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Formation of Calcium Phosphate Crystals under Lipid Monolayers

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0042332/00001

Material Information

Title: Formation of Calcium Phosphate Crystals under Lipid Monolayers
Physical Description: 1 online resource (72 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Bhase, Hrishikesh
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: acid, angle, brewster, calcium, cell, crstals, dppc, fatty, hydrolysis, kidney, lipid, membrane, microscope, monolayer, phosphate, stones
Chemistry -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Chemistry thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This study looks at the precipitation of calcium phosphate crystals at phospholipid Langmuir monolayers. Urinary stones are commonly composed of an inorganic component, calcium phosphate, or calcium oxalate and an organic matrix of lipids, carbohydrates, and proteinaceous matter. Hyperoxaluria, elevated oxalate concentration in the kidney, is a condition frequently associated with individuals suffering from kidney stones. This condition causes the breakdown of membranes and creates free radicals at the cellular surface. Once free radicals are generated, lipid peroxidation begins to occur which further leads to the hydrolysis of phospholipids. Hydrolysis can also be caused by an enzyme called phospholipase A2, which hydrolyzes the sn-2 position of a phospholipid. Two of the products at the cell surface when hydrolysis occurs are a single chain lysolipid and also a fatty acid. In this study, products of lipid hydrolysis are examined for their effect on calcium phosphate precipitation using Langmuir monolayers as model lipid membrane assemblies. Brewster angle microscopy is employed to monitor the calcium phosphate crystals which appear as a bright spots at the air/water interface. Crystal precipitation was monitored at monolayers of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC), palmitic acid (PA), the binary mixture of DPPC:PA, and DPPC:22-carbon chain lysophospholipid (22:0 Lyso PC) and the ternary mixture of DPPC: PA: lyso PC in liquid condensed (LC) and liquid expanded (LE) phases. It is found that a ternary mixture of DPPC and its hydrolysis products, a lysolipid and a fatty acid, cause a significant increase in heterogeneous calcium phosphate precipitation when compared to DPPC alone. It is demonstrated that the fatty acid PA generated during lipid hydrolysis causes a significant increase in the extent of heterogeneous nucleation of calcium phosphate from supersaturated solutions. The results imply a possible link between break down of phospholipid into its hydrolysis products and calcium phosphate precipitation. We also studied a ternary mixture using Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), arachidic acid (AA), and a 22-carbon chain lysophospholipid (22:0:Lyso PC) to see the effect of chain length of fatty acid on calcium phosphate precipitation. It was observed that only the short chain fatty acid generated during lipid hydrolysis causes a significant increase in the extent of heterogeneous nucleation of calcium phosphate.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Hrishikesh Bhase.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Talham, Daniel R.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0042332:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0042332/00001

Material Information

Title: Formation of Calcium Phosphate Crystals under Lipid Monolayers
Physical Description: 1 online resource (72 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Bhase, Hrishikesh
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: acid, angle, brewster, calcium, cell, crstals, dppc, fatty, hydrolysis, kidney, lipid, membrane, microscope, monolayer, phosphate, stones
Chemistry -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Chemistry thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This study looks at the precipitation of calcium phosphate crystals at phospholipid Langmuir monolayers. Urinary stones are commonly composed of an inorganic component, calcium phosphate, or calcium oxalate and an organic matrix of lipids, carbohydrates, and proteinaceous matter. Hyperoxaluria, elevated oxalate concentration in the kidney, is a condition frequently associated with individuals suffering from kidney stones. This condition causes the breakdown of membranes and creates free radicals at the cellular surface. Once free radicals are generated, lipid peroxidation begins to occur which further leads to the hydrolysis of phospholipids. Hydrolysis can also be caused by an enzyme called phospholipase A2, which hydrolyzes the sn-2 position of a phospholipid. Two of the products at the cell surface when hydrolysis occurs are a single chain lysolipid and also a fatty acid. In this study, products of lipid hydrolysis are examined for their effect on calcium phosphate precipitation using Langmuir monolayers as model lipid membrane assemblies. Brewster angle microscopy is employed to monitor the calcium phosphate crystals which appear as a bright spots at the air/water interface. Crystal precipitation was monitored at monolayers of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC), palmitic acid (PA), the binary mixture of DPPC:PA, and DPPC:22-carbon chain lysophospholipid (22:0 Lyso PC) and the ternary mixture of DPPC: PA: lyso PC in liquid condensed (LC) and liquid expanded (LE) phases. It is found that a ternary mixture of DPPC and its hydrolysis products, a lysolipid and a fatty acid, cause a significant increase in heterogeneous calcium phosphate precipitation when compared to DPPC alone. It is demonstrated that the fatty acid PA generated during lipid hydrolysis causes a significant increase in the extent of heterogeneous nucleation of calcium phosphate from supersaturated solutions. The results imply a possible link between break down of phospholipid into its hydrolysis products and calcium phosphate precipitation. We also studied a ternary mixture using Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), arachidic acid (AA), and a 22-carbon chain lysophospholipid (22:0:Lyso PC) to see the effect of chain length of fatty acid on calcium phosphate precipitation. It was observed that only the short chain fatty acid generated during lipid hydrolysis causes a significant increase in the extent of heterogeneous nucleation of calcium phosphate.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Hrishikesh Bhase.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Talham, Daniel R.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0042332:00001


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1 FORMATION OF CALCIUM PHOSPHATE CRYSTALS UNDER LIPID MONOLAYERS By HRISHIKESH BHASE A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2010

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2 2010 H rishikesh B hase

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3 To all my family members and friends for loving and supporting me

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my advisor, Dr. Daniel Talham, for giving me the opportunity to perform my graduate research in his laboratory. Under his guidance I learned to perform research creatively and independently, trust my instincts and communicate my findings in a professional and effective manner. Appreciation is also extended to my committee memb ers, Dr. Vaneica Young and Dr. Kathryn Williams for their help and support. I am grateful to all members of the Talham group who have made enormous contributions to my graduate work particularly to Denise Sharbaugh, Roxane Fabre and Hao Lui. Gratitude is a lso conveyed to the staff of the department of c hemistry and department of material science and engineering especially Dr.Moudgil, and others. Finally, I am thankful to all my parents, my brother Parijat for encouraging and motivating me to reach my go als throughout my time during the research at the University of Florida. I thank them for allowing my future to be a priority. I could not have gotten this far otherwise.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................................................................. 4 page LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................................ 7 LIST OF FIGURES .......................................................................................................... 8 ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................... 11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................... 13 1.1 Scope of Thesis ................................................................................................ 13 1.2 Background ....................................................................................................... 13 1.3 Kinetics of Crystallization .................................................................................. 15 .................................... 15 1.3.2 Factors Affecting the Relative Supersaturation ....................................... 16 1.4 Lipids and Membranes ...................................................................................... 16 1.5 Langmuir Monolayers and Langmuir Blodgett Films ......................................... 17 1.6 Brewster Angle Microscopy and its Applications ............................................... 18 2 LITERATURE REVIEW .......................................................................................... 23 2.1 Close Look at Domain Formation in DPPC Monolayer ..................................... 23 2.2 Study of Hydrolysis of DPPC by Phospholipase A2 Using Langmuir Monolayer and BAM ............................................................................................ 24 2.3 Condensing Effect of Palmitic Acid on DPPC Monolayer .................................. 25 2.4 Studies of Lysophosphocholine/DPPC Mixtures ............................................... 26 2.5 Study of Calcium Phosphate Formation under Three Different Langmuir Monolayers .......................................................................................................... 28 3 FORMATION OF CALCIUM PHOSPHATE CRYSTALS UNDER LIPID MONOLAYERS ...................................................................................................... 37 3.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 37 3.2 Experimental Section ........................................................................................ 39 3.2.1 Materials .................................................................................................. 39 3.2.2 Preparation of Supersaturated Calcium Phosphate Solution ................... 40 3.2.3 Preparation of Surfactant Solution ........................................................... 40 3.2.4 Glass Slides ............................................................................................ 41 3.3 Brewster Angle Microscopy .............................................................................. 41 3.4 Crystal Counting Procedure .............................................................................. 42 3.5 Procedure ......................................................................................................... 42 3.6 Study of Hydrolysis of Phospholipid DPPC ....................................................... 43

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6 3.7 Crystallization of Calcium Phosphate under the DPPC Monolayer ................... 44 3.8 Crystallization of Calcium Phosphate under the Ternary Mixture Monolayer with Palmitic Acid ................................................................................................. 46 3.9 Behavioral Study of the Binary Mixture (DPPC: PA, DPPC: Lyso PC) .............. 47 3.10 Crystallization of Calcium Phosphate under the Binary Mixtures .................... 48 4 IMPACT OF CHAIN LENGTH OF FATTY ACIDS ON CALCIUM PHOSPHATE FORMATION .......................................................................................................... 57 4.1 Experimental Section ........................................................................................ 57 4.2 Crystallization of Calcium Phosphate under the Ternary Mixture Monolayer with Arachidic Acid .............................................................................................. 58 4.3 BAM Images of Ternary Mixture at Different Pressures .................................... 59 4.4 Isotherm and BAM Images of Pure Fatty Acids ................................................ 60 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ....................................................... 66 LIST OF REFERENCES ............................................................................................... 67 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ............................................................................................ 72

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 The average number of crystalsa per BAM image under different monolayers at low and high pressure. ................................................................................... 50 4 1 Average number of crystalsa per BAM image under different monolayers at low and high pressure. ....................................................................................... 61

