<%BANNER%>

Impact of Teaching in Communication Sciences and Disorders

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0042312/00001

Material Information

Title: Impact of Teaching in Communication Sciences and Disorders
Physical Description: 1 online resource (154 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Al-Bustan, Sana
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: communication, disorders, education, females, keirsey, kuwait, learning, sciences, sorter, stuttering, temperament
Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Communication Sciences and Disorders thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Living in today s world requires that one be up to date on the technological advances that have made knowledge more accessible; and being up to date on knowledge is crucial. However, what are the optimal methods for conveying knowledge, and is there one method that will work best for each individual? This study centers on comparing two teaching methods in the context of a short term educational module: a passive lecture method in which the instructor lectures and the students listen and take notes, and an active lecture method in which the instructor includes hands-on experiences, discussions and interactive presentations using modern media designed to encourage the students and instructor to interact directly. The study was conducted among Kuwaiti students enrolled in communication sciences to see if there is a significant difference in how they learn in the two different methods. Close attention was also paid to the participants personality types to see if that would be a factor in how they learn. Both groups performed significantly higher on content tests following instruction. No significant results were observed between the two groups. Ties between personality types and learning methods, while not significant, were noticed. The study shows that success of learning is not just dependent on the learning method. The interaction between personality type and teaching methods still require further investigation, and it is the hope of the facilitator of this study that it serves to aid further studies into how best to teach individuals.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Sana Al-Bustan.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Griffiths, Scott K.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0042312:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0042312/00001

Material Information

Title: Impact of Teaching in Communication Sciences and Disorders
Physical Description: 1 online resource (154 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Al-Bustan, Sana
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: communication, disorders, education, females, keirsey, kuwait, learning, sciences, sorter, stuttering, temperament
Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Communication Sciences and Disorders thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Living in today s world requires that one be up to date on the technological advances that have made knowledge more accessible; and being up to date on knowledge is crucial. However, what are the optimal methods for conveying knowledge, and is there one method that will work best for each individual? This study centers on comparing two teaching methods in the context of a short term educational module: a passive lecture method in which the instructor lectures and the students listen and take notes, and an active lecture method in which the instructor includes hands-on experiences, discussions and interactive presentations using modern media designed to encourage the students and instructor to interact directly. The study was conducted among Kuwaiti students enrolled in communication sciences to see if there is a significant difference in how they learn in the two different methods. Close attention was also paid to the participants personality types to see if that would be a factor in how they learn. Both groups performed significantly higher on content tests following instruction. No significant results were observed between the two groups. Ties between personality types and learning methods, while not significant, were noticed. The study shows that success of learning is not just dependent on the learning method. The interaction between personality type and teaching methods still require further investigation, and it is the hope of the facilitator of this study that it serves to aid further studies into how best to teach individuals.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Sana Al-Bustan.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Griffiths, Scott K.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0042312:00001


This item has the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

1 IMPACT OF TEACHING IN COMMUNICATION SCIENCES AND DISORDERS By SANA AHMAD ALBUSTAN A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2010

PAGE 2

2 2010 Sana Ahmad AlBustan

PAGE 3

3 Dedicated with all my gratitude and love to my parents, Dr. Ahmad and Ramzia AlBustan, who gave me birth, and to Futoh and Sarah AlQattan, my daughters whom I gave birth to.

PAGE 4

4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS In the name of God, most Beneficent, most Merciful. Years of hard work and effort have finally paid off! I would first like to praise Almighty God for giving me the patience and perseverance t o withstand all obstacles encountered since the years I first commenced my PhD program. I greatly thank Dr. Scott Griffiths, my guidance advisor, mentor, and friend who was not only a great influence and driving force behind my research, but was also a gr eat support in helping me cope with leaving behind my family and country. I will never forget how he was always there for me, and making sure that I succeeded in my academic life. I would also like to extend my gratitude to Dr. Kenneth Logan for his guid ance and advice and his in depth revisions of the stuttering module, tests and taking the time to grade the tests for reliability. I would like to thank Dr. James Hall and Dr. Bridget Franks, for their continuous support. It gives me great honor to have graduate coordinators, and prominent researchers serving on my PhD committee. Once again, I would like to thank Dr. Griffiths, Dr. Logan, Dr. Franks, and Dr. Hall for being part of my success. I am also grateful to the staff and students at the Universit y of Florida for their constant advice and assistance in helping me complete my research. Family is at the heart of all our actions and I can honestly say that this accomplishment would have been impossible without the love and support of my family. I w ill forever be indebted to my mother Ramzia, who in 2006, travelled thousands of miles and left behind my father, siblings and her own job as an Assistant Principle, to help take care of me and my premature baby, Futoh, when I was most in need of emotional and physical care and support. She sacrificed her own happiness and

PAGE 5

5 relaxation, once again in 2008, when I had my daughter Sara. With my loving and caring mother by my side, this accomplishment was made possible. No words can describe my gratefulness t o, and great love for my father, Professor Ahmad AlBustan. I would not have been able to complete my dissertation without his continuous advice, support, and encouragement. I would also like to thank my siblings Dr. Suad, Tariq, Dr. Suzanne, Dr. Lamees, Khalid, and my nephew Samer for their continuous support and for always believing in me. Unfortunately my Grandmother, Fakhria, and Uncle Professor Mahmoud are not here to help me celebrate my accomplishment today, but they were always a constant force be hind my persistence and I truly hope I have made them proud. I would also like to thank all my brothers and sisters in laws, nieces, and nephews for their support and encouragement. My children had to cope with a mother who was busy studying, researchi ng, or working on the computer. I hope my own experience will teach them the importance of education and that hard work, effort and sometimes having to sacrifice will help them achieve their goals and ambitions. My father and mother in law, Abdul Hameed and Futoh and the whole AlBustan and AlQattan clans have been great pillars of support and I thank them sincerely for their encouragement. Finally yet importantly, I would greatly like to thank my loving husband Nael for always being there for me. I hav e been privileged enough to have been awarded a full scholarship from Kuwait University as the State of Kuwait encourages education, and individuals who have proved themselves as committed and dedicated, and greatly thank God and my country for this oppor tunity.

PAGE 6

6 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 9 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 10 LIST OF ABBR EVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ........................... 11 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 14 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ................................ ................................ ............ 17 2. 1 Importance of E Learning ................................ ................................ ................. 17 2.2 The Learning Models ................................ ................................ ........................ 19 ................................ ................................ ........................... 19 2.3.1 Co gnitive ................................ ................................ ................................ 20 2.3.2 Affective ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 21 2.3.3 Psychomotor ................................ ................................ ........................... 21 ................................ ................................ 22 ........................... 22 ................................ ............................. 23 2.3.7 Revised Taxonomy Better than Original Taxonomy ................................ 25 2.4 Multiple Intelligences ................................ ................................ ......................... 26 2.5 Gregorc Style Delineator ................................ ................................ ................... 29 2.6 Learning Style ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 34 2.7 Personality Type ................................ ................................ ............................... 36 2.7.1 Advantages of MBTI ................................ ................................ ................ 37 2.7. 2 Disadvantages of MBTI ................................ ................................ ........... 39 2.7.3 The Keirsey Temperament Model ................................ ........................... 40 2.8 Teaching Methods ................................ ................................ ............................ 46 2.8.1 Problem Based Learning ................................ ................................ ......... 46 2.8.2 Advantages of PBL ................................ ................................ .................. 47 ................................ ................................ ...... 49 2.8.4 Disadvantages of PBL ................................ ................................ ............. 50 2.8.5 The Role of Discussion ................................ ................................ ............ 53 2.9 The World of Academia: Academic Institutions ................................ ................. 55 2.10 How Students will Benefit from E learning and Become Active Learners ....... 56 2.10.1 Computers ................................ ................................ ............................. 57 2.10.2 The Learning Environment ................................ ................................ .... 58 2.11 Adult Learners ................................ ................................ ................................ 62

PAGE 7

7 2.12 Rationale and Purpose ................................ ................................ ................... 67 2.13 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ....................... 68 2.14 Hypotheses ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 69 3 METHODOLOG Y ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 71 3.1 Participants ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 71 3.2 Setting ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 72 3.3 Teaching methods ................................ ................................ ............................ 72 3.4 Variables and Statistical Analysis ................................ ................................ ..... 74 3.5 Assessment ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 79 4 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 82 4.1 Description of Participant Data In Each Of The Two Groups: ........................... 83 4.1.1 Age ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 83 4.1.2 Year of Study ................................ ................................ ........................... 83 4.1.3 GPA ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 83 4.1.4 Participants As Per Keirsey Four Types Sorter ................................ ....... 84 4.1.5 Keirsey Personality Type Sorter Yields Categorical Data ........................ 84 4.2 The Teaching Sessions ................................ ................................ .................... 84 4.2.1 Sessions ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 84 4.2.2 Attendance ................................ ................................ .............................. 85 4.2.3 Videot aped Sessions ................................ ................................ ............... 85 4.3 Participant Feedback Impression Questionnaire/Comparing Teaching Methods ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 86 ................................ ................................ ...... 86 4.3.1.1 Overall impression ................................ ................................ ......... 87 4. 3.1.2 In class preference ................................ ................................ ........ 88 4.3.1.3 Outside class preference ................................ ............................... 88 4.3.1.4 Technology ................................ ................................ .................... 89 4.3.2 Comparing Teaching Methods ................................ ................................ 91 4.3.2.1 Objective questions ................................ ................................ ........ 92 4.3.2.2 Short answers ................................ ................................ ................ 93 4.3.2.3 Interaction effect between personality on the change between the pre and post test scores ................................ ................................ 94 4.3.2.4 Keirsey personality types and scores ................................ ............. 94 5 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 109 5.1. Personality Type ................................ ................................ ............................ 110 5.2 Videotape of Sessions ................................ ................................ .................... 113 5.3 Participant Feedback Questionnaire ................................ ............................... 113 5.3.1 Overall Impression ................................ ................................ ................. 114 5.3.2 In Class Preference ................................ ................................ ............... 114 5.3.3 Outside Class Preference ................................ ................................ ...... 114 5.3.4 Comfort WithTechnology ................................ ................................ ....... 114

PAGE 8

8 5.4 Comparing Teaching Methods ................................ ................................ ........ 115 5.5 Uniqueness of Study ................................ ................................ ....................... 119 5.5.1 Short Term Unlike Full Semester College Experience ........................ 119 5.5.2 Only Female Subjects ................................ ................................ ........... 119 5.5.4 Only Kuwaiti Subjects ................................ ................................ ............ 119 5.5.5 Educational Experience ................................ ................................ ......... 119 5.6 Limitations of the Study ................................ ................................ ................... 120 5.6.1 No Long Term Follow Up Assessment ................................ .................. 120 5.6.2 Working in Second Language ................................ ............................... 120 5.6.3 No Monitoring of Discussions/Activities Outside of the Class Session .. 120 5.6.4 The Lack of a Problem Based Learning (PBL) Style Question on the Pre And Post Test Assessment ................................ ................................ .. 121 5.7 Implications for Future Studies ................................ ................................ ....... 121 APPENDIX A LETTER OF CONSENT ................................ ................................ ........................ 124 B KEIRSEY FOUR TYPE SORTER ................................ ................................ ......... 125 C STUTTERING PRE TEST QUESTIONS ................................ .............................. 126 D STUTTERING MODULE ................................ ................................ ....................... 130 E STUTTERING POST TEST QUESTIONS ................................ ............................ 137 F PARTICIPANT FEEDBACK QUESTIONNAIRE ................................ ................... 141 G JUDGES EVALUATION ................................ ................................ ........................ 144 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 145 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 153

PAGE 9

9 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2 1 Bloom's Six Domains ................................ ................................ .......................... 70 3 1 Layout of experimental design ................................ ................................ ............ 81 4 1 The distribution for age ................................ ................................ ....................... 97 4 2 Frequency of Keirsey Personality ................................ ................................ ....... 97

PAGE 10

10 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 4 1 Attendance Plot ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 98 4 2 Lecture Content and Discussion Encouragement ................................ ............... 98 4 3 Student Enjoyment, Technology, and Classroom Tension ................................ 99 4 4 Passivity and Interaction ................................ ................................ ..................... 99 4 5 Student Presentations, Extensive Give/Take and Critical Thinking .................. 100 4 6 Distribution of Responses on All Four Subsets ................................ ................. 101 4 7 ............................ 102 4 8 Response to item: "I felt comfortable in classes in this module ....................... 102 4 9 Response to item: "I feel like I understood the lectures in this module" ............ 103 4 10 Response to item: "I would like to have other classes with this style of teaching" ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 103 4 11 Keirsey personality type and overall impression sub items .............................. 104 4 12 Keirsey personality type and in class preference sub items ............................. 105 4 13 Keirsey personality types and outside class preference sub items ................... 106 4 14 Keirsey personality types and technology sub items ................................ ........ 107 4 15 Keirsey personality types and post test scores ................................ ................. 108 5 1 Personality Distributions of Types ................................ ................................ .... 123

PAGE 11

11 LIST OF ABBREVIATION S AR Abstract/Random AS Abstract/Sequential CFW College for Women CSL Department of Communication Sciences and Languages CR Concrete/Random CS Concrete/Sequential GPA Grade Point Average GSD Gregorc Style Delineator IT Information Technology KTS II Keirsey Temperament Sorter KU Kuwait University MBTI Myers Briggs Type Indicator MI Multiple intelligences PBL Problem Based Learning

PAGE 12

12 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy IMPACT OF TEACHING IN COMMUNICATION SCIENCES AND DISORDER S By Sana Ahmad AlBustan December 2010 Chair: Scott Griffiths Major: Communication Sciences and Disorders advances that have made knowledge more accessible; and being up to dat e on knowledge is crucial. However, what are the optimal methods for conveying knowledge, and is there one method that will work best for each individual? This study centers on comparing two teaching methods in the context of a short term educational mod ule: a passive lecture method in which the instructor lectures and the students listen and take experiences, discussions and interactive presentations using modern media design ed to encourage the students and instructor to interact directly The study was conducted among Kuwaiti students enrolled in communication sciences to see if there is a significant difference in how they learn in the two different methods. Close attention at would be a factor in how they learn. Both groups performed significantly higher on content tests following instruction. No significant results were observed between the two groups Ties between personality types and learning methods, while not signifi cant, were noticed The study shows that success of learning is not just dependent on the learning method. The interaction

PAGE 13

13 between personality type and teaching methods still require further investigation, and it is the hope of the facilitator of this st udy that it serves to aid further studies into how best to teach individuals.

PAGE 14

14 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Teaching is a profession with deep historical roots that plays a substantial role in preparing and creating a well educated society with the ability to communicate and reason effectively. Many teaching philosophies and instructional delivery models have b een proposed and modified by those who study the learning processes in pursuit of the optimal transmission of knowledge and thinking skills. This dissertation investigates the possible benefits of using active lecture engagement methods in teaching a coll ege level course and examines the impact on student performance compared to that of the time tested passive lecture method or teacher directed lecture based instructional methodology. The dissertation also attempts to draw conclusions concerning the corre lations among educational content, instructional methodology, individual student characteristics, and student achievement. The methodologies that this dissertation employs are well known and include a definition of the passive lecture method and other ins tructional delivery models introduced throughout the United States of America during the later part of the 20th century. A study of instructional delivery models should consider individual styles of learning, learning style preferences, varieties of gifte dness (the theory of multiple intelligences), characteristics of human development, and models of instructional delivery Some teaching models rely heavily on the instructor as the one who possesses the skills and talents required to disseminate informati on in a teacher directed fashion. Other teaching models are designed to emphasize interaction between the instructor and the students, where students are directed to research answers or solve problems and draw conclusions in a team fashion and the instruc tor

PAGE 15

15 serves the students as a facilitator. This more active role ought to enable students to develop skills for knowledge development that can be applied to other content in future learning opportunities. Certainly, the presence and the availability of te chnological devices such as the computer and technological media devices in the past thirty years have affected instructional strategies. The introduction of technological devices in the instructional process has served to benefit both instructors and stu dents by providing the teaching and learning processes with additional tools designed to enhance instruction (McCarthy, 2006). Background of the s tudy The focus of this dissertation is to observe the impact of teaching methodology at Kuwait University (K U) in the College for Women (CFW) in the Department of Communication Sciences and Languages (CSL). The CSL department at KU is chosen because it is the place of my future employment, as I will be granted a faculty position to teach in this facility upon m y graduation from the PhD program. The rationale behind doing my dissertation in this department is to explore new teaching methods that will utilize the technological discoveries in the past thirty years, such as the advent of the personal computer. To this end, this study aims at changing modern world. More specifically, the target is to observe the undergraduate students and how they engage in the study of human communica tion disorders. One of the primary concerns is the interaction of instructional delivery method with the characteristics of individual learners. It is possible that varied instructional approaches would optimize the educational outcomes for undergraduate students completing the communication disorder program at KU. These outcomes would include both

PAGE 16

16 documented mastery of specific content and thinking skills, but also the translation of these methods into the instructional services, which they will subsequ ently provide for individuals with communication disorders.

PAGE 17

17 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERA TURE 2.1 Importance of E Learning imperative that education also makes those leaps in advancement. This is best done by the application of new technologies into education, such as e learning. There are many de finitions of e learning but the one used for the purpose of this dissertation is the one enabled learning, which covers various concepts, including digital collaboration, virtual classrooms, web based learni ng, and computer based learning." This makes e learning perceived as any learning skill that is available on a computer, with or without connecting the computer to the internet. As for the content presented in order to deliver this technology in learning it can be in WebTV, e books, and CD Almulla, & Alraqas, 2006, p. 2). WebCT and Blackboard are also e learnin g environments that can be included to the list since Kuwait University (KU) adopts them. It is necessary that technologies such as the ones just mentioned become a part of a ountry to achieve the same advances as developed countries when it comes to education and educational instruction. E learning environments also allow students to overcome geographical barriers. The problems of limited teaching personnel, limited space, e tc., are all also solved via e case since it is rapidly on its way to becoming a developed country, and the implementation of these technologies will only help it along its way.

