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Using Scratch for Learner-Constructed Multimedia

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0042136/00001

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Title: Using Scratch for Learner-Constructed Multimedia A Design-Based Research Inquiry of Constructionism in Practice
Physical Description: 1 online resource (189 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Boyer, Jeffrey
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: constructionism, design, multimedia, research, scratch
Teaching and Learning -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Curriculum and Instruction (ISC) thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This design-based research study investigates the impact on learning when young learners design multimedia that demonstrates an understanding of math content. During this study, 5th graders used Scratch, a contemporary computer program designed for young people to create multimedia, to demonstrate their understanding of the properties of geometric solids. This process requires that young learners engage in content and think about how they can represent specific content in a Scratch multimedia artifact rather than simply memorizing the content for a test. The results of this study indicate that having 5th graders design multimedia using Scratch yields a mixed impact on learning depending on learning preferences of the individual learner. Though increases in content learning were not identified based on a traditional form of assessment in the two case studies presented in this manuscript, it is reasonable to acknowledge that this approach may serve as an alternative form of formative or summative assessment.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Jeffrey Boyer.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Dawson, Kara M.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0042136:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0042136/00001

Material Information

Title: Using Scratch for Learner-Constructed Multimedia A Design-Based Research Inquiry of Constructionism in Practice
Physical Description: 1 online resource (189 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Boyer, Jeffrey
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: constructionism, design, multimedia, research, scratch
Teaching and Learning -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Curriculum and Instruction (ISC) thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This design-based research study investigates the impact on learning when young learners design multimedia that demonstrates an understanding of math content. During this study, 5th graders used Scratch, a contemporary computer program designed for young people to create multimedia, to demonstrate their understanding of the properties of geometric solids. This process requires that young learners engage in content and think about how they can represent specific content in a Scratch multimedia artifact rather than simply memorizing the content for a test. The results of this study indicate that having 5th graders design multimedia using Scratch yields a mixed impact on learning depending on learning preferences of the individual learner. Though increases in content learning were not identified based on a traditional form of assessment in the two case studies presented in this manuscript, it is reasonable to acknowledge that this approach may serve as an alternative form of formative or summative assessment.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Jeffrey Boyer.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Dawson, Kara M.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0042136:00001


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USING SCRATCH FOR LEARNER-CONSTRUCTED MULTIMEDIA: A DESIGN-
BASED RESEARCH INQUIRY OF CONSTRUCTIONISM IN PRACTICE
















By

JEFFREY THOMAS BOYER


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2010



























2010 Jeffrey Thomas Boyer
































To Betsy and Ella









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I am so grateful to Mrs. H. for her willingness to collaborate with me on this

research study. Her contributions made this work meaningful in so many ways. This

dissertation would also not be possible without the support and insight of my committee

including Kara Dawson, Cathy Cavanaugh, Fran Vandiver and Lynda Hayes.









TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

ACKNOW LEDG M ENTS ....................... ......... ......... .................................... 4

L IS T O F T A B LE S .................................................. 8

LIST OF FIGURES ............ ......... ... .................. 9

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ............... ............... ..... ............... 10

CHAPTER

INTRODUCTION .................. ..... ... .................. ....................... 12

Research Problem ..... ......... .. ......... .......... ........12
Design-Based Research.............................................. 13
Characteristics of Design-Based Research................................ .............14
Conducting Design-Based Research ............... ...... ...................... 19
R e s e a rc h P u rp o s e .............................................................................................. 2 0
D design of T his M manuscript .......................................... ......... ............... ............... 22

LITERATURE REVIEW ............... .......... .......... .......... ..........................24

Introduction .............................................. 24
Theoretical Framework................. ..... .........................24
A Foundation in Constructivism and Constructionism....................................27
A Historical Perspective on Multimedia..................... .. .. ........ ......... 29
Learning Through Multimedia Design......... ......... ...... ..... ... ................ 30
M ultim edia Construction Tools ..................... ................ ...... .......... 42
Properties of G eom etric Solids.......................................... ............................ 46
S u m m a ry ............................................................................................................ 4 7

R ESEA R C H M ETH O D S ......... .......... .......... ................................ ................ 48

Introduction .............................................. 48
Theoretical Framework......................... ................. .......... 49
R e s e a rc h e r B ia s ................................................................................................. 4 9
R e s e a rc h D e s ig n ....................................................................................5 0
Research Context ................................. .... ................ 52
Research Site ................................................... .....................52
P practitioner P rofile............... .... .................................................. ............ ....... 52
Sample Selection .................................................. 53
Research Environment .......................... .......... ........ ............. 54
Data Sources and Collection ............ ............................. ............... 58
Researcher and Practitioner Interview ......................... ..................59
Debriefing Notes ............... ........ ........................... 59









Content-Based Pre- and Post-Tests ................................ ... .................. 59
Researcher and Participant Interviews ................................... ...... ............ ....60
Researcher Reflections on Scratch Multimedia Artifacts...............................60
D ata A na lysis P ro ce d ure s .................................................................................. 6 1
T e x tu a l D a ta A n a ly s is .................................................................................. 6 1
C ro ss-C a se A n a ly s is .................................................................................... 6 3
Pre- and Post-Test A nalysis......................................... ........................... 64
Scratch Artifact Analysis ........ ........................................................... ...... 64
Trustw orthiness ............................. .... ................................... 65
V a lid ity .............. ..... ............ ................. .............................................6 6
Reliability................ .............................. 67
Generalizability ................................................. 68
Lim stations of This Study ........................ ........ .......... .. ............................68

EVALUATION AND TESTING OF A SOLUTION IN PRACTICE.............................. 70

In tro d u c tio n .......... .. .. .. ............. .......... ....... ...........................................7 0
Sum mary of Participant Data .......... .............. .......................... ......... ....70
Im pact on Learning................................................ 71
Case Study #1: Dom inic .......... .. ........ ...................................................... 72
Dominic's response to learning and using Scratch ................................... 72
Dominic's response to this project ....................................76
Dominic's response to his learning ................................82
Impact on Dominic's learning ......... ..... ............. .... ......... 83
Case Study #2: Jennifer ........................................ ......... .. ..... ............. 84
Jennifer's response to learning and using Scratch .............................. 85
Jennifer's response to this project .................................... ..... 89
Im pact on Jennifer's learning ................ ...................................93
Cross-Case Analysis: Dominic and Jennifer .........................94
Summary of Case Study Findings ......................................................... .......... 97

DOCUMENTATION AND REFLECTION TO PRODUCE DESIGN PRINCIPLES ....... 100

Introduction ............................ .................................. ....... ......... 100
Design Principles.............. ........... ............ ...........100
Use Multiple Approaches to Learn Scratch................ ...............101
Scaffold the Design Experience................................... .......................... 103
Explicitly and Repeatedly State Learning Goals ................. .......... ........ 105
Assess Artifacts Regularly ........................... ..................... ................ 106
Sum mary of Design Principles ............... .......... ............... ............... 107

C O N C L U S IO N ......... .................. ............................................. 10 8

Sum m ary of Findings...................................... ... ... ...................... 108
Situating This Study within Existing Literature................................................. 108
Im plications for Practice .. .......................................................................109
LCM Allows Multiple Learning Paths for Students ...................................109


6









LCM Encourages Self-Directed Learning................................ .............. 112
LC M Prom otes Collaboration ............................................... ............... 114
LCM Creates an Alternative Method of Assessment ................................... 115
LCM Changes the Role of the Teacher from Giver of Knowledge to Coach... 117
S um m ary of Im plications.............................................. ................... .. 118
Suggestions for Further Research...................................................................... 118

APPENDIX

INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPT BETWEEN PRACTITIONER AND RESEARCHER ........120

DEBRIEFING NOTES ........ .... .... ......... ................................ ............. 129

SCRATCH ARTIFACT ANALYSIS.......................................... 133

CURRICULUM-BASED PRE- AND POST-TEST........ .............................................. 144

INTERVIEW GUIDES ........... ......... .......... ... .............................145

TRANSCRIPT AND ANALYSIS OF DOMINIC'S INTERVIEW.................................. 146

DATA COLLECTED FROM SCRATCH ARTIFACTS.............. .... ................180

LIST O F R EFER EN C ES .............................................................. 181

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ............. ............ ..... ....................... 189









LIST OF TABLES


Table page

2-1 Overview of benefits of learners designing hypermedia/multimedia................. 30

2-2 Summary of outcomes when learners design hypermedia/multimedia ...............41

3-1 Overview of the characteristics of this case study........ ........... ................ 50

3-1 Content rationale .......... ......... .. ......... .................. ..... ........... 55

3-2 Overview of daily activities ......... ............. ..................... .... 58

3-3 Source of Data Table ....... .................... ..... .........58

3-4 Data analysis steps for textual data ............................................. 62

4-1 Summary of participant data .................. ................ ................ 70

4-2 Overview of Dominic's pre- and post-test results .............. ...... ...... ............. 82

4-3 Overview of Jennifer's pre- and post-test results .............. ........ .................. 93

4-4 Overview of analysis of Scratch projects ................ ........ .. ........... .........95

4-5 Overview of pre- and post-test results for selected cases...... ......................... 96









LIST OF FIGURES


Figure page

1-1 The Design-based research process (Ma & Harmon, 2009)............. ............... 17

2-1 The theoretical framework for this study ................................. ...... ............ ....26

2-2 The Scratch interface ...... ........... ......... ..... .........44

2-3 A script created in Scratch ............ ... ......... ................... ..... 45

3-1 The front and back of the Say Something Scratch card................ ...... ........ 57

4-1 The Scratch's palette of motion command blocks......... ..... .. ............. 74

4-2 A screenshot of Dom inic's Scratch project.......................................................77

4-3 Dominic's hand-drawn representations of geometric solids .............................. 80

4-4 A screenshot of Jennifer's Scratch project..................................................... 86

4-5 Text bubble about a vertex in Jennifer's Scratch project.........................90

4-6 Text bubble about a prism's vertexes in Jennifer's Scratch project.....................90

4-7 Text bubble about the properties of a cone in Jennifer's Scratch project............91









LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

DBR Design-based research

ILE Innovative learning environment

LCM Learner-constructed multimedia

Rtl Response-to-Intervention









Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

USING SCRATCH FOR LEARNER-CONSTRUCTED MULTIMEDIA:
A DESIGN-BASED RESEARCH INQUIRY OF CONSTRUCTIONISM IN PRACTICE
By

Jeffrey Thomas Boyer

August 2010

Chair: Kara Dawson
Major: Curriculum and Instruction

This design-based research study investigates the impact on learning when young

learners design multimedia that demonstrates an understanding of math content.

During this study, 5th graders used Scratch, a contemporary computer program

designed for young people to create multimedia, to demonstrate their understanding of

the properties of geometric solids. This process requires that young learners engage in

content and think about how they can represent specific content in a Scratch multimedia

artifact rather than simply memorizing the content for a test. The results of this study

indicate that having 5th graders design multimedia using Scratch yields a mixed impact

on learning depending on learning preferences of the individual learner. Though

increases in content learning were not identified based on a traditional form of

assessment in the two case studies presented in this manuscript, it is reasonable to

acknowledge that this approach may serve as an alternative form of formative or

summative assessment.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Research Problem

Increasing math achievement has remained a long-term concern of the American

educational community (Forgione, 1998; Schoenfeld, 2004). Recently, initiatives

focusing on improving science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM)

education have expanded to ensure that students in the United States can compete with

global peers (Fitzpatrick, 2007). A component of this renewed interest in STEM

education is an attempt to increase math achievement for the K-12 student population.

Ensuring that students have a deep conceptual understanding of standards-based math

content is a goal of the American educational system (NCTM, 2006). Finding ways to

engage and motivate youth, particularly academically at-risk youth, in extended

engagement with math content is critical for ensuring deep content learning (Singh,

Granville & Dika, 2002). One method for extending engagement with content places

learners in the role of a multimedia designer; that is, learners create multimedia that

represents their understanding of content. This practice forms the foundation of the

concept of learner-constructed multimedia (LCM). Designing multimedia about content

requires extended engagement with content, and contemporary multimedia design tools

are intrinsically motivating and engaging for young learners. Previously, the National

Council of Teachers of Mathematics has identified that an understanding of the

properties of geometric solids is one of three curriculum focal points for 5th graders.

Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify learning gains when academically at-

risk 5th graders design and construct multimedia that represents their understanding of

the properties of geometric solids.









In this study, this researcher designs, implements and evaluates an innovative

learning environment (ILE) in collaboration with a school-based practitioner that

integrates LCM as a pedagogical strategy. Thus, this environment simultaneously

features young, academically at-risk learners using computers as design tools, young

learners learning and using a visual programming tool, Scratch, to design multimedia

and young learners designing multimedia artifacts that represent their understanding of

math content (i. e., the properties of geometric solids). This study uses design-based

research (DBR) as its guiding framework. The goals of an educational researcher

adopting DBR methods are to "engineer innovative educational environments and

simultaneously conduct experimental studies of those innovations" (Brown, 1992, p.

141). Thus, this study attempts to design, implement and document an ILE that

integrates LCM as a pedagogical strategy and features the properties identified above.

This researcher also analyzes and evaluates this ILE as a pedagogical strategy for

increasing content learning of the properties of geometric solids for young, academically

at-risk learners.

Design-Based Research

DBR begins with a complex, real-world problem (Ma & Harmon, 2009). Then,

through an iterative process, researchers in collaboration with practitioners design and

study a solution to the problem. A key feature of DBR is its collaborative nature. A

researcher does not provide a research protocol to a practitioner that should be

implemented within the practitioner's context. Rather, researchers and practitioners

collaborate to identify an educationally relevant problem then work cooperatively to

design, implement and evaluate a solution to that problem in an educational context.

This study provides a solution, collaboratively designed by a practitioner and









researcher, to address the real-world problem of increasing math achievement for

academically at-risk learners. DBR's foundation in education began with the concept of

design experiments first articulated by Brown (1992) and Collins (1992). These design

experiments in education were modeled after the design processes evident within other

design fields such as aeronautics and artificial intelligence (Collins, 1992).

Several authors have articulated a call for DBR in the field of educational

technology to create technology-based innovative learning environments (Reeves,

Herrington & Oliver, 2004; Wang & Hannafin, 2005; Ma & Harmon, 2009). This call

stems from a lack of usable knowledge to guide instruction, particularly technology's

role in improving instruction (Reeves, 1995; Richey, 1998).

Characteristics of Design-Based Research

The Design-based Research Collective (2003) proposed 5 characteristics of

appropriate design-based research. When using DBR as a research framework, this

type of study:

* should promote the design of innovative learning environments and the
development of learning theories;

* should be an iterative process consisting of 4 stages: design, enactment, analysis,
redesign;

* should produce educationally-relevant knowledge for classroom applications;

* should provide rich descriptions of content and interactions; and

* should use appropriate research methods related to question.

For each of the characteristics, this researcher provides a brief summary followed by an

explanation of how each characteristic is addressed in this study.

First, DBR should actively and simultaneously promote the design of innovative

learning environments and the development of learning theories. In this study, the









researcher documents the design of an innovative learning environment that places

young learners in the roles of participants and producers rather than as spectators and

consumers (Jenkins, 2006). Specifically, academically at-risk 5th graders actively

participate in the design process to produce multimedia that is used to express what

they know about the properties of geometric solids and could be used to teach others

about the content. In addition, the researcher provides evidence to reinforce a

constructionist approach to pedagogy that emphasizes that conceptual learning, in

contrast to rote learning, occurs when learners construct personally meaningful artifacts

that are shareable within a community of learners (Papert, 1993).

Second, DBR should be an iterative process with the following stages: design,

enactment, analysis and redesign. These four stages articulated by the Design-based

Research Collective (2003) represent a similar process to the steps portrayed in Figure

1-1. Reeves (2000) articulated the steps identified across the top row of boxes. Later,

Ma & Harmon (2009) expanded on these steps and included additional sub-steps for

each. The Design-based Research Collective's design stage corresponds to Reeves'

and Ma & Harmon's steps 1 and 2: analysis of a practical problem by researchers and

practitioners and development of a solution with a theoretical framework. The

enactment and analysis stages combine to represent step 3: evaluation and testing of

solutions in practice. Finally, the redesign stage corresponds to step 4: documentation

and reflection to produce "design principles". During the design stage, the researcher in

collaboration with the participating teacher designs the innovative learning environment

ensuring that critical elements are included in the design. The enactment stage

represents the implementation of the design with the participating teacher's students.









Data such as outcome measures, observational field notes and interviews are collected

during this stage then utilized in the analysis stage. The analysis stage includes

analyzing and evaluating the ILE as a pedagogical strategy. During the redesign stage,

findings from the analysis stage provide insight into the next iteration of the design. A

limitation of this approach is the amount of time spent documenting this iterative

process. Because of time limitations associated with the school site's calendar, only a

single iteration of this process was completed (Ma & Harmon, 2009). However, the

attributes of the redesign stage are well documented, and future research opportunities

will continue this process.










































Figure 1-1. The design-based research process (Ma & Harmon, 2009)

Third, DBR should produce "usable knowledge" (Lagemann, 2002) that provides

relevant impact for educational practitioners. Since this study takes place in a

classroom context and not in an artificial laboratory setting, the outcomes documented

represent authentic results that are readily usable for transfer to similar contexts. In

addition, as part of the redesign stage, this study seeks to identify design elements

essential for the next iteration of the DBR process. This knowledge of essential design









elements provides an immediate impact for the design of future research whether

conducted by this researcher or by others.

Fourth, DBR should provide rich descriptions of the context and the interactions

that occur within the context. Rich descriptions of the context are necessary to ensure

reliability and applicability for other contexts. Daily debriefing notes between the

practitioner and researcher and daily researcher reflections while analyzing multimedia

artifacts provide the rich descriptions. During the implementation of this study, the

practitioner and researcher collaboratively debriefed after each class meeting to discuss

and assess each participant's progress on the design task, to determine how either the

researcher or practitioner could assist participants during the next class meeting and to

assess the implementation of the research project. These debriefing notes provided a

data source for analysis (see Appendix B for an example). The researcher also

independently documented his daily reflection of participants' progress while examining

each participant's multimedia artifact (see Appendix C for an example). These

reflections also provide a data source for analysis. Collectively, these data sources

provide rich descriptions of this study's context and of the interactions that occurred.

Fifth, DBR should utilize appropriate research methods. A researcher selects a

research method based on how well a particular method addresses a study's research

questionss. The research method, in turn, determines the sources of data. This study

explores the following research questions:

* How effective is learner-constructed interactive multimedia at increasing learning
gains in the properties of geometric solids for academically at-risk learners?

* What are the design principles for creating an innovative learning environment that
integrates learner-constructed interactive multimedia for academically at-risk
learners?









Based on these questions, this study was accomplished through case study methods (a

qualitative research approach), and the data for this DBR study included observational

field notes, participant-constructed artifacts, interview transcripts and outcome

measures of content knowledge. Eight (8) academically at-risk 5th grade students

participated in this study. Each participant completed outcome measures of math

content knowledge about the properties of geometric solids in the form of pre- and post-

tests to determine learning gains in math content. Each participant designed a

multimedia artifact using Scratch that was analyzed by the researcher for evidence of

math content. Two participants were identified through maximum variation sampling to

serve as cases for in-depth case studies. The researcher conducted interviews with

these participants to determine their perception of learning gains while designing

multimedia that expressed their understanding of the properties of geometric solids.

The researcher also conducted interviews with the practitioner to document the design

principles integrated into this ILE. Another source of data that contributed to the design

principles are the reflective field notes recorded by the researcher.

Conducting Design-Based Research

The five characteristics of DBR described above help generate an understanding

of the DBR paradigm but do not necessarily provide a systematic process for

conducting DBR. Reeves (2000) articulated a four-step process for conducting DBR:

* analysis of practical problems by researchers and practitioners
* development of solutions with a theoretical framework
* evaluation and testing of solutions in practice
* documentation and reflection to produce design principles

Reeves' four-step process is comparable to the Design-Based Research Collective's

four-stage process for an iteration of DBR described above (design, enactment,









analysis and redesign). Reeves' steps of analyzing a practical problem and developing

a solution are integrated into the Design-Based Research Collective's design stage. In

addition, the Design-Based Research Collective's stages of enactment and analysis are

combined within Reeves' evaluation and testing step.

Building on Reeves' process, Ma and Harmon (2009) refined a procedure for

conducting an iteration of a DBR inquiry that includes additional details on this research

process (see Figure 1-1). This researcher selected Ma & Harmon's process because it

provides a structured process to conduct a single iteration of the DBR cycle. As an

emerging scholar, it is helpful to have a research framework that provides support for

engaging in research. This procedure provides the framework for conducting this

research study on the impact of learner-constructed multimedia on learning for

academically at-risk learners. In addition, this procedure provides the structure for this

manuscript. The four steps first articulated by Reeves (2000) and adopted by Ma and

Harmon (2009) are integrated into this manuscript.

Research Purpose

In the teaching and learning environment, whoever does the most work does the

most learning. That is, whoever engages and interacts more with the content will learn

more quantitatively and qualitatively. The 'sage on the stage' can spend numerous

hours researching and preparing for a class lecture. This individual engages and

interacts with the content and develops a sophisticated understanding of the content.

However, the learners, the audience of the lecture, do not invest nearly as much

cognitive skill to engage and interact with the lecture content, and therefore, develop

only a superficial understanding of the content. Therefore, if an educator creates









opportunities for learners to engage and interact with content in rich and complex ways,

learners are more likely to develop a more sophisticated understanding of such content.

One such method for creating such opportunities is by learning through design.

More specifically, learning through design refers to the process of learning content

during a design task that promotes engagement with content. Thus, students design

and create artifacts that demonstrate knowledge of the content to be learned. Artifacts

can exist in multiple forms of media or multimedia: reaction papers, blog posts, videos,

podcasts, etc. According to Sennett (2008), "making is thinking" (p. ix). The act of

designing and creating an artifact that represents what a learners knows and can do

related to some content may provide evidence of understanding and thinking about that

content. In fact, this may represent more than just superficial thinking. Rather, it may

reflect a deeper level of thinking that goes beyond memorization or recall and reaches

into the realm of higher order thinking associated with Bloom's taxonomy of cognitive

skills such as evaluating and creating (Bloom & Krathwohl, 1956; Anderson &

Krathwohl, 2001).

Today's youth have unprecedented access to powerful multimedia-authoring tools.

Deep, rich conceptual learning can occur when learners design multimedia that

represents their understanding of content knowledge. This view is consistent with

constructionist pedagogy, a pedagogical theory that emphasizes the construction of

personally meaningful artifacts using technology that can be shared with others (Papert,

1993). For example, Kafai (1995) worked with 10-year-old youth to design games in

Logo that would teach knowledge of fractions to younger students. She reported that

these youth developed their own representations of fractions while learning









programming concepts and strategies. This work epitomizes the potential impact that

multimedia-authoring tools can have on young learners.

Research indicates that increasing learner motivation and cognitive engagement

will promote achievement (Turner & Paris, 1995; Guthrie & Wigfield, 1997; Guthrie &

Wigfield, 2000; Guthrie, 2001; Roe, 2001; Kamil, 2003). Today's young academically

at-risk learners may not respond to traditional instructional approaches. Therefore, we

must consider innovative approaches to motivating and engaging these young learners.

One such approach places young learners in the roles of designers of multimedia.

Having learners construct multimedia is one strategy that facilitates the

development of thinking skills (Spoehr, 1993; Lehrer, Erickson & Connell, 1994; Hay,

Guzdial, Jackson, Boyle & Soloway, 1994). Yet, it may be an underutilized strategy in

most schools. Only 43% of teachers who regularly use media in their classrooms highly

value student-created multimedia (PBS, 2009). Tools for constructing multimedia

typically include a steep learning curve or a high cost, which may indicate causes for the

lack of diffusion of this strategy. Yet, Scratch, a contemporary design tool with a

shallow learning curve and available for free, may provide greater opportunities for

diffusion and integration into classroom contexts. Therefore, the purpose of this study is

to identify learning gains when young academically at-risk learners design and construct

multimedia using Scratch to express what they know about math content, particularly

content addressing the properties of geometric solids.

Design of This Manuscript

The remaining chapters of this manuscript provide a detailed account of the

design, implementation, analysis and findings for this study. Chapter 2 addresses the

theoretical framework and situates this study within the existing literature. Chapter 3









documents the research methods used to conduct this study within a K-12 setting.

Chapter 4 provides an overview of the evaluation and testing of a learning environment

that integrates learner-constructed multimedia through the perspectives of two individual

case studies. Chapter 5 provides documentation and reflection on the design principles

necessary to implement learner-constructed multimedia as identified through the

collaboration between the practitioner and this researcher. Chapter 6 summarizes this

study's findings, situates this study's findings in the existing literature and shares

implications for learners, teachers, schools and the research community.









CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

Introduction

This chapter provides an overview of the theoretical framework and background

information necessary for understanding this study's context. This chapter also situates

this research study in the existing education research literature. In addition, this

chapter's content addresses Step 1.2 of the DBR framework: reviewing the literature

(Ma & Harmon, 2009).

Theoretical Framework

Integrating multimedia is a contemporary strategy for engaging students in

content. According to a recent survey of 1200 K-12 teachers, 76% use digital media

frequently or regularly in their classrooms, and 43% of these media-using teachers

highly value student-produced multimedia (PBS, 2009). Contrary to other approaches

that integrate multimedia into classroom practice, learner-constructed multimedia (LCM)

places learners in the roles of participants and producers rather than spectators and

consumers (Jenkins, 2006). Integrating LCM is a pedagogical strategy for promoting

content learning through the design of a digital artifact that expresses what a student

knows. Specifically, learners participate in the design process to produce a digital

artifact that represents their understanding of content rather than consuming content

through instructional multimedia.

LCM can be understood through several perspectives: theoretical, pedagogical

and historical (see Figure 2-1). From a theoretical perspective, LCM is grounded in

constructivist theories of knowing. The use of the word 'theories' is intentional to

acknowledge that there are multiple forms of constructivism (e. g., radical









constructivism) evident within the education literature (Phillips, 1995). This study is

concerned with how an individual constructs knowledge through experiences, such as

the experience of designing multimedia that represents an understanding of content

knowledge. Therefore, psychological constructivism, in contrast to social

constructivism, forms the foundation for this study because the unit of interest for this

form of constructivism is the individual (Richardson, 2003). Piaget's perspective has

had considerable influence on contemporary views of psychological constructivism

(Matthews, 2003). Piaget expressed "that knowledge does not result from a mere

recording of observations without a structuring activity on the part of the subject"

(Piaget, 1980, p. 23). Thus, making meaning for the learner entails developing schema,

or mental models, that represent understandings of experiences. In an educational

environment, learners can construct representations and understanding of content

through a diverse range of experiences including teacher-delivered lectures or hands-on

experiments.














Constructionist
pedagogy LCIM


Constructivist provides theoretical provides pedagogical learner-constructed
learning theory foundation for framework for interactive multimedia

Knowledge as ,,.'
design pedagogy has lead to


Outcomes



Increased Increased Increased
motivation skills content learning



Research
Thinking skills Design skills skills



Figure 2-1. The theoretical framework for this study

Within a pedagogical framework, LCM has a foundation in constructionist

pedagogy, which is an application of constructivist learning theory. Constructionist

pedagogy emphasizes that learners develop an understanding of content especially well

when given opportunities to design and construct a personally relevant and shareable

artifact (Papert, 1991). Relatedly, LCM also has a foundation in the concept of learning

through design. Perkin's knowledge as design pedagogy encourages an active use of

knowledge through the creation of products to represent student understanding (1986).

Student-created products about subject matter demonstrate students' ability to apply

knowledge and synthesize understanding through the design of a product rather than









simply regurgitating information on a test. Perkins argued that "students who spend

most of their time consuming knowledge, however well served up it may be, are not

constructing their own products of mind" (1986, p. 96). That is, students may acquire

information (or consume it), but they may not be able to use knowledge for application

purposes (or produce it in a design product). Perkins clearly articulated that designing a

product that represents an understanding of knowledge promotes deeper understanding

than consuming information then regurgitating it back on a test.

Historically, multimedia has been used as an instructional tool whereby learners

consume multimedia to learn about content. Instructional designers or teachers create

the multimedia content that learners consume. Jonassen, Wilson, Wang & Grabinger

(1993) observed that designers of instructional materials learn the most from the

materials. Thus, it seems likely that instructional designers and teachers learn more

content through designing multimedia than learners do from consuming it.

People who design materials are necessarily engaged in a deeper analysis and
articulation of the subject in order to teach it, which results in their better
understanding of the subject, as opposed to learners who only read or interact with
the materials (Jonassen, Peck & Wilson, 1999, p. 153).

This notion forms the justification for creating opportunities for learners to construct

multimedia that represents what learners know about content.

A Foundation in Constructivism and Constructionism

As described above, constructivism is a learning theory that posits that knowledge

is constructed by the learner and not simply transmitted from teacher to learner.

Constructivism is also referred to as 'discovery learning' to indicate that learning takes

place through discovery as one individual leads another to discover concepts (Stager,

2002). It is often associated with the idea of 'learning by doing', which implies that the









learner is active and engaged in the learning process. Constructionism, a pedagogical

paradigm first articulated by Seymour Papert, extends this idea into 'learning by making'

to emphasize the importance of generating a shareable artifact over simply engaging in

an activity.

We understand "constructionism" as including, but going beyond what Piaget
would call "constructivism." The word with the v expresses the theory that
knowledge is built by the learner, not supplied by the teacher. The word with the n
expresses the further idea that this happens especially felicitously when the
learner is engaged in the construction of something external or at least
shareable...a sand castle, a machine, a computer program, a book. This leads us
to a model using a cycle of internationalization of what is outside, then
externalization of what is inside and so on. (Papert, 1990, p. 3)

Constructionism shares with the more familiar constructivism the belief that learning is

the process of building knowledge structures through experiences. Constructionists

extend this theory and argue that learning is particularly robust when learners have the

opportunity to construct a shareable artifact (Harel & Papert, 1991). Constructionism

contrasts with instructionism, a more dominant pedagogical approach in education.

I like to formulate a major theoretical issue as "constructionism vs. instructionism."
This does not suggest that instruction is bad or useless. Instruction is not bad but
overrated as the locus for significant change in education. Betterlearning will not
come from finding ways for the teacher to instruct but from giving the learner better
opportunities to construct. (Papert, 1990, emphasis in original, p. 3)

In practice, constructionists provide opportunities for learners to design and construct

shareable artifacts, and constructionism places the locus of control for learning with the

learner. In contrast, instructionism maintains the locus of control for learning with the

teacher. Thus, a teacher adopting a constructionist approach to learning would create

opportunities for learners to design and construct artifacts that represent understanding

of content. In addition, these artifacts could be composed using multimedia tools, and

there is a reasonable amount of historical evidence to support this approach.









A Historical Perspective on Multimedia

Multimedia became widely regarded as an instructional tool during the 1990s

(Brown, 2007). For the purpose of this study, this researcher defines multimedia as a

digital artifact that shares information through multiple forms of media. Media

commonly exist in auditory or visual forms such as text, speech, music, sounds, images

or animations. Other researchers' definitions of multimedia and hypermedia form the

foundation for the definition of multimedia used this study. Mitchell, Andreatta & Capella

(2004) described multimedia as "an educational presentation made using audio and

images" (p. 3962) and emphasized that the amount of text is reduced within multimedia.

Erickson (1997) articulated hypermedia as "a way of authoring on the computer that

combines text, graphics, sound, and animation" (p. 5). Wisnudel (1994) identified

multimedia as "the coordinate use of several types of media" (p. 6) and compared and

contrasted it with hypermedia.

Hypermedia, like multimedia, incorporates symbolic expressions beyond texts,
including graphics, animations, still images, and video. Hypermedia enables users
to retrieve chunks of information on demand. Unlike multimedia, hypermedia
environments contain an inherent structure, or network, with links, or connections
and relationships between chunks of information. (p. 6).

Thus, multimedia and hypermedia share a common aspect: both integrate multiple

forms of media to express information. They differ in their linearity: multimedia is linear,

and hypermedia is non-linear. While this distinction may have been relevant in the past,

contemporary tools allow users to construct both linear and non-linear artifacts. In

addition, hypermedia and multimedia are often used interchangeably within the

literature. In the current study, this researcher exclusively uses the term 'multimedia' to

refer to the digital artifacts created by participants.









Learning Through Multimedia Design

The metaphors of student-as-designer and learner-as-designer have been used

throughout education literature (Harel, 1991; Ehrmann & Balestri, 1992; Beichner, 1994;

Lehrer, Erickson & Connell, 1994; Liu & Rutledge, 1997; Wilhelm, Friedemann &

Erickson, 1998; Chen & McGrath, 2003; Kimber & Wyatt-Smith, 2006). Indeed, this

literature has identified multiple benefits when learners participate in the design

process, and there are numerous studies that identify positive outcomes when learners

design hypermedia or multimedia artifacts (see Table 2-1). Notice that there were no

appropriate studies found past 2007. This researcher identified these studies through

an exhaustive review of specific journals such as the Journal of Educational Multimedia

and Hypermedia and of the university's library databases. Search terms included

"multimedia", "construction", "student created", "learner created", "student constructed",

"student designed", "multimedia design", "multimedia designer" and "multimedia

construction". In addition, once a suitable article was identified, this researcher used

Google Scholar to follow the citation trail of the article to identify more current articles

that cited the previously identified article.

Table 2-1. Overview of benefits of learners designing hypermedia/multimedia
Author(s) Summary of benefits
Carver, Lehrer, Connell & Students develop design skills; students
Erickson (1992) demonstrate high mental effort and involvement
Spoehr (1993) Students organize knowledge in an expert-like
manner
Lehrer, Erickson & Students demonstrate high mental effort and
Connell (1994) involvement; off-task behaviors are reduced;
students develop skills to search for, interpret,
articulate and communicate information
Hay, Guzdial, Jackson, Students create multiple representations of content
Boyle & Soloway (1994)









Table 2-1. Continued
Beichner (1994)




Erickson (1997)
Liu & Rutledge (1997)


McGrath,
Cumaranatunge, Ji, Chen,
Broce & Wright (1997)
Liu & Pederson (1998)


Orey, Fan, Scott, Thuma,
Robertshaw, Hogle,
Tzeng & Crenshaw (2000)
Liu & Hsiao (2002)

Chen & McGrath (2003)

Mitchell, Andreata &
Capella (2004)
Brown (2007)

Garthwait (2007)


Design process motivates students, especially
when designing for an external audience; students
deeply engage in content while analyzing,
evaluating, synthesizing and representing content-
related information
Students develop research and design skills
Students exhibit motivation to learn, increase on-
task behaviors, are willing to spend additional time
outside of class and increase self-efficacy
Design process motivates students; students take
interest in content and increase responsibility for
their learning
Design process motivates students; students
increase content knowledge and develop design,
collaboration and metacognitive skills
Design process motivates students if task is not too
structured; students develop collaboration skills

Students develop design skills; students develop
collaboration skills
Students represent content in multiple ways and
develop metacognitive and reflective skills
Students engage in course content

Design process motivates students; students
develop multiple higher-order thinking skills
Students increase writing skills


Carver, Lehrer, Connell and Erickson (1992) developed a design skills model that

places learners in the roles of hypermedia authors. These design skills included project

management skills, research skills, organizing and representation skills, presentation

skills and reflection skills. The researchers collaborated with secondary teachers to

develop teaching units that integrated these skills during hypermedia design projects.

Based on an analysis of student discourse, Carver et al. reported that students became

autonomous with respect to design skills over the course of the project. In addition,

student questionnaires revealed increased "mental effort and involvement, interest,









collaboration, planning, and individualization" (p. 394). This study contributes evidence

to support the view that designing hypermedia develops design skills. In addition, this

study demonstrates that students deeply engage in content when designing about the

content as they search, analyze, evaluate and synthesis information related to the

content.

Spoehr (1993) documented benefits when high school students reported results

from research projects using hypermedia. She identified that students developed "a

proficiency to organize knowledge about a subject in a more expert-like fashion" (p. 9)

when given the opportunity to construct hypermedia. This is a significant finding as

educators seek to find meaningful ways for learners to develop representations of

content. The ability to organize knowledge in a sophisticated manner when designing

hypermedia provides evidence that this approach has a considerable impact on learning

content.

Lehrer, Erickson and Connell (1994) asked 9th grade students to construct a

hypermedia presentation on an American history topic with the intent that the

hypermedia presentation could be used by peers as an educational tool. In teams of 5,

student groups used HyperAuthor to construct their hypermedia presentations. The

researchers reported that students demonstrated high levels of mental effort and

involvement, which indicates a high level of engagement with content during the design

process. Another indicator for a high level of engagement among students was evident

in a remarkable decrease in off-task behaviors over the duration of the design process

(from 30% in the beginning to 3% at the end). In addition, researchers observed that

students developed several useful skills that could transfer to other contexts: "finding









and interpreting information, articulating and communicating knowledge, and using

computers as cognitive tools" (p. 248). These skills were not intentionally encouraged

as part of the design process, but they are a beneficial outcome of the design process.

Of most significance, the researchers noted that students observed that knowledge was

"a result of their constructive efforts rather than as a set of givens from their teacher and

text" (p. 248). Thus, designing hypermedia (or multimedia) is a constructionist task

rather than an instructionist one. Learners construct knowledge representations of the

content addressed in their hypermedia (or multimedia) during the design process rather

than the teacher or textbook providing representations for learners to memorize.

Hay, Guzdial, Jackson, Boyle and Soloway (1994) analyzed 83 multimedia

documents created in MediaText by high school students to meet assignment

expectations in four different courses. Though the expectations for the multimedia

documents varied across courses, the researchers reported that learners developed a

"richer understanding of the concepts" (p. 315) of the course assignments because

learners were able to provide multiple representations of content using multiple media

formats in their multimedia compositions. Therefore, learners may create more

meaningful representations of course content by representing content in multiple forms

through the use of various forms of media. This study generates relevant implications

for the current study by emphasizing that learners may create meaningful

representations of content as they construct multimedia that represents the content.

Beichner (1994) observed nine middle school students as they learned science

content through designing and creating multimedia information screens for a local zoo

using hybrid software of HyperCard and SuperCard. Because students were designing









multimedia for an external audience, Beichner reported that students found the task

motivating because it "had importance outside the classroom" (p. 67). Throughout the

design process, students engaged in science content then identified the essential

aspects of that content to share within the multimedia product for the intended

audience. This process develops skills associated with Bloom's taxonomy of cognitive

skills such as analyzing and evaluating (Bloom & Krathwohl, 1956; Anderson &

Krathwohl, 2001). Analyzing, evaluating and synthesizing information with the intent of

sharing it with an audience requires extended engagement with content. Beichner

encouraged this type of student work because "students will learn content, enjoy the

learning process, and recognize that they have created something worthwhile-that is,

worth their time and effort" (p. 67). This study demonstrates that the design process

motivates students, particularly when students design for an external audience. In

addition, the design process requires that students engage with content in meaningful

ways; students construct representations of content as they analyze, evaluate and

synthesize information.

Erickson (1997) observed middle school students and their teachers in a

classroom structured as a "community of designers" (p. 5). This environment included

several aspects that fostered the design community: students worked on sustained

hypermedia design projects; students shared, discussed and reflected on their

hypermedia projects; and, teachers became decentralized and "distributed instruction,

evaluation, and knowledge across the classroom community" (p. 6). Erickson focused

her research on the perceptions of the teachers with regard to student learning within

this environment rather than measuring student learning directly. Participating teachers









acknowledged that students "demonstrated growth over the year in the cognitive skills

of research and design" (p. 20). Teachers perceived that students developed skills in

finding, organizing and representing information while designing hypermedia

documents. This study provides several design principles for implementing a design

community within a classroom, and these design principles contribute to the design of

the innovative learning environment implemented in the current research study.

Liu and Rutledge (1997) assessed the impact of a learner-as-designer

environment on high school students, 60% of which were considered academically at-

risk. The researchers compared student motivation between a control group of students

in a computer application class and a treatment group of students in a similar class that

was structured as a learner-as-designer environment. This environment created

opportunities for students to design multimedia that would be used by external

audiences such as the school or a local museum. Liu and Rutledge reported that

motivation for learning was significantly higher in the treatment group. These students

also exhibited more on-task behaviors and were willing to spend additional time outside

of the regular class time to work on multimedia projects. In addition, self-efficacy

significantly increased for the treatment group. This study contributes additional support

to the notion that designing multimedia is an intrinsically motivating process. An

increase in on-task behaviors and a willingness to work on design projects outside of

scheduled class time provides considerable support for integrating multimedia design

projects to encourage engagement with content.

McGrath, Cumaranatunge, Ji, Chen, Broce and Wright (1997) completed several

case studies of science-related multimedia projects integrated into elementary and









secondary classrooms. The researchers reported on three aspects of these projects:

learning and attitudes, gender and responsibility. McGrath et al. found that students

were motivated and enthusiastic about designing multimedia and demonstrated high

levels of interest in the science content related to their projects. However, students'

attitudes about science were not impacted as a result of designing multimedia. As a

result of designing multimedia on science topics, students learned science but also

developed planning, researching, writing and collaboration skills. McGrath et al. also

found that gender had no impact on enthusiasm for the project or on learning of content

or skills. In addition, the researchers reported that students demonstrated increased

responsibility for their learning. Evidence for increased responsibility included students

willing to work on multimedia projects outside of the school day, students willing to

persevere when frustrated during the design process, students concerned with how

their multimedia projects would appear to an external audience and students realizing

that others were relying on their efforts. Overall, this set of case studies provides

evidence that the process of designing multimedia not only encourages engagement

with content to promote learning of content but supports the development of meaningful

skills that will have value throughout students' lives.

Liu and Pederson (1998) compared motivation and learning of design knowledge

for two classes of fourth graders: one class was identified as the designer group while

the other was identified as the non-designer group. While both groups authored

hypermedia projects on science content, students in the designer group worked

collaboratively to construct hypermedia while students in the non-designer group

worked independently. Liu and Pederson reported no significant differences between









groups for most aspects of motivation, which is a consistent finding within the research

literature. Generally, students find hypermedia authoring motivating. However, the

designer group demonstrated increased ability to make judgments independent of the

teacher. In addition, both groups completed a pre- and post-test of science content

knowledge, and both groups significantly increased their science content knowledge

over the course of the project. Students in both groups developed the ability to use

hypermedia-authoring tools, but students in the designer group also developed "skills

such as planning, project management, reflection (getting feedback from the peers and

the audience), and working in groups to achieve a common goal" (p. 177). Not

surprisingly, students in the designer group demonstrated "significantly better

understanding of planning and collaboration" (p. 177). This study provides evidence

that designing hypermedia is motivating, leads to increased content knowledge,

produces hypermedia-authoring skills and develops collaboration and metacognitive

skills.

Orey, Fan, Scott, Thuma, Robertshaw, Hogle, Tzeng and Crenshaw (2000) shared

several anecdotes about young learners designing multimedia in classrooms for gifted

and academically at-risk students. The researchers reported that designing multimedia

motivated students. Students were willing to work on multimedia projects before and

after school and on school holidays. This extended engagement requires motivation.

However, students demonstrated less motivation during more structured activities. The

researchers attributed this phenomenon to a lack of choice or control evident within

structured activities (Turner & Paris, 1995). Of significance, academically at-risk









students also demonstrated motivation while designing. Orey et al. also reported that

students developed collaboration skills.

Liu and Hsiao (2002) observed increased understanding of the design process

when middle schools students became multimedia designers. Student designers could

articulate the significance of the stages of a design process: planning, designing and

testing. Student designers also increased their peer learning skills. Students

collaborated with peers through the design process and came to rely on their peers to

distribute efforts for the design tasks. This study provides evidence that collaboration

skills and design skills develop as students design multimedia.

Chen and McGrath (2003) observed tenth-grade students designing hypermedia

documents using Storyspace 1.2. Pairs of students worked together to produce a

hypermedia document about water to meet assignment expectations for a science

course. Chen and McGrath reported that students preferred hypermedia construction to

traditional ways of representing information because it appealed to individual learning

styles. Students articulated that they could choose multiple ways to represent content.

Chen and McGrath also found evidence of deeper learning based on student comments

that demonstrated metacognition and reflection. In addition, the authors reported that

students in the roles of hypermedia designers developed "effective cognitive and

knowledge representational skills" (p. 57). This study provides evidence that when

students design hypermedia, they develop important metacognitive and reflective skills

and learn to represent content in multiple ways.

Mitchell, Andreata and Capella (2004) asked students in 5 different courses of an

education doctoral program to design a multimedia learning experience for future









students who would be novices in the content of the courses. Students designed a

multimedia product using LiveSlideShow that integrated an audio track explaining

course material with images. After conducting student interviews to determine

perceptions of the value of integrating learner-constructed multimedia, Mitchell,

Andreata and Capella reported that this experience led to increased student

engagement with course content. According to the researchers, this engagement

stemmed from increased motivation through students creating personal connections to

course content and through an appropriate level of challenge. Because students

recorded their voice as part of the multimedia product, they articulated a more personal

connection to the product over traditional ways of expressing information (e.g., writing a

paper). In addition, students reported that the challenge of integrating audio and

images to communicate course content was motivating because they were required to

think about new ways of delivering information. This study highlights how learner-

constructed multimedia increases engagement with course content for students as they

negotiate ways to express essential information within the multimedia product. Though

this study reports on evidence obtained from doctoral students, it is a reasonable

assumption to conclude that students on the opposite end of the educational continuum

may similarly benefit from increased engagement with content.

Brown (2007) also found increased engagement and motivation along with

demonstrated higher order thinking skills when elementary students and pre-service

elementary teachers constructed multimedia using HyperStudio. Across both

populations, Brown noted that "[h]igh task engagement was evidenced by extended

periods of involvement beyond class" (p. 106). A willingness to engage in expanded









learning time particularly beyond traditional class time is an indicator of high levels of

motivation for the prescribed task, which leads to a reasonable assumption that

constructing multimedia may be inherently motivating for learners. Brown also

described evidence of higher-order thinking as described by Resnick (1987). She

reported that students:

followed a non-algorithmic path, faced knowledge, skill and process complexity,
generated multiple solutions, coped with uncertainty, demonstrated nuanced
judgment with media selection and adaptation, were required to self-regulate their
thinking, and put considerable effort into structuring information (Brown, 2007, p.
107).