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 1 Structural features of lipids, using a glycerophospholipid (phosphatidylcholine) as an example. ................................................................ 20 1 2 Schematic representation of a Langmuir monolayer experiment. ....................... 20 1 3 Schematic illustration of the principle behind Brewster Angle Microscopy. ........ 21 1 4 Experimental setup utilizing Brewster angle microscopy to monitor crystal growth at phospholipid Langmuir monolayers. ................................................... 21 1 5 Schematic representation of a pressurearea isotherm showing the possible phases present during the compression of an amphiphile. ................................. 22 2 1 DPPC domain growth with a compression rate of 0.86 2 molecule1 min 1: .... 30 2 2 Compression isotherm of 1,2Dipalmitoylsn glycero 3 phosphocholine (DPPC) on a water subphase at 25 C. .............................................................. 31 2 3 Structures of DPPC (1), lysolipid 22:0 Lyso PC (2), and palmitic acid (PA) (3). 31 2 4 Pressure vs mean chain area isotherms of DPPC and of a palmitic acid taken over a 0.35 mM CaCl2 subphase at 25 C. ......................................................... 32 2 5 Pressure vs mean chain area isotherms of the binary monolayers of DPPC with PA and DPPC with the 22:0 Lyso PC. ........................................................ 32 2 6 Brewster angle microscopy images of a DPPC (A) and ternary mixture (DPPC: PA: Lyso PC) (B) and pure palmitic acid (C) monolayer ........................ 33 2 7 BAM images of 70:30DPPC/Lyso PC (A) and 70:30 DPPC/PA (B) binary monolayers over a 0.35 mM calcium oxalate subphase ..................................... 33 2 8 Surface pressure (mN/m) area (2) isotherms at 24 C on a pure water subphase: (A) neat DPPC d62 (gray curve) and neat PA (black curve), (B) ...... 34 2 9 DPPC/C22PC isotherms at 20 C ........................................................................ 35 2 10 DPPC/C18PC domains formed by compression at 0.86 2 molecule1 min 1 .... 35 2 11 I sotherms of monolayers on pure water and HAp supersaturated solution for different times: (A) DPPC, (B) AA, and (C) ODA ................................................ 36 2 12 EPM spectra of calcium phosphate formed under the DPPC, ODA and AA monolayer ........................................................................................................... 36

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9 3 1 Control experiment showing BAM images of calcium phosphate subphase in the absence of a DPPC Langmuir monolayer.. .................................................. 50 3 2 BAM images of CaCl2 subphase (A) and Na3PO4 subph ase (B) prepared in the NaCl, Tris HCL buffer solution. Images taken after 24 hours at 20C. .......... 50 3 3 Structures of DPPC (1), lysolipid 22:0 Lyso PC (2), and palmitic acid (PA) (3). 51 3 4 Pressure vs mean molecular area isotherms of a pure DPPC taken over a 0.43 mM CaCl2 subphase at 20C. ..................................................................... 51 3 5 Brewster angle microscopy imag es of a DPPC monolayer at 20C after 24 h over a calcium phosphate subphase at (A) 35 and (B) 15 mN/m. ...................... 52 3 6 Pressure vs mean molecular area isotherms of a ternary 2:1:1 mixture of DPPC, 22:0 L yso PC, and palmitic acid taken over a 0.43 mM CaCl2 subphase ............................................................................................................ 52 3 7 Brewster angle microscopy images of a ternary monolayer, a 2:1:1 mixture of DPPC, 22:0 Lyso PC, and palmitic acid monolayer .......................................... 53 3 8 Pressure vs mean molecular area isotherms of the binary monolayers of DPPC with PA and DPPC with the 22:0 Lyso PC .............................................. 54 3 9 Sh ape of domains formed in LC/LE coexistence region (A) pure DPPC, (B) Ternary mixture with DPPC:PA:Lyso PC at 20C. .............................................. 54 3 10 BAM images of a 70:30 DPPC/palmitic acid binary monolayer over a calciu m phosphate subphase ......................................................................................... 55 3 11 BAM images of a 70:30 DPPC/lyso PC binary monolayer over a calcium phosphate subphase. ......................................................................................... 55 3 12 BAM ima ges of a palmitic acid monolayer at 15mN/m over a calcium phosphate subphase. ......................................................................................... 55 3 13 BAM images of a palmitic acid monolayer at 35mN/m over a calcium phosphate subphase containing NaCl and tris HCl at 20C after 24 hr 20C. .... 56 4 1 Structures of DPPC (1), lysolipid 22:0 Lyso PC (2), and arachidic acid (AA) (3).. ..................................................................................................................... 61 4 2 Press ure vs mean molecular area isotherms of ternary mixture of DPPC: lyso PC: AA (50:25:25) taken over a 0.43 mM CaCl2 subphase at 20C. .................. 62 4 3 BAM images of the ternary monolayer, a 2:1:1 mixture o f DPPC, 22:0LysoPC, and Arachidic acid, over a calcium phosphate subphase. ............. 62

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10 4 4 BAM images of a arachidic acid monolayer over a calcium phosphate subphase ............................................................................................................ 63 4 5 Pressure vs area isotherm of a ternary 2:1:1 mixture of DPPC, 22:0 Lyso PC, and palmitic acid ................................................................................................. 63 4 6 Pressure vs area isotherm of a ternary 2:1:1 mixture of DPPC, 22:0 Lyso PC, and arachidic acid. .............................................................................................. 64 4 7 Pressure vs area isotherm of a pure palmitic acid over a CaCl2, NaCl, tris HCl buffer at 20C. ............................................................................................. 64 4 8 Pressure vs area isotherm of a pure arachidic acid over a CaCl2, NaCl, tris HCl buffer at 20C.. ............................................................................................ 65 4 9 SEM image of the calcium phosphate crystals formed under the fatty acid monolayer. .......................................................................................................... 65

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11 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science FORMATION OF CALCIUM PHOSPHATE CRYSTA LS UNDER LIPID MONOLAYERS By H rishikesh Bhase December 2010 Chair: Daniel R. Talham Major: Chemistry This study looks at the precipitation of calcium phosphate crystals at phospholipid Langmuir monolayers. Urinary stones are commonly composed of an inorg anic component, calcium phosphate, or calcium oxalate and an organic matrix of lipids, carbohydrates, and proteinaceous matter. Hyperoxaluria, elevated oxalate concentration in the kidney, is a condition frequently associated with individuals suffering from kidney stones. This condition causes the breakdown of membranes and creates free radicals at the cellular surface. Once free radicals are generated, lipid peroxidation begins to occur which further leads to the hydrolysis of phospholipids. Hydrolysis can also be caused by an enzyme called phospholipase A2, which hydrolyzes the sn2 position of a phospholipid. Two of the products at the cell surface when hydrolysis occurs are a single chain lysolipid and also a fatty acid. In this study, products of lipid hydrolysis are examined for their effect on calcium phosphate precipitation using Langmuir monolayers as model lipid membrane assemblies. Brewster angle microscopy is employed to monitor the calcium phosphate crystals which appear as a bright spots at the air/water interface. Crystal precipitation was monitored at monolayers of 1,2dipalmitoyl sn glycero 3 phosphocholine (DPPC),

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12 palmitic acid (PA), the binary mixture of DPPC:PA, and DPPC: 22carbon chain lysophospholipid (22:0 Lyso P C) and the ternary mixtur e of DPPC: PA: lyso PC in liquid condensed (LC) and liquid expanded (LE) phases. It is found that a ternary mixture of DPPC and its hydrolysis products, a lysolipid and a fatty acid, cause a significant increase in heterogeneous calcium phosphate precipitation when compared to DPPC alone. It is demonstrated that the fatty acid PA generated during lipid hydrolysis causes a significant increase in the extent of heterogeneous nucleation of calcium phosphate from supersaturated solutions. The results imply a possible link between break down of phospholipid into its hydrolysis products and calcium phosphate precipitation. We also studied a ternary mixture using Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), arachidic acid (AA), and a 22carb on chain lysophospholipid (22: 0: Lyso PC) to see the effect of chain length of fatty acid on calcium phosphate precipitation. It was observed that only the short chain fatty acid generated during lipid hydrolysis causes a significant increase in the extent of heterogeneous nucleation of calcium phosphate.

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13 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Scope of Thesis Chapter 2 describes the literature review which includes the study of domains formed by pure DPPC, the effect of palmitic acid and lysolipid on DPPC and the formation of calcium phosphate under different monolayers. Chapter 3 of this dissertation describes the formation of calcium phosphate crystals under li pid monolayers. At the end, in C hapter 4, the effects of chain length of fatty acids on calcium phosphate precipitation at lipid interfaces are discussed. The motivation for this project was initiated by the success of Sharbaughs experiment in our group in observing the effect of phospholipase A2 hydrolysis products on calcium oxalate precipitation at lipid interfaces.1 1.2 Background Biom ineralization is an important phenomenon in nature. Studies on the biomineralization mechanism have been aimed at developing a detailed understanding of interfacial interactions associated with biomineralization and templatedirected crystallization. Formation of biomineral like calcium oxalate monohydrate has been studied previously by Whipps and Backov in our group.12 For a long time, crystallizations of calcium phosphates and of calcium carbonates on the surfaces of thin films have constituted model syst ems for understanding the role of the surface chemistry in the nucleation and crystal growth processes.6, 7 Langmuir Blodgett films of surfactant molecules bearing different kinds of hydrophilic moieties, 8 12 and self assembled monolayers of surfactant molecules on noble metal surfaces 13, 14 have been used to study the formation of minerals. Calcium phosphates and calcium oxalates are

