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1 CHARLES ADRIAN PILLARS (1870 1937), JACKSONVILLE MOST NOTED SCULPTOR B y DIANNE CRUM DAWOOD A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT O F THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 201 1
2 2011 Dianne Crum Dawood
3 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would first like to acknowledge my thesis chair D r Melissa Hyde and committee members, Dr. Eric Sega l and Dr. Victoria Rovine for serving on this project for me Their suggestions insightful analysis, encouragement, and confidence in my candidacy for a m in a rt h istory were important support I also enjoyed their friendship an d patience during this process. The words mithing and editing guidance of Mary McClurkin was a delightful collaboration that culminated in a timely finished paper and a treasured friendship. Assistance from Deanne and Ira in the search of microfilm and micr ofiche records turned a project of anticipated drudgery into a treasure hunt of exciting finds. I also appreciate d the suggestions and continued interest of Dr. Wayne Wood who assured me serious research that culminated in learning details of his life and career heretofore unknown outside Interviews economic a nd personal vicissitudes during the Great Depression She also graciously allowed me to review her personal papers Wells & Drew the parent company of which was founded in Jacksonville in 1855, permitted my use of a color image and The Florida Times Unio n granted permission to use some of their photograph s in this paper I would also like to thank the following who contributed to this research: Mona Duggan at the Leland Stanford Junior Museum ; Ringling School of Art Florida Southern University ; Emily Lis ska, executive director, and Sharon Laird, archivist at the Jacksonville Historical Society ; Jim Anderson at the UNF library ; Helen Euston at the Cummer Museum of Art & Gardens ; Miriam Funchess from the Rotary Club of Jacksonville and Alice Turner offic e manager of the Memorial Park Association. Maintaining the p erseverance that led to the completion of this research would not have been possible without the constant support of my beloved family members. Your encouragement has meant so much to me.
4 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 3 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 6 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 11 Challenges of Patronage and Gender ................................ ................................ ...................... 12 Recognition of P illars as a Significant Regional Artist ................................ .......................... 13 2 SPIRITUALIZED LIFE MEMORIAL ................................ ...... 15 Selecting a Memorial ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 15 Spiritualized Life Memorial Group ................................ ....... 26 3 BIOGRAPHY AND WORKS OF CHARLES ADRIAN PILLARS ................................ .... 35 Pillars Early Career and Works ................................ ................................ .............................. 35 Education and Training ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 36 sition of 1893 ................................ ................................ ................. 38 Chicago, Illinois ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 39 Jacksonville, Florida ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 39 St. Augustine, Florida ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 45 Years of the Great Depression ................................ ................................ ................................ 47 Sarasota, Florida ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 48 4 CAREER CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES ................................ ................................ .. 68 Nudity in Public Art ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 68 Patronage Opportunities ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 73 ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 75 Public Commissions and Competitions ................................ ................................ .................. 78 Public Assista nce for Artists ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 80 Professional Recognition of Pillars ................................ ................................ ........................ 85 5 CONCLUSION: LIFE RISING TRIUMPHANT FROM THE SWIRL OF CHAOS AND FACI NG THE FUTURE COURAGEOUSLY ................................ ............................ 97 Reputation: Recognition, and Renown ................................ ................................ ................... 98 ................................ ................................ .. 104 APPENDIX
5 A ................................ ....................... 107 B ................................ ................................ .. 110 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 113 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 125
6 LIST OF FIGURES Figure p age 1 1 ll Enjoy Jacksonville Florida, c. 1929 ...................... 14 2 1 Charles Adrian Pillars, Spiritualized Life preliminary c ompetition model (now lost), n.d.. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 29 2 2 Charles Adrian Pillars, Life ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 30 2 3 Jacksonville Florida Times Union, 1924 ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 31 2 4 Charles Adrian Pillars, Spiritualized Life December 1, 1924. ................................ .......... 32 3 1 U. S. Capitol Statuary Hall Washington, D.C. ................................ ................................ 53 3 2 Floor Plan U. S. Capitol Statuary Hall Washington, D.C ................................ .............. 53 3 3 Charles Adrian Pillars, History of Architecture, c. 1884. Doors (three) from the Leland Stanford Junior Museum. Bronze ................................ ................................ .......... 54 3 4 Daniel Chester French, The Republ ic c. 1893, Chicago Exposition of 1893, demolished 1896. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 55 3 5 Daniel Chester French and E. C. Potter, Columbus Quadriga c. 1893, Chicago Exposition of 1893, demolished 1896. ................................ ................................ .............. 56 3 6 Arch Peristyle c. 1893, World s Columbian Exposition of 1893, demolished 189 6 ....... 56 3 7 Miss Jacobi s School Record, c. 1 907 1908. Jac ksonville, Florida ................................ .. 57 3 8 Teachers. c. 1907 1908. Jacksonville, Florida .................. 57 3 9 l c. 1907 1908. Charles Adrian Pillars ................................ ............ 58 3 10 Charles Adrian Pillars c. 1908 ................................ ................................ ......................... 58 3 11 Charles Adrian Pillars, Twin Sons of Bi on Barnett n.d. Bronze. Location unknown ..... 59 3 12 Charles Adrian Pillars, Unnamed Portrait Medallions n.d. Bronze. Location unknown. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 59 3 13 Charles Adrian Pillars, Senator Duncan U. Fletcher, 1909. B ronze. Location unknown ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 60
7 3 14 Charles Adrian Pillars, Children of Perry Elwood, Location unknown ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 60 3 15 Charles Adrian Pillars, Cherub Fountain 1910. Bronze. Klutho Park, Jacksonville, Florida ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 61 3 16 Charles Adria n Pillars, Dr. John Gorrie 1914, 7 feet. Marble. US Capitol, Washington, D.C ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 62 3 17 Charles Adrian Pillars, Gen. Kirby Smith 1918. Bronze. US Capitol, Washington, D.C. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 62 3 18 Image from Jacksonville Florida Times Union 1918. ................................ ...................... 63 3 19 Charles Adrian Pillars, The Kiss of Science 1918. Plasteline model. Location unkn own. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 63 3 20 Homwold, c. 1923 ................................ ... 64 3 21 Charles Adrian Pillars, Anderson Memorial Pl aque c. 1920. Bronze. Trinity Episcopal Church, St. Augustine, Florida ................................ ................................ .......... 64 3 22 Charles Adrian Pillars, Anderson Memorial Flagstaff c. 1921. Bronze. Anderson Circle, St. Augustine, Florida. ................................ ................................ ........................... 64 3 23 Charles Adrian Pillars, World War I Memorial Plaque c. 1923. Bronze. US Post Office, St. Augustine, Florida. ................................ ................................ ............. 65 3 24 Charles Adrian Pillars, Spivey Memorial Urn 1937. Bronze. Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Florida. ................................ ................................ ................................ 65 3 25 Charles Adrian Pillars, Eagle Mothers: The Fine Arts 1934. ................................ .......... 66 3 26 ....................... 67 4 1 Southern Telephone News October 1926, Souther n Bell Telephone and Telegraph Company, 1926. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 87 4 2 1929 ................................ ................................ ............................... 88 4 3 Pillars Art School information flier, 1909. Jacksonville, Florida ................................ ...... 89 4 4 Charles Adrian Pillars, William James Bryan Memorial Tablet 1911, 5 feet. Bronze USS Battleship Florida ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 92 4 5 USS Battleship Florida c. 1911, demolished 1931. U.S. Navy History ........................... 92 4 6 Charles Adrian Pillars, Jean Ribault Monument May 1, 1 924. ................................ ........ 93
8 4 7 Jacques LeMoyne, Althore showing Laudonniere the marker column installed by Jean Ribault at Fort Caroline 1564 ................................ ................................ .................. 94 4 8 Charles Adrian Pillars, Unnamed equestrian model n.d. ................................ .................. 94 4 9 Charles Adrian Pillars. William B. Barnett 1931. Bronze. Bank of American Corporate Office, Jacksonville, Florida. (Photo, pri vate collection). ................................ 95 4 10 Jacksonville Art Institute. The Federal Arts Project, 1935. ................................ ............... 95 4 11 Jacksonville Florida Times Union, ................................ ................................ ..................... 96 5 1 War Memorial Park, Jacksonville, Florida, c. 1940. ................................ ...................... 106 A 1 Images of surviving studio models c. 1937 ................................ ................................ ..... 108 A 2 Unnamed surviving figures c.1937. ................................ ................................ ................. 109
9 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of th e University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts CHARLES ADRIAN PILLARS (1870 1937) By Dianne Crum Dawood May 2011 Chair: M elissa L. Hyde Major: Art History Charles Adrian Pillars (1870 1937) a sculptor who practiced his art in an ultra conservative Southern community at the turn of the twentieth century, was supported throughout his career by both private and public patron age and much of h is work was widely celebrated Although he enjoyed recognition throughout the United States, at the end of his life, Pillars suffered from declining health that was exacerbated by poverty. His most enduring work is his bronze Spiritualize d Life an iconic image in Jacksonville, Florida, that was commissioned by a local civic organization at the close of World War I In this paper, I define the place Pillars occupied in early twentieth century American art, one in which he chose to follow the classical Beaux Arts style of the 1860s on the cusp of the ascendancy of modernism. I describe the and I expand on the problems of patronage and gender that Pillars negotiate d through due to the anxiety of his patrons about nudity, a significant controversy in twentieth century American public art. 1 The study conclusion section a ddress is artistic practice as a classically trained sculptor in the conservative South, patronage opportunities 1 Donald M. Reynolds, Masters of American Sculpture : The Figurative Tradition from the American Renaissance to the Millennium. (New York, NY: Abbeville Press, 1993).
10 available at the turn of the twentieth century, and the reliability of public resources as a stimulus to artistic employment. The conclusion discussio n reconciles the loss of recognition that Pillars suffered since the unveiling Life in 1924 and the proposed steps for reclamation of the artist as 2 2 Jacksonville Journal, September 30, 1976 60.
11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION At the beginni ng of the 20 th century, the Southeastern United States was far less accepting of the avant garde than it is today, and writers, musicians, and artists often had to suppress working in a modernist style if they were to enjoy p ublic support. The sculptor Charles Adrian Pillars lived in the ultra conservative South and although he enjoyed the support of the arts community, at times he struggled with the conflicts of satisfying both the mores of time and place and his artistic in tegrity American civic commemorative monuments rose in demand after the Civil War. 3 Pillars was a sculptor in the Beaux Arts style which, in that great age of public monuments, symbols of human values and the human figure w ere central to composition and d esign. 4 His most enduring work Life is a bronze that still stands in a park in Jacksonville, Florida (Figure 1 1) The monument was commissioned by a local civic organization at the close of World War I but its central figure of a nude in the pub lic sculpture was not fully accepted until many years later. While recognized as a talented sculptor of his day, 5 there is no extant biography of Pillars nor a list of his works Before relocating to North Florida, Pillars had studied with well kn own sculptors Lorado Taft and Daniel Chester French American sculptors of the post Civil War generation admired the cole des Beaux Arts tradition (i.e., the works of Daniel Chester French, Lorado Taft, and E. C. Potter) and the sculptural exhibitions at the Columbian Exposition of 1893 showcased America And 3 Michelle C. Bogart, Public S culpture and the Civic Ideal: New York City 1890 1930. (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1989). 2. 4 Donald M. Reynolds, Masters of American Sculpture: The Figurative Tradition from the American Renaissance to the Millennium. (New York, NY: Abbevi lle Press, 1993), 61. 5 Jacksonville Florida Times Union April 16, 1994.
12 usually have the benefit of research on their assistants or the American sculptors that succeeded regionally. Challenges of Patronage and Gender During the four years he worked on the Life monument, Pillars was challenged by problems from his patronage regarding a nude male for his allegorical conception of the monument Images from the development stages of his heroic statue of General Edmund Kirby Smith (Figure 3 17) confirm his studio procedure was to begin with a nude study in the Classical manner. In fact, he spent weeks searching for the perfect male body with a classic Greek form from which to model the anatomically correct allegorical Life but he was forced to dash those artistic ambitions to accommodate the requirements of the committee from the Rotary Club that was financing the statue. The compromise resulted in a sexually ambiguous image. There is in fact, a long history of anxiety over nudity in American public art. 6 I n Chapter 4, I argue the issues of nudity in public art w hich confronted Pillars and his Life monument I describe the compromise which he negotiated in resolving his conceptual ambitions for the work and the restrictions imposed by the men on the committee. In Chapter 2, I discuss t he nude figure Life, which was cer tainly controversial and much was made by the neighborhood gentility when it was first unveiled The prominently displayed nude male torso was derisively called among other things, 7 Even t oday, the sculpture is criticized: the [ with its strategically covered and androgynous torso ] is a [ because ] good art is supposed to be about 6 William H. Gerdts, The Great American Nude, (New York: Praeger, 1974). Michael Kammen, Visual Shock: A History of Art Cont roversies in American Culture. (New York: Knopf, 2006). 7 Dr. Wayne Wood (historian and author), e mail message to the author, January 25, 2010.
13 truth. 8 B ased on information developed primarily from family documents in t he third chapter I explore and the artworks he created Chapter 4 also includes a discussion of three of professional challenges: establishing his artistic practice as a classically trained sculpto r in the conservative South, patronage opportunities available at the turn of the twentieth century and the reliability of public resources as a stimulus to artistic employment. Recognition of Pillars as a Significant Regional Artist In the concluding f ifth chapter, I describe the loss of recognition that Pillars suffered following the unveiling of Life in 1924. Pillars was an important regional artist in North Florida with significant credentials. If the early twentieth century bias of art history to p rivilege modernism over the Beaux Arts style devalued his work, I argue for efforts to reclaim his contributions to the cultural capital of a North Florida community. 8 Calvin Palmer http://calvininjax.wordpress.com/2008/07/09/prudery in the pa rk/ (accessed August 15, 2010).
14 Figure 1 1 H. & W.B. Drew Company, ll Enjoy Jacksonville Florida, c. 1929 Private collection. Reprinted with permission of the Wells & Drew Company.
15 CHAPTER 2 SPIRITUALIZED LIFE MEMORIAL Selecting a Memorial World War I had been over less than 24 hours when the Rotary Club of Jacksonville 1 The c lub members hip came from the prosperous emerging business class that was growing in Jacksonville. That group would have included in its membership, bankers, realtors, developers, business owners, hotel managers, lawyers, accountants, sales representatives, and managers of the new insurance companies. To carry out its decision to honor the sacrifice of those who had died in the war, on Dec ember 6, 1918, the Rotary established a Citizens Memorial C ommittee. As stated on the letterhead, the purpose was to erect a memorial to the 768 soldiers, sailors, and Marines from Florida who lost their lives in service during WWI. The memoria l was to be located in the city park on the waterfront at Riverside Avenue and the end of Margaret Street. 2 The plan had widespread support and e ndorsements came from patriotic groups like the American Legion Daughters of the American Revolution and Dau ghters of the Confederacy. In addition, it included business/fraternal groups of the Kiwanis, Elks, Masons, Knights of Pythias and the Chamber of Commerce; social organizations like the Florida Yacht Club; religious groups like the Knights of Columbus; ci vic organizations such as the Springfield Improvement Association, and even one trade union. On January 17, 1919, Rotarian Morgan V. Gress was named general chairman of the 16 member memorial committee. Sub committees were formed to select the design and s ite as well 1 Jacksonville Florida Times Union August 14, 1921 ; [sic] to November 1, 1987. 2 From the letterhead of the Citizens Memorial Committee, In c Jacksonville, Florida.
