<%BANNER%>

Structural Relationships among Market Demand, Perceived Benefits, Perceived Constraints, Perceived Value, Member Satisfa...

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0042201/00001

Material Information

Title: Structural Relationships among Market Demand, Perceived Benefits, Perceived Constraints, Perceived Value, Member Satisfaction, and Member Commitment Toward Marital Arts Participation
Physical Description: 1 online resource (143 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Kim, Minkil
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: arts, benefits, constraints, demand, market, martial, perceived, value
Health and Human Performance -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Health and Human Performance thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Participation in physically active recreation and sport has been tremendously increased in recent years due to health and fitness consciousness of people. Of various activities, martial arts have become an increasingly popular in Western countries, and they are widely considered as valuable participation activities within diverse contexts. Although the current trends of growth in the martial arts schools are generating new opportunities for martial arts enthusiasts, rapid growth in the number of the martial arts schools has resulted in a highly competitive business environment in North America. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a theoretical framework that specifies direct and indirect relationships among market demand, perceived benefits, perceived constraint, perceived value, consumer satisfaction, and consumption behavior in martial arts programs. Research participants (N = 595) were Taekwondo school participants, who resided in the U.S. and voluntarily participated in the survey study. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to evaluate the measurement model and the proposed model was developed and tested using a structural equation modeling (SEM) with MPLUS 5.21 program. The findings of this study indicated that perceived benefits and perceived constraints partially mediated the relationship between the market demand factors and perceived value, which, in turn, influenced member satisfaction and commitment. Participants would select martial arts school that is satisfied with their expectation for dominant perceived benefits and pursue perceived value form the martial arts training experience. Administrators of martial arts programs may also consider the resultant theoretical framework as a general guide in their marketing efforts to recruit and retain program participants. The structure model in this study may be applied in the formulation of marketing strategies for martial arts schools, as well as other related health-fitness settings.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Minkil Kim.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Zhang, Jianhui.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2011-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0042201:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0042201/00001

Material Information

Title: Structural Relationships among Market Demand, Perceived Benefits, Perceived Constraints, Perceived Value, Member Satisfaction, and Member Commitment Toward Marital Arts Participation
Physical Description: 1 online resource (143 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Kim, Minkil
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: arts, benefits, constraints, demand, market, martial, perceived, value
Health and Human Performance -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Health and Human Performance thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Participation in physically active recreation and sport has been tremendously increased in recent years due to health and fitness consciousness of people. Of various activities, martial arts have become an increasingly popular in Western countries, and they are widely considered as valuable participation activities within diverse contexts. Although the current trends of growth in the martial arts schools are generating new opportunities for martial arts enthusiasts, rapid growth in the number of the martial arts schools has resulted in a highly competitive business environment in North America. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a theoretical framework that specifies direct and indirect relationships among market demand, perceived benefits, perceived constraint, perceived value, consumer satisfaction, and consumption behavior in martial arts programs. Research participants (N = 595) were Taekwondo school participants, who resided in the U.S. and voluntarily participated in the survey study. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to evaluate the measurement model and the proposed model was developed and tested using a structural equation modeling (SEM) with MPLUS 5.21 program. The findings of this study indicated that perceived benefits and perceived constraints partially mediated the relationship between the market demand factors and perceived value, which, in turn, influenced member satisfaction and commitment. Participants would select martial arts school that is satisfied with their expectation for dominant perceived benefits and pursue perceived value form the martial arts training experience. Administrators of martial arts programs may also consider the resultant theoretical framework as a general guide in their marketing efforts to recruit and retain program participants. The structure model in this study may be applied in the formulation of marketing strategies for martial arts schools, as well as other related health-fitness settings.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Minkil Kim.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Zhang, Jianhui.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2011-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0042201:00001


This item has the following downloads:


Full Text





STRUCTURAL RELATIONSHIPS AMONG MARKET DEMAND,
PERCEIVED BENEFITS, PERCEIVED CONSTRAINTS,
PERCEIVED VALUE, MEMBER SATISFACTION,
AND MEMBER COMMITMENT TOWARD MARITAL ARTS PARTICIPATION




















By

MIN KIL KIM


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2010



































2010 Min Kil Kim




























To my family









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would first like to acknowledge my advisor, Dr. James J. Zhang for his

endless support throughout my course of study in the master's and Ph D. program. I would not

have been able to complete my dissertation without his patience, encouragement, insight, and

support. Dr. Zhang has been a great mentor for the whole phase of this dissertation. I would like

to thank the members of my committee, Dr. Dan Connaughton, Dr. Yong Jae Ko, Dr Matt

Walker, Dr. May Kim, and Dr. Barton Weitz. For their great guidance and contribution

Many thanks also go to my Ph. D program colleagues who encouraged me during this arduous

process. Finally, I would like to extend my greatest appreciation to my family for being there

when I need the most. I deeply thank my parents, SaeHwan Kim and SunkOk Lee. Most

importantly, I thank my lovely wife, JeungAh Kim, and my precious daughter, Allison Kim, for

their endless love and unselfish sacrifice. I would like to thank my entire family in Korea for

their support and encouragement. Above all else, I want to thank God, Jesus Christ, who

strengthens me whenever and wherever.









TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A CK N O W LED G M EN T S .................................................................. ........... ............. .....

L IST O F T A B L E S ......................................... ............................... 7

LIST OF FIGURES .................................. .. ... ... ...............8

L IS T O F T E R M S ...................... .. .. ......... .. .. ...................................................... 9

A B S T R A C T ......... ........................ ............................................................ 10

CHAPTER

1 IN TR O D U CTION ............... .............................. ..................... ........ .. 12

State ent of the Problem .................. .................. ................................... ....... 18
H ypothesized R research M odel ........................................................................ ..................20
D e lim ita tio n s ...................................................................................................................... 2 1
L im itatio n s ........................................................................................2 1
Significance of the Study .................. .................. .................................. .. ........ 22

2 L ITE R A TU R E R E V IE W .............................................................................. ..................... 25

T a ek w o n d o ............................................................................... 2 5
M market D em and ..............................................................................27
C conceptual Fram ew ork ...................................................... .... ..... ..... 33
Personal Im provem ent Activities ............................................................................ 34
Physical Environm ent Quality ............................................................. ............... 36
In structional Staff Q u ality ........................................................................ ..................37
Program A activities O offerings ................................................. ............................... 38
C cultural L earning A activities ...................... .. .............. ... .. ................. ............... 38
L ocker R oom P revision ........................................................................... ................... 40
Economic Conditions Consideration........................................... ............... 40
P erceiv ed B benefits ................................................................4 1
Perceived Constraints ................................................................ 44
P erc eiv e d V alu e ............. ......... .. .............. .. .........................................................5 1
Member Satisfaction........ ........ ........... .. ..... ...... ...... ........ 57
M em ber C om m itm ent.......... ............................................................................ ......... .... 58

3 METHODOLOGY .................... ............................. ......61

Participants ................................... ............................ 61
M easurem ent ........... ........................ .................................. 62
M market Demand ............................................. ................... 62
Perceived Benefits ............... ............... ................ ........ ....................65









Perceived Constraints ................................. ... ..... ........... ......... 65
P erc eiv e d V alu e ......................................................................................................... 6 6
Member Satisfaction .................. ......... ... .. ... ..... ..... ......... 67
M em ber C om m itm ent .......................................................................... .....................67
D em graphic Inform action ...............................................................................................68
P ro c e d u re s .............................................................................................6 8
D ata A n a ly se s ................................................................................................................... 7 0
Goodness of M odel Fit ............................................................. .......... 72
R e liab ility ................................................................7 3
V a lid ity ................... ...................7...................4..........

4 R E SU L T S .............. ... ................................................................79

D descriptive Statistics ................................................................... 79
M market D em and V ariables......................................................................................... 79
P erceived B benefits V ariables..................................................................................... 79
Perceived Constraints Variables...................................... ......... 80
P perceived V alue V ariables ................................ .......................................80
Member Satisfaction and Member Commitment Variables ................ .... ...........81
D ata N orm ality ................................................................ 8 1
Measurement Models..................... ................................. 82
M ark et D em an d ......... ........................................................... .......................................82
P erceiv ed B en efits ......... ............ ..................................... .....................................83
P perceived C constraints ..........................................................................................84
P erceiv ed V alu e ......... ...... ... ........................................ .......................................8 5
Overall M easurem ent M odel .................................................. .... ..... 86
Structural Equation Model ................... ....... .......................... 87
Sum m ary of the Results .......... .......... ..... ...... ....................... .. 89

5 DISCUS SION ......... ..... .......... ............ .................... 107

M easurem ent M odel ............... ..............................................................................................107
Structural Models and Hypothesis Testing ............. ............................................. 110
Suggestions for Further Study ................... ...... ............... .. .................. ............. 115







L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S ......... ............. .......................................................................... 130

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H ......... ............................................................. .......................... 143





6









LIST OF TABLES


Table page

3-1 Descriptive statistics for the sociodemographic variables (N=595)................................76

3-2 Group comparison between on-line and on-site respondents ........................................78

4-1 Descriptive statistics for the market demand variables (N = 595)..................................91

4-2 Descriptive statistics for the perceived benefits (N = 595)...........................................93

4-3 Descriptive statistics for the perceived constraints (N = 595).......................................94

4-4 Descriptive statistics for the perceived value (N = 595)..............................................95

4-5 Descriptive statistics for the member satisfaction and commitment (N = 595)................96

4-6 Summary results for overall measurement model .................................. ...............97

4-7 Correlations among market demand constructs............................................................100

4-8 A ssessm ent of discrim inant validity ..................................................................... ..... 101

4-9 Standardized parameter estimates and hypothesis testing ..............................................102

4-10 The direct and indirect effects of market demand on commitment ......................103









LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

1-1 A hypothesized model of the relationships among market demand, perceived benefit,
perceived constraint, perceived value, member satisfaction, and member
co m m itm en t ............................................................................ 2 4

4-1 First-order confirmatory factor analysis for market demand ................ ................104

4-2 A hypothesized model of the relationships among market demand, perceived benefit,
perceived constraint, perceived value, member satisfaction, and member
com m itm ent .............................................................................105

4-3 A comparison of the partially mediated model and the direct effect model..................106









LIST OF TERMS


Customer Commitment Morgan and Hunt (1994) had defined commitment as "an exchange
partner believing that an ongoing relationship with another is so
important as to warrant maximum efforts at maintaining it; that is, the
committed party believes the relationship is worth working on to ensure
that it endures indefinitely" (p. 23).


Customer Satisfaction



Martial Arts



Market Demand


Participant


Perceived Benefits



Perceived Constraints



Perceived Value



Taekwondo (TKD)


Consumer's overall pleasurable fulfillment of the response toward a
product, service, or benefit, which is being provided to the customer to
satisfy his/her need, desires, and goals (Oliver 1997).

The martial arts include a wide range of self-defense and personal
development systems, or "disciplines", which originated in the Far East,
Karate, judo, kung-fu, and Taekwondo.

Sport consumers' expectations towards the main attributes of the game
itself (Zhang et al., 1995).

A member enrolled in an organized TKD program, by paying any form
of fees.

It defines as "a combination of different attributes of products (tangible
and intangible; intrinsic and extrinsic etc), available in relation to a
particular buy and use situation" (Snoj, Korda, & Mumel, 2004, p. 157).

It defines as "perceived or experienced by individuals to limit the
formation of leisure preferences and to inhibit or prohibit participation
and enjoyment in leisure" (Jackson, 1997, p. 461).

It defines as "consumer's overall assessment of the utility of a product
(or service) based on perception of what is received and what is given"
(Zeithaml, 1988, p. 14).

The main feature of TKD is a combative sport using bare hands and feet
to defeat an opponent. It is one of the most popular martial arts sports in
the world, 191 country and over 70 million participants of all ages
(WTF, 2010).









Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

STRUCTURAL RELATIONSHIPS AMONG MARKET DEMAND,
PERCEIVED BENEFITS, PERCEIVED CONSTRAINTS,
PERCEIVED VALUE, MEMBER SATISFACTION,
AND MEMBER COMMITMENT TOWARD MARITAL ARTS PARTICIPATION

By

Min Kil Kim

August 2010

Chair: James J. Zhang
Major: Health and Human Performance

Participation in physically active recreation and sport has been tremendously increased in

recent years due to health and fitness consciousness of people. Of various activities, martial arts

have become an increasingly popular in Western countries, and they are widely considered as

valuable participation activities within diverse contexts. Although the current trends of growth in

the martial arts schools are generating new opportunities for martial arts enthusiasts, rapid

growth in the number of the martial arts schools has resulted in a highly competitive business

environment in North America. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a theoretical

framework that specifies direct and indirect relationships among market demand, perceived

benefits, perceived constraint, perceived value, consumer satisfaction, and consumption behavior

in martial arts programs. Research participants (N= 595) were Taekwondo school participants,

who resided in the U.S. and voluntarily participated in the survey study. A confirmatory factor

analysis (CFA) was conducted to evaluate the measurement model and the proposed model was

developed and tested using a structural equation modeling (SEM) with MPLUS 5.21 program.









The findings of this study indicated that perceived benefits and perceived constraints

partially mediated the relationship between the market demand factors and perceived value,

which, in turn, influenced member satisfaction and commitment. Participants would select

martial arts school that is satisfied with their expectation for dominant perceived benefits and

pursue perceived value form the martial arts training experience. Administrators of martial arts

programs may also consider the resultant theoretical framework as a general guide in their

marketing efforts to recruit and retain program participants. The structure model in this study

may be applied in the formulation of marketing strategies for martial arts schools, as well as

other related health-fitness settings.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Lifestyles in American society have changed over the past few decades such that people

now tend to spend more time and money maintaining wellness. Participation in physically active

recreation and sports has increased tremendously in recent years due to this increased fitness and

health consciousness. Along with various other activities, martial arts have become an

increasingly popular recreational pursuit in Western countries. The introduction and diffusion of

martial arts have created various sporting opportunities at the recreational, amateur, and

professional levels. Martial arts are widely considered as valuable participatory activities for a

variety of purposes, such as prevention of criminal victimization, personal growth and discovery,

life transition, and task performance (Columbus & Rice, 1991). Specifically, previous studies of

martial arts have supported that martial arts have come to be recognized as a combat sport, a self-

defense system, a physical fitness option (e.g., Adamson & Wade, 1986; Mathes & Battista,

1985), and a means of mental discipline training (e.g., Columbus & Rice, 1991; Daniels &

Thornton, 1990; Finkenberg, 1990; Fuller, 1988; Law, 2004; Richman & Rehberg, 1986;

Trulson, 1986). Martial arts participants are usually trained in private martial arts schools, public

health and fitness programs, martial arts curriculums in educational institutions, at YMCAs, or in

military organizations (Ko, 2002, 2003). American children have grown up being exposed to

martial arts films and television programs, such as "The Karate Kid" and "Mighty Morphin'

Power Rangers." A number of movies, cartoons, books, videogames, and television programs

featuring martial arts (e.g., mixed martial arts) have contributed to this growing popularity to

such an extent that martial arts are now a part of youth culture (Yang, 1996).

Ko and Yang (2008) identified a number of specific reasons for the growth of martial arts:

(a) transformation of values of martial arts training, (b) modernization of instructional









curriculum, (c) promotional efforts made by governments of martial arts countries-of-origin, (d)

increased marketing commercialization, (e) globalization of martial arts through the

sportification and formalization of its organizational structure, (f) diversification of martial arts

products in movies and fitness programs, and (g) the emergence of mixed martial arts.

Coinciding with their popularity as a participation sport, martial arts have also become a popular

spectator sport in the U.S., as evidenced by the success of Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) events,

launched in 1993 as a new brand of combat sport, as well as that of the Ultimate Fighting

Championship (UFC), Pride Fighting Championship, Extreme Martial Arts (XMA), and K-1.

MMA is currently the most popular televised combat sport. XMA, for another example, is

sponsored by ESPN and the UFC. Its programs have been broadcast on Spike TV and are now

seen in 36 countries. The UFC is the largest pay-per-view provider in the world (UFC, 2006) and

the fastest-growing sport in the U.S. The UFC's 10 pay-per-view events in 2007 generated more

than $200 million in customer retail value (Hyson, 2008). According to the Sport Business

Research Network (2008), approximately 1.1 million people attended MMA events and more

than 13 million watched the events on TV in 2006, such that MMA outperformed boxing and

professional wrestling. The UFC is now estimated to be worth at more than $1 billion.

The rapid expansion has subsequently influenced the proliferation of commercial martial

arts schools throughout North America. There are approximately 13,950 martial arts schools in

the U.S. alone, and more than 100 colleges have martial arts programs (Info-USA, 2007).

According to SGMA International (2010), there are currently about 6.9 million martial arts

participants, an increase of 28% since 2004. ; Since 2008, the martial arts equipment industry has

grown 8.3%, to $323 million.









The elevated interest in martial arts has increased the magnitude of their market share. For

instance, a majority of Taekwondo (TKD) schools in North America are commercial

establishments. The elevated interest in TKD has expanded its market and led to the realization

that TKD instruction can be a profitable business when properly managed. The White Tiger

martial arts school, for example, has an enrollment of more than 3,000 students. The school has a

staff of 32, including 14 TKD masters (Bly, 2007). The rapid growth of martial arts, TKD in

particular, has produced a highly competitive business environment. Besides competing with

other TKD programs, a TKD school usually has to compete with other types of martial arts

providers, such as XMA, karate, and kung fu. In addition, TKD competes with other sports and

fitness organizations, such as racquet clubs, country clubs, health-fitness centers, and parks and

recreational facilities (Kim, Zhang, & Ko, 2009). Although current growth trends in martial arts

schools are generating new opportunities for martial arts enthusiasts, the rapid growth in the

number of martial arts schools has resulted in a highly competitive martial arts business

environment in North America.

Membership is the primary source of revenue generation for health/fitness organizations

(Mullin, Hardy, & Sutton, 2007). Likewise, the ongoing operation of martial arts schools

primarily rely on revenues generated from its membership (Kim et al., 2009); yet, member

recruitment and retention are the most challenging for programs. Grantham, Patton, York, and

Winick (1998) explained that recruiting and retaining members can be a complicated process,

involving an understanding of many market-related variables. It is critical for administrators of

martial arts programs to identify their target market and understand those variables that directly

and indirectly affect an individual's decision to attend a program. Among these varying

marketing variables, the concept of market demand, which is related to consumer expectations









concerning the attributes of the core product, has received much research attention in recent

years (Braunstein, Zhang, Trail, & Gibson, 2005; Byon, Zhang, & Connaughton, 2010; Hansen

& Gauthier, 1989; Kim et al., 2009; Schofield, 1983; Zhang, Lam, & Connaughton, 2003;

Zhang, Pease, Hui, & Michaud, 1995). Various researchers have indicated that in-depth analyses

of market demand variables for a sport products) would enhance the understanding of consumer

expectations and accordingly allow one to formulate an effective marketing mix to help the

sports program to succeed in a highly competitive marketplace (Hansen & Gauthier, 1989;

Schofield, 1983; Zhang, Lam, Bennett, & Connaughton, 2003; Zhang et al., 1995). Thus,

effective management and marketing practices are necessary to meet the needs and desires of

current and potential members. This attentiveness ultimately assists in maintaining a business

concern's long-term existence, sustainability, and profitability (Zhang et al., 1995).

The business success and future growth of martial arts organizations in a highly

competitive environment depends on how well they understand their consumers and adapt to

changes in consumer demand. It is important for administrators of martial arts programs to

identify unique market demand variables that directly and indirectly affect an individual's

decision to attend a program (Kim et al., 2009). Most studies have focused on the motivational

aspects of martial arts participants (Cox, 1993; Donohue, 1994; Ko, Kim, & Valacich, 2010;

Stefanek, 2004; Yang, 1996). It is vital for martial arts marketers to understand why people

participate in martial arts. Understanding motivational factors that influence participation in

martial arts would facilitate an understanding of martial arts participants' decision-making

process. Researchers have found that fun, physical fitness, and aesthetics are the most critical

factors in explaining why people participate in martial arts. However, only a few researchers

have explored the impacts of various elements in the marketing mix of martial arts programs,









namely product, place, price, and promotion from a marketing perspective (Ko, 2002, 2003). In

particular, few researchers have investigated those variables representing the attributes of market

demand for private TKD schools in the U.S. To fill this void, Kim et al. (2009) identified six

dimensions of attributes denoting market demand associated with TKD schools by developing

the Scale of Market Demand for Taekwondo Schools (SMD-TKD) to measure key market

demand dimensions. These factors were found to be representative of TKD market demand (i.e.,

Personal Benefits, School Operation, Instruction Quality, Program Offering, Locker Room, and

Cultural Learning).

Previous studies on market demand have identified various factors that affect sport event

of professional and intercollegiate sports spectators (Braunstein et al., 2005; Byon et al., 2010;

Greenstein & Marcum, 1981; Hansen & Gauthier, 1989; Schofield, 1983; Zhang, Lam, Bennett

et al., 2003; Zhang, Lam, & Connaughton, 2003; Zhang et al., 1995). These studies primarily

examined the extent to which market demand factors directly affected consumption behaviors,

with only a limited amount of variance explained, typically lower than 20% (Byon et al., 2010;

Kim et al., 2009; Schofield, 1983; Zhang, Braunstein, Ellis, Lam, & Williamson, 2003; Zhang,

Lam, & Connaughton, 2003; Zhang et al., 1995). The study by Kim et al. (2009) showed that

TKD market demand factors collectively explained only a total of 14% of consumption

behaviors variance. This direct approach failed to consider the psychological processes typically

associated with martial arts participation (Kim et al., 2009; Zhang, Lam, & Connaughton, 2003;

Zhang et al., 1995), thus limiting the research work's explanatory power and usefulness in the

development of marketing interventions.

To the authors' knowledge, no study has been found that examined the psychological

processes associated with market demand with respect to martial arts participation. Herein, the









concepts of martial arts consumer perceived benefits, perceived constraints, and perceived value

are first assessed in this study, starting with a literature review. These psychological constructs

have been considered the most critical factors in predicting consumer satisfaction, behavior

intention, and loyalty in a wide range of contexts (Chen & Chen; Cronin, Brady, & Hult, 2000a;

Eggert & Ulaga, 2002; Johnson, Sivadas, & Garbarino, 2008; McDougall & Levesque, 2000;

Woodruff & Gardial, 1996). Likewise, for martial arts participants, there is a certain

psychological process underlying their decision-making process for participation.

An important aspect of perceived benefits in the context of martial arts is a participant's

belief in the likelihood that this sport can provide him/her with physical and psychological

benefits (e.g., Adamson & Wade, 1986; Mathes & Battista, 1985). Perceived benefits of martial

arts training are thus the participants' subjective perceptions of gain from participating in martial

arts. If martial arts participants perceive little or no benefits from martial arts training, it will be

difficult for schools to retain or recruit members and avoid attrition. A number of studies

documented that participating in martial arts affords positive psychological benefits (e.g., self-

esteem, self-concept, confidence, and relaxation) and a unique array of physical benefits (e.g.,

balance, strength, flexibility, and self-defense) (e.g., Adamson & Wade, 1986; Cai, 2000; Fuller,

1988; Konzak & Boudreau, 1984; Lakes & Hoyt, 2004; Mathes & Battista, 1985; Richman &

Rehberg, 1986; Trulson, 1986; Weiser, Kutz, Kutz, & Weiser, 1995).

Even though martial arts training has a strong appeal to the consumers in North America,

the drop-out rates in this segment of the sport industry have increased in recent years. However,

little research has been conducted to explain this phenomenon. Due to the highly competitive

nature of the martial arts business in North America, reduction of dropout rates must be a priority

in order to ensure an organization's survival in the saturated marketplace. Thus, martial arts









marketers should identify perceived constraints variables that affect participants' decisions to

attend and remain in training programs. Constraints were once considered barriers that directly

resulted in non-participation; yet, resent research findings indicate that it is also possible for

participants to negotiate a participation process through constraints (Alexandris, Kouthouris, &

Girgolas, 2007). Therefore, it is important to identify constraints or barriers to understand why

participants drop out of martial arts training. Both the perceived benefits and constraints

associated with martial arts participation are expected to play critical roles in explaining

participants' behavior and predicting their intentions to remain in the martial arts (e.g., Holbrook,

1996; Snoj et al., 2004; Woodruff, 1997).

Although the importance of perceived value, the ratio between total perceived benefit and

total perceived sacrifice/price (Monree, 1990; Zeithaml, 1988), in understanding consumer

behavior has been widely recognized, no research attention has been devoted to examining the

effect of perceived value on martial arts participation. In a broader sport marketing context,

however, perceived value has been shown to play a mediating role in the relationship between

team identification and licensed merchandise purchase intentions (Kwon, Trail, & James,

2007b). Byon (2008) investigated the mediating role of perceived value in the relationship of

market demand variables and game support programs to the consumption of professional sports.

Although perceived value of the participation experience among martial arts participants remains

to be evaluated, findings of previous studies on general business consumers have offered strong

evidence that the concept of perceived value can be applied specifically to the martial arts

setting.

Statement of the Problem

Business success and future growth in a highly competitive market environment depends

on how well martial arts organizations understand their consumers and adapt to changes in

18









consumer demand. It is important for the administrators of martial arts programs to identify

unique market demand variables that directly affect an individual's decision to attend a program

(Kim et al., 2009). Previous market demand studies have examined how market demand factors

directly affect consumption behaviors; however, with this approach only a limited amount of

variance was explained, typically lower than 20%. These studies failed to consider the

psychological processes typically associated with martial arts participation (Kim et al., 2009;

Zhang, Lam, & Connaughton, 2003; Zhang et al., 1995), thus limiting their explanatory power

and usefulness in the development of marketing interventions. In recent years, understanding

socio-psychological path has been the focus of numerous sport consumer behavior studies in

various sport settings. Martial arts participant behavior research has been rather neglected in

terms of consideration of its relationship with various market demand and psychological

constructs. Martial arts participant decision-making with respect to a given school can be

explained by such hierarchical order of mental constructs as customer perceived value, perceived

constraint, perceived benefits, and satisfaction. Previous researchers have suggested that an

understanding of such psychological aspects could be key to helping organizations have an in-

depth understanding of consumer decision-making process and consequently gain a competitive

advantage within the martial arts industry (e.g., Bolton & Drew, 1991; Chang & Wildt, 1994;

Zeithaml, 1988).

In this study, the concepts of market demand, perceived benefits, perceived constraints,

and perceived value of martial arts consumer are first explored, along with member satisfaction

and commitment, through a comprehensive review of literature. As a result, the study was

designed to investigate how market demand would be related to such psychological constructs as

perceived constraints, perceived benefits, and perceived value, which would be in turn related to









member satisfaction and member commitment. Specifically, the purpose of this study was to

examine direct and indirect relationships among market demand, perceived benefits, perceived

constraint, perceived value, consumer satisfaction, and consumption behavior in martial arts

programs.

Hypothesized Research Model

Following Ajzen and Fishbein's (1980) Theory of Reasoned Action to predict and

understand consumption tendencies through studying the sequential relationships of individual

beliefs, attitude, and intention to consumption behavior, a theoretical framework was developed

as a result of a comprehensive review of literature, which illustrates direct and indirect

relationships among market demand, perceived benefits, perceived constraint, perceived value,

consumer satisfaction, and consumption behavior in martial arts programs. Consistent with this

conceptual framework, this study speculated that a participant's market demand would lead to

perceived benefits and perceived constraints, which would help form perceived value of

participating in martial arts programs. Positive perceived value of the program can lead to

trusting beliefs and result in intention to commit to a long-term relationship with a martial arts

school, and vice versa, which would affect member satisfaction and commitment. Consequently,

research hypotheses were derived from the literature review, which depict the hierarchical

relationships among constructs (Figure 1-1). The following nine hypotheses were tested in this

study:

* Hypothesis 1: Market demand of martial arts participation would have a positive impact on
perceived benefits.

* Hypothesis 2: Market demand of martial arts participation would be negatively related to
perceived constraints.

* Hypothesis 3: Market demand of martial arts participation would have a positive impact on
perceived value.









* Hypothesis 4: Market demand of martial arts participation would have a positive impact on
member satisfaction.

* Hypothesis 5: Market demand of martial arts participation would have a positive impact on
member commitment.

* Hypothesis 6: Perceived benefit of martial arts participation would have a positive impact
on perceived value.

* Hypothesis 7: Perceived constraint of martial arts participation would have a negative
impact on perceived value.

* Hypothesis 8: Perceived value of martial arts participation would have a positive impact on
member satisfaction.

* Hypothesis 9: Member satisfaction of martial arts participation would have a positive
impact on member commitment.

Delimitations

* Of various martial arts activities, this study was delimited to the TKD school setting.

* The participants for this study were those of 18 years or older, and were current members
of a TKD school/program.

* This study was conducted via a combination of on-site survey and online questionnaire
based on the assumed technological preferences of the participants.

* Research participants were asked to respond to the questionnaires with sincerity and
honesty.

* Structural equation model analyses were conducted in this study.

Limitations

* Because data were collected from the members of TKD schools, findings of this study are
applicable only to TKD schools.

* Although all research participants were asked to respond to the questionnaires with
sincerity and honesty, their actual level of sincerity and social desirability could not be
fully controlled by the researcher.

* The response rate was impossible to calculate because the online survey was sent via e-
mail to current TKD masters/instructors, who were asked to forward the survey link to
their program participants. Meanwhile, the online survey was also linked to a well-known
martial arts magazine's website.









* The exclusion of certain items may have affected the psychometric properties of the
market demand and psychological constructs.

* The online survey format excluded participants who did not have internet access.

* Since online panels are typically characterized by those who have registered with online
panel companies or those who have internet access and computer skills, the participants in
this study are not necessarily representative of the entire population of TKD school
participants.

* Cross-validation was not conducted due to sample size (Weston & Gore, 2006).

Significance of the Study

The significance of this study lies in the development and testing of a theoretical model

which allows a multidimensional exploration of the psychological processes of martial arts

participants. This undertaking stems from the importance of understanding participants'

behavior, including how and why people participate in martial arts schools. It is important to

note that this study is a first attempt to conceptually and empirically investigate through rigorous

psychometric testing the dimensions of perceived benefits, perceived constraints, perceived

value, member satisfaction, and member commitment in the martial arts context. Marketers and

managers of martial arts schools should understand the various psychological and market

demand factors that can influence participant behavior. Doing so will allow administrators to

meet the needs and desires of the participants and consequently increase their satisfaction within

their schools. The derived model provides a sound research direction by building linkages from

market demand to perceived benefits, perceived constraints, perceived value, satisfaction, and

consumption. In addition, it has been shown that marketers can increase participant satisfaction

in the martial arts by acknowledging unique market demand factors. Administrators of martial

arts programs may consider the derived model as a general guide in their marketing efforts to

recruit and retain program participants.









In an effort to meet the demand for organized physical activity, sports marketing has

become a profession. Therefore, to retain current members and gain new ones, it is necessary for

martial arts schools to identify those variables that may affect current and potential members'

decisions to attend clubs. This study provides administrators with a guide in marketing efforts to

recruit and retain martial arts participants. The more satisfied participants are with their

participation in martial arts, the more likely they are to continue with their training, and thus the

more the school can benefit from enhanced revenue streams and reduced costs associated with

recruiting new members (Mullin, Hardy, & Sutton, 2007).



































Figure 1-1. A hypothesized model of the relationships among ma&
value, member satisfaction, and member commitment


perceived benefit, perceived constraint, perceived









CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

This chapter begins by exploring the background of martial arts. A literature review is

presented in order to provide a conceptual basis for the study and to develop a framework that

incorporates market demand, perceived benefits, perceived constraints, perceived value, member

satisfaction, and member commitment.

Taekwondo

Taekwondo (TKD) is known as systematic Korean traditional martial arts, an essential

form of combat requiring little or no use of weapons other than the warrior's own hands and feet.

TKD is a type of martial arts developed independently over 20 centuries ago in Korea. The

current form of TKD has gained popularity since the 1950s, when it was developed by the

Korean Army as a free-fighting combat art. After the Korean War, martial arts became

widespread in Korea. However, many small schools were operating under their own independent

style of martial arts until the late 1950's. For example, both the International Taekwondo

Federation (ITF) and the World Taekwondo Federation (WTF) were created as major TKD

organizations. These federations differed over a variety of issues concerning such matters as

style and ideology. The ITF adhered to a more traditional style of taekwondo; whereas, the form

practiced by the WTF has been promoted as a martial art sport in the Olympic Games (Stepan,

2008).

The Korean government supports TKD as a national martial art, and found it necessary to

unify the school under one organization, a system that did not work well at first. Subsequently,

the WTF was recognized by the Korean Government in 1972 as the only governing body for

TKD. Today, the WTF is the only official Black Belt certifying agency in the world. In 1980, the









WTF became an International Olympic Committee (IOC) recognized sports federation. Today,

the WTF has 191 member nations with 70 million participants (WTF 2010).

TKD has become the world's most-practiced martial arts activity and has gained an

international reputation as an Olympic sport based on the efforts of TKD enthusiasts who

actively promoted the sport as a formal competitive game in the Olympics. TKD was first staged

in the Olympic Games as a demonstration sport in the 24th Olympic Games in Seoul, Korea in

1988. It became an official Olympic medal sport at the 2000 Olympic Games in Sydney,

Australia (WTF, 2010). TKD has earned a place in the hearts of Koreans (Stepan, 2008), and the

Korean government has attempted to promote TKD internationally. The Korean government

realized that TKD has long stood at the forefront of promoting Korea's image. It has regarded

TKD as a new strategy for branding Korea. The Korean government has striven to expand the

dispatching of TKD demonstration teams and instructors, which promote TKD as well as

promoting Korea and Korean culture. For example, the demonstration teams have performed in

31 nations and instructors have been dispatched to 26 nations. Recently, the government made

the decision to dispatch over 90 global TKD interns to the U.S. Another big project has been the

construction of TKD Park, which will be opened officially in 2013, with a total of $600 million

invested in the project (Minister of Culture, Sport and Tourism, 2009).

TKD is a martial arts sport that people over the world can enjoy; it is a sport that

transcends race, ideology, and religion. TKD's popularity has grown to make it the most

recognized of the Korean Martial Arts in the U.S. TKD was accepted as an official sport by the

U.S Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) in 1984. In recent years, TKD has rapidly grown and

developed in the U.S. because of the benefits it offers. The discipline required in TKD not only

improves physical fighting skills but also enhances the participant's spirit and mind.









Market Demand

Sport consumer recruitment and retention have been among the greatest challenges the

sport industry faces (Rein, Kotler, & Shields, 2006). Mullin, Hardy, and Sutton (2007) pointed

out that "competition for sport dollars is growing at the pace of a full-court press" (p. 7). Sport

organizations should regularly analyze their internal and external environments, understand

market demand, and develop strategic plans to enhance the success of their businesses (Mullin et

al., 2007). Understanding the expectations of consumers concerning key elements of their

products and services would help sport organization satisfy consumer needs and increase market

demand (Zhang et al., 1995).

Market demand is defined as consumer expectations concerning the attributes of the core

product (Zhang, Lam, Bennett et al., 2003; Zhang, Lam, & Connaughton, 2003). It is a cluster of

pull factors associated with a sport product that an organization can offer to its new and returning

consumers (Braunstein et al., 2005; Byon et al., 2010; Hansen & Gauthier, 1989; Kim et al.,

2009; Schofield, 1983; Zhang, Lam, & Connaughton, 2003; Zhang et al., 1995).

A number of researchers have stated that analysis of market demand for sports

organizations can provide an understanding of consumer expectations and help organizations

formulate an effective and efficient marketing mix. Recent studies on market demand have

stressed the influence of the product or service on membership, attendance, and overall

consumption at athletic events (e.g., Greenstein & Marcum, 1981; Hansen & Gauthier, 1989;

Schofield, 1983; Zhang, Lam, Bennett et al., 2003; Zhang, Lam, & Connaughton, 2003; Zhang et

al., 1995).

Numerous studies have been conducted to develop instruments that assess market demand

variables affecting spectator sport consumption, which many common features of core sport

products that affect event attendance of sport spectators (Braunstein et al., 2005; Byon et al.,

27









2010; Hansen & Gauthier, 1989; Kim et al., 2009; Schofield, 1983). Schofield (1983) reviewed

17 production function studies (i.e., team performance, player skills, and winning percentage)

and demand studies (i.e., price, population size, complementary commodities, consumer

preference for the sport, and substitutive forms of entertainment), and categorized the market

demand variables into four categories: economic consideration, demographic characteristics,

game attractiveness, and residual preference. Hansen and Gauthier (1989) pointed out that

understanding factors that affect attendance at sport events is a key to developing an effective

marketing plan. They investigated factors associated with the decision-making process for

attending professional sport games. Following Schofiled's (1983) model, they identified 40 items

associated with the four key factors (i.e., economics, demographics, attractiveness, and residual

preferences). Nonetheless, in an investigation into major league professional sport managers, the

factors and items did not converge well enough to provide a clear direction for further

understanding sport consumer behaviors.

Zhang et al. (1995) examined market demand variables affecting the attendance of

professional basketball events by developing the Spectator Decision Making Inventory (SDMI),

which had 15 items under four factors: Game Promotion, Home Team, Opposing Team, and

Schedule Convenience. The findings of this study revealed that these market demand factors

were significantly (p < .05) related to game attendance. Following this study, Zhang et al.

(2003b) conducted a confirmatory study that investigated the market demand for consumers of

different professional sports and reconfirmed the SDMI's factor structure with four subscales,

providing stronger implications that the four factors were common features of market demand

variables and may be applied to a variety of professional sports. These factors were further found

to be predictive of game consumption level, with 15 to 22% of the variance explained. Based on









the SDMI scale, Braunstein et al. (2005) expanded the SDMI scale, and assessed the dimensions

of market demand associated with the MLB spring training games. The Spectator Decision

Making Inventory Spring Training (SDMI ST) was developed by conducting both EFA and

CFA, which resulted in 29 items under eight factors: Home Team, Opposing Team, Game

Promotion, Vacation Activity, Economic Consideration, Schedule Convenience, Nostalgic

Sentiment, and Love of Baseball.

Previous market demand studies have been limited in that they mainly examined specific

professional sport settings such as the NBA, NHL, and NFL, respectively. Also, these studies

included a limited number of market demand factors, ignoring the presence of other potential

factors that might be more predictive of consumption level (Byon et al., 2010). To overcome the

limitations identified in previous studies, Byon et al. (2010) identified the dimensions of general

market demand associated with professional sports through a comprehensive measurement

process that involved applications of advanced statistical analysis. Consequently, a scale with 17

items under five factors were developed: Opposing Team, Home Team, Game Promotion,

Economic Consideration, And Schedule Convenience (Byon et al., 2010).

To summarize across studies, previous studies have found that three factors are integral to

consumers' decision making: Game Attractiveness, Economic Consideration, and Schedule

Convenience. Game Attractiveness has been studied most, which usually included such variables

as team members' individual skills, presence of star players, team records, league standing,

record-breaking performances, closeness of competition, team history in a community, schedule,

convenience, and stadium quality. Economic considerations usually dealt with such variables as

ticket price, marketing promotion, substitute forms of entertainment, television effect, income,

and competition with other sporting events. Schedule convenience were usually referred to such









considerations as game time, day of week, and weather, and is a category which has been studied

thoroughly to a lesser extent (Braunstein et al., 2005; Byon et al., 2010; Greenstein & Marcum,

1981; Hansen & Gauthier, 1989; Schofield, 1983; Zhang, Lam, Bennett et al., 2003; Zhang,

Lam, & Connaughton, 2003; Zhang et al., 1995). Previous research efforts have primarily been

focused on professional and intercollegiate sports (Braunstein et al., 2005; Byon et al., 2010;

Greenstein & Marcum, 1981; Hansen & Gauthier, 1989; Schofield, 1983; Zhang, Lam, Bennett

et al., 2003; Zhang, Lam, & Connaughton, 2003; Zhang et al., 1995).

Business success and future growth in a highly competitive environment depends on how

well martial arts organizations understand their consumers and adapt to rapid changes in

consumer demand. Although several studies have focused on the motivational aspects of TKD

participants (e.g., Cox, 1993; Donahue, 1994; Ko, Valacich, & Kim, 2009; Stefanek, 2004;

Yang, 1996), few have explored the impacts of various elements in the marketing mix of TKD

programs, namely product, place, price, and promotion (Ko, 2002, 2003). In particular, no study

has been conducted to investigate market demand variables associated with private TKD schools

in North America. To fill this void, Kim et al. (2009) identified the dimensions of market

demand associated with TKD schools by developing the Scale of Market Demand for

Taekwondo School (SMD-TKD) to measure key market demand dimensions. Kim et al.'s (2009)

study applied the concept of market demand to TKD schools. The researchers considered that

investigation of TKD schools in terms of market demand would provide managerial implications

to TKD school management and marketing. The Kim et al.'s (2009) study integrated findings

from both qualitative and quantitative research protocols. Development of the theoretical

framework and formulation of the scale were achieved through a comprehensive review of

literature, on-site observations of private TKD school operations, interviews with TKD school









masters, administrators, and members, and a test of content validity through a modified

application of the Delphi technique. Through these qualitative research procedures, a preliminary

scale was developed with 71 items under six factors: Personal Benefits, School Operation,

Instruction Quality, Program Offering, Economic Consideration, and Cultural Learning. The

quantitative phase of the study further examined the dimensions of the scale by administering the

preliminary scale to TKD school members and conducting a factor analysis. A total of 51 items

under six factors emerged in the factor analysis: Personal Benefits, School Operation, Instruction

Quality, Program Offering, Locker Room, and Cultural Learning, where Locker Room was

different from the proposed dimensions. Besides good factor validity, all six factors displayed

acceptable internal consistency and predictive validity, revealing strong applicability for

marketing studies by both researchers and TKD school administrators.

The SMD-TKD scale is a measure that was specifically developed to assess marketing

features of martial arts programs as demanded by program participants (Kim et al. 2009). After

its development, the SMD-TKD scale was identified as having a number of weaknesses and

limitations. First, according to Braunstein, Zhang, Trail, and Gibson (2005) and Zhang, Lam, and

Connaughton (2003), market demand is defined as consumer expectations towards the attributes

of the core product. A major emphasis of this definition is on the assessment of attributes and

features of the core product. However, the worded statements of a number of items in the SMD-

TKD scale actually reflect the benefit aspect of some core product elements, not directly on the

attributes. Second, only an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to assess the

dimensionality of the scale, which was to uncover the construct and the relationship among a

relatively large set of observed and latent variables. Third, according to the findings derived from

a number of previous studies, the concept of Economic Consideration was an important and









relevant aspect of market demand studies (e.g., Braunstein et al., 2005; Hansen & Gauthier,

1989; Schofield, 1983; Zhang et al., 1995; Zhang, Lam, Bennett, & Connaughton, 2003a; Zhang,

Lam, & Connaughton, 2003b). However, this factor did not emerge in the EFA due to double

loadings or lack of interpretability of its items. Further investigation into the viability of this

factor is necessary. Fourth, as a result of the qualitative research process in Kim et al.'s (2009)

study, items under the Locker Room factor in the resolved SMD-TKD scale were originally

proposed to be a part of the School Operation factor. Yet, these items emerged into a separate

factor in the EFA. Some researchers support the notion that Locker Room represents a unique

aspect of health-fitness settings. For example, Lam, Zhang, and Jensen's (2005) Service Quality

Assessment Scale (SQAS) emphasized the inclusion of the Locker Room factor because it

allowed managers to pinpoint specific Locker Room areas for improvement. However, others

have shown that Locker Room variables fall under the general concept of physical environment,

which includes equipment, locker room, and facility (e.g., Chelladurai, Scott, & Haywood-

Farmer, 1987; Kim & Kim, 1995). Apparently, this inconsistency deserves further investigation.

Fifth, data in the study by Kim et al. (2009) were collected from a convenience sample from only

one state in the U.S. To what extent the findings can be generalized to a wider range of TKD

schools in North America is unknown. Although there are market similarities among TKD

schools in different regions and cultural settings, some differences may exist. For a more

complete understanding of market demand in TKD, additional work is required using broader

samples derived from different geographic regions. Additionally, when considering the number

of items in both the preliminary scale and the refined scale, the sample size (N = 205) in Kim et

al.'s (2009) study was rather small. Hair et al. (1998) and Kline (2005) stated that the number of

subjects should be at least five times and preferably 10 times the number of items used for a









factor analysis. Consequently, the scale was recently revised and modified by Kim & Zhang

(2010). Through investigating TKD school participants (N = 579), the Revised SMD-TKD scale

was resolved through conducting a CFA, which contained 37 items under seven factors (Personal

Improvement Activities, Physical Facility Quality, Instruction Staff Quality, Program Activities

and Offerings, Cultural Learning, Locker Room Provision, and Economic Condition

Consideration). Overall, the revised scale had good validity and reliability characteristics; in

particular, a SEM analysis revealed that these factors were significantly (p < .05) influential of

member satisfaction and member commitment of TKD school participants.

Conceptual Framework

The Theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975) is based on the assumption that

individual behavior is a direct outcome of behavior intentions, which is a combination of

individual attitude toward the behavior and subjective norms. People would have a positive

attitude toward performing the behavior if they thought that the outcome of performing the

behavior was positive. Attitude toward the behavior is influenced by the individual's beliefs

about the consequences of performing a behavior and his/her evaluation of the outcomes,

irrespective of whether the outcomes are positive or negative. Subjective norms are impacted by

one's beliefs that specific individuals or groups think he/she should or should not perform the

behavior. Exposure to different information leads to the formation of different beliefs, which also

reflects a person's past experience. Beliefs refer to knowledge about the attitude object, which

may be formed via direct observations, accepting information from outside sources, or self-

generated perceptions through participation, experience, and/or a process of personal inference.

According to Fishbein and Ajzen (1975), there is a causal relationship between beliefs and

behavior. If a person intends to influence people's behavior, it is necessary for him/her to ensure

people are exposed to sufficient information and also that they alter their beliefs in a social

33









environment; in turn, beliefs will determine attitudes, subjective norms, and corresponding

behaviors. The Theory of Reasoned Action has often been used to examine consumer behavior

toward sport products and services in an effort to predict and understand sport consumer

behaviors. For example, the Reasoned Action Theory was applied to examine general market

demand for professional team sports (Byon et al., 2010).

The Reasoned Action Theory was the underlying theoretical framework adopted by Kim et

al. (2009) for the development of the SMD-TKD scale and Kim and Zhang (2010) for the revised

scale. Application of this theory was focused on assessing consumer beliefs that were primarily

referred to as knowledge about the attitude object with regard to key elements of TKD programs.

In the Revised SMD-TKD scale, there are seven dimensions (i.e., Personal Improvement

Activities, Physical Facility Quality, Instruction Staff Quality, Program Activities Offerings,

Cultural Learning Activities, Economic Condition Consideration, and Locker Room Provision).

Theories and rationale for these seven factors briefly demonstrate the concept underlying each

factor.

Personal Improvement Activities

The Personal Improvement Activities (PIA) factor is defined as "attempts to learn how to,

or to be inspired to, improve a particular attribute" (Halliwell & Dittmar, 2005, p. 205).

According to the PIA, it can be expected that participants will actively attempt to improve

themselves physically and psychologically through the martial arts. Several longitudinal studies

on martial arts (e.g., Adamson & Wade, 1986; Columbus & Rice, 1991; Fuller, 1988; Mathes &

Battista, 1985) have demonstrated the physical and psychological benefits of martial arts.

According to Weiser, Kutz, Kutz, and Weiser (1995), "martial arts have come to be seen as

inculcating physical and mental relaxation and control of mind and body, which are associated

with increase in self-confidence and esteem" (p. 118). Martial arts provide unique physical,

34









mental, and social benefits. In Western sport education systems, eastern martial arts are primarily

known as a part of sports and physical activities (e.g., physical fitness, skills acquisition, and

social activity) (Ko, 2002). Previous studies have found that improving health and physical

fitness is a prime factor in determining participation in sport activities, including TKD (Adamson

& Wade, 1986; Mathes & Battista, 1985). Martial arts are a crucial source of exercise for

children and adults. Middle-aged participants (aged 40-60 years) train themselves through

martial arts programs to improve aerobic capacity, balance, flexibility, muscle endurance,

strength, and reduce body fat (Douris, Chinan, & Gomez, 2004).

However, less known are the psychological (mental) benefits that TKD participants obtain

from the training programs. A number of researchers have examined positive attributes regarding

the psychological aspect of martial arts, and have found that many martial arts participants train

themselves for the psychological benefits; the finding implies that the psychological benefits of

martial arts play a critical role for martial arts participants. It also indicates the importance of the

psychological benefits and their relevance for making a commitment to participating in martial

arts (e.g., Columbus & Rice, 1991; Daniels & Thornton, 1990; Finkenberg, 1990; Fuller, 1988;

Law, 2004; Richman & Rehberg, 1986; Trulson, 1986). The code of conduct for martial arts

stresses both skill and mental acuity. Participation in TKD training can help participants to

develop a stronger mind, spirit, and body. Most items out of Kim et al.'s (2009) Personal Benefit

factor are related to positive psychological change (e.g., "improving character," "developing

positive life attitude," "maintaining self-confidence," and "being a humble person"). To put it

briefly, PIA centers on TKD participants' belief that TKD training offers opportunities for

personal growth (Ko et al., 2009).









Physical Environment Quality

According to Bitner's research (1990, 1992), the Physical Environment Quality (PEQ)

dimension can impact participants' experiences concerning participation and retention in martial

arts schools. The physical environment quality dimension describes how service delivery occurs

as opposed to the natural or social environment (Bitner, 1990). Chelladurai, Scott, and Haywood-

Farmer (1987) noted that "when consumers evaluate whether to join a particular club, they may

base their decision on those aspects of the club they can see, the physical evidence of the tangible

facilities and goods" (p. 169). Bitner (1992) also examined physical environment items that

impacted customers and employees. The significant items included ambient conditions, space

and function, signs, artifacts, symbols, and social interactions. Similarly, physical environment

quality (e.g., up-to-date equipment and visually appealing facility) is regarded as an important

component in retail stores (Zeithaml, Parasuraman, & Berry, 1985). In line with this notion, this

dimension was consistent with previous studies on fitness and recreational sport facilities that

identified important variables related to physical environment quality perspectives, such as

ambience (Kim & Kim, 1995), program service (i.e., activity range due to facility availability,

facility comfort, and safe equipment) (Howat, Absher, Crilley, & Milne, 1996; Macintosh &

Doherty, 2007), context (i.e., facility, location, and equipment and tools) (Chelladurai & Chang,

2000), facility attraction, facility operations (Papadimitriou & Karteroliotis, 2000), physical and

workout facilities (Lam, Zhang, & Jensen, 2005; Macintosh & Doherty, 2007), and physical

environment elements (i.e., ambience, design, and equipment) (Ko & Pastore, 2004, 2005;

Macintosh & Doherty, 2007). Kim et al.'s (2009) study found that up-to-date equipment with a

variety of functions and a visually appealing facility was important to TKD participants. TKD

participants are often concerned about the potential for injury in martial arts, so safety equipment

(e.g., padded or sprung floors) is necessary for participants.