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14 investigated extensively under the Langmuir films because they are the main inorganic components of kidney stones and hard tissues.1523 Kidney stones afflict patients worldwide. In the United States, alone, kidney stones account for over one million hospital admissions per year.24 It has been found that stones can be deposits of calcium phosphates, uric acid, struvite, or ev en calcium carbonate, but by far the most common are those that contain calcium phosphate as the principal inorganic component. This crystalline inorganic material is always mixed with an organic matrix which is comprised of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and other cellular components. Phosphate and oxalate are concentrated in the kidney resulting in supersaturation with respect to their calcium salts, but the solution is metastable, meaning that heterogeneous nucleation is the predominant precipitation process. Calculations show that urinary concentrations and the rate of fluid flow in the kidney provide insufficient transit time for crystals to grow large enough to be occluded and retained.25 Indeed, crystals formed in the urinary tract of most humans ar e harmlessly excreted with the aid of protein and small molecule inhibitors. Specific urinary substances such as citrate, glycosaminoglycans, and the proteins osteopontin, bikunin, and CAI (crystal adhesion inhibitor) are thought to aid the process.2628 H owever, in some cases, the crystals remain inside the kidneys and initiate the process of stone formation. Crystal attachment to the kidneys tubular cell surface is therefore a critical step in pathological calcification, and it is thought that cell injur y can provide sites for crystal nucleation, aggregation, and retention within the kidneys.2938 In addition, cell death and

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15 degradation result in the production of membrane vesicles, 29, 30 which can further facilitate heterogeneous crystal nucleation and aggregation. 1.3 Kinetics of C rystallization It is now well established that a number of calcium phosphate phases such as dicalcium phosphate dihydrate ( Ca2H2 (PO)42H20, DCPD) and octacalcium phosphate (Ca8H2 (P04)6. 5H20, OCP) participate as precursor phases in the precipitation of the thermodynamically most stable hydroxylapatite (Ca5 (PO4)3OH, HAP). During the reactions, kinetic factors may determine the nature of the initially formed solids and it is important to evaluate the supersaturations with res pect to each of the phases.39 Two other phases, anhydrous dicalcium phosphate (DCPA) and tricalcium phosphate (Ca3 (P04)2, TCP) have also been invoked as possible precursor phases although there is little evidence for their formation at ambient temperatur es. 1.3.1 Calculation of Relative Supersaturation R atio ( ) In studying the precipitation of calcium phosphate it is important to control the concentrations so that the degree of supersaturation of the solution with respect to the various calcium phosphat e phases is defined. Robertson and co workers have emphasized the importance of considering the concentrations of calcium and phosphate ions in studies of heterogeneous nucleation by crystals of HAP. The relative supersaturation of the solution with respec t to each of the calcium phosphate phases can be expressed in term of the appropriate ion activity products and is calculated by = (IAP1/v Ksp 1/v)/Ksp 1/v = S 1 w here Ksp and IAP are the solubility product and the ionic activity product, respectively, and v is the total number of ions in a formula unit. S is the supersaturation ratio.43

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16 1.3.2 Factors Affecting the Relative Sup ersaturation Although the precipitation of calcium phosphates and in particular hydroxylapatite has been extensively studied, there remains considerable uncertainty as to the nature of the phases formed during the early stages of the precipitation reaction. 3942 It is first necessary to express the degree of supersaturation in the stable supersaturated solutions with respect to the various possible calcium phosphate phases, DCPD, octacalcium phosphate, tricalcium phosphate, and HAP for studying the crystal lization In addition to the concentration of calcium and phosphate ions in the solution, the supersaturation depends upon the pH, temperature, and the concentration of other "neutral" electrolytes. For the precise evaluation of supersaturation level, it i s important that the balance among all the ionic and complexed species can be quantitatively assessed. However, since large number of different phases of calcium phosphate is formed as a precursor, it is difficult to find the ion activity product consideri ng a particular phase.43 1.4 Lipids and Membranes Lipids are molecules of biological origin, which are soluble in organic solvents such as ether and chloroform and insoluble in water.23 To better understand the mechanism of the crystal growth it is important to study the cell membrane. Most lipids are composed of three essential features: a polar head group which is hydrophilic and can consist of any number of charged or uncharged moieties, one or more hydrophobic tail regions, which can contain aromatic groups, saturated aliphatic chains, or unsaturated aliphatic chains and a backbone structure that connects the head and tails as shown in Figure 11. Owing to the large variability in head group and tail chemistries,

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17 lipids are often categorized according to backbone structure: isoprenoids, phospholipids, sphingolipids, ceramides, fatty acids, triacylglycerols, eicosanoids, waxes, and glycerophospholipids. Within each of these categories, numerous variants exist that are the result of head group or tail modifications. For example, glycerophospholipids, the primary constituents of biomembranes, are composed of two fatty acid chains esterified at C 1 and C 2 of glycerol 3 phosphate, Figure 11. The acyl chains are typically 8 to 24 carbons long, and they can be saturated, unsaturated, or even coupled to form a macrocycle. Typically, an ester linkage couples the glycerophosphate to one of several head group compounds such as choline, ethanolamine, or serine to form phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, or phosphatidylserine, respectively. Such head group modifications may render the lipids either charged, uncharged, or zwitterionic at physiologic pH. 50 1.5 Langmuir Monolayers and Langmuir Blodgett Films Langmuir monolayers are monomolecular films prepared at an air water interface. They are generally comprised of molecules that contain both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions. The films are formed by amphiphilic molecules where the polar head group is immersed in the aqueous subphase and the alkyl tai l remains in the air. These films can be compressed by the barriers, Figure 12 altering their phase behavior and interaction with other molecules in the subphase. A Wilhelmy balance is used to monitor the state of the monolayer Langmuir monolayers of phospholipids are often used as membrane mimics. The monolayers can be transferred to a solid support in order to extend their applications as thin films, and perform additional characterization not accessible at the air water interface and to form multilayer The transferred monolayer is called a Langmuir Blodgett or LB film. The power of a monolayer,

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18 particularly when compared to a bilayer, lies in its controllability. A monolayers properties can be carefully tuned, allowing the ability to define molecular density by varying the area per molecule on a Langmuir film balance. In addition, the planar geometry of this experiment makes it accessible to several optical techniques.45 An extensive review on the formation of these films can be found in the original papers by Irving Langmuir and Katherine Blodgett4649 on the subject. 1 .6 Bre wster Angle Microscopy and its A pplications Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) has emerged as a widely used technique to image Langmuir monolayers in situ over the past 10 years. T he first report of a homebuilt Brewster angle microscope appeared in 1991 by Hnon and Meunier.52, 53 BAM is based on the physical fact that plane polarized light is not reflected from an interface between two materials with different refractive coefficie nts if the incident angle is at the Brewster angle. The existence of domains in a Langmuir monolayer changes the local refractive index such that at the Brewster angle for the pure air now reflected with varying intensity from the different phases. The reflected light can then be used for imaging purposes, Figure 13. BAM can thus be used to visualize details of the inner structure of condensed phase domains at the air/water interface and to follow morphological changes of the reac tive process occurring in monolayers under constant surface pressures.5456 B, at which linearly polarized light directed towards a boundary of two media having different refractive indices will t ransmit completely from one medium to the other. The Brewster angle is given by

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19 B = tan 1 (n1/n2) w here n1 and n2 are indices of refraction of the media involved. The Brewster angle for the air water interface is 53. In this thesis, BAM is used to obs erve the monolayer and the crystals formed underneath the monolayers, Figure 14. The crystals appear as a bright spots. Although most BAM experiments are performed at the air water interface, an air solid interface can also be interrogated by use of the appropriate Brewster angle.57 A very useful application of BAM is that it enables visual characterization of the phase behavior of monolayers at the air water interface. As a Langmuir monolayer is compressed, it will exhibit distinct phases analogous to the gas, liquid and solid states in threedimensional materials. At high Mean Molecular Area a disorganized Gas (G) phase is present, although practically a pure G phase is not observed as it requires very large trough areas. Compression of the monolayer will yield a liquid expanded (LE) phase where the molecules are still disorganized but in closer proximity and finally a liquid condensed phase (LC) where the amphiphiles are closed packed and uniformly oriented. These phases can be identified in an isotherm by sharp slope changes as shown in Figure 15. There can also be coexistence region of LE/LC phases which appear as plateaus in the isotherm. When the monolayer is further compressed it reaches the collapse pressure, Figure 15. The shape of the isotherm pi ctured in Figure 1 5 is not necessarily observed for all surfactants, as coexistence regions m ay not occur or a LC phase m ay not form due to the inability of the molecules to closepack. The presence or lack of these phases can be easily observed by BAM f or any Langmuir monolayer at the air water interface.

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20 Figure 1 1. Structural features of lipids, using a glycerophospholipid (phosphatidylcholine) as an example. Figure 12. Schematic representation of a Langmuir monolayer experiment.

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21 Fig ure 13. Schematic illustration of the principle behind Brewster Angle Microscopy. Figure 14. Experimental setup utilizing Brewster angle microscopy to monitor crystal growth at phospholipid Langmuir monolayers.

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22 Mean Molecular Area Figure 15. S chematic representation of a pressurearea isotherm showing the possible phases present during the compression of an amphiphile.