PAGE 18

18 E learning i s a necessity that needs to be taken into deep consideration in order to implement it in Kuwait. Kuwait has acknowledged this need to make its students competent in all measures of education, and has studied, since 2006, the adoption of e learning systems in K 12 to do that (Aldhafeeri et al., 2006) Stevens (2000) points out that since this task of changing education systems will be shocking to teachers, they need to realize that this system of learning is a revolution that will create significant chang es in the way people not only learn, but live, work and play. E learning is the future of learning that can be used as a new system for continuous education (Aldhafeeri et al., 2006). This is because this system focuses on the needs of the learners as op posed to the teachers, making the students motivated to learn by using different tools at their disposal and thus feel privileged (Aldhafeeri et al., 2006). In a 2004 study, Luck and Norton concluded that those who were exposed to problem based learning v ia e learning developed a stronger sense of self efficacy as students than they did in their previous face to face instructional experiences. They also reported that their literacy skills were improved through e learning because of the need to communicate online clearly with others (Luck & Norton, 2004). Researchers at the University of Central England in Birmingham report that online problem based learning is proving useful for learners where the simulate situations that they may not have had an opportunity to experience for real. In solving the problems, learning must become more independent and learners must collaborate and participate in discussions. Research often suggests that this approach can lead to a deeper understanding than the coverage of a content driven approach. (Niall & Stale) learning in computing education also supports the view that e learning has a lot to contrib ute to conventional

PAGE 19

19 learning methodologies. Evidence for the usefulness of problem based learning will be expounded upon later on in this dissertation. 2.2 The Learning Models As mentioned earlier, the study explores instructional delivery methods and tea ching styles as they relate to the known ways that such methods and styles impact student learning outcomes. This exploration will draw from work on: 1) the multiple intelligences theory of Gardner (1983), 2) Personality type /learning style, as measured b taxonomy (1956). All of these theories, which are considered in detail below, take into teaching approach that will enhance learning through creativity and self involvement, both of which are embodied in the active method utilized in this study. This active method stands in contrast to the passive teaching method, which typically does not ta ke inherent passive approach that it employs. 2.3 Benjamin S. Bloom of the University of Chicago developed a model of learning organized according to thei 2000, p. 2) and is a classification of the different learning objectives that educators can utilize when teaching three main categories: cognitive, affective, and psychomotor.

PAGE 20

20 2.3.1 Cognitive nomy is called cognitive (i.e., mental skills). This involves knowledge and the development of intellectual skills. It includes the recall or recognition of facts, procedural patterns, and concepts that serve in the development of intellectual abilities and skills. Six major domains, which are listed below, ranging from the simplest behavior to the most complex or as he further explains, they can be thought of as degrees of difficulty. Bloom (1956) emphasized that each domain must be mastered before one can continue the learning process. The validity and practicality of (CSL) field (Table 2.1). A b rief description of each domain is provided below: 1. Domain of Knowledge: Recall of information. Knowing something with familiarity gained through experience or association. Various modes of knowing include perceiving, remembering, imagining, conceiving, j udging, and reasoning. 2. Domain of Comprehension: Understand the meaning, translation, interpolation, words. Knowledge or understanding of an object, event, situation, or verbal s tatement. In speech, understanding spoken utterances, as distinguished from producing the utterances. 3. Domain of Application: Use a concept in a new situation or unprompted use of an abstraction. Generalizes and applies what was learned in a treatment or therapy session into novel, everyday situations. 4. Domain of Analysis: A method of study that separates the object of study into smaller units, so that its organizational structure may be understood. Distinguishes between facts and inferences. 5. Domain of Synthesis: Builds a structure or pattern from diverse elements. Put parts together to form a whole, with emphasis on creating a new meaning or structure. Combining elements of a separate entity into a single or unified entity.

PAGE 21

21 6. Domain of Evaluation: Make judgments about the value of ideas or materials. Global review of the significance and implications of a diagnostic assessment; includes both formal and informal procedures. (Bloom, 1956). 2.3.2 Affective The second category of the Taxonomy, Affective domain, identifies how human beings learn with respect to feelings, values, appreciations, enthusiasm motivations, and attitudes. There are five stages described for the Affective domain in the Taxonomy (Bloom, 1956): 1. Receiving Phenomena: listening to oth ers with respect 2. Responding to Phenomena: Active participation on the part of the learners by participating in class discussions, giving presentations; 3. Valuing: The worth or value a person attaches to a particular object or behavior. 4. Internalizing Values : Development of a value system that controls individual behavior. 5. Organization: Prioritizes values and organizes them into different systems. 2. 3.3 Psychomotor includes perception 5). The ability to use sensory clues and a readiness to act wo when a learner touches or is touched by a flame or other extreme stimuli. The response that is learned in this example is to retreat with a motor response. This domain is central to the appli cation of this dissertation and it will be mainly used in the teaching/learning process of students enrolled in the communication disorders curriculum at Kuwait University.

PAGE 22

22 2. 3.4 any involved in instruction and education, be it in a school or workplace setting. Research has shown that putting the Taxonomy into practice has yielded varied results; some researchers have found that the Taxonomy is accurate, (Odhabi, 2007) while other s have discovered that it can be misapplied, and/or it needs to be modified to fit a certain circumstance (Booker, 2007). and the findings. 2. 3.5 d the Use of Laptop Computers In an article investigating the affect of laptops on the learning of students in opportunities to develop their knowledge as well as being able t o practice what they are used the laptops to assess the use of the different learning domains (as outlined in nology. The focus was on the learning process rather than the actual technology involved and was more focused on investigating whether the learning with laptops actually supported the theory that the be utilized. Although the students did have better opportunities to improve their knowledge and put to practice the knowledge they were learning, there was no achievement or progress in the affective domain. There needs to be other learning methods and/o r tools put into effect in order for any improvement in the affective domain to occur. The significance of the Taxonomy in evaluating the benefits of a teaching med ium (which is also the focus of

PAGE 23

23 this dissertation as well). It has allowed the present author to know which areas still Taxonomy, the objectives should be to teach students in all the domains, and not just focus on one while ignoring the other two. Bloom and colleagues have definitely helped make the process of setting up a teaching curriculum and objectives a lot easier by developing the taxonomy one that can be used to measure and set learning objectives in almost any field where learning is happening. 2. 3.6 should be addressed when teaching and learning to be a ble to get the full effect of an education. When misused, the affect of the Taxonomy becomes null, as it is not being used for the intention it was created. The misuse of the Taxonomy is the subject of the American education system has made American students unable to compete on an international level with other students. His argument is that the Taxonomy has been used in the K 12 school system and expected too much from st udents who cannot deliver. The expectation that these students should overlook facts and only operate on 7 p. 349). What was meant to be one part of a three part system, Booker says, was also meant for higher education students, not elementary and middle school levels. He even (Booker, 2007, p.

PAGE 24

24 tent, and can function on the area and sphere in which it was intended for post secondary education because the foundational basis for higher order learning. His arguments are valid and his understanding. The comparison between different learning styles has been an issue of research and investigation for a time now, and researchers have compared di fferent learning Stephenson, Brown and Griffin (2008) in which they compare virtual and e le ctures efficacy of the different teaching styles to see which was more effective. Their study consisted of having three groups of participants taught by the same instru ctor via three lectures, and the traditional method of in class lectures. The same information was delivered to the participants in each group by the in order to retain accuracy and fairness throughout the teaching styles (i.e. because discussion could not have been an option via one of the methods, it was eliminated in the other two methods). Using paper based multiple choice questions, the researcher s compared the

PAGE 25

25 efficacy of the virtual and e lectures with the efficacy of traditional lectures. Questionnaires were also used to obtain information on the efficacy of the different teaching meth et al. (2008) concluded was t hat B al., 2008, p. 648). Although, as Booker says the Taxonomy was intended simply for post secondary education, and its acceptance by instructors in all fields was a surprise, it is of great use still when assessment is needed. Without the Taxonomy, it would be harder for teachers and instructors to measure conveniently the achievement students and learners have made in the differen t levels (domains). 2. 3.7 Revised Taxonomy Better than Original Taxonomy Of importance to this dissertation is an article describing a Turkish study which and psychologists d ecades later based on more recent developments in psychological The facilitators of the study gave the experimental group of pre service teachers information on the two Taxonomy versions, through slide shows and other active lecture methods (utilizing different mediums) and the participants were asked to match objectives and cognitive categories to related to every sub 446). The different sub categories of the taxonomies were also explained and different activities were done, a nd the teachers were shown how to use the taxonomy table. They then composed lesson plans based on their new knowledge of the two different

PAGE 26

26 taxonomies. The control group was instructed in the traditional method of teaching via lectures, question and answ er, and discussion, but the method of the instruction was given via the standards and traditional method. They were asked to examine different Both groups were asked to compose lesson plans and the lesson plans were scored by experts with Ph.D. degrees in Curriculum and Instruction. The results of the study showed those teachers who were able to apply the different focuses and information gleans from Revised Taxonomy wer e able to devise lesson plans that lessons/method which were concerned with what students actually learned. Because it ng point in developing the metacognitive skills, emphasizing the reflective teaching, and providing internal 451), it has been concluded that the Revised Taxonomy contains important advantages to curr iculum and lesson plan formations. 2.4 Multiple Intelligences Not all students enter the classroom with the same talents, strengths, or mental habits. The participants in this dissertation will vary in many ways and this variability and the impact it may have on the outcomes must be considered. A look at Howard dissertation to prove the need for variety in instructional methodology. In his Multiple Intelligences: The Theo ry in Practice (1993), Gardner said that he and his group had set out to define what intelligence is and in doing so, they defined seven intelligences. His

PAGE 27

27 work on MI has had a profound impact on thinking and practicing in field of education (Smith 2002; Willingham, 2004). cited in Christion, 1996, p. 6) and the categorization of the intelligence into seven different intelligences, resulting in the multiple intelligences (MI) theory. The following are the MI identified by Gardner: 1. Linguistic intelligence deals with the ability to utilize words. People with linguistic intelligence include poets, lawyers, and writers. 2. Logical mathematical intelligence is intelligence that deals with logic, mathematics, and science. Mathematicians, physicist, and chemists are some examples of people who have logical mathematical intelligence 3. Musical intelligence involves skill in the performance, composition, and appreciation of musical patterns. It encompasses the capacity to recognize and compose musical pitches, tones, and rhythms. According to Gardner, musical intelligence runs in almost structural parallel to linguistic intelligence. 4. Bodily kinesthetic intelligence utilizes the body to solve problems. Athletes and dancers are among the class of people who have a firm grasp of this form of intelligence. Fashion designers are also a good example as they have skill in fashioning product s using the body. 5. Spatial intelligence involves the ability to manipulate and use space, engineers, designers, sculptors and sailors are an example of those with spatial intelligence. 6. tions, motivations, and desires. Salespeople, politicians, and therapists have a keen interpersonal intelligence. 7. e able to categorize those feelings accordingly.(Adapted from Gardner, 1993, pp. 17 25). educator considering how hard it is to instruct a person assuming a less complex mo del of intelligence, let alone attempting to design and implement educational experiences to

PAGE 28

28 engage students in a multifaceted fashion. Gardner believes that by identifying and knowing the seven different intelligences would allow for more freedom, despit e the challenges. He posits that seven different intelligences can be viewed as seven different ways to teach; the constraints that exist in the mind can then be activated to consider a concept or system in the best way suited for that person of that form of intelligence (Gardner, 1993, xxiii). Gardner in p ractice. As with all theories and concepts researched, the validity exception. There has been much written about MI by people who have put the concept into practice and proven its validity, and by others who question and analyze it. The credibility is an easy one to answer yes. T here are different intelligences that different That question is harder to answer with a simple yes or no. To answer such a question, one must look at the critiques fa must be patched up. Morg evidence to suggest that what is labeled as intelligences in the MI theory are actually cogn itive styles that intelligence is one thing, but there are different styles in which it

PAGE 29

29 in the period before Gardner came up with his categories on cognitive styles, and that the descriptions in the literature is very similar to the description of MI by Gardner and theory of Multiple Intelligences was merely a reworded categorization of cognitive styles into intelligences (Morgan, 1996). The suggestion that Gardner merely reshaped the research and theories that were already published is too clear not to miss. Morgan, The Un Gardner on what he calls is a tautological theory. To illustrate his point, Klein puts forth the example of the circular manner in which Gardner explains MI by defining each intellige nce with respect to a domain, and then defining that domain with respect to intelligence (Klein, 1998). MI is not devoid of benefit to education. MI allows for the identification and clarificatio n of multiple cognitive styles, and allows educators to be able to devise learning goals that will allow all students to succeed. In the current study, the flexibility of the active teaching approach should enable greater accommodation to the different in telligences that MI holds undoubtedly exist among the students, potentially yielding a higher success rate in instruction. 2.5 Gregorc Style Delineator Anthony Gregorc (1984) developed a theoretical model of the learning styles of human beings with refere nce to how human beings learn and conduct tasks. It includes the Gregorc Style Delineator (GSD) instrument. The Gregorc Style Delineator is an instrument that aids individuals in discovering the channels through which they receive, process, and express i

PAGE 30

30 theory of learning styles divides learners into two initial groups based on their learning Sequential learners are likened to clocks in that they learn and consequently work in a set by step fashion predictably. Sequential learners start at the start and end at the learners are likened to a stopwatch, starting and stopping work at will based upon what is important to them at the time. Random learners gather information by skipping around, taking short cuts, and viewing learning stimuli more holistically. It is not atypical for a rando m learner to work backwards. Metaphorically, sequential learners are likened or compared to a straight line and random learners are compared to a circle (Gregorc, 1984; Taylor, 1997). st likely learners and prefer to learn based upon ideas to gain an understanding o f environmental stimuli. Abstract learners spend significant amounts of time attempting to gain understanding by experimentation, using their ideas and feelings as it relates to reason while sequential learners rely upon process and the physical world to accomplish learning. learning styles are Concrete/Sequential (CS), Concrete/Random (CR), Abstract/Sequential (AS), and Abstract/Random (AR) (Gregorc, 1984; Taylor, 1997).

PAGE 31

31 The se styles are characterized relative to the school or university environment as follows (Gregorc, 1984; Taylor, 1997): Concrete/Sequential learners are practical, predictable, and appear well organized. Their thinking process is logical and deliberate, bu ilding knowledge based upon previously gained information. These learners prefer an environment that is ordered, practical, quiet, and stable. Their creativity lies not with originality but by using what exits more effectively. In the classroom, they ar e considered model students. Their materials are organized; their instructional preference is best suited to situations that are teacher directed. Concrete/Random learners are practical but like experiment, and rather than follow a strict plan they desire options. As learners, their thinking process is typically instinctive, intuitive, and impulsive. Their creativity is original and it is this group of environment that is stimulus rich and competitive. These learners appear messy and nonlinear and prefer learning environments that allow for exploration and interaction. Abstract/Sequential learners like to develop ideas in a logical way. Their thinking processes are intellectual, analytical, correlative, and associative. These learners gain a great deal from reading books and focusing upon knowledge, concepts, and ideas. Their creativity lies within models, theories, and synthesizing information. These learners prefer learning environments that are ordered, independent, and mentally stimulating. Abstract/Random learners are learners who work from the emotions, and not from an intellectual standpoint. To these learners how someone feels makes a great

PAGE 32

32 difference in their learning. Their thinking processes are based on feelings and these learners typically develop a rapport with others. They make sense of the world using feelings and emotions and they focus upon emotional attachments, relationships, and memories. Their creativity is highly imaginative and is often expressed through music and the arts. These learners prefer an environment that offers emotional experiences, active and colorful stimuli, and physical freedom. ing learning styles lies in the extent to which style delineators create awareness of and sensitivity to the varied learning styles this information is basic and crucial in relation to the environmental needs in an y given classroom because any given sample of students will represent a mixture of learning styles. Ross, Drysdale and of cognitive learning styles on academic performance. The effects were s tudied on two university level computer application courses (Computer Science (CPSC) 203: Introduction to Computers and Teacher Education and Supervision (EDTS) 325: Computer Applications in Education) at a Canadian institution. The study consisted of abo ut 1,000 participants over a period of 4 years; there were different instructors involved throughout the 4 years and for the almost 1,000 participants. Results showed that in CPSC 203, the dominant AS learners performed much better than other learning sty le groups, and the results of the EDTS 325 course showed that learning styles played a much more significant role in determining student performance; CS learners outperformed the other learning style groups.

PAGE 33

33 As the researchers maintain, finding were consis tent with research which showed p. 409) were found, since in this study dominant AR performers had the lowest scores in both courses. The results of the study were in line with the descriptions of GSD, which state that those who score high in random dimensions, CR and AR learners, tend to work/learn better in environments that afford mo re flexibility and have opportunities for multidimensional thinking. Those who score higher in the sequential dimensions, the t al., 2001, p. 409). Watson and Thompson (2001) conducted a study of learning styles among students in undergraduate interior design courses. The study included 147 participants in undergraduate interior design courses from schools in Arkansas, Colorado Oklahoma, Texas, and Louisiana. The participants were asked to complete the GSD. Approximately 50% (74) of the participants were found to have one of the Gregorc styles as their dominant learning style. Once again, the study substantiates theories and claims that learning styles and preferences do exist, and when teachers and students know these preferences and styles, the learning experience can be optimized. The implications of the Gregorc theory for instructional delivery methods are significant an d compelling as one considers both the advantages as well as the necessary accommodations associated with different student learning styles and learning modalities. The passive lecture method delivery model relies heavily upon reaching learners through th e auditory learning channel and, based upon the

PAGE 34

34 information just reviewed concerning learning styles, appeals to students who style is predominantly concrete sequential. Instructors who rely upon the passive lecture method oral/aural instructional deliver y model do not as effectively address all other learning styles. Learners who seek and succeed in learning experiences that require strong attention to detail such as the scientific method most probably possess learning styles that are less random and seq uential. To conclude, the theory of MI joins the other theories as they relate to the process dalities provides a framework of understanding the ways in which human beings acquire knowledge. These theories provide significant findings concerning the process by which human beings gain information purposefully through instructional contexts such as schools and particularly with respect to the instructional delivery systems employed by instructors. 2. 6 Learning Style Examining learning style and modality is important in understanding which learning style is most suited for any one individual. Learni Everyone has a preferred learning style, which reflects the outcome in the context of education, and how they perceive the instructio nal delivery and learn more productively and efficiently (Learning Styles and Multiple Intelligence, 2008). An understanding of the range of different learning styles will aid the instructors at the CSL College at KU to be able to help their students bett er in dealing with people with varying abilities and cognitive styles once embarking into the real world.

PAGE 35

35 There are three types of highly predominant learning styles: visual learners, auditory learners, and tactile/kinesthetic learners. Individuals may possess a blend of these sensory learning styles E ach human being has a dominant style through which they learn best (Dunn & Dunn, 1978). Visual learners learn through seeing and these learners comprise as much as 75% of all learners (Dunn & Dunn, 1978). Visual learners need to see, in the context of the content of a lesson. They tend to prefer sitting at the front of a classroom. Visual learners think in pictures and learn best from visual displays and visual stimuli. Visual students often prefer to take detailed notes during a lecture or classroom discussion to absorb the information under study. Visual learners rely heavily on technology of a visual nature such as computer screens and text messaging. Auditory learners learn through listening and these learners comprise about 35% of all learners (Dunn & Dunn, 1978). They learn best through verbal lectures, discussions, and by talking things through as well as by l istening to what others have to say. Auditory learners interpret the underlying meaning of spoken communications by listening to tones, pitches, speed, and other characteristics of spoken language. Written information may have little meaning for auditory learners until it is heard. These learners often benefit from reading aloud and listening to taped books. Many auditory learners, not surprisingly, have musical talents and are adept learners of foreign language(s). Tactile/Kinesthetic learners learn th rough moving, doing, and touching. These learners comprise approximately 25% of all learners (Dunn & Dunn, 1978).

