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The Effects of Respiratory Muscle Training on Strength and Performance in Collegiate Swimmers and on Thalamic Gene Expre...

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0042333/00001

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Title: The Effects of Respiratory Muscle Training on Strength and Performance in Collegiate Swimmers and on Thalamic Gene Expression in a Rat Model
Physical Description: 1 online resource (177 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Bernhardt, Vipa
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: breathlessness, gating, microarray, occlusion, perception, respiratory, swimming, thalamus, training
Physiology and Pharmacology (IDP) -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Medical Sciences thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Exercise performance in highly trained athletes may be limited by the respiratory system, possibly due to respiratory muscle fatigue and/or feeling of breathlessness. The feeling of breathlessness may be mediated by the medial thalamus, the proposed region responsible for gating of respiratory sensory feedback to reach consciousness. The present studies were undertaken to evaluate the effects of an expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) in collegiate swimmers and to determine the role of the medial thalamus in a rat model of intrinsic, transient tracheal occlusions (ITTO). Study #1 tested the hypothesis that EMST could increase the maximum expiratory pressure (MEP)-generating capacity, decrease the perception of effort and breathlessness, and improve swimming performance in highly trained swimmers. The results demonstrated that EMST significantly increased MEP. Swimming performance, as measured by a 6 x 100 m freestyle test, showed a trend for improvement in swim time, however, the change was not statistically significant. Ratings of breathlessness and effort, which were assessed during the swim test, were also not statistically significant but showed a trend for improvement. The results suggest that EMST could be used as an adjunct for swimmers? athletic conditioning. Study #2 tested the hypothesis that ITTO in anesthetized animals would induce immediate gene expression changes in the medial thalamus. Analysis showed an up-regulation of genes involved in the stress response. Results from this study supported the role of the medial thalamus as a component in the gating of respiratory stimuli, specifically the stressful stimuli of tracheal occlusions. Study #3 tested the hypothesis that 10 days of repeated exposure to ITTO in conscious animals would induce gene expression state changes in the medial thalamus. Results from this study demonstrated that repeated ITTO elicited state changes in the expression of genes involved in neuronal firing mode, suggesting a modulation of gating of respiratory information. Together, these three experiments suggest that EMST could be beneficial in highly trained swimmers and that this positive effect may be due to an increase in expiratory muscle strength and a change in gating of respiratory feedback through the medial thalamus, which could delay the feelings of breathlessness.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Vipa Bernhardt.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Davenport, Paul W.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2011-12-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0042333:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0042333/00001

Material Information

Title: The Effects of Respiratory Muscle Training on Strength and Performance in Collegiate Swimmers and on Thalamic Gene Expression in a Rat Model
Physical Description: 1 online resource (177 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Bernhardt, Vipa
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: breathlessness, gating, microarray, occlusion, perception, respiratory, swimming, thalamus, training
Physiology and Pharmacology (IDP) -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Medical Sciences thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Exercise performance in highly trained athletes may be limited by the respiratory system, possibly due to respiratory muscle fatigue and/or feeling of breathlessness. The feeling of breathlessness may be mediated by the medial thalamus, the proposed region responsible for gating of respiratory sensory feedback to reach consciousness. The present studies were undertaken to evaluate the effects of an expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) in collegiate swimmers and to determine the role of the medial thalamus in a rat model of intrinsic, transient tracheal occlusions (ITTO). Study #1 tested the hypothesis that EMST could increase the maximum expiratory pressure (MEP)-generating capacity, decrease the perception of effort and breathlessness, and improve swimming performance in highly trained swimmers. The results demonstrated that EMST significantly increased MEP. Swimming performance, as measured by a 6 x 100 m freestyle test, showed a trend for improvement in swim time, however, the change was not statistically significant. Ratings of breathlessness and effort, which were assessed during the swim test, were also not statistically significant but showed a trend for improvement. The results suggest that EMST could be used as an adjunct for swimmers? athletic conditioning. Study #2 tested the hypothesis that ITTO in anesthetized animals would induce immediate gene expression changes in the medial thalamus. Analysis showed an up-regulation of genes involved in the stress response. Results from this study supported the role of the medial thalamus as a component in the gating of respiratory stimuli, specifically the stressful stimuli of tracheal occlusions. Study #3 tested the hypothesis that 10 days of repeated exposure to ITTO in conscious animals would induce gene expression state changes in the medial thalamus. Results from this study demonstrated that repeated ITTO elicited state changes in the expression of genes involved in neuronal firing mode, suggesting a modulation of gating of respiratory information. Together, these three experiments suggest that EMST could be beneficial in highly trained swimmers and that this positive effect may be due to an increase in expiratory muscle strength and a change in gating of respiratory feedback through the medial thalamus, which could delay the feelings of breathlessness.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Vipa Bernhardt.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Davenport, Paul W.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2011-12-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0042333:00001


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1 THE EFFECTS OF RESPIRATORY MUSCLE TRAINING ON STRENGTH AND PERFORMANCE IN COLL E GIATE SWIMMERS AND ON THALAMIC GENE EXPRESSION IN A RAT MODEL By VIPA BERNHARDT A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2010

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2 2010 Vipa Bernhardt

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3 To my parents

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS First and foremost, I would like to thanks my parents, Chamaipon and Helge, for their endless support and for always being there for me even though the Atlantic Ocean separates us. Skype has been one of the best technical advances for our widely spread ou t family to be able to talk and see each other. To my brother Jens, whose footsteps I followed and that led me to pursue a career in science. Special thanks go to my graduate mentor, Dr. Paul Davenport, for his teaching, guidance, and encouragement. Tha nks to my supervisory committee: Dr. David Fuller, Dr. Nancy Denslow, Dr. Dan ny Martin, Dr. Linda Hayward, and Dr. Roger Reep for the support and comments throughout my dissertation process I am grateful for having had the opportunity to share my experi ence with my fellow labmates, past and present: Drs. Pei Ying Sarah Chan, Kate Pate, Karen Hegland, Andrea Vovk and soon to be Drs. Mark Hotchkiss, Irene Tsai, Poonam Jaiswal. As well as the other scientists in and around B3 16: Dr s. Teresa Pitts, Barbara Smith, and soon to be Dr. Ana Bassit I would like to thank Stacey Nedrud for her help and f riendship in and out of the lab Will Walters for critical comments and Mandy Huff for continual moral support I would also like to acknowledge Dr. Natalia Garcia Reyero for her help with the microarrays Last but not least, I would like to thank the UF swim team: the c oach es Gregg Troy, Mar t yn Wilby, and Pete Knox for their support to carry out my project and allowing me to interfe re somewhat with swim practices a nd the swimmers who did the extra work for my research.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 8 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 9 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 13 Exercise and Respiration ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 13 Intermittent Transient Tracheal Occlusions (ITTO) in Rats as a Model for Respiratory Muscle Training ................................ ................................ .......................... 16 Respiratory Load Compensat ion Response ................................ ................................ ... 17 Sensory Gating ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 19 Specific Aims ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 22 Specific Aim 1: To Investigate the Effects of Expiratory Muscle Strength Training in Collegiate Swimmers ................................ ................................ ........... 22 Specific Aim 2: To Investigate the Changes in the Gene Expression Profile of the Medial Thalamus following ITTO in Anesthetized Rats .......................... 23 Specific Aim 3: To Investigate the Changes in the Gene Expression Profile of the Medial Th alamus following 10 Days of Repeated ITTO in Conscious Rats ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 24 2 THE EFFECTS OF EXPIRATORY MUSCLE STRENGTH TRAINING IN COLLEGE SW IMMERS ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 28 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 28 Materials and Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 31 Subjects ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 31 Experimental Design ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 31 Procedures ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 32 Pulmonary function assessment ................................ ................................ ........ 32 Maximum expiratory pressures ................................ ................................ .......... 32 Expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) ................................ ..................... 32 Airflow training (AFT) ................................ ................................ ............................ 33 O 2 max test on swim bench ................................ ................................ ............... 33 Timed interval swim tests ................................ ................................ .................... 34 St atistical Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 35 Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 35 Demographics ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 35 Pulmonary Functions and MEP ................................ ................................ ................. 36

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6 O 2 Test ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 36 Swimming Performance ................................ ................................ .............................. 37 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 38 Pulmonary Functions and MEP ................................ ................................ ................. 38 Oxygen Consumption ( O 2 ) ................................ ................................ ....................... 39 Functional Significance of Improvements in Swim Performance Times ............. 41 Properties of Respiratory Muscles ................................ ................................ ............ 42 Pacing Strategies ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 46 Potential Mechanisms ................................ ................................ ................................ 47 Perception of Breathlessness ................................ ................................ .................... 48 Conclusions ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 51 3 TRACHEAL OCCLU SION IN ANESTHETIZED RATS MODULATES GENE EXPRESSION PROFILE OF MEDIAL THALAMUS ................................ ...................... 63 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 63 Materials and Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 67 Animals ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 67 Surgical Procedures ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 67 Experimental Protocol ................................ ................................ ................................ 68 Physiological Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ....................... 69 Total RNA Isolation ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 70 RNA Amplification and Microarray Analysis ................................ ............................ 70 Gene Ontology and Pathway Analysis ................................ ................................ ..... 71 Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 72 Physiological Responses to ITTO ................................ ................................ ............. 72 Modulation of Gene Expression Profile Following ITTO ................................ ........ 72 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 73 Airway Occlusions Elicit the Load Compensation Response ............................... 73 Airway Obstruction in Disease and Association with Anxiety and Depression .. 74 Airway Occlusions Induce Serotonin Receptor HTR2A and Reduce Dopamine Receptor DRD1 ................................ ................................ ..................... 75 Airway Occlusions Alter Genes Involved in Anti Apoptosis ................................ .. 77 Functional Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 78 Conclusions ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 79 4 TRACHEAL OCCLUSION CONDITIONING IN CONSCIOUS RATS MODULATES GENE EXPRESSION PROFILE OF MEDIAL THALAMUS ............... 88 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 88 Materials and Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 91 Animal s ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 91 Surgical Procedures ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 91 Placement of tracheal occluder ................................ ................................ .......... 91 Analgesia and postoperative care ................................ ................................ ...... 92 Experimental Protocol ................................ ................................ ................................ 92 Microarray Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 93

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7 Results ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 93 Modulation of Gene Expression Profile Following ITTO ................................ ........ 93 Gene Ontology and Pathway Analysis ................................ ................................ ..... 93 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 95 Thalamic Firing Mode and Sensory Gating ................................ ............................. 95 Chronic Exposure to ITTO Modulates Genes Involved in Stress, Anxiety, and Depression ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 99 Chronic Exposure to ITTO Modulates SHOX2 ................................ ..................... 101 Chronic Exposure to ITTO Mod ulates Pathways Involved in Learning and Memory, Cell Processes, and Cell Signaling ................................ ..................... 102 Conclusions ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 103 5 SUMMARIES AND CONCLUSIONS ................................ ................................ ............. 110 Summary of Study Findings ................................ ................................ ............................ 110 Study #1 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 110 Study #2 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 111 Study #3 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 112 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ .......................... 113 The Role of Serotonin in Response to Respiratory Stimuli ................................ 113 The Effects of Respiratory Training ................................ ................................ ........ 114 Methodological Considerations and Directions for Future Studies ........................... 115 Fatigue due to Regular Training ................................ ................................ .............. 116 Respiratory Training Stress Stimulus ................................ ................................ ..... 116 O 2 max Testing ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 117 Prevalence of Respiratory Disease in Swimmers ................................ ................ 118 Specificity of Medial Thalamic Nuclei ................................ ................................ ..... 118 Genomics Versus Proteomics ................................ ................................ ................. 119 Conclusions ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 119 APPENDIX A RATING SCALES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 121 B LIST OF MODULATED GENES FOLLOWING ACUTE ITTO ................................ ... 123 C LIST OF MODULATED GENES FOLLOWING REPEATED ITTO ........................... 138 D LIST OF MODULATED GENE ONTOLOGY BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES FOLLOWING REPEATED ITTO ................................ ................................ .................... 157 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 160 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 177

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 1 1 Summary of EMST studies with reported MEP and functional changes. .............. 26 2 1 Anthropometric data participants ................................ ................................ ................. 53 2 2 Pulmonary function test data ................................ ................................ ........................ 53 2 3 Maximum expiratory pressure test data. ................................ ................................ .... 54 3 1 experimental and control animals ................................ ................................ ................ 83 3 2 Comparisons between control, occlusion, and recovery breaths in the experimental animals ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 83 3 3 Comparisons between control, occlusion, and recovery breaths in the experimental animals with combined values from O1 and O2 ................................ 83 3 4 Genes of interest that we re significantly regulated following ITTO. ....................... 85 3 5 Highly regulated biological processes following ITTO were found with gene ontol ogy analysis. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 86 4 1 Candidate genes significantly differentially regulated following chronic ITTO. .. 106 4 2 Significantly modulated Gene Ontology Biological Processes. ............................ 106 B 1 List of modulated genes following acute ITTO ................................ ........................ 123 C 1 List of modulated genes following repeated ITTO ................................ .................. 138 D 1 List of modulated GO groups following repeate d ITTO ................................ .......... 157

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9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 1 Model of respiratory information processing including sensory signal transduction, subcortical, cortical, and perceptual processing ............................... 27 2 1 Components of the train ing devices for A) EMST, B) AFT. ................................ ..... 52 2 2 Percent change in MEP for each individual ................................ ............................... 54 2 3 The EMST group significantly increased MEP post training compared to pre training. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 54 2 4 Pre and post performance times for 6 x 100 m freestyle test for both EMST and AFT groups ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 55 2 5 Percent change in 100 m time for each individual. ................................ ................... 56 2 6 Percent change of mean swim time during the 6 x 100 m freestyle test for EMST and AFT groups. ................................ ................................ ................................ 56 2 7 Correlation of % time change during 6 x 100 m test and change in ME P pre to post training for each individual. ................................ ................................ .............. 57 2 8 Percent time change of the first 100 m interval ................................ ......................... 58 2 9 Percent time change of the last 100 m interval ................................ ......................... 58 2 10 Heart rate before and during the 6x100 m freestyle test. ................................ ........ 59 2 11 Changes in Ratings of Brea thlessness between first and last rating within one 6x100 m test ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 60 2 12 Changes in Ratings of Perceived Exertion between first a nd last rating within one 6x100 m test ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 60 2 13 Functional significance of % improvements in swim time pre and post training comp preliminary races ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 61 2 14 Possible mechanisms leading to the sensation of breathlessness. ....................... 62 3 1 Diagram of surgical preparation including placement of tracheal occluder, esophageal pressure tube, and d iaphragm electrodes. ................................ ........... 80 3 2 Location of collected thalamic tissue sample ................................ ............................. 81 3 3 Physiological changes as a result of ITTO ................................ ................................ 82

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10 3 4 Comparisons between control, occlusion, and recovery breaths in the experimental animals. A) Ti, B) Te, C) Ttot, D) P es E) EMG dia .............................. 84 3 5 Interaction between dopamine (DRD1) and serotonin receptors (HTR2A) under the control of MAPK1 ................................ ................................ ......................... 87 4 1 Schematic of th e experimental protocol for repeated ITTO. ................................ 104 4 2 Representative plethysmograph pressure traces for one occlusion trial on day 10 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 105 4 3 Pathway analysis of transcripts (p < 0.05) involved in the biological processes of learning and/or memory. ................................ ................................ ..... 107 4 4 Pathway analysis of transcripts (p < 0.05) involved in cell processes. ................ 108 4 5 Pathway analysis of transcripts (p < 0.05) involved in cell signaling. .................. 109 5 1 Model for possible effects of respiratory muscle training on perception. ............ 120

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11 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy THE EFFECTS OF RESPIRATORY MUSCLE TRAINING ON STRENGTH AND PERFORMANCE IN COLLEGIATE SWIMMERS AND ON THALAMIC GENE EXPRES SION IN A RAT MODEL By Vipa Bernhardt December 2010 Chair: Paul W. Davenport Major: Medical Sciences Exercise performance in highly trained athletes may be limited by the respiratory system, possibly due to respiratory muscle fatigue and/or feeling of breathlessness. The feeling of breathlessness may be mediated by the medial thalamus, the proposed region responsible for gating of respiratory sensory feedback to reach consciousness The present studies were undertaken to evaluate the effects of a n ex piratory muscle strength training (EMST) in collegiate swimmers and to determine the role of the medial thal amus in a rat model of intrinsic, transient tracheal occlusions (ITTO) Study #1 tested the hypothesis that EMST could increase the maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) generating capacity, decrease the perception of effort and breathlessness, and improve swi mming performance in highly trained swimmers. The r esults demonstrate d that EMST significantly increase d MEP Swimming performance as measured by a 6 x 100 m freestyle test, showed a trend for improvement in swim time however, the change was not statisti c ally significant R atings of breathlessness and effort which were assessed during the swim test were also not statistically

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12 significant but showed a trend for improve ment The results suggest that EMST could be used as an adjunct for s wimmer s athletic conditioning. Study #2 tested the hypothesi s that ITTO in anesthetized animals would induce immediate gene expression changes in the medial thalamus. Analysis showed an up regulation of genes involved in the stress response. Results from this stu dy supported the role of the medial thalamus as a component in the gating of respiratory stimuli, specifically the stressful stimul i of tracheal occlusions S tudy #3 test ed the hypothesis that 10 days of repeated exposure to ITTO in conscious animals would induce gene expression state changes in the medial thalamus. Results from this study demonstrate d that repeated ITTO elicited state changes in the expression of gene s involved in neuronal firing mode, suggesting a modulation of gating of respiratory infor mation. Together, these three experiments suggest that EMST could be beneficial in highly trained swimmers and that this positive effect may be due to an increase in expiratory muscle strength and a change in gating of respiratory feedback through the medial thalamus, which could delay the feelings of breathlessne ss.

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13 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Exercise and Respiration Historically, exercise training has primarily focused on improving the cardiovascular system and strengthening the locomotor musculature. Very little attention has been given to the respiratory system because it was thought this system pared to the rest of the oxygen transport system, because the capacity of the pulmonary system is usually much greater than the demand placed on it during exercise in the healthy, young adult (Dempsey et al 1990) It was not until the challenged by studies performed by Dempsey and co lleagues (Dempsey, 1986) Dempsey hypothesized that in highly trained athletes the r espiratory system might become the limiting factor during exercise, ultimately causing the individual to terminate the exercise. This hypothesis was based on the idea that with training the capabilities of the cardiovascular and musculo skeletal systems e xceed that of the respiratory system. Indeed, a number of studies since then have demonstrated that the respiratory system does not adapt to the same extent as the cardiovascular system and the locomotor muscles in response to whole body training (Dempsey, 2006) rendering it the weak link in the oxygen transport chain. Specifically, monary capillary blood volume does not change in the highly trained, while maximum pulmonary blood flow increases linearly with the enhanced maximal oxygen consumption ( O 2 max ) (Dempsey et al 1990) Also, although ventilatory demands increase markedly, the capability of the airways to produce higher flow rates or of the lung parenchyma to stretch to higher tidal volumes remains unaltered.

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14 The cascade of events leading to exercise termination as proposed by Dempsey includes physiological factors such as respiratory muscle fatigue as well as neural factors such as the metaboreflex and the sensation of breathlessness (Dempsey et al 2008) Early work by Loke et al. (Loke et al 1982) showed that maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures (MIP and MEP, respectively) measured after a marat hon was significantly lower than pre marathon values, suggesting potential global respiratory muscle fatigue following exercise. Studies using a more direct technique of transcutaneous bilateral phrenic nerve stimulation have demonstrated inspiratory muscl e (diaphragm) fatigue during heavy endurance exercise (Babcock et al., 1995; Johnson et al., 1993; Mador et al., 1993) Expiratory (abdominal) muscle fatigue following exercise has been demonstrated using surface electromyography (Fuller et al 1996) and magnetic stimulation of the nerve roots supplying the abdominal muscles (Taylor et al 2006; Verges et al 2006) Both inspiratory (Mador and Acevedo, 1991) and expiratory (Taylor and Romer, 200 8; Verges et al ., 2007) muscle fatigue impairs exercise p erformance. The metaboreflex is activated when blood flow and oxygen delivery to contracting muscles is insufficient for the rate of metabolism so that chemical products of muscle metabolism accumulate within the muscle. This accumulation would stimulate group III and IV afferents which, in turn, elicit a reflex increase in sympathetic activity to the heart and vasculature which increases heart rate and blood pressure (Mitchell, 1990) Simultaneously, t he increased sympathetic outflow causes vasoconstriction and thus reduced oxygen transport to the exercising limb muscles, possibly leading to peripheral limb fatigue (Dempsey et al 2006) The most recent evidence for the existence of a respiratory muscle metaboref lex comes from a

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15 study using inspiratory pressure threshold loading in rowers, in which a load of 60% MIP elicited a sustained increase in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, diastolic and systolic blood pressure (McC onnell and Griffiths, 2010) Increased respiratory and peripheral locomotor muscle fatigue is thought to activate higher brain center s for the conscious awareness of breathlessness and exertion (Dempsey et al 2008) Thus, the extremely uncomfortable sensation of breathlessness may be the decid ing factor for exercise termination. Since respiratory muscle fatigue is one of the first steps in the cascade, interventions using respiratory muscle strength training (RMST) could potentially delay or eliminate fatigue during high intensity exercise. RMST was first performed and is still being used in the clinical setting to improve cough and swallow function, and alleviate dyspnea in pathological conditions such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) (Harver et al 1989; Lisboa et al 1997; Weiner et al 2003a) Multiple Sclerosis (M S) (Chiara et al 2006) (Pitts et al 2008) Exercise physiologists soon followed to examine the potential ergogenic effects of RMST in the athletic population. Most studies have focused on training the inspiratory muscles, while only very few studies have examined the effects of expiratory muscle training on exercise performa nce in athletes. Table 1 1 summarizes the studies using expiratory muscle strength training including protocols and results. Comparisons between previous studies of RMST are difficult because of the implementation of diverse implementation of training regi mens, different laboratory tests of exercise performance, and the diverse subject population ranging from athletes to lung disease patients. Limitations of many of these studies include the lack of control or sham

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16 groups. Chapter 1 examines the effects of a specific expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) protocol on maximal expiratory pressure generating capacity and exercise performance in highly trained collegiate swimmers by compar ing an EMST group with a placebo air flow training (AFT) group Interm ittent Transient Tracheal Occlusions (ITTO) in Rats as a Model for Respiratory Muscle Training Respiratory muscle training in humans is a voluntary process that requires the ; qualities that animals do not fulfill. One way to elicit respiratory muscle training in animals is to perform tracheal occlusions. Our laboratory has developed a rat model of ITTO that promotes a better understanding of the effects of training on muscle tissue, neu ral activation and changes in gene expression profiles via invasive techniques. In our model of ITTO, occlusions are administered by inflating a rubber cuff that is secured around the extrathoracic trachea. Inflating the cuff closes off the lumen of the tr achea. An occlusion of a complete breath (during one inspiration and expiration cycle) represents an infinite inspiratory and expiratory resistive load. In order to maintain alveolar ventilation during experiments were carried out while the animals were under uret hane anesthesia, allowing for the examination of the respiratory load compensation reflex and the immediate effects of ITTO on the respiratory neural network (Chapter 3). Anesthesia suppresses breathing and the modulatory involvement of higher brain center s. Thus, the next experiments focused on ITTO in conscious, behaving rats. In these studies the animals were presented with repeated ITTO for 10 days to allow for conditioning and learning effects (Chapter 4).

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17 Using the ITTO model, remodeling of diaphragm and intercostal muscles has been found in the form of significant increases in cross sectional areas of fast twitch type IIx/b fibers, suggesting respiratory muscle hypertrophy (Smith et al 2010) Experiments using c F os a n indirec t protein marker of neuronal activity that is expressed w hen neurons fire action potentials (Bullitt, 1990) and cytochrome oxidase a mitochondrial enzyme marker for neuronal fun ctional activity, have shown extensive modulation of the neural network including brainstem respiratory nuclei as well as supra pontine nuclei involved in discriminative and affective neural pathways (Pate et al 2008; Pate et al 2010) Of particular interest was the finding of a significant increase in c F os activation in the medial thalamus following tracheal occlusions (Vovk et al 2006) because it is thought that the thalamus act s as a gatekeeper for sensory information to higher brain centers. In addition, ITTO conditioning has been shown to produce anxiety like behaviors (Pate et al 2010) T hese experiments clearly demonstrated that tracheal occlusions modulate the respiratory neural network, not just in the brainstem where the subconscious respiratory rhythm is generated, but also in higher brain centers involved in the perception and sensation of breathing. The ITTO model coul d thus be used to examine the molecular changes that occur with this type of respiratory muscle training and could potentially elucidate the role of the perception of breathlessness on limiting exercise performance. Respiratory Load Compensation Response The respiratory system is continually active, and any prolonged interruption is a the face of a variety of stimuli by adjusting the breathing pattern. Breathing frequency (f b ) and tidal volume (V t ) are the two components contributing to ventilation ( E =V t f b ).

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18 Clark and von Euler (Clark and von Euler, 1972) described the relationship between volume and timing in anesthetized cats. They demonstrated that inspiratory time ( T i ) depends on inspiratory volume and tha t the subsequent expiratory time ( T e ) depends on the preceding T i This volume timing relationship was abolished after vagotomy, indicating that intact vagi were required to evoke the volume timing response. A similar volume timing relationship was found w hen a mechanical stimulus in the form of an external resistive load was applied. Loading of the inspiratory (Zechman et al 1976) or expiratory (Koehler and Bishop, 1979) phase caused a decrease in volume and an increase in the duration of the respe ctive loaded breath phase. The response to the added loads was called the respiratory load compensation reflex. Load compensation is a sensory motor response utilized to maintain appropriate alveolar ventilation. Vagotomy prevents afferent feedback and lea ds to prolonged breath phases that are terminated by an inherent brainstem pattern generator (Zechman et al 1976) As with vagotomy, complete tracheal occlusions prevent changes in lung volume, decreasing vagal afferent activity. The increased breath durations seen in response to occlusion approach values similar to those seen with vagotomy, confirming that vagal feedback from the respiratory pump is an important component in activating the load compensation response (Phillipson, 1974; Zechman et al 1976) A respiratory load of sufficient magnitude can be consciously perceived by the human and elicit uncomfortable sensations proportional to the size of the load (Killian et al 1981) The reflexive load compensation response is activated by resistive loads and occlusions, but breathing is also behaviorally modulated in conscious animals and humans (Davenport and Vovk, 2009)

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19 Sensory Gating Ga ting of incoming sensory information is a way to control what and how much information will be received by higher brain centers. Gating is thought to be a protective mechanism for humans and animals to prevent the conscious perception of unnecessary stimul i and instead attend only to the meaningful ones. Sensory information from the periphery travels via spinal afferents to subcortical structures, where the stimuli are filtered and selected to either be relayed on to the cognitive centers or discarded. One of the proposed brain areas functioning as a gate for respiratory stimuli is the thalamus (Chan and Davenport, 2008) Malfunction of the thalamic gate or any interference with neurotransmitter modulatory systems have been associated with states of psychosis and delirium (Gaudreau and Gagnon, 2005) and disorders such as schizophrenia, post traumatic st ress disorder, psychotic mania, and obsessive compulsive disorder (Javanbakht, 2006) Specifically, modulations to the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems appear to be important in gating processes. Activation of the serotonin receptor subtype 2A (HTR 2A) reduces sensory gating so that more sensory information reaches cortical areas and thus consciousness, which in turn can lead to the pathology of anxiety disorders (Javanbakht, 2006) In addition, Carlsson and colleagues (Carlsson et al 1999) have postulated that hyperactivity of dopamine reduces the protective influence of the inhibitory ac tion of striatothalamic GABAergic neurons onto thalamocortical glutamatergic neurons, which can then lead to sensory overload and hyperarousal, confusion, or psychosis Indeed, it has been shown that paminergic pathways improve sensory functioning and gating in schizophrenic patients (Freedman et al 1987)

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20 being. Eupneic breathing is usually not consciously perceived, meaning that respiratory afferents during normal breathing are gated o ut and do not reach higher brain centers. However, if ventilation changes sufficiently or breathing is attended to, the sensation is gated in and the animal becomes aware of its breathing (Chan and Davenport, 2008) This awareness is us ually associated with distressing emotion (O'Donnell et al 2007) Figure 1 1 shows the proposed schematic model of respiratory somatosensation an d gating. The respiratory control center located in the brainstem provides ventilatory motor drive via descending bulbo spinal projections that synapse with anterior horn cells in the cervical and thoracic spinal cord which in turn project to the respirator y muscles (Guz, 1997) Voluntary control of respiration is processed from the motor cortex through corticospinal connections to the respiratory mus cles. Ventilation, including changes in volume pressure, oxygen ( O 2 ) and carbon dioxide ( CO 2 ), is monitored by sensory feedback receptors positioned in the respiratory muscles, airway s lung, and chemorecept ion centers These afferents connect back to th e brainstem respiratory control center for automatic, subconscious control of breathing. In addition, respiratory afferents have been shown to reach the cerebral cortex. Specifically, electrical stimulation of the phrenic nerve resulted in the activation o f neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex in the cat (Davenport et al 2010) Breathing occurs mostly w ithout conscious awareness, suggesting that a gate probably exists between the brainstem respiratory centers and higher brain regions. The thalamus may be involved in respiratory gating based on evidence from several studies. Chen et al. (Chen et al., 1992) showed that when respiratory drive was

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21 stimulated as measured by increased phrenic nerve activity, previously tonically active thalamic single units switched to rhythmic increases in firing that was as sociated with each respiration Retrograde tracing experiments in cats indicated that phrenic afferents activate thalamocortical projections (Yates et al., 1994) Also, Zhang and D avenport (Zhang and Davenport, 2003) showed that inspiratory occlusions activated thalamic neurons in cats and rats. Positron emis sion tomography (PET) studies in humans exposed to hypercapnia identified neuronal activation extending from the upper brainstem, up through the midbrain, hypothalamus and thalamus (Corfield et al., 1995) Other PET and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in humans have shown that voluntary hyperpnea, or t he behavioral modulation of breathing, activates distinct cortical (primary sensorimotor cortices, supplementary motor, and premotor cortex) as well as subcortical (thalamus, globus pallidum, caudate, and cerebellum) structures (McKay et al., 2003) Respiratory information relay ed through the thalamus reaches cortical areas for recognition and discrimination, as well as the limbic system for emotional processing (Figure 1 1 ) (Davenport and Vovk, 2009) It is the interplay between these brain areas that are responsible for the generation of the perception of breathlessness. This f eeling of breathlessness, known clinically as the symptom dyspnea, is an aversive sensation. Animals and humans alike modify their behavior to avoid feeling breathless, such as terminating exercise as soon as the sensation becomes overwhelmingly uncomforta ble. This situation is especially detrimental for respiratory disease patients who avoid exercise and maintain an inactive lifestyle, creating other serious impacts on health.

