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Shades of Grey

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0042251/00001

Material Information

Title: Shades of Grey Coverage by the Black and White Press in Florida
Physical Description: 1 online resource (90 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Wang, Qian
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: afroamericans, black, coverage, diversity, press, religion
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Mass Communication thesis, M.A.M.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: In response to the alienation, underrepresentation, and misrepresentations of Afro-Americans in mainstream newspapers, Afro-Americans started their own newspapers. Since the nation?s first black newspaper---Freedom?s Journal--- was published in 1827, the black press has served as information conduit and community representative for Afro-American community. Today, at least 278 black newspapers are printed across the U.S., with a circulation approaching 13 million. However, little scholarly attention has been paid to the black press in the United States. The present study compared the coverage of two black newspapers and two white newspapers in Florida to find out the differences. It not only drew a picture of the content in the black press but also explored the extent to which the black press fulfills their commitment to better serve Afro-American community. Additionally, the study also examined how community diversity affects news content through comparing news coverage in the press in Miami and Jacksonville. In total, 32 issues of newspapers were collected and 999 stories were coded. Content analysis was conducted to examine the differences of news coverage between the black press and the white press. Chi-square analysis was used to test how Afro-Americans were portrayed in the black and white press, and the major story themes in the black press as well. Independent t-test was used to test source usage differences between the black and white press. The findings on representations of Afro-Americans suggested that they appeared more frequently in sports stories but less frequently in crime and entertainment stories in the white press. However, they were represented more positively than negatively overall in the white press. In terms of major issues in the black press, the study found that more attention was addressed to stories of community affairs, politics, and religion in the black press than in the white press, which is consistent with communal and advocacy roles of the black press to serve the information needs of Afro-American community, and to fight for justice and proper rights for Afro-Americans. Differences were also found in source usage between the black and white press, which revealed that the black press used more non-official and Afro-American sources, while the white press mainly relied on male white official sources. Finally, the press in Miami used more Afro-American and female sources than that in Jacksonville, which suggested that the press in more racially diverse communities tends to represent more minorities and women in the coverage.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Qian Wang.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.M.C.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Armstrong, Cory.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0042251:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0042251/00001

Material Information

Title: Shades of Grey Coverage by the Black and White Press in Florida
Physical Description: 1 online resource (90 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Wang, Qian
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: afroamericans, black, coverage, diversity, press, religion
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Mass Communication thesis, M.A.M.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: In response to the alienation, underrepresentation, and misrepresentations of Afro-Americans in mainstream newspapers, Afro-Americans started their own newspapers. Since the nation?s first black newspaper---Freedom?s Journal--- was published in 1827, the black press has served as information conduit and community representative for Afro-American community. Today, at least 278 black newspapers are printed across the U.S., with a circulation approaching 13 million. However, little scholarly attention has been paid to the black press in the United States. The present study compared the coverage of two black newspapers and two white newspapers in Florida to find out the differences. It not only drew a picture of the content in the black press but also explored the extent to which the black press fulfills their commitment to better serve Afro-American community. Additionally, the study also examined how community diversity affects news content through comparing news coverage in the press in Miami and Jacksonville. In total, 32 issues of newspapers were collected and 999 stories were coded. Content analysis was conducted to examine the differences of news coverage between the black press and the white press. Chi-square analysis was used to test how Afro-Americans were portrayed in the black and white press, and the major story themes in the black press as well. Independent t-test was used to test source usage differences between the black and white press. The findings on representations of Afro-Americans suggested that they appeared more frequently in sports stories but less frequently in crime and entertainment stories in the white press. However, they were represented more positively than negatively overall in the white press. In terms of major issues in the black press, the study found that more attention was addressed to stories of community affairs, politics, and religion in the black press than in the white press, which is consistent with communal and advocacy roles of the black press to serve the information needs of Afro-American community, and to fight for justice and proper rights for Afro-Americans. Differences were also found in source usage between the black and white press, which revealed that the black press used more non-official and Afro-American sources, while the white press mainly relied on male white official sources. Finally, the press in Miami used more Afro-American and female sources than that in Jacksonville, which suggested that the press in more racially diverse communities tends to represent more minorities and women in the coverage.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Qian Wang.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.M.C.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Armstrong, Cory.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0042251:00001


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PAGE 8

Freedoms Journal

PAGE 11

Life

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Freedom's Journal

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Theoretical Backgrounds Individual level:

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Media routines level: When it comes to thinking about the kind of news most relevant to the audience, newsmen exercise their news judgment rat her than going out and seeking specific information about the composit ion, wants or tastes of those who are being addressed (Schlesinger, 1978, pp.115-116).

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Organizational level:

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Extramedia level: Ideological level:

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Ownership Differences between the Black and White Press

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Different Roles of the Black and White Press

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The Roles of the White Press

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The Roles of the Black Press The Communal Role:

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The Advocacy Role:

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The Dual Role: Coverage in the Black and White Press

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Stereotypes of Afro-Americans in the White Press

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Major Issues in the Black Press

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Source Differences Authority of Source:

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Race of Source:

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St.Louis Post Dispath

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Gender of Source:

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Impact of Community Demographics on News Coverage

PAGE 44

Sample The Miami Times

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The Miami Herald The Miami Herald The Miami Times The Miami Times The Florida Times-Union The Miami Herald The Florida Times-Union The Florida Star The Florida Star Sampling Method

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The Miami Times The Miami Tim es The Florida Star Coders and Intercoder Reliability