PAGE 36

36 Tactile/Kinesthetic persons learn best through what is considered a hands on approach where active exploration of the physical world is esse ntial for learning success. These learners find difficulty in sitting still for long periods and tend to become distracted by their need to move around and explore by touch, feel, and particularly need to be engaged by spatial stimuli. 2. 7 Personality Ty pe To explore one other potentially important factor in the outcomes of the different educational methods, looking at the different types of personalities that are found among people becomes imperative. Carl Jung, in the early 1920s identified four differ ent personality types, and while he was not, by any means, the first to do so, his work has been elaborated on A developed to help educators, employers, instructors, and anyone else, identify, understand an Among the most popular of these indicators is the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). A mother, Katherine Briggs, and her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers developed the Myers Briggs Type Indicator. They cr eated the MBTI in the 1940s to be used for personnel selection (Pittenger, 1993). Since that time, its use has expanded in many different fields, particularly in assessing employment potential. The foundational basis of the test is that certain personali ty orientations are better suited for certain y fit into one of sixteen types, which are based on four features of a personality. Each one of these features has two opposite preferences. As Pittenger explains, the four different groups are:

PAGE 37

37 I. Extroversion (E) vs. Introversion (I) II. Sensing (S) vs. Intui tion (N) III. Thinking (T) vs. Feeling (F) IV. Judgment (J) vs. Perception (P) The Myers Briggs Type Indicator, while enjoying wide use, has also come under considerable criticism and speculation. Some, like Pittenger (1993), question its validity and suggest tha t it does not measure what it sets out to measure. Alternatively, Wall (2008), Carskadon (1994), and Marrapodi (2004) among others, believe that the administration of the MBTI is the most accurate one can get when assessing personality. 2 .7.1 Advantages of MBTI Stephanie Wall (2008) claims that: Our personality type determines how we interact with our world, how we gather information, how we make decisions, and how we orient our lifestyles. It is who we are and dictates how we communicate with others (W all, p. 68). This conveys the importance of personality factors in the learning process. It suggests that a tool like the MBTI could help an instructor know her students better and be able to fashion a more appropriate instructional design. While a class room can be taught as a collective group, knowledge into the individual personality traits of each student will allow the instructor to implement different strategies while teaching so that all the apting the lessons with audio visual, kinesthetic, or other experiences. According to Carskadon (1994), the MBTI has many advantages for its use, which teachers; key conc epts that are readily understood, communicated, and applied: abundant availability of supporting resources; relevance to and use in abroad range of

PAGE 38

38 personality type as being any better than any other type, therefore there is no harm to a esteem, and s/he will think that the outcome type is the best type. The test can be completed in a span of a half hour, and this is very convenient for college students and adul t learners; it does not consume too much time and therefore those with full schedules and trying to balance school and social life are not too inconvenienced. While the MBTI can be complex and needs to be understood properly by both administrators and tho se taking the test, it is very helpful in aiding in communication between individuals (Carskadon, 1994, p. 71). Carskadon makes the point that many teachers plan their lessons for students that they wish they had, as opposed to the type of students they w ill have in reality. By utilizing the MBTI, the teachers are better able to construct lessons, and modify their objectives, so that they are able to include all students, regardless of their personality types, into the lesson, ensuring that it is educatio nal and beneficial to all. Carskadon also makes the claim that using MBTI may be beneficial because W hen differences among students are understood as naturally occurring, possibly inborn, preferences, behavior that may have been attributed to stupidity, o bnoxiousness, or obstinacy, suddenly becomes vastly more acceptable and constructive at best, something to be appreciated and utilized, and at worse, something to be taken with humor rather than resentment ( p. 78). and personalities do not match at all, therefore it helps to know how the personalities can be recon ciled in the classroom.

PAGE 39

39 Felder and Brent (2005) claim that MBTI profiles have strong indications on learning styles of individuals and that studies on the different learning styles can tell much about the effects on student performances and attitudes. Th ey go on to claim that, based on studies of MBTI being administered to 116 students by Felder, the MBTI proved to be effective at characterizing differences in the way engineering students approached learning tasks, how they responded to different forms of instruction and classroom environments, and how they formulated career goals. Marrapodi claims that there is a very strong case for the MBTI to be used in education ng quadrants measure how information is received (perception) and preferences that are used in MBTI and how they created temperaments and types. ts even more detailed: Generally, the focus of the MBTI test results is personality styl e but there are also some clear indicators regarding learning preferences, since learning is largely taking in new information, a type of perception, and using that in formation, requiring judging and decision making to determine how to use it (p. 3). Of note is the fact that Lemire (2001) found about 4000 articles dealing with MBTI and which showed its reliability and validity. 2 .7.2 Disadvantages of MBTI The disadv antages of the MBTI are the possible risks it presents of forever categorizing a student into one personality and learning type. When taking a test of any kind, one has to remember that there are emotional, external, and other factors that affect the indi result will vary if they were to take the test at another time. In other words, on the first

PAGE 40

40 day of the course, Robert may take the MBTI test and based on the answers he gives because o f his mood, experiences that day, etc., the results may say that he is an introvert. If he takes that same test on the third day of the course, his answers may be different and the result would be that he is actually an extrovert that has some characteris tics of an intuitor. Williamson and Watson (2007) state that some studies have shown that MBTI results can be affected depending on whether the student chooses to pick stronger preference indicators that will in turn give a more meaningful result. This m akes the results of the MBTI unhelpful because the testing itself is subjective. MBTI also has the potential for the personality type to become a label that is then used as an excuse by teachers, administrators or the student for poor performance. Any st udents that take the MBTI and get a result that has them in one personality type can risk the possibility of thinking that their skills and abilities are just those defined by the MBTI and their performance will be restricted only to the skills found withi n that group. MBTI, like the Jungian theories before it, has given birth to more theories and personality tests. One of those theories is the Keirsey Temperament Sorter, a personality test developed by David Keirsey. 2. 7.3 The Keirsey Temperament Model The MBTI has had its advantages and while it is still very widely used, it has spawned the creation of another personality test: the Keirsey Temperament Sorter (KTS II). The Keirsey Temperament Sorter is based on the Keirsey Temperament Theory that was pu t forth by Dr. David Keirsey. The initial Temperament Sorter was Please Understand Me but it was later revised in

PAGE 41

41 1998 and published as the Keirsey Temperament Sorter II (KST II). This short 70 question test can be administered online and provides much analysis on personality. Keirsey Four Types Sorter. The Keirsey Temperament Sorter has been modified into what is referred to as the Keirsey Four Types Sorter. The difference between the two Keirsey Sorters is that the KST II is 70 questions long, while the Keirsey Four Types Sorter only has 16 questions. The Four Types Sorter still adheres to the 16 different temperament types, however, it generally describes the four major types, as well as allowing one to be abl e to rank his/her second, third and fourth choices. In other words, when someone takes the Keirsey Temperament sorter, s/he will have a detailed explanation of what personality/temperament type s/he is because the result will fall within one of the 16 typ es. When taking the Keirsey Four Types Sorter, one will have the result of which of the four temperaments one is, as well as a ranking of which of the other three s/he is most like besides their actual type. An artisan may be surprised to find out that s /he has more rational traits than idealist traits, and would be identified more as an idealist, instead of a rational as a second temperament. This helps one when analyzing their learning style because one may be faced with a learning style that does not work too well and that person can call on their innate traits of their secondary temperament to be able to deal/work with the learning style. preferences introduced by Myers and Briggs. Keirsey is careful to mention in his book, In other words, he uses their

PAGE 42

42 31). He believes that being smart is not about how well one can think, but how well one acts when one is in a certain situation o thought. This method of defining temperaments, in correlation to intelligent action, is study dealing with pedagogy. Keirsey Four Temperaments: Keirsey hypothesized that there are four temperaments: 1. Artisans are observant and pragmatic. Composers, Crafters, Performers, and Promoters are the role variants contained within this temperament. Their greatest strength is tactical variation. Their most developed intelligence operations is either expediting or improvising. 2. Guardians are observant and cooperative. Protectors, Inspectors, Supervisors, and Providers are the role variants contained within this ca tegory. Guardians seek membership or belonging and are concerned with responsibility and duty. Their greatest strength is logistical intelligence. They excel at organizing, facilitating, checking, and supporting. 3. Idealists are introspective and coopera tive. Healers, Counselors, Champions and Teachers are the role variants contained within this category. Idealists seek meaning and significance and are concerned with finding their own unique identity. Their greatest strength is diplomatic intelligence. They excel at clarifying, unifying, individualizing, and inspiring. 4. Rationals are introspective and pragmatic. Architects, Masterminds, Inventors and Fieldmarshals are the role variants contained within this category. Rationals seek mastery and self c ontrol and are concerned with their own knowledge and competence. Their greatest strength is strategic intelligence. They excel in any kind of logical investigation such as engineering, conceptualizing, theorizing, and According to David Keirsey: Temperament is a configuration of inclinations, while character is a configuration of habits. Character is disposition, temperament pre disposition. Thus, for example, foxes are predisposed born to raid hen

PAGE 43

43 houses, beavers to dam up streams, dolphins to affiliate in close knit schools, and owls to hunt alone in the dark. Each type of creature, unless arrested in its maturation by an unf avorable environment, develops the habit appropriate to its temperament: stealing chickens, building dams, nurturing companions, or hunting at night. ("Temperament vs Character") These temperaments are supposed to help people gain a better idea about their personalities, just as the MBTI is supposed to do; the difference is that the KTS II focuses more on behavior instead of thought and feeling. There has been much confusion between the KTS II and the MBTI, althou gh for the one who has does the resear ch, their differences can be seen. Wicklein and Rojewski state that teachers teach, how leaders lead, and how everyone works and chers with distinct personality types were predictably attracted to different levels of teaching The literature on the Keirsey Temperament Sorter is replete with studies demonstrating the impor tance, or invalidity, of the test in the work place and how it can help employees and employers determine the type of personality each has and how it benefits the workplace environment. The benefits of it are very similar to the MBTI, and one can apply th e literature findings of the Keirsey Temperament Sorter to education as well. Suzanne Stokes (2001) investigated the experience of college students with digital learning and found the majority of the participants to be satisfied with the digital learning environment in higher education. The different characteristics such as age, grade point average, etc. did not make a difference in the study and those with different temperaments all expressed satisfaction. Stokes says this shows that college students w ith diverse temperaments are suitable candidates for learning in the digital instructional environment, and the recommendation that students considering enrolling in courses that incorporate digital learning, but who may be reluctant to register because of perceived mismatches between personal traits and the digital environment, should be

PAGE 44

44 reassured that the environment is not restrictive in terms of learner temperament (Stokes, 2001, p. 41). Interestingly, Dueck (2001) states that the different temperaments make a difference in Knowledge management (KM) (how a person absorbs knowledge). Actually, the term knowledge management is an on going stage of description in that, as Dueck states, define s KM (p. 886) and therefore it can have a different meaning for each person depending on his/her temperament. Dueck goes on to claim that people tend to think that their view of KM is the only view. Thus, the inclusion of an assessment of temperament in the present study may predict success in the class, with some participants finding it more difficult to broaden their view of how one can learn. Daughenbaugh, Ensminger, Frederick, & Surry (2002) studied the effect of personality type on satisfaction in online verses in class courses. They embarked on the study with the following three thoughts in mind: i) that since online courses are becoming increasingly popular, it would be useful to know which personality group best benefits from the online course; ii) it will also be useful for instructors to know because they can identify and modify areas of the online course that scored low so that they are more appealing to the students; and iii) the study would be a good basis for other researchers endeavoring t o find out the satisfaction with online courses (Daughenbaugh et al., 2002, p. 3). Among their findings was that there were statistically significant differences between extroverts and introverts in 10 course satisfaction factors, with the extroverts expr essing stronger preference for online courses. The results supported the general theory: introverts and extroverts do differ in their learning styles and preferences. This general thought/theory is at the heart of this study. Any differences

PAGE 45

45 observed be tween teaching methods will derive at least in part from the ability to address different learning styles. Not everyone has the same personality or learning style, so therefore, knowing how to identify the differences will be a great asset to the administ rator when attempting to teach adult learners who have already ingrained Mills (2006) states that while it is dangerous to stereotype and assume that there are no exceptions whatsoever, the Keirsey model hold s true, in the case of faculties at schools: One can easily imagine school principals coming out of guardian or combination artisan group, science and math teachers emerging from the rationals type, physical education teachers, and coaches as artisans and counselors as idealists (Mills, 2006, p. 515). Knowledge of the different roles that students and teachers have in a learning environment and of the personality types that they are would definitely be an asset. When it comes to this study, specifically, t he Keirsey Types Sorter given as a pre test questionnaire would be extremely beneficial to explain why students perform better in one condition or another. It puts value to explain the differences that may derived in Personality t ypes, as assessed by the Keirsey Sorter, predict student performance in principles of microeconomics (Ziegert, 2000). The Keirsey model has also shown that there is a link between personality types and the number of class absences, the value of class part icipation, as well as results on final exams and homework completion (Lawrence & Taylor, 2000). This suggests that when studying class outcomes, one should consider not only instructional methods but personality types as well.

PAGE 46

46 All the literature seems to suggest that Keirsey Temperament Sorter, as well as MBTI, link personality types and behavior and/or outcome in some way, shape, or form. In terms of education, the Keirsey models and MBTI help in gaining an understanding of the role of learner diversity in instruction, be it active or passive. For this author, the conclusion is that it will be harder to accommodate for different personality types with instruction as the key to reaching all the personality types in the classroom. 2. 8 Teaching Methods Schulte (1996, p. 25) offers one of the best definitions of a traditional classroom as textbooks, and are in turn assigned various exercises, or homework, in an effort to instruction that includes innovative methods, such as e learning, instruction using mu lti media, and student oriented methods can engage the students so they become active learners, participating in their own education; the focus would no longer be on mere regurgitation but on understanding facts/concepts and applying them. Part of the act ive engagement condition mode in teaching is problem based learning. 2. 8 .1 Problem Based Learning Problem based learning (PBL) is an aspect of active learning methods; it can best be described as a strategy where students have a lot of input, jointly solvi ng their problems and reflecting upon experiences. PBL consists of open ended problems designed to facilitate learning and students work together to achieve answers and results. It is a unique way of learning in which students learn as they are learning. A large body of literature on PBL attests to the fact that PBL is an effective new way of

PAGE 47

47 teaching that allows the teacher to still have a prominent role while giving the students room to take ownership with their learning as well (NASA). Not only is the literature numerous on PBL, but also there has been much interest over $600,000 to the University of Delaware and a similar grant to Samford University in Alabama to inves tigate restructuring traditional instruction along problem Replacing passive instruction methods with the more active PBL may mean that students acquire a more functional, useful education, as they learn to utilize comprehension skills, and n ot just merely rote memory based skills. Rhem states that develop more learning and knowledge work, their social work wi ll also be improved. There is a larger opportunity for the students to participate in a PBL classroom environment as opposed to the passive instructor oriented approach. 2. 8 .2 Advantages of PBL Some of the advantages of PBL have been mentioned above, and the purpose of this section is to relate the conclusion of surveys and studies in relation to what students themselves have said about PBL. Baig, Habib & Mansuri (2006) have found that 79% of the 104 fourth year students surveyed in 2004 and 2005 (52 each year), liked PBL sessions. Overall, the students found that PBL was not only a good and affective Ware (2008) in the Kuwait Medical Journal was critical of the existing curriculum offered by the Faculty of Medicine at Kuwait University as too passive and too basic; a

PAGE 48

48 method that needed to be upgraded and enhanced. His reasons are that the old curriculum is full of non essential content that is hardly even retained through lecture delivery (Ware, 2008, p. 1). He stresses the importance of updating the way the curriculum stands in order for the medical students to become doctors of the new age, and able to keep wi th the times. He does mention, however, how that will be hard at the post secondary level to teach via PBL when, at the high school level, educators continue with the lecture based form of teaching. He calls for a change of curriculum, with an introducti on to e educational advancements, but also points out it has to happen at all educational levels, and it has to also start with the mindset of those problem based learning experts who are supposedly cla moring for the change (Ware, 2008). One of the advantages of PBL is that it can be adapted to different individuals, even in fields where changes and modifications in teaching methods happens at a slow pace. Rounds and Rappaport (2008) report that in nur sing, teaching methods are slow (Rounds & Rappaport, 2008, p. 12) still remain as the primary techniques. As they have been changing over the years and there is a need to emphasize the teaching techniques to cater to the older student with more life experiences. Problem based learning aids in this transition because it is a student centered learning technique that c an be modified and applied to students of all demographics and characteristics, in any field. Round s and Rappaport (2008) discuss cases in which PBL was implemented and the resulting affects on students. Of note is what the authors say about the unexpect ed outcomes; faculties

PAGE 49

49 which were examined have noted that because the students worked through cases together in groups, it created close ties and these students were able to have a closeness that lasted after graduation. In times when consultation is nee ded, these graduates had a network already in place from which to elicit assistance. 2. 8 teaching. Elementary schools already utilize computers, and cable TV programs, among other active tools to engage students in PBL. The emergence of the Internet in both the home and classroom settings has broadened the educational horizon enormously. E learning and distance learning have now become commonplac e, and are as affective, if not better, than the conventional passive lecture methods. In Kuwait, e learning is a new advent in the educational field. E learning can support PBL approaches to education as a tool that can be employed with a focus on the in dependent learner. In fact, e learning is likened to a quality service of which the st udent is a customer (Aldhafeeri et al., 2006). Aldhafeeri et al. (2006) argued that the Kuwaiti education system needs to be updated to add e learning, among other thi ngs, in order to bring its students up to international standards. In their conclusion, they state: implementing E learning in the schools of Kuwait makes students competent in the following areas: 1) basic operations and computer concepts, 2) ethical and human issues in use of technology, 3) use of productivity tools, 4) use of research tools, 5) problem solving and decision making tools, 6) use of communication tools. (Aldhafeeri et al., 2006) The results are evident if one does more research on problem based learning. The time for lecture only and one dimensional learning methods is over. In order to

PAGE 50

50 keep up with the rest of the world academically, all countries must adopt active teaching methodologies, because the evidence shows that more is needed t han just a lecture from a teacher/instructor. Problem based learning is not without its disadvantages, however. 2. 8 .4 Disadvantages of PBL Whenever changing from one concrete and conventional system to a new system that has not been as established, there will be quite a few snags along the way. With PBL, the snags come in the form of inexperience on the part of both the instructor and the student. Because for many this way of instruction may be new, the expectation of r and if not understood may affect the effectiveness of the method. If the instructor is not clear about his/her role in PBL, s/he may end academic freedom allowed by the PBL method Albanese and Mitchell (1993) in their meta analysis claimed that in some cases PBL was not as successful as it had been previously thought it would be. Instead, they claim that students of PBL have scored lower in some cases and do not th ink of instead of the forward thinking needed, and that there are gaps in their thinking. Of course, these are all very bad disadvantages and would make a very bad cas e for PBL, however, these are outcomes only in some cases, and the authors do mention that caution be taken when implementing PBL, and do not say that it should not be done. They warn that caution must be exercised because of the cost of establishing PBL. Implementing PBL can be costly in terms of staff (there will be a need for more facilitators and instructors), as well as potentially being financially costly in terms of

PAGE 51

51 materials needed (i.e. computers, whiteboards, electronic equipment). The opponent s they do not think it worth the risk if nothing has been done to improve the cognitive processing weaknesses that they have seen in PBL students. Basing his opinion on the work of A lbane se and Mitchell (1993), and Vernon and Blake (1993), Wolf (1993) stated that there was no concrete proof (at the time of his writing the article in 1993) that PBL is better than traditional educational methods. He claims the evidence only shows that it is better used for c ertain things, and not others. Donner and Bickley (1993) do not form any opinion as they say that the jury is still out on whether PBL is better than the conventional passive methods of teaching. They did not think that there was enough evidence and material to judge the success of PBL in 1993. Since the writing of their commentary, there has been much more study and classrooms, especially at post secondary levels (Finucane, Johnson & Prideaux, 1998). Hemker (1998) has many reservations about PBL. Even though in 1974 he was all for the idea of this revolutionary new way of teaching, he states that he soon began to see the drawbacks of the PBL method. According to him, the objections to PBL are: PBL makes it very difficult for students to identify with a good teacher PBL does not motivate staff to share knowledge with the students The knowledge acquired through PBL tends to remain unorgani zed. Hemker defends his objections by claiming that the distance that is acquired between student and teacher in PBL makes it hard for the relationship of a good teacher good

PAGE 52

52 and learning real skills 74). His second objection is defended with the idea that once teachers at univ ersities/medical colleges, etc., are required to teach via PBL, it de motivates them to actually teach since they can step back and allow the students to work in groups and on but a guiding of processes and groups of people. His third objection is defended just as staunchly, if not more so, as it may be the most important. He contends that students who learn using PBL lose their ability to organize knowledge properly, and t herefore, cannot distinguish between essential and accessory knowledge. If a student is aspiring to become a medical doctor, this could be, of course, extremely dangerous! His objections are helpful for the purpose of this dissertation because they allow the facilitator a view of what type of problems may come up during the study. To ensure that an objective study with as little a margin for error as possible takes places, it is important to be able to hypothesis the problems that may occur and formulate possible solutions before even beginning so that one is all prepared. Knowing that these objections could indeed become a reality for this study, preventative steps can be prepared ahead of time. Some of those steps could include ensuring that the teache r is few lectures in the active learning modules will ensure that real information is disseminated.

