0) Fixed 4.71 4702 31597.44 11/12 42.5 North (0) Fixed 4.56 4535 30475.20 12/12 45.0 North (0) Fixed 4.44 4405 29601.60

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45 The overall average solar radiation for the four towns was 5.63 kWh/m2/day The data points ranged from 4.79 to 6.54 kW h/m2/day, while peaking in February and September This is graphed in Figure 4 1 Figure 4 1 Solar r adiation at latitude by m onth Throughout a typical year, the available solar radiation captured using fixed access pa nels ranges from 4.79 to 6.54 kW h/m2/day for the selected towns If singleaxis tracking is to be used, then the solar radiation ranges from 5.89 to 8.29 kW h/m2/day and if doubleaxis tracking is used then, the solar radiation ranges from 6. 31 to 8.68 kW h/m2/day. The difference between the solar radiations captured using fixed or singleaxis tracking for the town of Kisumu (the closest to Kendu Bay) ranges between 0.86 and 1.57 kW h/m2/day and the difference between singleand doubleaxis 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Solar Radiation (Kwh/m2/day)Month Kisii Kakamega Kisumu Makindu

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46 tra ckin g ranges between 0.09 to 0.57 kW h/m2/day. Th ese values are shown in Figure 42 Figure 4 2 Solar radiation for Kisumu using fixed mounting, single or d ouble axis tracking Results of Calculations for Implementation Hydraulic energy was calculated using equations 31 through 3 3 The total head was taken as the sum of the tank height (2.63m), vertical distance from the tank to the well (15.24m) and the static water table (23.3m) The figure of 23.3m was estimated to b e the static water table for the 70m borehole. The hydraulic power requirement was calculated to be 2.22 kWh/day This figure was then used in equation 34 with the average solar irradiance value of 5.67 kWh/m2/day ( for the Kisumu region) to calculate required solar array power The value of 0.85 was used for array mismatch factor and 0. 4 w as used for the daily 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 8.5 Solar Radiation (Kwh/m2)Month Fixed Single Axis DoubleAxis

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47 subsystem efficiency of the pump. The solar array size needed is 1.412 kWp or 1412 Wp. Results of Life Cycle Cost Analysis Price quotes were gathered from two different solar power companies The overall expenses are compared in Table 4 2 and Figure 43 The prices received varied by nearly $7,000. Meeting minutes and actual price quotes and specifications from each company have been enclosed i n Appendices C through F. Table 42 Comparison of price quotes for solar electric powered water pumping systems. COMPANY Company A Company B COMPONENT Pump $ 2,250.00 $ 1,980.00 Solar p anels $ 4,320.00 $ 9,000.00 On/Off Control $ 220.00 Accessories $ 424.48 $ 991.00 Well Cover $ 292.50 $ 110.00 Lighting arrestor $ 105.00 Support Structure $ 775.00 Single axis track $ 2,450.00 Cables / conduit $ 718.88 $ 1,157.50 Delivery $ 625.00 $ 765.00 Installation $ 1,250.00 $ 1,250.00 TOTAL $ 10,875.85 $ 17,808.50 Company A quoted 10 panels at 120Wp each for a total of 1200Wp. At a price of US $4,320, the solar panels are about US $3.60/Wp. Company B quoted 12 panels at 175Wp each, totaling 2100Wp. At a price of US $9,000, these cost approximately US $4.24/Wp.

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48 Figure 4 3 Cost comparison of components for price quotes from two companies Using the price quote of $10,875.85 for initial costs, a life cycle cost analysis was conducted to compare the cost of solar electric powered water pumping to that of a petroleum electric generator pow ered system An initial cost for the petroleum generator powered system was estimated by subtracting the cost of the solar panels ($4,320) and adding the cost of a typical 230 volt generator ($1,850) for a total of $8,406. These life cycle costs a re shown in Table 43 and Figure 44 $ $2,000 $4,000 $6,000 $8,000 $10,000 $12,000 $14,000 $16,000 $18,000 $20,000 Cost Company A Company B

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49 Table 43. Twenty year life cycle c osts for solar and petroleum electric powered water p umping SOLAR Petroleum Generator Present Value / Year One Present Value of Future Costs (20 Year LCC) Present Value / Year One Present Value of Future Costs ( 20 Year LCC ) Initial Cost $ 10,876 $ 10,876 $ 8,406 $ 8,406 Fuel $ $ $ 12,167 $ 167,0 68 Maintenance (Annual) $ 109 $ 1,152 $ 84 $ 891 Pump Replacement (Partial at 3 year increments) $ 750 $ 2,347 $ 750 $ 2,347 Salvage Value $ 2,160 $ ( 558 ) $ $ TOTAL $ 13,817 $ 178,7 12 Figure 4 4 T wenty year LCC c omparison The annual cost of petroleum used t o pump a daily requirement of 20m3 for a population of 500 is $12,167. Total cumulative life cycl e costs are shown in Figure 45 $(20,000.00) $ $20,000.00 $40,000.00 $60,000.00 $80,000.00 $100,000.00 $120,000.00 $140,000.00 $160,000.00 $180,000.00 $200,000.00 Solar Petroleum Initial Costs Operation Maintenance Replacement Salvage