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22 Perception of breathlessness also negatively affects the competitive athlete and it could be the limiting factor of performance. Specific Aims Specific Aim 1: To Investigate the Effects of Expiratory Muscle Strength Training in Collegiate Swimmers Rationale: and cardi ovascular systems. An early study of the mechanics of respiration during submersion in water found that vital capacity and expiratory reserve volume decreased and the total work of breathing increased significantly (Hong et al., 1969) Competitive swimmers are unique in that ventilation is limited to their stroke cycle; inspiration under water (exception: backstroke) Thus while und er water, the swimmer has to exhale against the pressure of the water, essentially inducing expiratory flow limitation (EFL). EFL during cycling exercise has been shown to limit exercise performance to about 65% of the individuals maximal work rate (Iandelli et al 2002) A significant decrease in quadriceps muscle blood flow and increase in intercostals muscle blood flow suggest a redistribution of the cardiac output away from the locomotor and toward the respirato ry muscles (Athanasopoulos et al 2010) Furthermore, perception of dyspnea and leg muscle fatigue was significantly greater with EFL compared to unloaded exercise (A thanasopoulos et al., 2010; Iandelli et al., 2002; Kayser et al., 1997) The respiratory muscles are skeletal muscles and thus adapt to a training stimulus in the same way as other skeletal muscles. In limb muscles, increases in strength have been shown to occur very rapidly in the early phase of a training protocol

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23 (Hakkinen and Komi, 1983; Moritani and deVries, 1979) Recent studies in normal healthy people and respiratory disea se patients have shown that expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) can specifically strengthen the muscles involved in expiratory air movement to generate higher positive pressures (Baker et al., 2005; Chiara et al., 2006; Gosselink et al., 2000; Griffiths and McConnell, 2007; Saleem et al., 2005; Sapienza et al., 2002; Sasaki et al., 2005; Smeltzer et al., 1996; Suzuki et al., 1995; Weiner et al., 2003b) However, there are only few and inconclusive studies on the effects of expiratory muscle training on performance in highly trained athletes suc h as college varsity swimmers. An increased ability t o generate expiratory pressure c ould effort during the breathing cycle and the feeling of breathlessness will be re duced. Conversely, for the same effort, the athlete can increase performance because respiration will become less of a limiting factor. A reduced perception of breathlessness, or a reduced work of breathing, would require a lower fraction of the cardiac ou tput, so that more can be diverted to the locomotor muscles, thus decreasing the perception of exertion. Hypotheses: Compared to air flow training, four weeks of EMST will : Increase the maximum expiratory pressure generating capacity D ecrease the perception of breathlessness and exertion I mprove swim performance Specific Aim 2: To Investigate the Changes in the Gene Expression Profile of the Medial Thalamus following ITTO in Anesthetized Rats Rationale: Complete tracheal occlusion places an maximally obstructive load on the airway and should elicit a load compensation response, with modulation of breath timing and esophageal pressure. Airway occlusion is a stressful stimulus (Pate et al

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24 2010) Respiratory diseases involving acute or chronic exposures to airway occlusion, such a s asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are associated with significantly higher rates of anxiety and depression compared to the general population (Moussas et al 2008) The thalamus is the proposed brain structure responsible for the gating of respiratory sensory information to the cortex. Information is continuously sent to this region from where it is either relayed to higher brain centers or suppressed. Thus, even in an anesthetized state, modulation of the gene expression profile of the thalamus can elucidate the immediate changes occur ring with airway occlusion. Hypotheses: ITTO in anesthetized rats will induce : A load compensation response with changes in breath timing and esophageal pressure G ene expression changes in the medial thalamus, specifically, modulation of neurotransmitter receptor genes involved in stress and anxiety pathways Specific Aim 3: To Investigate the Changes in the Gene Expression Profile of the Medial Thalamus following 10 Days of Repeated ITTO in Conscious Rats Rationale: Respiratory muscle weakness and fatigue have been implicated in an increased perception of breathlessness (1999; Gandevia et al., 1981; Kayser et al., 1997; Mador and Acevedo, 1991) and studies have shown that strength or endurance training of these muscles can improve this condition (Romer et al., 2002; Suzuki et al., 1995; Verges et al., 2008a; Verges et al., 2008b) However, the underlying mechanisms of the reduced perception following respiratory muscle training are not clear. Strength training causes adaptive changes within the nervous sy stem that allow for full activation of a muscle in specific movements and better coordination of the activation of the relevant muscles, thereby effecting a greater net force (Sale, 1988) It is possible that

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25 the increased capacity of the muscles leads to an increased threshold for load detection, potentially resulting in decreased feedback from the muscles. The reduced feedback could result in less activation of neurons in the thalamic gate, reducing the degree of information relayed to the cortex for load perception. Additionally, challenging the respiratory system with added external loads could change the threshold of the thalamic gate itself, such that an increase in sensory threshold would result in less gating in of aversive respiratory feedback. Since chronic airway obstructions in human patients are ass ociated with increased risk of depression, repeated ITTO could trigger the molecular cascade leading to this detrimental condition. Hypotheses: Repeated ITTO in conscious rats induce gene expression changes in the medial thalamus, specifically : M odulation of genes involved in sensory gating M odulation of genes involved in anxiety and depression

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26 Table 1 1. Summary of EMST studies with reported MEP and functional changes. Study Participants EMST protocol MEP changes Functional changes (Suzuki et al 1995) Healthy 30% MEP, 15min, 2x/d, 4wk Progressive treadmill exercise test: (Smeltzer et al 1996) MS 3x15reps, 2x/d, 7d/wk, 3mo Not studied (Gosselink et al 2000) Severe MS 60% MEP, 3x15reps, 2x/d, 3mo compared to CONT) Improved cough measures (Hoffman Ruddy, 2001) Professional Singers 80% MEP, 4x6reps, 4 wk energy, phase d uration (Sapienza et al 2002) High School Band Players 75% MEP, 4x6reps, 5d/wk, 2wk Not studied ( Weiner et al 2003b) COPD 15 60%, 30min/d, 6d/wk, 3mo dyspnea daily activities (Sasaki et al 2005) Healthy Women 30% MEP, 2x15min/d, 2wk Progressive walking treadmill test: O 2 /kg and RPE (Saleem et al 2005) 1 PD Patient 75% MEP, 5x5reps Improved UPDRS III scores (Baker et al 2005) Healthy 75% MEP, 5x5reps, 5d/wk, 4 or 8 wk Not studied (Chiara et al 2006) MS 40 80% MEP, 4x6reps, 8 wk Improved max voluntary cough values in mild MS (Kim et al 2009) Sedentary Elderly 75% MEP, 5x5reps, 4 wk Improved cough measures (Griffiths and McConnell, 2007) Club Rowers 50% MEP, 30reps, 2x/d 6wks combined 6 min all out rowing test: N.S. (Mota et al 2007) COPD 50% MEP, 30min/d, 3d/wk, 5 wk dyspnea at rest and QoL (Kroff, 2008) Women Field Hockey Players Combined IMST/EMST, 30 breaths, 2x/d, 12 wk E XP and CONT Studies are listed in chronological order. EXP = experimental group; CONT = control group; MS = Multiple Sclerosis; N.S. = not statistically significant (p > 0.05); COP D = Chronic O 2 = oxygen consumption; RPE = ratings of perceived exertion; UPDRS III = Unified

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27 Figure 1 1. Model of respiratory information processing including sensory signal transduction, subcortical, cortical, and perceptual processing. In this model, the thalamus is acting as a gate for respiratory information to be relayed to the cortex and limbic system.

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28 CHAPTER 2 THE EFFECTS OF EXPIR ATORY MUSCLE STRENGT H TRAINING IN COLLEG E SWIMMERS Introduction Competitive swimmers control their b reathing pattern to match the stroke cycle. In comparison to land based sports, water exercise places additional challenges on the the respiratory system. During swimming face is out of the water, with expiration taking place under water. Thus, while under water, the swimmer has to exhale against the pressure column of the water which requires additional expiratory muscle force. Thus, swim performance may be directly affected by the strength of expiratory muscle pressure generating capacity. Recent evidence has shown that expiratory muscle training can specifically strengthen the muscles involved in expiratory air movement to gen erate higher positive pressures (Baker et al., 2005; Chiara et al., 2006; Gosselink et al., 2000; Griffiths and McConnell, 2007; Sale em et al., 2005; Sapienza et al., 2002; Sasaki et al., 2005; Smeltzer et al., 1996; Suzuki et al., 1995; Weiner et al., 2003b) Expiratory muscle strength training (EM ST) increases maximum expiratory pressures (MEP) in almost all study populations, from normal healthy individuals (Baker et al., 2005; Sapienza et al., 2002; Sasaki et al., 2005; Suzuki et al., 1995) to athletes (Amonette and Dupler, 2002; Griffiths and McConnell, 2007) to patients suffering from COPD (Weiner et al 2003b) MS (Chiara et al., 2006; Gosselink et al., 2000; Smeltzer et al., 1996) or PD (Saleem et al 2005) The highest increases in MEP could be seen with a strength training protocol of short expiratory burst of greater than 60% MEP. Sapienza and colleagues (Sapienza et al 2002) trained high school band players at 75% MEP with 25 breaths per day for 5

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29 days per week and found increases of 47 and 48% in MEP in boys and girls, respectively, after 4 weeks of training. Using the same protocol, in a case study of early idiomatic PD Saleem et al. (Saleem et al 2005) reported a 55% increase in MEP after 4 weeks and 158% after 20 weeks. Chiara et al. (Chiara et al 2006) also found a signific ant increase in MEP in patients with MS Only a few studies have examined the effects of EMST on exercise performance. Suzuki et al. (Suzuki et al 1995) trained healthy subjects at 30% MEP for 15 minutes twice daily for 4 weeks. During an incremental submaximal running test, the subjects exhibited increased tidal volume, and decreased minute ventilation, breathing frequency, and ratings of dyspnea. Sasaki (Sasaki et al 2005) using the same training paradigm, showed that O 2 /kg body weight and ratings of dyspnea decreased. The only study that examined EMST on performance in athletes reported that training at 50% MEP for 4 weeks increased MEP, however, no significant difference in performance could be found during an increment al rowing test (Griffiths and McConnell, 2007) Traditionally, the respiratory system, specifically, the lung, airways, and respiratory muscles, have been viewed as being structurally overbuilt and usually well adapted for normal every day use and moderate exerci se in healthy people with respect to maximum metabolic requirements for gas transport (Aliverti, 2008; Dempsey, 1986; Maglischo, 2003) The large diffusion surface area and the short distance between the alveolar membrane and capillary ensure that ventilation is usually not a limiting factor for exercise metabolism. However, studies have shown that in highly trained athletes, the respiratory system may in fact impose a limiting factor to exercise performance (Boutellier et al., 1992; Dempsey, 2006; Harms et al., 2000) Indeed, with the increased

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30 aerobic capacity in these athletes, the lung diffusion surface, the airways, and also the respiratory muscles, do not adapt to the training stimulus as much as other lin ks in the oxygen transport system. Thus, the respiratory system can limit exercise during conditions of extraordinarily high metabolic demands. In addition, the work of breathing during near maximal exercise requires about 15% of the total O 2 compared wi th about 10% in moderately fit subjects (Aaron et al 1992) The ability of the lungs to move O 2 into the body during inspiration and CO 2 out of the body during expiration at fast rates during high intensity exercise is directly related to the strength of the inspiratory and expiratory muscles that inflate and deflate the lungs. Depletion of O 2 and build up of CO 2 during exercise will limit the duration and intensity of the activity. Thus, during timed competitions, inspiratory and expiratory muscle activity in the athlete is critical to maintain adequate gas exchange and energy balance. Additionally, the high work of breathing renders the s wimmer susceptible to the feeling of breathlessness and the perception of exertion. These subjective sensations are usually the factors that are performance. It was hypothesized that expiratory muscle strength training using a pressure threshold training device could increase the maximum expiratory pressure generating capacity, decrease the perception of breathlessness and exertion, and improve performance in highly t rained collegiate swimmers. Peak airflow meters were hypothesized to have negligible effects on expiratory muscle strength as it provides no resistance to airflow.

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31 Materials and Methods Subjects Seventeen University of Florida (Division I) varsity swimmers (fifteen males, two females) participated in this study. All procedures were approved by the University of Florida Institutional Review Board. All participants were classified as normal on the basis of habitual good health and no evidence of respiratory r estriction or obstruction. All participants consented to the study requirements in writing. Inclusion criteria consisted of: Participation at every scheduled swim practice session No history of cardiorespiratory disease No history of smoking No evidence o f current major or minor illness No prior participation in expiratory muscle strength training Exclusion criteria consisted of: FEV 1.0 of less than 80% of predicted Regular episodes of bronchoconstriction Taking medication for respiratory disease Positive pregnancy test (females) Experimental Design The study followed a single blind, placebo controlled pre training/post training repeated measures design. Participants were randomly assigned to an EMST or an airflow training (AFT) group. Both groups performed training 5 times per week for 4 weeks. Pulmonary functions, MEP, O 2 during an incremental upper body performance test, and performance measures during a 6 x 100 m freestyle swim test were assessed.

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32 Procedures Pulmonary function assessment Lung functions for all subjects were determined before and after EMST or AFT training. Instructions for spirometry testing were based on the American Thoracic Society Standard (1995) Following a few normal breaths, the subject inhaled deeply and then provided a forced expiration. Forced expirat ory volume in one second (FEV 1.0 ) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were recorded (Jaeger Toennies) and the ratio FEV 1.0 /FVC calculated. Resting respiratory resistance was measured by the forced oscillation method (Jaeger Toennies). Maximum expiratory press ures MEP was measured before and after training. MEP was defined as the greatest positive pressure obtained at the mouth sustained for at least 1 s while performing a maximal expiratory effort from total lung capacity (TLC). MEP was assessed using a port able pressure manometer with a 16 gauge controlled leak in the exhaust port to prevent generation of high pressures by the buccal muscles and maintain an open glottis during the measurements. The participants stood upright with their nose closed by a nose clip. They were instructed to make maximal forceful expiratory efforts. Repeated measurements were taken, with a 1 to 2 min rest between trials, until 3 measurements within 10% variability were obtained. The best MEP measurement was recorded for data analy sis. Expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) Each participant in the EMST group was assigned an expiratory pressure threshold trainer. Trainers were handed out before each training session and collected at the end to ensure compliance. The training dev ice consisted of a mouthpiece and a

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33 one way spring loaded valve (Figure 2 1A) The participants were instructed to take a deep breath in, put their mouth around the mouthpiece, and exhale as hard as possible. Expiratory airflow was blocked by the valve unt il a sufficient pressure was produced to overcome the spring force. The threshold load was set initially at 75 80% of the training MEP and increased weekly by 15%. EMST was performed at the same time of day, five days per week for four we eks. Each training session consisted of five sets of five breath repetitions with 1 2 min rest between sets. Airflow training (AFT) AFT was used as a placebo control. AFT was conducted with peak airflow meters (Figure 2 1B). The participants were told tha t the purpose of the study was to compare the EMST with the AFT device. As with EMST, the training devices were handed out only for the training sessions. The participants of the AFT group were instructed to target a specific expiratory airflow rate that w as 75 80% of the pre training maximal peak expiratory airflow rate. The participants were instructed to take a deep breath in and then exhale with as much force as needed to reach the desired airflow rate. The participants were able to see their effort on the device and could adjust the airflow rate of their next breath. The targeted airflow rate was increased each week by 15%. As for the EMST group, training was performed at the same time of day, five days per week for four weeks. Each training session con sisted of five sets of five breath repetitions with 1 2 min rest between sets. O 2 max test on swim bench O 2 max tests were performed before and after the training period. All participants had prior experience with the Vasa Swim Ergometer (Vasa, Essex, Vermont). This ergometer featured a flywheel drive system with variable wind resistance depending on

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34 the pulling power of the subject. Wind resistance was adjusted by changing the opening of the damper door. An attached el ectronic monitor measured time and stroke rate. The participants lay in a prone position on the bench of the ergometer. The bench distance to the flywheel was fixed and the legs were supported for comfort and to reduce lower body movement. The participant used the paddles of the ergometer and mimicked the upper body movement o f the butterfly stroke. A complete test consisted of 10 levels of 90 s eac h. The resistance of the ergometer was incrementally increased by using the seven levels of the damper door with a constant stroke rate (35 strokes per min); during the last three levels the stroke was increased by 2 strokes per min each time. Stroke rate was maintained by using a metronome. The test was terminated when the participant voluntarily stopped or after the 10 levels were completed. Throughout the test the participants were verbally motivated. The participants breathed through a mouthpiece that was connected to a metabolic cart (ParvoMedics, Sandy, UT). A nose clip ensured that the participant only breathed through their mouth. The rate of oxygen uptake, O 2 and the rate of carbon dioxide output, CO 2 and m inute ventilation ( E ) were measured v ia a sampling tube connected to the mouthpiece. Ratings of breathlessness (RB) and perceived exertion (RPE) were collected alternately every 45 sec. A modified Borg category ratio scale ranging from zero to ten was used to ve ratings throughout the test (Appendix A) (Borg, 2008) Timed interval swim tests Participants performed a timed interval swim test during the weeks before and after EMST or AFT training. This test consisted of all out 6 x 100 m freestyle on an

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35 interval of 2:30 min. The test was conducted in a 50 m outdoor swimming pool at the same time of day during a regular swim training session. A standard warm up of 2000 m preceded the test. Time and alternately RB and RPE (Appendix A) were collected after each 100 m interval. Heart rates were collected after warm up immediately before the test star t, after interval #1, and after interval #6. Heart rate was measured using a chest belt with a transmitter that measures the electrocardiogram and sends the heart rate information to a wrist watch monitor (Polar E lectro Inc., Lake Success, NY). Statistical Analysis All values were reported as mean SD unless stated otherwise. Baseline differences in anthropometrical data between subjects were compared using an test. For pulmonary function (FEV 1.0 FVC, and FEV 1.0 /FVC), pre and post training comparisons were analyzed using one way ANOVA with repeated measures. MEP values, as well as average time, times of first and last 100 m during the 6 x 100 m swim test were compared using two way repeated measures ANOVA (Subject, Factor 1 = Group EMST/AFT, Factor 2 = Time of measurements pre/post). measure of dependence between changes in MEP and swim time. Results Demographics Twenty two swimmers originally volunteered and completed pre testing. Five withdrew for reasons unrelated to this study. Seventeen (77%) underwent the complete training period and post testing. Characteristics of these 17 are presented in Table 2 1. There were no significant differences in any of these data between the groups. Participants were randomly divided into either EMST or AFT groups. The EMST group

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36 consisted of 3 sprint, 9 middle distance swimmers; the AFT group included 3 sprint, 3 middle distance and 2 distance swimmers. Pulmonary Functions and MEP Pulmonary function values are shown in Table 2 2. PFT values in all subjects were greater than predicted (FEV 1 .0 : 1 1 3.67 13.06% in EMST group and 118.63 11.25% in AFT group; FVC: 118.67 12.97 in E MST group and 125.38 12.08% in AFT group). There w ere no significant difference s between groups and none of the values changed significantly with either EMST or AFT. FEV 1.0 and FVC values were greater than healthy non athletes (% predicted) as well as la nd based athletes and swimmers (Armour et al., 1993; Doherty and Dim itriou, 1997; Holmberg et al., 2007; Rong et al., 2008; Sonetti et al., 2001; Wells et al., 2005) and similar to national level male swimmers (Armour et al 1993) All individuals in the EMST group showed significant increases in MEP, while those in the AFT exhibited non significant small increases or decreases (Figure 2 2). There was a significant Time effect (pre/post) (p = 0.001) and interaction between Group and Time (p = 0.049). Post hoc analysis showed that post training values were significantly increased compared to the pre training in the EMST group (p = 0.00 4 ), but not in the AFT group (p = 0.236) (Table 2 3 and Figure 2 3). O 2 Test Of the 17 participants, 2 did not perform the post training O 2 test due to shoulder/wrist injuries unrelated to this study. The incremental swim ergometer O 2 test was a submaximal exercise for most swimmers. Of the 30 pre and post training tests, 23 were fully co mpleted, while 7 were terminated by the participant either because of

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37 maximum rating of breathlessness (2 individuals) or maximum rating of perceived exertion (5 for every stroke, which allowed for analysis of the correlation between the work rate and O 2 Both of these values increased throughout the test, consistent with the incrementally increasing resistance of the test protocol. There was no significant difference between the EMST a nd the AFT group, and neither pre and post training. There were no significant differences in minute ventilation, breathing frequency, and respiratory exchange ratio. Ratings of perceived exertion and breathlessness increased in all participants with no s ignificant differences between groups or pre and post training. Swimming Performance Average swim time in the 6 x 100 m freestyle test decreased post training by 1.0 1.7 sec (p = 0.084) in the EMST group and 0.2 1.6 sec in the AFT group (p = 0.378) (Figure 2 4). Post hoc analysis revealed a significant difference between groups (p = 0.036) that was not dependent on pre or post values. Expressed in percent the improvement in time was 1.44 2.73% in the EMST group and 0.29 2.66% in the AFT (Figur e 2 5). There was no significant difference in the time change between the groups (p = 0.204). There was no significant correlation between the individual changes in MEP and swimming performance between pre and post training (r = 0.382, p = 0.160) (Figure 2 6) The first 100 m interval of the pre and post 6 x 100 m test was non significantly slower in both groups (EMST: 1.21% 1.14, AFT: 1.53% 1.59) and the last 100 m

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38 interval of each test was non significantly faster in both groups (EMST: 1.56% 2. 01, AFT: 0.6% 1.25) (Figures 2 7 and 2 8 ). Heart rates increased significantly (p < 0.001) in all participants throughout the test compared to baseline. There was no significant difference between groups or pre and post training (Figure 2 9 ). Ratings of perceived exertion and breathlessness increased significantly (p < 0.001) in all participants throughout the test. There were no significant differences between groups or pre and post training (Figures 2 9 and 2 10). Discussion Pulmonary Functions and MEP Intensive swim training leads to increases in pulmonary functions (Clanton et al 1987) In the present study we show that high level competitive swimmers exhibit larger than predicted FVC and FEV 1.0 values, consistent with previ ous studies (Doherty and Dimitriou, 1997; Stuart and Collings, 1959) Other studies have also demonstrated above average vital capacities, residual lung volumes, functional residual capacities, and total lung capacities in swimmers compared to non water athletes and non athletes (Cordain et al., 1990; Magel and Faulkner, 1967; McKay et al., 1983) The respiratory training in our study did not further increase lung function, suggesting that no structural changes in the anatomy of the respiratory system occurred with training. MEP increased significantly in the EMST group, but not the AFT group. Since there was no change in pulmonary functions, the change in MEP cannot be explained based on lun g mechanics. The ability to generate higher expiratory pressures is directly related to the strength of the expiratory muscles. Increased expiratory pressure generating capacity is particularly important during swimming since exhalation occurs

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39 when the hea d is under water with a water pressure of at least 20 cmH 2 O. AFT was not effective in increasing MEP; thus pressure threshold strength training is a better method to increase expiratory muscle pressure generating capacity. Pre training MEP values were simi lar to healthy non athletes (Baker et al., 2005; Sapienza et al., 2002) and club level rowers (Griffiths and McConnell, 2007) suggesting t hat the overall fitness and highly conditioned abdominal muscles of swimmers does not correlate with a higher expiratory pressure generating capacity. The increase in MEP with EMST shows that respiratory training can be aimed specifically at targeted expir atory muscles. Oxygen Consumption ( O 2 ) Exercise performance heavily depends on the interplay between the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. There are several steps in the oxygen consumption chain including cardiac output, inspired fraction of oxygen ( F I O 2 ) alveolar ventilation, lung and muscle diffusion capacities, hemoglobin concentration, and mitochondrial rate of O 2 consumption (Wagner, 1996) It is believed that maximal O 2 transport from the lungs to the working locomotor muscles and diffusion from the muscle capillaries to the mitochondria are the major determinants of O 2 m ax (Saltin and Calbet, 2006; Wagner, 2006) O 2 max is defined as the maximum amount of oxygen a person can take up energy for muscular contraction through aerobic metabolism. Traditionally, O 2 max tests ar e administered on a treadmill or stationary bicycle ergometer. However, specificity of the test in terms of the muscles used and the movements during the particular sport is critical to ensure that the measured O 2 relates to the actual O 2 the athlete experiences during training or competition. A trained

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40 tests (Armstrong and Davies, 1981; Corry and Powers, 1982; Holmer et al., 1974; Magel and Faulkner, 1967) Corry and Powers (Corry and Powers, 1982) showed that runners could reach only 53% of their running O 2 m ax in an arm cranking exercise, while swimmers reached 79%. Other studies also have illustrated that elite swimmers had lower O 2 max, heart rate, E and ventilatory coefficient during maximum swimming than during maximum running or cycling (Holmer, 1972; Holmer et al., 1974; Magel and Faulkner, 1967) The swim ergometer used in the present study exhibits several advantages over other ergometers when measuring the respiratory responses of horizontal body position. Body position plays an important role in cardiopulmonary control due to gravity (Rowland et al 2008) During heavy exercise, O 2 kinetics is slower in a horizontal than in an upright position (Koga et al 1999) and venous return is greater reducing blood hydrostatic pressure in the legs (Holmer et al 1974) Second, the swim ergometer simulates closely the actual stroke pattern of movement used by the swimmer in the water. Third, the flywheel dri ve system of the ergometer, which is the same as used in rowing ergometers, offers variable wind resistance depending on the pulling power of the test participant. This simulates the resistance of water in that the harder the participant pulls the more re sistance the flywheel provides To our knowledge, our study is the first to use this particular swim ergometer to measure the respiratory responses of swimmers during an incremental exercise test. Other incremental O 2 max studies have been conducted using a variety of models and

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41 protocols (Armstrong and Davies, 1981; Konstantaki et al., 1998; Potts et al., 2002; Rowland et al., 2008; Swaine and Zanker, 1996) The effects of respiratory muscle training on oxygen consumption are unclear, some studies showing improveme nts in O 2 (Holm et al 2004; Sasaki et al 2005) while others report no changes (Downey et al., 2007; Fairbarn et al., 1991; Gething et al., 2004; Romer et al., 2002; Sonetti et al., 2001; Sperlich et al., 2009) In the present s tudy, there were no significant changes in O 2 or other measurements during the incremental exercise test after respiratory training. There is a limit on the O 2 max an athlete can achieve that is set by genetic factors. Training can only improve O 2 max unt il that limit is reached. Thus, the lack of improvement could be due to the already maxed out oxygen consumption chain in these athletes. Functional Significance of Improvements in Swim Performance Times Small, but noteworthy changes were detected in swimm ing performance. The observed 1.15% time difference between the two groups post training represents the freestyle preliminary races (Figure 2 11). A recent study found remark ably similar swim performance time improvements after inspiratory muscle training (IMT) (Kilding et al 2010) The IMT group performed 30 inspiratory efforts at 50% maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) twice daily for six weeks, while the control group did a sham training consisting of 60 breaths at 15% MIP once daily. Swim performance was measured in time trials p re and post training. Significant improvements were found during a 100 m ( 1.7 1.4%) and 200 m ( 1.5 1.0%), but not a 400 m (0.6 1.2%) time trial. The training paradigm in the present

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42 study differed in that it was a lower repetition, higher intensit y expiratory muscle strength training for a shorter period of time (four weeks). The swim performance test used here was an endurance sprint test rather than a time trial. The average 100 m freestyle times during the 6 x 100 m test achieved by the collegia te swimmers in our study were almost identical to the 1 x 100 m time trial in Kilding et al that our athletes performed at a higher level. The higher the level of performance is, the smaller and rarer the improvements are. Thus, an imp rovement of 1.15% can prove to be very beneficial for high level athletes. Properties of Respiratory Muscles The respiratory system consists of inspiratory, expiratory, and accessory muscles, which may either separately or in concert limit exercise perfo rmance. Differences between the inspiratory and expiratory muscles include (a) muscle activity, (b) muscle fiber type, and (c) predisposition to fatigue. The muscle activity pattern differs greatly between inspiratory and expiratory muscles. The diaphragm, the most important inspiratory muscle, is continuously engaged in rhythmic activity to create a sub atmospheric pressure driving air into the lungs. This muscle cannot pause to rest under any circumstance, so it must be very resistant to fatigue. Indeed, Johnson and colleagues (Johnson et al., 1993) have shown that the diaphragm only fatigues with prolonged constant load exercise of high intensity levels greater than 85% of O 2 max. Diaphragm fatigue did not occur following a maximal incremental exercise cycling performance in moderately fit subjects (Romer et al., 2007) However, Lomax and McConnell (Lomax and McConnell, 2003) measured maximal inspiratory pressures (MIP) before and after a single 200 m freestyle swim at 90 95% of race pace in

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43 competitive swimmers. After the swim the average MIP decreased from ~112 to ~80 cm H 2 O, suggesting th at inspiratory muscle fatigue could be induced in this population in less than 2.7 min. In contrast to inspiration, expiration is usually a passive process during normal breathing due to the elastic recoil of the respiratory system that pushes air out with out the need to contract the expiratory muscles. However, during exercise, the elastic recoil pressure of the lungs is not sufficient to keep up with the increased demand, so the expiratory muscles actively contract to force air out of the lungs. As ventil atory demand increases during constant work heavy exercise expiratory muscle pressures increase more than inspiratory muscle pressures so that the expiratory muscles take on a greater proportion of the total respiratory muscle work (Krishnan et al., 200 0) thus relieving the inspiratory muscles. Inspiratory muscle pressures plateau while expiratory muscle pressures continue to increase throughout heavy exercise (Kearon et al., 1991) E xpiratory muscles may facilitate inspiration by lowering the end expiratory lung volume, thus providing passive elastic recoil of the inspiratory muscles during the initial portion of inspiration (Henke et al., 1988) Muscle fiber morphology also varies between inspiratory and expiratory muscles. Histochemical profiling of human respiratory muscles have shown a fiber type distribution of about 50% slow twitch, 25% fast twitch (FTa) and 25% FTb fibers in the costal diaph ragm, 62/20/18% in inspiratory intercostals, and 64/35/1% in expiratory intercostals (Mizuno, 1991) The cross sectional area of the ex piratory intercostals was found to be ~50% larger than inspiratory interco stals (Mizuno and Secher, 1989) The larger the muscle fiber, the stronger its contractile properties, and the faster its fatigue characteristics (Sieck and Prakash, 1997) According to these characteristics, the

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44 expiratory muscles are able to contract with great force early on but are unable to sustain the high intensity so that force production decreases quickly. Furthermore, the high amount of large capillary rich FTa and the lack of FTb fibers in the expiratory intercostals suggest that these muscles are used during repeated dynamic ventilatory actions requiring relatively large force (M izuno and Secher, 1989) Our respiratory training in rats using tracheal occlusions showed significant increases in cross sectional area of the fast twitch type IIx/b fibers in the diaphragm and intercostals muscles (Smith et al 2010 ) It has been shown that expiratory loading imposes a much higher oxygen consumption than inspiratory loading, suggesting that the efficiency of the expiratory muscles to overcome respiratory loads is much lower than that of the inspiratory muscles (Dodd et al 1988) The larger fiber size of the expiratory muscles combined with their sporadic activation with increasing work of breathing renders them especially susceptible to fatigue. High intensity, exha ustive exercise leads to a decline in expiratory muscle endurance (Ful ler et al 1996) Taylor et al. (Taylor et al 2006) and Verges et al. (Verges et al 2006) have shown that cycling exercise elicits abdominal muscle fatigue, as measured by mag netic stimulation. Cycling is traditionally viewed as a lower limb muscle exercise, yet these results show that the expiratory muscles perform a considerable amount of work as well. The observation that the abdominal muscles fatigued in this experimental s etting argues that during swimming these muscles may fatigue even quicker because they play a dual role in stabilizing and rotating the body in the water. In these two studies the researchers recruited healthy male subjects of a broad range of fitness leve ls and demonstrated that there was no