PAGE 53

53 PBL is a form of active learning which can be effective in ha ving students both gain information on specific topics and develop learning skills and independence. However, with the length of time it takes to implement PBL techniques, teachers may find that they are not able to completely cover all the planned materi al for that class period. To deal with this possible inconvenience and inhibition in PBL, an allocated time can be set aside for such activities as discussion so as not to over extend the PBL instruction time. 2.8.5 The Role of Discussion Brookfield and Discussion as a Way of Teaching; Tools and Techniques for Democratic Classrooms (2005) investigates in depth the notion of using discussion as a way of teaching. The authors further stated that discussion helps to open the doors to a new outlook on the same topic as different students can speak up their opinion; one ends up having a diversity of opinions and outlooks of a certain topic and is not restricted to just one view. Discussion will allow the participants the chance to go outside their own thinking process; they may never have known that they liked a certain way of thinking until they hear someone else express it, or they reach it through discussion sessions. Unorthodox thinking is sometimes the key to finding the solution of a pr oblem and that sort of thinking is best elicited from discussion courses. As the authors indicated, discussion forces the student to use his/her thought processes quickly, to be able to speak extemporaneously. In so much as a text or reading material may be skimmed over, or ignored, the discussion brings the topic to the forefront, it stimulates the student to be aware of perhaps a new issue, taking time to think it through which may not have occurred otherwise. In discussion sessions, students are

PAGE 54

54 able to take more ownership on their own learning and the development of their thoughts. The present study will not eliminate the possibility of discussion as an added medium to the two different methods of teaching. Observations will be made as to whether di scussion becomes a factor in the different methods. Discussion is an imperative part of the learning process, and while the passive lecture method may seem like a method that may lack discussion, discussion can still be a big part of the lecture. Many ti mes, professors will broach a topic within a lecture that will spark questions and/or comments that will start a discussion. For those who need to be involved in their own learning, this form of education is key because it forces the learning to go beyond just a lecture, and involves those who need a direct involvement. It becomes a new tool in the learning process while requiring very little in terms of preparatory equipment, tools, etc. The case is made for discussion being a form of learning because i t allows for free and unique thoughts and exchanges of ideas to flourish. After interviewing instructors throughout the United States, MacGregor and colleagues (2000) found that teachers who used active learning activities while teaching their students found that those students were better able to retain course concepts resulting in long term learning, engage in meaningful discussions, and further promoted positive i mpact of active learning, concluding that it resulted in better retrieval of knowledge and retention by students who had actively engaged in practice, discussion, and application.

PAGE 55

55 2.9 The World of Academia: Academic Institutions The use of technology in i nstructional methodology is new in Kuwait, and due to this newness, there is a risk that teachers, students and parents alike will find it challenging to adapt to this new way of learning (Aldhafeeri et al., 2006). Other challenges that arise from using t his technology is the simple fact that some school administrators remain unconvinced that technology can augment learning (Al Ali, 2006). ualities. demonstrated to profoundly comprehend why the lack of active learners is evident at Kuwait University. To do this, the educational background of students and how they are taught in high schools need to be explained in order to understand why and how students turned out the way they are once a dmitted to university. Undoubtedly, the aspect of culture is a fundamental point that one needs to acknowledge before any assumptions are demonstrated. This is vital due to the presence of inactive learners is bound to have the aspect of culture relevant to its presence in the first place. Chen, Mashhadi & Ang, (1999) state that culture should be considered as a prominent concern in designing active lecture engagement method learning systems. Furthermore, one of the five essential foundations of effecti ve student centered learning environments is the aspect of active lecture engagement method (Chen et al., 1999); the other four foundations are pedagogical, pragmatic, technological, and psychological. There are some common characteristics of Arab learne rs that prevail in the Kuwaiti culture, and the Arab world as a whole. Abdel Bary, (2007) examined the common characteristics of Arab learners and the approach to e learning in the Arab world. Eight hundred individuals participated in the survey and the determination of the

PAGE 56

56 results were grouped into categories such as personal and social characteristics; in these areas, Arab learners felt free to express themselves whi le using the Internet for learning. Different learning styles (visual, auditory, and kinesthetic) were observed in the learning situation and styles categories. The results of this survey based on tive learning environment helped them to verbally exchange their experience (Abdel Bary, 2007). This is important because the Arab student voice is not heard, as the teacher is the more dominant personality. Therefore, it is important to raise the fact t hat a well structured tutoring course needs to be facilitated to produce communication and collaboration, which is effective in online learning where the students will feel appreciated and hence will become more willing to take online courses (Abdel Bary, 2007). The survey also addressed the fact that well structured e learning courses will encourage productive communication and motivate the learners in an interactive environment. 2. 10 How Students will Benefit from E learning and Become Active Learners I enhances their learning retention significantly (Smart & Csapo, 2007). This finding has shown why it is important that teachers need to look for different strategies in order to actively involve students while simultaneously learning to gain a positive learning outcome (Smart & Csapo, 2007). Active learning can be defined as variations referred t & Csapo, 2007). Most experts agree that students learn better when they are exposed to 07, p.

PAGE 57

57 400). Studies have proven that active learners who are exposed to various activities play a decisive role in the education and learning process. Pedagogical exercises that ular activities, additional in class activities, and experiments among others (Smart & Csapo, 2007). Activities that students can engage in are numerous. Shahatah (1992) (as cited in Al Ali, 2006, p. 1 mental, kinetic, psychological, and social performance. This practice satisfies the These activities, therefore, assist students into enriching their bank of knowledge and experience, and help them in acquiring the necessary skills and attitudes into developing their personalities. This development of personality reflects themselves and their inner confidence, helpi ng them to grow and Ali, 2006). 2. 10 .1 Computers Computers have become a vital device in the learning process and concurrently to (1 believed that teaching and learning are difficult goals to achieve and that the comput er opened new ways for resolving these goals. The computer is a medium that allows the student to learn virtually, but in a real life situation the educational environment has now become virtual with a reality based setting (Almahboub, 2000). These cla ims have commonplace in classrooms and online/e learning is now available worldwide. The

PAGE 58

58 underlying question in this regard would be how can students learn and benefit f rom using computer technology and learning and how schools can or educational organizations implement them specifically at KU. KU is making an effort into integrating e learning to help students and educators themselves. Yet sadly, the e learning courses offered by the university do not include any in the CSL department. KU defines e learning as acquiring computer related skills for success and learning (About E learning, 2008) rather than educating students into specific learning mediums, CSL in this cas e. The e learning courses that KU provides are categorized into four ranges that are listed as follows: 1. Information Technology (IT) provides courses to develop (IT) skills such as programming. 2. Certifications consist of courses that provide skills for part icular courses, (but not yet in CSL). 3. Desktop and Office Productivity provides courses on how to apply desktop fundamentals into graphic design. 4. Business and Professional Development provides courses on business related subjects such as management and lea dership (About E learning, 2008). Goodman (2001) also sheds light on wireless networking, which is currently widely used, especially on university campuses. 2.10.2 The Learning Environment While there is still some skepticism when it comes to converting a traditional classroom into a technology conferencing, it has to be remembered that it is impossible to neglect these students who are well introduced to the diversified technological advanced from computers, cell phones, on line classes, and text messaging; they download music on

PAGE 59

59 MP3 players, they watch TiVo television shows, burn copies of DVDs all in which have changed and further advanced the manner in which human communications are conducted (McCarthy, 2006). The generation beginning in 1980 81 is often referred to as Generation Y (Arhin & Johnson Mallard, 2003), and it is this Generation Y that makes up the majority of undergraduate students in today's colleges and Universities. These Generation Y learners have played video games long before attending school. In the 21st century, college students could not work, play or study without computer and online facilities. Therefore, these learners should expect courses to be delivered online and to find m aterials there as well. Arhin and Johnson Mallard (2003) suggest that these students will learn best when professors change from the passive lecture, face to face instruction to more innovative instructional methodologies. The technology of today has greatly influenced the current colleg e student, and often many professors are intimidated as they are not familiar with the fast changing world of electronic communication capabilities that has been the life experience of the current generation of college students but not that of m any of the professors teaching G eneration Y students. The characteristics of Generation Y students have been described in the literature. For example, C hester (2002) described G eneration Y students as being technologically well in teams, valuing diversity and questioning everything. To Faust, Ginno, Laherty, Manuel (2001) a Generation Y student is described as being a "holistic learner" who is less examining and linear, yet mo re logical and efficient while still being engaged and

PAGE 60

60 competitive. Generally, the Generation Y student is a holistic learner, with lucid behavior, active and kinesthetic, graphic and visual, with a variety of learning styles and skill levels that are bas ed in real world tasks and strategies (Faust et al., 2001) It has been recommended that these students must be actively involved in the learning experience. Five suggestions are as follows (Caudron, 1997): 1. Role playing and cooperative experiences. 2. Allow students to have more control in their own learning. 3. Highlight key points to utilize the fact that students prefer to surf and scan over reading. 4. Challenge the students to construct knowledge from their own experiences. 5. Questions to and by the stu dents/instructor can greatly enhance a lecture lesson. In a passive lecture method delivery system, the professor fashions the course and derives the assigned readings (often in the form of handouts), the textbook(s), assembles the data that is to be prese nted in the lectures, and assemble materials to support the lecture. The educator then delivers his stockpile of knowledge and research to the learner; this methodology establishes the professor as the discussion moderator who assists with the understandi ng of the material, and is the proctor for administrating the exams, and finally the decision maker ascertaining the levels (A, B, C, D) to which the student has comprehended the subject (Young, 1997). Quoting John T. Moseley, Provost at the University of Oregon, "there is no evidence that the lecture model of teaching is the most effective model for the most students," and goes on to say in an interview with J.R. Young, "faculty members spend much of their time conveying information. The faculty member's time can be better used," he says, and the technology can be used for basic teaching (Young, 1997, p. 26).

PAGE 61

61 The passive lecture method instructor adopts a teacher focused strategy with the intention of transmitting information to students or one with the intention that students acquire the concepts of the discipline (Trigwell & Prosser, 1996). One can only conclude that in order to bring about innovation to the way instructors approach their teaching styles, these same instructors must look to alter their concept of learning and teaching. Karagiorgi and Symeou (2005) argued for a change from autocratic and dictatorial classroom instructional methodology, with abstract conceptual approaches to learning, to classroom settings in which learning is achieved t hrough research, practice, and exposure relevant to today's world. In this setting, teachers need to be able to change and the development of instructional deliv ery systems that require active learning on the part of students, a move from the passive lecture method or teacher directed instruction methodology has been slow to be accepted by the majority of college level instructors. Often professors are still usin g old lecture notes, some as much as ten years old, and some of these same instructors hold the position. The question now is: should university teaching change again. Should this change be enacted, just how much change (Young, 1997). The proper environm ent for active educational approaches is key. Goodman videoconference or Web formation of active learning i nstruction is a necessity in the CSL program because it will surely aid in the learning process and will help the professors do their jobs better. Another reason why this is important at the CSL program at KU is the fact that this

PAGE 62

62 program has a limited nu mber of faculty staff, only two professors to be exact, and therefore students are in need to find other means of learning and that is through technology (Kuwait University, 2008). One might argue that active learning is only fulfilled when dealing with small classroom sizes, but Yazedjian and Kolkhorst (2007) learning strategies transform the student from a passive recipient to an active participant in the transmission of In conclusi on, e learning concentrates on making the individual learner the center of attention along with the learning content (Aldhafeeri et al., 2006). Eventually, e learning is not necessarily about technology, rather about teaching and learning. In a nutshell as said above, active learning is more than mere activities that students qualities. 2. 11 Adult Learners a big part of teaching adult learners. Adult learners differ from children and teens because they have different needs and learn differently (Lieb, 1991). In order to properly conduct an experiment assessing their learning success, these differences shou ld be taken into consideration. Lieb credits Malcolm Knowles as the pioneer of the field of adult learning, or andragogy (a term actually first used in the 19th century). Knowles identified six different characteristics of adult learners. Adult learners : 1. are autonomous and self directed adults need to be able to direct themselves. They are not like children in that they need an instructor, but rather a facilitator. Facilitators need to let the adult learners know what areas will be covered and then a llow them the freedom to do the work on their own.

PAGE 63

63 2. have accumulated a foundation of life experience and knowledge their learning has to connect with their knowledge and experience because it allows them to relate to topics and realize the value in learni ng. 3. are goal oriented their goals are usually well known to themselves, if not to others, and they will appreciate classes that would help them achieve those goals. 4. are relevancy oriented adults want their education to be relevant to their lives. Whe ther they are taking courses to obtain a degree, for a job and/or for their own interest, the course material should be relevant to them and help to draw out the relevancy of their experiences and knowledge to the topic. 5. are practical adults seek to sig ht the practicality of the material, or its aspect, in regards to the purpose of their goals 6. must be shown respect of course as with all people, adults want to be shown respect, especially considering they are equal in terms of experience and knowledge, although not in the material at hand, as the facilitator. Adults, unlike children, bring a lot of experience to the classroom that will help a great deal in instruction and learning as well (adapted from Lieb, 1991). Despite being more than a decade old still rings true, and is especially relevant to this study. As mentioned before, the majority of the participants will be adult learners, with the only difference being that they are post secondary students, as opposed to adults returning to school, and therefore, although they are not exactly adult learners by definition, they retain those six characteristics, which must be taken into account in this study. For the sake of this dissertation, the terms adult le arners and young adult learners will be used together to mean the group which will make up the participants of the study, as all the participants are post secondary students. It is important while conducting this study that the facilitator keep in mind th at the students still have lives outside of the classroom and do bring experiences and knowledge with them, even though it may not be about the subject matter at hand. The direction is very important, and must always b e

PAGE 64

64 study to reflect the relevancy, practicality and goal orientation of the students, since all students present are there to obtain the same goal, and the material is all relevant to that goal. Studies governing adult learning provide much information but they do not give the whole picture needed for the proper conduction of the study that is relevant to this dissertation. Examining how young adults, in particular, learn and which methods are best to utilize will go far in ensuring that this study is as conclusive as possible. The concern in regards to this dissertation lies in how young adult students learn when taught in both the advanced teaching method, and the old, tr aditional passive teaching methods. This dissertation has focused a section on the concept of problem based learning, which falls under the larger topic of active learning. Problem based learning can include many new teaching technique mediums, such as p ower points presentation, but its primary objective is to lead students to be able to think freely and on their own The characteristic of being able to rely on the self and be self directed affects very much process Lieb (1991) also discussed the motivations behind adult learning and identified six key factors. All of the six factors listed deal with emotions, either directly or indirectly: social relationships, external expectations, social welfare, person al advancement, escape/stimulation, and cognitive interest (Lieb, 1991). Evoking any sort of emotional response, be it positive or negative, affects the learning of an adult, as it does in children, but in different ways.