36









Instructional Staff Quality

Instructional Staff Quality (ISQ) refers to the quality of staff, the knowledge and skills of

instructors, and the instructor's interactions with program participants. It is well documented that

an instructor's attitude, expertise, and actual behavior have a direct positive influence on current

and potential consumers (Bitner, 1990; Brady & Cronin, 2001; Papadimitriou & Karteroliotis,

2000). Papadimitriou and Karteroliotis (2000) found that instructor quality determined the

service quality in private sport and fitness clubs. Zeithaml et al. (1985) indicated that interaction

quality explained the relationship between the service provider and the customers, specifying the

process of service delivery. In line with the above notion, Huset-McGuire, Trail, and Anderson

(2003) noted that the concept applies to "any service that requires special knowledge and

comprehensive training of the individuals responsible for delivering the service" (p. 263).

Many researchers (Chelladurai et al., 1987; Howat et al., 1996; Kim & Kim, 1995; Ko &

Pastore, 2004, 2005; Papadimitriou & Karteroliotis, 2000) have attempted to define professional

attributes of fitness program instructors in terms of their job-related traits (i.e., knowledge, skill,

friendliness, warmth, responsiveness, courtesy, reliability, assurance, empathy, and helpfulness).

The Instructional Staff Quality factor is similar to the professional service factor that represents

the abilities and characteristics of instructors (Huset-McGuire et al., 2003). Similarly, Bodet

(2006) found that the quality of human factors such as staff behavior and image were critical

determinants of participants' satisfaction in the health club context. Clearly, it is important that

the instructor be professionally trained and prepared for work in the martial arts environment.

Kim et al. (2009) found that instructors' qualifications, knowledge, friendliness, and reputation

played critical roles in the success of TKD schools. Qualified instructors and their unique

pedagogical content contribute to the popularity of TKD schools. Quality TKD instructors can

assist participants in achieving instructional and personal goals.

37









Program Activities Offerings

Researchers noted the importance of high quality programs and developing diversified

programs in order to achieve market penetration and expansion (Chelladurai & Chang, 2000;

Howat et al., 1996; Kim & Kim, 1995; Ko & Pastore, 2005; Macintosh & Doherty, 2007). The

Program Activities Offerings (PAO) dimension is used to evaluate whether and how a variety of

activities is offered. Kim et al. (2009) asserted that TKD schools need to diversify their programs

by incorporating after-school programs, belt promotion ceremonies, tournaments, family

programs, child-care services, and self-defense techniques into program curriculum. Unlike

participants in Western sports, participants in martial arts programs earn differently-colored belts

that indicate their degree of proficiency. Belts are awarded on the basis of tenure, skill

performance, and personal improvement. Yang (1996) found that teenage American TKD

participants viewed TKD training as a means of self-defense, physical exercise, and fun. In

contrast, adult participants valued TKD training for its ability to enhance their self-confidence,

self-esteem, and self-discipline. Obviously, these differences should be taken into consideration

in promoting/designing activity offerings of TKD programs.

Cultural Learning Activities

In spite of different sports having their origins in different countries, nowadays many

sports are being played worldwide. International sporting events have brought athletes of many

cultures together. Culture is defined as "the way of life for an entire society." Understanding

culture is important for understanding social interactions (Boyd & Richerson, 1988). Culture can

be generally described as consisting of language, signals or artifacts (Curran & O'Riordan,

2006). Cultural learning is the process of obtaining cultural knowledge and information to

survive and thrive in a social environment and to pass that knowledge onto peers or successive

generations. It is a subset of lifetime learning because the exchange of knowledge and

38









information occurs throughout a lifetime and enhances people's behavior (Argyle, 1969; Curran

& O'Riordan, 2006).

Another important concept in understanding human behavior in terms of culture is

acculturation, which refers to the process of learning how to adapt to a new culture. Learning

martial arts can be a means to understanding a different culture and become acculturated into it.

McCracken (1989) argued that the term cultural meaning describes the "culturally constituted

world" of life experience, and martial arts helps transfer meaning from the culturally constituted

world to individual participants. The dimension of Individualism/collectivism, one of the cultural

typologies proposed by Hofstede (1991), can illuminate the cultural aspect of martial arts.

Individualism represents the traits of independence and self-orientation, with a goal toward the

individual and individual accomplishments. In contrast, collectivism is the maintenance of

interpersonal relationships and group harmony. An example is a culture of family-orientation. A

martial arts school has a family-type atmosphere that allows for encouragement, respect, and

acceptance. The TKD philosophy emphasizes that the relationship between a master and a

student is comparable to that between a parent and a child. Unlike the coach-athlete relationship

in traditional sports, a family-type atmosphere is typical in martial arts schools (Weiss, 1987).

There have been confirmed differences between the historical and philosophical foundations of

Western sports and Eastern martial arts. Eastern culture, as embodied in martial arts, has a

recognized potential to compete with Western culture in terms of sports and physical education

(Yang, 1996). According to Patel, Stier, and Luckstead (2002), martial arts offer both physical

exercise and cultural exchange with Eastern culture. Schmidt (1986) argued that TKD is as an

expressive institution through which practitioners are acculturated into traditional Korean

culture, philosophy, and heritage.









Locker Room Provision

Previous studies (Chelladurai et al., 1987; Kim & Kim, 1995) have indicated that the

locker room factor falls under the general concept of physical environment. Conversely, in Lam

et al.'s (2005) study that developed the Service Quality Assessment Scale (SQAS) to evaluate

service quality in health/fitness clubs, the Locker Room was identified as one of the primary

components that independently affected member retention and recruitment (MacIntosh &

Doherty, 2007). Kim et al. (2009) also found that variables related to locker room quality,

cleanliness, and convenience emerged as an independent factor. The importance of this factor

may in part be due to the uniqueness of TKD training, in that it requires changing apparel and

uniforms before and after a training session. Consequently, program participants might have

singled out the Locker Room factor as a unique aspect of school operations and expressed a

demand for its delivery.

Economic Conditions Consideration

Eschenfelder and Li (2007) noted that "the expected cost and benefits decision makers in

sport face are influenced by the type of economic system used to make decisions in society" (p.

26). Previous researchers have defined the economic consideration in terms of consumers'

perceptions of economic conditions and related variables that potentially influence their

consumption decisions, such as ticket price, marketing promotion, substitute forms of

entertainment, television effects, income, and competition from other sport events (e.g., Hansen

& Gauthier, 1989; Schofield, 1983; Zhang et al., 1995, 2003a, 2003b). In the setting of TKD

schools, there are likely several economic considerations, such as membership fees, payment

method, discounts, refunds, membership promotions, and coupons. Among these elements,

membership fee is a primary concern and may affect participants' decision as to whether or not









to attend or remain at TKD schools. Most TKD members want a reasonable membership fee and

cancellation policy (Kim et al., 2009).

Perceived Benefits

Perceived benefits were defined as "a combination of different attributes of products (e.g.,

tangible vs. intangible, intrinsic vs. extrinsic), available in relation to a particular buy and use

situation" (Snoj et al., 2004, p. 157). According to Monroe (1990), perceived benefits are

constituted of some integration of physical attributes, service attributes, and technical support

available in relation to the particular use of a product or offering. Based on these definitions, the

perceived benefits of martial arts training can be interpreted as the participants' perception of

gains from participation in martial arts programs. If martial arts participants perceive little or no

benefits stemming from program training, retaining or recruiting members would be difficult for

martial arts schools.

There are many recognized benefits to participating in martial arts. What attracts

participants to a martial arts program is its potential to enhance not only the physical body but

also the mind and spirit of participants. Many researchers have discussed the benefits of martial

arts participation (e.g., Adamson & Wade, 1986; Cai, 2000; Fuller, 1988; Konzak & Boudreau,

1984; Lakes & Hoyt, 2004; Mathes & Battista, 1985; Richman & Rehberg, 1986; Trulson, 1986;

Weiser et al., 1995) and supported the assertion that these benefits play an important role in

enhancing both physical and psychological benefits. Improvements in self-esteem (Fuller, 1988),

emotional stability, and assertiveness (Konzak & Boudreau, 1984), as well as reductions in

anxiety and depression (Cai, 2000), are some major positive consequences of participating in

martial arts programs, in addition to physical benefits (Richman & Rehberg, 1986; Trulson,

1986). Martial arts training tends to emphasize psychological changes in such aspects as social

interaction, leadership skills, and reducing mental disorders. Positive psychological changes may

41









also include enhancement of self-esteem and self-concept (Columbus & Rice, 1991; Daniels &

Thornton, 1990; Finkenberg, 1990; Konzak & Boudreau, 1984). Konzak and Boudreau (1984)

have also drawn attention to the social benefits of such behavioral changes, in particular the

relationship between martial arts practice and aggression. Social interaction skills gained through

martial arts training is helpful in relieving the stresses of life. In addition, long-term training

fosters greater independence. With progressive training, children grow to be better leaders and

more enthusiastic, optimistic, and self-reliant. For example, when individuals reach the black belt

level, they may be required to teach lessons to lower belt levels. During teaching, they gain the

ability to lead groups and take responsibility for their actions. Richman and Rehberg (1986)

remarked that long term participation in martial arts programs would be a testimony to an

individual's psychological worth. They even made a comparison between the role of the martial

arts instructor or master with that of a psychotherapist.

Martial arts training has been widely considered as something that inculcates physical and

mental relaxation, and the control of the mind and body that are associated with self-confidence,

self-esteem, and better management of aggression and vulnerability (Mathes & Battista, 1985;

Weiser et al., 1995). Self-esteem development has been a primary component of TKD practice

and has widely adopted in the marketing of TKD lessons. In addition, advanced TKD

participants tend to have more positive personalities than beginning TKD participants as a

positive relationship between TKD practice and decreased aggressiveness has been found in

previous studies (Weiss, 1987; Fox, 1997).

Fuller (1988) described these features of the martial arts, saying, "from a

psychotherapeutic viewpoint, the martial arts may be viewed as formalized, refined systems of

human potential training which provide interesting practical models and mechanisms of









psychological intervention" (p. 318). In addition, Richman and Rehberg (1986) asserted that the

reason for the growth in the martial arts might be explained by how they provide participants

with significant physical and psychological benefits. Based on Fuller's (1988) review, Columbus

(1991) noted that research into the benefits of martial arts has been carried out using positivist

methods of investigation, which are less relevant when it comes to understanding oriental styles

of thinking/acting. Heavily influenced by Zen Buddhism and Taoism, martial arts are not easily

grasped merely from a positivist perspective. Lake and Hoyt (2004) examined how martial arts

training impacts self-regulatory abilities in children, where self-regulation is featured in the

martial arts in terms of self-control, body control, and discipline. These researchers found that

the martial arts group had greater improvement than the control group in the area of self-

regulation after a three-month intervention. Other researchers (Weiss, 1987; Fox, 1997) have

also examined self-esteem and physical activity, and revealed that self-esteem was a

consequence of physical activity. According to Rosenberg (1965), a person with high self-esteem

has feelings of acceptance, goodness, worth, and respect of the self; whereas, a person with low

self-esteem displays rejection, dissatisfaction, and contempt for the self.

With respect to physical benefits, Stefanek (2004) investigated the motivations of martial

arts practitioners through examining collegiate TKD participants. Findings of this study indicated

that the motivations of martial arts participants were similar to those found in participants in

traditional sports. The physical benefits usually include such variables as physical exercise, skill

development, and tactics of competition. In this regard, the phenomenon of increased obesity

level among both children and adults highlights the importance of participating in physical

activity that provides health benefits and personal well-being, and reduces morbidity

(Woodward, 2009). In recent years, martial arts as a combative sport and as an outlet for physical









fitness and conditioning have experienced a widespread growth throughout the U.S. Participation

in the martial arts can enhance physical fitness in such areas as cardio-respiratory endurance,

muscular endurance, agility, and flexibility through the combination of running, jumping,

kicking, punching, and stretching. Overall, martial arts provide the participant with physical

exercise that contributes to an individual's physical improvement (Anthony, 1991; Weiss, 1993).

In addition, due to an increased rate of violent crimes in today's society, demand for self-defense

education has significantly increased (Chen & Liu, 2000). Self-defense, the ability to prevent

injury to oneself or others from attackers, has become one of the critical benefits of martial arts.

Americans see martial arts as a sufficient and sometimes necessary means to defend themselves

against unlawful attacks. Given this evidence, it seems clear that participation in the martial arts

has its advantage when compared to ordinary physical activities or no physical activities (e.g.,

Holbrook, 1996; Snoj et al., 2004; Woodruff, 1997).

Perceived Constraints

Many martial arts participants believe that martial arts are capable of producing both

physical and mental benefits for participants. Ironically, even though a strong attraction to

martial arts training exists, in recent years low participation rate and drop-out rates have also

increased in the martial arts industry. No effort has been made to invest in the constraining

factors that cause low participation and withdrawal from attending martial arts programs. Thus, it

is important to identify those constraints or barriers in order to facilitate an understanding of

reasons. As a result of such investigations, "when managers have a more complete understanding

of what obstacles impede the use of their services, they will be in a position to take necessary

corrective actions" (Howard & Crompton, 1984, p. 43).

In place of the term perceived constraints, other terms have been used, such as perceived

risks (Johnson et al., 2008; Snoj et al., 2004), perceived inhibitors (Um & Crompton, 1992), and

44









perceived barriers (Pritchard, Funk, & Alexandris, 2009). However, in this study the assumption

was adopted that all these terms are analogous due to their underlying identity and meanings.

Perceived constraints is defined as those "perceived or experienced by individuals to limit the

formation of leisure preferences and to inhibit or prohibit participation and enjoyment in leisure"

(Jackson, 1997, p. 461). Perceived constraints have received increased research attention in

recent years because they are one of the most critical factors in predicting consumer behavior in

various industrial contexts, such as general business, leisure, tourism, and sport management

(Alexandris & Carroll, 1997; Alexandris et al., 2007; Crawford & Godbey, 1987; Crawford,

Jackson, & Godbey, 1991; Henderson & Bialeschki, 1993; Kim & Trail, 2010)

The number of studies on constraints has grown exponentially in the leisure and recreation

disciplines. Constraints were once considered barriers that directly resulted in non-participation;

but recent research findings have indicated that it is also possible for participants to negotiate the

participation process through constraints (Alexandris et al., 2007). A number of constraints

studies have revealed that such negotiation strategies have been applied to prevent dropping out.

Examples of such studies include an investigation of barriers to family leisure (Crawford &

Godbey, 1987), an inquiry into different recreational sport participation levels (Alexandris &

Carroll, 1997), an exploration of female adventure recreation (James, 2000), and an investigation

of recreational skiers (Alexandris et al., 2007).

Crawford and Godbey (1987) developed a theoretical framework of leisure constraints that

would hinder an individuals' preference in recreation/leisure participation. The constraints

consisted of three main categories: intrapersonal, interpersonal, and structural. Intrapersonal

constraints involve individual psychological states and attributes, which interact closely with

leisure preferences rather than intervening between preferences and participation. Intrapersonal









constraints include such factors as stress, religiosity, reference group attitudes, depression, and

perceived self-skill. Interpersonal constraints result from social interactions or the relationship

between partners or within a social group (e.g., lack of sufficient companionship to participate in

activity). Referring to organizational and operational functions, structural constraints are formed

from external constraints, such as unavailability of resources needed to participate in

leisure/sport activities (e.g., financial resources, availability time). Kay and Jackson (1991) found

that more than 30% of respondents perceived constraints based on lack of money and lack of

time. Lack of time as a constraint was indicated by a number of recreation/leisure studies

(Alexandris & Carroll, 1997; Kay & Jackson, 1991). Other structural constraints have included

participants' perceptions of low energy, lack of self-discipline, injury, poor health, or lack of

skill (Shaw, Bonen, & McCabe, 1991).

Due to the lack of a conceptual link between each of the constraints and the dynamics of

those constructs identified in previous studies, Crawford et al. (1991) integrated Crawford and

Godbey's (1987) model and proposed a theoretical advance, namely a hierarchical model that

depicts constraints within an individual's decision-making process (i.e., participation vs. non-

participation). For example, the hierarchical constraints model suggested that individuals first

encounter the intrapersonal constraint. If they overcome that obstacle, interpersonal constraints

are then confronted. Finally, structural constraints are encountered. If structural constraints are

stronger than the negotiation, the result is nonparticipation. They suggested that "the factors that

create constraints might continue to have relevance even after an individual takes up

participation in a given activity" (Crawford et al., 1991, p. 315). In addition, they found that

intrapersonal constraints are the most powerful of the constraints; whereas, structural constraints

are the least powerful. Additionally, they anticipated that intrapersonal and interpersonal









constraint factors would be more likely to influence leisure preference. However, structural

constraints occur after the individual has solved the intrapersonal and interpersonal constraints

(Crawford et al., 1991). Later on, Jackson, Crawford, and Godbey (1993) modified their

hierarchical constraints model by adding negotiation process into the explanatory model.

Different from Crawford et al.'s (1991) findings, Andronikidis, Vassiliadis, Priporas, and

Kamenidou (2007) conducted a CFA and found that there were the intrapersonal and structural

constraints were relevant factors affecting ski centre visitors. It was an unexpected finding that

interpersonal constraints were not found to be a major factor in this study. Because all three

constraint factors involve some aspects of interpersonal interactions or social interactions,

whether there are two or three constraints remained a source of debate in the leisure and

recreation literature (Gilbert & Hudson, 2000; Kay & Jackson, 1991). From a broader

perspective, Hubbard and Mannell (2001) empirically tested four competing conceptual models

of leisure constraints negotiation process, including the independence, negotiation-buffer,

constraint-effects-mitigation, and perceived-constraint reduction models. They speculated that

leisure constraints were not insurmountable hindrances. Instead of passively reacting (i.e., not

participating) to constraints, people can negotiate through constraints and continue in at least

some form of participation (Hubbard & Mannell, 2001; Jackson et al., 1993). Thus, constraints

need not always be regarded as causing a prevention or reduction of participation level.

Murphy and Enis (1986) defined constraint/risk factors from a different perspective, which

focused on financial, psychological, physical, and functional dimensions. As a result of their

findings, perceived constraints are now explained as a multidimensional concept. Similarly,

Crompton and Kim (2004) examined changes in the magnitude of the influence of constraints on

state park visitation and outlined four perceived constraint factors: personal and facility, time









availability, weather conditions and consequences, and cost. In a broad sense, perceived

constraints negatively affected the intention to attend an event. Applying the concept of leisure

constraints to the tourism and sports research realm, previous studies have identified factors that

hamper traveling to or attending at sporting events (Funk, Filo, Beaton, & Pritchard, 2009; Hung

& Petrick, 2010; Kim & Chalip; 2004; Kim & Trail, 2010; Nyaupane, Morais, & Graefe, 2004;

Trail, Robinson, & Kim, 2010). Kim and Chalip (2004) proposed a conceptual model to examine

how push factors (e.g., demographics, fan motives, and travel motives) have an impact on the

intention to attend an event by the moderating effect of constraints (e.g., risk and financial

constraints). Interestingly, financial constraints were not found to have a significant effect on

desire to attend an event. This finding was inconsistent with those of previous studies. Nyaupane

et al., (2004) conducted a study on why individuals do not participate in nature-based tourism

(i.e., rafting, canoeing, and horseback riding) by applying Crawford and Godbey's (1987) model

of leisure constraints. The findings supported Crawford and Godbey's three dimensions of

constraints (i.e., intrapersonal, interpersonal, and structural). This study further found that the

structural constraints factor was more complicated than the other two constraints factors. Funk et

al. (2009) examined how the relationships between sports travel and perceived constraints

affected behavioral intentions prior to a mega event (i.e., Beijing Olympic Games). The findings

of this study supported the existence of three categories of leisure constraints: structural,

interpersonal, and intrapersonal (Jackson et al., 1993). Intrapersonal constraints included a

limited knowledge of the destination, language, and ability to travel to China. Difficulties in

finding co-travelers, security concerns, and terrorism risks were interpersonal constraints.

Finally, structural constraints included concerns about travel cost, distance, and time. These

perceived constraints were found to be negatively related to the intention to attend the event.









Attending a mega sporting event was found to be more likely to occur when the traveler

perceived more potential benefits than constraints (Funk et al., 2009).

Hung and Petrick (2010) explored the constraint dimensions in the context of cruise

vacation and developed a measurement scale through adopting both qualitative and quantitative

research procedures. The developed scale has 18 items under four factors: intrapersonal,

interpersonal, structural, and "not an option." Their findings were consistent with those of

Crawford et al. (1991) that before attempting to overcome structural constraints, intrapersonal

and interpersonal constraints must first be surmounted.

Trail et al. (2008) examined a variety factors that might possibly constrain or hinder

spectators from attending a sporting event and indicated that in order to understand how to

market and pull in greater attendance numbers, marketers must look at many different factors

that prevent people from attending a sports event. Structural constraints such as other sources of

entertainment, ticket pricing, climate, work schedule, and event accessibility are typically

environmental or situational factors that hinder people from attending a sport event. They

suggested that marketers can have some control over structural constraints and may be able to

overcome them through effective marketing practices. Kim and Trail (2010) examined the

relationship among constraints, motivators, and attendance in a spectator sport setting. One of the

purposes of their study was to develop a constraints scale for the spectator sport setting based on

the work of Crawford et al. (1991). They explained that spectator sport constraints were

consisted of two main categories: the internal constraint constructs (i.e., lack of knowledge, lack

of success of the team, lack of someone to attend with, and low interest from others) and external

constraint constructs (i.e., commitment, cost, leisure alternatives, location, parking, participants

in the sports, and alternative sport entertainment). In their study, lack of success, an internal









constraint subscale that reflected the team's performance, was found to explain approximately

10% of the variance in attendance. In addition, leisure alternatives as an external constraint

explained 3% of the variance. The leisure alternative subscale was supported by Zhang et al.'s

(1997) finding that alternative sport entertainment such as a movie, restaurant, and bar negatively

influenced spectators' decision to go to a sporting event. In line with this notion, ticket price,

substitute forms of entertainment, and competition with other sporting events all have a negative

relationship with game consumption (Hansen & Gauthier, 1989; Noll, 1974; Siegfried &

Eisenberg, 1980; Zhang et al., 1995). Surprisingly, although cost was found to be a significant

component in previous constraint studies (Crompton & Kim, 2004; Funk et al., 2009; Tam, 2004;

Zeithaml, 1988), it was not shown to statistically influence attendance in this study.

In the context of martial arts, only a few studies have examined various uncertainties and

constraints that are often associated with participation in martial arts (Kim et al., 2009; Zetaruk,

Violan, Zurakowski, & Micheli, 2005). Hung and Petrick (2010) argued that structural

constraints in martial arts may be different from what people experience in leisure or tourism

settings,; measurement for constraints for a martial arts setting should be different. For instance,

one of the factors in martial arts is physical risks due to the involvement in a highly competitive

sport. Thus, training in martial arts is associated with the potential risk of such injuries as strains,

sprains, or bruising. TKD as a full contact sport is known for its fast, powerful kicks, and strikes

which inhibits the potential for causing severe injury (Zetaruk et al., 2005).

In the current study, Crawford et al.'s (1991) hierarchical model of leisure constraints,

which includes intrapersonal, interpersonal, and structural constraints, was applied to the martial

arts context. Intrapersonal constraints for martial arts might involve participants' psychological

states and attributes that interfere with their preferences, health problems, perceived self-skill









level, injuries, stress level, and safety concerns. Interpersonal constraints include interactions or

relationships between individuals, such as availability of a suitable partner and relationship with

the master/instructor as learning martial arts is a product of social interactions (Kim et al., 2009;

Weiss, 1987). Structural constraints might be primarily related to lack of resources needed to

participate in martial arts (e.g., membership fee, equipment, time, facility, and location). In this

study, it was anticipated that the perceived constraints for martial arts participation would play a

significant role in explaining participants' behaviors and predicting their intentions to remain in

martial arts schools.

Snoj et al. (2004).examined the relationship among perceived value, perceived quality, and

perceived risk in the context of mobile phones usage and found that perceived constraints to have

a negative effect on perceived value. Consumers were found to be very sensitive to financial

aspects of the constraints. Tam (2004) found that perceived constraints such as monetary and

time costs had a negative effect on perceived value in consumption behavior at a restaurant

chains, indicating that monetary and time costs play an important role in customers' assessments

of the perceived value of a service.

Perceived Value

Perceived value has received increasing attention as one of the most significant factors in

predicting consumer satisfaction, behavioral intention, and loyalty in several different contexts

such as general business, tourism, and sports perspective (Bolton & Drew, 1991; Chang & Wildt,

1994; Cronin, Brady, & Hult, 2000b; Jayanti & Ghosh, 1996; Kwon, Trail, & James, 2007a; Lee,

Yoon, & Lee, 2007; Mizik & Jacobson, 2004; Woodruff, 1997; Zeithaml, 1988). Due to its

dynamic nature, perceived value has been defined in many ways, depending on the type of

product or services and personal characteristics of customers. One such definition that it is the

"consumer's overall assessment of the utility of a product (or service) based on the perception of

51









what is received and what is given" (Zeithaml, 1988, p. 14). Monroe (1990) also defined

perceived value in terms of how the "buyers' perceptions of value represent a tradeoff between

the quality or benefits they perceive by paying the price" (p. 46). Perceived value represents a

trade-off between desirable attributes compared with sacrifice attributes by consumers with

regard to goods or services (Woodruff & Gardial, 1996). Vandermerwe (2003) argued that

consumers' perceived value is realized when they are satisfied with the total experience.

Working from these premises, Woodruff (1997) defined perceived value as "a customer's

perceived preference for and evaluation of those product attributes, attribute performances, and

consequences arising from use that facilitate (or block) achieving the customer's goal and

purposes in use situations" (p. 142).

Zeithaml (1988) proposed a conceptual model that illustrates the relationship among price,

quality, perceived value, and purchase intentions based on an exploratory investigation. Four

types of value were defined: (a) low price, (b) whatever I want in a product, (c) the quality I get

for the price I pay, and (d) what I get for what I give. Perceived value for the cost was found to

be indirectly related to perceived value via perceived quality.

Woodruff (1997) argued that customers experience different perceived value stages when

purchasing a product or service, and during or after its use. Thus, Woodruff developed a

customer perceived value hierarchy model. In the first stage, customers learn about products by

way of bundles of specific attributes and attribute performances. The second stage occurs when

purchasing and using a product; at this stage, desires or preferences are formed for certain

attributes based on desired consequences in a usage situation. The final stage is when customers

evaluate certain desired consequences so as to achieve their goals and purposes. Woodruff s

hierarchy also well described received value (i.e., overall satisfaction feelings, disconfirmation









perceptions), showing that customers evaluate a product using the same desired attributes,

consequences, and goal structure. The findings of this study showed that understanding the

concept of customer perceived value along with other constructs such as service quality,

satisfaction, and behavior intention helps marketers determine how to efficiently allocate their

marketing resources (Woodruff, 1997). Substantial evidence supports the important role of

perceived value as a mediating factor in the relationship between service quality and

consumption behavior (Cronin, Brady, Brand, Hightower, & Shemwell, 1997).

Anderson, Fornell, and Lehmann (1994) pointed out that there had been limited empirical

research into the relationship between perceived value and customer satisfaction in service

settings. To date, researchers have found that perceived value has positively influenced customer

satisfaction, which in turn leads to changed behavior intentions (e.g., McDougall & Levesque,

2000; Parasuraman & Grewal, 2000). McDougall and Levesque (2000), in a study of four service

firms (i.e., dentist, hairstylist, restaurant, and auto service), found that perceived value should be

incorporated into studies of customer satisfaction to provide a more complete picture on the

causes of customer satisfaction. Tam (2004) examined the relationship among perceived service

quality, perceived constraints (i.e., monetary costs and time costs), perceived value, customer

satisfaction, and post-purchase behavior in a family chain of restaurants setting and found that

perceived value had a positive effect on customer satisfaction, with a total of 73% of variance

explained. Thus, if customers perceive that their desired or received value exceeds the

constraints of obtaining the value, they experience greater satisfaction (Tam, 2004; Woodruff,

1997). In a tourism context, Lee at al. (2007) identified multiple dimensions of perceived value

for tourism and examined how these perceived value dimensions affected visitors' satisfaction

level and positive recommendations to others. They found that three tourist perceived value









factors (i.e., functional, overall, and emotional value) were predictive of their satisfaction with

the tour and the likelihood of referring others to the tour.

Recognizing the importance of perceived value in understanding the consumer decision-

making process, a few studies related to perceived value have been undertaken in the sports

marketing setting (Kwon et al., 2007a; Murray & Howat, 2002; Petrick, Backman, & Bixler,

1999). To predict return or repatronage of sport and leisure consumers, Petrick et al. (1999)

investigated the effect of selected factors on golfers' satisfaction with a golf course and the

perceived value of a golfing experience. They found that overall satisfaction and perceived value

of golfers increased their repeat usage and thus provided critical direction for golf management.

Murray and Howat (2002) investigated the relationship between service quality, perceived value,

satisfaction, and future intentions of customers by proposing two conceptual models: (a) one

with satisfaction mediating the effect of value and (b) one with value mediating the effect of

satisfaction. The findings revealed that perceived value not only had a direct relationship with

future behavioral intentions, but was also indirectly related to future intentions through

satisfaction. In sum, perceived value plays a vital mediating role in the formation of customer

satisfaction, which in turn, influences future intentions. Kwon et al. (2007) investigated how the

effect of perceived value would predict the purchase of a team-licensed product. They examined

perceived value in terms of its mediating role in the relationship between team identification and

team-licensed merchandise purchase intentions. The findings showed that nearly 43% of the

variance in purchase intention was explained by perceived value. Perceived value of the licensed

sport merchandise was also positively related to the intention to purchase. The researchers

specifically pointed out that team identification alone was not sufficient to explain the sport

consumer's purchase intentions.









Recently, Byon (2008) investigated the mediating role of perceived value in the

relationship of market demand variables and game support programs to the consumption of

professional sports. Unlike previous market demand studies that tended to examine how market

demand factors directly affected consumption behaviors, this study examine the hierarchical

relationships among market demand, game support, perceived value, and game consumption

factors, where the mediating role of perceived value was examined. The findings of the study

confirmed the presence of hierarchical relationships.

To measure perceived value, a number of researchers have focused on perceived value as a

single-item measure, derived from the overall perceived value of product/service quality and

price (Murray & Howat, 2002; Zeithaml, 1988). On the other hand, some researchers have

argued that perceived value cannot be explained by a single-item scale due to the presence of

different types of products or services and individual characteristics of customers. Thus, it is

argued that multiple value dimensions are more desirable than a single value item (Al-Sabbahy,

Ekinci, & Riley, 2004; Bolton & Drew, 1991; Lee et al., 2007; Sheth, Newman, & Gross, 1991;

Sweeney & Soutar, 2001).

Consistent with this view, Bolton and Drew (1991) asserted that perceived value cannot be

accounted for as simply the outcome of the trade-off between a single overall quality and

constraints because perceived value is more complicated than such a construct can encompass. In

addition, Al-Sabbahy et al. (2004) claimed that the single-item approach would not completely

cover the concept of perceived value in the hospitality marketing setting. For this reason,

previous researchers have suggested that perceived value should be measured by a multi-

dimensional scale (Lee et al., 2007; Sweeney & Soutar, 2001).









Sweeney and Soutar (2001) developed the Perceived Value (PERVAL), which measures

consumer perceived value through a multiple-item scale. Originally, the PERVAL scale was

derived from the dimensions of Sheth et al.'s (1991) value construct. While a number of

perceived value studies focused on quality and price, these two factors could not completely

explain the decision-making process. The PERVAL scale added the emotion and social

dimensions. Thus, Sweeney and Soutar's PERVAL scale (2001) was developed to include all

four dimensions of consumers' perceived value, including: (a) emotional value, (b) social value,

(c) functional value (price/value for money), and (d) functional value (performance/quality).

They defined emotional value as "the utility derived from the feelings or affective states that a

product generates" (p. 211). Social value was defined as "the utility derived from the product's

ability to enhance social self-concept" (p. 211). Function value (price/value for money) was

defined as "the utility derived from the product due to the reduction of its perceived short term

and longer term costs" (p. 211). Finally, they defined functional value (performance/quality) as

"the utility derived from the perceived quality and expected performance of the product" (p.

211).

In fact, multiple dimensions of perceived value have been suggested by many researchers

(e.g., Lee et al., 2007; Sweeney & Soutar, 2001). It is assumed that in a similar way, multiple

dimensions of perceived value would better explain member satisfaction of martial arts schools

than a single item. (Snoj et al., 2004). An important argument proposed by the current study is

that perceived benefits and perceived constraints with regard to martial arts participation lead to

certain consequences that are mirrored in participants' perceived value. A customer's perceived

value is a comparison between perceived benefit and perceived constraints (Cardenas,

Henderson, & Wilson, 2009; Cheng et al., 2003; Kam & Crompton, 2006).









Member Satisfaction

Customer satisfaction has received attention from practitioners and academicians because

it helps one understand how consumer response may be utilized as a key determinant of

customer retention (Cronin et al., 2000a; Cronin & Taylor, 1992), customer loyalty (Fomell,

Johnson, Anderson, Cha, & Bryant, 1996), positive word-of-mouth (Maxham & Netemeyer,

2002), and trust and commitment (Tax, Brown, & Chandrashekaran, 1998). Particularly,

marketing researchers have studied consumer satisfaction to understand how it is a critical

predictor for consumer behavior intentions such as purchase intention, word-of-mouth, and

loyalty to an organization (Eggert & Ulaga, 2002; Fornell, 1992). Oliver (1981) defined

satisfaction as "the summary psychological state resulting when the emotion surrounding

disconfirmed expectations is coupled with the consumer's prior feelings about the consumption

experience" (p. 27). In line with this definition, Anderson et al. (1994) defined overall

satisfaction as "an overall evaluation based on overall satisfaction based on the total purchase

and consumption experience with a good or service over time" (p. 54). Later, Oliver (1997)

defined customer satisfaction as a consumer's overall pleasurable fulfillment of the response to a

product, service, or benefit, which is being provided to the customer to satisfy his/her needs,

desires, and goals. There is a differentiation between perceived value and satisfaction.

Satisfaction may happen after a purchase, which is called the post-usage evaluation stage.

However, perceived value is generally determined at the purchasing stage (Sweeney & Soutar,

2001).

The concept of customer satisfaction has been a focus of academics and practitioners in

light of the fact that it affects the revenue generation of organizations. The primary goal for most

service companies today is to achieve customer satisfaction. In a broad sense, customer

satisfaction has a heavy influence on member loyalty, where the behavioral aspect of customer

57









loyalty is the repurchase intention of a product or service. Increasing customer satisfaction and

customer retention improves profits, word-of-mouth, and allows for lower marketing

expenditures (Reichheld, 1996).

In the current study, satisfaction is assumed to be formed based on customers' previous

experience and cumulative evaluations of a martial arts program, and is assumed to be a key

determinant of customer retention, positive word-of-mouth, and sales of merchandise (Bitner,

1990; Cronin & Taylor, 1992; Gotlieb, Grewal, & Brown, 1994). The success of a sports

program depends on the extent to which it can satisfy customers with quality service. High levels

of customer satisfaction would be helpful in preventing or reducing customer attrition (Ko &

Pastore, 2004; Kotler, 1994).

Member Commitment

Like member satisfaction, member commitment has been identified as a critical

component, essentially representing a consequence of consumer market demand. Specifically,

numerous researchers have indicated that when consumer expectations are satisfied, consumers

tend to exhibit high commitment to continued consumption of a product or service (e.g., Howat

et al., 1996; Leeuwen, Quick, & Daniel, 2002; Oliver, 1997; Parasuraman, Zeithaml, & Berry,

1988). Morgan and Hunt (1994) defined commitment as "an exchange partner believing that an

ongoing relationship with another is so important as to warrant maximum efforts at maintaining

it; that is, the committed party believes the relationship is worth working on to ensure that it

endures indefinitely" (p. 23). Commitment is also defined as being "indicative of the

organization's likelihood of developing or maintaining customer identification with

organizational goals and values and retaining the service customer as an active participant in the

service encounter" (Kelley, Donnelly, & Skinner, 1990, p. 322). Both definitions indicate that









member commitment is regarded as a significant element to maintaining successful long-term

relationships (Kelley et al., 1990; Morgan & Hunt, 1994).

In participant sports, sports commitment has been defined as "a psychological construct

representing the desire and resolve to continue sport participation" (Scanlan, Carpenter, Schmidt,

Simons, & Keeler, 1993, p. 7). Sport commitment is thus a dominant predictor of actual

participation when people face intervening or constraint factors such as time, injury, and cost

(Scanlan et al., 1993). Commitment has been found to be a primary construct affecting customer

retentions and behavior in the context of health and fitness clubs (Alexandris, Zahariadis,

Tsorbatzoudis, & Grouios, 2002).

A majority of previous researchers have held that perceived value is an important concept

with regard to customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions in the pre-purchase and post-

purchase stages (Cronin et al., 2000b; Eggert & Ulaga, 2002; Fornell et al., 1996; Heskett &

Schlesinger, 1994; Tam, 2004; Woodruff, 1997). Cronin et al. (2000) conceptualized how

quality, satisfaction, and value effect consumer behavior intentions. In an effort to understand

consumer decision-making, Eggert and Ulaga (2002) developed two alternative models: direct

impact of perceived value on the purchasing intention, and perceived value as a mediating

variable in the relationship between customer satisfaction and purchasing intention. These

models were developed to explore how customer perceived value interacts with customer

satisfaction. Eggert and Ulaga argued that multidimensional constructs of perceived value should

be considered in terms of both cognitive and affective variables. In their study, customer

perceived value was regarded as a cognitive variable and in turn, customer satisfaction was

considered an affective variable. The study confirmed that the two variables do not replace, but

complement each other. Specifically, perceived value influenced customer satisfaction, which









subsequently led to positive behavior intentions. Thus, consumer satisfaction was found to be a

critical predictor of behavior outcomes as a mediating factor (Eggert & Ulaga, 2002). Johnson,

Sivadas, and Garbarino (2008) examined the relationships among customer satisfaction, affective

commitment, and consumer's perception of risk associated with a service organization, and

found that satisfaction had a positive influence on commitment and a negative influence on

perceived risk.









CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

This chapter provides a detailed description of methodological procedures, which are

presented in the following four sections: (a) participants, (b) measurement, (c) procedures, and

(d) data analyses.

Participants

A convenience sampling method was employed to survey TKD school participants. The

target population for this study was 18 years of age or older, resided in the U.S., and have

attended a TKD school. Participation in this study was voluntary and confidential. Sample size

was a vital consideration in determining whether the analytical procedures of the hypothesized

model were reliable, especially conducting advanced statistical analyses including a

confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM). Although there are

no optimal standards in the literature about sample size, Kline (2005) and Hair, Black, Babin,

Anderson, and Tatham (2006) suggested that a minimum ratio of respondents to each observed

variable should at least be 5:1 and preferably 10:1. Because the Revised Scale of Market

Demand of Taekwondo (SMD-TKD) was the primary segment of the survey form and it had a

total of 62 items under seven factors, a total of 595 participants were recruited from TKD

schools throughout the U.S.

Descriptive statistics for the demographic variables are presented in Table 3-1. Of the

respondents for this study, there were 59.5% (n = 356) male and 39.9 % (n = 232) female. The

participants ranged in age from 18 to 77 years old (M= 36.6; SD = 12.7). Approximately, 50%

of the participants were between 35 and 55 years old and close to 27% were between 18 and 25

years old. The respondents ranged from 1.0 day to 7.0 days in regular training per week (M=

3.54; SD = 1.35) and 1.0 hour to 5.0 training hours per visit (M= 2.03; SD = 1.60). Caucasian









(66.1%) was the primary ethnic composition of the participants and the remaining sample

consisted of 15.7% Hispanics, 8.5% Asians, and 5.4% African Americans. Over one half of them

(61%) were married. More than 70% of the respondents had at least one child. They were of

various educational backgrounds, with a majority having at least some college experience (85%).

A majority of the participants reported an annual income of $50,000 or higher (74%); and 33%

of the participants had an annual income of $100,000 or higher, reflecting the fact that

participants of martial arts schools had higher levels of household income. Of the respondents,

41% of them had a family membership contract and 50% had individual contracts. Close to 66%

of the participants were of Black Belt rank; whereas, 10% were of White or Yellow Belt rank

which represents beginner levels of TKD. Participants first learned of the TKD school with

which they were affiliated from various sources, mainly including referrals, advertisements, and

the internet. For example, more than 50% of the respondents obtained information about their

TKD schools) via word of mouth and friend referrals. With respect to TKD expenditures per

year, more than one half of the participants spent more than $2,000 on TKD services and

products. The characteristic of the respondents were generally consistent with Kim et al.'s (2009)

descriptions on the general characteristics of TKD school participants.

Measurement

A questionnaire was developed that consisted of seven sections: (a) market demand, (b)

perceived benefit, (c) perceived constraints, (d) perceived value, (e) satisfaction, (f) commitment,

and (g) demographic variables (Appendix B).

Market Demand

To measure market demand of TKD schools, items from the SMD-TKD scale (Kim et al.,

2009) were adopted and modified, which has a total of 37 items under seven factors (Personal

Improvement Activities, Physical Facility Quality, Instruction Staff Quality, Program Activities

62









and Offerings, Cultural Learning, Locker Room Provision, and Economic Condition

Consideration). This scale was the only instrument identified in the published literature that

measures market demand features of martial arts programs. The original SMD-TKD scale (Kim

et al., 2009) was developed by an integrative application of both qualitative and quantitative

research methods that contained the following procedures: (a) a comprehensive review of

literature, (b) on-site observations of private TKD school operations, (c) interviews with TKD

school masters, administrators, and members, (d) a test of content validity through a modified

application of the Delphi technique, and (e) conducting factor analyses. Through investigating

TKD school members (N = 205) who were 18 years and older from 22 TKD schools in major

cities of Florida, an EFA with principal component extraction and varimax rotation produced a

six-factor solution with 51 scale items (i.e., Personal Benefits, School Operation, Instruction

Quality, Program Offering, Locker Room, and Cultural Learning). Four of these factors, except

for program offering and cultural learning, were found to be positively (p < .05) predictive of

TKD consumption in a regression analysis.

After its development, the SMD-TKD scale was identified with having a number of

weaknesses and limitations. First, according to Braunstein, Zhang, Trail, and Gibson (2005) and

Zhang, Lam, and Connaughton (2003), market demand is defined as consumer expectations

towards the attributes of the core product. A major emphasis of this definition is on the

assessment of attributes and features of the core product. However, the worded statements of a

number of items in the SMD-TKD scale actually reflect the benefit aspect of some core product

elements, not directly on the attributes. Second, only an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was

conducted to assess the dimensionality of the scale, which was to uncover the construct and the

relationship among a relatively large set of observed and latent variables. Third, according to the









findings derived from a number of previous studies, the concept of Economic Consideration was

an important and relevant aspect of market demand studies (e.g., Braunstein et al., 2005; Hansen

& Gauthier, 1989; Schofield, 1983; Zhang et al., 1995; Zhang, Lam, Bennett, & Connaughton,

2003a; Zhang, Lam, & Connaughton, 2003b). However, this factor did not emerge in the EFA

due to double loadings or lack of interpretability of its items. Further investigation into the

viability of this factor is necessary. Fourth, as a result of the qualitative research process in Kim

et al.'s (2009) study, items under the Locker Room factor in the resolved SMD-TKD scale were

originally proposed to be a part of the School Operation factor. Yet, these items emerged into a

separate factor in the EFA. Some researchers support the notion that Locker Room represents a

unique aspect of health-fitness settings. For example, Lam, Zhang, and Jensen's (2005) Service

Quality Assessment Scale (SQAS) emphasized the inclusion of the Locker Room factor because

it allowed managers to pinpoint specific Locker Room areas for improvement. However, others

have shown that Locker Room variables fall under the general concept of physical environment,

which includes equipment, locker room, and facility (e.g., Chelladurai, Scott, & Haywood-

Farmer, 1987; Kim & Kim, 1995). Apparently, this inconsistency deserves further investigation.

Fifth, data in the study by Kim et al. (2009) were collected from a convenience sample from only

one state in the U.S. To what extent the findings can be generalized to a wider range of TKD

schools in North America is unknown. Although there are market similarities among TKD

schools in different regions and cultural settings, some differences may exist. For a more

complete understanding of market demand in TKD, additional work is required using broader

samples derived from different geographical regions. Additionally, when considering the number

of items in both the preliminary scale and the refined scale, the sample size (N = 205) in Kim et

al.'s (2009) study was rather small. Hair et al. (1998) and Kline (2005) stated that the number of









subjects should be at least five times and preferably 10 times the number of items used for a

factor analysis. Consequently, the scale was recently modified by Kim & Zhang (2010). Through

investigating TKD school participants (N= 579), the Revised SMD-TKD scale was resolved

through conducting a CFA, which contained 37 items under seven factors (Personal

Improvement Activities, Physical Facility Quality, Instruction Staff Quality, Program Activities

and Offerings, Cultural Learning, Locker Room Provision, and Economic Condition

Consideration). A SEM analysis revealed that these factors were significantly (p < .05)

influential of member satisfaction and member commitment. In this study, the Revised SMD-

TKD items were phrased in a 7-point Likert-type scale, ranging from 1 = strongly disagree to 7 =

strongly agree. Each item was preceded with a common statement of "I attend this Taekwondo

school because it..."

Perceived Benefits

Based on reviewing related literature on the benefits of martial art training, items

measuring perceived benefits were generated from previous research (e.g., Cheng et al., 2003;

Kim et al., 2009). According to these studies, martial arts participants are actively attempting to

improve themselves physically and psychologically through participating in these training

programs. The personal benefits dimension was comprised of two subscales (Psychological

Benefit and Physical Benefit) with a total of 12 items. Each statement was phrased into a 7-point

Likert-type scale, ranging from 1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree, and preceded with a

common statement of "attending the TKD school helps me..."

Perceived Constraints

To measure perceived constraints, items in the 'Leisure Constraints Scale' (Alexandris &

Carroll, 1997) were modified. This scale was selected because it was developed in the setting of

recreational sport participation and its items were deemed relevant to martial arts schools. The

65









original scale was resulted from adoption and modification of Crawford et al.'s (1991) concept

and scale, which consisted of intrapersonal constraint, interpersonal constraint, and structural

constraint. This three-dimensional framework has been a widely adopted in studies examining

perceived constraints in the leisure, tourism, and sport participation. There are a total of 29 items

in Alexandris and Carroll's scale (1997). Based on item relevance and representativeness of

these items, a total of 22 items under three dimensions were included the current study:

Intrapersonal Constraints (7 items), Interpersonal Constraints (6 items), and Structural

Constraints (9 items). These items were phrased in a 7-point Likert-type scale, ranging from 1 =

strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree. Each item was preceded with a common statement of "I

would consider ceasing participation in the Taekwondo school because......"

Perceived Value

Perceived value was measured with four subscales (Emotion, Quality, Price, and Social)

with a total of 11 items that were adapted from Sweeney and Soutar's PERVAL scale (2001).

While a number of previous perceived value studies focused on quality and price (Byon, 2008;

Holbrook, 1996; Kwon et al., 2007), two other factors (Emotion and Social) were often

overlooked that were related to the decision-making process of consumers. Sweeney and

Soutar's PERVAL scale (2001) took into consideration the void in the measurement of perceived

value. The PERVAL's scale items were slightly modified in order to be relevant to the setting of

TKD schools. The Emotion value dimension (3 items) can be measured by the following three

items: (a) attending TKD school is something that I would enjoy, (b) attending TKD school is

something that I like to participate in, (c) I feel comfortable attending the TKD school. The

perceived value items were proceeded with the following statement: 'I believe that attending the

Taekwondo school is......' and each item was phrased in a 7-point Likert-type scale, ranging

from 1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree.

66









Member Satisfaction

Each respondent was assessed on his/her level of overall satisfaction with the TKD School

that he/she was affiliated. Member satisfaction was measured as a latent construct reflected by

overall satisfaction. Specifically, three items were adopted from Brady, Knight, Cronin, Hult,

and Keillor's (2005) scale as this scale was widely recognized and adopted to measure three

critical affective reaction components toward a consumptive object (satisfaction, happiness, and

delight). The wording of the original items was modified in order to be relevant and

representative of the setting of TKD school participation. The three items were "I am satisfied

with my decision to attend the Taekwondo school," I am happy that I attended the Taekwondo

school," and "I think that I did the right thing by deciding to attend the Taekwondo school." In

this study, each item was structured in a 7-point Likert-type scale, ranging from 1 (strongly

disagree) to 7 (strongly agree).

Member Commitment

Member Commitment was measured with a four-item scale that was modified from

Scanlan et al.'s (1993) Sport Commitment Scale. This scale was adopted because it was

validated in the context of exercise and fitness participation setting (Alexandris et al., 2002). The

four items were slightly modified to reflect the TKD setting, which included "I am dedicated to

being a member of the Taekwondo school," "I am determined to remain a member of the

Taekwondo school," "It would be hard for me to quit membership of the Taekwondo school,"

and "I would be willing to do almost anything to keep being a member of the Taekwondo

school." The items were measured with a 7-point Likert-type scale, ranging from 1 (strongly

disagree) to 7 (strongly agree).









Demographic Information

For the purpose of describing the characteristics of respondents, a sociodemographic

section was included in the questionnaire that contained nine variables (i.e., gender, age,

ethnicity, marital status, household income, education, belt rank, information source, and TKD

annual expenditure). Multiple choice or fill-in-the-blank format were adopted for the

sociodemographic variables.

Procedures

Prior to the data collection, a test of content validity was conducted. The preliminary

questionnaire was submitted to a panel of nine experts, which consisted of five university

professors (one in business marketing and four in sport management) and four practitioners (two

TKD masters in different TKD schools and two administrators of different TKD organizations).

Each panel member was requested to examine the relevance, clarity, and representativeness of

the items (Appendix A). A standard of 80% agreement among the panel members was adopted

for accepting each item. With minor improvements that were primarily related to wording

clarity, all items in the questionnaire were retained as a result of the content validity test.

Although mail, telephone, on-site, and online modes are commonly used survey protocol in

social science research, each has its own advantage and disadvantage. For example, online mode

is a convenient and time and cost efficient method to collect data from a large sample, but it has

limitations (e.g., noncoverage and nonresponse), and some respondents may not participate

because of inadequate computer skills (Dillman, 2007). In order to obtain responses from a large

group of TKD participants and in the meantime reduce the tendency of survey limitations,

(Dillman, 2007) suggests adopting a mixed-mode survey design, where data collection is

conducted by combining on-site and online test administrations.