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23 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Close Look at D om ain Formation in DPPC M onolayer Insoluble monolayers of phospholipids at the air water interface have long been of interest, both because of their intriguing behavior and because of their biomimetic applications. Monolayers of phospholipids have thus been applied as a simple model for the cellular lipid bilayer.58 Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) has frequently been the phospholipid of choice for many monolayer studies. Phosphatidylcholines are the primary phospholipids in the mammalian cell membrane and a significant component of alveolar fluid. T hus DPPC is a natural focus f or study. In addition, DPPC exhibits a phase transition at room temperature from what is called a liquidexpanded (LE) phase to a liquid condensed (LC) phase. 45 Cary W. McConlogue 45 studied the domain formation in pure DPPC monolayer and found that the b asic domain shape is an asymmetric bean with a flattened lobe and a distinct cavity, Figure 21 It is seen that on further compression of the monolayer, the domain fills the unused space and appears as polygons since domains are repulsive. And finally t he domains are dispersed uniformly about their boundaries, resulting in domains that appear to be solubilized. McConlogue and coworker performed the detailed examination of the shapes of DPPC domains throughout the coexistence region. Multilobed shapes can also be observed, but these originate as beans and over time transform back to beans. In this paper the important and interesting features are pointed out and it also demonstrate methods that cause divergence from the fundamental shape are demonstrated. T he DPPC isotherm is characterized by a kink and a subsequent plateau, indicating a liquid-

PAGE 24

24 expanded/liquidcondensed (LE/LC) coexistence region. A DPPC pressuremean molecular area isotherm is shown in Figure 2 2. Domain nucleation occurs at the kink in the isotherm (typically at 3.63.8 mN/m). Initially, domains appear completely round; whether this is the case in reality or due to limits in the resolution of the microscope is unclear. The domains are asymmetric: if the bean is oriented with its cavity faci ng upward, the left lobe has a flattened edge. This was noted by Florscheimer and Mohwald, who also proposed a model for the orientations of the molecular tilt within the domain. 59 they also observed that, t his flattened edge plays a role in the domains growt h process at higher pressures. 2.2 Study of Hydrolysis of DPPC by Phospholipase A2 Using Langmuir M onolayer and BAM Ternary mixed monolayers of phospholipid/lysolipid/fatty acid have been studied both for their intrinsic behavior 60 and for effect on phospholipase A2 activity.61 In thi s literature, Sharbaugh studied the effect of phospholipase A2 hydrolysis products on calcium oxalate formation1. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is a water soluble enzyme which catalyzes the regionspecific hydrolysis of the sn 2 acyl ester linkage of sn glycero 3 phospholipids. The products are fatty acids (FA) and 1acyl lysophospholipids (lysoPC) Figure 23. F irst pressure vs mean chain area isotherms of DPPC and of p almitic acid taken over a 0.35 mM CaCl2 subphase were obtai ned, Figure 24. Then BAM images of pure DPPC monolayer on calcium oxalate subphase were obtained and compared with the ternary mixture. A significant growth in number of crystals is observed in case of ternary mixture as compared to DPPC alone, Figure 26 A C

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25 With the help of the isotherms and Brewster Angle Microscope images of DPPC and its hydrolysis products, the LE, LC phase, the condensing effect and collapse pressure of the monolayer were studied. To study the cause of enhanced crystallization Sharb augh examined the isotherm, Figure 25 and BAM images, Figure 27 of two binary monolayers i.e. DPPC/palmitic acid and DPPC/lysolipid for their effect on calcium oxalate generation under various pressure versus area conditions. In both cases, there is very little change in the extent of crystal formation relative to DPPC alone. However, when PA is examined alone as a pure monolayer, crystal nucleation is again very high, similar to that observed with the ternary mixt ure, Figure 26C. It was concluded that a mong the hydrolysis products, palmitic acid is the one which is a highly active component and causes the enhanced growth of calcium oxalate crystals at the lipid interface. 2.3 Condensing Effect of Palmitic Acid on DPPC M onolayer The condensing effect betw een lipids has long been reported in the literature. Adam and Jessop used an intuitive way to explain the condensing effect.62, 63They suggested that bulky or rigid molecules could mechanically impede the motions of more flexible molecules and hence reduce their tendency to expand. The all trans configuration of the chain makes PA a rigid molecule in the monolayer. PA is in the condensed phase at 12mN/m as indicated by the phase diagram in Figure 28A. The collapse pressure drop has been demonstrated by the isotherm measurements in Figure 28B. Ma and Allen (2006) studied the condensing effect of palmitic acid on monolayers of DPPC using vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy. They showed that palmitic acid condenses DPPC upon spreading. Th ey postulated that the

PAGE 26

26 rigid PA molecule can hinder rotational isomerism of the DPPC chains in the expanded phase and hence reduce or eliminate the number of gauche defects, forcing the neighboring DPPC molecules into a condensed phase. They explained that PA also reduces the DPPC headtail mismatch by hydrogen bonding interaction between the PAs COOH hydroxyl group and oxygen of the PO2 group of DPPC. The isotherm clearly shows the condensing effect of PA on DPPC monolayer, Figure 28B According to a previous phospholipid X ray study, 64 the surface area occupied by the bulky headgroup of a PC is about 50 2. On the other hand, the minimum cross sectional area of the two hydrocarbon chains of a PC is about 38 2. In a closely packed environment as in the liquid condensed (LC) phase, the chain must be tilted to some extent to compensate for the headtail mismatch to form a stable monolayer at the air water interface. So they discovered that insertion of a relatively small molecule like PA into the DPPC cond ensed phase can compensate for the head tail mismatch and reduce the chain tilt. The orientational ordering effect caused by PA can also be considered as a condensing effect since it decreases the mean area per DPPC hydrocarbon chain. It is observed that o n one hand, PA increases the chain ordering of DPPC and promotes the phase separation between DPPC and other unsaturated lipids. On the other hand, due to the miscibility between DPPC and PA in the condensed phase, PA decreases the collapse pressure of the DPPC monolayer. 2.4 Studies of Lysophosphocholine/DPPC M ixtures Mixtures of phospholipid and a singlechain lysophospholipid provide an intriguing multicomponent monolayer, both from physicochemical and biological perspectives. By choosing a doublechained phospholipid and a single chained

PAGE 27

27 lysophospholipid with the same headgroup, the effect of hydrophobicity can be isolated. More specifically, by using different chain lengths of lysolipid, one can tune the solubility of the lysolipid while maintaining a c onstant electrostatic environment at the interface. In addition, the singlechain lysolipid forms a very different volumetric profile in a monolayer when compared to that of the phospholipid; this has implications in packing at the interface. Lysolipids co mprise one product and they serve as an activator of phospholipid hydrolysis by phospholipase A 2 6567 .T hey carry implications in membrane structure and fluidity, including permeability, 6872 and fusion. 7375 McConlogue C.W., (1998) used three differe nt groups of mixtures of DPPC and Lyso lipids51. From the isotherm Figure 29 and the BAM images figure 210, the effects of lysolipid on DPPC surface pressure/mean molecular area isotherm behavior as well as on the shapes of domains that form in the DPPC liquid expanded/liquidcondensed coexistence region, were examined. A key result of this study is that the behavior of the lysolipids enables their assignment by chain length to one of three well defined groups each with distinct effects on DPPC monolayer s. McConlogue and coworkers also obs erved that the lysolipids 22:0 are hydrophobic enough to remain present at the interface despite stress caused by the compression. This is supported by the isotherm data where the increase in the mean molecular area indi cates that the lysolipid is still present at the interface interaction with the DPPC. All kinks and the plateau are shifted to higher surface pressure and the plateau slope is increased. The author concluded that apart from the solubility of the lyso PC, the intermolecular forces also influence monolayer properties. Group I lysolipids (C8 through C12) are most soluble and have minimal effect on monolayer properties. Group II

PAGE 28

28 lysolipids (C14 and C16) can be kinetically trapped at the interface and show hint s of line activity. Group III lysolipids (C18 through C22) remain at the interface and exhibit significant line activity. 2.5 Study of Calcium Phosphate Fo rmation under Three Different Langmuir M onolayers L. J. Zhang et al ( 2003) studied the formation of calcium phosphate under three different monolayers. They employed Langmuir fi lms that formed from amphiphilic molecules with different headgroups at the air/wat er interface as templates to mi m ic calcium phosphate formation.76 The template inducing and cont rolling, molecular recognition, and, especially, electrostatic attraction and lattice matching were investigated in this paper. A phase transformation process from an initially deposited amorphous phase to a crystalline phase during the initial stage o f ca lcium phosphate formation was observed In this study of different monolayers, Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), arachidic acid (AA), and octadecylamine (ODA) were the compounds used to form the monolayer template. The different charged head group and its effect on calcium phosphate initial stage of nucleation and crystallization was studied. Zhang and coworkers also observed that calcium phosphates were formed through a multistage assembly process. First, a thermodynamically unstable calcium phosphate dehydrate (DPCD) in amorphous phase was formed. Then it transformed into a crystalline phase and at the end the most stable hydroxyapatite (HAp) was formed. To show the phase change, pressure molecular area isotherms of the monolayers were analyzed, Figur e 211. From these curves, it can be seen that the mean molecular areas of DPPC, AA, and ODA on a HAp supersaturated aqueous

PAGE 29

29 solution are larger than those on pure water, indicating that there is a very strong interaction between the monolayers and calcium ions (or phosphate), and calcium ions (or phosphate) could bind into the monolayers. On the other hand, it was found that the collapsed pressures of the last curves were lower than those of the former curves in each group of isotherms. This also suggested that more and more calcium ions (or phosphate) bound to the monolayer/subphase interface, which led to brittle films. Zhang and coworkers also acquired the TEM images and SAED patterns of calcium phosphate to confirm the phase transformation. The composi tions of calcium phosphates formed under DPPC, AA, and ODA monolayers at different times were examined with an EPM, respectively. From Figures 212, it can be seen that the atomic ratios of Ca/P of calcium phosphate formed under a DPPC monolayer are about 0.85, 0.98, 1.33, and 1.67 for 1, 2, 5, and 7 days; under an AA monolayer they are about 0.90, 1.01, and 1.49 for 1, 2, and 7 days ; and under an ODA monolayer they are about 0.91, 0.95, and 1.6 for 1, 2, and 7 days, respectively. It could be considered that the particles with the ratios of Ca/P close to the theoretical value of calcium phosphate dihydrate (DPCD) (1.0) were DPCD. In addition, the ratios of Ca/P of calcium phosphate formed under three kinds of monolayers on the 7th day all were close to the t heoretical value of Hap (1.67). From these results, they could conclude that, during the crystallization of calcium phosphate, its unstable precursor (DPCD) was formed first and finally transferred to the stable crystalline phase HAp