PAGE 65

65 inant views on the relationship [emotions in relation to learning experiences] suggest that emotions are important in adult education personal belief that any personal (Dirkx, 2001, p. 64). Dirkx goes on to explain that emotions and imagination lead to attaching meanings to certain id eas, thinking and people, which colors interpretation and affects learning. An example of this would be if one felt very strongly about dissecting frogs and therefore felt apprehension at the prospect of doing so in biology class. This reaction of appreh ension may lead to a sense of disillusionment with biology stressing the importance and role that emotions and the imaginations have in adult learning, a key point of the s tudy highlights the disregard that is shown in adult learning s/he has brought to the situation (Dirkx, 2001, pp. 66 67). However, the truth is just the opposite: it is the emotions and imaginations of experiences that add value and meaning to adult learning and allow adults to either succeed, or fail, in an academ ic setting. As mentioned before, respect must be shown to the adult learners for the experiences they do have and bring to the table, and in order to show such respect, emotions must be acknowledged. The enthusiasm and emotional state of the instructor b egs mentions, as the instructor too affects the overall success of the learner. Dirkx (2001) concludes that:

PAGE 66

66 By approaching emotionally charged experiences imaginatively rather than merely conceptually, learners locate and construct, through enduring myth ological motifs, themes, and images, deep meaning, value and quality in the relationship between the text and their own life experiences (Dirkx, 2001, p. 70). Keeping the six characteristics of adult learning in mind, using PBL to teach adult learners seems to be the most ideal approach as studies and research have shown that active instruction, specifically PBL and other self oriented methods are most successfu l. Adult learners and PBL/active instruction t eaching Lozada (2002) states that Adult Workforce Development professionals have discovered that when instructing and teaching adults, thinking outside the box and being prepared to utilize anything is the k ey to facilitating proper and successful instruction. The article also states that educators need to work together with students to make sure that all the learning goals are being met and that both parties, the educators and students, are on the same page While the article relates the best ways to teach adults who are working full time jobs, it be busy, will have to be taken into account as well. Gleaning how to set up a curriculum around an already fixed schedule, such as a job schedule, would greatly help this study to run smoothly. Northwood, Northwood & Northwood (2003) make a point in thei r article that (Northwood et al., 2003, p. 157), and that professors in fields like engineering should recognize that their teaching methods must be analyzed and rectified ac cordingly to ensure that their students are ready for anything that may arise. This point, of a teaching method that allows the student to be ready for any anything that may come their way, increasingly popular, and for post secondary instruction of adult s, PBL is the

PAGE 67

67 state that based on the evidence from over 30 years of experience in engineering programmes in Europe and North America, the answer to this question [ how to teach engineers to be problem solvers?] appears to be: using a PBL approach (p. 162). This insistence that the best pedagogical approach to teaching adults is through active learning, and most notably PBL, is echoed in literature and studies found throughout the academic world. Boulden (2008) has found that in a two year study involving students aged 16 24 years old (young adults) who were obtaining their General Education Diploma; there was better success when the program combined different teachi ng strategies. This shows that even among the lower end of the age scale, adult learners fare better with active instruction, than traditional, lecture based instruction. The study also makes note of the fact that teachers and facilitators need to make n studen ts to make the best of the information and knowledge that they gain. 2. 12 Rationale and Purpose The topic of the dissertation was chosen because of the nature of the courses being taught at KU at the CFW at the Department of CSL. There is a need to have varied teaching approaches. The exploration of the study of the best teaching methodologies that are correlated to the achievement of desired learning outcomes while allowing students choices in determining their course schedules has been prompted by the

PAGE 68

68 The focus of this dissertation was to investigate whether the passive lecture method is as effective as other more interactive instructional models. Through the examination of the theories put forth by Bloom, Gard ner, Gregorc, and others, it has been concluded that any instructional delivery model must be sensitive to the needs of the learners based upon their learning styles, learning modalities, and intelligences in order to have the greatest instructional effect in multiple domains, a more interactive approach to teaching incorporating discussion and problem based learning should produ ce a greater degree of learning than a passive lecture approach. Finally, the Keirsey Four Types Sorter is used to identify personality type and it will be used to reflect learning style. This study is designed to examine the impact of passive lecture and active engagement teaching methods on student learning and student impressions of the learning experience. Unique features of this study include the examination of effects over a shorter term that has been previously employed and in a content area within communication disorders (stuttering) not previously investigated. In addition, this study was conducted in a unique situation in which there are only female participants studying this module in the English language, which is not their native language, as the course was in the English medium college, where English is the language of instruction. 2. 13 Research Questions This study attempts to investigate the possible benefits of using interactive instructional methods and technological devices in teachin g a college level course and compare the results of student performance with that of the time tested passive lecture method, or teacher directed lecture based instructional methodology, in order to

PAGE 69

69 produce active learners. The study attempts to draw concl usions concerning the correlation of student achievement based upon instructional methodologies. This study will also investigate whether students learn more effectively if they are engaged and are active learners, as well as whether they do, or do not, b ecome active learners if instruction is technologically enhanced. The impact of instructional method on subjective student impressions and the potential relation between personality type and learning outcomes in each of the teaching methods will also be e xplored. 2. 14 Hypotheses It is expected that the utilization of more interactive instructional methodology learners in a more positive manner than the passive lecture m ethods. Exposing students to technology in the classroom will make them engage better in classroom activities by practical assignments and retention of main theories in the CSL majors. Pre instruction and post instruction assessments will include a quest ionnaire and tests composed of true/false, multiple choice, and short answers items. The primary hypotheses to be tested in this experiment include: 1. That in both instructional conditions, post instruction scores will be higher than pre instruction scores. 2. That the scores on the post instruction assessment procedures will be higher for the interactive instructional condition than for the passive lecture method.

PAGE 70

70 Table 2 1 Bloom's Six Domains Domains Use Key Words Knowledge Demonstrating an understanding of various language components including pronouns, verbs, and nouns, function of objects, part/whole relationships, and categorization. Making inferences about a situation. defines, describes, identifies, labels, lists, names. Comprehension sequence of an everyday event or task. Following single and multiple step verbal directions. comprehends, converts, defends, distinguishes, estimates. Application Apply the rules of conversation, taught during a treatment session, in a real life situation. Completing verbal analogies. applies, changes, computes, predicts, prepares, solves, uses. Analysis Language sampling and phonological analysis, to determine areas to target during treatment. Breaking down a communicat ive act into individual components or steps. analyzes, compares, contrasts, diagrams, infers, selects. Synthesis Taking the different parts of speech and combining them to form a complete and grammatically correct statement. categorizes, explains, modifie s, relates, summarizes, writes. Evaluation Select the most effective solution. Accurately assess and diagnosis a speech and language disorder. Identifying a disease, abnormality, or disorder by analysis of the symptoms presented and the results of vari ous assessments. appraises, compares, explains, interprets, justifies, relates. Adapted from

PAGE 71

71 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY This study investigated the impact of active participation by students dubbed the active lecture engagement method in comparison to a passive lecture method and then tied it to assessments of their learning and to their impressions of the learning knowledge and their ability to generate coherent short answers to questions that pertained to stuttering, a type of speech disorders 3.1 Participants Fifty students from the College for Women (CFW) at Kuwait University (KU) participated in this study and were randomly divided into one of the two study groups. All participants completed the informed consent form (Appendix A). All the participants were female, and were enrolled at KU. The mean age of the participants ranged from 18 to 22 years old. To control for potential differe nces in academic abilities, participants were required to hold a GPA of 2.5 and above and were in the Speech Pathology major at least a 2.0 GPA. KU probation policy begins in the second semester and students are placed on probationary status with graded criteria: < 45 credits, minimum GPA =1.67; 45 to 60 credits minimum GPA = 1.87; > 60 credits minimum GPA = 2.0. Students on p robation have two semesters to raise the GPA above the minimum. Otherwise, the student will be expelled from the Kuwait University. (Dean of Admission and Registration Office. Kuwait University Student Handbook 2008 2009.)

PAGE 72

72 All participants were native speakers of Arabic from Kuwait; therefore, English was their second language. This was a crucial issue since the study material, teaching methods, and all testing within the CSL department CFW is in English. Kuwaiti students study English from grades 1 t for the purpose of this dissertation to assure that t hey were able to understand the lecture and therefore participate in the tests. A qualified PhD level female speech language pathologist who h as experience teaching courses related to speech disorders in English to both native speakers of English and speakers of English as a second or foreign language served as instructor for this experiment. She is experienced in using both teaching technique s that were implemented in this study (passive lecture method and active lecture engagement method) She has repeatedly implementing these teaching methods in college level courses at both the University of Florida, USA, and the University of Jordan, in J ordan. 3.2 Setting All teaching and assessments took place at the CFW. This college was chosen because it is the only college with a CSL program in Kuwait. The approval from the "Institutional Review Board (IRB)" at the "University of Florida" was obtain ed for the study to be conducted at KU in the CSL department (UFIRB # 2008 U 1014). 3.3 Teaching methods A stuttering module ( Appendix D) was taught to two groups of students. The instructor delivered the lecture topics to one of the two groups using the passive lecture method and delivered the lecture topics to the other group using the active lecture engagement method. Within both versions of the module, the topics that were covered were:

PAGE 73

73 Definition and general description Facts about stuttering Theories about etiology Available treatments for stuttering Teaching of this module took place over a course of two weeks. Fifty students were randomly divided into two groups (25 subjects in each group). The first group (Group A) was taught using the p assive lecture method. With this approach, the primary instruction activity was to have students listen to a lecture. The second group (Group B) was taught using the active lecture engagement method, which incorporates teaching activities for which they were required to actively participate. During the course of the experiment, students assigned to each method (passive versus active) were instructed not to have any contact with each other in order to minimize any peer influence that might confound the re sults of the study. In addition, to control for experimenter influence, the principle investigator of this study was not to have contact with students at any time during the course of this study. Finally, the first and final session of both methods was videotaped for review by a panel of eight professors and graduate students in the communication disorders discipline who were not affiliated with the study ( Appendix G). Layout of teaching methods. The module on stuttering was taught over six 50 minute sessions over a two week period for each group passive lecture method. Each class consisted of 25 female students who were randomly assigned to one of the two groups. This number of subjects was ch osen because previous studies that utilized this sample size have yielded sufficient statistical power (Akinoglu, 2007). As noted above, Group A was taught the passive lecture method teaching approach, and Group B was

PAGE 74

74 taught using the active lecture engag ement method ( T able 3 1 for more information about the teaching method). 3.4 Variables and Statistical Analysis The independent variable in this study is the teaching method (passive lecture method versus active lecture engagement method). Additionally s ampled independent variables include a personality type (as determined by the Keirsey Four Types Sorter, administrated as a part of the pre instruction battery [Appendix B]) and the demographic/academic data collected in the first three questions of the Pa rticipants Feedback Questionnaire at the end of the study (Appendix F). Attendance was also measured, but served as an inclusion/exclusion variable, not an independent variable. The dependent variables are the scores on the pre and post module tests (Appe ndix C and E) and the Participants Feedback Questionnaire at the end of the study (Appendix F Questions 4 25). The Participants Feedback Questionnaire was administere d to evaluate possible impact of the teaching method. The Participants Feedback Questionnaire statements items were categorized into the following five subsets: Uniqueness: by the followi ng statement: Item 22: The instructor in this module was very much like the instructors in my other classes Overall i mpression : experience was measured by the following four statements: Item 4: I fee l like I understand stuttering better,

PAGE 75

75 Item 9: I felt comfortable in classes in this module, Item 10: I feel like I understood the lectures in this module, and Item 25: I would like to have other classes with this style of teaching. These statements did not directly elicit opinions of the active or passive nature of the their learning experience. Thus, it was hypothesized that there would be no significant differ ence in item responses between the two groups. In c lass p reference : Items in the questionnaire categorized as reflecting a preference for in class activities included: Item 6: I learned the most from the lectures Item 8: I learned the most from my fellow students Item 12: I prefer to learn in a group Item 16: I think that in class video activities helps me better understand the topic Item 21: I feel confident doing a presentation in class Item 24: I think in class discussions helped me better understa nd the topics These i n class preference statements did not necessarily elicit opinions of the active or passive nature of the learning environment. They were regarded as reflecting the O utside class p reference : Items thought to reflect a preference for learning experiences outside the classroom included: Item 5: I learned more from the textbook than from the lectures Item 11: I prefer to learn independently Item 15: I think reading the assigned chapter prior to the lecture helps me better understand the discussed topic Item 19: Doing activities outside class helps me better understand the topic Item 20: Extra reading assignments help me better understand the topics Item 23: The homewo rk assignments helped me better prepare for the class

PAGE 76

76 These outside s class preference statements did not necessarily elicit opinions of the active or passive nature of the learning environment. They are regarded as reflecting for learning activities outside of the classroom. Technology : Questionnaire items related to the use of technology in the learning environment included: Item 7: I learn better when the lecture topic is presented through power point data show than when it i s presented only through handouts Item 13: I am comfortable using a computer Item 14: I think that the internet could be a good source for finding information about topics discussed in my classes Item 17: I feel confident using PowerPoint Item 18: I fe el confident submitting my assignments electronically These t echnology statements did not necessarily elicit opinions of the active or passive comfort with the use of technology in their learning experience. Statistical analyses were und ertaken starting with tests of normality and equal variance to insure that assumptions of the inferential statistical tests were not violated. Independent two Sample t Test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, One Sided Paired t Test, and Linear Regression were used in subsequent analyses in this dissertation. Comparisons of the two groups were undertaken in order to find out if either method yields greater level chosen for all statistical tests in this experiment was 0.05. All statistical testing was conducted in a one tailed format. The null hypothesis was that there is no difference between the two methods. It was expected that students in the active group would perform better on the post tests, particularly on the post test questions requiring greater integration and reflection.

PAGE 77

77 Further, it is expected that students in the active group will view it as a more creative approach, and demonstrate their positive impressions on the questionnaire items. The lesso ns for the active lecture engagement method included activities that were related to the theories of learning presented in the review of the literature. participation in order to m odify cognitive, affective, and psychomotor learning domains to fit the individual student. For example, in the cognitive domain, students were asked to define, describe, list, name, analyze, synthesize, evaluate, or explain facts and concepts in order to develop their intellectual skills and abilities (Bloom, 1956). Before presenting the topics, students were asked the following two questions: What is stuttering? And what do you think might cause stuttering? At the end of the fourth lecture, and as a h omework assignment, students were asked to read a story from "Living with Stuttering" and answer questions at home about the material they read pertaining to: The effect of stuttering on the person's life choices, and The strategies used to deal with stu ttering. domain, they were asked to work in pairs or groups and learn to listen to others and understand and respect their opinions. The teacher also presented a number o f videos of speakers who stutter (both native and non native speakers of Arabic), and asked the students to work in pairs to discuss what they just saw in the videos and then answer the following question: What speech disfluencies did the speakers produce? What secondary behaviors did the speakers exhibit? What advice did the children in the videos give other children about the management of stuttering? Students in the active

PAGE 78

78 lecture engagement method class also needed to actively participate during clas s and to show appreciation and gratitude in order to motivate their peers. department at KU helped dev elop their knowledge, attitude, and skills positively. It was thought that this would assist them in dealing with situations related to their field. They need to possess these qualities in order to react positively in situations in the CSL field and not freeze under pressure. needs to be taken into consideration with the seven intelligences for i t will influence the teaching methods and philosophy. Although there many educational principles and designs that the principle investigator in the present study has been exposed to in the US, not all theories and educational strategies can be used due t o cultural issues. wanted to try to incorporate them and introduce them to students in Kuwait. Yet sadly, the principle investigator has to leave out two of the sev en, which are body/ kinesthetic and musical/rhythmic. The author might find problems asking students to sing or play music in class because of the Kuwaiti conservative society. prese intrapersonal skills. Students were asked to speak more, analyze given problems by applying logical answers, and work with each other to help motivate peers within the

PAGE 79

79 same team. Students in this group were also asked to apply the information they learned during class to real life situations (i.e. stuttering for a whole day to gauge thro ugh a short presentation. In contrast, in the passive lecture method, the same topics were presented by the same teacher, and lessons and exercises that the teacher provides were ones that required little or no feedback. The teacher was the one in contro l of the class and the assignments and homework. 3. 5 Assessment week course, students in both groups, passive and a ctive, were given twenty five item pre and post tests, consisting of multiple choice, True/False, and short answer questions. These tests examined the acquisition and integration of major concepts of the course by the students. The tests were also desig ned to support the assessment of the relationship between individual student learning styles, and the accuracy of their answers to the questions on the post test. Questions in the pre and post preferable learning style. The pre a nd post test scores consisted of 10 T/F questions, 10 MC questions, and 5 short answer questions. Each T/F question was worth one point, and each MC question was worth 1.5 points. The short answer questions were variably weighted to correspond with the level of content/degree of mastery required, with one question worth 40 points, one worth 20 points and three questions worth 5 points. Thus, the highest score one could obtain is 1 00.

PAGE 80

80 Scoring of the test was carried out by a qualified content area expert who was given the correct answers to all questions. This approach was used to minimize the potential for experimenter bias in this experiment. To summarize, participants were rando mly assigned to one of two groups undergoing a two week educational module on a topic in communication disorders, stuttering. One group received a set of lectures (the passive lecture group), while the other group was taught using an active engagement app roach (the active lecture group). Pre and post tests assessed the acquisition of specific knowledge relating to the topic as well as student attitudes and feelings about the topic and opinions on the teaching method.

PAGE 81

81 Table 3 1 Layout of experimenta l design Pre test Stuttering Lectures Post test Group A Keirsey Four Types Sorter True/False Multiple Choice Short Answers Active Module Participant Questionnaires True/False Multiple Choice Short answers Group B Keirsey Four Types Sorter True/False Multiple Choice Short Answers Passive Module Participant Questionnaires True/False Multiple Choice Short answers

PAGE 82

82 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS In this study, 50 participants drawn from the undergraduate population at Kuwait University College for Women were distributed randomly into two categories. The first group of 25 students was taught using a passive lecture method and the second group of students was taught using an Interactive engagement method. Both groups underwent six sessions over a period of 14 days. Differences between their pre test and post test performance were calculated. The aim of the study was to investigate whether there is a difference in learning within the two teaching methods as measured t est scores vs. pre test scores. The Keirsey influenced the learning experience, i.e., the personality categories were included in the present analysis as a covariate. impressions of his or her learning experience was also administered to evaluate possible impact of the teaching method. A few participants provided incomplete information, and their data have been excluded from analysis as described here. One participant in the active engagement group did not complete (did not mark) the year of school (grade level) answer in the questionnaire; therefore we will exclude this information from our analysis. Two participants in the passive group did not mark any answers in the questionnaire for age, year of study and GPA. Therefore, we will exclude this information from our analysis. The following results are derived from the various questionnaires and tests used in this study.

PAGE 83

83 4.1 Description of Participant Data In Each Of The Two Groups: 4.1.1 Age The mean age reported by the 50 participants recruited for this study, as reported using the questionnaire (Appendix F) was 19.1875 (SD = .79) (range = 18 to 21 years). The distribut ion of ages across the sample of 50 participants is displayed in Table 4 1. The mean age for the active group is 19.24 (SD = 0.723). The mean age for the passive group is 19.13 (SD = 0.87). Because the distribution of age for the active group was not no rmal, a non parametric test was used to test for equivalence between groups. Results of the Wilcoxon rank sum test indicate the two groups do not differ significantly in age (p = 0.63). 4.1.2 Year of S tudy All of the participants were college students somewhere between their freshman and senior years. The distribution of reported year of study was as follows: 0 (0%) participants were freshmen, 32 (64%) participants were sophomores, 11 (22%) participants wer e juniors, and 4 (8%) participants were seniors. Converting freshman as 1, sophomore as 2, etc., the active group mean year of study is 2.375 (SD = 0.647) and the passive group mean year of study is 2.435 (SD = 0. 662). Results of the non parametric Wilc oxon Rank Sum Test indicate the year of study for both active and passive group are homogenous (p = 0.716). 4.1.3 GPA Current grade point averages (GPA) reported by the participants ranged from .2.5 to 4.0. It is worth noting that 72% (36) of the partici pants had GPAs below 3.00. For the active group the mean of the GPA is 2.9284 and variance of the GPA is .106 with standard deviation .326. For the passive group the mean of the GPA is 2.9 and

PAGE 84

84 variance of GPA is .065 with standard deviation .255. Result s of the Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test indicate both active and passive groups are homogenous (p = 0.9897) for GPA. 4.1.4 Participants As P er Keirsey Four Types Sorter The personalities of all the 50 participants are classified in the following four categories as per the Keirsey Four Types Sorter Pre test Questionnaire (Appendix B). The distribution of the Keirsey Four Type Sorter questionnaire results for all fifty par ticipants (Appendix B) is as follows: the most common types were the Idealist (n = 21, or 42% of the sample) and the Guardian (n = 13, or 26% of the sample). Ten of the participants scored as Rational (20% of the sample), and 6 scored as Artisan (12% of t he sample). 4.1.5 Keirsey Personality Type Sorter Yields Categorical Data This tool yields four different types of personalities: Artisan, Idealist, Guardian, and Rational. From the frequency distribution shown in Table 4 2, we can observe that the acti ve group and passive group have similar distributions of Keirsey types. The most common types among the active and passive groups were the Idealist (44 and 40%, respectively), Guardian (20% and 32%, respectively), and Rational (24% and 16%, respectively). The least frequent type was the artisan, which occurred in 3 participants in each group (12% of the active group, and 12% of the passive group). 4.2 The Teaching Sessions 4.2.1 Sessions For sessions we gave exactly 6 sessions to both active and passive groups. Therefore, we can consider both group are homogenous in term of sessions being taught.