After receiving approval from the Institutional Review Board (IRB) involving human

subjects, the researchers contacted and described the purpose of the study to the

masters/instructors of TKD schools and executives of TKD competitions of various nationwide

events and requested permission and assistance with data collection. For example, the researcher

contacted the executive director of major TKD events, such as U.S. Open Taekwondo

Championship in Austin, TX and Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) Taekwondo National

Championship in Ft. Lauderdale, FL, and collected data from these well-known national TKD

events. The U.S. Open Taekwondo Championship is one of the premier TKD annual events in

North America. The AAU TKD National Championship is also a major TKD annual event

organized by one of the largest non-profit volunteer organizations in the U.S. For the on-site test

administration, after an administrator agreed for his/her organization or event to participate in the

study, associated program/event participants were informed of the purpose of the study by the

researchers. Participants in each event were asked to complete the questionnaire and return them

to their master/instructor or survey booth.

The online surveys were simultaneously conducted, which were considered as beneficial

by including TKD program participants with broader backgrounds and in different geographical

regions of the U.S. in an effort to enhance the generalizability of the research findings. In this

protocol, an online survey with consent form was sent via e-mail to current TKD

maters/instructors who agreed to have his/her school participate in the study. The masters and

instructors were asked to forward the survey link to their program participants. Meanwhile, the

online survey was also linked to a well-known martial arts magazine's website (i.e., Taekwondo

Times), various Taekwondo online forums, and the Yahoo Taekwondo Group. Additionally, the

AAU Taekwondo organization forwarded the online survey to all members in its listserv.









Follow-up e-mails, personal e-mails, and phone calls, where the contact information was

available, were conducted to non-responding TKD school members in an effort to increase

response rate. Consequently, a total of 147 TKD school participants responded to the face-to-

face survey and a total of 448 TKD school participants responded to the online survey.

Participant responses between the online survey and the face-to-face survey were later compared

in an effort to eliminate concerns associated with possible differences occurring from applying

two data collection methods.

Data Analyses

Data were analyzed by adopting procedures in the SPSS 18.0, PRELIS 2.52, and MPLUS

5.21 computer programs in this study. Data screening and descriptive statistics were calculated to

examine the characteristics of the data by using the SPSS 18.0 program (SPSS, 2009). After data

screening, t-tests were conducted to examine if there were differences between the face-to-face

and the online survey modes by using SPSS 18.0 program. In fact, the findings from the t-tests

indicated that there were no significant (p < .05) differences between the two data collection

procedures except perceived constraints, where the mean constraint score for the event

participants from the on-site data collection process was significantly (p < .05 ) lower than TKD

participants responding to the on-line version of the survey (Table 3-2). This finding makes a

practical sense that for those TKD event participants, overall they tended to perceive fewer

constraints as evidenced by their already presence at the event; conversely, they might possess

higher motivation and commitment to TKD.

Data screening was conducted to examine the distributions of variables, accuracy of data

entry, outliers, and assumptions for multivariate analyses. To examine multivariate normality,

Mardia's coefficient of multivariate skewness and kurtosis was tested by applying the PRELIS

2.52 program (Joreskog & Sorbom, 1996). In an effort to cope with multivariate non-normal

70









distribution, a robust maximum likelihood estimator (MLR) with Satorra-Bentler (S-B) adjusts

chi-square (S-B x2) scaling method was adopted and performed to make the corrections (Satorra

& Bentler, 2001). The robust ML is a "very well-behaved estimator across different levels of

non-normality, model complexity, and sample size" (Brown, 200, p. 379). Chou, Benter, and

Satorra (1991) argued that the robust ML with S-B scaling methods is appropriate to handle

continuous non-normal data.

Testing of hypotheses was conducted by a two-step process, a systematic approach

suggested by (Anderson & Gerbing, 1988). In the first step, the measurement model was tested

through appropriate validation process. The first step tested the suitability of hypothesized factor

structure for the data. The second step was related to the assessment of the structural

relationships in the model when measurement model was adequate (Anderson & Gerbing, 1988;

Kline, 2005). Upon confirming multivariate normality, a preliminary step of the analyses was to

reexamine the factor validity of measures. Prior to testing the overall measurement models, six

separate confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were conducted for the market demand, perceived

benefit, perceived constraints, perceived value, member satisfaction, and member commitment

measures using the Mplus 5.21 program (Muthen & Muthen, 2007). Then, a CFA was conducted

to evaluate the measurement model for all of the constructs and their items, and to estimate how

well the items would represent the proposed latent constructs (Hair et al., 2006). According to

Hair et al. (2006) and Tabachnick and Fidell (2006), executing a CFA has to follow the

following five steps: (a) model specification, (b) identification, (c) model estimation, (d) testing

model fit, and (e) model respecification.

A structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to examine the hypothesized

structural relationships. There are advantages to using SEM in this study for the flowing









considerations: (a) it has the ability to correct measurement error, (b) it is an advanced statistical

technique to investigate hierarchical relationships among latent variables, (c) it provides a new

approach to theory building and testing the model, (d) it offers evaluations for the general

compatibility (e.g., goodness of fit) of the model, and (e) it has the ability to estimate the entire

interrelated dependence relationships simultaneously (Hair et al., 2006; Quintana & Maxwell,

1999). By adopting the procedures in the Mplus 5.21 that are friendly in handling non-normal

data (Muthen & Muthen, 2007), the SEM was executed to assess the proposed structural

relationships among the market demand, perceived benefits, perceived constraints, perceived

value, member satisfaction, and member commitment constructs that were refined in the stage of

CFA.

Goodness of Model Fit

To assess the goodness of model fit and the estimation of parameters of the hypothesized

model, the Satorra-Bentler chi-square to the model's degree of freedom (X2S-B/df) (Kline, 2005)

and the following fit indexes were considered: root mean square error of approximation

(RMSEA), standardized means square residual (SMRM), and comparative fit index (CFI) (Hair

et al., 2006; Hu & Bentler, 1999; Kline, 2005). The adequacy of conventional cutoff criteria for

fit indices recommended by Hu and Bentler (1999) and Kline (2005) was followed. The chi-

square statistic could be used to examine significant difference between expected and observed

covariance matrix structure. A nonsignificant chi-square shows that the model is of good data fit.

However, alternative measures of fit have been used because chi-square is sensitive to sample

size (Kline, 2005). Kline (2005) defined RMSEA as "badness-of-fit index in that a value of zero

indicates that best fit and higher values indicate worse fit" (p. 138). For RMSEA, Hu and Bentler

(1999) suggested that RMSEA values less than .06 indicate a close fit, between .06 and .08

indicate an acceptable fit, and greater than .10 indicate a poor fit. The SRMR indicates the

72









average value across all standardized residuals. A higher value of SRMR indicates bad fit and

smaller values shows good fit. The value less than .09 generally indicates a good fit of model

(Kline, 2005). The CFI is defined as "the relative improvement in fit of the researcher's model

compared with a baseline model" (Kline, 2005, p. 140). A rule of thumb for the CFI index is that

researcher's model has a reasonable fit when a value is larger than .90 (Hu & Bentler, 1999).

Reliability

Reliability is consistent in what it is intended to measure. Hair et al. (2006) defined the

reliability in SEM as "degree to which a set of latent construct indicators are consistent in their

measurements. In more formal terms, reliability is the extent to which a set of two or more

indicators share in their measurement of a construct" (p. 583). To assess the reliability of the

scale, the following three tests were conducted: Cronbach's alpha (ca), construct reliability (CR),

and averaged variance extracted (AVE). Cronbach's alpha (a) coefficients (i.e., internal

consistency values) indicate how well the items predict one another based on the correlations in

the subscale. CR is also an internal consistency measure that accounts for measurement errors of

all indicators (Fornell & Larcker, 1981). The internal consistency (a) value and CR are suggested

to be equal to or greater than .70 cut-off point (Fornell & Larcker, 1981; Nunnally & Bernstein,

1994). Another measure of reliability is the Average Variance Extracted (AVE). The AVE

values assessed the variance captured by the indicators relative to measurement error. AVE value

recommended to be greater than .50 threshold (Fornell & Larcker, 1981) and calculated as (Hair

et al., 2006):

AVE = (standardized loading2) / Z (standardized loading)2 + Fj

In other words, the AVE value is calculated by dividing (summation of squared standardized









factor loadings) by ([summation of squared standardized factor loadings] plus [summation of

error variances]) (Hair et al., 2006).

Validity

Construct validity is defined by "whether a measure relates to other observed variables in a

way that is consistent with theoretically derived predictions" (Bollen, 1990, p. 188). Thus, to

establish construct validity, the relationship between the observed variables and latent constructs

was examined. Two key elements determined construct validity: (a) convergent validity and (b)

discriminant validity. First, convergent validity refers to how well each indicator loads on its

underlying theoretical construct, which is a correlation between two constructs measuring the

same concept (Anderson & Gerbing, 1988; Netemeyer, Johnston, & Burton, 1990). To assess

convergent validity, indicator loadings and t-value should be examined. The loading value for

each of the measurement items need to be equal to or greater than .707 (Anderson & Gerbing,

1988), demonstrating good convergent validity. Second, discriminant validity indicates the

extent to which a given construct is different from other constructs (e.g., perceived benefits,

perceived constraints, perceived value, member satisfaction, and member commitment) (Fornell

& Larcker, 1981). Discriminant validity can be established if correlations among constructs are

less than .85 (Kline, 2005) or if the AVE of a specific construct exceeds the squared value of the

correlation between that construct and any other factor (Fornell & Larcker, 1981). In this study,

both ways were conducted to examine discriminant validity.

After confirming overall measurement model, the final step involved testing the proposed

hypotheses in the conceptual model and analyzing the data through a structural equation

modeling (SEM). The SEM utilizes various types of models (e.g., path and confirmatory models)

to depict both latent and observed relationships among variables in order to provide a









quantitative test for a theoretical model hypothesized by a researcher (Hair et al., 2006; Kline,


2005).









Table 3-1. Descriptive statistics for the sociodemographic variables (N=595)
Variable Category N % Cumulative %


Male
Female


18-25
26-35
36-45
46-55
56-65
Over 65

White
African-American
Hispanic
Asian
Other


Ethnicity


Marital Status




Number of Children


Household Income









Education


Single
Married
Divorced
Other

0
1
2
3
4 or more


Under $9,999
$10,000-14,999
$15,000-24,999
$25,000-34,999
$35,000-49,999
$50,000-74,999
$75,000-99,999
Over $100,000

Some High School
High School Graduate
Some College
College Graduate
Graduate Degree
Others


Gender


Age


59.9
39.9

27.4
16.5
28.7
21.0
5.2
1.2

66.1
5.4
15.7
8.5
3.6

30.8
61.0
7.7
0.5

30.5
18.3
28.2
14.0
9.0

6.4
3.1
4.0
3.6
8.2
20.8
20.4
33.4

3.2
7.0
25.6
38.4
21.7
4.1


59.9
100.0

27.4
43.9
72.6
93.6
98.8
100.0

66.1
71.5
87.2
95.7
100.0

30.8
91.8
99.5
100.0

30.5
48.8
77.0
91.0
100.0

6.4
9.5
13.5
17.1
25.3
46.1
66.6
100.0

3.2
10.2
35.8
74.2
95.9
100.0











Table 3-1. Continued
Variable


Membership Type



Belt Rank


Category


% Cumulative %


Individual
Family
Other

White
Yellow
Green
Blue
Red
Black (1-3 Dan)
Black (Above 3 Dan)


Learned of the School Referral
(Word of Mouth and Friend)
Advertisement
Yellow Pages
Internet
Other


TKD Expenditure
(per year)


Under $999
$1,000-1,999
$2,000-2,999
$3,000-3,999
Over $4,000


50.6
41.0
8.4

3.1
4.1
6.1
9.5
10.7
51.5
15.0

53.7

13.1
4.8
11.5
16.9

28.8
27.7
16.8
8.5
18.2


50.6
91.6
100.0

3.1
7.2
13.3
22.8
33.5
85.0
100.0

53.7

66.8
71.6
83.1
100.0

28.8
56.5
73.3
81.8
100.0









Table 3-2. Group comparison between on-line and on-site respondents
Factor On-line (N= 448) On-site (N= 147) t- value p
MD M 5.43 5.56 -1.782 .076

SD 0.73 0.88

PB M 6.11 6.22 -1.359 .175

SD 0.75 0.95

PC M 2.56 2.18 3.235 .001

SD 1.08 1.06

PV M 6.15 6.30 -1.592 .123

SD 0.74 1.02

MSA M 6.63 6.68 -.689 .491

SD 0.72 0.78

MCO M 6.32 6.48 -1.694 .091

SD 1.02 0.91

Note: MD = Market Demand; PB = Perceived Benefits; PC = Perceived Constraints; PV =
Perceived Vale; MSA = Member Satisfaction; MCO = Member Commitment









CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

The result of this study was presented in the following four sections: (a) descriptive

statistics, (b) confirmatory factor analyses, and (c) structural equation model analyses.

Descriptive Statistics

Market Demand Variables

Descriptive statistics including mean and standard deviation for the market demand

variables are presented in Table 4-1. All items except three had a mean score above 4.0 (i.e.,

midpoint on the 7-point Likert scale), representing that respondent is overall considered market

demand variables as important while they made decision to attend a TKD school. The means

score of the market demand items ranged from 3.12 to 6.60 and standard deviations ranged from

0.85 to 2.07. Among the market demand factors, Instruction Service Quality had the highest

mean score (M= 6.46, SD = .083). Within this factor, the "Instructors/masters are friendly" item

had the highest mean score (M= 6.60, SD = 0.85). On the other hand, Locker Room Provision

had the lowest mean score among the market demand factors (M= 4.15, SD = 1.64). Within this

factor, "The school offers a good shower room" item had the lowest mean score (M= 3.18; SD =

2.02).

Perceived Benefits Variables

Table 4-2 presented the descriptive statistics for the perceived benefits variables. All 12

items had a mean score greater than 4.0 (i.e., midpoint on the 7-point Likert scale, reflecting that

respondents had positive perceived benefits gained from attending a TKD school). The means

score of the perceived benefits items ranged from 5.58 to 6.42 and standard deviations ranged

from 0.83 to 1.35. The "Improving my appearance" item had the lowest mean score (M= 5.58,

SD = 1.35) and the "Improving my physical health" item had the highest mean score (M= 6.42,









SD = 0.83) of the perceived benefits variables. Of the perceived benefits dimensions, the

Physical Benefits had slightly higher mean score (M= 6.10, SD = 0.89) than Psychological

Benefits.

Perceived Constraints Variables

Table 4-3 presented the descriptive statistics for the perceived constraints variables. All

22 items had a mean below 4.0 on the 7-point Likert scale, reflecting that respondents did not

perceive strong constraints associated with attending a TKD school. The mean scores of the

perceived constraints items ranged from 1.85 to 3.43 and standard deviations ranged from 1.32 to

2.10. The item, "A language barrier in the Taekwondo school," had the lowest mean score (M=

1.85, SD = 1.32) and the "Health problems" item had the highest mean score (M= 3.42, SD =

1.98) among the perceived constraints variables. Of the perceived constraints factors, the

Structural Constraints factor had the highest mean score (M= 2.64, SD = 1.54), followed by

Interpersonal Constraints (M= 2.59, SD = 1.10). The lowest mean score was associated with the

Intrapersonal Constraints factor (M= 2.31, SD = 1.36).

Perceived Value Variables

Table 4-4 presented the descriptive statistics for the perceived constraints variables. All

items had a mean score over 4.0 on the 7-point Likert scale, indicating that respondents

perceived that it was valuable for them to participate in TKD schools. The mean scores of these

perceived value items ranged from 5.53 to 6.56 and standard deviations ranged from 0.79 to

1.64. The "Helping me feel accepted by others" item had the lowest mean score (M= 5.36, SD =

1.64) and the "Something that I like to participate in" item had the highest mean score (M= 6.56,

SD = 0.798) among the variables. Of the perceived value dimensions, Emotion Value had the

highest mean score (M= 6.52, SD = 0.76), followed by Quality Value (M= 6.27, SD = 1.04).

The lowest mean score was associated with the Social Value factor (M= 5.58, SD = 1.39).

80









Member Satisfaction and Member Commitment Variables

Table 4-5 presents the descriptive statistics for member satisfaction and commitment

variables. All of the variables had a mean score greater than 4.0 on the 7-point Likert scale.

Among member satisfaction items, two items, "I am happy that I attended the school" (M= 6.58,

SD = 0.90) and "I think that I did the right thing by deciding to attend the school" (M= 6.58, SD

= 0.94), had same high mean score. Of the member commitment items, the item, "It would be

hard for me to quit member of the school," had the lowest mean value (M= 5.59, SD = 1.75) and

the item, "I would be willing to do almost anything to keep being a member of the school," had

the highest mean value (M= 6.54, SD = 0.97).

Data Normality

Test of multivariate normality assumptions for the variables was conducted by executing

the PRELIS 2.52 program (Joreskog & Sorbom, 1996). Multivariate non-normality would be

violated when Mardia's Normalized coefficients of both skewness and kurtosis are statistically (p

< .05) significant. Findings of this study revealed that the normality assumption was violated

based on Mardia's coefficients of multivariate skewness (z = 189.6, p < 0.01) and kurtosis (z =

38.7, p < 0.01) (Mardia, 1985). In order to deal with the lack of multivariate normality, the

measurement model that was estimated with maximum likelihood robust (MLR) estimation and

tested with Satorra-Bentler chi-square (S-B x2) was applied for correction (Satorra & Bentler,

1994). In addition, multicollinearity was examined to check high correlations among variables.

Kline (2005) asserted that any two variables with a high correlation of over .85 indicated

multicollinearity problems. In this study, no correlation between any two items was over .85;

thus, multicollinearity was not a concern.









Measurement Models

Before proceeding to conducting the SEM, a CFA was conducted to verify the

measurement properties of market demand, perceived benefits, perceived constraints, and

perceived value measures, respectively, through executing the Mplus 5.21 program (Muthen &

Muthen, 2007). In particular, this process of reexamining the measurement models helped

determine the factor validity of the hypothesized relations between latent variables and their

indicators (Kline, 2005). Testing the overall measurement model was also conducted.

Market Demand

The measurement model of the seven market demand factors (Figure 4-1) with 37 items

was tested. Goodness of fit indexes revealed that the measurement model achieved good fit with

the data (Table 4-6). The S-B X2 /df(1263/608 = 2.07) was lower than the suggested standard

value of 3.0 (Kline, 2005). Robust CFI value of 0.949 was higher than the recommended cut-off

ratio (>. 90; Hu & Bentler, 1999). The RMSEA value (.043) indicated a close fit. In addition,

SRMR (.040) was less than .09, indicating a good fit of the model (Kline, 2005).

Alpha and CR coefficients for all of the seven factors were greater than the cut-off point of

.70 (Fornell & Larcker, 1981; Nunnally & Bernstein, 1994), where alpha coefficients ranged

from .77 (Economic Condition Consideration) to.97 (Personal Improvement Activities). CR

coefficients ranged from .78 for Economic Consideration to .96 for Personal Improvement

Activities. AVE values ranged from .55 to .85, which also provided evidence for convergent

validity (Fornell & Larcker, 1981). Overall, the findings indicated that the proposed seven-factor

market demand measure had sound reliability (Table 4-6).

The two key components of factorial validity, convergent validity and discriminant

validity, are both referred to how well the measurement items on its underlying theoretical

construct (Anderson & Gerbing, 1988; Netemeyer et al., 1990). In this study, convergent validity

82









was examined by assessing factor loadings and t-values. All indicator loadings were equal to or

above the suggested standard value of .707 (Anderson & Gerbing, 1988), with the exception of

four items with slightly lower loading values. These four items included two items (self-defense

and family programs) under the Physical Facility factor and two other items (hidden fee and

reasonable refund/cancellation policy) under the Economic Condition Consideration factor. A

decision was made to retain these four items based on the following considerations: (a) their

theoretical relevance, (b) their importance as shown in the descriptive statistics and t-tests, and

(c) overall model fit. The t-test values for all of the factor loadings were statistically significant

at the .001 level. In addition, significant relationships between the seven factors and the general

construct (i.e., market demand) supported convergent validity of the scale. Overall, these

findings support the evidence of convergent validity. To assess discriminant validity, Kline

(2005) suggested that discriminant validity be established when interfactor correlation is below

.85. The interfactor correlation between any two factors ranged from .14 (between Personal

Improvement Activities and Locker Room Provision) to .52 (between Physical Facility Quality

and Program Activities and Offerings) (Table 4-7). In addition, a squared correlation between

two constructs should be lower than the AVE value for any one of the two constructs (Table 4-

8). Thus, discriminant validity of the market demand measure was evidenced.

Perceived Benefits

A CFA was performed to evaluate the measurement model of the perceived benefits

measure with two latent variables and 12 items. Modification indices suggested that model fit

needed to be improved with respecification. In order to improve model fit, three items had to be

eliminated based on further considerations of theoretical relevance, parsimoniousness of the

model, and indicator loadings. After the modification, the model fit the data marginally well (S-

B X2 /df (433.2/53) = 8.17, p < .01; RMSEA = .111; CFI = .839; SRMR = .060). However, the

83









two latent factors (i.e., psychological benefit and physical benefit) were highly correlated (.90),

which would likely lead to multicollinearity issues in the SEM stage. Kline (2005) recommended

that the variables causing the multicollinearity should be eliminated or combined redundant

variables onto a composite variable. Therefore, two latent variables were combined into one

factor, labeled Perceived Benefits, based on Kline's suggestion. Consequently, the revised model

showed adequate fit for the data (S-B X2 /df (123.4/26) = 4.74, p < .01; RMSEA = .080; CFI=

.936; SRMR= .035).

The Perceived Benefits factor showed good reliability as evidenced in Cronbach's alpha

coefficient (a = .94) and CR coefficient (.94) (Table 4-6). The AVE value for factor was .64, also

providing strong evidence of convergent validity (Fornell & Lorcker, 1981). The findings overall

indicated that the one-factor structure was internally consistent (Table 4-6).

Perceived Constraints

A CFA was performed to evaluate the measurement model of three perceived constraints

factors with 22 items. Modification indexes suggested that model fit needed to be improved with

respecification. To do so, a total of 10 items were eliminated due to their poor indicator loadings

and reconsiderations of their theoretical relevance and parsimoniousness of the model. After the

modification, the model fit the data reasonably well (S-B X2 /df(240.1/51) = 4.70, p < .01;

RMSEA = .079; CFI = .925; SRMR = .051). Cronbach's alpha coefficients were .76, .86, and

.91, respectively, for Intrapersonal Constraints, Interpersonal Constraints, and Structural

Constraints. CR values resembled those coefficients derived from calculating Cronbach's alpha.

AVE values for the factors ranged from .62 to .66, also indicating strong evidence of convergent

validity (Fornell & Lorcker, 1981). Overall, the findings indicated that the three-factor model

had internal consistency.









For convergent validity, t-values for all of the factor loadings were statistically significant

at the .001 level. In addition, significant relationships among the three factors, as well as between

the three factors and a general construct (i.e., perceived constraints), provided supporting

evidence of convergent validity of the scale (Table 4-6). The interfactor correlations ranged from

.54 (between Intrapersonal Constraints and Structural Constraints) to .70 (between Interpersonal

Constraints and Structural Constraints), no interfactor correlation coefficient was larger than .85

(Table 4-7). In addition, a squared correlation between two constructs should be lower than the

AVE value for any one of the two constructs (Table 4-8). These indicated very good discriminant

validity.

Perceived Value

A CFA was performed to evaluate the measurement model of four perceived value

factors with 11 items. Modification indexes suggested that model fit needed to be improved with

respecification. The model fit the data well (S-B X2 /df(224.9/38) = 5.91, p < .01; RMSEA =

.091; CFI= .919; SRMR = .056), so the modification was conducted. Cronbach's alpha

coefficients for the four factors were .87, .93, .90, and .73, respectively, for Emotion Value, Price

Value, Social Value, and Quality Value. CR coefficients ranged from .70 for Quality Value to

.96 for Emotional Value. AVE values for the factors ranged from .54 (Quality Value) to .82

(Price Value), also indicating evidence of convergent validity (Fornell & Lorcker, 1981). The

findings overall indicated that the four-factor measure had sound internal consistency (Table 4-

6). Additionally, indicator loadings and t-test values supported the presence of convergent

validity. For discriminant validity, interfactor correlations ranged from .51 (between Emotion

Value and Social Value) to .80 (between Emotion Value and Quality), and no interfactor

correlation coefficient was greater than .85 (Table 4-7). In addition, a squared correlation









between two constructs should be lower than the AVE value for any one of the two constructs

(Table 4-8). These findings indicated very good discriminant validity of the measure.

Overall Measurement Model

Anderson and Gerbing (1998) introduced a two-step approach, which involves the testing

of a general measurement model and a structural model. Thus, initial overall measurement model

with 17 latent factors, including all of the market demand, perceived benefits, perceived

constraints, and perceived value factors, as well as member satisfaction and commitment, with a

total of 76 observed indicators was tested by conducting a CFA. An initial estimation of the

overall measurement model produced acceptable levels of model fit (S-B X2 /df (5483.3/2637) =

2.07, p < .01; RMSEA = .043; CFI= .906; SRMR = .052); yet, the goodness of fit indexes

suggested that the measurement model needs to be respecified in order to achieve better valid

and reliable evidence. Consequently, the revised overall measurement model with 16 latent

factors and 71 observed indicators was tested. By checking the high modification index, three

items were deleted to improve the goodness of fit. One latent factor, Quality Value, with two

items was also eliminated due to its very high correlation with Member Commitment. Overall, a

finding of the revised measurement model was satisfactory. The S-B X2 /df (4520/2293 = 1.97)

was lower than the suggested standard value of 3.0 (Kline, 2005). Robust CFI value of .920 was

higher than the recommended cut-off ratio (>. 90; Hu & Bentler, 1999). The RMSEA value

(.040) indicated a close fit. In addition, the SRMR (.047) was less than .09, indicating a good fit

of model (Kline, 2005).

Cronbach's alpha and CR for the factors were all greater than the cut-off point of .70

(Fomell & Lorcker, 1981; Nunnally & Bernstein, 1994). As shown in Table 4-6, alpha

coefficients for the factors ranged from .76 (Intrapersonal Constraints) to .97 (Personal

Improvement Activities). CR coefficients ranged from .78 for Economic Condition

86









Consideration and Intrapersonal constraints to .96 for Personal Improvement Activities and

Member Satisfaction. AVE values ranged from .55 (Program Activities Offerings and Economic

Condition Consideration) to .89 (Member Satisfaction), indicating a strong evidence of

reliability.

Convergent validity of the overall measurement model was examined by t-value and factor

loadings. The t-values for the factor loadings were all statistically significant at the .001 level.

Factor loading coefficients were equal to or greater than .707, except for five items with slightly

lower values (Anderson & Gerbing, 1988). Consistent with measurement model testing for

individual conceptual areas, these items were retained due to their theoretical relevance and

minimal deviance from the high standard of .707 (Table 4-6).

The interfactor correlations ranged from -.07 (between Locker Room Provision and

Structural Constraints) to .77 (Member Satisfaction and Member Commitment), and no

interfactor correlation coefficient was greater than .85 (Table 4-7). Discriminant validity was

also assessed by comparing the AVE value with the interfactor correlation coefficients, where all

squared correlations in the scale should be less than the AVE value for the respective construct

(Table 4-8). All of the AVE values were significantly greater than any squared correlations.

These findings indicated very good discriminant validity. Overall, the findings of the

measurement models provided good evidence for the study to proceed with the SEM analysis.

Structural Equation Model

Based on the overall measurement model, there were a total of 16 observed variables

(i.e., personal improvement activities, physical facility quality, instructional staff quality,

program activities offerings, cultural learning activities, locker room provision, economic

condition consideration, perceived benefits, intrapersonal constraints, interpersonal constraints,

structural constraints, emotional value, price value, social value, member satisfaction, and

87









member commitment) and six latent variables (i.e., market demand, perceived benefits,

perceived constraints, perceived value, member satisfaction, and member commitment). Figure

1-1 showed the relationships among these constructs. The fit indices revealed that S-B X2 /df

(5044.8/2391) = 2.11,p < .01; RMSEA = .043; CFI= .905; SRMR = .068. The relationship

between market demand factors and the latent, general market demand variable was all

significantly (p < .05) different from zero, and all standardized loading ranged from .36 for

Locker Room Provision to .85 for Economic Condition Consideration (Figure 4-2). With respect

to the structural relationships, path coefficients were examined among the market demand,

perceived benefits, perceived constraints, perceived value, member satisfaction, and member

commitment constructs. The market demand latent variable directly affected perceived benefits,

perceived constraints, and perceived value, and indirectly affected perceived value, member

satisfaction, and member commitment. All of the direct and indirect paths were statistically

significant (p < .05) (Figure 4-2). An amalgamation of the market demand factors had positive

effects on perceived benefits (f = .73, p < .01), perceived constraints (f = .38, p < .01),

perceived value ( = .72, p < .01), member satisfaction ( = .58, p < .05), and member

commitment (f = .28, p < .01). Therefore, H1-5 were supported (Table 4-9). Also, the effect of

perceived benefits on perceived value was positive and statistically significant (p < .05), where

perceived benefits was positively predictive of perceived value (f = .25, p < .001), indicating that

H6 was supported. However, although the effect of perceived constraints on perceived value was

negative, it was not statistically significant (f = -.01; p > .05); Thus, H7 was not supported (Table

4-9). The path from perceived value to member satisfaction was positively and statistically

significant (f = .45, p < .05), indicating that H8 was not supported (Table 4-9). Furthermore,









member satisfaction had a positive impact on member commitment (f = .61, p < .001), indicating

that H9 was supported (Table 4-9).

To compare the advantage between the partially mediated model (Model A) and the direct

effect model (Model B) (Figure 4-3), the chi-squares and degrees of freedom of models were

compared to see if the hypothesized model was supported (Model A). The null hypothesis, 'the

partially mediated model fits the data (Hi) would fit the data well just as the fully mediated

model,' was tested. The model comparison test was conducted by using J122 = (12 X22) = .07

and dfi df2 = 1. Although the fit index for the partially mediated model was slightly better, the

difference was not statistically (p > .05) different, indicating that the null hypothesis was

retained. In this case, it would be reasonable to consider that perceived benefits and perceived

constraints fully mediated the relationships between market demand and perceived value, which

in turn influenced member satisfaction and commitment.

The capability of the hypothesized model to explain variation in perceived value, member

satisfaction, and member commitment was estimated by R2 value. A total 85% of variable in

perceived value was explained by the market demand, perceived benefits, and perceived

constraints. The R2 values for member satisfaction and member commitment were .54 and .69,

respectively (Figure 4-2).

Summary of the Results

In summary, for each individual measurement model a CFA was conducted to assess the

validity of its construct(s). The findings revealed that the market demand consisted of seven

factors (i.e., personal improvement activities, physical facility quality, instruction staff quality,

program activities offerings, cultural learning activities, economic condition consideration, and

locker room provision). Perceived benefits variables converged to one factor. Perceived

constraints were found to be of a three-factor structure (i.e., intrapersonal, interpersonal, and

89









structural constraints). Perceived value had four factors retained, including emotion value, price

value, social value, and quality value. In addition, member satisfaction and member commitment

were confirmed as being unidimensional. After confirming individual measurement models, an

overall measurement model was found to fit the data well. Finally, a SEM was conducted for

testing the stated hypotheses, all of which were supported except H7, where perceived constraints

were not found to be predictive of perceived value (Table 4-9).









Table 4-1. Descriptive statistics for the market demand variables (N= 595)
Factors and items M SD
Personal Improvement Activities
Improving self-discipline (PIA1) 6.02 1.384
Improving patience (PIA2) 5.76 1.410
Learning to be humble (PIA3) 5.58 1.490
Fully exploring individual potential (PIA4) 6.16 1.205
Building character (PIA5) 5.98 1.300
Fostering a positive attitude (PIA6) 6.03 1.286
Improving self-confidence (PIA7) 6.20 1.193
Improving social skills (PIA8) 5.43 1.531
Improving self-concept (PIA9) 5.73 1.379
Increasing personal pride (PIA10) 5.90 1.354
Developing respect for other people (PIA11) 5.87 1.437
Developing a strong work ethic (PIA12) 5.85 1.416
Improving leadership skills (PIA13) 5.91 1.395
Developing a code of honor (PIA14) 5.78 1.486
Physical Facility Quality
The school has first-aid equipment (PFQ1) 5.51 1.536
The school has safety equipment (PFQ2) 5.76 1.422
The school's facility is safe and comfortable (PFQ3) 6.23 1.004
The school's interior is well designed (PFQ4) 5.74 1.339
The school has adequate space for class activities (PFQ5) 5.93 1.289
The school has up-to-date equipment (PFQ6) 5.86 1.239
A variety of exercise equipment are available (PFQ7) 5.14 1.717
The school's ambience is excellent (PFQ8) 5.81 1.339
The school's facility is aesthetically attractive (PFQ9) 5.38 1.483
Cultural Learning Activities
Learning Korean philosophy (ritual/ceremony, symbol) (CLA1) 4.62 1.808
Learning about Korean culture (CLA2) 4.32 1.753
Learning about Korean heritage (CLA3) 4.26 1.767
Improving bilingual ability (CLA4) 3.91 1.795
Locker Room Provision
The school offers a good locker room (LRP1) 4.08 1.855
The locker room is safe (LRP2) 4.75 1.866
The school offers a good shower room (LRP3) 3.18 2.017
The locker room in this school is convenient (LRP4) 4.38 1.925
The locker room in this school is clean (LRP5) 4.73 1.871
The shower room in this school is clean (LRP6) 3.94 1.964









Table 4-1. Continued
Factors and items M SD
Instructional Staff Quality
Instructors/masters have a good reputation (ISQ1) 6.57 0.892
Having an adequate number of instructors (ISQ2) 6.07 1.277
Instructors/masters are willing to help members (ISQ3) 6.59 0.884
Having well qualified instructors (ISQ4) 6.57 0.959
Instructors/masters are friendly (ISQ5) 6.60 0.853
Instructors/masters handle problems promptly and professionally 6.38 1.073
(ISQ6)
Program Activities Offerings
Opportunity to see master's demonstration performance (PAO1) 5.06 1.748
Dan certification from a sanctioned organization (PAO2) 5.88 1.554
Child-care services (PAO3) 3.12 1.942
An appropriate class size (PAO4) 5.61 1.395
A reasonable belt promotion system (PAO5) 5.85 1.376
After-school programs (PAO6) 3.91 2.075
Classes focusing on self-defense (PAO7) 5.50 1.584
Quality promotional materials (e.g., pamphlets) (PAO8) 4.67 1.864
Opportunities to compete in taekwondo tournaments (PAO9) 5.83 1.567
Free trial lessons (PAO10) 5.39 1.760
Special events (e.g., training camp) (PAO11) 5.25 1.744
Various activities for different groups of members (PAO12) 5.23 1.705
Family programs (PAO13) 5.38 1.716
Convenient operating hours (PAO14) 6.11 1.142
Classes at several different times (PAO15) 5.79 1.525
Economic Condition Consideration
No charge any hidden fees (ECC1) 6.15 1.346
Payment methods service is convenient (ECC2) 6.18 1.127
The membership fee is reasonable (ECC3) 6.07 1.262
A reasonable refund and cancellation policy (ECC4) 5.50 1.554
Offering giveaway items (uniforms, belts, club bag, etc) (ECC5) 4.47 1.934
Offering flexible payment plans (ECC6) 5.49 1.584
Offering optional long term membership category (ECC7) 5.19 1.881
Offering discounted family membership option (ECC8) 5.83 1.469
Note. PIA = personal improvement activities; PFQ = physical facility quality; CLA= cultural
learning activities; LRP = locker room provision; ISQ = instructional staff quality; PAO =
program activities offerings; ECC = economic condition consideration









Table 4-2. Descriptive statistics for the perceived benefits (N= 595)
Factors and items M SD
Psychological Benefit
Coping with life's pressures (PSY1) 5.92 1.222
Enhancing self-image (PSY2) 5.82 1.243
Improving my mental health (PSY3) 5.97 1.186
Improving my character (PSY4) 5.88 1.292
Improving positive psychological effect (PSY5) 6.00 1.150
Enhancing self-confidence (PSY6) 6.14 1.086
Feeling better in general (PSY7) 6.36 0.949
Physical Benefit
Improving my appearance (PHY1) 5.58 1.351
Basic athletic skills (PHY2) 6.14 1.087
Improving my physical health (PHY3) 6.42 0.826
Improving self-protection (PHY4) 6.14 1.124
Improving self-defense ability (PHY5) 6.21 1.063
Note. PSY = psychological benefit; PHY = physical activity









Table 4-3. Descriptive statistics for the perceived constraints (N= 595)
Factors and items M SD
Intrapersonal Constraints
Health problems (ITR1) 3.43 1.984
Harder to learn than other sports (ITR2) 2.52 1.663
Skills are improved enough (ITR3) 2.50 1.669
Tiring to attend the Taekwondo school (ITR4) 2.16 1.419
Afraid of injury (ITR5) 2.28 1.488
No fun anymore (ITR6) 2.23 1.641
Physically challenging (ITR7) 3.02 2.087
Interpersonal Constraints
Happy with social situations in school (ITE1) 2.58 1.797
I do not think that the instructor(s)/master is competent (ITE2) 2.44 2.103
No close partner in school (ITE3) 2.26 1.587
Observing negative attitudes from instructor(s)/master (ITE4) 2.66 2.126
Problems with my training partner in the TKD school (ITE5) 2.04 1.424
A language barrier in the Taekwondo school (ITE6) 1.85 1.318
Structural Constraints
Pay for expensive equipment to attend in school (STR1) 2.56 1.746
Pay for expensive membership and promotion fees (STR2) 2.70 1.944
Not enough money to participate in school (STR3) 2.92 2.021
Not enough time to participate in school (STR4) 2.82 1.906
The facility is poorly maintained (STR5) 2.51 1.861
The school is located too far away (STR6) 2.63 1.919
Not have transportation to attend the school (STR7) 2.35 1.872
The facility is very crowded (STR8) 2.48 1.696
I cannot afford to attend the school (STR9) 2.82 2.009
Note. ITR = intrapersonal constraints; ITE = interpersonal constrains; STR = structural
constraints









Table 4-4. Descriptive statistics for the perceived value (N = 595)
Factors and items M SD
Emotional Value
Something that I would enjoy (EMO1) 6.52 0.834
Something that I like to participate (EMO2) 6.56 0.792
I feel comfortable attending the Taekwondo school (EMO3) 6.50 0.924
Price Value
Reasonably priced (PRI1) 6.01 1.245
Offering value for the money I spend (PRI2) 6.18 1.220
Affordable (PRI3) 5.77 1.417
Social Value
Making a good impression on other people (SOC1) 5.84 1.405
Helping me feel accepted by others (SOC2) 5.36 1.642
Improving the way I am perceived by others (SOC3) 5.53 1.521
Quality Value
Last a long time (QUA1) 6.04 1.276
I would definitely consider continuing with school (QUA2) 6.49 1.077
Note. EMO = emotional value; PRI = price value; SOC = social value; QUA = quality value











Table 4-5. Descriptive statistics for the member satisfaction and commitment (N = 595)
Factors and items M SD
Member Satisfaction
I am satisfied with my decision to attend the school (MSA1) 6.54 0.966
I am happy that I attended the school (MSA2) 6.58 0.907
I think that I did the right thing by deciding to attend the school 6.58 0.944
(MSA3)
Member Commitment 6.47 1.103
I am dedicated to being a member of the school (MCO1) 6.39 1.199
I am determined to remain a member of the school (MCO2) 6.18 1.465
It would be hard for me to quit member of the school (MCO3) 5.59 1.753
I would be willing to do almost anything to keep being a member 6.54 0.966
of the school (MCO4)
Note. MSA = member satisfaction; MCO = member commitment









Table 4-6. Summary results for overall measurement model


Construct and Items


CR X a AVE


Personal Improvement Activities (11 items)
Improving self-discipline (PIA1)
Learning to be humble (PIA3)
Building character (PIA5)
Fostering a positive attitude (PIA6)
Improving self-confidence (PIA7)
Improving self-concept (PIA9)
Increasing personal pride (PIA10)
Developing respect for other people (PIA11)
Developing a strong work ethic (PIA12)
Improving leadership skills (PIA13)
Developing a code of honor (PIA14)
Physical Facility Quality (6 items)
The school's facility is safe and comfortable (PFQ3)
The school's interior is well designed (PFQ4)
The school has adequate space for class activities (PFQ5)
The school has up-to-date equipment (PFQ6)
The school's ambience is excellent (PFQ8)
The school's facility is aesthetically attractive (PFQ9)
Instructional Staff Quality (5 items)
Instructors/masters have a good reputation (ISQ1)
Instructors/masters are willing to help members (ISQ3)
Having well qualified instructors (ISQ4)
Instructors/masters are friendly (ISQ5)
Instructors/masters handle problems promptly/ professionally (ISQ6)
Program Activities Offerings (5 items)
Classes focusing on self-defense (PAO7)
Quality promotional materials (e.g., pamphlets) (PAO8)
Special events (e.g., training camp) (PAO11)
Various activities for different groups of members (PAO 12)
Family programs (PAO13)


.97 .72


.840
.814
.907
.902
.853
.822
.796
.875
.839
.842
.856

.743
.865
.708
.759
.766
.837

.833
.875
.886
.803
.813

.686
.726
.775
.821
.696


.90 .61


.92 .71


.86 .55









Table 4-6. Continued
Construct and Items CR X a AVE


Cultural Learning Activities (3 items)
Learning Korean philosophy (ritual and symbol) (CLA1)
Learning about Korean culture (CLA2)
Learning about Korean heritage (CLA3)
Locker Room Provision (4 items)
The school offers a good locker room (LRP1)
The locker room is safe (LRP2)
The locker room in this school is convenient (LRP4)
The locker room in this school is clean (LRP5)
Economic Condition Consideration (3 items)
Not charged any hidden fee (ECC1)
Membership fee is reasonable (ECC3)
A reasonable refund and cancellation policy(ECC4)
Personal Benefit (9 items)
Enhancing self-image (PBE1)
Improving my mental health (PBE2)
Improving my character (PBE3)
Improving positive psychological effect (PBE4)
Enhancing self-confidence (PBE5)
Feeling better in general (PBE6)
Improving my physical health (PBE7)
Improving self-protection (PBE8)
Improving self-defense ability (PBE9)
Intrapersonal Constraints (2 items)
Tiring to attend the Taekwondo school (ITR4)
No fun anymore (ITR6)
Interpersonal Constraints (3 items)
Happy with social situations in school (ITE1)
I do not think that the instructor(s)/master is competent (ITE2)
Observing negative attitudes from instructor(s)/master (ITE4)


.94 .85


.831
.972
.959

.883
.867
.894
.895

.681
.862
.657

.762
.806
.830
.858
.886
.832
.726
.723
.772

.678
.911

.678
.887
.702


.94 .78


.77 .55


.94 .64


.76 .64


.86 .58









Table 4-6. Continued
Construct and Items CR k a AVE


Structural Constraints (5 items)
Not enough time to participate in school (STR4)
The school is located too far away (STR6)
Not have transportation to attend the school (STR7)
The facility is very crowded (STR8)
I cannot afford to attend the school (STR9)
Emotional Value (3 items)
Something that I would enjoy (EMO1)
Something that I like to participate (EMO2)
I feel comfortable attending the Taekwondo school (EMO3)
Price Value (3 items)
Reasonably priced (PRI1)
Offering value for the money I spend (PRI2)
Affordable (PRI3)
Social Value (3 items)
Making a good impression on other people (SOC1)
Helping me feel accepted by others (SOC2)
Improving the way I am perceived by others (SOC3)
Member Satisfaction (3 items)
Satisfied with my decision to attend school (MSA1)
Happy I attend school (MSA2)
I did the right thing by deciding to attend the school (MSA3)
Member Commitment (3 items)
Dedicated to being a member of the school (MCO1)
Determined to remain a member of the school (MCO2)
It would be hard for me to quit member of the school (MCO3)


.91 .92 .67
.681
.816
.916
.811
.863
.87 .87 .69
.839
.829
.830
.93 .93 .82
.951
.876
.889
.90 .90 .76
.819
.884
.910
.96 .96 .89
.934
.983
.911
.94 .93 .85
.944
.969
.844








Table 4-7. Correlations among market demand constructs


Factor
PIA pCorrelation Matrix
PIA ISQ PAO CLA LRP ECC Cre Mtrix
PFQ .400** 1 SE ITE STR EOC PR SOC
ISQ .326** .381** MCC
PAO .470** .515** 451**
CLA .293** .336** .297** 414**
LRP .143** .307** .300** -259**
ECC .361** 376** .589** .478** 1399** 2
PBE 538** .461** 492** 5** 304** 178 .480**
ITR -.241* -266* -.6* 304** *178** 48*
IR -24** -.266** -267** -.286** -,163* 103* .261* -318**
ITE -.173** -.252** -260** -.282** -.16*"* .106 -.264** -.2158* 1
STR -.125** -.171** -129** .217.* -.116 -.2* -21**
EMO .77 ,* -.217** .09 177 .583**
EM 377** 543** .394** 241** .077 -.215* 86** .540** 695**
PI 351** 399 .443** .403** 229** .124** 13** .52** -357** -231* 158*
3 385** 477** 224** 1* 5 524** -.263 -* *
MSA .300** .398** .666** 34 251** .226** .51 ** -.2 -.24** .,*
MCO 342** .362** .619** .385** .226** .549** .516**. -248** .507** .41**
S 589 582 550* .522** -.331* ** -57 62 .548** .356*
Note Coelaio ,atn n t t h 401 level ( i6 10 2.20 2r56 i.681* 64 4** .53 1** 458 .772**
N ot .1 .9 1.38 1. 78 1 5.58 "

o Piersonal improvement activites PFQ Physical facility quality; CLA Cultural learning activities LRP locker room
provision; ISQ = instructional staff quality; PAO program activities offerings; ECC economic condition consideration; P
,oo b e ee e c v t eg ne u a L a n t a t t h e 5 l5e v e l ( 2 t a i l e d ) 1 .1 8


perceived benefits; ITR intrapersonal constraints; ITE interpersonal constrains STR structural condition consideratits; EMOn;ke room
Me erpe constrains; S earng activities; LRP Olockr roo
value; PRJ price value; SOC social value; MSA Member Satisfaction; MCO Member Commitment.
itm ntemotional











Table 4-8. Assessment of discriminant validity

AVE and Squared Correlations
Factor
PIA PFQ ISQ PAO CLA LRP ECC PBE ITR ITE STR EMO PRI SOC MSA MCO
PIA 0.72
PFQ 0.160 0.61
ISQ 0.107 0.145 0.71
PAO 0.221 0.265 0.204 0.55
CLA 0.086 0.113 0.088 0.171 0.85
LRP 0.020 0.094 0.090 0.067 0.040 0.78
ECC 0.130 0.141 0.347 0.229 0.056 0.086 0.55
PBE 0.289 0.212 0.242 0.255 0.093 0.032 0.230 0.64
ITR 0.058 0.071 0.071 0.082 0.026 0.011 0.068 0.101 0.64
ITE 0.030 0.063 0.068 0.079 0.026 0.013 0.069 0.046 0.340 0.58
STR 0.016 0.029 0.017 0.047 0.008 0.006 0.046 0.035 0.291 0.484 0.67
EMO 0.130 0.142 0.295 0.155 0.058 0.031 0.274 0.395 0.128 0.053 0.025 0.69
PRI 0.123 0.159 0.197 0.163 0.052 0.058 0.508 0.274 0.069 0.055 0.059 0.390 0.82
SOC 0.177 0.144 0.149 0.227 0.050 0.018 0.203 0.341 0.063 0.067 0.062 0.257 0.292 0.76
MSA 0.090 0.159 0.444 0.132 0.063 0.051 0.302 0.267 0.072 0.051 0.025 0.387 0.300 0.127 0.89
MCO 0.117 0.131 0.384 0.148 0.077 0.032 0.302 0.273 0.110 0.047 0.033 0.414 0.282 0.175 0.597 0.85
Note. PIA= personal improvement activities; PFQ = physical facility quality; CLA = cultural learning activities; LRP = locker room
provision; ISQ = instructional staff quality; PAO = program activities offerings; ECC = economic condition consideration; PBE =
perceived benefits; ITR = intrapersonal constraints; ITE = interpersonal constrains; STR = structural constraints; EMO = emotional
value; PRI = price value; SOC = social value; MSA = Member Satisfaction; MCO = Member Commitment.
Note. The AVE value of each factor is shown on the diagonal in bold









Table 4-9 Standardized parameter estimates and hypothesis testing
Exogenous Variable
Endogenous Variable PB PC PV MSA MCO Hypothesis Testing
Market Demand .73** -.38** .72** .58* .28** H1-5 Supported
Perceived Benefits .25* H6 Supported
Perceived Constraints -.01 -- H7 Not Supported
Perceived Value .45* H8 Supported
Member Satisfaction .61** H9 Supported
Note. ** p < .01; *p < .05
Note: MD = Market Demand; PB = Perceived Benefits; PC = Perceived Constraints; PV = Perceived Vale; MSA = Member
Satisfaction; MCO = Member Commitment









Table 4-10. The direct and indirect effects of market demand on commitment
Direct/Indirect Effect Path Standardized Coefficient
Direct effect MD -- MCO .28
Indirect effect MD -- PV -- MSA -- MCO .72 x .17 x .60 = .07
Indirect effect MD- PB -- PV -- MSA -- MCO .73 x .25 x .17 x .60 = .019
Indirect effect MD- PC -- PV MSA MCO -.38 x .01 x .17 x .60 = .00039
Indirect effect MD -- MSA -- MCO .58 x .60 = .35
Total effect .28 + .07 + .019 + .00039 + .35 = .72
Note: MD = Market Demand; PB = Perceived Benefits; PC = Perceived Constraints; PV =
Perceived Vale; MSA = Member Satisfaction; MCO = Member Commitment































Figure 4-1. First-order confirmatory factor analysis for market demand
















104























.73**


Figure 4-2. A hypothesized model of the relationships among market demand, perceived benefit, perceived constraint, perceived
value, member satisfaction, and member commitment































ModelA: Partially mediated model Model B: Direct effect model





Figure 4-3. A comparison of the partially mediated model and the direct effect model.









CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION

Because rapid growth in the number of martial arts schools has resulted in a highly

competitive business environment in the U.S., it is important for both practitioners and

academicians to understand the dimensions of market demand, perceived benefits, perceived

constraints, perceived value, member satisfaction, and member commitment both conceptually

and empirically in the context of this sport industry segment. While empirically testing the

hierarchical relationships among these belief-attitude-intention constructs, the mediating

influence of perceived benefits and perceived constraints in the relationships of market demand

to member satisfaction and commitment was taken into consideration. Using TKD schools as an

example of studying martial arts schools, the following processes were undertaken in the current

study: (a) each of the measurement scales for the psychological constructs were reexamined for

their measurement properties; (b) psychometric properties for the overall measure were further

assessed; and (c) the hierarchical relationships among these constructs were examined through

conducting an SEM. This discussion section presents the following: (a) the measurement model,

(b) the structural model and hypothesis testing, and (c) suggestions for further study.