This is an impressive list of skills, and teachers would be quite pleased if students

developed these skills during any learning experience. These higher-order skills were

not explicitly taught as part of the multimedia construction process but are significant by-

products of it. This study provides support for integrating multimedia construction as a

pedagogical strategy since motivation increases and higher-order thinking develops as

learners construct multimedia.

Garthwait (2007) reported increased writing skills in middle school students after

designing hypermedia projects for younger students. 7th grade students used

HyperStudio to create a hypermedia document about African animals for 2nd grade

students. Garthwait observed that 7th graded students became adept at writing for a

specific audience. This study highlights how additional skills (i.e., writing skills) develop

as learners design hypermedia.

Collectively, these studies indicate evidence for using multimedia construction to

produce a variety of outcomes (see Table 2-2). These outcomes include increasing

motivation to learn, which promotes increased engagement with content, and

developing a number of skills including research, design and thinking skills. Of









significant importance, students represent content in a more expert-like manner and

have opportunities to represent content in multiple ways when designing multimedia.

Through the act of designing a multimedia artifact that represents a student's

understanding of content, s/he deeply engages in content and develops multiple skills

that will have long-term potential benefits.

Table 2-2. Summary of outcomes when learners design hypermedia/multimedia
Outcome Author(s)
Students become motivated. Beichner (1994); Liu & Rutledge (1997);
McGrath, Cumaranatunge, Ji, Chen,
Broce & Wright (1997); Liu & Pederson
(1998); Orey, Fan, Scott, Thuma,
Robertshaw, Hogle, Tzeng & Crenshaw
(2000); Brown (2007)

Students spend additional time Liu & Rutledge (1997)


outside of class to work on projects.

Students develop research skills:
finding, analyzing, evaluating and
synthesizing information.

Students represent content in an
expert-like manner.

Students represent content in
multiple ways.

Students develop metacognitive and
reflective skills.

Students develop design skills



Students engage in content.


Lehrer, Erickson & Connell (1994);
Beichner (1994); Erickson (1997)


Spoehr (1993); Liu & Pederson (1998)


Hay, Guzdial, Jackson, Boyle & Soloway
(1994); Chen & McGrath (2003)

Liu & Pederson (1998); Chen & McGrath
(2003); Brown (2007)

Carver, Lehrer, Connell & Erickson
(1992); Erickson (1997); Liu & Pederson
(1998); Liu & Hsiao (2002)

Lehrer, Erickson & Connell (1994);
Beichner (1994); McGrath,
Cumaranatunge, Ji, Chen, Broce &
Wright (1997); Mitchell, Andreata &
Capella (2004)









Table 2-2. Continued
Students reduce off-task behaviors. Lehrer, Erickson & Connell (1994); Liu &
Rutledge (1997)

Students increase self-efficacy. Liu & Rutledge (1997)

Students take responsibility for their McGrath, Cumaranatunge, Ji, Chen,
learning. Broce & Wright (1997)

Students develop collaboration Liu & Pederson (1998); Orey, Fan, Scott,
skills. Thuma, Robertshaw, Hogle, Tzeng &
Crenshaw (2000); Liu & Hsiao (2002)

Students develop writing skills. Garthwait (2007)

The outcomes identified by the studies in Table 2-2 provide the foundation and

rationale for designing an ILE that integrates learner-constructed multimedia as a

pedagogical approach. Step 2 of Ma and Harmon's (2009) DBR process is the

development of a solution with a theoretical framework. Integrating learner-constructed

multimedia serves as the solution for this DBR study. Next, it is important to consider

the tool that learners will use to construct multimedia.

Multimedia Construction Tools

There are a number of tools that have been used for multimedia construction.

These include HyperCard, HyperAuthor, HyperStudio, Microsoft PowerPoint,

Inspiration, Adobe Photoshop, LiveSlideShow, Macromedia Director, iMovie, Windows

MovieMaker and Adobe Dreamweaver. All have their affordances and limitations. One

tool of considerable interest is Scratch. Scratch was developed by the Lifelong

Kindergarten Group at the MIT Media Laboratory as a means for producing interactive

multimedia through the use of a simple, visual, free programming tool (see Resnick,

2006; Peppier & Kafai, 2007a; Maloney, Peppier, Kafai, Resnick & Rusk, 2008).









Scratch. This research study uses Scratch as the design tool for multimedia

construction. Scratch was designed for use by children age 8 and up, though

adolescents and adults may also find that is a valuable design tool. The Scratch

interface is kid-friendly (see Figure 2-2). Designing in Scratch involves adding sprites

(objects that represent characters, props and other elements) and editing the stage

(background). In Figure 2-2, there is a cat sprite on a stage that consists of a solid

white background. Creating actions for the sprites or stage consists of dragging

command blocks from a palette and stacking them together. A stack of command

blocks forms a script, and the script describes the actions or behavior of a sprite (see

Figure 2-3). The script portrayed in Figure 2-3 shows 9 unique command blocks. The

command blocks are color-coded to represent different types of commands. For

example, the palette of motion commands is displayed on the left-hand side in Figure 2-

2. In Figure 2-3, there are five different types of command blocks: control (yellow),

looks (purple), sensing (light blue), sound (pink) and operators (green). Reading

through the command blocks helps the user understanding which behavior or action will

occur. The command blocks represent lines of code found in traditional computer

programming languages. However, Scratch replaces the text of other programming

languages with graphic blocks, and each block represents a specific command.

The script in Figure 2-3 begins when the space key is pressed. Pressing the

space key acts as a trigger to begin the script. The 'show' block ensures that the sprite

with this script is visible. The 'say' block states the entered text in the form of a talk

bubble above the sprite. The text remains visible on the screen for 5 seconds as

identified in the block. The 'repeat until' block ensures that the stack inside the block










continues to loop until a specific condition is met. In this case, the stack will repeat until

a user of the project enters a value of 1 when prompted. The 'ask' block creates a text

box at the bottom of the stage where a user can use the keyboard to enter a response.

The typed response is stored as a variable called 'answer'. Notice that if the correct

response is entered, a sound plays followed by two separate text bubbles. If an

incorrect response is entered, the user is encouraged to try again using a text bubble.

-3 d y File Edit Snare Help ;'


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C'ZEZB~ ii ISiriD;tsY 7 ostumes Y Sounds I


dl -
























Figure 2-2. The Scratch interface


r At0


41


I Now 5"k e i 210 M































Figure 2-3. A script created in Scratch

As stated on the Scratch website, "[a]s young people create and share Scratch

projects, they learn important mathematical and computational ideas, while also

learning to think creatively, reason systematically, and work collaboratively." Based on

this description, it is reasonable to assume that when learners use Scratch to design

multimedia, they will develop thinking and collaboration skills.

The use of Scratch is well documented in after school programs and community

technology centers (Peppler & Kafai, 2005; Kafai, Peppier & Chiu, 2007; Peppier &

Kafai, 2007a; Peppier & Kafai, 2007b; Maloney et al., 2008). There is an online

community associated with Scratch, and this feature of Scratch separates it from other

kid-friendly programming tools such as Squeak or Alice. Documenting ways in which

the community of Scratch users engage with Scratch and collaborate with each other is

also evident within the literature (Monroy-Hernandez & Resnick, 2008; Blau, Zuckerman









& Monroy-Hernandez, 2009; Resnick, Maloney, Monroy-Hernandez, Rusk, Eastmond,

Brennan, Millner, Rosenbaum, Silver, Silverman, & Kafai, 2009). However, little

documentation exists for using Scratch in formal K-12 classroom environments to

promote gains in content learning and not just programming skills. The Scratch website

includes a research page that identifies research articles and conference presentations

that document how young learners use Scratch. Yet, no listed manuscript documents

the use of Scratch in classroom contexts. In addition, an exhaustive search of the

university's library databases did not reveal any articles documenting Scratch's use in a

school-based classroom. The current research study attempts to contribute to this

dearth of available literature documenting Scratch's impact on content learning in K-12

classrooms. More specifically, this study seeks to identify learning and motivation gains

when 5th graders design multimedia about the properties of geometric solids using

Scratch.

Properties of Geometric Solids

Developing an understanding of the properties of geometric solids is an

expectation of the 5th grade curriculum (NCTM, 2006). Students should be able to

describe three-dimensional shapes by their number of faces, edges and vertices. In

addition, students should be able to calculate volume and surface area of such shapes.

Understanding surface area and volume may be problematic for students if a learning

goal for this content is reduced to memorizing formulas to calculate either quantity (Ben-

Chaim, Lappan & Houng, 1985; Battista, Clements, Arnoff, Battista & Borrow, 1998).

Creating opportunities for learners to design a multimedia artifact using Scratch that

expresses the properties of geometric solids may serve as an effective pedagogical

approach that ensures that learners are not limited to memorizing this content. While









designing in Scratch, learners must consider how they will represent the properties of

geometric solids. They must make decisions about what they will include in their

Scratch artifacts and determine how they will represent these properties. This requires

that learners actively engage with the specific content. Using Scratch may also

motivate reluctant learners to engage in this content because Scratch may be

intrinsically motivating for young learners.

Summary

Based on previous studies that have identified multiple outcomes when learners

design multimedia, this study seeks to further understand the impact of LCM on learning

and motivation when learners use Scratch, a contemporary design tool. This study

created an opportunity for participants to represent their understanding of the properties

of geometric solids in a multimedia artifact created in Scratch. While designing in

Scratch, participants determined which properties to address and how to address them.

Through this decision-making process, participants engaged with specific math content

beyond rote memorization. While existing studies document the benefits of LCM using

other multimedia design tools, this study contributes new understanding for using

Scratch as a multimedia design tool.









CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH METHODS

Introduction

This research study addresses the dearth of research evident when youth

construct multimedia projects using Scratch, a contemporary multimedia-authoring tool,

to demonstrate their understanding of math content in an academic setting. A body of

research exists that identifies numerous benefits when youth engage in multimedia

construction. In addition, evidence exists for using Scratch as a tool for expression in

informal environments such as after school centers, community technology centers and

Scratch's online community. This study seeks to capitalize on the affordances of

Scratch as a design tool in a formal learning environment. Thus, the purpose of this

study is to identify learning gains when young learners design and construct multimedia

to demonstrate understanding of specific math content. Specifically, the target

population for this study is young academically at-risk learners. With the purpose and

population in mind, this study addresses the following research questions:

* How effective is learner-constructed multimedia at increasing learning gains in the
properties of geometric solids for academically at-risk learners?

* What are the design principles for creating an innovative learning environment that
integrates learner-constructed multimedia for academically at-risk learners?

This chapter provides an overview of this study's research design and addresses Step 2

of the design-based research (DBR) framework identified in chapter 1 of this

manuscript. It also articulates the specific procedures conducted within the research

design to complete the study. The chapter includes the following sections: theoretical

framework, researcher bias, research design, research context, data sources and

collection, data analysis procedures, trustworthiness and limitations of this study.









Theoretical Framework

As described in Chapter 2, constructivist learning theory, constructionist pedagogy

and knowledge-as-design pedagogy provide the theoretical framework for this inquiry.

Creating opportunities for learners to construct personally relevant multimedia artifacts

that represent their understanding of content epitomizes a constructionist approach to

learning. Constructionist pedagogy (Papert, 1980) is based on constructivism, the

learning theory that posits that learners build knowledge structures through

experiences. Constructionists extend this theory and argue that learning is particularly

robust when learners have the opportunity to construct a shareable artifact (Harel &

Papert, 1991; Kafai & Resnick, 1996).

Researcher Bias

The theoretical framework that provides the foundation for this study also indicates

this researcher's bias on how individuals learn best. This researcher strongly believes

that learning is most effective when a learner must engage in content with the intent of

designing and constructing a shareable artifact that expresses what s/he understands

about that content. This artifact can exist in multiple forms: a hand-drawn concept map,

an online presentation, a word processing document or a multimedia display. Each

artifact requires that the learner spend time and effort engaging in content by making

meaning from the content, finding ways to organize the content into a meaningful

representation and designing and constructing an artifact that represents the learner's

understanding of the content. This belief about learning identifies this researcher as a

constructionist, and it is essential to acknowledge this bias (Hatch, 2002).









Research Design

The research design most appropriate for addressing the research questions

stated above is a qualitative case study. Merriam (1998) defined a qualitative case

study as "an intensive, holistic description and analysis of a single instance,

phenomenon, or social unit" (p. 21). For this study, this researcher conducted a

qualitative case study of the learning event of academically at-risk youth constructing

multimedia using Scratch to represent their understanding of the properties of

geometrics solids in an academic setting. The term 'case study' is often used as a

generic concept, so it is helpful for researchers to specify the design of a case study

based on additional characteristics of the design. The case study design implemented

in this study can be further defined based on its special features, its disciplinary

orientation and its intent (see Table 3-1). These three aspects of a case study design

provide information about the focus, the object of inquiry and the outcomes of the case

study, respectively.

Table 3-1. Overview of the characteristics of this case study
Characteristics (Merriam, 1998) Description of this case study
Special features: particularistic, Particularistic: this case study focuses
descriptive or heuristic on a specific pedagogical event

Disciplinary orientation: ethnographic, Psychological: this case study targets
historical, psychological or sociological the individual

Intent: descriptive, interpretive, Descriptive: this case study provides a
evaluative detailed overview

First, this case study is particularistic, an indication of the special features

characterizing the study. Particularistic case studies "focus on a particular situation,

event, program or phenomenon" (Merriam, 1998, p. 29), and this study's focus is on the

specific pedagogical event of young academically at-risk learners designing and









constructing multimedia to demonstrate their knowledge about specific math content.

Particularistic case studies also provide information about successfully replicating the

event in similar contexts and study a defined event that can contribute to a generalized

understanding of the phenomenon-at-large (Olson in Hoaglin, Mosteller, Light, Stoto &

McPeek, 1982).

Second, the disciplinary orientation of this case study is psychological.

Psychological case studies target the individual and his or her behavior within an event

(Merriam, 1998). This case study targets two young academically at-risk learners and

documents their behaviors and learning as they design and construct multimedia to

demonstrate their knowledge about specific math content.

Last, the intent of this case study is descriptive. It will provide a detailed overview

of a pedagogical event. Descriptive case studies are valuable for "presenting basic

information about areas of education where little research has been conducted"

(Merriam, 1998, p. 38). There is evidence that learners benefit from constructing

multimedia. In addition, using Scratch has been documented in informal learning

environments. However, there is a dearth of research at the intersection of these two

practices: using Scratch to construct multimedia in a formal learning environment. This

descriptive case study provides important information to fill in this gap in research.

Collectively, these additional descriptors help define this case study. The research

represented in this manuscript is a particularistic, psychological and descriptive case

study. This description informs the reader that this case study describes individuals and

their behaviors within a specific event.









Research Context

This section provides an overview of the research context in which this study

occurred. The following sub-sections further clarify the research context.

Research Site

The K-12 school chosen for this research study is the local university's K-12

developmental research school. This school has demographics that match the

demographics of the surrounding region. Thus, it includes a diverse population across

numerous categories such as race and socioeconomic status. Other reasons for

selecting this site include that a mission of the school is "to develop innovative solutions

to educational concerns" (school website) and that the school maintains a collaborative

relationship with the associated college of education. The school is also currently

developing a math intervention model for students who are not performing well in math

as identified by standardized test scores. Thus, using this site to evaluate an alternative

pedagogical approach benefits the school as well as the larger educational community.

Practitioner Profile

An important feature of DBR is collaboration between a researcher and a

practitioner. This researcher collaborated with Mrs. H., a practitioner based at the

school site selected for this study. Mrs. H. previously earned a bachelor's degree in

elementary education and a master's degree in special education from an accredited

teacher education program at a large, southeastern public university. She is currently

working part-time towards an education doctorate in curriculum, teaching and teacher

education. Mrs. H. is also in her 6th year of teaching. Previously, she has taught 2nd, 3rd

and 5th grades.









During the current academic year, she serves in an instructional support position

that is divided between providing professional development to elementary teachers and

working with Tier 3 reading and math students. Tier 3 students are identified as

needing intensive, individualized interventions to remediate skill deficits based on data

gathered from formal assessments such as state-level standardized tests or school-

administered screening tests (Marston, 2005). Identifying students as Tier 3 refers to

the Response-to-Intervention (Rtl) framework. Schools adopting an Rtl framework work

to create learning environments where "instruction is layered over time in response to

students increasing needs" (Vaughn, 2003, p. 2). Tier 3 intervention represents the

most intensive layer.

Sample Selection

In conducting a qualitative case study, it is necessary to perform two levels of

sampling to identify the unit of analysis (Merriam, 1998). First, the case is selected.

Then, purposeful sampling is conducted within the case. For this research study, the

selected case is the population of Tier 3 students for math in 5th grade at the local

university's K-12 developmental research school. This population of academically at-

risk learners needs additional targeted instruction to be successful in academic settings.

Traditional teaching methods may not work with this population, yet approaches that

create innovative learning opportunities may increase motivation and augment learning.

Tier 3 students in 5th grade were selected because Scratch, the design tool used by

participants in this study, was created for young people ages 8 and up which matches

the 5th grade demographic.

Once the case was selected, purposeful sampling was conducted within the case.

The initial case population for this research study is a school's Tier 3 students in 5th









grade, which consists of 8 students. There are 2 females (one mixed race and one

Hispanic) and 6 males (2 black, 1 Hispanic and 3 white). The researcher in conjunction

with the practitioner selected two individual cases in order to conduct maximum

variation sampling, a type of purposeful sampling (Merriam, 1998). Maximum variation

sampling attempts to capture levels of diversity within the studied phenomenon. For

this study, the diversity was determined by observing the participants during the early

part of this research study while participants learned how to use Scratch. One student,

Dominic, frustrated quickly while learning how to use Scratch. Another student,

Jennifer, quickly acquired new skills in Scratch and emerged as a leader in

demonstrating how to complete tasks in Scratch to the other students. Because of the

maximum variation with respect to learning about Scratch between these 2 students,

the researcher and the practitioner selected Dominic and Jennifer as the participants for

a case study. Thus, the unit of analysis for this study is a Tier 3 5th grade student.

Research Environment

The Tier 3 5th grade students in this school meet daily as a group with the Mrs. H.

for about 25 minutes at the beginning of the school day. They are pulled from their

regular classrooms and meet in Mrs. H.'s office. During this time, Mrs. H. provides

additional instruction related to math content. This instruction is in addition to the math

instruction provided in their regular classrooms. While these students are working on

math skills with Mrs. H., the other 5th graders are working on writing skills.

The researcher and practitioner (Mrs. H.) collaboratively designed a prototype of

an innovative learning environment that integrates learner-constructed multimedia.

Initially, the researcher and practitioner identified appropriate content that the

practitioner's 5th grade students would address when constructing multimedia using









Scratch. The content selected for this inquiry is the properties of geometric solids. This

content was selected because it is emphasized in curriculum standards endorsed by

several organizations (see Table 3-1). Addressing this content occurred in the

practitioner's pacing guide at the time when the researcher was available to conduct this

inquiry. The school site previously adopted Everday Mathematics (Bell, Bretzlauf,

Dillard, Hartfield, Isaacs, McBride, Pitvorec, Saecker & Winningham, 2007) for its math

curriculum, and the timing of this research project coincided with the teaching of Unit 11

in the text. Knowing the properties of geometric solids is one of the secure skills for this

unit. In addition, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics has identified this

content as one of three curricular focal points for 5th grade. This content is also

identified as a Big Idea in the State of Florida's Next Generation Sunshine State

Standards. Specifically, there are two benchmarks that address this content: Analyze

and compare the properties of two-dimensional figures and three-dimensional solids

polyhedraa), including the number of edges, faces, vertices, and types of faces

(MA.5.G.3.1) and describe, define, and determine surface area and volume of prisms by

using appropriate units and selecting strategies and tools (MA.5.G.3.2).

Table 3-1. Content rationale
Organization Content expectations
Everday Mathematics, Unit 11 secure skill: Know the properties of
University of Chicago geometric solids
School Mathematics Project

National Council of Grade 5 Curriculum Focal Point for Geometry and
Teachers of Mathematics Measurement and Algebra: Describing three-
dimensional shapes and analyzing their
properties, including volume and surface area









Table 3-1. Continued
State of Florida Next Subject Area: Mathematics
Generation Sunshine State Grade Level: 5
Standards Body of Knowledge: Geometry
Big Idea: BIG IDEA 3 Describe three-
dimensional shapes and analyze their properties,
including volume and surface area.

Benchmark Number: MA.5.G.3.1
Benchmark Description: Analyze and compare the
properties of two-dimensional figures and three-
dimensional solids polyhedraa), including the
number of edges, faces, vertices, and types of
faces.

Benchmark Number: MA.5.G.3.2
Benchmark Description: Describe, define, and
determine surface area and volume of prisms by
using appropriate units and selecting strategies
and tools.

Participants were first introduced to the properties of geometric solids in their 5th

grade classrooms as part of the Everyday Mathematics curriculum. Mrs. H. provided

additional instruction (intervention) and review on this specific content before 5th graders

designed a Scratch multimedia artifact. Both types of instruction occurred before the

onset of the current study.

During the study, participants were expected to design and construct multimedia

that demonstrates their understanding of the properties of geometric solids. The design

process occurred in two general phases: learning how to use Scratch (Phase 1) and

designing a project using Scratch (Phase 2). Each phase could be further divided into

sub-phases that better represent the specific activities of the participants (see Table 3-

2). During Phase 1, participants were introduced to Scratch. Participants used Scratch

(Version 1.4) installed on Apple iBook G4 laptops running the Mac OS X Version

10.4.11 operating system. They explored Scratch's interface and became familiar with










some of its features. The Scratch developers created Scratch Cards, which are a

collection of 12 cards that individually teach a specific skill in Scratch. For example, the

Say Something Scratch Card (see Figure 3-1) identifies the steps required to have a

sprite display a text bubble on the screen. During Phase 1, the practitioner shared the

Animate It, Moving Animation and Say Something Scratch Cards with participants to

learn the specific skill introduced by each card. The participants chose which Scratch

Cards they would like to learn.






What do you want your sprite to soy?



Select a sprite.
Type In a name for your sprite.

TIT THIS CODE

^^^1 *F---" ^^
Find the block that indude% your

I 2
.. L I ddnl' Lnor | pps could fl Ili['; l 2 ^

C l Ip Iny words.











Figure 3-1. The front and back of the Say Something Scratch card

During Phase 2, participants planned, designed, produced and tested ways to

represent their knowledge about the properties of geometric solids in Scratch. These

steps are similar to the multimedia development process used by professional









designers (Liu, Jones & Hemstreet, 1998). During this phase, participants were

introduced to the project and began to brainstorm ways to express their knowledge of

the properties of geometric solids. Participants added sprites and backgrounds from the

existing libraries in Scratch or created their own. Throughout this phase, participants

also tested and revised their project.


Table 3-2. Overview of daily activities


Day
Day 1
Day 2
Day 3
Day 4
Day 5
Day 6
Day 7
Day 8
Day 9
Day 10
Days 11-21
Days 22-25
Day 26


Phase
Phase 1
Phase 1
Phase 1
Phase 1
Phase 1
Phase 1
Phase 1
Data collection
Phase 2
Phase 2
Phase 2
Phase 2
Data collection


Descriptions of class events
Introduction to Scratch; overview of interface
Creating sprites in Scratch
Using the 'say' block in Scratch
Using the arrow keys to move a sprite in Scratch
Using sprite costumes in Scratch
Switching a sprite's costume in Scratch
Drawing geometric solids in Scratch
Complete pre-test on geometric solids
Review properties of geometric solids
Introduction to design project using Scratch
Designing in Scratch
Peer-reviewing and revising
Complete post-test on geometric solids


Data Sources and Collection

This section provides an overview of the sources of data employed to address the

research questions posed in this study. There are multiple sources of data for this study

(see Table 3-3 for a Source of Data Chart). Each source of data is further described in

the following sub-sections.

Table 3-3. Source of Data Table
Data source Research Research
question 1 question 2
Interview between researcher and practitioner X X
Debriefing notes between researcher and practitioner X
Pre- and post-experience content tests X
Interviews between participants and researcher X X
Researcher reflections on participant-constructed X X
Scratch artifacts









Researcher and Practitioner Interview

At the end of the project, the researcher interviewed the practitioner (Mrs. H.) to

determine the design principles necessary for engaging in additional iterations of this

DBR and for evaluating the effectiveness of this event as a pedagogical strategy. Thus,

the transcript of this interview (see Appendix A) provides a data source for addressing

both research questions posed in this study. The semi-structured interview guide used

during this interview is shown in Appendix E.

Debriefing Notes

Daily notes recorded by the researcher to document debriefing sessions between

the researcher and Mrs. H. that occurred immediately after each design session were

used to document the design and implementation of this innovative learning

environment. The debriefing notes included descriptions of the participants, the events

and the interactions between these objects. These notes also include direct quotes

made by participants or notes that capture the core of what is verbalized during the

observations. In addition, field notes include comments made by the researcher while

in the process of observing. These extensive field notes, in conjunction with debriefing

notes between the practitioner and researcher, provide sources of data for informing the

design of future iterations of this DBR and for developing a healthy response to

research question #2.

Content-Based Pre- and Post-Tests

Participants completed a pre- and post-test of content measures to determine

initial understanding and growth in conceptual understanding of standards-based

content (see Appendix D). The practitioner identified the pre- and post-test curriculum-

based content measure from the existing Everyday Mathematics curriculum resources









that are routinely used as a traditional summative assessment at the school site.

Changes in scores between the pre- and post-test provide data for identifying learning

gains during this event and for responding to research question #1.

Researcher and Participant Interviews

Two participants selected for the case studies completed a post-experience

interview with the researcher to determine how academically at-risk learners perceive

how constructing multimedia contributes to their learning and motivation (Van Manen,

2001; Seidman, 2006). Appendix E includes the semi-structured Interview Guide used

during the interviews. Each interview was recorded and transcribed (Poland, 2002).

These transcripts provide valuable data for addressing research questions #1 and #2.

Researcher Reflections on Scratch Multimedia Artifacts

During Phase 2 of this study (the design phase), each participant used Scratch to

design and construct a multimedia artifact that represented his/her understanding of the

properties of geometric solids. After each design session, this researcher examined

each Scratch artifact and noted the progress of each participant. In a spreadsheet, this

researcher recorded the number of sprites, the number of backgrounds, the number of

scripts, the number of command blocks used in scripts and the number of command

block types used in scripts. Collectively, these data serve as quantifiable measures of

each participant's progress (see Appendix G). In addition, this researcher recorded his

reflections on participant's progress while analyzing each Scratch artifact (see Appendix

C for an example). These reflections provide qualitative data for measuring each

participant's progress.









Data Analysis Procedures

This section includes an overview of the data analysis procedures used to analyze

the data collected during this study. This section is further divided into 4 sub-sections

that each addresses a separate data analysis procedure. First, this researcher

describes the data analysis procedure used to analyze the transcripts from interviews

between the researcher and the practitioner and the researcher and the 2 case study

participants. Second, the procedure used to conduct a cross-case analysis of the 2

separate cases is documented. Next, the process for comparing scores on the

curriculum-based pre- and post-test is identified. Finally, this researcher shares the

analysis process for examining the Scratch artifacts designed and constructed by the

participants.

Textual Data Analysis

Tesch (1990) provided a systematic eight-step process for analyzing data in the

form of text (See Table 3-4). The researcher applied this systematic process to analyze

transcripts collected from interviews with the practitioner and with 2 case study

participants (see Appendix F for an example of this process). The process described

below was applied separately to text from both transcripts based on interviews between

the researcher and the 2 case study participants. This data analysis generated a

separate case study for both participants and is used to address one of the research

questions: How effective is LCM at increasing learning gains in the properties of

geometric solids for academically at-risk learners? The data analysis procedure was

also applied to the text from the transcript of the interview between the researcher and

practitioner. This researcher used this particular analysis to address the second









research question: What are the design principles for creating an innovative learning

environment that integrates LCM for academically at-risk learners?

Table 3-4. Data analysis steps for textual data
Step Activity
1 Read through text to develop initial understanding; create brief notes
2 Reread text to develop meaning; create notes
3 Identify list of themes based on notes
4 Translate themes into codes; label text with codes
5 Group themes into categories
6 Convert categories into codes
7 Organize data based on categorical codes
8 Recode data, if needed

The first step is to carefully read through all of the transcripts with the purpose of

developing a general understanding of the data. The researcher recorded early thinking

and observations in the form of brief notes. This first step assists the researcher in

developing an initial understanding of the data.

Second, each of the transcripts is reread. After each reading, the researcher took

notes with the intent of capturing the overall meaning of the text and not the specific

detail embedded within the text. This step ensures a careful reading of the transcripts

and focuses the researcher on developing an understanding of the underlying meaning

of each piece of textual data.

Next, the researcher identified an initial list of themes generated from the notes

created during the previous step. These themes served as the initial framework for

making meaning of the data.

The fourth step involves translating the themes into abbreviated codes. The

researcher then returned to the transcripts and labeled each sentence phrase or

sentence with an appropriate code. Phrases or sentences that could not be labeled

with an appropriate code indicated that additional codes and themes should be









generated. This step tests the initial framework of themes against the data and yields a

revised framework of themes that addresses the data.

Fifth, the researcher narrowed the number of themes by grouping similar themes

into categories. This step generates a manageable list of categories. Categories and

their associated themes are identified in Appendix F.

Sixth, categories are converted into abbreviated codes. This step facilitates the

process of coding the data. Next, the researcher organized the data based on the

categorical codes. That is, individual phrases or sentences from the data were pulled

from the transcripts and regrouped with similar data based on the categorical codes

attached to the data. These regroupings provided evidence for making meaning from

the transcriptions and field notes. Lastly, if needed, data is recorded.

The process described above was applied to each of the transcripts generated

from the post-experience interviews with the 2 case study participants and with the

practitioner. This process resulted in the production of two separate cases. With the

availability of two cases, the researcher also conducted a cross-case study.

Cross-Case Analysis

This research study includes two case studies. Merriam (1998) identified two

stages of analysis when multiple cases are present within a study. First, the within-case

analysis occurs to generate "a comprehensive case in and of itself' (Merriam, 1998, p.

194). Next, cross-case analysis begins. This study identified two participants to serve

as independent cases for the within-case analysis with the intent of generating two

separate case studies. This researcher adopted Tesch's (1990) textual data analysis

for the within-case analysis as described above.









The next stage of analysis for a multiple case study is cross-case analysis. Cross-

case analysis allows the researcher to "enhance generalizability" (Miles & Huberman,

1994, p. 173) and "to deepen understanding and explanation" (p. 173). This approach

generates understanding beyond the uniqueness of an individual case and may lead to

a more universal and less particular understanding of the phenomenon of interest.

Miles & Huberman advocated for an "interactive synthesis" (p. 176) when conducting a

cross-case analysis. An interactive synthesis combines data analysis procedures that

separately focus on analyzing variables evident across cases (variable-oriented

strategies) or on analyzing the individual qualities of each case (case-oriented

strategies). Conducting an interactive synthesis first relies on the presentation of

separate cases. Next, themes evident across cases are described (a variable-oriented

strategy). These themes are then framed and supported within each case (a case-

oriented strategy).

Pre- and Post-Test Analysis

Scores from the pre- and post-test were compared for each participant. The

sample size for this study is too small to measure statistical significance between the

two measures. However, an increase in scores indicated that a participant did gain

some understanding of the properties during the experience.

Scratch Artifact Analysis

In this research study, each participant designed a multimedia artifact using

Scratch that represented his/her understanding of the properties of geometric solids.

These Scratch multimedia artifacts serve as a data source and can be analyzed.

However, there exists only a single precedent for analyzing Scratch artifacts. Maloney

et al. (2008) analyzed Scratch artifacts for evidence of programming concepts. They









examined learned-constructed Scratch artifacts and identified command blocks included

in each Scratch artifact. They argued that the use of a particular command block

indicated a specific programming concept. Unfortunately, this approach is not

appropriate for the current study because the research questions posed in this study are

not concerned with programming concepts learned by participants. Rather, the Scratch

artifacts needed to be analyzed to determine an impact on learning.

With this purpose in mind, this researcher examined each Scratch artifact daily. In

a spreadsheet, he recorded the number of sprites, the number of backgrounds, the

number of scripts, the number of command blocks used in scripts and the number of

unique command block types used in scripts. In addition, he also listed the unique

command blocks used in scripts for each participant's Scratch artifact (see Appendix G

for an example). Next, he recorded his reflections on each participant's progress,

noting evidence of content related to the properties of geometric solids and interpreting

progress based on the data recorded in the spreadsheet.

The data contained within the spreadsheet could serve as a measure of the

complexity of a participant's artifact. It is reasonable to assume that an increase in any

of these values over time indicates that an artifact is evolving and becoming more

complex. The reflections document this researcher's interpretations of the spreadsheet

data. Collectively, the spreadsheet data and reflections provided additional evidence for

completing the within-case and cross-case analyses.

Trustworthiness

Meeting sufficient levels of validity and reliability are concerns for all types of

research, but these constructs are measured differently in qualitative and quantitative

studies. Validity, reliability and generalizability all contribute to a qualitative study's









trustworthiness. Trustworthiness ensures that research results can be trusted with a

high level of confidence (Merriam, 1998).

Validity

A case study's validity ensures that the findings evident within the study match the

reality of the context. Merriam (1998) identified six strategies for ensuring sufficient

validity in qualitative case study designs: triangulation, member checks, long-term

observation, peer examination, collaborative modes of research and researcher's

biases. Triangulation involves "using multiple investigators, multiple sources of data, or

multiple methods to confirm the emerging findings" (Merriam, 1998, p. 204). This case

study design incorporated multiple sources of data (observational field notes, interview

transcripts, content measures and artifacts of interactive multimedia) during the data

analysis procedures to ensure that conclusions represented the data.

Member checks involve the interview participants in determining the plausibility of

the interpretations developed by the researcher (Guba & Lincoln, 1989; Miles &

Huberman, 1994; Moustakas, 1994). In this study, a member check was conducted

with the practitioner (Mrs. H.) after her interview transcript was analyzed to ensure that

conclusions arrived at by the researcher represented the data provided by her.

Engaging in long-term observation increases validity by providing sufficient time

for the researcher to collect data. For this case study, the researcher observed the

participants daily over a period of seven weeks.

Peer examination occurs when colleagues have the opportunity to provide

comments as the researcher develops findings based on the data. For this study, once

a case was analyzed, the researcher shared preliminary findings with a supervising









faculty member to ensure that case's analysis was proceeding in an appropriate

manner.

Collaborative modes of research provide opportunities for the study's participants

to contribute to the research process. Since this study uses a DBR framework,

collaboration between the researcher and the practitioner is an essential component of

the case study. The researcher and practitioner had extended time to collaborate and

to design the experience, and the practitioner served as a participant and as a source of

data in the case study.

Bracketing the researcher's biases forces the researcher to clarify "assumptions,

worldview, and theoretical orientation" (Merriam, 1998, p. 205) so that readers

understand a researcher's biases. Bracketing acknowledges that biases are inherent in

all human endeavors and ensure that they are made publicly available. The theoretical

orientation was described above and clearly represents this researcher's biases.

Reliability

Reliability refers to the ability of the study to be replicated. Merriam (1998) shared

three techniques for promoting reliability in qualitative case study designs: investigator's

position, triangulation and audit trail. First, the researcher should clearly describe his or

her role and decision making within the study. This chapter, overall, contributes to an

understanding of the role of the researcher in this case study. Decisions made by the

researcher are clearly articulated in previous sections. Second, triangulation

contributes to validity as described above and also contributes to the reliability of a case

study design. Third, providing a full and thorough account of how data is analyzed

generates an audit trail (Rodgers & Cowles, 1993). This documentation ensures that

others can understand the logic followed by the researcher in reaching conclusions









based on the data. The documentation should be sufficiently thorough such that others

could arrive at similar conclusions based on the analysis conducted. Appendices C, D,

E and F provide an audit trail for the analyses conducted in this case study.

Generalizability

Generalizability is an indication of the extent to which conclusions drawn from this

study can be applied to other contexts. Merriam (1998) articulated three strategies for

ensuring generalizability in qualitative case study design: rich, thick descriptions,

typicality and multisite designs. As articulated above, this is a descriptive case study.

An outcome of a descriptive case study is a rich, thick description of an event. A rich,

thick description provides an opportunity for readers to determine if findings can be

applied in their contexts. Typicality highlights how representative the participants are for

a particular population. This case study's participants are well described, and the

participant selection identified the qualities required for participation in this study.

Multisite designs can use different "sites, cases, [or] situations" (p. 212) within the study

to represent diversity within the event to be studied. This case study uses purposeful

sampling to identify two cases that represent maximum variation within the sample

population.

Limitations of This Study

There are several limitations of this study. This study attempts to provide a rich

description of the participants, context, events and the interactions between these

objects. Yet, interviews, debriefing notes and researcher reflections may not fully

account for an participant's behaviors. This represents a general limitation of case

studies best articulated by MacDonald & Walker (1977) when they observed that "at all

levels of the system what people think they're doing, what they say they are doing, what









they appear to be doing, and what in fact they are doing, may be sources of

considerable discrepancy" (p. 186, emphasis in original).

Another limitation of this study is the challenge of interviewing young learners.

Hetherington and Parke (1986) claimed that "children are more difficult to interview than

adults; children are less attentive, are slower to respond, and have more difficulty

understanding questions than adults" (p. 24). Children may provide monosyllabic

responses or answer 'I don't know' during interviews (Mauthner, 1997). These

responses are difficult to interpret and may not provide sufficient evidence to support a

particular finding.

It is also necessary to consider the uniqueness of the research context embedded

within the school site used in this study. The small group structure for the 5th grade

learners in this particular school may not exist in other school settings. Thus, it may be

quite difficult to replicate this study in additional school sites. The unique characteristics

of this site may also limit generalizations beyond this school.

A final limitation is the researcher's bias and its impact on the interpretation of the

data collected during this study. This researcher's bias provided a perspective through

which all data was interpreted.









CHAPTER 4
EVALUATION AND TESTING OF A SOLUTION IN PRACTICE

Introduction

This study seeks to identify learning gains when academically at-risk 5th graders

design and construct multimedia using Scratch that represents their understanding of

the properties of geometric solids. Based on this purpose, this study posed the

following research questions:

* How effective is learner-constructed multimedia at increasing learning gains in the
properties of geometric solids for academically at-risk learners?

* What are the design principles for creating an innovative learning environment that
integrates learner-constructed multimedia for academically at-risk learners?

In this chapter, this researcher first summarizes the data collected from all participants

then reports findings related to the first research question using data from case study

participants' responses during the post-experience interviews, participants'

performances on the pre- and post-test, debriefing notes from the practitioner and this

researcher and an analysis of participants' Scratch artifacts. The next chapter

addresses the design principles related to the second research question.

Summary of Participant Data

Eight 5th graders participated in this research study. Each created a Scratch

multimedia artifact that expressed his/her understanding of the properties of geometric

solids. This researcher daily analyzed each artifact and recorded specific data about

each as described in Chapter 3. In addition, each participant completed a pre- and

post-test addressing this specific content. Table 4-1 contains a summary of this data.

Table 4-1. Summary of participant data
Unit of analysis Case Case Other
study: study: participants'
Dominic Jennifer means









Number of sprites 22 11 4.3
Number of backgrounds 5 4 2.2
Number of scripts 84 40 9.5
Number of blocks used in scripts 207 116 56.3
Number of block types used in scripts 11 12 11.5
Pre-test score 7 9 6.9
Post-test score 6 6 7.6

This data reveals that the 2 case study participants included considerably more sprites,

backgrounds, scripts and command blocks than the other participants, though the

number of command block types used in their Scratch artifacts remained consistent

across the participant group. The 2 case study participants were the only participants to

score lower on the post-test when compared to the pre-test. The non-case study

participants scored higher on the post-test with the exception of one participant who

scored the same on both.

The next section showcases 2 case studies with the intent of developing an

understanding of the impact of LCM on learning.. These case studies are followed by a

cross-case analysis.

Impact on Learning

One research question posed by this researcher seeks to understand the impact

on learning when learners construct multimedia using Scratch. To address this

research question, this researcher, in collaboration with the practitioner, selected two

participants for in-depth case studies to determine the impact on their learning as

described in Chapter 3. Each case study participant completed a curriculum-based pre-

and post-test on the properties of geometric solids. In addition, each case study

participant designed a multimedia artifact using Scratch. These artifacts were analyzed

after each design session. This researcher also recorded, transcribed and analyzed an









interview with each of the case study participants. Each of these data sources provides

evidence for the case studies presented below.

Case Study #1: Dominic

Dominic is a friendly, polite African American 5th grade male from a professional

family. Mrs. H. describes him as a student with low perseverance but high self-

reflection. Mrs. H. notes that he frustrates easily when encountering challenges, but he

is quite aware of his emotions and does not hesitate to share them. Before this

research project began, Dominic often stayed beyond the scheduled time for the math

intervention class to talk with Mrs. H. about personal issues. Dominic has been a part

of the intervention class since the beginning of the school year. He was placed in the

class because of low performance on standardized tests. Dominic's fraternal twin

brother is also in the intervention class.

Based on an analysis of the interview between Dominic and this researcher, three

themes emerged that document Dominic's thinking during this project and provide

evidence for addressing the research question concerned with learning. The three

themes identified include (1) Dominic's response to learning and using Scratch, (2)

Dominic's response to this project, and (3) Dominic's response to his learning. These

themes were further supported with evidence from both the practitioner's and

researcher's observation notes.

Dominic's response to learning and using Scratch

Dominic's response to learning and using Scratch can be best summarized in his

own words: "Scratch is really confusing and frustrating." He found Scratch difficult to

learn because "it was hard to know what to do because there was so much stuff." By

"stuff", Dominic is referring to the number of command blocks that are displayed on









Scratch's interface (see Figure 4-1 for a screenshot of the motion command blocks

available in Scratch). The number of options available to him may have overwhelmed

him and prevented him from progressing when learning about Scratch. Mrs. H also

observed Dominic's confusion and frustration. On the third day of learning Scratch,

Mrs. H. recorded the following in her daily notes: "Dominic hit a wall and couldn't

persevere through a problem he ran into. He wanted me to just tell him how to get out

of the situation. He didn't want to try to figure it out on his own at all. Very interesting.

He left a bit upset today." Mrs. H. also noted Dominic's frustration on the 8th day of

learning Scratch ("Dominic got a little frustrated today") and on the 10th day of learning

Scratch: "Dominic was very vocal about wanting to go back to learning math this regular

way instead of with Scratch because he feels like he's not ready for his test."









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Figure 4-1. The Scratch's palette of motion command blocks

In spite of Dominic's self-reported confusion and frustration, he shared that he

enjoyed using Scratch. In particular, he enjoyed "making all the new sprites and editing

them" and "that there were so many sprites to use like a dragon and ghost and you can

create your own sprites like raining milk". In fact, his Scratch artifact included a dragon









sprite, a ghost sprite and three sprites of cylinders containing milk to portray raining

milk. Dominic became quite skilled at drawing and editing sprites. His artifact included

22 sprites total (the mean for the non-case study participants is 4.3). He drew 10

original sprites and edited 12 existing sprites using Scratch's paint editor. On the 12th

day of the project (the second day of designing), this researcher recorded in his field

notes that Dominic "has spent quite a bit of time adding and editing sprites to his project

but has spent very little time working on scripts which determine the actions and

behaviors in the project." The following day this researcher noted that "Dominic has

quite an imagination but he spends much of our meeting time adding characters to his

artifact that are only loosely related to math content." If Dominic needed assistance on

his artifact and if neither the practitioner nor the researcher were available to help him,

he would spend time creating or editing existing sprites rather than exploring command

blocks or testing out scripts for his artifact. On the third day of designing (the 13th day of

this project), this researcher recorded that withoutot assistance or prompting from the

practitioner or researcher, he does not make significant progress."

Dominic also became proficient at recording sounds in Scratch. Dominic was the

only participant to record his voice and integrate this voiceover into his artifact. He

learned this skill on the 9th day of designing (Day 19 of the project). After learning this

skill, he would record random talking or noises while waiting for assistance rather than

making independent progress on his artifact or trying to resolve an issue by himself.

When asked how he thought someone should learn Scratch, he expressed "one

simple thing at a time". By "thing", he is referring to the command blocks; he shared

that someone should learn only a few command blocks from each of the different









categories, preferably the most commonly used blocks. This may be an indication that

he felt overwhelmed when first learning about Scratch. The participants were not

introduced to command blocks separately. Rather, they identified a behavior or action

that they wanted to include in their artifacts then received assistance in identifying the

appropriate command blocks or stack of command blocks that would yield the desired

behavior. This 'just in time' approach may not have worked for Dominic since he

suggests an alternative approach for learning Scratch that focuses on exploring

individual command blocks.

Overall, Dominic's response to learning and using Scratch is a mixed response.

While he shared that he found Scratch confusing and frustrating, he enjoyed creating

and editing sprites using Scratch's paint editor. In fact, this researcher repeatedly

observed and noted Dominic's ability with these skills in his Scratch artifact, so he

clearly learned how to use this aspect of Scratch. He was also the only participant to

include a voiceover in his artifact.

Dominic's response to this project

During the post-experience interview, Dominic shared that he was not proud of his

Scratch artifact and that he "was a little embarrassed... because everything was messed

up the time I did it cause that was in the wrong place, that was in the wrong place, that

was in the wrong place. Everything was in the wrong place." When asked if he would

like to share his artifact with his 5th grade peers, he declined and said that he would

"feel too embarrassed". He also acknowledged that if he were given another

opportunity to design in Scratch that he would "want to make it better than the first one".

He reflected that "I guess I should have done better, I said it like I didn't care, like in the

sounds I said it like I didn't care." He felt like he did not provide much emotion in his










voice recordings, so he expressed that he should have included more inflections in the

voiceovers. Dominic's responses provide evidence that his artifact does not meet his

own expectations. His concerns about his artifact may stem from inadequate progress

made over the course of this study (see Figure 4-2 for a screenshot of Dominic's

project).