16 as to work on financing the project. 3 Gress was in the wholesale lumber business in North Florida and, besides chairing the Citizens Memorial Committee, was chairman of the executive committee of Duval County for the Third Liberty Loan in 1918, the Fourth Liberty Loan in 1919, 4 the Red Cross drive in 1919, the Woodrow Wilson Foundation in 1922, and the Community Chest of Jacksonville campaign of 1924. 5 As a result of these business relationships, he was in a position to leverage financial contri butions for the effort. munity. 6 The community responded with many home building, a riverfront boulevard, a civic auditorium, a playground for children, and an avenue of trees. 7 City C ommissioner Chic Acosta even proposed that the park be made a spring training field for the Brooklyn Dodgers. City Council President John Alsop appointed a committee to plan a magnificent riverfront boulevard from Riverside to the city limits that would in clude a triumphal marble arch with carved rock, a replica of the Arc de Triomphe in Paris that would dominate the memorial park. Paved walks would lead to the arch from the four corners of 3 Jacksonville Florida Times Union January 22, 1919. 4 A Liberty Loan was a war bond to support t he allied cause in World War I. Public support of s ubscription campaigns for t he four issues of Liberty bonds became a symb ol of patriotic duty in the United States Anonymous, The Art of Battle for Victory, Buy More Bonds, Fourth Liberty Loan USA Today, 138 (2780) (May, 2010) Retrieved March 2, 2011, from ProQuest Education Journals. (Document ID: 2043376661). 5 W illia m T homas Cash, The Story of Florida. (New York, NY: The American Historical Society, 1938). 6 Jacksonville Florida Times Union February 1, 1919. 7 Jacksonville Florida Times Union February 1, 1919; Jacksonville Florida Times Union February 1 1 1919.
17 be inscribed on table ts of brass. Doors inside the arch would open to rooms of war relics and other artifacts. 8 It was a grand and costly plan. Others suggested a mammoth arch with names of the dead on it to be placed at the most conspicuous point in the city so it could be s een by visitors to Jacksonville. 9 Capt. Burton Harris, in his letter to Gress in 1919, argued against memorials that would also serve as public improvements such as a building, a boulevard, or a civic auditorium. 10 A common point of contention for WWI memor ial committees was the choice between a purely symbolic monument and one that was a more utilitarian. Sergiusz that a memorial of practical benefit to the community might overshadow the main purpose, the purpose of a memorial is to be a memorial, that is, to be a commemoration of the dead 11 An editoria l in The Jacksonville Florida Times Union cautioned that when a memorial has value for other purposes, it loses its designation and is no longer a memorial. 12 For that reason, the committee determined that the memorial was to have no practical value and wou ld be solely a piece of art that honored those who had died in the war. i 8 Jacksonville Florida Times Union February 4, 1919; Jacksonville Florida Times Union 1921; Bill Foley, April Jacksonville Florida Times Union n.d. 9 Jacksonville Florida Times Union M arch 21, 1919; Jacksonville Florida Times Union February 4, 1919. 10 Jacksonville Florida Times Union March 21, 1919. 11 Sergiusz Michalski, Public Monuments: Art in Political Bondage, 1870 1997. (London: Reaktion Books, 1998), 128 12 Editorial, Jacksonv ille Florida Times Union 1919.
18 a base of bronze. He noted that the base should be stylistically represented and the names of the flag which these men died to uphold 13 Pillars mentioned similar memorial flagstaffs in New At its March 21, 1919 meeting, the Rotary Club recommended th e city purchase a block near Five Points bounded by Riverside Avenue, Margaret Street, and the St. Johns River. In turn the c lub promised to erect, with the cooperation of citizens of Duval County, a memorial to T he club suggested that it be in the form of an arch. 14 By June of 1919, Jacksonville C ity Council had paid $125,000 to buy the six and one half acres that became Memorial Park 15 and which were part of the fourteen acre Riverside Park Streets 16 The purchase of the land triggered a six year project to lay out the park, landscape it, build a fence to keep out roaming cattle, and commission the bronze statue to be placed in a pool on the waterfront. The Citizens Committee raised $52,000 for the statue and for developing a contract for landscaping with the prestigious Olmstead Brothers firm. 17 Pillars competed with more than 100 other artists to create the mem orial and submitted several models during the process. His second proposal was a strictly ornamental design with a 13 Jacksonville Florida Times Union February 8, 1919. 14 The most popular choice for the committee at the time and also the suggestion of the City Council President, John Also ; Jacksonville Florida Times Union April 2, 1919. 15 November 1, 1987. 16 Lived French Connection n.d. Wayne W. Wood, s Architectural Heritage: Landmarks for the Future. (Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Press, 1989). 17 Olmsted Associates Records, Job No. 5153 5169, Box BB289, Reel 247, #5151, Manuscript Division. (Washington, DC: Library of Congress, n.d ).
19 central mass that represented an ancient altar to carry out the idea of sacrifice. His plan was for the altar to be surmounted by a bronze tr 18 R. A. Benjamin, of the local firm of Greeley & Benjamin, submitted watercolor sketches of a plan for the entire park and memoria Company presented two comprehensive designs with models. 19 Committee (Figure 2 1). 20 His winning design was the depiction of a winged youth, surmounted on a globe and, in th e represented 21 Originally, the n ude male was so detail ed and so well endowed that members of the Rotary Club asked Pillars to alter it slightly. 22 Some members of the committee were shocked at the realism of the statue ronze. 23 In its final form the statue is androgynous in his compromise with the committee the male nude is strategically covered with a codpiece, faint suggestion of nipples, and rumored to possess the legs of a woman. 24 The finished figure also r esembl ed the stylized young woman popularly used 18 Bill 19 Jacksonville Florida Times Union 1921 20 Jacksonville Florida Times Union February 25, 1921. 21 Jacksonville Metropolis August 13, 1921, 9. 22 Jacksonville Florida Times Union Jacksonville Florida Times Union June 11, 1994. 23 Jacksonvill e Florida Times Union March 20, 1974, A 1 5. 24 of the Memorial Park statue. Dr. Wayne Wood, historian and author, e mail message to the author January 25, 2010.
20 as the popular symbol of the Victory Loan drive, a woman with flowing tresses and a loose garment with one arm aloft holding a helmet Unlike the male figure females, and children on the Spiritualized Life memorial, th at woman was clothed, if not scantily 25 Pillars had to be not only the artist, but had to manage the business affairs of the project as well, including hiring assistants and dea ling with the foundry that would do the final casting of the bronze. For Pillars, the process was workable because he knew the system and was respected in the community, and he was constantly commissioned during this time. Richman observed that a sculptor reviews during the process: on signing the contract, on the approval of the scale model, on completing the working or full scale models, when the carving or casting was completed, and when the state w as placed. Artists were expected to pay their assistants and purchase materials and services throughout the process, and the patron or commission representative was 26 In February of 1922, the 54 member all male monument selection committee went to St. Augustine for their first inspection of the proposed statue at 27 After several of them expr graphic nudity, Pillars agreed to modify it somewhat. 28 The committee was very enthusiastic about the memorial as it stood upon 25 Lived French Connection April 16, 1994. 26 The Early Career of Daniel Chester French, 1869 (PhD diss., University of Delaware, 1974). 27 The Ponce de Leon Hotel in St. Augustine was development plan of Standard Oil co founder Henry Flagler to transform the small Spanish Florida town into a winter Newport. To the north of the hotel, Flagler built studios for artists to use to paint for guests in the winter and host receptions in the Grand Parlor to display their work 2002. http://www.drbronsontours.com/bronsonflaglerartistcolony.html (accessed August 21, 2008). 28 March 20, 1974.
21 inspection (Figure 2 2) and reported that the work of Mr. Pillars had exceeded their expec tations. At the first inspection, Pillars was asked to begin the full scale model for casting in bronze, and the plan was to unveil it on November 22, 1921. 29 In actuality, the monument was three more years in the making. 30 On August 30, 1923, Pillars contra ct ed with T. F. McGann & Sons Co. of Boston to cast 0 diameter sphere surmounted by an 8 0 31 The finished model was pac ked, transported from Homwald studio in St. Augustine and shipped to Boston from the railway station at St. Augustine. 32 On the same day, Pillars wrote to Olmsted Brothers, the landscape architectural firm designing Riverside Memorial Park, to ac knowledge their request for notification that the casting had been contracted. 33 The dedication ceremonies were held on Christmas Day in 1924 (Figure 2 3) and included an unveiling of the monument by two little girls who were relatives of local citizens who had died in the world war : Mary Danto Bedell was the niece of Miss Bessie Gale, a YMCA worker, who died while on duty near Bordeaux, France, and Mary B. Burroughs, a niece of Edward Cantey DeSaussure, a member of the 82 nd Regiment, 328 th Machine Gun Comp any, who died in the Argonne Forest campaign of France. The names of the 1,200 men and women from 29 Jacksonville Florida Times Union February 25, 1921. 30 Jacksonville Journal, May 31, 1960. 31 Agreement with T. F. McGann & Sons Co. and Charles A drian Pillars dated August 30, 1923 Copy in Pillars family archive. 32 Enzo Torcoletti, Director of Sculpture Studies, Flagler College, St. Augustine, FL, and principal restorer of works in North Florida Discussion with the author May 13, 2010. 33 C. Adrian Pillars to Olmsted Brothers Inc., August 30, 1923, St. Augustine, F L private collection.
22 Florida 34 who perished in the wa r were written on parchment scrolls in India ink, sealed in lead lined copper containers, and placed in the cornerstone of the memorial. 35 The list was compiled largely from the official government list of those who died in service during the war. The names of the casualties from Duval County were on a separate list. This repository of the list of the dead provided closure for co mmunity and families that were intimately involved ; the ceremony interred their names now that the war was over. The list of names does not appear on the surface of the bronze monument as originally planned but are seal ed within the cornerst one, a symbolic acknowledgement of patriotism, not individual patriots. 37 Since its unveiling in 1924, the memorial has been the site for commemorative 1924, the Spiritualized Life bronze has be en a Jacksonville icon (Figure 1 1) with what Eric Newton describe d as accepted collective meaning for a community. 38 Pillars said Sp iritualized Life depicted a young, winged male, forever racing the wind and holding aloft an olive branch of peace. 39 bronze plaque on one side of the fountain. The inscription reads, 34 Jacksonville, Duval County, Florida had 108 white and 49 black victims of war service. H arry G ardner Cutler, History of Florida Past and Present. Vol. 1. (Chicago, IL: The Lewis Publishing Company, 1923). 184 201 35 Jacksonville Florida Times Union December 26, 1924. 37 Charles L. Gr iswold, The Vietnam Veterans Memorial and the Washington Mall: Philosophical Thoughts on Political Iconography In Critical Issues in Public Art: Content, Context, and Controversy, Edited by Harriet F. Senie and Sally Webster (New York: HarperCollins, 199 2) 88. 38 a British Journal of Aesthetics 1, no. 2 ( Mar 1961) 80. Note: Eric Newton was the Slade Professor of Fine Art at Oxford University from 1959 until 1960 and is a writer and critic of art. 39 Lived French Connection April 16, 1994.
23 ife symbolized by the winged figure of youth rises triumphantly which engulfs humanity and faces the future 40 In the Jacksonville Florida Times Union narrative of the ceremony, the bronze group Spiritualized Life hope for victory. Pillars wrote when he began work on the monument in 1920, I desired this memorial to present the idea of life, its struggle and victory. While striving to make a composition visualizing this, I found a poem by Alan Seeger, a soldier victim of the war. 41 At once, I saw the typical spirit of the boys who went overseas saw with their eyes a world in the insane grip of greed and ambition, caught in the ceasel ess swirl of selfishness, hate and covetousness, ever struggling against submergence. I saw those boys giving up their homes, sweethearts, wives, and mothers, to go overseas and through the supreme sacrifice, make secure the happiness and safety of their loved ones. With this vivid picture in mind, I constructed a sphere to represent the world, engirdled with masses of swirling water typifying the chaotic earth forces. In this surging mass of waters, I shaped human figures, all striving to rise above this flood struggling for mere existence. Last, surmounting these swirling waters, with their human freight, I placed the winged figure of Youth, representative of spiritual life, the spirit of these boys which was the spirit of victory. Immortality attained no t through death, but deeds; not a victory of brute force, but of spirit. This figure of Youth Sacrificed wears his crown of laurels won. He holds aloft an olive branch, the emblem of peace. 42 The nude young man is a hero cult 43 monument. His eyes look strai ght ahead with confidence, a weight shifted contrapposto pose with one foot raised and slightly forward. The raised olive branch of peace is lifted with a general impression of a purposive, controlled 40 Exposition where Pillars worked as a sculptural assistant. Reynolds describes the allego c haotic nature harnessed by man and brought into the service of society and the institutions, values, and virtues by which Masters of American Sculpture: The Figurative Tradition from the Am erican Renaissance to the Millennium (New York: Abbeville Press, 1993), 29. 41 I Have a Rendezvous with Death 1916. 42 Jacksonville Florida Times Union May 30, 1950. 43 The hero seen as the representation of idealized virtues which are admired and honored by the community. Orrin E. Kla p American Sociological Review Vol. 14, No. 1 (Feb., 1949): pp. 60 http://www.jstor.org/stable/2086446 (accessed March 3, 2011).
24 affirmation. The young man looks to the north downtown Jacksonville acknowledging the sacrifice of the community and championing the dignity of civic virtue and the struggles to the death over values and t he value of human life and the even greater value of American principles articulated in interpr etation of Spiritualized Life. A bronze orb is characterized in political iconography by Charles Griswold as a heliocentric monument : 44 The male figure reaches upward to the sun and heavens and connects the sun with the earth. As a result, figure is depicted as the heroic transmitter of a higher purpose and loftier ideals. Pillars was deliberate in his determination to capture complete realism in depicting the chaotic human figures of nude women and children lost in the swirling mass of waters, all striving to rise above the flood (Figure 2 4). 45 Faithful to the impressions and sentiments of the hundreds of spectators who admired the newly unveiled sculptural piece, subsequent visitors have also acknowledged its significance as public art. In 1928, thirty delegates from the Chicago Association of Jacksonville Florida Times Union The bronze war memorial of Spiritualized Youth will win national acclaim as one of 46 Many in the Chicago group viewed the Spiritualized Life greatest asset. Pillars said that he had spent weeks searching for a young man with a classic Greek figure to symbolize the human spirit. 47 Percy R. Palethorpe, who later became the St. Johns 44 Harriet F. Senie and Sally Webster, eds. Critical Issues in Public Art (New York: HarperCollins, 1992), 77. 45 Pillars also used his wife Ruth and young son Adie and infant daughter Elizabeth as models for the figures on the orb. See Figure 2 4 details. 46 St. August ine Evening Record, February 22, 1928 6. 47 Jacksonville Journal 1929 November 11, 1999.
25 County Florida tax assessor, worked for two years as a model for Pillars in his St. Augustine studio. Palethorpe posed an average of 15 hours a week af ter school and on weekends and was paid a dollar an hour from Pillars. Palethorpe said that he was swimming in the city pool when Pillars approached him about the modeling job. Palethorpe was 16 when he began the work; he was six feet three inches tall, we ighed 180 pounds, and was an end on the football team. Two others, Henry McDonald and Walter DeCathilis, also served briefly as models; McDonald, a college football player, posed only for the wax model, and DeCathilis posed while employed as athletic direc tor at the YMCA but had to leave for college midway in the modeling work. 48 Palethorpe said the only visitors allowed in the studio were other sculptors and the committee from Jacksonville in charge of erecting the statue. As is often the case with most wo rks of art, there was some disagreement and controversy over the degree of nudity in the proposed monument and Palethorpe said when those disagreements arose he retired upstairs and rested on a cot, still earning his dollar an hour. Palethorpe recalled t hat he was kidded a great deal about the modeling job and although he included a very small copy of image of the winged 49 48 Cynthia Jacksonville Florida Times Union January 25, 1988 searching for the perfect model. Pillars said, American type of athlete would not do Walter De Canthilis, who traced his ancestry back to ancient Greece, went away to college. Pillars told Barwald in ndard of De 49 Jacksonville Florida Times Union October 8, 1961 sec 2 16.