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45 O 2 max and their abdominal muscle contractility (Taylor et al 2006; Verges et al 2006) This suggests that even highly trained athletes are no t immune to respiratory muscle fatigue. Furthermore, Kyroussis et al. (Kyroussis et al 1996) reported that the abdominal muscles fatigued after only two minutes of maximal isocapnic ventilation, as measured by twitch gastric pressure elicited by magnetic stimulation. Resistive loads added to inspiration or expiration induces muscle fatigue, which can be attributed directly to the high work of breathing against the load (Suzuki et al 1991) Expiratory muscl e fatigue can significantly impair exercise performance (Mador and Acevedo, 1991; Verges et al., 2006) Prior induction of exp iratory muscle fatigue by resistive breathing resulted in a significant decrease in performance as measured by distance covered and speed during a 12 min running test, (Verges et al 2007) as well as exercise time to exhaustion in a cycle ergometer test at 90% of peak power (Taylor and Romer, 2008) The structural and functional properties of the respiratory muscle fibers can be modified in response to physiological and pathological conditions, such as training, aging, and respiratory diseases (Polla et al 2004) Volianitis et al. (Volianitis et al., 2001) have shown that respiratory muscle fatigue in male rowers can be all eviated with respiratory muscle training. Thus strengthening the expiratory muscles could lead to a higher resistance to fatigue and in turn improve performance. Interestingly, concurrent inspiratory and expiratory muscle training had little effect on performance parameters. Amonette and Dupler (Amonette and Dupler, 2002) reported that maximal E increased but O 2 max did not change in trai ned triathletes after 4 weeks of combined IMT/EMT of 30 breaths twice daily. The same training device

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46 was employed by Wells et al. (Wells et al 2005) in adolescent swimmers. Twelve weeks of concurrent IMT/EMT with increasing resistance (50 80% MIP/MEP) resulted in significant increases in all pulmonary function and respiratory muscle strength parameters. However, peak velocity during a swim test did not change and critical speed ten ded to improve but was not significant at 12 weeks. As Wylegala et al. (Wylegala et al 2007) pointed out, the high intensities of training in the later weeks could have led to chronic respiratory muscle fatigue and may have blunted p otential performance improvements especially if the recovery time was not sufficient before testing. Griffiths and McConnell (Griffiths and McConnell, 2007) trained two groups of competitive rowers for 4 weeks on either inspiratory or expiratory trainers at 50% M IP or MEP and then combined the groups for another 6 weeks of concurrent IMT/EMT training. During the last 6 weeks, MEP only increased significantly in the group that performed EMT in the first 4 weeks (31%). However, there were no significant changes in t his group in the rowing test. All of these studies used a training protocol of 30 breaths at a relatively low intensity. Thus, this endurance training may not be as effective as a strength training protocol with high intensity loading. Pacing Strategies The finding of increased time of the first 100 m interval and the decreased time of the last 100 m interval during the 6 x 100 m swim test can be attributed to the use of different pacing strategies by the swimmers. Pacing and the perception of effort are closely intertwined. When the perception of effort becomes too large, pace will decline. It has been suggested that a brain area exists that controls pace by incorporating knowledge of the endpoint, memory of prior events of similar distance or duration, a nd knowledge of external and internal conditions (St Clair Gibson et al 2006) In the

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47 present study, probably the most important factor that changed was the memory of the pre training test. Before the tests, the swimmers were told to give maximal effort on all six intervals. During the post training test, the swimmers remembered the previou s test and the associated high perception of effort. This memory most likely resulted in a slow start pacing strategy (St Clair Gibson et al 2006) which is characterized by a submaximal pace at the beginning, in order to minimize possible system failure. Potential Mechanisms One potential mechanism by which the respiratory system influenc es exercise performance has been brought forth by Dempsey (Dempsey et al., 2008; Dempsey et al., 2006) According to this hypothesis the increased respiratory muscle work during heavy exercise leads to respiratory and limb muscle fatigue and, in turn, reduced exercise performance. In detail, Aaron et al. (Aaron et al., 1992) estimated that the respiratory muscles require 10 16% of total O 2 and cardiac output due to hyperventilation during heavy exercise. This competition for cardiac output between the respiratory muscles and the exercising limb muscles would lead to respiratory muscle fatigue. Diaphragm fatigue has been shown to induce a metaboreflex via small diameter group IV fibers (Hill, 2000) causing increased sympathetic activation of vasoconstriction and decreased oxygen transport to limb musculature. The decreased cardiac output to the limb muscles could result in peripheral muscle fatigue and increased perception of effort, eventually leading to decreased ex ercise performance. Evidence that respiratory muscle work affects peripheral fatigue comes from a study by Romer et al. (Romer et al 2006) which demonstrated that unloading of the respiratory muscles using a

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48 proportional assist ventilator decreased exercise induced peripheral muscle fatigue by 30 35%. Strengthening of the res piratory muscles makes them more resistant to fatigue. A delay in respiratory muscle fatigue attenuates the metaboreflex vasoconstriction of limb muscles. In addition, more efficient respiratory muscles require less of the cardiac output. These two factors could result in delayed limb muscle fatigue, decreased perception of effort and breathlessness, and ultimately, increase exercise tolerance. Perception of Breathlessness The final factor limiting exercise is exercise related perception which is sensory a nd behavioral in nature (Ki llian and Campbell, 1995) These sensations include perception of general exertion, effort, and the feeling of breathlessness. When the discomfort associated with any of these factors becomes intolerable the subject will slow down or terminate the exercise. During a maximal effort exercise, the subject is aware of both the increasing central motor command and the decline in power output (Killian and Gandevia, 1996) ; the awareness of these two factors gives rise to the sensation of fa tigue (Jones and Killian, 2000) Breathlessness, either in combination with periphera l muscle fatigue or by itself, is the most common factor limiting performance (Killian and Campbell, 1995) The sensation of breathing likely depends on several different mechanisms that are involved in the regulation of breathing including feed forward and feedback mechanisms (F igure 2 12) (Chona n et al., 1990b) Perception of exertion and breathlessness develops when there is a mismatch between the central respiratory motor command and afferent information. When exercise intensity increases, the central motor command increases. Corollary disch arges from descending motor commands to the sensory cortex increases and thus perception of

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49 exertion and breathlessness increases. Also, when exercise intensity increases, increased inputs from a variety of receptors send their feedback to the sensory cort ex, including receptors in the respiratory muscles, the chest walls, the lungs, the lower and upper airways, as well as chemoreceptors (Killian and Gandevia, 1996) Furthermore, with increasing muscle fatigue or w eakness, the respiratory motor drive increases to achieve a given muscle tension, which in turn will increase the sense of effort (Homma and Masaoka, 1999) Subjects with weak ened (Gandevia et al., 1981) or partially paralyzed (curarized) inspiratory muscles (Campbell et al., 1980) show higher magnitude estimations of respiratory loads and insp iratory muscle training significantly decreased this perception for small loads (Kellerman et al., 2000) Inspiratory muscle training could have decreased the motor drive in proportion to the increased respiratory muscle capacity or the decrease in muscle work for the task might have reduced the activat ion of mecahnoreceptors, thus decreasing sensory feedback (Kellerman et al., 2000) The sensation of breathlessness is further augmented by increases in expiratory motor output induced by external resistive loads (Chonan et al 1990a) With EFL during exercise in normal subjects, end expiratory lung volume could not be reduced, so that end inspiration occurred at an ever higher lung volume, leading to dynamic hyperinflation (Kayser et al 1997) The work of the inspiratory muscles increased because of the increased elastic loads and the evermore disadvantageous part of the length tension relationship. Severe dyspnea in the flow limited subjects resulted in termination of the exercise (Kayser et al 1997) Iandelli et al. (Iandelli et al 2002) also demonstrated that performance during airflow limited exercise was seriously impaired

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50 mainly because of increased pressures developed by the expiratory muscles. In this study the control subjects rated their breathing sensation during the exercise a value of 4 on the Borg scale (0 10) at the maximum power output (W max ), while airflow limited subjects defined their dyspnea rankings as 9.3 and they were only able to exercise to 65% of control W max Because expiration in swimming occurs under water, expiratory airflow is restricted by the pressure colum n of the water. This water column is a function about 20 cm H 2 O. Thus, with the expiratory effort to overcome the water column pressure threshold load, swimmers may experience feelings of b reathlessness sooner than non water athletes, hence pressure threshold expiratory muscle strength training may be especially effective in compensating for the under water exhalation load and reducing breathlessness. In the present study, there was a trend toward increased ratings of breathlessness post training in the AFT group, while the perception in the EMST group did not change. Ratings of perceived exertion followed a similar trend in that the AFT group rated higher post training and the EMST group lo wer. Pressure threshold training has the potential to positively influence the conscious sensations of breathlessness and exertion as perceived through ventilatory factors, while air flow training did not. These observations are even more interesting given that the EMST group improved in swimming time more than the AFT group. It is possible that the lower perception of breathlessness and exertion in the EMST group caused the improvements in swim performance, which is consistent with the hypothesis of a comp lex brain control model of fatigue (Edwards and Walker, 2009)

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51 Conclusions Four weeks of a high intensity, low repetition expiratory muscle strength training paradigm significantly increased the maximal expiratory pressure generating capacity in highly trained collegiate swimmers compar ed to a non resistance peak airflow training. Swim performance times tended to improve (not statistically significant) and there was a trend towards lower ratings of breathlessness and perceived exertion. These promising results merit further investigation s into the ergogenic effects of EMST in athletes. EMST could be used as an adjunct for athletic performance to improve expiratory muscle strength.

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52 Figure 2 1. Components of the training devices for A) EMST B) AFT.

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53 Ta ble 2 1. Anthropometric data participants. Values are presented as mean SD. EMST (n=9) AFT (n=8) p value Age (years) 19.6 1.1 19.1 1.0 0.420 Height (cm) 185.9 9.8 182.9 5.5 0.454 Body mass (kg) 82.4 9.6 77.0 4.7 0.169 Competitive training history (years) 10.6 4.8 10.5 4.6 0.981 Table 2 2. Pulmonary function test data. Values are presented as mean SD. Pre Training Post Training p value Value % predicted Value % predicted EMST F EV 1.0 (L) 5.23 1.04 113.67 13.06 5.17 1.14 112.44 16.82 1.15 0.508 FVC (L) 6.48 1.14 118.67 12.97 6.47 1.22 118.33 15.91 0.19 0.508 FEV 1.0 /FVC 80.65 7.48 79.69 7.74 1.18 0.156 AFT FEV 1.0 (L) 5.46 0.58 118.63 11.25 5.32 0.62 115.63 12.51 2.54 0.113 FVC (L) 6.90 0.75 125.38 12.08 6.83 0.71 118.29 9.92 0.92 0.523 FEV 1.0 /FVC 79.56 8.24 78.16 8.30 1.77 0.202

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54 Figure 2 2. Percent change in MEP for each individual. All participants in the EMST group increased their maximal expiratory pressure generating capacity, while individuals in the AFT group showed only modest increases or decreases in MEP. Table 2 3. Maximum expiratory pressure test data. Values are presented as mean SD. Pre Training (in cmH 2 O) Post Training (in cmH 2 O) p value EMST 122.11 21.22 157.67 23.63 29.86 < 0.00 01 AFT 131.50 30.42 142.00 39.62 7.85 0.236 Figure 2 3. The EMST group significantly increased MEP post training compared to pre training. MEP changes in EMST group were significantly greater than in AFT group. Values expressed as mean SEM. p < 0.00 01 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 EMST AFT MEP (cm H 2 O) Pre Post

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55 Figure 2 4. Pre and post performance times for 6 x 100 m freestyle test for both EMST and AFT groups. Values are mean S EM p < 0.05. 55.0 60.0 65.0 70.0 Group Mean Time (sec) EMST AFT Pre Post

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56 Figure 2 5. Percent change in 100 m time for each individual. Figure 2 6 Percent change of mean swim time during the 6 x 100 m freestyle test for EMST and AFT groups. Values are mean SEM. -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 Pre Post Time change (%) EMST -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 Pre Post Time change (%) AFT -3 -2 -1 0 EMST AFT % Time change

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57 Figure 2 7 Correlation of % time change during 6 x 100 m test and change in MEP pre to post training for each individual. y = 0.0392x 1.8757 R = 0.1459 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 -30 20 70 % Time change MEP change ( cm H 2 O)

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58 Figure 2 8 Percent time change of the first 100 m interval. Values are mean SEM. Figure 2 9 Percent time change of the last 100 m interval. Values are mean SEM. 0 1 2 3 4 EMST AFT % Time change -4 -3 -2 -1 0 EMST AFT % Time change

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59 Figure 2 10 Heart rate before and during the 6x100 m freestyle test.

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60 Figure 2 1 1 Changes in Ratings of Breathlessness between first and last rating within one 6x100 m test. Values are mean SEM. Figure 2 1 2 Changes in Ratings of Perceived Exertion between first and last rating within one 6x100 m test. Values are mean SEM. -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 Ratings of Perceived Exertion EMST AFT # 1 # 3 # 5 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Ratings of Breathlessness EMST AFT # 2 # 4 # 6

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61 Figure 2 1 3 Functional significance of % improvements in swim time pre and post preliminary races.

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62 Figure 2 1 4 Possible mechanisms leading to the sensation of breathlessness.

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63 CHAPTER 3 TRACHEAL OCCLUSION I N ANESTHETIZED RATS MODULATES GENE EXPRESSION PROFILE O F MEDIAL THALAMUS Introduction The sensation of dyspnea, or breathlessness, is one of the primary symptoms in pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases (Manning and Schwartzstein, 1995; O'Donnell et al., 2007) It is one of the symptoms that most limits patients with obstructive pulmonary diseases, and it can also be considered one of the most important factors in d etermining the severity of the disease and the health related quality of life (Carvalho et al 2007) Sensory information is continuously sent to the respiratory centers in the brainstem; minor changes in breathing are controlled by these centers without the activation of higher brain centers. When changes in respiratory information reach a certain threshold, then a gating in process occurs resulting in the cognitive awareness of breathing (1999; O'Donnell et al 2007) The conscious awareness of breathing as in dyspnea requires the activation of higher brain centers (O'Donnell et al 2007) The neural control pathway to the higher centers is thought to be a gated process (Chan and Davenport, 2008) Only information that is selectively attended to or is above a certain threshold would be able to pass through to the cortex. The brain structure involved in the gating of various sensory afferents, such as somatosensory, auditory, and visual information to the cortex is the thalamus (Kimble & Kaufman, 2004). Further more, our laboratory has found increased c Fos expression in response to tracheal occlusions in the medial thalamus indicating activity of neurons in this brain area (Pate et al., 2008; Vovk et al., 2006) Thus, it was hypothesized that respiratory sensory information may also be processed and relayed to higher brain centers through the thalamus.

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64 The thalamus is the largest structure in the diencephalon, located centrally in the brain. It is ideally situated in a position to receive incoming sensory information and send nerve fibers out to the cerebral cortex in several directions. Functionally, th e thalamus is believed to serve as the processing and relay station that most sensory information (one known exception is olfaction) must pass before reaching the cortex (Kimble and Kaufman, 2004; Mc Cormick and Bal, 1994; Sherman and Guillery, 2002) For the well studied visual, auditory, and somatosensory systems, different thalamic relay neurons are responsible for relaying specific information. Visual stimuli pass through the lateral geniculate nucleus, auditory information through the medial geniculate body, and somatosensory stimuli are processed by the ventrobasal complex (Alitto and Usrey, 2003) In the present study, it was hypothesized that respiratory afferents carry lung and airway information to the thalamus, specifically the medial thalamus as based on the c Fos data where it is processed and potentially relayed to the cortex. Midline thalamic nuclei receive projections from areas such as the periaqueductal gray (Krout and Loewy, 2000b) the parabrachial nucleus (Krout and Loewy, 2000a) the superior colliculus (Krout et al., 2001) and the brainstem (Krout et al., 2002) The thalamus integrates many bidirectional connections with se veral regions of the cortex, most importantly the recurrent loop to and from various cortical areas, but also to the amygdala (possibly for emotional processing), the hippocampus (for learning and memory), and the limbic system (Newman, 1995, Kimble & Kauf man, 2004). A single thalamic nucleus can send afferents to multiple cortical areas (Herrero et al., 2002) Intralaminar thalamic nuclei have diffuse projections to the cerebral cortex (Jones and

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65 Leavitt, 1974) R eciprocal corticothalamic neurons connect back to the thalamic relay and interneurons (McCormick and Bal, 1994) Anatomical studies have shown that about 50% of thalamic connections are coming from the cortex. It is believed that this cortical neurons to analyze thalamic input, select certain sensory fea tures, and then amplify the transmission of these features by feedback to the thalamus (Suga et al., 2002) This suggests that cortical areas can either enhance or suppress particular information. Other top down connections such as from the cingulated gyrus and prefrontal cortex feeding back onto the thalamic neurons help in selecting stimuli that are relevant, salient, and novel (Kimble and Kaufman, 2004) In some instances, the thalamus may impair rather than facilitate the processing of environmental stimuli, such as during trauma (Kimble and Kaufman, 2004) Thalamic relay neurons receive both excitatory (glutamatergic) and inhibitory ( GABAergic) transmission and the balance/ratio between these signals is what eventually determines the response (McCormick and Bal, 1994) Other neurotransmitters and neuromodulators also influence thalamic neurons, most notably serotonin from the raphe nucleus (McCormick and Bal, 1994) Modulations of any component in the neural transmission pathway (such as tra nsmitters, receptors, transporters) alter the signal processing of the thalamic relay neurons and thus change sensory information gating. Genomic high throughput technologies, such as DNA microarrays, serve as a powerful tool for identifying gene expressio n profiles in response to a specific stimulus. The development of microarrays has provided the opportunity to compare and analyze

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66 gene expression differences of thousands of genes simultaneously, and characterize the biological processes occurring as a res ult of the impact. Oligonucleotide microarrays, as used in this study, are systematically prepared based on known gene sequence information. Probes on the arrays are 60 nucleotide in length, which has shown higher specificity and sensitivity compared to sh orter oligos (Hughes et al., 2001) In this experiment a reference design was used. The reference sample was prepared by combining small amounts of RNA of all samples collected. This sample was then labeled with one color, while all target samples were labeled with another color. In the hybr idizati on reaction for one microarray the two differently labeled preparations (reference sample and one target sample) were then combined and simultaneously hybridized to the arrayed probes. Binding to the probes depends on the relative concentrations of mRNA transcript contained in the two samples. Hybridization was carried out on a rotational device in a hybridization chamber with the help of a gasket slide that enables active mixing and increases the chance for the target to come into contact with each probe. Scanning of the microarrays records and quantifies the amount of emitted light that was collected by exciting the fluorescent molecules conjugated to the hybridized targets. The ratio between signal intensities of the two fluorescent signals serves as an indicator of which genes were differentially modulated. In the present study, comparative microarray analysis was performed to examine the molecular changes that occur immediately after ITTO It was hypothesized that ITTO would induce short latency (< 10 min) gene expression changes in the medial thalamus. RNA samples from the medial thalamic regions of two groups of rats were

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67 used; one group receiving ITTO and one group of control animals not receiving occlusions. Materials and Methods Animals Eigh t male Sprague Dawley rats (276.8 47.5 g) were housed two per cage in a temperature controlled room (72F) on a 12:12 light:dark cycle, and with free access to food and water. All animal experiments were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Commit tee of the University of Florida. Surgical Procedures Animals were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of urethane (1.3 1.5 g/kg) and anesthesia was supplemented as needed (20 mg/ml). Anesthetic depth was verified by the absence of a withdrawal refle x to a rear paw pinch. Body temperature was measured using a rectal probe and maintained at 38C with a heating pad. Animals were spontaneously breathing room air. Figure 3 1 shows the surgical setup for recording of esophageal pressure (P es ) and diaphra gm electromyography (EMG dia ). One end of a saline filled tube was inserted through the mouth into the esophagus to measure P es The other end of the tube was connected to a polygraph system (Model 7400, Grass Instruments) via a pressure transducer and the analog output was amplified, digitized at 1kHz (CED Model 1401, Cambridge Electronics Design) and computer processed (Spike2, Cambridge Electronics Design). Pleural pressure changes were inferred from relative changes in P es Diaphragm electromyographic (E MG dia ) electrodes were prepared from Teflon coated wire. The ends of the wires were bared, bent and hooked into the costal

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68 diaphragm through a small incision in the abdominal skin. Two electrodes were inserted for bipolar EMG dia recordings. The electrode w ires were connected to a high impedance probe. The signal was amplified (P511, Grass instruments) and band pass filtered (30 300 Hz). The analog outputs were digitized and processed as described above. The trachea was exposed through a ventral incision via blunt dissection of surrounding tissue An expandable cuff was sutured around the trachea, two cartilage rings caudal to the larynx. The cuff was connected to an air filled syringe via a thin rubber tube. The syringe was used to inflate and deflate th e cuff bladder. Prior to the experiments the inflation pressure needed to completely compress the trachea was determined using an excised trachea. A complete compression occlud ed the airway during both inspiration and expiration. Deflation restored the tra chea back to its original condition to allow unobstructed breathing. Experimental Protocol The experimental group (n=4) was allowed to breathe unobstructed for 60 min following surgical preparations. Then the cuff was inflated to occlude the trachea for 2 4 breaths, followed by deflation of the cuff for a minimum of 15 breaths. The occlusions were repeated for a total of 10 min. P es and EMG dia were monitored continuously throughout the experiment to verify onset and removal of tracheal occlusions. The contr ol animals (n=4) underwent the same surgical procedure, 70 min of unobstructed breathing, but did not receive tracheal occlusions. Immediately after completion of the 70 min post surgical period, the animals were decapitated and their brains removed. The m edial thalamus was located (Figure 3 2), excised, frozen in liquid nitrogen, and stored at 80C until further use.

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6 9 Physiological Data Analysis Data were analyzed offline using analysis software Spike 2 (Cambridge Electronics Design). The EMG dia was rectif ied and integrated (time constant = 50 ms), and inspiratory time (Ti), expiratory time (Te), and total time (Ttot) for each breath were calculated from the integrated EMG dia signals. Ti was measured from the onset of the inspiration associated increase in EMG dia activity to the point at which EMG dia peak activity began to decline (Figure 3 3). Te was measured from the end of Ti to the onset of the following inspiration (Figure 3 3). Baseline EMG dia was defined as the minimum value of the EMG dia during expir ation. The EMG dia dia ) was calculated as the difference between baseline and peak EMG dia P es amplitude was calculated as the difference between baseline and peak P es For the experimental group, within each occlusion presentation the control breath (C) was defined as the complete breath immediately prior to occlusion (O) application and the recovery breath (R) was defined as the first complete breath immediately after termination of occlusion. For the 10 min occlusion trial, one contro l breath, two occluded breaths (O1 and O2), and one recovery breath were measured for each occlusion presentation. Data from at least 28 occlusion trials for each experimental animal were used for analysis. For the control group, breathing pattern of contr ol breaths was measured at matched time points. SigmaStat for Windows Version 3.5 (Systat Software, Inc, Germany) was used for all statistical analyses of physiological data. All values are reported as mean SD. Ti, Te, Ttot, P es dia for control breaths (C) were compared between experimental and control animals using one way ANOVA. Comparisons between C, O, and R breaths in the experimental animals were analyzed using one way repeated measures ANOVA.

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70 Total RNA Isolation Total RNA was isolated fro m medial thalamic tissue with RNA Stat 60 (Tel test, Friendswood, TX). 10 20 mg of the frozen tissue was homogenized in Stat 60 and chloroform added. The mixture was vortexed for 15 s and centrifuged at 12,000 g for 15 min at 4C. The upper aqueous phase c ontaining the RNA was carefully extracted. The extraction step was repeated and the RNA precipitated with isopropanol. Following another centrifugation at 12,000 g for 40 min at 4C, the pellet was washed twice with 80% ethanol and air dried. To inactivate RNases, the pellet was resuspended in 40 l RNA secure by electrophoresis through a 1% formaldehy de agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide. RNA Amplification and Microarray Analysis Array hybridizations were performed using a reference design. The reference material consisted of equal amounts of RNA from all eight thalamic samples. The cDNA synthes kits and protocols (Agilent Low RNA Input Fluorescent Linear Amplification Kit and Agilent 60 mer oligo microarray processing protocol; Agilent, Palo Alto, CA). The thalamic sa mples were labeled with Cy5, while the reference sample was labeled with Cy3. The cRNA was amplified and purified using the QIAGEN RNeasy Kit (Qiagen Inc.). Dye incorporation was determined by using Nanodrop (>13 pmol/g RNA). For the 4 x 44,000 rat genome DNA oligo microarray (Agilent Technologies Inc., Amadid: 014879), 825 ng of sample and 825 ng of reference was used for each array. Hybridization was carried out in a microarray hybridization chamber at 65C for 17 hours. The glass slides

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71 were then washed and scanned with a laser based detection system (Agilent, Palo Alto, CA). A log 2 transformed signal ratio between the experimental channel and the reference channel was calculated for each spot. One way ANOVA was performed on normalized log 2 transformed s ignal ratios of wise comparisons to determine genes whose expression was significantly regulated by the tracheal occlusions compared to control. Genes were considered differ entially expressed if the p value was and the log 2 fold change was 0.4. Gene Ontology and Pathway Analysis Gene ontology annotations were derived from similarity searches of the NCBI Gene database. A blastn search for each of the 44,000 probes wa s performed to retrieve the gene ontology (GO) annotation. Once the GO annotations were retrieved, a GO tree was built following the hierarchical structure for the whole array. Then, another GO tree for the significant regulated genes was built. The two tr ees were compared at branches. Significantly over represented GO categories were identified by the Fisher's p value and the false discovery rate was determined. Some of the gene s that showed significant modulation were scanned against the Pathway Studio ResNet database (Ariadne Genomics, Rockville, MD). This database uses published information and catalogs the relationships between biological entities. Pathway Studio (Ariadne Genomics) was used to identify and graphically display the functional interactions between the selected genes (Nikitin et al 2003)

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72 Results Physiological Responses to ITTO Breath timing and Pes response to ITTO are shown in Figure 3 3. Breathing frequency slowed due to an increase in Te. The P es was more negative during occlusion and returned to baseline immediately after termination of occlusion. Comparisons of con trol breaths between experimental and control animals demonstrated no significant differences in Ti, Te, Ttot, P es or EMG dia (Table 3 1). Comparisons between C O and R breaths within each experimental animal revealed (Tables 3 2 and 3 3, and Figure 3 4 ) Te, Ttot, and P es were significantly different between C and O, and between O and R, but not C and R. There was a trend toward significance in Ti. EMG dia showed no significant differences. This shows that ITTO resulted in an increase in expiratory timing and thus total breath time. Modulation of Gene Expression Profile Following ITTO Statistical analysis of the microarray data showed that a total of 588 genes were altered (p < 0.05 log 2 fold change 0.4 ) following the occlusion protocol, with 327 down regulated and 261 genes up regulated (Appendix Table B) Some candidate genes of interest included genes involved in stress related pathways (Table 3 4). Table 3 5 shows the GO categories for biological processes that were over represented among the regulated genes (p < 0.05 FDR < 0.1 ). The most significantly

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73 Discussion Airway Occlusions Elicit the Load Compensation Response When an animal is challenged with an increase in respiratory mechanical load, the respiratory control system elicits the load compensation reflex. This ventilatory load compensation response has been observed in anesthetized animals using external resistiv e loads to breathing and is characterized by the recruitment of respiratory muscle activity, an increase in breath duration and a decrease in tidal volume (Bishop et al., 1981; Bradley, 1972; Clark and von Euler, 1972; Davenport et al., 1981; Davenport et al., 1984; Davenport and Wozniak, 1986; Zechman et al., 1976) Depending on the timing within the breath phase of the added resistive load (end inspiratory versus end expiratory), inspiratory or expiratory duration is increased. The load compensation reflex is also dependent on selecti ve phase loading (inspiration only or expiration only) and loading that occurs throughout the entire breath. In this study we applied complete tracheal occlusions for multiple breaths so the load was applied on both the inspiratory and expiratory breath ph ases. Load compensation breathing pattern was achieved by a more negative P es and an increase in Ttot, primarily due to an increase in Te, while Ti increased non significantly. The more negative P es peak during occlusions demonstrates a larger inspiratory effort exerted by the animal to inhale. However, diaphragm activity (EMG dia ) was not significantly modulated so the more negative P es could be due to the respiratory mechanical changes, such as increased resistance. Inspiratory duration did not change sig nificantly which is in congruence with an unaltered EMG dia signal. One of the causes for the unchanged Ti and EMG dia may be due to the timing of the onset of occlusion (Zechman et al 1976)

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74 The load compensation response lasted as long as the trachea was occluded and breathing patterns returned to b aseline levels immediately following withdrawal of occlusion demonstrating that tracheal occlusions using an inflatable cuff are reversible. Airway Obstruction in Disease and Association with Anxiety and Depression Asthma is a respiratory disease characterized by reversible airways obstruction, airway inflammation, and hyperreactive airways (Valenca et al 2006) Our animal model of reversible tracheal obstructions thus mimics one component of asthma. It is well acknowledged that respiratory diseases, such as asthma and chronic ob structive pulmonary disease (COPD) are associated with significantly higher rates of anxiety and depression compared to the general population (Moussas et al 2008) In the US general population, it has been found that significantly more individuals suffering from a respiratory or lung disease have panic diso rder or major depression than individuals without such a diagnosis (Goodwin and Pine, 2002) In a sample of 189 patients from a Brazilian outpatient clinic for the treatment of asthma and COPD, Carvalho et al (Carvalho et al 2007) found that almost all patients with controlled and uncontroll ed asthma exhibited moderate to severe anxiety as determined by the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (CA 97.5%, UA 93%), and 74% of COPD patients. Depression scores, as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory, were less pronounced in these patients (CA 20%, UA 49%, COPD 29%) but nevertheless a cause for concern. In a similar study on 132 pulmonary disease patients in a Greek hospital, Moussas et al (Moussas et al 2008) found that a total of 49.2% showed moderate or severe depression, while 26.5% had anxiety. Fernandes et al (Fernandes et al 2010) demonstrated a positive association of higher degrees of asthma severity with increased anxiety. In this study 70% of the patients had a clinical diagnosis of anxiety and anxiety was associated with