Measurement Model

With respect to the market demand variables, assessment of the psychometric properties of

the Revised SMD-TKD scale indicated that the scale with seven factors was of good validity and

reliability. The seven-factor model had one factor (Economic Condition Consideration) that was

additional to the original SMD-TKD (Kim et al., 2009). The resolved factor structure represents

a parsimonious solution of measuring the market demand of TKD schools. Improvements made

in Kim and Zhang's (2010) revision helped improve its measurement properties and also

applicability in both research and practical settings. Findings in the current study confirmed these









merits of the scale. Because the Revised SMD-TKD scale assesses the attributes of core product

elements of a martial arts program, it is assumed that information obtained from adopting this

measure would have direct relevance to improving the operation and marketing of programs, so

that they become strongly positioned in a highly competitive marketplace. The perceived

benefits variables were initially hypothesized to fall into two factors, namely psychological

benefits and physical benefits. However, the model fit indices did not support the two-factor

model. Upon consideration of the statistical evidence, the scale was revised to a unidimensional

construct. The resolved factor structure and its items were similar to those of Kim et al.'s (2009)

personal benefits construct and its items (i.e., improving self-image, mental health, character,

psychological effect, self-confidence, better feeling, physical health, and self-defense). In the

current study, the revealed presence of a perceived benefits factor indicates its potential role for

understanding martial arts participants, and also signifies the importance and relevance of

perceived benefits variables in one's propensity to make a commitment to martial arts training

(e.g., Columbus & Rice, 1991; Daniels & Thornton, 1990; Finkenberg, 1990; Fuller, 1988; Law,

2004; Richman & Rehberg, 1986; Spear, 1989; Trulson, 1986).

With respect to perceived constraints, this study identified three perceived constraints

dimensions (i.e., intrapersonal, interpersonal, and structural constraints) that might prohibit or

hinder one from training at a martial arts school. The findings were consistent with those of

Crawford and Godbey (1987). Intrapersonal constraints with regard to martial arts involves

participants' psychological states and attributes that interact with their preferences, and include

such issues as the training activity being tiring and not fun. Interpersonal constraints consisted of

social situations, competence of the instructor/master, and negative attitude of the

instructor/master. Finally, structural constraints consisted of external factors primarily related to









lack of availability of the resources needed to participate in martial arts. In this study, the

retained items, including time, location, transportation, crowdedness of school, and affordability

were found to be significant indicators among the structural constraints. Previous studies have

consistently found that more than 30% of respondents' perceived constraints were based on a

lack of money and time. Lack of time as a constraint was indicated in a number of

recreation/leisure participant studies, which was also the case in this study (Alexandris &

Carroll, 1997; Kay & Jackson, 1991). Data in the current study suggest that the perceived

constraints regarding martial arts participation tend to play a significant role in explaining

participants' behaviors and predicting their intentions to remain in martial arts schools. In order

to overcome such constraints, it is important for program administrators and marketers to

undertake promotional efforts to encourage internal motivation. For instance, it is important for

martial arts programs to consider scheduling favorable operating hours with regard to

participants' availability (e.g., after school, after work, and weekends). Furthermore, schools

should consider location, transportation service, class size, and communication channels to

enhance the effectiveness of program operations (Brady & Cronin, 2001; Kim et al., 2009).

For the perceived value variables, the current study initially proposed a four-dimension

model based on Sweeney and Soutar (2001)'s PERVAL scale: (a) emotional value, (b) social

value, (c) functional value (price/value for money), and (d) functional value

(performance/quality). However, these four dimensions were not replicated in this study. The

functional value (performance/quality) did not emerge as an independent dimension for martial

arts participation due to its high correlation with member commitment. Unlike a number of

previous studies that measured perceived value via a single-item construct, findings of this study

did confirm that perceived value for martial arts schools are of a multidimensional nature.









Consequently, perceived value cannot be accounted for as simply the outcome of the trade-off

between a single overall quality and constraints, as the concept of perceived value is much more

complicated than a single-item construct can encompass (Bolton & Drew, 1991). It was certain

that multiple dimensions of perceived value could better explain martial arts participation

satisfaction than any single item alone.

Structural Models and Hypothesis Testing

The goodness of fit of the overall measurement model permitted an examination of the

structural relationships of market demand to the exogenous constructs in this study. All seven

market demand factors were found to be predictive of the general latent variable of market

demand, where the dimension of Economic Condition Consideration was shown to be the most

important factor (R2 = .72), accounting for 72% of the variance in market demand (Figure 4-2).

With respect to the Economic Condition Consideration, such considerations as no hidden fees,

reasonable membership fees, and a refund and cancellation policy played significant roles in

TKD schools (Table 4-6). Another important factor, Instructional Staff Quality (e.g., instructor

reputation, friendliness, qualifications, and handing problems promptly) was found to explain

about 59% of the variance in market demand (Figure 4-2). This finding was consistent with

previous findings that an instructor's attitude, expertise, and actual behavior had a direct

influence on current and new consumers' evaluations of program services (Bitner, 1990; Brady

& Cronin, 2001; Kim et al., 2009; Ko & Pastore, 2004, 2005; Papadimitriou & Karteroliotis,

2000). Although the Locker Room Provision factor accounted for 13% of the variance in market

demand, managers would be well-advised to take it seriously because it pinpoints the areas of

locker room condition and maintenance for improvement (Figure 4-2). It is important to note that

in Kim et al.'s (2009) study, the Cultural Learning activities factor was not found to have a

significant impact on the consumption level of TKD schools. Similarly, although Ko et al. (2010)









indicated that culture learning was one of the motivation factors that would explain why people

participate in TKD, cultural activities were found to have no significant impact on the motivation

of TKD participants. Unlike these previous studies, the findings of the current study showed that

the Cultural Learning Activities factor had a significant effect on market demand, indicating that

TKD participants were likely to acculturate to learn Korean philosophy, culture, and heritage

through training in TKD schools (Patel et al., 2002; Schmidt, 1986). It appeared that the TKD

participants were very much oriented to train in TKD schools for cultural learning and socio-

psychological discipline (e.g., respect other people, positive attitude, leadership skills, code of

honor, and strong work ethic) (Kim et al., 2009; Ko et al., 2010). TKD school administrators

may wish to consider developing special curricula activities and elements that foster cultural and

psychological learning and improvement.

With respect to the perceived constraints, the interpersonal constraints factor was shown to

be most important (R2= .88), accounting for 88% of the variance in perceived constraints (Figure

4-2). Of items assessing interpersonal constraints, social interaction and relationship with the

master/instructor were considered highly relevant by the participants. This was consistent with

previous findings revealing that learning martial arts was a product of social interactions (Kim et

al., 2009; Weiss, 1987). Finally, in terms of the perceived value variables, all three factors (i.e.,

Emotion Value, Price Value, and Social Value) were highly predictive of the general construct of

perceived value. Of these factors, Emotion Value accounted for 72% of the variance in perceived

value. In a previous study, this factor was also found to be a critical aspect of a participant's

value perceptions of participating in martial arts training (Sweeney & Soutar, 2001). After the

overall measurement model was found to fit to the data well, the structural model was examined

to test the hypotheses.









Previous market demand studies have primarily examined the extent to which market

demand factors directly affected consumption behaviors, and explained only a small portion of

variance, typically lower than 20% (Byon et al., 2009; Schofield, 1983). Following the concept

of reasoned action theory, this study recognized the importance and necessity to study the

sequential relationships of beliefs, attitude, and intentions associated with martial arts school

participation. To this end, the structural relationships of market demand on perceived benefits,

perceived value, perceived constraints, member satisfaction, and member commitment were

examined. Market demand was found to be of significant impact on all exogenous constructs.

Instead of only 28% variance in member commitment being directly explained by the market

demand construct, a total of 72% variance in member commitment was explained in the

structural model, including both direct and indirect influences, revealing a much higher

explanatory power.

Essentially, Hypotheses 1-5 were supported (Byon et al., 2008). Further, perceived benefits

of martial arts participation were found to have a positive impact on perceived value, indicating

that participants would select a martial arts school that meet their expected benefits and value.

This finding was consistent with Holbrook's (1996) suggestion that the martial arts customer

who has perceived the benefits of a given product or service may be expected to experience a

positive perceived value attached to his or her experience with that product or service. With

respect to the effects of the perceived constraints on perceived value, a negative impact on the

perceived value was identified although it was not statistically significant. Previous studies (i.e.,

Snoj et al., 2004; Tam, 2004) have consistently found that perceived constraints negatively

influence the perceived value of a mobile phone. In particular, Tam (2004) indicated that

perceived constraints, such as monetary and time costs, would have a negative effect on









perceived value in the competitive marketplace. Apparently, findings of this study failed to

confirm this notion; future studies are needed to further examine this issue.

Perceived value was found to exert influence on member satisfaction and commitment.

This finding was consistent with the findings of previous research indications that perceived

value would be an important concept that influences customer satisfaction and behavioral

intentions in both pre-purchase and post-purchase stages (Cronin et al., 2000b; Eggert & Ulaga,

2002; Fornell et al., 1996; Heskett & Schlesinger, 1994; Tam, 2004; Woodruff, 1997), which

would in turn positively influence member commitment. Accordingly, highly perceived value for

martial arts program would be a significant element in an organization's efforts for maintaining

long-term customer relationships (Johnson et al., 2008; Kelley et al., 1990; Morgan & Hunt,

1994).

The tested structure model in this study has provided in-depth information about the

relationships of market demand factors to a number of exogenous belief-attitude-intention

constructs, which has provided researchers and practitioners with needed evidence to develop

effective marketing strategies and campaigns by tapping into such key concepts as perceived

benefits, perceived value, perceived constraints, and member satisfaction when highlighting the

core attributes of martial arts programs. In addition, the findings indicate that participants'

perceived constraints contributed to the reduction of their perceived value ratings and member

satisfaction. Martial arts program managers need to identify the constraints with their programs

and work to minimize their existence and influence. For example, finding a good

master/instructor may be even more important than finding the right school due to the

importance of interpersonal constraints. In the meantime, martial arts participants are encouraged

to search for instructors with such positive qualities as patience, knowledge, and strong









communication skills. Prospective participants should also search for schools with adequate

facilities, including padded or sprung floors, full-length mirrors, and roomy practice spaces with

no obstructions. Another example is related to pricing strategies, which is generated from the

descriptive statistics revealing that a flexible payment option, reasonable membership fee, and

various payment methods in the Economic Condition Consideration factor were critically

considered by program participants. Thus, martial arts school administrators may consider

applying family discounts, long-term membership discounts, and referral discounts to recruit

martial arts members. Identifying these perceived constraints would be fundamental for martial

arts schools to understand customer expectations, perceived performance, and their discrepancy,

and develop effective marketing schemes to meet the expectations of consumers.

As participants feel more satisfied with an organization's offerings, they will be more

likely to be repeat customers and refer others to join (Eggert & Ulaga, 2002; Fornell, 1992;

Maxham & Netemeyer, 2002). Zhang et al. (2004) also recognized the importance of providing

quality programs and the necessity of developing diversified programs in order to achieve market

penetration and expansion by considering sociodemographic variables when planning marketing

strategies. Better understanding of target segmentation facilitates market penetration and

expansion of martial arts schools in terms of offering a variety of customized quality programs

and activities. For example, the findings of the current study indicate that mental control training,

self-defense, and cultural learning experiences were critical reasons for adult participants to

practice TKD; thus, TKD marketers might wish to consider developing special programs that

focus on these topics. Very importantly, the findings of this study revealed that program

offerings based on market demand (i.e., attributes of core products) led to high consumer

satisfaction level, which in turn led to a high level of consumer commitment. Based on these









findings, martial arts school administrators should position their marketing strategies by

increasing perceived benefits and decreasing perceived constraints in an effort to recruit and

retain participants.

Suggestions for Further Study

Several opportunities for future study are noted as follows: First, future studies are needed

to confirm the model using data collected from different martial arts contexts to allow for further

generalizability of the model. Second, in order to better understand individual participants in the

martial arts, future studies should examine individual characteristics, such as age, gender,

ethnicity, education, and belt ranking as moderating variables (Evanschitzky & Wunderlich,

2006). Individual demographic characteristics affect a participant's propensity to perceive

experience dimensions, and this study examines whether there are differences in understanding

and interpreting experience variables depending on individual consumers' characteristics. Third,

this study was delimitated to the adult population who is overall of low consumption level of

TKD. In fact, a majority of TKD school attendants are school aged children (SGMA, 2010).

Thus, future studies need to examine those marketing factors pertinent to the youth population;

in particular, the proposed structural model or alternative models should be tested with a sample

of youth TKD participants. Fourth, although this study involved a sample of TKD participants

with various belt ranks, individuals with black belt accounted for a very large portion of the

sample (i.e., 65%). As the highest rank in this sport, people of black belt likely possess higher

motivation and commitment to attend TKD schools. Future studies may be constructed to

confirm the hypothesized structural model with a sample that is more diverse in belt rankings.

Fifth, in this study member satisfaction was measured via items captured within a

unidimensional construct. In the future, multiple aspects of consumer satisfaction should be

considered. Instead of the perception-only conceptual framework adopted in this study to assess









member satisfaction, the expectation-confirmation paradigm may be utilized as various

researchers have proposed the merits of this approach (e.g., Oliver, 1980; Parasuraman et al.,

1988). Sixth, invariance analyses should be conducted to confirm the resolved structural model

across different populations, such as age, gender, and belt rank. Finally, although the constraint

factors were not found to contribute to the structural relationships within this study, a number of

researchers (Kim & Trail, 2010; Nyaupane et al., 2004; Trail et al., 2008) have indicated the

importance of studying the reasons that hamper sport consumption; thus, future studies are

necessary to further examine the relevance of constraint factors to the decision making process

for TKD school attendance. Such knowledge would provide administrators of TKD schools with

a roadmap in their marketing efforts to recruit and retain martial arts participants.

In conclusion, in an attempt to fill the gap between research into market demand and the

psychological processes of martial arts participants, this study investigated the relationships of

market demand and certain complex psychological constructs that influence the decision to

participate in martial arts training. This study confirmed a conceptual model that facilitates an

understanding of participant behavior with regard to the martial arts. It depicted how market

demand and psychological constructs influence satisfaction and commitment of martial arts

participants. It is anticipated that these research findings will help fill the void in the literature by

building linkages among market demand and psychological constructs, and thus facilitate a better

understanding of martial arts participants.












APPENDIX A
SURVEY INSTRUMENT FOR CONTENT VALIDITY








IUNIVERSrTY of
IF FLORIDA
The Foundrfldn for The CaGfor Na ian




May 25, 2009



Dear Participant:

This is Minkil Kim, a doctoral student majoring in Sport Management at University of Florda I
am currently conducting a study that identifies variables that affect current and potential
members' decision to attend taekwondo schools Preliminary conceptual model and scale items
have been developed based on review of literature, on-site observations of taekwondo schools,
and interview with taekwondo school instructors

You are invited to serve on a panel of experts to help further develop the scale. I would like to
have your comments and suggestions for content relevance, representativeness, clarity, and
format of each item Please feel free to add or delete any factor and /or items that you feel
necessary It would be greatly appreciated by me if you could return your inputs soon If you
have questions, please do not hesitate to contact me at (352) 328-8574 or via e-mail
minkilk@hhp ufl edu Thank you in advance for your assistance and cooperation


Sincerely yours,




Mn Kil Kim
Doctoral Student
Sport Management Program
University of Florida
Rm. 206K Florida Gym
PO Box 118207
Gainesville, FL 32611
(352) 392-4042x 1388














-- -
Personal Improvement Activities Relevance Repreentativazes Clat
I attendthis taekwodo school because...... Low High Low High Low High
The school offers programs and activities designed to improve 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 I 2 3 4 5
self-discipline.
The school offers programs and activities designed to improve 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
patience.
The school offers programs and activities designed to leam to be 1 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
humble.
The school offers programs and activities designed to fully 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
explore individual potentials.
The school offers programs and activities designed to improve 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 I 2 3 4 5
character.
The school offers programs and activities designed to improve 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
positive attitude.
The school offers programs and activities designed to improve 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
self-confidence.
The school offers programs and activities designed to improve 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
social skills.
The school offers programs and activities designed to improve 1 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
self-concept.
The school offers programs and activities designed to increases 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
personal pride,
The school offers programs and activities designed to develop 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
respect for other people
The school offers programs and activities designed to develop a 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
strong work ethic.
The school offers programs and activities designed to improve 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
leadership skills.
The school offers programs and activities designed to develop a 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
code of honor_

Physical Facility Quality
The school has first-aid equipment 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
The school has safety equipment. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
The school's facility is safe and comfortable. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
The school is well designed. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
The school has adequate space for class activities. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
The school has up-to-date equipment. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
Variety of exercise equipment are available at this school- 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
The school's ambience is excellent. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
The school's facility is aesthetically attractive. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
















locker Room Provision Relevance Rqepresttimv ws ClariPy
Low High Low High Low High
The school offers a good locker room. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

The locker room is of high safety. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

The school offers a good shower room. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

The locker room is convenient- 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
The locker room in this school is clean. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

The shower room in this school is clean. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5


Instructional Staff Quality
The school's instructors/masters have a good reputation. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

The school has an adequate number of instructors. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

The school's instructors/masters are very knowledgeable about 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
taekwondo.
The school's instructors/masters are willing to help individual 1 2 3 4 5 I 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
members.
The schoolhas well qualified instructors. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

The school's instructors/masters are friendly 1 2 3 4 5 I 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

The school's instructors/masters handle problems promptly and 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
professionally

Program Activities Offerings
The school offers opportunity to see master's demonstration 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
perfonnance.
The school offers Dan certification from sanctioned
1 2 3 4 5 I 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
organization. 1 3 1 3 5 2
The school offers child-care services. 1 23 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

The school offers appropriate class size 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

The school offers a reasonable belt promotion system. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

The school offers after-school programs. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

The school offers classes focusing on self-defense. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

The school offers quality promotional materials (e.g., 1 2 3 4 5 t 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
pamphlets).
The school offers opportunity to compete in tackwondo 1 2 3 4 5 I 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
tournaments.
The school offers lie trial lessons. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

The school offers special events (e.g., training camp) 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5














The school offers various activities for different groups of 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
member.
The school offers family programs- 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

The school offers convenient operating hours. 1 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

The school offers classes at several different times- 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5



Cultural Learning Activities Relevance Rresaties Clarity
Low High Low High Low High
The school offers programs and activities designed to learn 12 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
Korean philosophy (e..,ritual/ccrcmony, symbol/artifacts)
The school offers programs and activities designed to leam 1 2 3 4 5 i 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
about Korean culture.
The school offers programs and activities designed to leam 1 2 3 4 5 I 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
about Korean heritage.
The school offers programs and activities designed to leam 1 2 3 4 5 I 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
about Korean heritage. ____
The school offers programs and activities designed to improve 1 2 3 4 5 t 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
bilingual ability,

Economic Condition Consideration
The school does not charge any hidden fees. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

Billing service is convenient. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

Membership fee is reasonable. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

The school has a reasonable refund and cancellation policy. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

The school offers giveaway items (i.e., uniforms, belts, club 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
bag, ete)
Thc schooloffers flexible payment plans. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

The school offers various payment methods (i.e., credit card, 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
check, cash, etc).
The school offers optional long term membership category. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5


Comments:
















Perceived Value Relevance ReqresWtaniMs Clarity
Low High Low High Low High
I believe that attending the TKD school is something that I 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
would enjoy.
I believe that the Taekwondo school is reasonably priced. 12 3 45 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

I believe that attending the Taekwondo school would last a long 1 2 3 4 5 i 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
time
I believe that attending the Taekwondo school is something that 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 I 2 3 4 5
I like to paliicipate,
I believe that the Taekwondo school is good for the price. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

I believe that attending the Taekwondo school would make a 1 2 3 4 5 I 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
good impression on other people.
IfeelcomfortableofattendingtheTackwondoschool 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

I believe; that the Tackwondo school is fairly priced. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

I believe that attending the Taekwondo school is exciting. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

I believe that attending the Taekwondo school is fun. 1 2 3 4 5 I 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

I believe that attending the Taekwondo school makes me fel 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
good.
I believe that attending the Taekwondo school is affordable. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

1 believe that attending the Taekwondo school would improve 1 2 3 4 5 I 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
the way I am perceived by others.
I definitely consider continuing with the Taekwondo school. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

I believe that attending the Tackwondo school helps me feel 1 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
accepted by others.
I believe that attending the Taekwondo school makes me happy- 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

I believe that attending the Taekwondo school offers value for
money 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
Comments:
















Perceived Constraints Relevance Rtqres~tati msS Clarity
I would consider ceasingparticipaion in die Taekwondo Low igh Low High Low igh
school because...
I have health problems. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

Taekwondo is harder to learn than other sports. 1 2 3 4 5 I 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

My Taekwondo skills are improved enough. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

I am too busy and tired to attend the Taekwondo school. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
lam afraid ofinjury 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

Attending the Taekwondo school is no fmn anymore. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

Attending the Taekwondo school is physically challenging. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
I am not happy with social situations in the Taekwondo school- 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

Sdo not think thattheinstructor(s)/masteris competent. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

I have to pay for expensive equipment to attend the 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
Tackwondo school.
I have no close partner in the Taekwondo school. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

I observe negative attitudes from instructor(s)/master in the 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
Taekwondo school.
I have problems with my training partner in the TKD school. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

Iran into language barrier in the Taekwondo school. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

T have no one to partner with in the Taekwondo school. 1 2 3 4 5 I 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

I have to pay for expensive membership and promotion fees to 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
attend the Taekwondo school.
I do not have enough money to participate in the Taekwondo 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
school.
I do not have no enough time to participate in the programs and 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
activities offered by the Taekwondo school.
The facility in the Taekwondo school is poorly maintained. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

'he Tackwondo school is located too far away. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

I do not have transportation to attend the Taekwondo school. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

The facility in the Taekwondo school is very crowded. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

I cannot afford to attend the Taekwondo school. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5

Arc there any other reasons you may not participate in the TKD
school?

Comments:

















Perceived Benefits Relevance Rqeresetathws Clarity
Low High Low High Low High
Attending the Taekwondo school helps me to cope with life's 1 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 I 2 3 4 5
pressures.
Attending the Taekwondo school helps me learn Korean 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
culture.
Attending the Taekwondo school helps me provide 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
opportunities to meet people.
Attending the Taekwondo school helps me to improve 1 2 3 4 5 I 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
appearance.
Attending the Taekwondo school helps me to enhance self- 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
image.
Attending the Taekwondo school helps me team things about 1 2 3 4 5 I 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
Korea.
Attending the Taekwondo school helps me with basic athletic 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
skills.
Attending the Taekwondo school provides me with skills to 1 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
safeguard myself_____5134
Attending the Tackwondo school helps me improve physical 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
health.
Attending the Taekwondo school helps me improve 1 2 3 4 5 I 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
relationships with other people.
Attending the Taekwondo school helps me improve mental 1 2 3 4 5 I 2 3 4 5 12 3 4 5
health.
Attending the Taekwondo school helps me leam Korean 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
language.
Attending the Taekwondo school helps me improve my health- 1 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
fitness.
Attending the Taekwondo school helps me improve self- 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
protection.
Attending the Taekwondo school helps me to improve my 1 2 3 4 5 I 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
character.
Attending the Taekwondo school helps me to increase positive 1 2 3 4 5 I 2 3 4 5 12 3 4 5
psychological effect
Attending the Taekwondo school helps me to enhance self- 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
confidence.
Attending the Taekwondo school helps me to improve self- 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
defense ability.12 45 2
Attending the Taekwondo school helps me to feel better in 1 2 3 4 5 I 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
general,
Comments:












APPENDIX B
INFORMED CONSENT AND QUESTIONNAIRE


Dear Parti cipant:

This Minkil Kim, a doctoral student majoring in Sport Management at University of Florida, and
I am currently conducting a study that identifies variables that affect current and potential
members' decision to attend taekwondo schools. I would like to ask you to assist me by
completing the questionnaire.

Your participation is entirely voluntary and you have to be over age of 18 for participation.

This survey is about your feeling and reactions to various aspects of your experience in your
Taekwondo schools. The collected information is very important since it may help increase
understanding of your needs, thus enabling Taekwondo schools to improve the programs and
service offered to you.

Your participation in this study is voluntary. It will take approximately 15 minutes to complete.
There are no physical and psychological risks associated with participating in completing this
questionnaire. However, you may refuse to answer certain questions or discontinue your
participation at any time without penalty.

If you have any questions about this research protocol, please contact me at (352) 392-4042x
1388 (e-mail: minkilk@hhp.ufl.edu) or my faculty supervisor, Dr. Zhang (392-0584 x1274; e-
mail: jamesz@hhp.ufl.edu). Questions or concerns about your rights as research participant may
be directed to the UFIRB office, University of Florida, Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611, (352)
392-0433.

I have read the procedure described above for the study. I voluntarily agree to participate in the
study and I have received a copy of this description.


Participants:
Principal Investigator: Minkil Kim


Date:
Date:


June 19 2009
















(1) Male (2) Female


2. Age:

3. My current residence is:


4. Ethnicity.


5. Martial Status.


6. Annual Household Income:
(1) $9,999 or less
(5) $35,000-$49,999


(1) African-American
S(4) Native American

(1) Single
_ 3) Separated/Divorced


,(2) $10,000-$14,999
_ (6) $50,000-$74,999


(2) Asian/Pacific Island (3) Caucasian/White
S(5) Hispanic (6) Other (Specify)

_ (2) Marned
_ (4) Widowed


(3) $15,000-$24,999
(7) $75,000-$99,999


(4) $25,000-$34,999
(8) $100,000 or more


7. Number of Children:


8. Highest Education Level:
(1) Some high school
(5) Graduate degree


S(2) High school graduate
(6) Other (Specify)


9. Occupation. (1) Management (2) Technical
(5) Clerical (6) Education/Student
(9) Housewife/husband (10) Retired


10. Please indicate your Taekwondo school membership type;
(1) Individual

11. Length ol membership contract at this Taekwondo school:
S(1) 1 month
(4) 1 year


12. How long have you participated in any Taekwondo school in general?
(1) less than 1 year
(4) 3-4 years

13. ,Iow long have you participated in this Taekwondo school?
(1) less than 1 year
(4) 3-4 years

14. What rank or belt do you hold'
(1) White (2) Yellow
(5) Red (6) Black (1st-3rd Dan)


(3) Some college


_ (3) Professional
S(7) Skilled Worker
(11) Unemployed


_ 2) Family


(4) College graduate


_ (4) Sales
_ (8) Nonskilled Worker
(12) Other (Specify)


(3) Other (Specify)


_ (2) 3 months
S(5) 2-3 years


_ (2) 1-2 years
_ (5) 4-5 years or more


(2) 1-2 years
(5) 4-5 years or more


_ (3) 6 months
(6) over 3 years


_(3) 2-3 years
_(6)5 years or more


(3) 2-3 years
(6) 5 years or more


S(3) Green (4) Blue
S(7) Black (above 3rd Dan)


15. How frequently do you come to this Taekwondo school and how much time do you spend at this taekwondo school?
-__ Times / per week Hours I per visit


16. How much money do you and family spend on Taekwondo each year?
(1) $500 or less (2) $501-$999
(5) $2,000-$2,499 (6) $2,500-$2,999


17. low did you learn about this school?
(1) Referral
S(5) Friend


(2) Word of Mouth
(6) Internet


(3)$1,000-$1,499
(7) $3,000-$3,999


_ (3) Advertisement
(7) other (Specify)_


(4)$1,500U-1,999
(8) $4,000 or more


(4) Yellow Pages


Years old.


City _


ZIP code


I. Gender'













The purpose of this section of questionnaire is to identify how important each of these reasons is to your
participation in your Taekwondo School. Please rate each of the following statements using the scale ranging
from "Strongly Disagree" (1) to "Strongly Agree" (7):

I attendthis taekvondo school because the school offersprograms and Strongly Strongly
activities designedto... Disa ee Agree
improve self-discipline. @ I
improve patience. T 0 I 0 0
learn to be humble.
fully explore individual potential.
build character. @
foster a positive attitude.
improve self-confidence, I
improve social skills.
improve self-concept.
increases personal pride. I @ 0 @ @
develop respect for other people., I @ @ @
develop a strong work ethic. T 0 0 @ C @
improve leadership skills. (
develop a code of honor. @ I @
The school has first-aid equipment (D
The school has safety equipment.
The school's facility is safe and comfortable. @ c
The school's interior is well designed. O) 0 ) Q)
The school has adequate space for class activities. 0 ( ) (
The school has up-to-date equipment I @ (
Variety of exercise equipment are available at this school. @
The school's ambience is excellent. @ 0 0
The school's facility is aesthetically attractive. @
The school offersprograms and activities designed to...
learn Korean philosophy (e.g., ritual/ceremony, symbol/artifacts). Z @
learn about Korean culture. @
learn about Korean heritage, .
improve bilingual ability. @
I am satisfied with my decision to attend the Taekwondo school. @
I am happy that I attended the Taekwondo school.
I think that I did the right thing by deciding to attend the Taekwondo school. @














I he purpose of this section of.'ri .l,'m,: i i s to .J:,l'i0 hbiou i tpo ltarit Strongly j Strongly
( zitti F.h /ft .t' I.\T,>ti l' 'i(' J. iILFl irt.,i 'r Ih tit o t,) ScIh* .,'4. Disagree Agree
The school offLi a good locker room. rS,
The locker room is safe.
The school ilffcis a good shower room, 0
The locker room in this school is convenient ( .
The locker room in this school is clean.) (
The shower room in this school is clean. ()
The school's instructors/masters have a go od icputalion (D) ()
The school has an adequate number of instructors. ( ( )
The school's instructors/masters arc A illing. to help indii idua I members. ( @ ()
The school has well qualified instructors. 0 r 0
The school's instructors/masters are tfriknJdl. ()
The school's instructors/masters handle problems promptly and prof-ssionallv. )
I attend this Taekwondo school because the school offers...
opportunity to see master's demonstration performance. () (?)
Dan certification from a sanctioned organization. 0i D 0
child-care services. (
an appropriate class size. @ @
a reasonable belt promotion system.
after-school programs. @
classes ricumsin on scil-deflnw nsc ,
quality promotional materials (e.g., pamphlets).
opportunities to compete in taekwondo tournaments. 0 G
li"c trial I(sD.,n.. Q () i k G
special e entn (e.g.. training camp). @ S
various activities for different groups of members. () @
family programs. (
,_n nient opera ing hout. @ @
classes at several different times.
I am dedicated to being a member ofi' d Taekwondo school. 0) ( ( )
I am determined to remain a member of the Taekwondo school. ) ( 5
It would be hard for me to quit member of' thd '.il.\tond.. .ch.l. :D ::.
I would be willing to do alinot an\ihin_ to keep being a member of the ( ) ?) (
taek'wondo school.














Strongly Strongly
Disagree a Agree
The school does not charge any hidden fees. 0 0 0
Payment methods service (i.e., credit card, check, cash, etc) is convenient. o 0 @
The membership fee is reasonable. 0 ( () (D T
The school has a reasonable refund and cancellation policy. 0 ) 0 )
The school offers giveaway items (i.e., uniforms, belts, club bag, etc). o
The school offers flexible payment plans. 0 ( ( ?
The school offers optional long term membership category- a a j 0 a
The school offers discounted family membership option. ( a( I
This section is to identify YOUR "PERCEIVED VALUE" ofattending the Taekwondo school. Please rate each
of thefollowing statements using the scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" (1) to "Strongly Agree" (7):
I believe that attending the TKD school is...
something that I would enjoy.
reasonably priced. Q @
offering value for the money I spend. @ @ @ @
something that I like to participate. @ Q C 9
making a good impression on other people. ) 0 (D C)
helping me feel accepted by others. () (D @0 D D 0
affordable. @ @
improving the way I am perceived by others. ) I (
last longtime. 0 I @ @ ( )
Feel comfortable attending the Taekwondo school. a a @ 0
I would definitely consider continuing with the Taekwondo school. a a @ @
Thls section is to identify YOUR "PERCEIVED BENPEFITS" of attending the Taekwondo school Please rate


each of the following statements using the scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" (1) to "Strongly Agree" (7):
Attending the Taeknwndo school hdps me... Strongly gly
Disagree Agree
cope with life's pressures. 0
learn Korean culture. 0 @ 0 @ Q 0
provide opportunities to meet people. 0 ( 0
improve my appearance. 0 0 0
enhance self-image. 0 @ 0
learn things about Korea. 0 (2 D j I (A
basic athletic skills. 0 @ @
improve my physical health. 8 8 @
improve relationships with other people. I


" I


|


I













improve my mental health, I @ 0
learn the Korean language. I 0
improve self-protection. @
improve my character. ( 0 0 0 0
increase positive psychological effect I 0 (
enhance self-confidence. (D @ 0
improve self-defense ability. 0 0
feel better in general, (D @
This section is to identify YOUR "PERCEIVED CONSTRAINTS" of attending the Taekwondo school_
The following statements using the scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" (1) to "Strongly Agree" (7):

I would consider casdsparticipation in the Taelvondo school because... Strong tongly
Disagree Agree
I have health problems.
Taekwondo is harder to learn than other sports. M (
My Taekwondo skills are improved enough. ) ( C
Iam tired to attend the Taekwondo school. O 0 0
1 am afraid of injury. ) ( C
Attending the Taekwondo school is no fan anymore. ) (D
Attending the Taekwondo school is physically challenging. C (
I am not happy with social situations in the Taekwondo school. 0
Idonotthinkthattheinstructor(s)/masteris competent. @ 1
I have to pay for expensive equipment to attend the Taekwondo school. (
I have no close partner in the Taekwondo school. I
I observe negative attitudes from instructor(s)/master in the Taekvondo school. 0 0 0
I have problems with my training partner in the TKD school. @ 0
Iran into a language barrier in the Taekwondo school. ) o O
I have to pay for expensive membership and promotion fees to attend the school. 0 0
I do not have enough money to participate in the Taekwondo school. Q ( D
I do not have enough time to participate in the Taekwondo school. @ @ @ o
The facility in the Taekwondo school is poorly maintained, 0 @ @
The Taekwondo school is located too far away. ( I
I do not have transportation to attend the Taekwondo school. 0 0 ( 0
The facility in the Taekwondo school is very crowded. 0 0 I
I cannot afford to attend the Taekwondo school. 0 C
Are there any other reasons you may not participate in the TKD school?
Thank you for your participation









LIST OF REFERENCES


Adamson, B., & Wade, J. (1986). Predictors of sport and exercise participation among health
science students. The Australian Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 18, 3-10.

Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior:
Prentice Hall.

Al-Sabbahy, H., Ekinci, Y., & Riley, M. (2004). An investigation of perceived value dimensions:
Implications for hospitality research. Journal of Travel Research, 42(3), 226.

Alexandris, K., & Carroll, B. (1997). Demographic differences in the perception of constraints
on recreational sport participation: results from a study in Greece. Leisure Studies, 16(2),
107-125.

Alexandris, K., Kouthouris, C., & Girgolas, G. (2007). Investigating the relationships among
motivation, negotiation, and alpine skiing participation. Journal of Leisure Research,
39(4), 648.

Alexandris, K., Zahariadis, P., Tsorbatzoudis, C., & Grouios, G. (2002). Testing the Sport
Commitment Model in the Context of Exercise and Fitness Participation. Journal of
Sport Behavior, 25(3), 217-231.

Anderson, E., Fornell, C., & Lehmann, D. (1994). Customer satisfaction, market share, and
profitability: findings from Sweden. The Journal ofMarketing, 58(3), 53-66.

Anderson, J., & Gerbing, D. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and
recommended two-step approach. Psychological bulletin, 103(3), 411-423.

Andronikidis, A., Vassiliadis, C., Priporas, C., & Kamenidou, I. (2007). Examining Leisure
Constraints for Ski Centre Visitors: Implications for Services Marketing. Journal of
Hospitality Marketing & Management, 15(4), 69-86.

Anthony, J. (1991). Psychologic aspects of exercise. Clinics in Sports Medicine, 10(1), 171-180.

Argyle, M. (1969). Social interaction: Methuen London.

Bitner, M. (1990). Evaluating service encounters: the effects of physical surroundings and
employee responses. The Journal ofMarketing, 54(2), 69-82.

Bitner, M. (1992). Servicescapes: the impact of physical surroundings on customers and
employees. The Journal ofMarketing, 56(2), 57-71.

Bly, B. (2007, December). White Tiger martial arts. American Samurai Karate & Budo News.
Retrieved November 20, 2008, from http://www.americansamurai.com/index.php?
option=com_content&task=view&id=67&It emid=60









Bodet, G. (2006). Investigating customer satisfaction in a health club context by an application
of the tetraclasse model. European Sport Management Quarterly, 6(2), 149-165.

Bollen, K. (1989). Structural equations n it/h latent variables. New York, NY: Wiley.

Bollen, K. (1990). Overall fit in covariance structure models: Two types of sample size effects.
Psychological bulletin, 107(2), 256-259.

Bolton, R., & Drew, J. (1991). A multistage model of customers' assessments of service quality
and value. Journal of Consumer Research, 17(4), 375-384.

Boyd, R., & Richerson, P. (1988). Culture and the evolutionary process: University of Chicago
Press.

Brady, M., & Cronin, J. (2001). Some new thoughts on conceptualizing perceived service
quality: a hierarchical approach. Journal of marketing, 65(3), 34-49.

Brady, M., Knight, G., Cronin, J., Tomas, G., Hult, M., & Keillor, B. (2005). Removing the
contextual lens: A multinational, multi-setting comparison of service evaluation models.
Journal ofRetailing, 81(3), 215-230.

Braunstein, J., Zhang, J., Trail, G., & Gibson, H. (2005). Dimensions of market demand
associated with pre-season training : development of a scale for major league baseball
spring training. Sport Management Review, 8(3), 271-296.

Brown, T. (2006). Confirmatory Factor Analysis for Applied Research: Methodology in the
Social Sciences. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Byon, K., Zhang, J., & Connaughton, D. (2010). Dimensions of general market demand
associated with professional team sports: Development of a scale. Sport Management
Review, 13(2), 142-157.

Byon, K. K. (2008). Impact of market demand and game support programs on consumption
levels ofprofessional team sport spectators as mediated by perceived value. Unpublised
doctoral dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville.

Cai, S. (2000). Physical exercise and mental health: a content integrated approach in coping with
college student anxiety and depression. Physical Educator, 57(2), 69-76.

Cardenas, D., Henderson, K. A., & Wilson, B. E. (2009). Physical Activity and Senior Games
Participation: Benefits, Constraints, and Behaviors. Journal ofAging & Physical Activity,
17(2), 135-153.

Chang, T., & Wildt, A. (1994). Price, product information, and purchase intention: an empirical
study. Journal of the Academy ofMarketing Science, 22(1), 16-27.









Chelladurai, P., & Chang, K. (2000). Targets and standards of quality in sport services. Sport
Management Review, 3(1), 1-22.

Chelladurai, P., Scott, F., & Haywood-Farmer, J. (1987). Dimensions of fitness services:
Development of a model. Journal of Sport Management, 1(2), 159-172.

Chen, C. F., & Chen, F. S. Experience quality, perceived value, satisfaction and behavioral
intentions for heritage tourists. Tourism Management, 31(1), 29-35.

Chen, G., & Liu, Z. (2000). A study on self-defense education of United of States university
students. Physical Education, Recreation, Sport, andDance, 36(3), 29-33.

Cheng, K., Cheng, P., Mak, K., Wong, S., Wong, Y., & Yeung, E. (2003). Relationships of
perceived benefits and barriers to physical activity, physical activity participation and
physical fitness in Hong Kong female adolescents. Journal of sports medicine and
physicalfitness, 43(4), 523-529.

Chou, C., Bentler, P., & Satorra, A. (1991). Scaled test statistics and robust standard errors for
non-normal data in covariance structure analysis: A Monte Carlo study. British Journal
ofMathematical and Statistical Psychology, 44(2), 347-357.

Columbus, P., & Rice, D. (1991). Psychological research on the martial arts: an addendum to
Fuller's review. The British Journal of Medical Psychology, 64, 127-135

Cox, J. (1993). Traditional Asian martial arts training: a review, 1993. Quest, 45(3), 366-388.

Crawford, D., & Godbey, G. (1987). Reconceptualizing barriers to family leisure. Leisure
Sciences, 9(2), 119-127.

Crawford, D., Jackson, E., & Godbey, G. (1991). A hierarchical model of leisure constraints.
Leisure Sciences, 13(4), 309-320.

Crompton, J. L., & Kim, S. (2004). Temporal changes in perceived constraints to visiting state
parks. Journal of Leisure Research, 36(2), 160-183.

Cronin, J., Brady, M., Brand, R., Hightower, R., & Shemwell, D. (1997). A cross-sectional test
of the effect and conceptualization of service value. Journal of Services Marketing, 11(6),
375-391.

Cronin, J., Brady, M., & Hult, G. (2000). Assessing the effects of quality, value, and customer
satisfaction on consumer behavioral intentions in service environments. Journal of
Retailing, 76(2), 193-218.

Cronin, J., & Taylor, S. (1992). Measuring service quality: a reexamination and extension. The
Journal ofMarketing, 56(3), 55-68.









Curran, D., & O'Riordan, C. (2006). Increasing population diversity through cultural learning.
Adaptive Behavior, 14(4), 315-338.

Daniels, K., & Thornton, E. (1990). An analysis of the relationship between hostility and training
in the martial arts. Journal of Sports Sciences, 8(2), 95-101.

Dillman, D. (2007). Mail and internet surveys: The tailored design method: John Wiley & Sons
Inc.

Donahue, B. (1994). The way of the warrior: one metaphor for individuation. Psyche and sports,
89-109.

Douris, P., Chinan, A., & Gomez, M. (2004). Fitness levels of middle aged martial art
practitioners. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 38(2), 143-147

Eggert, A., & Ulaga, W. (2002). Customer perceived value: a substitute for satisfaction in
business markets? Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 17(2-3), 107-118.

Eschenfelder, M., & Li, M. (2007). Economics of sport: Fitness Information Technology.

Evanschitzky, H., & Wunderlich, M. (2006). An examination of moderator effects in the four-
stage loyalty model. Journal of Service Research, 8(4), 330.

Finkenberg, M. (1990). Effect of participation in Taekwondo on college women's self-concept.
Perceptual and Motor .\l//l, 71(3), 891-894.

Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. I. (1975). Belief attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to
theory and research. Reading, Addison-Wesley.

Fomell, C. (1992). A national customer satisfaction barometer: the Swedish experience. The
Journal ofMarketing, 56(1), 6-21.

Fomell, C., Johnson, M., Anderson, E., Cha, J., & Bryant, B. (1996). The American customer
satisfaction index: nature, purpose, and findings. The Journal ofMarketing, 60(4), 7-18.

Fomell, C., & Larcker, D. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable
variables and measurement error. Journal ofMarketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.

Fuller, J. (1988). Martial arts and psychological health. British Journal of Medical Psychology,
61, 317-328.

Funk, D. C., Filo, K., Beaton, A. A., & Pritchard, M. (2009). Measuring the Motives of Sport
Event Attendance: Bridging the Academic- Practitioner Divide to Understanding
Behavior. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 18(3), 126-138.









Gilbert, D., & Hudson, S. (2000). Tourism demand constraints: a skiing participation. Annals of
Tourism Research, 27(4), 906-925.

Gotlieb, J., Grewal, D., & Brown, S. (1994). Consumer satisfaction and perceived quality:
complementary or divergent constructs? Journal ofApplied Psychology, 79(6), 875-885.

Grantham, W., Patton, R., York, T., & Winick, M. (1998). Healthfitness management: Human
Kinetics.

Greenstein, T., & Marcum, J. (1981). Factors affecting attendance of major league baseball:
Team performance. Review of sport and leisure, 6(2), 21-28.

Hair, J., Black, W., Babin, B., Anderson, R., & Tatham, R. (2006). Multivariate Data Analysis
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Halliwell, E., & Dittmar, H. (2005). The role of self-improvement and self-evaluation motives in
social comparisons with idealised female bodies in the media. Body Image, 2(3), 249-
261.

Hansen, H., & Gauthier, R. (1989). Factors affecting attendance at professional sport events.
Journal of Sport Management, 3(1), 15-32.

Henderson, K., & Bialeschki, D. (1993). Negociating constraints to women's physical recreation.
Socitey and Leisure-Montreal, 16, 389-389.

Heskett, J., & Schlesinger, L. (1994). Putting the service-profit chain to work. Harvard Business
Review, 72(2), 164-174.

Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and organizations: software of the mind. New York: McGraw-
Hill.

Holbrook, M. (1996). Customer value-a framework for analysis and research. Advances in
Consumer Research, 23, 138-142.

Howard, D., & Crompton, J. (1984). Who are the consumers of public park and recreation
services? An analysis of the users and non-users of three municipal leisure service
organizations. Journal ofPark and Recreation Administration, 2(3), 33-48.

Howat, G., Absher, J., Crilley, G., & Milne, I. (1996). Measuring customer service quality in
sports and leisure centres. Managing Leisure, 1(2), 77-89.

Hu, L., & Bentler, P. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis:
Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A
Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1-55.









Hubbard, J., & Mannell, R. C. (2001). Testing competing models of the leisure constraint
negotiation process in a corporate employee recreation setting. Leisure Sciences, 23(3),
145-163.

Hung, K., & Petrick, J. F. (2010). Developing a measurement scale for constraints to cruising.
Annals of Tourism Research, 37(1), 206-228.

Huset-McGuire, A., Trail, G., & Anderson, D. (2003). A revised scale of attributes of fitness
services. International Journal of Sport Management, 4, 261-280.

Hyson, S. (2008). The man, the sport, the money. Retrieved July 20, 2009,
from http://www.mensfitness.com/sports_andrecreation/athletes/73

InfoUSA Inc. (2007). Market research report: Martial arts. Retrieved May 20, 2007,
from http://lists.infousa.com/service/lb/CR TallyReport.aspx?bas_type=
CountReport&bas_pa ge=CRTallyReport&basvendor= 190000

Jackson, E. L. (1997). In the eye of the beholder: A comment on Samdahl & Jekubovich (1997),"
A critique of leisure constraints: Comparative analyses and understandings." Journal of
Leisure Research, 29, 458-468.

Jackson, E. L., Crawford, D. W., & Godbey, G. (1993). Negotiation of leisure constraints.
Leisure Sciences, 15(1), 1-11.

James, K. (2000). 'You can feel them looking at you': The experiences of adolescent girls at
swimming. Journal of Leisure Research, 32(2), 262-280.

Jayanti, R., & Ghosh, A. (1996). Service value determination. Journal ofHospitality Marketing
& Management, 3(4), 5-25.

Johnson, M., Sivadas, E., & Garbarino, E. (2008). Customer satisfaction, perceived risk and
affective commitment: an investigation of directions of influence. Journal of Services
Marketing, 22(5), 353-362.

Joreskog, K., & Sorbom, D. (1996). LISREL 8 user's reference guide: Scientific Software.

Kam, H., & Crompton, J. L. (2006). Benefits and constraints associated with the use of an urban
park reported by a sample of elderly in Hong Kong. Leisure Studies, 25(3), 291-311.

Kay, T., & Jackson, G. (1991). Leisure despite constraint: The impact of leisure constraints on
leisure participation. Journal of Leisure Research, 23(4), 301-313.

Kelley, S., Donnelly, J., & Skinner, S. (1990). Customer participation in service production and
delivery. Journal ofRetailing, 66(3), 315-335.









Kim, D., & Kim, S. (1995). QUESC: An instrument for assessing the service quality of sport
centers in Korea. Journal of Sport Management, 9(2), 208-220.

Kim, M. K., & Zhang, J. J. (2010, June). Modification and revision of the scale of market
demand for Taekwondo schools. Paper presented at the meeting of the North American
Society for Sport Management, Tampa, FL.

Kim, M. K., Zhang, J. J., & Ko, Y. J. (2009). Dimensions of market demand associated with
Taekwondo schools in North America: Development of a scale. Sport Management
Review, 12(3), 149-166.

Kim, N., & Chalip, L. (2004). Why travel the FIFA World Cup? Effects of motives, background,
interest, and constraints. Tourism Management, 25(6), 695-707.

Kim, Y. K., & Trail, G. T. (2010). Constraints and movtivators: A new model to explain sport
consumer behavior. Journal of Sport Management, 24(2), 190-210.

Kline, R. (2005). Principles andpractice of structural equation modeling: The Guilford Press.

Ko, Y. J. (2002). Martial arts industry in the new millennium Journal ofMartialArts Studies 5,
10-23.

Ko, Y. J. (2003). Martial arts marketing: Putting the customer first Journal ofAsian Martial Arts
12(2), 9-15.

Ko, Y. J., Kim, Y. K., & Valacich, J. (2010). Martial arts participation: Consumer motivation.
International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, 11(2), 105-123.

Ko, Y. J., & Pastore, D. L. (2004). Current issues and conceptualizations of service quality in the
recreational sport industry Sport Marketing Quarterly, 13(3), 158-166.

Ko, Y. J., & Pastore, D. L. (2005). A hierarchical model of service quality for the recreational
sport industry Sport Marketing Quarterly, 14(2), 84-97.

Ko, Y. J., & Yang, J. B. (2008). The globalization of martial arts the change of rules for new
markets. Journal ofAsian Martial Arts, 17(4), 9-19.

Konzak, B., & Boudreau, F. (1984). Martial arts training and mental health: An exercise in self-
help. Canada's Mental Health, 32(1), 2-8.

Kotler, P. (1994). Marketing Management: Planning, Analysis, Implementation and Control.
Prentice-Hall, New York, NY.

Kwon, H. H., Trail, G., & James, J. D. (2007). The mediating role of perceived value: Team
identification and purchase intention of team-licensed apparel. Journal of Sport
Management, 21(4), 540-554.










Lakes, K. D., & Hoyt, W. T. (2004). Promoting self-regulation through school-based martial arts
training. Journal ofApplied Developmental Psychology, 25(3), 283-302.

Lam, E. T. C., Zhang, J. J., & Jensen, B. E. (2005). Service Quality Assessment Scale (SQAS):
An Instrument for Evaluating Service Quality of Health-Fitness Clubs. Measurement in
Physical Education & Exercise Science, 9(2), 79-111.

Law, D. R. (2004). A choice theory perspective on children's Taekwondo. International Journal
ofReality Therapy, 24(1), 13-18.

Lee, C.-K., Yoon, Y.-S., & Lee, S.-K. (2007). Investigating the relationships among perceived
value, satisfaction, and recommendations: The case of the Korean DMZ. Tourism
Management, 28(1), 204-214.