26 The Ci tizens Committee a landscape sub committee, chaired by Ninah Cummer, selected the prestigious Olmstead Brothers firm to design the Riverside Memorial Park grounds. 50 The who founded the company, w as that an urban park should have a close identification between beauty and utility: open ground, plantings, natural scenery, and delightful views effectively elevating the human spirit. 51 Adhering to that concept, the landscaped grounds in front of the Spi ritualized Life memorial function like a grassy outdoor theater where visitors may observe and meditate. Immediately to the south, the broad St. Johns River frames the rear of the proscenium platform Jacks Landmark : The Spiritualized Life Memorial Group The Citizens Committee dedicated Memorial Park and the sculpture on Christmas Day 1924 and f rom that day, it has been the responsibility of the City of Jacksonville and has been maintained by the P ark s and Recreation Department of the city. Memorial Park was listed in the National Register of Historic Places on March 22, 1985, and is recognized as a National Register Property. On December 9, 1986, the Riverside Memorial Park Association, Inc., a non profit agency, was organized to promote the preservation and restoration of the landmark site and assume responsibility for its maintenance and continuity. 52 A $60,000 campaign financed with city money and private funds was raised to contract a restoration expert for the statue and to begin replacing vandalized benches, the entrance gates, and to upgrade lighting and repair the 50 Bruiser Lauramore, had been hired away from her landscaping company, Gl e n St. Mary Nursery, in Gl e n St. Mary, Fl orida. Dr. Harold Hume, distinguished horticulturalist, had been president of the company since 1907. Magi Taber (archivist and vice president, Gl e n St. Mary Nursery) Discussion with the author May 7, 2010. It was Dr. Hume of the nursery who contacted hi s friend, Frederick Law Olmsted, and asked him to consult with the Citizens Memorial letter from Olmsted Brothers to Gl e n St. Mary Nurseries Company (in Olmsted Associates Records, Job No. 5153 5169, Box BB289, Reel 247, #5151, Manuscript Division, (Washington, DC: Library of Congress, n.d.). 51 William H. Wilson, T he City Beautiful Movement. (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989), 17. 52 Alice Turner ( m anager, Riverside Mem orial Park Association ) discussion with the author May 3, 2009.
27 sprinkler system in the park. 53 On Christmas Day 1986, under the direction of the association, Riverside Memorial Park was lighted fo r night viewing for the first time in 62 years. 54 In 1988, 63 years after the dedication of the statue, the Memorial Park Association and the City of Jacksonville agreed to hav e the bronze figure inspected by an expert. Phoebe Dent Weil, chief conservator of The Conservation Group, Washington University Technology Associates, Inc., in St. Louis, Missouri conducted a review and analysis of repairs required to restore the bronze monument. 55 was in quite beautiful condition and re 56 In her evaluation of the sculpture, Weil noted that after the end of the Beaux Arts period, sculptural style change d drastically : from rig ht at the tail end of the Beaux Arts era. After that, sculptural style changed drastically. As a student of D. C. French, Pillars was really at the tail end of that tradition so [the Victory ] is extremely valuable as an [example of an] era that we no longe r have. It evokes French nineteenth century sculpture, the many echoes of wonderful concepts dramatic, romantic, male sturm [storm, turmoil] and conflict piece. 57 By 1924, at the time of the unveiling of the monument, s culptural style had change d drastically : Pillars, as the artist celebrated for the Spiritualized Life monument, was no longer au courant as a Beaux Arts sculptor and he grappled in the balance of his career with the vagaries of American patronage for art commissions his training and apprenticeship with Daniel Chester French and concluding with a description of 53 Seeks To Restore Area to Original Splendor November 1, 19887. 54 T o Preserve Memorial Park: Statue Could B e Focus Jacksonville Florida Times Union December 10, 1986 1,19. 55 Access to the Life bronze globe is through a small door disguised in the swirling waters [see Figure 2 4 ( g ) detail]. 56 : Taking Car e of a Riverside Treasure January 25, 1988, D 1 57 Winged Victory January 25, 1988, D 6.
28 his sculptural contributions to the private and public art in Florida. Chapter 4 is a discussion of t he challenges faced by Pillars in the continuation of his career on the cusp of stylistic preference changes and the withering of art commissions and fiscal resources for art ists an d their patrons durin g the Great Depression
29 Figure 2 1. Charles Adrian Pillars, Spiritualized Life preliminary competition model (now lost), n.d. (Photo, private collection).
30 Figure 2 2. Charles Adrian Pillars, Life S ketch M o del, (now lost), 1923 E xterior height 20 feet (Photo, private collection).
31 Figure 2 3. Jacksonville Florida Times Union 1924. ( Image in public domain). Reprinted with permission of Jacksonville Florida Times Union
32 Figure 2 4. Charles Adrian Pillars, Spiritualized Life December 1, 1924 B ronze, Jacksonville, Florida. Faade detail: A) n orth B) e ast; C) s outh D) s outhwest E) s outhwest detail F) w est G) a ccess door. (Photo s Dianne Crum Dawood)
33 A B C D Figure 2 4. Continued
34 E F G Figure 2 4 Continued
35 CHAPTER 3 BIOGRAPHY AND WORKS OF CHARLES ADRIAN PILLARS Pillars Early Career and Works most noted sculptor. 1 By the time of his selectio n to create the publically commissioned bronze memorial Spiritualized Life the centerpiece of Riverside Memorial Park, he had created both statues representing Florida in the Hall of Fame in Statuary Hall of the Capitol in Washington, DC (Figure 3 1) (Fig ure 3 2) In open competition, Pillars won $10,000 each for the life size statues of Dr. John Gorrie, the West Florida physician who invented the first artificial ice machine to care for his feverish patients, 2 and Col. Edmund Kirby Smith, the famous Confe derate general and native of St. Augustine. 3 In newspaper As evidence that Jacksonville is growing intellectually and aesthetically, as well as materially and com mercially, it is noted that in matters of music and art there is active interest. It is only natural that the material things, business and politics, should advance ahead of every other proposition, and when the people demand that their homes shall be attr active, as well as comfortable, and are willing to give attention to the fine arts, it is growth. The demand for the artistic has come to be realized and Mr. C. Adrian Pillars, for some years past teaching art in this city, and having come here from the We st with the highest recommendations, now finds it to advantage to open an art school, with competent teachers to instruct in drawing, painting, sculpture, china painting, decorative and designing. [Pillars] is well known as a sculptor of great ability: He was a student in the life class of the 1 Jacksonville Journal, September 30, 1976 60. 2 Jacksonville Metropolis Sculptor Pillars Has Returned From Tallahassee: Awarded Contract for $10,000 Statue of Gorrie, n.d.; Jacksonville Metropolis C. A. Pillars to Provide Statue of Dr. Gorrie, n.d. Note : To construct his one quarter life size model of Gorrie, Pill George H. Whiteside. (In Jacksonville Metropolis ibid .); Jacksonville Florida Times Union Local Sculptor Completes Model Gorrie Statue: Gift of State of Florida to Hall of Fame i 3 bronze of Edmund Kirby Smith created a stir because of Kirby Ar bus Magazine, July/August 2001, http://www.authorsden.com/visit/viewArticle.asp?id=11127 (accessed May 14, 2007).
36 Chicago Art Institute and for nine years student and assistant in the private studio of Larado [sic] [sic] studios Paris. 4 The founder of the first school of art in Jackson ville professing to give its students a regular foundation in drawing and modeling for a professional career as artists. 5 as a sculptor as well as the advantage of the be st training as given in the Beaux Arts aesthetic sense by adorning some of its parks, boulevards, and public buildings 6 very proud to have such talent in the state and should take every means to inform the public. 7 Education and Training Charles Adrian Pillars was born in Rantoul, Illinois, on July 4, 1870, to John Adrian Pillars, a railroad engineer, and Ellen Pillars. H e was the oldest of their three children including sister Nettie and brother Bert. 8 Educated in the public schools, he enrolled at the University of Illinois, but did not graduate. He had begun lessons in clay modeling when he was 12. 9 Pillars attracted Champaign (Illinois) Daily Gazette boxes or developing their energies to avoiding any useful exertion, Charley was studiously at 4 Jacksonville Florida Times Union and Citizen, 1901. teacher, Lorado Taft, not Pillars, studied at the cole studied at the Acadmie Julian in Paris with Antonin Merci. (In Lewis W. Willia PhD diss, University of Chicago, 1958). 5 Jacksonville Metropolis 1910 6 Jacksonville Florida Times Union 1910. 7 St. Augustine Record, June 4, 1925. 8 U. S. Bureau of Census. Tenth Census o f the United States, Champaign County, Illinois, 1880. ( Washington, DC: Author ), 17. 9 Jacksonville Metropolis April 30, 1914 1 9.
37 work developing the talent he possesses. 10 At age 15, Pillars entered the private studio of one of student and assistant. While working with Taft, Pillars executed public statues in bronze and marble and numerous works independently, including a set of bronze doors ( Figure 3 3) for the Leland Stanford Museum of California 11 As a connection to the classical design of the museum, the doors were emboss ed with scenes illustrating the history of architecture. 12 In 1886, Taft bec a me an instructor at the Art Institute of Chicago, holding that position from 1886 to 1907. In mid Agricultural Buildin of 1893 in Chicago. The sculptures produced for the Fair gave Taft his first fame as a serious sculptor. 13 In 1891, Taft the proc ess to enlarge from one quarter size models to final size in white plaster like staff 14 ) all of the statues 10 Champaign Daily Gazette, 1887. as a teenager, Pillars carved a portrait bust of Mark Carley, a founder of his hometown the City of Champaign, Illinois. See J. R. Stewart, A Standard History of Campaign County, Illinois, vols I & II, 1918, http://champaign.ilgenweb.net/biographies/bio0282.html (accessed De cember 5, 2009). 11 Jacksonville Metropolis April 30, 1914, 1 9. Pillars was employed as assistant to Lorado Taft, professor of sculpture at the Art Institute of Chicago. Following the death of her husband, Jane Stanford oversaw the construction of the St anford Museum at Stanford University. Osborne, Carol M. Museum Builders in the West: The Stanfords a s Collectors and Patrons of Art 1870 1906. ( Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Museum of Art, Stanford University, 1986 ). 12 Richard Joncas, Building on th e Past: The Making of the Iris & B. Gerald Cantor Center for Visual Arts at Stanford University, (Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University, 1977) 42. 13 1958. 14 Staff was a perishable mixtu re of plaster and horsehair, jute, straw or some other binding agent. The mixture was cast in gelatin molds and easily worked and tinted. See Donald Martin Reynolds, Masters of American Sculpture: The Figurative Tradition from the American Renaissance to t he Millennium. ( New York: Abbeville Press, 1993), 24 28. The fair came to an end on October 30, 1893. In January and July 1894, fires consumed many of the fair ng of the Florida Historical Quarterly 66 no. 1 (July 1987) : 48 9.
38 and groups for the exhibition buildings. 15 Sculptors Daniel Chester French and Edward Clark Potter collaborated with Taft and studio assistants in m odeling the various groups for the Exposition. 16 The finest sculptors in the world were invited to participate in the exhibitions at the 17 and the noted landscape designer Frederick Law Olmsted was commissioned to select and design the s ite. 18 While Pillars did not have the opportunity to study at the Academy in Rome or the cole de Beaux Arts in Paris, as assistant to Taft in 1892 1893, he could work with the major sculptors of the day. In 1886, when 19 The Columbian Exposition in Chicago provided the first major opportunity for American sculptors to show their skill to a mass audience; the exper ience for those sculptors initiated new social and occupational relationships. 20 For eighteen months, Pillars worked with Daniel Chester French on the head and bust of the 60 foot signature monument Republic (Figure 3 4) in the Court of Honor, and collabora ted with renowned equestrian sculptor Edward C. Potter for two of the thirteen Columbus Quadriga (Figure 3 15 Florida Histor ical Quarterly 66, no. 1 (July 1987): 65. 16 1974 ; Smithsonian Institution. Edward Clark Potter (1857 1923)Papers, 1903 1933, 2009. http://sirismm.si.edu/siris/collectionaaa2.htm (accessed on December 9, 2009). 17 A deline Adams, (New York, NY: The National Sculpture Society, 1929). 18 Donald Martin Reynolds, Masters of American Sculpture: The Figura tive Tradition from the American Renaissance to the Millennium. (New York: Abbeville Press, 1993) 25. 19 1958, 52. 20 Michelle C. Bogart, Public Sculpture and the Civic Ideal: New York City 1890 1930. (Chicago, IL: Universi ty of Chicago Press, 1989).
39 surmounted the Arch of the Peristyle (Figure 3 6). Pillars a original work, The Dancing Faun for the Horticultural Building of the Fair. 21 Chicago Illinois cupidon f rieze a figure of Robin Hood, the life of Columbus for the Columbus Memorial Building constructed in 1892. 22 painting, cupolas, and bronze [as] the interior and exterior furnishings Rand McNally map 23 may well refer to works in the early Chicago skyscraper. The building was demolished in 1959 While working in Chicago, Pil model in the competition for the civil war hero Philip Henry Sheridan equestrian statue at Chicago, Illinois, was one of five selected from fifty in competition for a $50,000 award. At this time, he also submitted his design for two civic war monume nts in the South: a Jefferson Davis memorial in Richmond, Virginia, and an equestrian statue of Nathan Bedford Forest in Memphis, Tennessee. 24 Jacksonville Florida In 1890 when Pillars was 20 years of age, he and his extended family relocated to Jacksonvil 7) described as an instructor of sculpture (F igure 3 8), for its 21 Jacksonville Metropolis April 30, 1914. 22 Making Artificial Ice, Unveiled. Jacksonville Metropolis April 30, 1914 19 ; Jacksonville Florida Times Union, 1917. 23 las, and bronze enter http://www.patsabin.com/illinois/index.htm (accessed December 9, 2009). 24 Jacksonville Metropolis Sculptor Pillars Has Returned From Tallahassee: Awarded Contract for $10,000 Statue of Gorrie, n.d.
40 students ranging from children to adults (Figure 3 9). By 1908 Pillars (Figu re 3 10) had expanded as a sole practitioner and developed his reputation in the community with frequent Jacksonville Journal, Jacksonville Metropolis and Jacksonville F lorida Times Union. Emulating the career development strategy of his teacher Taft 25 Pillars opened a studio for exhibition and studio in room 12 of the Mohawk Building will be open every afternoon this week, 26 His studio established and a solid reputation developing in 1915 Pillars married Jacksonville native, Ruth Zaring, a student in his art school. 27 By the 1920s, Pillars was recognized in the local Florida Times Union finest sculptor, 28 e and developed a network of clientele originating with Bion Barnett and his Barnett banking family and personal requests for portraits of family members (Figure 3 11). Pillars benefited from the financial and social introductions that he developed and soon was engaged in bronze (Figure 3 1 2 ) which included U S Senator Duncan U. Fletcher 29 (Figure 3 1 3 ), M artha Reid fertilizer manufacturing executive E. O. Painter, 30 Jacksonville c ivic leader Colonel James J. 25 Taft used his studio as a meeting place to become acquainted with influential members of Chicago society. (In Lewis W. Chicago, 1958), 52. 26 Jacksonville Florida Times Union and Citizen, April 4, 1901 ; and Jacksonville Florida Times Union 1909. 27 Jacksonville Metropolis http://www.ancestry.com/?o_xid=21837&o_lid=21837 (accessed June 13, 2007). 28 Jacksonville Florida Times Union 29 Jacksonville Florida Times Union 1909 a ; Jacksonville Florida Times Union, 1909 b 30 Jacksonville Metropolis 1915.