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Variables The Theme of the Story:

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The Miami Herald The Florida Times-Union The Miami Herald The Miami Herald The Miami Times The Miami Times

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The Florida Star The Florida Times-Union The Main Character of the Story: The Florida Star,

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she The Miami Herald

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Sources in the Story : Valence:

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Community Diversity:

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n n

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p

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n n N p N p N p n n p

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t p t p t p t p t p

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Mean SD Mean SD F t p p

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Mean SD Mean SD F t p

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Representations of Afro-Americans in the Black and White Press

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The Florida Star

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The Florida Star The Florida Star, Major Story Themes in the Black and White Press

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The Miami Times The Florida Star

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The Miami Herald The fasting makes you more sensitive and isolates you from everyday things. When you spend time with God in his world, youre letting yourself be guided by the spiritual nature and asking the Holy Spirit to help reveal the decis ion, Arthur, Bryce Browns father (The Miami Herald, Feb 1, 2009). Source Usage in the Black and White Press

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The Florida Star

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Impact of Community Di versity on Source Usage

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The Miami Times The Florida Star The Miami Times The Florida Star Limitations and Future Research

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Conclusion

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The Florida Times-Union

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Journal of Afro-American Studies, 32(2), Creating reality: How TV news distorts events. Newspaper Research Journal, 23(4), The media monopoly Fourth rate estate. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 1, Journalism Quarterly, 69 (1), Journalism Quarterly, 60, Who killed CBS? The undoing of Americas number one news network Social Forces, 33(4), The Journal of Politics, 37(1), Ethics and media culture Editor & Publisher, Sex Roles, 56,

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Journal of Afro-Ame rican Studies, 33, Mass Communication & Society, 9(1), Sport in society: Issues and controversies The Press and Popular Culture. Social psychology readings : A century of research Journalism Quarterly, 71 (2), Personality and Social P sychology Bulletin, 20, Media and society: Industries, images, and audiences The Globe and Mail The black press, 1827 1980. Sociology of Sport Journal, 7(2), Behind the mule: Race and class in Afro-American politics The Negro press in the United States. Public Opinion Quarterly, 31,

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Et hnic minority media: An international perspective Journalism Quarterly, 71 (3), Social Movements: Cognitive Approach. The Black image in the White mind: Media and race in America Journal of Afro-American Studies 12, Journal of Communication, 28, Presstime Communication in Canadian society Communication in Canadian society Journal of Women, Politics, & Policy, 29(1), Discipline and Punish. Annual Review of Sociology, 18, Deciding whats news Journal of Political Economy, 111 (4), The Public Opinion Quarterly, 60(4),

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Communica tion Research, 5, Visual Studies, 22(3), Mexican Americans and the mass media Undoing place? A geographical reader The uncensored war Mass Communication & Society. The Howard Journal of Communications, 15, International Journal of the Sociology of Law 19, The Cultural Industries. Language and control. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 76(2), Georgia Business & Economic Conditions, 60 (4) Social Justice 3, Political Studies 55,

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The early black press in America. Mass Communication an d Society, 3(2), The emergence of black politi cs in Senegal: The struggle for power in the four communes, 1900 1920 Colu mbia Journalism Review, 26(1), The Howard Journal of Communication 19, Foundations of behavioral research A survey of Afro-American newspapers in America. Newspaper Research Journal 12, Newspaper Research Journal, 21 Minorities in the Newspapers Business, Running for freedom: Civil rights and black politics in America since 1941 The Journal of Communication, 55 (1), A sociological perspective of sport Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 41,

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The black church in the Afro-Ame rican experience The Physical Educator, 35(2), Journal of Broadcasting, 17, Journalism Quarterly, 51, Journalism Quarterly, Newspaper Research Journal, The Howard Journal of Communications 16, Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 44, Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 9(4), Prejudice, discrimination and racism McQuails Mass communication theory Canadian Journal of Communication 20(2),

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Framing public life Reconsidering social constructionism: Debates in social problems theory. Journalism Quarterly, 42 The planning of change Politics and the mass media in Britain. The content analysis guidebook. Within the veil: Afro-Ameri can journalists, white media. Journal of Afro-American Studies, 36, Journalism Studies, 8 (1), Journalism7 (3), Mediate Messages and AfroAmerican Culture. Inventing reality: The politics of the mass media. Mass media Stereotyping: The politics of representation.

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Mediated messages and Afro-American culture. Channels Visual Communication Quarterly, 55(7), Journal of Communication, 53(4), St.Louis Post-Dispatch Newspaper Research Journal, 21, African Americans in sport: Cotemporary themes Putting reality together: BBC news Social Science Quarterly, 49, Mediating the message: Theories of influences on mass media content. Reporters and officials American Behavioral Scientist, 38, The everyday world as problematic: A feminist sociology RTNDA Communicator New York Times

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Journalism Quarterly, 53, Communication Research 13(1), Journalism Quarterly, 55(3), American Journal of Sociology, 77, Columbia Journalism Review, Preference externalities: An empi rical study of who benefits whom in differentiated product markets. The Afro-American news paper: Voice of freedom. The American, 14(5), The American journalists in the 21st century: U.S. news people at the dawn of a new millennium. Afro-American journalists in paradox. Gender, race, and class in media: A text-reader Racism, sexism, and the media: The rise of class communication in multicultural America Mass media research: An introduction

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Canadian Journal of Communication, 20(1) The Blackpress Mass Communication and Society, 8(4), Mass Communication & Society, 10(3),