PAGE 30

30 Figure 21. DPPC domain growth with a compression rate of 0.86 2 molecule1 min 1: a) 3.8 mN/m; b) 3.9 mN/m; c) 4.2 mN/m; d) 4.3 mN/m; e) 5.0 mN/m; f) 7.5 mN/m., [Cary W. McConlogue, 1997, reproduced with permission]

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31 Figure 22. Compression isotherm of 1,2Dipalmitoylsn glycero 3 phosphocholine (DPPC) on a water subphase at 25 C., [Benitez I., 2004, reproduced with permission ] Figure 23. Structures of 1) DPPC, 2) L ysolipid 22:0 Lyso PC, and 3) P almitic acid (PA ). The 22:0 lysolipid is used in this study instead of the complementary 16carbon tail lysolipid because it is more stable in Langmuir monolayers, [Sharbaugh D., 2009, reproduced with permission]

PAGE 32

32 Figure 24. Pressure vs mean chain area isotherms of DPPC and of a palmitic acid taken over a 0.35 mM CaCl2 subphase at 25 C Figure 25. Pressure vs mean chain area isotherms of the binary monolayers of DPPC with PA and DPPC with the 22:0 Lyso PC, taken over a 0.35 mM CaCl2 subphase at 25C

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33 A B C Figure 26. Brewster angle microscopy images at 24 C after 24 h over a 0. 35 mM calcium oxalate subphase A) DPPC, B) ternary mixture (DPPC: PA: Lyso PC) and C) pure palmitic acid., [Sharbaugh D., 2009, reproduced with permission ] A B Figure 27 BAM images of binary monolayers over a 0.35 mM calc ium oxalate subphase containing NaCl and Tris HCl after 24 h at 24C A) 70:30 DPPC/Lyso PC and B) 70:30 DPPC/PA. [Sharbaugh D., 2009, reproduced with permission]

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34 Figure 2 8. Surface pressure (mN/m) area (2) isotherms at 24 C on a pure water subphase: A) neat DPPC d62 (gray curve) and neat PA (black curve), B) mixtures of DPPCd62 and PA with three molar ratios (black curve, 3:1; gray curve, 1:1; dashed curve, 1:3). G, gas phase; LE, liquidexpanded phase; TC, tilted condensed phase; Untilted, untilte d condensed phase; G LE, coexistence of G and LE; G TC, coexistence of G and TC; LE TC, coexistence of LE and TC. All isotherms are the average of three measurements. [Ma and Allen, 2006, reproduced with permission]

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35 Figure 2 9 DPPC/C22PC isotherms at 20 C., [ Cary W. McConlogue, 1998, reproduced with permission] Figure 2 10. DPPC/C18PC domains formed by compression at 0.86 2 molecule1 min 1 at 20 C: a) 7.5 mN/m; b) 9.3 mN/m; c) 11.6 mN/m; d) 12.0 mN/m; e) 10.7 mN/m; f) 11.7 mN/m; g) 12.6 mN/m; h) 13.1 mN/m; i) 13.5 mN/m; j) 13.9 mN/m., [Cary W. McConlogue, 1998, reproduced with permission]

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36 Figure 2 11. I sotherms of monolayer on pure water and HAp supersaturated solution for different times: A) DPPC, B) AA, and C) ODA at 25 C., [Zha ng L. J., 2003, reproduced with permission ] Figure 212. EPM spectra of calcium phosphate formed under the DPPC, ODA and AA monolayer at different times: a, 1 day; b, 2 days; c, 5 days; d, 7 days., [Zhang L. J., 2003, reproduced with permission ]

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37 C HAPTER 3 FORMATION OF CALCIUM PHOSPHATE CRYSTALS U NDER LIPID MONOLAYERS This chapter provides the details about formation of calcium phosphate crystals under the DPPC and its hydrolysis products. The isotherms and the BAM images of every component used her e are thoroughly studied. The results are rigorously analyzed and reasons for the variation in number of crystals seen over the different experiments are discussed. 3.1 Introduction Biomineralization is characterized by the close association of inorganic and organic substanc es In biological systems, an organism creates the proper organic matrix on which inorganic crystals can precipitate and the interfacial interactions between them provide the control over the resultant composite structures. The molecular interactions at the inorganic organic interfaces are an important aspect of biomineralization since the nucleation, growth and organization of biominerals are mediated by the organic supramolecular system. Kidney stones, which generally describe any crys talline deposit in the urinary tract, are most commonly calcific deposits within an organic matrix. Calcium phosphate is one of the predominant inorganic components of most stones 77, 78 Although the bulk of the mass in a stone is from the inorganic matter, the organic matrix, including lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, constitutes a significant volume, making the relationship between inorganic and organic components of the urinary stones important to understand.7981 Urine is metastable with respect to calcium phosphates and calcium oxalates, meaning that salt formation is not spontaneous i n the absence of an interface. 82 Furthermore, the transient time of urine in the kidney is quite rapid, about

PAGE 38

38 3 to 4 min, which makes it unlikely for any inorganic component to grow large enough during transit to block the tubular lumen.83, 84 Stone formations therefore, requires either the heterogeneous nucleation and growth of the inorganic crystals or crystal attachment. The study of lipid assemblies and their i nfluence on the nucleation of calcium salts, in particular calcium phosphate, is of interest because of the potential role that such a process plays in urinary st one formation. 8588 Hypercalciuria is the most common metabolic abnormality observed in patients with nephrolithiasis. 89 Hypercalciuria raises urine supersaturation with respect to the solid phases of calcium phosphate and calcium oxalate, leading to an enhanced probability for nucleation and growth of crystals into clinically significant stones. Phospholipase hydrolyses lipids, liberating a fatty acid and a onetailed lipid, a lysolipid. Lysolipids are associated with changes in the function of the mitochondria, 90 gene expression, 91 and bioactive molecules th at can trigger cell apoptosis. 90 Li pid hydrolysis products are also found at elevated levels in stone formers. In this study, we use Langmuir monolayers as membrane mimics and monitor calcium phosphate growth at lipid interfaces having high concentrations of lipid hydrolysis products. Phosp holipid Langmuir monolayers are frequently used as membrane mimics and our group has previously used phospholipid monolayers to study heterogeneous calcium oxalate precipitation.22, 23, 88 Previous studies showed that the lipid interface promotes the cryst allization of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM), the form most often found in urinary stones 22.23, 88, 92, 93 and that the identity of the lipid influences crystallization, with anionic lipids generating more crystallization than neutral, zwitterionic lip ids. Langmuir monolayer studies also demonstrated that membrane

PAGE 39

39 heterogeneities such as phase boundaries provide preferred sites for crystal formation. 22, 23 In a recent publication by our group, a systematic study of the nucleation of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals beneath the hydrolysis products of a DPPC monolayer wa s carried out.1 In the present work, for mation of calcium phosphate beneath the hydrolysis products of DPPC monolayer is studied. A significant increase in crystal formation is obs erved at the lipid interface in the presence of a short chain fatty acid. Also t o understand better how the enzyme affects crystallization, lipid monolayers containing the different lipid hydrolysis products such as the binary mixture of DPPC:PA and DPPC: Lyso PC are studied. The results indicate that small chain fatty acid liberated upon hydrolysis of the lipids lead to rapid nucleation from the metastable calcium phosphate subphase, providing a possible mechanism linking the hydrolysis of DPPC and urinary calcific deposits. 3.2 Experimental Section 3.2.1 Materials All reagents were purchased from commercially available sources and used without further purification. 1,2Dipalmitoylsn glycero 3 phosphocholine (DPPC), and 22:0 Lyso PC (purity >99%) were p urchased from Avanti Polar Lipids (Alabaster, AL). Palmitic acid wa s purchased from Acros O rganic. Sodium phosphate and tris (hydroxymethyl) aminom ethane hydrochloride (Tris.HCl) we re purchase from Aldrich Chemical Co. (Milwaukee, WI). Calcium chloride dihydrate and sodium chloride we re obtained from Fisher Scientific (Pittsburgh, PA).