41 Daniel (1894), 31 Dr. A. S. B aldwin (1894), President of Board of Trade, 32 William D. Barnett, president of the Barnett National Bank, 33 J Durkee, promi nent local businessman, 34 and the car r ara marble bust of the children of Perry Elwood (Figure 3 1 4 ). In response to the popularity of displaying sculpture in the home during the nineteenth and early twentieth century, Pillars found a market and financial s uccess in the sale of his small bronze pieces. At the turn of the century, bronze casting had become a fully developed industry and Pillars had contracted with the largest American foundries, Gorham Manufacturing and Tiffany & Co. to create his work. His studio inventory in the early years of his practice included Genius of the Swamp, Southern Womanhood, The Spirit of the Woods, Fountain of Youth, Dreams, Landing of Ponce de Leon, The Storm, The Wind Goddess, Solitude, The Awakening of the River, Kiss of the South Wind, Love of the Lily, The Vampire, Fountain of Unity, Parting of David and Jonathan, Deer Hunt, Opossum Hunt, and The Fallen Leaf 35 allegorical scenes that would have appealed to early twentieth century audiences. American bronze foundries and the demand for decorative small bronzes flourished until the beginning of the First World War when all fine art casting was discontinued. 36 31 Jacksonville Florida Times Union 1894. 32 Jacksonville Florida Times Union 1898 33 Jack sonville Florida Times Union 1900. 34 Pillars could have encountered Joseph Durkee at the World Fair as i n 1891, Durkee was on the thirteen Florid a exhibit was a replica of Fort Marion at St. Augustine, Florida. In Stephen Kerber, Columbian Exposition of 1893. The Florida Historical Quarterly 66 no. 1 (1987 ) : 29; Kerber, ibid, also note d that in 1892 Henry Flagler commit ted to advertising in the Florida fair gazetteer. At the time, Flagler was considering plans to extend his railroad and hotel system south along the east coast of Florida, 36 37. 35 Jacksonville Metropolis 1915. 36 Michael Edward Shapiro, Bronze Casting and American Sculpture: 1850 1900 The American Art Series. (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1985), 147.
42 On March 15, 1910, the Springfield Improvement Association dedicated a cherub first president, Mrs. B. F. Dillon, in ceremonies at the Third and Silver Street corner of Springfield Park. Mayor W. S. Jordan and Judge N. P. Bryan presided over the ceremony to unveil the bronze figure of a cherub holding a dolphin in its arms, describe 37 Pillars cast a cherub fountain (Figure 3 15) the design of which was a copy of the famous fountain in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence, Italy, the work of Verrocchio The award s respectively, in 1914 an d 1918 to Pillars for commissions for the two Florida statues in Statuary Hall at the U. S. Capitol cemented his reputation. When the new south wing of the U. S. Capitol was completed and the House of Representatives moved into its new chamber s in 1864, th e vacant former c 38 The legislation in itself was a deliberate act of reconciliation passed just before the termination of the Civil War. When the union of the nation had ceased to be an issue, the regional diversity of each state could be safely cultivated. Forty years passed before one Confederate state submitted a statue and by then heroic depictions of advocates of slavery, Confederate war heroes, and segregationists were accepted. 39 A n accomplished sculptor in both marble and cast bronze Pillars carved a marble heroic statue of Dr. John Gorrie in 1914 and in 1918 cast a bronze monument to Gen Kirby Sm ith. Dr. 37 Jacksonville Metropolis March 16, 1910 Jacksonville Florida Times Union March 16, 1910. 38 United States, Architect of the Capitol, Compilation of Works of Art and Other Objects in the United States Capitol. Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1965, 1952, 203. In 1933, Congress passed a law relocating some of the statues within Statuary Hall and reduc ing the representation to one sta tue per state. 39 Social Forces 61, no. 2 (Dec 1982), 390
43 John Gorrie as memorialized in one of the Florida statues at the U. S. Capitol (Figure 3 16) was an eminent West Florida physician who held the patent on mechanical refrigeration that he developed to alleviate the suffering of the sick, a proce ss that later led to the inventions of air conditioning and mechanical ice making Patriotic citizens of Florida had recent memories and epidemic in Jacksonville an d moved on the 1907 nomination by civil war veteran, Col. G. N. Saussy, 40 presided at the ceremony unveiling the marble statue. 41 General Edmund Kirby Smith was a St. Augusti born Confederate general 42 Not only was of Kirby Smith (Figure 3 17 ) 43 unanimously chosen by the special committee appointed by the legislature 44 but his work was preferred over the application of Italian artist, Professor Paoli Testi, and nationally known sculptor, Fritz Tri e bel. 45 Finalists, local sculptor Pillars and Testi from New York and a member of the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Italy, appeared before the committee of confederate 40 Jacksonville Metropolis February 28, 1914 1. 41 me of Dr. John Gorrie, Who Invented Process for April 30, 1914 1 Jacksonville Florida Times Union August 28, 1914 5 ibution to Statuary Washington Daily News September 14, 1914 n.d. ; Jacksonville Florida Times Union, Local Sculptor Completes Model Gorrie Statue: Gift of State of Florida to Hall of Fame in 42 September 30, 1976, 60. 43 Figure 3 17 includes the nude study of Gen. Kirby Smith by Pillars which was typical and a matter of course for the academically trained sculptor working from the human figure. 44 Jacksonville Florida Times Union, Sculptor Pillars Has Returned n.d. 45 Pillars was defended as a candidate for the competition when the committee was taken with sculptor Tr i ebel, the man and not necessarily his work. I n a letter to the editor of the Jacksonville Metropolis a Mr. Mott was critical of Smith contract on or committee that all Floridians are not prone to discredit home talent
44 veteran s; Pillars was chosen and was awarded $10,000 each for the statues of Dr. Gorrie and Gen Kirby Smith. 46 This selection gained for him the distinction at that time of being the only artist to receive the contract for both Hall of Fame statues. 47 He was also recognized as a Florida sculptor chosen to create the Florida statues in the Capitol. 48 The Kirby Smith bronze was so well received there was a movement by the United Daughters of the Confederacy to have an additional casting made at the Gorham Company fou ndry for the City of St. Augustine; 49 however, the fundraising campaign fell short of the needed amount In 1922, the Pillars statue of Gen. Kirby Smith was presented to the House of Representatives in a ceremony presided over by personal friend Senator Duncan U. Fletcher. 50 In 1918, Pillars received a commission from the Jacksonville firm, Wilson & Toomer Fertilizer Company, for its twenty fifth anniversary commemorative award p resented to Lorenzo A. Wilson, the president and founder by the 22 office employees and field force (Figure 3 18), 51 Pillars created a sterling silver statuette cast by Gorham & Co., in New York entitled The Kiss of 46 Sunday Ti mes Union, 12 1915; Jacksonville Florida Times Union, Kirby Smith Statue Commission Meets Here December 6 T o Pass on Completed Model of Statue n.d. Note: Pillars created the bronze from photographs of the general taken during the C ivil W ar his exact measurements. In American Stone Trade, Kirby Smith Monument, June 1, 1917, 30. For a description of the installation ceremonies for both statues in the Hall of Fame, t ogether with a biography of Pillars, see Charles E. Fairman, Art & Artists of the Capitol of the United States of America. (Washington, DC: United States Printing Office, 1927). 47 Sunday Times Union, February 21, 1915 1; Sunday Times Union, March 21, 1915 1. 48 Editorial, Jacksonville Florida Times Union 1918. 49 American Stone Trade, ; St. Augustine Even ing Record, March 26, 1918. 50 H. McGowan, Thanks of Congress Given to Florida for Statue of General E. Kirby Smith, Jacksonville Florida Times Union 1922. In 1917, Pillars had submitted for comment a photo of the model of his Kirby Smith statue to Sen ator Fletcher. September 18, 1917 letter from United States Senator Duncan U. Fletcher to C. Adrian Pillars, Esq. (in private collection). 51 Jacksonville Florida Times Union wife Ruth was the model for the Kiss of Science design (note on reverse of photograph in Pillars family archives).
45 Science (Figure 3 19). In 1918, the Heard bank modern struct ure 52 and i n 1928, Pillars was contracted to create a life size heroic statue of J. J Heard, who had found ed the Heard National Bank 53 The location of the statue of Heard is unknown today St. Augustine, Florida From 1919 until 1932, Pillars enjoyed fina sculptor and built his dream home in nearby St. Augustine. He his wife Ruth and their three children lived in his home and studio at 16 May Street, known today as one of the landmarks of 54 P illars referred to his St. Augustine home and studio as Homwald (Figure 3 20 ). 55 the doors were high and wide enough to drive in a team of horses. The studio itself was two 56 Pillars lost Homwold to foreclosure during the severe economic times of the Great Depression. During the time he lived in St. Augustine, Pillars developed a significant patron in Dr. Andrew Anderson, former mayor of the city and agent for Florida developer, Henry M. Flagler. (Figure 3 21) 52 Jacksonville Florida Times Union December 25, 1918 13. 53 Ibid. 54 David Nolan, The Houses of St. Augustine. (Sarasota, FL: Pineapple Press, 1995). 55 My studio for pas t & Studio, 16 May Street, St. Augustine. Moved in March 26, 1923; occupied until November 7, 1931. 8 years, 7 months, 12 days. Studio: 33 feet under sky light. 38 feet ground to parapet Studio 25 x 41+. 56 Sadie W Gainesville Daily Sun, June 14, 1928 2.
46 1912), sister, Laura Malc olm Smethurst (1874 1898), and their mother, Mary Gibbs Elizabeth Smethurst (1844 1904) In 1921, Anderson commissioned and donated a bronze flagstaff and pedestal ( Figure 3 22 ) to the city of St. Augustine. It was dedicated in a public ceremony at Anderso n Circle on the peace, and to the youth of this city who served their country in the world war, 1916 Thousands were said to have flocked to the ceremony t o dedicate the pedestal as groups and and, at the request of President Warren G. Harding, Taps was played. Dr. Anderson formally presented the memorial to the cit y. 57 memorial to the 650 men from St. Augustine who had served in the world war. 58 Pillars was also commissioned to create a bronze tablet now at the St. Augustine P ost Office (Figure 3 2 3 ) and designed the granite base for the statue erected t o commemorate the first known Spanish explorer to the New World The statue of Juan Ponce de Leon, whose expedition landed at St. Augustine in 1513 is located between the histo ric Slave Market and the Bridge of Lions The statue was dedicated on November 11, 1923 and is a replica of the one in San Juan, Puerto Rico Neither statue is signed and both were cast by an unknown Spanish foundry. 59 On January 18, 1924, Pillars joined twenty writers, painters, sculptors, and photographers who had founded a summer art colony in St. Augustine and became a charter member of The 57 Jacksonville Florida Times Union November 12, 1921 1. 58 St. Augustine Record, January 15, 1929. 59 Enzo Torcoletti, Dir ector of Sculpture Studies, Flagler College, St. Augustine, FL, and principal restorer of works in North Florida, discussion with the author May 13, 2010.
47 Galleon Club. In January 1925, Pillars conducted classes in sculpture and modeling, assisted by Frank Micka, who had studied sculpture in his native Czechoslovakia and later worked with the sculptor of the Mt. Rushmore National Memorial John Gutzon Borglum. 60 the St. Augustine Art Association, she note d that the success of the organization was due not only to patrons, but to the dedication of local artists. Pillars and a small cadre of artists kept the spirit of the association alive in the early years of the Great Depression and t he arts group became a traveling show, as the members were homel ess and often could not conduct meetings 61 In 1930, the mood in Florida was bleak The state was in economic ruin, devastated by the real estate bust of 1926 and crushed by the Wall Street crash of 1929. Hundre ds of Florida banks failed. The metal skeletons of h igh rise office buildings, once indicators of the l and b oom, stood rust ing, and new construction ceased. By 1931, Pillars despaired. On February 15 of that year he had written on the flyleaf of a copy of the the book describin g his contribution to the Hall of Fame at the U. S. Capitol, 62 Homwold. St. Augustine, Fla., (16 May St.) Feb. 15 th 1931. To my brother [Bert] Years of the Gr eat Depression Collapsing under the fiscal challenges for an independent artist during the Great Depression, on November 7, 1931, the Pillars family moved to a Jacksonville homeless camp 60 Robert W. Torchia, Lost Colony: The Artists of St. Augustine, 1930 1950. (St. Augustine FL: The Lightner Museum, 2001). 61 Arbus Magazine, July/August 2001, http://www.authorsden.com/visit/viewArticle.asp?id=11127 ( accessed May 14, 2007). 62 Charles E. Fairman, Art and Artists of the Capitol of the United States of America, Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1927).
48 along Strawberry Creek (now known as Oakwood Villa). 63 The family of f ive lived in one of the few houses still standing among families residing in tents and cooking meals over tripod fires; the home had no electricity and no running water but the structure did have a stove for bathing. During that winter, Ann Pillars recalls Christmastime rose candy as her father named his confectionary invention and for the enchanting and creative stories that her father would relate both to entertain the children and hold the struggling family together. 64 Saraso ta, Florida In 1932, Pillars received a letter from the Ringling School of Art in Sarasota, Florida, offering him a position as art professor with a salary of $100 a month 65 Departing Jacksonville as an international reputation, has been appointed instructor in sculpture at the Ringling School of Art, 66 Pillars borrowed a car and 67 In 1932, the Ringling School of Art was beginning its second year of classes and the opening ceremony included supporters such as Governor Doyle Carlton John Ringling and Dr. Ludd M. Spivey, president of Southern College and director of the school The Ringling Museum contained treasures collected over 30 years by John and Mabel Ringling 68 Dr. Spivey 63 Interestingly Morgan V. Gress, the chairman of the Citizens Committee which had led the fund raising campaign and award to Pillars for Spiritualized Life was in 1924 the chairman of the first ever Community Chest fundraising campaign F rom 1930 to 1939 the funds provided for 87,507 Duval County children and adults devastated by the d epression. From the anniversary brochure of United Way of Northeast Florida, Seventy Five Years of Working for Our Community (Jacksonville: Author, 1999) 1. 64 Ann Pillars Durham, discussion with the author, August 13, 2010. 65 Ann Pillars Durham (daughter of Charles Adrian Pillars) in letter to the author December 5, 2009. 66 Jacksonville Florida Times Union June 23, 1932; Ann Pillars Durham, discussion with the author August 13, 2010. 67 Jacksonville Florida Times Union June 23, 1932; Jacksonville Journal, November 25, 1932. 68 Sarasota Herald,
49 had negotiated with Ringling for the opening of the art school as a branch of Southern College with an eye toward his financial support as well as to provide access for art students to Ringlin of seventeenth c entury sculpture and paintings in his Italianate villa in Sarasota. After much negotiation, in 1931 the School of Fine and Applied Art of the John and Mabel Ringling Art Museum opened and Dr. Spivey oversaw the administ ration of both campuses 69 At the Ringling School of Art Pillars was joined by an artist acquaintance from his youth, Adolph Robert Shulz of Illinois. Shulz and Pillars, as faculty members, also volunteered as members and exhibitors of the Sarasota Art Asso ciation. 70 The Sarasota Herald in an effort interview ed Ringling faculty weekly 71 Ringling Rumors outstanding artists who will constitute the faculty for the coming year are Adolph Robert Shulz, founder president of Brown County Indiana Art Colony, continued tha Diana of the Tides where the moon upon the tides is represented by a beautiful female figure also incl uded in his classroom a group of small figures and models for fountains and other garden statuary. Among those were models of The Awakening of Welaka ( the Indian name for the St. Johns River) Falling Leaves, 69 Robert E. Perkins, The First Fifty Years Ringling School of Art and Design. Sa rasota, FL 1931 1981. (Sarasota, FL: Ringling School of Art and Design Library Association, 1982). 70 Sarasota Herald, Members Have Achieved Distinction and Praise Th 1935. 71 Sarasota Herald, 1933.