PAGE 85

85 4.2.2 Attendance Average attendance per session for the active group is 21.3 participants (variance = 10.267; SD = 3.2). For the passive group the average att endance per session is 21.17 participants (variance = 1.77; SD = 1.33). No participant missed more than 3 sessions. The Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test indicates the attendance for both active and passive group is homogenous (p = 0.402) (Figure 4 1). Based on the preceding results, it can be concluded that the sampling and test conditions for both active and passive groups are homogenous. Thus, we can proceed to perform the analysis on test scores. 4.2.3 Videotaped Sessions Several educational sessions were vid the classroom. Eight judges viewed the videoed sessions and provided their feedback in terms of 10 statements assessed on a 5 point Likert scale (Appendix Questionnaire F). For example, statement number 9 stated rating of 5, strongly agree to 1, strongly disagree. Results delineated a clear distinction between the two teaching styles. The ju dges rated the active sessions as consisting of less lecture time, encouraging discussion, less tense, more enjoyable, and using technology to a greater extent than the passive sessions. In addition, the active sessions were rated as entailing greater giv e and take, including more student presentations, and encouraging critical thinking. Finally, judges evaluated the active sessions as less passive and involving greater interaction. We can observe that otaped sessions, the judges tended to agree that the passive sessions consisted of mostly

PAGE 86

86 lecture, and disagree with this statement for the active sessions. The results also show that the judges strongly agreed that the passive sessions encourage less dis cussion in most sessions than active sessions. The judges agreed that the passive sessions appeared to produce less student e njoyment than active sessions (Figure 4 2) Technology usage was apparent in the active sessions and not as much in the passive se ssions. The passive sessions had greater tension than the active sessions (Figure 4 3). The judges agreed more often that the participants were passive in the passive sessions and had less interaction than the active sessions (Figure 4 4). Judges agreed that the passive sessions consist of less student presentations than active sessions and they strongly agreed that the passive sessions use less extensive giving in most sessions than active sessions. We can observe that the judges strongly agreed that t he passive sessions encourage less critical thinking in most sessions than active sessions (Figure 4 5). 4.3 Participant Feedback Impression Questionnaire/Comparing Teaching Methods The questionnaire was administrated in o subjective impressions of the learning experience. Participants provided their feedback on a 5 point Likert scale to 22 statements. Responses were all scaled from a rating of 5, strongly agree to 1, strongly disagree. For example, statement number 9 stated the item are displayed in Figure 4 8. Item 22 was excluded from the analysis because the ule was very much like the instructors in my other

PAGE 87

87 Items on the questionnaire included some that might be hypothesized to correlate more strongly with teaching method and others that can be expected to be less affe cted by teaching method. Comparisons were undertaken for specific subsets of questionnaire items. We labeled these subsets as: 1) overall impression, 2) in class preference, 3) outside class preference, and 4) technology. 4.3.1.1 Overall impression The four statements: Item 4: I feel like I understand stuttering better, Item 9: I felt comfortable in classes in this module, Item 10: I feel like I understood the lectures in this module, and Item 25: I would like to have other classes with this style of teaching. These o verall impression statements did not necessarily elicit opinions of the active or passive nature of the learning environment. They are regarded as reflecting there would be no significant difference in item responses between the two groups. Since the maximum score for each statement is 5, the total score the maximum is 20. For the active group, the mean of the summed scores from the overall impression items is 16.7 (SD = 2.42). For the passive group, the mean of the questionnaire is 15.826 (SD = 2.1246). Both groups use parametric analysis only since nonparametric analysis will normally have less power than parametric analysis. Both groups also have equal variance (F (23, 22) =1.2999, p = 0.5415).

PAGE 88

88 Two sample t tes t shows the two groups are not different. The active group had a slightly higher (but non significant t (45) =1.3252, p = 0.096) sense of satisfaction and understanding, as measured by these four items from the questionnaire. 4.3.1.2 In c lass preference Items in the questionnaire categorized as reflecting a preference for in class activities included: Item 6: I learned the most from the lectures Item 8: I learned the most from my fellow students Item 12: I prefer to learn in a group Item 16: I t hink that in class video activities helps me better understand the topic Item 21: I feel confident doing a presentation in class Item 24: I think in class discussions helped me better understand the topics These i n class preference statements did not necessarily elicit opinions of the active or passive nature of the learning environment. They are regarded as reflecting the For in class preference items, the mean values of the partici pants who were taught using the interactive engagement method is 21.76 (SD = 4.41) and mean value for the passive lecture method is 21.783 (SD = 2.354). Both active and passive data do not follow normal distribution therefore, we decided to use nonparamet ric test for the hypothesis testing for equality. The scores from the in class preference items for active and passive groups were not significantly different (Wilcoxon rank sum test; P = 0.8353). This shows that the participants in the active and passiv e groups had similar preferences with regard to learning through in class activities. 4.3.1.3 Outside class preference Items thought to reflect a preference for learning experiences outside the classroom included:

PAGE 89

89 Item 5: I learned more from the textbook than from the lectures Item 11: I prefer to learn independently Item 15: I think reading the assigned chapter prior to the lecture helps me better understand the discussed topic Item 19: Doing activities outside class helps me better understand the topi c Item 20: Extra reading assignments help me better understand the topics Item 23: The homework assignments helped me better prepare for the class These o utside class preference statements did not necessarily elicit opinions of the active or passive nature of the learning environment. They are regarded as reflecting For outside class preference items, the mean values of the participants who were taught using the interactiv e engagement method is 21.36 (SD = 5.21) and mean value for the passive lecture method is 20.609. (SD = 2.726)). Both active and passive data do not follow normal distribution therefore, we decided to use nonparametric test for the hypothesis testing for equality. There is no significant difference between the active and passive groups for the outside class preference (p = 0.201). This shows that participants in each group have similar preferences for learning activities outside the classroom. 4.3.1.4 T echnology Questionnaire items related to the use of technology in the learning environment included: Item 7: I learn better when the lecture topic is presented through power point data show than when it is presented only through handouts Item 13: I am com fortable using a computer

PAGE 90

90 Item 14 :I think that the internet could be a good source for finding information about topics discussed in my classes Item 17: I feel confident using PowerPoint Item 18: I feel confident submitting my assignments electronicall y These t echnology statements did not necessarily elicit opinions of the active or passive comfort with the use of technology in their learning experience For t echnol ogy items, the mean values of the participants who were taught using the interactive engagement method is 19.96 (SD = 4.53) and mean value for the passive lecture method is 19.174 (SD = 1.723). Both active and passive data do not follow normal distributio n therefore, we decided to use nonparametric test for the hypothesis testing for equality. The Wilcoxon rank sum test indicated that the active group displayed a significantly higher (p = 0.0485) degree of comfort with technology usage than the passive gr oup. For the distribution on all four subsets, greater agreement reflects the subjective judgment of the participants regarding the impact of the educational sessions on their overall impression, preference for outside or in class activities and usage of educational technology. Both groups tend to agree more often than they disagree on those four categories. However, more participants show that they strongly agree in the active group than in the passive group in all four item subsets (Figure 4 6). The f ollowing describes the distribution of responses on overall impression statements. Greater agreement on Item 4 reflects the subjective judgment of the participant regarding the impact of the educational sessions on her understanding of the content area. Both groups tended to agree that they understood the content area better

PAGE 91

91 following the educational sessions (Figure 4 7). Greater agreement on Item 9 reflects the subjective judgment of the participants regarding their comfort in the educational sessions. Both groups tended to agree that they feel comfortable in the educational sessions (Figure 4 8). Greater agreement on Item 10 reflects the subjective judgment of the participants regarding the impact of the educational sessions on their understanding of the content area. Both groups tended to agree that they understood the content area better following the educational sessions (Figure 4 9). Greater agreement on Item 25 reflects the subjective judgment of the participants regarding the impact of the edu cational sessions on their preference of the teaching style. Both groups tended to agree that they would like to learn in a similar educational style in the future (Figure 4 10). 4.3.2 Comparing Teaching Methods The Pre test Scores for all the 25 question s (Appendix C) and post test scores for all the 25 questions (Appendix E) of all the fifty participants have been evaluated according to their total score. From part one (Description of participant data) and from part two (the teaching methods), we have c oncluded that for age, year of study, GPA and personality type are similar in both groups and we can believe if the test results are different between groups it should come from the teaching method not from the influence of these factors. We need to answe r these following questions: 1. For both groups, is the post test higher than pre test? In other words, do students improve with either teaching method? 2. test results? In other words, at the end of the se ssions, after having been taught by two different teaching methods, does one group obtain a better result?

PAGE 92

92 The active group pre test mean score is 35.44 (SD = 13.07226). The active group post test mean score is 39.1365 (SD = 14.9364). The observed mean of the post test is about 10.4% higher than the pre test mean. The pre and post test scores were compared using one sided paired t test which shows that there is no significant difference (t (24) = fluency disorder (as measured by the pre and post tests) was not significantly impacted by the instructional sessions. For the passive group pre test, the mean score is 28.02 (SD = 12.58683) and the post test the mean score is 35.57 (SD = 16.43760). Results of one sided paired t test shows that the passive group scored significantly higher (p = 0 .0336) on the post test than the pre test. disorders increased from before the short knowledge about fluency disorders was increased after t aking the course. Comparing the post test scores across groups, the active group averaged 39.1365 (SD = 14.9364), while the passive group a veraged 35.57 (SD = 16.43760). The post test scores for the active group were not different significantly different (t (24) = 1.04, test score. The test score is formed by two parts, objective questions and subjective. Objective questions consist of True/False questions and multiple choices. Subjective questions consist of short answers. We will evaluate each part separately. 4.3.2.1 Objective q uestions For objective questions, we need to evaluate the active group to see if post test scores are higher than the pre test scores. For active group pre test, the mean score is

PAGE 93

93 10.54 (SD= 2.4534). For active group post test, the mean score is 12.52 (SD = 4.4). The observed mean of the post test is about 18.6% higher than the pre test mean. Results of one sided paired t test shows that for the active group data is significantly different (t (24) = 2.305, p =0.0151). For the passive group pre test, the mean score is 9.82 (SD = 2.85). For the passive group post test the m ean score is 14.72 (SD = 3.778). Results of one sided paired t test shows that for the passive group data is significantly different (t (24) = 5.2259, p = < 0.0001) For the passive group, the students do perform better than before the teaching modules o n the objective portion of the test. The post test scores for the active group (12.52 {SD = 4.4}) were not different significantly different (t (48) = 1.8966, p= 0.0639) from the scores of the passive group (14.72 {SD = 3.778}). 4.3.2.2 Short a nswers For short answers, the active group pre test the mean score is 24.9 (SD = 12.72). For active group post test the mean score is 26.6 (SD = 13.39). Results of one sided paired t test shows that for the active group, post test performance on the subjective que stions is not significantly different than the pre test performance (t(24)= .4908, p = 0.3140 ) For the passive group subjective pre test, the mean score is 18.2 (SD = 12.86). For the passive group post test the mean score is 20.85 (SD = 14.41). Result s of one sided paired t test shows that for the passive group data is not significantly different (t (24) = .6792, p = 0.2518). The post test scores for the active group were not different significantly different (t (48) =1.4658, p= 0.1492) from the scor es of the passive group despite findings that test score.

PAGE 94

94 4.3 .2.3 Interaction effect between personality on the change between the pre and post test s cores We also tested fo r the interaction effect between personality and group (active vs. passive) on the change between the pre and post test scores. The test was conducted using linear regression models in which we created three indictor variables to represent the four pers category. Three product terms between the indicator variables and the group covariate were included in the model to test for possible interactions between group and personality types. We were n ot able to find significant interaction effects (p = 0.8981, 0.2621, and 0.9648 for overall scores, objective questions, and subjective questions, respectively). 4.3.2.4 Keirsey personality types and s cores Keirsey was used to identify personality type th at was then utilized to reflect learning style. The results have shown that the total post test scores and sub groups questionnaire varied across the four Keirsey personality types in the active and passive groups. There are eight different categories of participant (each of the artisan, idealist, guardian and rational personality types in the active and passive groups, respectively). On average, the active groups show a more positive experience in the lectures. They also showed a stronger preference fo r learning through in class activities, outside class activities, and usage of technology than the passive groups across all four personality types. There are no real significant interactions between personality type and overall score. In examining the ov erall impression sub group data, we can clearly see that passive artisan has the lowest mean values among all of the eight groups and, on

PAGE 95

95 average, the active groups have greater self perceived understanding and comfort than the passive groups, which is con sistent with our study hypothesis. The active idealist had the highest mean value for overall impression preference (Figure 4 11). The in class learning preference sub group shows greater homogeneity across personality types. On average, the active grou ps show a slightly stronger mean preference for learning through in class activities than the passive groups across all four the experiment. The active idealist had t he highest mean value for in class preference. The active rational had the lowest mean value for in class preference (Figure 4 12). On average, the active groups have greater preferences with regard to learning through outside class activities than the pa ssive groups among all of the eight groups. The active idealist had the highest value for outside class preference It is interesting to preferences for learning experiences o utside the classroom (Figure 4 13). On the use of technology sub group, the active groups show stronger mean preferences than the passive groups. The active idealist had the highest value for use and comfort of technology. It is interesting to note that this was reversed among the guardian personality types, among whom the passive group showed a slightly stronger preference for or degree of comfort with the use of technology. The guardians in the active group showed the lowest value for use of technology items (Figure 4 14). There is a tendency for the active group to score higher than the passive groups within each personality type. The active guardian had the highest mean value for post

PAGE 96

96 test scores. We can clearly see that active artisan has the lowes t mean post test score values compared to the passive artisan (Figure 4 15).

PAGE 97

97 Table 4 1 The distribution for age Age (Years) Number from Passive Group Number from Active Group Total Number 18 6 3 9 19 9 14 23 20 7 7 14 21 1 1 2 Table 4 2 Frequency of Keirsey Personality Active Passive Artisan 3 3 Idealist 11 10 Guardian 5 8 Rational 6 4

PAGE 98

98 Figure 4 1 Attendance Plot Figure 4 2 Lecture Content and Discussion Encouragement

PAGE 99

99 Figure 4 3 Student Enjoyment, Technology, and Classroom Tension Figure 4 4 Passivity and Interaction

PAGE 100

100 Figure 4 5 Student Presentations, Extensive Give/Take and Critical Thinking

PAGE 101

101 Figure 4 6 Distribution of Responses on All Four Subsets

PAGE 102

102 Figure 4 7 Response to item: "I feel like I Figure 4 8 Response to item: "I felt comfortable in classes in this module

PAGE 103

103 Figure 4 9 Response to item: "I feel like I understood the lectures in this module" Figure 4 10 Response to item: "I would like to have other classes with this style of teaching"

PAGE 104

104 Figure 4 11 Keirsey personality type and overall impression sub item s

PAGE 105

105 Figure 4 12 Keirsey personality type and in class preference sub items

PAGE 106

106 Figure 4 13 Keirsey personality types and o utside class preference sub items

PAGE 107

107 Figure 4 14 Keirsey personality types and technology sub items

PAGE 108

108 Figure 4 15 Keirsey personality types and post test scores

PAGE 109

109 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION educational institutions must now compete with other media in terms of keeping a teaching m ethods is a subject of frequent research in education (Hundley, 2007; Roschelle, 1999; Lee et al., 2008; Savitz, 1999). The present study has examined the question using two groups of college level participants working in a specific content area within co mmunicative disorders to determine if either teaching method is more effective in the context of a short term module. To examine the impact of each teaching module, tests were given before and after the set of educational sessions. The results have shown that there is no significant difference between passive and active lecture methods in this sample. For both the passive and active groups, the post test scores were significantly higher than the pre test scores for the objective items, which suggests tha t each group was able to learn from the randomly assigned lecture method. personality influenced the learning experience. There was no significant interaction between personali ty and teaching condition. The effect was measured on overall score, objective question scores, and subjective question scores. This lack of any significant interaction may be because, as discussed later, personality type may not be the strongest factor affecting how or how well a person learns. It could be that the Keirsey instrument may be sensitive to learning styles. We did not have a large number of participants in each category of each personality type. Finally, the short duration of the experime nt may not be long enough to produce a large enough learning effect to be

PAGE 110

110 able to see the influence of personality type/ learning style and the interaction between personality type and teaching method. Information on the participants was gathered to see t he similarities and differences between the participants so that the results given can be properly categorized and analyzed. The analyses have shown that all analyzed factors, mean age, year of study and GPA, are homogenous between the active and passive groups. Both groups of students improved after studying the materials. It has also been shown that the active factors have been shown to not differ between the two group s, these test results may be attributed to differences in the actual teaching method experiences of the students. 5.1. Personality Type Results of t orter showed that the distribution of personality types (F igure 5 1) differs from that described on the Keirsey website (April 2010) which estimated the distribution of temperaments in the general population as Guardian 40 45%, Artisan 35 40%, Idealist 5 10%, and Rational 5 ke into account factors such as age, gender, or occupation Our results may reasonably be expected to differ from the general population because our sample was restricted to a small sample (n=50 participants) of female Kuwaiti college students between the ages of 18 21. The relation of personality to the test scores and four questionnaire sub categories were evaluated using ANOVA and no significant effects were identified for any of the outcome variables. This is consistent with the results of Schultz, who found no relationship between preferred learning strategy and personality style, as measured by the Myers Briggs/Keirsey Type Indicator (MBTI) (Schultz, 2001, p. 116). In contrast,

PAGE 111

111 Ott, Mann & Moores (1990) found a significant interaction between pers onality type and method of instruction in the learning outcomes. Their experiment, however, dealt with the difference between lecture and computer assisted instruction. It was observed that the sensing intuitive and thinking feeling scales of the persona lity indicator showed stronger results than all personality types, and they each showed stronger results for the computer assisted instruction learning technique. The intuitive type did better when working in the computer assisted lecture method, and the sensing type did better in the lecture method. In terms of our study with Keirsey Four Types Sorter, if the results were to be the same, we should find that the Rational and Idealist types should do better in the computer assisted lectures (active method) and the Artisans and Guardians should score better on the lecture method (passive method). As the authors of the study state, (Ott, Mann, & Moores, 1990, p. 30). This seems to be good advice as the studies in this area have yielded conflicting or inconclusive results sometimes certain learning styles/personality types did better in certain areas, but were weak in others. Pr acticing varied teaching styles increases the likelihood that any given learning style can be accommodated and all the various student strengths can be encouraged. Different studies have yielded different results, and it seems that differences such as nat ure of content and length of study are likely to explain the differences in outcomes. had consistent results with similar studies that also used the MBTI and similar participa nt and data information, but still differed on some aspects. They rationalized