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75 worse subjective asthma outcomes a nd increased use of medication and healthcare services. Of 62 asthmatic patients from an outpatient clinic in Brazil, 24.1% had majo r depression disorder and 33.8% had an anxiety disorder as diagnosed by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (Valenca et al 2006) However, there was no association between the severity of asthma and the prevalence of anxiety and depression (Valenca et al 2006) In a study on V A ffairs patients with chronic breathing disorders, 50.1% showed moderate to severe depression and 64.2% had moderate to severe anxiety symptoms (Kunik et al 2005) In a 20 year longitudinal and cross sectional study with 591 participants between the ages of 19 and 40, Hasler et al (Hasler et al 2005) found that asthma was strongly associat ed with panic disorder and that the presence of asthma predicted subsequent panic disorder. Patients with severe asthma and a comorbid psychiatric disorder had almost 11 fold increased risk for two or more asthma exacerbations and almost 5 fold increased r isk for two or more hospitalizations during the past year as compared with patients with severe asthma without psychiatric disorder (ten Brinke et al 2001) These results sh ow that anxiety and depression are associated with respiratory diseases and that in some vulnerable individuals, an increase in anxiety may lead to panic disorders, possible through dyspnea induced fear conditioning (Hasler et al 2005) Airway Occlusions Induce Serotonin Receptor HTR2A and Reduce Dopamine Receptor DRD1 Medial thalamic mRNA transcripts of the serotonin receptor HTR2A were up regulated following trach eal occlusions. It is well known that the serotonin system plays an important role in a variety of human psychopathological conditions, particularly mood and anxiety disorders (Charney et al 1987; Hensler, 2006) Antidepressant treatment

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76 has focused on modulating serotonergic neurotransmission (Jones and Blackburn, 2002) One of the challenges of the serotonin system is the sheer complexity of the 14 known receptor varieties categorized into seven receptor subtypes (Hoyer et al 2002) Specifically, the HTR2A receptor has been identified to be involved in anxiety disorders in dogs (Vermeire et al 2009) Antagonists to this receptor may be useful therapeutic agents in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder and psychosis (Javanbakht, 2006; Jone s and Blackburn, 2002) Activation of HTR2A receptors weakens the sensory gating so that more sensory information is able to reach consciousness, which in turn can lead to the pathology of anxiety disorders (Javanbakht, 2006) Behavioral studies in HTR 2A knockout mice have shown changes in anxiety related but not depression related paradigms (Weisstaub et al 2006) The knockout mice exhibited greater exploratory and risk behavior in conflict paradigms, such as the open field, dark light choice, elevated plus maze, and novelty suppressed feeding tests. In depression related behaviors, as measured by the forced swim test and the tail suspension test, the mice did not differ significantly from wild type (Weisstaub et al 2006) The dopaminergic system has been identified to be involved in a myriad of functions, such as motivation, reward, pain processing, learning, and memory (Arias Carrion and Poppel, 2007; Shyu et al., 1992) Hyperfunction of this system has been hypothesized to be associated with schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (Carlsson et al., 1999; Di Chiara and Bassareo, 2007; Heijtz et al., 2007) This hypothesis is based on the antagonistic i nteraction between dopamine and glutamate projecting on GABAergic striatal neurons that exert an inhibitory effect on thalamocortical glutamatergic neurons, thereby filtering out part of the sensory input to

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77 the thalamus to protect the cortex from a sensor y overload (Carlsson et al 1999) Hyperactivity of dopamine or hypofunction of the corticostri atal glutamate pathway should reduce this protective influence and could thus lead to confusion or psychosis (Carlsson et al., 1999; Gaudreau and Gagnon, 2005) Neuroleptic drugs that block dopaminergic pathways improve sensory functioning and gating in schizophrenic patients (Freedman et al 1987) Interaction between serotonin and dopamine systems can have either potentiating or antagonizing effects (Lieberman et al 1998) ). HTR2A antagonists have shown to increase dopamine release in a variety of brain regions (Hertel et al 1996) Airway Occlusions Alter Genes Involved in Anti Apoptosis Gene ontolo gy analysis identified anti apoptosis, negative regulation of apoptosis, and negative regulation of programmed cell death as being affected by airway occlusions. These findings suggest that the medial thalamus may be increasing cell protective mechanisms. A postmortem study examining anatomical abnormalities in the thalamus of patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder discovered that in these subjects the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus had a significantly increased total number of neurons compa red to nonpsychiatric subjects (Young et al 2004) Other studies have demonstrated volume reductions in prefrontal cortex (Botteron et al 2002) and hippocampus (Bremner et al 2000) as well as decreased number of glia in the cortex (Ongur et al 1998) Young et al. (Young et al 2004) suggested that the elevated number of neurons in the medial thalam us may have had this reducing effect due to its projections to these other brains areas because e xcessive glutamatergic thalamic neurons could lead to excitotoxicity. Alternatively, increased GABAergic neurons could result in decreased output to the corte x, thus reducing the need for glial

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78 support. It is not known which neuron population (excitatory projection neuron or inhibitory interneuron) is elevated in major depressive disorder. The results of the present study showing modulated pathways involved in anti apoptosis could suggest a first step in the development of depression after airway occlusions. Functional Analysis Pathway Studio was used to visualize changes of gene expression following ITTO An interaction between the dopamine receptor DRD1 and th e serotonin receptor HTR2A exists that is controlled by MAPK1 (Figure 3 5). MAPK1 positively regulates the NMDA receptor, which in turn inhibits DLG4 and acts on DRD1. At the same time, MAPK1 inhibits CAV1, which regulates HTR2A. Following tracheal occlusi ons, the down regulated expression of MAPK1 could have led to a decreased stimulation of the NMDA receptor and a decreased inhibition of CAV1. Even though NMDA receptor and CAV1 did not show differential gene expression, MAPK1 could potentially regulate th e function of these genes. The decreased function of NMDA receptor would lead to a decrease in DRD1; indeed, a significant decrease in DRD1 expression was found in the occlusion group. Decreased NMDA receptor function could also result in less inhibition o f DLG4, which in turn could result in increased stimulation of HTR2A. Furthermore, decreased inhibition of CAV1 means increased function and increased stimulation of HTR2A. HTR2A gene expression was indeed up regulated following occlusions. DRD1 and HTR2A control the activation and release of neurotransmitters and other small molecules. There was a reciprocal interaction between DRD1 and HTR2A that seems to be predominantly regulated by MAPK1.

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79 Conclusions A single trial of ITTO in anesthetized rats elicited a load compensation response characterized by an increase in Te and thus Ttot and a decrease in P es ITTO also induced a change in the gene expression profile of the medial thalamus including genes involved in the stress response and anti apoptosi s. The results suggest that the medial thalamus is a component of the respiratory neural network responding to respiratory load stimuli.

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80 Figure 3 1. Diagram of surgical preparation including placement of tracheal occluder, esophageal pressure tube, and diaphragm electrodes.

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81 Figure 3 2. Location of collected thalamic tissue sample. Coronal view of the rat brain at Bregma 1.80mm. Dashed box indicates the tissue section (medial thalamus) that was excised for microarray analysis. Modified from (Paxinos and Watson, 1998)

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82 Figure 3 3. Physiological changes as a result of ITTO. Red bar represents application of an occlusion. Identification of control, occlusion, and recovery breaths and determination of Ti and Te are shown. Breath timing (Ttot = Ti + Te ) increased mostly due to an increase in Te and esophageal pressure was more negative during occlusion and returned to normal immediately after

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83 Table 3 experimental and control animals. Control breaths were defined as the last complete breath immediately prior to an occlusion for experimental animals and at matched time points for controls animals. Values are reported as mean SD. P values from one way ANOVA. Exper imental Group Control Group p value Ti (s) 0.228 0.014 0.228 0.014 0.997 Te (s) 0.488 0.104 0.411 0.073 0.277 Ttot (s) 0.715 0.115 0.639 0.073 0.306 P es (V) 0.038 0.013 0.038 0.011 0.967 dia (au) 0.697 0.583 0.444 0.246 0.454 Table 3 2. Comparisons between control, occlusion, and recovery breaths in the experimental animals. Values are reported as mean SD. Significant differences from one way repeated measures ANOVA are denoted by: # different from C, different from R (p < 0.05). Control breath Occlusion 1 Occlusion 2 Recovery breath Ti 0.228 0.014 0.253 0.014 0.244 0.01 5 0.211 0.023 Te 0.488 0.104 0.642 0.189 # 0.588 0.155* 0.472 0.128 Ttot 0.715 0.115 0.895 0.193 # 0.832 0.162* 0.683 0.145 P es 0.038 0.013 0.053 0.011 # 0.057 0.012 # 0.041 0.015 EMG dia 0.697 0.583 0.728 0.570 0.745 0.612 0.717 0.605 Table 3 3. Comparisons between control, occlusion, and recovery breaths in the experimental animals with combined values from O1 and O2. # different from C, different from R. Control O1+O2 Recovery p value Ti 0.228 0.014 0.248 0.014 0.211 0.023 0.063 Te 0.488 0.104 0.615 0.172 # 0.472 0.128 0.011 Ttot 0.715 0.115 0.864 0.178 # 0.683 0.145 0.01 0 P es 0.038 0.013 0.055 0.012 # 0.041 0.015 0.002 EMG dia 0.697 0.583 0.736 0.591 0.717 0.605 0.197

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84 Figure 3 4. Comparisons between control, occlusion, and recovery breaths in the experimental animals A) Ti, B) Te, C) Ttot, D) P es E) EMG dia

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85 Table 3 4. Genes of interest that were significantly regulated following ITTO. Log fold change p value Gene Symbol Description + 1.30 0.0057 PLAU Plasminogen activator, urokinase + 1.07 0.0425 HTR2A Serotonin receptor 2A + 0.91 0.0060 TNFRSF14 T umor necrosis factor receptor superfamily + 0.75 0.0098 CHRNB1 Cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, beta polypeptide 1 0.74 0.0316 KCNJ3 Potassium inwardly rectifying channel 0.71 0.0045 COX6B2 Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 0.52 0.0104 DLG4 Discs, large homolog 4 0.45 0.0128 DRD1A Dopamine receptor D1A 0.42 0.0271 PRKAA2 Protein kinase alpha 2 catalytic subunit

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86 Table 3 5. Highly regulated biological processes following ITTO were found with gene ontology analysis. GO ID GO Name # of Genes Select ed # of Genes on Array Fisher p value FDR 0006916 Anti apoptosis 25 293 8.6 e 5 0.0497 0006950 Response to stress 93 1780 9.6 e 5 0.0277 0050790 Regulation of enzyme activity 37 575 4 8 e 4 0.0937 0000165 MAPKKK cascade 22 281 6 6 e 4 0.0964 0043066 Negative regulation of apoptosis 28 411 1 0 e 3 0.0998 0043069 Negative regulation of programmed cell death 28 413 1 1 e 3 0.0916

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87 Figure 3 5. Interaction between dopamine (D RD 1) and serotonin receptors (HTR2A) under the control of MAPK1. Both DRD1 and HTR2A have actions on the same neurotransmitters and small molecules.

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88 CHAPTER 4 TRACHEAL OCCLUSION CONDITIONI NG IN CONSCIOUS RATS MODULATES GENE EXPRESSION PROF ILE OF MEDIAL THALAM US Introduction C onscious awareness of breathing requires the activation of higher brain centers. The neural control pathway to the higher centers is thought to be a gated process. Only information that is selectively attended to or that is above a certain threshold would be able to pass through the gate to the cortex. The candidate brain structure involved in the gating of various sensory afferents to the cortex is t he thalamus (Kimble and Kaufman, 2004) ; so it is speculated that respiratory sensory information may also be gated and relayed through the thalamus, in particular the medial thalamus. The thalamus integrates many bidirectional connections with virtually every region of the cortex, most notably the prefrontal cortex and the limbic system (Kimble and Kaufman, 2004; Newman, 1995) The thalamus is an integral component in the respiratory cortical neural pathway as t racheal obstruction activates neurons in the cerebral cortex and also in the medial thalamus (Vovk et al., 2006) We have shown that tracheal obstruction in anesthetized animal s modulates gene expression in the medial thalamus (Chapter 3) While it is known the repeated exposure to ITTO in conscious states changes load compensation behavior (Pate et al., 2010) it is unknown if neuron plasticity in the medial thalamus is induced by conscious chronic exposure to ITTO We hypoth e sized that repeated conscious exposure to ITTO w ould modulate the gene expression pattern of the medial thalamus. The thalamus is the largest structure in the diencephalon, located near the center of the brain. Thus, it is situated in an ideal position to receive incoming sensory information and send nerve fibers out to the cerebral cortex in multiple directions.

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89 Functionally, the thalamus is believed to serve as the processing and relay station that sensory information (one known exception is o lfaction) must pass before reaching the cortex (Kimble and Kaufman, 2004; McCormick and Bal, 1994; Sherman and Guillery, 2002) It can act as a gate controlling the flow of information to the cortex. For the well studied visual, auditory, and somatosensory systems different thalamic relay neurons are responsible for relaying the specific information. Visual sti muli pass through the lateral geniculate nucleus, auditory information through the medial geniculate body, and somatosensory stimuli are processed by the ventrobasal complex. It was hypothesized that respiratory afferents also carry lung and airway informa tion to the thalamus, specifically the medial thalamus, where it is processed and relayed to the cortex. Midline thalamic nuclei receive projections from areas such as the periaqueductal gray (Krout and Loewy, 2000b) the parabrachial nucleus (Krout and Loewy, 2000a) the superior colliculus (Krout et al 2001) and the brainstem (Krout et al 2002) Both sensory information as well as arousal signals converge in the thalamus and could explain why even basic sensory information can be distorted under conditions of hig h arousal, such as in post traumatic stress disorder (Kimble and Kaufman, 2004) The thalamus has connections to virtually every brain region, most importantly the recurrent loop to and from the cerebral cortex, but also to the amygdala (possibly for emotional processing) and the hippocampus (for learning and memory) (Kimble and Kaufman, 2004) A single thalamic nucleus can send afferents to multiple cortical areas (Herrero et al 2002) The cortex then feeds back onto different thalamic nuclei to either enhance or suppress information. Indeed, anatomical studies have shown that about 50 % of thalamic connections are coming from the cortex. It is believed that corticothalamic

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90 neurons to analyze thalamic input, select certain sensory features, and then amp lify the transmission of these features by feedback to the thalamus (Suga et al 2002) Other top down connections such as from the cingulated gyrus and prefrontal cortex feeding back onto the thalamic neurons help in selecting stimuli that are relevant, salient, and novel (Kimble and Kaufman, 2004) In other instances, the thalamus may impair rather than facilitate the processing of environmenta l stimuli, such as during extreme stress or trauma (Kimble and Kaufman, 2004) Sensory information passing through the thalamus is relayed to cortical layer IV from where it is distributed laterally along the cortex. Layer VI sends reciprocal cort icothalamic connections back to the thalamic relay and interneurons (McCormick and Bal, 1994) It has been suggested that the cortical neurons analyze the thalamic input and select i mportant features; this information is fed back to the thalamus to enhance thalamic transmission/gating of the selected features. The thalamus consists of three broad classes of neurons, 1) relay neurons, 2) GABAergic interneurons, and 3) GABAergic nRt neu rons (McCormick and Bal, 1994) Relay neurons receive both excitatory (glutamatergic) and inhibitory (GABAergic) signals and the balance/ratio between these signals is what determin es the response. Other neurotransmitters and neuromodulators also influence thalamic neurons, most notably serotonin from the raphe nucleus (McCormick and Bal, 1994) Previously, we observed that, with ITTO in anesthetized rats, the serotonin receptor HTR2A was up regulated ( log 2 fold change > 1, p < 0.05) (Chapter 3 ). Serotonin, as well as its receptors and transporter have been implicated in the stress

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91 response, anxiety, and depres sion (Graeff et al., 1996; Harada et al., 2008; Heisler et al., 2007; Weisstaub et al., 2006) Chronic exposure to tracheal occlusions in conscious, rats is stressful and may show an even greater modulation of serotonin and/or its targets in the t halamus. It was hypothesized that 10 days of exposure to 10 minute trials of ITTO in chronically instrumented, conscious rats would induce gene expression changes in the medial thalamus; specifically, upregulation of genes that have been implicated in the response to stress, anxi ety, and/or depression, such as genes in the serotonergic system. Materials and M ethods Animals Eight male Sprague Dawley rats (299 g 43.05) were housed two per cage in a temperature controlled room (72F) on a 12:12 light:dark cycle, and with free access to food and water. All animal experiments were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of the University of Florida. Surgical Procedures Placement of tracheal occluder Rats were anesthetized using inhaled iso flurane gas (2 5% in O 2 ). Buprenorphine (0.01 0.05 mg/kg BW) and carpofen (5mg/kg BW) were administered preoperatively via subcutaneous injection. The eyes were coated with petroleum ointment to prevent drying. Incision sites were shaved and sterilized wi th povidine iodine topical antiseptic solution. The trachea was exposed ventrally in the neck via a skin incision and blunt dissection of surrounding connective tissues. An expandable cuff was sutured around the trachea, two cartilage rings caudal to the l arynx. The actuating tube was routed

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92 subcutaneously and externalized, between the scapulae. The tube was anchored to the skin using the closing sutures. The neck incision was then closed using an interrupted suture pattern. Analgesia and postoperative ca re Preopera tive analgesia consist ed of buprenorphine (0.01 0.05 mg/kg BW) and carpofen (5mg/kg BW) administered via subcutaneous injection. Following surgical instrumentation rats were administered warm normal saline (0.01 0.02 ml/g BW) to ensure proper hy dration. Postoperative analgesia was provided for at least three days using buprenorphine (0.01 0.05 mg/kg BW given every 12 24 hours) and carprofen (5mg/kg BW given every 24 hours). Rats were closely observed for any signs of distress or pain. Experimen tal Protocol Rats were placed in a plethysmograph and the externalized occlude actuator was connected to a saline filled syringe (Figure 4 1). The syringe was used to inflate and deflate the cuff bladder. Inflation of the cuff compressed the trachea compl etely, occluding the airway during both inspiration and expiration. Deflation restored the trachea back to its original condition to allow unobstructed breathing. The control group data collection consisted of 15 min of recording with no experimental manip ulation. The experimental group received a 2.5 min background control recordi ng period, followed by a 10 min experimental session of ITTO, and ended with a 2.5 min post test control period. During the experimental session the rats underwent repeated trials of 3 10 breath occlusions followed by approximately 30 s of recovery (Figure 4 2). Occlusion and control sessions were performed daily for 10 days. On day 10, within 10 min of completing the ITTO trial, the rats were sacrificed via overdose of anesthetic. The

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93 medial thalamus was quickly excised, frozen in liquid nitrogen, and stored at 80C until further use. Microarray Analysis Isolation of total RNA, amplification of RNA, microarray hybridization, statistical analysis, and gene o ntology and pathway analysis was performed in the same way as in the previous study (Chapter 2). Genes were considered differentially expressed if the p value was and the log 2 fold change was 0.58. Results Modulation of Gene Expression Profile Fol lowing ITTO Statistical analysis of the microarray data showed that a total of 661 genes were altered (p < 0.05 log 2 fold change 0.58 ) followin g the 10 day occlusion protocol, with 250 down regulated and 411 up regulated (Appendix Table C 1) Table 4 1 shows some of the significantly differentially modulated genes. These genes were chosen based on their potential role thalamic neuron functioning, as well as their implication in stress, anxiety, and depression. The glutamic acid decarboxylase subtypes 1 a nd 2 (GAD1 and GAD2), corticotrophin releasing hormone binding protein (CRHBP), and the serotonin receptor subtypes 1A and 2A (HTR1A and HTR2A) were found to be significantly up regulated. Down regulated genes included short stature homeobox 2 (SHOX2), cho lecystokinin (CCK), protein kinase C (PRKCG), metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 4 (GRM4), and a potassium inwardly rectifying channel (KCNJ9). Gene Ontology and Pathway Analysis Table 4 2 shows some of the GO categories for biological processes that were significantly over repres ented among the regulated genes (for full list see Appendix

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94 Table D 1). Neurotransmitter signaling and learning and memory were some of the most important differentially modulated processes. Pathway Studio was used to visuali ze changes of gene expression following tracheal occlusions. The balance between the activity of up and down regulated genes involved in these pathways determines the response. Figure 4 3 shows the significantly regulated genes and pathways involved in le arning and/or memory. The up regulated KCJN and GRM genes promote learning and/or memory, while the down regulated HTR and GAD genes inhibited these pathways. Counteractive interactions between up and down regulated genes exist between the HTR and KCNJ pa thways. Modulated pathways for cellular processes are depicted in Figure 4 4. Cell proliferation is positively regulated by the down regulated HTR and GAD genes and negatively regulated by the up regulated GRM4, suggesting that this pathway could be less a ctive following chronic exposure to ITTO Cell differentiation appears to be promoted due to the positive regulation by DLH4 and the inhibition by GAD2. Several genes are involved in neuroprotection but the exact regulation is unknown. Cell death is inhibited by HTR1A and CRHBP but also by CCK, complicating a prediction on the direction of regulation on this pathway. Figure 4 5 demonstrates the modulated pathways for cell signaling. Most up regulated genes, except for GRM4, positively regulate calcium ( Ca 2+ ) export, membrane polarization, and synaptic transmission. The up regulated DLG4 inhibits HTR1A, which was found to be down regulated. HTR1A and HTR2A have opposing effects on long term synaptic potentiation, membrane polarization, and synaptic tran smission.

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95 Discussion Thalamic Firing Mode and Sensory Gating Transmission in the thalamic relay neurons occurs via one of two neuronal firing modes, called tonic and burst (Ramcharan et al 2000) This response depends on the (transient) and L (long lasting) type Ca 2+ channels (Cheong et al., 2008; Sherman and Guillery, 2002) Tonic firing o ccurs at relatively depolarized membrane potentials when the T channels are inactivated, and the firing of single action potentials is dependent on suprathreshold activation. Burst firing occurs when the membrane is hyperpolarized. The T channels are de in activated and the next suprathreshold depolarization activates the channels to produce an inward Ca 2+ current. This results in a low threshold, all or none voltage spike that is usually large enough to fire a high frequency cluster of action potentials. L type Ca 2+ channels are involved in the production of afterhyperpolarization, an important factor in d etermining the firing rate of neuronal cells. Specifically, Cheong et al (Cheong et al 2008) have shown that increased Ca 2+ influx via these channels augments afterhyperpolarizatio n, which leads to both decreased tonic firing rates in thalamic relay neurons and increased gating of pain stimuli. It has been proposed that switching between firing modes occurs in order to liberate the cerebral cortex from bothersome interference from the outside world (McCormick and Bal, 1994) or when the organism is attending to a specific stimulus (Sherman, 1996, 2001; Sherman and Guillery, 2002) During tonic firing each depolarization from a sensory stimulus produces one action potential. This linear relationship attains a faithful and accurate transmission of information through the thalamus to the cortex. Burst firing, on the other hand, is non linear because

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96 spontaneous activity can occur in the absence of a stimulus. This high signal to noise ratio improves the initial detectabil ity of a stimulus. Sherman et al (Sherman and Guillery, 2002) thus hypothesized that thalamic relay cells fire in burst mode when an important stimulus is detected, after which the cell switches to tonic mode for accurate relay of that input. A finding supporting th is hypothesis is that tonic firing is increased the more alert the animal is (Ramchar an et al., 2000; Swadlow and Gusev, 2001) Furthermore, increased bursting and decreased tonic firing of thalamic neuro ns has been shown to reduce pain responses, suggesting that burst firing is associated with gating out of afferent sensory signals (Cheong et al 2008) Switching between firing mode s requires a shift in membrane potential that is sufficiently sustained to inactivate or de inactivate the T channels. Ionotropic receptors are too fast acting to promote this shift; the slow metabotropic receptors are most likely responsible for the susta ined voltage change. Specifically, studies have demonstrated that depolarization (inactivate T channels) occurs through metabotropic glutamate receptors from the cortex and hyperpolarization (de inactivate T channels) through GABA receptors from reticular and/or interneuronal inputs (Sherman, 1996, 2 001; Sherman and Guillery, 2002) Several neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, glutamate, acetylcholine, and norepinephrine, have been shown to facilitate the transition between thalamic firing modes (McCormick and Bal, 1994) Information on several genes that were found to be significantly modulated following chronic ITTO and that could be important in the thalamic firing and thus gating activity is presented below. KCNJ9 (or GIRK channel or Cir 3 channels, potassium inwardly rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 9): G protein inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK)

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97 channels mediate the synaptic actions of numerous neurotransmitters in the mammalian brain and play an important role in the regulatio n of neuronal excitability in most brain regions through activation of various G protein coupled receptors (Saenz del Burgo et al 2008) Activation of GIRK channels causes membrane hyperpolarization, and t hus the channels play an important role in the inhibitory regulation of neuronal excitability (Kobayashi et al 2004) GIRK channels are widely expressed in brain nuclei and are co expressed with serotonergic, GABAergic, glutamaterg ic, and cholinergic neurons throughout the brain (Saenz del Burgo et al 2008) Thus, the interplay between the neurotransmitters and GIRK channels in addition to hyperpolarization could result in switching of the thalamic firing mode. GIRK2 deficient mice have been shown to exhibit reduced anxiety and elevated motor activity (Kobayashi et al 2004) ; thus an upregulation in GIRK as found in this study could point to increased anxiety. GRM4 (or mGluR4 metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 ): Glutamatergic neurotransmission is involved in most aspec ts of normal brain function and can be perturbed in many neuropathologic conditions. L glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and activates both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. Grm4 belongs to grou p III metabotropic glutamate receptors. Agonists of group III mGluRs have been shown to exert antidepressant like effects, possibly due to a decrease in excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission (Klak et al 2007) A recent study in protein lipase C knockout mice demonstrated that switching between tonic and burst firing in thalamic neurons occurs through the simultaneous modulation of T and L type Ca 2+ channels po ssibly through a transduction cascade that

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98 includes metabotropic glutamate receptors and protein kinase C (Cheong et al 2008) These mice, which show decreased visceral pain responses, exhibited increased bursting and decreased tonic firing in thalamic neurons, suggesting that burst firing acts as an inhibitor of pain signal transmission to the cortex. P RKCG (protein kinase C, gamma): Protein kinase C (PRKC) is a family of serine and threonine specific protein kinases that can be activated by Ca 2+ and the second messenger diacylglycerol. These molecules phosphorylate a wide variety of protein targets and are involved in diverse cellula r signaling pathways. The gamma subunit of PRKC is expressed solely in neurons in the brain and spinal cord (Saito and Shirai, 2002) This specific kinase has been implicated in several neuronal functions, including long term potentiation and long term depression (Saito and Shirai, 2002) It has also been shown to associate directly with the GluR4 AMPA receptor subunit; GluR4 phosphorylation would allow for regul ation of synaptic function and plasticity (Correia et al 2003) As mentioned above, PRKC is involved in switching between burst and tonic firing. Specifically, down regulation of PRKC activity in thalamic relay neurons has been attributed to reduced pain responses, or increased sensory gating (Cheong et al 2008) In the present study, we found an up regulation of PRKC, suggesting that chronic exposure to ITTO results in decreased gating in the thalamus. CCK (cholecystokinin): Cholecystokinin is one of the most abundant neuropeptides in the brain and acts as a neu rotransmitter and neuromodulator of dopamine, serotonin, endogenous opioids, GABA and excitatory amino acids (Harro and Vasar, 1991) These characteristics support an important role in regulation of many behavioral phenomena, including anxiety and learning and memory. Indeed, CCK

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99 agonists have been shown to be anxiogenic and CCK antagonists are anxiolytic in a variety of animal species (for reviews see (Harro et al., 1993; Rotzinger and Vaccarino, 2003) CCK has also been demonstrated to have close interaction with GABAergic inhibitory neurotransmission, mediate d probably through CCK B receptors, which could be the neurochemical substrate for anxious behavior (Harro and Vasar, 1991) .Whole cell pa tch clamp experiments have shown that CCK depolarizes somatosensory cortex neurons long lastingly and thus may lead to prolonged discharge of these corticothalamic glutamatergic neurons and slow depolarization of thalamocortical neurons, shifting the firin g mode from burst to tonic firing mode, thus being critical in sensory information processing (Chung et al 2009) Chronic Exposure to ITTO Modulates Genes Involved in Stress, Anxiety, and Depression Chronic airway occlusion, as occurs in diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, has been implicated in an increased incidence of anxiety and depression (Di Marco et al 2006; Omachi et al 2009) In the present study, several genes were found to be significantly altered following trac heal occlusions that play important roles in the development of depressive and other psychological disorders. GAD1 (or GAD67, glutamate decarboxylase) and GAD2 (or GAD65): GAD1 and GAD2 are two isoforms of glutamate decarboxylase. These enzymes catalyze the reaction to synthesize GABA from glutamate and are responsible for keeping cortical GABA levels at steady state (Soghomonian and Martin, 1998) Thus, a reduced expression of GAD1 and GAD2 may lead to decreased GABA levels and less inhibition of downstream targets. Decreased GAD67 expression has been implicated in schizophrenia and bipola r disorder with psychosis (Guidotti et al 2000)

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100 CRHBP (corticotrophin releasing hormone binding protein): CRHBP is an important modulatory protein that negatively regulates corticotrophin releasing horm one (CRH) activity. CRHBP binds to CRH and thus reduces the ability of CRH to activate the CRHR1 and CRHR2 receptors (Jahn et al 2002) CRHBP is a physiologically relevant reservoir of endogenous CRH, as 40 60% of human brain CRH is bound by CRHBP. CRH is released in response t o stress. A reduction in CRHBP would lead to less binding of CRH and more free CRH which can then activate its receptors and elevate the stress response. In a CRHBP deficient mouse model, Karolyi et al. (Karolyi et al 1999) have demonstrated increased anxiogenic behavior as tested on the elevated plus maze and open field. A decrease in CRHBP has also been suggested to play a role in the patho genesis of major depressive disorder by inhibiting the function of CRH (Van Den Eed e et al 2005) HT R (serotonin receptors ) : The serotonin system has been shown to play a critical role in a variety of human psychopathological conditions, particularly mood and anxiety disorders (Hensler, 2006) Antidepressant treatment has thus focused on modulating serotonergic neurotransmission (Jones and Blackbur n, 2002) One of the challenges of the serotonin system is the sheer complexity of it, with 14 known receptor varieties categorized into seven receptor subtypes (Hoyer et al 2002) The HTR1A subtype exists on pre synaptic neurons in raphe nuclei as well as on post synaptic neurons in other brain regions, such as the hippocampus and the thalamus. Agonists have different effects depending on the location of the receptors, in that agonists to pre synaptic receptors result in anxiolytic behaviors while agonists to post synaptic receptors lead to anti depressive behaviors (Schreiber and De Vry,

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101 1993) ). Kennett et al. (Kennett et al 1 987) have demonstrated that the 5 HTR1A agonist 8 hydroxy 2 (di n propylamino) tetralin (8 OH DPAT) may have rapid antid epressant properties. Partial HTR1A may also be effective in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (Jones and Blackburn, 2002) and schizophrenia (Millan, 2000) HTR1A knockout mice show elevated anxiety levels in open field, elevated zero maze, and novel object assays (Heisler et al 1998) and are less reactive, more anxious, and possibly less aggressive than the wild types (Ramboz et al 1998) Dysfunction of this receptor has been suggested to also play a role in the genesis of major depressive disorder in humans (Savitz et al 2009) PET studies in pa tients with posttraumatic stress and panic disorders (Neumeister et al 2004) and depression (Drevets et al 1999) have shown reduced HTR1A receptor binding potential and reduced receptor availability (Nash et al 2008) In the present study we found a down regulation of serotonin receptors after 10 days of ITTO In the previous study (Chapter 3 ) we have show n that the serotonin receptor HTR2A was rapidly up regulated with acute occ lusions. This is in general agreement with the suggestion that anxiety is the result of a hypersensitive serotonin system; whereas impulsivity and depression is the result of a hyposensitive serotonin system (Schreiber and De Vry, 1993) Chronic Exposure to ITTO Modulates SHOX2 SHOX2 (or Prx3 or OG12X or SHOT): SHOX2 is a homeobox gene expressed mainly in the thalamus in adult rats, more specifically in those thalamic relay nuclei that coordinate and integrate sensory information to be sent to the sensory cortex (van Schaick et al 1997) Despite its critical location for gating of sens ory information, n o

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102 reports have been published on modulated SHOX2 gene expression. Homeobox genes are the largest class of transcription factors instrumental in cell specific gene expression. Their expression patterns are mostly restricted during developm ent of embryonic brain, and some persist during adult life. Aberrations in homeobox genes can cause s everal genetic disorders, in the case of SHOX2 it is thought to be responsible for idiopathic short stature in Turner syndrome patients (Rao et al 1997) Chronic Exposure to ITTO Modulates Pathways Involved in Learning and Memory, Cell Processes, and Cell Signaling Ten days of ITTO resulted in a behavioral adaption in order to cope with the stress of the occlusion trials. These adaptations were characterized by decreased exploratory behavior, increased submissive state, and even breath holding (Pate et al 2010) This finding of learned helplessness and memory of previ ous occlusion trials is consistent with the altered molecular pathways of learning and/or memory. In the present study, m ost of the genes that were found to be up regulated have been shown to increase learning and/or memory. Modulated cellular processes i ncluded cell proliferation, differentiation, neuroprotection, and cell death. A common trend in the analysis of these pathways was the inhibitory regulation of cell death by up regulated genes, while neuroprotection was positively regulated. Cell prolifera tion seemed to be down regulated because the genes that are activating this process showed decreased expression. However, cell differentiation appeared to be increased, both by positive regulation of up regulated genes as well as by inhibitory regulation o f down regulated ones. Differentially regulated genes involved in cell signaling were Ca 2+ transport, membrane polarization, synaptic potentiation and transmission. Involvement of the

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103 various genes is less clear and often in opposite direction. The balance of up and down regulation of genes in these pathways seems to be important in determining the final outcome. Conclusions Contrary to our hypothesis that repeated ITTO would induce increases in 5 HTR2A gene expression, we found a decrease in the expressio n of this receptor subtype along with a decrease in 5 HTR1A. This finding could be explained by the opposite action of the serotonergic system depending on the duration of the stress stimulus (Graeff et al., 1997; Schreiber and De Vry, 1993) An acute stress, such as one trial of ITTO, would produce anxiety due to up regulation of components in the serotonergic system, while chronic exposure to a stress such as repeated trials of ITTO would produce depression like behavior due to down regulation of this system. Repeated ITTO elicited changes in the gene expression profile of the medial thalamus involved in neuronal firing mode, suggesting a modulation of respiratory afferent information gating. A change in gating of information to higher brain centers could resul t in a different behavioral response to the ITTO respiratory stimulus. The respiratory load compensation response has been shown to be altered in conscious rats and following 10 days of repeated ITTO (Pate et al 2010) This alteration may be due to a change in the gating pattern that influen ced the behavioral control of breathing.