50 Ashes, Lady Godiva T aking D own her H air, The Wi lted Flower, and El Penserosa. He also displayed photographs of his early sculptural pieces to include medallions, heads in the round, 72 T oday t he location of most of these works is unknown. In 1933, Dr. and Mrs. Spivey commissioned Pillars for a memorial for their seven year old son who had died from the bite of a rabid dog in the prior year. In a studio exhibition at the Ringling School of Art Pillars opened his studio at Room S 2 for a public viewing of several of hi s current sculptural studies where t he Spivey memorial urn (Figure 3 2 4 ) was displayed. Mounted on a pink marble base, the urn was four feet three inches high with a diameter of two feet, cast in bronze, with figures in relief At the base is a memorial n 73 The bronze urn contained a father and a mother figure on either side with arms outstretched and meeting. Between them is the figure of a child with feet rest ing on clouds depicted at the base of arms of the father and mother above his head. Between the two adult figures is a brazier for incense burning. The Spivey memorial urn took more than a year for Pillars to create. 74 He used his younger daughter as a model for the child. 75 are clasped The urn was designed to stand in a garden with a rectangular reflecting pool that the year old son enjoyed. Dr Ludd Spivey and his wife commissioned the memorial 72 Sarasota Herald, 1935. 73 Sarasota Herald, February 26, 1935. 74 Ibid 75 As an eight year old, Pillars daughter Ann recalls her pose was to stand holding her hands up in the air s upported by two oars from their rowboat and her father became vexed with her squirming. Ann Pillars Durham, discussion with author November 15, 2009.
51 urn to be installed on the campus at the Florida Southern College campus in Lakeland Alan Spivey Hall, one of the college buildings erected in 1935, was named in memory of the youth memorialized by the urn. 76 The Spivey bronze urn was last artwork, completed on the day he died. 77 While a faculty member at Ringling School of Art Pillars served for two terms as a member of the Florida Federation of Art In 1934, the Florida Emergency Relief Admini stration announced a program theme competition and submission, a medallion, was chosen conception of the a rts was symbolically portrayed as the N ational R elief A dministration eagle mothering the arts, the arts being foun America to hover and feed them (Figure 3 25) 78 T he studio model of the medallion was exhibited in Jacksonville and displayed on the cover of the Eighth Annual Exhibition of the Federation in Jacksonville that year. 79 The bronze medallion however, was never cast. Sarasota, too, suffered from the economic disaster of the Florida l and b oom in 1926 and the 1929 d epression. Desperate to save money, in 1933 the Sarasota County school board closed the public schools and reopened them on a tuition plan. Class sizes were reduced by 50 percent and the school year decreased to seven months. 80 When Pillars and his family relocated to Sarasota in 1932, the Sarasota community was struggling to weather the d epression. 81 During the 76 Mac Da Camar Sarasota Herald, March 25, 1935. 77 Jacksonville Florida Times Union June 25, 1938. 78 Sarasota Herald, ulpture Is Intrinsic Unit of Local Art: Proof Given in Show at Ringling School 1934. 79 Jacksonville Florida Times Union September 7, 1934; Jacksonville Florida Times Union November 14, 1934. 80 Florida Historical Quarterly, 76(2), (1997) 135 151. 81 Ann Pillars Durham recalled graphic evidence of the hardship of the Great Depression on the Sarasota community. In those days, there were many houses available. People could not pay their mortgages and just walked
52 1934 35 school year, with 13 day students and one dormitory student registered for the fall semester, the college president presented faculty with an ultimatum: M ove their families into the empty dorms or look for other jobs. Ringling School of Art te out of eight; in the next year, they were paid for seven months. In 1936, Ringling School of Art was hit by the economic hardships of the Great re. Ironically, as the Great Depression wore on, the Florida National Bank in Jacksonville displayed Life monument to rally the community L et the buoyant message of the Memorial Park statue symbol (Figure 3 2 6 ). Pillars and his family returned to Jacksonville where he found employment with the national artist relief program, the Federal Arts Project. Chapter 4 addresses the issues of nudity and negotiating his conceptual ambitions that confronted Pillars and the committee for his Life monument. The next chapter also includes a discussion of professional challenges in establishing his artistic practice as a classically trained sculptor in th e conservative South, patronage opportunities available at the turn of the twentieth century and the reliability of public resources as a stimulus to artistic employment. away. When the Pillars family looked for housing near the Ringling College of Art campus, one rental house stood and another rental property had a very la rge blood stain on the floor from a suicide ( discussion with the author, March 7, 2010).
53 Figure 3 1 U. S. Capitol Statuary Hall Washington, D.C. (Source in public dom ain). Photo courtesy of United States Architect of the Capitol, Compilation of Works of Art and Other Objects in the United States Capitol. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1965. Figure 3 2 Floor Plan U. S. Capitol Statuary Hall Wa shington, D.C. (Photo, private collection).
54 Figure 3 3 Charles Adrian Pillars, History of Architecture, c. 1884. D oors (three) from the Leland Stanford Junior Museum B ronze. Palo Alto, California. A), B), C). Photos courtesy of and reprinted with the permission of the Iris & B. Gerald Cantor Center for Visual Arts, Stanford University
55 Figure 3 4 Daniel Chester French, The Republic c. 1893, Chicago Exposition of 1893, demolished 1896. Reproduced by permission from Krist in Standaert, Paul V. Galvin Library Digital History Collection, Illinois Institute of Technology.
56 Figure 3 5 Daniel Chester French and E. C. Potter, Columbus Quadriga c. 1893, Chicago Exposition of 1893, demolished 1896. Reproduced by permission f rom Kristin Standaert, Paul V. Galvin Library Digital History Collection, Illinois Institute of Technology. Figure 3 6 Arch Peristyle c. 1893, World s Columbian Exposition of 1893, demolished 189 6 Reproduced by permission from Kristin Standaert, Pa ul V. Galvin Library Digital History Collection, Illinois Institute of Technology
57 Figure 3 7 Miss Jacobi s School Record, c. 1907 1908 Jacksonville, Florida. ( Private collection). Figure 3 8 Teachers. c. 1907 1908 Jacksonville, Florida. (Private collection).
58 Figure 3 9 c. 1907 1908 Charles Adrian Pillars, far left. (Photo, private collection). Figure 3 10 Charles Adrian Pillars c. 1908. (Photo, private collection).
59 Figure 3 11 Cha rles Adrian Pillars, Twin Sons of Bion Barnett n.d. B ronze. Location unknown. (Photo, private collection). A B Figure 3 12 Charles Adrian Pillars, Unnamed Portrait Medallions n.d. B ronze. Location unknown. (Photo, private collec tion).
60 Figure 3 13 Charles Adrian Pillars, Senator Duncan U. Fletcher, 1909. B ron ze. Location unknown. (Photo, private collection). Figure 3 14 Charles Adrian Pillars, Children of Perry Elwood, 191 6 M arble Location unknown. (Photo, private collection).
61 Figure 3 15 Charles Adrian Pillars, Cherub F ountain 1910 B ronze. Klutho Park, Jacksonville, Florida (Photo, Dianne Crum Dawood).
6 2 Figure 3 16 Charles Adrian Pillars, Dr. John Gorrie 1914 7 fe et M arble. U S Capitol, Washington, D.C. (Photo, private collection). Figure 3 17 Charles Adrian Pillars, Gen. Kirby Smith 1918. Bronze. U S Capitol, Washington, D.C. A ) Nude study model, B) Studio model, C) Bronze model. (Photos, private c ollection).
63 Figure 3 18 Image from Jacksonville Florida Times Union Wilson & Toomer Fertilizer Company C elebrates T wenty F ifth A nniversary of O rganization of the C oncern: Wilson G ets B eautiful S tatuette, 1918 (Charles Adrian Pillars at far left). Detail, A) Kiss of Science award. (Source in public domain). Reproduced by permission from Jacksonville Florida Times Union Figure 3 19 Charles Adrian Pillars, The Kiss of Science 1918 Plasteline model Location unknown (Photo, private collection).
64 Figure 3 20 Homwold, c. 1923 1931 16 May Street, St. Augustine, Florida (Photo, private collection ). Figure 3 21 Charles Adrian Pillars, Anderson Memorial Plaque c. 1920 B ronze. Trinity Episcopal Church, St. Augustine, Florida. (Photo, private collection). Figure 3 22 Charles Adrian Pillars, Anderson M emorial Flagstaff c. 1921 B ronze. Anderson Circle, St. Augustine, Florida. (Photo, private collection ).
65 Figure 3 23 Charles Adrian Pillars, World War I Memorial Plaque c. 1923 B ronze. U S Post Office, St. Augustine, Florida. (Photo, private collection). Figure 3 2 4 Charles Adrian Pillars, Spivey Memorial Urn 1937 B ronze. Florida Southern College, Lakeland Florida. (Photo, private collection).
66 Figure 3 2 5 Charles Adrian Pillars, Eagle Mothers: The Fine Arts 1934. Program cover Eighth Annual Exhibition, Florida Federation of Art, Gallery of Fine Arts S ociety of Jacksonville. (Photo, private collection).
67 Figure 3 2 6 Florida Na Jacksonville Florida Times Union, January 1, 1937. Rep rinted with permission of the Jacksonville Florida Times Uni on
68 CHAPTER 4 CAREER CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES Pillars did not study sculpture in the classical schools of France or Italy, but his native talent, skill, and industry led to his achiev ing both creative and commercial success. Following the unveiling of Life in 192 4 which he believed was his best work, 1 his ability to earn a living as a sculptor began to deteriorate. While he continued to enjoy artistic recognition for the next ten years, he struggle d to secure commissions on the regional issue of repres sion and prudery, twentieth century changes in artistic taste, and scarcity of private and public commissions for art ists during a national economic depression. Nudity in Public Art The original statue of Life created for the Memorial Park project contai ned so much detail that members of the Rotary Club asked Pillars to modify the genitalia to reflect the public sense of modesty and decorum 2 the committee judged that his T he members of the committee criticized the 3 Even whil e the new Life monument was celebrated and appropriated by the Jacksonville community as its iconic image (Figure 4 1) t he public discourse about his nude sculpture and was male or female was the subject of discussion one that had 4 (Figure 4 2 ). 1 2 ember 11, 1999. 3 Jacksonville Florida Times Union Memorial C ommittee 1921. 4 Pat Barwald, 5 Years See also Jacksonville Florida Times Union Nov ember 8, 1987 )
69 Michael Kammen characterized the years prior to World War II as a time in which art prompted fiercely contested arts related controversies caused by ideological differences, o bscenity, stylistic radicalism, and religious offense. 5 In 1899, all the nude statues at the Art Institute of Chicago, mostly figures from antiquity, were moved or dismantled in response to public pressure. A Chicago law related to nudity in public places was passed in reaction to artistic representations by sculptor Lorado Taft and painter Paul Chabas. Taft, leader of the sculpture community in Chicago, had received an important commission in 1906 for a major work of public art to be called Fountain of th e Great Lakes hree of the five allegorical female figures bare breasted and full figured, which some critics suggested looked like 6 Just prior to the Fountain edication in 1913, a spirited court case ensued against a gallery in downtown Chicago that had displayed a Paul Chabas painting of an entirely nude young woman. In an effort to prevent future such displays, the jury hearing the case proposed that the publi c obscenity 7 Reflecting the mores of the day and anticipating that passage of the amendment would garner broad social and political approval, the jury approved the amendment unanimously. In the 1920s, nudity in art continued to be a controversial public issue, but most objections came from the conservative Midwest and the South rather than the east a nd west 5 Michael Kammen, Visual Shock: A History of Art Controversies in American Culture. (New York, NY: Knopf, 2006) xvi. 6 Kammen, 2006, 63. 7 Kammen, 65.
70 coasts of the United States. 8 Full frontal nudity in Jacksonville or Florida or any other place in the South in public view would have been a violation of most notions and even laws about what passed for decency in the early decades of the twentiet h century in keeping with the conservative cultural values of many Southerners of the time. 9 Kammen described Americans as having a vague but ever present conflict between 10 Major disput es in the arts have historically been driven by controversies symptomatic of social change, and the changing roles and expectations for art in a democratic society were typically accepted or rejected by the arbiters of public taste. Civic sculpture inspire d by the great European collections was expected to provide the American public with images of the best aspects of the past and present culture A core of educated citizens and trained sculptural artists was needed to teach connoisseurship to the common ma n 11 In 1923, the spirit of American sculpture was American patriotism, commitment to high purpose, and duty as an expression of conscience. 12 The Ro tary Club selection committee, a group of affluent business leaders in Jacksonville and consumers of high culture 13 acted as arbiters of public taste for the city in 1917 when they chose a suitable memorial monument. Paul DiMaggio in his study of the f ormation of high 8 James B. Crooks, Changing Face of Jacksonville, Florida: 1900 1910, Florida Histori cal Quarterly, 62 no. 4 ( April 1984 ) ; James B. Crooks (author of Changing Face of Jacksonville, Florida: 1900 1910) e mail message to the author May 19, 2010. 9 Crooks e mail message to the author, May 19, 2010 10 Kammen, 2006, 58 11 Craftsman 7, no. 2 (November 1904): 122 quoted i n Public Sculpture and the Civic Ideal: New York City 1890 1930 edited by Michelle Bogart. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989). 12 Adeline Adams, The Spirit of American Sculpt ure. ( New York, NY: The National Sculpture Society, 1929 ). 13 American Sociological Review, 52 no. 4 (August 1987): 44 3.
71 culture in the United States, describe d domination of the arts by elites and noted that connoisseurship of high arts served as an important social status marker. The consumption of high culture by the social elite has in fact, always been associated with status throughout the industrialized world. citizens struggled with inferiority in the perce ption of the city by larger, more cosmopolitan U.S. communities with 14 and Pillars, a classically trained artist practicing in Jacksonville, represented cultural sophistication for the community. Power and wealth for the city was centered in a relatively few members of the committee who wanted the vision for the monument to the Great War was based on his artistic training and understanding of its purpose And, while the importance of his personal vision cannot be denied, Pillars was forced to ma ke concessions to criticism 15 Contrasting creative freedom and social control, those implicit forms of intentional social control act as explicit c ensorship. 16 That is, when public monies underwrite the arts, the 17 For the commemorative monument, Pillars propo sed to the committee a colossal allegorical memorial symbolically interpreted as a male nude figure. Sociologist Beth Eck observed that nude images are bounded by frames of art that give viewer s cues that aid in its interpretation and evaluation. The socia l characteristics of the viewer and the subject of the 14 The Florida Times Union October 25, 1913. 15 John Manfredi, The Social Limits of Art. (Amherst MA : University of Massachusetts Press, 1982) 3. 16 Social Forces, 64 no. 3 (1986): 66 9. 17 Thomas G. Moore. The Economics of the Ameri can Theater. (Durham NC : Duke University Press, 1968), 126.
72 image are also important to interpretation. ontext helps individuals decide whether a nude image is artistic, pornographic, or information al ; acceptable or unacceptable; sacred or p rofane 18 Certain contexts become part of our cultural and social experience. Opinion leaders the cultural elite de eroticize what might be consider ed sexual ly suggestive and for a nude public monument respectability was granted with alterations by the o pinion leaders of the Jacksonville community the Rotary androgynous figure. A potentially scandalous public art work was made acceptable so that even little girls could attend and participate in the unveiling. Artistic representations of the nude in the minds of the majority of Americans combined functionlessness and indecency. 19 The late nineteenth century was the first real flowering of the nude as a theme in American painting and sculpture. Daniel Chester French who established the standard by which the Beaux Arts school was understood in America 20 was a master of nude allegorical representation and strove for a monumentality in figural art that had seldom been achieved in Ame ideal nude and allegory in many of his own works : Kiss of Science (1918) Life (1926) The Arts: Naked and Hungry (1934), and Neptune: Lure of the Sea (1937). Typically, his male figures began as a nude study as survives in studio images of Gen Kirby Smith (1918) and in recollection of the sittings for the life size bronze port rait of William B. Barnett (1929). 21 As the 18 Beth A. Eck Nudity and Framing: Classifying Art, Pornography, Information, and Ambiguity. Sociological Forum, 16 no. 4 (2001): 604. 19 William H. Gerdts, The Great American Nude: A History i n Art 1974. 20 Sarah Gates and Timothy A Eaton, From Neo Classical and Beaux Arts to Modernism. (West Palm Beach, FL: Eaton Fine Art) 6. 21 Ann Pillars Durham recalled the family admonition that the Pillars children were restricted from the studio while Barnett Bank president, William B. Barnett, posed in the nude for his sculptor Pillars. D iscussion with the author, August 13, 2010.