Macintosh, E., & Doherty, A. (2007). Reframing the service environment in the fitness industry.
Managing Leisure, 12(4), 273-289.
Mardia, K. (1985). Mardia's test of multinormality. Encyclopedia of statistical sciences, 5, 217-
221.

Mathes, S. A., & Battista, R. (1985). College men's and women's motives for participation in
physical activity. Perceptual and Motor .\kl//, 61, 719-726.

Maxham, J., & Netemeyer, R. (2002). A longitudinal study of complaining customers'
evaluations of multiple service failures and recovery efforts. The Journal ofMarketing,
57-71.

McCracken, G. (1989). Who is the celebrity endorser? Cultural foundations of the endorsement
process. Journal of Consumer Research, 16(3), 310-321.

McDougall, G., & Levesque, T. (2000). Customer satisfaction with services: putting perceived
value into the equation. Journal of Services Marketing, 14(5), 392-410.

Mizik, N., & Jacobson, R. (2004). Stock return response modeling. Assessing Marketing Strategy
Performance, 29-26.

Minister of Culture, Sport and Tourism (2009). Taekwondo: a new strategy for Brand Korea.
Retrieved April 12, 2010 from
http://www.mcst.go.kr/english/issue/issueView.jsp?pMenuCD=1004000000&pSeq=1401

Monree, K. B. (1990). Pricing-Marketingprofitable decision. New York: McGrw-Hill.

Morgan, R., & Hunt, S. (1994). The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. The
Journal ofMarketing, 58(3), 20-38.

Mullin, B., Hardy, S., & Sutton, W. (2007). Sport marketing: Human Kinetics Publishers.










Murphy, P. E., & Enis, B. M. (1986). Classifying products strategically. The Journal of
Marketing, 50(3), 24-42.

Murray, D., & Howat, G. (2002). The relationships among service quality, value, satisfaction,
and future intentions of customers at an Australian sports and leisure centre. Sport
Management Review, 5(1), 25-43.

Muthen, L., & Muthen, B. (2007). Mplus user's guide. 5th: Los Angeles, CA: Muthen & Muthen.

Netemeyer, R., Johnston, M., & Burton, S. (1990). Analysis of role conflict and role ambiguity
in a structural equations framework. Journal ofApplied Psychology, 75(2), 148-157.

Noll, R. (1974). Attendance and price setting. In R. G. Noll (Ed.), Government and the sports
business (pp. 115-157). Washington, DC: The Brookings Institute.

Nunnally, J., & Bernstein, I. (1994). Psychometric theory: New York: McGraw-Hill.

Nyaupane, G. P., Morais, D. B., & Graefe, A. R. (2004). Nature tourism constraints:: A cross-
activity comparison. Annals of Tourism Research, 31(3), 540-555.

Oliver, R. (1981). Measurement and evaluation of satisfaction processes in retail settings.
Journal ofRetailing, 57(3), 25-48.

Oliver, R. (1997). Satisfaction: A behavioral perspective on the consumer: New York, NY:
McGraw Hill

Papadimitriou, D., & Karteroliotis, K. (2000). The service quality expectations in private sport
and fitness centers: A re-examination of the factor structure. Sport Marketing Quarterly,
9(3), 157-164.

Parasuraman, A., & Grewal, D. (2000). The impact of technology on the quality-value-loyalty
chain: a research agenda. Journal of the Academy ofMarketing Science, 28(1), 168-174.

Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V., & Berry, L. (1988). A multiple-item scale for measuring
consumer perceptions of service quality. Journal ofRetailing, 64(1), 12-40.

Patel, D., Stier, B., & Luckstead, E. (2002). Major international sport profiles. Pediatric Clinics
ofNorth America, 49, 769-792.

Penedo, F., & Dahn, J. (2005). Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical health
benefits associated with physical activity. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 18(2), 189-193.

Petrick, J., Backman, S., & Bixler, R. (1999). An investigation of selected factors' impact on
golfer satisfaction and perceived value. Journal ofPark and Recreation Administration,
17, 40-59.










Pritchard, M., Funk, D., & Alexandris, K. (2009). Barriers to repeat patronage: the impact of
spectator constraints. European Journal ofMarketing, 43(1-2), 169-187.

Quintana, S., & Maxwell, S. (1999). Implications of recent developments in structural equation
modeling for counseling psychology. The Counseling Psychologist, 27(4), 485-527.

Reichheld, F. (1996). Learning from customer defections. Harvard Business Review, 74, 56-70.

Rein, I., Kotler, P., & Shields, B. (2006). The elusivefan: reinventing sports in a crowded
marketplace: McGraw-Hill Companies.

Richman, C. L., & Rehberg, H. (1986). The development of self-esteem through the martial art.
International Journal of Sport Psychology, 17, 234-239.

Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image: Princeton University Press
Princeton, NJ.

Satorra, A., & Bentler, P. (1994). Corrections to test statistics and standard errors in covariance
structure analysis. Latent variables analysis: Applications for developmental research,
399-319.

Satorra, A., & Bentler, P. (2001). A scaled difference chi-square test statistic for moment
structure analysis. Psychometrika, 66(4), 507-514.

Scanlan, T., Carpenter, P., Schmidt, G., Simons, J., & Keeler, B. (1993). An introduction to the
sport commitment model. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 15, 1-15.

Schmidt, R. (1986). Japanese martial arts as spiritual education'. Mind and body: East meets
West, 69-74.

Schofield, J. (1983). Performance and attendance at professional team sports. Journal of Sport
Behavior, 6(4), 196-206.

SGMA (2010). Martial arts participation report 2010. Retrieved March 12, 2010 from
http://www.sgma.com/reports/67_Martial-Arts-Participation-Report-2010

Shaw, S., Bonen, A., & McCabe, J. (1991). Do more constraints mean less leisure? Examining
the relationship between constraints and participation. Journal of Leisure Research,
23(4), 286-300.

Sheth, N. J., Newman, B. I., & Gross, B. L. (1991). Why we buy what we buy: a theory of
consumption values. Journal of Business Research, 22(2), 159-170.

Siegfried, J., & Eisenberg, J. (1980). The demand for minor league baseball. Atlantic Economic
Journal, 8(2), 59-69.










Snoj, B., Korda, A., & Mumel, D. (2004). The relationships among perceived quality, perceived
risk and perceived product value. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 13(3), 156-
167.

Sport Business Research Network. (2008). Market research results. Retrieved November 22,
2008 from http://www.sbrnet.com/research.asp?subRID=259

Stefanek, K. A. (2004). An exploration ofparticipation motives among collegiate taekwondo
participants. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Michigan State University, East Lansing.

Stepan, C. (2008). Taekwondo: Taekwondo: New Holland.

Sweeney, J., & Soutar, G. (2001). Consumer perceived value: the development of a multiple item
scale. Journal ofRetailing, 77(2), 203-220.

Tabachnick, B., & Fidell, L. (2006). Using multivariate statistics. Needham Heights, United
Kingdom: Pearson Higher Education.

Tam, J. (2004). Customer satisfaction, service quality and perceived value: an integrative model.
Journal of Marketing Management, 20(7), 897-917.

Tax, S., Brown, S., & Chandrashekaran, M. (1998). Customer evaluations of service complaint
experiences: implications for relationship marketing. Journal ofMarketing, 62(2), 60-76.

Trail, G. T., Robinson, M. J., & Kim, Y. K. (2008). Sport consumer behavior: A test for group
differences on structural constraints. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 17(4), 190-200.

Trulson, M. (1986). Martial arts training: A novel" cure" for juvenile delinquency. Human
Relations, 39(12), 1131.

Um, S., & Crompton, J. (1992). The roles of perceived inhibitors and facilitators in pleasure
travel destination decisions. Journal of Travel Research, 30(3), 18-25.

Van Leeuwen, L., Quick, S., & Daniel, K. (2002). The sport spectator satisfaction model: a
conceptual framework for understanding the satisfaction of spectators. Sport
Management Review, 5(2), 99-128.

Vandermerwe, S. (2003). Customer-minded growth through services. Managing Service Quality,
13(4), 262-266.

Weiser, M., Kutz, I., Kutz, S. J., & Weiser, D. (1995). Psychotherapeutic aspects of the martial
arts. American Journal ofPsychotherapy, 49(1), 118-127.









Weiss, M. R. (1987). Self-esteem and achievement in children's sport and physical activity. In D.
R. Gould, & M. R. Weiss (Eds.), Advances in Pediatric Sport Sciences (Vol. 1, pp. 87-
119). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Weston, R., & Gore, P. (2006). A brief guide to structural equation modeling. The Counseling
Psychologist, 34(5), 719.

Woodruff, R. (1997). Customer value: the next source for competitive advantage. Journal of the
Academy ofMarketing Science, 25(2), 139-153.

Woodruff, R., & Gardial, S. (1996). Know your customer: new approaches to understanding
customer value and satisfaction: Blackwell Pub.

World Taekwondo Federation. (n.d.). WTF news. Retrieved April, 2010, from
http://wtf org/site/news/wtf.htm

Yang, J. (1996). American conceptualization ofAsian martial arts: an interpretive analysis of
the narrative of Taekwondo participants. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of
North Carolina at Greensboro.

Zeithaml, V., Parasuraman, A., & Berry, L. (1985). Problems and strategies in services
marketing. The Journal ofMarketing, 49(2), 33-46.

Zeithaml, V. A. (1988). Consumer perceptions of price, quality, and value: a means-end model
and synthesis of evidence. The Journal ofMarketing, 52(3), 2-22.

Zetaruk, M., Violan, M., Zurakowski, D., & Micheli, L. (2005). Injuries in martial arts: a
comparison of five styles. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 39(1), 29-33.

Zhang, J., Smith, D., Pease, D., & Jambor, E. (1997). Negative influence of market competitors
on the attendance of professional sport games: the case of a minor league hockey team.
Sport Marketing Quarterly, 6, 31-40.

Zhang, J. J., Braunstein, J., Ellis, M., Lam, E. T. C., & Williamson, D. (2003). Market demand
variables associated with game consumption levels of minor league hockey game
spectators. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 74(1 ), A90-A91.

Zhang, J. J., Lam, E. T. C., Bennett, G., & Connaughton, D. P. (2003). Confirmatory factor
analysis of Spectator Decision-Making Inventory (SDMI). Measurement in Physical
Education & Exercise Science, 7(2), 57-70.

Zhang, J. J., Lam, E. T. C., & Connaughton, D. P. (2003). General market demand variables
associated with professional sport consumption. International Journal of Sports
Marketing & Sponsorship, 5(1), 33-55.









Zhang, J. J., Pease, D. G., Hui, S. C., & Michaud, T. J. (1995). Variables affecting the spectator
decision to attend NBA games. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 4(4), 29-39.









BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Min Kil Kim was born in SunCheon, South Korea. He received his Bachelor of Science (with

distinction) in Business Administration (specialization: Marketing) from the University of

Alabama, Tuscaloosa in December 2003. He completed his Master of Sciences (Specialization:

Sport Management) in the University of Florida in August 2006. Finally, he earned his Ph D. in

health and human performance (sport management) from the University of Florida in August

2010. He had taught numerous courses in the Sport and Fitness program such as self-defense and

Taekwondo and Sport Marketing. He was well liked and respected by his students as evidenced

in his high teaching evaluations. He worked as a graduate research assistant in the Department of

Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management. His primary research interest is sport marketing,

especially sport consumer behavior, cross-cultural study, and service quality based on

quantitative research design. He has published four research manuscripts in good to excellent

journals and has delivered close to 20 research presentation at academic conferences.





PAGE 1

STRUCTURAL R ELATIONSHIPS AMONG MARKET DEMAND, PERCEIVED BENEFITS, PERCEIVED CONSTRAINTS, PERCEIVED VALUE, MEMBER SATISFACTION, AND MEMBER COMMITMENT TOWARD MARITAL ARTS PARTICIPATION By MIN KIL KIM A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2010 1

PAGE 2

2010 Min Kil Kim 2

PAGE 3

T o my family 3

PAGE 4

ACKNOWL EDGMENTS I would first like to acknowledge my advisor, Dr. James J. Zhang for his endless support throughout my course of study in the masters and Ph D. program. I would not have been able to complete my dissertation w ithout his patience, encouragement, insight, and support. Dr. Zhang has been a great mentor for th e whole phase of this dissertation. I would like to thank the members of my committee, Dr. Dan Connaughton, Dr. Yong Jae Ko, Dr Matt Walker, Dr. May Kim, and Dr. Barton Weitz. For their great guidance and contribution Many thanks also go to my Ph. D program coll eagues who encouraged me during this arduous process. Finally, I would like to extend my great est appreciation to my family for being there when I need the most. I deeply thank my parents, SaeHwan Kim and SunkOk Lee. Most importantly, I thank my lovely wife, JeungAh Kim, and my precious daughter, Allison Kim, for their endless love and unselfish sacrifice. I w ould like to thank my entire family in Korea for their support and encouragement. Above all el se, I want to thank God, Jesus Christ, who strengthens me whenever and wherever. 4

PAGE 5

TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS...............................................................................................................4LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................................. ..........7LIST OF FIGURES.........................................................................................................................8LIST OF TERMS.............................................................................................................................9ABSTRACT...................................................................................................................................10CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. .12Statement of the Problem....................................................................................................... .18Hypothesized Research Model...............................................................................................20Delimitations...........................................................................................................................21Limitations.................................................................................................................... ..........21Significance of the Study........................................................................................................222 LITERATURE REVIEW.......................................................................................................25Taekwondo.............................................................................................................................25Market Demand.................................................................................................................. ....27Conceptual Framework........................................................................................................... 33Personal Improvement Activities....................................................................................34Physical Environment Quality.........................................................................................36Instructional Staff Quality...............................................................................................37Program Activities Offerings..........................................................................................38Cultural Learning Activities............................................................................................38Locker Room Provision...................................................................................................40Economic Conditions Consideration...............................................................................40Perceived Benefits............................................................................................................. .....41Perceived Constraints.......................................................................................................... ...44Perceived Value......................................................................................................................51Member Satisfaction...............................................................................................................57Member Commitment.............................................................................................................583 METHODOLOGY.................................................................................................................6 1Participants.............................................................................................................................61Measurement.................................................................................................................... .......62Market Demand...............................................................................................................62Perceived Benefits...........................................................................................................65 5

PAGE 6

Perceived Constraints ......................................................................................................65Perceived Value...............................................................................................................66Member Satisfaction........................................................................................................67Member Commitment.....................................................................................................67Demographic Information...............................................................................................68Procedures..................................................................................................................... ..........68Data Analyses.........................................................................................................................70Goodness of Model Fit....................................................................................................72Reliability........................................................................................................................73Validity............................................................................................................................744 RESULTS...................................................................................................................... .........79Descriptive Statistics......................................................................................................... .....79Market Demand Variables...............................................................................................79Perceived Benefits Variables...........................................................................................79Perceived Constraints Variables......................................................................................80Perceived Value Variables..............................................................................................80Member Satisfaction and Memb er Commitment Variables............................................81Data Normality................................................................................................................8 1Measurement Models............................................................................................................. .82Market Demand...............................................................................................................82Perceived Benefits...........................................................................................................83Perceived Constraints......................................................................................................84Perceived Value...............................................................................................................85Overall Measurement Model..................................................................................................86Structural Equation Model...................................................................................................... 87Summary of the Results......................................................................................................... .895 DISCUSSION................................................................................................................... ....107Measurement Model.............................................................................................................1 07Structural Models a nd Hypothesis Testing...........................................................................110Suggestions for Further Study..............................................................................................115APPENDIX A SURVEY INSTRUMENT FOR CONTENT VALIDITY...................................................117B INFORMED CONSENT AND QUESTIONNAIRE...........................................................124LIST OF REFERENCES.............................................................................................................130BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................................143 6

PAGE 7

LIST OF TABLES Table page 3-1 Descriptive statistics for the sociodemographic variables (N=595)..................................763-2 Group comparison between on-line and on-site respondents............................................784-1 Descriptive statistics for the market demand variables (N = 595).....................................914-2 Descriptive statistics for th e perceived benefits (N = 595)................................................934-3 Descriptive statistics for th e perceived constraints (N = 595)...........................................944-4 Descriptive statistics for the perceived value (N = 595)....................................................954-5 Descriptive statistics for the member satisfaction and commitment (N = 595).................964-6 Summary results for ove rall measurement model.............................................................974-7 Correlations among market demand constructs...............................................................1004-8 Assessment of discriminant validity................................................................................1014-9 Standardized parameter es timates and hypothesis testing...............................................1024-10 The direct and indirect effect s of market demand on commitment.................................103 7

PAGE 8

LIST OF FI GURES Figure page 1-1 A hypothesized model of the relationships among market demand, perceived benefit, perceived constraint, perceived valu e, member satisfaction, and member commitment.......................................................................................................................244-1 First-order confirmatory factor analysis for market demand...........................................1044-2 A hypothesized model of the relationships among market demand, perceived benefit, perceived constraint, perceived valu e, member satisfaction, and member commitment.....................................................................................................................1054-3 A comparison of the partially mediated model and the direct effect model....................106 8

PAGE 9

LIST OF TERMS Custom er Commitment Morgan and Hunt (1994) had defined commitment as an exchange partner believing that an ongoing re lationship with another is so important as to warrant maximum effo rts at maintaining it; that is, the committed party believes the relationship is worth working on to ensure that it endures indefinitely (p. 23). Customer Satisfaction Consumers overall plea surable fulfillment of the response toward a product, service, or benefit, which is being provided to the customer to satisfy his/her need, desires, and goals (Oliver 1997). Martial Arts The martial arts include a wide range of self-defense and personal development systems, or disciplines, which originated in the Far East, Karate, judo, kung-fu, and Taekwondo. Market Demand Sport consumers expectations towards the main attributes of the game itself (Zhang et al., 1995). Participant A member enrolled in an or ganized TKD program, by paying any form of fees. Perceived Benefits It defines as a combination of different at tributes of products (tangible and intangible; intrinsic and extrinsi c etc), available in relation to a particular buy and use situation (Snoj, Korda, & Mumel, 2004, p. 157). Perceived Constraints It define s as perceived or experien ced by individuals to limit the formation of leisure preferences and to inhibit or prohibit participation and enjoyment in leisure (Jackson, 1997, p. 461). Perceived Value It defines as consumers ove rall assessment of the utility of a product (or service) based on perception of what is received and what is given (Zeithaml, 1988, p. 14). Taekwondo (TKD) The main feature of TKD is a combative sport using bare hands and feet to defeat an opponent. It is one of th e most popular martial arts sports in the world, 191 country and over 70 million participants of all ages (WTF, 2010). 9

PAGE 10

Abstract of Dissertation Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy STRUCTURAL RELATIONSHIPS AMONG MARKET DEMAND, PERCEIVED BENEFITS, PERCEIVED CONSTRAINTS, PERCEIVED VALUE, MEMBER SATISFACTION, AND MEMBER COMMITMENT TOWARD MARITAL ARTS PARTICIPATION By Min Kil Kim August 2010 Chair: James J. Zhang Major: Health and Human Performance Participation in physically ac tive recreation and sport has b een tremendously increased in recent years due to health and fitness consciousness of people. Of various act ivities, martial arts have become an increasingly popular in Western countries, and they are widely considered as valuable participation ac tivities within diverse co ntexts. Although the current trends of growth in the martial arts schools are generating new oppor tunities for martial ar ts enthusiasts, rapid growth in the number of the martial arts schools has resulted in a highly competitive business environment in North America. The purpose of th is study was to develop and test a theoretical framework that specifies direct and indirect relationships among market demand, perceived benefits, perceived constraint, perceived value, consumer satisfaction, and consumption behavior in martial arts programs. Research participants ( N = 595) were Taekwondo school participants, who resided in the U.S. and voluntarily participat ed in the survey study. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to evaluate the measurement m odel and the proposed model was developed and tested using a structural equation modeling (SEM) with MPLUS 5.21 program. 10

PAGE 11

11 The findings of this study indicated that pe rceived benefits and perceived constraints partially mediated the relationship between th e market demand factors and perceived value, which, in turn, influenced memb er satisfaction and commitment Participants would select martial arts school that is sati sfied with their expectation for dominant perceived benefits and pursue perceived value form the martial arts trai ning experience. Administra tors of martial arts programs may also consider the resultant theoretical framework as a general guide in their marketing efforts to recruit and retain program participants. The struct ure model in this study may be applied in the formulation of marketing strategies for martial arts schools, as well as other related health-fitness settings.

PAGE 12

CHAP TER 1 INTRODUCTION Lifestyles in American society have changed over the past few decades such that people now tend to spend more time and money maintaini ng wellness. Participation in physically active recreation and sports has increased tremendously in recent years due to this increased fitness and health consciousness. Along with various other activities, martial arts have become an increasingly popular recreational pursuit in Western countries. The introduction and diffusion of martial arts have created various sporting opportunities at the recreational, amateur, and professional levels. Martial arts are widely considered as valuable participatory activities for a variety of purposes, such as prev ention of criminal victimizati on, personal growth and discovery, life transition, and task performa nce (Columbus & Rice, 1991). Speci fically, previous studies of martial arts have supported that martial arts have come to be recognized as a combat sport, a selfdefense system, a physical fitness option (e .g., Adamson & Wade, 1986; Mathes & Battista, 1985), and a means of mental discipline training (e.g., Colu mbus & Rice, 1991; Daniels & Thornton, 1990; Finkenberg, 1990; Fuller, 1988; Law, 2004; Richman & Rehberg, 1986; Trulson, 1986). Martial arts participants are usuall y trained in private mar tial arts schools, public health and fitness programs, martial arts curricul ums in educational institutions, at YMCAs, or in military organizations (Ko, 2002, 2003). American children have grown up being exposed to martial arts films and television programs, such as The Karate Kid and Mighty Morphin Power Rangers. A number of movies, cartoon s, books, videogames, and television programs featuring martial arts (e.g., mixed martial arts) have contributed to this growing popularity to such an extent that martial arts are now a part of youth culture (Yang, 1996). Ko and Yang (2008) identified a number of speci fic reasons for the grow th of martial arts: (a) transformation of values of martial arts training, (b) modernization of instructional 12

PAGE 13

curriculum (c) promotional efforts made by govern ments of martial arts countries-of-origin, (d) increased marketing commercialization, (e) gl obalization of mar tial arts through the sportification and formalization of its organizational structure, (f) diversification of martial arts products in movies and fitness programs, a nd (g) the emergence of mixed martial arts. Coinciding with their popularity as a participation sport, martial arts have also become a popular spectator sport in the U.S., as evidenced by the success of Mixed Martia l Arts (MMA) events, launched in 1993 as a new brand of combat sport, as well as that of the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC), Pride Fighting Champions hip, Extreme Martial Arts (XMA), and K-1. MMA is currently the most popular televised co mbat sport. XMA, for another example, is sponsored by ESPN and the UFC. Its programs have been broadcast on Spike TV and are now seen in 36 countries. The UFC is the largest pa y-per-view provider in the world (UFC, 2006) and the fastest-growing sport in the U.S. The UFC s 10 pay-per-view events in 2007 generated more than $200 million in customer retail value (Hyson, 2008). According to the Sport Business Research Network (2008), approximately 1.1 m illion people attended MM A events and more than 13 million watched the events on TV in 2006, such that MMA outperformed boxing and professional wrestling. The UFC is now estimated to be worth at more than $1 billion. The rapid expansion has subsequently influen ced the proliferation of commercial martial arts schools throughout North America. There ar e approximately 13,950 martial arts schools in the U.S. alone, and more than 100 colleges have martial arts pr ograms (Info-USA, 2007). According to SGMA International (2010), ther e are currently about 6.9 million martial arts participants, an increase of 28% since 2004. ; Since 2008, the martia l arts equipment industry has grown 8.3%, to $323 million. 13

PAGE 14

The eleva ted interest in martial arts has incr eased the magnitude of their market share. For instance, a majority of Taekwondo (TKD) schools in North America are commercial establishments. The elevated interest in TKD ha s expanded its market and led to the realization that TKD instruction can be a profitable bus iness when properly managed. The White Tiger martial arts school, for example, has an enrollme nt of more than 3,000 students. The school has a staff of 32, including 14 TKD masters (Bly, 2007). The rapid growth of martial arts, TKD in particular, has produced a highly competitive bu siness environment. Besides competing with other TKD programs, a TKD school usually has to compete with other t ypes of martial arts providers, such as XMA, karate, and kung fu. In addition, TKD competes with other sports and fitness organizations, such as racquet clubs, country clubs, health-fitness cen ters, and parks and recreational facilities (Kim, Zha ng, & Ko, 2009). Although current grow th trends in martial arts schools are generating new opportuniti es for martial arts enthusiast s, the rapid growth in the number of martial arts schools has resulted in a highly competitive martial arts business environment in North America. Membership is the primary source of revenue generation for health /fitness organizations (Mullin, Hardy, & Sutton, 2007). Likewise, the ongoing operation of martial arts schools primarily rely on revenues generated from its membership (Kim et al., 2009); yet, member recruitment and retention are th e most challenging for program s. Grantham, Patton, York, and Winick (1998) explained that r ecruiting and retaining members can be a complicated process, involving an understanding of many market-related variables. It is critical for administrators of martial arts programs to identify their target ma rket and understand those va riables that directly and indirectly affect an individuals deci sion to attend a program Among these varying marketing variables, the concept of market dema nd, which is related to consumer expectations 14

PAGE 15

concern ing the attributes of the core product, ha s received much research attention in recent years (Braunstein, Zhang, Trail, & Gibson, 2005; Byon, Zhang, & Connaughton, 2010; Hansen & Gauthier, 1989; Kim et al., 2009; Schofiel d, 1983; Zhang, Lam, & Connaughton, 2003; Zhang, Pease, Hui, & Michaud, 1995). Various resear chers have indicated that in-depth analyses of market demand variables for a sport product(s) would enhance the understanding of consumer expectations and accordingly allow one to formul ate an effective marketing mix to help the sports program to succeed in a highly comp etitive marketplace (Hansen & Gauthier, 1989; Schofield, 1983; Zhang, Lam, Bennett, & Connaughton, 2003; Zhang et al., 1995). Thus, effective management and marketing practices ar e necessary to meet the needs and desires of current and potential members. This attentiven ess ultimately assists in maintaining a business concerns long-term existence, sustainabi lity, and profitability (Zhang et al., 1995). The business success and future growth of martial arts organizations in a highly competitive environment depends on how well they understand their consumers and adapt to changes in consumer demand. It is important fo r administrators of martial arts programs to identify unique market demand variables that dir ectly and indirectly affect an individuals decision to attend a program (Kim et al., 2009). Most studies have focused on the motivational aspects of martial arts participants (C ox, 1993; Donohue, 1994; Ko, Kim, & Valacich, 2010; Stefanek, 2004; Yang, 1996). It is vital for martial arts marketers to understand why people participate in martial arts. Understanding motiva tional factors that influence participation in martial arts would facilitate an understanding of martial arts partic ipants decision-making process. Researchers have found th at fun, physical fitness, and ae sthetics are the most critical factors in explaining why people participate in martial arts. However, only a few researchers have explored the impacts of various elements in the marketing mix of martial arts programs, 15

PAGE 16

nam ely product, place, price, and promotion from a marketing perspective (Ko, 2002, 2003). In particular, few researchers have investigated thos e variables representing the attributes of market demand for private TKD schools in the U.S. To f ill this void, Kim et al. (2009) identified six dimensions of attributes denoting market de mand associated with TKD schools by developing the Scale of Market Demand for Taekwondo Schools (SMD-TKD) to measure key market demand dimensions. These factors were found to be representative of TKD market demand (i.e., Personal Benefits, School Operat ion, Instruction Quality, Prog ram Offering, Locker Room, and Cultural Learning). Previous studies on market demand have identif ied various factors that affect sport event of professional and intercollegiat e sports spectators (Braunstein et al., 2005; Byon et al., 2010; Greenstein & Marcum, 1981; Hansen & Gauthi er, 1989; Schofield, 1983; Zhang, Lam, Bennett et al., 2003; Zhang, Lam, & Connaughton, 2003; Zha ng et al., 1995). These studies primarily examined the extent to which market demand fact ors directly affected consumption behaviors, with only a limited amount of variance explained, typically lo wer than 20% (Byon et al., 2010; Kim et al., 2009; Schofield, 1983; Zhang, Bra unstein, Ellis, Lam, & Williamson, 2003; Zhang, Lam, & Connaughton, 2003; Zhang et al., 1995). The study by Kim et al. (2009) showed that TKD market demand factors collectively expl ained only a total of 14% of consumption behaviors variance. This direct approach failed to consider the psychological processes typically associated with martial arts participation (Kim et al., 2009; Zhang, Lam, & Connaughton, 2003; Zhang et al., 1995), thus limiting the research wo rks explanatory power and usefulness in the development of marketing interventions. To the authors knowledge, no study has been found that examined the psychological processes associated with market demand with respect to martial arts participation. Herein, the 16

PAGE 17

concepts of m artial arts consumer perceived bene fits, perceived constraints, and perceived value are first assessed in this study, starting with a literature review. These psychological constructs have been considered the most critical factor s in predicting consumer satisfaction, behavior intention, and loyalty in a wide range of contexts (Chen & Chen; Cronin, Brady, & Hult, 2000a; Eggert & Ulaga, 2002; Johnson, Sivadas, & Garbarino, 2008; McDougall & Levesque, 2000; Woodruff & Gardial, 1996). Likewise, for mar tial arts participants there is a certain psychological process underlying their de cision-making process for participation. An important aspect of perceived benefits in the context of martial arts is a participants belief in the likelihood that this sport can provide him/he r with physical and psychological benefits (e.g., Adamson & Wade, 1986; Mathes & Battista, 1985). Perceived benefits of martial arts training are thus the participants subjective pe rceptions of gain from participating in martial arts. If martial arts part icipants perceive little or no benefits from martial arts training, it will be difficult for schools to retain or recruit memb ers and avoid attrition. A number of studies documented that participating in martial arts affords positive ps ychological benefits (e.g., selfesteem, self-concept, confidence, and relaxation) and a unique array of physical benefits (e.g., balance, strength, flexibility, and self-defense) (e.g., Adamson & Wade, 1986; Cai, 2000; Fuller, 1988; Konzak & Boudreau, 1984; Lakes & Hoyt, 2004; Mathes & Battista, 1985; Richman & Rehberg, 1986; Trulson, 1986; Weiser, Kutz, Kutz, & Weiser, 1995). Even though martial arts traini ng has a strong appeal to the consumers in North America, the drop-out rates in this segment of the sport in dustry have increased in recent years. However, little research has been conduc ted to explain this phenomeno n. Due to the highly competitive nature of the martial arts busine ss in North America, reduction of dropout rates must be a priority in order to ensure an organizations survival in the saturated marketpl ace. Thus, martial arts 17

PAGE 18

m arketers should identify perceived constraints variables that aff ect participants decisions to attend and remain in training programs. Constraint s were once considered barriers that directly resulted in non-participation; ye t, resent research findings indi cate that it is also possible for participants to negotiate a pa rticipation process through constr aints (Alexandris, Kouthouris, & Girgolas, 2007). Therefore, it is important to identify constrai nts or barriers to understand why participants drop out of martial arts training. Both the perceived benefits and constraints associated with martial arts participation are expected to play critical roles in explaining participants behavior and predicting their intentions to remain in the martial arts (e.g., Holbrook, 1996; Snoj et al., 2004 ; Woodruff, 1997). Although the importance of perceived value, th e ratio between total perceived benefit and total perceived sacrifice/pr ice (Monree, 1990; Zeithaml, 1988), in understanding consumer behavior has been widely rec ognized, no research attention has been devoted to examining the effect of perceived value on martial arts participation. In a broader sport marketing context, however, perceived value has been shown to play a mediating role in the relationship between team identification and licensed merchandise purchase intentions ( Kwon, Trail, & James, 2007b). Byon (2008) investigated the mediating role of perceived va lue in the rela tionship of market demand variables and game support programs to the consumption of professional sports. Although perceived value of the participation expe rience among martial arts participants remains to be evaluated, findings of pr evious studies on general busine ss consumers have offered strong evidence that the concept of perceived value can be applied specifically to the martial arts setting. Statement of the Problem Business success and future growth in a highly competitive market environment depends on how well martial arts organizations understand their consumers and adapt to changes in 18

PAGE 19

consum er demand. It is important for the administrators of martial arts programs to identify unique market demand variables that directly affect an individual s decision to attend a program (Kim et al., 2009). Previous market demand studi es have examined how market demand factors directly affect consumption behaviors; however with this approach only a limited amount of variance was explained, typically lower than 20%. These studies failed to consider the psychological processes typically associated with martial arts participation (Kim et al., 2009; Zhang, Lam, & Connaughton, 2003; Zhang et al., 1995), thus limiting their explanatory power and usefulness in the development of marketi ng interventions. In rece nt years, understanding socio-psychological path has been the focus of numerous sport consumer behavior studies in various sport settings. Martial arts participant be havior research has been rather neglected in terms of consideration of its relationship with various market demand and psychological constructs. Martial arts partic ipant decision-making with resp ect to a given school can be explained by such hierarchical or der of mental constructs as cust omer perceived value, perceived constraint, perceived benefits, and satisfaction. Previous resear chers have suggested that an understanding of such psychological aspects could be key to help ing organizations have an indepth understanding of consumer decision-making process and consequently gain a competitive advantage within the martial arts industry (e.g., Bolton & Drew, 1991; Chang & Wildt, 1994; Zeithaml, 1988). In this study, the concepts of market demand, perceived bene fits, perceived constraints, and perceived value of martial arts consumer ar e first explored, along w ith member satisfaction and commitment, through a comprehensive review of literature. As a result, the study was designed to investigate how market demand would be related to such psychological constructs as perceived constraints, perceived benefits, and perceived value, whic h would be in turn related to 19

PAGE 20

m ember satisfaction and member commitment. Sp ecifically, the purpose of this study was to examine direct and indirect relationships am ong market demand, perceive d benefits, perceived constraint, perceived value, consumer satisfaction, and consumption behavior in martial arts programs. Hypothesized Research Model Following Ajzen and Fishbeins (1980) Th eory of Reasoned Action to predict and understand consumption tendencies through studying the sequential relations hips of individual beliefs, attitude, and intention to consumption behavior, a theoretical framework was developed as a result of a comprehensive review of literature, which illustrates direct and indirect relationships among market demand, perceived bene fits, perceived constraint, perceived value, consumer satisfaction, and consumption behavior in martial arts programs. Consistent with this conceptual framework, this study speculated that a participant's market demand would lead to perceived benefits and perceived constraints, which would help form perceived value of participating in martial arts programs. Positive perceived value of the program can lead to trusting beliefs and result in intention to commit to a long-term relationship with a martial arts school, and vice versa, which woul d affect member satisfaction and commitment. Consequently, research hypotheses were derived from the liter ature review, which depi ct the hierarchical relationships among constructs (Figure 1-1). The following nine hypotheses were tested in this study: Hypothesis 1: Market demand of martial arts participation would have a positive impact on perceived benefits. Hypothesis 2: Market demand of martial arts participation woul d be negatively related to perceived constraints. Hypothesis 3: Market demand of martial arts participation would have a positive impact on perceived value. 20

PAGE 21

Hypothesis 4: Market dem and of martial arts participation would have a positive impact on member satisfaction. Hypothesis 5: Market demand of martial arts participation would have a positive impact on member commitment. Hypothesis 6: Perceived benefit of martial ar ts participation would have a positive impact on perceived value. Hypothesis 7: Perceived constraint of martial arts part icipation would have a negative impact on perceived value. Hypothesis 8: Perceived value of martial arts participation would have a positive impact on member satisfaction. Hypothesis 9: Member satisfaction of martia l arts participation would have a positive impact on member commitment. Delimitations Of various martial arts activ ities, this study was delimited to the TKD school setting. The participants for this study were those of 18 years or older, and were current members of a TKD school/program. This study was conducted via a combination of on-site survey and online questionnaire based on the assumed technological pr eferences of the participants. Research participants were asked to res pond to the questionnaires with sincerity and honesty. Structural equation model analys es were conducted in this study. Limitations Because data were collected from the members of TKD schools, findings of this study are applicable only to TKD schools. Although all research participants were as ked to respond to the questionnaires with sincerity and honesty, their actual level of sinc erity and social desira bility could not be fully controlled by the researcher. The response rate was impossible to calculate because the online su rvey was sent via email to current TKD masters/instructors, who were asked to forward the survey link to their program participants. Meanwhile, the on line survey was also linked to a well-known martial arts magazines website. 21

PAGE 22

The exclus ion of certain items may have affected the psyc hometric properties of the market demand and psychological constructs. The online survey format excluded partic ipants who did not have internet access. Since online panels are typically characterized by those who have registered with online panel companies or those who have internet ac cess and computer skills, the participants in this study are not necessarily representative of the entire popul ation of TKD school participants. Cross-validation was not conducted due to sample size (Weston & Gore, 2006). Significance of the Study The significance of this study lies in the de velopment and testing of a theoretical model which allows a multidimensional exploration of the psychological processes of martial arts participants. This undertaking stems from th e importance of understa nding participants behavior, including how and why pe ople participate in martial arts schools. It is important to note that this study is a first attempt to conceptu ally and empirically inve stigate through rigorous psychometric testing the dimensions of perceive d benefits, perceived c onstraints, perceived value, member satisfaction, and member commitment in the martial arts context. Marketers and managers of martial arts schools should unde rstand the various psychological and market demand factors that can influence participant be havior. Doing so will allow administrators to meet the needs and desires of the participants and consequently increase their satisfaction within their schools. The derived model provides a soun d research direction by building linkages from market demand to perceived benefits, perceived constraints, perceived value, satisfaction, and consumption. In addition, it has been shown that marketers can increase pa rticipant satisfaction in the martial arts by acknowledging unique market demand factors. Administrators of martial arts programs may consider the derived model as a general guide in their marketing efforts to recruit and retain program participants. 22

PAGE 23

23 In an effort to meet the demand for organi zed physical activity, sports marketing has become a profession. Therefore, to retain curren t members and gain new ones, it is necessary for martial arts schools to identify t hose variables that may affect current and potential members decisions to attend clubs. This st udy provides administrators with a guide in marketing efforts to recruit and retain martial arts participants. Th e more satisfied partic ipants are with their participation in martial arts, the more likely they are to continue with their training, and thus the more the school can benefit from enhanced reve nue streams and reduced costs associated with recruiting new members (M ullin, Hardy, & Sutton, 2007).

PAGE 24

Figure 1-1. A hypothesized model of the relationships among market demand, perceived benefit, pe rceived constraint, perceived value, member satisfaction, and member commitment 24

PAGE 25

CHAP TER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter begins by exploring the background of martial arts. A literature review is presented in order to provide a conceptual basis for the study and to develop a framework that incorporates market demand, perceived benefits, perceived constrai nts, perceived value, member satisfaction, and member commitment. Taekwondo Taekwondo (TKD) is known as systematic Kor ean traditional martial arts, an essential form of combat requiring little or no use of weapons other than the warriors own hands and feet. TKD is a type of martial arts developed independently over 20 centuries ago in Korea. The current form of TKD has gained popularity since the 1950s, when it was developed by the Korean Army as a free-fighting combat art. After the Korean War, martial arts became widespread in Korea. However, many small schools were operating under their own independent style of martial arts until th e late 1950s. For example, both the International Taekwondo Federation (ITF) and the World Taekwondo Fede ration (WTF) were created as major TKD organizations. These federations differed over a variety of issues concerning such matters as style and ideology. The ITF adhered to a more tr aditional style of taekwondo; whereas, the form practiced by the WTF has been promoted as a martial art sport in the Olympic Games (Stepan, 2008). The Korean government supports TKD as a natio nal martial art, and found it necessary to unify the school under one organization, a system that did not work well at first. Subsequently, the WTF was recognized by the Korean Governme nt in 1972 as the only governing body for TKD. Today, the WTF is the only official Black Belt certifying agency in the world. In 1980, the 25

PAGE 26

WTF beca me an International Olympic Committee (IOC) recognized sports federation. Today, the WTF has 191 member nations with 70 million participants (WTF 2010). TKD has become the worlds most-practiced martial arts activity and has gained an international reputation as an Olympic sport based on the efforts of TKD enthusiasts who actively promoted the sport as a formal competitive game in the Olympics. TKD was first staged in the Olympic Games as a demonstration sport in the 24th Olympic Games in Seoul, Korea in 1988. It became an official Olympic medal sport at the 2000 Olympic Games in Sydney, Australia (WTF, 2010). TKD has earned a place in the hearts of Koreans (Stepan, 2008), and the Korean government has attempted to promote TKD internationally. The Korean government realized that TKD has long stood at the forefront of promoting Ko reas image. It has regarded TKD as a new strategy for branding Korea. The Korean government has striven to expand the dispatching of TKD demonstra tion teams and instructors, which promote TKD as well as promoting Korea and Korean culture. For example, the demonstration teams have performed in 31 nations and instructors have been dispatch ed to 26 nations. Recently, the government made the decision to dispatch over 90 global TKD intern s to the U.S. Another big project has been the construction of TKD Park, which will be opene d officially in 2013, with a total of $600 million invested in the project (Minister of Culture, Sport and Tourism, 2009). TKD is a martial arts sport that people ove r the world can enjoy; it is a sport that transcends race, ideology, and religion. TKD s popularity has grown to make it the most recognized of the Korean Martial Arts in the U. S. TKD was accepted as an official sport by the U.S Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) in 1984. In recent years, TKD has rapidly grown and developed in the U.S. because of the benefits it offers. The discipline required in TKD not only improves physical fighting skills but also e nhances the particip ants spirit and mind. 26

PAGE 27

Market Demand Sport consum er recruitment and retention ha ve been among the grea test challenges the sport industry faces (Rein, Kotler, & Shields, 2006). Mullin, Hardy, and Sutton (2007) pointed out that competition for sport dollars is growing at the pace of a full-court press (p. 7). Sport organizations should regularly analyze their in ternal and external environments, understand market demand, and develop strategic plans to en hance the success of their businesses (Mullin et al., 2007). Understanding the expectations of consumers concerning key elements of their products and services would help sport organization satisfy consum er needs and increase market demand (Zhang et al., 1995). Market demand is defined as consumer expecta tions concerning the attributes of the core product (Zhang, Lam, Bennett et al., 2003; Zhang, Lam, & Connaughton, 2003). It is a cluster of pull factors associated with a sport product that an organization can offer to its new and returning consumers (Braunstein et al., 2005; Byon et al ., 2010; Hansen & Gauthi er, 1989; Kim et al., 2009; Schofield, 1983; Zhang, Lam, & Connaughton, 2003; Zhang et al., 1995). A number of researchers have stated that analysis of market demand for sports organizations can provide an understanding of c onsumer expectations and help organizations formulate an effective and efficient marketing mix. Recent studies on market demand have stressed the influence of the product or se rvice on membership, attendance, and overall consumption at athletic events (e.g., Greenst ein & Marcum, 1981; Hansen & Gauthier, 1989; Schofield, 1983; Zhang, Lam, Bennett et al., 200 3; Zhang, Lam, & Connaughton, 2003; Zhang et al., 1995). Numerous studies have been conducted to de velop instruments that assess market demand variables affecting spectator sp ort consumption, which many common features of core sport products that affect event atte ndance of sport specta tors (Braunstein et al., 2005; Byon et al., 27

PAGE 28

2010; Hansen & Gauthier, 1989; Kim et al., 2009; Schofield, 1983). Schofield (1983) reviewed 17 production function studies (i.e., team perfor mance, player skills, and winning percentage) and demand studies (i.e., pri ce, population size, complementary commodities, consumer preference for the sport, and substitutive forms of entertainment), and categorized the market demand variables into four categories: economic consideration, demographic characteristics, game attractiveness, and residual preference. Hansen and Gauthier (1989) pointed out that understanding factors that affect attendance at sport ev ents is a key to developing an effective marketing plan. They investigated factors as sociated with the decision-making process for attending professional sport games. Following Sc hofileds (1983) model, th ey identified 40 items associated with the four key factors (i.e., econom ics, demographics, attractiveness, and residual preferences). Nonetheless, in an investigation into major league professional sport managers, the factors and items did not converge well enough to provide a clear direction for further understanding sport consumer behaviors. Zhang et al. (1995) examined market demand variables affecting the attendance of professional basketball events by developing th e Spectator Decision Making Inventory (SDMI), which had 15 items under four factors: Game Promotion, Home Team, Opposing Team, and Schedule Convenience. The findings of this stud y revealed that these market demand factors were significantly (p < .05) related to game attendance. Following this study, Zhang et al. (2003b) conducted a confirmatory study that inve stigated the market demand for consumers of different professional sports and reconfirmed the SDMIs factor structure with four subscales, providing stronger implications that the four f actors were common features of market demand variables and may be applied to a variety of professional sports. These factors were further found to be predictive of game consumption level, wi th 15 to 22% of the variance explained. Based on 28

PAGE 29

the SDMI scale, Brauns tein et al. (2005) expanded the SDMI scal e, and assessed the dimensions of market demand associated with the MLB sp ring training games. The Spectator Decision Making Inventory Spring Training (SDMI ST) was developed by conducting both EFA and CFA, which resulted in 29 items under eight factors: Home Team, Opposing Team, Game Promotion, Vacation Activity, Economic Cons ideration, Schedule Convenience, Nostalgic Sentiment, and Love of Baseball. Previous market demand studies have been limited in that they mainly examined specific professional sport settings such as the NBA, NHL, and NFL, respectively. Also, these studies included a limited number of ma rket demand factors, ignoring the presence of other potential factors that might be more pred ictive of consumption level (B yon et al., 2010). To overcome the limitations identified in previous studies, Byon et al. (2010) identif ied the dimensions of general market demand associated with professional sports through a comprehensive measurement process that involved applications of advanced statistical analys is. Consequently, a scale with 17 items under five factors were developed: Opposing Team, Home Team, Game Promotion, Economic Consideration, And Schedule Convenience (Byon et al., 2010). To summarize across studies, pr evious studies have found that three factors are integral to consumers decision making: Game Attractiv eness, Economic Consideration, and Schedule Convenience. Game Attractiveness has been studie d most, which usually included such variables as team members individual skills, presence of star players, team r ecords, league standing, record-breaking performances, closeness of competition, team history in a community, schedule, convenience, and stadium quality. Economic considera tions usually dealt with such variables as ticket price, marketing promotion, substitute form s of entertainment, television effect, income, and competition with other sporting events. Schedule convenience were usually referred to such 29

PAGE 30

considerations as gam e time, da y of week, and weather, and is a category which has been studied thoroughly to a lesser extent (B raunstein et al., 2005; Byon et al., 2010; Greenstein & Marcum, 1981; Hansen & Gauthier, 1989; Schofield, 1983; Zhang, Lam, Bennett et al., 2003; Zhang, Lam, & Connaughton, 2003; Zhang et al., 1995). Previous research efforts have primarily been focused on professional and inte rcollegiate sports (Braunstein et al., 2005; Byon et al., 2010; Greenstein & Marcum, 1981; Hansen & Gauthi er, 1989; Schofield, 1983; Zhang, Lam, Bennett et al., 2003; Zhang, Lam, & Conna ughton, 2003; Zhang et al., 1995). Business success and future growth in a highly competitive environment depends on how well martial arts organizations understand their c onsumers and adapt to rapid changes in consumer demand. Although several studies have focused on the motivational aspects of TKD participants (e.g., Cox, 1993; Donahue, 1994; K o, Valacich, & Kim, 2009; Stefanek, 2004; Yang, 1996), few have explored the impacts of vari ous elements in the marketing mix of TKD programs, namely product, place, price, a nd promotion (Ko, 2002, 2003). In particular, no study has been conducted to investigate market demand variables associated with private TKD schools in North America. To fill this void, Kim et al. (2009) identified the dimensions of market demand associated with TKD schools by de veloping the Scale of Market Demand for Taekwondo School (SMD-TKD) to measure key mark et demand dimensions. Kim et al.s (2009) study applied the concept of market demand to TKD schools. The researchers considered that investigation of TKD schools in terms of market demand would pr ovide managerial implications to TKD school management and marketing. The Kim et al.s (2009) study integrated findings from both qualitative and quantit ative research protocols. Development of the theoretical framework and formulation of the scale were achieved through a comprehensive review of literature, on-site observations of private TKD school operations, interviews with TKD school 30

PAGE 31

m asters, administrators, and members, and a test of content validity through a modified application of the Delphi tech nique. Through these qualitative rese arch procedures, a preliminary scale was developed with 71 items under six factors: Personal Benefits, School Operation, Instruction Quality, Program Offering, Economic Consideration, and Cultural Learning. The quantitative phase of the study furt her examined the dimensions of the scale by administering the preliminary scale to TKD school members and c onducting a factor analysis. A total of 51 items under six factors emerged in the factor analysis: Personal Benefits, School Operation, Instruction Quality, Program Offering, Locker Room, and Cultural Learning, where Locker Room was different from the proposed dimensions. Beside s good factor validity, all six factors displayed acceptable internal consistency and predictive validity, revealing strong applicability for marketing studies by both researchers and TKD school administrators. The SMD-TKD scale is a measure that was sp ecifically developed to assess marketing features of martial arts programs as demanded by program participants (Kim et al. 2009). After its development, the SMD-TKD scale was identified as having a number of weaknesses and limitations. First, according to Braunstein, Zhang, Trail, and Gibson (200 5) and Zhang, Lam, and Connaughton (2003), market demand is defined as consumer expectations towards the attributes of the core product. A major emphasis of this de finition is on the assessm ent of attributes and features of the core product. However, the word ed statements of a number of items in the SMDTKD scale actually reflect the benefit aspect of some core product elemen ts, not directly on the attributes. Second, only an exploratory factor analysis (EFA ) was conducted to assess the dimensionality of the scale, which was to uncover the construct and the relationship among a relatively large set of observed a nd latent variables. Th ird, according to the findings derived from a number of previous studies, the concept of Economic Consid eration was an important and 31

PAGE 32

relevant aspect of m arket demand studies (e .g., Braunstein et al., 2005; Hansen & Gauthier, 1989; Schofield, 1983; Zhang et al., 1995; Zhan g, Lam, Bennett, & Connaughton, 2003a; Zhang, Lam, & Connaughton, 2003b). However, this fact or did not emerge in the EFA due to double loadings or lack of interpretability of its items. Further investigation into the viability of this factor is necessary. Fourth, as a result of the qualitative research process in Kim et al.s (2009) study, items under the Locker Room factor in the resolved SM D-TKD scale were originally proposed to be a part of the School Operation factor. Yet, these items emerged into a separate factor in the EFA. Some researchers support the notion that Lo cker Room represents a unique aspect of health-fitness settings. For example, Lam, Zhang, and Jensens (2005) Service Quality Assessment Scale (SQAS) emphasized the inclusi on of the Locker Room factor because it allowed managers to pinpoint specific Locker Room areas for improvement. However, others have shown that Locker Room variables fall under the general concept of physical environment, which includes equipment, locker room, and facility (e.g., Chelladurai, Scott, & HaywoodFarmer, 1987; Kim & Kim, 1995). Apparently, this inconsistency deserves further investigation. Fifth, data in the study by Kim et al. (2009) were collected from a convenience sample from only one state in the U.S. To what extent the findi ngs can be generalized to a wider range of TKD schools in North America is unknown. Although there are market similarities among TKD schools in different regions and cultural setti ngs, some differences may exist. For a more complete understanding of market demand in TKD, additional work is required using broader samples derived from different geographic regi ons. Additionally, when considering the number of items in both the preliminary scale and the refi ned scale, the sample size (N = 205) in Kim et al.s (2009) study was rather small. Hair et al. (1998) and Kline ( 2005) stated that the number of subjects should be at least five times and pr eferably 10 times the number of items used for a 32