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50 Figure 4-5 Cumulative system costs for pumping water using solar versus petroleum Results of Emissions Calculations The 20m3 water demand at Nyangajo Girls Secondary School requires 27.78 liters of petroleum to pump the water tank s to their capacity Therefore, 64.45 kg (0.064 metric tons) of carbon dioxide (CO2) are released each time the tank s are filled In one year 23.52 metric tons of CO2 would be emitted from daily water pumping. Since a solar electric powered pumpi ng system has an estimated lifespan of 20 years, calculations have been extrapolated to show how many metric tons of CO2 would be emitted for daily water pumping using the petroleum generator over a 20 year period Figure 46 shows that daily pumping using a petroleum generator would result in the release of over 470 metric tons of CO2. At a current population of 500, it would be necessary for the school to pump water nearly every day to comply with the World Health Organizati ons 20liter minimum per person per day $ $20,000.00 $40,000.00 $60,000.00 $80,000.00 $100,000.00 $120,000.00 $140,000.00 $160,000.00 $180,000.00 $200,000.00 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 Cumulative CostsYear Solar 20m3 Petroleum20 m3

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51 Figure 4 6 Metric tons of CO 2 emissions over 20 years of pumping water daily with a petroleum generator 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Metric tons of CO2 EmissionsYear

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52 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION This chapter is divided into a discussion of the case studies reviewed and a discussion of the results to the research methodology The Critique of Case Studies provides a summary of which critical success factors were applied to each project The Critique of Research Activities provides a commentary of the tasks completed and explains how this example applies the critical success factor guidelines A Critique of Case Studies Solar electric powered water pumping systems have shown to be an economically feasible solution for water distribution in rural areas with sufficient solar resource, and have become more common in recent years The size and complexity of existing systems vary Focus on the critical success factors of technical practicality / VLOM, eco nomic feasibility environmental viability, sociocultural appropriateness, adaptability and resiliency is variable among the current case studies This is outlined in Table 51 Table 51 Summary of system c haracteristics CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTOR Technical Practicality VLOM Economic Feasibility Environmental Impact Socio Cultural Adaptability Resiliency CASE STUDY Guatemala ** ** No data No data *** No data Mvuleni ** ** No data ** No data No data Wyoming ***** ***** ***** *** No data ***** No data Kyeleni No data No data No data No data ***** No data No data Kuwait ***** No data ***** ** No data No data No data Jordan No data No data ** ** *** No data No data No data

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53 The project at the Guatemalan orphanage is a good example of portability, considering the students checked the equipment with their luggage when boarding the plane. It is possible that this portability could make the panels adaptable for future uses Conversely, since the products used were imported from the United States, maintaining and repairing the system may present some problems locally In the largescale village water supply project in Mvuleni, Tanzania, most of the issues dealt with were related to funding the project More time could have been spent focusing on the economics during the planning phase of the project, as this resulted in a delay of a year and a half It is also possible that the village of Mvuleni will have difficulty finding repair technicians, as a lot of the equipment was imported. T his installation effectively involved the community, as the residents contributed to some of the funding. The literature reviewed does not mention the adaptability or resiliency of the system. The rural irrigation project in Wyoming focused on the environm ental, technical (through the use of VLOM) and economic success factors This project also exemplifies the critical success factor of adaptability in that s ome of the PV panels were installed on a trailer to use at multiple water source locations However, there was no mention of the consideration of resiliency or sociocultural factors, such as theft and vandalism. The small scale village project in Kyeleni focused on providing community based water supply In many solar electric powered water pumping proj ects supported by Water for All, one of the main objectives is to allow children to spend more time in school, playing or participating in team sports, rather than collecting water This project is innovative in that it achieves both by increasing the water supply when the children play on the merry goround. From the provided pictures, it is possible that the solar

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54 panel was located on top of the water tank to prevent theft, as well as for convenience. The literature reviewed for this case study mentions very little technical and environmental factors considered. The study involving the computer simulation program designed for Kuwait places a strong emphasis on the technical and economic factors of implementing a solar electric powered water pumping syst em The findings help support the fact that solar power is more environmentally sustainable, although environmental factors are not stressed upon. Also, there is no mention of sociocultural or village level operation and maintenance issues being considered Hrayshat and Al Soud determined that using solar power for water pumping at various locations within Jordan could result in significant differences in water yield. Taffielleh is only 30km south of Deir Alla, and the estimated water output was almost fi ve times greater This demonstrated the importance of collecting site data, even when locating a site within a fairly small region. This study used the environmental criterion, in that it focused on determining the appropriateness of solar power over conventional diesel However, it did not provide information on the technical specifications of the selected equipment, nor did it address sociocultural issues, adaptability and resiliency of the proposed projects In an ideal solar electric powered water pumping system, all of these critical success factors (Technical, VLOM, Economic, Environmental, Sociocultural, Adaptability and Resilience) would be considered.