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Figure 4-2. A screenshot of Dominic's Scratch project

Dominic had a difficult time finishing his Scratch artifact. He relied heavily on the

practitioner and researcher to make progress on his artifact. When neither was

available, Dominic would use Scratch in ways in which he already felt confident and

competent, such as drawing and editing sprites or recording his voice. He would not

explore command blocks independently or seek help from his peers. On the 4th day of


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designing in Scratch (Day 14 of the project), this researcher observed that Dominic

"does not seem to be making progress on his artifact though he certainly can add and

modify sprites and add backgrounds. He uses the 'say' blocks to tell a part of his

imaginative story, but he is not able to synchronize the dialogue into a coherent

message or connect his story to math content."

On the 15th day of the project (the 5th day of designing in Scratch), Mrs. H.

observed and noted that Dominic's artifact did not address geometric solids. The

following day (Day 16 of the project and the 6th day of designing in Scratch), Mrs. H.

worked with Dominic to capture his thinking on paper. Dominic had brainstormed a

story idea for his artifact but had a difficult time transferring his ideas into a working

project. Mrs. H. worked with Dominic to capture the story that would unfold throughout

his multimedia artifact. Dominic shared his story with Mrs. H. while she recorded his

script on paper. Below is the text of his script. Italicized words represent improvisations

that Dominic made while recording the voiceover for his artifact. These words are not

part of the original script recorded by Mrs. H. while Dominic narrated. The underlined

words represent Dominic's attempt at integrating content vocabulary about the

properties of geometric solids into his artifact.

It all started at the theater. They were going to see a play about shapes. When
they were watching the play, they were transported to the shape desert. When
they got to the desert, the desert dragon showed himself. The cats asked the
desert dragon to take them home because he has transporting powers. The
dragon thought the cats lived in a creepy forest so that's where he transported
them back to and the land shark. When the cats got to the forest, they ran into
ghosts. The boss ghost captured the girl cat. The ghosts that worked for the boss
ghosts captured the other cats in a ghostly cylinder. The second in command
ghost transported everyone except for the girl cat to the geometric sea and once
again the land shark too. While the cats were in the geometric sea, they saw a lot
of shapes. The cats found a transporting sphere that transports them back to the
theater. The dragon from the desert comes to help them because the sphere is








not powerful enough but the land shark decides to live in the sea. They all got
transported back to the theater. When they got back to the theater, they found the
girl cat with the boss ghost. The boss ghost then says, "You just passed the
shape test!"
Dominic developed an elaborate story as the foundation for his multimedia artifact.
However, this story only superficially addresses specific content about the properties of
geometric solids. He integrated content-specific vocabulary into his artifact (cylinder,
geometric, sphere) but does not define or describe the properties of those terms. His
Scratch artifact does include hand-drawn representations of a sphere, cylinder, cone,
pyramid and several rectangular prisms (See Figure 4-3). However, these
representations are rough approximations of each geometric solid. They also serve
only as props for the artifact; they are not specifically referenced or described during the
artifact.










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Figure 4-3. Dominic's hand-drawn representations of geometric solids

By Day 20 of the project (the 10th day of designing in Scratch), Dominic was still

not making substantial progress particularly when compared to his peers. Mrs. H.

noted: "Everybody was really rockin and rollin except Dominic. He really struggled

working independently today." Similarly, this researched recorded:

Dominic is dependent on directions and insight from a teacher. Dominic would
tinker with blocks (especially the sound blocks) while waiting for either the
researcher or practitioner to help him make progress on his artifact. Often, he
needed input from the teacher to help clarify his thinking about the intent of his
artifact. Dominic continues to struggle with his artifact. He has developed an
elaborate story in his mind that is only loosely related to the idea of teaching
someone else about geometric solids. He uses the vocabulary of geometric solids
but only on a superficial level. He is unable to translate his story into Scratch
without assistance from either the researcher or practitioner.

This was a consistent theme observed by Mrs. H. and this researcher. Dominic only

made substantial progress if Mrs. H. or this researcher assisted him. He would not take

initiative to explore Scratch independently. He also would not seek help from peers

even if they could contribute.

By Day 22 of the project (the 12th day of designing in Scratch), Dominic appeared

to notice that he was not making as much progress as his peers. This researcher

recorded:

Dominic expressed frustration that he is only able to make small changes to his
project each day. He expressed that he doesn't understand why he is saving a
new file each day (participants save a new version of their artifact each day) when
he is not making much progress. He expressed some frustration that he is not
getting as much help as he needs. He also wants to know when he can work on
Scratch for fun and not a project about shapes.

Dominic's frustration may stem from realizing that his peers' artifacts are nearly

complete, yet he still has more work on his artifact and that he only makes a small

amount of progress each day.









While reviewing his multimedia artifact with this researcher, Dominic expressed, "I

don't know if it was as good as everyone else's cause they're all moving and having

conversation like [his brother's]." Dominic often compared himself to his brother. If his

brother was praised for an aspect of his Scratch artifact, Dominic showed frustration

that his artifact was not recognized. Early in the design phase, this researcher praised

Dominic's brother for creating a clever conversation between two characters using text

bubbles. This may have contributed to Dominic's remarks above because he

specifically mentions the conversation in his brother's artifact. Mrs. H. had observed

similar behavior in Dominic in the past. Any positive praise for Dominic's brother could

lead to a negative attitude in Dominic.

Dominic also acknowledged that his multimedia artifact "is really different from

everybody else's. Everybody else's seemed better because they're saying what shape

is this then you type it in." Dominic's Scratch artifact is different from his peers. His

artifact was the only Scratch artifact to include a narrated story (see script above). All of

his peers' artifacts included text bubbles for one or more characters. Dominic's artifact

did not include any text bubbles. Five of his peers (of 7 total) integrated a script that

asks the user a question, allows the user to enter text in a textbox, and then provides

feedback based on the entered text. Dominic chose not to use a similar script in his

project. Clearly, Dominic's artifact is different, and he acknowledges it. Yet he also

perceives that his peers' Scratch artifacts are better because his artifact is so different

from theirs and does not include the ability to type in a response.

In summary, Dominic was not pleased with his final Scratch artifact. He perceived

that his artifact did not work properly, and, therefore, did not meet his expectations for









how he intended his project to work. He also perceived that his artifact was quite

different from his peers and that it did not include several aspects that were common to

his peers' artifacts. Thus, he determined that his artifact was not as good as his peers'

artifacts.

Dominic's response to his learning

During the post-experience interview, Dominic shared that he did not think he

learned any new math content during this project other than how to draw geometric

solids. He believed that the math content he included in his artifact "are things I already

know". Dominic's scores on the pre- and post-test support his thinking (see Table 4-2).

Of the 13 points possible on the pre- and post-test, Dominic scored a 7 on the pre-test

(mean for the group is 6.9), and he scored a 6 on the post-test (mean for the group is

7.6). Dominic was not able to calculate the area of a rectangular prism's face on the

post-test though he was able to successfully complete the same calculation on the pre-

test.

Table 4-2. Overview of Dominic's pre- and post-test results
Test items Pre Post
Able to identify geometric solids? Yes Yes
Able to calculate area of a prism's face? Yes No
Able to determine the height of a prism? Yes Yes
Able to calculate the volume of a prism? No No
Able to calculate the surface area of a prism? No No
Able to explain how to calculate the surface area of a prism? No No
Overall score 7/13 6/13

With respect to his learning, Dominic expressed that he liked to write and tell

stories. This interest is clearly paralleled in his multimedia artifact. He developed an

elaborate script for his artifact then narrated it. Recall that his Scratch artifact contrasts

with his peers because it is so clearly story based. He also acknowledged that he did









not like the question-answer action used by many of his peers in their Scratch artifacts

("I don't really like doing that"). Dominic's responses may be an indication of his

learning style. He may prefer to learn through narrative rather than through question

and answer discussions. When given choice and control to design his Scratch artifact,

he chose a narrative approach rather than a question and answer approach selected by

most of his peers.

Impact on Dominic's learning

Based on Dominic's responses during the post-experience interview, his

performance on the pre- and post-test, field notes from the practitioner and researcher

and an analysis of his Scratch artifact, it is evident that the pedagogical approach of

having learners design a project in Scratch that integrates math content did not

contribute to Dominic's learning about geometric solids. On several occasions, he

became frustrated with the project and using Scratch. In fact, during one of Dominic's

instances of frustration, he questioned Mrs. H. about when the group would return to the

"regular way" of learning math. Although he reported enjoying Scratch, he was not

successful using Scratch to adequately represent an understanding of the properties of

geometric solids. His Scratch artifact includes only superficial references to geometric

solids and does not adequately express an understanding of the properties of geometric

solids. In addition, Dominic scored lower on the post-test when compared to the pre-

test. Thus, Dominic's case provides evidence that learner-constructed multimedia may

not be effective at increasing learning gains in the properties of geometric solids for

learners similar to Dominic.

Though Dominic learned a few simple actions in Scratch and could repeat those

actions as needed (e. g., creating a sprite, editing a sprite, recording his voice), he was









not able to learn more advanced features of Scratch related to his artifact even when

these actions were demonstrated several times to him by the practitioner or researcher.

The number of options available in Scratch may have overwhelmed him, or he may not

have had the necessary skills to successfully learn how to use a new multimedia-

authoring tool, design a multimedia artifact using that tool and integrate math content

into the design of the artifact. Dominic's peers in this project were more successful

learning and using Scratch to design a multimedia artifact that integrates the properties

of geometric solids.

Overall, it is discouraging to discover that using Scratch to design and construct a

multimedia artifact did not impact Dominic's learning. However, it is important to

acknowledge that learners differ in how specific pedagogical approaches will impact

them, and it is reasonable to assume that there are additional learners that share

Dominic's learning preferences. Thus, it is imperative to understand and identify which

types of learners may benefit from a particular pedagogical approach.

Case Study #2: Jennifer

Jennifer is a shy Hispanic 5th grade female. Her teachers describe her as quiet

and are often unsure how much she understands material because she does not

verbalize much. She has a history of poor school attendance. Jennifer did not begin

the school year in the intervention group. She entered the group mid-year after she was

recommended by a teacher based on her classroom performance and achievement

data. Jennifer reports that she likes school ("I love to learn cause then I kind of get the

subject more") and that she is good at math in some areas, such as "adding and

fractions and... exponents".









Based on an analysis of the interview between Jennifer and this researcher, two

themes emerged that document Jennifer's thinking during this project and provide

evidence for addressing two of the research questions. The two themes identified

include (1) Jennifer's response to learning and using Scratch, and (2) Jennifer's

response to this project. Observation notes by the practitioner and this researcher

provide additional data that support the themes evident in Jennifer's responses.

Jennifer's response to learning and using Scratch

Jennifer reported that she enjoyed using Scratch. She liked "making the shapes

[creating sprites] and using the backgrounds", and she also liked working with the

command blocks to create scripts because they allowed the sprites in her Scratch

artifact to "move and they can do [it] by themselves". A screenshot of Jennifer's Scratch

artifact is seen in Figure 4-4. Jennifer's artifact included 11 sprites (mean for the non-

case study participants is 4.3). She used 116 command blocks across 40 separate

scripts (means for the non-case study participants are 56.3 and 9.5, respectively).










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Figure 4-4. A screenshot of Jennifer's Scratch project

When compared with her peers, she clearly demonstrated that she learned how to

create sprites and scripts. Both Mrs. H. and this researcher repeatedly observed that

Jennifer made consistent progress on her artifact without help from an adult. On the

first day of designing (the 11th day of the project), this researcher recorded the following

in his observation notes:

I'm pleased with Jennifer's progress today. She quickly developed her artifact
idea. She attempted to create a rectangular prism though it appears to be a
trapezoidal prism. She has started scripting and integrated an interactive aspect
to her artifact by allowing the user some level of control when the user enters text
(a name) and the artifact responds accordingly (hello 'name'). This may represent
a lower level of interaction, but interaction is still evident. Jennifer is attempting to
personalize the artifact for its users.


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This observation documents Jennifer's attempt to include a script in her Scratch artifact

that asks the user's name, allows the user to type in a name, then combines 'hello' with

the user's name in a text bubble on the screen. Jennifer was the only participant to

include this action in her artifact, and when asked why she chose to include this script in

her artifact, she replied, "that it would probably make them feel happy".

When reflecting on learning Scratch during Phase 1 of the project, Jennifer

shared, "at first it was kind of hard but then I got used to it". She expressed that

"learning how to use all the tools for what I could do" made Scratch difficult to learn in

the beginning, but once she learned how to use aspects of Scratch, she felt confident

and competent using Scratch. Early in the design phase of the project, Jennifer wanted

to create an additional scene, but she did not want the sprites from the first scene to be

visible, so she asked for help. This researcher demonstrated how to use the 'hide' and

'show' command blocks in Scratch so that the proper sprites would be visible during the

appropriate scene. She quickly integrated these actions into her artifact. Two sessions

later, Jennifer shared how to use the 'hide' and 'show' command blocks and switch

backgrounds to transition between different scenes with a peer, who then shared with

Jennifer how to incorporate a question and answer script. Mrs. H. observed this

collaboration and noted: "saw some great collaboration between Jennifer and Sara

today."

Jennifer repeatedly demonstrated that she was a capable Scratch designer. An

example of Jennifer's competence using Scratch was recorded in this researcher's

observation notes:

I observed that Jennifer added a script to her artifact that plays a sound effect
when the 'a' key is pressed. Jennifer's artifact contains a question and answer









script that asks the user a question about the number of bases in a cone. If the
user enters a correct answer, positive feedback in the form of text is displayed on
the screen. When Jennifer interacts with her Scratch artifact, she presses the 'a'
key after she enters the correct response [to play the sound effect]. I observed
this behavior and asked her how the sound would play if she were in a different
room when a user was interacting with her artifact [and answered the question
correctly]. She immediately began addressing this issue without prompting or
assistance from this researcher or Mrs. H.

Jennifer's ability to independently revise the scripts in her artifact to ensure that they

worked properly is a clear indication of her confidence and competence using Scratch.

Another example of Jennifer's ability to independently revise scripts came during

the 8th day of designing (the 18th day of the project). This researcher recorded this

example in his notes:

A student who is not part of this learning group came near the end of the meeting
time to work with Mrs. H. While this student was waiting, Mrs. H. had Jennifer
share her Scratch artifact with the student. Once the opening scene took place,
the student did not know how to proceed until Jennifer told her to press the space
key. Once Jennifer realized that a user would not know how to proceed without
prompting, she added a 'say' block to the existing script to prompt the user to
press the space key to transition to the next scene.

Neither Mrs. H. nor this researcher needed to explain how to change the existing script

to ensure that user could proceed through the artifact. Jennifer observed how a user

interacted with her artifact, discovered that a user could not proceed without additional

prompting, and then made the necessary changes to the existing script to address the

issue. This example provides additional support for Jennifer's competence in using

Scratch.

Overall, Jennifer's response to learning and using Scratch is positive. She

reported that she enjoyed using Scratch, and she repeatedly demonstrated that she

was competent designing in Scratch. On several occasions, she independently revised

the scripts in her artifact when confronted with an issue to ensure that her artifact









worked properly. In addition, she also expressed that she would like to continue using

Scratch for other projects during the post-experience interview.

Jennifer's response to this project

Jennifer response to this project is best summarized in her own words: "I got to do

math but in a fun way". Her multimedia artifact clearly demonstrates her understanding

of the properties of geometric solids. Both of the images in Figures 4-5 and 4-6 show

Jennifer's understanding of this specific math content. Jennifer was not instructed to

include this text in her artifact; she chose it independently. She also did not ask either

an adult or a peer for help with the wording of this text. While Jennifer was working on

this particular script, this researcher observed that she originally typed "this shape has 7

vertexs". He intended to ask her about this error (a rectangular prism has 8 vertexes)

during the next session. However, she changed the text during the current session to

include "and 1 that you can't see" because there is a vertex that is not visible as the

rectangular prism is drawn. Neither Mrs. H. nor this researcher assisted her with this

change, so she was able to self-correct independently. This text represents her

understanding of a vertex and the number of vertexes for a rectangular prism. When

asked how she learned this content, she replied, "I learned it in math in the classroom."

Thus, she used Scratch to represent her understanding of content she learned during

her math class. Another example occurs in the next scene of her artifact (see Figure 4-

7). This scene embeds math content specific to the properties of a cone, and the text

bubble displayed in this scene accurately identified the properties of a cone.











A vertex is a point
that is connected by
edges.




H".






-p A





Figure 4-5. Text bubble about a vertex in Jennifer's Scratch project


This shape has 7
vertexs that you can
see and 1 that you
can't see.
.::. ... .






















Figure 4-6. Text bubble about a prism's vertexes in Jennifer's Scratch project






90
.:.. E:, N X r :











9O






























Figure 4-7. Text bubble about the properties of a cone in Jennifer's Scratch project

During the first two scenes of her Scratch artifact, Jennifer was deliberate in

pairing a visual (e.g., a drawing of a cone) with a text bubble that describes the visual.

This was an intentional aspect of the design of her artifact because she believed that

learners "understand more by looking at the pictures". Jennifer's approach may

represent how she prefers to learn, but it also demonstrates that she is thinking about

the needs of the audience who may use her Scratch artifact. Jennifer carefully

considered her audience, and she likened the act of designing a Scratch artifact for an

audience to "making a surprise for somebody else". Her artifact included several

questions for a user to answer. If a user answered properly, s/he received positive

feedback and a sound effect would play. When asked why she included feedback, she

responded, "so they [users] can be excited they got the right answer". Here again, she

considers the audience and wants them to feel "excited" when they answer properly.









During the post-experience interview, Jennifer also considered changes that she

would like to make in her artifact. She acknowledged, "I would make it a little bit longer

and change the characters." When asked about changing the characters in her project,

she replied, "cause it was mostly all girls". In fact, her project included 3 sprites

representing young females. She may have realized that boys could also use her

Scratch artifact, yet they were not represented in her artifact. Once again, she may be

considering the audience for her artifact. With respect to making her artifact longer, she

expressed that she would "keep on going with the game then after the game I'd

probably go to another scene and then maybe follow another scene and another

scene". The game she references is the last scene in her artifact, which involves

several shapes asking the user how many sides they have. Based on her response, it

is reasonable to assume that Jennifer is capable of creating additional scenes in

Scratch since she has the skills necessary to do so. Another improvement she wanted

to make was to make her artifact more interactive. During the interview, she wondered

aloud that "maybe if they could click on it" referring to having the user click on a shape,

then the shape asks a question about its properties.

Jennifer expressed that she did not want to share her Scratch artifact with her 5th

grade peers. She did not feel that 5th graders would be an appropriate audience

because "they probably already know this. It's probably more for little kids. They'd

learn a little bit more." This response provides additional evidence for how Jennifer

carefully considered the audience for her artifact. She believed that the math content

integrated into her Scratch artifact is more appropriate for younger learners rather than

her peer group because they already understand this specific content.









Impact on Jennifer's learning

Based on Jennifer's response during the post-experience interview, field notes

from the practitioner and researcher and an analysis of her Scratch artifact, it is evident

that the pedagogical approach of having learners design a project in Scratch that

integrates math content yielded mixed results with respect to Jennifer's learning about

geometric solids. Jennifer's Scratch artifact integrated accurate content representing

the properties of several geometric solids, so her project does represent her

understanding of this specific content and could be used as an assessment of her

learning. However, her performances on the pre- and post-test indicate that she did not

acquire new learning (see Table 4-3). Of the 13 points possible on the pre- and post-

test, Jennifer scored a 9 on the pre-test (mean for the group is 6.9), and she scored a 6

on the post-test (mean for the group is 7.6). Jennifer was not able to calculate the

volume of a prism on the post-test though she was able to successfully complete the

same calculation on the pre-test. She also failed to include proper unit labels for

several of the calculations. Thus, Jennifer's case provides conflicting evidence on the

effectiveness of learner-constructed multimedia on increasing learning gains in the

properties of geometric solids for learners similar to Jennifer.

Table 4-3. Overview of Jennifer's pre- and post-test results
Test items Pre Post
Able to identify geometric solids? Yes Yes
Able to calculate area of a prism's face? Yes Yes
Able to determine the height of a prism? Yes Yes
Able to calculate the volume of a prism? Yes No
Able to calculate the surface area of a prism? No No
Able to explain how to calculate the surface area No No
of a prism?
Overall score 9/13 6/13









Based on Jennifer's case, it is encouraging to discover that using Scratch to

design and construct a multimedia artifact may impact Jennifer's learning. Jennifer

reported that this project allowed her "to do math but in a fun way". Once again, it is

important to acknowledge that learners differ in how specific pedagogical approaches

will impact them, and it is reasonable to assume that there are additional learners that

share Jennifer's learning preferences. Thus, it is imperative to understand and identify

which types of learners may benefit from a particular pedagogical approach.

Cross-Case Analysis: Dominic and Jennifer

Each participant case was shared separately above. This section provides a

cross-case analysis that identifies themes evident across both cases (a variable-

oriented strategy) and attempts to develop an understanding of how the themes are

represented by each case (a case-oriented strategy).

An analysis of the Scratch artifacts created by participants reveals that Dominic

and Jennifer included substantially more sprites, more command blocks and more

scripts in their projects than the non-case study participants (see Table 4-4). Dominic's

artifact included numerous sprites. This is not surprising considering that Dominic's

artifact consisted of multiple scenes. He also reported that he enjoyed drawing and

editing sprites. In addition, he would draw and edit sprites if he did not know how to

make progress on his artifact. Jennifer also included numerous sprites though her

artifact contained fewer sprites when compared to Dominic's artifact but contained more

sprites when compared to the other participants' artifacts. Jennifer's artifact also

consisted of multiple scenes, and she also reported that she enjoyed adding sprites to

her project.









Table 4-4. Overview of analysis of Scratch projects
Unit of analysis Dominic Jennifer Other
participants'
means
Number of sprites 22 11 4.3
Number of backgrounds 5 4 2.2
Number of scripts 84 40 9.5
Number of blocks used in scripts 207 116 56.3
Number of block types used in scripts 11 12 11.5

Both Dominic and Jennifer included many more scripts and commands blocks

than the other participants. However, the high number of scripts and command blocks

in Dominic's artifact can be largely attributed to assistance from either Mrs. H. or this

researcher. He did not independently add the scripts and blocks. Mrs. H. or this

researcher demonstrated how to create scripts that matched the intended behaviors for

his artifact. In fact, five entries in this researcher's observation notes and two entries in

Mrs. H.'s notes include references to Dominic's choice to create sprites (a skill he

enjoyed and demonstrated competence) rather than independently designing, testing

and revising his Scratch artifact. In contrast, only a small portion of the scripts and

commands blocks in Jennifer's artifact can be attributed to assistance from an adult.

Most of the scripts and command blocks added to Jennifer's artifact are a direct result of

Jennifer's independent actions or through collaboration with a peer. This contrast was

noted in this researcher's reflections on the 10th day of designing in Scratch (Day 20 of

the project):

There is a fascinating dynamic playing out in this learning environment that
juxtaposes two different types of learners. Throughout this project, Jennifer has
demonstrated that she is an active participant in the learning process while
Dominic demonstrates the characteristics of a passive learner. Jennifer is able to
work independently. When confronted with an issue while designing her artifact,
she will 'tinker' with blocks and attempt to resolve the issue independently.
Dominic is dependent on directions and insight from a teacher. Dominic would
tinker with blocks (especially the sound blocks) while waiting for either the









researcher or practitioner to help him make progress on his artifact. Often, he
needed input from the teacher to help clarify his thinking about the intent of his
artifact.

This reflection summarizes a key difference between the two case study participants.

Dominic and Jennifer were the only participants to have lower scores on the post-

test when compared to the pre-test (See Table 4-5). One participant's scores remained

the same between tests. The remaining participants increased their scores. Dominic

was not able to calculate the area of a rectangular prism's face on the post-test though

he was able to successfully complete the same calculation on the pre-test. Jennifer

was not able to calculate the volume of a rectangular prism on the post-test though she

did successfully calculate the volume on the pre-test. These results are perplexing. It is

difficult to understand how a learner can successfully demonstrate a skill on one

occasion but can fail to replicate the skill at a later occasion. This suggests that it may

be necessary to provide multiple assessment opportunities for learners to adequately

document whether or not learners have effectively acquired specific skills.

Table 4-5. Overview of pre- and post-test results for selected cases
Dominic Jennifer
Test items Pre Post Pre Post
Able to identify geometric solids? Yes Yes Yes Yes
Able to calculate area of a prism's face? Yes No Yes Yes
Able to determine the height of a prism? Yes Yes Yes Yes
Able to calculate the volume of a prism? No No Yes No
Able to calculate the surface area of a prism? No No No No
Able to explain how to calculate the surface area No No No No
of a prism?
Overall score 7/13 6/13 9/13 6/13

Dominic's and Jennifer's pre- and post-test data provide inconclusive evidence for

determining an impact on learning specific math content when learners design

multimedia representing the math content in Scratch. However, when this data is









combined with participant responses during interviews and with data from an analysis of

participant Scratch projects, there is reasonable support for considering the impact of

this approach if the learning styles of individuals are supported. Dominic's learning style

was not supporting during this project. The design of this project did not provide the

required support for Dominic to be successful rather than frustrated. A linear process

that included specific, short-term goals may have benefited Dominic. A similar process

may have also benefited Jennifer. However, she accomplished considerably more in

her project than Dominic even though they both worked in the same educational

environment. Jennifer appeared to thrive when she was granted choice and control in

the design of her artifact. She shared with the researcher that she "got to do math but

in a fun way." She independently created several scenes for her artifact based on her

vision for how her artifact should be used. For Dominic, choice and control seemed to

serve as barriers for his learning that he needed to overcome. Dominic could not

independently create the scenes he wanted to include based on his vision. Jennifer

could independently implement the plan for the design of her artifact with occasional

adult support while Dominic needed almost constant adult support to ensure that he

progressed.

Summary of Case Study Findings

In summary, both case study participants participated in the same innovative

learning environment that created an opportunity for academically at-risk learners to

design a multimedia artifact using Scratch that represents their understanding of the

properties of geometric solids, yet both participants seemed headed in different

directions. Mrs. H. observed how Jennifer emerged as "one of the leaders" who "really

felt good about herself' while Dominic "got lost in the project" because of "not maybe









fully understanding the math behind it, not fully understanding his thoughts or how to

tackle projects or persevere."

Collectively, both case studies provide a mixed response for addressing the

following research question: How effective is learner-constructed multimedia at

increasing learning gains in the properties of geometric solids for academically at-risk

learners?

Dominic's case provides evidence that indicates that LCM using Scratch may not be

effective at increasing learning gains in the properties of geometric solids for certain

types of learners. Generally, designing a Scratch artifact was frustrating for Dominic,

and there is no supporting evidence to indicate that Dominic developed an increased

understanding of the properties of geometric solids.

Jennifer's case provides mixed evidence that this pedagogical approach increased

her understanding of the properties of geometric solids. A decrease in scores from pre-

test to post-test does not provide support for increasing learning gains. However,

Jennifer's Scratch artifact included accurate content representing some of the properties

of geometric solids. This provides evidence that she understands and can express

aspects of the properties of geometric solids. It also suggests that she engaged in this

specific content during the design and construction of her Scratch multimedia artifact.

In conclusion, these case studies reveal that the educational community should

consider the relationship between the learning preferences of the individual and the

nature of the pedagogical approach to ensure that learning is maximized. Not all

learners will thrive when a particular pedagogical strategy is employed. Dominic's and

Jennifer's experiences within this study support this claim. Both experienced a similar









learning environment with the common pedagogical approach of LCM, yet their

experiences yielded distinctly separate outcomes for each learner.









CHAPTER 5
DOCUMENTATION AND REFLECTION TO PRODUCE DESIGN PRINCIPLES

Introduction

This chapter addresses the final research question: What are the design principles

for creating an innovative learning environment that integrates learner-constructed

multimedia (LCM) for academically at-risk learners? An appropriate response to this

question should identify the design principles for integrating LCM for academically at-

risk learners. To address this question, this researcher analyzed data collected from

the two case study participants presented in the previous chapter and interviewed the

practitioner, Mrs. H., to discuss the features that benefited learners in the innovative

learning environment that integrated LCM (see Appendix A for a transcript of this

interview). This researcher analyzed the transcript using Tesch's (1990) eight-step

process described in Chapter 3 to extract the design principles. These design principles

serve as outcomes or findings for this research study and inform the next iteration of the

DBR process and the educational community.

Design Principles

Several design principles emerged from analyses of the two cases presented in

the previous chapter in conjunction with an analysis of the interview with Mrs. H., the

practitioner. Recall that Mrs. H. reflected that Jennifer emerged as one of the leaders

while Dominic appeared to get lost in the project. It is reasonable to assume that other

learners share common characteristics with Jennifer and Dominic, so their experiences

within this study can inform the educational community about a broader population of

learners. The following design principles emerged over the course of this study:

* Use multiple approaches to learn Scratch
* Scaffold the design experience


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* Explicitly and repeatedly state learning goals
* Assess artifacts regularly

Each of these design principles is discussed below.

Use Multiple Approaches to Learn Scratch

Learning how to use a multimedia tool is a prerequisite for designing with the tool.

Specifically, it is necessary to have some level of competence with Scratch before

designing an artifact using Scratch. There is no single approach to learning Scratch

that can meet the needs of all learners. Yet, this study demonstrated that several

approaches to learning Scratch used together ensured that participants developed

competence using Scratch. These approaches include direction instruction,

differentiated instruction and peer collaboration. Both Dominic's and Jennifer's

experiences provide examples of how these three approaches assisted them in learning

how to use Scratch.

Both Jennifer and Dominic had time to learn how to use Scratch before using it to

design an artifact. Their initial learning in Scratch was structured to ensure that basic

competencies were learned, such as how to add or create a sprite or how to add

command blocks to a script. These skills are necessary to create a wide variety of

artifacts in Scratch, and these skills were explicitly taught to the entire group of

participants. Additional differentiated instruction was provided 'just-in-time' once

participants identified an action or behavior they wanted to include in their Scratch

artifacts but did not know how to do so. This differentiated approach allows learners to

customize their multimedia artifacts. Participants also collaborated with each other to

learn new aspects of Scratch. If one participant learned a new skill in Scratch, then this

new expertise could be shared with peers. Therefore, the approach to learning Scratch









in this research study included direct instruction, differentiated instruction and peer

collaboration.

Jennifer's case provides an example of the three types of instruction in action.

Jennifer demonstrated competence adding existing sprites from the Scratch library to

her multimedia artifact and designing her own unique sprites relevant to her artifact.

These skills were part of the direct instruction that all participants received before

participants were allowed to design in Scratch. Jennifer expressed an interest in having

multiple scenes in her artifact through which a user would navigate, so she needed to

learn how to use the 'show' and 'hide' command blocks so that the proper sprites would

be visible or hidden depending in the appropriate scenes. Jennifer learned how to

integrate these command blocks with instruction from this researcher, an instance of

differentiated instruction specific to Jennifer. Sarah, one of Jennifer's peers, observed

Jennifer's artifact and wanted to include a similar action in her project. Jennifer

observed that Sarah's artifact included a question and answer script and decided that

she would like a similar action in her project. So Jennifer and Sarah collaborated to

learn the actions from each other.

Dominic's case provides an additional example of the three types of instruction in

action. Dominic demonstrated competence modifying existing sprites from the Scratch

library and designing his own unique sprites. Recall that these specific skills were

intentionally taught before the design phase of the study began. In addition, Dominic

was the only participant to learn and integrate voice recordings. When Dominic

expressed an interest in narrating the story he conceived for his multimedia artifact,

both this researcher and Mrs. H. assisted him in learning how to record his voice and


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integrate the recordings into his Scratch artifact. This skill was not taught to the other

participants because the other participants did not express an interest in integrating

voice recordings into their projects, so Dominic received differentiated instruction

specific to this skill. Dominic observed that Jennifer's Scratch artifact included multiple

scenes and expressed an interest in having multiple scenes in his artifact as well.

Jennifer collaborated with Dominic to teach him how to use the 'hide' and 'show'

command blocks just as she did with Sarah.

In summary, both Jennifer's and Dominic's experiences demonstrate how three

approaches to learning Scratch used collectively assisted them in learning Scratch.

Using multiple approaches may ensure more effective learning over adopting a single

approach. Providing just direct instruction may not allow learners opportunities to

customize their artifacts. Limiting learning to differentiated instruction may be an

unwieldy burden on the teacher as s/he attempts to individualize learning for all

students. When solely relying on peer collaboration, learners may not develop sufficient

competence because there may not be enough expertise within the peer group. When

all three approaches are integrated, direct instruction allows learners to develop basic

competency while differentiated instruction and peer collaboration increase competency

and allow for customization.

Scaffold the Design Experience

Both Jennifer and Dominic designed a Scratch artifact, yet their individual cases

support the design principle that it is imperative to scaffold the design experience to

meet the needs of the individual learner. Dominic may have benefited from additional

scaffolding that was not provided during the design stage of this research study. Too

much choice and control and too few checkpoints to meet throughout the design


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process may have contributed to Dominic's frustration during this study. Mrs. H.

reflected that Dominic struggled "because there wasn't enough structure for him." She

also reflected that Dominic needed "sequential" scaffolding that included specific steps

"that he needed to check off'. During an interview, this researcher asked Dominic about

the best way to learn how to use Scratch. Dominic shared that he thought it should be

"one simple thing at a time". In his response, Dominic may be expressing how he likes

to learn, not only how to learn Scratch but also how he prefers to learn in general.

Dominic may need to learn something new in small steps. Additional scaffolding could

reduce Dominic's frustration.

However, while Jennifer may have also benefited from additional scaffolding, she

appeared to thrive with the amount of choice and control offered during the design

process. Recall that Mrs. H. noted that Jennifer emerged as a leader among the

participants. She could independently troubleshoot and revise her Scratch artifact when

she encountered an issue. She could also share her expertise about Scratch with her

peers. In fact, several actions evident in her Scratch artifact eventually found their way

into several of her peers' artifacts.

Dominic's and Jennifer's nearly polar performances during this research study

suggest that scaffolding is a necessary component to construct multimedia, but the

scaffolding and support must be appropriate for the individual learner. Dominic may

require substantially more scaffolding than Jennifer. It is likely that learners may benefit

along a continuum of scaffolding with some learners requiring more scaffolding and

others requiring less scaffolding.


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Explicitly and Repeatedly State Learning Goals

Before participants began designing their Scratch artifacts, Mrs. H. and this

researcher shared the learning goal for the design process. The learning goal was

explicitly stated and recorded on the wall where it remained throughout the duration of

this study. Though the learning goal was explicitly stated at the beginning of the project,

it was not consistently readdressed during the extent of this study. This may provide

some account for why there is not a significant impact on learning observed. If learners

are not repeatedly made aware of the learning target when designing multimedia, then

they may forget their purpose for learning and their multimedia artifact may not fully

represent or address the learning goal.

Dominic's Scratch artifact only included superficial references to the properties of

geometric solids. This indicates that at some point during the design process he was

aware that his artifact should include some information about the properties of

geometric solids. However, had the learning goal been repeatedly restated, Dominic's

Scratch artifact may have addressed a deeper level of content. During the post-

experience interview between Dominic and this researcher, this researcher asked

Dominic if he could recall the goal of the design process. Dominic stated that he did,

but he could not articulate the original goal.

Jennifer's Scratch artifact addressed more content on the properties of geometric

solids than Dominic's artifact. It is reasonable to assume that Jennifer was also aware

that her artifact should include information about the properties of geometric solids and

that she was able to retain this learning goal longer than Dominic. Jennifer may also

have benefited from multiple reminders about the learning goal. They may have helped


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her focus on important aspects of the content or have encouraged her to include

additional content.

Though the learning goal for the design process documented in this research

study was not repeatedly restated while participants were designing their Scratch

artifacts, it was explicitly stated at the beginning of the study. Yet, explicitly stating a

learning goal is necessary but not sufficient for ensuring that all students meet a

learning goal. The learning goal for designing a multimedia artifact should consistently

be addressed to ensure that learners are working towards the appropriate target.

Assess Artifacts Regularly

One of the analyses conducted by this researcher was an analysis of each

participant's Scratch artifact. This analysis was conducted after each design session.

This researcher collected data from each artifact (see Appendix G) and recorded

observations of each participant's progress (see Appendix C). This daily analysis

ensured that this research had some degree of awareness of each participant's

progress during the design process. If inaccurate content appeared in a Scratch artifact

or if a Scratch artifact was not working properly, Mrs. H. or this researcher could

address the issue with the participant. However, this is only possible if someone is

aware of any issues, and it is only possible to be aware of issues if someone has

assessed the artifacts.

Regularly assessing artifact could be considered a daunting task if a teacher is

responsible for a large number of students. However, having students collect and

record their own data in a community spreadsheet could mitigate this concern. Thus, a

teacher could review the spreadsheet to determine progress then examine individual

Scratch artifacts as needed. Students could also record and reflect on their daily


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progress in learning journals, which the teacher could review to ascertain individual

progress.

Summary of Design Principles

This research study revealed four design principles that provide guidelines and

insight for teachers who choose to integrate LCM into their existing practice. The

design principles include:

* Use multiple approaches to learn Scratch
* Scaffold the design experience
* Explicitly and repeatedly state learning goals
* Assess artifacts regularly

These design principles also serve to inform the next iteration of DBR examining the

impact of LCM on learning content. These four principles should be explicitly integrated

into a future design of an innovative learning environment that allows learners to

construct multimedia to represent their understanding of specific content.









CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSION

Summary of Findings

Based on the analyses of interviews between case study participants and this

researcher and the practitioner and this researcher, an analysis of participant-

constructed Scratch artifacts, an analysis of this researcher's reflective observation

notes and data from a curriculum-based pre- and post-test, this study reveals that

learning gains may or may not occur when learners design a multimedia artifact using

Scratch. Data collected and analyzed in this study yield inconclusive evidence for an

impact on learning. Yet, this does not imply that there is no impact on learning. One

reasonable explanation for why no impact was measured may be a result of the

content-based measure used for the pre- and post-test during this study. Recall that

both case study participants, Jennifer and Dominic, scored lower on the post-test than

the pre-test. This measure may not have adequately captured participants' content

knowledge before or after the experience.

Situating This Study within Existing Literature

Recall from Chapter 2 that there is a reasonable amount of evidence within the

existing literature that identifies positive outcomes when learners design multimedia

artifacts. However, there exists little documentation that captures how learners use

Scratch to design multimedia in a classroom setting though the use of Scratch in after

school programs, community technology centers and Scratch's online community is

documented. This study documents how young learners use Scratch in a classroom

context to design a multimedia artifact that represents their understanding of required

math content. This study contributes to the current void of literature that documents


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how learners use Scratch in formal K-12 educational environments to learn required

curriculum content.

Implications for Practice

There are several implications for current practices when teachers and schools

consider integrating LCM using Scratch as a pedagogical approach. These implications

include:

* LCM allows multiple learning paths for students.
* LCM encourages self-directed learning.
* LCM promotes collaboration.
* LCM creates an alternative method of assessment.
* LCM changes the role of the teacher from giver of knowledge to coach.

Each of these implications is discussed below.

LCM Allows Multiple Learning Paths for Students

One of the implications evident from this study is that integrating LCM in schools

creates an opportunity for learners to engage in math content in an alternative manner

to rote learning. Mrs. H. reflected that "instead of just them being the consumers of the

knowledge and then just spitting it back out on a test and regurgitating it, they actually

had to think outside of themselves and think how would somebody be engaged in

learning about this shape". The environment featured in this study created an

opportunity for learners to become producers rather than consumers. Participants

designed a Scratch artifact that expressed their understanding of the properties of

geometric solids. Therefore, participants needed to think about which specific content

they wanted to include in their Scratch artifacts and to make decisions about how that

content would be expressed in their artifacts. This approach created multiple paths for

participants to design their artifacts. There was no single common path that all

participants used.


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It is likely that participants chose to express their understanding of the properties

of geometric solids in a manner that reflected how they prefer to learn. For example,

during the interview between Dominic and this researcher, Dominic shared that he

enjoyed writing and telling stories. His Scratch artifact was clearly story based. It

included a recorded narration of a story he created, and it was the only Scratch artifact

that included a voice recording. Though Dominic's Scratch artifact superficially

referenced the properties of geometric solids, his narrative approach to designing his

artifact may represent how he prefers to learn. If all participants were expected to follow

a common path while designing their Scratch artifact, Dominic may not have been able

to design a narrative artifact.

Another aspect of allowing multiple learning paths relates to approaches for

learning Scratch, the multimedia-authoring tool used in this research study. There are

multiple ways to learn how to use a new tool such as Scratch. One approach, as Mrs.

H. shared, involves "watch me, now you do it, watch me, now you do it". This approach

consists of a cycle of modeling by the teacher followed by guided practice for the

student. When the participants were first learning Scratch, this direct instruction was

the approach adopted by the practitioner and researcher. However, after sharing some

of the most common actions in Scratch, other approaches to learning Scratch were

employed. Participants were encouraged to explore Scratch independently to

determine which command blocks were required for their scripts, and the practitioner

and researcher provided 'just-in-time' instruction depending on the individual needs of

the participants. In addition, participants collaborated with each other to share

expertise.


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Regardless of the approach for learning Scratch, no single approach or learning

path works for all learners. Some learners need the additional structure of the cycle of

modeling and guided practice and do not thrive when given the opportunity to tinker.

Dominic represents this type of learner. He would only make progress on his Scratch

artifact when an adult was available to guide him. Others feel constrained by the cycle

of modeling and guided practice and learn more when allowed to independently figure

out how Scratch works. One of the non-case study participants emerged as a leader

while learning Scratch. He independently tested and revised scripts and tried out

various command blocks until the scripts worked the way he intended them to work,

then he would share his new learning with his peer group. Of all the participants, this

individual included 16 unique command blocks in his Scratch artifact, more than any

other participant (mean for the group is 11.5 with a range of 5-16). This demonstrates

that this individual was willing to tinker in Scratch and to figure out how certain

command blocks worked.

When a teacher creates opportunities for learners to follow multiple learning paths,

s/he encourages choice. Schiefele (1991) reported that choice encourages learners to

expend more effort on learning and understanding content. Turner and Paris (1995)

argued that choice can be a strong motivator. Open-ended activities create numerous

opportunities for choice and "provide students with opportunities to mold tasks to

interests and values, thus supporting their efforts to make meaning while engaging them

effectively" (Turner & Paris, 1995, p. 665).









Creating multiple learning paths ensures that learners have the opportunity to

learn in a manner that reflects the ways they prefer to learn. This implication is also

related to another implication relevant to this environment: self-directed learning.

LCM Encourages Self-Directed Learning

Participants in this project were afforded a fair amount of choice and control in the

design of their Scratch artifacts. The overall goal of designing a Scratch artifact that

includes the properties of geometric solids was a common expectation for all

participants. However, how they chose to address that goal varied significantly across

the participants. One participant chose a narrative approach. The participant recorded

his voice, telling a story he had written over the course of several scenes. A second

participant included a series of scenes that each shared information about the

properties of a specific geometric solid then asked the user to respond to a question

about that information and to answer it correctly before transitioning to the next scene.

Several participants used a quiz-like format that included a series of questions about

geometric solids without including background information. All three of these

approaches met the expectation of addressing the properties of geometric solids to

some extent though some participants integrated more content than others.

Self-directed learning was also evident through the level of engagement displayed

by participants. Mrs. H. noted that participants arrived at each session and

"immediately started working. They don't ever do that.... Ever. And if you go watch

them in their rooms, they're the least attentive and most checked out in their regular

classrooms. So for them to come in and just, bam, get down to work was huge." While

there is not sufficient evidence to determine the exact cause of this engagement and


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considering that there may be influences from other factors, it is still reasonable to

assume that engagement may increase when learners are responsible for their learning.

Jennifer's experience during this project provides support for this assumption while

Dominic's experience refutes it. Mrs. H. recognized Jennifer "as one of the leaders"

during this project while "Dominic got lost in the project". This may indicate that self-

directed learning only benefits learners when they have necessary skills to be self-

directed. Self-directed learning may be a learned skill; one that needs to be developed

over time. Jennifer repeatedly demonstrated that she could be a self-directed learner,

so during her past experiences, she developed the necessary skills to be a successful

self-directed learner. Dominic, however, may not have had the necessary skills to be a

self-directed learner. So when he was placed in an environment that encouraged self-

directed learning, he became frustrated and confused rather than thriving. He required

near constant guidance from either Mrs. H. or the researcher to make progress on his

multimedia artifact.

Self-directed learning encourages control of learning with the learner. Ryan and

Grolnick (1986) reported that students in classrooms where the control of learning is

shared between the student and the teacher demonstrate increased interest in

schoolwork and perceived competence than students in teacher-controlled classrooms.

Turner & Paris (1995) reported that sharedrd control provides students with both the

tools and the opportunities to take responsibility for their learning" (p. 667).

Encouraging self-directed learning may require that learners have additional skills in

place before becoming a successful self-directed learner. One skill that may be

beneficial for self-directed learning is collaboration with peers.


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LCM Promotes Collaboration

Mrs. H. noted that a significant implication of this environment was the opportunity

for collaboration: "collaboration with each other when they were having to create, but

then also when they were having to revise.... Somebody would say how do you do

that? Somebody else would say just do hide and then broadcast or whatever. That's

collaborate."

Throughout the design process, participants were encouraged to learn from each

other's experiences. If a participant wanted to include a particular action (e. g., hiding

and showing sprites so they appear in the proper scenes) but was unsure how to build

the script for that action, the practitioner or researcher partnered that participant with

another participant who had previously integrated that action and script into his/her

project. This type of collaboration resulted in multiple instances of 'cross-contamination'

when a particular action and script integrated into one participant's Scratch artifact

would become part of another participant's Scratch artifact after the two participants

collaborated.

Near the end of the project, participants also collaborated in a peer review

process. Participants reviewed each other's Scratch artifacts to ensure that they

worked properly. Participants also reviewed the artifacts for spelling, punctuation and

convention errors. This type of collaboration resulted in more polished Scratch artifacts

but also allowed participants to demonstrate and share their expertise in Scratch.

There is a reasonable amount of research evidence in the existing education

literature to support including opportunities for peer collaboration in schools. Schunk

(1989) observed that young learners observing each other's progress increased their

own confidence. Slavin (1987) reported that working with peers promoted engagement


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on tasks. Turner and Paris (1995) argued that "social guidance and cooperation in

classrooms are also fundamental to motivation" (p. 668).