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104 Figure 4 1. Schematic of the experimental protocol for repeated ITTO. Rats were placed in a plethysmograph and the actuator tube of the tracheal cuff was connected to a saline filled syringe.

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105 Figure 4 2. Representative plethysmograph pressure traces for one occlusion trial on day 10. Cuff pressure indicates the period of occlusion. The large deflection of the signal at the beginning of occlusion is ascribed to a movement artifact when the rat twitches due to application of occlusion.

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106 Table 4 1. Candidate genes significantly differentially regulated following chronic ITTO. Log fold change p value Gene Symbol Description 2.14 0.0043 GAD1 Glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 1.61 0.0256 GAD2 Glutamic acid decarboxylase 2 1.38 0.0039 CRHBP Corticotropin releasing hormone binding protein 0.78 0.0396 HTR1A Serotonin receptor 1A 0.59 0.0023 HTR2A Serotonin receptor 2A + 1.37 0.0009 SHOX2 Short stature homeobox 2 + 1.36 0.0402 CCK Cholecystokinin + 1.22 0.0040 PRKCG Protein kinase C, gamma + 1.09 0.0085 GRM4 Glutamate receptor, metabotropic 4 + 1.07 0.0060 KCNJ9 Potassium inwardly rectifying channel Table 4 2. Significantly modulated Gene Ontology Biological Processes. Name # of Entities Overlap p value Synaptic transmission 247 17 2.19 e 12 Learning and/or memory 42 5 1.11 e 5 Neurotransmitter Transport 62 5 7.55 e 5 Neurotransmitter Secretion 48 4 3.60 e 4 Regulation of neuronal synaptic plasticity 26 3 7.85 e 4 Regulation of neurotransmitter secretion 27 3 8.79 e 4 Learning 31 3 1.32 e 3

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107 Figure 4 3. Pathway analysis of transcripts (p < 0.05) involved in the biological processes of learning and/or memory.

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108 Figure 4 4. Pathway analysis of transcripts (p < 0.05) involved in cell processes.

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109 Figure 4 5. Pathway analysis of transcripts (p < 0.05) involved in cell signaling.

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110 CHAPTER 5 SUMMARIES AND CONCLU SIONS Summary of Study Findings Study #1 Summary The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of EMST on pulmonary function and maximal expiratory pressure generating capacity, and to determine whether this specific respiratory muscle training affects oxygen consumption during an incremental exercise test, swimming performance, and perception of e xertion and breathlessness in highly trained collegiate swimmers. The EMST group was compared to an AFT group that functioned as a placebo control. The EMST intervention elicited significant increases in MEP but not the other measured pulmonary function v ariables (FEV 1.0 FVC, FEV 1.0 /FVC). Post training, MEP increased by 29.86% in the EMST group and 7.86% in the AFT group. These results demonstrate that the EMST pressure threshold training device provided a sufficiently strong stimulus to increase expirato ry pressure generating capacity in these highly trained swimmers, while the AFT non resistance air flow training device did not significantly increase expiratory muscle strength as measure by MEP. Swimming performance improved more in the EMST than the AFT group. Average swim time during the all out 6 x 100 meter freestyle interval test decreased by 1.44% in the EMST group and by 0.29% in the AFT group, however, the change was not statistically sign ificantly different between the groups (p = 0.204). Post training, ratings of breathlessness tended to worsen in the AFT group and ratings of perceived exertion tended to improve in the EMST group. The results demonstrate that EMST has a trend to improve s wimming times in a maximal effort interval swim test that may give these

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111 highly competitive athletes an improved performance during a swim competition, and EMST has a trend to improve subjective ratings of perceived exertion and breathlessness during maxim um effort swimming. EMST is more effective than AFT in conditioning expiratory muscles of highly trained athletes and is an easy method that results in improving performance m erit further investigation into training of the respiratory system in athletes. Study #2 Summary This study evaluated the responses of a 10 minute bout of ITTO on the gene expression profile of the medial thalamus in urethane anaesthetized rats. This stud y was important to establish a role of the medial thalamus as a component in the respiratory mechanosensory neural pathway. Analyses of breath timing responses to ITTO corroborated the existence of the ventilatory load compensation reflex in the anaestheti zed animal. Gene expression profiles were measured using Agilent Technology Oligo Microarrays. Tracheal occlusions modulated a total of 588 genes (p < 0.05 log 2 fold change 0.58 ), of which 261 were up regulated and 327 were down regulated. A significant up regulation of the serotonin HTR2A receptor and significant down regulation of the dopamine DRD1 receptor genes were found. Pathway analysis was performed targeting serotonin and dopamine receptor pathways. The MAPK1 gene wa s significantly down regulated. MAPK1 is an inhibitory regulator of the serotonin HTR2A receptor and facilitatory regulator for the dopamine DRD1 receptor. Down regulation of MAPK1 may be related to the up regulation of HTR2A and down regulation of DRD1 su ggesting an interaction in the medial thalamus serotonin dopamine pathway elicited by airway obstruction. Gene ontology analysis showed gene expression

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112 changes related to anti apoptosis, response to stress, and the MAPKKK cascade. The results of this study demonstrate an immediate change in gene expression in thalamic stress/anxiety/depression pathways, providing evidence for the involvement of the medial thalamus to respond to airway occlusions. Study #3 Summary Based on the results of study #2, the exper iments in study #3 were undertaken to evaluate the gene expression profile of the medial thalamus following chronic conditioning to ITTO (daily 10 minute occlusion trials for 10 days) in conscious rats. Chronic tracheal obstruction conditioning modulated 6 11 genes (p < 0.05), of which 411 were up regulated and 250 were down regulated. There was a significant down regulation of the genes encoding GAD1, GAD2, CRHBP, HTR1A, and HTR2A. Up regulated genes included SHOX2, CCK, PRKCG, GRM4, and KCNJ9. Significantl y regulated gene ontology categories were learning and/or memory, neurotransmitter synthesis, transport, and secretion, and synaptic transmission and plasticity. Pathway analysis showed the involvement of the significantly modulated genes in learning and/o r memory, cell processes, and cell signaling. The results of this microarray study demonstrate that repeated ITTO in conscious rats elicited changes in the gene expression profile of the medial thalamus involved in neuronal firing mode, suggesting a modul ation of respiratory afferent information gating. A change in gating would influence the behavioral control breathing and thus alter the respiratory load compensation response. It further implicated a role of chronic exposure to airway occlusions in develo pment of stress, anxiety, and depression.

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113 Discussion The Role of Serotonin in Response to Respiratory Stimuli Any stressor threatening the homeostasis of an organism can initiate neural and behavioral responses to adapt to the specific situation. The activ ity of neurotransmitters is critical for these changes to occur. Based on the studies in chapters 3 and 4, one of the neurotransmitter systems involved in respiratory stimuli is serotonin. Pharmacologic agents targeting the serotoninergic system are used t o treat a variety of disorders; some functions of serotonin include the regulation of mood, appetite, sleep, and memory and learning. Serotonergic fibers from the raphe nucleus travel to midline, intralaminar and association nuclei of the thalamus and from there mostly to limbic forebrain areas and some to sensory and motor cortices, suggesting that serotonergic fibers to the thalamus may exert a significant influence on affective and cognitive functions involved in emotional and cognitive behaviors (Vertes et al 2010) Modulation of components of the serotonergic system in the thalamus could thus be responsible to changes in affective perception and behavior to a stimulus. In study 2 (Chapter 3), the serotonin receptor HTR2A was found to be up regulated following just one trial of ITTO in anesthetized rats. In study 3 (chapter 4), there was a down regulation of the serotonin receptors subtype HTR2A and HTR1A after ten days of repeated ITTO in conscious animals. These fin dings are in agreement with other studies that show that serotonin can modulate anxiety and depression in opposite directions, with high serotonergic activity being associated with anxiety and low activity with depression (Graeff et al., 1997; Schreiber and De Vry, 1993)

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114 The Effects of Respiratory Training The respiratory system could be one of the factors limiting exercise performance in highly trained athletes (Dempsey, 2006) Study 1 corroborates this hypothesis by demonstrating that a specific respiratory muscle strength training slightly, albeit statistically not significant, improved swimming performance. Pul monary function (FVC, FEV1.0) did not change, which is consistent with the notion that the pulmonary system does not structurally adapt to physical training (Dempsey et al 1990) However, EMST did significantly increase the maximum expiratory pressure capacity, indic ating that the expiratory muscles responded to the training load by an increase in strength. This increase could improve the response to the expiratory flow limitation imposed by the water pressure, and in turn reduce and/or delay the perception of breathl essness. The results from the animal studies in chapters 3 and 4 using ITTO shed some light on the potential underlying mechanisms for the positive effects of EMST. We found changes on the gene level in the medial thalamus, indicating that the supra pontin e brain areas play a role in influencing the control of breathing. As described in chapter 1, the thalamus is the structure implicated in the gating of sensory information to higher brain centers such as cortical areas and the limbic system (Figure 1 1). M odulation of thalamic function and thus gating could suggest altered feedback to these brain areas and thus a different response pattern to the stimuli. More specifically, the trend of decreased perception of breathlessness and exertion during the interval swim test in the EMST group could have been due to increased gating of the uncomfortable respiratory stimulus. Breathlessness, either in combination with peripheral muscle fatigue or by itself, is the most common reason for reduction or termination of exe rcise (Killian and Campbell

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115 1995) During a maximal effort exercise, the subject is aware of both the increasing central motor command and the decline in power output (Killian and Gandevia, 1996) ; the awareness of these two factor s gives rise to the sensation of fatigue (Jones and Killian, 2000) The sensation of breathlessness likely depends on several different mechanisms that are involved in the regulation of breathing including feed forward and feedback mechanisms (Figure 2 11) (Chonan et al 1990b) Figure 5 1 shows a schematic model of the effects of respiratory muscle training on perception based on my studies. With increasing exercise intensity, there usually is increased feedback from receptors in the respiratory muscles, chest wall, lungs, lower and upper airways, and chemoreceptors to the thalamus. Respiratory muscl e training (repeated ITTO) could modulate this feedback due to improved strength of these muscles and thus could result in a change of how the thalamus handles the influx of respiratory information, so that the perception of breathlessness is delayed or re duced. The ITTO animal studies are suggestive of a change in function of the thalamic gating process. The combined factors of reduced feedback and change in gating within the thalamus could lead to decreased signaling to the limbic system and the sensory c ortex, and in turn decrease perception. Methodological Considerations and Directions for Future Studies The present set of experiments highlighted a potential ergogenic effect of EMST in a group of highly trained swimmers and contributed to a better unders tanding of the role of the medial thalamus in response to loaded respiratory stimuli. Limitations to these studies and proposals for future experiments that could expand this body of work are discussed below.

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116 Fatigue due to Regular Training During the EMST study the swimmers were on a three week training cycle with each week having a different focus such as endurance, sprint, strength, and recovery, levels varied to some exten t within the training cycle. One week of training (Monday through Saturday) consisted of nine two hour swim sessions at 5,000 8,000 m, plus additional dry land and weight training workouts. Therefore, most of our laboratory testing was performed early in th e week to take advantage of the recovery Sunday. The 6 x 100 m swim tests were administered at the beginning of the Tuesday afternoon swim practice after a specific standard warm up. In order to minimize variability, an interval swim test was chosen instea d of a time trial. Other studies involving highly trained swimmers have used either time trials (Kil ding et al., 2010; Lindh et al., 2008; Vandenbogaerde and Hopkins, 2010) or interval tests (Psycharakis, 2010; Seifert et al., 2010; Wells et al., 2005) Respiratory Training Stress Stimulus As seen from study 3 (chapter 4 ), repeated ITTO induced gene expression changes in the conscious rat that are associated with anxiety and depression. This is consistent with evidence showing an increased rate of anxiety and depression in patients with repeated acute or chronic airway oc clusion, such as asthma and COPD (Moussas et al 2008) It also implicates ITTO as a negative stressor. However, in our experiments the animals were healthy and had no intrinsic respiratory muscle weakness as is characteristic of asthma, COPD, or various neuromuscular diseases (Barbarito et al 2001) Respiratory muscle training in humans is probably a positive stressor due to the motivation an d expectation of the individual; therefore, this training should not

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117 induce anxiety/depression but rather a positive outlook toward improvement of performance. Thus, we cannot be absolutely certain that the respiratory stimulus of ITTO per se elicited the changes in gene expression or if feedback from higher brain centers, especially from the limbic system, were involved. However, study 3 also showed an up regulation of the learning and/or memory pathways and study 2 (chapter 3) demonstrated an up regulatio n of the stress response and negative regulation in apoptosis in anesthetized animals immediately following the single trial of ITTO, suggesting that this type of stressor was not necessarily a negative one. To my knowledge, our animal model is the first t o examine gene expression changes in a subcortical area in response to an intrinsic respiratory stimulus that has been shown to induce respiratory muscle hypertrophy (Smith et al 2010) O 2 max Testing The incremental O 2 test on the swim ergometer was not a true maximal test, but submaximal because most swimmers were able to complete the testing protocol before the characteristic plateau phase of the O 2 c urve was reached. To my knowledge, this particular swim ergometer ha s never been used in previous studies, even though it has some important advantages to other ergometers as discussed in chapter 2. For a future study, adjustments to stroke frequency and/or time spent at each resistance level should be made, depending on t he fitness level of the participant group. In this case with highly trained swimmers, a slightly higher constant stroke frequency may be more appropriate to assess a true O 2 max value.

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118 Prevalence of Respiratory Disease in Swimmers Asthma is a common occur rence in elite athletes, especially in endurance sport such as swimming. The most recent study of 200 top Finnish swimmers revealed that the prevalence of asthma was higher in these swimmers than in the general population (Paivinen et al., 2010) The study found that physician diagnosed asthma was reported by 32 swimmers (16%), including 24 (12%) with exercise induced asthma. Asthmatic symptoms during swimming were described by 84 subjects (42%) with most symptoms occurring when swimming exceeded speeds corresponding to the lactic/anaerobic threshold. In our study with UF swimmers, exclusion criteria included the occurrence of bronchoconstriction and taking medication for resp iratory disease. Unfortunately, these criteria complicated the recruiting process since about one third of the swimmers asked had physician diagnosed asthma and were taking medication. Future studies should include asthmatic athletes to see the possibly di fferent effect of EMST in this population. Specificity of Medial Thalamic Nuclei The medial thalamus consists of multiple nuclei, midline and intralaminar nuclei, that may have different specific functions. Furthermore, the medial thalamus contains a variety of anatomically and functionally heterogeneous neurons (Benarroch, 2008) such as glutamatergic projection neurons, inhibitory interneurons, and relay neurons. The thalamic m icroarray sample in the experiments presented here was not targeted to a specific nucleus or group of neurons, thus gene expression may be multifactorial. Future studies may be carried out to determine the different type of neurons comprising the midline a nd intralaminar nuclei and the connectivity between other brain areas and these specific neurons.

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119 Genomics Versus Proteomics The use of microarray technology has become a popular method to study changes in gene expression in pathologies and following speci fic stimulus interventions. However, a change in mRNA levels of a particular gene does not necessarily translate into the same change in protein levels of that gene. Most microarray studies that use protein validation (in the form of Western blots for exa mple) show modulation of mRNA and protein in the same direction and with similar fold changes. Some studies, however, have demonstrated distinctly different fold changes or even opposite regulation of mRNA and the associated protein. Thus, in future studie s, proteomics could be used to assess protein changes in certain brain regions involved in the respiratory control network. Conclusions The three studies presented in this dissertation examined the effects of respiratory muscle training in humans and in a rat model. EMST in swimmers showed a significant increase in expiratory pressure generating capacity and trends for improvements in swimming performance and feelings of breathlessness and perceived exertion. Tracheal occlusions in anesthetized and conscio us rats showed changes in the gene expression profile of the medial thalamus, indicating that this brain area responds to respiratory loading and may be involved in gating and relaying respiratory information to higher brain centers.

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120 Figure 5 1. Model f or possible effects of respiratory muscle training on perception.

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121 APPENDIX A RATING SCALES

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122

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123 APPENDIX B LIST OF MODULATED GE NES FOLLOWING ACUTE ITTO Table B 1. List of modulated genes following acute ITTO, p < 0.05 and log 2 fold change 0.4 log 2 FC p value TargetID Symbol Name 2.99 0.0466 AA899244 1.48 0.0196 ENSRNOT00000047881 1.43 0.0418 AA900238 1.33 0.0004 AW143927 1.33 0.0388 XM_237191 Fzd7_predicted frizzled homolog 7 (Drosophila) (predicted) 1.31 0.0474 CB547739 1.29 0.0377 NM_001025147 Gpr160 G protein coupled receptor 160 1.28 0.0011 BQ196489 1.28 0.0220 AI102771 1.27 0.0214 BC099085 1.25 0.0436 XM_001077586 LOC691293 similar to reproductive homeobox on chromosome X, 7 1.25 0.0414 NM_013167 Ucp3 uncoupling protein 3 (mitochondrial, proton carrier) 1.23 0.0144 TC541367 1.20 0.0249 D84486 1.20 0.0401 NM_147165 Gpx6 glutathione peroxidase 6 1.15 0.0200 BI291339 1.13 0.0019 NM_153721 Cxcl7 chemokine (C X C motif) ligand 7 1.12 0.0300 XM_577774 LOC502310 similar to Cytochrome P450 2B12 (CYPIIB12) 1.12 0.0304 AI555248 1.10 0.0063 XM_222561 1.09 0.0265 NM_147213 LOC259245 alpha 2u globulin PGCL5 1.08 0.0026 AA997228 1.08 0.0345 AA956566 1.08 0.0011 BF391695 1.08 0.0098 AA818571 1.06 0.0429 NM_133533 Cd79b CD79B antigen 1.06 0.0209 A_44_P473318 1.06 0.0411 XM_001076906 LOC687057 similar to Calponin 2 (Calponin H2, smooth muscle) (Neutral calponin) 1.06 0.0069 NM_001025628 Ropn1 ropporin, rhophilin associated protein 1 1.05 0.0109 BI296967 1.05 0.0117 TC541883 1.04 0.0444 XM_217136 Cd3g CD3 antigen, gamma polypeptide 1.04 0.0432 A_44_P319138 1.03 0.0215 BF559727 1.02 0.0407 BE097028 0.99 0.0059 XM_340956 LOC360684 similar to eyes absent 4 isoform a 0.99 0.0102 NM_012969 Irs1 insulin receptor substrate 1 0.98 0.0310 BI296249 0.98 0.0472 NM_031537 LOC24906 Robo 1 0.98 0.0395 BF396663 0.98 0.0121 AA944970

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124 0.97 0.0278 BI296064 0.96 0.0134 XM_001069898 LOC684331 hypothetical protein LOC684331 0.96 0.0430 AA800882 0.95 0.0184 BF281960 0.95 0.0300 TC530472 0.93 0.0389 BI282122 0.93 0.0124 A_44_P527770 0.91 0.0390 XM_344756 Pou4f2 POU domain, class 4, transcription factor 2 0.91 0.0270 XM_001075247 LOC686680 similar to membrane spanning 4 domains, subfamily A, member 5 0.91 0.0392 XM_344473 0.91 0.0270 BE115850 0.91 0.0456 XM_345276 0.91 0.0064 XM_001053946 LOC679957 similar to G protein coupled receptor 18 0.91 0.0489 NM_175755 Ppm1f protein phosphatase 1F (PP2C domain containing) 0.90 0.0018 NM_012629 Prl prolactin 0.90 0.0411 A_44_P340418 0.89 0.0495 XM_001072511 LOC684923 similar to chromosome 9 open reading frame 79 0.88 0.0350 AA926044 0.88 0.0382 BE113640 0.88 0.0087 AA850212 0.88 0.0430 XM_225068 Irx4_predicted Iroquois related homeobox 4 (Drosophila) (predicted) 0.88 0.0221 AJ224441 0.87 0.0101 A_44_P889765 0.87 0.0247 CB547880 0.86 0.0128 BI293639 0.86 0.0077 NM_138898 Phlpb phospholipase B 0.85 0.0177 AA925378 0.85 0.0477 BF409820 0.85 0.0182 AW530584 0.83 0.0433 NM_147139 0.83 0.0361 TC548367 0.83 0.0018 TC548927 0.83 0.0165 NM_012741 LOC25087 K kininogen 0.83 0.0421 AI406624 0.83 0.0197 NM_001014058 Usp18 ubiquitin specific peptidase 18 0.82 0.0125 XM_232952 0.82 0.0241 AI072433 0.82 0.0279 NM_198727 LOC288750 hypothetical protein 0.82 0.0058 TC537158 0.81 0.0438 AA819842 0.81 0.0350 XM_345868 Hdac7a histone deacetylase 7A 0.81 0.0050 AY325249 0.80 0.0016 CB547640 0.80 0.0272 XM_232342 Cd163_predicte d CD163 antigen (predicted) 0.80 0.0088 TC543535 0.79 0.0109 XM_001079735 LOC687705 similar to misshapen like kinase 1 isoform 1

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125 0.78 0.0312 AA924420 0.78 0.0058 AI175421 0.77 0.0468 XM_343922 Polr2a_mapped polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide A (mapped) 0.77 0.0247 XM_222215 RGD1565800_p redicted similar to hypothetical protein FLJ20674 (predicted) 0.77 0.0163 BE108142 0.76 0.0109 XM_341912 Xylt1 xylosyltransferase 1 0.76 0.0348 XM_573321 LOC498113 similar to This CDS feature is included to show the translation of the corresponding V_region. Presently translation qualifiers on V_region features are illegal 0.76 0.0184 NM_001024782 Lrrc8 leucine rich repeat containing 8 0.76 0.0452 TC544952 0.75 0.0399 NM_053398 Gfra3 glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor family receptor alpha 3 0.75 0.0113 CB547650 0.75 0.0173 XM_214313 Fcho1_predicted FCH domain only 1 (predicted) 0.75 0.0207 NM_001003401 Enc1 ectodermal neural cortex 1 0.74 0.0283 BF563208 0.74 0.0448 BF285026 0.74 0.0316 NM_031610 Kcnj3 potassium inwardly rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 3 0.73 0.0472 BQ207264 0.73 0.0242 NM_021669 Ghrl ghrelin precursor 0.72 0.0362 A_44_P598999 0.72 0.0432 CF109839 0.72 0.0351 A_44_P255625 0.72 0.0031 A_44_P984772 0.71 0.0192 BC089106 0.71 0.0045 NM_001039085 Cox6b2 cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIb testes specific isoform precursor 0.71 0.0495 NM_031697 St3gal3 ST3 beta galactoside alpha 2,3 sialyltransferase 3 0.71 0.0316 AA849518 0.71 0.0327 BF408914 0.70 0.0242 NM_001001368 Olr943_predicte d olfactory receptor 943 (predicted) 0.70 0.0035 AI012782 0.70 0.0218 XM_345112 0.70 0.0231 NM_138536 Ttl tubulin tyrosine ligase 0.70 0.0170 NM_001003929 Cntfr ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor 0.70 0.0269 NM_001030034 Rhbdf1 rhomboid family 1 (Drosophila) 0.69 0.0361 XM_220699 Rutbc1_predicte d RUN and TBC1 domain containing 1 (predicted) 0.69 0.0178 BF417211 0.68 0.0389 XM_220330 RGD1309452_p redicted similar to RIKEN cDNA 9530066K23 (predicted) 0.67 0.0389 XM_230039 Dusp19_predict ed dual specificity phosphatase 19 (predicted) 0.67 0.0407 BE106909 0.67 0.0126 NM_198727 LOC288750 hypothetical protein 0.67 0.0368 ENSRNOT00000020530

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126 0.67 0.0010 XM_216563 Eif4g3_predicte d eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 gamma, 3 (predicted) 0.67 0.0388 XM_232283 Plxnd1_predicte d plexin D1 (predicted) 0.67 0.0009 BE102282 0.66 0.0415 NM_001001518 Sucnr1 succinate receptor 1 0.66 0.0477 NM_053599 Efna1 ephrin A1 0.66 0.0449 TC541702 0.65 0.0167 BI295759 0.65 0.0481 TC565418 0.65 0.0191 NM_017094 Ghr growth hormone receptor 0.65 0.0462 CA505868 0.65 0.0210 XM_220629 Pitpnm3_predict ed PITPNM family member 3 (predicted) 0.65 0.0223 AI012480 0.64 0.0352 AA818997 0.64 0.0491 NM_001010964 Klrb1a_mapped killer cell lectin like receptor subfamily B, member 1A (mapped) 0.63 0.0490 TC548986 0.63 0.0487 BI290548 0.63 0.0131 NM_001009357 Rqcd1 rcd1 (required for cell differentiation) homolog 1 (S. pombe) 0.63 0.0185 AA801136 0.63 0.0422 NM_022944 Inppl1 inositol polyphosphate phosphatase like 1 0.63 0.0324 A_44_P168942 0.62 0.0472 XM_237839 Mfi2_predicted antigen p97 (melanoma associated) identified by monoclonal antibodies 133.2 and 96.5 (predicted) 0.62 0.0469 AABR03116794 0.62 0.0151 TC566831 0.62 0.0494 ENSRNOT00000020846 0.62 0.0267 XM_235115 RGD1306259_p redicted similar to neuron navigator 3; pore membrane and/or filament interacting like protein 1; steerin 3 (predicted) 0.62 0.0257 AI176773 0.62 0.0291 AI408734 0.61 0.0176 A_44_P130936 0.61 0.0346 NM_012965 Hrh2 histamine receptor H 2 0.61 0.0260 AA891571 0.61 0.0481 A_44_P405733 0.61 0.0460 BE115992 0.60 0.0156 A_44_P815267 0.60 0.0054 AY387092 0.60 0.0363 AI180288 0.60 0.0005 XM_341856 Ppfia3 protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, f polypeptide (PTPRF), interacting protein (liprin), alpha 3 0.60 0.0159 NM_001012062 Map3k7ip2 mitogen activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7 interacting protein 2 0.59 0.0093 XM_341901 LOC361623 similar to transcriptional intermediary factor 1 delta 0.59 0.0288 AY325158 0.59 0.0213 XM_236321 Fem1b_predicte feminization 1 homolog b (C. elegans)

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127 d (predicted) 0.58 0.0061 XM_243040 Clstn1 calsyntenin 1 0.58 0.0410 AA925246 0.58 0.0456 XM_001079501 LOC687643 similar to 60S ribosomal protein L13 (A52) 0.58 0.0040 TC562460 0.58 0.0368 AA800318 0.58 0.0140 AI008687 0.57 0.0230 NM_001030042 Rad9b RAD9 homolog B (S. cerevisiae) 0.57 0.0438 NM_053788 Stx1a syntaxin 1A (brain) 0.56 0.0255 NM_032613 Lasp1 LIM and SH3 protein 1 0.55 0.0457 XM_343168 RGD1307067_p redicted LOC362840 (predicted) 0.55 0.0359 TC532979 0.55 0.0112 NM_001014089 Lrrc35 leucine rich repeat containing 35 0.55 0.0292 XM_217026 Irak4_predicted interleukin 1 receptor associated kinase 4 (predicted) 0.54 0.0172 U42423 Kcnj3 potassium inwardly rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 3 0.54 0.0143 AI029408 0.54 0.0043 XM_234543 RGD1307503_p redicted similar to Hypothetical protein KIAA0297/KIAA0329 (predicted) 0.54 0.0470 TC525304 0.54 0.0042 AI233717 0.54 0.0342 XM_214968 Mtap7_predicted microtubule associated protein 7 (predicted) 0.54 0.0495 XM_235049 Pctk2 PCTAIRE motif protein kinase 2 0.54 0.0367 AI179957 0.54 0.0489 XM_343492 LOC363153 similar to cyclic AMP regulated phosphoprotein, 21 isoform 2 0.53 0.0262 XM_221216 Cd7_predicted CD7 antigen (predicted) 0.53 0.0427 ENSRNOT00000034929 0.53 0.0122 AI411183 0.53 0.0046 XM_343483 Dag1 dystroglycan 1 0.53 0.0371 NM_022853 Slc30a1 solute carrier family 30 (zinc transporter), member 1 0.53 0.0456 BF549324 0.53 0.0120 XM_001055528 LOC679267 hypothetical protein LOC679267 0.53 0.0151 NM_053535 Enpp1 ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 0.53 0.0393 XM_574352 RGD1566222_p redicted similar to HSU79303 protein (predicted) 0.53 0.0390 CO406134 0.52 0.0198 XM_226561 Pgbd5_predicte d piggyBac transposable element derived 5 (predicted) 0.52 0.0186 A_44_P621328 0.52 0.0138 XM_233829 RGD1560519_p redicted similar to thyroid adenoma associated (predicted) 0.52 0.0105 NM_019621 Dlgh4 discs, large homolog 4 (Drosophila) 0.52 0.0374 XM_221189 LOC287867 similar to myosin, heavy polypeptide 9, non muscle 0.52 0.0270 NM_001033691 Irf7 interferon regulatory factor 7 0.52 0.0213 XM_001055574 LOC680076 similar to ankyrin repeat and SOCS box containing protein 14 0.51 0.0385 TC551983