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55 A Critique of Research Activities PVWatts Analysis The PV Watts analysis showed that there was no significant difference between the towns of Kisii, Kakamega, Kisumu and Makindu in terms of available solar radiation. This was compared to the analyses that were conducted in the case study on Jordanian towns For the sites selected in Jordan, there was a wide range (between two and nine kilowatt hours per meter squared) in available solar radiation throughout the year Solar radiation peaked in the months from May to July, and dropped at other times This is most likely due to the countrys location between 29 and 33 degrees latitude. Additionally, towns located farther north (away from the equator) had lower levels of solar radiation, although the towns were not very far from each other The PV Watts analysis for the Kenyan towns showed that the proximity to the equator would result in uniform solar radiation throughout the year In comparing available solar radiation captured through the use of fixed, singleaxis or doubleaxis tracking in the Kisumu region, single axis tracking appeared to be better than fixed panels However, there was no significant difference between that of singleand doubleaxis tracking While solar panels on singleaxis tracking perform better than fixed panels, there are advantages to fixed panels These advantages include lower first costs and the ability to secure panels to a roof or other elevated structure to save space and deter theft Calculations for Implementation In the calculations for hydraulic energy and solar array, data on the elevations and horizontal distances were gathered using Google Earth. Since the school was not

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56 able to provide the borehole report, the static water table was estimated to be onethird of the total borehole depth. Life Cycle Cost (LCC) Analysis The two price quotes received f rom the Kenyan solar companies varied significantly This is partly due to the fact that the solar panels are grouped in multiples of four, creating large intervals of variation. Company B quoted a single axis tracking system was quoted, but this was not necessary Removing this feature would reduce the overall quote by US $1,838, but this is still much higher than the quote received from Company A. For the life cycle cost analysis, the initial cost of the lower price quote was used for the solar electric powered water pumping option. Nyangajo Girls Secondary School did not provide any information on the cost of the existing petroleum electric powered water pumping system, nor did their contractor This cost was estimated by subtracting the cost of the sol ar panels and adding the cost of a typical petroleum generator For each system, annual maintenance was estimated to be 10 percent of the first costs Since no information was given regarding the quality of the water in the existing borehole, pump repair w as estimated at a set amount every three years for both systems. As stated in Chapter 3 Methodology, fuel costs assumed a three percent energy inflation rate and a seven percent discount rate was used. Over a period of 20, years, a solar electric power ed water pumping system will be mor e cost effective than pumping 20 cubic meters of water per day using the petroleum electric powered alternate. Due to the high cost of petroleum a solar electric powered water pumping system breaks even in year one. This should be convincing to

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57 the school; however, initial costs could still be a deterrent. The existing system was a charitable donation, so there were no first costs. The expense of fuel combined with the unreliability of the current system has resulted in t he school under using the water supply. At the site visit in June 2010, it was evident that very little water was being consumed from the borehole. Students were collecting water with buckets from the river to use for bathing and washing clothes In this particular case, it is likely that the actual water demand is much less than 20 cubic meters per day This would result in a later break even point, but this would still occur within six years However, the World Health Organization states that at least 20L per person per day are needed for basic survival and an additional 30L per person per day are recommended assure consumption and not compromise personal hygiene ( Howard and Bartram 2003). Results of Emissions Calculations Pumping 20 cubic meters of water every day for a year using the petroleum electric powered water pumping system results in over 23 metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions This is equivalent to driving a sports utility vehicle (SUV) for almost 55, 000km (34,1 83 miles) in only one year While the developing world produces much less carbon dioxide emissions on average, it is important for these nations to learn from the mistakes of their westernized counterparts and plan for more sustainable infrastructure projects the f irst time

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58 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION In conclusion, it is recommended that Nyangajo Girls Secondary School considers installing the solar electric powered water pumping system capable of pumping and storing 2 0m3 per day A ny water that is not used by the school can be sold to the community from the existing secondary storage tank The six critical success factors can be achieved by the following: Critical Success Factor 1: Technical / Village Level Operation and M aintenance ( VLOM) The pump specified is a centrifugal submerged multistage set This is an ideal pump type, as the pump and motor are secured below the surface to protect from damage. The warranty for the pump is one year and the warranty for the solar panels is 20 y ears The solar panels only require routine dusting to maintain a standard level of effectiveness The pump is estimated to need repair only once every three years if the water is corrosive. If a qualified repair person cannot be found in Western Kenya, then one from Nairobi should be accessible every three years A training seminar held after installation would be ideal to orient the faculty, staff and students with the new solar electric powered water pumping system Critical Success Factor 2: Economic Feasibility The presented life cycle cost analyses indicate that pumping using the solar electric powered system quoted by Company A would break even in year one when comparing full system expenses to that of pumping the water daily using the petroleum el ectric powered option. Water that is not used by the school could be sold to the community, and the school would experience greater profits with no operational energy