While the collaboration described above yielded positive results, collaboration can

also result in a negative consequence. Late in the project, one participant discovered

an existing sprite in the Scratch library of a jetpack that included several pre-made

scripts that allow a user to move the jetpack sprite around the screen using the

keyboard's arrow keys. He added the jetpack sprite to his project even though it had no

relationship to the design and content of his multimedia artifact. He simply found it

entertaining. The following day, 3 participants, including the one with the jetpack sprite,

collaborated to peer review each other's Scratch artifacts. Not surprisingly, the other 2

participants added the same jetpack sprite to their multimedia artifacts after this

collaboration even though it was an irrelevant addition to their artifacts.

LCM Creates an Alternative Method of Assessment

During this project, participants completed a curriculum-based pre- and post-test

that was taken directly from the test bank of the math curriculum used in this school.

This type of assessment was the most common type of summative assessment used in

the 5th grade. Yet, the Scratch artifacts created by participants could also serve as a

summative assessment of participants' learning. Each Scratch artifact included content

related to the properties of geometric solids, and participants expressed their

understanding of this content to varying degrees in these artifacts. Therefore, these

Scratch artifacts could represent a form of summative assessment that documents

students' understanding of required content.

Based on Scratch artifacts, the participants in this project demonstrated various

levels of understanding. For example, Dominic, one of the case study participants, only


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included superficial references to geometric solids in his Scratch artifact. He created

sprites of several geometric solids and included them in his artifact but did not reference

them or elaborate on them. They existed as props in several scenes. As a summative

assessment of his learning, a teacher might conclude that Dominic does not have a

meaningful understanding of the properties of geometric solids because he was not able

to articulate any properties of geometric solids in his Scratch artifact though he did use

several related vocabulary terms. In contrast, Jennifer, the other case study participant,

explicitly stated the properties of two geometric solids in her Scratch artifact. She was

able to articulate these properties based on her understanding of this specific content.

In the design of her Scratch artifact, she is applying this understanding by articulating

the properties. As a summative assessment of Jennifer's learning, a teacher might

conclude that she does have a meaningful understanding of some of the properties of

two geometric solids because she articulated aspects of the properties of a cone and

rectangular prism.

Recall that neither Dominic nor Jennifer showed gains on the post-test when

compared to the results of the pre-test. If the post-test used in this study was used as a

traditional summative assessment of Dominic's and Jennifer's learning, then neither

individual demonstrated learning gains for the content addressed by the post-test. Yet,

such a limited approach does not necessarily capture the full range of a learner's

understanding for a particular content area. Jennifer's Scratch artifact clearly contained

content related to the properties of geometric solids that were not assessed by the post-

test. In reality, no single assessment, including a multimedia artifact, can fully

document a learner's understanding of specific content. As a form of assessment,


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designing a multimedia artifact could serve as one of several assessment tools that

teachers employ to capture and document what learners really know and understand.

In fact, McFarlane, Williams and Bonnett (2000) supported the student use of

multimedia authoring software as a form of alternative assessment though there is a

dearth of research that indicates how to assess a multimedia artifact for evidence of

learning.

LCM Changes the Role of the Teacher from Giver of Knowledge to Coach

Mrs. H. clearly observed how her role in this project changed from a "giver of

knowledge" to a "coach" (Carver, Lehrer, Connell & Erickson, 1992). When students

become more self-directed and have ample choice and control over a project, the role of

the teacher must change to accommodate the way students work. Mrs. H. noted that

during the design phase of this project, it was not possible for "everybody [to be] lock

step, we're all going to do this at the same time". Rather, it was "way more

individualized". Mrs. H. reflected:

Instead of me saying everybody on their paper draw a cone. OK. Now let's all
label the cone. Instead of that... most of them included something about a cone or
a different shape and they got to choose how they were going to talk about the
faces or the bases. And they still did that skill; they just did it because however
they chose to do it. It wasn't me having everybody do the same thing at the same
time.

When students become self-directed, the teacher's role changes because, as Mrs. H.

observed, the "learner is driving the train, and [the] teacher is behind the scenes."

It may be assumed that when a teacher moves away from the role of giver of

knowledge that learning may break down since there is no transfer of content from the

teacher to the learners. Yet, it is important to acknowledge that teachers still play

critical roles in ensuring that learners learn required content in their roles as coaches.









In the role of teacher as coach, teachers must have an informed understanding of

individual learner's needs to be able to provide appropriate support as learners progress

through a project, such as when learners design a multimedia artifact that represents an

understanding of specific content.

Summary of Implications

Based on case study analyses and an analysis of the interview between Mrs. H.

and this researcher, several implications exist when teachers integrate LCM as a

pedagogical approach for academically at-risk learners. Collectively, these implications

are important aspects to consider when implementing this pedagogical approach. The

implications identified in this study include:

* LCM allows multiple learning paths for students.
* LCM encourages self-directed learning.
* LCM promotes collaboration.
* LCM creates an alternative method of assessment.
* LCM changes the role of the teacher from giver of knowledge to coach.

When designing a multimedia artifact using Scratch, learners can select from multiple

learning paths if they are given a common goal but provided with choice and control for

how to reach that goal. Choice and control also encourage self-directed learning as

learners work to realize their designs. As self-directed learners, learners become active

participants in the learning process, and teachers provide support as needed as they

take on a coaching role. Collaboration among peers is also encouraged as learners

work on their designs. Completed multimedia artifacts can serve as an alternative form

of a summative assessment depending on how the design goal is structured.

Suggestions for Further Research

The current study serves as the first iteration of the DBR process. The design

principles identified by this study serve as a design framework for the next iteration.


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Each principle will be integrated into the next iteration of this study. In addition, further

research is needed in several areas.

Rather than assuming that a particular pedagogical approach works equally well

for all students, the research community must identify the types of learners that benefit

the most from a particular approach. We must acknowledge that learners benefit along

a continuum for a particular pedagogical approach or strategy. A strategy may work

particularly well for certain types of students though it may have no impact on other

types of students. Identifying specific approaches for specific learners will ensure that

an individual's learning needs are met. Though this study did not identify learning

preferences of the participants, future iterations of this study should attempt to ascertain

these preferences in order to understand which types of learners benefit the most from

a LCM approach.

The research community also needs to further document the outcomes for

learners when they use Scratch to design multimedia artifacts that represent their

understanding of specific content. This study represents a single contribution to

understanding this particular phenomenon, but substantially more studies are needed to

develop a clearer understanding. We also need to determine effective procedures for

assessing learning evident in Scratch multimedia artifacts. Little research currently

exists to assess learning when learners design multimedia artifacts. With additional

research in this area, traditional pre- and post-tests may no longer be necessary to

solely capture a learner's understanding of content. Additional forms of assessment,

such as assessing a learner's multimedia artifact, could complement data generated

from pre- and post-tests.


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APPENDIX A
INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPT BETWEEN PRACTITIONER AND RESEARCHER

This appendix includes the transcript of the post-project debriefing interview recorded
between the practitioner and researcher.


Researcher
How did your students react to
using Scratch? If you want to give
specific examples, feel free. If
you want to generalize, feel free.
Try to give any evidence that you
can or your observations or
thinking. Feel free to explain that.


Practitioner (Mrs. H.)
I think they reacted in a lot of different ways. And I
think they reacted in different ways based on where
we were in the project too. So I think at first, they
were all super excited about learning really
differently, learning beyond just the whiteboard and
the markers and pencil and paper, going more
digital. I think they're really excited about that. And
then I think when it turned into, well it's time for
them to really include some math stuff, it's not just
about learning, playing with the computer. It's time
to include some math stuff. I think some people
were like wait a second, but then I think they
pushed through that. So then I think the reaction
may be at first was like well I don't, wait, now it has
to get actually down to some work. But then I think
they pushed through it because it was so engaging.
So I think that really didn't matter. And then I think
as they started really getting into it, I'd say for a
good period, everybody was really actively
engaged, really responding very positively. And
then I think once it started getting towards the end
and it was time to finish, that's when I think I started
to see some people, the reactions starting to split a
little bit more. I think some people disengaged
because they didn't, they hit kind of a level of OK, I
don't really know how to keep going. I think some
people kept persevering and just kept kind of
altering their project and adding another room and
then just adding layers to it, which was great. And
then I think some people like Dominic, it just, it just
got to be like this mountain, and he didn't have any
clue how to get up the mountain. He knew. He
kind of knew that he was on a mountain because of
the little panic attacks, but he had no real strategy
to get up the mountain. And so I think his reaction
is one that was more negative, but I think that's one
out of the whole group, so I don't think that was how
everybody was.


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I _









So you talked earlier about a
range of reactions to using
Scratch. Initially, everyone is
interested, curious. And then
when the project is introduced, the
goal to design about math, who
did you think reacted? Did they all
react negatively or were there
specific students?
And then you also talked about
how once we got going to
overcome that initial reaction to
bringing in the math, then
everybody was doing fine. And
you mentioned near the end, we
had some reaction as well, maybe
some negative reaction to kind of
finishing up. Who do you think, as
we started going through the
project, who do you think really
reacted positively to the project,
and who do you think reacted
negatively to the project?


I would say Caleb maybe kind of reacted, like wait a
second. I think, I don't remember specifically, I wish
I could remember specific times or specific
instances or quotes, but I don't. I'm just going
based on what I kind of feel, and I think that Dietrich
maybe had that reaction too. But I don't, I think
everybody else was fine. Everybody else just kind
of, oh, OK, then we'll do that.

I think almost everybody reacted positively, so
Sabrina, Connor, Jennifer, Fernando. I would give
Troy kind of a in the middle, but I think in general, I
mean he was actively engaged and he did what he
needed to do. I just think towards the end that's
when he started to kind of fall off. Caleb, same
thing. Pretty actively engaged, but then towards the
end started to fall off. But Sabrina, Jennifer,
Nathaniel and Fernando, I think were pretty solid all
the way through.


Did you mention Dominic? No. Dominic was not solid all the way through. I
think he was solid at the beginning, kind of, in
Dominic's way. But at the end he just kind of fell
apart. Helpless.
Do you think that there, any idea I think anxiety is a big part of it for him.
what the cause of that might be,
that helpless feeling that Dominic
has?
Anxiety about? He has a higher level of anxiety in life. I don't think
it's just anxiety about technology or anxiety about
math or school. I think it's just anxiety. I think that's
just Dominic. He would have anxiety about getting
up in the morning and brushing his teeth, and that's
just Dominic. So I think, but if was something
particular to the project, I think it was because there
wasn't enough structure for him. Maybe he didn't
have things that he needed to check off and do this
first and sequential. Do this. Do this. Or I don't
know, I just think he got, he started chasing his tail
and got lost in the whole thing, which caused even
more anxiety.
Do you think it was easy or I think it was pretty easy for them to learn how to
difficult for your students to learn use Scratch. I think they're naturally inquisitive, and









how to use Scratch?


I think once they started to see the features and
started to notice, oh I can make things glide, make
things move with arrows, they started to, I think,
come up with even more of a story line or a concept
based on their schema of games and stuff. So I
think they took to it very naturally.


Are there ways that are better to I don't know. That's a good question. I think based
learn Scratch than others, do you on this population I would probably lean towards
think based on this population? watch me, now you do it, watch me, now you do it,
and I think we did that, but not as structured maybe
as they would normally get instructed because of
them. And I don't think that was bad.
You don't think it was bad that No, I don't think that's bad.
they didn't get as much structure?
But you think more structure might For certain kids like Dominic.
have helped them?
Anybody else? No. I mean I think individually that's really when we
were coaching them that's really what was
happening, but it was just not everybody lock step,
we're all going to do this at the same time. It was
just way more individualized.
How do you think having students Because I think it helps them think about the
create something in Scratch helps concepts on a completely different level than they
them learn? would have to think about just identifying them with
a piece of paper and a pencil or if I were just doing
it on the board and they had to verbally say it, I
think it helps them think about it in such a deeper
way.
What do you mean by a deeper Well, I mean, I don't really know how I feel about
way? Bloom's but it's beyond just identify or analyze or
those types of things. They have to actually think
about how someone else may think about a shape
and how can I get this person to say cone, and now
I actually have to draw a cone, and now I actually
have to now create something around this cone to
make someone else engage in this, to not give
them the answer. You had to really think on so
many different levels beyond pointing to a cone and
saying "yep I know that that's a cone" or "yep cones
have this". I don't know if that really made sense.
You said something about I think they had to use critical thinking skills that
different ways of thinking. Maybe maybe they typically wouldn't have had to use if
expand a little bit more some of they were learning about shapes or geometric
the different ways of thinking you solids just in a regular way.
thought they had to wrestle with
while designing in Scratch.


122









Critical thinking skills is kind of
general. Can you be more
specific about thinking skills,
critical thinking skills?


So then related to that question,
this focus on critical thinking, so
how was learning about math
different for your students when
they used Scratch as opposed to
how they traditionally have
learned that content?
Give me an example of that
choice.


So it was about how they're
learning about math differently,
you know, using Scratch versus,
you know, your normal instruction
or even classroom instruction.


So it sounds like the engagement
on the part, student engagement
is different whey they're using


When I say critical thinking skills, I think about
communication, analyzing in a different way. Really
having to analyze things, not just figure out an
answer, but really having to analyze things. I guess
when I say critical thinking I also think about
perseverance as well. That's not really a thinking
skill, but I think it's a behavior that comes when you
are thinking critically. I'm trying to think of another
specific skill that would be under critical thinking. I
mean I could pull out any tons of different verbs, but
I don't really know, comparing. It's critical thinking!
It's hard to explain.
Well because I think they got to engage in it in the
ways that they chose to engage in it, so I think
choice is a huge piece behind it.


So an example would be instead of me saying
"everybody on their paper draw a cone. OK. Now
let's all label the cone." Instead of that, they got to,
most of them included something about a cone or a
different shape and they got to choose how they
were going to talk about the faces or the bases.
And they still did that skill, they just did it because
however they chose to do it. It wasn't me having
everybody do the same thing at the same time.
They got to match their personality to it. I forgot the
question.
I also think having to think about how to explain it to
someone else is also another level of the critical
thinking and how they had to learn it differently.
Because instead of just them being the consumers
of the knowledge and then just spitting it back out
on a test and regurgitating it, they actually had to
think outside of themselves and think how would
somebody be engaged in learning about this shape.
Well, I'm going to do it by having cats spinning
around. Or I'm going to do it by having two sisters
standing there doing a game show. I think that is
completely different than if they just had to sit there,
take it in and spit it back out on a test.
I think. I don't have that measured. That's what I
saw. Just based on the anecdotal data.


123









Scratch versus in other learning
contexts.
How do you think your students
reacted to creating something for
2nd graders to use?
You were surprised they chose to
show it to 2nd graders rather than
their peers?


And that wasn't necessary part of
the goal. It just said to someone
else. We didn't specify 2nd
graders. They chose that later.
So that may have also been part
of them not focusing on 2nd grade.
How was student motivation to
work on this project affected by
having to design for someone
else.


Well, that was interesting watching them. I didn't
think they would have to do it to 2nd graders. I really
thought they were going to want to 5th graders.
I really was. I don't really know, I guess I know
what that's about, it was just kind of a fear of being
judged by their peers. But I expected them to want
to show that to their peers. But I don't really know
how much planning it for 2nd graders really that they
took into account. I think, I think they thought about
that towards the end when they were revising. I
think as they were creating, I don't know how much
of the audience, them being 2nd graders, really
played into how they made their projects.
I don't know if the designing for someone else
affected the motivation, but I think just the fact that
they were getting to create and do this type of math
and learning through this program affected the
motivation. They came in and they were
immediately started working. They don't ever do
that before. Ever. And if you go watch them in their
rooms, they're the least attentive and most checked
out in their regular classrooms. So for them to
come in and just, bam, get down to work was huge.
I think that wasn't because they were creating for
someone else. I think it was because they were
engaged in the project itself.


The project or in Scratch, do you Scratch. I think it was Scratch. I think the computer
think? too.
So student motivation was Yes.
impacted by using Scratch?
Do you think student learning was I think so. That would be something I would want to
impacted by using Scratch based probably further explore and maybe push a little bit
on your observations? more. I don't really know how to do that. But I think
that if we were to ask these kids about geometric
solids 5 years down the road, they will know it more
than if we were to ask them when they have there
traditional type of instruction. So I don't really know
if it's going to show right now, but I think it would
show later on. I feel like it went somewhere
different in their brain because of what they were
doing.
Tell me more about that, about it Well, I feel like it kind of embedded itself further
went somewhere else in their down in there into a memory, a place in their
brain. memory that's different. I don't know what type of


124









memory that's called. I don't think that's working
memory, but long term retrieval, I don't know. I feel
like it was way more of a significant event of
learning in their life, which then in turn will help
them really know it versus just learning it with pencil
and paper in their regular way.
Regular way meaning? Without Scratch, without creating some project
around a secure skill. Just kind of sitting and
getting.
Direct instruction? Yeah.
What did you observe about the I loved watching the sharing. That was probably
sharing today that you thought one of my favorite parts of the whole thing. So what
was a positive? did I observe? I just felt like they really brought
themselves down to the 2nd graders and they were
asking them questions and scaffolding their
learning, giving them high fives and talking them
through their projects and some of them started
showing them extra parts of Scratch and showing it
off a little bit. For me, watching them feel happy
and proud of their work is something that I think is,
that's everything. That should happen with
everything, and it doesn't.
Are there any negative aspects of No.
the sharing that you observed?
Overall, it was overwhelmingly Yeah, I can't think of something that would be
positive? negative out of it.
You felt like the 5th graders, do I think so. I think if I were their classroom teacher
you think the 5th graders also and had more of a, I think, stronger connection
believe that it was a positive relationship to them, I would be able to answer that
experience? better, but since I only see them for 20 minutes, it's
hard for me to really get a read, but I think that they
were happy. Dominic gave me a hug as we walked
out. You could just tell by the smiles, but I don't
have any specific quotes to go along with that.
If we were to do this all over Well. I don't know if anything really needs to be
again, what would you change different meaning that it could be better. I think
about the implementation of the things maybe to explore if this were to get done
project? What should be different again would maybe be giving some structure to the
about what happened this time? kids that started just chasing their tail. I don't know
if that would look more of like a rubric or just a
graphic organizer to help them think. Maybe a
graphic organizer for all of them up front to help
them scenes or something. But then again I
wouldn't want to structure it to be like "you must
include a rectangular prism, a cone, you must
include certain things". But on the other hand, I do


125

















So knowing your kids' abilities,
knowing your students' abilities
then determines level of support,
whether it's graphic organizers,
rubrics, etc. to meet the goals of
the project?


What do you think were the
design elements that were a part
of this project? What do you think
about the design features? What
were the design structures that
sort of guided this project?
A design element, a design
structure are sort of, what are the
key elements that make this
project work? I'm probably not
explaining this as well as I'm
thinking about it. It's, you know,
what were the features in the past
6 weeks or so that we've been
together? What were some of the
key aspects of what was going
on? For example, one element is
kids as designers or learners as
designers. To me, that's a design
element of this where we're
putting kids, 5th graders, in the
role of a designer of media, a
media designer. They created
media using Scratch about
content. So are there any other
design features that you noticed
or design elements that you


want them to include that stuff, so I don't know. I
would have to think about that. I think for certain
kids though, I think I would include something like
that but I don't think everybody would need that
because I think they would get it just by some
individualized coaching they'd pick up what the goal
is.
Yeah. I think for parents though, they would want to
know, just because this is how it is, about grades
and how you would get an A on that and how do
you get a B, so that would be an interesting thing to
explore like how do you quantify these projects with
a letter grade. How would you grade it? I don't
know. How do they get feedback and know that,
yeah, this, you know, you don't want to tell them
that is crappy. You get an F because that's stupid.
Is there a way to give them more direct feedback
and say, I don't know, it that's verbal or that's
written down or what.
What's a design structure?


So I immediately think of, and I don't know if this is
this is really, but something about intervention
students, students who struggle. Allowing students
who struggle a different way of learning, something
like that.


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noticed as part of this project that
you thought, oh, that's a key, you
know, piece of this kind of work.
I think that actually makes sense Not that that's a design
because
Well, it is part A theme
A theme, that's a way to think Yeah
about it. A theme of the project is
that we're creating opportunity for
intervention students to have
alternative ways of learning
content. So that would be a
theme. Would you agree with
that?
Are there any other themes, Self-directed learning
elements, features, you can call it
whatever you want to call it, that
you observed as part of this
project?
Tell me more about that So they got to choose how they were going to
display their knowledge. They weren't having to fit
into a box.
So choice? Yes. Collaboration, in lots of different ways.
Collaboration with us as their coaches, collaboration
with each other when they were having to create,
but then also when they were having to revise and
they were having to kind of, somebody would say
"how do you do that". Somebody else would say
"just do hide and then broadcast" or whatever.
That's collaborate. And then collaborate with the
2nd graders to collaborating to show a final product.
I would like to think of a math theme, but I don't
really know. I mean. Alternative assessment in
mathematics theme, kind of.
Even though we did use a use And I also think teacher as coach is a theme. It's
sort of a traditional pre post, but not teacher as giver of knowledge. Learner is
their individual projects could be driving the train, and teacher is behind the scenes.
evaluated, could be assessed.
Is there anything else? Am I missing one?
No. This isn't a right or wrong. Sorry.
That's OK. Is there anything else I just think it was really powerful for me to see that
I should know about the Tier 3 students can do something like this, and I
experience? Is there anything wish that that knowledge could be shared to
else you want to share that I didn't everybody because I feel like that something that
ask you about that you want to tell just pisses me off in this position with these kids is
me about this experience? that they're getting, I feel like they're instructional





























































128


casualties. They're not dumb kids that can't do it or
can't learn. I feel like this shows it too. This is a
hard program, and they did it. And so it there would
be a way to just use this as a platform to show that
these kids can do this type of stuff.
Did you ever feel like that maybe No, there wasn't.
they wouldn't be able to do this in
the beginning? Did you have a
concern that maybe this might be
stretching them?
Anything else you want to add? Nope, I think I'm good.
How do you think Jennifer Great. I think she was one of the leaders, a very
handled this project? quiet leader, but that doesn't mean, that's not bad. I
think she really shined, and I think she really felt
good about herself doing it too. And I think she had
a very varied, intricate story line, lots of, I don't
know, changes and characters. Good. Made a lot
of sense. Really, I think took into account the
person who was going to be watching her stuff.
Very girly. Two girl characters.
You've talked a lot about Dominic. I think Dominic got lost in the project, and I think
How do you think Dominic that was a mix of a lot of things. A mix of him not
handled the project? maybe fully understanding the math behind it, not
fully understanding his thoughts or how to tackle
projects or persevere, just figure things out, and I
think it's just a representation of what goes on in
Dominic's life.









APPENDIX B
DEBRIEFING NOTES

5/12/10
Practitioner (P): today was a big shift; felt group was charged up today; moving forward
on the project; projects are coming together; stories are developing
Researcher (R): projects are meatier: details such as hiding/showing; changing
backgrounds and creating new scenes; answering repeat; sprites moving then talking;
need to teach how to reset positions if sprites are moving during the project

5/13/10 (Co. absent today)

P: proud of S: showed independence, recreated similar behavior that was worked out
collaboratively with P the day before; F is more aware of his environment that gave
credit for... thought he was in his own world, but he is listening to his peers
R: observed more independence; at times, I was just watching students work; students
didn't need help; D needs to be refocused; seems to spend more time drawing; very
careful drawings provide fine details; N seemed to spend more time drawing

5/14/10
P: saw collaboration between S and G, evidence of reciprocity; Ca. seemed off task
today; N wanted help but didn't get it because of time; Co. wanted to demonstrate his
project to both of us; F is often off-task, dazed in his classroom, is focused on the task,
"capable of not going into the dazed-out zone"
R: D more focused with integrating content; spent a lot of time drawing sprites and
focused on a story; still needs help developing his story to integrate

5/17/10
P: worked with D to storyboard and script out his project; his project is based on a story
he created
R: worked with G to integrate a lesson about calculating surface area of a rectangular
prism.

5/18/10
No project time; 5th grade students presented their 20th century project

5/19/10
P: N did really well on his 20th century project yesterday and received a lot of positive
feedback, so D may have felt a little jealous of his brother's success; has observed this
behavior before; when leaving classroom today, D was frustrated with his project and
thinks that his project is not very good, said "mine's not better than N's" but this attitude
may stem from yesterday

5/20/10 (Only G, F and D attended today; S, N, Co., Ca. & T were absent)

R: able to spend most of the time working with D; he had a much better attitude today;
willing to work but relied on researcher for prompting on next steps; still has an


129









elaborate story in mind that is only loosely related to geometric solids; asked G if cone
may be in the wrong position; F added a jetpack sprite from the Scratch sprite library
that includes several scripts; his intent is to have the user control the jetpack while
responding to the questions.

P: another student looked at G's project yesterday but wasn't sure how to proceed, so G
added a say to direct the user; D asked when we could use Scratch to design about
something other than shapes.

5/21/10
Ca. and S needed to finish testing so they did not participate today. D did not progress
unless the researcher or practitioner is working with him. He will practice recording.

G was able to fix design errors in her project once D worked through it or the researcher
asked her about the sound clip even though P has tried to get her to identify the errors
independently. Thinking outside one's self is difficult for young learners.

D demonstrated that he can manipulate the direction of a sprite and change the size of
a sprite using the grow and shrink tools.

There is a fascinating dynamic playing out in this learning environment that juxtaposes
two different types of learners. Throughout this project, G has demonstrated that she is
an active participant in the learning process while D demonstrates that characteristics of
a passive learner. G is able to work independently. When confronted with an issue
while designing her project, she will 'tinker' with blocks and attempt to resolve the issue
independently. D is dependent on directions and insight from a teacher. D would tinker
with blocks (especially the sound blocks) while waiting for either the researcher or
practitioner to help him make progress on his project. Often, he needed input from the
teacher to help clarify his thinking about the intent of his project. D interacted with G's
project and G observed that D did not know how to proceed in several instances
throughout the project. She was able to observe how an individual user will encounter
her project and noticed that she need to provide additional prompting in order for the
user to successfully interact with her project. As soon as D finished interacting with her
project, G immediately began adding additional blocks to existing scripts to provide
appropriate prompts for the user. She did not need assistance from either the
researcher or the practitioner. Another example of G's willingness to be responsible for
her learning stems from an interaction between G and the researcher. The researcher
observed that G added a script to her project that plays a sound effect when the 'a' key
is pressed. G's project contained a question and answer script that asks the user a
question about the number of bases in a cone. If the user enters a correct answer,
positive feedback in the form of text is displayed on the screen. When G interacts with
her project, she would press the 'a' key when she entered the correct response. The
researcher observed this behavior and asked her how the sound would play if she was
in a different room when a user was interacting with her project. She immediately
began addressing this issue without prompting or assistance from the researcher or
practitioner. D continues to struggle with his project. He has developed an elaborate


130









story in his mind that is only loosely related to the idea of teaching someone else about
geometric solids. He uses the vocabulary of geometric solids but only on a superficial
level. He is unable to translate his story into Scratch without assistance from either the
researcher or practitioner.

N worked on a scene consisting of a dialogue between 2 characters about riding
dragons. This scene does not related to math content.
T added a cylinder to his project.
C finalized a dialogue between a prism and a cylinder, but the conversation is not
related to math content. His project has numerous spelling and punctuation errors.

5/24/10 (G was absent today)
R: N needed assistance today with the flying dragon scene. This scene is not related to
math content.
T needed assistance coordinating dialogue between 2 sprites. The timing was off.
D recorded the desert part of his script. He needed assistance setting up his 3rd scene
(the woods). He expressed frustration that he is only able to make small changes to his
project each day. He expressed that he doesn't understand why he is saving a new
project each day (participants save a new version of their project each day) when he is
not making much progress. He expressed some frustration that he is getting as much
help as he needs. He also wants to know when he can work on a project for fun and
not a project about shapes.
C needed assistance with fixing an error he couldn't identify. The project kept asking
the question repeatedly even if the correct response was entered by the user. The error
was due to a misspelling (cyinder-cylinder).
F is finished with his project from his perspective.
C did not ask for assistance nor accepted it when offered. He expressed that he was
wrapping up his project.

5/25/10
Those that were finished with their projects shared their projects with each other and
received feedback.

5/27/10
Proofing each other's projects

5/28/10
Proofing each other's projects

6/1/10
Checked for punctuation, spelling and conventions.
Co., Ca., F & S reviewed each others' project.
R worked with D. P worked with G. To finish projects









D literally hit a wall: he placed his head on the door and rested it. He's feeling frustrated
because he's comparing his project to others. He doesn't feel confident that he will be
able to share his project with others.

G needs more time.

6/2/10
Ca., S, T & N are absent today.
P worked with F and Co to proof their projects, particularly spelling and punctuation.
R worked with G and D to complete projects.
D is capable and confident importing sprites, shrinking or growing sprites, editing sprite
costumes, changing a sprite's directions. He has numerous sprites in his project (more
than any other participant). He needs consistent help with the programming aspects of
his project. He does not try to work independently. He will wait until either the
researcher and practitioner is able to help him.

6/3/10 (G was absent today)
Ca., S, Co., T and N proofed their projects.
D attempted to complete his project. He consistently changes where the sprites are
displayed for each scene rather than focusing on the programming. He still needs to
record the voiceover for his sea scene and the final theatre scene. He did record these
2 final voiceovers. The R helped him synchronize his completed project.
Nathaniel removed an irrelevant scene from his project then wanted to add another
geometric solid to his project. He also needed to slow down the dialogue to ensure that
2nd graders could read the text displayed on the screen.
N: "Where's the thing hide?" R: "It's under looks."
Connor worked on coordinating a dialogue between a cylinder and a prism.
Ca., S and T are finished.


132









APPENDIX C
SCRATCH ARTIFACT ANALYSIS

5/3/10
G created a costume for the existing cat sprite and added 2 sprites to her project. She
created a costume of a rectangular prism for the default cat sprite. This sprite now has
3 costumes but two of these costumes are default costumes. The rectangular prism
costume is currently displayed. The rectangular prism drawn by G appears to be a
trapezoidal prism rather than a regular rectangular prism.










She added a sprite of a young female who is standing and a fantasy character labeled
as a 'gobo'. Both sprites are from the existing sprite library. She has not altered the
stage; she is currently using the default white background. She has created 2 scripts.
One script is for the rectangular prism. When the project is started (green flag), the
prism states "Hello!". The second script is for the young female. When the project
starts, the female asks "What's your name?" and waits for a response to be typed into a
text box. After the user types in text and presses enter or uses the mouse to click on
check mark located in the text box, the female states "hello " followed by two
statements: "this is a rectangular prism" and "and this is my friend gobo.". However, the
first of these 2 statements is only flashed on the screen because G used the 'say' block
rather than the 'say for x secs' block. Scratch processes scripts in a linear fashion.
When there are 2 or more 'say' blocks in sequence, Scratch displays the text from the
first 'say' block then immediately displays the text from the next 'say' block, which
makes the text from the first 'say' block unreadable. G will need to replace the 'say'
blocks with 'say for x secs' blocks to ensure that the text is displayed properly and is
readable by the user. In both scripts, she used 9 blocks total, and she used 6 different
block types.

I'm pleased with G's progress today. She quickly developed her project idea. She
attempted to create a rectangular prism though it appears to be a trapezoidal prism.
She has started scripting and integrated an interactive aspect to her project by allowing
the user some level of control when the user enters text and the projects responds
accordingly. This may represent a lower level of interaction, but interaction is still
evident. G is attempting to personalize the project for its users.


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5/10/10
G is still using the same sprites. She did add a new background of a beach scene to
her project. G continued to develop her scripts. She removed the 'say' block from the
prism, so it no longer states "Hello!". Because she used a 'say' block rather than a 'say
for x secs' block, the text remained on the screen indefinitely. She did leave the 'when
flag clicked' block in the scripts area, so she may plan to have the prism complete a
different action. G updated the script on the female by changing the 'say' blocks to 'say
for x secs' blocks so that the text displays appropriately. She now has the young girl
stating: "this is my friend orange", "and this is a rectangular prism", "a vertex is a point
that is connected by edges.", "this shape has 7 vertexs that you can see and 1 that you
cant see", "lets go to different room to see our next shape.". Each of these statements
is displayed on the screen for 5 seconds. While G was working on this script, the
researcher observed that she originally typed "this shape has 7 vertexs". He intended
to ask her about this error during the next meeting. However, she changed the text
during the meeting, so she was able to self-correct. Neither the researcher nor the
practitioner addressed this concern with her. She may have received a clue from the
meeting space's whiteboard, which did include a drawing of a rectangular prism with its
8 vertices identified. G also created a script for the gobo. She used the 'when space
key pressed' block to trigger the gobo to state "Hello!". In both scripts, she used 12


134


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blocks total, and she used 7 different block types. In addition, she has one block on the
prism sprite that is not part of a script.

I helped G with her text display issue because she was using 'say' blocks rather than
'say for x secs' blocks. She quickly updated her script and added to it. I'm impressed
with how she self-corrected her vertex error during our meeting time. This took no
prompting from either the researcher or the practitioner.


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5/11/10
G was absent today. She was participating in FAIR testing.

5/12/10
G is using the same sprites and has added additional sprites. She created 2 sprites:
one that is an outline of a cone and another that is a pair of short horizontal lines. She
also added a chalkboard scene as an additional background and removed the default
white background from her project. She created 2 small scripts for the stage. One
scripts sets the beach scene as the opening background. The other script changes the
background to the chalkboard when the space key is pressed. She also included a
'when up arrow key pressed' block in the scripts area, but there are no additional blocks
attached to it. To the rectangular prism, she added two small scripts to indicate that the


135










prism should be visible in the beginning but should not be visible once the space key is
pressed. G did not alter the scripts on the young female or gobo. To the cone sprite,
she added the visible/not visible scripts similar to the scripts for the prism. However,
she reversed the behavior. The cone is not visible in the beginning but does become
visible when the space key is pressed. G also created a small script for the pair of lines
that makes them disappear at the beginning of the project. G has no created 9 scripts
for her project. Across all scripts, she has used 26 blocks, and she used 9 different
types of blocks. In addition, she has one block on the stage that is not part of a script.

G is clearly making progress. She is working to create an additional scene focused on
a cone. The researcher demonstrated how to show and hide sprites using the
appropriate blocks, and she quickly integrated this action into her project. It's not clear
yet how a user will know that the space bar needs to be pressed in order to advance to
the next scene.


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5/13/10
G is using the same sprites and created 2 additional sprites. One sprite is from the
Scratch library; it is a sitting version of the same young female she used previously.
She used the paint editor to create a sprite that resembles a chair and has placed the
chair so that the previous sprite appears to be sitting on it. Her backgrounds have


136









remained the same. She now has a total of 16 scripts. She did not alter the scripts on
the stage, prism, gobo and cone. She added 2 small scripts to the standing female to
ensure that she is visible at the beginning but is not visible when the scene changes
(when the space key is pressed). It is now apparent that the pair of short horizontal
lines represent pieces of chalk for the chalkboard scene. G created 2 small scripts to
hide the chalk at the beginning and make the chalk visible when the scene changes. G
created 2 scripts for the sitting female sprite. She has hidden this sprite at the
beginning but made it visible when the scene changes. The sprite then states "this is a
cone and it has one curved surface and one base with one apex". G also added 2
scripts to the chair sprite to ensure that it is not visible in the beginning but is visible
when the scene changes. Across all 16 scripts, she has 41 blocks, and she has used 9
different types of blocks. In addition, she has one block on the stage that is not part of a
script. Though the number of scripts and blocks has increased, the number of different
types of blocks has remained the same.

G hasn't addressed how the user will know to press the space key to transition to the
next scene. In addition, some of the text displays too quickly, so it may be difficult to
read for struggling readers. G worked independently today. She needed no help.

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5/14/10
G did not create additional sprites or backgrounds today. She spent most of the
meeting time working on a script that asks a question of the user then provides positive
or negative feedback depending on the response. The question is asked by the sitting
female in the chalkboard scene and is preceded by a description of the properties of a
cone. The user must enter a response until the correct one is provided. She originally
created this script on the standing female sprite. The researcher showed her how to
move the script to the appropriate sprite. G disconnected the original opening script on
the standing female from its corresponding trigger so the opening scene no longer
functions appropriately. She also added a music sound effect that is triggered when the
user presses the 'a' key. Across all 16 scripts, she has 42 blocks, and she has used 10
different types of blocks. In addition, she has 22 blocks on sprites and the stage that
are not part of any scripts. The majority (18) of those blocks are found in 2 stacks
located on the standing sprite. One stack was separated from its trigger. The other
stack was originally created on the wrong sprite but was later copied to the appropriate
sprite.

G still hasn't addressed how the user will know to press the space key to transition to
the next scene or corrected the speed of the text as described yesterday. The user will
also not know how to trigger the music. G integrated a question/answer script that was
demonstrated by the researcher for another student's project (F). G collaborated with S
to share expertise. G shared how to hide and show sprites and switch backgrounds to
transition between different scenes. S shared how to ask a question for the user to
enter a response and receive appropriate feedback. Both G and S's projects
demonstrate this collaboration since each project contains an aspect of the other's
project.


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5/17/10
G did not create additional sprites today but did create an additional background, a
living room scene. G reconnected the trigger to a stack of blocks that created the
opening scene on the standing female. She also removed some unnecessary blocks
from that sprite. She added a script to the gobo sprite that states "well i've got to go
now bye guys" when the space key is pressed. However, this script conflicts with a
similar script on the sprite. G now has 18 scripts that contain 54 blocks that represent
10 different types of blocks. In addition, she has 5 blocks on sprites and the stage that
are not part of any scripts.

G still hasn't addressed how the user will know to press the space key to transition to
the next scene or know how to cue the music or corrected the speed of the text as
described previously.


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5/18/10


5/19/10
G added a new sprite of a different standing female available in the Scratch sprite
library. G provided a 'say' block to prompt the user to press the space key to transition
to the next scene (a different room). A student who is not part of this learning group
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came near the endcaus of the meeting time to work with the presenactitioner. While this student
5/19/10
G added a new sprite of a different standing female available in the Scratch sprite
library. G provided a 'say' block to prompt the user to press the space key to transition
to the next scene (a different room). A student who is not part of this learning group
came near the end of the meeting time to work with the practitioner. While this student
was waiting, the practitioner had G share her project with the student. Once the
opening scene took place, the student did not know how to proceed until G told her to
press the space key. Once G realized that a user cannot proceed without prompting,
she added the prompt as described above. The cone is not visible when the text
appears that describes the properties of the cone. G previously created a third
background which indicates a new scene. She also has added several scripts to
various sprites to coordinate when sprites will be visible or not visible depending on the
scene. For example, the new sprite she added today is hidden at the beginning of the
project but will appear when the user presses the up arrow key. She added a 'say for x
secs' block that states "press the up arrow to go play a game". The researcher
challenged her to include something about surface area in her project. It appears that
she intends to have the user play a game in the new scene. She now has 24 scripts in


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her project that use 67 blocks. In addition, she has 3 blocks on sprites that are not part
of any scripts.

G has created a new scene that will incorporate something about surface area, though it
is not functioning completely yet. She has included scripts to coordinate the hiding and
showing of her sprites and to display the appropriate background for each scene
included in her project.

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5/20/10
Researcher encouraged G to move the cone to a different location on the stage so that
it would be visible when the female sitting sprite describes the properties of a cone.
Previously, the text appeared in front of the cone, so only a small portion of the top of
the cone was visible. G added a say block that states the name (ally) of the young
standing female sprite at the beginning of the project. G added another background to
her project. The background is a stage with spotlights. G now has 4 scenes in her
project: the beach, the chalkboard, a living room and a stage. The project provides a
prompt to transition between the first 2 scenes, does not provide a prompt to transition
to the 3rd scene though the say block with a prompt is located in the scripts area
(however, it is not attached to a script), does provide a prompt to transition to the last
scene. G now has 28 scripts that use 80 blocks from 10 different block types. In









addition, there are 2 blocks that are integrated into any script (one of these is the say
block mentioned earlier on the sitting female sprite; the other appears to be a misplaced
'when space key pressed' block on the prism sprite).


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5/21/10
G is close to finishing up her project. She had D interact with her project today. G was
able to fix design errors in her project once D worked through it or the researcher asked
her about the sound clip even though P has tried to get her to identify the errors
independently. Thinking outside one's self is difficult for young learners. D interacted
with G's project and G observed that D did not know how to proceed in several
instances throughout the project. She was able to observe how an individual user will
encounter her project and noticed that she need to provide additional prompting in order
for the user to successfully interact with her project. As soon as D finished interacting
with her project, G immediately began adding additional blocks to existing scripts to
provide appropriate prompts for the user. She did not need assistance from either the
researcher or the practitioner. Another example of G's willingness to be responsible for
her learning stems from an interaction between G and the researcher. The researcher
observed that G added a script to her project that plays a sound effect when the 'a' key
is pressed. G's project contained a question and answer script that asks the user a
question about the number of bases in a cone. If the user enters a correct answer,


142








positive feedback in the form of text is displayed on the screen. When G interacts with
her project, she would press the 'a' key when she entered the correct response. The
researcher observed this behavior and asked her how the sound would play if she was
in a different room when a user was interacting with her project. She immediately
began addressing this issue without prompting or assistance from the researcher or
practitioner.
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APPENDIX D
CURRICULUM-BASED PRE- AND POST-TEST







Complete each sentence with one of the following names of geometric solids:
pyramid cone rectangular prism

1. I have exactly two bases and no vertices. I am a

2. All of my faces are triangular. I am a _

3. I have one base and one curved surface. I am a C ~i-

4. I have a pair of bases and exactly eight vertices. I am a

The prism at the right is made of centimeter cubes.
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5. What is the area of the base of the prism? ..

6. What is the height of the prism?

7. What is the volume of the prism? '-

8. What is the surface area of the prism? -

9. Explain how y fourd your answer for Elblem 8.








10. f you kept the base he same, but tripled the
volume of this prism. what would be the height?

11. Write a mrfiber senteNie-t ~o-ow how you solved Problem 10. -



U. with Lesson 11.8. 407


144









APPENDIX E
INTERVIEW GUIDES

Semi-Structured Interview Guide for Case Study Participants

I want to talk to you about your experience designing about math in Scratch. I want you
to be honest. If you do not feel comfortable answering a question, you do not need to
answer the question.

1. Did you enjoy using Scratch? Explain.
2. Was it easy or difficult to learn how to use Scratch? Explain.
3. What is the best way to learn how to use Scratch?
4. Do you think that creating something in Scratch helps you learn? How?
5. Did designing in Scratch help you learn math?
6. Did your score on the math post-test improve from the pre-test? Why or why
not?
7. Did you enjoy creating something for 2nd graders to use? Explain.
8. Does designing something for someone else to use encourage you to work
harder? Explain.
9. Is there anything you want me to know about this experience that I didn't ask
you?

Thank you so much for talking with me. You've been very helpful.

Semi-Structured Interview Guide for Practitioner

I want to talk to you about your experience.

1. How did your students react to using Scratch? Explain.
2. Was it easy or difficult for your students to learn how to use Scratch? Explain.
3. What is the best way to teach students how to use Scratch?
4. How do you think that having students create something in Scratch helps them
learn? How?
5. How was learning about math different for your students because they used
Scratch? Explain.
6. How do you think your students reacted to creating something for 2nd graders to
use? Explain.
7. How was student motivation to work hard affected because they were creating
something for 2nd graders to use? Explain.
8. Is there anything you want me to know about this experience that I didn't ask
you?

Thank you so much for talking with me. You've been very helpful.


145









APPENDIX F
TRANSCRIPT AND ANALYSIS OF DOMINIC'S INTERVIEW

This appendix includes the transcript and 8-step analysis of the post-experience
interview recorded with Dominic, one of the case study participants.

Researcher questions Participant responses Record brief notes
while reading
transcript (Step 1)
Did you enjoy using Well, yes. Enjoyed Scratch
Scratch?
What about using Well, the part was making all the Enjoyed creating and
Scratch did you like? new sprites and editing them, like editing sprites
that cat right there I made her
a tongue and eyelashes, made her
look like a girl not a boy cat because
I think every cat in here is a boy.
So you liked taking the Yeah
existing sprites and
changing them, right?
OK. What else did you Well, that there were so many Enjoyed existing
like about using sprites to use like a dragon and library of sprites within
Scratch? ghost and you can create your own Scratch
sprites like raining milk.
OK. So you like that Yes.
you could design your
own sprites and
you also like that there
were lots of other
sprites that were part of
Scratch that you could
use?
Yes. OK. Good. Do I say it was difficult. Scratch is difficult
you think it was easy or
difficult to learn how to
use Scratch?
It was difficult to learn Yes.
how to use Scratch?
What made it difficult to Well, pretty much it was hard to Scratch is difficult
learn how to use? know what to do because there was because of too many
so much stuff. Like when you were command blocks
saying *** at *** and turn around
cause look at all these stuff glide 1
sens x -29 and y -10 and change x
by 10 and all this other stuff.
Sure. So all those Yeah


146









blocks, maybe there are
just too many blocks
showing so it gets
confusing?
OK. So because there
are a lot of blocks there,
what do you think would
be the best way to learn
how to use Scratch? Or
what would be the best
way for you to learn
how to use Scratch?


I don't really know.