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128 0.51 0.0374 NM_001000604 Olr784_predicte d olfactory receptor 784 (predicted) 0.51 0.0138 NM_001012345 Dgat2 diacylglycerol O acyltransferase homolog 2 (mouse) 0.51 0.0279 XR_007436 LOC302833 similar to CG2691 PA 0.51 0.0280 XM_226431 RGD1310170_p redicted similar to beta 1,3 galactosyltransferase related protein (predicted) 0.51 0.0372 XM_219785 Gldc_predicted glycine decarboxylase (predicted) 0.50 0.0063 NM_177931 Orc1l origin recognition complex, subunit 1 like (S.cereviaiae) 0.50 0.0147 A_44_P370411 0.50 0.0390 A_44_P985259 0.50 0.0295 AI104089 0.50 0.0484 XM_217409 Bmpr2 bone morphogenic protein receptor, type II (serine/threonine kinase) 0.50 0.0234 AA946181 0.50 0.0283 XM_225138 Dapk1_predicte d death associated protein kinase 1 (predicted) 0.49 0.0314 XM_001080050 LOC365985 similar to adenylate kinase 5 isoform 1 0.49 0.0238 XM_220163 0.49 0.0342 AW914780 0.49 0.0136 AW532611 0.49 0.0036 NM_001033706 LOC361571 similar to RIKEN cDNA 2410004H02 0.49 0.0329 AI101330 0.49 0.0131 XM_001053570 LOC679578 similar to Protein C18orf1 0.49 0.0258 AI232943 0.48 0.0081 AA817769 0.48 0.0095 BM392264 0.48 0.0064 XM_224841 Odz3_predicted odd Oz/ten m homolog 3 (Drosophila) (predicted) 0.48 0.0188 XM_219341 0.48 0.0305 BQ211663 0.48 0.0212 NM_031070 Nell2 nel like 2 homolog (chicken) 0.47 0.0145 AI011604 0.47 0.0381 NM_023991 Prkaa2 protein kinase, AMP activated, alpha 2 catalytic subunit 0.47 0.0297 TC565055 0.47 0.0136 CK598443 0.47 0.0490 XM_222179 0.47 0.0223 XM_001070874 Dusp7 dual specificity phosphatase 7 0.47 0.0417 NM_053535 Enpp1 ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 0.47 0.0205 XM_001079870 LOC687711 similar to small nuclear ribonucleoprotein D3 0.47 0.0255 XM_213769 Vps37b_predict ed vacuolar protein sorting 37B (yeast) (predicted) 0.47 0.0252 XM_230784 RGD1562262_p redicted similar to centrosomal Nek2 associated protein 1 (predicted) 0.46 0.0413 NM_023991 Prkaa2 protein kinase, AMP activated, alpha 2 catalytic subunit 0.46 0.0451 NM_053788 Stx1a syntaxin 1A (brain) 0.46 0.0414 XM_001054112 RGD1561985_p redicted similar to dystrobrevin alpha isoform 1 (predicted) 0.46 0.0124 XM_226089

PAGE 129

129 0.46 0.0287 CO562195 0.46 0.0341 AI171999 0.46 0.0443 XM_001064905 RGD1560736_p redicted similar to solute carrier family 9 (sodium/hydrogen exchanger), isoform 9 (predicted) 0.46 0.0451 NM_001000178 Olr176_predicte d olfactory receptor 176 (predicted) 0.45 0.0284 NM_019621 Dlgh4 discs, large homolog 4 (Drosophila) 0.45 0.0255 NM_001014217 LOC363251 similar to 1700029B21Rik protein 0.45 0.0059 XM_228778 0.45 0.0339 AW920552 0.45 0.0136 NM_198749 Rab15 RAB15, member RAS onocogene family 0.45 0.0129 NM_012546 Drd1a dopamine receptor D1A 0.45 0.0324 ENSRNOT00000046703 0.45 0.0173 NM_001013121 Snapc2 small nuclear RNA activating complex, polypeptide 2 0.45 0.0133 XM_221964 RGD1311314 similar to RIKEN cDNA 6530401C20 0.45 0.0086 XM_340870 RGD1305547_p redicted similar to RIKEN cDNA 2810417D08 (predicted) 0.45 0.0330 AI233855 0.44 0.0134 BM986218 0.44 0.0229 XM_228196 Ptk9l_predicted protein tyrosine kinase 9 like (A6 related protein) (predicted) 0.44 0.0078 AW918520 0.44 0.0283 NM_023991 Prkaa2 protein kinase, AMP activated, alpha 2 catalytic subunit 0.44 0.0350 BF410589 0.44 0.0486 NM_080691 Cacng3 calcium channel, voltage dependent, gamma subunit 3 0.44 0.0330 TC541972 0.44 0.0435 AW914778 0.44 0.0385 XM_575106 LOC499768 similar to TBC1 domain family, member 13 0.44 0.0245 NM_175762 Ldlr low density lipoprotein receptor 0.44 0.0378 NM_023991 Prkaa2 protein kinase, AMP activated, alpha 2 catalytic subunit 0.43 0.0334 NM_080585 Napa N ethylmaleimide sensitive fusion protein attachment protein alpha 0.43 0.0137 XM_001070611 Celsr2 cadherin EGF LAG seven pass G type receptor 2 0.43 0.0485 NM_019621 Dlgh4 discs, large homolog 4 (Drosophila) 0.43 0.0433 NM_031027 Dpyd dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase 0.43 0.0499 NM_001000566 Olr542_predicte d olfactory receptor 542 (predicted) 0.43 0.0153 XM_243980 RGD1561652_p redicted similar to oxysterol binding protein like protein 10 (predicted) 0.43 0.0129 AY234417 0.43 0.0080 M15402 0.43 0.0150 NM_001014093 Parp16 poly (ADP ribose) polymerase family, member 16 0.43 0.0388 XM_001069774 LOC684297 similar to PHD finger protein 8 0.43 0.0211 NM_053535 Enpp1 ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 0.43 0.0020 ENSRNOT00000030885

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130 0.43 0.0284 XM_225214 Diras2_predicte d DIRAS family, GTP binding RAS like 2 (predicted) 0.43 0.0402 NM_001024331 Rab43 Ras related protein RAB43 0.42 0.0290 NM_001007656 Mapre3 microtubule associated protein, RP/EB family, member 3 0.42 0.0267 BI286685 0.42 0.0130 NM_017093 Akt2 thymoma viral proto oncogene 2 0.42 0.0272 NM_023991 Prkaa2 protein kinase, AMP activated, alpha 2 catalytic subunit 0.42 0.0271 A_44_P536567 0.42 0.0453 NM_001003711 Jph4 junctophilin 4 0.42 0.0279 XM_001070712 LOC689414 similar to alternative testis transcripts open reading frame A CG4241 PA, isoform A 0.42 0.0369 NM_134351 Mat2a methionine adenosyltransferase II, alpha 0.42 0.0286 XM_001058968 LOC680806 similar to Transcription initiation factor TFIID 105 kDa subunit (TAFII 105) (TAFII105) 0.42 0.0030 CF111640 0.42 0.0469 NM_172022 Prosapip1 ProSAPiP1 protein 0.42 0.0286 XM_001072657 Efna3 ephrin A3 0.42 0.0467 AA955473 0.42 0.0450 XM_227627 RGD1309567_p redicted similar to hypothetical protein FLJ20300 (predicted) 0.41 0.0247 XM_342700 Herc6 potential ubiquitin ligase 0.41 0.0115 XM_347344 LOC368190 similar to Williams Beuren syndrome critical region 18 0.41 0.0078 XM_234904 Shc2_predicted src homology 2 domain containing transforming protein C2 (predicted) 0.41 0.0391 NM_001009667 RGD1308031 similar to RIKEN cDNA 2510048L02 0.41 0.0193 BF565121 0.41 0.0192 XM_219703 RGD1563721_p redicted similar to Cezanne 2 protein (predicted) 0.41 0.0416 XM_230722 Tcf15_predicted transcription factor 15 (predicted) 0.41 0.0495 TC558413 0.41 0.0116 XM_575540 0.41 0.0224 XM_238302 RGD1562883_p redicted similar to livin inhibitor of apoptosis isoform beta (predicted) 0.41 0.0418 NM_173101 Myo1e myosin IE 0.41 0.0376 XM_236747 Cdcp1_predicte d CUB domain containing protein 1 (predicted) 0.41 0.0497 NM_017222 Slc10a2 solute carrier family 10, member 2 0.41 0.0321 TC560423 0.41 0.0055 A_44_P354420 0.40 0.0326 AY325217 0.40 0.0173 AI013472 0.40 0.0266 XM_574558 RGD1562278_p redicted similar to KTSR5831 (predicted) 0.40 0.0174 NM_053535 Enpp1 ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 0.40 0.0072 TC543636 0.40 0.0191 NM_053984 Gjb4 gap junction membrane channel protein beta 4 0.40 0.0158 XM_217432 Arpc2_predicted actin related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 2 (predicted)

PAGE 131

131 0.40 0.0055 AW143308 0.40 0.0280 BF390070 0.40 0.0261 NM_017025 Ldha lactate dehydrogenase A 0.40 0.0208 NM_130829 Palm paralemmin 2.42 0.0100 XM_218843 RGD1562653_p redicted similar to hypothetical protein D030069K18 (predicted) 2.22 0.0031 XM_001055017 LOC501126 similar to hypothetical protein MGC26733 1.85 0.0158 XM_235839 1.84 0.0001 XM_234720 Dnah11 dynein, axonemal, heavy polypeptide 11 1.79 0.0334 NM_012630 Prlr prolactin receptor 1.78 0.0325 TC562412 1.78 0.0104 TC523276 1.76 0.0223 XM_214760 RGD1310945_p redicted similar to hypothetical protein FLJ23305 (predicted) 1.59 0.0071 XM_218574 RGD1308141_p redicted similar to BC013491 protein (predicted) 1.57 0.0083 AI599504 1.56 0.0429 NM_057184 Chrna6 cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha polypeptide 6 1.48 0.0124 XM_343290 Dmc1h_predicte d disrupted meiotic cDNA 1 homolog (yeast) (predicted) 1.47 0.0321 AA817758 1.46 0.0056 AA925518 1.41 0.0095 AI178246 1.41 0.0182 NM_001012176 Tsga2 testis specific gene A2 1.36 0.0255 NM_001004263 Itgb6 integrin, beta 6 1.35 0.0118 AI111365 1.35 0.0183 XM_576582 RGD1565062_p redicted similar to PF20 (predicted) 1.33 0.0140 NM_012630 Prlr prolactin receptor 1.32 0.0102 XM_236597 RGD1564871_p redicted similar to Thioredoxin domain containing protein 6 (Thioredoxin like protein 2) (predicted) 1.30 0.0057 NM_013085 Plau plasminogen activator, urokinase 1.28 0.0333 BQ194305 1.27 0.0001 AI044662 1.26 0.0117 XM_344019 RGD1559942_p redicted similar to hypothetical protein (predicted) 1.24 0.0091 NM_053526 Cpn1 carboxypeptidase N, polypeptide 1, 50kD 1.22 0.0346 BE107038 1.22 0.0148 NP516904 1.19 0.0113 XM_001063975 LOC500700 similar to chromosome 14 open reading frame 145 1.19 0.0448 A_44_P347283 1.17 0.0003 CB606444 1.15 0.0418 NM_030865 Myoc myocilin 1.14 0.0321 XM_345077 1.11 0.0459 AA998060 1.11 0.0210 NM_001003977 Gk11 glandular kallikrein 11 1.10 0.0277 XM_344863 Cabp5_predicte d calcium binding protein 5 (predicted) 1.10 0.0358 XM_342904 RGD1560700_p redicted similar to palmitoyl protein thioesterase (predicted)

PAGE 132

132 1.07 0.0491 XM_001055031 LOC680102 similar to mab 21 like 2 1.07 0.0425 NM_017254 Htr2a 5 hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 2A 1.06 0.0465 XM_236991 Tdrd6_predicted tudor domain containing 6 (predicted) 1.05 0.0209 NM_001030043 RGD1311300 similar to T cell receptor V delta 6 1.05 0.0482 NM_017144 Tnni3 troponin I type 3 (cardiac) 1.05 0.0178 AI575619 1.04 0.0198 NM_001007721 Emp2 epithelial membrane protein 2 1.03 0.0252 XM_236325 Cln6_predicted ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal 6 (predicted) 1.03 0.0262 XM_237386 RGD1305311_p redicted similar to hypothetical protein FLJ22527 (predicted) 1.03 0.0151 U81826 1.03 0.0412 BF389308 1.03 0.0312 A_44_P408197 1.02 0.0104 BF286372 1.02 0.0170 XM_343481 RGD1306603_p redicted similar to RIKEN cDNA D330022A01 gene (predicted) 1.01 0.0390 TC525017 1.01 0.0278 CV795283 1.01 0.0093 XM_217031 RGD1305928_p redicted hypothetical LOC300207 (predicted) 0.99 0.0139 BF416970 0.99 0.0290 NM_023962 Pdgfd platelet derived growth factor, D polypeptide 0.99 0.0313 AA925922 0.99 0.0320 AI170067 0.98 0.0493 AI031036 0.97 0.0482 ENSRNOT00000002541 0.97 0.0024 BF282074 0.97 0.0470 NM_023969 Edg7 putative G protein coupled receptor snGPCR32 0.96 0.0318 NM_173045 Zc3hav1 zinc finger CCCH type, antiviral 1 0.96 0.0158 XM_345792 0.96 0.0148 BU758972 0.96 0.0185 XM_220513 Cias1_predicted cold autoinflammatory syndrome 1 homolog (human) (predicted) 0.96 0.0493 AI007821 0.95 0.0258 NM_001007692 Nfatc2ip nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin dependent 2 interacting protein 0.94 0.0146 XM_001057993 LOC680611 similar to B cell leukemia/lymphoma 3 0.94 0.0126 BF550234 0.93 0.0270 XM_232620 Mybl1_predicted myeloblastosis oncogene like 1 (predicted) 0.93 0.0339 AI413060 0.93 0.0335 XM_001059031 Hoxa5 homeo box A5 0.92 0.0294 XM_220008 Pik3ap1_predict ed phosphoinositide 3 kinase adaptor protein 1 (predicted) 0.92 0.0375 XM_341392 Bm259 BM259 protein 0.92 0.0305 XM_001065586 RGD1562236_p redicted similar to breast cancer membrane protein 101 (predicted) 0.92 0.0178 A_44_P858612 0.92 0.0430 A_44_P368416 0.91 0.0412 XM_234755 0.91 0.0260 NM_001033688 Dsc2 desmocollin 2

PAGE 133

133 0.91 0.0164 XM_219738 RGD1565442_p redicted similar to X linked lymphocyte regulated gene 4 (predicted) 0.91 0.0060 NM_001015034 Tnfrsf14 tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 14 (herpesvirus entry mediator) 0.91 0.0498 XM_001073797 Tll1_predicted tolloid like 1 (predicted) 0.90 0.0361 NM_001008823 Ka39 type I keratin KA39 0.90 0.0495 NR_002149 E030032D13Rik E030032D13Rik gene 0.90 0.0478 XM_577934 RGD1563918_p redicted similar to putative homeobox protein (predicted) 0.90 0.0148 BQ209930 0.90 0.0337 NM_053408 Chst3 carbohydrate (chondroitin 6/keratan) sulfotransferase 3 0.89 0.0216 NM_001014158 LOC361487 similar to KRAB containing zinc finger protein KRAZ1 0.88 0.0425 AW915462 0.88 0.0274 NM_013136 Mak male germ cell associated kinase 0.87 0.0139 AA819090 0.87 0.0388 BE115639 0.87 0.0168 XM_001063356 RGD1311381_p redicted similar to hypothetical protein FLJ20037 (predicted) 0.87 0.0372 AA924018 0.87 0.0058 XM_001075395 RGD1564575_p redicted RGD1564575 (predicted) 0.86 0.0093 BF403009 0.86 0.0416 AA997400 0.85 0.0123 TC525592 0.85 0.0121 CA507495 S100a8 S100 calcium binding protein A8 (calgranulin A) 0.85 0.0458 AI171652 0.85 0.0071 XM_222983 RGD1561133_p redicted similar to putative pheromone receptor (Go VN2) (predicted) 0.84 0.0149 XM_215934 Wfdc5_predicte d WAP four disulfide core domain 5 (predicted) 0.84 0.0366 XM_001053211 LOC678739 similar to phosphorylase kinase alpha 2 0.83 0.0151 AI228628 0.82 0.0149 AI029401 0.82 0.0461 AI070915 0.82 0.0395 CB547054 0.81 0.0387 XM_236331 RGD1310670_p redicted similar to hypothetical protein FLJ12476 (predicted) 0.80 0.0366 XM_215558 RGD1307595_p redicted similar to RIKEN cDNA 1700018B24 (predicted) 0.80 0.0405 XM_223116 0.80 0.0248 AI145286 0.79 0.0116 BF289433 0.79 0.0251 AA956634 0.79 0.0489 BF548111 0.78 0.0324 XM_216310 Casc1_predicte d cancer susceptibility candidate 1 (predicted) 0.78 0.0373 NM_033485 Pawr PRKC, apoptosis, WT1, regulator 0.78 0.0467 AA900966 0.78 0.0072 NM_181376 Spats1 spermatogenesis associated, serine rich 1 0.77 0.0080 XM_225779

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134 0.77 0.0241 NM_001009271 Nt5dc2 5' nucleotidase domain containing 2 0.77 0.0131 CB547106 0.76 0.0380 NM_001000090 Olr1626_predict ed olfactory receptor 1626 (predicted) 0.75 0.0098 NM_012528 Chrnb1 cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, beta polypeptide 1 (muscle) 0.75 0.0382 NM_133291 Sval2 seminal vesicle antigen like 2 0.75 0.0215 BF283053 0.74 0.0301 NM_001013965 Tekt4 tektin 4 0.74 0.0212 BF542793 0.73 0.0444 NM_001000995 Olr1590_predict ed olfactory receptor 1590 (predicted) 0.73 0.0125 XM_576393 RGD1565120_p redicted similar to brain specific homeodomain protein (predicted) 0.71 0.0221 CF108537 0.70 0.0462 A_44_P245767 0.70 0.0277 BU759617 0.70 0.0129 XM_226231 RGD1563840_p redicted similar to 60S ribosomal protein L26 (predicted) 0.69 0.0393 XM_001076148 LOC687361 hypothetical protein LOC687361 0.69 0.0193 NM_030985 Agtr1a angiotensin II receptor, type 1 (AT1A) 0.68 0.0291 XM_575663 LOC500312 similar to putative pheromone receptor V2R1b 0.67 0.0038 A_44_P380365 0.67 0.0195 AA893180 0.67 0.0379 NM_022221 Mmp8 matrix metallopeptidase 8 0.67 0.0334 AA899922 0.66 0.0246 XM_230593 RGD1561442_p redicted similar to Vinculin (Metavinculin) (predicted) 0.66 0.0335 A_44_P450259 0.65 0.0044 XM_001077632 LOC687232 similar to CG12393 PA, isoform A 0.65 0.0147 AA819337 0.64 0.0391 XM_346983 0.64 0.0460 XM_574231 RGD1565341_p redicted similar to translin associated factor X (Tsnax) interacting protein 1 (predicted) 0.63 0.0155 AA944251 0.63 0.0329 XM_229173 0.62 0.0361 AA963008 0.62 0.0214 XM_001081628 Sox9 SRY box containing gene 9 0.62 0.0006 BQ209483 0.62 0.0336 XM_345798 0.62 0.0422 AY142709 Kcnip1 Kv channel interacting protein 1 0.62 0.0478 AI555498 0.61 0.0278 NM_001039337 Fubp3 far upstream element (FUSE) binding protein 3 0.61 0.0296 AI010195 0.61 0.0193 BF560819 0.59 0.0376 AI112329 0.57 0.0180 XM_222564 LOC288979 similar to Cerebellin 2 precursor (Cerebellin like protein) 0.57 0.0332 AA923854 0.57 0.0083 AI229269

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135 0.57 0.0152 TC524716 0.56 0.0121 XM_001081628 Sox9 SRY box containing gene 9 0.56 0.0272 AW143519 0.56 0.0116 AI059089 0.56 0.0272 XM_227622 Sdfr2_predicted stromal cell derived factor receptor 2 (predicted) 0.56 0.0049 AA924721 0.56 0.0060 AI170621 0.56 0.0364 XM_216733 RGD1565716_p redicted similar to RIKEN cDNA 4921529O18 (predicted) 0.55 0.0229 TC555070 0.55 0.0131 NM_020101 Centa2 centaurin, alpha 2 0.55 0.0486 XR_006043 LOC681331 similar to apoptosis inhibitor 5 0.55 0.0273 XM_341550 Akr1cl1_predicte d aldo keto reductase family 1, member C like 1 (predicted) 0.55 0.0432 TC566391 0.55 0.0465 AI177135 0.54 0.0010 XM_001068622 RGD1561916_p redicted similar to testes development related NYD SP22 isoform 1 (predicted) 0.54 0.0321 AW253256 0.54 0.0385 AW920939 0.54 0.0217 XM_001072036 LOC684554 similar to Thrombospondin 3 precursor 0.54 0.0190 XM_001053365 RGD1561975_p redicted similar to TGFB induced factor 2 (predicted) 0.54 0.0231 TC519685 0.54 0.0405 NM_001000473 Olr1325_predict ed olfactory receptor 1325 (predicted) 0.54 0.0466 A_44_P791333 0.53 0.0370 XM_236675 Glb1_mapped galactosidase, beta 1 (mapped) 0.53 0.0385 NM_001034139 Lrrc8e leucine rich repeat containing 8 family, member E 0.53 0.0122 XM_225947 Trim36_predicte d tripartite motif protein 36 (predicted) 0.52 0.0183 XM_230509 RGD1566077_p redicted similar to RIKEN cDNA A130038L21 (predicted) 0.51 0.0287 AI233208 0.51 0.0481 TC546713 0.51 0.0446 TC519466 0.51 0.0428 CB742296 0.51 0.0467 NM_198772 MGC72974 Unknown (protein for MGC:72974) 0.51 0.0137 AI043958 0.50 0.0103 NM_053619 C5r1 complement component 5, receptor 1 0.50 0.0339 BQ783165 0.50 0.0320 XM_342281 Muc1 mucin 1, transmembrane 0.50 0.0294 XM_218644 Klk12_predicted kallikrein 12 (predicted) 0.49 0.0097 NM_001024800 Txndc1 thioredoxin domain containing 1 0.49 0.0472 XM_001063356 RGD1311381_p redicted similar to hypothetical protein FLJ20037 (predicted) 0.49 0.0444 AI406369 0.48 0.0444 AA924847 0.48 0.0280 XM_345338 0.48 0.0482 TC519225

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136 0.48 0.0287 XM_221343 RGD1305614_p redicted similar to IGF II mRNA binding protein 2 (predicted) 0.48 0.0492 XM_216518 0.48 0.0497 XM_216331 RGD1305828_p redicted similar to hypothetical protein (predicted) 0.48 0.0166 BM391896 0.47 0.0020 NM_013091 Tnfrsf1a tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 1a 0.47 0.0260 NM_001014051 LOC311548 similar to RIKEN cDNA 4930509O20 0.47 0.0220 NM_001001016 Olr1174_predict ed olfactory receptor 1174 (predicted) 0.47 0.0391 XM_232320 RGD1562038_p redicted similar to putative voltage gated calcium channel alpha(2)delta 4 subunit (predicted) 0.47 0.0045 NM_001011997 Tmod3 tropomodulin 3 0.47 0.0443 AA925130 0.46 0.0271 NM_023981 Csf1 colony stimulating factor 1 (macrophage) 0.46 0.0256 CF111186 0.46 0.0106 TC542803 0.46 0.0377 NM_001013944 RGD1309051 similar to chromosome 14 open reading frame 50 0.46 0.0371 NM_019273 Kcnmb1 potassium large conductance calcium activated channel, subfamily M, beta member 1 0.46 0.0426 XM_001077512 RGD1565716_p redicted similar to RIKEN cDNA 4921529O18 (predicted) 0.46 0.0070 XM_001058665 LOC681839 hypothetical protein LOC681839 0.45 0.0405 NM_207601 Plp2_mapped proteolipid protein 2 (mapped) 0.45 0.0286 AY064511 Ua20 putative UA20 protein 0.45 0.0487 XM_223527 Sh3tc1_predicte d SH3 domain and tetratricopeptide repeats 1 (predicted) 0.45 0.0248 XM_343728 0.45 0.0068 NM_172223 Pxmp4 peroxisomal membrane protein 4 0.45 0.0136 NM_138848 Podxl podocalyxin like 0.45 0.0407 NM_012620 Serpine1 serine (or cysteine) peptidase inhibitor, clade E, member 1 0.44 0.0085 TC556623 0.44 0.0373 NM_214828 Olr1378_predict ed olfactory receptor 1378 (predicted) 0.44 0.0149 XM_227540 Rsbn1_predicte d rosbin, round spermatid basic protein 1 (predicted) 0.44 0.0496 NM_001025039 LOC499602 hypothetical protein LOC499602 0.44 0.0314 XM_213813 Lrrc43 leucine rich repeat containing 43 0.44 0.0147 XM_217218 RGD1311381_p redicted similar to hypothetical protein FLJ20037 (predicted) 0.43 0.0178 XM_346182 0.43 0.0350 NM_012824 Apoc1 apolipoprotein C I 0.43 0.0210 TC523657 0.43 0.0426 NM_130741 Lcn2 lipocalin 2 0.42 0.0004 XM_001081958 Fyttd1 forty two three domain containing 1 0.42 0.0316 AW525988 0.42 0.0188 AI169706 0.42 0.0234 NM_001009650 Taar5 trace amine associated receptor 5 0.42 0.0241 AI030156

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137 0.41 0.0330 NM_053399 Nrtn neurturin 0.41 0.0057 XM_236938 RGD1310693_p redicted similar to RIKEN cDNA 1700027N10 (predicted) 0.41 0.0089 XM_001065902 Syncrip synaptotagmin binding, cytoplasmic RNA interacting protein 0.41 0.0304 AW916350 0.41 0.0113 NM_012735 Hk2 hexokinase 2 0.41 0.0347 XM_222564 LOC288979 similar to Cerebellin 2 precursor (Cerebellin like protein) 0.41 0.0499 XM_576074 RGD1560978_p redicted similar to hypothetical protein (predicted) 0.40 0.0419 XM_343348 0.40 0.0449 BF407782 0.40 0.0345 NM_017064 Stat5a signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A 0.40 0.0307 NM_183326 Gabra1 gamma aminobutyric acid A receptor, alpha 1 0.40 0.0460 NM_031003 Abat 4 aminobutyrate aminotransferase 0.40 0.0270 NM_001012235 Impact imprinted and ancient 0.40 0.0110 TC523460 0.40 0.0305 XM_214962 Tm2d3_predicte d TM2 domain containing 3 (predicted) 0.40 0.0148 XM_343652 0.40 0.0261 XM_342959 RGD1310427_p redicted similar to KIAA0090 protein (predicted) 0.40 0.0182 XM_001079851 LOC691849 hypothetical protein LOC691849

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138 APPENDIX C LIST OF MODULATED GE NES FOLLOWING REPEATED ITTO Table C 1. List of modulated genes following repeated ITTO, p < 0.05 and log 2 fold change 0.58 Log 2 FC p value TargetID Symbol Description 2.830 0.019 NM_012881 Spp1 secreted phosphoprotein 1 2.787 0.022 NM_012881 Spp1 secreted phosphoprotein 1 2.722 0.019 NM_012881 Spp1 secreted phosphoprotein 1 2.719 0.024 NM_012881 Spp1 secreted phosphoprotein 1 2.698 0.020 NM_012881 Spp1 secreted phosphoprotein 1 2.676 0.027 NM_012881 Spp1 secreted phosphoprotein 1 2.665 0.023 NM_012881 Spp1 secreted phosphoprotein 1 2.617 0.026 NM_012881 Spp1 secreted phosphoprotein 1 2.601 0.020 NM_012881 Spp1 secreted phosphoprotein 1 2.601 0.027 NM_012881 Spp1 secreted phosphoprotein 1 2.138 0.004 NM_017007 Gad1 glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 2.126 0.001 ENSRNOT0 0000012564 RGD156479 7_predicted similar to empty spiracles like protein 2 (predicted) 2.062 0.009 NM_031782 Slc32a1 solute carrier family 32 (GABA vesicular transporter), member 1 1.741 0.038 NM_181370 Hs3st2 heparan sulfate (glucosamine) 3 O sulfotransferase 2 1.669 0.002 TC617840 1.614 0.026 NM_012563 Gad2 glutamic acid decarboxylase 2 1.525 0.012 NM_017007 Gad1 glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 1.463 0.002 NM_001014 183 RGD130699 1 similar to Protein C20orf103 precursor 1.401 0.011 NM_013007 Pnoc prepronociceptin 1.398 0.003 NM_017122 Hpca hippocalcin 1.382 0.004 NM_139183 Crhbp corticotropin releasing hormone binding protein 1.342 0.016 CB327622 1.305 0.010 NM_001037 351 Tnnc2 troponin C type 2 (fast) 1.294 0.025 NM_001008 880 Scn4b sodium channel, voltage gated, type IV, beta 1.232 0.037 ENSRNOT0 0000001048 Man1a_pred icted mannosidase 1, alpha (predicted) 1.184 0.006 NM_001047 973 LOC503325 hypothetical protein LOC503325 1.132 0.000 DY471163 1.120 0.006 TC603004 1.109 0.025 NM_017007 Gad1 glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 1.077 0.018 TC626556 1.074 0.011 NM_012798 Mal myelin and lymphocyte protein, T cell differentiation protein 1.074 0.013 NM_057196 Baiap2 brain specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 associated protein 2 1.066 0.008 NM_032071 Synj2 synaptojanin 2 1.052 0.004 NM_001077 201 Caln1_predi cted calneuron 1 (predicted) 1.048 0.005 NM_031736 Slc27a2 solute carrier family 27 (fatty acid transporter),