73 Beaux Arts style lingered into the twentieth century, the allegorical nude style came to lo ok increasingly outmoded. Patronage Opportunities Major disputes generated by art since the turn of the twentieth century or the classical Beaux A rts style falling out of fashion may have contributed to the decline in commission s of private and public ar t, but most certainly the economic crisis of 1929 sharply reduced spending money on something with only The Spirit of American Sculpture, posed the question : 22 Its author, Adeline Adams declared American sculpture has suffered little from the chicanery of modernism [and ] is found in the boudoir; the boudoir is the transient asylum for novelties. etween the nto WWII, mass circulation weeklies in the United States started giving more space to the avant garde artist and modern art. 23 The avant garde of the art world were those artists that challenged accepted standards o f established art forms In the early twe ntieth century they were described as the early pioneers or innovators of modern art. 24 T he New York Armory Show of 1913 launched modern art in the United States, where a collection of almost 2,000 pieces of modern European art hung for nearly a month. The Armory Show transported Americans out of the shortcomings of provincial taste 22 Adams, The Spirit of American Sculpture 1929, 168. 23 Kamme n Visual Shock, 2006, viii. 24 Harold Osborne. "Avant garde. In The Oxford Companion to Western Art edited by Hugh Brigstocke. Oxford Art Online http://www.oxfordartonline.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/subscriber/article/opr/t118/e141 (accessed March 2, 2011).
74 and prompted public opinion to evaluate American painting and sculpture by a different standard. 25 Eventually, most American painters, sculptors, and architects had gone to Europe for training at the cole des Beaux Arts, a preference more associated with European culture and known as the American Renaissance. 26 day counterpart s of European aristocracy and became patrons of th e Continental style and cosmopolitan taste s involvement in World War I the old values and styles of art were increasingly questioned. Debates about th at w ar raised issues about attitud es toward war itself as well as the form and function of appropriate memorials. The Beaux Arts style was eventually eclipsed by American Modernism O pen debate over the nature of the public sculptural monument and its relationship to contemporary artisti c practice led to a noticeable shift in the way memory was commemorated. Sergiuz Michalski observed in America a disconnect in personal memory and public commemorative monuments as remembrance of the casualties of war bronze Life memorial was a community landmark for remembering the fallen in World War I, but c ommissions for such public monuments declined as the century progressed. 27 25 Wayne Craven, American Art: History and Culture. (Madison, W I: Brown & Benchmark, 1994) 446 7; Sam Hunter and John Jacobus, Modern Art. ( 3rd Ed.). (New York: Prentice Hall and Harry N. Abrams, 1992), 251. 26 Harriet F. Senie and Sally Webster, Critical Issues in Public Art: Content, Context, and Controversy. (New Y ork: HarperCollins, 1992), xii. 27 Sergiusz Michalski, Public Monuments: Art in Political Bondage ; Catherine Moriarity, review of Journal of Contemporary History, 34 no. 4 (1999) 660.
75 Early in his career, while he was still a shop assistant, Pillars had learned Taf for building an income: Find a way to become a lecturer on sculpture to establish your name 28 Following that advice, when Pillars began his practice in Jacksonville, he opened a school and studio and began presenting art history lectures to so cial and civic groups. In 1900, seemed to be 29 In fact, Pillar s appeared to lack confidence in the cultural sophistication of the Jacksonville community when he felt the need to explain the symbolic interpretation of his allegorical nude in Life (p. 23). Most of the Jacksonville population had traditionally been blu e collar, working for the railroad, at the shipyards, and in construction. At the turn of the century, however, Jacksonville was experiencing the beginnings of economic prosperity with construction in its downtown business center and in home development in upscale suburbs. The port and the railroad provided a hub for transporting goods to much of the state. Local banks provided most of the capital, and the new Independent Life and Gulf Life insurance companies prospered. Sociologically, the city was still c prohibition and a recent Florida law that prohibited the teaching of evolution in schools. There was no accredited college, and many conservative religious organizations dominated and contributed to the small town, closed atmosphere of this southern city. 30 For middle and upper class Jacksonville residents these years were ones of prosperity. The lives and the tastes of the newly prosperous business class were private and quite removed 28 Lewis Williams, Lo rado Taft: American Sculptor and Art Missionary, 1958, 58. 29 Jacksonville Journal May 31, 1960. 30 James B. Crooks, 1910, 1984, 63.
76 from the blue collar workers in the community. The upper classes dominated the local economy and they would have supported the commissioning of a memorial statue for the community. 31 Adhering to T by his art school (Figure 4 3 ), nurtured a social network Jacksonville 32 the Springfield Improvement Association, the Daughters of the Confederacy, and the Daughters of the American Revolution Club for meetings chaired by Mrs. Ninah Cummer and Mrs. Anna Louise Fletcher. Ninah Cummer was married to Arthur G. Cummer, prominent local timber businessman and Rotarian, 33 and Anna Louise Fletcher was the wife of United States S enator Duncan U. Fletcher. Later, Pillars worked with Ninah and Arthur Cummer on the Life committee and developed a patron in Senator Fletcher. The n etworks that developed resulted in introductions and portrait commissions of North Florida business leaders and their wives, prominent citizens who participated in social and civic organizations. They contracted with Pillars for works they donated as publi c monuments to the community. T he Daughters of the Confederacy chose Pillars to create a monument of Confederacy President Jefferson Davis 34 organizations, his commissions began in 1900. In 1911, t he Evening Metropoli s announced the unveiling of a memorial tablet commissioned by the Martha Reid Chapter of the Daughters of the Confederacy for the b attleship Florida in memory of U.S. Senator William James Bryan. Bryan had been the 31 James B. Crooks, disc ussion with the author May 19, 2010. 32 Jacksonville Florida Times Union 33 Jean Hall Dodd, Arthur Gerrish Cummer. Jacksonville, FL : Cummer Museum of Art & Gardens, 1996. 34 Jacksonville Florida Times Union October 25, 191 3 ; Jacksonville Florida Times Union November 14, 1900.
77 youngest member of the senate at age 29 and in 1908, died of typhoid fever. 35 The tablet was created by Pillars and was cast by the Tiffany Company of New York. 36 Senator Bryan had been was in the shape of a shield, the upper part of which was formed in a medallion likeness of Senator Bryan enclose d in a laurel wreath (Figure 4 4 ). The main body of the shield was engraved with a poem celebrating his public life 37 The memorial plaque was installed at a ceremony in Pensacola when the newly commissioned USS Battleship Florida (Figure 4 5) arrived in port. In 1910, the Springfield Improvement Association commissioned Pillars to create a B. F. Dillon. creation was a cherub, t he design [ was ] a copy of a famous fountain in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence, Italy, the work of Verrochio. 38 In 1924, the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) contracted with Pillars to create a monument of international significance. On the occasion of the anniversary of the landing of the first Protestant on American soil in 1562, a committee of state and local members of the DAR commissioned Pillars to create a reproduction of the original sto ne marker placed by French naval officer, Jean Ribault and his lieutenant, Rene Goulaine de Laudonniere, on behalf of their party of French Huguenots. 39 The location of the marker in East Mayport, which was 35 U. S. Senate. William James Bryan Memorial Address, Sixtieth Congress, First Session, Senate of the United States. (Washington, DC: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1908). 36 Jacksonville Florida T imes Union, 37 Jacksonville Florida Times Union, 1911. 38 Florida Metropolis, Jacksonville Florida Times Union, 39 Jacksonville Historical S ociety. http://jaxhistory.com/mystery photo99c.html (accessed December 10, 2009).
78 destroyed by the Spanish in 1565, was on the appr oximate site Ribault had landed. 40 On May 1, 1924, members of the Jacksonville Chapter of the DAR unveiled the commemorative marker. The dedication of the Ribault stone was the first event in the national celebration of the tercentenary of the landing of th e Walloons, Belgians, and French Huguenots in America. To observ e this anniversary, a national Huguenot Walloon New Netherlands commission was formed headed by President Calvin Coolidge, Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands, His Majesty Albert, King of the Belgians; and President Alexandre Millerand of France. Only Queen Wilhelmina declined the invitation. Among other distinguished citizens attending the ceremony was Col. W. Gaspard de Coligny, a lineal descendant of the French admiral who sent Ribault on th e New World expedition. After much study of sixteenth century art, Pillars chose a model (Figure 4 6 ) remarkably like the original which display ed the coat of arms of France, as drawn by Jacques LeMoyne de Morgues (Figure 4 7 ), an artist and writer who was with Ribault when 41 part of the Fort Caroline National Memorial complex in Jacksonville. 42 Public Commissions and Competitions By 1900, Pillars had earned such a reputation that he had an automatic berth in significant public art competitions. An equestrian bronze of Andrew Jackson had always been a goal of Pillars 43 and, at the time of his death his studio 40 When the U. S. Naval Station Mayport was established in 1941, the monument became in accessible to the public and was moved. Following three additional moves, the monument was permanently placed on St. Johns Bluff and became part of the Fort Caroline National Memorial ( http://www.jaxhistory.com/mystery photo99c.html (a ccessed December 10 2009). original base for the monument is still located on the property of NAS Mayport (Ann Pillars Durham, discussion with the author November 15, 2009) ; Char les E. Bennett, Laudonniere & Fort Caroline. (Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Press, 1964). 41 Jacksonville Florida Times Union May 1, 1924. 42 M. Jacksonville Florida Times Union 1987. 43 Ja cksonville Florida Times Union 1928; May 31, 1960.
79 inventory includ ed the preliminary nude stage of an equestrian model (Figure 4 8 ) Following the huge if local, success of his Life bronze in 1924, Pillars promoted to the community that a collective effort should be made to erect a memorial to General Andrew Jackson at the terminal would need five years and $75,000 to produce such a piece of 44 In 1926, he began courting the Florida Historical Society for the sponso rship of a public monument to Jackson A received and presented at a special meeting called for the purpose. The Committee heard your letter read and directed me to say that so far as the Society was concerned, when the 45 The letter closed with a request for Pillars to prepare an equestrian model for exhibition in Jacksonville as soon as possible. In 1930, Pillars enlisted his former patron, U.S. Senator Duncan U. Fletcher, to assist him with securing the award of the public art monument of Andrew Jackson for the City of lliams, Mrs. Corse, Mayor Alsop, 46 However, the monument was never commissioned for Pillars. 44 Jacksonville Florida Times Union 1928 Note: Pillars back ed his suggestion and included with his letter to the newspaper a copy of the news story fr om Chicago visitors to the city praising the Life bronze memorial and their opinion that the statue would win national acclaim for the city. 45 Letter to Mr. C. Adrian Pillars from Francis M. Williams, Secretary, the Florida Historical Society, July 9, 192 6. Copy in Pillars family archives. 46 Letter to Mr. C. Adrian Pillars from United States Senator Duncan U. Fletcher, December 2, 1930. Copy in Pillars family archives.
80 When Senator Fletcher died in 1936 Pillars anticipated the award of a $12,500 governmenta l contract for a state memorial to the statesman that had come up for vote in the Florida Senate. T he proposed bronze memorial was never authorized. 47 Public Assistance for Artists In the mid 1920s, t he American economy was functioning on borrowed time. I n Florida, economic depression had set in by 1926. 48 In 1924 and again in 1927, the Federal Reserve greatly inflated the money supply, which, as it percolated through the economy, provided a boost to both land prices and stock market shares. This inflationa ry policy led to risky speculation by some bankers that resulted in the closing of 117 banks in Georgia and Florida during July of 1927. The South was in an almost unimaginable crisis of poverty, a condition accompanied by something approaching social and political despair. 49 In the first months of 1933, the primary breadwinner in one of every five families in Florida was unemployed and on relief. 50 When President Franklin D. Roosevelt took office in 1932, extreme poverty and economic depression in both the rural and urban South caused him to focus federal relief efforts on the region. Viewing the economic disaster around them, S outherners welcomed the legislation m illions of farmers and unemployed workers. Among the f ederal programs launched were those for regional planning, foreclosure prevention for homes and farms, public works projects, deposit insurance protection of small bank accounts, and federal regulations of Wall Street. The New 47 An equestrian monument of Andrew Jackson was finally erected in Jacksonville in 1987 48 Charlton W. Tebeau and William Marina, History of Florida, 3 rd Ed. (Coral Gables, FL: University of Miami Press, 1999). 49 Monroe L. Billington, Political South in the Twentieth Century. (New York, NY: Charles Scribner Sons, 1975). 50 G. W. Bush, Bound Highways: The Growth of Florida a s a n Independent State, 1917 1940 quoted in Paul S. George ed. A Guide to the History of Florida. (New York, NY: Greenwood Press, 1989). 107
81 Deal, to the extent that it meant concern of government for the welfare of the victims of depression, began at the national level and in Florida in 1932. 51 In a study of historic resources during the New Deal, Johnston noted the n umerous organizations created to support Americans during this time. E ach agency was specifically tasked to carry out separate programs to construct buildings, conserve natural resources, establish recreation facilities, and improve infrastructure. Nearly known to millions of Americans by their familiar initials, including the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), Civil Works Administration (CWA), Federal Art Project (FAP), Federal Housing Administration (FHA), Federal Writ (NRA), Public Works Administration (PWA), Resettlement Administration (RA), Rural Electrification Administration (REA), Works Progress Administration (WPA), and U.S. Housing Authority (USHA). 52 Jacksonvil headquarters for the WPA and other New Deal agencies. 53 In 1933, the U.S. Treasury Department received a grant from the CWA which became the Public Works of Art Project, providing work to 3,600 artis ts in the 48 states to create murals and sculptures for public building s The CWA was terminated and in 1935 the WPA established Federal Project No. 1 to give artistic and professional work to the unemployed who qualified. The Federal Art Project began as a part of Federal One with Holger Cahill as its director. 54 51 Charlton Tebeau and William Marina, Histo ry of Florid a, 1999. 52 2005. 53 http://www.jacksovnille.com/ tu online/stories/022199/cel_1p1kenne.html (accessed April 23, 2009). 54 Margaret Library. http://www.co.broward.fl.us/library/bienes/lii10204.htm (accessed April 23, 2009). Richard D. KcKinzie. The New Deal for Artists. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1973), xi.
82 For the state of Florida what was o riginally known as the Federal Art Project became the Florida Art Project. 55 56 Each had a n infrastruct ure of its own, and the artworks produced were associated with the available artists in each region using their individual specialties in expertise and leadership Under the direction of state director, Eva Alsman Fuller, Florida art centers were the excep tion and were expanded from the federal quota of 25 and increased statewide to 120. 57 In their history of its cultural programs Adams and Goldbard report that w hile criticized by some, the New Deal provided the first direct investment and public support by the U.S. government in cultural development. 58 he New Deal put many unemployed artists back to work. 59 As a result, private c ommissions for Pillars, as for other artists, had dried up. American bronze foundries had flourish ed until the beginning of World War I when all fine art casting was temporarily stopped because metal was needed for the war effort That interruption marked a long and steep decline to the American b ronze casting industry 60 An awareness of the plight of a rtists during the economic downturn and the need for the federal 55 of the State WPA/FAP, Florida. Re port on the History of the FAP in Florida, 1942. (Reel 5289, Frames 0651 http://www.aaa.si.edu/collectionsonline/cahiholg/container18394.htm (accessed April 17, 2009) ; William F. McDonald, Federal Rel ief Administration and the Arts 1969. 56 McDonald, Federal Relief Administration and the Arts 1969, 395 57 Ibid, 372. 58 http://www.wwcd.org/policy/US/newdeal.html (accessed August 21, 2008). 59 Erica Beckh. 1960. Government Art in the Roosevelt Era: An Appraisal of Federal Art Patronage in the Light of Present Need s. Art Journal, 20 no. 1 (1960): 2 60 Michelle Bogart, Public Sculpture and the Civic Ideal 1989.