You don't really know? Maybe get some professional help
What would have been
the best way to help you
learn Scratch?
Get some professional Yeah
help?
What do you mean by Maybe a person who's done Scratch Get help from an
that? for awhile or a person who maybe experienced Scratch
created it. user (did not perceive
researcher or
practitioner as an
experienced user)
Oh, maybe the person Yeah
who created it. Do you
think they would be able
to help you?
What about in a You mean the 5th grade classroom?
classroom? How could
we learn Scratch in the
classroom because we
probably wouldn't be
able to bring in
Sure, in the 5th grade Maybe one simple thing at a time. Teach in small steps
classroom. What would
be the best way to learn
Scratch? If you were
going to work with your
because you know
something about
Scratch now. How
would you teach your
classmates about
Scratch?
OK. Maybe one simple I guess but if I didn't know it, how









thing at a time. Do you could I teach it?
think that would help
you too?
Well, right, but I'm Yeah. Dominic may like it
saying if someone was when taught in small
teaching you, would it steps
help you to do one
simple thing at a time?
And what do you mean Like the first thing after another like Learn to create sprites
by one simple thing? creating the sprites. Then, well, first, first (he enjoyed), then
the motion, then the looks, sound, work through
pen, control, sensing, operation, categories of
variables. command blocks
So are you saying we Well, not all of these. That would Don't teach all
should go through each take forever, command blocks
block to teach you one
block at a time?
That would take a long Yeah, just like motion and that and Teach a few
time? that and that and that and then looks command blocks in
each category
OK, so maybe do a few Uh-huh (yes)
blocks from each of
those categories?
Maybe the ones you'd Yeah Teach most
use the most? commonly used
command blocks
OK. That's reasonable. Learning math?
Do you think designing
in Scratch helps you
learn? Do you think you
learn something while
designing in Scratch
while working on this
project?
Sure let's talk about Umm... I really don't. Some of that Already knows about
learning math. Do you stuff I already know like a pyramid. I content
think you can learn don't know that much about
math while working on pyramids but cylinder and cone I
this project? already know about those two.
OK. So you already Yes
knew about some of the
math you used?
So you didn't really No Didn't learn math
learn about math in this
project?
Is there anything you Well, how to draw some of them Learned how to draw


148









felt like you did learn some geometric solids
from this project?
So how to draw those Yeah
shapes?
Yeah, you drew a Well, I did learn that... not really. I Embarrassed by
number of shapes. I was just saying that I was a little project
see a cone, rectangular embarrassed when I was saying my
prism, cylinders even a project because everything was
pyramid there. You've messed up the time I did it cause
learned how to draw that was in the wrong place, that
them. Anything else was in the wrong place, that was in
you think you learned in the wrong place. Everything was in
this project? the wrong place.
You mean when you Yes, everything was in the wrong Embarrassed when
were showing it to the place. showing to 2nd graders
2nd graders?
Everything was in the Maybe not everything. Not in the Project isn't working
wrong place? right position. They're all supposed correctly; didn't finish
to be. He needs to be bigger.
They're all supposed to be facing.
Oh, so some of the See look. See
sizes are not right
So he's facing the Yeah, that's one.
wrong direction?
OK. OK. Well, do you want to see?
We'll go through it in a Uhm... probably... uhm... maybe... ma
minute, OK? Anything ybe learning how to do it.
else you learned?
Anything else you can
think of that you learned
while doing this project?
Learning how to do Yes. Learned how to use
Scratch? Scratch
Yeah, you learned how Yeah. Learned how to draw
to do Scratch a little bit and edit sprites in
because you said you, Scratch
one thing you liked was
drawing the sprites and
editing the sprites, so
you definitely learned
how to do that, right?
Did you learn how to Yeah Learned how to record
record your voice? his voice in Scratch
I think you're, in fact, Well, yeah. I think. Only student to record
the only person that voice in Scratch
recorded their voice, project


149









right?
I think you were. You I didn't even know we were going to Didn't know he would
learned that and I don't show it to 2nd graders. share his project with
think anybody else 2nd graders
learned about that.
When you were
designing this, were you
thinking about designing
for 2nd graders?
You didn't realize we No
were going to show it to
2nd graders?
OK. That's fair. Do you Yeah Claims to remember
remember the original the project goal
goal of the project?
What was the goal of Make it creative? Thought goal was to
the project? make a creative
project
To make it creative. I don't know if that was one of them. Not sure if goal is to
I don't know if that was one of them. make a creative
project
OK. So think back to I was trying to make it creative and Wanted to have
why did you design make them move and make them sprites move and
what you designed. have a conversation but instead I have a conversation
What was this trying to was the only one talking. I thought but instead recorded
show? the 2nd graders would get bored. his voice
Well, so what happened Well, they were looking at it. I don't Compared his project
yesterday with the 2nd know if they got bored because I'm to his brother's; he is
graders? Did they get not them but, I don't know if it was impressed by his
bored? as good as everyone else's cause brother's project; he
they're all moving and having thinks his project is
conversation like Nathaniel's. He not as good
was like it impressed me like fine
let's go on the dragons. Duh-duh-
duh. Dud-duh-duh. Fine let's go.
Yee-haw. And that's what
happened. And mine's not amazing
as that. Mine's just blah, blah, blah,
blah, blah, blah, blah. Blah, blah,
blah, blah, blah, BLAH, blah. And
then blah, blah, BLAH, blah. Yeah.
Well so everybody has Why? Doesn't understand
a different approach to why his brother
doing it and did you removed a scene
know that Nathaniel got about dragons that he
rid of that dragon really likes


150









scene?
You have to ask him. You mean the dragons go like this?
Yeah he got rid of it. Why?
You'll have to ask him. So what did he make?
I don't know why.
Well, he had the Oh.
conversation going at
the beginning.
I want to look at your OK.
project with you so let's
go through your project.
So first scene of your That's wrong. See how everything is Project does not look
project, your telling a messed up. the way it is supposed
story. PLAY FIRST to look
SCENE.
What's messed up here Well, he's supposed to be facing left.
He's supposed to be right there.
There's some cats in WATCHING WOODS SCENE: Oh, Frustrated that sprites
the wrong place and come on. Ugh are in the wrong
they're facing the wrong places
directions
He's supposed to be That's supposed to be grabbing its Sprite is in the wrong
behind? tail. place
Did that get changed? Yes. Didn't finish the
Was it like that project (yesterday was
yesterday? the last day to work on
projects)
How does the land See. Everything is messed up. Frustrated
shark
That looks right to me You know those aren't supposed to
be like that
Well, we talked about Wait. What do you mean? Well, he Trying to rationalize
that yesterday. What went there because it's the sea and I why there is a land
about the land shark. guess he doesn't like it. Are land shark in a project
How does the land sharks real? about geometric solids
shark related to
geometric solids?
I don't think so. I like Well, the shapes are there and I said Shapes are part of
the end by the way. I to pay well the last part when they project
like how you used your were done that I just wanted to make
fluctuation in your voice sure they were paying attention I
there. So, how do all said what were the shapes in the
these cats, ghosts, land background.
shark, dragon, how
does those relate to
teaching someone









about geometric solids.
So the shapes are in Uh, do I ever, well, when it's done I Asks "what shape is
the background. Do say "what shape is that?" and they're that" verbally but it is
you ever talk about the trying to guess it. not part of his project
shapes?
So explain that to me Cause when I'm done I want to
again make sure if they're paying attention.
So when you were Uh-huh (yes)
done, when you
watched this, so you
asked, did you ask the
2nd graders "what shape
is this?"
So that wasn't part of Yeah
your project, that was
just something you just
asked them?


OK. That's fair. We
asked you some
questions before the
project started and then
last week near the end
of the project, you
answered those same
questions. You might
not have remembered
it. OK, let's take a look.
I'll show you what I'm
talking about. So this is
what you did when we
started the project.
Remember looking at
this? And this is what
you did last week? So
we want to compare
answers. So, cylinder,
cylinder, pyramid,
pyramid, cone, cone,
rectangular prism,
rectangular prism. In
the beginning and at the
end, you could identify
which geometric solid it
is. No problem. So
then here we have what
is the area of the base


Is that right or wrong?


Concerned about
getting correct answer


152









of the prism. You said
8.
What do you think it is? I guess right
So how do you find I forgot.
area?
But over here you have It's 8
the area of the base is
16. So it looks like
It's 8. So you can count I thought it was 8 16
the cubes. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8. But here you
put 16. So one of my
questions is what
happened here. You
forgot?
8 plus 8 is 16? OK, Yes
then look at here.
What's the height of the
prism. You have 2 and
then you have 2. Is it
2?
Yeah, because you can I said 16.
count, so that was no
problem. What is the
volume of the problem
And then over here I I think it's 10.
can't tell if it's 16 or if
that's 10.
I'm not sure how you I think this is right.
went from here to here
but when we
This one's right. Yeah
Yeah, you're right OK, which one's the one I did first?
because you take
This one's first, this Oh, OK
one's second
Then you did. You're I think I improved more on this one Thinks he did better
right because you take (pre-test). on pre-test
the area of the base
times the height
You think you improved Yeah, that one (post-test) I did
more. You think you did horrible.
better on this one (pre-
test).
Well, I don't think you Yes
did horrible. I think that


153









maybe you just kind of
forgot. And then here
but I want to show you
something. Look here.
8 and 9. You just put
question marks, which
looks to me like you
didn't try, but here, you
tried, you put answers
and you said I just
looked at the surface.
So at least you tried,
you tried something
right?
So do you think you I think I did better on the first one.
improved on the second
one compared to the
first?
I would say maybe just Yes
a little bit better. It's
pretty similar, don't you
think?
Is there anything else Scratch is really confusing and Scratch is confusing
you want to tell me frustrating. and frustrating
about using Scratch or
doing this kind of
project?
Scratch is confusing I was wondering why when I got to
and frustrating. the 2nd graders it was doing all this
stuff to me
Like what do you When we we're doing this project Had issues with
mean? without the 2nd graders, nothing was computer when he
happening, it was just normal, but shared his project with
then once I got the 2nd graders, all 2nd graders
these lunatic stuff started to
happened like the computer shut off,
these Chinese words appeared and
everything got mixed up.
Yeah, that was strange No
yesterday, wasn't it?
How we had to shut
down you computer,
that was, because that
hadn't happened to you
this whole time?
Then it suddenly did. Yes


154









So you said it was
frustrating.
Would you ever want to Uhm...yeah, I do. And I want to Wants to make a
use Scratch again? make it better than the first one I better project in
want to make it more better. My Scratch, wants to
voice could be talking and they could integrate movement
be moving and stuff.
OK I don't know if I can do it again
because I'll be in 6th grade.
Well, you can use Free? I can do it on my computer?
Scratch. The nice thing
about Scratch it's free
You can download it on How?
your computer.
You just have to Yeah.
download it from the
Scratch website. Have
your parents help you.
Say "I want to find
Scratch", and you can
do it for free. So you'd
be interested in using
Scratch again.
You kept telling me Yeah During the project, he
during the project that wanted to do a
"when are we going to different project not
do a project that's not about shapes
about shapes".
Did you not like the Well, the shapes, I, well, no, I kind of
shapes? liked it.
OK. But you kept Yeah Wanted to do a new
wanting to move on to a project
different project?
How come? Well, the shapes. I thought it was Reflecting on his story
kind of weird when they were saying, idea
they looked like adults but they were
saying they were going to see a
movie about shapes.
What was the idea for I don't know. It just pops up in my
your you know you had head
this story. How did you
come up with all those
different ideas?
Just pops up in your A little Likes math a little
head? OK. Do you like
math?


155









Do you think you're No, no Perceives he's not
good at math? good at math
Do you think that you Maybe? Not sure if you can
could learn math using learn math using
Scratch? Scratch
Maybe how? The things I'm writing down are What he included in
things I already know, so how could his project is what he
it teach me? already knows about
the content
Great question. I don't Yeah Knows that he was
know the answer. So demonstrating what
what you were doing he knows about math
was demonstrating what
you know about math in
this project?
Anything else you want The things I didn't like was just, I Reflecting on his
to share with me about guess I should have done better, I project: he should
the project? Here's said it like I didn't care, like in the have tried harder on
your change to tell me sounds I said it like I didn't care. his recordings
anything you want to tell
me about the project?
Oh, so you would want Not all over cause, I was speaking
to redo your sounds? like I didn't care
Right, didn't put a lot of Except for the last part
emotion into it
The last part, yeah, you Uhm... uhm... uhm... maybe... uhm... I
definitely put a lot just know what's going to happen if I
emotion in the last line don't tell you this and then later
however you said that when then maybe Monday comes I'll
"the shape test", which have something I want to tell you
is pretty funny. then it will be too late, so I'm trying
Anything else I should to think of something.
know about working on
the project, anything
else you want to tell me
about this
I appreciate that Uhm...well... maybe it's about how Reflecting on project:
mine is really different from his is different from
everybody else's. Everybody else's other students (other
seemed better because they're students ask
saying "what shape is this" then you questions of user, his
type it in. tells a story)
So to you that seemed Well... not... no. I don't really like Doesn't like the
better doing that question approach
You don't like doing The part when you say "what's this
what? shape"


156









Yeah, so Well, maybe it would be fun
Do you like to tell Yes Likes to tell stories
stories
Do you write stories a Yes Writes stories
lot?
So what you did seems Really?
something that you're
good at then.
To me. Cause you had Well, I did Reflecting on how he
this very elaborate story likes to learn, how his
and nobody else really project reflects that
had a story like you had
a story, so I thought it
was interesting that you
just said that other kids
asked what shape is
this but you said well I
don't really like that.
So, it seems like to me
in your project you did
what you like to do
Isn't that OK you did it Well, yeah, it's OK.
the way you like to do
it?
The way you like to do Well, yeah, it's OK
it?
While I'm thinking about I'd feel too embarrassed Does not want to
it, would you want to share with peers
share this with your 5th
grade classmates?
You'd feel embarrassed Everyone in the 5th grade is mean.
to share that with them?
How come?
Everybody in the 5th Not everyone. Everyone's mean
grade is mean? and rough and tough, and I don't
want to do it. I'll be scared.
OK and we're not going I would do but I'll be too scared
to do it, so I don't want
you to think I'm going to
do it, I just wanted to
know what you think
Yeah, I appreciate that. They could
And do you think other
5th graders should learn
how to use Scratch
They could learn how to Yeah









use Scratch?
Do you think they'd like Some kids but some kids would
to learn Scratch? think it would be a waste of their
time
Why do you think some Cause they're not grateful
kids would think it would
be a waste of their
time?
Cause they're not Probably not.
grateful? Anything else
you want to share with
me?

General notes recorded while rereading transcript (Step 2)
Enjoyed creating and editing sprites
Like the library of sprites in Scratch
Scratch is difficult, frustrating and confusing; too many blocks
Thinks it would be helpful to learn one block at a time and to learn just a few
blocks from each of the categories. He may like to learn this way
Didn't learn math from this experience; already knew the math; did learn how to
draw geometric solids
Learned how to draw and edit sprites and record voice in Scratch
Not proud of project; embarrassed; many sprites are in the wrong location or
facing the wrong direction; compared his project to his brother's project and to
peers; didn't finish his project; could have tried harder; doesn't want to share with
5th graders
Reflective on his project; wondering about his story idea
Superficial representation of math content
Would like to use Scratch in the future; improve his project
Likes stories
Reflects on how he likes to learn

Generated themes based on general notes (Step 3)

Dominic's reaction to using Scratch
Enjoyed creating and editing sprites
Like the library of sprites in Scratch
Scratch is difficult, frustrating and confusing; too many blocks
Would like to use Scratch in the future; improve his project
Dominic reflecting on learning Scratch
Thinks it would be helpful to learn one block at a time and to learn just a few
blocks from each of the categories. He may like to learn this way
Learned how to draw and edit sprites and record voice in Scratch
Dominic reflecting on learning math during this project
Didn't learn math from this experience; already knew the math; did learn how to
draw geometric solids


158









Dominic reflecting on how he learns
Likes stories
Reflects on how he likes to learn
Dominic's reaction to his project
Not proud of project; embarrassed; many sprites are in the wrong location or
facing the wrong direction; compared his project to his brother's project and to
peers; didn't finish
Reflective on his project; wondering about his story idea

Codes from Themes and Coding Data (Step 4)

(Code: Theme)
Scratch reaction: Dominic's reaction to using Scratch
Learning Scratch reflection: Dominic reflecting on learning Scratch
Learning math reflection: Dominic reflecting on learning math during this project
Learning reflection: Dominic reflecting on how he learns
Project reaction: Dominic's reaction to his project

Researcher Participant Coding Data
Did you enjoy using Well, yes. Scratch reaction
Scratch?
What about using Well, the part was making all the Scratch reaction
Scratch did you like? new sprites and editing them, like
that cat right there I made her
a tongue and eyelashes, made her
look like a girl not a boy cat because
I think every cat in here is a boy.
So you liked taking the Yeah Scratch reaction
existing sprites and
changing them, right?
OK. What else did you Well, that there were so many Scratch reaction
like about using sprites to use like a dragon and
Scratch? ghost and you can create your own
sprites like raining milk.
OK. So you like that Yes. Scratch reaction
you could design your
own sprites and
you also like that there
were lots of other
sprites that were part of
Scratch that you could
use?
Yes. OK. Good. Do I say it was difficult. Learning Scratch
you think it was easy or reflection
difficult to learn how to
use Scratch?


159









It was difficult to learn Yes. Learning Scratch
how to use Scratch? reflection
What made it difficult to Well, pretty much it was hard to Learning Scratch
learn how to use? know what to do because there was reflection
so much stuff. Like when you were
saying *** at *** and turn around
cause look at all these stuff glide 1
sens x -29 and y -10 and change x
by 10 and all this other stuff.
Sure. So all those Yeah Learning Scratch
blocks, maybe there are reflection
just too many blocks
showing so it gets
confusing?
OK. So because there I don't really know. Learning Scratch
are a lot of blocks there, reflection
what do you think would
be the best way to learn
how to use Scratch? Or
what would be the best
way for you to learn
how to use Scratch?
You don't really know? Maybe get some professional help Learning Scratch
What would have been reflection
the best way to help you
learn Scratch?
Get some professional Yeah Learning Scratch
help? reflection
What do you mean by Maybe a person who's done Scratch Learning Scratch
that? for awhile or a person who maybe reflection
created it.
Oh, maybe the person Yeah Learning Scratch
who created it. Do you reflection
think they would be able
to help you?
What about in a You mean the 5th grade classroom? Clarification: Irrelevant
classroom? How could to research questions
we learn Scratch in the
classroom because we
probably wouldn't be
able to bring in
Sure, in the 5th grade Maybe one simple thing at a time. Learning Scratch
classroom. What would reflection
be the best way to learn
Scratch? If you were
going to work with your


160









because you know
something about
Scratch now. How
would you teach your
classmates about
Scratch?
OK. Maybe one simple I guess but if I didn't know it, how Learning Scratch
thing at a time. Do you could I teach it? reflection
think that would help
you too?
Well, right, but I'm Yeah. Learning reflection
saying if someone was
teaching you, would it
help you to do one
simple thing at a time?
And what do you mean Like the first thing after another like Learning Scratch
by one simple thing? creating the sprites. Then, well, first, reflection
the motion, then the looks, sound,
pen, control, sensing, operation,
variables.
So are you saying we Well, not all of these. That would Learning Scratch
should go through each take forever, reflection
block to teach you one
block at a time?
That would take a long Yeah, just like motion and that and Learning Scratch
time? that and that and that and then looks reflection
OK, so maybe do a few Uh-huh (yes) Learning Scratch
blocks from each of reflection
those categories?
Maybe the ones you'd Yeah Learning Scratch
use the most? reflection
OK. That's reasonable. Learning math? Clarification: Irrelevant
Do you think designing to research questions
in Scratch helps you
learn? Do you think you
learn something while
designing in Scratch
while working on this
project?
Sure let's talk about Umm... I really don't. Some of that Learning math
learning math. Do you stuff I already know like a pyramid. I reflection
think you can learn don't know that much about
math while working on pyramids but cylinder and cone I
this project? already know about those two.
OK. So you already Yes Learning math
knew about some of the reflection









math you used?
So you didn't really No Learning math
learn about math in this reflection
project?
Is there anything you Well, how to draw some of them Learning math
felt like you did learn reflection
from this project?
So how to draw those Yeah Learning math
shapes? reflection
Yeah, you drew a Well, I did learn that... not really. I Project reaction
number of shapes. I was just saying that I was a little
see a cone, rectangular embarrassed when I was saying my
prism, cylinders even a project because everything was
pyramid there. You've messed up the time I did it cause
learned how to draw that was in the wrong place, that
them. Anything else was in the wrong place, that was in
you think you learned in the wrong place. Everything was in
this project? the wrong place.
You mean when you Yes, everything was in the wrong Project reaction
were showing it to the place.
2nd graders?
Everything was in the Maybe not everything. Not in the Project reaction
wrong place? right position. They're all supposed
to be. He needs to be bigger.
They're all supposed to be facing.
Oh, so some of the See look. See Project reaction
sizes are not right
So he's facing the Yeah, that's one. Project reaction
wrong direction?
OK. OK. Well, do you want to see? Clarification: Irrelevant
to research questions
We'll go through it in a Uhm... probably... uhm... maybe... ma Learning Scratch
minute, OK? Anything ybe learning how to do it. reflection
else you learned?
Anything else you can
think of that you learned
while doing this project?
Learning how to do Yes. Learning Scratch
Scratch? reflection
Yeah, you learned how Yeah. Learning Scratch
to do Scratch a little bit reflection
because you said you,
one thing you liked was
drawing the sprites and
editing the sprites, so
you definitely learned


162









how to do that, right?
Did you learn how to Yeah Learning Scratch
record your voice? reflection
I think you're, in fact, Well, yeah. I think. Learning Scratch
the only person that reflection
recorded their voice,
right?
I think you were. You I didn't even know we were going to Project reaction
learned that and I don't show it to 2nd graders.
think anybody else
learned about that.
When you were
designing this, were you
thinking about designing
for 2nd graders?
You didn't realize we No Project reaction
were going to show it to
2nd graders?
OK. That's fair. Do you Yeah Project reaction
remember the original
goal of the project?
What was the goal of Make it creative? Project reaction
the project?
To make it creative. I don't know if that was one of them. Project reaction
I don't know if that was one of them.
OK. So think back to I was trying to make it creative and Project reaction
why did you design make them move and make them
what you designed. have a conversation but instead I
What was this trying to was the only one talking. I thought
show? the 2nd graders would get bored.
Well, so what happened Well, they were looking at it. I don't Project reaction
yesterday with the 2nd know if they got bored because I'm
graders? Did they get not them but, I don't know if it was
bored? as good as everyone else's cause
they're all moving and having
conversation like Nathaniel's. He
was like it impressed me like fine
let's go on the dragons. Duh-duh-
duh. Dud-duh-duh. Fine let's go.
Yee-haw. And that's what
happened. And mine's not amazing
as that. Mine's just blah, blah, blah,
blah, blah, blah, blah. Blah, blah,
blah, blah, blah, BLAH, blah. And
then blah, blah, BLAH, blah. Yeah.
Well so everybody has Why? Irrelevant to research


163









a different approach to questions
doing it and did you
know that Nathaniel got
rid of that dragon
scene?
You have to ask him. You mean the dragons go like this? Irrelevant to research
questions
Yeah he got rid of it. Why? Irrelevant to research
questions
You'll have to ask him. So what did he make? Irrelevant to research
I don't know why. questions
Well, he had the Oh. Irrelevant to research
conversation going at questions
the beginning.
I want to look at your OK. Irrelevant to research
project with you so let's questions
go through your project.
So first scene of your That's wrong. See how everything is Project reaction
project, your telling a messed up.
story. PLAY FIRST
SCENE.
What's messed up here Well, he's supposed to be facing left. Project reaction
He's supposed to be right there.
There's some cats in WATCHING WOODS SCENE: Oh, Project reaction
the wrong place and come on. Ugh
they're facing the wrong
directions
He's supposed to be That's supposed to be grabbing its Project reaction
behind? tail.
Did that get changed? Yes. Project reaction
Was it like that
yesterday?
How does the land See. Everything is messed up. Project reaction
shark
That looks right to me You know those aren't supposed to Project reaction
be like that
Well, we talked about Wait. What do you mean? Well, he Learning math
that yesterday. What went there because it's the sea and I reflection
about the land shark. guess he doesn't like it. Are land
How does the land sharks real?
shark related to
geometric solids?
I don't think so. I like Well, the shapes are there and I said Learning math
the end by the way. I to pay well the last part when they reflection
like how you used your were done that I just wanted to make
fluctuation in your voice sure they were paying attention I


164









there. So, how do all said what were the shapes in the
these cats, ghosts, land background.
shark, dragon, how
does those relate to
teaching someone
about geometric solids.
So the shapes are in Uh, do I ever, well, when it's done I Learning math
the background. Do say "what shape is that?" and they're reflection
you ever talk about the trying to guess it.
shapes?
So explain that to me Cause when I'm done I want to Learning math
again make sure if they're paying attention. reflection
So when you were Uh-huh (yes) Learning math
done, when you reflection
watched this, so you
asked, did you ask the
2nd graders "what shape
is this?"
So that wasn't part of Yeah Learning math
your project, that was reflection
just something you just
asked them?


OK. That's fair. We
asked you some
questions before the
project started and then
last week near the end
of the project, you
answered those same
questions. You might
not have remembered
it. OK, let's take a look.
I'll show you what I'm
talking about. So this is
what you did when we
started the project.
Remember looking at
this? And this is what
you did last week? So
we want to compare
answers. So, cylinder,
cylinder, pyramid,
pyramid, cone, cone,
rectangular prism,
rectangular prism. In
the beginning and at the


Is that right or wrong?


Learning math
reflection


165









end, you could identify
which geometric solid it
is. No problem. So
then here we have what
is the area of the base
of the prism. You said
8.
What do you think it is? I guess right Learning math
reflection
So how do you find I forgot. Learning math
area? reflection
But over here you have It's 8 Learning math
the area of the base is reflection
16. So it looks like
It's 8. So you can count I thought it was 8 16 Learning math
the cubes. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, reflection
6, 7, 8. But here you
put 16. So one of my
questions is what
happened here. You
forgot?
8 plus 8 is 16? OK, Yes Learning math
then look at here. reflection
What's the height of the
prism. You have 2 and
then you have 2. Is it
2?
Yeah, because you can I said 16. Learning math
count, so that was no reflection
problem. What is the
volume of the problem
And then over here I I think it's 10. Learning math
can't tell if it's 16 or if reflection
that's 10.
I'm not sure how you I think this is right. Learning math
went from here to here reflection
but when we
This one's right. Yeah Learning math
reflection
Yeah, you're right OK, which one's the one I did first? Learning math
because you take reflection
This one's first, this Oh, OK Learning math
one's second reflection
Then you did. You're I think I improved more on this one Learning math
right because you take (pre-test). reflection
the area of the base


166









times the height
You think you improved Yeah, that one (post-test) I did Learning math
more. You think you did horrible, reflection
better on this one (pre-
test).
Well, I don't think you Yes Learning math
did horrible. I think that reflection
maybe you just kind of
forgot. And then here
but I want to show you
something. Look here.
8 and 9. You just put
question marks, which
looks to me like you
didn't try, but here, you
tried, you put answers
and you said I just
looked at the surface.
So at least you tried,
you tried something
right?
So do you think you I think I did better on the first one. Learning math
improved on the second reflection
one compared to the
first?
I would say maybe just Yes Learning math
a little bit better. It's reflection
pretty similar, don't you
think?
Is there anything else Scratch is really confusing and Scratch reaction
you want to tell me frustrating.
about using Scratch or
doing this kind of
project?
Scratch is confusing I was wondering why when I got to Scratch reaction
and frustrating. the 2nd graders it was doing all this
stuff to me
Like what do you When we we're doing this project Computer issues
mean? without the 2nd graders, nothing was during sharing with 2nd
happening, it was just normal, but graders: Irrelevant to
then once I got the 2nd graders, all research questions
these lunatic stuff started to
happened like the computer shut off,
these Chinese words appeared and
everything got mixed up.
Yeah, that was strange No Computer issues









yesterday, wasn't it? during sharing with 2nd
How we had to shut graders: Irrelevant to
down you computer, research questions
that was, because that
hadn't happened to you
this whole time?
Then it suddenly did. Yes Scratch reaction
So you said it was
frustrating.
Would you ever want to Uhm...yeah, I do. And I want to Scratch reaction;
use Scratch again? make it better than the first one I Project reaction
want to make it more better. My
voice could be talking and they could
be moving and stuff.
OK I don't know if I can do it again Irrelevant to research
because I'll be in 6th grade. questions
Well, you can use Free? I can do it on my computer? Irrelevant to research
Scratch. The nice thing questions
about Scratch it's free
You can download it on How? Irrelevant to research
your computer. questions
You just have to Yeah. Irrelevant to research
download it from the questions
Scratch website. Have
your parents help you.
Say "I want to find
Scratch", and you can
do it for free. So you'd
be interested in using
Scratch again.
You kept telling me Yeah Project reaction
during the project that
"when are we going to
do a project that's not
about shapes".
Did you not like the Well, the shapes, I, well, no, I kind of
shapes? liked it.
OK. But you kept Yeah Project reaction
wanting to move on to a
different project?
How come? Well, the shapes. I thought it was Project reaction
kind of weird when they were saying,
they looked like adults but they were
saying they were going to see a
movie about shapes.
What was the idea for I don't know. It just pops up in my Project reaction


168









your you know you had head
this story. How did you
come up with all those
different ideas?
Just pops up in your A little Learning reflection
head? OK. Do you like
math?
Do you think you're No, no Learning reflection
good at math?
Do you think that you Maybe? Learning math
could learn math using reflection
Scratch?
Maybe how? The things I'm writing down are Learning math
things I already know, so how could reflection
it teach me?
Great question. I don't Yeah Learning math
know the answer. So reflection
what you were doing
was demonstrating what
you know about math in
this project?
Anything else you want The things I didn't like was just, I Project reaction
to share with me about guess I should have done better, I
the project? Here's said it like I didn't care, like in the
your chance to tell me sounds I said it like I didn't care.
anything you want to tell
me about the project?
Oh, so you would want Not all over cause, I was speaking Project reaction
to redo your sounds? like I didn't care
Right, didn't put a lot of Except for the last part Project reaction
emotion into it
The last part, yeah, you Uhm...uhm...uhm... maybe... uhm... I Project reaction
definitely put a lot just know what's going to happen if I
emotion in the last line don't tell you this and then later
however you said that when then maybe Monday comes I'll
"the shape test", which have something I want to tell you
is pretty funny. then it will be too late, so I'm trying
Anything else I should to think of something.
know about working on
the project, anything
else you want to tell me
about this
I appreciate that Uhm...well... maybe it's about how Project reaction
mine is really different from
everybody else's. Everybody else's
seemed better because they're


169









saying "what shape is this" then you
type it in.
So to you that seemed Well... not... no. I don't really like Learning reflection
better doing that
You don't like doing The part when you say "what's this Learning reflection
what? shape"
Yeah, so Well, maybe it would be fun Learning reflection
Do you like to tell Yes Learning reflection
stories
Do you write stories a Yes Learning reflection
lot?
So what you did seems Really? Learning reflection
something that you're
good at then.
To me. Cause you had Well, I did Learning reflection
this very elaborate story
and nobody else really
had a story like you had
a story, so I thought it
was interesting that you
just said that other kids
asked what shape is
this but you said well I
don't really like that.
So, it seems like to me
in your project you did
what you like to do
Isn't that OK you did it Well, yeah, it's OK. Learning reflection
the way you like to do
it?
The way you like to do Well, yeah, it's OK Learning reflection
it?
While I'm thinking about I'd feel too embarrassed Project reaction
it, would you want to
share this with your 5th
grade classmates?
You'd feel embarrassed Everyone in the 5th grade is mean. Irrelevant to research
to share that with them? questions
How come?
Everybody in the 5th Not everyone. Everyone's mean Irrelevant to research
grade is mean? and rough and tough, and I don't questions
want to do it. I'll be scared.
OK and we're not going I would do but I'll be too scared Irrelevant to research
to do it, so I don't want questions
you to think I'm going to
do it, I just wanted to


170









know what you think
Yeah, I appreciate that. They could Irrelevant to research
And do you think other questions
5th graders should learn
how to use Scratch
They could learn how to Yeah Irrelevant to research
use Scratch? questions
Do you think they'd like Some kids but some kids would Irrelevant to research
to learn Scratch? think it would be a waste of their questions
time
Why do you think some Cause they're not grateful Irrelevant to research
kids would think it would questions
be a waste of their
time?
Cause they're not Probably not. Irrelevant to research
grateful? Anything else questions
you want to share with
me?

Group similar themes into categories (Step 5)
This step narrows the number of themes by grouping similar themes into categories.
There were 5 themes generated from the data in Step 3. These 5 themes were
grouped into 3 categories.

Previously identified themes:
1. Dominic's reaction to using Scratch
2. Dominic reflecting on learning Scratch
3. Dominic reflecting on learning math during this project
4. Dominic reflecting on how he learns
5. Dominic's reaction to his project

Categories (based on grouping similar themes):
1. Dominic's response to learning and using Scratch
a. Dominic reflecting on learning Scratch
b. Dominic's reaction to using Scratch
2. Dominic's response to this project
a. Dominic's reaction to his project
3. Dominic's response to his learning
a. Dominic reflecting on learning math during this project
b. Dominic reflecting on how he learns

Convert categories into categorical codes (Step 6)
1. Scratch: Dominic's response to learning and using Scratch
2. Project: Dominic's response to this project
3. Learning: Dominic's response to his learning









Organize data based on categorical codes (Step 7)


Scratch:
Did you enjoy using Scratch? Well, yes.
What about using Scratch did you like? Well, the part was making all the new
sprites and editing them, like that cat
right there I made her a tongue
and eyelashes, made her look like a girl
not a boy cat because I think every cat
in here is a boy.
So you liked taking the existing sprites and Yeah
changing them, right?
OK. What else did you like about using Well, that there were so many sprites to
Scratch? use like a dragon and ghost and you
can create your own sprites like raining
milk.
OK. So you like that you could design your Yes.
own sprites and you also like that
there were lots of other sprites that were
part of Scratch that you could use?
Is there anything else you want to tell me Scratch is really confusing and
about using Scratch or doing this kind of frustrating.
project?
Scratch is confusing and frustrating. I was wondering why when I got to the
2nd graders it was doing all this stuff to
me
Like what do you mean? When we we're doing this project
without the 2nd graders, nothing was
happening, it was just normal, but then
once I got the 2nd graders, all these
lunatic stuff started to happened like the
computer shut off, these Chinese words
appeared and everything got mixed up.
Yeah, that was strange yesterday, wasn't it? No
How we had to shut down you computer,
that was, because that hadn't happened to
you this whole time?
Then it suddenly did. So you said it was Yes
frustrating.
Would you ever want to use Scratch again? Uhm...yeah, I do.

Yes. OK. Good. Do you think it was easy I say it was difficult.
or difficult to learn how to use Scratch?
It was difficult to learn how to use Scratch? Yes.
What made it difficult to learn how to use? Well, pretty much it was hard to know
what to do because there was so much


172









stuff. Like when you were saying *** at
*** and turn around cause look at all
these stuff glide 1 sens x -29 and y -10
and change x by 10 and all this other
stuff.
Sure. So all those blocks, maybe there are Yeah
just too many blocks showing so it gets
confusing?
OK. So because there are a lot of blocks I don't really know.
there, what do you think would be the best
way to learn how to use Scratch? Or what
would be the best way for you to learn how
to use Scratch?
You don't really know? What would have Maybe get some professional help
been the best way to help you learn
Scratch?
Get some professional help? Yeah
What do you mean by that? Maybe a person who's done Scratch for
awhile or a person who maybe created
it.
Oh, maybe the person who created it. Do Yeah
you think they would be able to help you?
What about in a classroom? How could we You mean the 5th grade classroom?
learn Scratch in the classroom because we
probably wouldn't be able to bring in
Sure, in the 5th grade classroom. What Maybe one simple thing at a time.
would be the best way to learn Scratch? If
you were going to work with your because
you know something about Scratch now.
How would you teach your classmates about
Scratch?
OK. Maybe one simple thing at a time. Do I guess but if I didn't know it, how could
you think that would help you too? I teach it?
And what do you mean by one simple thing? Like the first thing after another like
creating the sprites. Then, well, first,
the motion, then the looks, sound, pen,
control, sensing, operation, variables.
So are you saying we should go through Well, not all of these. That would take
each block to teach you one block at a time? forever.
That would take a long time? Yeah, just like motion and that and that
and that and that and then looks
OK, so maybe do a few blocks from each of Uh-huh (yes)
those categories?
Maybe the ones you'd use the most? Yeah
We'll go through it in a minute, OK? Uhm... probably... uhm... maybe... mayb
Anything else you learned? Anything else e learning how to do it.


173









you can think of that you learned while doing
this project?
Learning how to do Scratch? Yes.
Yeah, you learned how to do Scratch a little Yeah.
bit because you said you, one thing you
liked was drawing the sprites and editing the
sprites, so you definitely learned how to do
that, right?
Did you learn how to record your voice? Yeah
I think you're, in fact, the only person that Well, yeah. I think.
recorded their voice, right?

Project:
Yeah, you drew a number of shapes. I see Well, I did learn that... not really. I was
a cone, rectangular prism, cylinders even a just saying that I was a little
pyramid there. You've learned how to draw embarrassed when I was saying my
them. Anything else you think you learned project because everything was messed
in this project? up the time I did it cause that was in the
wrong place, that was in the wrong
place, that was in the wrong place.
Everything was in the wrong place.
You mean when you were showing it to the Yes, everything was in the wrong place.
2nd graders?
Everything was in the wrong place? Maybe not everything. Not in the right
position. They're all supposed to be.
He needs to be bigger. They're all
supposed to be facing.
Oh, so some of the sizes are not right See look. See
So he's facing the wrong direction? Yeah, that's one.
I think you were. You learned that and I I didn't even know we were going to
don't think anybody else learned about that. show it to 2nd graders.
When you were designing this, were you
thinking about designing for 2nd graders?
You didn't realize we were going to show it No
to 2nd graders?
OK. That's fair. Do you remember the Yeah
original goal of the project?
What was the goal of the project? Make it creative?
To make it creative. I don't know if that was one of them. I
don't know if that was one of them.
OK. So think back to why did you design I was trying to make it creative and
what you designed. What was this trying to make them move and make them have
show? a conversation but instead I was the
only one talking. I thought the 2nd
graders would get bored.
Well, so what happened yesterday with the Well, they were looking at it. I don't


174









2nd graders? Did they get bored?


know if they got bored because I'm not
them but, I don't know if it was as good
as everyone else's cause they're all
moving and having conversation like
Nathaniel's. He was like it impressed
me like fine let's go on the dragons.
Duh-duh-duh. Dud-duh-duh. Fine let's
go. Yee-haw. And that's what
happened. And mine's not amazing as
that. Mine's just blah, blah, blah, blah,
blah, blah, blah. Blah, blah, blah, blah,
blah, BLAH, blah. And then blah, blah,
BLAH, blah. Yeah.


So first scene of your project, your telling a That's wrong. See how everything is
story. PLAY FIRST SCENE. messed up.
What's messed up here Well, he's supposed to be facing left.
He's supposed to be right there.
There's some cats in the wrong place and WATCHING WOODS SCENE: Oh,
they're facing the wrong directions come on. Ugh
He's supposed to be behind? That's supposed to be grabbing its tail.
Did that get changed? Was it like that Yes.
yesterday?
How does the land shark See. Everything is messed up.
That looks right to me You know those aren't supposed to be
like that
Would you ever want to use Scratch again? Uhm...yeah, I do. And I want to make it
better than the first one I want to make it
more better. My voice could be talking
and they could be moving and stuff.
You kept telling me during the project that Yeah
"when are we going to do a project that's not
about shapes".
Did you not like the shapes? Well, the shapes, I, well, no, I kind of
liked it.
OK. But you kept wanting to move on to a Yeah
different project?
How come? Well, the shapes. I thought it was kind
of weird when they were saying, they
looked like adults but they were saying
they were going to see a movie about
shapes.
What was the idea for your you know you I don't know. It just pops up in my head
had this story. How did you come up with all
those different ideas?
Anything else you want to share with me The things I didn't like was just, I guess
about the project? Here's your chance to I should have done better, I said it like I


175









tell me anything you want to tell me about didn't care, like in the sounds I said it
the project? like I didn't care.
Oh, so you would want to redo your sounds? Not all over cause, I was speaking like I
didn't care
Right, didn't put a lot of emotion into it Except for the last part
The last part, yeah, you definitely put a lot Uhm... uhm... uhm... maybe... uhm... I
emotion in the last line however you said just know what's going to happen if I
that "the shape test", which is pretty funny. don't tell you this and then later when
Anything else I should know about working then maybe Monday comes I'll have
on the project, anything else you want to tell something I want to tell you then it will
me about this be too late, so I'm trying to think of
something.
I appreciate that Uhm...well... maybe it's about how mine
is really different from everybody else's.
Everybody else's seemed better
because they're saying "what shape is
this" then you type it in.
While I'm thinking about it, would you want I'd feel too embarrassed
to share this with your 5th grade classmates?

Learning:
Well, right, but I'm saying if someone was Yeah.
teaching you, would it help you to do one
simple thing at a time?
Just pops up in your head? OK. Do you like A little
math?
Do you think you're good at math? No, no
So to you that seemed better Well... not... no. I don't really like doing
that
You don't like doing what? The part when you say "what's this
shape"
Yeah, so Well, maybe it would be fun
Do you like to tell stories Yes
Do you write stories a lot? Yes
So what you did seems something that Really?
you're good at then.
To me. Cause you had this very elaborate Well, I did
story and nobody else really had a story like
you had a story, so I thought it was
interesting that you just said that other kids
asked what shape is this but you said well I
don't really like that. So, it seems like to me
in your project you did what you like to do
Isn't that OK you did it the way you like to do Well, yeah, it's OK.
it?
The way you like to do it? Well, yeah, it's OK


176










Sure let's talk about learning math. Do you Umm... I really don't. Some of that stuff
think you can learn math while working on I already know like a pyramid. I don't
this project? know that much about pyramids but
cylinder and cone I already know about
those two.
OK. So you already knew about some of Yes
the math you used?
So you didn't really learn about math in this No
project?
Is there anything you felt like you did learn Well, how to draw some of them
from this project?
So how to draw those shapes? Yeah
Do you think that you could learn math using Maybe?
Scratch?
Maybe how? The things I'm writing down are things I
already know, so how could it teach
me?
Great question. I don't know the answer. Yeah
So what you were doing was demonstrating
what you know about math in this project?
Well, we talked about that yesterday. What Wait. What do you mean? Well, he
about the land shark. How does the land went there because it's the sea and I
shark related to geometric solids? guess he doesn't like it. Are land
sharks real?
I don't think so. I like the end by the way. I Well, the shapes are there and I said to
like how you used your fluctuation in your pay well the last part when they were
voice there. So, how do all these cats, done that I just wanted to make sure
ghosts, land shark, dragon, how does those they were paying attention I said what
relate to teaching someone about geometric were the shapes in the background.
solids.
So the shapes are in the background. Do Uh, do I ever, well, when it's done I say
you ever talk about the shapes? "what shape is that?" and they're trying
to guess it.
So explain that to me again Cause when I'm done I want to make
sure if they're paying attention.
So when you were done, when you watched Uh-huh (yes)
this, so you asked, did you ask the 2nd
graders "what shape is this?"
So that wasn't part of your project, that was Yeah
just something you just asked them?
OK. That's fair. We asked you some Is that right or wrong?
questions before the project started and
then last week near the end of the project,
you answered those same questions. You
might not have remembered it. OK, let's









take a look. I'll show you what I'm talking
about. So this is what you did when we
started the project. Remember looking at
this? And this is what you did last week?
So we want to compare answers. So,
cylinder, cylinder, pyramid, pyramid, cone,
cone, rectangular prism, rectangular prism.
In the beginning and at the end, you could
identify which geometric solid it is. No
problem. So then here we have what is the
area of the base of the prism. You said 8.
What do you think it is? I guess right
So how do you find area? I forgot.
But over here you have the area of the base It's 8
is 16. So it looks like
It's 8. So you can count the cubes. 1, 2, 3, I thought it was 8 16
4, 5, 6, 7, 8. But here you put 16. So one of
my questions is what happened here. You
forgot?
8 plus 8 is 16? OK, then look at here. Yes
What's the height of the prism. You have 2
and then you have 2. Is it 2?
Yeah, because you can count, so that was I said 16.
no problem. What is the volume of the
problem
And then over here I can't tell if it's 16 or if I think it's 10.
that's 10.
I'm not sure how you went from here to here I think this is right.
but when we
This one's right. Yeah
Yeah, you're right because you take OK, which one's the one I did first?
This one's first, this one's second Oh, OK
Then you did. You're right because you I think I improved more on this one (pre-
take the area of the base times the height test).
You think you improved more. You think Yeah, that one (post-test) I did horrible.
you did better on this one (pre-test).
Well, I don't think you did horrible. I think Yes
that maybe you just kind of forgot. And then
here but I want to show you something.
Look here. 8 and 9. You just put question
marks, which looks to me like you didn't try,
but here, you tried, you put answers and you
said I just looked at the surface. So at least
you tried, you tried something right?
So do you think you improved on the second I think I did better on the first one.
one compared to the first?


178









I would say maybe just a little bit better. It's Yes
pretty similar, don't you think?

Re-code data (Step 8)
This step was not necessary.


179










APPENDIX G
DATA COLLECTED FROM SCRATCH ARTIFACTS


Number Number
of of unique
Number Number command command
of Number of of blocks in blocks in Unique command blocks
Day sprites backgrounds scripts scripts scripts used in scripts
1 4 2 0 0 0 None
2 7 2 0 0 0 None
3 8 2 2 6 3 forever; say; when flag clicked
4 9 3 2 5 3 say; when flag clicked; wait
5 12 5 2 4 2 when flag clicked; say for secs
6 8 6 2 4 2 when flag clicked; say for secs
when flag clicked; switch to
7 11 7 3 6 2 background
when flag clicked; switch to
background; show; hide; play
sound until done; broadcast;
8 14 7 15 31 7 when I receive
when flag clicked; switch to
background; show; hide; play
sound until done; broadcast;
9 17 7 28 58 7 when I receive
when flag clicked; switch to
background; show; hide; play
sound until done; broadcast;
10 17 7 30 66 7 when I receive
when flag clicked; switch to
background; play sound until
done; broadcast; when I
receive; point in direction; go
11 18 7 36 84 9 to x: y:; hide; show
when flag clicked; switch to
background; play sound until
done; broadcast; when I
receive; point in direction; go
12 18 7 41 76 9 to x: y:; hide; show
when flag clicked; switch to
background; play sound until
done; broadcast; when I
receive; point in direction; go
13 18 7 52 129 10 to x: y:; hide; show; set size to
when flag clicked; switch to
background; play sound until
done; broadcast; when I
receive; point in direction; go
14 22 7 66 152 10 to x: y:; hide; show; set size to
when flag clicked; switch to
background; play sound; play
sound until done; when I
receive; point in direction; go
to x: y:; show; hide; broadcast;
15 22 7 84 207 11 set size to


180









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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Jeffrey Boyer is a teacher and a learner in the field of educational technology. He

began his teaching career as a middle school science and math teacher at Castle Rock

Middle School in Billings, MT. Next, Jeffrey taught high school science courses and

served as a district-level technology and curriculum coach for P. K. Yonge

Developmental Research School in Gainesville, FL. Most recently, he was a visiting

lecturer and a doctoral candidate in the educational technology program of the School

of Teaching & Learning at the University of Florida's College of Education. As a visiting

lecturer, Jeffrey taught a technology integration course that is required coursework for

UF's elementary and early childhood teacher preparation programs. As a learner and a

researcher in the field of educational technology, Jeffrey investigates the impact on

content learning when learners construct interactive multimedia. As a teacher, he is

passionate about preparing future teachers to use technology in meaningful ways with

their students.