PAGE 40

40 3.2.2 Preparation of Supersaturated Calcium Phosphate S olution This was prepared by dissolving NaCl and tris HCl in 4 L of deionized water with a resistivity of 17.0 1 7 5 cm to create a solution 150 mM NaCl and 5mM tris HCl. Once all solid wa s thoroughly dissolv ed, the pH of the solution was adjusted to 7.0 using a 30%w/v KOH solution. The pH adjusted solution was split evenly into two flasks. To one, 0.43 mM of c alcium ch loride was added, and 0.28mM of sodium phosphate to the other so that the final concentrations of CaCl2 and Na3PO4 solution was 0.86 mM and 0.56 mM respectively The Ca/P ratio is 1.53, which is close to t he Ca/P ratio in human body fluids.4 4 Using a lar ge Erlenmeyer flask and an addition funnel, the calcium chloride solution was added into an equal amount of constantly stirred sodium phosphate solution. This final solution contains 150 mM NaCl, 5mM tris HCl, and 0.43 mM calcium and 0.28 mM of phosphate, for this solution the correspon ding relative supersaturation was 5.95 for tricalcium phosphate.43 To remove any Ca3(PO4)2 crystals that may be formed in the addition, the solution was vacuum filtered through a Milli pore immediately poured onto a Langmuir trough. The su persaturated solution prepared was kept undisturbed for 24 hr and did not yield any visible precipitate for at least 24 hours. 3.2.3 Preparation of S urfactant S olution To s pr ead the surfactant, lipids was dissolved in 10 mL of a 90:10 chloroform/methanol mixture to make a 0.15mg/mL solution and then sonicated for 5 min. For the fatty acid a solution of concentration 0.20 mg/mL was used. Solutions used in this study consist e d of pure 1,2dipalmitoyl sn glycero 3 phosphoc holine (DPPC), pure palmitic acid (PA) and arachidic acid (AA), 70:30 DPPC/1behenoyl 2 -

PAGE 41

41 hydroxy sn glycero 3 phosphocholine (22:0 Lyso PC), 70:30 DPPC/PA, or a 2:1:1 mixture of DPPC, 22:0 Lyso PC, and PA. 3.2 .4 Glass S lides G lass microscope coverslips were used as subst rates for the SEM analyses. T he slides were cleaned using a piranha etch (3:1 H2SO4: H2O2) solution The slides were immersed in freshly prepared piranha etch solution for one hour and were cle aned with distilled water. 3. 3 Brewster Angle Microscopy All BAM images were taken using a Nanofilm Technologie GmbH BAM2plus system with the abovedescribed KSV 2000 Langmuir Blodgett system. The instrument is equipped with a polarized Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 50 mW) and a CCD camera (572 X 758 pixels). The operating software also controls a scanner that moves the objective along the optical axis to generate a focused image and to correct for distortion from the objective motion. For all experiments a 10X o bjective was used with a laser power of 50% or less as required. The incident beam is set to the Brewster angle in order to obtain minimal reflected light from the subphase. To minimize stray light from the Teflon, a piece of highly polished black glass was set on the bottom of the trough to absorb refracted light. When necessary, the shutter speeds and gain could be adjusted to generate images with reasonable contrast; however, unless noted, the same shutter speed of 1/50 s and a maximum gain were used to enable the comparison of different images. The polarizer and analyzer are normally set at 0, and these are the settings for all images presented here. To verify that the bright spots under the monolayer are crystals, the polarizer can be set to 0 and the analyzer can be set to 90 blocking all but the scattered light from

PAGE 42

42 crystals under the monolayer. Finally, to sample a large area of the trough and track the monolayer if it drifts, the laser and camera are mounted on an x y stage that is user controlled by video monit oring. Images were taken 24 hours after compression 3. 4 Crystal Counting Procedure The extent of crystal formation for a given surface pressure and time interval was estimated by counting and averaging the number of visible crystals in a series of images taken at random over the surface of the monolayer. From 20 to 40 i mages of each experiment, around 15 clearest images were selected and the crystals were hand counted. The average of these 15 images was then combined with at least 2 other sets of 15 images from separate experiments under the same conditions to obtain the data that are reported. 3.5 Procedure To determine the extent to which homogeneous precipitation of calcium phosphate occurs in the Langmuir Blodgett trough, control experiments was performed in which a calcium phosphate subphase was allowed to sit in the LB trough in the absence of a Langmuir monolayer. N o crystals of calcium phosphate were seen in the BAM images after periods of up to 24 h, Figure 31 indicating that homog eneous precipitation in the LB trough is not a significant source of calcium phosphate crystals within the timescale of the experiments. Also CaCl2 and Na3PO4 subphases were prepared in the NaCl / Tris HCL buffer with the same concentration which was used i n the experiment. DPPC monolayer was spread on either of t hese subphases and BAM images we re taken after 24 h Figure 32 No crystals we re seen for either of the subphase. This step was needed to prove that

PAGE 43

43 the crystals seen under the monolayer on calcium phosphate supersaturated solution is calcium phosphate only. Lipid monolayers we re prepared by spreading the lipids at the air/water interface from a chloroform/methanol solution and compressing the films using opposing moveable barriers. The stability of the lipid monolayers on the supersaturated calcium phosphate subphases wa s checked by monitoring the area of the compressed monolayers as a function of time while holding a constant surface pressure of 20 mN/m. All lipid monolayers we re very stable with no loss of film after several hours. For the crystal growth experiments, the monolayers were compressed and held at a surface pressure of 35 mN/m and 15 mN/m to observe the film at high and low pressures respectively. Calcium phosphate crystals appear ed at the air water interface due to the electrostatic attraction. B AM images of monolayers we re taken after 1 h, 1 5 h and 24h. These BAM images obtained after different intervals of time will be discussed below Number of crystals and their size will be the is sue of concern. To verify that the features in the BAM images are calcium phosphate crystals, the monolayer surface fr om underneath the subphase was collected on a slide to transfer the film and crystals for SEM imaging. The SEM image of crystals grown under the monolayer confirm ed the crystal habit of the c alcium phosphate crystal formed 97 In this manner calcium phosphate formation at the air water interface using different molecules was studied. 3. 6 Study of Hydrolysis of P hospholipid DPPC Hyperoxaluri a, elevated oxalate concentration in the kidney, is a condition frequently associated with individuals suffering from kidney stones. This condition causes the breakdown of membranes and creates free radicals at the cellular surface.

PAGE 44

44 Once free radicals are generated, lipid peroxidation begins to occur and as a repair mechanism after peroxidation, the hydrolysis of phospholipids takes place. Two of the products at the cell surface when hydrolysis occur are a single chain lysolipid and a fatty acid, Figure 3. 3. Also due to the high concentration of oxalate in the urine, an enzyme called p hospholipase A2 (PLA2) is generated. It is a water soluble enzyme which catalyzes the regiospecific hydrolysis of the sn 2 acyl ester linkage of sn glycero 3 phospholipids. P LA2 is an interfacially activated enzyme and its activity as well as the hydrolysis kinetics depends on the morphology and the physicochemical state of the substrate. Langmuir monolayers have been exploited by other researchers as models for studying lip id hydrolysis. 45 For example, the latency period of phospholipase PLA2 was studied at Langmuir monolayers, showing that once hydrolysis begins, enzyme activity accelerates, leading to composition and phase heterogeneities in the monolayer. 96 Product enri ched domains have disproportionate levels of hydrolysis products compared to the rest of the membrane, and these hydrolysis rich domains have also been modeled using Langmuir monolayers.94 In this study, products of lipid hydrolysis are examined for their effect on calcium phosphate precipitation using Langmuir monolayers as model lipid membrane assemblies. 3. 7 Crystallization of C alcium P hosphate under the DPPC M onolayer Before starting the crystal formation under the DPPC monolayer experiment, pure DPPC isotherm was studied, Figure 34. Once the surfactant solution of DPPC wa s prepared 500 uL of it was used to spread on the calcium phosphate subphase and, as the monolayer was stabilized it is compressed using the barriers at the rate of 1mm/min at high a nd low pressure and images we re taken after 24 hours. BAM images of crystals

PAGE 45

45 formed at the DPPC monolayer held at 15 and 35 mN/m over a calcium phosphate subphase are shown in Figure 3 5 Bright spots in the BAM image correspond to calcium phosphate crystals, which have a similar size and number density to those observed previously for this system. 23, 24, 92, 93 Figure 3 5 also includes an SEM image of crystals grown under the monolayer, confirming the crystal morphology of the tricalcium phosphate. DPPC is a zwitterionic phospholipid with a phosphate and amino group in its polar head. The crystals formed here under the DPPC monolayer are due to the electrostatic force of attraction between the negatively charged phosphate group of the choline and the posi tive calcium ions in the subphase. The polar head of DPPC has a methylene bridge separating the phosphate and N+ (CH3)3 group. Due to the steric hindrance, the phosphate group is less assessable to interact wit h the calcium ions and thus high number of cry stals was formed. The activation energy required for the heterogeneous nucleation is much less than that for the homogenous nucleation. Any foreign materials, lipids here, which can provide an interface substantially, reduce the free energy barriers for nucleation. The lipid interface catalyzes heterogeneous nucleation by lowering the surface energy of the nascent crystal. The wetting effect of the polar head of lipids provides a contact angle to the ions which lowers the surface energy and facilitates nucl eation. Thus polar heads groups of the lipids can stabilize the surface ions by forming bonds with them. The high surface tovolume ratio of the crystal nuclei accounts for the activation energy associated with their formation, thus at the interface this activation energy is minimized by polar headgroups of the lipids. The relative effectiveness of the different polar groups

PAGE 46

46 can be estimated by considering the strength of interaction with Ca2+ ions. The binding constant of Ca2+ to phosphatidylcholine head groups i s considered to be rather weak. 97 For example; using deuterium NMR, Altenbach and Seelig reported a binding constant of 13.8 M 1 for Ca2+ and POPC bilayers. 98 Thus few crystals are formed under DPPC monolayer. 3. 8 Crystallization of C alcium P hos phate under the Ternary Mixture Monolayer with Palmitic A cid After studying the crystal formation under the DPPC monolayer, the ternary mixture containing DPPC:PA:Lyso PC (50:25: 25) was studied. The pressure versus area isotherm of the ternary monolayer is shown in Figure 36. The 2:1:1 ratio of DPPC/PA/lysolipid was previously used to model local concentrations of the hydrolysis products in membrane domains5, and we used the model systems here to explore the influence of these domains on calcium phosphate precipitation As with pure DPPC, the ternary mixture is characterized by a long LE/LC coexistence region although at slightly lower pressure and on a liquid like background of gradually increasing pressure. Once the ternary mixture solution was spread on subphase and compressed, BAM images were taken at high and low pressure. From the BAM images, Figure 37 it can be seen that more crystals are formed under the ternary mixture. Also from the isotherm it seems that the condensing effect of PA is not present in the ternary monolayer. Here the lysolipid reduces the interaction between DPPC and PA, freeing the carboxylic acid to interact with the subphase. Under similar conditions the binding constant of Ca2+ to carboxylate headgroups is strong. I t is reported that approximately 0.4 mol of Ca2+ is bound to every mole of palmitic acid. 99 The significantly stronger binding interaction