83 government to subsidize art activities was a major impetus for the initiation of the Federal Art Project 61 S tatewide advisory committee s served the project and were headed by leaders in t he regional communities, with most supervisors of the program in Florida outstanding artists and civic leaders in the state. Membership included prominent educators, directors of art departments of universities and colleges, community volunteers, civic gro ups, and prominent business and professional men and woman 62 In her report to the WPA, director Fuller noted that the officers 63 Bion H. Barnett, Jr., pres ident of the Barnett Bank, one of the three largest banks in Florida at the time, served as president of the WPA Jacksonville Civic Art Institute. Barnett encouraged bank officers to hold leadership positions in community organizations and the bank respon ded generously to charitable agencies in Jacksonville and elsewhere in the state. A s the Great Depression deepened Barnett continued to be a major benefactor in his commitment to the local WPA Art Institute 64 and remained a supportive patron of Pillars. Pillars had developed a patronage with the Barnetts i n 1900 a nd had created portrait medallions of chairman of the board Bion Barnett, his sons, and his father. In 19 31 as the economy worsened, a directors led by 61 William F. McDonald, Federal Relief Administration and the Arts. (Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 1969) 372. 62 5. 63 64 David J. Ginzl, (Tampa, FL: University of Tampa Press, 2001).
84 Arthur G. Cummer, commissioned Pillars to create a bronze life size portrait of founder, William B Barnett (Figure 4 9 ). 65 Pillars had known Florida Arts Projector director, Eve Alsman when he was on the faculty at Ringling, and th at pro fessional collaboration with her assisted him in weather ing the national employment collapse of the Depression. In 1936, Ringling School of Art was forced to and his family re turned to Jacksonville. Together they worked on at least three publicly funded arts relief programs In July and August of 1932, Pillars served with Alsman on a judging panel for a Florida mural to be exhibited at the state exhibition at the Century of Pro 1933. 66 art project with Alsman Pillars created an emblem for the Florida Federation of Art. 67 Beginning in 1936, Pillars was a volunteer teacher on the staff of the Jacksonville Federal Art Gallery and member of the Jacksonville Art Association. Subsequently, he was appointed director of the Duval County Sculpture Project (Figure 4 10 ) for the Federal Art Project (FAP), Works Progress Administrati on Eve Alsman served as the Florida state director of the FAP. 68 In June of that year, Pillars died, and Alsman commented that in losing Pillars, the Federal Arts Project had lost its finest sculptor and one of its more sincere, steadfast friends. His ser 69 65 Jacksonville Florida Times Union 19 29. 66 Jacksonville Florida Times Union 1932. 67 September 7, 1934 68 Edgar H. Cahill, 1942 a 69 circa 1937.
85 Neptune for Jacksonville Beach, a colossal nude allegorical figure to typify the power of the sea The $ 25,000 work was a portion of the program outlined by the FAP Sculpture Project. The 17 foot Neptune statue would be placed on the ramp at the Neptune runway to the beach. Using his teenage son as a studio model, Pillars created Neptune ris ing on a huge wave (Figure 4 11 ) size model require d 14,000 pounds of clay. 70 A companion piece to the Neptune statue, also designed by Pillars, was to be called the was to represent the power of the s ea and the Lure of the Sea represented its beauty. A beauty competition was announced to seek out the principal figure for the piece and Pillars invited registrations at the Jacksonville Federal Art Gallery The Jacksonville Beaches underwrote the cost o f these two pieces of sculpture with the expectation that publicity attending their presentation would receive nationwide attention and a boost to tourism for the communities. 71 However, u contest, and publ icity campaign were abandoned. Professional Recognition of Pillars In 1936, months before his death in June of 1937, Pillars was awarded a life membership and ci ty 72 Pillars had been included in S ince 1918 and The National 70 May 30, 1937. 71 Ibid. 72 Jacksonville Florida Times Union 1936.
86 Cyclopaedia of American Biography 73 Biographical information about Pillars is also a prominent feature of the St. Augustine Historical Society and the Jacksonville Historic al Society. The Charles Adrian Pillars Sculpture Award established at the St. Augustine Art Association is annually given by the current owner of Homwald Mrs. Jeanne Kravitz. In 1966, to honor and recognize his talent and leadership as a sculptor, the Mem orial Art Society of Charles Adrian Pillars, Sculptor, was formed in Jacksonville. Upon his return to Jacksonville from the faculty position at Ringling School of Art in Sarasota, he was celebrated by the local Florida Times Union Pillars was heralded a s an Life group in Memorial Park, a work that has attracted the attention of visitors and local citizens perhaps more than any other local setting 74 73 Jacksonville Florida Times Union June 22, 1937; Jacksonville Florida Times Union, and Final Honors Paid June 23, 1937. 74 Jacksonville Florida Times Union
87 Figure 4 1. Southern Telephone News October 1 926 Southern Bell Telephone and Telegraph Company, 192 6 (Image in public domain).
88 F igure 4 2 Memorial Park Here acksonville Florida Times Union, 1929. (Image in pu blic domain). Reprinted with permission of Jacksonville Florida Times Union.
89 A Figure 4 3 Pillars Art School information flier, 1909 Jacksonville, Florida. (In private collection) A) Cover Page. B) Tuition Statement. C) School calendar and faculty o f Pillars Art School.
90 B Figure 4 3 Continued.
91 C Figure 4 3 Continued.
92 Figure 4 4 Charles Adrian Pillars, William James Bryan Memorial Tablet 1911 5 feet B ronze, USS Battleship Florida. (Now destroyed). (Photo in private collection). Figure 4 5 USS Battleship Florida c. 1911, demolished 1931. U.S. Navy History. (Photo in public domain). Retrieved on December 9, 2009, from http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/ sh usn/usnsh f/bb30.htm
93 Figure 4 6 Charles Adrian Pillars, Jean Ribault Monumen t May 1, 1924 M arble and bronze. Fort Caroline National Park, National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, Jacksonville, Florida. From Official Program, Ribault Quadricentennial Celebration 1 562 196 2 Re printed with permission of Jacksonville Historical Society
94 Figure 4 7 Jacques LeMoyne, Althore showing Laudonniere the marker column installed by Jean Ribault at Fort Ca roline 1564. (Bennett, Laudonniere & Fort Caroline Frontispiece). Figure 4 8 Charles Adrian Pillars, Unnamed equestrian model n.d. (Photo, private collection).
95 Figure 4 9 Charles Adrian Pillars. William B. Barnett 19 31 B ronze. Bank of American Corporate Office, Jacksonville, Florida. (Photo, private collection). Figure 4 10 Jacksonville Art Institute. The Federal Arts Project, 1935. Charles Adrian Pillars, director, at right. (Photo, private collection).
96 Figure 4 11 Jackson ville Florida Times Union S tatue of Neptune To Be Erected on R unway at B each Repr inted with permission of Jacksonv ille Florida Times Union
97 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION: LIFE RI SING TRIUMPHANT FROM THE SWIRL OF CHAOS A ND FACING THE FUTURE CO URAGEOUSLY Although Pillars enjoyed artistic recognition and financial success until the Great Depression t he waning popularity of t he Beaux Arts style that he preferred hastened the decline of his career. Pillars is rarely credited for his lifetime of sculptural works and he does not readily a pp ear in the archives of collective memory even of art historians Why are his name and the accomplishments upon which his reputation rests not more widely remembered? The manner in which his renown faded over subsequent generations mirrored that of many who depended upon patrons, public taste, and government programs to continue be able to cont inue their art Pillars personal success in Jacksonville reached its apex with his memorial to World War I dead, his most renowned work, the figure of a n allegorical male nude entitled Life Triumphant (1924). Ironically, that most celebrated piece was i n the same style of his final work, Neptune a nother colossal Beaux Arts style male nude. By the 1930s, t he Beaux Arts style had been eclipsed by modernism and work must have been viewed as outdated and even quaint The public arts project s of t he New Deal reflected a renewed interest in national values and traditions of American thought with a commitment to create and document American culture. 1 In 1937, for the purposes 2 nude, allegorical Neptune with phallic ocean wave would likely have been rejected. 1 Jane De Hart Mathews, Arts and the People: The New Deal Q uest for a Cultural Democracy. The Journal of American History, 62 no. 2 September 1975: 325 Richard D. McKinzie. The New Deal for Artists. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1973), xi. 2 1937): 1 14 Quoted i n Social Forces, 64 no. 3 1986: 675.
98 hi 3 and was included in exclusive professional art listings 4 Upon his return to Jacksonville from the faculty position at Ringling School of Art in Sarasota, a Florida Times Union article had celebrated his presence again in the city and recogn ized the distinction of his being recognized as one of two Americans in the International Blue Book and one of the three greatest sculptors in America 5 He was also the designer of the Spiritualized Life g roup in Memorial Park, a work that has attracted the attention of visitors and local citizens perhaps more than any other local 6 Ironically, this, his crowning work, was unsigned. Reputation : Recognition and Renown Sinc e its dedication in 1924, Life has become a Jacksonville landmark (Figure 5 1) but its sculptor is seldom remembered. 7 Why are some artists and their accomp lishments more widely regarded ? A study by Gladys Engel Lang and Kurt Lang examined specifically wha t combination of elements preserves for posterity the names of artists well regarded in their 3 The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography Vol 34, New York: James T. White & Company. (1948): 188 9. 4 Peter Hastings Falk ed. Who Was Who in Americ an Art, 1564 1975: 400 Years of Artists in America. Vol. III, Madison, CT: Sound View Press, 1999 2611 ; Albert Nelson Marquis ed. Vol. I, 1897 1942, Chicago: Marquis Publicat ions (1968) 974; Homer E. Moyer ed. Book of Florida. St. Petersburg, FL: Current Historical Company of Florida (1935): 212 213 ; Glenn B. Opitz ed. Dictionary of American Sculptors : 18 th Century to the Present, (Poughkeepsie, NY: Apollo, 1984) 315. 5 T he other two sculptors were not named and Pillars is not listed in either the 1926 or 1939 editions of the International Blue Book Hyacinthe Ringrose, International Blue Book, Lon don, New York: Hyacinthe Ringrose, 1926, 1939. 6 Rantoul Press and Chanute Field News April 5, 1934; The Florida Times Union June 22, 1937. 7 W as Statue of Jackson ; Seek T o Restore Area to Original Splendor November 1, 1987.
99 lifetimes for work in a genre that has gone out of fashion. 8 They suggest that their findings in the taste cycle of modern etching can be extended to the other ar ts and to other areas of achievement. They argue that what an artist does in a lifetime to facilitate the survival and future identification of his oeuvre is critical in determining whether, and how well, his name will be known to posterity. 9 S uccessful A merican sculptors at the end of the nineteenth century were either trained at the cole des Beaux Arts in Paris or learned from those who were. 10 Pillars was both a marmorean 11 and a bronzist : that is, he worked easily in both carving marble and casting work s in bronze. ability to create precise and evocative interpretations in clay and his knowledge of how these effects would be reproduced in bronze reflected an advanced skill for any American sculptor. French sociologist, anthropologist, and philo sopher Pierre Bourdieu simplified the phenomenon of artistic success as cultural recognition accorded by a peer group in a specific artistic field 12 that is, a rtists depend upon the judgment of other artists for their self peer s are als o his competition. When those contemporaries confer marks of distinction in a specialty, a manner, a style to a sculptor he is recogniz ed as a candidate for recognition The question is whether an artist enjoys a reputation as a master in the field after his or her working life is over 8 T American Journal of Sociology, 94 no. 1 (Jul 1988): 80 9 ition and Renown, 1988, 8 6 10 Donald M. Reynolds, Masters of American Sculpture: The Figurative Tradition from the America n Renaissance to the Millennium 1993. 11 From Latin marmoreus from marmor marble 12 Pierre Bourdieu, The Field of Cultural Produc tio n: Essays on Art and Literatur e, ed. Randal Johnson (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993 ), 115 116.
100 Each age has its own kind of art, and while masterpieces are rare they are possible in every period Meyer Schapiro point ed out that the new decorative forms of modern art have not replaced the old. 13 The symbolic values o f the older styles as signs of rank, culture, and heritage still have a powerful hold. The art and drawing from live nude figure s continues in art schools, in drawing and painting from careful observation of the model, and in the copying of works of the old masters. 14 Reverence for the excellence of old art remains Achievements alone do not make an artist famous. However, survival in the collective memory of art history may be analyzed by two aspects of reputation: recognition and renown. 15 As American sociologist Howard Becker defined it, r ecognition refers to the esteem in which one is held by his or her peers 16 Measures such as election to art societies, acceptance of works to juried exhibitions, and awards are representativ e of evaluations of artistic output by professional contemporaries and connoisseurs of art, although Pillars was never a member of the United States National Sculpture Society. 17 Renown is sometimes measured by how well a person is known outside a specific art world and depends upon the publicity provided by cultural consumers, the critical press, and transactions No publicly visible traces of his activity as a sculptor are listed in art gallery databases 18 Museum and historical society curator s and experts however, recognize and associate his name 13 Meyer Schapiro. Modern Art: 19 th a nd 20 th C entur ies 1982, 172. 14 Kenneth M. Clark, The Nude: A Study in Ideal Form. ( New York NY : Random Ho use, 1956) 195 ; Donald M. Reynolds, Masters of American Sculpture: The Figurative Tradition from the American Renaissance to the Millenium. (New York, NY: Abbeville Press, 1993), 13. 15 Renown : The Surviva 1988, 84. 16 Howard S. Becker, Art Worlds. (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1982). 17 Elizabeth Helms, National Sculpture S ociety, e mail message to the author December 5, 2007. 18 Websites www.artnet.com and www.askart.com ( accessed on February 4, 2011 )
101 with the memorial 19 and the effect of his life and work upon the city of Jacksonville and the artistic community of St. Augustine. 20 Visibility, the visibility that defines renown, enables a momentum t hat allows the artist personal success and prosperity in the public gaze Stories about artist s and their work featured in newspaper articles and advertisement of artworks for sale and those commissioned by local connoisseurs fuel interest in their works After their death s archivists may promote the value of their achievements and promote acquiring artworks in the marketplace. 21 lifetime of works lacks v isibility a factor th at is crucial to preservation of an Before Life Pillars was best remembered for both Florida statues in Statuary Hall of the U.S. Capitol, 22 two examples of his artistic skill lost among many in a forest of bronze and marble. Pillars bronze fountain, the Cherub memorial of 1910, was the target of vandalism in the 1940s and scheduled for meltdown for bronze to support the U.S. war effort It was stored away in a city tool shed until 1960. 23 Today the life sized bronze of bank founder, William B. Barnett, created by Pillars in 1929 is in a storage facility of the current banking entity that 19 Sharon Laird, archivist ; Emily Lisska, E xecuti ve D irector, Jacksonville Historical Society; Helen Euston, library volunteer, Cummer Museum of Art & Gardens. discussions with the author. 20 Enzo Torcoletti, former Director of Sculpture, Flagler College, St. Augustine, Florida. Discussion with the auth or May 12, 2010. Note: the Jacksonville nonprofit organization, Riverside Avondale Preservation Association (RAP) employs an image Life (1924) as its logo and, another Jacksonville nonprofit agency, Springfield Women C lub, uses an image of Cherub (1910) located in Klutho Park on its organization al letterhead 21 works. Margot Chvatal, Specialist, American Art, Ch e mail message to the author October 2, 2010; e mail message to the author October 21, 2010, 22 http://www.aoc.gov/cc/art/nsh/index.cfm (accessed June 13, 2007). 23 The Florida Times Union March 15, 1960; The Florida Times Union February 25, 1968; John Carter, Cherub The Flo rida Times Union October 25, 2006 3. Today the Cherub is used as the logo but the club website does not acknowledge the design as
102 acquired Barnett Banks of Florida. 24 The urn that Pillars designed as a campus memorial to the son of Southern College p resident, Dr. Ludd Spivey, is 25 Following his death, the only example of works retained by his widow was a plaster of Paris bust of herself that her husband created in 1904. 26 His estate inventory of small clay and pla stel i ne models in his studio w as destroyed by a family member. Lang and Lang have both caution ed that the durability of reputation is dependent upon four directions the artist must take for survival: A rtist s themselves must make efforts in their own life time s to protect their reputation s. Following that, the overriding need is to appoint someone who has a stake in preserving their artistic output and reputation s. While they are still living they must also develop links to political networks that facilitat e entry into the cultural archives and generate interest from art historians. Pillars failed in his lifetime to take those steps to assure his reputation 27 Chances for survival of recognition are increased when an artist keeps a record that assists in fu ture identification of his work. 28 While his wife maintained a scrapbook of newspaper clippings and a few photographs, there are no extant letters contracts, or journal entries he kept The records and minutes of the Citizens Memorial Committee effort that raised $60,000 and contracted with Pillars to create the Life memorial were not archived 29 24 Martha Barrett D irector of Public Relations, Bank of America discussion with the author November 28, 2007. 25 Myrtice Young, APR Director of Development, Florida Southern College, e mail message to the author September 30, 2009. 26 W Jacksonville Journal, May 31, 1960. 27 Howard S. Becker, Art Worlds, (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1982, 2008). 28 Ibid., 88. 29 Miriam Funchess Executive Secretary, Rotar y Club of Jacksonville, discussion with the author August 19, 2010.