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59 costs. If a loan was obtained to help with the first costs of the solar electric powered water pumping system, then selling the water would help to pay this off Critical Success Factor 3: Environmental Impact Since carbon emissions have been calculated, it is known that up to 23 metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions per year will be prevented through the use of the solar electric powered water pumping system This is important, as Nyangajo Girls Secondary School values sustainability Critical Success Factor 4: SocioCultural Appropriateness The two main issues in this category are theft and gender issues Theft can be deterred through the installation of a barbwire fence and a guard. The existing borehole already has a lockbox installed to prevent theft of the water pump. The issue of gender is especially applicable here, as this is an all girls school Having a reliable water pumping system will allow the girls experience improved health benefits and to spend more time studying, as opposed to fetching water Additionally, the installation of a solar electric powered water pumping system would provide a real world learning experience for these collegebound students Students could gain knowledge in many aspects of this project, including the technical aspects of the system, the environmental factors involved and the economics of selling water to the community This experience may inspire the girls to apply this thinking in their future careers Critical Success Factor 5: Adaptability The proposed solar electric powered water pumping system would be adaptable in that additional solar panels could be added or removed for changes in the schools

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60 enrollment Panels that are not needed in the future for water pumping could be used for lighting the buildings Additionally, the solar panels could be portable, as demonstrated in the Wyoming irrigation case study for use in at other locations Critical Success Factor 6: Resiliency Resiliency of equipment is important when planning for infrastructure projects. The solar electric powered water pumping system will be subject to potential natural disasters such as drought and storms The system will be depended on through times of drought when the water level in the river decreases Mild storms may actually help clean the dust from the solar panels, making them more effective when the storm clears A warranty of 20 years on the solar panels indicates that the manufacturer is confident in the durability of their product Conclusion Summary A solar electric powered water pumping system would provide Nyangajo Girls Secondary School with many benefits The school could save money that would otherwise be spent on fuel for the petroleum electric powered water pumping system, and could also earn money by selling excess water to the community The school will have fewer carbon emissions in choosing this alternate, and the students would have increased health benefits and be able to spend more time studying. A project like this could be implemented in many areas of the world. Specific data would need to be gathered for the proposed site, and all six critical success factors would need to be considered. Table 61 provides a checklist for future solar electric powered water pumping options and possible sources of information are listed at the end of each section.

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61 Table 61 Checklist for future solar electric powered water pumping projects CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTOR 1: TECHNICAL / VLOM Water source and pump type : ___ Ground water (Submerged pump) ___ River / Lake / Pond (Surface pump) Plan: 1. Contact solar companies in the area that could provide installation and future maintenance. 2. Provide a training session after installation. Calculate: ( ) = + + + ( ) = ( 3 ) ( ) ( 3 ) ( 2 ) ( ) = ( ) ( 2 ) Drawdown: ____ Tank Height: ____ Static water table: ____ Change in Elevation: ____ Daily Volume Required: ____ Water Density: Gravity: ~ 1,000kg/m3 9.81m/s2 Average daily solar irradiation: ____ F: 0.85 E: 0.25 to 0.40 Sources: Markvart 2000, Dunn 1978, PV Watts, local solar companies, site visit CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTOR 2: ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY 1. Contact local solar installation companies for price quotes. Supply site data and discuss calculations with the companies. 2. Calculate and compare Life Cycle Costs (LCC) for solar and other options. Present Value Life Cycle Costs: = + + + Present Value Maintenance Costs: = ( 1 + ) 1 ( 1 + ) Present Value Repair and Salvage Costs: = ( 1 + ) Present Value Fuel Costs: = 1 + 1 1 1 + 1 + Initial Cost: ____ Annual Maintenance Cost: ____ Cost & Frequency of Repair: ____ Salvage Value at End of Life: ____ Discount Rate: ____ Study Period (years): ____ Fuel Inflation (Escalation): ____ Annual Cost of Fuel: ____ Sources: ASTM E 91789, Ruegg and Marshal 1990, OMB A -94, URL 3

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62 CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTOR 3: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT Calculate Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from petroleum or diesel electricity generator. Emissions from Petroleum 2 421 0 99 44 12 3 785 = 2311 = 2 32 / Emissions from Diesel 2 778 0 99 44 12 3 785 = 2664 = 2 66 / Multiply the above factor(s) by the amount of petroleum or diesel required to fuel the generator to pump the daily water demand. Sources: U.S. EPA, site visit CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTOR 4: SOCIO CULTURAL APPROPRIATENESS Plan to: 1. Involve the community in the planning of the project. 2. Determine suitable methods to deter theft (fence, guards, mounting system, etc.). Sources: Ray 2007, local solar installation companies CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTOR 5: ADAPTABILITY Plan for: 1. Increase or decrease of solar panels needed for water pumping 2. Future uses for solar panels (i.e. building electrification) 3. Portability for use at other locations Sources: local solar installation companies, site visit CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTOR 6: RESILIENCY Consider durability relative to site location: 1. Natural disasters (i.e. storms, drought, earthquakes, etc.) 2. Review manufacturers warranty 3. Evaluate success of past projects in area over time Sources: local solar installation companies, climate data