PAGE 139

139 member 2 1.043 0.002 TC645081 1.038 0.021 TC633482 Pde6h phosphodiesterase 6H, cGMP specific, cone, gamma 1.031 0.017 NM_001033 656 Man1a_pred icted mannosidase 1, alpha (predicted) 1.010 0.000 NM_001037 206 Bphl biphenyl hydrolase like (serine hydrolase, breast epithelial mucin associated antigen) 0.985 0.008 TC603491 0.980 0.038 NM_053976 Krt1 18 keratin complex 1, acidic, gene 18 0.976 0.019 XM_578417 RGD156282 9_predicted similar to RAS like, estrogen regulated, growth inhibitor (predicted) 0.976 0.006 NM_031059 Msx1 homeo box, msh like 1 0.970 0.012 DV722143 0.964 0.026 BF287496 0.956 0.021 ENSRNOT0 0000031175 Crabp1 cellular retinoic acid binding protein 1 0.952 0.003 ENSRNOT0 0000010623 RGD156135 7_predicted similar to LIM domain only 3 (predicted) 0.952 0.023 TC600004 0.943 0.021 NM_012752 Cd24 CD24 antigen 0.943 0.010 XM_232202 Adamts9_pr edicted a disintegrin like and metalloprotease (reprolysin type) with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 9 (predicted) 0.939 0.036 NM_031742 Kcnh1 potassium voltage gated channel, subfamily H (eag related), member 1 0.939 0.013 XM_001070 642 RGD156487 1_predicted similar to Thioredoxin domain containing protein 6 (Thioredoxin like protein 2) (predicted) 0.921 0.000 ENSRNOT0 0000049507 RGD156065 8_predicted similar to serine (or cysteine) proteinase inhibitor, clade B, member 1b (predicted) 0.908 0.023 TC631315 0.905 0.018 NM_012733 Rbp1 retinol binding protein 1, cellular 0.905 0.011 ENSRNOT0 0000016433 RGD131037 1 similar to RIKEN cDNA 1700026D08 0.903 0.004 XM_217250 Ephb1 Eph receptor B1 0.899 0.000 NM_031834 Sult1a1 sulfotransferase family 1A, phenol preferring, member 1 0.897 0.014 XM_213354 Dnah9 dynein, axonemal, heavy polypeptide 9 0.894 0.018 NM_012825 Aqp4 aquaporin 4 0.885 0.022 BF567171 LOC689106 hypothetical protein LOC689106 0.880 0.008 BF556399 0.877 0.004 ENSRNOT0 0000023378 Capsl_predi cted calcyphosine like (predicted) 0.865 0.039 ENSRNOT0 0000010850 Cnr1 cannabinoid receptor 1 (brain) 0.860 0.007 NM_012825 Aqp4 aquaporin 4 0.856 0.007 ENSRNOT0 0000010623 RGD156135 7_predicted similar to LIM domain only 3 (predicted) 0.856 0.010 NM_001013 953 RGD130535 1 hypothetical LOC300663 0.838 0.005 NM_001024 882 Ccdc19 coiled coil domain containing 19 0.836 0.021 NM_053878 Cplx2 complexin 2 0.835 0.016 ENSRNOT0 Rshl3_predi radial spokehead like 3 (predicted)

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140 0000036449 cted 0.833 0.033 NM_199093 Serping1 serine (or cysteine) peptidase inhibitor, clade G, member 1 0.831 0.022 NM_001012 235 Impact imprinted and ancient 0.830 0.021 NM_057196 Baiap2 brain specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 associated protein 2 0.826 0.014 NM_024140 Nrgn neurogranin 0.825 0.049 NM_001033 656 Man1a_pred icted mannosidase 1, alpha (predicted) 0.824 0.006 NM_001005 765 Rap1a RAS related protein 1a 0.820 0.012 BC092207 LOC365476 similar to chromosome 10 open reading frame 79 0.811 0.008 TC611803 0.806 0.014 NM_031736 Slc27a2 solute carrier family 27 (fatty acid transporter), member 2 0.804 0.043 NM_017210 Dio3 deiodinase, iodothyronine, type III 0.800 0.002 ENSRNOT0 0000016911 Efhb_predict ed EF hand domain family, member B (predicted) 0.795 0.003 NM_012825 Aqp4 aquaporin 4 0.793 0.020 XM_001054 111 LOC689106 hypothetical protein LOC689106 0.791 0.030 XM_343481 RGD130660 3_predicted similar to RIKEN cDNA D330022A01 gene (predicted) 0.789 0.006 NM_031509 Gsta3 glutathione S transferase A3 0.783 0.006 ENSRNOT0 0000038579 RGD156013 7_predicted similar to expressed sequence AU021034 (predicted) 0.777 0.040 J05276 Htr1a 5 hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 1A 0.774 0.035 ENSRNOT0 0000013483 LOC679875 similar to MAGE like protein 2 (Protein nS7) 0.773 0.026 TC598708 0.772 0.023 XR_007590 RGD156300 2_predicted similar to hypothetical protein DKFZp434O0527 (predicted) 0.769 0.007 NM_012825 Aqp4 aquaporin 4 0.765 0.011 AW915033 Traf3_predic ted Tnf receptor associated factor 3 (predicted) 0.764 0.013 ENSRNOT0 0000012469 Amn_predict ed amnionless (predicted) 0.755 0.011 XM_573504 RGD156265 8_predicted similar to RIKEN cDNA 1700009P17 (predicted) 0.754 0.013 NM_145880 Lhx1 LIM homeobox protein 1 0.754 0.000 NM_001025 664 Wsb1 WD repeat and SOCS box containing 1 0.749 0.020 ENSRNOT0 0000024222 Ccdc37_pre dicted coiled coil domain containing 37 (predicted) 0.749 0.026 BC092207 LOC365476 similar to chromosome 10 open reading frame 79 0.748 0.006 NM_012825 Aqp4 aquaporin 4 0.745 0.015 NM_001013 953 RGD130535 1 hypothetical LOC300663 0.743 0.028 TC607764 0.742 0.038 ENSRNOT0 0000010850 Cnr1 cannabinoid receptor 1 (brain) 0.741 0.018 XM_341694 Dynlrb2_pre dicted dynein light chain roadblock type 2 (predicted)

PAGE 141

141 0.729 0.028 BC107936 0.724 0.003 NM_053688 Pde6h phosphodiesterase 6H, cGMP specific, cone, gamma 0.723 0.011 CX569250 0.723 0.010 ENSRNOT0 0000003841 RGD156193 2_predicted similar to novel protein (predicted) 0.717 0.025 CK366954 LOC691455 similar to calmodulin like 4 0.716 0.049 TC584035 0.715 0.047 ENSRNOT0 0000010850 Cnr1 cannabinoid receptor 1 (brain) 0.713 0.021 XM_341952 RGD156243 7_predicted similar to transcription elongation regulator 1 like (predicted) 0.705 0.039 TC596255 0.701 0.049 ENSRNOT0 0000010850 Cnr1 cannabinoid receptor 1 (brain) 0.697 0.029 BF556560 0.697 0.006 ENSRNOT0 0000007789 Nnmt_predic ted nicotinamide N methyltransferase (predicted) 0.696 0.001 NM_001012 176 Tsga2 testis specific gene A2 0.694 0.041 ENSRNOT0 0000016433 RGD131037 1 similar to RIKEN cDNA 1700026D08 0.694 0.042 ENSRNOT0 0000010850 Cnr1 cannabinoid receptor 1 (brain) 0.690 0.042 ENSRNOT0 0000010850 Cnr1 cannabinoid receptor 1 (brain) 0.690 0.017 ENSRNOT0 0000036374 RGD131067 7_predicted similar to RIKEN cDNA 4632412N22 gene (predicted) 0.689 0.011 NM_012825 Aqp4 aquaporin 4 0.688 0.015 TC634886 0.685 0.004 NM_023020 Tmeff1 transmembrane protein with EGF like and two follistatin like domains 1 0.684 0.005 TC607399 Arnt2 aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator 2 0.682 0.003 XM_001080 361 LOC691960 similar to solute carrier family 28, member 2 0.682 0.036 XM_342561 RGD130572 5_predicted similar to chromosome 20 open reading frame 102 (predicted) 0.681 0.005 ENSRNOT0 0000008005 Pole4_predi cted polymerase (DNA directed), epsilon 4 (p12 subunit) (predicted) 0.680 0.011 ENSRNOT0 0000027055 RGD130705 9_predicted similar to RIKEN cDNA 1110035L05 (predicted) 0.680 0.007 NM_001009 920 Yc2 glutathione S transferase Yc2 subunit 0.679 0.009 NM_012825 Aqp4 aquaporin 4 0.677 0.038 NM_017258 Btg1 B cell translocation gene 1, anti proliferative 0.676 0.008 NM_138506 Adra2c adrenergic receptor, alpha 2c 0.673 0.005 XM_220252 0.672 0.023 NM_212541 Slc44a4 solute carrier family 44, member 4 0.672 0.007 XM_575803 RGD156191 6_predicted similar to testes development related NYD SP22 isoform 1 (predicted) 0.672 0.035 ENSRNOT0 0000029587 Dpysl4 dihydropyrimidinase like 4 0.672 0.045 NM_001000 388 Olr417_pred icted olfactory receptor 417 (predicted)

PAGE 142

142 0.670 0.006 NM_145786 Iiig9 IIIG9 protein 0.669 0.023 TC617303 0.669 0.009 BC092654 Col16a1 procollagen, type XVI, alpha 1 0.668 0.014 NM_013099 Mc4r melanocortin 4 receptor 0.668 0.018 TC599619 0.667 0.025 ENSRNOT0 0000044831 Ttll2_predict ed tubulin tyrosine ligase like family, member 2 (predicted) 0.667 0.022 NM_012667 Tacr1 tachykinin receptor 1 0.666 0.005 NM_001031 647 Dnali1 dynein, axonemal, light intermediate polypeptide 1 0.666 0.004 NM_053018 Cd9 CD9 antigen 0.664 0.016 NM_001025 293 Mbp myelin basic protein 0.663 0.006 ENSRNOT0 0000026491 RGD130531 1_predicted similar to hypothetical protein FLJ22527 (predicted) 0.663 0.024 TC614187 0.661 0.010 ENSRNOT0 0000035948 RGD156561 1_predicted RGD1565611 (predicted) 0.660 0.001 NM_053660 Gng10 guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 10 0.660 0.003 CV102938 0.658 0.003 TC624015 0.657 0.018 AI113235 0.656 0.049 CX571008 Pla2g3_pred icted phospholipase A2, group III (predicted) 0.656 0.035 BI297059 Ibrdc3_predi cted IBR domain containing 3 (predicted) 0.655 0.016 NM_031140 Vim vimentin 0.655 0.003 ENSRNOT0 0000020568 Crtac1 cartilage acidic protein 1 0.654 0.002 TC617271 0.653 0.047 A_44_P729 134 0.652 0.030 XM_343747 LOC363424 similar to spermatogenesis associated glutamate (E) rich protein 2 0.652 0.029 TC603496 0.651 0.002 ENSRNOT0 0000033449 Samd7_pre dicted sterile alpha motif domain containing 7 (predicted) 0.651 0.002 NM_001079 701 RGD131064 1 similar to hypothetical protein 0.650 0.023 NM_133293 Gata3 GATA binding protein 3 0.649 0.047 TC633399 0.649 0.024 ENSRNOT0 0000017847 Bm259 BM259 protein 0.648 0.049 XM_001067 026 RGD156609 7_predicted similar to Anillin (predicted) 0.648 0.046 NM_012667 Tacr1 tachykinin receptor 1 0.647 0.007 TC593623 0.647 0.005 ENSRNOT0 0000012490 RGD156117 1_predicted similar to RIKEN cDNA 6330407D12 (predicted) 0.647 0.018 XM_229809 0.646 0.005 TC643803 0.644 0.013 NM_012825 Aqp4 aquaporin 4

PAGE 143

143 0.644 0.033 NM_012667 Tacr1 tachykinin receptor 1 0.644 0.014 ENSRNOT0 0000047663 LOC689415 similar to Metallothionein 2 (MT 2) (Metallothionein II) (MT II) 0.642 0.041 TC578855 Ptger2 prostaglandin E receptor 2, subtype EP2 0.641 0.028 NM_021703 Akap14 A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 14 0.641 0.023 NM_053330 Rpl21 ribosomal protein L21 0.640 0.016 NM_022620 Kpl2 KPL2 protein 0.640 0.016 NM_012825 Aqp4 aquaporin 4 0.638 0.001 ENSRNOT0 0000026491 RGD130531 1_predicted similar to hypothetical protein FLJ22527 (predicted) 0.638 0.015 NM_053456 Plcl1 phospholipase C like 1 0.636 0.019 NM_001012 235 Impact imprinted and ancient 0.635 0.004 TC583130 0.635 0.012 TC601388 0.634 0.028 ENSRNOT0 0000037023 RGD156270 5_predicted similar to Shb like adapter protein, Shf human (predicted) 0.632 0.035 NM_019168 Arg2 arginase 2 0.629 0.037 NM_053832 Foxj1 forkhead box J1 0.626 0.026 NM_001024 367 LOC501619 similar to 40S ribosomal protein S29 0.625 0.041 ENSRNOT0 0000010850 Cnr1 cannabinoid receptor 1 (brain) 0.625 0.007 ENSRNOT0 0000027261 RGD156585 6_predicted similar to Hypothetical 55.1 kDa protein F09G8.5 in chromosome III (predicted) 0.625 0.015 NM_012825 Aqp4 aquaporin 4 0.625 0.012 XR_008801 Elmod1_pre dicted ELMO domain containing 1 (predicted) 0.625 0.027 NM_012667 Tacr1 tachykinin receptor 1 0.624 0.037 XM_342195 RGD130773 5_predicted similar to hypothetical protein FLJ11795 (predicted) 0.623 0.024 NM_138837 Pou3f3 POU domain, class 3, transcription factor 3 0.621 0.020 NM_001012 235 Impact imprinted and ancient 0.621 0.010 NM_001031 647 Dnali1 dynein, axonemal, light intermediate polypeptide 1 0.621 0.000 XM_218313 Gpr126_pre dicted G protein coupled receptor 126 (predicted) 0.620 0.016 NM_012825 Aqp4 aquaporin 4 0.620 0.017 AW915353 Anp32e acidic (leucine rich) nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family, member E 0.620 0.015 ENSRNOT0 0000057692 Slitrk5_predi cted SLIT and NTRK like family, member 5 (predicted) 0.620 0.001 TC587992 RGD131062 3 similar to RIKEN cDNA 2010005O13 0.619 0.016 DV729125 0.619 0.011 TC622410 Bbox1 butyrobetaine (gamma), 2 oxoglutarate dioxygenase 1 (gamma butyrobetaine hydroxylase) 0.618 0.040 NM_213627 Zdhhc23 zinc finger, DHHC domain containing 23 0.616 0.014 NM_012809 Cnp1 cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1 0.615 0.020 NM_001014 221 LOC363337 similar to RIKEN cDNA 1700081O22 0.614 0.017 XM_576882 LOC501474 similar to Myosin 9B (Myosin IXb) (Unconventional myosin 9b)

PAGE 144

144 0.613 0.013 NM_001013 151 Gna14 guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha 14 0.612 0.005 A_44_P358 649 0.612 0.012 XR_009412 RGD156300 0_predicted similar to hypothetical protein MGC26856 (predicted) 0.612 0.024 ENSRNOT0 0000045285 RGD156485 2_predicted similar to hypothetical protein FLJ14503 (predicted) 0.611 0.018 NM_053019 Avpr1a arginine vasopressin receptor 1A 0.611 0.010 NM_001004 269 Jam3 junctional adhesion molecule 3 0.608 0.002 TC647877 0.607 0.001 NM_031339 Parg poly (ADP ribose) glycohydrolase 0.606 0.033 AA801133 RGD156310 9_predicted RGD1563109 (predicted) 0.606 0.045 ENSRNOT0 0000017151 Mlf1_predict ed myeloid leukemia factor 1 (predicted) 0.603 0.009 AI236782 RGD130832 4_predicted similar to RIKEN cDNA 5730469D23 (predicted) 0.602 0.020 NM_019291 Ca2 carbonic anhydrase 2 0.600 0.037 TC646852 0.599 0.006 NM_001005 765 Rap1a RAS related protein 1a 0.598 0.023 NM_001044 277 MGC94891 hypothetical protein LOC681210 0.597 0.033 NM_001007 710 Acpl2 acid phosphatase like 2 0.597 0.028 NM_022202 Grm8 glutamate receptor, metabotropic 8 0.597 0.020 DV717011 0.597 0.009 NM_022629 Bbox1 butyrobetaine (gamma), 2 oxoglutarate dioxygenase 1 (gamma butyrobetaine hydroxylase) 0.596 0.012 XR_005527 LOC679620 similar to CG4329 PA, isoform A 0.596 0.031 NM_001004 080 Gsn gelsolin 0.594 0.004 NM_001047 912 RGD130773 9 similar to CG3306 PA 0.594 0.001 ENSRNOT0 0000001728 LOC690211 similar to Disco interacting protein 2 homolog 0.594 0.026 NM_001033 893 RGD130835 6 similar to Hypothetical protein KIAA0341 0.593 0.003 CF109910 0.592 0.011 A_44_P490 025 0.589 0.018 NM_012614 Npy neuropeptide Y 0.587 0.009 NM_031322 Lrp4 low density lipoprotein receptor related protein 4 0.586 0.045 NM_012667 Tacr1 tachykinin receptor 1 0.586 0.041 ENSRNOT0 0000044595 Lrrc4c_predi cted leucine rich repeat containing 4C (predicted) 0.585 0.002 ENSRNOT0 0000013408 Htr2a 5 hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 2A 0.584 0.019 BC092654 Col16a1 procollagen, type XVI, alpha 1 0.583 0.020 ENSRNOT0 0000012061 RGD156344 1_predicted similar to RIKEN cDNA A030009H04 (predicted) 0.583 0.031 ENSRNOT0 Slc24a4_pre solute carrier family 24 (sodium/potassium/calcium

PAGE 145

145 0000008886 dicted exchanger), member 4 (predicted) 0.583 0.041 NM_012667 Tacr1 tachykinin receptor 1 0.582 0.026 TC596776 0.582 0.004 NM_181366 Gpr64 G protein coupled receptor 64 0.582 0.020 NM_001013 949 Ribc2 RIB43A domain with coiled coils 2 0.582 0.037 NM_012721 P2rxl1 purinergic receptor P2X like 1, orphan receptor 0.582 0.047 NM_012667 Tacr1 tachykinin receptor 1 1.693 0.031 XM_343196 Mybpc1 myosin binding protein C, slow type 1.683 0.024 NM_012681 Ttr transthyretin 1.593 0.016 ENSRNOT0 0000019931 RGD156477 9_predicted similar to Synaptopodin 2 (Myopodin) (predicted) 1.574 0.014 BC128755 LOC296935 similar to leiomodin 2 (cardiac) 1.516 0.021 BG665051 1.504 0.012 NM_017289 Gabrd gamma aminobutyric acid A receptor, delta 1.475 0.020 AI045171 Casq2 calsequestrin 2 1.451 0.008 XM_001057 045 LOC680404 similar to Complement C1q like protein 3 precursor (Gliacolin) 1.422 0.015 NM_020100 Ramp3 receptor (calcitonin) activity modifying protein 3 1.373 0.001 NM_013028 Shox2 short stature homeobox 2 1.361 0.040 NM_012829 Cck cholecystokinin 1.359 0.024 TC585827 1.308 0.012 NM_130429 Lef1 lymphoid enhancer binding factor 1 1.304 0.009 TC640931 1.302 0.005 NM_013028 Shox2 short stature homeobox 2 1.299 0.002 ENSRNOT0 0000058820 Rcsd1_predi cted RCSD domain containing 1 (predicted) 1.277 0.007 XM_574162 RGD156443 1_predicted similar to heart alpha kinase (predicted) 1.274 0.030 NM_012829 Cck cholecystokinin 1.255 0.005 TC612190 1.241 0.008 NM_001005 540 Ppm1j protein phosphatase 1J 1.235 0.029 NM_016991 Adra1b adrenergic receptor, alpha 1b 1.233 0.048 NM_012829 Cck cholecystokinin 1.220 0.008 ENSRNOT0 0000038486 RGD156210 7_predicted similar to class alpha glutathione S transferase (predicted) 1.219 0.049 NM_012829 Cck cholecystokinin 1.219 0.000 TC615198 1.217 0.004 NM_012628 Prkcc protein kinase C, gamma 1.215 0.018 TC619679 1.207 0.042 NM_012829 Cck cholecystokinin 1.182 0.045 NM_012829 Cck cholecystokinin 1.157 0.011 ENSRNOT0 0000009406 RGD156445 9_predicted similar to hypothetical protein DKFZp434G156 (predicted) 1.150 0.004 NM_012914 Atp2a3 ATPase, Ca++ transporting, ubiquitous 1.148 0.000 ENSRNOT0 0000018058 RGD130936 0 hypothetical LOC294715 1.142 0.009 NM_017131 Casq2 calsequestrin 2 1.141 0.004 XM_227605 RGD156346 5_predicted similar to netrin G1 (predicted) 1.136 0.009 ENSRNOT0 Cidea_predi cell death inducing DNA fragmentation factor,

PAGE 146

146 0000024968 cted alpha subunit like effector A (predicted) 1.134 0.003 TC596653 1.124 0.015 TC614984 1.115 0.025 NM_016991 Adra1b adrenergic receptor, alpha 1b 1.113 0.039 BC103629 Ptpn3 protein tyrosine phosphatase, non receptor type 3 1.107 0.011 NM_053699 Cited4 Cbp/p300 interacting transactivator, with Glu/Asp rich carboxy terminal domain, 4 1.096 0.012 TC610674 1.089 0.008 NM_022666 Grm4 glutamate receptor, metabotropic 4 1.081 0.002 CB547657 1.079 0.020 XM_343196 Mybpc1 myosin binding protein C, slow type 1.075 0.006 NM_019340 Rgs3 regulator of G protein signalling 3 1.069 0.006 NM_053834 Kcnj9 potassium inwardly rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 9 1.060 0.016 AW917391 1.050 0.014 AF366899 Adra2b adrenergic receptor, alpha 2b 1.047 0.033 AW143334 1.044 0.037 TC601767 1.041 0.029 ENSRNOT0 0000009406 RGD156445 9_predicted similar to hypothetical protein DKFZp434G156 (predicted) 1.040 0.007 XM_343983 1.037 0.015 NM_017214 Rgs4 regulator of G protein signaling 4 1.037 0.017 ENSRNOT0 0000018677 RGD130490 4_predicted similar to mitochondrial glycerol 3 phosphate acyltransferase (predicted) 1.037 0.011 NM_001013 032 Npy1r neuropeptide Y receptor Y1 1.020 0.036 XM_001072 492 LOC684921 similar to Complement C1q like protein 3 precursor (Gliacolin) 1.017 0.003 BE101695 1.010 0.012 NM_016991 Adra1b adrenergic receptor, alpha 1b 1.003 0.037 ENSRNOT0 0000005072 LOC498289 similar to Opsin 3 (Encephalopsin) (Panopsin) 1.002 0.022 AW916327 RGD130739 6_predicted similar to RIKEN cDNA 6330406I15 (predicted) 0.996 0.007 NM_001002 829 Rasl11a RAS like family 11 member A 0.990 0.004 TC601560 0.983 0.007 NM_053506 Hrh3 histamine receptor H3 0.981 0.016 XM_001058 055 LOC681708 similar to transmembrane protein 41a 0.981 0.048 ENSRNOT0 0000004193 RGD131016 6_predicted similar to Chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 1 (CHD 1) (predicted) 0.973 0.004 ENSRNOT0 0000008692 Fstl4_predic ted follistatin like 4 (predicted) 0.969 0.010 TC645916 0.966 0.004 TC626053 0.965 0.003 ENSRNOT0 0000021471 LOC679812 similar to Pleckstrin homology domain containing family G member 1 0.963 0.002 NM_173138 Dlgap3 discs, large (Drosophila) homolog associated protein 3 0.959 0.006 ENSRNOT0 0000007993 LOC679668 similar to leucine rich repeat transmembrane neuronal 1 0.959 0.040 BF393607 LOC689147 hypothetical protein LOC689147

PAGE 147

147 0.959 0.011 NM_053613 Rtn4r reticulon 4 receptor 0.958 0.010 TC608608 0.950 0.008 AF039218 Cit citron 0.946 0.015 TC585018 0.938 0.014 NM_024354 Chrna4 cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha polypeptide 4 0.937 0.008 BI395573 0.934 0.017 XM_342800 Tox_predict ed thymocyte selection associated HMG box gene (predicted) 0.934 0.010 ENSRNOT0 0000042872 LOC689770 similar to osteoclast inhibitory lectin 0.931 0.049 NM_013157 Ass argininosuccinate synthetase 0.929 0.038 ENSRNOT0 0000018058 RGD130936 0 hypothetical LOC294715 0.929 0.009 CF107721 0.924 0.002 A_44_P723 917 0.924 0.041 NM_023960 Kcnmb4 potassium large conductance calcium activated channel, subfamily M, beta member 4 0.923 0.013 NM_017214 Rgs4 regulator of G protein signaling 4 0.922 0.029 AW919694 LOC679158 similar to SRY (sex determining region Y) box 3 0.920 0.026 TC598660 0.919 0.015 TC623297 0.916 0.020 XM_219747 Trpm6 transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 6 0.915 0.011 NM_019230 Slc22a3 solute carrier family 22, member 3 0.914 0.028 TC594011 0.913 0.020 NM_053402 Wnt4 wingless related MMTV integration site 4 0.909 0.003 NM_057142 Lrrc7 leucine rich repeat containing 7 0.905 0.005 ENSRNOT0 0000014661 Tox_predict ed thymocyte selection associated HMG box gene (predicted) 0.903 0.005 NM_001011 974 Akap2 A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein 2 0.899 0.010 NM_053788 Stx1a syntaxin 1A (brain) 0.898 0.008 ENSRNOT0 0000003568 Ptpn4 protein tyrosine phosphatase, non receptor type 4 0.898 0.001 NM_001025 145 Zfp365 zinc finger protein 365 0.893 0.011 ENSRNOT0 0000001205 RGD130739 6_predicted similar to RIKEN cDNA 6330406I15 (predicted) 0.892 0.004 TC630382 0.887 0.021 AW142807 0.887 0.033 BF523192 0.883 0.015 NM_053804 Kcnk4 potassium channel, subfamily K, member 4 0.881 0.015 ENSRNOT0 0000004963 Usp43_predi cted ubiquitin specific protease 43 (predicted) 0.881 0.011 NM_001037 492 Slc41a3 solute carrier family 41, member 3 0.879 0.007 NM_031826 Fbn2 fibrillin 2 0.878 0.010 NM_021676 Shank3 SH3/ankyrin domain gene 3 0.878 0.040 XM_344544 Angpt2 angiopoietin 2 0.874 0.013 NM_053788 Stx1a syntaxin 1A (brain) 0.871 0.007 M92075 Grm2 glutamate receptor, metabotropic 2 0.870 0.020 NM_080587 Gabra4 gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA A) receptor,

PAGE 148

148 subunit alpha 4 0.868 0.019 NM_001012 101 Coro2a coronin, actin binding protein 2A 0.867 0.009 ENSRNOT0 0000046812 RGD156346 5_predicted similar to netrin G1 (predicted) 0.866 0.016 NM_138502 Mgll monoglyceride lipase 0.865 0.013 TC600845 Ptger3 prostaglandin E receptor 3 (subtype EP3) 0.860 0.014 TC637759 Adarb1 adenosine deaminase, RNA specific, B1 0.858 0.027 NM_139217 Kcnc2 potassium voltage gated channel, Shaw related subfamily, member 2 0.854 0.028 NM_001007 611 RGD135969 1 hypothetical LOC287534 0.853 0.001 AI502122 0.853 0.017 NM_184045 Srpk3 serine/arginine rich protein specific kinase 3 0.853 0.009 XM_235546 Upk3a_predi cted uroplakin 3A (predicted) 0.849 0.002 U90444 Adarb1 adenosine deaminase, RNA specific, B1 0.847 0.024 TC622940 0.846 0.004 ENSRNOT0 0000029415 Tnrc9_predi cted trinucleotide repeat containing 9 (predicted) 0.846 0.017 NM_019372 Ppm2c protein phosphatase 2C, magnesium dependent, catalytic subunit 0.844 0.014 NM_053788 Stx1a syntaxin 1A (brain) 0.842 0.043 XM_223087 Lamb3 laminin, beta 3 0.840 0.023 NM_022302 Efcbp1 EF hand calcium binding protein 1 0.840 0.027 NM_022297 Ddah1 dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1 0.836 0.044 CR469283 0.835 0.013 NM_053788 Stx1a syntaxin 1A (brain) 0.834 0.015 ENSRNOT0 0000051793 RGD131011 7_predicted hypothetical LOC298591 (predicted) 0.832 0.016 DV713993 0.829 0.026 NM_031686 Scn7a sodium channel, voltage gated, type VII, alpha 0.829 0.016 ENSRNOT0 0000051566 LOC679869 similar to transcription factor 7 like 2, T cell specific, HMG box 0.828 0.008 DV718743 0.827 0.015 NM_053788 Stx1a syntaxin 1A (brain) 0.827 0.015 NM_053788 Stx1a syntaxin 1A (brain) 0.826 0.026 BG673684 0.825 0.044 TC600862 Rnf152_pre dicted ring finger protein 152 (predicted) 0.819 0.002 BF522086 0.819 0.016 ENSRNOT0 0000026262 RGD156114 4_predicted similar to N acetylglucosamine 6 O sulfotransferase (predicted) 0.819 0.026 NM_053788 Stx1a syntaxin 1A (brain) 0.818 0.005 NM_012704 Ptger3 prostaglandin E receptor 3 (subtype EP3) 0.818 0.036 ENSRNOT0 0000020727 Cpne7_pred icted copine VII (predicted) 0.817 0.025 TC608942 0.816 0.022 CK603271 LOC681708 similar to transmembrane protein 41a 0.815 0.003 NM_031826 Fbn2 fibrillin 2 0.815 0.015 TC590536 0.814 0.006 AW142828 LOC293589 putative GTP binding protein 0.812 0.011 AA957183 Cit citron