PAGE 47

47 between Ca2+ and carboxylate on the surface of crystal nuclei most likely accounts for the enhanced heterogeneous precipitation a t the PA and ternary monolayers. 3. 9 Behavioral Study of the Binary M ixture (DPPC: PA, DPPC: Lyso PC) To understand better which component of the ternary mixture is predominantly responsible for the increase in heterogeneous nucleation, binary mix tures of DPPC with PA and DPPC with lysolipid are studied and explained further. The isotherm of the binary mixtures containing DPPC:PA or DPPC:Lyso PC are first obtained and were studied, Figure 38. From the isotherm of DPPC:PA, the condensing effect of the palm itic acid on DPPC monolayer was clearly seen. The condensing effect between lipids has long been reported in the literature which is already discussed in chapter 2. It is suggested that bulky or rigid molecules could mechanically impede the motions of more flexible molecules and hence reduce their tendency to expand Also from the DPPC/Lysolipid isotherm it is seen that lysolipids have a dramatic impact on DPPC isotherms wh ich changed its surface pressure/ mean molecular area, as shown in Figure 38 It is observed that the lysolipid 22:0 used here is hydrophobic enough to remain present at the interface despite stresses caused by the compression. This is supported by the isotherm data where the increase in the mean molecular area indicates that the lysolipi d is still present at the interface interaction with the DPPC As a result, all kinks and plateaus are shifted to higher surface pressure, and the plateau slope is increased as compared to pure DPPC isotherm. It can be seen that the shape of DPPC domains f ormed in the LE/LC coexistence region in presence of lysolipid is different from those formed in pure DPPC, Figure 39. With compression, the domain of the DPPC/Lyso PC mixture tends to expand its perimeter at the expense of its area and thus it spreads

PAGE 48

48 DP PC givin g rises to the surface pressure, w hile the DPPC domains appear as a kidney shape bean with a distinct cavity. 3.10 Cr ystallization of C alcium P hosphate under the B inary M ixtures After the isotherm data analysis the crystal formation under the binary mixtures was studied, a solution of DPPC:PA and DPPC: lyso PC in 70:30 ratio was prepared as mention ed earlier. Once the monolayer wa s stabilized it was compressed by moving the barriers at the rate of 1mm /min. Once the target pressure was reached monol ayers were held for 24 hr and images were taken. In both of these mixtures, it was observed that very few crystals we re formed similar to the behavior of pure DPPC monolayer. Though, for t he binary mixture of DPPC/PA it was surprising to see few crystals it is relatively inactive despite the hi gh percentage of palmitic acid, Figure 310. This is because of the condensing effect of the palmitic acid on the monolayer of DPPC which makes the carboxylate group to rise up away from the aqueous subphase, which thus reduces its ability to interact with subphase ions. The condensing effect is already discussed in chapter 2. The observation that crystal growth under the DPPC/PA mixture is essentially unchanged relative to DPPC alone supports this description. In c ase of the binary mixture of DPPC:Lyso PC, Figure 311 few crystals we re formed because the head groups are still the same as of pure DPPC. Lyso PC and DPPC bears the same head group i.e. the phosphatidylcholine head group with relatively weak binding cons tant with the Ca+2 ions in the subphase, so very few crystals were expected. Our group has previously demonstrated that for a given lipid system the phase behavior can influence heterogeneous nucleation. For example, fewer crystals form at

PAGE 49

49 DPPC in the con densed phase than if the monolayer is expanded.94, 95 Phase boundaries at which lipids can exchange between phases provide highenergy sites along with an avenue for the lipids to reorganize to accommodate the surface of the insipient crystal, increasing t he incidence of crystal formation. These trends are seen again in the experiments reported here for DPPC and the binary DPPC/lysolipid and DPPC/PA monolayers for which the extent of crystal formation increases as the monolayers are expanded. However when P A was examined alone as a pure monolayer, the larger number of big crystals consistent with a rapid growth was seen. The monolayer was compres sed at low pressure and images were taken after 1, 15 and 24 hours, Figure 13 12. At high pressure, there was rapi d crystallization with plenty of crystals formed. It was seen that the crystal formed at the different pressure differ in t heir sizes. When the monolayer was compressed at low pressure, crystals were formed within less time and grow in size w ith time until the equilibrium was reached and because of the free space available. However, at high pressure, no significant cha nge in crystal size with time was seen, Figure 1313 because the monolayer is highly compressed and is in liquid condensed phase which makes difficult for the incipient crystals to accommodate at the air/water interface. The reason for high number of crystals is in this case, the activity of the fatty acid is so high that lipid fluidity and the presence of phase boundaries are minor effects and the extent of crystal formation increases as the surface density of fatty acid sites increases and it was difficult to quantify them

PAGE 50

50 Table 31.T he average number of crystalsa per BAM image under different monolayers at low and high pressure. DPPC ternary b DPPC/PA c DPPC/lysolipid c 15 mN/m 41 48 5 42 2 1 35 mN/m 2 1 60 4 3 1 2 1 a x is the average of 3 different experiments using at least 20 frames from each experiment. b 2:1:1 ternary mixture o f DPPC, 22:0 Lyso PC, and palmitic acid. c 70:30 mixtures of DPPC/PA and DPPC/lysolipid. A B Figure 31. Control experiment showing BAM images of calcium phosphate subphase in the absence of a DPPC Langmuir monolayer Images taken after A) 1hr and B) 24 hr at 20C A B Figure 32. BAM images of diffirent phases prepared in the NaCl, Tris HCL buffer solution after 24 hr A) CaCl2 subphase B) Na3PO4 subphase.

PAGE 51

51 Figure 3 3. Structures of 1) DPPC 2) L ysolipid 22:0 Lyso PC, and 3) Palmitic ac id (PA) The 22:0 lysolipid is used in this study instead of the complementary 16carbon tail lysolipid because it is more stable in Langmuir monolayers. Figure 3 4 Pressure vs mean molecular area isotherms of a pure DPPC taken over a 0.43 mM CaCl2 sub phase at 20 C. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 20 40 60 80 100Pressure mN/mMean Molecular Area (2/molecule)

PAGE 52

52 Figure 35. Brewster angle microscopy images of a DPPC monolayer at 20C after 24 h over a calcium phosphate subphase at A) 35 and B) 15 mN/m. Crystals formed at the lipid interface appear as bright spots in the images. C) Scanning electron microscopy image of crysta ls grown under a DPPC monolayer. Figure 36. Pressure vs mean molecular area isotherms of a ternary 2:1:1 mixture of DPPC, 22:0 Lyso PC, and palmitic acid taken over a 0.43 mM CaCl2 subphase at 20 C. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80Pressure mN/m Mean Molecular Area (2/ Molecule)

PAGE 53

53 A B C Figur e 37 Brewster angle microscopy images of a ternary monolayer, a 2:1:1 mixture of DPPC, 22:0 Lyso PC, and palmitic acid monolayer at 20C after 24 h over a calcium phosphate subphase at 35 mN/m A) and 15 mN/m B) Crystals formed at the lipid interface appear as bright spots in the images. C) Scanning electron microscopy image of crystals grown under ternary mi xture monolayer.

PAGE 54

54 Figure 38 Pressure vs mean molecular area isotherms of the binary monolayers of DPPC with PA and DPPC with the 22:0 Lyso PC taken over a 0.35 mM CaCl2 subphase at 20 C A B Figure 39. Shape of domains form ed in LC/LE coexistence region A) pure DPPC, B) Ternary mixture with DPPC:PA:Lyso PC at 20 C 0 20 40 60 0 20 40 60 80 100Pressure mN/m Mean Molecular Area (2/molecule) DPPC/Lyso PC DPPC/PA

PAGE 55

55 Figure 3 10. BAM images of a 70:30 DPPC/palmitic acid binary m onolayer over a calcium phosphate subphase containing NaCl and tris HCl after 24 h at 20 C A ) 35mN/m and B ) 15mN/m. Crystals appear as bright spots in the images. Figure 3 11. BAM images of a 70:30 DPPC/lyso PC binary monolayer over a calcium phosphate subphase containing NaCl and tris HCl after 24 h at 20C. A ) 35mN/m and B ) 15mN/m. Figure 3 12. BAM images of a palmitic acid monolayer at 15mN/m over a calcium phosphate subphase containing NaCl and tris HCl at 20C after A) 1 hr, B) 15 hr and C) 24 hr 20 C

PAGE 56

56 A B Figure 3 1. BAM images of a palmitic acid monolayer at 35mN/m over a calcium phosphate subphase containing NaCl and tris HCl at 20C after 24 hr 20C

PAGE 57

57 CHAPTER 4 IMPACT OF CHAIN LENG TH OF FATTY ACIDS ON CALCIUM PHOSPHATE FOR MATION In this chapter, the effects of chain length of fatty acids on calcium phosphate precipitation at lipid interfaces are discussed. As mentioned earlier, hydrolysis of phospholipid DPPC leads to a formation of a fatty acid and a lyso PC. H ere arachidi c acid is used as a fatty acid liberated upon hydrolysis, Figure 41. Previously, in chapter 3 the formation of calcium phosphate under the hydrolysis product of DPPC using a shorter tail palmitic acid (PA) with 16carbons was discussed. In this chapter, a longer chain a rachidic acid (AA) with 20carbons is used to see its impact on calcium phosphate formation. 4.1 Experimental Section All reagents were purchased from commercially available sources and used without further purification. 1,2Dipalmitoylsn glycero 3 phosphocholine (DPPC), and 22:0 Lyso PC (purity >99%) were purchased from Avanti Polar Lipids (Alabaster, AL). Arachidic acid and palmitic acid were purchased from Acros organic. Sodium phosphate and tris (hydroxymethyl) amino m ethane hydrochloride (Tris HCl) were purchase from Aldrich Chemical Co. (Milwaukee, WI). Calcium chloride dihydrate and sodium chloride were obtained from Fisher Scientific (Pittsburgh, PA). The supersaturated calcium phosphate solution was prepared in the same way as described in chapter 3. To prepare all the surfactant solution, the same procedure was adopted as prescribed in chapter 3. Brewster Angle Microscope (Nanofilm Technologie GmbH BAM2plus system) was used to monitor the monolayers.