PAGE 33

factor analy sis. Consequently, the scale was recently revised and modified by Kim & Zhang (2010). Through investigating TKD school particip ants (N = 579), the Revised SMD-TKD scale was resolved through conducting a CFA, which c ontained 37 items under seven factors (Personal Improvement Activities, Physical Facility Quality, Instruction Staff Quality, Program Activities and Offerings, Cultural Learning, Locker Room Provision, and Economic Condition Consideration). Overall, the revised scale had goo d validity and reliability characteristics; in particular, a SEM analysis revealed that these factors we re significantly (p < .05) influential of member satisfaction and member commi tment of TKD school participants. Conceptual Framework The Theory of Reasoned Action (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975) is based on the assumption that individual behavior is a direct outcome of behavior inte ntions, which is a combination of individual attitude toward the behavior and subjective norms. People would have a positive attitude toward performing the behavior if they thought that the outco me of performing the behavior was positive. Attitude toward the beha vior is influenced by the individuals beliefs about the consequences of performing a behavi or and his/her evaluation of the outcomes, irrespective of whether the outco mes are positive or negative. S ubjective norms are impacted by ones beliefs that specific indivi duals or groups think he/she sh ould or should not perform the behavior. Exposure to different information leads to the formation of different beliefs, which also reflects a persons past experience. Beliefs refe r to knowledge about the attitude object, which may be formed via direct observations, accepting information from outside sources, or selfgenerated perceptions through participation, experience, and/or a process of personal inference. According to Fishbein and Ajzen (1975), there is a causal relationship between beliefs and behavior. If a person intends to influence peoples behavior, it is necessary for him/her to ensure people are exposed to sufficient information and al so that they alter thei r beliefs in a social 33

PAGE 34

environm ent; in turn, beliefs will determine attitudes, subjective norms, and corresponding behaviors. The Theory of Reasoned Action has often been used to examine consumer behavior toward sport products and services in an e ffort to predict and understand sport consumer behaviors. For example, the Reasoned Action Th eory was applied to examine general market demand for professional team sports (Byon et al., 2010). The Reasoned Action Theory was the underlying theoretical framework adopted by Kim et al. (2009) for the development of the SMD-TKD scale and Kim and Zhang (2010) for the revised scale. Application of this theory was focused on assessing consumer beliefs that were primarily referred to as knowledge about the attitude object with regard to key elements of TKD programs. In the Revised SMD-TKD scale, there are se ven dimensions (i.e., Personal Improvement Activities, Physical Facility Quality, Instruct ion Staff Quality, Program Activities Offerings, Cultural Learning Activities, Economic Condition Consideration, and Locker Room Provision). Theories and rationale for these seven factors briefly demonstrate the concept underlying each factor. Personal Improvement Activities The Personal Improvement Activitie s (PIA) factor is defined as attempts to learn how to, or to be inspired to, impr ove a particular attribute (Halliwell & Dittmar, 2005, p. 205). According to the PIA, it can be expected that participants will actively attempt to improve themselves physically and psychologically throu gh the martial arts. Seve ral longitudinal studies on martial arts (e.g., Adamson & Wade, 1986; Co lumbus & Rice, 1991; Fuller, 1988; Mathes & Battista, 1985) have demonstrated the physical and psychological benefits of martial arts. According to Weiser, Kutz, Kutz, and Weiser (1995), mar tial arts have come to be seen as inculcating physical and mental relaxation and control of mind and body, which are associated with increase in self-confiden ce and esteem (p. 118). Martial arts provide unique physical, 34

PAGE 35

m ental, and social benefits. In Western sport educ ation systems, eastern martial arts are primarily known as a part of sports and physical activit ies (e.g., physical fitness, skills acquisition, and social activity) (Ko, 2002). Previ ous studies have found that improving health and physical fitness is a prime factor in determining partic ipation in sport activities, including TKD (Adamson & Wade, 1986; Mathes & Battista, 1985). Martial arts are a cruc ial source of exercise for children and adults. Middle-aged participants (aged 40-60 years) tr ain themselves through martial arts programs to improve aerobic capacit y, balance, flexibility, muscle endurance, strength, and reduce body fat (D ouris, Chinan, & Gomez, 2004). However, less known are the psycho logical (mental) benefits th at TKD participants obtain from the training programs. A number of research ers have examined positive attributes regarding the psychological aspect of mar tial arts, and have found that many martial arts participants train themselves for the psychological benefits; the finding implies that the psychological benefits of martial arts play a critical role for martial arts participants. It also indicates the importance of the psychological benefits and their relevance for ma king a commitment to participating in martial arts (e.g., Columbus & Rice, 1991; Daniels & Thornton, 1990; Finkenberg, 1990; Fuller, 1988; Law, 2004; Richman & Rehberg, 1986; Trulson, 1986). The code of conduct for martial arts stresses both skill and mental acuity. Participa tion in TKD training can help participants to develop a stronger mind, spirit, and body. Most items out of Kim et al.s (2009) Personal Benefit factor are related to positive psychological change (e.g., i mproving character, developing positive life attitude, maintaining self-confid ence, and being a humble person). To put it briefly, PIA centers on TKD participants beli ef that TKD training offers opportunities for personal growth (Ko et al., 2009). 35

PAGE 36

Physical Environment Quality According to Bitners research (1990, 1992) the Physical Environm ent Quality (PEQ) dimension can impact participants experiences c oncerning participation and retention in martial arts schools. The physical environment quality di mension describes how service delivery occurs as opposed to the natural or social environmen t (Bitner, 1990). Chelladu rai, Scott, and HaywoodFarmer (1987) noted that when consumers evaluate whether to join a particular club, they may base their decision on those aspect s of the club they can see, the physical evidence of the tangible facilities and goods (p. 169). Bitn er (1992) also examined physical environment items that impacted customers and employees. The significant items included ambient conditions, space and function, signs, artifacts, symbols, and soci al interactions. Similarly, physical environment quality (e.g., up-to-date equipment and visually ap pealing facility) is regarded as an important component in retail stores (Zeithaml, Parasurama n, & Berry, 1985). In line with this notion, this dimension was consistent with previous studies on fitness and recreational sport facilities that identified important variables related to physic al environment quality perspectives, such as ambience (Kim & Kim, 1995), program service (i.e., activity range due to f acility availability, facility comfort, and safe equipment) (Howat, Absher, Crilley, & M ilne, 1996; MacIntosh & Doherty, 2007), context (i .e., facility, location, and equipmen t and tools) (Chelladurai & Chang, 2000), facility attraction, facili ty operations (Papadimitriou & Karteroliotis, 2000), physical and workout facilities (Lam, Zha ng, & Jensen, 2005; MacIntosh & Doherty, 2007), and physical environment elements (i.e., ambience, desi gn, and equipment) (Ko & Pastore, 2004, 2005; MacIntosh & Doherty, 2007). Kim et al.s (2009) study found that up-to-date equipment with a variety of functions and a visua lly appealing facility was important to TKD participants. TKD participants are often concerned about the potential for injury in martial arts, so safety equipment (e.g., padded or sprung floors) is necessary for participants. 36

PAGE 37

Instruct ional Staff Quality Instructional Staff Quality (ISQ) refers to th e quality of staff, the knowledge and skills of instructors, and the instructors interactions with program participants. It is well documented that an instructors attitude, expertis e, and actual behavior have a di rect positive influence on current and potential consumers (Bitner, 1990; Brady & Cronin, 2001; Papadimitriou & Karteroliotis, 2000). Papadimitriou and Kartero liotis (2000) found that instructor quality determined the service quality in private sport and fitness clubs. Zeithaml et al. (1985) indi cated that interaction quality explained the relationshi p between the service provider and the customers, specifying the process of service delivery. In line with the above notion, Huset-McGuire, Trail, and Anderson (2003) noted that the concept applies to any service that requires special knowledge and comprehensive training of the individuals respons ible for delivering the service (p. 263). Many researchers (Chelladurai et al., 1987; Howat et al., 1996; Kim & Kim, 1995; Ko & Pastore, 2004, 2005; Papadimitriou & Karteroliotis 2000) have attempted to define professional attributes of fitness program instructors in terms of their job-related tra its (i.e., knowledge, skill, friendliness, warmth, responsivene ss, courtesy, reliabili ty, assurance, empathy, and helpfulness). The Instructional Staff Quality factor is similar to the professional service factor that represents the abilities and characteristics of instructor s (Huset-McGuire et al ., 2003). Similarly, Bodet (2006) found that the quality of hu man factors such as staff beha vior and image were critical determinants of participants satisfaction in the h ealth club context. Clearly, it is important that the instructor be professionally trained and prepared for work in the martial arts environment. Kim et al. (2009) found that instructors qualif ications, knowledge, friendliness, and reputation played critical roles in the success of TKD schools. Qua lified instructors and their unique pedagogical content contribute to the popularity of TKD schools. Quality TKD instructors can assist participants in achieving instructional and personal goals. 37

PAGE 38

Program Activities Offerings Researchers noted the importance of high qua lity program s and deve loping diversified programs in order to achieve market penetr ation and expansion (Chelladurai & Chang, 2000; Howat et al., 1996; Kim & Kim, 1995; Ko & Pastore, 2005; MacIntos h & Doherty, 2007). The Program Activities Offerings (PAO) dimension is us ed to evaluate whether and how a variety of activities is offered. Kim et al. ( 2009) asserted that TKD schools n eed to diversify their programs by incorporating after-school programs, belt promotion ceremonies, tournaments, family programs, child-care services, and self-defense techniques into program curriculum. Unlike participants in Western sports, participants in ma rtial arts programs earn differently-colored belts that indicate their degree of proficiency. Belts are awarded on the basis of tenure, skill performance, and personal improvement. Yang (1996) found that teenage American TKD participants viewed TKD training as a means of self-defense, physical exercise, and fun. In contrast, adult participants valued TKD training fo r its ability to enhance their self-confidence, self-esteem, and self-disci pline. Obviously, these differences should be taken into consideration in promoting/designing activity offerings of TKD programs. Cultural Learning Activities In spite of different sports having their origins in different countries, nowadays many sports are being played worldwide. International sporting events have brought athletes of many cultures together. Culture is defined as the way of life fo r an entire society. Understanding culture is important for understa nding social interactions (Bo yd & Richerson, 1988). Culture can be generally described as cons isting of language, signals or artifacts (Curran & O'Riordan, 2006). Cultural learning is the process of obtai ning cultural knowledge and information to survive and thrive in a social environment and to pass that knowledge onto peers or successive generations. It is a subset of lifetime learning because th e exchange of knowledge and 38

PAGE 39

inform ation occurs throughout a lifetime and e nhances peoples behavior (Argyle, 1969; Curran & O'Riordan, 2006). Another important concept in understanding hum an behavior in terms of culture is acculturation which refers to the process of learni ng how to adapt to a new culture. Learning martial arts can be a means to understanding a diffe rent culture and become acculturated into it. McCracken (1989) argued that the term cultural meaning describes the culturally constituted world of life experience, and martial arts helps transfer meaning from the culturally constituted world to individual participants. The dimension of Individualism/collectivism, one of the cultural typologies proposed by Hofstede (1991), can illuminate the cultu ral aspect of martial arts. Individualism represents the trai ts of independence and self-ori entation, with a goal toward the individual and individual accomplishments. In contrast, collectivism is the maintenance of interpersonal relationships and group harmony. An example is a cu lture of family-orientation. A martial arts school has a family-type atmosphere that allows for encouragement, respect, and acceptance. The TKD philosophy emphasizes that the relationship between a master and a student is comparable to that between a parent and a child. Unlike the coach-athlete relationship in traditional sports, a family-type atmosphere is typical in martial arts schools (Weiss, 1987). There have been confirmed diff erences between the historical and philosophical foundations of Western sports and Eastern martial arts. Easter n culture, as embodied in martial arts, has a recognized potential to compete with Western cultu re in terms of sports and physical education (Yang, 1996). According to Patel, Stier, and Luck stead (2002), martial ar ts offer both physical exercise and cultural exchange with Eastern culture. Schmidt (1986) argued that TKD is as an expressive institution through which practitioners are acculturated into traditional Korean culture, philosophy, and heritage. 39

PAGE 40

Locker Roo m Provision Previous studies (Chelladurai et al., 1987; Kim & Kim, 1995) have indicated that the locker room factor falls under the general con cept of physical environment. Conversely, in Lam et al.s (2005) study that developed the Servic e Quality Assessment Scale (SQAS) to evaluate service quality in health/fitness clubs, the Locker Room was identified as one of the primary components that independently affected memb er retention and recruitment (MacIntosh & Doherty, 2007). Kim et al. (2009) also found that variables related to locker room quality, cleanliness, and convenience emerged as an independent factor. The importance of this factor may in part be due to the uniqueness of TKD training, in that it requi res changing apparel and uniforms before and after a training session. Cons equently, program participants might have singled out the Locker Room factor as a unique aspect of school operations and expressed a demand for its delivery. Economic Conditions Consideration Eschenfelder and Li (2007) noted that the expected cost an d benefits decision makers in sport face are influenced by the type of economic sy stem used to make decisions in society (p. 26). Previous researchers have defined the ec onomic consideration in terms of consumers perceptions of economic conditi ons and related variables that potentially influence their consumption decisions, such as ticket price, marketing promotion, substitute forms of entertainment, television effects, income, and competition from other sport events (e.g., Hansen & Gauthier, 1989; Schofield, 1983; Zhang et al., 1995, 2003a, 2003b). In the setting of TKD schools, there are likely several economic considerations, such as membership fees, payment method, discounts, refunds, membership prom otions, and coupons. Among these elements, membership fee is a primary concern and may aff ect participants decision as to whether or not 40

PAGE 41

to attend or rem ain at TKD schools. Most TKD members want a reasonable membership fee and cancellation policy (Kim et al., 2009). Perceived Benefits Perceived benefits were define d as a combination of differe nt attributes of products (e.g., tangible vs. intangible, intrinsic vs. extrinsic), available in rela tion to a particular buy and use situation (Snoj et al., 2004, p. 157). Accordi ng to Monroe (1990), perceived benefits are constituted of some integration of physical attributes, service attributes, and technical support available in relation to the part icular use of a product or offeri ng. Based on these definitions, the perceived benefits of martial arts training can be interpreted as the participants perception of gains from participation in martial arts programs. If martial arts pa rticipants perceive little or no benefits stemming from program training, retaini ng or recruiting members would be difficult for martial arts schools. There are many recognized benefits to par ticipating in martial arts. What attracts participants to a martial arts program is its potential to enha nce not only the physical body but also the mind and spirit of par ticipants. Many researchers have discussed the benefits of martial arts participation (e.g., Adamson & Wade, 1986; Cai, 2000; Fuller, 1988; Konzak & Boudreau, 1984; Lakes & Hoyt, 2004; Mathes & Battista, 1985; Richman & Rehberg, 1986; Trulson, 1986; Weiser et al., 1995) and supported the assertion that these benefits play an important role in enhancing both physical and psyc hological benefits. Improvements in self-esteem (Fuller, 1988), emotional stability, and asser tiveness (Konzak & Boudreau, 1984) as well as reductions in anxiety and depression (Cai, 2000), are some major positive conse quences of participating in martial arts programs, in addition to physical benefits (Richman & Rehberg, 1986; Trulson, 1986). Martial arts training tends to emphasize psychological changes in such aspects as social interaction, leadership skills, and reducing mental disorders. Positive psychological changes may 41

PAGE 42

also include enhancem ent of self-esteem and self-concept (Columbus & Rice, 1991; Daniels & Thornton, 1990; Finkenberg, 1990; Konzak & B oudreau, 1984). Konzak and Boudreau (1984) have also drawn attention to the social benefits of such behavior al changes, in particular the relationship between martial arts practice and ag gression. Social interact ion skills gained through martial arts training is helpful in relieving the stresses of life. In addition, long-term training fosters greater independence. With progressive tr aining, children grow to be better leaders and more enthusiastic, optimistic, and self-reliant. Fo r example, when individuals reach the black belt level, they may be required to teach lessons to lower belt levels. During teaching, they gain the ability to lead groups and take responsibility for their actions. Richman and Rehberg (1986) remarked that long term participation in mar tial arts programs would be a testimony to an individuals psychological worth. They even made a comparison between the role of the martial arts instructor or master with that of a psychotherapist. Martial arts training has been widely consider ed as something that inculcates physical and mental relaxation, and the control of the mind a nd body that are associated with self-confidence, self-esteem, and better management of aggre ssion and vulnerability (M athes & Battista, 1985; Weiser et al., 1995). Self-esteem development has been a primary component of TKD practice and has widely adopted in the marketing of TKD lessons. In addition, advanced TKD participants tend to have more positive pers onalities than beginning T KD participants as a positive relationship between TKD practice and decreased aggre ssiveness has been found in previous studies (Weiss, 1987; Fox, 1997). Fuller (1988) described these features of the martial arts, saying, from a psychotherapeutic viewpoint, the martial arts may be viewed as formalized, refined systems of human potential training which provide intere sting practical models and mechanisms of 42

PAGE 43

psychological intervention (p. 318). In addition, Richm an and Rehberg (1986) asserted that the reason for the growth in the martial arts might be explained by how they provide participants with significant physical and ps ychological benefits. Based on Fu llers (1988) review, Columbus (1991) noted that research into the benefits of martial arts has been carried out using positivist methods of investigation, which are less relevant when it comes to unders tanding oriental styles of thinking/acting. Heavily influenced by Zen B uddhism and Taoism, martia l arts are not easily grasped merely from a positivist perspective. Lake and Hoyt (2004) examined how martial arts training impacts self-regulatory abilities in children, where self-regulation is featured in the martial arts in terms of self-control, body contro l, and discipline. These researchers found that the martial arts group had greater improvement than the control group in the area of selfregulation after a three-month intervention. Other researchers (Weiss, 1987; Fox, 1997) have also examined self-esteem and physical activity, and revealed that self-esteem was a consequence of physical activity. According to Rosenberg (1965), a person with high self-esteem has feelings of acceptance, goodness, worth, and resp ect of the self; whereas, a person with low self-esteem displays reje ction, dissatisfaction, and contempt for the self. With respect to physical benefits, Stefanek ( 2004) investigated the motivations of martial arts practitioners through examining collegiate TKD participants Findings of this study indicated that the motivations of martial ar ts participants were similar to those found in participants in traditional sports. The physical benefits usually in clude such variables as physical exercise, skill development, and tactics of competition. In this regard, the phenomenon of increased obesity level among both children and a dults highlights the importance of participating in physical activity that provides health benefits a nd personal well-being, and reduces morbidity (Woodward, 2009). In recent years, ma rtial arts as a combative sport and as an outlet for physical 43

PAGE 44

fitness and condition ing have experienced a widesp read growth throughout the U.S. Participation in the martial arts can enhance physical fitness in such areas as cardio-respiratory endurance, muscular endurance, agility, a nd flexibility through the combination of running, jumping, kicking, punching, and stretching. Overall, martia l arts provide the par ticipant with physical exercise that contributes to an individuals physical improve ment (Anthony, 1991; Weiss, 1993). In addition, due to an increased ra te of violent crimes in today s society, demand for self-defense education has significantly increased (Chen & Li u, 2000). Self-defense, the ability to prevent injury to oneself or others from attackers, has be come one of the critical benefits of martial arts. Americans see martial arts as a sufficient and sometimes necessary means to defend themselves against unlawful attacks. Given this evidence, it s eems clear that participation in the martial arts has its advantage when compared to ordinary physical activities or no physical activities (e.g., Holbrook, 1996; Snoj et al ., 2004; Woodruff, 1997). Perceived Constraints Many martial arts participants believe that martial arts are capab le of producing both physical and mental benefits fo r participants. Ironically, even though a strong attraction to martial arts training exists, in recent years low participation rate and dr op-out rates have also increased in the martial arts industry. No effort has been made to invest in the constraining factors that cause low participation and withdrawal from attending martial arts programs. Thus, it is important to identify those constraints or barr iers in order to facilitate an understanding of reasons. As a result of such i nvestigations, when managers have a more complete understanding of what obstacles impede the use of their servi ces, they will be in a position to take necessary corrective actions (How ard & Crompton, 1984, p. 43). In place of the term perceived constraints other terms have been used, such as perceived risks (Johnson et al., 2008; Snoj et al., 2004), perceived inhibitors (Um & Crompton, 1992), and 44

PAGE 45

perceived b arriers (Pritchard, Funk, & Alexandris, 2009). However, in this study the assumption was adopted that all these terms are analogous due to their underlying identity and meanings. Perceived constraints is defined as those perceived or experienced by individuals to limit the formation of leisure preferences a nd to inhibit or prohibit particip ation and enjoyment in leisure (Jackson, 1997, p. 461). Perceived constraints have received increased research attention in recent years because they are one of the most critical factors in predicting consumer behavior in various industrial contexts, such as general business, leisure, tourism, and sport management (Alexandris & Carroll, 1997; Al exandris et al., 2007; Crawford & Godbey, 1987; Crawford, Jackson, & Godbey, 1991; Henderson & Bial eschki, 1993; Kim & Trail, 2010) The number of studies on constraints has grow n exponentially in the leisure and recreation disciplines. Constraints were once considered barriers that directly resulted in non-participation; but recent research findings have indicated that it is also possible for participants to negotiate the participation process through cons traints (Alexandris et al., 2 007). A number of constraints studies have revealed that such negotiation strategies have been applie d to prevent dropping out. Examples of such studies include an investigation of barriers to family leisure (Crawford & Godbey, 1987), an inquiry into different recreatio nal sport participation levels (Alexandris & Carroll, 1997), an exploration of female adventure recreation (J ames, 2000), and an investigation of recreational skiers (Alexandris et al., 2007). Crawford and Godbey (1987) developed a theoretical framework of leisure constraints that would hinder an individuals preference in r ecreation/leisure particip ation. The constraints consisted of three main categories: intrapersona l, interpersonal, and structural. Intrapersonal constraints involve individual psyc hological states and attributes which interact closely with leisure preferences rather than intervening between preferences and participation. Intrapersonal 45

PAGE 46

constraints include such factors as s tress, re ligiosity, reference group attitudes, depression, and perceived self-skill. Interpersonal constraints result from social interactions or the relationship between partners or within a social group (e.g., lack of sufficient companionship to participate in activity). Referring to organizati onal and operational functions, stru ctural constraints are formed from external constraints, such as unavailabi lity of resources needed to participate in leisure/sport activities (e.g., financ ial resources, availability time). Kay and Jackson (1991) found that more than 30% of respondents perceived co nstraints based on lack of money and lack of time. Lack of time as a constraint was indica ted by a number of recr eation/leisure studies (Alexandris & Carroll, 1997; Kay & Jackson, 1991). Other structur al constraints have included participants perceptions of low energy, lack of self-discipline, injury, poor health, or lack of skill (Shaw, Bonen, & McCabe, 1991). Due to the lack of a conceptual link between each of the constraints and the dynamics of those constructs identified in pr evious studies, Crawford et al. (1991) integrated Crawford and Godbeys (1987) model and proposed a theoretical advance, namely a hierarchical model that depicts constraints within an individuals de cision-making process (i.e., participation vs. nonparticipation). For example, the hierarchical co nstraints model suggested that individuals first encounter the intrapersonal constr aint. If they overcome that obs tacle, interpersonal constraints are then confronted. Finally, stru ctural constraints are encountered. If structural constraints are stronger than the negotiation, the result is nonparticip ation. They suggested th at the factors that create constraints might conti nue to have relevance even after an individual takes up participation in a given activ ity (Crawford et al., 1991, p. 315). In addition, they found that intrapersonal constraints are the most powerful of the constraints; whereas, structural constraints are the least powerful. Additionally, they anti cipated that intrapersonal and interpersonal 46

PAGE 47

constraint factors would be m ore likely to infl uence leisure preference. However, structural constraints occur after the indivi dual has solved the intrapersona l and interpersonal constraints (Crawford et al., 1991). Later on, Jackson, Cr awford, and Godbey (1993) modified their hierarchical constraints mode l by adding negotiation process in to the explanatory model. Different from Crawford et al.s (1991) findings, Andronikidi s, Vassiliadis, Priporas, and Kamenidou (2007) conducted a CFA and found that there were the intraper sonal and structural constraints were relevant factors affecting ski centre visitors. It was an unexpected finding that interpersonal constraints were not found to be a major factor in this study. Because all three constraint factors involve some aspects of interpers onal interactions or social interactions, whether there are two or three constraints remained a source of debate in the leisure and recreation literature (Gilb ert & Hudson, 2000; Kay & Jack son, 1991). From a broader perspective, Hubbard and Mannell (2001) empirically tested four competing conceptual models of leisure constraints negotia tion process, including the i ndependence, negotiation-buffer, constraint-effects-mitigation, and perceived-cons traint reduction models. They speculated that leisure constraints were not in surmountable hindrances. Instead of passively reacting (i.e., not participating) to constraints, people can negotia te through constraints and continue in at least some form of participation (H ubbard & Mannell, 2001; Jackson et al., 1993). Thus, constraints need not always be regarded as causing a prev ention or reduction of participation level. Murphy and Enis (1986) defined constraint/risk factors from a different perspective, which focused on financial, psychologica l, physical, and functional dimens ions. As a result of their findings, perceived constraints are now explained as a multidimensional concept. Similarly, Crompton and Kim (2004) examined changes in the magnitude of the influence of constraints on state park visitation and outlined four perceived c onstraint factors: personal and facility, time 47

PAGE 48

availability, weather conditions and consequences, and cost. In a broad sense, perceived constraints negatively affected th e intention to attend an event. Applying the concept of leisure constraints to the tourism and sports research real m previous studies have identified factors that hamper traveling to or attending at sporting events (Funk, Filo, Beaton, & Pritchard, 2009; Hung & Petrick, 2010; Kim & Chalip; 2004; Kim & Tr ail, 2010; Nyaupane, Morais, & Graefe, 2004; Trail, Robinson, & Kim, 2010). Kim and Chalip ( 2004) proposed a conceptual model to examine how push factors (e.g., demographics, fan motives, and travel motives) have an impact on the intention to attend an event by the moderating effect of constraints (e.g., risk and financial constraints). Interestingly, fina ncial constraints were not found to have a significant effect on desire to attend an event. This finding was inconsistent with thos e of previous studies. Nyaupane et al., (2004) conducted a study on why individuals do not particip ate in nature-based tourism (i.e., rafting, canoeing, and horseback riding) by applying Crawford and Godbeys (1987) model of leisure constraints. The findings supported Crawford and Godbeys three dimensions of constraints (i.e., intrapersonal, interpersonal, and structural). This study further found that the structural constraints factor was more complicated than the other two constraints factors. Funk et al. (2009) examined how the rela tionships between sports trav el and perceived constraints affected behavioral intentions prior to a mega event (i.e., Bei jing Olympic Games). The findings of this study supported the exis tence of three categories of le isure constraints: structural, interpersonal, and intrapersona l (Jackson et al., 1993). Intraper sonal constraints included a limited knowledge of the destination, language, and ability to travel to China. Difficulties in finding co-travelers, security c oncerns, and terrorism risks were interpersonal constraints. Finally, structural constraints in cluded concerns about travel cost, distance, and time. These perceived constraints were found to be negatively related to the intention to attend the event. 48

PAGE 49

Attending a m ega sporting event was found to be more likely to occur when the traveler perceived more potential benefits th an constraints (Funk et al., 2009). Hung and Petrick (2010) explored the constraint dimensions in the context of cruise vacation and developed a measurement scale th rough adopting both qualitative and quantitative research procedures. The developed scale has 18 items under four factors: intrapersonal, interpersonal, structural, and not an option. Their findings we re consistent with those of Crawford et al. (1991) that befo re attempting to overcome structur al constraints, intrapersonal and interpersonal constraints must first be surmounted. Trail et al. (2008) examined a variety fact ors that might possibly constrain or hinder spectators from attending a sporti ng event and indicated that in order to understand how to market and pull in greater attendance numbers, marketers must look at many different factors that prevent people from attending a sports event. Structural constraints such as other sources of entertainment, ticket pricing, climate, work schedule, and event accessibility are typically environmental or situational f actors that hinder people from a ttending a sport event. They suggested that marketers can have some control over structural constraints and may be able to overcome them through effective marketing prac tices. Kim and Trail (2010) examined the relationship among constraints, motivators, and atte ndance in a spectator s port setting. One of the purposes of their study was to deve lop a constraints scale for the spectator sport setting based on the work of Crawford et al. (1991). They expl ained that spectator sport constraints were consisted of two main categories: the internal constraint construc ts (i.e., lack of knowledge, lack of success of the team, lack of someone to attend with, and low interest from others) and external constraint constructs (i .e., commitment, cost, leisure alternat ives, location, parking, participants in the sports, and alternative sport entertainment) In their study, lack of success, an internal 49

PAGE 50

constraint subscale that reflected the team s performance, was found to explain approximately 10% of the variance in attendance. In addition, le isure alternatives as an external constraint explained 3% of the variance. The leisure altern ative subscale was supported by Zhang et al.s (1997) finding that alternative sport entertainment such as a movie, restaurant, and bar negatively influenced spectators decision to go to a sporting event. In line with this notion, ticket price, substitute forms of entertainment, and competition with other sporting events all have a negative relationship with game consumption (Hansen & Gauthier, 1989; Noll, 1974; Siegfried & Eisenberg, 1980; Zhang et al., 1995). Surprisingly, although cost was found to be a significant component in previous constraint studies (C rompton & Kim, 2004; Funk et al., 2009; Tam, 2004; Zeithaml, 1988), it was not shown to statisti cally influence attendance in this study. In the context of martial arts, only a few st udies have examined various uncertainties and constraints that are often associated with partic ipation in martial arts (Kim et al., 2009; Zetaruk, Violan, Zurakowski, & Miche li, 2005). Hung and Petrick (2 010) argued that structural constraints in martial arts may be different fr om what people experience in leisure or tourism settings,; measurement for constraints for a martia l arts setting should be different. For instance, one of the factors in martial arts is physical risks due to the involvement in a highly competitive sport. Thus, training in martial arts is associated with the potential ri sk of such injuries as strains, sprains, or bruising. TKD as a full contact sport is known for its fast, powerful kicks, and strikes which inhibits the potential for causing severe injury (Zetaruk et al., 2005). In the current study, Crawford et al.s (1991) hierarchical model of leisure constraints, which includes intrapersonal, interpersonal, and structural constraints, was applied to the martial arts context. Intrapersonal cons traints for martial arts might i nvolve participants psychological states and attributes that interf ere with their preferences, health problems, perceived self-skill 50

PAGE 51

level, inju ries, stress level, and safety concerns. Interpersonal constraints include interactions or relationships between individuals, such as availabi lity of a suitable partner and relationship with the master/instructor as learning ma rtial arts is a product of social interactions (K im et al., 2009; Weiss, 1987). Structural c onstraints might be primarily related to lack of resources needed to participate in martial arts (e.g., membership fee, equipment, time, facility, and location). In this study, it was anticipated that the pe rceived constraints for martial arts participation would play a significant role in explaining participants behaviors and predicting their intentions to remain in martial arts schools. Snoj et al. (2004).examined the relationship am ong perceived value, perceived quality, and perceived risk in the context of mobile phones us age and found that perceive d constraints to have a negative effect on perceived value. Consumer s were found to be very sensitive to financial aspects of the constraints. Tam (2004) found that perceived constraints such as monetary and time costs had a negative effect on perceived va lue in consumption behavior at a restaurant chains, indicating that monetary and time costs play an important role in customers assessments of the perceived value of a service. Perceived Value Perceived value has received increasing attentio n as one of the most significant factors in predicting consumer satisfaction, behavioral inten tion, and loyalty in seve ral different contexts such as general business, tourism, and sports perspective (Bolton & Dr ew, 1991; Chang & Wildt, 1994; Cronin, Brady, & Hult, 2000b; Jayanti & G hosh, 1996; Kwon, Trail, & James, 2007a; Lee, Yoon, & Lee, 2007; Mizik & Jacobson, 2004; Woodr uff, 1997; Zeithaml, 1988). Due to its dynamic nature, perceived value has been defi ned in many ways, depending on the type of product or services and personal characteristics of customers. One such definition that it is the consumers overall assessment of the utility of a product (or service) based on the perception of 51

PAGE 52

what is received and what is given (Zeith am l, 1988, p. 14). Monroe (1990) also defined perceived value in terms of how the buyers pe rceptions of value represent a tradeoff between the quality or benefits they pe rceive by paying the price (p. 46) Perceived value represents a trade-off between desirable attributes compared with sacrifice attributes by consumers with regard to goods or services (Woodruff & Ga rdial, 1996). Vandermerwe (2003) argued that consumers perceived value is realized when they are satisfied with the total experience. Working from these premises, Woodruff (1997) defined perceived value as a customers perceived preference for and eval uation of those product attributes attribute performances, and consequences arising from use that facilitate (or block) achieving the customers goal and purposes in use situations (p. 142). Zeithaml (1988) proposed a conceptual model th at illustrates the re lationship among price, quality, perceived value, and pur chase intentions based on an e xploratory investigation. Four types of value were defined: (a) low price, (b) whatever I want in a product, (c) the quality I get for the price I pay, and (d) what I get for what I give. Perceived value for the cost was found to be indirectly related to percei ved value via perceived quality. Woodruff (1997) argued that cust omers experience different pe rceived value stages when purchasing a product or service, and during or after its use. Thus, Woodruff developed a customer perceived value hierarchy model. In th e first stage, customers learn about products by way of bundles of specific attribut es and attribute performances. The second stage occurs when purchasing and using a product; at this stage, desires or preferences are formed for certain attributes based on desired consequences in a usage situation. The final stage is when customers evaluate certain desired consequences so as to achieve their goals and purposes. Woodruffs hierarchy also well described rece ived value (i.e., overall satisf action feelings, disconfirmation 52

PAGE 53

perceptions), showing that cust om ers evaluate a product using the same desired attributes, consequences, and goal structure. The findings of this study showed that understanding the concept of customer perceived value along with other constructs such as service quality, satisfaction, and behavior intenti on helps marketers determine how to efficiently allocate their marketing resources (Woodruff, 1997). Substantial evidence supports th e important role of perceived value as a mediating factor in the relationship between service quality and consumption behavior (Cronin, Bra dy, Brand, Hightower, & Shemwell, 1997). Anderson, Fornell, and Lehmann (1994) pointed out that there had been limited empirical research into the relationship between percei ved value and customer satisfaction in service settings. To date, researchers ha ve found that perceived value has positively influenced customer satisfaction, which in turn lead s to changed behavior intent ions (e.g., McDougall & Levesque, 2000; Parasuraman & Grewal, 2000). McDougall and Levesque (2000), in a study of four service firms (i.e., dentist, hairstylist, restaurant, and auto service), found that perceived value should be incorporated into studies of customer satisfaction to provide a more complete picture on the causes of customer satisfaction. Tam (2004) exam ined the relationship among perceived service quality, perceived constraints (i .e., monetary costs and time costs), perceived value, customer satisfaction, and post-purchase behavior in a fa mily chain of restaurants setting and found that perceived value had a positive effect on customer satisfaction, with a total of 73% of variance explained. Thus, if customers perceive that their desired or received value exceeds the constraints of obtaining the value, they experi ence greater satisfacti on (Tam, 2004; Woodruff, 1997). In a tourism context, Lee at al. (2007) identified multiple dimensions of perceived value for tourism and examined how these perceived va lue dimensions affected visitors satisfaction level and positive recommendations to others. They found that three tourist perceived value 53

PAGE 54

factors (i.e., functional, overall, and emotional va lue) were predictive of th eir satisfaction with the tour and the likelihood of re ferring others to the tour. Recognizing the importance of perceived va lue in understanding the consumer decisionmaking process, a few studies related to perceived value have been undertaken in the sports marketing setting (Kwon et al., 2007a; Murray & Howat, 2002; Petrick, Backman, & Bixler, 1999). To predict return or repa tronage of sport and leisure co nsumers, Petrick et al. (1999) investigated the effect of sele cted factors on golfers satisfact ion with a golf course and the perceived value of a golfing experience. They f ound that overall satisfaction and perceived value of golfers increased their repeat usage and thus provided critical direc tion for golf management. Murray and Howat (2002) investigated the relations hip between service quali ty, perceived value, satisfaction, and future intenti ons of customers by proposing two conceptual models: (a) one with satisfaction mediating the effect of value and (b) one with value mediating the effect of satisfaction. The findings revealed that perceived value not only had a direct relationship with future behavioral intentions, but was also indirectly related to future intentions through satisfaction. In sum, perceived va lue plays a vital medi ating role in the formation of customer satisfaction, which in turn, influences future intentions. Kwon et al. (2007) invest igated how the effect of perceived value would predict the purc hase of a team-licensed product. They examined perceived value in terms of its mediating role in the relationship between team identification and team-licensed merchandise purchas e intentions. The findings show ed that nearly 43% of the variance in purchase intention wa s explained by perceived value. Perceived value of the licensed sport merchandise was also positively related to the intention to purchase. The researchers specifically pointed out that team identificati on alone was not sufficien t to explain the sport consumers purchase intentions. 54

PAGE 55

Recently, B yon (2008) investigated the medi ating role of perceived value in the relationship of market demand variables and game support programs to the consumption of professional sports. Unlike previous market demand studies that tended to examine how market demand factors directly affected consumption be haviors, this study examine the hierarchical relationships among market demand, game support perceived value, and game consumption factors, where the mediating role of perceive d value was examined. The findings of the study confirmed the presence of hier archical relationships. To measure perceived value, a number of rese archers have focused on perceived value as a single-item measure, derived from the overall perceived value of product/service quality and price (Murray & Howat, 2002; Zeithaml, 1988). On the other hand, some researchers have argued that perceived value canno t be explained by a single-item scale due to the presence of different types of products or services and indi vidual characteristics of customers. Thus, it is argued that multiple value dimensions are more desirable than a single value item (Al-Sabbahy, Ekinci, & Riley, 2004; Bolton & Drew, 1991; Lee et al., 2007; Sheth, Newman, & Gross, 1991; Sweeney & Soutar, 2001). Consistent with this view, Bo lton and Drew (1991) asserted th at perceived value cannot be accounted for as simply the outcome of the trade-off between a singl e overall quality and constraints because perceived value is more compli cated than such a construct can encompass. In addition, Al-Sabbahy et al. (2004) claimed that the single-item a pproach would not completely cover the concept of perceived value in the hospitality mark eting setting. For this reason, previous researchers have sugge sted that perceived value should be measured by a multidimensional scale (Lee et al., 2007; Sweeney & Soutar, 2001). 55

PAGE 56

Sweeney and Soutar (2001) developed the Perceived Value (PERVAL), which m easures consumer perceived value through a multiple-ite m scale. Originally, the PERVAL scale was derived from the dimensions of Sheth et al .s (1991) value construc t. While a number of perceived value studies focused on quality and pr ice, these two factors could not completely explain the decision-making pr ocess. The PERVAL scale added the emotion and social dimensions. Thus, Sweeney and Soutars PERVAL scale (2001) was developed to include all four dimensions of consumers perceived value, including: (a) emotional va lue, (b) social value, (c) functional value (p rice/value for money), and (d) functio nal value (performance/quality). They defined emotional value as the utility derive d from the feelings or affective states that a product generates (p. 211). Social value was defi ned as the utility derived from the products ability to enhance social self -concept (p. 211). Function valu e (price/value for money) was defined as the utility derived from the product du e to the reduction of its perceived short term and longer term costs (p. 211). Finally, they de fined functional value (performance/quality) as the utility derived from the perceived quality and expected performance of the product (p. 211). In fact, multiple dimensions of perceived value have been suggested by many researchers (e.g., Lee et al., 2007; Sweeney & Soutar, 2001). It is assumed that in a similar way, multiple dimensions of perceived value would better expl ain member satisfaction of martial arts schools than a single item. (Snoj et al., 2004). An impor tant argument proposed by the current study is that perceived benefits and percei ved constraints with regard to martial arts participation lead to certain consequences that are mirrored in partic ipants perceived value. A customers perceived value is a comparison between perceived bene fit and perceived constraints (Cardenas, Henderson, & Wilson, 2009; Cheng et al., 2003; Kam & Crompton, 2006). 56

PAGE 57

Member Sa tisfaction Customer satisfaction has rece ived attention from practitioners and academicians because it helps one understand how consumer response may be utilized as a key determinant of customer retention (Cronin et al., 2000a; Croni n & Taylor, 1992), custom er loyalty (Fornell, Johnson, Anderson, Cha, & Bryant, 1996), posit ive word-of-mouth (Maxham & Netemeyer, 2002), and trust and commitment (Tax, Brown, & Chandrashekaran, 1998). Particularly, marketing researchers have studi ed consumer satisfaction to u nderstand how it is a critical predictor for consumer behavior intentions such as purchase intention, word-of-mouth, and loyalty to an organization (E ggert & Ulaga, 2002; Fornell, 1992). Oliver (1981) defined satisfaction as the summary psychological state resulting when the emotion surrounding disconfirmed expectations is coupled with the c onsumers prior feelings about the consumption experience (p. 27). In line with this definition, Anderson et al. (1994) defined overall satisfaction as an overall evalua tion based on overall satisfaction based on the total purchase and consumption experience with a good or serv ice over time (p. 54). Later, Oliver (1997) defined customer satisfaction as a consumers ove rall pleasurable fulfillment of the response to a product, service, or benefit, which is being prov ided to the customer to satisfy his/her needs, desires, and goals. There is a differentiation between perc eived value and satisfaction. Satisfaction may happen after a purchase, which is called the post-usage evaluation stage. However, perceived value is generally determin ed at the purchasing stage (Sweeney & Soutar, 2001). The concept of customer satisfaction has been a focus of academics and practitioners in light of the fact that it affect s the revenue generation of organi zations. The primary goal for most service companies today is to achieve custom er satisfaction. In a broad sense, customer satisfaction has a heavy influence on member loyalty, where the be havioral aspect of customer 57

PAGE 58

loyalty is the repurchase intenti on of a product or service. Incr easing custom er satisfaction and customer retention improves profits, word-o f-mouth, and allows for lower marketing expenditures (Reichheld, 1996). In the current study, satisfacti on is assumed to be formed based on customers previous experience and cumulative evaluatio ns of a martial arts program, and is assumed to be a key determinant of customer retention, positive wo rd-of-mouth, and sales of merchandise (Bitner, 1990; Cronin & Taylor, 1992; Gotlieb, Grewal & Brown, 1994). The success of a sports program depends on the extent to which it can sati sfy customers with quality service. High levels of customer satisfaction would be helpful in preventing or reducing customer attrition (Ko & Pastore, 2004; Kotler, 1994). Member Commitment Like member satisfaction, member commitme nt has been identified as a critical component, essentially represen ting a consequence of consumer market demand. Specifically, numerous researchers have indica ted that when consumer expectations are satisfied, consumers tend to exhibit high commitment to continued co nsumption of a product or service (e.g., Howat et al., 1996; Leeuwen, Quick, & Daniel, 2002; Ol iver, 1997; Parasuraman, Zeithaml, & Berry, 1988). Morgan and Hunt (1994) defined commitment as an exchange partner believing that an ongoing relationship with another is so important as to warrant maximum efforts at maintaining it; that is, the committed party believes the relationship is worth working on to ensure that it endures indefinitely (p. 23). Commitment is also defined as being indicative of the organization's likelihood of developing or maintaining customer identification with organizational goals and values a nd retaining the service customer as an active participant in the service encounter (Kelley, Donne lly, & Skinner, 1990, p. 322). Both definitions indicate that 58

PAGE 59

m ember commitment is regarded as a significant element to maintaining successful long-term relationships (Kelley et al ., 1990; Morgan & Hunt, 1994). In participant sports, sports commitment has been defined as a psychological construct representing the desire and resolve to continue sport participation (Scan lan, Carpenter, Schmidt, Simons, & Keeler, 1993, p. 7). Sport commitment is thus a dominant predictor of actual participation when people face intervening or cons traint factors such as time, injury, and cost (Scanlan et al., 1993). Commitment has been found to be a primary construct affecting customer retentions and behavior in th e context of health and fitne ss clubs (Alexandris, Zahariadis, Tsorbatzoudis, & Grouios, 2002). A majority of previous research ers have held that perceived value is an important concept with regard to customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions in th e pre-purchase and postpurchase stages (Cronin et al., 2000b; Eggert & Ulaga, 2002; Fornell et al., 1996; Heskett & Schlesinger, 1994; Tam, 2004; Woodruff, 1997). Cronin et al. (2000) conceptualized how quality, satisfaction, and value eff ect consumer behavior intenti ons. In an effort to understand consumer decision-making, Eggert and Ulaga (2 002) developed two altern ative models: direct impact of perceived value on the purchasing in tention, and perceived value as a mediating variable in the relationship between customer satisfaction and purch asing intention. These models were developed to explore how custom er perceived value inte racts with customer satisfaction. Eggert and Ulaga argued that multidim ensional constructs of perceived value should be considered in terms of both cognitive and affective variables. In their study, customer perceived value was regarded as a cognitive variable and in turn, customer satisfaction was considered an affective variable. The study conf irmed that the two variables do not replace, but complement each other. Specifically, perceived value influenced customer satisfaction, which 59

PAGE 60

subsequently led to positive behavior intentions Thus, consum er satisfaction was found to be a critical predictor of behavior outcomes as a mediating factor (Eggert & Ulaga, 2002). Johnson, Sivadas, and Garbarino (2008) examined the rela tionships among customer satisfaction, affective commitment, and consumers perception of risk associated with a se rvice organization, and found that satisfaction had a positive influen ce on commitment and a negative influence on perceived risk. 60

PAGE 61

CHAP TER 3 METHODOLOGY This chapter provides a detailed description of methodological procedures, which are presented in the following four sections: (a) pa rticipants, (b) measuremen t, (c) procedures, and (d) data analyses. Participants A convenience sampling method was employed to survey TKD school participants. The target population for this study was 18 years of age or older, resided in the U.S., and have attended a TKD school. Participation in this st udy was voluntary and confidential. Sample size was a vital consideration in determining whether the analytical proce dures of the hypothesized model were reliable, especia lly conducting advanced statis tical analyses including a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM). Although there are no optimal standards in the literature about sa mple size, Kline (2005) and Hair, Black, Babin, Anderson, and Tatham (2006) suggested that a minimum ratio of respondents to each observed variable should at least be 5:1 and preferab ly 10:1. Because the Revised Scale of Market Demand of Taekwondo (SMD-TKD) was the primary segment of the survey form and it had a total of 62 items under seven factors, a total of 595 participan ts were recruited from TKD schools throughout the U.S. Descriptive statistics for the demographic va riables are presented in Table 3-1. Of the respondents for this study, there were 59.5% (n = 356) male and 39.9 % (n = 232) female. The participants ranged in age from 18 to 77 years old ( M = 36.6; S D = 12.7). Approximately, 50% of the participants were between 35 and 55 year s old and close to 27% were between 18 and 25 years old. The respondents ranged from 1.0 day to 7.0 days in regular training per week ( M = 3.54; SD = 1.35) and 1.0 hour to 5.0 training hours per visit ( M = 2.03; SD = 1.60). Caucasian 61

PAGE 62

(66.1%) was the primary ethnic composition of th e participants and the remaining sample consisted of 15.7% Hispanics, 8.5% Asians, and 5.4% African Americ ans. Over one half of them (61%) were married. More than 70% of the resp ondents had at least one child. They were of various educational backgrounds, with a majority having at least some college experience (85%). A majority of the participants reported an annual income of $50,000 or higher (74%); and 33% of the participants had an annual income of $100,000 or highe r, reflecting the fact that participants of martial arts schools had higher levels of house hold income. Of the respondents, 41% of them had a family membership contract and 50% had individual c ontracts. Close to 66% of the participants were of Black Belt rank; whereas, 10% were of White or Yellow Belt rank which represents beginner levels of TKD. Participants first learned of the TKD school with which they were affiliated from various sources, mainly including referrals, advertisements, and the internet. For example, more than 50% of the respondents obt ained information about their TKD school(s) via word of mouth and friend refe rrals. With respect to TKD expenditures per year, more than one half of the participan ts spent more than $ 2,000 on TKD services and products. The characteristic of th e respondents were generally consis tent with Kim et al.s (2009) descriptions on the general character istics of TKD school participants. Measurement A questionnaire was developed that consiste d of seven sections: (a) market demand, (b) perceived benefit, (c) perceived constraints, (d) perceived value, (e) satisfaction, (f) commitment, and (g) demographic variables (Appendix B). Market Demand To measure market demand of TKD schools, items from the SMD-TKD scale (Kim et al., 2009) were adopted and modifie d, which has a total of 37 item s under seven factors (Personal Improvement Activities, Physical Facility Quality, Instruction Staff Quality, Program Activities 62

PAGE 63

and Offerings, Cultural Learning, L ocker Room Provision, and Economic Condition Consideration). This scale was th e only instrument identified in the published literature that measures market demand features of martial ar ts programs. The original SMD-TKD scale (Kim et al., 2009) was developed by an integrative ap plication of both qual itative and quantitative research methods that contained the following procedures: (a) a comprehensive review of literature, (b) on-site observati ons of private TKD school operations, (c) interviews with TKD school masters, administrators, and members, (d) a test of content va lidity through a modified application of the Delphi tech nique, and (e) conducting factor analyses. Through investigating TKD school members ( N = 205) who were 18 years and older from 22 TKD schools in major cities of Florida, an EFA with principal co mponent extraction and varimax rotation produced a six-factor solution with 51 scale items (i.e., Personal Benefits, School Operation, Instruction Quality, Program Offering, Locker Room, and Cultu ral Learning). Four of these factors, except for program offering and cultural lear ning, were found to be positively (p < .05) predictive of TKD consumption in a regression analysis. After its development, the SMD-TKD scale was identified with having a number of weaknesses and limitations. First, according to Braunstein, Zhang, Trail, and Gibson (2005) and Zhang, Lam, and Connaughton (2003), market demand is defined as consumer expectations towards the attributes of the core product. A major emphasis of this definition is on the assessment of attributes and features of the core product. However, the worded statements of a number of items in the SMD-TKD scale actually reflect the benefit aspect of some core product elements, not directly on the at tributes. Second, only an explorat ory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to assess the dimensionality of the scal e, which was to uncover the construct and the relationship among a relatively large set of observed and latent variables. Third, according to the 63