189





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1 U S I N G S C R A T C H F O R L E A R N E R C O N S T R U C T E D M U L T I M E D I A : A D E S I G N B A S E D R E S E A R C H I N Q U I R Y O F C O N S T R U C T I O N I S M I N P R A C T I C E B y JE F F R E Y T H O M A S B O Y E R A D I S S E R T A T I O N P R E S E N T E D T O T H E G R A D U A T E S C H O O L O F T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F F L O R I D A I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F D O C T O R O F P H I L O S O P H Y U N I V E R S I T Y O F F L O R I D A 2 0 1 0

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2 2 0 1 0 Je f f r e y T h o m a s B o ye r

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3 T o B e t sy a n d E l l a

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4 A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S I a m so g r a t e f u l t o M r s. H f o r h e r w i l l i n g n e ss t o co l l a b o r a t e w i t h m e o n t h i s r e se a r ch st u d y. H e r co n t r i b u t i o n s m a d e t h i s w o r k m e a n i n g f u l i n so m a n y w a ys. T h i s d i sse r t a t i o n w o u l d a l so n o t b e p o ssi b l e w i t h o u t t h e su p p o r t a n d i n si g h t o f m y c o m m i t t e e i n cl u d i n g K a r a D a w so n C a t h y C a v a n a u g h F r a n V a n d i ve r a n d L yn d a H a ye s.

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5 T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S p a g e A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 L I S T O F T A B L E S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 L I S T O F F I G U R E S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 L I S T O F A B B R E V I A T I O N S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 C H A P T E R I N T R O D U C T I O N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 R e se a r ch P r o b l e m . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 D e si g n B a se d R e se a r ch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 C h a r a ct e r i st i cs o f D e si g n B a se d R e se a r ch . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4 C o n d u ct i n g D e si g n B a se d R e s e a r ch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 9 R e se a r ch P u r p o se . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0 D e si g n o f T h i s M a n u scr i p t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4 I n t r o d u ct i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4 T h e o r e t i ca l F r a m e w o r k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 4 A F o u n d a t i o n i n C o n st r u ct i vi sm a n d C o n st r u ct i o n i sm . . . . . . . . . 2 7 A H i st o r i ca l P e r sp e ct i ve o n M u l t i m e d i a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 9 L e a r n i n g T h r o u g h M u l t i m e d i a D e si g n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 0 M u l t i m e d i a C o n st r u ct i o n T o o l s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 P r o p e r t i e s o f G e o m e t r i c S o l i d s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 6 S u m m a r y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 7 R E S E A R C H M E T H O D S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 8 I n t r o d u ct i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 8 T h e o r e t i ca l F r a m e w o r k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 9 R e se a r ch e r B i a s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 9 R e se a r ch D e si g n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 0 R e se a r ch C o n t e xt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2 R e se a r ch S i t e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2 P r a ct i t i o n e r P r o f i l e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2 S a m p l e S e l e ct i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3 R e se a r ch E n vi r o n m e n t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4 D a t a S o u r ce s a n d C o l l e ct i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 8 R e se a r ch e r a n d P r a ct i t i o n e r I n t e r vi e w . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 9 D e b r i e f i n g N o t e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 9

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6 C o n t e n t B a se d P r e a n d P o st T e st s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 9 R e se a r ch e r a n d P a r t i ci p a n t I n t e r vi e w s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 0 R e se a r ch e r R e f l e ct i o n s o n S cr a t c h M u l t i m e d i a A r t i f a ct s . . . . . . . . 6 0 D a t a A n a l ysi s P r o ce d u r e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1 T e xt u a l D a t a A n a l ysi s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1 C r o ss C a se A n a l ysi s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3 P r e a n d P o st T e st A n a l ysi s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4 S cr a t ch A r t i f a ct A n a l ysi s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4 T r u st w o r t h i n e ss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5 V a l i d i t y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 6 R e l i a b i l i t y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 7 G e n e r a l i za b i l i t y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 8 L i m i t a t i o n s o f T h i s S t u d y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 8 E V A L U A T I O N A N D T E S T I N G O F A S O L U T I O N I N P R A C T I C E . . . . . . . . 7 0 I n t r o d u ct i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 0 S u m m a r y o f P a r t i ci p a n t D a t a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 0 I m p a ct o n L e a r n i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1 C a se S t u d y # 1 : D o m i n i c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2 D o m i n i c s r e sp o n se t o l e a r n i n g a n d u si n g S cr a t ch . . . . . . . . . 7 2 D o m i n i c s r e sp o n se t o t h i s p r o j e c t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 6 D o m i n i c s r e sp o n se t o h i s l e a r n i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2 I m p a ct o n D o m i n i c s l e a r n i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 3 C a se S t u d y # 2 : Je n n i f e r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4 Je n n i f e r s r e sp o n se t o l e a r n i n g a n d u si n g S cr a t ch . . . . . . . . . 8 5 Je n n i f e r s r e sp o n se t o t h i s p r o j e ct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 9 I m p a ct o n Je n n i f e r s l e a r n i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3 C r o ss C a se A n a l ysi s: D o m i n i c a n d J e n n i f e r . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4 S u m m a r y o f C a se S t u d y F i n d i n g s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 7 D O C U M E N T A T I O N A N D R E F L E C T I O N T O P R O D U C E D E S I G N P R I N C I P L E S . 1 0 0 I n t r o d u ct i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 0 D e si g n P r i n ci p l e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 0 U se M u l t i p l e A p p r o a ch e s t o L e a r n S cr a t c h . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 1 S ca f f o l d t h e D e si g n E xp e r i e n ce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 3 E xp l i ci t l y a n d R e p e a t e d l y S t a t e L e a r n i n g G o a l s . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 5 A sse ss A r t i f a ct s R e g u l a r l y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 6 S u m m a r y o f D e si g n P r i n ci p l e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 7 C O N C L U S I O N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 8 S u m m a r y o f F i n d i n g s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 8 S i t u a t i n g T h i s S t u d y w i t h i n E xi st i n g L i t e r a t u r e . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 8 I m p l i ca t i o n s f o r P r a ct i ce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 9 L C M A l l o w s M u l t i p l e L e a r n i n g P a t h s f o r S t u d e n t s . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 9

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7 L C M E n co u r a g e s S e l f D i r e c t e d L e a r n i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 2 L C M P r o m o t e s C o l l a b o r a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 4 L C M C r e a t e s a n A l t e r n a t i ve M e t h o d o f A sse s sm e n t . . . . . . . . . 1 1 5 L C M C h a n g e s t h e R o l e o f t h e T e a c h e r f r o m G i ve r o f K n o w l e d g e t o C o a c h 1 1 7 S u m m a r y o f I m p l i ca t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 8 S u g g e st i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e se a r ch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 8 A P P E N D I X I N T E R V I E W T R A N S C R I P T B E T W E E N P R A C T I T I O N E R A N D R E S E A R C H E R . . 1 2 0 D E B R I E F I N G N O T E S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 9 S C R A T C H A R T I F A C T A N A L Y S I S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 3 C U R R I C U L U M B A S E D P R E A N D P O S T T E S T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4 4 I N T E R V I E W G U I D E S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4 5 T R A N S C R I P T A N D A N A L Y S I S O F D O M I N I C S I N T E R V I E W . . . . . . . . . 1 4 6 D A T A C O L L E C T E D F R O M S C R A T C H A R T I F A C T S . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8 0 L I S T O F R E F E R E N C E S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8 1 B I O G R A P H I C A L S K E T C H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 8 9

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8 L I S T O F T A B L E S T a b l e p a g e 2 1 O ve r vi e w o f b e n e f i t s o f l e a r n e r s d e si g n i n g h y p e r m e d i a / m u l t i m e d i a . . . . . 3 0 2 2 S u m m a r y o f o u t co m e s w h e n l e a r n e r s d e si g n h yp e r m e d i a / m u l t i m e d i a . . . 4 1 3 1 O ve r vi e w o f t h e ch a r a ct e r i st i cs o f t h i s ca s e st u d y . . . . . . . . . . . 5 0 3 1 C o n t e n t r a t i o n a l e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 5 3 2 O ve r vi e w o f d a i l y a ct i vi t i e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 8 3 3 S o u r ce o f D a t a T a b l e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 8 3 4 D a t a a n a l ysi s st e p s f o r t e xt u a l d a t a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2 4 1 S u m m a r y o f p a r t i ci p a n t d a t a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 0 4 2 O ve r vi e w o f D o m i n i c s p r e a n d p o st t e st r e s u l t s . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2 4 3 O ve r vi e w o f Je n n i f e r s p r e a n d p o st t e st r e su l t s . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3 4 4 O ve r vi e w o f a n a l ysi s o f S cr a t c h p r o j e ct s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 5 4 5 O ve r vi e w o f p r e a n d p o s t t e st r e su l t s f o r se l e ct e d ca se s . . . . . . . . 9 6

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9 L I S T O F F I G U R E S F i g u r e p a g e 1 1 T h e D e si g n b a se d r e se a r ch p r o ce ss ( M a & H a r m o n 2 0 0 9 ) . . . . . . . 1 7 2 1 T h e t h e o r e t i ca l f r a m e w o r k f o r t h i s st u d y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 6 2 2 T h e S cr a t ch i n t e r f a ce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4 2 3 A scr i p t cr e a t e d i n S cr a t c h . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 5 3 1 T h e f r o n t a n d b a ck o f t h e S a y S o m e t h i n g S cr a t ch ca r d . . . . . . . . . 5 7 4 1 T h e S cr a t ch s p a l e t t e o f m o t i o n co m m a n d b l o cks . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4 4 2 A scr e e n sh o t o f D o m i n i c s S cr a t c h p r o j e ct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 7 4 3 D o m i n i c s h a n d d r a w n r e p r e se n t a t i o n s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s . . . . . . . . 8 0 4 4 A scr e e n sh o t o f Je n n i f e r s S cr a t ch p r o j e c t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 6 4 5 T e xt b u b b l e a b o u t a ve r t e x i n Je n n i f e r s S cr a t ch p r o j e ct . . . . . . . . . 9 0 4 6 T e xt b u b b l e a b o u t a p r i sm s ve r t e xe s i n Je n n i f e r s S cr a t ch p r o j e ct . . . . . 9 0 4 7 T e xt b u b b l e a b o u t t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f a co n e i n Je n n i f e r s S cr a t c h p r o j e ct . . . 9 1

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1 0 L I S T O F A B B R E V I A T I O N S D B R D e si g n b a se d r e se a r ch I L E I n n o va t i ve l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t L C M L e a r n e r co n s t r u ct e d m u l t i m e d i a R t I R e sp o n se t o I n t e r ve n t i o n

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1 1 A b st r a ct o f D i sse r t a t i o n P r e se n t e d t o t h e G r a d u a t e S ch o o l o f t h e U n i ve r si t y o f F l o r i d a i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e D e g r e e o f D o ct o r o f P h i l o so p h y U S I N G S C R A T C H F O R L E A R N E R C O N S T R U C T E D M U L T I M E D I A : A D E S I G N B A S E D R E S E A R C H I N Q U I R Y O F C O N S T R U C T I O N I S M I N P R A C T I C E B y Je f f r e y T h o m a s B o ye r A u g u st 2 0 1 0 C h a i r : K a r a D a w so n M a j o r : C u r r i cu l u m a n d I n st r u ct i o n T h i s d e si g n b a se d r e se a r ch st u d y i n ve st i g a t e s t h e i m p a ct o n l e a r n i n g w h e n yo u n g l e a r n e r s d e si g n m u l t i m e d i a t h a t d e m o n s t r a t e s a n u n d e r st a n d i n g o f m a t h co n t e n t D u r i n g t h i s st u d y, 5 t h g r a d e r s u se d S cr a t ch a co n t e m p o r a r y c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m d e si g n e d f o r yo u n g p e o p l e t o c r e a t e m u l t i m e d i a t o d e m o n st r a t e t h e i r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c s o l i d s. T h i s p r o c e ss r e q u i r e s t h a t y o u n g l e a r n e r s e n g a g e i n co n t e n t a n d t h i n k a b o u t h o w t h e y c a n r e p r e se n t sp e ci f i c co n t e n t i n a S cr a t ch m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct r a t h e r t h a n si m p l y m e m o r i zi n g t h e co n t e n t f o r a t e st T h e r e su l t s o f t h i s st u d y i n d i ca t e t h a t h a vi n g 5 t h g r a d e r s d e si g n m u l t i m e d i a u si n g S cr a t ch yi e l d s a m i xe d i m p a ct o n l e a r n i n g d e p e n d i n g o n l e a r n i n g p r e f e r e n ce s o f t h e i n d i vi d u a l l e a r n e r T h o u g h i n cr e a se s i n c o n t e n t l e a r n i n g w e r e n o t i d e n t i f i e d b a se d o n a t r a d i t i o n a l f o r m o f a sse ssm e n t i n t h e t w o c a se st u d i e s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s m a n u scr i p t i t i s r e a so n a b l e t o a ckn o w l e d g e t h a t t h i s a p p r o a ch m a y se r ve a s a n a l t e r n a t i ve f o r m o f f o r m a t i ve o r su m m a t i ve a sse ssm e n t

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1 2 C H A P T E R 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N R e s e a r c h P r o b l e m I n cr e a si n g m a t h a ch i e ve m e n t h a s r e m a i n e d a l o n g t e r m co n c e r n o f t h e A m e r i ca n e d u ca t i o n a l c o m m u n i t y ( F o r g i o n e 1 9 9 8 ; S ch o e n f e l d 2 0 0 4 ) R e ce n t l y, i n i t i a t i v e s f o cu si n g o n i m p r o vi n g sci e n ce t e ch n o l o g y, e n g i n e e r i n g a n d m a t h e m a t i cs ( S T E M ) e d u ca t i o n h a ve e xp a n d e d t o e n su r e t h a t st u d e n t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s c a n co m p e t e w i t h g l o b a l p e e r s ( F i t zp a t r i ck, 2 0 0 7 ) A co m p o n e n t o f t h i s r e n e w e d i n t e r e st i n S T E M e d u ca t i o n i s a n a t t e m p t t o i n cr e a s e m a t h a ch i e ve m e n t f o r t h e K 1 2 st u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n E n su r i n g t h a t st u d e n t s h a ve a d e e p co n ce p t u a l u n d e r st a n d i n g o f st a n d a r d s b a se d m a t h co n t e n t i s a g o a l o f t h e A m e r i ca n e d u ca t i o n a l syst e m ( N C T M 2 0 0 6 ) F i n d i n g w a ys t o e n g a g e a n d m o t i va t e yo u t h p a r t i cu l a r l y a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk y o u t h i n e xt e n d e d e n g a g e m e n t w i t h m a t h co n t e n t i s c r i t i ca l f o r e n su r i n g d e e p co n t e n t l e a r n i n g ( S i n g h G r a n vi l l e & D i ka 2 0 0 2 ) O n e m e t h o d f o r e xt e n d i n g e n g a g e m e n t w i t h co n t e n t p l a ce s l e a r n e r s i n t h e r o l e o f a m u l t i m e d i a d e si g n e r ; t h a t i s, l e a r n e r s c r e a t e m u l t i m e d i a t h a t r e p r e se n t s t h e i r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f c o n t e n t T h i s p r a ct i ce f o r m s t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e co n ce p t o f l e a r n e r co n st r u ct e d m u l t i m e d i a ( L C M ) D e si g n i n g m u l t i m e d i a a b o u t co n t e n t r e q u i r e s e xt e n d e d e n g a g e m e n t w i t h co n t e n t a n d co n t e m p o r a r y m u l t i m e d i a d e si g n t o o l s a r e i n t r i n si ca l l y m o t i va t i n g a n d e n g a g i n g f o r y o u n g l e a r n e r s. P r e vi o u sl y, t h e N a t i o n a l C o u n ci l o f T e a ch e r s o f M a t h e m a t i cs h a s i d e n t i f i e d t h a t a n u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s i s o n e o f t h r e e c u r r i cu l u m f o ca l p o i n t s f o r 5 t h g r a d e r s. T h e r e f o r e t h e p u r p o se o f t h i s st u d y i s t o i d e n t i f y l e a r n i n g g a i n s w h e n a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk 5 t h g r a d e r s d e si g n a n d co n st r u ct m u l t i m e d i a t h a t r e p r e se n t s t h e i r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c s o l i d s.

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1 3 I n t h i s st u d y, t h i s r e s e a r ch e r d e si g n s, i m p l e m e n t s a n d e va l u a t e s a n i n n o v a t i ve l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t ( I L E ) i n co l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h a sch o o l b a se d p r a ct i t i o n e r t h a t i n t e g r a t e s L C M a s a p e d a g o g i ca l st r a t e g y. T h u s, t h i s e n vi r o n m e n t si m u l t a n e o u sl y f e a t u r e s y o u n g a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s u si n g co m p u t e r s a s d e si g n t o o l s, yo u n g l e a r n e r s l e a r n i n g a n d u si n g a vi su a l p r o g r a m m i n g t o o l S cr a t ch t o d e si g n m u l t i m e d i a a n d yo u n g l e a r n e r s d e si g n i n g m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct s t h a t r e p r e s e n t t h e i r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f m a t h co n t e n t ( i e t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s) T h i s st u d y u s e s d e si g n b a se d r e se a r ch ( D B R ) a s i t s g u i d i n g f r a m e w o r k. T h e g o a l s o f a n e d u c a t i o n a l r e se a r ch e r a d o p t i n g D B R m e t h o d s a r e t o e n g i n e e r i n n o v a t i ve e d u ca t i o n a l e n vi r o n m e n t s a n d si m u l t a n e o u sl y c o n d u ct e xp e r i m e n t a l st u d i e s o f t h o se i n n o va t i o n s ( B r o w n 1 9 9 2 p 1 4 1 ) T h u s, t h i s st u d y a t t e m p t s t o d e si g n i m p l e m e n t a n d d o cu m e n t a n I L E t h a t i n t e g r a t e s L C M a s a p e d a g o g i ca l st r a t e g y a n d f e a t u r e s t h e p r o p e r t i e s i d e n t i f i e d a b o ve T h i s r e se a r ch e r a l so a n a l yze s a n d e va l u a t e s t h i s I L E a s a p e d a g o g i ca l st r a t e g y f o r i n cr e a si n g co n t e n t l e a r n i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s f o r yo u n g a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s D e s i g n B a s e d R e s e a r c h D B R b e g i n s w i t h a co m p l e x, r e a l w o r l d p r o b l e m ( M a & H a r m o n 2 0 0 9 ) T h e n t h r o u g h a n i t e r a t i ve p r o ce ss, r e se a r ch e r s i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h p r a ct i t i o n e r s d e si g n a n d st u d y a so l u t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m A ke y f e a t u r e o f D B R i s i t s co l l a b o r a t i v e n a t u r e A r e se a r ch e r d o e s n o t p r o vi d e a r e s e a r ch p r o t o co l t o a p r a ct i t i o n e r t h a t s h o u l d b e i m p l e m e n t e d w i t h i n t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r s c o n t e xt R a t h e r r e se a r ch e r s a n d p r a ct i t i o n e r s co l l a b o r a t e t o i d e n t i f y a n e d u ca t i o n a l l y r e l e va n t p r o b l e m t h e n w o r k co o p e r a t i ve l y t o d e si g n i m p l e m e n t a n d e va l u a t e a s o l u t i o n t o t h a t p r o b l e m i n a n e d u c a t i o n a l co n t e xt T h i s st u d y p r o vi d e s a so l u t i o n co l l a b o r a t i ve l y d e si g n e d b y a p r a ct i t i o n e r a n d

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1 4 r e se a r ch e r t o a d d r e ss t h e r e a l w o r l d p r o b l e m o f i n cr e a si n g m a t h a ch i e ve m e n t f o r a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s. D B R s f o u n d a t i o n i n e d u ca t i o n b e g a n w i t h t h e co n c e p t o f d e si g n e xp e r i m e n t s f i r st a r t i cu l a t e d b y B r o w n ( 1 9 9 2 ) a n d C o l l i n s ( 1 9 9 2 ) T h e se d e si g n e xp e r i m e n t s i n e d u ca t i o n w e r e m o d e l e d a f t e r t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss e s e vi d e n t w i t h i n o t h e r d e si g n f i e l d s su c h a s a e r o n a u t i cs a n d a r t i f i ci a l i n t e l l i g e n ce ( C o l l i n s, 1 9 9 2 ) S e ve r a l a u t h o r s h a v e a r t i cu l a t e d a c a l l f o r D B R i n t h e f i e l d o f e d u ca t i o n a l t e ch n o l o g y t o cr e a t e t e ch n o l o g y b a se d i n n o va t i ve l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t s ( R e e ve s, H e r r i n g t o n & O l i ve r 2 0 0 4 ; W a n g & H a n n a f i n 2 0 0 5 ; M a & H a r m o n 2 0 0 9 ) T h i s ca l l st e m s f r o m a l a ck o f u sa b l e kn o w l e d g e t o g u i d e i n s t r u ct i o n p a r t i cu l a r l y t e ch n o l o g y s r o l e i n i m p r o vi n g i n s t r u ct i o n ( R e e ve s, 1 9 9 5 ; R i ch e y, 1 9 9 8 ) C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f D e s i g n B a s e d R e s e a r c h T h e D e si g n b a se d R e se a r c h C o l l e ct i ve ( 2 0 0 3 ) p r o p o se d 5 c h a r a ct e r i st i cs o f a p p r o p r i a t e d e si g n b a se d r e se a r c h W h e n u s i n g D B R a s a r e se a r ch f r a m e w o r k, t h i s t yp e o f st u d y: sh o u l d p r o m o t e t h e d e si g n o f i n n o va t i ve l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t s a n d t h e d e ve l o p m e n t o f l e a r n i n g t h e o r i e s; sh o u l d b e a n i t e r a t i ve p r o ce ss co n si st i n g o f 4 st a g e s: d e si g n e n a c t m e n t a n a l ysi s, r e d e si g n ; sh o u l d p r o d u ce e d u ca t i o n a l l y r e l e v a n t kn o w l e d g e f o r cl a ssr o o m a p p l i ca t i o n s; sh o u l d p r o vi d e r i ch d e scr i p t i o n s o f co n t e n t a n d i n t e r a ct i o n s; a n d sh o u l d u se a p p r o p r i a t e r e se a r ch m e t h o d s r e l a t e d t o q u e st i o n F o r e a ch o f t h e ch a r a ct e r i st i cs, t h i s r e s e a r ch e r p r o vi d e s a b r i e f su m m a r y f o l l o w e d b y a n e xp l a n a t i o n o f h o w e a ch ch a r a ct e r i s t i c i s a d d r e sse d i n t h i s st u d y. F i r st D B R sh o u l d a ct i ve l y a n d si m u l t a n e o u sl y p r o m o t e t h e d e si g n o f i n n o va t i ve l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t s a n d t h e d e ve l o p m e n t o f l e a r n i n g t h e o r i e s. I n t h i s st u d y, t h e

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1 5 r e se a r ch e r d o cu m e n t s t h e d e si g n o f a n i n n o va t i ve l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t t h a t p l a ce s yo u n g l e a r n e r s i n t h e r o l e s o f p a r t i ci p a n t s a n d p r o d u ce r s r a t h e r t h a n a s sp e ct a t o r s a n d co n su m e r s ( Je n ki n s 2 0 0 6 ) S p e ci f i ca l l y, a c a d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk 5 t h g r a d e r s a ct i ve l y p a r t i ci p a t e i n t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss t o p r o d u ce m u l t i m e d i a t h a t i s u se d t o e xp r e ss w h a t t h e y kn o w a b o u t t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c s o l i d s a n d co u l d b e u se d t o t e a ch o t h e r s a b o u t t h e co n t e n t I n a d d i t i o n t h e r e se a r c h e r p r o vi d e s e vi d e n ce t o r e i n f o r ce a co n s t r u ct i o n i st a p p r o a ch t o p e d a g o g y t h a t e m p h a si ze s t h a t co n ce p t u a l l e a r n i n g i n co n t r a st t o r o t e l e a r n i n g o ccu r s w h e n l e a r n e r s co n st r u ct p e r so n a l l y m e a n i n g f u l a r t i f a ct s t h a t a r e sh a r e a b l e w i t h i n a co m m u n i t y o f l e a r n e r s ( P a p e r t 1 9 9 3 ) S e co n d D B R sh o u l d b e a n i t e r a t i ve p r o ce ss w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a g e s: d e si g n e n a ct m e n t a n a l ysi s a n d r e d e si g n T h e s e f o u r st a g e s a r t i cu l a t e d b y t h e D e si g n b a se d R e se a r ch C o l l e ct i ve ( 2 0 0 3 ) r e p r e s e n t a si m i l a r p r o ce ss t o t h e st e p s p o r t r a ye d i n F i g u r e 1 1 R e e v e s ( 2 0 0 0 ) a r t i cu l a t e d t h e st e p s i d e n t i f i e d a cr o ss t h e t o p r o w o f b o xe s. L a t e r M a & H a r m o n ( 2 0 0 9 ) e x p a n d e d o n t h e se st e p s a n d i n cl u d e d a d d i t i o n a l su b st e p s f o r e a ch T h e D e si g n b a se d R e se a r c h C o l l e ct i ve s d e si g n st a g e co r r e sp o n d s t o R e e v e s a n d M a & H a r m o n s st e p s 1 a n d 2 : a n a l ysi s o f a p r a ct i ca l p r o b l e m b y r e se a r c h e r s a n d p r a ct i t i o n e r s a n d d e ve l o p m e n t o f a so l u t i o n w i t h a t h e o r e t i ca l f r a m e w o r k. T h e e n a ct m e n t a n d a n a l ysi s st a g e s co m b i n e t o r e p r e se n t st e p 3 : e va l u a t i o n a n d t e st i n g o f so l u t i o n s i n p r a ct i ce F i n a l l y, t h e r e d e si g n st a g e co r r e sp o n d s t o st e p 4 : d o c u m e n t a t i o n a n d r e f l e c t i o n t o p r o d u ce d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s D u r i n g t h e d e si g n st a g e t h e r e s e a r ch e r i n co l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h t h e p a r t i ci p a t i n g t e a ch e r d e si g n s t h e i n n o va t i ve l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t e n su r i n g t h a t cr i t i c a l e l e m e n t s a r e i n cl u d e d i n t h e d e si g n T h e e n a ct m e n t st a g e r e p r e se n t s t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e d e si g n w i t h t h e p a r t i ci p a t i n g t e a ch e r s st u d e n t s.

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1 6 D a t a su ch a s o u t co m e m e a s u r e s, o b se r v a t i o n a l f i e l d n o t e s a n d i n t e r vi e w s a r e co l l e ct e d d u r i n g t h i s s t a g e t h e n u t i l i ze d i n t h e a n a l ysi s s t a g e T h e a n a l ysi s st a g e i n cl u d e s a n a l yzi n g a n d e va l u a t i n g t h e I L E a s a p e d a g o g i ca l st r a t e g y D u r i n g t h e r e d e si g n st a g e f i n d i n g s f r o m t h e a n a l ysi s st a g e p r o vi d e i n si g h t i n t o t h e n e xt i t e r a t i o n o f t h e d e si g n A l i m i t a t i o n o f t h i s a p p r o a ch i s t h e a m o u n t o f t i m e sp e n t d o cu m e n t i n g t h i s i t e r a t i ve p r o ce ss. B e ca u se o f t i m e l i m i t a t i o n s a sso ci a t e d w i t h t h e sc h o o l si t e s ca l e n d a r o n l y a si n g l e i t e r a t i o n o f t h i s p r o ce ss w a s co m p l e t e d ( M a & H a r m o n 2 0 0 9 ) H o w e ve r t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e r e d e si g n st a g e a r e w e l l d o cu m e n t e d a n d f u t u r e r e se a r ch o p p o r t u n i t i e s w i l l co n t i n u e t h i s p r o ce ss.

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1 7 F i g u r e 1 1 T h e d e si g n b a se d r e se a r ch p r o ce ss ( M a & H a r m o n 2 0 0 9 ) T h i r d D B R sh o u l d p r o d u ce u sa b l e kn o w l e d g e ( L a g e m a n n 2 0 0 2 ) t h a t p r o vi d e s r e l e va n t i m p a ct f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p r a ct i t i o n e r s. S i n ce t h i s st u d y t a ke s p l a ce i n a cl a ssr o o m co n t e xt a n d n o t i n a n a r t i f i ci a l l a b o r a t o r y se t t i n g t h e o u t co m e s d o cu m e n t e d r e p r e se n t a u t h e n t i c r e su l t s t h a t a r e r e a d i l y u s a b l e f o r t r a n sf e r t o si m i l a r co n t e xt s. I n a d d i t i o n a s p a r t o f t h e r e d e si g n st a g e t h i s st u d y se e ks t o i d e n t i f y d e si g n e l e m e n t s e sse n t i a l f o r t h e n e xt i t e r a t i o n o f t h e D B R p r o c e ss. T h i s kn o w l e d g e o f e sse n t i a l d e si g n

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1 8 e l e m e n t s p r o vi d e s a n i m m e d i a t e i m p a ct f o r t h e d e si g n o f f u t u r e r e s e a r ch w h e t h e r co n d u ct e d b y t h i s r e se a r c h e r o r b y o t h e r s. F o u r t h D B R sh o u l d p r o vi d e r i ch d e sc r i p t i o n s o f t h e co n t e xt a n d t h e i n t e r a ct i o n s t h a t o ccu r w i t h i n t h e co n t e xt R i ch d e scr i p t i o n s o f t h e co n t e xt a r e n e c e ssa r y t o e n su r e r e l i a b i l i t y a n d a p p l i ca b i l i t y f o r o t h e r co n t e xt s. D a i l y d e b r i e f i n g n o t e s b e t w e e n t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r a n d r e se a r ch e r a n d d a i l y r e se a r ch e r r e f l e c t i o n s w h i l e a n a l yzi n g m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct s p r o vi d e t h e r i ch d e scr i p t i o n s. D u r i n g t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y, t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r a n d r e se a r ch e r co l l a b o r a t i ve l y d e b r i e f e d a f t e r e a ch cl a ss m e e t i n g t o d i scu ss a n d a sse ss e a ch p a r t i ci p a n t s p r o g r e ss o n t h e d e si g n t a sk, t o d e t e r m i n e h o w e i t h e r t h e r e se a r ch e r o r p r a ct i t i o n e r co u l d a ssi st p a r t i ci p a n t s d u r i n g t h e n e xt cl a ss m e e t i n g a n d t o a sse ss t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e r e se a r ch p r o j e ct T h e se d e b r i e f i n g n o t e s p r o vi d e d a d a t a so u r ce f o r a n a l ysi s ( s e e A p p e n d i x B f o r a n e xa m p l e ) T h e r e se a r ch e r a l so i n d e p e n d e n t l y d o cu m e n t e d h i s d a i l y r e f l e ct i o n o f p a r t i ci p a n t s p r o g r e ss w h i l e e xa m i n i n g e a ch p a r t i ci p a n t s m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct ( se e A p p e n d i x C f o r a n e xa m p l e ) T h e s e r e f l e ct i o n s a l s o p r o vi d e a d a t a so u r ce f o r a n a l ysi s. C o l l e ct i ve l y, t h e se d a t a so u r ce s p r o vi d e r i c h d e scr i p t i o n s o f t h i s st u d y s co n t e x t a n d o f t h e i n t e r a ct i o n s t h a t o cc u r r e d F i f t h D B R sh o u l d u t i l i ze a p p r o p r i a t e r e s e a r c h m e t h o d s. A r e se a r ch e r s e l e ct s a r e se a r ch m e t h o d b a s e d o n h o w w e l l a p a r t i cu l a r m e t h o d a d d r e sse s a st u d y s r e se a r ch q u e st i o n ( s ) T h e r e se a r ch m e t h o d i n t u r n d e t e r m i n e s t h e so u r ce s o f d a t a T h i s st u d y e xp l o r e s t h e f o l l o w i n g r e se a r ch q u e st i o n s: H o w e f f e ct i ve i s l e a r n e r co n st r u ct e d i n t e r a ct i v e m u l t i m e d i a a t i n c r e a si n g l e a r n i n g g a i n s i n t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s f o r a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s? W h a t a r e t h e d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s f o r c r e a t i n g a n i n n o va t i ve l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t t h a t i n t e g r a t e s l e a r n e r c o n st r u ct e d i n t e r a ct i ve m u l t i m e d i a f o r a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s ?

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1 9 B a se d o n t h e s e q u e st i o n s, t h i s st u d y w a s a cc o m p l i sh e d t h r o u g h ca se st u d y m e t h o d s ( a q u a l i t a t i ve r e se a r ch a p p r o a ch ) a n d t h e d a t a f o r t h i s D B R st u d y i n cl u d e d o b s e r va t i o n a l f i e l d n o t e s, p a r t i ci p a n t co n s t r u ct e d a r t i f a ct s, i n t e r vi e w t r a n scr i p t s a n d o u t c o m e m e a su r e s o f co n t e n t kn o w l e d g e E i g h t ( 8 ) a c a d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk 5 t h g r a d e st u d e n t s p a r t i ci p a t e d i n t h i s st u d y. E a ch p a r t i ci p a n t co m p l e t e d o u t co m e m e a s u r e s o f m a t h co n t e n t kn o w l e d g e a b o u t t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s i n t h e f o r m o f p r e a n d p o st t e st s t o d e t e r m i n e l e a r n i n g g a i n s i n m a t h co n t e n t E a ch p a r t i ci p a n t d e si g n e d a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct u si n g S cr a t c h t h a t w a s a n a l yze d b y t h e r e se a r ch e r f o r e vi d e n ce o f m a t h co n t e n t T w o p a r t i ci p a n t s w e r e i d e n t i f i e d t h r o u g h m a xi m u m va r i a t i o n s a m p l i n g t o se r ve a s ca s e s f o r i n d e p t h ca se s t u d i e s. T h e r e se a r c h e r co n d u ct e d i n t e r vi e w s w i t h t h e se p a r t i ci p a n t s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r p e r ce p t i o n o f l e a r n i n g g a i n s w h i l e d e si g n i n g m u l t i m e d i a t h a t e xp r e sse d t h e i r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. T h e r e se a r ch e r a l so co n d u ct e d i n t e r vi e w s w i t h t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r t o d o cu m e n t t h e d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h i s I L E A n o t h e r so u r ce o f d a t a t h a t co n t r i b u t e d t o t h e d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s a r e t h e r e f l e ct i ve f i e l d n o t e s r e co r d e d b y t h e r e se a r ch e r C o n d u c t i n g D e s i g n B a s e d R e s e a r c h T h e f i ve ch a r a ct e r i st i cs o f D B R d e sc r i b e d a b o ve h e l p g e n e r a t e a n u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e D B R p a r a d i g m b u t d o n o t n e c e ssa r i l y p r o vi d e a syst e m a t i c p r o ce ss f o r co n d u ct i n g D B R R e e v e s ( 2 0 0 0 ) a r t i cu l a t e d a f o u r st e p p r o ce ss f o r co n d u ct i n g D B R : a n a l ysi s o f p r a ct i ca l p r o b l e m s b y r e se a r ch e r s a n d p r a c t i t i o n e r s d e ve l o p m e n t o f so l u t i o n s w i t h a t h e o r e t i ca l f r a m e w o r k e va l u a t i o n a n d t e st i n g o f so l u t i o n s i n p r a ct i ce d o cu m e n t a t i o n a n d r e f l e ct i o n t o p r o d u ce d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s R e e ve s f o u r st e p p r o ce ss i s c o m p a r a b l e t o t h e D e si g n B a se d R e se a r ch C o l l e ct i ve s f o u r st a g e p r o ce ss f o r a n i t e r a t i o n o f D B R d e s cr i b e d a b o ve ( d e si g n e n a ct m e n t

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2 0 a n a l ysi s a n d r e d e si g n ) R e e v e s st e p s o f a n a l yzi n g a p r a c t i ca l p r o b l e m a n d d e ve l o p i n g a so l u t i o n a r e i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e D e si g n B a se d R e se a r ch C o l l e ct i ve s d e si g n st a g e I n a d d i t i o n t h e D e si g n B a s e d R e se a r ch C o l l e ct i ve s st a g e s o f e n a ct m e n t a n d a n a l ysi s a r e co m b i n e d w i t h i n R e e ve s e va l u a t i o n a n d t e st i n g st e p B u i l d i n g o n R e e ve s p r o ce ss, M a a n d H a r m o n ( 2 0 0 9 ) r e f i n e d a p r o ce d u r e f o r co n d u ct i n g a n i t e r a t i o n o f a D B R i n q u i r y t h a t i n cl u d e s a d d i t i o n a l d e t a i l s o n t h i s r e se a r ch p r o ce ss ( s e e F i g u r e 1 1 ) T h i s r e se a r ch e r se l e ct e d M a & H a r m o n s p r o ce ss b e ca u se i t p r o vi d e s a s t r u ct u r e d p r o ce ss t o co n d u ct a si n g l e i t e r a t i o n o f t h e D B R cycl e A s a n e m e r g i n g sch o l a r i t i s h e l p f u l t o h a v e a r e se a r ch f r a m e w o r k t h a t p r o vi d e s su p p o r t f o r e n g a g i n g i n r e se a r ch T h i s p r o ce d u r e p r o vi d e s t h e f r a m e w o r k f o r co n d u ct i n g t h i s r e se a r ch st u d y o n t h e i m p a ct o f l e a r n e r c o n st r u ct e d m u l t i m e d i a o n l e a r n i n g f o r a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s I n a d d i t i o n t h i s p r o ce d u r e p r o vi d e s t h e st r u ct u r e f o r t h i s m a n u scr i p t T h e f o u r st e p s f i r st a r t i cu l a t e d b y R e e ve s ( 2 0 0 0 ) a n d a d o p t e d b y M a a n d H a r m o n ( 2 0 0 9 ) a r e i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h i s m a n u s cr i p t R e s e a r c h P u r p o s e I n t h e t e a ch i n g a n d l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t w h o e ve r d o e s t h e m o st w o r k d o e s t h e m o st l e a r n i n g T h a t i s, w h o e ve r e n g a g e s a n d i n t e r a ct s m o r e w i t h t h e co n t e n t w i l l l e a r n m o r e q u a n t i t a t i ve l y a n d q u a l i t a t i ve l y. T h e sa g e o n t h e st a g e c a n sp e n d n u m e r o u s h o u r s r e se a r c h i n g a n d p r e p a r i n g f o r a cl a ss l e ct u r e T h i s i n d i vi d u a l e n g a g e s a n d i n t e r a ct s w i t h t h e co n t e n t a n d d e ve l o p s a so p h i st i ca t e d u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e co n t e n t H o w e ve r t h e l e a r n e r s, t h e a u d i e n ce o f t h e l e c t u r e d o n o t i n ve s t n e a r l y a s m u c h co g n i t i ve ski l l t o e n g a g e a n d i n t e r a ct w i t h t h e l e ct u r e co n t e n t a n d t h e r e f o r e d e ve l o p o n l y a su p e r f i ci a l u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e co n t e n t T h e r e f o r e i f a n e d u ca t o r cr e a t e s

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2 1 o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l e a r n e r s t o e n g a g e a n d i n t e r a ct w i t h co n t e n t i n r i ch a n d co m p l e x w a ys, l e a r n e r s a r e m o r e l i ke l y t o d e v e l o p a m o r e s o p h i st i ca t e d u n d e r st a n d i n g o f su ch co n t e n t O n e su ch m e t h o d f o r c r e a t i n g su ch o p p o r t u n i t i e s i s b y l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h d e si g n M o r e sp e ci f i ca l l y, l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h d e si g n r e f e r s t o t h e p r o ce ss o f l e a r n i n g co n t e n t d u r i n g a d e si g n t a sk t h a t p r o m o t e s e n g a g e m e n t w i t h co n t e n t T h u s, st u d e n t s d e si g n a n d cr e a t e a r t i f a ct s t h a t d e m o n st r a t e kn o w l e d g e o f t h e co n t e n t t o b e l e a r n e d A r t i f a c t s ca n e xi st i n m u l t i p l e f o r m s o f m e d i a o r m u l t i m e d i a : r e a c t i o n p a p e r s, b l o g p o st s vi d e o s, p o d ca st s, e t c A cco r d i n g t o S e n n e t t ( 2 0 0 8 ) m a ki n g i s t h i n ki n g ( p i x) T h e a ct o f d e si g n i n g a n d cr e a t i n g a n a r t i f a c t t h a t r e p r e se n t s w h a t a l e a r n e r s kn o w s a n d ca n d o r e l a t e d t o so m e co n t e n t m a y p r o vi d e e vi d e n ce o f u n d e r st a n d i n g a n d t h i n ki n g a b o u t t h a t co n t e n t I n f a ct t h i s m a y r e p r e se n t m o r e t h a n j u st su p e r f i ci a l t h i n ki n g R a t h e r i t m a y r e f l e ct a d e e p e r l e ve l o f t h i n ki n g t h a t g o e s b e y o n d m e m o r i za t i o n o r r e ca l l a n d r e a c h e s i n t o t h e r e a l m o f h i g h e r o r d e r t h i n ki n g a sso ci a t e d w i t h B l o o m s t a x o n o m y o f co g n i t i ve ski l l s su ch a s e va l u a t i n g a n d c r e a t i n g ( B l o o m & K r a t h w o h l 1 9 5 6 ; A n d e r so n & K r a t h w o h l 2 0 0 1 ) T o d a y s yo u t h h a ve u n p r e ce d e n t e d a cce ss t o p o w e r f u l m u l t i m e d i a a u t h o r i n g t o o l s. D e e p r i ch co n ce p t u a l l e a r n i n g ca n o ccu r w h e n l e a r n e r s d e si g n m u l t i m e d i a t h a t r e p r e se n t s t h e i r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f c o n t e n t kn o w l e d g e T h i s vi e w i s co n si st e n t w i t h co n st r u ct i o n i st p e d a g o g y, a p e d a g o g i ca l t h e o r y t h a t e m p h a si ze s t h e co n st r u ct i o n o f p e r so n a l l y m e a n i n g f u l a r t i f a ct s u si n g t e ch n o l o g y t h a t ca n b e sh a r e d w i t h o t h e r s ( P a p e r t 1 9 9 3 ) F o r e xa m p l e K a f a i ( 1 9 9 5 ) w o r ke d w i t h 1 0 ye a r o l d yo u t h t o d e si g n g a m e s i n L o g o t h a t w o u l d t e a ch kn o w l e d g e o f f r a ct i o n s t o yo u n g e r st u d e n t s. S h e r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e se yo u t h d e ve l o p e d t h e i r o w n r e p r e se n t a t i o n s o f f r a ct i o n s w h i l e l e a r n i n g

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2 2 p r o g r a m m i n g co n ce p t s a n d st r a t e g i e s. T h i s w o r k e p i t o m i ze s t h e p o t e n t i a l i m p a ct t h a t m u l t i m e d i a a u t h o r i n g t o o l s ca n h a ve o n y o u n g l e a r n e r s R e se a r ch i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n cr e a si n g l e a r n e r m o t i va t i o n a n d c o g n i t i ve e n g a g e m e n t w i l l p r o m o t e a ch i e ve m e n t ( T u r n e r & P a r i s, 1 9 9 5 ; G u t h r i e & W i g f i e l d 1 9 9 7 ; G u t h r i e & W i g f i e l d 2 0 0 0 ; G u t h r i e 2 0 0 1 ; R o e 2 0 0 1 ; K a m i l 2 0 0 3 ) T o d a y s yo u n g a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s m a y n o t r e s p o n d t o t r a d i t i o n a l i n st r u ct i o n a l a p p r o a ch e s. T h e r e f o r e w e m u st co n si d e r i n n o v a t i ve a p p r o a ch e s t o m o t i v a t i n g a n d e n g a g i n g t h e se yo u n g l e a r n e r s. O n e su ch a p p r o a c h p l a ce s y o u n g l e a r n e r s i n t h e r o l e s o f d e si g n e r s o f m u l t i m e d i a H a vi n g l e a r n e r s co n st r u ct m u l t i m e d i a i s o n e st r a t e g y t h a t f a ci l i t a t e s t h e d e ve l o p m e n t o f t h i n ki n g ski l l s ( S p o e h r 1 9 9 3 ; L e h r e r E r i ckso n & C o n n e l l 1 9 9 4 ; H a y, G u zd i a l Ja ckso n B o yl e & S o l o w a y, 1 9 9 4 ) Y e t i t m a y b e a n u n d e r u t i l i ze d st r a t e g y i n m o st sch o o l s. O n l y 4 3 % o f t e a ch e r s w h o r e g u l a r l y u se m e d i a i n t h e i r cl a ss r o o m s h i g h l y va l u e s t u d e n t cr e a t e d m u l t i m e d i a ( P B S 2 0 0 9 ) T o o l s f o r co n st r u ct i n g m u l t i m e d i a t yp i ca l l y i n cl u d e a st e e p l e a r n i n g c u r ve o r a h i g h co st w h i ch m a y i n d i ca t e ca u se s f o r t h e l a ck o f d i f f u si o n o f t h i s st r a t e g y Y e t S cr a t ch a co n t e m p o r a r y d e si g n t o o l w i t h a sh a l l o w l e a r n i n g cu r ve a n d a v a i l a b l e f o r f r e e m a y p r o vi d e g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d i f f u si o n a n d i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o cl a ssr o o m co n t e xt s. T h e r e f o r e t h e p u r p o se o f t h i s st u d y i s t o i d e n t i f y l e a r n i n g g a i n s w h e n yo u n g a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s d e si g n a n d co n s t r u ct m u l t i m e d i a u si n g S cr a t ch t o e xp r e ss w h a t t h e y kn o w a b o u t m a t h c o n t e n t p a r t i cu l a r l y co n t e n t a d d r e ssi n g t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. D e s i g n o f T h i s M a n u s c r i p t T h e r e m a i n i n g ch a p t e r s o f t h i s m a n u scr i p t p r o vi d e a d e t a i l e d a cco u n t o f t h e d e si g n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a n a l ysi s a n d f i n d i n g s f o r t h i s st u d y. C h a p t e r 2 a d d r e sse s t h e t h e o r e t i ca l f r a m e w o r k a n d si t u a t e s t h i s st u d y w i t h i n t h e e xi st i n g l i t e r a t u r e C h a p t e r 3

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2 3 d o cu m e n t s t h e r e se a r c h m e t h o d s u s e d t o co n d u ct t h i s st u d y w i t h i n a K 1 2 se t t i n g C h a p t e r 4 p r o vi d e s a n o v e r vi e w o f t h e e va l u a t i o n a n d t e s t i n g o f a l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t t h a t i n t e g r a t e s l e a r n e r co n s t r u ct e d m u l t i m e d i a t h r o u g h t h e p e r sp e c t i ve s o f t w o i n d i vi d u a l ca se st u d i e s. C h a p t e r 5 p r o vi d e s d o cu m e n t a t i o n a n d r e f l e ct i o n o n t h e d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s n e ce ssa r y t o i m p l e m e n t l e a r n e r co n st r u ct e d m u l t i m e d i a a s i d e n t i f i e d t h r o u g h t h e co l l a b o r a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r a n d t h i s r e se a r c h e r C h a p t e r 6 su m m a r i z e s t h i s st u d y s f i n d i n g s, si t u a t e s t h i s st u d y s f i n d i n g s i n t h e e xi st i n g l i t e r a t u r e a n d sh a r e s i m p l i ca t i o n s f o r l e a r n e r s, t e a ch e r s, sch o o l s a n d t h e r e s e a r ch co m m u n i t y.