PAGE 112

112 such a difference by stating that sample size, age, gender distribution, etc., could have been the factors that made the studies yield different results. Jessee et al. (2006), mention that the differences may have occurred because their study involved students who were entry level, and came from a very different generation with different cultures, societal standards, and education. Therefore, the differences are likely to aris e from cultures, social standards and education, as they did not have a unique sample. The distribution of personality type was not different in their sample. Our study faced the same situation where our results may have differed from similar studies bec ause our students had different factors such as cultural, social, and educational factors, among others. Felder, Felder, & Dietz (2002) also did a study on the different personality styles and learning methods, and they concluded that although different i ndividuals have different learning styles, all individuals can learn in all styles. They claim the purpose of the studies is not just to see which learning methods are best suited for what personality types and then teach according to each type, but to be (Felder et al., p. 12) and in doing so, each learning style and personality type is addressed and taken care of. However, it was expected that some trends might be found in how the participants with different personalit y types learn and whether they would do better in one teaching method than the other. The only trend that was found shows that the active group idealists scored higher on all sub items except for the post test scores, where the guardians of the active gro up had the highest scores. When going into the classroom, instructors need to know that individuals learn differently, thus instructors need to try to allow for the different preferences by adapting their teaching style to teach in multiple

PAGE 113

113 modalities, wh ich will maximize the performance of each learner. As Hundley (2007) 5.2 Videotape of Sessions During the study, several of the educational sessions were videotaped. The statements assessed on a 5 point Likert scale, eight judges viewed the videotaped session and they rate the active lecture sessions as: 1) having less lecture time; 2) encouraging more discussion; 3) less tense; 4) more enjoyable; 5) using technology to a larger extent; 6) having more give and take; 7) including more student presentations; and 8) encouraging critical thinking than the passive lecture sessions. It can be concluded that the judges perceived that the active lecture participants were more positively engaged in the learning environment. 5.3 Participant Feedback Questionnaire Participants were als o surveyed as to their impressions related to their experiences in the instructional modules. We categorized items from the questionnaire into sub groups relating to the overall effect of the educational sessions, the outside the classroom, the preference for learning inside the classroom, and the comfort with and use of technology. Both groups tended to agree on items in these four categories, although more participants in the active group showed that they strongly a gree. The active group felt that they benefited from the use of technology and were more comfortable with technology in the learning environment than the passive group. The student feedback questionnaire was administrated in order to evaluate the partici

PAGE 114

114 learning experience. Participants provided their feedback on a 5 point Likert scale to 22 statements. The questionnaire included some items that might be hypothesized to be more strongly affected by the teaching metho d and others that can be expected to be less affected by teaching method. Comparisons were undertaken for specific identified subsets of questionnaire items. We labeled these subsets as: 1) overall impression, 2) in class preference, 3) outside class pre ference, and 4) use of technology. 5.3.1 Overall Impression Two sample t test show that the two groups are not different. The active group had a slightly higher but non significant, sense of satisfaction and understanding when measured by the four questi onnaire items. 5.3.2 In Class P reference The scores from the in class preference items for active and passive groups were not significantly different. This shows that the participants in both groups had similar preferences when it came to learning through in class activities. 5.3.3 Outside Class P reference The results do not show a significant difference between the active and passive groups for the outside class preference. This shows that participants in each group have similar preferences for learning activities outside the classroom. 5.3.4 Comfort With Technology The Wilcoxon rank sum test indicated that the active group displayed a significantly higher degree of comfort with technology usage than the passive group. In terms of the Keirsey personality types, the only trend seen was that the idealists of the active group scored the highest. This does not necessarily have a significant impact on

PAGE 115

115 the study except to show that there was a particular sub group in the active group that was more satisfied wi th all sub items than the passive group. 5.4 Comparing Teaching Methods From our analysis, we can conclude that the age, year of study, GPA and personality type are similar in each group, and therefore any difference in the group tests is a result of the t eaching method assessment and from the participant data information. In comparing the teaching methods, we hypothesized that the overall scores on the post instruction assessment procedures would be higher for participants in the active group than for tho se in the passive group. Although the observed mean of the post test is about 10.4% higher than the pre test mean, the post test results are not significantly different from the pre test results. y disorder (as measured by the pre and post tests) was not significantly impacted by the instructional sessions. Results of one sided paired t test shows that the passive group scored significantly higher on the post test than the pre test. There was a significant difference between pre and post tests for total scores for knowledge about fluency disorders increased after the short term course. This does not necessarily imp ly that the observed difference reflects a realistic and relevant difference in the educational setting. In addition, this does not necessarily imply that there would be meaningful differences for the individual students. The result is simply a differenc e between groups and not individuals, and as such, should be carefully interpreted.

PAGE 116

116 Post test scores were not significantly different between the active and passive test score is about 10% higher than th test score The test score was formed of two parts: objective, and subjective questions. The objective questions consist of True/False and Multiple Choice questions. The subjective questions consist of short answer questions. The answers to the true/false and short answer questions were analyzed separately. Post test scores for the active group are higher than the pre test scores for the objective items. Results of one sided paired t test show that for the active group performe d significantly higher on the post test than the pre test. For the active group, the students do perform better after the teaching module. test scores are higher than the pre test scores for the objective items. Results of one sided paired t test show that for the passive group performed significantly higher on the post test than the pre test. For the passive group, the students do perform better after the teaching module. The scores for the objective items (e.g. multiple choi ce) are equivalent for both the active lecture engagement method and the passive lecture method The post test scores for the active group were not different significantly different from the scores of the passive group despite findings that the active gro test score is about 17.6% test score. For the subjective items (short answers), both the active and passive group performance did not differ between the pre and post test conditions.

PAGE 117

117 ective (short answers) post test scores were evaluated, there were no significant differences between the active and passive group scores, test score is about 27.6% more than the test scor e. The study has shown that teaching method did not influence participant performance. Both the traditional passive lecture method and the active teaching method produce small increases in test scores. No significant results were seen, and although pers onality was also taken into account, the results remained insignificant. In contrast, the data obtained here appear to support a difference in the experience of students in the active versus passive teaching methods, as described in the participant questi sessions. The observed effect of personality type on learning was not as hypothesized. The fact that there were no significant results between the active and passive teaching method coincides with other studies where these methods have been compared and no significant result has been observed, although the methodology participants were different from this study (Hundley, 2007; Nottingham & Verscheure, 2010). One factor that has been demonstra ted to play a key role in student learning is the studies of computer based and distanc e learning educational programs. Ubon and Kimble (2004) studied the social presence and participation of students in an online long distance course showed how important effective communication is at the beginning of the course to develop a sense of commun ity. The study also showed that as a group gets comfortable together, they are better able to communicate in a less formal way, to

PAGE 118

118 show more emotion, and to develop a group morality that determines reactions and responses to questions. This has a big imp lication for how people learn, and the impact of communication with other participants based on emotion and moral values. This is the same in our study, proper community and class building is essential so that the participants feel comfortable in particip ating and being part of the classroom so that accurate results are collected. It is a starting point of this type of learning. Distance education had caused rethinking and revisiting our education theory. Thus, we have new experiences in educational lea rning. Students learning in a group and finding their place makes a great impact on how the students learn. Student performance in learning is based on factors on engaging material in social practice. Thus, situated learning yields new approaches to act ive learning. Discussion is a large part of active learning. In the study, there were a few sessions in which participants engaged in discussions, it was especially apparent from the active lectures judged by the evaluators that the discussion had a po sitive impact in encouraging the participants Discu ssion, according to Brookfield and Preskill (2005), adds much to the learning experience of an individual and opens the doorways to a different way of thinking. Opinions and thoughts that were never th ought of before become available to a person that is engaged in the discussion. Discussion livens up learning and allows for variety in thought, and not just textbook thoughts, and facilitates the process of brainstorming. The quality of a discussion is important as well, since the livelier the discussion, the more creative, and intriguing the ideas and opinions presented.

PAGE 119

119 5.5 Uniqueness of Study 5.5.1 Short T erm Unlike Full Semester College Experience The semester in which this study took place was n ot a full term semester as is the usual college experience. This was a short term course, and hence, the likelihood that these students were not ready or unprepared to take on the active role demanded of them in the active learning group right away. Thus the short term nature of this study made it unique in that there have not been previously published studies using short term modules to investigate the effects of teaching methods In addition, these results may differ if future studies employ longer ter ms. 5. 5 .2 Only Female Subjects The study participants were only female students. This adds to the value of the study because active and passive teaching methods in such a population have not been studied before. 5.5.4 Only Kuwaiti S ubjects The study participants were only Kuwaiti. No other nationalities were included for this study. While having such unique subjects might restrict the extent to which the results could be generalized, it also supports conclusions regarding an understudied p opulation. This is an area of significant need. 5. 5 .5 Educational Experience The fact that they are all Kuwaiti students also makes this study unique because they are products of the Kuwaiti educational system and have been consistently exposed to passi ve methods of teaching this may have biased the results towards the passive method over the active because the passive method was the method they were

PAGE 120

120 used to Once again, these results may not be repeated in other studies since they may have students o f varied/difference educational experiences/backgrounds. 5. 6 Limitations of the Study While we have tried to make the study as thorough as possible, there are some limitations. These limitations include the following: 5.6.1 No Long T e rm Follow Up A ssessme nt There is no long term follow up assessment to see how much of the knowledge and information was retained and whether the perceptions and affects of the teaching methods were short lived or not. Thus, without any knowledge of whether the things taught were retained, the actual success of each teaching method cannot be measured. If those data could be collected, it would give even more concrete results as to whether one teaching method produces better overall, long term educational results. 5.6.2 Worki ng in Second L anguage The participants were all Kuwaiti subjects who spoke English as a second language. The results may have differed had some of the participants been native English speakers, as they may have understood the lectures or activities more readily, and thus performed better. 5.6.3 No Monitoring of Discussions/Activities Outside of the Class S ession There were no evaluations/assessments done on how discussions within the classroom affected the overall learning of the students. There was no grading given to the discussion and therefore it was not in the assessment results. If it had been added, the results may have been different.

PAGE 121

121 5.6.4 The Lack of a Problem Based Learni ng (PBL) Style Question on the Pre And Post Test A ssessment The pre and post test assessments did not have any PBL questions on them and therefore did not get a true measure of how PBL introduced in the active method made a difference in the results and on the overall study. 5.7 Implications f or Future Studies Supplementary research using improved design and methods is needed to garner results that are more accurate. The number of participants should be increased, and both male and female subjects used to better represent the student population. In addition, future investigations should employ various periods of study in both passive and active lecture methods. The short span in which this study was done does not allow some factors to be considered, such as familiarity with the content. It may take a longer period for some participants to get used to a certain teaching method. This study itself was only a couple of weeks in length and thus, could not allow for that contingency. PBL has become a very im educational environments and more emphasis on the problem based clinical thinking activities to potential assessment items for future studies is needed. Having students watch a video, for example, may h ave resulted in them being able to learn a certain concept better and would have had a different impact on their impression of what they learned in the session However, this kind of research will need more time. Following the method proposed in our curr ent research, and once we determine whether a significant difference exists or not between the two teaching methods, studies can become more detailed and we can assess those types of lectures/lessons that are

PAGE 122

122 6 more conducive in each learning method. We can also investigate the impact of different teaching methods on learning in different types of material (e.g. anatomy and physiology of speech, normal language development, phonological systems, acoustics, etc.) Future studies can also be done which look at the prevalence of Keirsey personality types among speech pathology majors and practitioners. Results may help to formulate a better grasp on how personality types as described and evaluated by the Keirsey F our Types Sorter apply in all fields of and among all those involved in communication disorders. Furthermore, for subsequent studies, we should investigate having more than one instructor so we could compare the methods with several sections with differe nt instructors. In this way, one could compare the differences between methods to the differences among instructors. The implications for future studies are, in a way, endless because there is always something that can be delivered in both passive and ac tive teaching methods. In her study, Beldarrain (2006) mentions how distance education tools are becoming more advanced technologically; there are now different teaching methods to cater to students in distance learning courses. These tools can now also be applied in the classroom and new mediums used to teach the same information. The successfulness of such methods can be seen in distance learning courses, as her paper contends, but have not been measured completely in the classroom. Studying these met hods in the classroom can open up new avenues for active teaching methods that may not have been applied before. Learning under these conditions can be assessed in different ways that ideally can help make educational instruction better.

PAGE 123

123 Figure 5 1 Per sonality Distributions of Types

PAGE 124

124 APPENDIX A LETTER OF CONSENT

PAGE 125

125 APPENDIX B KEIRSEY FOUR TYPE SO RTER Pre Test Questions Student Code #: ____ Fall 2008

PAGE 126

126 APPENDIX C STUTTERING PRE TEST QUESTIONS Student Code #: _____ Fall 2008 PART A True/False Questions: Circle you choice of answer (Total 10 points). 1. T/F 2. Heredity does not play a role in stuttering. T/F 3. The onset of stuttering is most often sudden. T/F 4. Sound/syllable repetitions and sound prolongations are examples of normal disfluencies. T/F 5. Stutter like disfluencies are mostly accompanied by physical effort. T/F 6. The main cause of stuttering is anxiety. T/F 7. It is believed that environmental demands might play a role in childhood stuttering. T/F 8. Stuttering is more common in boys than girls. T/F 9. Preschoolers who stutter may benefit more from stuttering treatment than persons who have a longer history of stuttering. T/F 10. Relaxation is the main technique to manage stuttering. T/F PART B Multiple Choice Questions: Circle your choice of answer (total 15 points). 1. Developmental stuttering usually occurs: A. In preschool years B. In early school years C. Between ages 7 and 12 D. In adolescence 2. Factors that may contribute to stuttering in children include: A. Excessive parental speech rates B. C. Frequent parental interruptions D. All of the above

PAGE 127

127 3. Which of the following is true : A. Most researchers agree that stuttering is a learned behavior. B. Between word disfluencies include revisions and interjections. C. Stuttering is more common in girls than boys. D. Ac quired stuttering is usually observed in childhood. 4. Stuttering therapy is recommended if which of the following behaviors is observed: A. Sound prolongations are the prominent form of disfluency produced by the child B. Loss of eye contact by the child on of h er utterances C. Excessive use of interjections D. Both A and B 5. Eye blinking and physical tension are examples of: A. Main stuttering behaviors B. Main typical/normal behaviors C. Secondary stuttering behaviors D. Secondary typical/normal behaviors 6. Which of the following are not examples of stutter like disfluencies? A. Interjections B. Inaudible sound prolongations C. Syllable repetitions D. Audible sound prolongations 7. Which of the following is not a measure of stuttering severity? A. Percentage of disfluencies produced by speaker B. Duration of disfluencies produced by speaker C. Speaking rate measured in words per minute D. Presence and intensity of physical concomitants 8. Reported incidence data about stuttering in adults revealed that it is about: A. 1% B. 10% C. 5% D. 15%

PAGE 128

128 9. Which of the following is not a technique used in indirect stuttering therapy approaches: A. Facilitation of fluency through environmental manipulation B. C. Reducing physical tension of speech movements D. Both B and C 10. Whi ch of the following is not a technique used in direct stuttering therapy approaches: A. Facilitation of fluency through environmental manipulation B. C. Reducing physical tension of speech movements D. Both B and C PART C Short Answer Questions: Please make your answers brief and concise and to the best of your knowledge (total 15 points). 1. would you tell her? ___________________ ________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ _______ ____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 2. __________________________________________________ _________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________ _____________________________ ___________________________________________________________________

PAGE 129

129 3. If you were approached by a mother of a seven year old who stutters asking you for general information about stuttering, what sources of information and /or s upport could you direct her? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 4. Describe the two most common forms of behavioral interventions to be used wit h children who stutter, and indicate the extent to which each approach can be supported by research evidence ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________ ________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 5. What common advice about stuttering would you give a teacher of a school age child who stutters about how to react to a child who stutters in the classroom? ___________________________________________________________________ _______________________________ ____________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________

PAGE 130

130 APPENDIX D STUTTERING MODULE

PAGE 131

131

PAGE 132

132

PAGE 133

133

PAGE 134

134

PAGE 135

135

PAGE 136

136

PAGE 137

137 APPENDIX E STUTTERING POST TEST QUESTIONS Student Code #: _____ Fall 2008 PART A True/False Questions: Please circle your choice of answer (10 points). 1. The main cause of stuttering is anxiety. T/F 2. Acquired stuttering usually occurs in childhood. T/F 3. The onset of stuttering is most often sudden. T/F 4. Many persons who stutter report that other persons in their families also stutter. T/F 5. Around 5 th grade, the reported ratio of male: female children who stutter is around 5:1. T/F 6. Most children who stutter recover on their own without formal treatment. T/F 7. The onset of stuttering symptoms in adults can be caused by organic and/or emotional trauma. T/F 8. Reported prevalence data about stuttering in adults revealed that i t is about 5% T/F 9. Clinicians who teach stuttering modification work indirectly on moments of stuttering. T/F 10. It is believed that environmental demands might play a role in childhood stuttering. T/F PART B Multiple Choice Questions: Please Circle your choice of answer (15 points). 1. Developmental stuttering usually occurs between the ages of: A. Four and seven B. Two and f our C. Four and six D. Two and five Core stuttering behaviors include:

PAGE 138

138 A. Repetitions, prolongations, revisions, and interjections B. Eye blinking and physical tension C. Negative feelings and attitude D. Between word disfluencies 2. The reduction of speech disfluencies as a result of repeated readings of the same paragraph is an example of________: A. Adaptation effect B. Consistency effect C. Generalization effect D. Spontaneous recovery 3. Which of the following is not an example of a fluency inducing condition? A. Reading alone B. Talking to a group C. D. Singing 4. Stuttering therapy is recommended if which of the following behaviors is observed: A. Sound prolongations are the prominent form of disfluency produced by the child B. Loss of eye contact by the child on of h er utterances C. None of the above D. Both A and B 5. When choosing between direct and indirect approach to treatment, we mainly depend on: A. Whether the child was a girl or a boy B. Awareness about the problem C. None of the above D. Both A and B 6. Which of the following is not an example of a fluency shaping technique: A. Slowing down speaking rate B. Canceling moments of disfluency C. Initiating sounds with gentle onset D. Initiating speech using soft articulatory contact 7. Which of the following are not examples of stutter like disfl uencies?