PAGE 149

149 0.812 0.004 NM_138909 Foxe1 forkhead box E1 (thyroid transcription factor 2) 0.808 0.003 L04739 0.804 0.016 ENSRNOT0 0000050400 Gpr123_pre dicted G protein coupled receptor 123 (predicted) 0.803 0.006 TC586471 0.802 0.023 NM_053788 Stx1a syntaxin 1A (brain) 0.802 0.025 XM_344130 Inhbb inhibin beta B 0.800 0.046 ENSRNOT0 0000022774 Angpt2 angiopoietin 2 0.800 0.021 NM_053788 Stx1a syntaxin 1A (brain) 0.798 0.045 XM_001072 408 LOC684906 similar to zinc finger, matrin type 4 0.797 0.002 NM_080482 Dbccr1 deleted in bladder cancer chromosome region candidate 1 (human) 0.797 0.008 AW143275 0.795 0.001 CB545680 0.794 0.012 ENSRNOT0 0000021253 Chst9_predi cted carbohydrate (N acetylgalactosamine 4 0) sulfotransferase 9 (predicted) 0.794 0.033 NM_153473 Myo7a myosin VIIA 0.793 0.026 NM_001004 268 RGD130327 1 similar to chromosome 1 open reading frame 172 0.789 0.011 NM_001007 235 Itpr1 inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate receptor 1 0.788 0.002 NM_031977 Src Rous sarcoma oncogene 0.788 0.008 AW920092 0.786 0.017 TC576606 Coro2a coronin, actin binding protein 2A 0.784 0.008 NM_053917 Inpp4b inositol polyphosphate 4 phosphatase, type II 0.783 0.006 NM_001003 401 Enc1 ectodermal neural cortex 1 0.783 0.013 NM_001000 779 Olr1424_pre dicted olfactory receptor 1424 (predicted) 0.782 0.031 TC620908 0.782 0.028 TC616402 0.781 0.005 ENSRNOT0 0000056116 LOC690366 similar to vang, van gogh like 1 0.780 0.012 ENSRNOT0 0000021432 Vil1_predict ed villin 1 (predicted) 0.778 0.028 AW917894 0.778 0.008 XM_341784 Cdc42ep5_p redicted CDC42 effector protein (Rho GTPase binding) 5 (predicted) 0.777 0.019 NM_057190 Nelf nasal embryonic LHRH factor 0.774 0.025 TC623960 0.773 0.002 NM_031977 Src Rous sarcoma oncogene 0.773 0.028 DV725289 0.771 0.013 ENSRNOT0 0000007242 RGD130874 5_predicted similar to E430002G05Rik protein (predicted) 0.771 0.021 NM_013026 Sdc1 syndecan 1 0.771 0.012 AA997148 Morf4l1 mortality factor 4 like 1 0.764 0.048 NM_001024 791 Epn3 epsin 3 0.762 0.003 ENSRNOT0 0000009896 Cyp46a1_pr edicted cytochrome P450, family 46, subfamily a, polypeptide 1 (predicted) 0.762 0.003 NM_001033 Slc6a17 solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter

PAGE 150

150 079 transporter), member 17 0.761 0.019 BF563765 0.760 0.022 A_44_P417 133 0.759 0.022 NM_001012 056 LOC307660 carboxylesterase 615 0.758 0.015 TC599342 0.758 0.047 ENSRNOT0 0000026419 Gbx2 gastrulation brain homeobox 2 0.758 0.031 NM_017288 Scn1b sodium channel, voltage gated, type I, beta 0.757 0.011 NM_031085 Prkch protein kinase C, eta 0.757 0.006 NM_053698 Cited2 Cbp/p300 interacting transactivator, with Glu/Asp rich carboxy terminal domain, 2 0.757 0.000 TC620686 0.754 0.006 NM_001007 235 Itpr1 inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate receptor 1 0.753 0.008 ENSRNOT0 0000002498 Pkp2 plakophilin 2 0.750 0.019 NM_017230 Padi3 peptidyl arginine deiminase, type III 0.749 0.002 NM_001034 855 Gpr153 G protein coupled receptor 153 0.747 0.038 ENSRNOT0 0000012757 Papln_predi cted papilin, proteoglycan like sulfated glycoprotein (predicted) 0.747 0.011 NM_001007 235 Itpr1 inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate receptor 1 0.745 0.034 NM_053981 Kcnj12 potassium inwardly rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 12 0.744 0.044 CB546657 0.743 0.009 NM_001007 235 Itpr1 inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate receptor 1 0.742 0.015 NM_001007 235 Itpr1 inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate receptor 1 0.742 0.021 ENSRNOT0 0000021036 Cda_predict ed cytidine deaminase (predicted) 0.742 0.007 TC610464 0.741 0.035 NM_138849 Bk brain and kidney protein 0.740 0.013 ENSRNOT0 0000044039 RGD156524 5_predicted similar to Histone H2B 291B (predicted) 0.739 0.008 NM_001034 933 Arsa arylsulfatase A 0.738 0.008 A_44_P918 476 0.737 0.014 XM_231560 0.735 0.006 NM_001029 911 Cit citron 0.734 0.002 NM_031977 Src Rous sarcoma oncogene 0.734 0.011 NM_001007 235 Itpr1 inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate receptor 1 0.731 0.006 TC599051 0.731 0.027 TC596940 0.730 0.004 NM_031977 Src Rous sarcoma oncogene 0.729 0.004 NM_031977 Src Rous sarcoma oncogene 0.727 0.011 NM_031730 Kcnd2 potassium voltage gated channel, Shal related family, member 2

PAGE 151

151 0.724 0.038 A_44_P323 955 0.722 0.033 NM_172224 Impa2 inositol (myo) 1(or 4) monophosphatase 2 0.720 0.023 NM_053311 Atp2b1 ATPase, Ca++ transporting, plasma membrane 1 0.719 0.029 ENSRNOT0 0000039225 RGD131003 7_predicted similar to RIKEN cDNA C230093N12 (predicted) 0.719 0.001 AF468695 Plekha5 pleckstrin homology domain containing, family A member 5 0.718 0.011 A_44_P199 343 0.715 0.008 NM_001007 235 Itpr1 inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate receptor 1 0.714 0.002 NM_001014 035 LOC309957 similar to myocyte enhancer factor 2C 0.714 0.009 TC580645 LOC685491 similar to retinoblastoma binding protein 4 0.712 0.012 NM_012596 Lepr leptin receptor 0.711 0.019 XM_219476 Ifitm6_predi cted interferon induced transmembrane protein 6 (predicted) 0.710 0.020 NM_001024 999 RGD130778 7 similar to RIKEN cDNA 9130017C17 gene 0.710 0.021 A_44_P792 124 RGD156058 7_predicted similar to Eph receptor A4 (predicted) 0.710 0.040 ENSRNOT0 0000044378 Grid2ip_pre dicted glutamate receptor, ionotropic, delta 2 (Grid2) interacting protein 1 (predicted) 0.709 0.050 NM_133307 Prkcd protein kinase C, delta 0.709 0.002 NM_173145 Dlgap4 discs, large homolog associated protein 4 (Drosophila) 0.709 0.013 XM_216761 0.709 0.008 NM_001007 235 Itpr1 inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate receptor 1 0.708 0.016 ENSRNOT0 0000019442 Shc3 src homology 2 domain containing transforming protein C3 0.708 0.050 BF565038 0.707 0.011 CB547706 0.707 0.006 TC597957 0.705 0.005 NM_031977 Src Rous sarcoma oncogene 0.705 0.000 CF110435 0.704 0.039 XM_345977 Cpne4_pred icted copine IV (predicted) 0.704 0.001 ENSRNOT0 0000012219 Rab6b_pred icted RAB6B, member RAS oncogene family (predicted) 0.703 0.008 ENSRNOT0 0000023084 Lrrn6a leucine rich repeat neuronal 6A 0.703 0.017 TC601674 0.703 0.017 NM_001007 235 Itpr1 inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate receptor 1 0.702 0.023 ENSRNOT0 0000009883 Il12rb2 interleukin 12 receptor, beta 2 0.702 0.041 AJ617619 Syt1 synaptotagmin I 0.699 0.021 NM_030841 Nptxr neuronal pentraxin receptor 0.698 0.023 NM_031684 Slc29a1 solute carrier family 29 (nucleoside transporters), member 1 0.697 0.013 NM_001007 235 Itpr1 inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate receptor 1

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152 0.696 0.001 XM_346384 Grin2a glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N methyl D aspartate 2A 0.692 0.014 AA943125 0.692 0.006 A_44_P668 786 0.691 0.008 NM_199381 NAPE PLD N acyl phosphatidylethanolamine hydrolyzing phospholipase D 0.691 0.014 NM_001025 680 Gpr4 G protein coupled receptor 4 0.691 0.016 NM_012517 Cacna1c calcium channel, voltage dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit 0.690 0.037 NM_199402 Spata20 spermatogenesis associated 20 0.689 0.017 TC605809 0.689 0.020 ENSRNOT0 0000056721 Galnt9_pred icted UDP N acetyl alpha D galactosamine:polypeptide N acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 9 (predicted) 0.687 0.020 DY471743 0.685 0.003 XM_001077 297 LOC691506 similar to Tetratricopeptide repeat protein 19 (TPR repeat protein 19) 0.684 0.029 TC601709 0.683 0.018 NM_207598 Abca7 ATP binding cassette, sub family A (ABC1), member 7 0.682 0.006 XM_344728 Nkd1_predic ted naked cuticle 1 homolog (Drosophila) (predicted) 0.682 0.026 XR_007322 RGD156345 9_predicted RGD1563459 (predicted) 0.681 0.038 AW534376 0.681 0.033 TC598660 0.680 0.008 NM_031321 Slit3 slit homolog 3 (Drosophila) 0.678 0.016 AW143756 Amotl1_pred icted angiomotin like 1 (predicted) 0.677 0.017 ENSRNOT0 0000005176 Wnt3_predic ted wingless type MMTV integration site family, member 3 (predicted) 0.675 0.032 BG663107 Akap12 A kinase (PRKA) anchor protein (gravin) 12 0.674 0.042 NM_017238 Vipr2 vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 2 0.673 0.015 TC633364 0.672 0.037 A_44_P921 044 0.671 0.030 ENSRNOT0 0000046700 Trpc3 transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 3 0.671 0.033 BF286307 0.670 0.002 TC598831 0.669 0.002 NM_001011 989 Gns glucosamine (N acetyl) 6 sulfatase 0.668 0.017 TC599772 0.668 0.007 AW142827 RGD130621 2_predicted similar to hypothetical protein DKFZp566N034 (predicted) 0.667 0.006 NM_001034 131 Foxp1 forkhead box P1 0.667 0.007 CB608947 0.666 0.014 ENSRNOT0 0000010620 Sema7a_pr edicted sema domain, immunoglobulin domain (Ig), and GPI membrane anchor, (semaphorin) 7A (predicted) 0.665 0.021 TC611170 0.663 0.026 NM_053311 Atp2b1 ATPase, Ca++ transporting, plasma membrane 1

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153 0.662 0.015 NM_053774 Usp2 ubiquitin specific peptidase 2 0.661 0.013 NM_199381 NAPE PLD N acyl phosphatidylethanolamine hydrolyzing phospholipase D 0.660 0.004 NM_053945 Rims2 regulating synaptic membrane exocytosis 2 0.659 0.007 BI395616 0.658 0.008 NM_012971 Kcna4 potassium voltage gated channel, shaker related subfamily, member 4 0.657 0.022 NM_012517 Cacna1c calcium channel, voltage dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit 0.654 0.010 NM_133559 Pcsk4 proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 4 0.653 0.039 BC089892 RGD156618 0_predicted RGD1566180 (predicted) 0.653 0.018 TC646523 0.652 0.002 TC631242 0.652 0.003 ENSRNOT0 0000001182 Auts2_predi cted autism susceptibility candidate 2 (predicted) 0.651 0.043 AI511358 0.650 0.008 TC647640 0.648 0.021 NM_012517 Cacna1c calcium channel, voltage dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit 0.648 0.004 AW144045 Slc9a3r1 solute carrier family 9 (sodium/hydrogen exchanger), isoform 3 regulator 1 0.646 0.010 BM986517 Nudt4 nudix (nucleoside diphosphate linked moiety X) type motif 4 0.645 0.006 ENSRNOT0 0000015795 RGD130815 3_predicted similar to RIKEN cDNA 2700085M18 (predicted) 0.644 0.006 NM_019329 Cntn3 contactin 3 0.643 0.028 A_44_P812 699 Hrsp12 heat responsive protein 12 0.643 0.016 ENSRNOT0 0000013009 Slitrk3_predi cted SLIT and NTRK like family, member 3 (predicted) 0.643 0.003 NM_031977 Src Rous sarcoma oncogene 0.641 0.005 NM_012886 Timp3 tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (Sorsby fundus dystrophy, pseudoinflammatory) 0.641 0.012 BC086332 Adprtl1 ADP ribosyltransferase (NAD+; poly (ADP ribose) polymerase) like 1 0.641 0.007 TC596471 0.641 0.011 ENSRNOT0 0000040110 LOC691335 similar to septin 6 0.640 0.016 NM_019344 Rgs8 regulator of G protein signaling 8 0.639 0.045 XM_230765 E2f1 E2F transcription factor 1 0.638 0.039 NM_053788 Stx1a syntaxin 1A (brain) 0.638 0.004 NM_031977 Src Rous sarcoma oncogene 0.634 0.001 XM_343260 Bai1_predict ed brain specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 (predicted) 0.633 0.004 NM_012727 Camk4 calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase IV 0.632 0.028 TC590363 0.631 0.008 NM_001014 271 LOC367515 similar to RIKEN cDNA 1700081O22 0.631 0.005 ENSRNOT0 0000049753 Mgat5b_pre dicted mannoside acetylglucosaminyltransferase 5, isoenzyme B (predicted) 0.630 0.002 CO399814 0.629 0.014 ENSRNOT0 0000002498 Pkp2 plakophilin 2

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154 0.629 0.028 NM_199381 NAPE PLD N acyl phosphatidylethanolamine hydrolyzing phospholipase D 0.629 0.020 NM_053931 5 Sep septin 5 0.628 0.037 TC600452 0.627 0.044 XR_009350 RGD156106 0_predicted similar to hypothetical protein 4930474N05 (predicted) 0.627 0.026 TC606407 0.627 0.022 NM_178021 Hspa5bp1 heat shock 70kDa protein 5 binding protein 1 0.626 0.012 NM_199381 NAPE PLD N acyl phosphatidylethanolamine hydrolyzing phospholipase D 0.626 0.014 ENSRNOT0 0000025516 Elmo1_predi cted engulfment and cell motility 1, ced 12 homolog (C. elegans) (predicted) 0.624 0.013 AI008119 0.624 0.007 XM_217648 Hspa12a_pr edicted heat shock 70kDa protein 12A (predicted) 0.624 0.011 NM_199381 NAPE PLD N acyl phosphatidylethanolamine hydrolyzing phospholipase D 0.621 0.005 ENSRNOT0 0000035826 RGD130456 3_predicted similar to RIKEN cDNA 4831426I19 (predicted) 0.621 0.018 AW142951 0.620 0.019 NM_012517 Cacna1c calcium channel, voltage dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit 0.619 0.013 NM_053698 Cited2 Cbp/p300 interacting transactivator, with Glu/Asp rich carboxy terminal domain, 2 0.618 0.033 XM_341147 Rcsd1_predi cted RCSD domain containing 1 (predicted) 0.618 0.009 NM_031977 Src Rous sarcoma oncogene 0.616 0.025 NM_199381 NAPE PLD N acyl phosphatidylethanolamine hydrolyzing phospholipase D 0.614 0.040 ENSRNOT0 0000040706 RGD130980 8_predicted similar to apolipoprotein L2; apolipoprotein L II (predicted) 0.613 0.010 ENSRNOT0 0000035926 Arhgap22_p redicted Rho GTPase activating protein 22 (predicted) 0.611 0.018 XM_342632 Pftk1_predic ted PFTAIRE protein kinase 1 (predicted) 0.610 0.001 NM_021658 Hcn4 hyperpolarization activated, cyclic nucleotide gated K+ 4 0.609 0.005 AJ617619 Syt1 synaptotagmin I 0.608 0.015 AW251647 0.608 0.013 NM_012517 Cacna1c calcium channel, voltage dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit 0.607 0.001 AI059890 RGD156074 4_predicted similar to ring finger protein 111 (predicted) 0.607 0.021 NM_012746 Pcsk2 proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 2 0.607 0.013 NM_012517 Cacna1c calcium channel, voltage dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit 0.606 0.006 NM_019179 Tyms thymidylate synthase 0.606 0.004 TC636367 0.606 0.039 NM_012517 Cacna1c calcium channel, voltage dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit 0.606 0.008 TC602078 0.605 0.001 NM_053949 Kcnh2 potassium voltage gated channel, subfamily H (eag related), member 2 0.604 0.020 NM_001039 Zdhhc18 zinc finger, DHHC domain containing 18

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155 339 0.604 0.036 TC625842 0.604 0.003 XM_001066 889 RGD156103 0_predicted similar to DEP domain containing 6 (predicted) 0.604 0.031 NM_053351 Cacng2 calcium channel, voltage dependent, gamma subunit 2 0.603 0.012 BE107979 0.603 0.037 ENSRNOT0 0000054890 Inpp5a_pred icted inositol polyphosphate 5 phosphatase A (predicted) 0.602 0.018 NM_012746 Pcsk2 proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 2 0.601 0.015 ENSRNOT0 0000019408 Zfhx3_predi cted zinc finger homeobox 3 (predicted) 0.601 0.011 A_44_P989 601 0.601 0.013 NM_199381 NAPE PLD N acyl phosphatidylethanolamine hydrolyzing phospholipase D 0.600 0.004 TC594701 0.599 0.023 TC592480 0.598 0.025 NM_012517 Cacna1c calcium channel, voltage dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit 0.597 0.022 XM_342320 0.596 0.010 NM_053851 Cacnb2 calcium channel, voltage dependent, beta 2 subunit 0.595 0.000 AW523545 Btbd3_predi cted BTB (POZ) domain containing 3 (predicted) 0.594 0.024 NM_199381 NAPE PLD N acyl phosphatidylethanolamine hydrolyzing phospholipase D 0.594 0.021 TC644730 0.594 0.021 XM_341223 RGD156286 0_predicted similar to RIKEN cDNA 2310045A20 (predicted) 0.593 0.012 ENSRNOT0 0000057506 Rora_predic ted RAR related orphan receptor alpha (predicted) 0.593 0.005 XM_001076 955 RGD156555 6_predicted similar to cajalin 2 isoform a (predicted) 0.591 0.033 ENSRNOT0 0000019956 Sema4g_pr edicted sema domain, immunoglobulin domain (Ig), transmembrane domain (TM) and short cytoplasmic domain, (semaphorin) 4G (predicted) 0.591 0.002 NM_139333 Prpf19 PRP19/PSO4 pre mRNA processing factor 19 homolog (S. cerevisiae) 0.588 0.010 NM_053698 Cited2 Cbp/p300 interacting transactivator, with Glu/Asp rich carboxy terminal domain, 2 0.588 0.003 ENSRNOT0 0000022469 Loxl2_predic ted lysyl oxidase like 2 (predicted) 0.587 0.027 TC612255 0.587 0.013 NM_017032 Pde4d phosphodiesterase 4D, cAMP specific 0.587 0.005 TC627587 0.587 0.028 CB547681 0.587 0.007 TC596530 0.587 0.023 NM_017345 L1cam L1 cell adhesion molecule 0.587 0.007 NM_012588 Igfbp3 insulin like growth factor binding protein 3 0.587 0.007 NM_134373 Avpi1 arginine vasopressin induced 1 0.587 0.030 TC619875 0.586 0.006 NM_001034 855 Gpr153 G protein coupled receptor 153 0.586 0.007 ENSRNOT0 LOC685076 similar to phosphoglucomutase 2 like 1

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156 0000022963 0.585 0.039 AI111924 RGD156296 3_predicted similar to chromosome 6 open reading frame 52 (predicted) 0.585 0.003 XM_341506 RGD130605 8_predicted similar to RIKEN cDNA 1110007C09 (predicted) 0.584 0.025 AI237691 LOC314964 similar to PHD finger protein 20 like 1 isoform 1 0.584 0.038 NM_199381 NAPE PLD N acyl phosphatidylethanolamine hydrolyzing phospholipase D 0.584 0.023 NM_031977 Src Rous sarcoma oncogene 0.584 0.002 AJ617619 Syt1 synaptotagmin I 0.583 0.014 NM_031601 Cacna1g calcium channel, voltage dependent, T type, alpha 1G subunit 0.583 0.001 XM_576480 LOC501065 similar to chemokine like factor super family 7 0.583 0.004 ENSRNOT0 0000046486 Tiam1 T cell lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1 0.583 0.036 BF563262 0.582 0.037 ENSRNOT0 0000009178 Stk32c_pred icted serine/threonine kinase 32C (predicted) 0.582 0.016 NM_031610 Kcnj3 potassium inwardly rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 3 0.581 0.027 BC086332 Adprtl1 ADP ribosyltransferase (NAD+; poly (ADP ribose) polymerase) like 1

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157 APPENDIX D LIST OF MODULATED GE NE ONTOLOGY BIOLOGIC AL PROCESSES FOLLOWI NG REPEATED ITTO Table D 1. List of modulated GO groups following repeated ITTO with p < 0.01 Name # of Entities Expanded # of Entities Over lap p value Synaptic transmission 247 247 17 2.189 e 12 Melanogenesis 51 687 29 6.496 e 9 Gap junction regulation 51 644 26 1.317 e 7 Neuropeptide signaling pathway 127 127 9 2.965 e 7 Ion transport 619 619 18 4.204 e 7 Elevation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration 99 99 8 5.032 e 7 Nervous system development 441 441 15 5.834 e 7 Signal transduction 3207 3207 46 1.515 e 6 Skeletal myogenesis control 70 558 21 9.190 e 6 Cation transport 106 106 7 1.017 e 5 Learning and or memory 42 42 5 1.112 e 5 F eeding behavior 44 44 5 1.403 e 5 Cell cell signaling 334 334 11 2.612 e 5 Gonadotrope cell activation 71 702 23 3.048 e 5 Multicellular organismal development 1100 1100 21 3.303 e 5 Dentate gyrus development 2 2 2 4.898 e 5 Negative regulation of fib roblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway 2 2 2 4.898 e 5 Glutamate decarboxylation to succinate 2 2 2 4.898 e 5 Ectoderm formation 2 2 2 4.898 e 5 Response to drug 190 190 8 6.203 e 5 Neurotransmitter transport 62 62 5 7.550 e 5 Calcium ion tr ansport 145 145 7 7.66 e 5 Drinking behavior 13 13 3 9.235 e 5 Response to glucocorticoid stimulus 67 67 5 1 095 e 4 G protein signaling, coupled to cyclic nucleotide second messenger 42 42 4 2 13 4 e 4 Transport 1962 1962 28 2.621 e 4 Striated muscle contraction 45 45 4 2.794 e 4 Negative regulation of appetite 4 4 2 2.912 e 4 Embryonic epithelial tube formation 4 4 2 2.912 e 4 Negative regulation of blood pressure 19 19 3 3.033 e 4 Negative regulation of adenylate cyclase activity 19 19 3 3.033 e 4 Axonogenesis 84 84 5 3.180 e 4 Regulation of cell migration 47 47 4 3.309 e 4 Neurotransmitter secretion 48 48 4 3.590 e 4 Negative regulation of bone mineralization 5 5 2 4.830 e 4 Behavior 52 52 4 4.887 e 4 Inner ear morphogenesis 52 52 4 4.887 e 4 Kidney development 53 53 4 5.257 e 4 Intracellular signaling cascade 472 472 11 5.352 e 4 Opioidr > CREB/ELK SRF/STAT3 signaling 32 51 5 5.560 e 4 Negative regulation of neuron differentiation 24 24 3 6.174 e 4 Embryonic limb morphogenesis 56 56 4 6.490 e 4

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158 Regulation of bone remodeling 6 6 2 7.212 e 4 Embryonic digestive tract morphogenesis 6 6 2 7.212 e 4 Regulation of neuronal synaptic plasticity 26 26 3 7.850 e 4 Cell death 60 60 4 8.427 e 4 Regulation of neurotransmitter secretion 27 27 3 8.785 e 4 Hemocyte development 7 7 2 0.0010 Regulation of synaptic transmission, glutamatergic 7 7 2 0.0010 Response to steroid hormone stimulus 29 29 3 0.0011 Regulation of transcription 521 521 11 0.0012 Regulation of blood pressure 67 67 4 0.0013 Learning 31 31 3 0.0013 Monoamine transport 8 8 2 0.0013 Adrenergicra > STAT3 signaling 22 38 4 0.0016 Adrenergicrb > CREB signaling 28 64 5 0.0016 Behavioral response to cocaine 9 9 2 0.0017 Regulation of cytoskeleton organization and biogenesis 9 9 2 0.0017 Mast cell degranulation 9 9 2 0.0017 Cholecystokininr > ELK SRF signaling 23 39 4 0.0017 Negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter 247 247 7 0.0019 Anatomical structure formation 35 35 3 0.0019 VIPR > CREB/CEBP signaling 31 67 5 0.0019 Thyroid hormone metabolic process 10 10 2 0.0021 Thyroid hormone generation 10 10 2 0.0021 Adrenergicra > ELK SRF signaling 26 42 4 0.0023 Forebrain development 79 79 4 0.0023 Anterior posterior pattern formation 79 79 4 0.0023 Prostaglandinir > ATF1/ELK SRF/CREB signaling 35 70 5 0.0023 T cell receptor > ATF/CREB signaling pathway 49 71 5 0.0025 Positive regulation of cell cycle 11 11 2 0.0026 Vasopressinr1 > STAT signaling 16 44 4 0.0027 Regulation of G protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway 41 41 3 0.0030 Neurotransmitter biosynthetic process 12 12 2 0.0031 Neurite development 43 43 3 0.0034 Prostaglandinfr > ATF1/ELK SRF/CREB signaling 28 47 4 0.0035 Tube morphogenesis 13 13 2 0.0036 Regulation of Wnt receptor signaling pathway 13 13 2 0.0036 Cell differentiation 691 691 12 0.0037 Adenosiner > NF kb signaling 19 49 4 0.0040 Epithelial cell differentiation 46 46 3 0.0041 Regulation of ossification 14 14 2 0.0042 Cerebellum development 14 14 2 0.0042 Dorsal ventral pattern formation 47 47 3 0.0044 Heart development 156 156 5 0.0050 GHR > ELK SRF/MYC signaling 25 53 4 0.0053 Vasopressinr2 > CREB/ELK SRF/AP 1/EGR signaling 56 121 6 0.0055 Response to estradiol stimulus 16 16 2 0.0055 Org an morphogenesis 228 228 6 0.0056 Response to nutrient 104 104 4 0.0063 KIT > MITF signaling 28 56 4 0.0065

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159 Hair follicle morphogenesis 18 18 2 0.0070 Midbrain hindbrain boundary morphogenesis 1 1 1 0.0070 Hard palate development 1 1 1 0.0070 Positi ve regulation of mitochondrial depolarization 1 1 1 0.0070 Negative regulation of serotonin secretion 1 1 1 0.0070 Negative regulation of gamma aminobutyric acid secretion 1 1 1 0.0070 Negative regulation of glycogen catabolic process 1 1 1 0.0070 Nega tive regulation of collateral sprouting of intact axon in response to injury 1 1 1 0.0070 Negative regulation of hepatocyte growth factor biosynthetic process 1 1 1 0.0070 Positive regulation of mismatch repair 1 1 1 0.0070 Positive regulation of circadian sleep wake cycle, REM sleep 1 1 1 0.0070 Positive regulation of insulin receptor signaling pathway 1 1 1 0.0070 Positive regulation of epinephrine secretion 1 1 1 0.0070 Positive regulation of protein oligomerization 1 1 1 0.0070 Positive regulatio n of collagen biosynthetic process 1 1 1 0.0070 Histamine uptake 1 1 1 0.0070 Vasoconstriction of artery involved in baroreceptor response to lowering of systemic arterial blood pressure 1 1 1 0.0070 Phagolysosome formation 1 1 1 0.0070 Keratan sulfate biosynthetic process 1 1 1 0.0070 5 phosphoribose 1 diphosphate biosynthetic process 1 1 1 0.0070 Protein pyridoxal 5 phosphate linkage 1 1 1 0.0070 Rhombomere 2 development 1 1 1 0.0070 Synaptic vesicle amine transport 1 1 1 0.0070 Voluntary musculo skeletal movement 1 1 1 0.0070 Prolactinr > STAT signaling 10 10 2 0.0075 Neuroprotection 19 19 2 0.0077 Lamellipodium biogenesis 19 19 2 0.0077 Lipid metabolic process 327 327 7 0.0085 Positive regulation of cell adhesion 20 20 2 0.0086 Inactivatio n of MAPK activity 20 20 2 0.0086 Endoderm development 20 20 2 0.0086 Fciger > ELK SRF signaling 34 62 4 0.0093 Nk cell activation 59 525 14 0.0094 IL8R > CREB/EGR signaling 33 33 3 0.0095

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160 LIST OF REFERENCES 1995. Standardization of Spirometry, 1994 Update. American Thoracic Society. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 152, 1107 1136. 1999. Dyspnea. Mechanisms, assessment, and management: a consensus statement. American Thoracic Society. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 159, 321 340. Aaron, E.A., Seow, K.C., Johnson, B.D., Dempsey, J.A., 1992. Oxygen cos t of exercise hyperpnea: implications for performance. J Appl Physiol 72, 1818 1825. Alitto, H.J., Usrey, W.M., 2003. Corticothalamic feedback and sensory processing. Curr Opin Neurobiol 13, 440 445. Aliverti, A., 2008. Lung and chest wall mechanics during exercise: Effects of expiratory flow limitation. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. Amonette, W.E., Dupler, T.L., 2002. The effects of respiratory muscle training on VO2max, the ventilatory threshold and pulmonary function. J Exerc Physiol Online 5, 29 35. Arias Carrion, O., Poppel, E., 2007. Dopamine, learning, and reward seeking behavior. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) 67, 481 488. Armour, J., Donnelly, P.M., Bye, P.T., 1993. The large lungs of elite swimmers: an increased alveolar number? Eur Respir J 6, 237 2 47. Armstrong, N., Davies, B., 1981. An ergometric analysis of age group swimmers. Br J Sports Med 15, 20 26. Athanasopoulos, D., Louvaris, Z., Cherouveim, E., Andrianopoulos, V., Roussos, C., Zakynthinos, S.G., Vogiatzis, I., 2010. Expiratory muscle loadi ng increases intercostal muscle blood flow during leg exercise in healthy humans. J Appl Physiol. Babcock, M.A., Pegelow, D.F., McClaran, S.R., Suman, O.E., Dempsey, J.A., 1995. Contribution of diaphragmatic power output to exercise induced diaphragm fatig ue. J Appl Physiol 78, 1710 1719. Baker, S., Davenport, P., Sapienza, C., 2005. Examination of strength training and detraining effects in expiratory muscles. J Speech Lang Hear Res 48, 1325 1333. Barbarito, N., Ceriana, P., Nava, S., 2001. Respiratory mus cles in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. Minerva Anestesiol 67, 653 658. Benarroch, E.E., 2008. The midline and intralaminar thalamic nuclei: anatomic and functional specificity and implications in neurologic disease. Neurology 71, 944 949

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177 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Vipa Bernhardt was born in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and grew up in Bad Hersfeld, Germany earning her Abitur from the Modellschule Obersberg in 2002. She graduated summa cum laude with a Bachelor of Science degree in Neurological Sciences and a Bachelor of Art s degree in Music Performance from the University of Florida in 2006. Throughout her undergraduate years she received an athletic scholarship for being a m ember of the varsity swim t eam. Vipa is a five time Southe astern Conference (SEC) champion and a 19 time All American and still holds two University of Florida school records. In 2003 she received the Tracy Caulkins Outstanding Freshman Award her home country Germany inc luded European Championships, World University Games, World Championships and the 2004 Summer Olympic Games. For her success in both her studies and as a swimmer, she was recognized as Scholar Athlete for two consecutive years. Vipa entere shortly after, joined the laboratory of Dr. Paul W. Davenport, where she could combine her interests in science and sports by studying the effects of respiratory muscle training in swimmers. She has accepted a post doctoral research associate position at the National Aquatics and Sports Medicine Institute at Washington State University.