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2 4 C H A P T E R 2 L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s ch a p t e r p r o vi d e s a n o ve r vi e w o f t h e t h e o r e t i ca l f r a m e w o r k a n d b a ckg r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n n e ce ss a r y f o r u n d e r st a n d i n g t h i s s t u d y s co n t e xt T h i s ch a p t e r a l so si t u a t e s t h i s r e se a r ch st u d y i n t h e e xi st i n g e d u ca t i o n r e se a r ch l i t e r a t u r e I n a d d i t i o n t h i s ch a p t e r s co n t e n t a d d r e sse s S t e p 1 2 o f t h e D B R f r a m e w o r k: r e vi e w i n g t h e l i t e r a t u r e ( M a & H a r m o n 2 0 0 9 ) T h e o r e t i c a l F r a m e w o r k I n t e g r a t i n g m u l t i m e d i a i s a co n t e m p o r a r y st r a t e g y f o r e n g a g i n g st u d e n t s i n co n t e n t A cco r d i n g t o a r e c e n t su r ve y o f 1 2 0 0 K 1 2 t e a ch e r s, 7 6 % u s e d i g i t a l m e d i a f r e q u e n t l y o r r e g u l a r l y i n t h e i r cl a ssr o o m s, a n d 4 3 % o f t h e se m e d i a u si n g t e a ch e r s h i g h l y va l u e st u d e n t p r o d u ce d m u l t i m e d i a ( P B S 2 0 0 9 ) C o n t r a r y t o o t h e r a p p r o a ch e s t h a t i n t e g r a t e m u l t i m e d i a i n t o cl a ss r o o m p r a ct i ce l e a r n e r co n st r u ct e d m u l t i m e d i a ( L C M ) p l a ce s l e a r n e r s i n t h e r o l e s o f p a r t i ci p a n t s a n d p r o d u ce r s r a t h e r t h a n sp e ct a t o r s a n d co n su m e r s ( Je n ki n s 2 0 0 6 ) I n t e g r a t i n g L C M i s a p e d a g o g i ca l st r a t e g y f o r p r o m o t i n g co n t e n t l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h t h e d e si g n o f a d i g i t a l a r t i f a ct t h a t e xp r e sse s w h a t a st u d e n t kn o w s. S p e ci f i ca l l y, l e a r n e r s p a r t i ci p a t e i n t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss t o p r o d u ce a d i g i t a l a r t i f a ct t h a t r e p r e se n t s t h e i r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f co n t e n t r a t h e r t h a n c o n su m i n g co n t e n t t h r o u g h i n st r u ct i o n a l m u l t i m e d i a L C M ca n b e u n d e r st o o d t h r o u g h se ve r a l p e r s p e ct i ve s: t h e o r e t i ca l p e d a g o g i ca l a n d h i st o r i c a l ( se e F i g u r e 2 1 ) F r o m a t h e o r e t i ca l p e r sp e ct i v e L C M i s g r o u n d e d i n co n st r u ct i vi st t h e o r i e s o f kn o w i n g T h e u se o f t h e w o r d t h e o r i e s i s i n t e n t i o n a l t o a ckn o w l e d g e t h a t t h e r e a r e m u l t i p l e f o r m s o f c o n st r u ct i vi sm ( e g r a d i c a l

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2 5 co n st r u ct i vi sm ) e vi d e n t w i t h i n t h e e d u ca t i o n l i t e r a t u r e ( P h i l l i p s, 1 9 9 5 ) T h i s st u d y i s co n ce r n e d w i t h h o w a n i n d i vi d u a l c o n st r u c t s k n o w l e d g e t h r o u g h e xp e r i e n ce s, su c h a s t h e e xp e r i e n ce o f d e si g n i n g m u l t i m e d i a t h a t r e p r e se n t s a n u n d e r st a n d i n g o f co n t e n t kn o w l e d g e T h e r e f o r e p sych o l o g i ca l co n st r u ct i vi sm i n co n t r a st t o s o ci a l co n st r u ct i vi sm f o r m s t h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h i s st u d y b e ca u se t h e u n i t o f i n t e r e st f o r t h i s f o r m o f co n st r u ct i vi sm i s t h e i n d i vi d u a l ( R i ch a r d so n 2 0 0 3 ) P i a g e t s p e r sp e ct i ve h a s h a d co n si d e r a b l e i n f l u e n ce o n co n t e m p o r a r y v i e w s o f p sych o l o g i ca l c o n st r u ct i vi sm ( M a t t h e w s 2 0 0 3 ) P i a g e t e xp r e ss e d t h a t kn o w l e d g e d o e s n o t r e su l t f r o m a m e r e r e co r d i n g o f o b se r va t i o n s w i t h o u t a st r u c t u r i n g a ct i vi t y o n t h e p a r t o f t h e su b j e ct ( P i a g e t 1 9 8 0 p 2 3 ) T h u s, m a ki n g m e a n i n g f o r t h e l e a r n e r e n t a i l s d e ve l o p i n g sch e m a o r m e n t a l m o d e l s, t h a t r e p r e se n t u n d e r st a n d i n g s o f e xp e r i e n ce s. I n a n e d u ca t i o n a l e n vi r o n m e n t l e a r n e r s ca n co n s t r u ct r e p r e se n t a t i o n s a n d u n d e r st a n d i n g o f co n t e n t t h r o u g h a d i ve r s e r a n g e o f e xp e r i e n ce s i n cl u d i n g t e a ch e r d e l i ve r e d l e c t u r e s o r h a n d s o n e xp e r i m e n t s.

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2 6 F i g u r e 2 1 T h e t h e o r e t i ca l f r a m e w o r k f o r t h i s st u d y W i t h i n a p e d a g o g i ca l f r a m e w o r k, L C M h a s a f o u n d a t i o n i n co n st r u ct i o n i st p e d a g o g y, w h i ch i s a n a p p l i ca t i o n o f co n st r u ct i vi st l e a r n i n g t h e o r y. C o n st r u ct i o n i st p e d a g o g y e m p h a si ze s t h a t l e a r n e r s d e v e l o p a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f co n t e n t e sp e ci a l l y w e l l w h e n g i ve n o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o d e si g n a n d co n st r u ct a p e r s o n a l l y r e l e va n t a n d sh a r e a b l e a r t i f a ct ( P a p e r t 1 9 9 1 ) R e l a t e d l y, L C M a l so h a s a f o u n d a t i o n i n t h e co n c e p t o f l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h d e si g n P e r ki n s kn o w l e d g e a s d e si g n p e d a g o g y e n co u r a g e s a n a ct i v e u se o f kn o w l e d g e t h r o u g h t h e c r e a t i o n o f p r o d u ct s t o r e p r e s e n t st u d e n t u n d e r st a n d i n g ( 1 9 8 6 ) S t u d e n t cr e a t e d p r o d u ct s a b o u t su b j e ct m a t t e r d e m o n st r a t e st u d e n t s a b i l i t y t o a p p l y kn o w l e d g e a n d syn t h e si z e u n d e r st a n d i n g t h r o u g h t h e d e si g n o f a p r o d u ct r a t h e r t h a n

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2 7 si m p l y r e g u r g i t a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n o n a t e st P e r ki n s a r g u e d t h a t st u d e n t s w h o sp e n d m o st o f t h e i r t i m e co n su m i n g kn o w l e d g e h o w e ve r w e l l se r v e d u p i t m a y b e a r e n o t co n st r u ct i n g t h e i r o w n p r o d u ct s o f m i n d ( 1 9 8 6 p 9 6 ) T h a t i s, st u d e n t s m a y a cq u i r e i n f o r m a t i o n ( o r co n su m e i t ) b u t t h e y m a y n o t b e a b l e t o u se kn o w l e d g e f o r a p p l i ca t i o n p u r p o se s ( o r p r o d u ce i t i n a d e si g n p r o d u c t ) P e r ki n s cl e a r l y a r t i cu l a t e d t h a t d e si g n i n g a p r o d u ct t h a t r e p r e s e n t s a n u n d e r st a n d i n g o f k n o w l e d g e p r o m o t e s d e e p e r u n d e r st a n d i n g t h a n co n su m i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t h e n r e g u r g i t a t i n g i t b a ck o n a t e st H i st o r i ca l l y, m u l t i m e d i a h a s b e e n u s e d a s a n i n st r u ct i o n a l t o o l w h e r e b y l e a r n e r s co n su m e m u l t i m e d i a t o l e a r n a b o u t co n t e n t I n st r u ct i o n a l d e si g n e r s o r t e a ch e r s cr e a t e t h e m u l t i m e d i a co n t e n t t h a t l e a r n e r s c o n su m e Jo n a sse n W i l so n W a n g & G r a b i n g e r ( 1 9 9 3 ) o b se r ve d t h a t d e si g n e r s o f i n st r u ct i o n a l m a t e r i a l s l e a r n t h e m o st f r o m t h e m a t e r i a l s. T h u s, i t se e m s l i ke l y t h a t i n st r u ct i o n a l d e si g n e r s a n d t e a ch e r s l e a r n m o r e co n t e n t t h r o u g h d e si g n i n g m u l t i m e d i a t h a n l e a r n e r s d o f r o m co n su m i n g i t P e o p l e w h o d e si g n m a t e r i a l s a r e n e ce ss a r i l y e n g a g e d i n a d e e p e r a n a l ysi s a n d a r t i cu l a t i o n o f t h e s u b j e ct i n o r d e r t o t e a ch i t w h i ch r e su l t s i n t h e i r b e t t e r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e su b j e ct a s o p p o se d t o l e a r n e r s w h o o n l y r e a d o r i n t e r a ct w i t h t h e m a t e r i a l s ( Jo n a sse n P e ck & W i l so n 1 9 9 9 p 1 5 3 ) T h i s n o t i o n f o r m s t h e j u s t i f i ca t i o n f o r cr e a t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l e a r n e r s t o co n st r u ct m u l t i m e d i a t h a t r e p r e s e n t s w h a t l e a r n e r s kn o w a b o u t co n t e n t A F o u n d a t i o n i n C o n s t r u c t i v i s m a n d C o n s t r u c t i o n i s m A s d e scr i b e d a b o ve co n st r u ct i vi sm i s a l e a r n i n g t h e o r y t h a t p o si t s t h a t kn o w l e d g e i s co n st r u ct e d b y t h e l e a r n e r a n d n o t si m p l y t r a n sm i t t e d f r o m t e a ch e r t o l e a r n e r C o n st r u ct i vi sm i s a l s o r e f e r r e d t o a s d i sco ve r y l e a r n i n g t o i n d i ca t e t h a t l e a r n i n g t a ke s p l a ce t h r o u g h d i sco v e r y a s o n e i n d i vi d u a l l e a d s a n o t h e r t o d i sco v e r co n c e p t s ( S t a g e r 2 0 0 2 ) I t i s o f t e n a sso ci a t e d w i t h t h e i d e a o f l e a r n i n g b y d o i n g w h i ch i m p l i e s t h a t t h e

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2 8 l e a r n e r i s a ct i ve a n d e n g a g e d i n t h e l e a r n i n g p r o ce ss. C o n st r u ct i o n i sm a p e d a g o g i ca l p a r a d i g m f i r st a r t i cu l a t e d b y S e ym o u r P a p e r t e xt e n d s t h i s i d e a i n t o l e a r n i n g b y m a ki n g t o e m p h a si ze t h e i m p o r t a n ce o f g e n e r a t i n g a sh a r e a b l e a r t i f a c t o ve r si m p l y e n g a g i n g i n a n a ct i vi t y. W e u n d e r st a n d c o n st r u c t i o n i sm a s i n cl u d i n g b u t g o i n g b e yo n d w h a t P i a g e t w o u l d ca l l co n st r u ct i vi sm T h e w o r d w i t h t h e v e xp r e sse s t h e t h e o r y t h a t kn o w l e d g e i s b u i l t b y t h e l e a r n e r n o t su p p l i e d b y t h e t e a ch e r T h e w o r d w i t h t h e n e xp r e sse s t h e f u r t h e r i d e a t h a t t h i s h a p p e n s e sp e ci a l l y f e l i ci t o u sl y w h e n t h e l e a r n e r i s e n g a g e d i n t h e co n st r u ct i o n o f so m e t h i n g e xt e r n a l o r a t l e a st sh a r e a b l e a sa n d c a st l e a m a ch i n e a co m p u t e r p r o g r a m a b o o k. T h i s l e a d s u s t o a m o d e l u si n g a cycl e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l i za t i o n o f w h a t i s o u t si d e t h e n e xt e r n a l i za t i o n o f w h a t i s i n si d e a n d so o n ( P a p e r t 1 9 9 0 p 3 ) C o n st r u ct i o n i s m sh a r e s w i t h t h e m o r e f a m i l i a r co n st r u ct i vi sm t h e b e l i e f t h a t l e a r n i n g i s t h e p r o c e ss o f b u i l d i n g kn o w l e d g e st r u ct u r e s t h r o u g h e xp e r i e n c e s. C o n s t r u ct i o n i st s e xt e n d t h i s t h e o r y a n d a r g u e t h a t l e a r n i n g i s p a r t i cu l a r l y r o b u st w h e n l e a r n e r s h a ve t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o co n st r u ct a sh a r e a b l e a r t i f a ct ( H a r e l & P a p e r t 1 9 9 1 ) C o n st r u ct i o n i sm co n t r a st s w i t h i n st r u ct i o n i sm a m o r e d o m i n a n t p e d a g o g i ca l a p p r o a ch i n e d u ca t i o n I l i ke t o f o r m u l a t e a m a j o r t h e o r e t i ca l i ssu e a s co n st r u c t i o n i sm vs. i n s t r u ct i o n i sm T h i s d o e s n o t su g g e st t h a t i n st r u c t i o n i s b a d o r u se l e ss. I n st r u ct i o n i s n o t b a d b u t o ve r r a t e d a s t h e l o cu s f o r si g n i f i ca n t ch a n g e i n e d u ca t i o n B e t t e r l e a r n i n g w i l l n o t co m e f r o m f i n d i n g w a ys f o r t h e t e a ch e r t o i n st r u ct b u t f r o m g i vi n g t h e l e a r n e r b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o co n st r u ct ( P a p e r t 1 9 9 0 e m p h a si s i n o r i g i n a l p 3 ) I n p r a ct i ce co n st r u ct i o n i st s p r o vi d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l e a r n e r s t o d e s i g n a n d c o n st r u c t sh a r e a b l e a r t i f a c t s, a n d c o n st r u ct i o n i sm p l a ce s t h e l o cu s o f co n t r o l f o r l e a r n i n g w i t h t h e l e a r n e r I n co n t r a st i n st r u ct i o n i sm m a i n t a i n s t h e l o cu s o f c o n t r o l f o r l e a r n i n g w i t h t h e t e a ch e r T h u s a t e a c h e r a d o p t i n g a co n st r u ct i o n i st a p p r o a ch t o l e a r n i n g w o u l d c r e a t e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l e a r n e r s t o d e si g n a n d co n s t r u ct a r t i f a ct s t h a t r e p r e se n t u n d e r st a n d i n g o f co n t e n t I n a d d i t i o n t h e se a r t i f a ct s co u l d b e co m p o se d u si n g m u l t i m e d i a t o o l s, a n d t h e r e i s a r e a so n a b l e a m o u n t o f h i st o r i ca l e vi d e n ce t o su p p o r t t h i s a p p r o a ch

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2 9 A H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e o n M u l t i m e d i a M u l t i m e d i a b e ca m e w i d e l y r e g a r d e d a s a n i n s t r u ct i o n a l t o o l d u r i n g t h e 1 9 9 0 s ( B r o w n 2 0 0 7 ) F o r t h e p u r p o se o f t h i s st u d y, t h i s r e se a r ch e r d e f i n e s m u l t i m e d i a a s a d i g i t a l a r t i f a ct t h a t s h a r e s i n f o r m a t i o n t h r o u g h m u l t i p l e f o r m s o f m e d i a M e d i a co m m o n l y e xi st i n a u d i t o r y o r vi su a l f o r m s su c h a s t e xt sp e e ch m u si c, so u n d s, i m a g e s o r a n i m a t i o n s. O t h e r r e se a r ch e r s d e f i n i t i o n s o f m u l t i m e d i a a n d h yp e r m e d i a f o r m t h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f m u l t i m e d i a u se d t h i s st u d y. M i t ch e l l A n d r e a t t a & C a p e l l a ( 2 0 0 4 ) d e scr i b e d m u l t i m e d i a a s a n e d u ca t i o n a l p r e se n t a t i o n m a d e u si n g a u d i o a n d i m a g e s ( p 3 9 6 2 ) a n d e m p h a si ze d t h a t t h e a m o u n t o f t e xt i s r e d u ce d w i t h i n m u l t i m e d i a E r i ckso n ( 1 9 9 7 ) a r t i c u l a t e d h yp e r m e d i a a s a w a y o f a u t h o r i n g o n t h e c o m p u t e r t h a t co m b i n e s t e x t g r a p h i cs, so u n d a n d a n i m a t i o n ( p 5 ) W i sn u d e l ( 1 9 9 4 ) i d e n t i f i e d m u l t i m e d i a a s t h e co o r d i n a t e u s e o f se v e r a l t yp e s o f m e d i a ( p 6 ) a n d c o m p a r e d a n d co n t r a st e d i t w i t h h yp e r m e d i a H yp e r m e d i a l i ke m u l t i m e d i a i n c o r p o r a t e s sy m b o l i c e xp r e ssi o n s b e y o n d t e xt s i n cl u d i n g g r a p h i cs, a n i m a t i o n s, s t i l l i m a g e s, a n d vi d e o H yp e r m e d i a e n a b l e s u se r s t o r e t r i e ve ch u n ks o f i n f o r m a t i o n o n d e m a n d U n l i ke m u l t i m e d i a h yp e r m e d i a e n vi r o n m e n t s co n t a i n a n i n h e r e n t st r u c t u r e o r n e t w o r k, w i t h l i n ks o r c o n n e ct i o n s a n d r e l a t i o n sh i p s b e t w e e n ch u n ks o f i n f o r m a t i o n ( p 6 ) T h u s, m u l t i m e d i a a n d h y p e r m e d i a sh a r e a c o m m o n a s p e ct : b o t h i n t e g r a t e m u l t i p l e f o r m s o f m e d i a t o e xp r e ss i n f o r m a t i o n T h e y d i f f e r i n t h e i r l i n e a r i t y: m u l t i m e d i a i s l i n e a r a n d h yp e r m e d i a i s n o n l i n e a r W h i l e t h i s d i st i n ct i o n m a y h a ve b e e n r e l e v a n t i n t h e p a st co n t e m p o r a r y t o o l s a l l o w u s e r s t o c o n st r u c t b o t h l i n e a r a n d n o n l i n e a r a r t i f a ct s. I n a d d i t i o n h yp e r m e d i a a n d m u l t i m e d i a a r e o f t e n u se d i n t e r ch a n g e a b l y w i t h i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e I n t h e cu r r e n t st u d y, t h i s r e se a r ch e r e xcl u si ve l y u se s t h e t e r m m u l t i m e d i a t o r e f e r t o t h e d i g i t a l a r t i f a ct s cr e a t e d b y p a r t i ci p a n t s.

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3 0 L e a r n i n g T h r o u g h M u l t i m e d i a D e s i g n T h e m e t a p h o r s o f st u d e n t a s d e si g n e r a n d l e a r n e r a s d e si g n e r h a ve b e e n u s e d t h r o u g h o u t e d u ca t i o n l i t e r a t u r e ( H a r e l 1 9 9 1 ; E h r m a n n & B a l e st r i 1 9 9 2 ; B e i ch n e r 1 9 9 4 ; L e h r e r E r i ckso n & C o n n e l l 1 9 9 4 ; L i u & R u t l e d g e 1 9 9 7 ; W i l h e l m F r i e d e m a n n & E r i ckso n 1 9 9 8 ; C h e n & M cG r a t h 2 0 0 3 ; K i m b e r & W ya t t S m i t h 2 0 0 6 ) I n d e e d t h i s l i t e r a t u r e h a s i d e n t i f i e d m u l t i p l e b e n e f i t s w h e n l e a r n e r s p a r t i ci p a t e i n t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss, a n d t h e r e a r e n u m e r o u s st u d i e s t h a t i d e n t i f y p o si t i ve o u t co m e s w h e n l e a r n e r s d e si g n h yp e r m e d i a o r m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct s ( se e T a b l e 2 1 ) N o t i ce t h a t t h e r e w e r e n o a p p r o p r i a t e st u d i e s f o u n d p a st 2 0 0 7 T h i s r e s e a r ch e r i d e n t i f i e d t h e se s t u d i e s t h r o u g h a n e xh a u st i ve r e vi e w o f sp e ci f i c j o u r n a l s su ch a s t h e Jo u r n a l o f E d u ca t i o n a l M u l t i m e d i a a n d H yp e r m e d i a a n d o f t h e u n i ve r si t y s l i b r a r y d a t a b a se s S e a r ch t e r m s i n cl u d e d m u l t i m e d i a co n st r u ct i o n st u d e n t cr e a t e d l e a r n e r cr e a t e d st u d e n t c o n st r u c t e d st u d e n t d e si g n e d m u l t i m e d i a d e si g n m u l t i m e d i a d e si g n e r a n d m u l t i m e d i a co n st r u ct i o n I n a d d i t i o n o n ce a su i t a b l e a r t i cl e w a s i d e n t i f i e d t h i s r e s e a r ch e r u se d G o o g l e S ch o l a r t o f o l l o w t h e ci t a t i o n t r a i l o f t h e a r t i cl e t o i d e n t i f y m o r e c u r r e n t a r t i cl e s t h a t ci t e d t h e p r e vi o u sl y i d e n t i f i e d a r t i cl e T a b l e 2 1 O ve r vi e w o f b e n e f i t s o f l e a r n e r s d e si g n i n g h yp e r m e d i a / m u l t i m e d i a A u t h o r ( s) S u m m a r y o f b e n e f i t s C a r ve r L e h r e r C o n n e l l & E r i ckso n ( 1 9 9 2 ) S t u d e n t s d e ve l o p d e si g n ski l l s; st u d e n t s d e m o n st r a t e h i g h m e n t a l e f f o r t a n d i n vo l ve m e n t S p o e h r ( 1 9 9 3 ) S t u d e n t s o r g a n i ze kn o w l e d g e i n a n e xp e r t l i ke m a n n e r L e h r e r E r i ckso n & C o n n e l l ( 1 9 9 4 ) S t u d e n t s d e m o n st r a t e h i g h m e n t a l e f f o r t a n d i n vo l ve m e n t ; o f f t a sk b e h a vi o r s a r e r e d u ce d ; st u d e n t s d e ve l o p ski l l s t o s e a r ch f o r i n t e r p r e t a r t i cu l a t e a n d co m m u n i ca t e i n f o r m a t i o n H a y, G u zd i a l Ja ckso n B o yl e & S o l o w a y ( 1 9 9 4 ) S t u d e n t s cr e a t e m u l t i p l e r e p r e se n t a t i o n s o f co n t e n t

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3 1 T a b l e 2 1 C o n t i n u e d B e i ch n e r ( 1 9 9 4 ) D e si g n p r o ce ss m o t i va t e s st u d e n t s, e sp e ci a l l y w h e n d e si g n i n g f o r a n e xt e r n a l a u d i e n ce ; s t u d e n t s d e e p l y e n g a g e i n co n t e n t w h i l e a n a l yzi n g e va l u a t i n g syn t h e si zi n g a n d r e p r e se n t i n g co n t e n t r e l a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n E r i ckso n ( 1 9 9 7 ) S t u d e n t s d e ve l o p r e se a r ch a n d d e si g n ski l l s L i u & R u t l e d g e ( 1 9 9 7 ) S t u d e n t s e xh i b i t m o t i va t i o n t o l e a r n i n cr e a se o n t a sk b e h a vi o r s, a r e w i l l i n g t o sp e n d a d d i t i o n a l t i m e o u t si d e o f cl a ss a n d i n c r e a se s e l f e f f i ca cy M cG r a t h C u m a r a n a t u n g e Ji C h e n B r o ce & W r i g h t ( 1 9 9 7 ) D e si g n p r o ce ss m o t i va t e s st u d e n t s; st u d e n t s t a ke i n t e r e st i n c o n t e n t a n d i n c r e a se r e sp o n si b i l i t y f o r t h e i r l e a r n i n g L i u & P e d e r so n ( 1 9 9 8 ) D e si g n p r o ce ss m o t i va t e s st u d e n t s; st u d e n t s i n cr e a se co n t e n t kn o w l e d g e a n d d e v e l o p d e si g n co l l a b o r a t i o n a n d m e t a co g n i t i ve ski l l s O r e y, F a n S co t t T h u m a R o b e r t sh a w H o g l e T ze n g & C r e n sh a w ( 2 0 0 0 ) D e si g n p r o ce ss m o t i va t e s st u d e n t s i f t a sk i s n o t t o o st r u ct u r e d ; st u d e n t s d e v e l o p co l l a b o r a t i o n ski l l s L i u & H si a o ( 2 0 0 2 ) S t u d e n t s d e ve l o p d e si g n ski l l s; st u d e n t s d e ve l o p co l l a b o r a t i o n ski l l s C h e n & M cG r a t h ( 2 0 0 3 ) S t u d e n t s r e p r e se n t co n t e n t i n m u l t i p l e w a ys a n d d e ve l o p m e t a co g n i t i ve a n d r e f l e ct i ve ski l l s M i t ch e l l A n d r e a t a & C a p e l l a ( 2 0 0 4 ) S t u d e n t s e n g a g e i n co u r se c o n t e n t B r o w n ( 2 0 0 7 ) D e si g n p r o ce ss m o t i va t e s st u d e n t s; st u d e n t s d e ve l o p m u l t i p l e h i g h e r o r d e r t h i n ki n g ski l l s G a r t h w a i t ( 2 0 0 7 ) S t u d e n t s i n cr e a se w r i t i n g ski l l s C a r ve r L e h r e r C o n n e l l a n d E r i ckso n ( 1 9 9 2 ) d e ve l o p e d a d e si g n ski l l s m o d e l t h a t p l a ce s l e a r n e r s i n t h e r o l e s o f h yp e r m e d i a a u t h o r s. T h e se d e si g n ski l l s i n cl u d e d p r o j e ct m a n a g e m e n t ski l l s, r e se a r c h ski l l s, o r g a n i zi n g a n d r e p r e se n t a t i o n ski l l s, p r e se n t a t i o n ski l l s a n d r e f l e ct i o n ski l l s. T h e r e s e a r ch e r s co l l a b o r a t e d w i t h se co n d a r y t e a ch e r s t o d e ve l o p t e a c h i n g u n i t s t h a t i n t e g r a t e d t h e se s ki l l s d u r i n g h yp e r m e d i a d e si g n p r o j e c t s. B a se d o n a n a n a l ysi s o f st u d e n t d i sco u r se C a r ve r e t a l r e p o r t e d t h a t st u d e n t s b e ca m e a u t o n o m o u s w i t h r e sp e ct t o d e si g n ski l l s o ve r t h e co u r s e o f t h e p r o j e ct I n a d d i t i o n st u d e n t q u e st i o n n a i r e s r e ve a l e d i n c r e a se d m e n t a l e f f o r t a n d i n vo l ve m e n t i n t e r e st

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3 2 co l l a b o r a t i o n p l a n n i n g a n d i n d i vi d u a l i za t i o n ( p 3 9 4 ) T h i s st u d y c o n t r i b u t e s e vi d e n ce t o su p p o r t t h e vi e w t h a t d e si g n i n g h y p e r m e d i a d e ve l o p s d e si g n ski l l s. I n a d d i t i o n t h i s st u d y d e m o n st r a t e s t h a t st u d e n t s d e e p l y e n g a g e i n co n t e n t w h e n d e si g n i n g a b o u t t h e co n t e n t a s t h e y se a r ch a n a l yze e va l u a t e a n d syn t h e si s i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d t o t h e co n t e n t S p o e h r ( 1 9 9 3 ) d o cu m e n t e d b e n e f i t s w h e n h i g h sch o o l st u d e n t s r e p o r t e d r e s u l t s f r o m r e se a r c h p r o j e ct s u si n g h yp e r m e d i a S h e i d e n t i f i e d t h a t st u d e n t s d e ve l o p e d a p r o f i ci e n cy t o o r g a n i ze kn o w l e d g e a b o u t a su b j e ct i n a m o r e e x p e r t l i ke f a sh i o n ( p 9 ) w h e n g i ve n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o co n st r u ct h y p e r m e d i a T h i s i s a si g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g a s e d u ca t o r s se e k t o f i n d m e a n i n g f u l w a ys f o r l e a r n e r s t o d e ve l o p r e p r e se n t a t i o n s o f co n t e n t T h e a b i l i t y t o o r g a n i ze k n o w l e d g e i n a so p h i st i ca t e d m a n n e r w h e n d e si g n i n g h yp e r m e d i a p r o vi d e s e vi d e n ce t h a t t h i s a p p r o a ch h a s a c o n si d e r a b l e i m p a ct o n l e a r n i n g co n t e n t L e h r e r E r i ckso n a n d C o n n e l l ( 1 9 9 4 ) a ske d 9 t h g r a d e st u d e n t s t o co n st r u ct a h yp e r m e d i a p r e se n t a t i o n o n a n A m e r i ca n h i st o r y t o p i c w i t h t h e i n t e n t t h a t t h e h yp e r m e d i a p r e se n t a t i o n co u l d b e u se d b y p e e r s a s a n e d u ca t i o n a l t o o l I n t e a m s o f 5 st u d e n t g r o u p s u se d H yp e r A u t h o r t o co n st r u ct t h e i r h yp e r m e d i a p r e se n t a t i o n s. T h e r e se a r ch e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t st u d e n t s d e m o n st r a t e d h i g h l e ve l s o f m e n t a l e f f o r t a n d i n vo l ve m e n t w h i c h i n d i ca t e s a h i g h l e v e l o f e n g a g e m e n t w i t h co n t e n t d u r i n g t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss. A n o t h e r i n d i ca t o r f o r a h i g h l e ve l o f e n g a g e m e n t a m o n g st u d e n t s w a s e vi d e n t i n a r e m a r ka b l e d e cr e a se i n o f f t a sk b e h a vi o r s o ve r t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss ( f r o m 3 0 % i n t h e b e g i n n i n g t o 3 % a t t h e e n d ) I n a d d i t i o n r e se a r ch e r s o b se r ve d t h a t st u d e n t s d e ve l o p e d s e ve r a l u se f u l ski l l s t h a t c o u l d t r a n s f e r t o o t h e r co n t e xt s: f i n d i n g

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3 3 a n d i n t e r p r e t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a r t i cu l a t i n g a n d c o m m u n i ca t i n g kn o w l e d g e a n d u si n g co m p u t e r s a s co g n i t i ve t o o l s ( p 2 4 8 ) T h e se ski l l s w e r e n o t i n t e n t i o n a l l y e n co u r a g e d a s p a r t o f t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss, b u t t h e y a r e a b e n e f i ci a l o u t co m e o f t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss. O f m o st si g n i f i ca n ce t h e r e se a r ch e r s n o t e d t h a t st u d e n t s o b se r v e d t h a t kn o w l e d g e w a s a r e su l t o f t h e i r co n st r u ct i ve e f f o r t s r a t h e r t h a n a s a se t o f g i ve n s f r o m t h e i r t e a c h e r a n d t e xt ( p 2 4 8 ) T h u s, d e si g n i n g h yp e r m e d i a ( o r m u l t i m e d i a ) i s a c o n st r u ct i o n i st t a sk r a t h e r t h a n a n i n st r u ct i o n i st o n e L e a r n e r s co n st r u ct kn o w l e d g e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e co n t e n t a d d r e sse d i n t h e i r h yp e r m e d i a ( o r m u l t i m e d i a ) d u r i n g t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss r a t h e r t h a n t h e t e a ch e r o r t e xt b o o k p r o vi d i n g r e p r e se n t a t i o n s f o r l e a r n e r s t o m e m o r i ze H a y, G u zd i a l Ja ckso n B o yl e a n d S o l o w a y ( 1 9 9 4 ) a n a l yze d 8 3 m u l t i m e d i a d o cu m e n t s cr e a t e d i n M e d i a T e xt b y h i g h sch o o l st u d e n t s t o m e e t a ssi g n m e n t e xp e ct a t i o n s i n f o u r d i f f e r e n t co u r se s. T h o u g h t h e e xp e c t a t i o n s f o r t h e m u l t i m e d i a d o cu m e n t s va r i e d a cr o ss c o u r se s, t h e r e se a r c h e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t l e a r n e r s d e v e l o p e d a r i ch e r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e co n ce p t s ( p 3 1 5 ) o f t h e c o u r se a ssi g n m e n t s b e c a u se l e a r n e r s w e r e a b l e t o p r o vi d e m u l t i p l e r e p r e se n t a t i o n s o f c o n t e n t u si n g m u l t i p l e m e d i a f o r m a t s i n t h e i r m u l t i m e d i a co m p o si t i o n s. T h e r e f o r e l e a r n e r s m a y cr e a t e m o r e m e a n i n g f u l r e p r e se n t a t i o n s o f c o u r se co n t e n t b y r e p r e se n t i n g c o n t e n t i n m u l t i p l e f o r m s t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f va r i o u s f o r m s o f m e d i a T h i s st u d y g e n e r a t e s r e l e va n t i m p l i ca t i o n s f o r t h e c u r r e n t st u d y b y e m p h a si zi n g t h a t l e a r n e r s m a y c r e a t e m e a n i n g f u l r e p r e se n t a t i o n s o f co n t e n t a s t h e y co n st r u ct m u l t i m e d i a t h a t r e p r e s e n t s t h e co n t e n t B e i ch n e r ( 1 9 9 4 ) o b se r v e d n i n e m i d d l e sch o o l st u d e n t s a s t h e y l e a r n e d sci e n ce co n t e n t t h r o u g h d e si g n i n g a n d c r e a t i n g m u l t i m e d i a i n f o r m a t i o n scr e e n s f o r a l o ca l zo o u si n g h yb r i d so f t w a r e o f H yp e r C a r d a n d S u p e r C a r d B e ca u se st u d e n t s w e r e d e si g n i n g

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3 4 m u l t i m e d i a f o r a n e xt e r n a l a u d i e n ce B e i ch n e r r e p o r t e d t h a t st u d e n t s f o u n d t h e t a sk m o t i va t i n g b e ca u se i t h a d i m p o r t a n ce o u t si d e t h e cl a ssr o o m ( p 6 7 ) T h r o u g h o u t t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss, st u d e n t s e n g a g e d i n sci e n ce co n t e n t t h e n i d e n t i f i e d t h e e sse n t i a l a sp e ct s o f t h a t co n t e n t t o sh a r e w i t h i n t h e m u l t i m e d i a p r o d u ct f o r t h e i n t e n d e d a u d i e n ce T h i s p r o ce ss d e ve l o p s ski l l s a sso ci a t e d w i t h B l o o m s t a xo n o m y o f co g n i t i ve ski l l s su ch a s a n a l yzi n g a n d e v a l u a t i n g ( B l o o m & K r a t h w o h l 1 9 5 6 ; A n d e r so n & K r a t h w o h l 2 0 0 1 ) A n a l yzi n g e va l u a t i n g a n d syn t h e si zi n g i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h t h e i n t e n t o f sh a r i n g i t w i t h a n a u d i e n ce r e q u i r e s e xt e n d e d e n g a g e m e n t w i t h c o n t e n t B e i ch n e r e n co u r a g e d t h i s t y p e o f st u d e n t w o r k b e c a u se st u d e n t s w i l l l e a r n co n t e n t e n j o y t h e l e a r n i n g p r o ce ss, a n d r e co g n i ze t h a t t h e y h a v e cr e a t e d so m e t h i n g w o r t h w h i l e t h a t i s, w o r t h t h e i r t i m e a n d e f f o r t ( p 6 7 ) T h i s st u d y d e m o n st r a t e s t h a t t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss m o t i va t e s st u d e n t s, p a r t i cu l a r l y w h e n st u d e n t s d e si g n f o r a n e xt e r n a l a u d i e n ce I n a d d i t i o n t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss r e q u i r e s t h a t st u d e n t s e n g a g e w i t h c o n t e n t i n m e a n i n g f u l w a ys; st u d e n t s c o n st r u c t r e p r e se n t a t i o n s o f c o n t e n t a s t h e y a n a l yze e va l u a t e a n d syn t h e si ze i n f o r m a t i o n E r i ckso n ( 1 9 9 7 ) o b s e r ve d m i d d l e sch o o l st u d e n t s a n d t h e i r t e a ch e r s i n a cl a ssr o o m st r u ct u r e d a s a co m m u n i t y o f d e si g n e r s ( p 5 ) T h i s e n vi r o n m e n t i n cl u d e d se ve r a l a sp e ct s t h a t f o st e r e d t h e d e si g n c o m m u n i t y: st u d e n t s w o r ke d o n su st a i n e d h yp e r m e d i a d e si g n p r o j e ct s; st u d e n t s sh a r e d d i scu sse d a n d r e f l e ct e d o n t h e i r h yp e r m e d i a p r o j e ct s; a n d t e a c h e r s b e ca m e d e ce n t r a l i ze d a n d d i st r i b u t e d i n st r u ct i o n e va l u a t i o n a n d kn o w l e d g e a c r o ss t h e cl a ssr o o m co m m u n i t y ( p 6 ) E r i ckso n f o cu se d h e r r e s e a r ch o n t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e t e a ch e r s w i t h r e g a r d t o st u d e n t l e a r n i n g w i t h i n t h i s e n vi r o n m e n t r a t h e r t h a n m e a s u r i n g st u d e n t l e a r n i n g d i r e ct l y. P a r t i ci p a t i n g t e a ch e r s

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3 5 a ckn o w l e d g e d t h a t st u d e n t s d e m o n st r a t e d g r o w t h o ve r t h e ye a r i n t h e co g n i t i ve ski l l s o f r e se a r ch a n d d e si g n ( p 2 0 ) T e a ch e r s p e r ce i ve d t h a t st u d e n t s d e ve l o p e d ski l l s i n f i n d i n g o r g a n i zi n g a n d r e p r e s e n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n w h i l e d e si g n i n g h yp e r m e d i a d o cu m e n t s T h i s s t u d y p r o vi d e s se v e r a l d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g a d e si g n co m m u n i t y w i t h i n a cl a ssr o o m a n d t h e se d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e d e si g n o f t h e i n n o va t i ve l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t i m p l e m e n t e d i n t h e c u r r e n t r e se a r c h st u d y. L i u a n d R u t l e d g e ( 1 9 9 7 ) a sse sse d t h e i m p a ct o f a l e a r n e r a s d e si g n e r e n vi r o n m e n t o n h i g h sch o o l st u d e n t s, 6 0 % o f w h i ch w e r e co n si d e r e d a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk. T h e r e se a r ch e r s co m p a r e d st u d e n t m o t i va t i o n b e t w e e n a co n t r o l g r o u p o f st u d e n t s i n a co m p u t e r a p p l i ca t i o n cl a ss a n d a t r e a t m e n t g r o u p o f st u d e n t s i n a si m i l a r cl a ss t h a t w a s st r u ct u r e d a s a l e a r n e r a s d e si g n e r e n vi r o n m e n t T h i s e n vi r o n m e n t c r e a t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r st u d e n t s t o d e si g n m u l t i m e d i a t h a t w o u l d b e u se d b y e xt e r n a l a u d i e n ce s su c h a s t h e sch o o l o r a l o ca l m u se u m L i u a n d R u t l e d g e r e p o r t e d t h a t m o t i va t i o n f o r l e a r n i n g w a s si g n i f i ca n t l y h i g h e r i n t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p T h e se s t u d e n t s a l so e xh i b i t e d m o r e o n t a sk b e h a vi o r s a n d w e r e w i l l i n g t o sp e n d a d d i t i o n a l t i m e o u t si d e o f t h e r e g u l a r c l a ss t i m e t o w o r k o n m u l t i m e d i a p r o j e ct s. I n a d d i t i o n se l f e f f i ca cy si g n i f i ca n t l y i n cr e a se d f o r t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p T h i s st u d y co n t r i b u t e s a d d i t i o n a l su p p o r t t o t h e n o t i o n t h a t d e si g n i n g m u l t i m e d i a i s a n i n t r i n si ca l l y m o t i va t i n g p r o ce ss. A n i n cr e a se i n o n t a sk b e h a vi o r s a n d a w i l l i n g n e s s t o w o r k o n d e si g n p r o j e ct s o u t si d e o f sch e d u l e d cl a ss t i m e p r o vi d e s co n si d e r a b l e s u p p o r t f o r i n t e g r a t i n g m u l t i m e d i a d e si g n p r o j e ct s t o e n co u r a g e e n g a g e m e n t w i t h co n t e n t M cG r a t h C u m a r a n a t u n g e Ji C h e n B r o ce a n d W r i g h t ( 1 9 9 7 ) co m p l e t e d se ve r a l ca se st u d i e s o f sci e n ce r e l a t e d m u l t i m e d i a p r o j e ct s i n t e g r a t e d i n t o e l e m e n t a r y a n d

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3 6 se co n d a r y cl a ssr o o m s. T h e r e s e a r ch e r s r e p o r t e d o n t h r e e a sp e ct s o f t h e s e p r o j e ct s: l e a r n i n g a n d a t t i t u d e s, g e n d e r a n d r e sp o n si b i l i t y. M cG r a t h e t a l f o u n d t h a t st u d e n t s w e r e m o t i va t e d a n d e n t h u si a st i c a b o u t d e si g n i n g m u l t i m e d i a a n d d e m o n st r a t e d h i g h l e ve l s o f i n t e r e st i n t h e sci e n ce co n t e n t r e l a t e d t o t h e i r p r o j e c t s. H o w e ve r st u d e n t s a t t i t u d e s a b o u t sci e n c e w e r e n o t i m p a ct e d a s a r e su l t o f d e s i g n i n g m u l t i m e d i a A s a r e su l t o f d e si g n i n g m u l t i m e d i a o n sci e n ce t o p i cs, st u d e n t s l e a r n e d sci e n ce b u t a l so d e ve l o p e d p l a n n i n g r e se a r ch i n g w r i t i n g a n d co l l a b o r a t i o n ski l l s. M cG r a t h e t a l a l so f o u n d t h a t g e n d e r h a d n o i m p a ct o n e n t h u si a s m f o r t h e p r o j e ct o r o n l e a r n i n g o f co n t e n t o r ski l l s. I n a d d i t i o n t h e r e s e a r ch e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t st u d e n t s d e m o n st r a t e d i n c r e a se d r e sp o n si b i l i t y f o r t h e i r l e a r n i n g E vi d e n c e f o r i n cr e a se d r e sp o n si b i l i t y i n cl u d e d s t u d e n t s w i l l i n g t o w o r k o n m u l t i m e d i a p r o j e ct s o u t si d e o f t h e sch o o l d a y, st u d e n t s w i l l i n g t o p e r se ve r e w h e n f r u st r a t e d d u r i n g t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss, st u d e n t s co n ce r n e d w i t h h o w t h e i r m u l t i m e d i a p r o j e ct s w o u l d a p p e a r t o a n e xt e r n a l a u d i e n ce a n d st u d e n t s r e a l i zi n g t h a t o t h e r s w e r e r e l yi n g o n t h e i r e f f o r t s. O v e r a l l t h i s se t o f c a se st u d i e s p r o vi d e s e vi d e n ce t h a t t h e p r o ce ss o f d e si g n i n g m u l t i m e d i a n o t o n l y e n co u r a g e s e n g a g e m e n t w i t h co n t e n t t o p r o m o t e l e a r n i n g o f co n t e n t b u t su p p o r t s t h e d e ve l o p m e n t o f m e a n i n g f u l ski l l s t h a t w i l l h a ve va l u e t h r o u g h o u t st u d e n t s l i v e s. L i u a n d P e d e r so n ( 1 9 9 8 ) co m p a r e d m o t i va t i o n a n d l e a r n i n g o f d e si g n k n o w l e d g e f o r t w o cl a sse s o f f o u r t h g r a d e r s: o n e cl a ss w a s i d e n t i f i e d a s t h e d e si g n e r g r o u p w h i l e t h e o t h e r w a s i d e n t i f i e d a s t h e n o n d e si g n e r g r o u p W h i l e b o t h g r o u p s a u t h o r e d h yp e r m e d i a p r o j e ct s o n sci e n ce co n t e n t st u d e n t s i n t h e d e si g n e r g r o u p w o r k e d co l l a b o r a t i ve l y t o co n st r u ct h yp e r m e d i a w h i l e st u d e n t s i n t h e n o n d e si g n e r g r o u p w o r ke d i n d e p e n d e n t l y. L i u a n d P e d e r so n r e p o r t e d n o si g n i f i ca n t d i f f e r e n ce s b e t w e e n