PAGE 139

139 A. Interjections B. Inaudible sound prolongations C. Syllable repetitions D. Audible sound prolongations 8. All of the following is true about the location of disfluency within a sentence except: A. Words in the middle of a sentence than words at sentence initial position B. Consonants than vowels. C. Stressed syllables than unstressed syllables D. Longer and more complex sentences than short and less complex ones 9. Which of the following recommendation to parents would be appropriate for a child who was experiencin g a period of normal disfluency? A. Help the child by finishing her sentences B. Be calm and provide an unhurried speech model C. Ask the child to use slow speech rate D. PART C Short Answer Questions: Please make your answers brief and concise and to the best of your knowledge (Total 75 points). 1. Why are some disfluencies characterized as normal and other disfluencies as stuttered? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____ ________________________________________________________________ 2. List 3 questions you would ask during the assessment interview to learn more about the stuttering problem presented by the client. ____________________________________________________ ____________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ _____________ 3. Why could stuttering treatment be more effective with children than adults _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ __________________________________________ ___________________ _____________________________________________________________

PAGE 140

140 _____________________________________________________________ 4. Stuttering modification and fluency shaping are two techniques used in the treatment of stuttering. What is the difference between the two techniques? ______________________________________________________________ _________________________________________ _______________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 5. What would you say to a client who as ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

PAGE 141

141 APPENDIX F PARTICIPANT FEEDBACK QUESTIONNAIRE Student Code # ________ Fall 2008 For questions 1 and 2, please write the number of the item that reflects your answer. 1. How old are you? _______ a) 18 b) 19 c) 20 d) 21+ 2. Which year are you in? _______ a) Freshman b) Sophomore c) Junior d) Senior 3. What is your GPA? ________ a) 2.5 2.99 b) 3.0 3.32 c) 3.33 3.66 d) 3.67+ Please mark X in the appropriate space to which extent you agree or disagree with each of the following statement items Item Strongly Agree 5 Agree 4 Neutral 3 Disagree 2 Strongly Disagree 1 4 I feel like I understand stuttering better 5 I learned more from the textbook than from the lectures 6 I learned the most from the lectures 7 I learn better when the lecture topic is presented through power point data show than when it is presented only through handouts

PAGE 142

142 Item Strongly Agree 5 Agree 4 Neutral 3 Disagree 2 Strongly Disagree 1 8 I learned the most from my fellow students 9 I felt comfortable in classes in this module 10 I feel like I understood the lectures in this module 11 I prefer to learn independently 12 I prefer to learn in a group 13 I am comfortable using a computer 14 I think that the internet could be a good source for finding information about topics discussed in my classes 15 I think reading the assigned chapter prior to the lecture helps me better understand the discussed topic 16 I think that in class video activities helps me better understand the topic 17 I feel confident using PowerPoint

PAGE 143

143 Item Strongly Agree 5 Agree 4 Neutral 3 Disagree 2 Strongly Disagree 1 19 Doing activities outside class helps me better understand the topic 2 0 Extra reading assignments helps me better understand the topics 21 I feel confident doing a presentation in class 22 The instructor in this module was very much like the instructors in my other classes 23 The homework assignments helped me better prepare for the class 24 I think in class discussions helped me better understand the topics 25 I would like to have other classes with this style of teaching

PAGE 144

144 APPENDIX G JUDGES EVALUATION Evaluator # ______ Session # _________/Fall 2008 Please evaluate the videotaped session with regard to the following ten statements. Please mark the extent to which you agree or disagree with each of the statements. Statement No. Strongly Agree 5 Agree 4 Neutral 3 Disagre e 2 Strongly Disagree 1 1 The session included mostly instructor lecture 2 The instructor encouraged student involvement and discussion 3 The students were mostly passive listeners in this session 4 There was little student teacher interaction in the session 5 There were student presentations in the session 6 There was extensive give and take in this session 7 The instructor encouraged critical thinking in this session 8 The students appeared to enjoy the topic in the session 9 The instructor used technology to supplement the lecture presentation 10 The classroom setting was tense.

PAGE 145

145 LIST OF REFERENCES Abdel Bary, S (2007). Survey: Characteristics of Arab l earners http://www.checkpoint elearning.com/article/4743.html Last accessed February 2008. About E learning. http:// onlinetrain.kuniv.edu/portal/Newportal/log in.asp Last accessed February 2008. based active learning in t attitude, and concept learning. E urasia Journal of Ma thematics, Science & Technology Education 3 (1), 71 -8 Al Ali, M. (2006). Relationship between scholastic activities and creativity among secondary school students in the state of Kuwait. Psychology, 1 17. Albanese, M.A., and Mitchell, S. (1993). Problem based learning: a review of literature on its outcomes and implementation issues. Academic Medicine, 68 (1), 52 81. of e Social Behavior and Personality 34 (6), 711 728. Almahboub, S. (2000). Attitudes t oward c omputer u se and g ender d ifferences among Kuwaiti s ixth g rade s tudents (PhD dissertation) University of North Tex as, Denton. e ducational o bjectives. http://www.cdio.org/cdio_syllabus_rept/Appendix_B_Bloom.doc Last accessed June 2008. Arhin A & Johnson Mallard V. (2003). Encouraging alternative forms of self expression in the Generation Y student: a strategy for effective learning in the classroom. Association of Black Nursing Faculty Journal 14 121 122. Baig, L., Habib, F., & Mansuri, A. (2006). Opinion of medical students regarding problem based learning. Pakistan M edical Association, 56 (10), 430 432. Beldarrain, Y. (2006). Distance education trends: Integrating new technologies to foster student interaction and collaborat ion. Distance Education 27 (2), 139 153 Bloom, B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives, the classification of educational goals. Handbook II: Affective domain. New York: David McKay Co. Inc. Booker, M.J (2007). A roof without walls: Benjamin misdirection of American education. Academic Questions, 20 (4), 347 355.

PAGE 146

146 Boulden, W.T. (2008). Evaluation of the advancing young adult learning project Adult Basic Education and Literacy Journa,l 2 ( 1), 3 12. Bright, W. (1987). Microcomputer applications in the elementary classroom: A guide for teachers. Newton, M A: Allyn and Bacon. Brookfield, S., & Preskill, S. (2005). Discussion as a way of teaching San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Bmen, N. (2007). Effects of the original planning skills: A Turkish study among pre service teachers. International Review of Education 53 (4), 439 455. Carskadon, T.G. (1994). Student personality factors: Psychological type and the Myers Briggs Type Indicator In Prichard, K.W. & Sawyer, R. M. (Eds.), Handbook of College Teaching: Theory and Applications (69 81). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Caudron Training and Development Vol. 3:20 24. Chen, A., Mas hhadi, A., & Ang, D. (1999). Cultural issues in the design of technology enhanced learning systems. British J ournal of Educational Technology, 30 (3); 217. Chester, E. (2002). Employing Generation Why? Lakewood, CO: Tucker House Books. Chew, L. K. (200 3). Presentation to Society for Technical Communication (Singapore Chapter). E learning Competency Center http://www.ecc.org.sg/cocoon/ecc/website/STC Talk.pdf Christion, M A. (1996). Teaching and learning languages through multiple intelligences. TESOL Journal, 6 (1), 6 14. Daughenbaugh, R., Ensminger, D., Frederick, L., & Surry, D. (2002). Does personality type effect online versus in class course satisfaction? Teaching l earning, & t echnology: the c onnected c lassroom. Proceeding of the Annual Mid South Instructional Technology Conference 97 th Murfreesboro, TN, April 7 9, 2002). Davis, G. (1993). Tools for teaching Jossey Bass Publishers, San Francisco. Dean of Admi ssion and Registration Office. (2008). Kuwait University Student Handbook Kuwait: University of Kuwait. Dirkx, J. (2001). The power of feelings: Emotion, imagination, and the construction of meaning in adult learning. New Directions for Adult and Contin uing Education 89 63 72.

PAGE 147

147 Donner, R. S., & Bickley, H. (1993). Problem based learning in American medical education: An overview. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association, 81 (3), 294 298. Dueck, G. (2001). Views of knowledge are human views. IBM Systems Journal 40 (4), 885 888. Dunn, R., & Dunn, K. (1978). Teaching students through their Individual learning styles: A practical approach Reston, VA: Prentice Hall. Eisner, E. (2000). Benjamin Bloom: 1913 1999. Prospects: T he Q uarterly R eview of C omparative E ducation 30 (3) Eustace, K. (2003). Educational value of e learning in conventional and complementary computing education. Proceedings of the 16 th Annual NACCQ http://www.naccq.ac.nz/conference04/proceedings_03/pdf/53.pdf Last accessed June 2008. Faust J, Ginno E, Laherty J, & Manuel K. (2001). Teaching information literacy to Generation Y. Paper pre s ented at: ACRL 10th National Conference Felder R.M., & Brent, R. (2005). Understanding student differences. Journal of Engineering Education 94 (1), 55 72. Felder, R.M., Felder, G.N., & Dietz, E.J. (2002). The effects of personality type on engineering student performance and attitudes. Jour nal of Engineering Education 91 (1), 3 17. Online at http://www.ncsu.edu/felder public/Papers/longmbti.pdf Finucane, PM., Johnson SM, & Prideaux, D.J. (1998). Problem based learning: I ts rationale and efficacy. Medical Journal of Australia (168): 445 448. Keirsey.com http://www.keirsey.com/faq.aspx Last accessed June 2009. Gardner, H (1983). Fram es of m ind: The t heory of m ultiple i ntelligences New York: Basic Books. Gardner, H. (199 3 ). Multiple intelligences: The theory in practice New York: Basic Books. Glenn, M.G., & Berry, G. R. (2006). Online best practice: Interaction matters. Journal of Business Inquiry, 57 64. Goodman, P. (2001). Technology enhanced learning opportunities for change New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

PAGE 148

148 Gregorc, A. (1984). Mind Styles. http://web.cortland.edu/andersmd/learning/Gregorc.htm. Last acc essed January 2008. Gregorc, A. F. (1984). Style as a symptom: A phenomenological perspective. Theory into practice 23 (1), 51 55. Hemker, H. (1998). Critical perceptions on problem based learning. Advances in Health Sciences Education 3 71 76. Hodg ins, W., & Conner, M. (2000). Everything you ever wanted to know about learning standards but were afraid to ask Linezine http://www.linezine.eom/2.1/features/wheyewtkls.htm Hundley, S. (2007). A comparative study of traditional lecture methods and interactive lecture methods in introductory geology courses for non science majors at the college level (Ph.D. Dissertation.) Ohio State University. Columbus, Ohio United States. Avai lable from ProQuest Dissertations and Thesis. (UMI Microform 3286820 ) leaning preferences to teaching methodologies. Journal of Dental Education. 70 (6), 644 51. http://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/516373 Last accessed December 2009. Keirsey, D. (1988). Please understand me II: Temperament, character, intelligence Del Mar, CA: Prometheus Nemesis Book Company Keirsey, D. & Bates, M. (1984). Please understand me. Character and temperament types. Del Mar, CA: Prometheus Nemesis Book Company Keir se y Temperament Website. (n.d) Keirsey.com, http://www.keirsey.com/faq.aspx Last accessed February 2009. Karagiorgi, Y., & Symeou, L. (2005). Translating constructivism into Instructional design: Potential and limitations. Educational Technology & Society 8 117 27. Klein, P. D. (1998). A response to Howard Gardner: falsifiability, empirical evidence, and pedagogical usefulness in educational psychologies. Canadian Journal of Education, 23 (1), 103 12. Kuwait University College for Women. http://www.cfw.kuni v.edu/dep/CSL/csl fac.htm Last accessed March 2008. Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1990). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press

PAGE 149

149 Lawrence, R. & Taylor, L. (2000). Student personality type versus grading procedures in intermediate accounting courses Journal of Education for Business 76 (1), 28 35. Learning Styles and Multiple Intelligence (2008). http://ww.ldpride.net/ Last accessed February 2008. Lee, L., Brunicardi, F.C., Scott, B., Berger, D., Bush, R., Awad, S., & Brandt, M. (2008). Impact of a novel education curriculum on surgical training within an academic training program. Journal of Surgical Research 145 308 312. Lemire, D. (2001). Technical data for five learning style instruments with instructional app lica tion. Research report. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED477467 ) Lieb, S. (1991). Principles of adult learning. VISION. Retrieved from http://honolulu.ha waii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/adul ts 2.htm Adult Education, 6 (3), 112 115. Lockard, J., Abrams, P., & Many, W. (1997). Microcomputers for twenty first century educators Addison Wesley Publishing Company. Lozada, M. (April 2002). The right stuff for success. Techniques Luck, P. & Norton, B. (2004). Problem based management learning better online? European Journal of Open, Distance and E learning http://www.eurodl.org/materials/contrib/2004/Luck_Norton.htm. Last accessed June 2008 Marrapodi, J. (2004). Myers Briggs Type Indicator in education: Implications for adult literacy learners American Psychological Association 1 41 M cCarthy, P. (2006). Clinical education in audiology: The challenge of change. Seminars in Hearing 27 79 85. New Directions for Teaching and Learning 81 Mills, R. (2006). T he Keirsey Temperament Model: A model for helping educational administrators facilitate ethical decision making. Education 126 (3), 512 517. Roeper Review 18 263 9.

PAGE 150

150 Nia ll, M. & Staley, A. (n.d.). Delivering problem based, experiential e learning through a social constructionist platform. University of Central England in Birmingham http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/programmes/elearningpedagogy/uce.pdf Last accessed June 2008 NASA (n.d.) Educator and learner roles in PBL. The NASA Science Files Retrieved from http://scifiles.larc.nasa.gov/text/educators/start/pbl/pbl_roles.html Northwood, M., Northwood, D., & Northwood, M. (2003). Problem based learning (PBL): From the health sciences to engineering to value added in the workplace. Global Journal of Engineering Education 7( 2), 157 164. Nottingham, S., & Verscheure, S. (2010). The effectiveness of active and traditional teaching techniques in the orthopedic assessment labora tory. Jour nal of College Science Teaching, 39 (5) taxonomy. British Journal of Educational Technology 38 (6), 1126 1131. Ott, R., Mann, M., & Moores, C. (1990). An emp irical investigation into the interactive effects of student personality traits and methods of instruction (lecture of CAI) on student performance in elementary accounting. Journal of Accounting Education 8 17 35. Pittenger, D. (1993). Measuring the M BTI and coming up short! Journal of Career Planning and Employment 54 (1), 48 52. Rhem, J. (1998). Problem based learning: an introduction. The National Teaching & Learning Forum 8 (1), 1 4. Roschelle, J. (1999). Transitioning to professional practice: A Deweyan view of five analyses of problem based learning. Discourse Processes 37( 2), 231 240. Ross, J., Drysdale, M., & Schultz, R.A. (2001). Cognitive learning styles and academic performance in two postsecondary computer application courses. Journal of Research on Technology in Education 33 (4). Rounds, L., & Rappaport, B. (2008). The successful use of problem based learning in an online nurse practitioner course. Nursing Education Perspectives 29 (1), 12 16. Savitz, F. (1999, October). Howard Gardner, meet Benjamin Bloom: Strategies for the future enliven methods from the past. Paper presented at the Pennsylvania Council for the Social Studies Annual Meeting Remembering the Past, Preparing for the Future, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Schul te, P.L, (1996). A definition of constructivism. Science Scope 20 (6), 25 27.

PAGE 151

151 Schultz, T. (2001). Concept maps vs. embedded questions: Assessing cognitive change in interior design students. (Ph.D. dissertation.), The University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio United States. Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Thesis. (UMI Microform 3018669 ) Shahatah H. (1993 ). The teaching of Arabic language between the theory and applying Cairo: Al Ahram Press. Smart, K. L., & Csapo, N. (2007). Learning by do ing: Engaging students through learner centered activities. Business Communication Quarterly 70 (4) 400 451. Smith, M. (2002, 2008). Howard Gardner and multiple intelligences. The encyclopedia of informal education http://www.infed.org/thinkers/gardner.htm Stephenson, J. E., Brown, C., & Griffin, D. K. (2008). Electronic delivery of lectures in the university environment: An empirical comparison of three delivery styles. Computers & Education 50 640 651. Stevens P. (2000). Career practice skills through global e learning New South Wales, Australia: The Center for Work Life Counseling. Stokes, S. (2001). Satisfaction of college students with the digital learning environment D The Internet and Higher Education 4 31 44. Temperament vs Character." (n.d). Keirsey.com, http://www.keirsey.com/faq.aspx Last accessed February 2009 Taylor, M (1997). Learning styles. Inquiry 1 (1), 45 48. Trigwell, K., & Prosser, M. (1996). Changing approaches to teaching: A relational perspective. Studies in Higher Education 21 (3), 275 284. Ubon, N. & Kimble, C. (2004). Exploring social presence in asy nchronous text based online learning communities (OLCs). Paper Presented at the 5th International Conference on Information Communication Technologies in Education, Greece. Vernon, D. T. & Blake, R. L. (1993). Does problem based learning work? A meta a nalysis of evaluative research. Academic Medicine 68 550 563. Wall, S. (2008). Personality: What type are you? RDH 2 (6), 68 72, continued on 115. Ware, J. (2008). When is it time to change? Kuwait Medical Journal 40 (1), 1 2. Watson, S., and Thompso n, C. 2001. Learning styles of interior design students as assessed by the Gregorc Style Delineator. Journal of Interior Design 27 (1), 12 19.

PAGE 152

152 Wicklein R. & Rojewski, J. (1995). The relationship between psychological type and professional orientation am ong technology education teachers. Journal of Technology Education 7 (1), 57 74. Williamson, M.F, & Watson, R. L. (2007). Learning styles research: Understanding how teaching should be impacted by the way learners learn part III: Understanding. Christian Education Journal 62 Willingham, D. (2004). Reframing the mind: Howard Gardner became a hero among Education Next 4 (3) 18 24. Wolf, F.M. (1993). Problem based learning and m eta an alysis: C an we see the forest through the trees? Academic Medicine 68 (7), 542 44. Yazedjian, A. & Kolkhorst, B. B. (2007). Implementing small group activities in large lecture classes College Teaching 55 (4), 164 169. Young, J.R. (1997) Rethinking the role of the professor in an age of high tech tools; will "unbundling" of tasks give faculty members more time or put them on the sidelines? Chronicle of Higher Education Z e igert, A. (2000). The role of personality temperament and student learning in principles of economics: Further evidence. Journal of Economic Education 31 (4), 307 22

PAGE 153

153 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Sana Ahmad AlBustan was born in Muncie, Indiana, as her father, Professor Ahmad was completing his postgraduate studies. She was raised in a ho usehold where the importance of education was constantly emphasized as the top priority. Her own mother, Ramzia, was awarded a principal position of a high school after having her six children and studying alongside her son, Tariq. Sana graduated from th e American School of Kuwait in 1989 and enrolled in the Department of English Language and Literature. She was awarded her Bachelors of Arts Degree from the English Department, Faculty of Arts at Kuwait University in 1994 and graduated among the top ten o Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages ( TESOL ) from the University of Maryland, College Park, USA and returned to Kuwait where she taught English as a second language in the College of Commerce, later renamed the College of Business Administration, from September 1996 until August 2004. Sana greatly enjoys teaching and did voluntary work for the community, as well as provided free tutoring sessions for various colleges at Kuwait University, inst itutions and companies in Kuwait. She has received many letters of appreciation and merits from the Student Union, Graduate Studies and the Language Centre at Kuwait University. Sana was awarded and honored the Distinguished Teacher Award for her success ful teaching strategies from the late Crown Prince of Kuwait and Kuwait University rector at that time during the graduation ceremony in June 2002. Sana commenced her PhD program at the University of Florida in Gainesville in 2004. During her graduate stu dies, Sana was privileged to gain her clinical experience at different locations such as the Speech, Language and Hearing clinic at University of

PAGE 154

154 private clinical sett ing and public school settings. Upon completion of her program, she will return to Kuwait and teach at the Department in Communication Sciences and Languages, College of Women, Kuwait University. Sana is married and has children.