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63 CHAPTER 7 RECOMENDATIONS FOR FURT HER RESEARCH There are many ways this research can be expanded on. These include 1) continuing research on funding the first costs associated with water infrastructure systems, 2) improving water quality, 3) investigating alternate sources of water procurement to work in conjunction with solar electric powered water pumping, and 4) exploring other solar applications. These are explained as follows: Since neither of the solar companies consulted in Kenya offer financing, an effective loan system could be explored to help with the initial costs of installing a solar electric powered water pumping system The Government of Kenya could develop a loan system to help fund water infrastructure projects like this one. Another important issue is water quality An effective method of removing bacteria that cause waterborne diseases could be investigated. Additionally an estimated 15 percent of people living in the Nyanza province have fluorosis (Neurath 2005) This is moderately low, considering 30 to 60 percent of the population in other areas of the country has fluorosis Fluorosis is a condition caused by high levels of naturally occurring fluoride in water, which can result in mild tooth decay to severe crippling of bones. People are more susceptible to the harmful effects of this as children, when their teeth and bones are developing. An effective means of providing for the removal of both pathogens and fluoride within a solar electric powered water pumping system could be researched. Western Kenya is a region that has more rainfall than other parts of the country Nyangajo Girls Secondary School has harvested rainwater in the past, and intends to

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64 implement this in the future. Re implementing a new and improved school wide rainwater harvesting system would enable the school to meet their water demand through cloudy period s when the solar electric powered water pumping system is less effective Combining these two water procurement methods may reduce the anticipated demand of the solar electric powered system, resulting in lower first costs for fewer solar panels Combinati on solar and rainwater harvesting systems could be investigated for wide scale use throughout the region and in other parts of the world that have similar climatic conditions Lastly, in areas such as Nyangajo Girls Secondary School that are off of the el ectric grid, solar panels and inverters could be explored as a main source of electrification. While solar electricity is common in this part of Africa, it could be considered for widescale use by the Government of Kenya. This would result in the developm ent of a nation that is more sustainable, producing fewer emissions than those of already developed nations

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65 APPENDIX A NOTES FROM NYANGAJO GIRLS SECONDARY SCHOOL Location: St. Francis Nyangajo Girls Secondary School, Kendu Bay Attendees: Alex Cosgrove, Kathryn Frederick, Michael Mazer, Jane Odhiambo, Tobias Omollo, Steven Schaenzer Date: June 9th and 11th 2010 Questions 1. Q. When was the water storage tank installed? What is its capacity? Is it supplied via RWH? A. 15,000L Borehole 2. Q. Current number of students? A. 450 3. Q. Area of site for library? A. Northeast of Form III East 4. Q. What is the planned size of the library? A. 240 sq m (~ 2,590 square feet) 5. Q. Where is drinking water obtained? How is it treated? A. 15,000 L tank. School treats with chlorine tables. 6. Q. How is water obtained from river? A. Girls fetch water from the river to be used for bathing and washing clothes. 7. Q. What is the status of the borehole? A. It has a submerged pump, powered by a petroleum generator. School has not been satisfied with the system since installation due to the price of petroleum 8. What are other buildings constructed of? A. Concrete, burnt brick, SSBs 9. Q Most important aspect for future projects at Nyangajo School? Water is most important. a) Community asset b) Capital cost c) O&M d) Ease of installation e) Sustainability f) Operational cost/ energy g) Other: Recruitment Notes

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66 Generator powered water pumping system was installed in May 2010. The water is treated with Waterguard after water comes from the tap. Original pump was replaced The pump has only been used once since the replacement generator was brought. (As of June 9, 2010) Contractor was hired by Vision Foundation The school would like to implement rainwater harvesting at new library building Water is most important aspect at Nyangajo 15,000L tank information: The 15,000 L tank pipes to kitchen and spigots at dorms. Once the 15,000L tank is approximately full, it will supply a 5,000L tank This 5,000L tank is to be used for community supply However, due to current issues with the system, the community has not been notified of this yet. 6cm diameter into from borehole 2.5cm diameter out of tank to kitchen <200m from borehole (To be verified upon receipt of plans) Other tanks: 2 (1,000L) 2(500L) To be used with PVC pipe for rainwater harvesting Concrete rainwater harvesting tank (~10,000L), hasnt been used for 23 years due to a leak. Vision foundation may pursue this as a next project. Generator Information: AC DC 230v/400v 12v Freq 50Hz 8.3A Rated Output 5kVA Max output 5.5kVA Takes one day to refill 15,000L tank 8hrs 70m deep borehole with pump ~50m deep (to be verified upon receipt of plans) Fuel gasoline ( petroleum ) Nat 7000/7000E Generator requires 2,000Ksh/day for petroleum to pump a full 15,000L water tank Petroleum costs 92 100Ksh/L Generator ~5.3 hp (to be verified upon receipt of plans)