PAGE 64

findings derived from a number of previous stud ies, the concept of Economic Consideration was an important and relevant aspect of market de mand studies (e.g., Braunstein et al., 2005; Hansen & Gauthier, 1989; Schofield, 1983 ; Zhang et al., 1995; Zhang, Lam, Bennett, & Connaughton, 2003a; Zhang, Lam, & Connaughton, 2003b). However, this factor did not emerge in the EFA due to double loadings or lack of interpretability of its items. Further investigation into the viability of this factor is nece ssary. Fourth, as a result of the qua litative research process in Kim et al.s (2009) study, items under the Locker Room factor in the resolv ed SMD-TKD scale were originally proposed to be a part of the School Op eration factor. Yet, these items emerged into a separate factor in the EFA. Some researchers su pport the notion that Lock er Room represents a unique aspect of health-fitness se ttings. For example, Lam, Zha ng, and Jensens (2005) Service Quality Assessment Scale (SQAS) emphasized the in clusion of the Locker Room factor because it allowed managers to pinpoint specific Locker Room areas for improvement. However, others have shown that Locker Room variables fall under the general concept of physical environment, which includes equipment, locker room, and facility (e.g., Chelladurai, Scott, & HaywoodFarmer, 1987; Kim & Kim, 1995). Apparently, this inconsistency deserves further investigation. Fifth, data in the study by Kim et al. (2009) were collected from a convenience sample from only one state in the U.S. To what extent the findi ngs can be generalized to a wider range of TKD schools in North America is unknown. Although there are market similarities among TKD schools in different regions and cultural setti ngs, some differences may exist. For a more complete understanding of market demand in TKD, additional work is required using broader samples derived from different geographical re gions. Additionally, when considering the number of items in both the preliminary scale a nd the refined scale, the sample size ( N = 205) in Kim et al.s (2009) study was rather small. Hair et al. (1998) and Kline ( 2005) stated that the number of 64

PAGE 65

subjects should be at least five tim es and pr eferably 10 times the number of items used for a factor analysis. Consequently, the scale was recently modified by Kim & Zhang (2010). Through investigating TKD scho ol participants (N = 579), the Revised SMD-TKD scale was resolved through conducting a CFA, which containe d 37 items under seven factors (Personal Improvement Activities, Physical Facility Quality, Instruction Staff Quality, Program Activities and Offerings, Cultural Learning, Locker Room Provision, and Economic Condition Consideration). A SEM analysis revealed that these factors were significantly ( p < .05) influential of member satisfact ion and member commitment. In this study, the Revised SMDTKD items were phrased in a 7-point Likert-type scale, ranging from 1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree. Each item was preceded with a common statement of I attend this Taekwondo school because it Perceived Benefits Based on reviewing related literature on the benefits of martial art training, items measuring perceived benefits were generated from previous research (e.g., Cheng et al., 2003; Kim et al., 2009). According to these studies, mar tial arts participants ar e actively attempting to improve themselves physically and psychological ly through participating in these training programs. The personal benefits dimension was comprised of two subscales (Psychological Benefit and Physical Benefit) w ith a total of 12 items. Each stat ement was phrased into a 7-point Likert-type scale, ranging from 1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongl y agree, and preceded with a common statement of attending the TKD school helps me Perceived Constraints To measure perceived constraints, items in th e Leisure Constraints Scale (Alexandris & Carroll, 1997) were modified. This scale was sel ected because it was developed in the setting of recreational sport participation a nd its items were deemed relevant to martial arts schools. The 65

PAGE 66

original scale was resulted from adoption and m odification of Crawford et al.s (1991) concept and scale, which consisted of intrapersonal cons traint, interpersonal cons traint, and structural constraint. This three-dimensional framework ha s been a widely adopted in studies examining perceived constraints in the leisur e, tourism, and sport participa tion. There are a total of 29 items in Alexandris and Carrolls scale (1997). Base d on item relevance and representativeness of these items, a total of 22 items under three dimensions were include d the current study: Intrapersonal Constraints (7 items), Interper sonal Constraints (6 it ems), and Structural Constraints (9 items). These items were phrased in a 7-point Likert-type scale, ranging from 1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree. Each item was preceded with a common statement of I would consider ceasing participatio n in the Taekwondo school because Perceived Value Perceived value was measured with four s ubscales (Emotion, Quality, Price, and Social) with a total of 11 items that were adapted from Sweeney and Soutars PERVAL scale (2001). While a number of previous perceived value studies focused on quality and price (Byon, 2008; Holbrook, 1996; Kwon et al., 2007), two other factors (Emotion and Social) were often overlooked that were related to the decision-making process of consumers. Sweeney and Soutars PERVAL scale (2001) took into consider ation the void in the measurement of perceived value. The PERVALs scale items we re slightly modified in order to be relevant to the setting of TKD schools. The Emotion value dimension (3 items) can be measured by the following three items: (a) attending TKD school is something that I would enjoy, (b) attending TKD school is something that I like to partic ipate in, (c) I feel comfortable attending the TKD school. The perceived value items were proceeded with the following statement: I believe that attending the Taekwondo school is and each item was phrased in a 7-point Likert-type scale, ranging from 1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree. 66

PAGE 67

Member Sa tisfaction Each respondent was assessed on his/her level of overall satisfacti on with the TKD School that he/she was affiliated. Member satisfaction wa s measured as a latent construct reflected by overall satisfaction. Specifical ly, three items were adopted from Brady, Knight, Cronin, Hult, and Keillors (2005) scale as this scale was widely recognized and adopted to measure three critical affective reaction components toward a consumptive object (satis faction, happiness, and delight). The wording of the original items was modified in order to be relevant and representative of the setting of TKD school participation. The thre e items were I am satisfied with my decision to attend th e Taekwondo school, I am happy that I attended the Taekwondo school, and I think that I did the right thi ng by deciding to attend the Taekwondo school. In this study, each item was structured in a 7-po int Likert-type scale, ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). Member Commitment Member Commitment was measured with a four-item scale that was modified from Scanlan et al.s (1993) Sport Commitment Scale. This scale was adopted because it was validated in the context of exerci se and fitness participation sett ing (Alexandris et al., 2002). The four items were slightly modifi ed to reflect the TKD setting, whic h included I am dedicated to being a member of the Taekwondo school, I am determined to remain a member of the Taekwondo school, It would be hard for me to quit membership of the Taekwondo school, and I would be willing to do almost anythi ng to keep being a member of the Taekwondo school. The items were measured with a 7-point Likert-type scale, ra nging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). 67

PAGE 68

Demographic Information For the purpose of describing the character istics of respondents, a sociodemographic section was included in the quest ionn aire that contained nine variables (i.e., gender, age, ethnicity, marital status, household income, e ducation, belt rank, information source, and TKD annual expenditure). Multiple choice or fill -in-the-blank format were adopted for the sociodemographic variables. Procedures Prior to the data collection, a test of content validity was conducted. The preliminary questionnaire was submitted to a panel of nine experts, which consisted of five university professors (one in business marketing and four in sport management) and four practitioners (two TKD masters in different TKD sc hools and two administrators of different TKD organizations). Each panel member was requested to examine th e relevance, clarity, and representativeness of the items (Appendix A). A standard of 80% ag reement among the panel members was adopted for accepting each item. With minor improvement s that were primarily related to wording clarity, all items in the questionnaire were retain ed as a result of the content validity test. Although mail, telephone, on-site, and online modes are commonly used survey protocol in social science research, each has its own advant age and disadvantage. For example, online mode is a convenient and time and cost efficient method to collect data from a large sample, but it has limitations (e.g., noncoverage and nonresponse), and some respondents may not participate because of inadequate computer skills (Dillman, 2007). In order to obtain responses from a large group of TKD participants and in the meantime reduce the tendency of survey limitations, (Dillman, 2007) suggests adopting a mixed-mode survey design, where data collection is conducted by combining on-site a nd online test administrations. 68

PAGE 69

After receiving approval from the Institu tional Review Board (IRB) involving human subjects, the researchers contacted and described the purpose of the study to the masters/instructors of TKD schools and executive s of TKD competitions of various nationwide events and requested permission and assistance with data collection. For example, the researcher contacted the executive director of major TKD events, such as U.S. Open Taekwondo Championship in Austin, TX and Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) Taekwondo National Championship in Ft. Lauderdale, FL, and collect ed data from these well-known national TKD events. The U.S. Open Taekwondo Championship is one of the premier TKD annual events in North America. The AAU TKD National Championship is also a major TKD annual event organized by one of the largest non-profit volunteer organizations in the U.S. For the on-site test administration, after an administrato r agreed for his/her organization or event to participate in the study, associated program/event pa rticipants were informed of the purpose of the study by the researchers. Participants in each event were aske d to complete the questionnaire and return them to their master/instructor or survey booth. The online surveys were simultaneously conducte d, which were considered as beneficial by including TKD program participants with br oader backgrounds and in different geographical regions of the U.S. in an effort to enhance the generalizability of the re search findings. In this protocol, an online survey with consent form was sent via e-mail to current TKD maters/instructors who agreed to have his/her sc hool participate in the study. The masters and instructors were asked to forward the survey li nk to their program participants. Meanwhile, the online survey was also linked to a well-known ma rtial arts magazines website (i.e., Taekwondo Times), various Taekwondo online forums, a nd the Yahoo Taekwondo Group. Additionally, the AAU Taekwondo organization forwarded the online survey to all members in its listserv. 69

PAGE 70

Follow-up e-m ails, personal e-mails, and phone calls, where the contact information was available, were conducted to non-responding TKD school members in an effort to increase response rate. Consequently, a total of 147 TKD school particip ants responded to the face-toface survey and a total of 448 TKD school par ticipants responded to the online survey. Participant responses between the online survey and the face-to-face survey were later compared in an effort to eliminate concerns associated with possible differences occurring from applying two data collection methods. Data Analyses Data were analyzed by adopting proce dures in the SPSS 18.0, PRELIS 2.52, and MPLUS 5.21 computer programs in this study. Data screening and descriptive statistics were calculated to examine the characteristics of the data by using the SPSS 18.0 program (SPSS, 2009). After data screening, t-tests were conducted to examine if there were diffe rences between the face-to-face and the online survey modes by using SPSS 18.0 program. In fact, the findings from the t-tests indicated that there were no significant (p < .05) differences between the two data collection procedures except perceived constraints, wher e the mean constraint score for the event participants from the on-site da ta collection process was significantly (p < .05 ) lower than TKD participants responding to the online version of the survey (Table 3-2). This finding makes a practical sense that for those TKD event partic ipants, overall they tended to perceive fewer constraints as evidenced by their already presen ce at the event; conversely, they might possess higher motivation and commitment to TKD. Data screening was conducted to examine the dist ributions of variables, accuracy of data entry, outliers, and assumptions for multivariate analyses. To examine multivariate normality, Mardias coefficient of multivariate skewness and kurtosis was tested by applying the PRELIS 2.52 program (Jreskog & Srbom, 1996). In an e ffort to cope with multivariate non-normal 70

PAGE 71

distribution, a robust m aximum likelihood estimato r (MLR) with Satorra-Bentler (S-B) adjusts chi-square (S-B 2) scaling method was adopted and perfor med to make the corrections (Satorra & Bentler, 2001). The robust ML is a very well -behaved estimator across different levels of non-normality, model complexity, and sample size (Brown, 200, p. 379). Chou, Benter, and Satorra (1991) argued that the robust ML with S-B scaling met hods is appropriate to handle continuous non-normal data. Testing of hypotheses was conducted by a twostep process, a systematic approach suggested by (Anderson & Gerbing, 1988). In the first step, the measurement model was tested through appropriate validation proce ss. The first step tested the suitability of hypothesized factor structure for the data. The second step was related to the assessmen t of the structural relationships in the model when measuremen t model was adequate (Anderson & Gerbing, 1988; Kline, 2005). Upon confirming multivar iate normality, a preliminary step of the analyses was to reexamine the factor validity of measures. Prio r to testing the overall measurement models, six separate confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were conducted for the market demand, perceived benefit, perceived constraints, perceived valu e, member satisfaction, and member commitment measures using the Mplus 5.21 program (Muthn & Muthn, 2007). Then, a CFA was conducted to evaluate the measurement model for all of the constructs and their item s, and to estimate how well the items would represent th e proposed latent constructs (H air et al., 2006). According to Hair et al. (2006) and Tabachnick and Fide ll (2006), executing a CFA has to follow the following five steps: (a) model specification, (b) identification, (c) model estimation, (d) testing model fit, and (e) m odel respecification. A structural equation mode ling (SEM) was conducted to examine the hypothesized structural relationships. There are advantages to using SEM in this study for the flowing 71

PAGE 72

consideratio ns: (a) it has the ability to correct meas urement error, (b) it is an advanced statistical technique to investigate hierarchical relationships among latent variables, (c) it provides a new approach to theory building a nd testing the model, (d) it offers evaluations for the general compatibility (e.g., goodness of fit) of the model, and (e) it has the ability to estimate the entire interrelated dependence relations hips simultaneously (Hair et al., 2006; Quintana & Maxwell, 1999). By adopting the procedures in the Mplu s 5.21 that are friendly in handling non-normal data (Muthn & Muthn, 2007), the SEM was ex ecuted to assess the proposed structural relationships among the market demand, perceived benefits, perceived co nstraints, perceived value, member satisfaction, and member commitment constructs that were refined in the stage of CFA. Goodness of Model Fit To assess the goodness of model fit and the estimation of parameters of the hypothesized model, the Satorra-Bentler chi-square to the models degree of freedom ( 2S-B/df) (Kline, 2005) and the following fit indexes were considered : root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), standardized means square residual (SMRM), and comparative fit index (CFI) (Hair et al., 2006; Hu & Bentler, 1999; Kline, 2005). The adequacy of conventional cutoff criteria for fit indices recommended by Hu and Bentler ( 1999) and Kline (2005) was followed. The chisquare statistic could be used to examine si gnificant difference between expected and observed covariance matrix structure. A nonsignificant chi-square shows that the model is of good data fit. However, alternative measures of fit have been used because chisquare is sensitive to sample size (Kline, 2005). Kline (2005) defined RMSEA as b adness-of-fit index in that a value of zero indicates that best fit and highe r values indicate wors e fit (p. 138). For RMSEA, Hu and Bentler (1999) suggested that RMSEA values less than .06 indicate a close fit, between .06 and .08 indicate an acceptable fit, and greater than .10 indicate a poor fit. Th e SRMR indicates the 72

PAGE 73

average v alue across all standardized residuals. A higher value of SRMR indicates bad fit and smaller values shows good fit. The value less th an .09 generally indica tes a good fit of model (Kline, 2005). The CFI is defined as the relative improvement in fit of the researchers model compared with a baseline model (Kline, 2005, p. 140). A rule of thumb for the CFI index is that researchers model has a reasonable fit when a value is larger than .90 (Hu & Bentler, 1999). Reliability Reliability is consistent in what it is intende d to measure. Hair et al. (2006) defined the reliability in SEM as degree to which a set of la tent construct indicators are consistent in their measurements. In more formal terms, reliability is the extent to which a set of two or more indicators share in their measur ement of a construct (p. 583). To assess the reliability of the scale, the following three tests were conducted: Cronbachs alpha ( ), construct reliability (CR), and averaged variance extracted (AVE). Cronbachs alpha ( ) coefficients (i.e., internal consistency values) indicate how well the items predict one anothe r based on the correlations in the subscale. CR is also an internal consistency measure that accounts for measurement errors of all indicators (Fornell & Larcker, 1981). The internal consistency ( ) value and CR are suggested to be equal to or greater than .70 cut-off point (Fornell & Larcker, 1981; Nunnally & Bernstein, 1994). Another measure of reliab ility is the Average Variance Extracted (AVE). The AVE values assessed the variance captured by the indica tors relative to measurement error. AVE value recommended to be greater than .50 threshold (Fornell & Larcker, 1981) and calculated as (Hair et al., 2006): AVE = (standardized loading2) / (standardized loading)2 + j In other words, the AVE value is calculated by dividing (summation of squared standardized 73

PAGE 74

factor loadings) by ([summ ation of squared standardized factor loadings] plus [summation of error variances]) (Hair et al., 2006). Validity Construct validity is defined by whether a meas ure relates to other observed variables in a way that is consistent with theoretically de rived predictions (Bollen, 1990, p. 188). Thus, to establish construct validity, the relationship between the observed variables and latent constructs was examined. Two key elements determined construct validity: (a) conv ergent validity and (b) discriminant validity. First, convergent validity refers to how well each indicator loads on its underlying theoretical construct, which is a co rrelation between two constructs measuring the same concept (Anderson & Gerbing, 1988; Netemeyer, Johnston, & Burton, 1990). To assess convergent validity, indicator load ings and t-value should be ex amined. The loading value for each of the measurement items need to be e qual to or greater than .707 (Anderson & Gerbing, 1988), demonstrating good convergent validity. S econd, discriminant validity indicates the extent to which a given construct is different from other constr ucts (e.g., perceived benefits, perceived constraints, perceived value, member satisfaction, and member commitment) (Fornell & Larcker, 1981). Discriminant validity can be established if correlations among constructs are less than .85 (Kline, 2005) or if the AVE of a specific construct exceeds the squared value of the correlation between that construct and any other factor (Fornell & Larcker, 1981). In this study, both ways were conducted to examine discriminant validity. After confirming overall measurement model, th e final step involved testing the proposed hypotheses in the conceptual model and analyz ing the data through a structural equation modeling (SEM). The SEM utilizes various types of models (e.g., path and confirmatory models) to depict both latent and observed relationships among variab les in order to provide a 74

PAGE 75

quantitative test for a theoretical m odel hypothesi zed by a researcher (Hai r et al., 2006; Kline, 2005). 75

PAGE 76

Table 3-1. D escriptive statistics for th e sociodemographic variables (N=595) Variable Category N % Cumulative % Gender Male 356 59.9 59.9 Female 232 39.9 100.0 Age 18-25 141 27.4 27.4 26-35 85 16.5 43.9 36-45 148 28.7 72.6 46-55 108 21.0 93.6 56-65 27 5.2 98.8 Over 65 6 1.2 100.0 Ethnicity White 391 66.1 66.1 African-American 32 5.4 71.5 Hispanic 93 15.7 87.2 Asian 50 8.5 95.7 Other 21 3.6 100.0 Marital Status Single 181 30.8 30.8 Married 358 61.0 91.8 Divorced 45 7.7 99.5 Other 3 0.5 100.0 Number of Children 0 177 30.5 30.5 1 106 18.3 48.8 2 163 28.2 77.0 3 81 14.0 91.0 4 or more 52 9.0 100.0 Household Income Under $9,999 35 6.4 6.4 $10,000-14,999 17 3.1 9.5 $15,000-24,999 22 4.0 13.5 $25,000-34,999 20 3.6 17.1 $35,000-49,999 45 8.2 25.3 $50,000-74,999 114 20.8 46.1 $75,000-99,999 112 20.4 66.6 Over $100,000 183 33.4 100.0 Education Some High School 19 3.2 3.2 High School Graduate 41 7.0 10.2 Some College 151 25.6 35.8 College Graduate 226 38.4 74.2 Graduate Degree 128 21.7 95.9 Others 24 4.1 100.0 76

PAGE 77

Table 3-1. Continued Variable Category N % Cumulative % Membership Type Individual 296 50.6 50.6 Family 240 41.0 91.6 Other 49 8.4 100.0 Belt Rank White 18 3.1 3.1 Yellow 24 4.1 7.2 Green 36 6.1 13.3 Blue 56 9.5 22.8 Red 63 10.7 33.5 Black (1-3 Dan) 304 51.5 85.0 Black (Above 3 Dan) 89 15.0 100.0 Learned of the School Referral 320 53.7 53.7 (Word of Mouth and Friend) Advertisement 77 13.1 66.8 Yellow Pages 28 4.8 71.6 Internet 68 11.5 83.1 Other 96 16.9 100.0 TKD Expenditure Under $999 166 28.8 28.8 (per year) $1,000-1,999 160 27.7 56.5 $2,000-2,999 97 16.8 73.3 $3,000-3,999 49 8.5 81.8 Over $4,000 103 18.2 100.0 77

PAGE 78

Table 3-2. G roup comparison betwee n on-line and on-site respondents Factor On-line ( N = 448) On-site ( N = 147) tvalue p M 5.43 5.56 -1.782 .076 MD SD 0.73 0.88 M 6.11 6.22 -1.359 .175 PB SD 0.75 0.95 M 2.56 2.18 3.235 .001 PC SD 1.08 1.06 M 6.15 6.30 -1.592 .123 PV SD 0.74 1.02 M 6.63 6.68 -.689 .491 MSA SD 0.72 0.78 M 6.32 6.48 -1.694 .091 MCO SD 1.02 0.91 Note: MD = Market Demand; PB = Perceived Be nefits; PC = Perceive d Constraints; PV = Perceived Vale; MSA = Member Satisf action; MCO = Member Commitment 78

PAGE 79

CHAP TER 4 RESULTS The result of this study was presented in the following four sec tions: (a) descriptive statistics, (b) confirmatory factor analyses and (c) structural equation model analyses. Descriptive Statistics Market Demand Variables Descriptive statistics including mean and standard deviation for the market demand variables are presented in Tabl e 4-1. All items except three had a mean score above 4.0 (i.e., midpoint on the 7-point Likert scal e), representing that respondent is overall considered market demand variables as important while they ma de decision to attend a TKD school. The means score of the market demand items ranged from 3 .12 to 6.60 and standard deviations ranged from 0.85 to 2.07. Among the market demand factors, In struction Service Quality had the highest mean score ( M = 6.46, SD = .083). Within this factor, the Instr uctors/masters are friendly item had the highest mean score ( M = 6.60, SD = 0.85). On the other hand, Locker Room Provision had the lowest mean score among the market demand factors ( M = 4.15, SD = 1.64). Within this factor, The school offers a good shower room item had the lowest mean score ( M = 3.18; SD = 2.02). Perceived Benefits Variables Table 4-2 presented the descriptive statistics for the perceived benefits variables. All 12 items had a mean score greater than 4.0 (i.e., midpoi nt on the 7-point Likert scale, reflecting that respondents had positive perceive d benefits gained from attending a TKD school). The means score of the perceived benefits items ranged from 5.58 to 6.42 and standard deviations ranged from 0.83 to 1.35. The Improving my appearan ce item had the lowest mean score ( M = 5.58, SD = 1.35) and the Improving my physical health item had the highest mean score ( M = 6.42, 79

PAGE 80

SD = 0.83) of the perceived benefits variables. O f the perceived benefits dimensions, the Physical Benefits had sli ghtly higher mean score ( M = 6.10, SD = 0.89) than Psychological Benefits. Perceived Constraints Variables Table 4-3 presented the descriptive statistics for the perceived constraints variables. All 22 items had a mean below 4.0 on the 7-point Like rt scale, reflecting th at respondents did not perceive strong constraints associated with at tending a TKD school. The mean scores of the perceived constraints items ranged from 1.85 to 3.43 and standard deviations ranged from 1.32 to 2.10. The item, A language barrier in the Taek wondo school, had the lowest mean score ( M = 1.85, SD = 1.32) and the Health problems item had the highest mean score ( M = 3.42, SD = 1.98) among the perceived constraints variables. Of the perceived constraints factors, the Structural Constraints factor had the highest mean score ( M = 2.64, SD = 1.54), followed by Interpersonal Constraints ( M = 2.59, SD = 1.10). The lowest mean score was associated with the Intrapersonal Constraints factor ( M = 2.31, SD = 1.36). Perceived Value Variables Table 4-4 presented the descriptive statistics for the perceived constraints variables. All items had a mean score over 4.0 on the 7-point Likert scale, indicat ing that respondents perceived that it was valuable for them to part icipate in TKD schools. The mean scores of these perceived value items ranged from 5.53 to 6.56 and standard deviations ranged from 0.79 to 1.64. The Helping me feel accepted by others item had the lowest mean score ( M = 5.36, SD = 1.64) and the Something that I like to participate in item had the highest mean score ( M = 6.56, SD = 0.798) among the variables. Of the perceive d value dimensions, Emotion Value had the highest mean score ( M = 6.52, SD = 0.76), followed by Quality Value (M = 6.27, SD = 1.04). The lowest mean score was associated with the Social Value factor ( M = 5.58, SD = 1.39). 80

PAGE 81

Member Sa tisfaction and Member Commitment Variables Table 4-5 presents the descriptive statisti cs for member satisfaction and commitment variables. All of the variables had a mean score greater than 4.0 on the 7-point Likert scale. Among member satisfaction items, two items, I am happy that I attended the school ( M = 6.58, SD = 0.90) and I think that I did the right thing by deciding to attend the school ( M = 6.58, SD = 0.94), had same high mean score. Of the member commitment items, the item, It would be hard for me to quit member of the school, had the lowest mean value ( M = 5.59, SD = 1.75) and the item, I would be willing to do almost anythi ng to keep being a member of the school, had the highest mean value ( M = 6.54, SD = 0.97). Data Normality Test of multivariate normality assumptions for the variables was conducted by executing the PRELIS 2.52 program (Jreskog & Srbom, 1996). Multivariate non-normality would be violated when Mardias Normalized coefficients of both skewness and kurtosi s are statistically (p < .05) significant. Findings of this study reve aled that the normality assumption was violated based on Mardias coefficients of multivariate skewness ( z = 189.6, p < 0.01) and kurtosis ( z = 38.7, p < 0.01) (Mardia, 1985). In order to deal w ith the lack of multivariate normality, the measurement model that was estimated with maximum likelihood robust (MLR) estimation and tested with Satorra-Ben tler chi-square (S-B 2) was applied for correct ion (Satorra & Bentler, 1994). In addition, multicollinearity was examined to check high correlations among variables. Kline (2005) asserted that any two variables with a hi gh correlation of over .85 indicated multicollinearity problems. In this study, no co rrelation between any two items was over .85; thus, multicollinearity was not a concern. 81

PAGE 82

Measurement Models Before proceeding to conducting the SEM, a CFA was conducted to verify the m easurement properties of market demand, per ceived benefits, percei ved constraints, and perceived value measures, respectively, thr ough executing the Mplus 5.21 program (Muthn & Muthn, 2007). In particular, this process of reexamining the measurement models helped determine the factor validity of the hypothesized relations betw een latent variables and their indicators (Kline, 2005). Testing the overall measurement model was also conducted. Market Demand The measurement model of the seven market demand factors (Figure 4-1) with 37 items was tested. Goodness of fit indexes revealed that the measurement model achieved good fit with the data (Table 4-6). The S-B 2 / df (1263/608 = 2.07) was lower than the suggested standard value of 3.0 (Kline, 2005). Robust CFI value of 0.949 was higher than the recommended cut-off ratio (>. 90; Hu & Bentler, 1999). The RMSEA va lue (.043) indicated a close fit. In addition, SRMR (.040) was less than .09, indicating a good fit of the model (Kline, 2005). Alpha and CR coefficients for all of the seven fa ctors were greater than the cut-off point of .70 (Fornell & Larcker, 1981; N unnally & Bernstein, 1994), wher e alpha coefficients ranged from .77 (Economic Condition Consideration) to.97 (Personal Improvement Activities). CR coefficients ranged from .78 for Economic Cons ideration to .96 for Personal Improvement Activities. AVE values ranged from .55 to .85, which also provided evidence for convergent validity (Fornell & Larcker, 1981). Overall, the fi ndings indicated that th e proposed seven-factor market demand measure had sound reliability (Table 4-6). The two key components of f actorial validity, convergent validity and discriminant validity, are both referred to how well the m easurement items on its underlying theoretical construct (Anderson & Gerbing, 1988; Netemeyer et al., 1990). In this st udy, convergent validity 82

PAGE 83

was exam ined by assessing factor loadings and t-values. All indica tor loadings were equal to or above the suggested standard value of .707 (A nderson & Gerbing, 1988), w ith the exception of four items with slightly lower loading values. These four items included two items (self-defense and family programs) under the Physical Facility factor and two other items (hidden fee and reasonable refund/cancellation policy) under the Economic Condition Consideration factor. A decision was made to retain these four items based on the following considerations: (a) their theoretical relevance, (b) their importance as show n in the descriptive statistics and t-tests, and (c) overall model fit. The t -test values for all of the factor loadings were statistically significant at the .001 level. In addition, sign ificant relationships between the seven fact ors and the general construct (i.e., market demand) supported conver gent validity of the scale. Overall, these findings support the evidence of convergent validity. To assess discriminant validity, Kline (2005) suggested that discriminant validity be established when interfactor correlation is below .85. The interfactor correlation between any tw o factors ranged from .14 (between Personal Improvement Activities and Locker Room Provision) to .52 (between Physical Facility Quality and Program Activities and Offerings) (Table 4-7). In addition, a squared correlation between two constructs should be lower than the AVE valu e for any one of the two constructs (Table 48). Thus, discriminant validity of the market demand measure was evidenced. Perceived Benefits A CFA was performed to evaluate the measurement model of the perceived benefits measure with two latent variables and 12 items. Modification indices suggested that model fit needed to be improved with respecification. In or der to improve model fit, three items had to be eliminated based on further considerations of theoretical relevance, parsimoniousness of the model, and indicator loadings. After the modifica tion, the model fit the da ta marginally well (SB 2 /df (433.2/53) = 8.17, p < .01; RMSEA = .111; CFI = .839; SRMR = .060). However, the 83

PAGE 84

two latent factors (i.e., psychological benefit and physical benefit) were highly correlated (.90), which would likely lead to multicollinearity issu es in the SEM stage. Kline (2005) recommended that the variables causing the multicollinearity should be eliminated or combined redundant variables onto a composite variab le. Therefore, two latent vari ables were combined into one factor, labeled Perceived Benefits, based on Klin es suggestion. Consequently, the revised model showed adequate fit for the data (S-B 2 /df (123.4/26) = 4.74, p < .01; RMSEA = .080; CFI = .936; SRMR = .035). The Perceived Benefits factor showed good re liability as evidenced in Cronbachs alpha coefficient ( = .94) and CR coefficient ( .94) (Table 4-6). The AVE va lue for factor was .64, also providing strong evidence of convergent validity (F ornell & Lorcker, 1981). The findings overall indicated that the one-factor structure was internally co nsistent (Table 4-6). Perceived Constraints A CFA was performed to evaluate the measur ement model of three perceived constraints factors with 22 items. Modification indexes suggested that model f it needed to be improved with respecification. To do so, a total of 10 items were eliminated due to their poor indicator loadings and reconsiderations of their theoretical relevance and pars imoniousness of the model. After the modification, the model fit the data reasonably well (S-B 2 /df (240.1/51) = 4.70, p < .01; RMSEA = .079; CFI = .925; SRMR = .051). Cronbachs alpha coefficients were .76, .86, and .91, respectively, for Intrapersonal Constraints, Interpersonal Constrai nts, and Structural Constraints. CR values resemble d those coefficients derived fr om calculating Cronbachs alpha. AVE values for the factors ranged from .62 to .66, also indicating strong evidence of convergent validity (Fornell & Lorcker, 1981). Overall, the findings indicated that the three-factor model had internal consistency. 84

PAGE 85

For convergent validity, t-values for all of the factor loadings were statistically significant at the .001 level. In addition, sign ificant relationships among the three factors, as well as between the three factors and a general construct (i.e ., perceived constraints), provided supporting evidence of convergent valid ity of the scale (Table 4-6). The interfactor correlations ranged from .54 (between Intrapersonal Constraints and Structural Constraints) to .70 (b etween Interpersonal Constraints and Structural Constr aints), no interfactor correlation coefficien t was larger than .85 (Table 4-7). In addition, a square d correlation between two constructs should be lower than the AVE value for any one of the two constructs (Tab le 4-8). These indicated very good discriminant validity. Perceived Value A CFA was performed to evaluate the measurement model of four perceived value factors with 11 items. Modification indexes suggested that model f it needed to be improved with respecification. The model fit the data well (S-B 2 /df (224.9/38) = 5.91, p < .01; RMSEA = .091; CFI = .919; SRMR = .056), so the modification was conducted. Cronbachs alpha coefficients for the four factors were .87, .93, .90, and .73, respectively, for Emotion Value, Price Value, Social Value, and Quality Value. CR coefficients ranged from .70 for Quality Value to .96 for Emotional Value. AVE values for the factors ranged from .54 (Quality Value) to .82 (Price Value), also indicating ev idence of convergent validity (F ornell & Lorcker, 1981). The findings overall indicated that the four-factor measure had sound internal consistency (Table 46). Additionally, indicator loadings and t-test values supported the presence of convergent validity. For discriminant validit y, interfactor correlations rang ed from .51 (between Emotion Value and Social Value) to .80 (between Em otion Value and Quality), and no interfactor correlation coefficient was greater than .85 (T able 4-7). In addition, a squared correlation 85

PAGE 86

between two constructs should be lower than the AVE value for any one of the two constructs (Table 4-8). These findings i ndicated very good discrim inant validity of the measure. Overall Measurement Model Anderson and Gerbing (1998) introduced a twostep approach, which involves the testing of a general measurement model and a structural model. Thus, initial overall measurement model with 17 latent factors, including all of the market dema nd, perceived benefits, perceived constraints, and perceived value factors, as well as member sa tisfaction and commitment, with a total of 76 observed indicators was tested by co nducting a CFA. An initial estimation of the overall measurement model produced accep table levels of model fit (S-B 2 /df (5483.3/2637) = 2.07, p < .01; RMSEA = .043; CFI = .906; SRMR = .052); yet, the goodness of fit indexes suggested that the measurement model needs to be respecified in order to achieve better valid and reliable evidence. Consequently, the revi sed overall measurement model with 16 latent factors and 71 observed indicators was tested. By checking the high m odification index, three items were deleted to improve the goodness of fit. One latent factor, Quality Value, with two items was also eliminated due to its very high correlation with Member Commitment. Overall, a finding of the revised measuremen t model was satisfactory. The S-B 2 /df (4520/2293 = 1.97) was lower than the suggested standard value of 3.0 (Kline, 2005). Robust CFI value of .920 was higher than the recommended cut-off ratio (> 90; Hu & Bentler, 1999). The RMSEA value (.040) indicated a close fit. In addition, the SR MR (.047) was less than .09, indicating a good fit of model (Kline, 2005). Cronbachs alpha and CR for the factors were all greater than the cut-off point of .70 (Fornell & Lorcker, 1981; Nunnally & Bernst ein, 1994). As shown in Table 4-6, alpha coefficients for the factors ranged from .76 (Intrapersonal Constraints) to .97 (Personal Improvement Activities). CR coefficients ranged from .78 for Economic Condition 86

PAGE 87

Consideration and Intrapersona l constraints to .96 for Pers onal Im provement Activities and Member Satisfaction. AVE values ranged from .55 (Program Activities Offerings and Economic Condition Consideration) to .89 (Member Satis faction), indicating a strong evidence of reliability. Convergent validity of the overall measurement model was examined by t -value and factor loadings. The t -values for the factor loadings were all st atistically significant at the .001 level. Factor loading coefficients were equal to or greater than .707, except for five items with slightly lower values (Anderson & Gerb ing, 1988). Consistent with m easurement model testing for individual conceptual areas, these items were re tained due to their theoretical relevance and minimal deviance from the high standard of .707 (Table 4-6). The interfactor correlations ranged from -.07 (between Locker Room Provision and Structural Constraints) to .77 (Member Sa tisfaction and Member Commitment), and no interfactor correlation coefficien t was greater than .85 (Table 47). Discriminant validity was also assessed by comparing the AVE value with the interfactor correlation coefficients, where all squared correlations in the scale should be le ss than the AVE value for the respective construct (Table 4-8). All of the AVE values were sign ificantly greater than any squared correlations. These findings indicated very good discrimina nt validity. Overall, the findings of the measurement models provided good evidence for th e study to proceed with the SEM analysis. Structural Equation Model Based on the overall measurement model, ther e were a total of 16 observed variables (i.e., personal improvement activities, physical facility quality, instructional staff quality, program activities offerings, cultural learning activities, locker room provision, economic condition consideration, perceived be nefits, intrapersonal constraints, interpersonal constraints, structural constraints, emotional value, price value, social value, member satisfaction, and 87

PAGE 88

m ember commitment) and six latent variables (i.e., market demand, perceived benefits, perceived constraints, perceived value, member satisfaction, and member commitment). Figure 1-1 showed the relationships among these cons tructs. The fit indice s revealed that S-B 2 /df (5044.8/2391) = 2.11, p < .01; RMSEA = .043; CFI = .905; SRMR = .068. The relationship between market demand factors and the latent general market demand variable was all significantly (p < .05) different from zero, and all sta ndardized loading ranged from .36 for Locker Room Provision to .85 for Economic Conditi on Consideration (Figure 4-2). With respect to the structural relationships path coefficients were examined among the market demand, perceived benefits, perceived constraints, perc eived value, member satisfaction, and member commitment constructs. The market demand latent variable directly affected perceived benefits, perceived constraints, an d perceived value, and indirectly affected perceived value, member satisfaction, and member commitment. All of the direct and indirect pa ths were statistically significant ( p < .05) (Figure 4-2). An amalgamation of the market demand factors had positive effects on perceived benefits ( = .73, p < .01), perceived constraints ( = .38, p < .01), perceived value ( = .72, p < .01), member satisfaction ( = .58, p < .05), and member commitment ( = .28, p < .01). Therefore, H1-5 were supported (Table 4-9). Also, the effect of perceived benefits on perceived value was positive and statistically significant ( p < .05), where perceived benefits was positively predictive of perceived value ( = .25, p < .001), indicating that H6 was supported. However, although the effect of perceived constraints on perceived value was negative, it was not statistically significant ( = -.01; p > .05); Thus, H7 was not supported (Table 4-9). The path from perceived value to member satisfaction was positively and statistically significant ( = .45, p < .05), indicating that H8 was not supported (Table 4-9). Furthermore, 88

PAGE 89

m ember satisfaction had a positiv e impact on member commitment ( = .61, p < .001), indicating that H9 was supported (Table 4-9). To compare the advantage between the partially mediated model (Model A) and the direct effect model (Model B) (Figure 4-3), the chi-squares and degrees of freedom of models were compared to see if the hypothesized model wa s supported (Model A). The null hypothesis, the partially mediated model fits the data (H1) would fit the data well just as the fully mediated model, was tested. The model comp arison test was conducted by using 12 2 = ( 1 2 2 2) = .07 and df1 df2 = 1. Although the fit index fo r the partially mediated mode l was slightly better, the difference was not statistically ( p > .05) different, indicati ng that the null hypothesis was retained. In this case, it would be reasonable to consider that perceived benefits and perceived constraints fully mediated the relationships be tween market demand and perceived value, which in turn influenced member satisfaction and commitment. The capability of the hypothesized model to ex plain variation in perceived value, member satisfaction, and member commitment was estimated by R2 value. A total 85% of variable in perceived value was explained by the market demand, perceived benefits, and perceived constraints. The R2 values for member satisfaction and member commitment were .54 and .69, respectively (Figure 4-2). Summary of the Results In summary, for each individual measurement model a CFA was conducted to assess the validity of its construct(s). The findings reveal ed that the market demand consisted of seven factors (i.e., personal improvement activities, physical facility quality, instruction staff quality, program activities offerings, cultural learning activities, economic condition consideration, and locker room provision). Percei ved benefits variables converged to one factor. Perceived constraints were found to be of a three-factor structure (i.e., in trapersonal, interpersonal, and 89

PAGE 90

90 structural constraints). Perceive d value had four factors retaine d, including emotion value, price value, social value, and quality value. In a ddition, member satisfaction and member commitment were confirmed as being unidimensional. Afte r confirming individual measurement models, an overall measurement model was found to fit th e data well. Finally, a SEM was conducted for testing the stated hypotheses, all of which were supported except H7, where perceived constraints were not found to be predictive of perceived value (Table 4-9).

PAGE 91

Table 4-1. D escriptive statistics for th e market demand variables (N = 595) M SD Factors and item s Personal Improvement Activities Improving self-discipline (PIA1) 6.02 1.384 Improving patience (PIA2) 5.76 1.410 Learning to be humble (PIA3) 5.58 1.490 Fully exploring individual potential (PIA4) 6.16 1.205 Building character (PIA5) 5.98 1.300 Fostering a positive attitude (PIA6) 6.03 1.286 Improving self-confidence (PIA7) 6.20 1.193 Improving social skills (PIA8) 5.43 1.531 Improving self-concept (PIA9) 5.73 1.379 Increasing personal pride (PIA10) 5.90 1.354 Developing respect for other people (PIA11) 5.87 1.437 Developing a strong work ethic (PIA12) 5.85 1.416 Improving leadership skills (PIA13) 5.91 1.395 Developing a code of honor (PIA14) 5.78 1.486 Physical Facility Quality The school has first-aid equipment (PFQ1) 5.51 1.536 The school has safety equipment (PFQ2) 5.76 1.422 The schools facility is safe and comfortable (PFQ3) 6.23 1.004 The schools interior is well designed (PFQ4) 5.74 1.339 The school has adequate space fo r class activities (PFQ5) 5.93 1.289 The school has up-to-date equipment (PFQ6) 5.86 1.239 A variety of exercise equipmen ts are available (PFQ7) 5.14 1.717 The schools ambience is excellent (PFQ8) 5.81 1.339 The schools facility is aesthe tically attractive (PFQ9) 5.38 1.483 Cultural Learning Activities Learning Korean philosophy (ritual /ceremony, symbol) (CLA1) 4.62 1.808 Learning about Korean culture (CLA2) 4.32 1.753 Learning about Korean heritage (CLA3) 4.26 1.767 Improving bilingual ability (CLA4) 3.91 1.795 Locker Room Provision The school offers a good locker room (LRP1) 4.08 1.855 The locker room is safe (LRP2) 4.75 1.866 The school offers a good shower room (LRP3) 3.18 2.017 The locker room in this school is convenient (LRP4) 4.38 1.925 The locker room in this school is clean (LRP5) 4.73 1.871 The shower room in this school is clean (LRP6) 3.94 1.964 91

PAGE 92

Table 4-1. C ontinued M SD Factors and item s Instructional Staff Quality Instructors/masters have a good reputation (ISQ1) 6.57 0.892 Having an adequate number of instructors (ISQ2) 6.07 1.277 Instructors/masters are willing to help members (ISQ3) 6.59 0.884 Having well qualified instructors (ISQ4) 6.57 0.959 Instructors/masters are friendly (ISQ5) 6.60 0.853 Instructors/masters handle problems promptly and professionally (ISQ6) 6.38 1.073 Program Activities Offerings Opportunity to see masters dem onstration performance (PAO1) 5.06 1.748 Dan certification from a sanctioned organization (PAO2) 5.88 1.554 Child-care services (PAO3) 3.12 1.942 An appropriate class size (PAO4) 5.61 1.395 A reasonable belt promotion system (PAO5) 5.85 1.376 After-school programs (PAO6) 3.91 2.075 Classes focusing on self-defense (PAO7) 5.50 1.584 Quality promotional materials (e.g., pamphlets) (PAO8) 4.67 1.864 Opportunities to compete in taekwondo tournaments (PAO9) 5.83 1.567 Free trial lessons (PAO10) 5.39 1.760 Special events (e.g., trai ning camp) (PAO11) 5.25 1.744 Various activities for different groups of members (PAO12) 5.23 1.705 Family programs (PAO13) 5.38 1.716 Convenient operating hours (PAO14) 6.11 1.142 Classes at several different times (PAO15) 5.79 1.525 Economic Condition Consideration No charge any hidden fees (ECC1) 6.15 1.346 Payment methods service is convenient (ECC2) 6.18 1.127 The membership fee is reasonable (ECC3) 6.07 1.262 A reasonable refund and cancellation policy (ECC4) 5.50 1.554 Offering giveaway items (uniforms, belts, club bag, etc) (ECC5) 4.47 1.934 Offering flexible payment plans (ECC6) 5.49 1.584 Offering optional long term membership category (ECC7) 5.19 1.881 Offering discounted family membership option (ECC8) 5.83 1.469 Note. PIA = personal improvement activities; PF Q = physical facility quality; CLA = cultural learning activities; LRP = locker room provision; ISQ = instructional staff quality; PAO = program activities offerings; ECC = economic condition consideration 92

PAGE 93

Table 4-2. D escriptive st atistics for the perceived benefits (N = 595) M SD Factors and item s Psychological Benefit Coping with lifes pr essures (PSY1) 5.92 1.222 Enhancing self-image (PSY2) 5.82 1.243 Improving my mental health (PSY3) 5.97 1.186 Improving my character (PSY4) 5.88 1.292 Improving positive psychological effect (PSY5) 6.00 1.150 Enhancing self-confidence (PSY6) 6.14 1.086 Feeling better in general (PSY7) 6.36 0.949 Physical Benefit Improving my appearance (PHY1) 5.58 1.351 Basic athletic skills (PHY2) 6.14 1.087 Improving my physical health (PHY3) 6.42 0.826 Improving self-protection (PHY4) 6.14 1.124 Improving self-defense ability (PHY5) 6.21 1.063 Note. PSY = psychological benefit; PHY = physical activity 93

PAGE 94

Table 4-3. D escriptive st atistics for the perceived constraints (N = 595) M SD Factors and item s Intrapersonal Constraints Health problems (ITR1) 3.43 1.984 Harder to learn than other sports (ITR2) 2.52 1.663 Skills are improved enough (ITR3) 2.50 1.669 Tiring to attend the Taekwondo school (ITR4) 2.16 1.419 Afraid of injury (ITR5) 2.28 1.488 No fun anymore (ITR6) 2.23 1.641 Physically challenging (ITR7) 3.02 2.087 Interpersonal Constraints Happy with social situations in school (ITE1) 2.58 1.797 I do not think that the instructor(s )/master is competent (ITE2) 2.44 2.103 No close partner in school (ITE3) 2.26 1.587 Observing negative attitudes from instructor(s)/master (ITE4) 2.66 2.126 Problems with my training partner in the TKD school (ITE5) 2.04 1.424 A language barrier in the Taekwondo school (ITE6) 1.85 1.318 Structural Constraints Pay for expensive equipments to attend in school (STR1) 2.56 1.746 Pay for expensive membership and promotion fees (STR2) 2.70 1.944 Not enough money to participate in school (STR3) 2.92 2.021 Not enough time to participate in school (STR4) 2.82 1.906 The facility is poorly maintained (STR5) 2.51 1.861 The school is located too far away (STR6) 2.63 1.919 Not have transportation to attend the school (STR7) 2.35 1.872 The facility is very crowded (STR8) 2.48 1.696 I cannot afford to atte nd the school (STR9) 2.82 2.009 Note. ITR = intrapersonal constraints; ITE = interpersonal constrains; STR = structural constraints 94

PAGE 95

Table 4-4. D escriptive statistics for the perceived value (N = 595) M SD Factors and item s Emotional Value Something that I would enjoy (EMO1) 6.52 0.834 Something that I like to participate (EMO2) 6.56 0.792 I feel comfortable attending the Taekwondo school (EMO3) 6.50 0.924 Price Value Reasonably priced (PRI1) 6.01 1.245 Offering value for the money I spend (PRI2) 6.18 1.220 Affordable (PRI3) 5.77 1.417 Social Value Making a good impression on other people (SOC1) 5.84 1.405 Helping me feel accepted by others (SOC2) 5.36 1.642 Improving the way I am perceived by others (SOC3) 5.53 1.521 Quality Value Last a long time (QUA1) 6.04 1.276 I would definitely consider continuing with school (QUA2) 6.49 1.077 Note. EMO = emotional value; PRI = price va lue; SOC = social value; QUA = quality value 95

PAGE 96

Table 4-5. D escriptive statistics for the memb er satisfaction and commitment (N = 595) M SD Factors and item s Member Satisfaction I am satisfied with my decision to attend the school (MSA1) 6.54 0.966 I am happy that I attended the school (MSA2) 6.58 0.907 I think that I did the right thi ng by deciding to attend the school (MSA3) 6.58 0.944 Member Commitment 6.47 1.103 I am dedicated to being a member of the school (MCO1) 6.39 1.199 I am determined to remain a member of the school (MCO2) 6.18 1.465 It would be hard for me to quit member of the school (MCO3) 5.59 1.753 I would be willing to do almost anything to keep being a member of the school (MCO4) 6.54 0.966 Note. MSA = member satisfacti on; MCO = member commitment 96

PAGE 97

Table 4-6. S ummary results for overall measurement model Construct and Item s CR AVE Personal Improvement Activities (11 items) .96 .97 .72 Improving self-discipline (PIA1) .840 Learning to be humble (PIA3) .814 .907 Building character (PIA5) .902 Fostering a positive attitude (PIA6) .853 Improving self-confidence (PIA7) .822 Improving self-concept (PIA9) .796 Increasing personal pride (PIA10) .875 Developing respect for other people (PIA11) .839 Developing a strong work ethic (PIA12) .842 Improving leadership skills (PIA13) .856 Developing a code of honor (PIA14) Physical Facility Quality (6 items) .90 .90 .61 .743 The schools facility is sa fe and comfortable (PFQ3) .865 The schools interior is well designed (PFQ4) .708 The school has adequate space for class activities (PFQ5) .759 The school has up-to-date equipment (PFQ6) .766 The schools ambience is excellent (PFQ8) .837 The schools facility is aest hetically attractive (PFQ9) Instructional Staff Quality (5 items) .92 .92 .71 Instructors/masters have a good reputation (ISQ1) .833 .875 Instructors/masters are willi ng to help members (ISQ3) .886 Having well qualified instructors (ISQ4) .803 Instructors/masters are friendly (ISQ5) Instructors/masters handle problems promptly/ professionally (ISQ6) .813 Program Activities Offerings (5 items) .85 .86 .55 .686 Classes focusing on self-defense (PAO7) .726 Quality promotional materials (e.g., pamphlets) (PAO8) .775 Special events (e.g., tr aining camp) (PAO11) .821 Various activities for differe nt groups of members (PAO12) Family programs (PAO13) .696 97

PAGE 98

Table 4-6. C ontinued Construct and Item s CR AVE Cultural Learning Activities (3 items) .94 .94 .85 .831 Learning Korean philosophy (ri tual and symbol) (CLA1) .972 Learning about Korean culture (CLA2) .959 Learning about Korean heritage (CLA3) Locker Room Provision (4 items) .93 .94 .78 The school offers a good locker room (LRP1) .883 The locker room is safe (LRP2) .867 The locker room in this school is convenient (LRP4) .894 The locker room in this school is clean (LRP5) .895 Economic Condition Consideration (3 items) .78 .77 .55 Not charged any hidden fee (ECC1) .681 Membership fee is reasonable (ECC3) .862 A reasonable refund and cancellation policy(ECC4) .657 .94 .94 .64 Personal Benefit (9 items) .762 Enhancing self-image (PBE1) Improving my mental health (PBE2) .806 .830 Improving my character (PBE3) .858 Improving positive psychological effect (PBE4) .886 Enhancing self-confidence (PBE5) .832 Feeling better in general (PBE6) .726 Improving my physical health (PBE7) .723 Improving self-protection (PBE8) .772 Improving self-defense ability (PBE9) .78 .76 .64 Intrapersonal Constraints (2 items) .678 Tiring to attend the Taekwondo school (ITR4) .911 No fun anymore (ITR6) .80 .86 .58 Interpersonal Constraints (3 items) .678 Happy with social situations in school (ITE1) .887 I do not think that the instructor(s)/master is competent (ITE2) Observing negative attitudes from instructor(s)/master (ITE4) .702 98