103 Pillars did produce a critical mass of works but his archives lacked a trail of provenance for a researcher to follow. When there was little demand for his art dur ing the Great Depression, Pillars survived because of the Federal Arts Project and the referrals generated by his colleague, Eve Alsman, the director of the WPA agency for Florida. The impact made by the five major cultural projects of the WPA during the G reat Depression upon the national consciousness was profound F ew living artists [in 1960] did not do something or other for at least one of the another profession. 30 School of Art, Anton Schutz, devastated by the economic downtown of the 1930s, reinvented his career as an etcher and became a successful publisher of high quality reproductions. 31 I n developing a social network of clientele Pillars moved among the cultural elite and business leaders of Jacksonville at the turn of the twentieth century and up until his last work with the Federal Arts Project Pillars captured the images of famous people leaders of Jacksonville and their families; rediscovery of those portraits would be symbolic markers for historians and curators that would add to his visibility and renown Donation from family members of the ir and photographs to a local histo rical association or library archives could provide public access to his life story. T his thesis research on Pillars has prompted a book collaboration to further research the artist by the author and Dr. Wayne Wood, noted Jacksonville historian, to be publ ished by the Jacksonville Historical Society. 32 30 Art Journal 20 no. 1 (1960), 5. 31 Lang and Lang, 1988, 88. 32 Dr. Wayne Wood, e mail message to the author February 4, 2011.
104 contributor to the arts and can celebrate his contributions Museums in both Jacksonville and St. Augustine have the opportuni ty to renown. The Cummer Museum of Art & Gardens is located in close proximity to Life in Riverside Memorial Park and his home and studio Homwald is a stop on the historical tour of S t. Augustine Florida. 33 Reclaimed T he impetus for this study was as a topic for a thesis but also interest in the resurrection recognition and renown The legacy of Pill powerful. He was a gifted artist ; his sculptural works are aesthetically significant and worthy of to better understand the critical beginnings of the city of Jacksonville in the twentieth century. the physical appearance of his clients that allow us to develop biographies and reassemble the historical dynamics of their lives. While he has not been acknowledged, his portraits reveal much i nformation about the operation of society for an artist and what it was to negotiate cultural demands. We can reassess through the artist the regional biases of working in the South, satisfying conventional taste, and the issues of negotiating masculinity in public art. Although this thesis is a small first step, shared interests among those who value public art and sculpture will be needed to maintain the effort to keep his name and work alive His artistic achievements will be preserved if there are thos e willing to act as links to networks that may bring his work into museums Additional research may unearth more material and existing works that can contribute to the archives Bringing to the fore more knowledge about the man 33 David Nolan, Houses of St. Augustine 1995.
105 and his reputation through p ublic viewing could both reconstruct and preserve his reputation one that rests primarily on what may be considered his greatest and surely most enduring work : L ife
106 Figure 5 1. War Memorial Park, Jacksonville, Florida, c. 1940, P ostcard (in collection of the author, Dianne Crum Dawood).
107 APPENDIX A STUDIO PIECES, C. 1937 1. Neptune, c. 1937, male figure with trident held aloft, 24 inches, Pla s teline 2. Awakening: Ri ver Mai (Welaka ), c. 1930, female upright figure, 17 inches Plasteline 3. Young Dreams, female figure, semi recumbent, 7 inches Plasteline 4. Diana, female figure rising from the m o on, 22 inches Plasteline 5. Falling Leaves 1934, female figure reclining by tr ee trunk, 16 inches, Plasteline 6. Pensive Thoughts, female figure seated, 14.5 inches Plasteline 7. Weariness, female figure seated with hands behind head, 15 inches Plasteline 8. Young Girl, female figure standing, 20 inches Plasteline 9. Bust of Ruth, small portrait bust of woman, 7 inches Plasteline 10. Equestrian Study of Gen. Andrew Jackson, Equestrian study, 20 inches Plasteline 11. Solitude, c. 1931, female figure standing with bent head, 13 inches, Plasteline 12. Winged Victory on Globe of World, inches plaster of Paris. 13. The Wave, c. 1937. female figure engulfed in wave, 7.5 inches plaster of Paris. 14. The Victor, male head, 11 inches plaster of Paris. 15. Wi nd Goddess, large female bust, no dimension 16. The Storm, male head in high relief with beard and long hair (in plaque), no dimension 17. Bubbles, female nude reclining and holding a ball, no dimension Ivory soap 1 18. Crouching Girl female in bathing costume (?) no dimension, Plasteline. 1 Bubbles from a bar of Ivory soap as part of a competition sponsored by the soap company. An n
108 A B C D E F Figure A 1. Images of surviving studio models c. 1937. A ) Neptune c. 1937 B) Awakening: River Mai (Welaka) c. 1930 C) Young Girl, n.d D) Falling Leaves, c. 1934 E) Bubbles, n.d. F) Crouching Girl n.d.
109 A B C D E Figure A 2. Unnamed surviving f igures c.1937.
110 APPENDIX B CHARLES ADRIAN PILLARS 1. Mark Carl ey c. 188 7 clay. Arcola, Illinois. Location unknown. 2. London Lady. 3. Genius of the Swamp 4. Sout hern Womanhood 5. The Spirit of the Woods 6. Fountain of Youth, Dream s. 7. Landing of Ponce de Leon 8. The Storm 9. The Wind Goddess 10. Solitude 11. The Awakening of the River 12. Kiss of the South Wind 13. Love of the Lily 14. The Vampire 15. Fountain of Unity 16. Parting of David and Jonathan 17. Deer Hunt 18. Opossum Hunt 19. The Fallen Leaf 20. History of Architecture, c. 1884. Doors (three) from the Leland Sanford Junior Museum. Bronze. Palo Alto, California. 21. Dancing Faun, 1893. Plaster staff Horticultural Building, an Exposition of 1893, Chicago, Illinois. Location unknown.
111 22. Charles Adrian Pillars with Daniel Chester French, Republic, head and bust, 189 3, 60 feet ( N ow lost) 23. Charles Adrian Pillar s with Daniel Chester French and E. C. Potter Columbus Quadriga, four horses and one herald rider of the placement, 1893. Expositio n of 1893, Chicago, Illinois. ( N ow lost). 24. Robin Hood. 25. Columbus Frieze 1893. Model of e leve n scenes in the life of Columbus for b ronze. Columbus Memorial Building, Chicago, Illinois. Location unknown. 26. Colonel J.J. Daniel, 1894, portrait bust. Location unknown. 27. Dr. A.S. Baldwin, Philip Henry Sheridan Eque strian Monument, c. 1900. Competition model for installation in Chicago, Illinois. Location unknown. 28. Nathan Bedford Forrest Equestrian Monument, c. 1900. Competition model for installation in Memphis, Tennessee. Location unknown. 29. Jefferson Davis Monument, 1900. Model of a monumental arch in Richmond, Virginia, for Daughters of the Confederacy, Jacksonville, Florida. (Location unknown). 30. William B. Barnett, 1900 ., portrait medallion, Bronze. Location unknown. 31. B. H. Barnett, 32. E. O. Painter. 33. James Baker. 34. Martha Reid. 35. Dr. John Durkee. 36. Twin Sons of Bion Barnett, n.d. Bronze. Location unknown. 37. Unnamed Portrait Medallions, n.d. Bronze. Location unknown. 38. Senator Duncan U. Fletcher, 1909. Bronze. Locat ion unknown. 39. Cherub Fountain, 1910. Bronze. Klutho Park, Jacksonville, Florida.
112 40. William James Bryan Memorial Tablet 1911 5 feet Bronze, USS Battleship Florida. (Now destroyed). 41. Dr. John Gorrie, 1914 7 feet Marble. US Capitol, Washington, D.C. 42. Children of Perry Elwood, 43. Gen. Kirby Smith, 1918. Bronze. US Capitol, Washington, D.C. 44. The Kiss of Science, 1918. Sterling silver. Location unknown. 45. Anderson Memorial Plaque, c. 1920. Bronze. Trinity Episcopal Church, St. Augustine, Florida. 46. Anderson Memorial Flagstaff, c. 1921. Bronze. Anderson Circle, St. Augustine, Florida. 47. World War I Memorial Plaque, c. 1923. Bronze. US Post Office, St. Augustine, Florida. 48. Jean Ribault Monument, May 1, 1924. Marble and bronze. Fort Caroline National Park, National Park Service, US Department of the Interior, Jacksonville, Florida. 49. Spiritualized Life, December 1, 1924 20 feet Marble. Riverside Memorial Park, Jacksonville, Florida. 50. A. Heard lding, Jackso nville, Florida Location unknown. 51. William B. Barnett, 19 31 Bronze. Bank of America Corporate Offices, Jacksonville, Florida. 52. Eagle Mothers: The Fine Arts, 1934. Program cover Eighth Annual Exhibition, Florida Federation of Art, Gallery of Fine Arts Society of Jacksonville. Location unknown. 53. Spivey Memorial Urn, 1937. Bronze. Florida Southern College, Lakeland, Florida
113 LIST OF RE FERENCES Adams, Adeline. The Spirit of American Sculpture. New York, NY: The National Sculpture Socie Sarasota, Florida, September 29 th Adams, Don and Arlene Goldbard. New Deal Cultural Programs: Experiments in Cultural Democracy 1995. http://www.wwcd.org/policy/US/newdeal.html (accessed August 21, 2008). American Stone Trade Magazine, Vol. XVII, Chicago, IL: author, June 1, 1917 30. http://www.ancestry.com/?o_xid=21837&o_lid=21837 (accessed June 13, 2007). Anonymous, USA Today, 138 (2780), (May 2010): 43 51. (accessed March 2, 2011, from ProQuest Education Journals. (Document ID: 2043376661). Jacksonville Journal 1929. Bauer, Ruthmary Florida Historical Quarterly 76 no. 2 (Fall, 1997): 135 151. Becker, Howard S. Art Worlds. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1982 2008. Roosevelt Era: An Appraisal of Federal Art Art Journal 20 no. 1 (1960): 2 8. Bennett, Charles E., Laudonniere & Fort Caroline. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Press, 1964. Billington, Monroe L. The Political South in the Twentieth Century. New York: Charles Scribner & Sons, 1975. Bing, Margaret, A Brief Overview of the WPA 2004. http://www.co.broward.fl.us/library/bienes/lii102 04.htm (accessed on April 23, 2009 ) Bogart, Michelle C. Public Sculpture and The Civic Ideal: New York City 1890 1930. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1989. Bourdieu, Pierre. The Field of Cultural Production: Essays on Art and Literature Ed ited by Randal Johnson New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.
114 Gainesville Daily Sun, June 14, 1928 2. Bound Highways: The Growth of Florida as an Inde pendent State, 1917 A Guide to the History of Florida Edited by Paul S. George New York: Greenwood Press, 1989 : 107 116. Jacksonville Journal, September 30, 1976 60. Cahill, Edgar H. Series 3: Works Progress Administration Federal Art Project: Administration of the State WPA/FAP, Florida. Report on the History of the FAP in Florida, 1942. (Reel 5289, Frames 0659 0707), 1942a. http://www.aaa.si.edu/collectionsonline/cahiholg/container183494.htm (accessed on April 6, 2009 ). Cahill, Edgar H. Series 3: Works Progress Administration Federal Art Project. Administration of the State WPA/FAP. Florida, Ja cksonville WPA Art Center Brochure, 1942 (Reel 5289, Frames 0651 0658), 1942b. http://www.aaa.si.edu/collectionsonline/cahiholg/container183494.htm (accessed on April 17, 20 09 ). Cahill, Edgar H. Series 3: Works Progress Administration Federal Art Project, 1934 1970. General Subjects, Circa 1934 1943, 1953. Advisory Committees, Florida. (Reel 1105, Frames 0442 0444), 1942c. http://www.aaa.si.edu/collectionsonline/cahiholg/container183494.htm (accessed on April 6, 2009 ). Jacksonville Florida Times Union October 25, 2006 3. Cash, William Thomas The Story of Florida New York, NY: The American Historical Society, 1938. Champaign Daily Gazette, Clark, Kenneth M. The Nude: A Study in Ideal Form. New York: Random House, 1956. Craven, Wayne. American Art: History and Culture. Madison, WI: Brown & Benchmark, 1994. 1910 Florida Historical Quarterly 62 no. 4 ( April 1984 ) : 439 463. Cutler, Harry Gardner. History of Florida Past and Present. Vol I. Chicago, IL.: The Lewis Publishing Company, 1923.
115 Sarasota Herald, March 25, 1935. American Sociological Review 52 no. 4 (1987): 440 455. Dodd, Jean Hall. Arthur Gerrish Cummer. Jacksonville, FL.: Cummer Museum of Art & Gardens, 1996. Jac ksonville Florida Times Union October 8, 1961 B 16. Social Forces 64 no. 3 (1986): 667 688. Jacksonville Journal, May 31, 1960. Eck, B Sociological Forum 16 no. 4 ( 2001 ) : 603 632. Editorial, Jacksonville Florida Times Union Editorial, Jacksonville Florida Times Union 1919. Falk, Peter Hastings ed. Who Was Who in American Art, 1564 1975: 400 Years of Artists in America. Vol. III, Madison, CT: Sound View Press, 1999. Fairman, Charles E. Art and Artists of the Capitol of the United States of America. Washington, D C.: Government Printing Office, 1927. Craftsman 7, no. 2 (November 1904): 122 Quoted i n Public Sculpture and the Civic Ideal: New York City 1890 1930. Edited by Michelle C. Bogart. Chicago: Un iversity of Ch icago Press, 1989 Florida Times Union, November 11, 1999. Jacksonville Florida Times Union n.d. Foley Jacksonville Florida Times Union April 16, 1994. The Jacksonville Florida Times Union June 11, 1994.
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125 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Dianne Crum Dawood earned a B. A. in art history at the University of North Florida in Jacksonville, Florida, in 1996 where she graduated summa cum laude With an interest in a career in the arts, she completed a M aster of P ublic A dministration and used her learning experience t o serve as executive director of Theatreworks, a nonprofit providing educational theater to north Florida children and families. In 2009 she earned an Ed.D. in e ducational l eadership from the University of North Florida. Her dissertation study was about magnet high schools for the arts. She is currently an adjunct professor at the University of North Florida teaching art history, resource development for nonprofit organizations, and leadership.