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67 Borehole Information: 20m3/day for domestic use ( 60% of total yield, 10 hrs max pumping/day) Class of H20 reservoir B Category of application B Max recommended depth 120m From tank to pump ~150200m (to be verified upon receipt of plans) Pump was not compatible with the original generator. Nearby AC Power: Transformer bought in December Stuck in Bureaucracy School Information: There are four dorms, each housing over 80 students Newer dorms cubical plan Older dorms hallway with rooms Older dorms are 19m x 7m 1,000L Tank costs 12,000Ksh, but could find for as little as 7,000Ksh Dorms are congested and there is also a need new classrooms Tobias has been working here 5 years as the deputy principal. (Normally female administration is required at an all girls school, but this may be an exception because it is an arid area Area Information: Awach Kibuo River turbid and not potable There are two rainy seasons: Mar May and Oct Dec Mean annual rainfall 1,200m Temperature is high in January and low in July Climate: equatorial savannah Land use: settlement, farming, grazing Crops maize, sorghum, beans No soil cover and erosion in some areas

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68 APPENDIX B: PVWATTS ANALYSIS Kisii Slope Elevation (Degrees) Direction Array Type Solar Radiation kW h/m 2 /day AC Energy ( kW h ) Energy value (KSH) Latitude 0.7 North (0) Fixed 5.48 5601 37638.72 4/12 18.4 North (0) Fixed 5.32 5442 36570.24 5/12 22.6 North (0) Fixed 5.22 5339 35878.08 6/12 26.6 North (0) Fixed 5.11 5218 35064.96 7/12 30.3 North (0) Fixed 4.98 5086 34177.92 8/12 33.7 North (0) Fixed 4.86 4948 33250.56 9/12 36.9 North (0) Fixed 4.73 4803 32276.16 10/12 39.8 North (0) Fixed 4.60 4660 31315.20 11/12 42.5 North (0) Fixed 4.47 4517 30354.24 12/12 45.0 North (0) Fixed 4.35 4378 29420.16 Kakamega Slope Elevation (Degrees) Direction Array Type Solar Radiation kW h/m 2 /day AC Energy ( kW h ) Energy value (KSH) Latitude 0.7 South (180) Fixed 5.88 5949 39977.28 4/12 18.4 South (180) Fixed 5.74 5803 38996.16 5/12 22.6 South (180) Fixed 5.64 5701 38310.72 6/12 26.6 South (180) Fixed 5.52 5579 37490.88 7/12 30.3 South (180) Fixed 5.40 5446 36597.12 8/12 33.7 South (180) Fixed 5.27 5305 35649.60 9/12 36.9 South (180) Fixed 5.13 5157 34655.04

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69 10/12 39.8 South (180) Fixed 5.04 5058 33989.76 11/12 42.5 South (180) Fixed 4.87 4865 32692.80 12/12 45.0 South (180) Fixed 4.73 4722 31731.84 Makindu Slope Elevation (Degrees) Direction Array Type Solar Radiation kW h/m 2 /day AC Energy ( kW h ) Energy value (KSH) Latitude 0.7 North (0) Fixed 5.46 5509 37020.48 4/12 18.4 North (0) Fixed 5.33 5381 36160.32 5/12 22.6 North (0) Fixed 5.24 5290 35548.8 6/12 26.6 North (0) Fixed 5.14 5182 34823.04 7/12 30.3 North (0) Fixed 5.02 5063 34023.36 8/12 33.7 North (0) Fixed 4.91 4938 33183.36 9/12 36.9 North (0) Fixed 4.79 4808 32309.76 10/12 39.8 North (0) Fixed 4.67 4678 31436.16 11/12 42.5 North (0) Fixed 4.55 4547 30555.84 12/12 45.0 North (0) Fixed 4.43 4418 29688.96

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70 APPENDIX C : MEETING MINUTESDAVIS & SHIRTLIFF LOCATION: Davis & Shirtliff office, Nairobi, Kenya ATTENDEES: Norman Chege, Mike Mugo, Alex Cosgrove, Kathryn Frederick, Mike Mazer, Steve Schaenzer DATE: Thursday, 3 June 2010 TIME: 1:00 PM QUESTIONS DISCUSSED 1. How is borehole recharge rate determined? A borehole test report is given to the owner from the installer This information would be contained in the borehole report. 2. Can backup batteries / inverters be used to pump water at night? This is not recommended, as batteries require too much maintenance. Pumping should occur during the day A larger reservoir should be used to store water for use when the pump is not in use. 3. What is the recommended material for pipes? PVC or GI? PVC is usu ally used since it is cost effective and has low friction. There is a friction chart for pipe spans at 100m increments 4. What is recommended for fluoride removal? Davis & Shirtliff does not specialize in water treatment. 5. How do you determine if there are minerals in the water that will damage the equipment? A hydrologist will submit a report regarding the groundwater quality. 6. What kinds of pumps are used for different situations? Surface pump is for rivers and the borehole pump is for boreholes 7. What f actors need to be known to implement a solar powered water pumping system? Vertical lift, recharge rate, required volume, distance from source, tank size 8. What is the required maintenance? What is the lifespan?