PAGE 99

99 Table 4-6. Continued Construct and Items CR AVE Structural Constraints (5 items) .91 .92 .67 Not enough time to participate in school (STR4) .681 The school is located too far away (STR6) .816 Not have transportation to attend the school (STR7) .916 The facility is very crowded (STR8) .811 I cannot afford to attend the school (STR9) .863 Emotional Value (3 items) .87 .87 .69 Something that I would enjoy (EMO1) .839 Something that I like to pa rticipate (EMO2) .829 I feel comfortable attending th e Taekwondo school (EMO3) .830 Price Value (3 items) .93 .93 .82 Reasonably priced (PRI1) .951 Offering value for the money I spend (PRI2) .876 Affordable (PRI3) .889 Social Value (3 items) .90 .90 .76 Making a good impression on other people (SOC1) .819 Helping me feel accepted by others (SOC2) .884 Improving the way I am perceived by others (SOC3) .910 Member Satisfaction (3 items) .96 .96 .89 Satisfied with my decision to attend school (MSA1) .934 Happy I attend school (MSA2) .983 I did the right thing by deci ding to attend the school (MSA3) .911 Member Commitment (3 items) .94 .93 .85 Dedicated to being a member of the school (MCO1) .944 Determined to remain a member of the school (MCO2) .969 It would be hard for me to quit member of the school (MCO3) .844

PAGE 100

Table 4-7. C orrelations among market demand constructs Correlation Matrix Factor PIA PFQ ISQ PAO CLA LRP ECC PBE ITR ITE STR EMO PRI SOC MSA MCO Note.**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). Correla tion is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). Note. PIA = personal improvement activities; PFQ = physical faci lity quality; CLA = cultural lear ning activities; LRP = locker room provision; ISQ = instructional staff quality; PAO = program activities offerings; ECC = economic condition consideration; PBE = perceived benefits; ITR = intraper sonal constraints; ITE = interpersonal constrains; STR = st ructural constraints; EMO = emotional value; PRI = price value; SOC = social value; MS A = Member Satisfaction; MCO = Member Commitment. 1 PIA .400** 1 PFQ .326** .381** 1 ISQ .470** .515** .451** 1 PAO .293** .336** .297** .414** 1 CLA .143** .307** .300** .259** .199** 1 LRP .361** .376** .589** .478** .236** .293** 1 ECC .538** .461** .492** .505** .304** .178** .480** 1 PBE -.241** -.266** -.267** -.286** -.163** -.103* -.261** -.318** 1 ITR -.173** -.252** -.260** -.282** -.161** -.116** -.264** -.215** .583** 1 ITE -.125** -.171** -.129** -.217** -.091* -.077 -.215** -.186** .540** .695** 1 STR .360** .377** .543** .394** .241** .175** .523** .629** -.357** -.231** -.158** 1 EMO .351** .399** .443** .403** .229** .240** .713** .524** -.263** -.235** -.243** .624** 1 PRI .420** .379** .385** .477** .224** .136** .451** .584** -.250** -.258** -.248** .507** .541** 1 SOC .300** .398** .666** .364** .251** .226** .549** .516** -.268** -.226** -.157** .622** .548** .356** 1 MSA .342** .362** .619** .385** .278** .179** .550** .522** -.331** -.216** -.181** .644** .531** .418** .772** 1 MCO 5.89 5.82 6.54 5.20 4.40 4.46 5.90 6.10 2.20 2.56 2.61 6.53 5.98 5.58 6.57 6.35 Mean SD 1.19 1.05 0.82 1.38 1.68 1.74 1.16 0.91 1.38 1.78 1.61 0.76 1.22 1.39 0.90 1.18 100

PAGE 101

Table 4-8. A ssessment of discriminant validity AVE and Squared Correlations Factor PIA PFQ ISQ PAO CLA LRP ECC PBE ITR ITE STR EMO PRI SOC MSA MCO PIA 0.72 PFQ 0.160 0.61 ISQ 0.107 0.145 0.71 PAO 0.221 0.265 0.204 0.55 CLA 0.086 0.113 0.088 0.171 0.85 LRP 0.020 0.094 0.090 0.067 0.040 0.78 ECC 0.130 0.141 0.347 0.229 0.056 0.086 0.55 PBE 0.289 0.212 0.242 0.255 0.093 0.032 0.230 0.64 ITR 0.058 0.071 0.071 0. 082 0.026 0.011 0.068 0.101 0.64 ITE 0.030 0.063 0.068 0.079 0.026 0.013 0.069 0.046 0.340 0.58 STR 0.016 0.029 0.017 0.047 0. 008 0.006 0.046 0.035 0.291 0.484 0.67 EMO 0.130 0.142 0.295 0.155 0.058 0.031 0.274 0.395 0.128 0.053 0.025 0.69 PRI 0.123 0.159 0.197 0.163 0.052 0. 058 0.508 0.274 0.069 0.055 0.059 0.390 0.82 SOC 0.177 0.144 0.149 0.227 0.050 0.018 0.203 0.341 0.063 0.067 0.062 0.257 0.292 0.76 MSA 0.090 0.159 0.444 0.132 0.063 0.051 0. 302 0.267 0.072 0.051 0.025 0.387 0.300 0.127 0.89 MCO 0.117 0.131 0.384 0.148 0. 077 0.032 0.302 0.273 0.110 0.047 0.033 0.414 0.282 0.175 0.597 0.85 Note. PIA = personal improvement activities; PFQ = physical faci lity quality; CLA = cultural lear ning activities; LRP = locker room provision; ISQ = instructional staff quality; PAO = program activities offerings; ECC = economic condition consideration; PBE = perceived benefits; ITR = intraper sonal constraints; ITE = interpersonal constrains; STR = st ructural constraints; EMO = emotional value; PRI = price value; SOC = social value; MS A = Member Satisfaction; MCO = Member Commitment. Note. The AVE value of each factor is shown on the diagonal in bold 101

PAGE 102

102 Table 4-9 Standardized parameter estimates and hypothesis testing Note. ** p < .01; *p < .05 Note: MD = Market Demand; PB = Perceived Benefits; PC = Perceived Constraints; PV = Perceived Vale; MSA = Member Satisfaction; MCO = Member Commitment Exogenous Variable Endogenous Variable PB PC PV MSA MCO Hypothesis Testing Market Demand .73** -.38** .72** .58* .28** H1-5 Supported Perceived Benefits .25** H6 Supported Perceived Constraints -.01 H H7 Not Supported .45* 8 Supported Member Satisfaction .61** H9 Supported Perceiv ed Value

PAGE 103

Table 4-10. The direct and indirect e ffects of m arket demand on commitment Direct/Indirect Effect Path Standardized Coefficient Direct effect MD MCO .28 Indirect effect MD PV MSA MCO .72 .17 .60 = .07 Indirect effect MD PB PV MSA MCO .73 .25 .17 .60 = .019 Indirect effect MD PC PV MSA MCO -.38 .01 .17 .60 = .00039 Indirect effect MD MSA MCO .58 .60 = .35 Total effect .28 + .07 + .019 + .00039 + .35 = .72 Note: MD = Market Demand; PB = Perceived Be nefits; PC = Perceive d Constraints; PV = Perceived Vale; MSA = Member Satis faction; MCO = Member Commitment 103

PAGE 104

Figure 4-1. First-order confirmatory factor analysis for market demand 104

PAGE 105

Figure 4-2. A hypothesized model of the relationships among market demand, perceived benefit, pe rceived constraint, perceived value, member satisfaction, and member commitment 105

PAGE 106

106 Figure 4-3. A comparison of the partially medi ated model and the direct effect model.

PAGE 107

CHAP TER 5 DISCUSSION Because rapid growth in the number of mar tial arts schools has resulted in a highly competitive business environment in the U.S., it is important for both practitioners and academicians to understand the dimensions of market demand, perceived benefits, perceived constraints, perceived value, member satisfac tion, and member commitment both conceptually and empirically in the context of this sport industry segment. While empirically testing the hierarchical relationships am ong these belief-attitude-intention constructs, the mediating influence of perceived benefits and perceived constraints in the relationships of market demand to member satisfaction and commitment was taken into consideration. Using TKD schools as an example of studying martial arts schools, the foll owing processes were undertaken in the current study: (a) each of the measurement scales for th e psychological constructs were reexamined for their measurement properties; (b) psychometric properties for the overall measure were further assessed; and (c) the hierarchic al relationships among these constructs were examined through conducting an SEM. This discussion section presents the followi ng: (a) the measurement model, (b) the structural model and hypothesis tes ting, and (c) suggestions for further study. Measurement Model With respect to the market demand variables, assessment of the psychometric properties of the Revised SMD-TKD scale indica ted that the scale with seven factors was of good validity and reliability. The seven-factor model had one fact or (Economic Condition Consideration) that was additional to the original SMD-TKD (Kim et al., 2009). The resolved factor structure represents a parsimonious solution of measuring the mark et demand of TKD schools. Improvements made in Kim and Zhangs (2010) revision helped improve its measurement properties and also applicability in both research a nd practical settings. Findings in the current study confirmed these 107

PAGE 108

m erits of the scale. Because the Revised SMD-T KD scale assesses the attributes of core product elements of a martial arts program, it is assu med that information obtained from adopting this measure would have direct relevance to improving the operation and marketing of programs, so that they become strongly positioned in a hi ghly competitive marketplace. The perceived benefits variables were initially hypothesized to fall into two factors, namely psychological benefits and physical benefits. However, the m odel fit indices did not support the two-factor model. Upon consideration of the statistical evid ence, the scale was revised to a unidimensional construct. The resolved factor st ructure and its items were similar to those of Kim et al.s (2009) personal benefits construct and its items (i.e., improving self-image, ment al health, character, psychological effect, self-confiden ce, better feeling, physical health, and self-defense). In the current study, the revealed presence of a perceived benefits factor indicate s its potential role for understanding martial arts participants, and also signifies the importance and relevance of perceived benefits variables in ones propensity to make a commi tment to martial arts training (e.g., Columbus & Rice, 1991; Daniels & Thornt on, 1990; Finkenberg, 1990; Fuller, 1988; Law, 2004; Richman & Rehberg, 1986; Spear, 1989; Trulson, 1986). With respect to perceived constraints, this study identified three perceived constraints dimensions (i.e., intrapersonal, interpersonal, an d structural constraints) that might prohibit or hinder one from training at a martial arts school The findings were consistent with those of Crawford and Godbey (1987). Intrap ersonal constraints with regard to martial arts involves participants psychological states an d attributes that interact with their preferences, and include such issues as the training activ ity being tiring and not fun. Interp ersonal constraints consisted of social situations, competence of the instru ctor/master, and negative attitude of the instructor/master. Finally, structur al constraints consisted of external factors primarily related to 108

PAGE 109

lack of availability of the resources needed to participate in martial arts. In this study, the retained item s, including time, location, transportation, crowdedness of school, and affordability were found to be significant indicators among the structural constraints. Previous studies have consistently found that more than 30% of res pondents perceived cons traints were based on a lack of money and time. Lack of time as a constraint was indicated in a number of recreation/leisure participant studies, which was also the case in this study (Alexandris & Carroll, 1997; Kay & Jackson, 1991). Data in th e current study suggest that the perceived constraints regarding martial arts participation tend to play a significant role in explaining participants behaviors a nd predicting their intentions to remain in martial arts schools. In order to overcome such constraints, it is important for program administrators and marketers to undertake promotional efforts to encourage internal mo tivation. For instance, it is important for martial arts programs to consider scheduli ng favorable operating hours with regard to participants availability (e.g., after school, after work, and weekends). Furthermore, schools should consider location, transportation servic e, class size, and communication channels to enhance the effectiveness of program operations (Brady & Cr onin, 2001; Kim et al., 2009). For the perceived value variab les, the current st udy initially proposed a four-dimension model based on Sweeney and Soutar (2001)s PER VAL scale: (a) emotional value, (b) social value, (c) functional value (price/valu e for money), and (d) functional value (performance/quality). However, th ese four dimensions were not replicated in this study. The functional value (performance/quality) did not emer ge as an independent dimension for martial arts participation due to its high correlation with member co mmitment. Unlike a number of previous studies that measured perceived value vi a a single-item construct, findings of this study did confirm that perceived value for martial arts schools are of a multidimensional nature. 109

PAGE 110

Consequently, perceived value cannot be accounted for as simply the outcom e of the trade-off between a single overall quality and constraints, as the concept of perceived value is much more complicated than a single-item construct can encompass (Bolton & Drew, 1991). It was certain that multiple dimensions of perceived value could better explain martial arts participation satisfaction than any single item alone. Structural Models and Hypothesis Testing The goodness of fit of the overall measuremen t model permitted an examination of the structural relationships of ma rket demand to the exogenous constructs in this study. All seven market demand factors were found to be predictive of the general latent variable of market demand, where the dimension of Economic Conditi on Consideration was shown to be the most important factor (R2 = .72), accounting for 72% of the vari ance in market demand (Figure 4-2). With respect to the Economic Condition Consider ation, such considerations as no hidden fees, reasonable membership fees, and a refund and cancellation policy played significant roles in TKD schools (Table 4-6). Another important factor, Instructional Staff Quality (e.g., instructor reputation, friendliness, qualifications, and handing problems promptly) was found to explain about 59% of the variance in market demand (F igure 4-2). This finding was consistent with previous findings that an inst ructors attitude, expertise, a nd actual behavior had a direct influence on current and new consumers evaluations of program services (Bitner, 1990; Brady & Cronin, 2001; Kim et al., 2009; Ko & Pastor e, 2004, 2005; Papadimitriou & Karteroliotis, 2000). Although the Locker Room Provision factor accounted for 13% of the variance in market demand, managers would be well-advised to take it seriously because it pinpoints the areas of locker room condition and maintena nce for improvement (Figure 4-2). It is important to note that in Kim et al.s (2009) study, th e Cultural Learning activities factor was not found to have a significant impact on the consumption level of T KD schools. Similarly, a lthough Ko et al. (2010) 110

PAGE 111

indicated that culture learning was one of the m otivation factors that would explain why people participate in TKD, cultural activities were found to have no significant impact on the motivation of TKD participants. Unlike these previous studies, the findings of the current study showed that the Cultural Learning Activ ities factor had a significant eff ect on market demand, indicating that TKD participants were likely to acculturate to learn Korean philosophy, culture, and heritage through training in TKD schools (Patel et al., 200 2; Schmidt, 1986). It appeared that the TKD participants were very much oriented to tr ain in TKD schools for cultural learning and sociopsychological discipline (e.g., respect other people positive attitude, leadership skills, code of honor, and strong work ethic) (Kim et al., 2009; Ko et al., 2010). TKD school administrators may wish to consider developing special curricula activities and el ements that foster cultural and psychological learning and improvement. With respect to the perceived constraints, the interpersonal constraints factor was shown to be most important (R2 = .88), accounting for 88% of the varian ce in perceived constraints (Figure 4-2). Of items assessing interperso nal constraints, social intera ction and relationship with the master/instructor were considered highly relevant by the participants. This was consistent with previous findings revealing that learning martial arts was a product of social interac tions (Kim et al., 2009; Weiss, 1987). Finally, in terms of the perc eived value variables, all three factors (i.e., Emotion Value, Price Value, and Social Value) were highly predictive of th e general construct of perceived value. Of these factors, Emotion Valu e accounted for 72% of the variance in perceived value. In a previous study, this factor was also found to be a critical as pect of a participants value perceptions of participat ing in martial arts training (S weeney & Soutar, 2001). After the overall measurement model was found to fit to the data well, the structural model was examined to test the hypotheses. 111

PAGE 112

Previous m arket demand studies have primarily examined the extent to which market demand factors directly affected consumption be haviors, and explained only a small portion of variance, typically lower than 20% (Byon et al., 2009; Schofiel d, 1983). Following the concept of reasoned action theory, this study recognized the importance and necessity to study the sequential relationships of beliefs attitude, and intentions associ ated with martial arts school participations. To this end, the structural rela tionships of market demand on perceived benefits, perceived value, perceived constraints, memb er satisfaction, and member commitment were examined. Market demand was found to be of significant impact on all exogenous constructs. Instead of only 28% variance in member commitment being directly explained by the market demand construct, a total of 72% variance in member commit ment was explained in the structural model, including both direct and in direct influences, revealing a much higher explanatory power. Essentially, Hypotheses 1-5 were supported (Byon et al., 2008). Further, perceived benefits of martial arts participation we re found to have a positive impact on perceived value, indicating that participants would select a martial arts schoo l that meet their expected benefits and value. This finding was consistent with Holbrooks (19 96) suggestion that the martial arts customer who has perceived the benefits of a given product or service ma y be expected to experience a positive perceived value attached to his or her experience with that product or service. With respect to the effects of the perceived constrai nts on perceived value, a negative impact on the perceived value was identified although it was not statistically signi ficant. Previous studies (i.e., Snoj et al., 2004; Tam, 2004) have consisten tly found that perceived constraints negatively influence the perceived value of a mobile phone In particular, Tam ( 2004) indicated that perceived constraints, such as monetary and time costs, would have a negative effect on 112

PAGE 113

perceived value in the co mpetitive marketplace. Apparently, findings of this study failed to confirm this notion; future studies are needed to further examine this issue. Perceived value was found to exert influen ce on member satisfaction and commitment. This finding was consistent with the findings of previous resear ch indications that perceived value would be an important concept that infl uences customer satisfaction and behavioral intentions in both pre-purchase and post-purchase stages (Cronin et al., 2000b; Eggert & Ulaga, 2002; Fornell et al., 1996; Heskett & Schlesinger, 1994; Tam, 2004; Woodruff, 1997), which would in turn positively influence member comm itment. Accordingly, highly perceived value for martial arts program would be a significant element in an organizations efforts for maintaining long-term customer relationships (Johnson et al., 2008; Kelley et al., 1990; Morgan & Hunt, 1994). The tested structure model in this study has provided in-d epth information about the relationships of market demand factors to a number of exogenous belief-attitude-intention constructs, which has provided re searchers and practitioners with needed evidence to develop effective marketing strategies and campaigns by tapping into such key concepts as perceived benefits, perceived value, perceived constraints, and member satisfacti on when highlighting the core attributes of martial arts programs. In addition, the findings indica te that participants perceived constraints contribute d to the reduction of their per ceived value ratings and member satisfaction. Martial arts program managers need to identify the constrai nts with their programs and work to minimize their existence a nd influence. For example, finding a good master/instructor may be even more important than finding the right school due to the importance of interpersonal constrai nts. In the meantime, martial ar ts participants are encouraged to search for instructors with such positiv e qualities as patience, knowledge, and strong 113

PAGE 114

communication skills. Prospective participants should also search for schools with adequate facilities, including padded or sprung floors, fu ll-length m irrors, and roomy practice spaces with no obstructions. Another example is related to pr icing strategies, which is generated from the descriptive statistics revealing that a flexible payment option, reasonable membership fee, and various payment methods in the Economic Cond ition Consideration factor were critically considered by program participants. Thus, mar tial arts school administrators may consider applying family discounts, long-term membership discounts, and referral discounts to recruit martial arts members. Identifyi ng these perceived constraints w ould be fundamental for martial arts schools to understand customer expectations, perceived performance, and their discrepancy, and develop effective marketing schemes to meet the expectations of consumers. As participants feel more satisfied with an organizations offerings, they will be more likely to be repeat customers and refer others to join (Eggert & Ulaga, 2002; Fornell, 1992; Maxham & Netemeyer, 2002). Zhang et al. (2004) also recognized the importance of providing quality programs and the necessity of developing diversified programs in order to achieve market penetration and expansion by considering sociod emographic variables when planning marketing strategies. Better understanding of target segm entation facilitates ma rket penetration and expansion of martial arts schools in terms of of fering a variety of customized quality programs and activities. For example, the fi ndings of the current study indica te that mental control training, self-defense, and cultural learning experiences were critical reasons for adult participants to practice TKD; thus, TKD marketer s might wish to consider de veloping special programs that focus on these topics. Very importantly, the fi ndings of this study revealed that program offerings based on market demand (i.e., attribut es of core products) led to high consumer satisfaction level, which in turn led to a hi gh level of consumer commitment. Based on these 114

PAGE 115

findings, m artial arts school administrators should position their marketing strategies by increasing perceived benefits and decreasing perceived constraints in an effort to recruit and retain participants. Suggestions for Further Study Several opportunities for future study are noted as follows: Firs t, future studies are needed to confirm the model using data collected from different martial arts contexts to allow for further generalizability of the model. Second, in order to better understand individual participants in the martial arts, future studies should examine individual characteristics, such as age, gender, ethnicity, education, and belt ra nking as moderating variables (Evanschitzky & Wunderlich, 2006). Individual demographic char acteristics affect a particip ants propensity to perceive experience dimensions, and this study examines whether there are differences in understanding and interpreting experience variab les depending on individual cons umers characteristics. Third, this study was delimitated to the adult populati on who is overall of low consumption level of TKD. In fact, a majority of TKD school atte ndants are school aged children (SGMA, 2010). Thus, future studies need to examine those mark eting factors pertinent to the youth population; in particular, the proposed structur al model or alternative models should be tested with a sample of youth TKD participants. Fourth, although this study involved a sample of TKD participants with various belt ranks, individua ls with black belt accounted fo r a very large portion of the sample (i.e., 65%). As the highest rank in this sport, people of black belt likely possess higher motivation and commitment to attend TKD schoo ls. Future studies may be constructed to confirm the hypothesized structural model with a sample that is more diverse in belt rankings. Fifth, in this study member satisfaction was measured via items captured within a unidimensional construct. In the future, multiple aspects of consumer satisfaction should be considered. Instead of the percep tion-only conceptual framework adopt ed in this study to assess 115

PAGE 116

116 member satisfaction, the expectation-confirma tion paradigm may be utilized as various researchers have proposed the merits of this approach (e.g., Oliver, 1980; Parasuraman et al., 1988). Sixth, invariance analyses sh ould be conducted to confirm the resolved structural model across different populations, such as age, gender, and belt rank. Finally, although the constraint factors were not found to contribute to the structur al relationships within this study, a number of researchers (Kim & Trail, 2010; Nyaupane et al., 2004; Trail et al., 2008 ) have indicated the importance of studying the reasons that hamper sport consumptions; thus, future studies are necessary to further examine the relevance of co nstraint factors to the decision making process for TKD school attendance. Such knowledge would provide administrators of TKD schools with a roadmap in their marketing efforts to recruit and retain martial arts participants. In conclusion, in an attempt to fill the gap between research into market demand and the psychological processes of martial arts participants, this study investigated the relationships of market demand and certain complex psychological constructs that infl uence the decision to participate in martial arts training. This study confirmed a conceptual model that facilitates an understanding of participant behavi or with regard to the martial arts. It depicted how market demand and psychological construc ts influence satisfaction and commitment of martial arts participants. It is anticipated that these research findings will help fill the void in the literature by building linkages among market demand and psychological constructs, and thus facilitate a better understanding of martia l arts participants.

PAGE 117

APPENDIX A SURVEY I NSTRUMENT FOR CONTENT VALIDITY 117

PAGE 118

118

PAGE 119

119

PAGE 120

120

PAGE 121

121

PAGE 122

122

PAGE 123

123

PAGE 124

APPENDIX B INFORME D CONSENT AND QUESTIONNAIRE 124

PAGE 125

125

PAGE 126

126

PAGE 127

127

PAGE 128

128

PAGE 129

129

PAGE 130

LIST OF REFERE NCES Adamson, B., & Wade, J. (1986). Predictors of sport and exercise part icipation among health science students. The Australian Journal of Scie nce and Medicine in Sport, 18 3-10. Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior: Prentice Hall. Al-Sabbahy, H., Ekinci, Y., & Rile y, M. (2004). An investigation of perceived value dimensions: Implications for hospitality research. Journal of Travel Research, 42(3), 226. Alexandris, K., & Carroll, B. ( 1997). Demographic differences in the perception of constraints on recreational sport par ticipation: results from a study in Greece. Leisure Studies, 16 (2), 107-125. Alexandris, K., Kouthouris, C., & Girgolas, G. (2007). Investigating the relationships among motivation, negotiation, and al pine skiing participation. Journal of Leisure Research, 39(4), 648. Alexandris, K., Zahariadis, P., Tsorbatzoudis, C., & Grouios, G. (2002). Testing the Sport Commitment Model in the Context of Exercise and Fitness Participation. Journal of Sport Behavior, 25 (3), 217-231. Anderson, E., Fornell, C., & Lehmann, D. (1994) Customer satisfaction, market share, and profitability: findings from Sweden. The Journal of Marketing, 58 (3), 53-66. Anderson, J., & Gerbing, D. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological bulletin, 103 (3), 411-423. Andronikidis, A., Vassiliadis, C., Priporas, C., & Kamenidou, I. (2007). Examining Leisure Constraints for Ski Centre Visitors: Implications for Services Marketing. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 15 (4), 69-86. Anthony, J. (1991). Psychologic aspects of exercise. Clinics in Sports Medicine, 10 (1), 171-180. Argyle, M. (1969). Social interaction : Methuen London. Bitner, M. (1990). Evaluating service encounter s: the effects of physical surroundings and employee responses. The Journal of Marketing, 54 (2), 69-82. Bitner, M. (1992). Servicescapes: the impact of physical surroundings on customers and employees. The Journal of Marketing, 56 (2), 57-71. Bly, B. (2007, December). White Tiger martial arts. American Samurai Karate & Budo News Retrieved November 20, 2008, from http://www.americansamurai.com/index.php ? option=com content&task=view&id=67&It emid=60 130

PAGE 131

Bodet, G. (2006). Investigating custom er satisfact ion in a health club co ntext by an application of the tetraclasse model. European Sport Management Quarterly, 6 (2), 149-165. Bollen, K. (1989). Structural equations with latent variables. New York, NY: Wiley. Bollen, K. (1990). Overall fit in covariance structure models: Two types of sample size effects. Psychological bulletin, 107 (2), 256-259. Bolton, R., & Drew, J. (1991). A multistage model of customers' assessments of service quality and value. Journal of Consumer Research, 17(4), 375-384. Boyd, R., & Richerson, P. (1988). Culture and the evolutionary process : University of Chicago Press. Brady, M., & Cronin, J. (2001). Some new t houghts on conceptualizing perceived service quality: a hierarchical approach. Journal of marketing, 65 (3), 34-49. Brady, M., Knight, G., Cronin, J., Tomas, G., Hu lt, M., & Keillor, B. (2005). Removing the contextual lens: A multinational, multi-setting comparison of service evaluation models. Journal of Retailing, 81 (3), 215-230. Braunstein, J., Zhang, J., Trail, G., & Gibs on, H. (2005). Dimensions of market demand associated with pre-season training : devel opment of a scale for major league baseball spring training. Sport Management Review, 8 (3), 271-296. Brown, T. (2006). Confirmatory Factor Analysis for A pplied Research: Methodology in the Social Sciences New York, NY: Guilford Press. Byon, K., Zhang, J., & Connaughton, D. (2010). Dimensions of general market demand associated with professional team sports: Development of a scale. Sport Management Review, 13 (2), 142-157. Byon, K. K. (2008). Impact of market demand and game support programs on consumption levels of professional team sport spec tators as mediated by perceived value Unpublised doctoral dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville. Cai, S. (2000). Physical exercise and mental health: a content inte grated approach in coping with college student anxiety and depression. Physical Educator, 57 (2), 69-76. Cardenas, D., Henderson, K. A., & Wilson, B. E. (2009). Physical Activity and Senior Games Participation: Benefits, C onstraints, and Behaviors. Journal of Aging & Physical Activity, 17(2), 135-153. Chang, T., & Wildt, A. (1994). Price, product info rmation, and purchase inte ntion: an empirical study. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 22 (1), 16-27. 131

PAGE 132

Chelladurai, P., & Chang, K. (2000). Targets an d standards of quality in sport services. Sport Management Review, 3 (1), 1-22. Chelladurai, P., Scott, F., & Haywood-Farmer, J. (1987). Dimensions of fitness services: Development of a model. Journal of Sport Management, 1 (2), 159. Chen, C. F., & Chen, F. S. Experience qualit y, perceived value, sati sfaction and behavioral intentions for heritage tourists. Tourism Management, 31 (1), 29-35. Chen, G., & Liu, Z. (2000). A study on self-defense education of United of States university students. Physical Education, Recr eation, Sport, and Dance, 36 (3), 29-33. Cheng, K., Cheng, P., Mak, K., Wong, S., Wong, Y., & Yeung, E. (2003). Relationships of perceived benefits and barrier s to physical activity, physical activity participation and physical fitness in Hong Kong female adolescents. Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness, 43 (4), 523-529. Chou, C., Bentler, P., & Satorra, A. (1991). Scaled test statistics and robust standard errors for non-normal data in covariance stru cture analysis: A Monte Carlo study. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 44 (2), 347-357. Columbus, P., & Rice, D. (1991). Psychological research on the martial arts: an addendum to Fuller's review. The British Journal of Medical Psychology, 64, 127-135 Cox, J. (1993). Traditional Asian ma rtial arts training: a review, 1993. Quest, 45 (3), 366-388. Crawford, D., & Godbey, G. (1987). Reconceptualizing barriers to family leisure. Leisure Sciences, 9 (2), 119-127. Crawford, D., Jackson, E., & Godbey, G. (1991). A hierarchical model of leisure constraints. Leisure Sciences, 13 (4), 309-320. Crompton, J. L., & Kim, S. (2004). Temporal cha nges in perceived constr aints to visiting state parks. Journal of Leisure Research, 36 (2), 160-183. Cronin, J., Brady, M., Brand, R., Hightower, R., & Shemwell, D. (1997). A cross-sectional test of the effect and conceptua lization of service value. Journal of Services Marketing, 11 (6), 375-391. Cronin, J., Brady, M., & Hult, G. (2000). Assessing the effects of quality, value, and customer satisfaction on consumer behavioral in tentions in serv ice environments. Journal of Retailing, 76 (2), 193-218. Cronin, J., & Taylor, S. (1992). Measuring se rvice quality: a reexamination and extension. The Journal of Marketing, 56 (3), 55-68. 132

PAGE 133

Curran, D., & O' Riordan, C. (2006). Increasing population diversity th rough cultural learning. Adaptive Behavior, 14 (4), 315-338. Daniels, K., & Thornton, E. (1990). An analysis of the relationshi p between hostility and training in the martial arts. Journal of Sports Sciences, 8 (2), 95-101. Dillman, D. (2007). Mail and internet surveys: The tailored design method : John Wiley & Sons Inc. Donahue, B. (1994). The way of the wa rrior: one metaphor for individuation. Psyche and sports 89-109. Douris, P., Chinan, A., & Gomez, M. (2004). Fitness levels of mi ddle aged martial art practitioners. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 38 (2), 143-147 Eggert, A., & Ulaga, W. (2002). Customer percei ved value: a substitute for satisfaction in business markets? Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 17 (2-3), 107-118. Eschenfelder, M., & Li, M. (2007). Economics of sport : Fitness Information Technology. Evanschitzky, H., & Wunderlich, M. (2006). An ex amination of moderator effects in the fourstage loyalty model. Journal of Service Research, 8 (4), 330. Finkenberg, M. (1990). Effect of participation in Taekwondo on college women's self-concept. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 71 (3), 891-894. Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research Reading, Addison-Wesley. Fornell, C. (1992). A national customer satis faction barometer: the Swedish experience. The Journal of Marketing, 56 (1), 6-21. Fornell, C., Johnson, M., Anderson, E., Cha, J., & Bryant, B. (1996). The American customer satisfaction index: natu re, purpose, and findings. The Journal of Marketing, 60 (4), 7-18. Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Market ing Research, 18(1) 39-50. Fuller, J. (1988). Martial arts and psychological health. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 61, 317-328. Funk, D. C., Filo, K., Beaton, A. A., & Pritchar d, M. (2009). Measuring the Motives of Sport Event Attendance: Bridging the AcademicPractitioner Divide to Understanding Behavior. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 18 (3), 126-138. 133

PAGE 134

Gilbert, D., & Hudson, S. (2000). Tourism de mand constraints: a sk iing participation. Annals of Tourism Research, 27 (4), 906-925. Gotlieb, J., Grewal, D., & Brown, S. (1994). C onsumer satisfaction and perceived quality: complementary or divergent constructs? Journal of Applied Psychology, 79 (6), 875-885. Grantham, W., Patton, R., York, T., & Winick, M. (1998). Health fitness management : Human Kinetics. Greenstein, T., & Marcum, J. ( 1981). Factors affecting attendan ce of major league baseball: Team performance. Review of sport and leisure, 6 (2), 21-28. Hair, J., Black, W., Babin, B., A nderson, R., & Tatham, R. (2006). Multivariate Data Analysis Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Halliwell, E., & Dittmar, H. (2005). The role of se lf-improvement and self-evaluation motives in social comparisons with idealised female bodies in the media. Body Image, 2(3), 249261. Hansen, H., & Gauthier, R. (1989) Factors affecting attendance at professional sport events. Journal of Sport Management, 3 (1), 15-32. Henderson, K., & Bialeschki, D. (1993). Negociati ng constraints to women's physical recreation. Socitey and Leisure-Montreal, 16 389-389. Heskett, J., & Schlesinger, L. (1994). Putting the service-profit chain to work. Harvard Business Review, 72 (2), 164-174. Hofstede, G. (1991). Cultures and organisations: software of the mind New York: McGrawHill. Holbrook, M. (1996). Customer value-a fr amework for analysis and research. Advances in Consumer Research, 23 138-142. Howard, D., & Crompton, J. (1984). Who are th e consumers of public park and recreation services? An analysis of th e users and non-users of thr ee municipal leisure service organizations. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 2 (3), 33-48. Howat, G., Absher, J., Crilley, G., & Milne, I. (1996). Measuring custom er service quality in sports and leisure centres. Managing Leisure, 1(2), 77-89. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. (1999). Cutoff criteria fo r fit indexes in covari ance structure analysis: Conventional criteria vers us new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6 (1), 1-55. 134

PAGE 135

Hubbard, J., & Mannell, R. C. (2001). Testing co mpeting m odels of the leisure constraint negotiation process in a corporate employee recreation setting. Leisure Sciences, 23 (3), 145-163. Hung, K., & Petrick, J. F. (2010). Developing a m easurement scale for c onstraints to cruising. Annals of Tourism Research, 37 (1), 206-228. Huset-McGuire, A., Trail, G., & Anderson, D. (2003). A revised scale of attributes of fitness services. International Journal of Sport Management, 4 261-280. Hyson, S. (2008). The man, the sport, the money Retrieved July 20, 2009, from http://www.mensfitness.com/sports_and_recreation/athletes/73 InfoUSA Inc. (2007). Market research report: Martial arts Retrieved May 20, 2007, fro m http://lists.infousa.com/service/lb/CR_TallyReport.aspx?bas_type= CountReport&bas_pa ge=CR_TallyReport&bas_vendor=190000 Jackson, E. L. (1997). In the eye of the behol der: A comm ent on Samdahl & Jekubovich (1997)," A critique of leisure constraints: Comparative analys es and understandings." Journal of Leisure Research, 29 458-468. Jackson, E. L., Crawford, D. W., & Godbey, G. (1993). Negotiation of leisure constraints. Leisure Sciences, 15 (1), 1-11. James, K. (2000). 'You can feel them looking at you': The experiences of adolescent girls at swimming. Journal of Leisure Research, 32(2), 262-280. Jayanti, R., & Ghosh, A. (1996). Service value determination. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 3 (4), 5-25. Johnson, M., Sivadas, E., & Garbarino, E. (2008) Customer satisfaction, perceived risk and affective commitment: an investigati on of directions of influence. Journal of Services Marketing, 22(5), 353-362. Jreskog, K., & Srbom, D. (1996). LISREL 8 user's reference guide: Scientific Software. Kam, H., & Crompton, J. L. (2006). Benefits and constraints associated with the use of an urban park reported by a sample of elderly in Hong Kong. Leisure Studies, 25 (3), 291-311. Kay, T., & Jackson, G. (1991). Leisure despite cons traint: The impact of leisure constraints on leisure participation. Journal of Leisure Research, 23 (4), 301-313. Kelley, S., Donnelly, J., & Skinner, S. (1990). Cust omer participation in service production and delivery. Journal of Retailing, 66 (3), 315-335. 135

PAGE 136

Ki m, D., & Kim, S. (1995). QUESC: An instrument for assessing the service quality of sport centers in Korea. Journal of Sport Management, 9 (2), 208-220. Kim, M. K., & Zhang, J. J. (2010, June). Modi fication and revision of the scale of market demand for Taekwondo schools. Paper presented at the meeting of the North American Society for Sport Management, Tampa, FL. Kim, M. K., Zhang, J. J., & Ko, Y. J. (2009). Di mensions of market demand associated with Taekwondo schools in North America: Development of a scale. Sport Management Review, 12 (3), 149-166. Kim, N., & Chalip, L. (2004). Why travel the FI FA World Cup? Effects of motives, background, interest, and constraints. Tourism Management, 25 (6), 695-707. Kim, Y. K., & Trail, G. T. (2010). Constraints and movtivators: A new model to explain sport consumer behvior. Journal of Sport Management, 24 (2), 190-210. Kline, R. (2005). Principles and practice of st ructural equation modeling : The Guilford Press. Ko, Y. J. (2002). Martial arts industry in the new millennium Journal of Martial Arts Studies 5 10-23. Ko, Y. J. (2003). Martial arts mark eting: Putting the customer first Journal of Asian Martial Arts 12(2), 9-15. Ko, Y. J., Kim, Y. K., & Valaci ch, J. (2010). Martial arts par ticipation: Consumer motivation. International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, 11 (2), 105-123. Ko, Y. J., & Pastore, D. L. (2004) Current issues and conceptualiz ations of service quality in the recreational sport industry Sport Marketing Quarterly, 13 (3), 158-166. Ko, Y. J., & Pastore, D. L. ( 2005). A hierarchical model of serv ice quality for the recreational sport industry Sport Marketing Quarterly, 14 (2), 84-97. Ko, Y. J., & Yang, J. B. (2008). The globlization of martial arts the change of rules for new markets. Journal of Asian Martial Arts, 17 (4), 9-19. Konzak, B., & Boudreau, F. (1984). Ma rtial arts training and mental health: An exercise in selfhelp. Canadas Mental Health, 32 (1), 2-8. Kotler, P. (1994). Marketing Management: Planning, A nalysis, Implementation and Control Prentice-Hall, New York, NY. Kwon, H. H., Trail, G., & James, J. D. (2007). The mediating role of perceived value: Team identification and purchase intent ion of team-licensed apparel. Journal of Sport Management, 21 (4), 540-554. 136

PAGE 137

Lakes, K. D., & Hoyt, W. T. (2004). Prom oting self-regulation through sc hool-based martial arts training. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 25 (3), 283-302. Lam, E. T. C., Zhang, J. J., & Jensen, B. E. (2005). Service Quality Assessment Scale (SQAS): An Instrument for Evaluating Service Quality of Health-Fitness Clubs. Measurement in Physical Education & Exercise Science, 9 (2), 79-111. Law, D. R. (2004). A choice theory perspective on ch ildrens Taekwondo. International Journal of Reality Therapy, 24 (1), 13-18. Lee, C.-K., Yoon, Y.-S., & Lee, S.-K. (2007). I nvestigating the relationships among perceived value, satisfaction, and recommendations: The case of the Korean DMZ. Tourism Management, 28(1), 204-214. MacIntosh, E., & Doherty, A. (2007). Reframing th e service environment in the fitness industry. Managing Leisure, 12 (4), 273-289. Mardia, K. (1985). Mardia's test of multinormality. Encyclopedia of statistical sciences, 5 217221. Mathes, S. A., & Battista, R. (1985). College me ns and womens motives for participation in physical activity. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 61 719-726. Maxham, J., & Netemeyer, R. (2002). A long itudinal study of complaining customers' evaluations of multiple service failures and recovery efforts. The Journal of Marketing 57-71. McCracken, G. (1989). Who is the celebrity endo rser? Cultural foundations of the endorsement process. Journal of Consumer Research, 16 (3), 310-321. McDougall, G., & Levesque, T. (2000). Customer satisfaction with services: putting perceived value into the equation. Journal of Services Marketing, 14(5), 392-410. Mizik, N., & Jacobson, R. (2004). Stock return response modeling. Assessing Marketing Strategy Performance 29-26. Minister of Culture, Sp ort and Tourism (2009). Taekwondo: a new strategy for Brand Korea Retrieved April 12, 2010 from http://www.mcst.go.kr/english/issue/i ssueView.jsp?pMenuCD=1004000000&pSeq=1401 Monree, K. B. (1990). PricingMarketing profitable decision New York: McGrw-Hill. Morgan, R., & Hunt, S. (1994). The commitment -trust theory of relationship marketing. The Journal of Marketing, 58 (3), 20-38. Mullin, B., Hardy, S., & Sutton, W. (2007). Sport marketing : Human Kinetics Publishers. 137

PAGE 138

Murphy, P. E., & Enis, B. M. (1986). Classifying products strategically. The Journal of Marketing, 50 (3), 24-42. Murray, D., & Howat, G. (2002). The relationships am ong service quality, value, satisfaction, and future intentions of customers at an Australian sports and leisure centre. Sport Management Review, 5 (1), 25-43. Muthn, L., & Muthn, B. (2007). Mplus user's guide. 5th : Los Angeles, CA: Muthn & Muthn. Netemeyer, R., Johnston, M., & Burton, S. (1990). Analysis of role conflict and role ambiguity in a structural equations framework. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75(2), 148-157. Noll, R. (1974). Attendance and pric e setting. In R. G. Noll (Ed.), Government and the sports business (pp. 115-157). Washington, DC: The Brookings Institute. Nunnally, J., & Bernstein, I. (1994). Psychometric theory : New York: McGraw-Hill. Nyaupane, G. P., Morais, D. B., & Graefe, A. R. (2004). Nature tourism constraints:: A crossactivity comparison. Annals of Tourism Research, 31 (3), 540-555. Oliver, R. (1981). Measurement and evaluation of satisfaction processe s in retail settings. Journal of Retailing, 57 (3), 25-48. Oliver, R. (1997). Satisfaction: A behavioral perspective on the consumer : New York, NY: McGraw Hill Papadimitriou, D., & Karteroliotis, K. (2000). The service quality expectations in private sport and fitness centers: A re-examina tion of the factor structure. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 9(3), 157-164. Parasuraman, A., & Grewal, D. (2000). The imp act of technology on the quality-value-loyalty chain: a research agenda. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28 (1), 168-174. Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V., & Berry, L. (1988). A multiple-item scale for measuring consumer perceptions of service quality. Journal of Retailing, 64 (1), 12-40. Patel, D., Stier, B., & Luckstead, E. (2002). Major international sport profiles. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 49, 769-792. Penedo, F., & Dahn, J. (2005). Exercise and well-bei ng: a review of mental and physical health benefits associated with physical activity. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 18 (2), 189-193. Petrick, J., Backman, S., & Bixler R. (1999). An investigation of selected factors' impact on golfer satisfaction and perceived value. Journal of Park and R ecreation Administration, 17, 40-59. 138

PAGE 139

Pritchard, M., Funk, D., & Alexandr is, K. (2009). Barriers to repeat patronage: the im pact of spectator constraints. European Journal of Marketing, 43 (1-2), 169-187. Quintana, S., & Maxwell, S. (1999). Implications of recent developments in structural equation modeling for counseling psychology. The Counseling Psychologist, 27 (4), 485-527. Reichheld, F. (1996). Learning from customer defections. Harvard Business Review, 74 56-70. Rein, I., Kotler, P., & Shields, B. (2006). The elusive fan: reinventi ng sports in a crowded marketplace : McGraw-Hill Companies. Richman, C. L., & Rehberg, H. (1986). The devel opment of self-esteem th rough the martial art. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 17 234-239. Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image : Princeton University Press Princeton, NJ. Satorra, A., & Bentler, P. (1994). Corrections to te st statistics and standard errors in covariance structure analysis. Latent variables analysis: Applications for developmental research 399-319. Satorra, A., & Bentler, P. (2001). A scaled diffe rence chi-square test statistic for moment structure analysis. Psychometrika, 66 (4), 507-514. Scanlan, T., Carpenter, P., Schmidt, G., Simons J., & Keeler, B. (1993). An introduction to the sport commitment model. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 15 1-15. Schmidt, R. (1986). Japanese martia l arts as spiritual education'. Mind and body: East meets West 69-74. Schofield, J. (1983). Performance and atte ndance at professional team sports. Journal of Sport Behavior, 6 (4), 196-206. SGMA (2010). Martial arts participation report 2010 Retrieved March 12, 2010 from http://www.sgma.com/reports/67_Martial-Arts-Participation-Report-2010 Shaw, S., Bonen, A., & McCabe, J. (1991). Do mo re constraints mean less leisure? Examining the relationship between cons traints and participation. Journal of Leisure Research, 23(4), 286-300. Sheth, N. J., Newman, B. I., & Gross, B. L. (1991). Why we buy what we buy: a theory of consumption values. Journal of Business Research, 22 (2), 159-170. Siegfried, J., & Eisenberg, J. (1980). Th e demand for minor league baseball. Atlantic Economic Journal, 8 (2), 59-69. 139

PAGE 140

Snoj, B., Korda, A., & Mum el, D. (2004). The relationships among per ceived quality, perceived risk and perceived product value. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 13 (3), 156167. Sport Business Research Network. (2008). Market research results Retrieved November 22, 2008 from http://www.sbrnet.com/research.asp?subRID=259 Stefanek, K. A. (2004). An exploration of participation motives among collegiate taekwondo participants. Unpublished doctoral dissert ation, Michigan State University, East Lansing. Stepan, C. (2008). Taekwondo: Taekwondo : New Holland. Sweeney, J., & Soutar, G (2001). Consumer perceived value: the developm ent of a multiple item scale. Journal of Retailing, 77 (2), 203-220. Tabachnick, B., & Fidell, L. (2006). Using multivariate statistics Needham Heights, United Kingdom: Pearson Higher Education. Tam, J. (2004). Customer satisfaction, service quality a nd perceived value: an integrative model. Journal of Marketing Management, 20 (7), 897-917. Tax, S., Brown, S., & Chandrashekaran, M. (1998) Customer evaluations of service complaint experiences: implications for relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing, 62 (2), 60-76. Trail, G. T., Robinson, M. J., & Kim, Y. K. (2 008). Sport consumer behavior: A test for group differences on struct ural constraints. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 17 (4), 190-200. Trulson, M. (1986). Martial arts training: A novel" cure for juvenile delinquency. Human Relations, 39 (12), 1131. Um, S., & Crompton, J. (1992). The roles of perc eived inhibitors and facilitators in pleasure travel destination decisions. Journal of Travel Research, 30 (3), 18-25. Van Leeuwen, L., Quick, S., & Daniel, K. (2002) The sport spectator satisfaction model: a conceptual framework for understanding the satisfaction of spectators. Sport Management Review, 5 (2), 99-128. Vandermerwe, S. (2003). Customer-minded growth through services. Managing Service Quality, 13(4), 262-266. Weiser, M., Kutz, I., Kutz, S. J., & Weiser, D. (1995). Psychotherapeutic aspects of the martial arts. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 49 (1), 118-127. 140

PAGE 141

Weiss, M. R. (1987). Self-esteem and achievement in children's sport and physical activity. In D. R. Gould, & M. R. Weiss (Eds.), Advances in Pediatric Sport Sciences (Vol. 1, pp. 87119). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Weston, R., & Gore, P. (2006). A brief gui de to structural equation modeling. The Counseling Psychologist, 34 (5), 719. Woodruff, R. (1997). Customer value: the next source for competitive advantage. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 25 (2), 139-153. Woodruff, R., & Gardial, S. (1996). Know your customer: new approaches to understanding customer value and satisfaction : Blackwell Pub. World Taekwondo Federation. (n.d.). WTF news Retrieved April, 2010, from http://wtf.org/site/news/wtf.htm Yang, J. (1996). American conceptualization of Asian ma rtial arts: an interpretive analysis of the narrative of Taekwondo participants Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina at Greensboro. Zeitham l, V., Parasuraman, A., & Berry, L. ( 1985). Problems and strategies in services marketing. The Journal of Marketing, 49 (2), 33-46. Zeithaml, V. A. (1988). Consumer perceptions of price, quality, and value: a means-end model and synthesis of evidence. The Journal of Marketing, 52 (3), 2-22. Zetaruk, M., Violan, M., Zurakowski, D., & Miche li, L. (2005). Injuries in martial arts: a comparison of five styles. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 39 (1), 29-33. Zhang, J., Smith, D., Pease, D., & Jambor, E. ( 1997). Negative influence of market competitors on the attendance of professional sport games: the case of a minor league hockey team. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 6 31-40. Zhang, J. J., Braunstein, J., Ellis, M., Lam, E. T. C., & Williamson, D. (2003). Market demand variables associated with game consump tion levels of minor league hockey game spectators. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 74 (1 ), A90-A91. Zhang, J. J., Lam, E. T. C., Bennett, G., & Connaughton, D. P. (2003). Confirmatory factor analysis of Spectator Decision-Making Inventory (SDMI). Measurement in Physical Education & Exercise Science, 7 (2), 57-70. Zhang, J. J., Lam, E. T. C., & Connaughton, D. P. (2003). General market demand variables associated with professional sport consumption. International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship, 5 (1), 33-55. 141

PAGE 142

142 Zhang, J. J., Pease, D. G., Hui, S. C., & Micha ud, T. J. (1995). Variables affecting the spectator decision to attend NBA games. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 4 (4), 29-39.

PAGE 143

BIOGR APHICAL SKETCH Min Kil Kim was born in SunCheon, South Korea. He received his Bachelor of Science (with distinction) in Business Admini stration (specialization: Marke ting) from the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa in December 2003. He complete d his Master of Scienc es (Specialization: Sport Management) in the University of Florida in August 2006. Finally, he earned his Ph D. in health and human performance (sport management ) from the University of Florida in August 2010. He had taught numerous courses in the Sport and Fitness program such as self-defense and Taekwondo and Sport Marketing. He was well liked and respecte d by his students as evidenced in his high teaching evaluations. He worked as a gr aduate research assistant in the Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management. His pr imary research interest is sport marketing, especially sport consumer behavior, cro ss-cultural study, and service quality based on quantitative research design. He has published four research ma nuscripts in good to excellent journals and has delivered close to 20 re search presentation at academic conferences. 143