PAGE 58

58 4.2 Crystallization of Calcium P hosphate under the Ternary Mixture Monolayer with Arachidic A cid F irst a ternary mixture solution containing DPPC: AA: Lyso PC in the ratio 50: 25 : 25 was prepared. The pressure versus area isotherm of the ternary monolayer with AA is shown in Figure 42 On ce it was spread on the calcium phosphate subphase and compressed, BAM images w ere taken at high and low pressure after 24 hours to see the crystal formation. From the BAM images, Figure 43 it was seen that very few crystals were formed. These results w ere quite surprising. In the ternary mixture, the lysolipid is adsorbed to the exterior of the DPPC domain, lowering the line tension and allowing it to extend to less compact shapes and thus it reduces the interaction between DPPC and fatty acid, freei ng the carboxylic acid to interact with the subphase ion. So it is expected to see calcium phosphate crystals. But here, in the ternary mixture v ery few crystals, simil ar to DPPC, were seen indicating that the carboxylic group is not interacting with the s ubphase ions. There could be many reasons for this. From the BAM image at low pressure it can be postulated that the DPPC monolayer is still in the condensed phase while some DPPC is in expanded phase. This means that the lyso PC was not able to expand th e monolayer and thus DPPC is still in condens ed phase. L onger chain of the arachidic acid reduces the p olarization of carboxylic group by pulling it above the subphase making it more hydrophobic. This causes the reduction in the interaction of COOion wit h the Ca2+ ions in the calcium phosphate subphase solution. When the monolayer is compressed at high pressure, molecules are packed at an interface and a cohesive force develops between their hydrocarbons chains due to van der Waals forces of attraction. The cohesive force grows as the chains increase in

PAGE 59

59 length and as they are brought closer together. This makes difficult for the lyso PC to extend the domain freeing the carboxylic acid from the condensed phase to expanded phase and thus fewer crystals are seen similar to DPPC. However, when AA is examined alone as a pure monolayer Figure 44 crystal nucleation is very high due to the interaction of carboxyl group with the calcium ions which was hindered in case of the ternary mixture. 4.3 BAM Images of T e rnary Mixture at Different P ressures To confirm the above hypothesis, isotherms with BAM images at dif ferent phases of compression were obtained. We first tried to obtain the BAM images of ternary mixture with palmitic acid, Figure 45 and then compared t hem with the ternary mixture with arachidic acid, Figure 46. From the BAM images it was seen that ternary mixture with PA is liquid as seen in the BAM image at zero pressure where no pressure is acting on the monolayer and it is in the liquid expanded phase. On compression, the domains were growing in size to fill the space available. Whereas the ternary mixture with AA looks solid and on compression there was no change in size of domain rather the domains were moving closer. In the ternary mixture contai ning PA, Figure 45 it is seen that the domains appear expanded and circular in shape and grows as the pressure increases and slowly fills the whole image with high pressure is reached. This means that the domain is expanding (increasing in size) with pres sure and is in the LE phase. Whereas in the case of ternary mixture with AA, Figure 46 most of the DPPC is still in the condensed phase (LC) and little amount of DPPC is in expanded phase. With the increase in pressure, the domains come closer with no change in size and thus it seems that the phase separation effect is not present in case of ternary mixture with arachidic acid. D ue to the longer chain length

PAGE 60

60 (C20) of AA the DPPC remains in the condensed phase, keeping the carboxylate group raised up from the subphase. 4.4 Isotherm and BAM I mages of P ure F atty A cids Since, as studied in chapter 3, the fatty acid of the ternary monolayer was the active component of crystallization, we tried to compare the isotherm and BAM images of pure fatty acids at different pressure. In case of palmitic acid, Figure 47 it is observed that the monolay er is dissolved and liquefied. P almitic acid has 16 carbon atoms which make it a short chain fatty acid and its tails is not hydrophobic enough to hold itself away from the subphase. In case of arachidic acid, the monolayer appears to be more solid, Figure 4 8 The 20 carbon atoms make arachidic acid more hydrophobic so that it pull s away it chain from the subphase. Thus it can be concluded that in the presence of arachidic ac id, the phase separation of the ternary mixture is not seen because of the comparatively strong V an der Waal s forces of attraction between the DPPC and AA chains and thus less crystals, similar to DPPC, are seen. The surface topography of the crystal grown on the Langmuir monolayer film was investigated using the scanning electron microscopy. This figure 49 shows the SEM image of the calcium phosphate surface formed under the fatty acid monolayer. The surface of the substrate is partly covered with hemisph erical aggregates.

PAGE 61

61 Table 41. Average number of crystalsa per BAM image under different monolayers at low and high pressure. DPPC ternary b AA 15 mN/m 41 21 607 35 mN/m 21 2 1 20025 a x Each val ue is the average of 2 different experiments using at least 15 frames from each experiment. b 2:1:1 ternary mixture of DPPC, 22:0 Lyso PC, and arachidic acid. Figure 4 1. Structures of 1) DPPC, 2) L yso lipid 22:0 Lyso PC, and 3) A rachidic acid ( A A) Th e 22:0 lysolipid is used in this study instead of the complementary 16carbon tail lysolipid because it is more stable in Langmuir monolayers.

PAGE 62

62 Fi gure 42. Pressure vs mean molecular area isotherms of ternary mixture of DPPC: lyso PC: AA (50:25:25) taken over a 0.43 mM CaCl2 subphase at 20C. Figure 43 BAM images of the ternary monolayer, a 2:1:1 mixture of DPPC, 22:0LysoPC, and Arachidic acid, over a calcium phosphate subphase after 24 h at 20C. The monolayer in A was maintained at 35mN/m, a nd that in B was maintained at 15 mN/m. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80Pressure mN/mMean Molecular Area (2/ Molecule)

PAGE 63

63 Figure 44. BAM images of a arachidic acid monolayer over a calcium phosphate subphase containing NaCl and tris HCl after 24 h at 20C.Monolayers were held at a two pressures: A) 35 and B) 15 mN/m. Figu re 4 5 Pressure vs area isotherm of a ternary 2:1:1 mixture of DPPC, 22:0 Lyso PC, and palmitic acid over a CaCl2, NaCl, tris HCl buffer at 20C. BAM images at various stages of compression are included. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80Pressure mN/m Mean Molecular Area ( 2/molecule)

PAGE 64

64 Figure 46 Pressure vs area isotherm of a ter nary 2:1:1 mixture of DPPC, 22:0 Lyso PC, and arachidic acid over a CaCl2, NaCl, tris HCl buffer at 20C. BAM images at various stages of compression are included. Figure 4 7 Pressure vs area isotherm of a pure palmitic acid over a CaCl2, NaCl, tris HCl buffer at 20C. BAM images at various stages of compression are included. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80Pressure mN/mMean Molecular Area ( 2/molecule) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35Pressure mN/mMean Molecular Area (2/molecule)

PAGE 65

65 Figure 48. Pressure vs area isotherm of a pure arachidic acid over a CaCl2, NaCl, tris HCl buffer at 20C. BAM images at various stages of compression are included. Figure 49. SEM image of the calcium phosphate crystals formed under the fatty acid monolayer. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35Pressure mN/mMean Molecular Area (2/molecule)

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66 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECO MMENDATIONS This study demonstrates that the hydrolysis products of DPPC monolayer over a supersaturated calcium phosphate subphase leads to a greatly enhanced incidence of heterogeneous calcium phosphate precipitation. It is the lipid hydrolysis products, in particular, the locally high concentration of fatty acid, that cause the rapid precipitation. The results suggest a possible link bet ween hydrolysis of phospholipid and formation of calcium phosphate. Calcium phosphate precipitation can occur at lipid interfaces, but the process is slow and precipitation is controlled. Our results show that lipid hydrolysis and the generation of locally high concentrations of small chain (C16) fatty acids i.e. palmitic acid can provide highly active sites for rapid calcium phosphate precipitation Also it is found that in the ternary mixture with a long chain fatty acid like arachidic acid (C20) few crys tals are formed. This is because of the arachidic acid, which does not allow the phase separation to occur because of the cohesive forces between the lipids tails and thus leads to very few crystals Also it is seen that the size of the crystal increase wi th time at low pressure since the monolayer can arrange itself in order to accommodate its growth.

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72 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Hrishikesh P Bhase was born in Nashik India in 1984 He went to HPT Arts and RY K C ollege of Science in June 200 2 to pursue his bachelors degree. He earned his bachelors degree in c hemistry in April 2005. H e joined Pune University in 2005 where he got his masters degree in 2007. He was admitted t o the Univ ersity of Florida in fall 200 8 and started working on his research program in biomineralization He graduated from the University of Florida in December 2010 and continued for his PhD program in a nalytical chemistry at University of Florida.