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71 There are hardly any maintenance costs The panels may require dusting. The lifespan of the panels and the pump is 20 years There is a 2 year warranty on the products 9. How do you recommend dealing with issues of theft and vandalism? Theft is a big issue. A solar panel could be welded to a tank to prevent theft. 10. How far can water be pumped from a river? Depends 11. What is the maximum cable distance? 20m 12. Is there a low volume, high pressure portable pump that could be used for brick erosion tests? All pumps are available on website. 13. What are typi cal costs for the equipment? These are determined by the head height and the flow rate. Davis & Shirtliff has a high head borehole pump for $3,000, which requires 1,400 W There is a low head borehole pump for $1,000, which requires 160 W The total package including solar panels ranges from $8,000 12,000. (A solar panel costs ~ $5,000.) For much smaller applications, there is a surface pump costing approximately $20. It has a flow rate of 1.8 GPM and requires 80W 14. What is a typical daily demand for a solar electric powered water pumping installation? 20m3/day, 80 100 m deep 15. What is done to prevent flocculation of water? Flocculation will not damage the pump. NOTES: Tables and specifications are available on the Davis & Shirtliff website. The Grundflos software for capturing the requirements is available on the website. Chlorine water treatment at the tank is most cost effective method.

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72 APPENDIX D : MEETING MINUTES CENTER FOR ALTERNATI VE TECHNOLOGIES LOCATION: Center for Alternative Technologies office, Nairobi, Kenya ATTENDEES: Nawir Ibrahim, Leonard Mwangi, Kathryn Frederick, Steve Schaenzer DATE: Wednesday, 14 July 2010 TIME: 9:30 AM ITEMS DISCUSSED 1. PV and petroleum power sources can be used interchangeably for water pumping, but only if a transformer is used. A transformer may cost approximately $1,500. 2. On the quote provided for Nyangajo Girls Secondary School, the only item that applies specifically to the pump is Item 1.00 Lorentz Submersible Solar Pump PS1800 C SJ1 25+ C. 3. Single axis tracking can result in 2530% more water being pumped, than in that of fixed panels If Nyangajo Girls Secondary School has a population of 500, and requires 20L per person per day, then the daily requirement of 10,000L can be achieved per the Lorentz Compass simulation software. The single axis tracker allows pumping to begin earlier and run later. 4. A fixed frame structural mounting system costs 25% of that of a single mount system Per the Lorentz Compass simulation software, a fixed structural frame should meet the demands of Nyangajo Girls Secondary School. 5. Maintenance of the solar panels requires dusting with a damp cloth. Dusty panels may result in an inefficiency of 2030%. Panels that are oriented at zero degrees require more cleaning than those that are oriented at a slight angle. 6. Panels specified can be reduced or increased by multiples of four. 7. Water can be corrosive on pumps, and dirty water can wear the pump out A pump report should be obtained from the school to determine water quality and properties that may affect the pump. 8. The pump listed consists of three parts: 1) drive, 2) pump and 3) controller Each is approximately onethird of the overall line item cost If there is a lot of wear and tear on a pump, it may have to be replaced after two years This would require replacing only onethird of the overall pump. 9. There is a twoyear warranty on pumps In that time, parts will be replaced for free, but the client will have to pay for labor and shipping.

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73 10. It would be ideal to obtain li ghtning frequency data for the region. 11. Pump efficiency is a factor in calculating the power The pump specified (PS 1800 C SJ1 25) has an efficiency of 40%. 12. Power in watts is calculated as follows: Watts = Vertical feet x GPM x 18.8 Pump Efficiency Or Watts = Vertical meters x LPM x 16 Pump Efficiency 13. Total head = tank height + well to basin + static level + drawdown 14. If the correct size pipe is used, pipe length is not a factor Pipe sizes can be selected f rom chart provided by Center for Alternative Technologies 15. For lowering the pump into the outlet, a 40mm (1.25) pipe was quoted. 16. The PS1800 pump can work with four, eight or twelve modules The PS4000 can add many more. 17. The Center for Alternative Technol ogies has provided the 2010 IRES team access to the Lorentz Compass Simulation Software as well as a brochure comparing solar and diesel electric powered water pumping systems 18. Panels higher off of the ground allow for more security but are harder to clean. 19. Specified pump (PS1800 C SJ1 25+ C) with 8 panels and no tracker yields approximately 11.8m^3/day 20. Specified pump (PS1800 C SJ1 25+ C) with 12 panels and tracker yields approximately 23m^3/day .

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74 APPENDIX E: PRICE QUOTE AND SPECIFICATIONS DAVIS & SHIRTLIFF

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81 APPENDIX F: PRICE QUOTE AND SPECIFICATIONS CENTER FOR ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLO GIES

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84 LIST OF REFERENCES (2009). Mono teams up with Water For All on Fun Pump. Pump Industry Analyst 2009(6), 13. doi:10.1016/S13596128(09)702472. Acra, A.; M. Jurdi; H. Mu'allem; Y. Karahagopian and Z. Raffoul (1990). Water Disinfection by Solar Radiation: Assessment and Application. International Development Research Centre (IDRC Canada). Retrieved from http://almashriq.hiof.no/lebanon/600/610/614/solar water/idrc/01 09.html (Date Accessed: November 8, 2009). ASTM E 917 89. Standard Practice for Measuring Lifecycle Costs of Buildings and Building Systems. Borg, John P. and Zitomer, Daniel H. (Apr. 2008) Dual Team Model for International Service Learning in Engineering: Remote Solar Water Pumping i n Guatemala, Journal of Professional Issues in Engineering Education and Practice, Vol. 134 Issue 2, p178185, 8p. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)10523928(2008)134:2(178). Dunn, P.D. (1978). Appropriate Technology. Macmillan Press. Fischlowitz Roberts, Bernie (2002). Sales of Solar Cells Take Off. Eco Economy Update (Washington, DC: Earth Policy Institute) Ghoneim, A. (2006). Design optimization of photovoltaic powered water pumping systems. Energy Conversion & Management 47(11/12), 14491463. doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2005.08.015. Howard, G. and Bartram, J. (2003). Domestic water quantity, service level and health. Geneva, World Health Organization. Hrayshat, E., & Al Soud, M. (2004). Potential of solar energy development for water pumping in Jor dan. Renewable Energy: An International Journal 29(8), 1393. doi:10.1016/j.renene.2003.12.016. Markvart, T h omas. (2000). Solar Electricity (2nd ed.). West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons. Meah, K., Fretcher, S., & Ula, S. (2008). Solar photovoltaic wat er pumping for remote locations. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews 12(2), 472487. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2006.10.008. Mvuleni Water Project (2006). Project Report July 2006. Retrieved from http: //tanzaniaprojektet.se/swe/vatpro.php (Date Accessed: October 30, 2009). National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) (2010). PV Watts. Retrieved from http://www.nrel.org (Date Accessed: October 4, 2010.)

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85 Neurath, C. (2005) Correlation between dental fluorosis incidence and osteosarcoma incidence amongst provinces of Kenya and Association between fluoridation and osteosarcoma in Malaysia, Fluoride Action Network, Submission to NRC Project: Toxicologic Risk of Fluoride in Dri nking Water. Office of Management and Budget Circular (OMB) A 94 Revised (1992). Retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/circulars_a094#8 (Date Accessed: September 30, 2010). Ray, I. (2007). Women, Water, and Development. Annual Review of Environment & Resources 32(1), 421 449. doi:10.1146/annurev.energy.32.041806.143704. Ruegg, Rosalie T. and Marshall, Harold E. (1990). Building Economics: Theory and Practice. New York, USA: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Short, T., & Thompson, P. (2003). Breaking the mould: solar water pumping the challenges and the reality. Solar Energy 75(1), 1. doi:10.1016/S0038092X(03)002330. URL 1: Tanzaniaprojektet http://tanzaniaprojektet.se/swe/vatpro.php (Date Accessed: February 9, 2010). URL 2: Water for All http://www.waterforall.org/stories from thefield/90kyeleni healthcentreandprimary school (Date Accessed: February 18, 2010). URL 3: Profitability Analysis for the Larch Generation Station http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:4Q97wvw7JgYJ:home power.com/files/webextras/LarchProfitabilityHP.xls+salvage+value+of+solar+pan els&cd=1&hl=en&ct =clnk&gl=us (Date Accessed: September 29, 2010). United Nations (UN) (1997). Women in Sustainable Development. Earth Summit+5: Special Session of the General Assembly to Review and Appraise the Implementation of Agenda 21. UN Department of Public Informati on. New York June 2327. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/ecosocdev/geninfo/sustdev/womensus.htm (Date Accessed: November 1, 2009). U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (nd). Energy Efficien cy and Renewable Energy. The History of Solar Retrieved from www.eere.energy.gov/ solar /pdfs/ solar _timeline.pdf (Date Accessed: March 4, 2010). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2010). Emission Facts: Average Carbon Dioxide Emissions Resulting from Gasoline and Diesel Fuel. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/otaq/climate/420f05001.ht m (Date Accessed: April 22, 2010). World Health Organization (WHO) (2008). Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Volume 1: Recommendations. Third Edition. Geneva. Retrieved from

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86 http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/gdwq3rev/en/index.html (Date Accessed: October 23, 2009).

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87 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Kathryn Frederick earned a Bachelor of Design in Interior Design at the University of Florida where she graduated cum laud e in 2005. She has worked in architecture and interior design firms in Atlanta and Florida. In 2006, Kathryn became a LEED AP (Leadership for Energy and Environmental Design Accredited Professional), and in 2007 passed the NCIDQ (National Council for Interi or Design Qualification) exams to become a Licensed Interior Designer by the Florida Board of Architecture and Interior Design in 2008. In collaborating with many professionals of the design and construction industry, Kathryn realized that she wanted to return to the University of Florida to work on a Master of Science in Building Construction with a focus in Sustainable Construction. Kathryns interest in sustainability combined with her interest in foreign cultures led to her research on sustainable devel opment in Africa. Kathryn will graduate in December 2010. Afterwards, she intends to gain powerful experience working in the construction industry and to continue to further her education.