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3 7 g r o u p s f o r m o st a sp e ct s o f m o t i va t i o n w h i c h i s a co n si st e n t f i n d i n g w i t h i n t h e r e se a r c h l i t e r a t u r e G e n e r a l l y, st u d e n t s f i n d h yp e r m e d i a a u t h o r i n g m o t i va t i n g H o w e ve r t h e d e si g n e r g r o u p d e m o n st r a t e d i n cr e a se d a b i l i t y t o m a ke j u d g m e n t s i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e t e a ch e r I n a d d i t i o n b o t h g r o u p s co m p l e t e d a p r e a n d p o s t t e st o f sci e n ce c o n t e n t kn o w l e d g e a n d b o t h g r o u p s si g n i f i ca n t l y i n cr e a se d t h e i r sci e n ce co n t e n t kn o w l e d g e o ve r t h e c o u r se o f t h e p r o j e c t S t u d e n t s i n b o t h g r o u p s d e ve l o p e d t h e a b i l i t y t o u s e h yp e r m e d i a a u t h o r i n g t o o l s, b u t st u d e n t s i n t h e d e si g n e r g r o u p a l so d e ve l o p e d ski l l s su ch a s p l a n n i n g p r o j e ct m a n a g e m e n t r e f l e ct i o n ( g e t t i n g f e e d b a ck f r o m t h e p e e r s a n d t h e a u d i e n c e ) a n d w o r ki n g i n g r o u p s t o a ch i e ve a co m m o n g o a l ( p 1 7 7 ) N o t su r p r i si n g l y, st u d e n t s i n t h e d e si g n e r g r o u p d e m o n st r a t e d si g n i f i ca n t l y b e t t e r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f p l a n n i n g a n d c o l l a b o r a t i o n ( p 1 7 7 ) T h i s st u d y p r o vi d e s e vi d e n ce t h a t d e si g n i n g h yp e r m e d i a i s m o t i va t i n g l e a d s t o i n cr e a s e d co n t e n t kn o w l e d g e p r o d u ce s h yp e r m e d i a a u t h o r i n g ski l l s a n d d e v e l o p s co l l a b o r a t i o n a n d m e t a co g n i t i ve ski l l s. O r e y, F a n S co t t T h u m a R o b e r t sh a w H o g l e T ze n g a n d C r e n sh a w ( 2 0 0 0 ) sh a r e d se ve r a l a n e cd o t e s a b o u t y o u n g l e a r n e r s d e si g n i n g m u l t i m e d i a i n cl a ss r o o m s f o r g i f t e d a n d a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk st u d e n t s. T h e r e s e a r ch e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t d e si g n i n g m u l t i m e d i a m o t i va t e d st u d e n t s. S t u d e n t s w e r e w i l l i n g t o w o r k o n m u l t i m e d i a p r o j e ct s b e f o r e a n d a f t e r sch o o l a n d o n sch o o l h o l i d a ys. T h i s e xt e n d e d e n g a g e m e n t r e q u i r e s m o t i va t i o n H o w e ve r st u d e n t s d e m o n st r a t e d l e ss m o t i va t i o n d u r i n g m o r e st r u ct u r e d a ct i vi t i e s. T h e r e se a r ch e r s a t t r i b u t e d t h i s p h e n o m e n o n t o a l a ck o f ch o i ce o r co n t r o l e vi d e n t w i t h i n st r u ct u r e d a ct i vi t i e s ( T u r n e r & P a r i s, 1 9 9 5 ) O f si g n i f i ca n ce a c a d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk

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3 8 st u d e n t s a l so d e m o n st r a t e d m o t i va t i o n w h i l e d e si g n i n g O r e y e t a l a l so r e p o r t e d t h a t st u d e n t s d e ve l o p e d c o l l a b o r a t i o n ski l l s. L i u a n d H si a o ( 2 0 0 2 ) o b s e r ve d i n cr e a se d u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss w h e n m i d d l e sc h o o l s st u d e n t s b e ca m e m u l t i m e d i a d e si g n e r s. S t u d e n t d e si g n e r s co u l d a r t i cu l a t e t h e si g n i f i ca n c e o f t h e st a g e s o f a d e si g n p r o c e ss: p l a n n i n g d e si g n i n g a n d t e st i n g S t u d e n t d e si g n e r s a l so i n cr e a s e d t h e i r p e e r l e a r n i n g ski l l s. S t u d e n t s co l l a b o r a t e d w i t h p e e r s t h r o u g h t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss a n d ca m e t o r e l y o n t h e i r p e e r s t o d i st r i b u t e e f f o r t s f o r t h e d e si g n t a sks. T h i s st u d y p r o vi d e s e vi d e n ce t h a t co l l a b o r a t i o n ski l l s a n d d e si g n ski l l s d e v e l o p a s st u d e n t s d e si g n m u l t i m e d i a C h e n a n d M cG r a t h ( 2 0 0 3 ) o b se r ve d t e n t h g r a d e st u d e n t s d e si g n i n g h yp e r m e d i a d o cu m e n t s u si n g S t o r ys p a ce 1 2 P a i r s o f st u d e n t s w o r ke d t o g e t h e r t o p r o d u ce a h yp e r m e d i a d o cu m e n t a b o u t w a t e r t o m e e t a s si g n m e n t e x p e ct a t i o n s f o r a sci e n ce co u r se C h e n a n d M cG r a t h r e p o r t e d t h a t st u d e n t s p r e f e r r e d h yp e r m e d i a co n st r u ct i o n t o t r a d i t i o n a l w a ys o f r e p r e se n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n b e ca u s e i t a p p e a l e d t o i n d i vi d u a l l e a r n i n g st yl e s. S t u d e n t s a r t i cu l a t e d t h a t t h e y co u l d ch o o se m u l t i p l e w a ys t o r e p r e s e n t co n t e n t C h e n a n d M cG r a t h a l so f o u n d e vi d e n ce o f d e e p e r l e a r n i n g b a se d o n st u d e n t co m m e n t s t h a t d e m o n st r a t e d m e t a co g n i t i o n a n d r e f l e c t i o n I n a d d i t i o n t h e a u t h o r s r e p o r t e d t h a t st u d e n t s i n t h e r o l e s o f h yp e r m e d i a d e si g n e r s d e ve l o p e d e f f e ct i v e co g n i t i ve a n d kn o w l e d g e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l ski l l s ( p 5 7 ) T h i s st u d y p r o vi d e s e vi d e n ce t h a t w h e n st u d e n t s d e si g n h yp e r m e d i a t h e y d e ve l o p i m p o r t a n t m e t a c o g n i t i ve a n d r e f l e ct i ve ski l l s a n d l e a r n t o r e p r e s e n t co n t e n t i n m u l t i p l e w a y s. M i t ch e l l A n d r e a t a a n d C a p e l l a ( 2 0 0 4 ) a ske d st u d e n t s i n 5 d i f f e r e n t co u r se s o f a n e d u ca t i o n d o ct o r a l p r o g r a m t o d e si g n a m u l t i m e d i a l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e f o r f u t u r e

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3 9 st u d e n t s w h o w o u l d b e n o vi ce s i n t h e co n t e n t o f t h e co u r se s. S t u d e n t s d e si g n e d a m u l t i m e d i a p r o d u c t u si n g L i ve S l i d e S h o w t h a t i n t e g r a t e d a n a u d i o t r a ck e xp l a i n i n g co u r se m a t e r i a l w i t h i m a g e s. A f t e r co n d u ct i n g st u d e n t i n t e r vi e w s t o d e t e r m i n e p e r ce p t i o n s o f t h e va l u e o f i n t e g r a t i n g l e a r n e r co n st r u ct e d m u l t i m e d i a M i t c h e l l A n d r e a t a a n d C a p e l l a r e p o r t e d t h a t t h i s e xp e r i e n ce l e d t o i n cr e a s e d st u d e n t e n g a g e m e n t w i t h c o u r se c o n t e n t A cco r d i n g t o t h e r e s e a r ch e r s, t h i s e n g a g e m e n t st e m m e d f r o m i n cr e a s e d m o t i va t i o n t h r o u g h s t u d e n t s cr e a t i n g p e r so n a l co n n e ct i o n s t o co u r se co n t e n t a n d t h r o u g h a n a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l o f ch a l l e n g e B e ca u se s t u d e n t s r e co r d e d t h e i r vo i ce a s p a r t o f t h e m u l t i m e d i a p r o d u ct t h e y a r t i cu l a t e d a m o r e p e r so n a l co n n e ct i o n t o t h e p r o d u c t o ve r t r a d i t i o n a l w a y s o f e xp r e ssi n g i n f o r m a t i o n ( e g w r i t i n g a p a p e r ) I n a d d i t i o n st u d e n t s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e ch a l l e n g e o f i n t e g r a t i n g a u d i o a n d i m a g e s t o c o m m u n i ca t e co u r se co n t e n t w a s m o t i va t i n g b e ca u se t h e y w e r e r e q u i r e d t o t h i n k a b o u t n e w w a ys o f d e l i ve r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n T h i s st u d y h i g h l i g h t s h o w l e a r n e r co n st r u ct e d m u l t i m e d i a i n cr e a se s e n g a g e m e n t w i t h co u r se c o n t e n t f o r st u d e n t s a s t h e y n e g o t i a t e w a ys t o e xp r e ss e sse n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n t h e m u l t i m e d i a p r o d u ct T h o u g h t h i s st u d y r e p o r t s o n e vi d e n ce o b t a i n e d f r o m d o ct o r a l st u d e n t s, i t i s a r e a so n a b l e a ssu m p t i o n t o co n cl u d e t h a t st u d e n t s o n t h e o p p o si t e e n d o f t h e e d u ca t i o n a l co n t i n u u m m a y si m i l a r l y b e n e f i t f r o m i n c r e a se d e n g a g e m e n t w i t h co n t e n t B r o w n ( 2 0 0 7 ) a l so f o u n d i n cr e a se d e n g a g e m e n t a n d m o t i va t i o n a l o n g w i t h d e m o n st r a t e d h i g h e r o r d e r t h i n ki n g ski l l s w h e n e l e m e n t a r y st u d e n t s a n d p r e se r vi ce e l e m e n t a r y t e a ch e r s co n st r u ct e d m u l t i m e d i a u si n g H yp e r S t u d i o A cr o ss b o t h p o p u l a t i o n s, B r o w n n o t e d t h a t [ h ] i g h t a sk e n g a g e m e n t w a s e vi d e n c e d b y e xt e n d e d p e r i o d s o f i n vo l ve m e n t b e yo n d cl a ss ( p 1 0 6 ) A w i l l i n g n e ss t o e n g a g e i n e x p a n d e d

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4 0 l e a r n i n g t i m e p a r t i cu l a r l y b e yo n d t r a d i t i o n a l cl a ss t i m e i s a n i n d i ca t o r o f h i g h l e ve l s o f m o t i va t i o n f o r t h e p r e sc r i b e d t a sk, w h i ch l e a d s t o a r e a so n a b l e a ssu m p t i o n t h a t co n st r u ct i n g m u l t i m e d i a m a y b e i n h e r e n t l y m o t i va t i n g f o r l e a r n e r s. B r o w n a l so d e scr i b e d e vi d e n ce o f h i g h e r o r d e r t h i n ki n g a s d e scr i b e d b y R e sn i ck ( 1 9 8 7 ) S h e r e p o r t e d t h a t st u d e n t s: f o l l o w e d a n o n a l g o r i t h m i c p a t h f a ce d kn o w l e d g e ski l l a n d p r o ce ss c o m p l e xi t y, g e n e r a t e d m u l t i p l e so l u t i o n s co p e d w i t h u n ce r t a i n t y, d e m o n st r a t e d n u a n ce d j u d g m e n t w i t h m e d i a se l e ct i o n a n d a d a p t a t i o n w e r e r e q u i r e d t o se l f r e g u l a t e t h e i r t h i n ki n g a n d p u t co n si d e r a b l e e f f o r t i n t o st r u ct u r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ( B r o w n 2 0 0 7 p 1 0 7 ) T h i s i s a n i m p r e ssi ve l i st o f ski l l s, a n d t e a ch e r s w o u l d b e q u i t e p l e a se d i f st u d e n t s d e ve l o p e d t h e se ski l l s d u r i n g a n y l e a r n i n g e xp e r i e n ce T h e se h i g h e r o r d e r ski l l s w e r e n o t e xp l i ci t l y t a u g h t a s p a r t o f t h e m u l t i m e d i a co n st r u ct i o n p r o c e ss b u t a r e si g n i f i ca n t b y p r o d u ct s o f i t T h i s st u d y p r o vi d e s su p p o r t f o r i n t e g r a t i n g m u l t i m e d i a co n st r u ct i o n a s a p e d a g o g i ca l s t r a t e g y si n ce m o t i va t i o n i n c r e a s e s a n d h i g h e r o r d e r t h i n ki n g d e ve l o p s a s l e a r n e r s co n st r u ct m u l t i m e d i a G a r t h w a i t ( 2 0 0 7 ) r e p o r t e d i n cr e a se d w r i t i n g s ki l l s i n m i d d l e sch o o l s t u d e n t s a f t e r d e si g n i n g h yp e r m e d i a p r o j e ct s f o r yo u n g e r st u d e n t s. 7 t h g r a d e st u d e n t s u s e d H yp e r S t u d i o t o c r e a t e a h yp e r m e d i a d o cu m e n t a b o u t A f r i ca n a n i m a l s f o r 2 n d g r a d e st u d e n t s. G a r t h w a i t o b se r v e d t h a t 7 t h g r a d e d st u d e n t s b e ca m e a d e p t a t w r i t i n g f o r a sp e ci f i c a u d i e n ce T h i s s t u d y h i g h l i g h t s h o w a d d i t i o n a l ski l l s ( i e w r i t i n g ski l l s) d e ve l o p a s l e a r n e r s d e si g n h yp e r m e d i a C o l l e ct i ve l y, t h e se st u d i e s i n d i ca t e e vi d e n c e f o r u si n g m u l t i m e d i a co n st r u ct i o n t o p r o d u ce a va r i e t y o f o u t co m e s ( se e T a b l e 2 2 ) T h e se o u t co m e s i n cl u d e i n cr e a si n g m o t i va t i o n t o l e a r n w h i ch p r o m o t e s i n cr e a se d e n g a g e m e n t w i t h c o n t e n t a n d d e ve l o p i n g a n u m b e r o f ski l l s i n cl u d i n g r e se a r ch d e si g n a n d t h i n ki n g ski l l s. O f

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4 1 si g n i f i ca n t i m p o r t a n ce st u d e n t s r e p r e se n t co n t e n t i n a m o r e e xp e r t l i ke m a n n e r a n d h a ve o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o r e p r e se n t co n t e n t i n m u l t i p l e w a ys w h e n d e si g n i n g m u l t i m e d i a T h r o u g h t h e a ct o f d e si g n i n g a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct t h a t r e p r e se n t s a s t u d e n t s u n d e r st a n d i n g o f co n t e n t s/ h e d e e p l y e n g a g e s i n co n t e n t a n d d e ve l o p s m u l t i p l e ski l l s t h a t w i l l h a ve l o n g t e r m p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i t s. T a b l e 2 2 S u m m a r y o f o u t co m e s w h e n l e a r n e r s d e si g n h yp e r m e d i a / m u l t i m e d i a O u t co m e A u t h o r ( s) S t u d e n t s b e co m e m o t i va t e d B e i ch n e r ( 1 9 9 4 ) ; L i u & R u t l e d g e ( 1 9 9 7 ) ; M cG r a t h C u m a r a n a t u n g e Ji C h e n B r o ce & W r i g h t ( 1 9 9 7 ) ; L i u & P e d e r s o n ( 1 9 9 8 ) ; O r e y, F a n S co t t T h u m a R o b e r t sh a w H o g l e T ze n g & C r e n sh a w ( 2 0 0 0 ) ; B r o w n ( 2 0 0 7 ) S t u d e n t s sp e n d a d d i t i o n a l t i m e o u t si d e o f cl a ss t o w o r k o n p r o j e ct s. L i u & R u t l e d g e ( 1 9 9 7 ) S t u d e n t s d e ve l o p r e se a r ch ski l l s: f i n d i n g a n a l yzi n g e va l u a t i n g a n d syn t h e si zi n g i n f o r m a t i o n L e h r e r E r i ckso n & C o n n e l l ( 1 9 9 4 ) ; B e i ch n e r ( 1 9 9 4 ) ; E r i ckso n ( 1 9 9 7 ) S t u d e n t s r e p r e se n t co n t e n t i n a n e xp e r t l i ke m a n n e r S p o e h r ( 1 9 9 3 ) ; L i u & P e d e r s o n ( 1 9 9 8 ) S t u d e n t s r e p r e se n t co n t e n t i n m u l t i p l e w a ys. H a y, G u zd i a l Ja ckso n B o yl e & S o l o w a y ( 1 9 9 4 ) ; C h e n & M c G r a t h ( 2 0 0 3 ) S t u d e n t s d e ve l o p m e t a co g n i t i ve a n d r e f l e ct i ve ski l l s. L i u & P e d e r so n ( 1 9 9 8 ) ; C h e n & M cG r a t h ( 2 0 0 3 ) ; B r o w n ( 2 0 0 7 ) S t u d e n t s d e ve l o p d e si g n ski l l s C a r ve r L e h r e r C o n n e l l & E r i ckso n ( 1 9 9 2 ) ; E r i ckso n ( 1 9 9 7 ) ; L i u & P e d e r so n ( 1 9 9 8 ) ; L i u & H si a o ( 2 0 0 2 ) S t u d e n t s e n g a g e i n co n t e n t L e h r e r E r i ckso n & C o n n e l l ( 1 9 9 4 ) ; B e i ch n e r ( 1 9 9 4 ) ; M cG r a t h C u m a r a n a t u n g e Ji C h e n B r o ce & W r i g h t ( 1 9 9 7 ) ; M i t ch e l l A n d r e a t a & C a p e l l a ( 2 0 0 4 )

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4 2 T a b l e 2 2 C o n t i n u e d S t u d e n t s r e d u ce o f f t a sk b e h a vi o r s L e h r e r E r i ckso n & C o n n e l l ( 1 9 9 4 ) ; L i u & R u t l e d g e ( 1 9 9 7 ) S t u d e n t s i n cr e a se se l f e f f i ca cy. L i u & R u t l e d g e ( 1 9 9 7 ) S t u d e n t s t a ke r e sp o n si b i l i t y f o r t h e i r l e a r n i n g M cG r a t h C u m a r a n a t u n g e Ji C h e n B r o ce & W r i g h t ( 1 9 9 7 ) S t u d e n t s d e ve l o p co l l a b o r a t i o n ski l l s. L i u & P e d e r so n ( 1 9 9 8 ) ; O r e y, F a n S co t t T h u m a R o b e r t sh a w H o g l e T ze n g & C r e n sh a w ( 2 0 0 0 ) ; L i u & H si a o ( 2 0 0 2 ) S t u d e n t s d e ve l o p w r i t i n g ski l l s. G a r t h w a i t ( 2 0 0 7 ) T h e o u t c o m e s i d e n t i f i e d b y t h e st u d i e s i n T a b l e 2 2 p r o vi d e t h e f o u n d a t i o n a n d r a t i o n a l e f o r d e si g n i n g a n I L E t h a t i n t e g r a t e s l e a r n e r co n st r u ct e d m u l t i m e d i a a s a p e d a g o g i ca l a p p r o a ch S t e p 2 o f M a a n d H a r m o n s ( 2 0 0 9 ) D B R p r o ce ss i s t h e d e ve l o p m e n t o f a so l u t i o n w i t h a t h e o r e t i ca l f r a m e w o r k. I n t e g r a t i n g l e a r n e r co n st r u ct e d m u l t i m e d i a s e r ve s a s t h e so l u t i o n f o r t h i s D B R st u d y. N e xt i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o co n si d e r t h e t o o l t h a t l e a r n e r s w i l l u se t o co n st r u ct m u l t i m e d i a M u l t i m e d i a C o n s t r u c t i o n T o o l s T h e r e a r e a n u m b e r o f t o o l s t h a t h a ve b e e n u se d f o r m u l t i m e d i a co n st r u ct i o n T h e se i n cl u d e H yp e r C a r d H yp e r A u t h o r H yp e r S t u d i o M i cr o so f t P o w e r P o i n t I n sp i r a t i o n A d o b e P h o t o s h o p L i v e S l i d e S h o w M a cr o m e d i a D i r e ct o r i M o vi e W i n d o w s M o vi e M a ke r a n d A d o b e D r e a m w e a ve r A l l h a ve t h e i r a f f o r d a n ce s a n d l i m i t a t i o n s O n e t o o l o f co n si d e r a b l e i n t e r e st i s S cr a t ch S cr a t ch w a s d e ve l o p e d b y t h e L i f e l o n g K i n d e r g a r t e n G r o u p a t t h e M I T M e d i a L a b o r a t o r y a s a m e a n s f o r p r o d u ci n g i n t e r a ct i ve m u l t i m e d i a t h r o u g h t h e u se o f a si m p l e vi s u a l f r e e p r o g r a m m i n g t o o l ( se e R e sn i ck, 2 0 0 6 ; P e p p l e r & K a f a i 2 0 0 7 a ; M a l o n e y, P e p p l e r K a f a i R e sn i ck & R u sk, 2 0 0 8 )

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4 3 S c r a t c h T h i s r e se a r ch st u d y u se s S cr a t ch a s t h e d e si g n t o o l f o r m u l t i m e d i a co n st r u ct i o n S cr a t ch w a s d e si g n e d f o r u se b y ch i l d r e n a g e 8 a n d u p t h o u g h a d o l e sce n t s a n d a d u l t s m a y a l so f i n d t h a t i s a va l u a b l e d e si g n t o o l T h e S cr a t ch i n t e r f a ce i s ki d f r i e n d l y ( se e F i g u r e 2 2 ) D e si g n i n g i n S cr a t c h i n vo l ve s a d d i n g sp r i t e s ( o b j e ct s t h a t r e p r e se n t ch a r a ct e r s, p r o p s a n d o t h e r e l e m e n t s ) a n d e d i t i n g t h e st a g e ( b a ckg r o u n d ) I n F i g u r e 2 2 t h e r e i s a ca t s p r i t e o n a st a g e t h a t co n si st s o f a so l i d w h i t e b a ckg r o u n d C r e a t i n g a ct i o n s f o r t h e sp r i t e s o r st a g e co n si st s o f d r a g g i n g co m m a n d b l o cks f r o m a p a l e t t e a n d st a cki n g t h e m t o g e t h e r A st a ck o f c o m m a n d b l o cks f o r m s a scr i p t a n d t h e scr i p t d e scr i b e s t h e a ct i o n s o r b e h a vi o r o f a sp r i t e ( s e e F i g u r e 2 3 ) T h e scr i p t p o r t r a ye d i n F i g u r e 2 3 sh o w s 9 u n i q u e co m m a n d b l o cks. T h e co m m a n d b l o cks a r e co l o r co d e d t o r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t t yp e s o f co m m a n d s. F o r e xa m p l e t h e p a l e t t e o f m o t i o n co m m a n d s i s d i sp l a ye d o n t h e l e f t h a n d si d e i n F i g u r e 2 2 I n F i g u r e 2 3 t h e r e a r e f i v e d i f f e r e n t t yp e s o f co m m a n d b l o cks: co n t r o l ( ye l l o w ) l o o ks ( p u r p l e ) s e n si n g ( l i g h t b l u e ) so u n d ( p i n k) a n d o p e r a t o r s ( g r e e n ) R e a d i n g t h r o u g h t h e co m m a n d b l o cks h e l p s t h e u se r u n d e r st a n d i n g w h i ch b e h a vi o r o r a ct i o n w i l l o ccu r T h e co m m a n d b l o cks r e p r e s e n t l i n e s o f co d e f o u n d i n t r a d i t i o n a l c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m m i n g l a n g u a g e s. H o w e v e r S cr a t c h r e p l a ce s t h e t e xt o f o t h e r p r o g r a m m i n g l a n g u a g e s w i t h g r a p h i c b l o cks, a n d e a c h b l o c k r e p r e s e n t s a s p e ci f i c co m m a n d T h e scr i p t i n F i g u r e 2 3 b e g i n s w h e n t h e sp a c e ke y i s p r e ss e d P r e ssi n g t h e sp a ce ke y a ct s a s a t r i g g e r t o b e g i n t h e sc r i p t T h e sh o w b l o ck e n su r e s t h a t t h e s p r i t e w i t h t h i s scr i p t i s vi si b l e T h e sa y b l o ck st a t e s t h e e n t e r e d t e xt i n t h e f o r m o f a t a l k b u b b l e a b o ve t h e s p r i t e T h e t e xt r e m a i n s vi si b l e o n t h e scr e e n f o r 5 se co n d s a s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e b l o ck. T h e r e p e a t u n t i l b l o ck e n su r e s t h a t t h e st a ck i n si d e t h e b l o ck

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4 4 co n t i n u e s t o l o o p u n t i l a sp e ci f i c co n d i t i o n i s m e t I n t h i s ca se t h e st a ck w i l l r e p e a t u n t i l a u se r o f t h e p r o j e ct e n t e r s a va l u e o f 1 w h e n p r o m p t e d T h e a sk b l o ck cr e a t e s a t e xt b o x a t t h e b o t t o m o f t h e st a g e w h e r e a u se r c a n u se t h e ke yb o a r d t o e n t e r a r e s p o n se T h e t yp e d r e s p o n se i s st o r e d a s a va r i a b l e ca l l e d a n sw e r N o t i ce t h a t i f t h e co r r e ct r e sp o n se i s e n t e r e d a s o u n d p l a ys f o l l o w e d b y t w o se p a r a t e t e xt b u b b l e s. I f a n i n co r r e ct r e sp o n se i s e n t e r e d t h e u s e r i s e n c o u r a g e d t o t r y a g a i n u si n g a t e xt b u b b l e F i g u r e 2 2 T h e S cr a t ch i n t e r f a ce

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4 5 F i g u r e 2 3 A sc r i p t cr e a t e d i n S c r a t ch A s st a t e d o n t h e S cr a t ch w e b si t e [ a ] s yo u n g p e o p l e cr e a t e a n d sh a r e S cr a t ch p r o j e ct s, t h e y l e a r n i m p o r t a n t m a t h e m a t i ca l a n d co m p u t a t i o n a l i d e a s, w h i l e a l s o l e a r n i n g t o t h i n k c r e a t i ve l y, r e a so n sys t e m a t i c a l l y, a n d w o r k c o l l a b o r a t i ve l y. B a se d o n t h i s d e scr i p t i o n i t i s r e a so n a b l e t o a ssu m e t h a t w h e n l e a r n e r s u se S cr a t c h t o d e si g n m u l t i m e d i a t h e y w i l l d e ve l o p t h i n ki n g a n d co l l a b o r a t i o n ski l l s. T h e u se o f S cr a t ch i s w e l l d o cu m e n t e d i n a f t e r sch o o l p r o g r a m s a n d co m m u n i t y t e ch n o l o g y ce n t e r s ( P e p p l e r & K a f a i 2 0 0 5 ; K a f a i P e p p l e r & C h i u 2 0 0 7 ; P e p p l e r & K a f a i 2 0 0 7 a ; P e p p l e r & K a f a i 2 0 0 7 b ; M a l o n e y e t a l 2 0 0 8 ) T h e r e i s a n o n l i n e co m m u n i t y a sso ci a t e d w i t h S cr a t ch a n d t h i s f e a t u r e o f S cr a t ch s e p a r a t e s i t f r o m o t h e r ki d f r i e n d l y p r o g r a m m i n g t o o l s s u ch a s S q u e a k o r A l i ce D o cu m e n t i n g w a ys i n w h i ch t h e co m m u n i t y o f S cr a t ch u se r s e n g a g e w i t h S cr a t ch a n d c o l l a b o r a t e w i t h e a c h o t h e r i s a l so e vi d e n t w i t h i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e ( M o n r o y H e r n n d e z & R e sn i ck, 2 0 0 8 ; B l a u Z u cke r m a n

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4 6 & M o n r o y H e r n n d e z, 2 0 0 9 ; R e sn i ck, M a l o n e y, M o n r o y H e r n n d e z, R u sk, E a st m o n d B r e n n a n M i l l n e r R o se n b a u m S i l ve r S i l ve r m a n & K a f a i 2 0 0 9 ) H o w e ve r l i t t l e d o cu m e n t a t i o n e xi st s f o r u si n g S cr a t ch i n f o r m a l K 1 2 cl a ssr o o m e n vi r o n m e n t s t o p r o m o t e g a i n s i n c o n t e n t l e a r n i n g a n d n o t j u st p r o g r a m m i n g ski l l s. T h e S cr a t ch w e b si t e i n cl u d e s a r e se a r ch p a g e t h a t i d e n t i f i e s r e se a r ch a r t i cl e s a n d co n f e r e n ce p r e se n t a t i o n s t h a t d o cu m e n t h o w yo u n g l e a r n e r s u se S cr a t c h Y e t n o l i st e d m a n u scr i p t d o cu m e n t s t h e u se o f S cr a t ch i n cl a ss r o o m co n t e xt s I n a d d i t i o n a n e xh a u st i ve s e a r ch o f t h e u n i ve r si t y s l i b r a r y d a t a b a se s d i d n o t r e ve a l a n y a r t i cl e s d o c u m e n t i n g S cr a t ch s u se i n a sch o o l b a se d cl a ssr o o m T h e cu r r e n t r e se a r c h st u d y a t t e m p t s t o co n t r i b u t e t o t h i s d e a r t h o f a va i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e d o cu m e n t i n g S cr a t ch s i m p a ct o n co n t e n t l e a r n i n g i n K 1 2 cl a ssr o o m s. M o r e sp e ci f i ca l l y, t h i s st u d y se e k s t o i d e n t i f y l e a r n i n g a n d m o t i va t i o n g a i n s w h e n 5 t h g r a d e r s d e si g n m u l t i m e d i a a b o u t t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s u si n g S cr a t ch P r o p e r t i e s o f G e o m e t r i c S o l i d s D e ve l o p i n g a n u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s i s a n e xp e ct a t i o n o f t h e 5 t h g r a d e cu r r i cu l u m ( N C T M 2 0 0 6 ) S t u d e n t s sh o u l d b e a b l e t o d e scr i b e t h r e e d i m e n si o n a l sh a p e s b y t h e i r n u m b e r o f f a ce s, e d g e s a n d ve r t i ce s. I n a d d i t i o n st u d e n t s sh o u l d b e a b l e t o ca l cu l a t e vo l u m e a n d su r f a c e a r e a o f su c h sh a p e s. U n d e r st a n d i n g su r f a ce a r e a a n d vo l u m e m a y b e p r o b l e m a t i c f o r st u d e n t s i f a l e a r n i n g g o a l f o r t h i s co n t e n t i s r e d u ce d t o m e m o r i zi n g f o r m u l a s t o ca l cu l a t e e i t h e r q u a n t i t y ( B e n C h a i m L a p p a n & H o u n g 1 9 8 5 ; B a t t i st a C l e m e n t s, A r n o f f B a t t i st a & B o r r o w 1 9 9 8 ) C r e a t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l e a r n e r s t o d e si g n a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct u si n g S cr a t c h t h a t e xp r e sse s t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s m a y se r ve a s a n e f f e ct i ve p e d a g o g i ca l a p p r o a c h t h a t e n su r e s t h a t l e a r n e r s a r e n o t l i m i t e d t o m e m o r i zi n g t h i s co n t e n t W h i l e

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4 7 d e si g n i n g i n S cr a t ch l e a r n e r s m u st co n si d e r h o w t h e y w i l l r e p r e se n t t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. T h e y m u st m a k e d e ci si o n s a b o u t w h a t t h e y w i l l i n cl u d e i n t h e i r S cr a t ch a r t i f a c t s a n d d e t e r m i n e h o w t h e y w i l l r e p r e se n t t h e se p r o p e r t i e s. T h i s r e q u i r e s t h a t l e a r n e r s a c t i ve l y e n g a g e w i t h t h e sp e ci f i c co n t e n t U si n g S cr a t ch m a y a l so m o t i va t e r e l u ct a n t l e a r n e r s t o e n g a g e i n t h i s c o n t e n t b e ca u se S cr a t ch m a y b e i n t r i n si ca l l y m o t i va t i n g f o r yo u n g l e a r n e r s. S u m m a r y B a se d o n p r e vi o u s st u d i e s t h a t h a ve i d e n t i f i e d m u l t i p l e o u t c o m e s w h e n l e a r n e r s d e si g n m u l t i m e d i a t h i s st u d y se e ks t o f u r t h e r u n d e r st a n d t h e i m p a ct o f L C M o n l e a r n i n g a n d m o t i va t i o n w h e n l e a r n e r s u se S cr a t ch a co n t e m p o r a r y d e si g n t o o l T h i s st u d y cr e a t e d a n o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p a r t i ci p a n t s t o r e p r e se n t t h e i r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s i n a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct c r e a t e d i n S cr a t c h W h i l e d e si g n i n g i n S cr a t ch p a r t i ci p a n t s d e t e r m i n e d w h i ch p r o p e r t i e s t o a d d r e ss a n d h o w t o a d d r e ss t h e m T h r o u g h t h i s d e ci si o n m a ki n g p r o ce ss, p a r t i ci p a n t s e n g a g e d w i t h sp e ci f i c m a t h co n t e n t b e yo n d r o t e m e m o r i z a t i o n W h i l e e xi st i n g st u d i e s d o cu m e n t t h e b e n e f i t s o f L C M u si n g o t h e r m u l t i m e d i a d e si g n t o o l s, t h i s st u d y co n t r i b u t e s n e w u n d e r st a n d i n g f o r u si n g S cr a t ch a s a m u l t i m e d i a d e si g n t o o l

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4 8 C H A P T E R 3 R E S E A R C H M E T H O D S I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s r e se a r ch st u d y a d d r e sse s t h e d e a r t h o f r e se a r ch e vi d e n t w h e n yo u t h co n st r u ct m u l t i m e d i a p r o j e ct s u si n g S cr a t ch a co n t e m p o r a r y m u l t i m e d i a a u t h o r i n g t o o l t o d e m o n st r a t e t h e i r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f m a t h co n t e n t i n a n a ca d e m i c se t t i n g A b o d y o f r e se a r ch e xi st s t h a t i d e n t i f i e s n u m e r o u s b e n e f i t s w h e n yo u t h e n g a g e i n m u l t i m e d i a co n st r u ct i o n I n a d d i t i o n e vi d e n ce e xi st s f o r u si n g S cr a t ch a s a t o o l f o r e xp r e ssi o n i n i n f o r m a l e n vi r o n m e n t s su c h a s a f t e r sch o o l ce n t e r s, co m m u n i t y t e ch n o l o g y ce n t e r s a n d S cr a t ch s o n l i n e co m m u n i t y T h i s s t u d y se e ks t o ca p i t a l i ze o n t h e a f f o r d a n ce s o f S cr a t ch a s a d e si g n t o o l i n a f o r m a l l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t T h u s, t h e p u r p o se o f t h i s st u d y i s t o i d e n t i f y l e a r n i n g g a i n s w h e n yo u n g l e a r n e r s d e si g n a n d co n s t r u ct m u l t i m e d i a t o d e m o n st r a t e u n d e r st a n d i n g o f sp e ci f i c m a t h co n t e n t S p e ci f i ca l l y, t h e t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h i s s t u d y i s yo u n g a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s. W i t h t h e p u r p o se a n d p o p u l a t i o n i n m i n d t h i s st u d y a d d r e ss e s t h e f o l l o w i n g r e se a r ch q u e st i o n s: H o w e f f e ct i ve i s l e a r n e r co n st r u ct e d m u l t i m e d i a a t i n cr e a si n g l e a r n i n g g a i n s i n t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s f o r a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s? W h a t a r e t h e d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s f o r c r e a t i n g a n i n n o va t i ve l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t t h a t i n t e g r a t e s l e a r n e r c o n st r u ct e d m u l t i m e d i a f o r a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s? T h i s ch a p t e r p r o vi d e s a n o ve r vi e w o f t h i s st u d y s r e se a r ch d e si g n a n d a d d r e sse s S t e p 2 o f t h e d e si g n b a s e d r e se a r ch ( D B R ) f r a m e w o r k i d e n t i f i e d i n c h a p t e r 1 o f t h i s m a n u scr i p t I t a l so a r t i cu l a t e s t h e s p e ci f i c p r o ce d u r e s co n d u ct e d w i t h i n t h e r e se a r ch d e si g n t o co m p l e t e t h e st u d y. T h e ch a p t e r i n c l u d e s t h e f o l l o w i n g se ct i o n s : t h e o r e t i ca l f r a m e w o r k, r e s e a r ch e r b i a s, r e se a r ch d e si g n r e se a r ch co n t e xt d a t a s o u r ce s a n d co l l e ct i o n d a t a a n a l ysi s p r o ce d u r e s, t r u st w o r t h i n e ss a n d l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h i s st u d y.

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4 9 T h e o r e t i c a l F r a m e w o r k A s d e scr i b e d i n C h a p t e r 2 co n s t r u ct i vi st l e a r n i n g t h e o r y co n st r u ct i o n i st p e d a g o g y a n d kn o w l e d g e a s d e si g n p e d a g o g y p r o vi d e t h e t h e o r e t i ca l f r a m e w o r k f o r t h i s i n q u i r y. C r e a t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l e a r n e r s t o co n st r u c t p e r so n a l l y r e l e va n t m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct s t h a t r e p r e se n t t h e i r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f co n t e n t e p i t o m i ze s a c o n st r u ct i o n i st a p p r o a c h t o l e a r n i n g C o n st r u c t i o n i st p e d a g o g y ( P a p e r t 1 9 8 0 ) i s b a s e d o n c o n st r u ct i vi sm t h e l e a r n i n g t h e o r y t h a t p o si t s t h a t l e a r n e r s b u i l d k n o w l e d g e st r u ct u r e s t h r o u g h e xp e r i e n ce s C o n st r u ct i o n i st s e x t e n d t h i s t h e o r y a n d a r g u e t h a t l e a r n i n g i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r o b u st w h e n l e a r n e r s h a ve t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o co n st r u ct a sh a r e a b l e a r t i f a ct ( H a r e l & P a p e r t 1 9 9 1 ; K a f a i & R e sn i ck, 1 9 9 6 ) R e s e a r c h e r B i a s T h e t h e o r e t i ca l f r a m e w o r k t h a t p r o vi d e s t h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h i s st u d y a l so i n d i ca t e s t h i s r e se a r ch e r s b i a s o n h o w i n d i vi d u a l s l e a r n b e st T h i s r e se a r ch e r st r o n g l y b e l i e ve s t h a t l e a r n i n g i s m o s t e f f e ct i v e w h e n a l e a r n e r m u st e n g a g e i n co n t e n t w i t h t h e i n t e n t o f d e si g n i n g a n d co n st r u ct i n g a sh a r e a b l e a r t i f a c t t h a t e xp r e sse s w h a t s/ h e u n d e r s t a n d s a b o u t t h a t co n t e n t T h i s a r t i f a ct ca n e xi st i n m u l t i p l e f o r m s : a h a n d d r a w n co n ce p t m a p a n o n l i n e p r e se n t a t i o n a w o r d p r o ce ssi n g d o c u m e n t o r a m u l t i m e d i a d i sp l a y. E a ch a r t i f a ct r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e l e a r n e r s p e n d t i m e a n d e f f o r t e n g a g i n g i n co n t e n t b y m a ki n g m e a n i n g f r o m t h e co n t e n t f i n d i n g w a ys t o o r g a n i ze t h e co n t e n t i n t o a m e a n i n g f u l r e p r e se n t a t i o n a n d d e si g n i n g a n d co n s t r u ct i n g a n a r t i f a ct t h a t r e p r e se n t s t h e l e a r n e r s u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e co n t e n t T h i s b e l i e f a b o u t l e a r n i n g i d e n t i f i e s t h i s r e s e a r ch e r a s a co n st r u ct i o n i st a n d i t i s e sse n t i a l t o a ckn o w l e d g e t h i s b i a s ( H a t ch 2 0 0 2 )

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5 0 R e s e a r c h D e s i g n T h e r e se a r ch d e si g n m o st a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a d d r e ssi n g t h e r e se a r ch q u e st i o n s st a t e d a b o ve i s a q u a l i t a t i ve ca se st u d y. M e r r i a m ( 1 9 9 8 ) d e f i n e d a q u a l i t a t i ve ca se st u d y a s a n i n t e n si ve h o l i st i c d e sc r i p t i o n a n d a n a l ysi s o f a si n g l e i n st a n c e p h e n o m e n o n o r so ci a l u n i t ( p 2 1 ) F o r t h i s s t u d y, t h i s r e se a r c h e r co n d u ct e d a q u a l i t a t i ve ca se s t u d y o f t h e l e a r n i n g e ve n t o f a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk yo u t h co n st r u ct i n g m u l t i m e d i a u si n g S cr a t ch t o r e p r e se n t t h e i r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i cs so l i d s i n a n a ca d e m i c se t t i n g T h e t e r m c a se st u d y i s o f t e n u s e d a s a g e n e r i c co n ce p t so i t i s h e l p f u l f o r r e se a r ch e r s t o sp e ci f y t h e d e si g n o f a ca s e st u d y b a se d o n a d d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i st i cs o f t h e d e si g n T h e ca se st u d y d e si g n i m p l e m e n t e d i n t h i s st u d y ca n b e f u r t h e r d e f i n e d b a se d o n i t s sp e ci a l f e a t u r e s, i t s d i sci p l i n a r y o r i e n t a t i o n a n d i t s i n t e n t ( se e T a b l e 3 1 ) T h e se t h r e e a sp e ct s o f a ca se st u d y d e si g n p r o vi d e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e f o cu s, t h e o b j e c t o f i n q u i r y a n d t h e o u t co m e s o f t h e ca s e st u d y, r e sp e ct i ve l y. T a b l e 3 1 O ve r vi e w o f t h e ch a r a ct e r i s t i cs o f t h i s ca se st u d y C h a r a ct e r i st i cs ( M e r r i a m 1 9 9 8 ) D e scr i p t i o n o f t h i s ca se st u d y S p e ci a l f e a t u r e s: p a r t i cu l a r i st i c, d e scr i p t i ve o r h e u r i st i c P a r t i cu l a r i st i c: t h i s ca s e st u d y f o cu se s o n a sp e ci f i c p e d a g o g i ca l e ve n t D i sci p l i n a r y o r i e n t a t i o n : e t h n o g r a p h i c, h i st o r i ca l p sych o l o g i ca l o r so ci o l o g i ca l P sych o l o g i ca l : t h i s ca se st u d y t a r g e t s t h e i n d i vi d u a l I n t e n t : d e scr i p t i ve i n t e r p r e t i ve e va l u a t i ve D e scr i p t i ve : t h i s ca s e st u d y p r o vi d e s a d e t a i l e d o ve r vi e w F i r st t h i s c a se st u d y i s p a r t i cu l a r i st i c, a n i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e sp e ci a l f e a t u r e s ch a r a ct e r i zi n g t h e st u d y. P a r t i cu l a r i st i c ca s e st u d i e s f o c u s o n a p a r t i cu l a r si t u a t i o n e ve n t p r o g r a m o r p h e n o m e n o n ( M e r r i a m 1 9 9 8 p 2 9 ) a n d t h i s st u d y s f o cu s i s o n t h e sp e ci f i c p e d a g o g i ca l e ve n t o f yo u n g a ca d e m i c a l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s d e si g n i n g a n d

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5 1 co n st r u ct i n g m u l t i m e d i a t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e i r k n o w l e d g e a b o u t sp e ci f i c m a t h c o n t e n t P a r t i cu l a r i st i c ca se st u d i e s a l so p r o vi d e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t su cce ss f u l l y r e p l i ca t i n g t h e e ve n t i n si m i l a r co n t e xt s a n d st u d y a d e f i n e d e ve n t t h a t ca n co n t r i b u t e t o a g e n e r a l i ze d u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p h e n o m e n o n a t l a r g e ( O l so n i n H o a g l i n M o st e l l e r L i g h t S t o t o & M cP e e k, 1 9 8 2 ) S e co n d t h e d i sci p l i n a r y o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h i s c a s e st u d y i s p sych o l o g i ca l P sych o l o g i ca l ca se st u d i e s t a r g e t t h e i n d i vi d u a l a n d h i s o r h e r b e h a vi o r w i t h i n a n e ve n t ( M e r r i a m 1 9 9 8 ) T h i s c a se st u d y t a r g e t s t w o yo u n g a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s a n d d o cu m e n t s t h e i r b e h a vi o r s a n d l e a r n i n g a s t h e y d e si g n a n d co n st r u ct m u l t i m e d i a t o d e m o n st r a t e t h e i r kn o w l e d g e a b o u t sp e ci f i c m a t h co n t e n t L a st t h e i n t e n t o f t h i s ca se s t u d y i s d e sc r i p t i v e I t w i l l p r o vi d e a d e t a i l e d o ve r vi e w o f a p e d a g o g i ca l e v e n t D e sc r i p t i ve ca se st u d i e s a r e va l u a b l e f o r p r e se n t i n g b a si c i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t a r e a s o f e d u ca t i o n w h e r e l i t t l e r e se a r ch h a s b e e n c o n d u ct e d ( M e r r i a m 1 9 9 8 p 3 8 ) T h e r e i s e vi d e n ce t h a t l e a r n e r s b e n e f i t f r o m c o n st r u ct i n g m u l t i m e d i a I n a d d i t i o n u si n g S cr a t ch h a s b e e n d o cu m e n t e d i n i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t s. H o w e v e r t h e r e i s a d e a r t h o f r e se a r ch a t t h e i n t e r se ct i o n o f t h e se t w o p r a ct i ce s: u si n g S cr a t ch t o co n st r u ct m u l t i m e d i a i n a f o r m a l l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t T h i s d e scr i p t i ve ca s e st u d y p r o vi d e s i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n t o f i l l i n t h i s g a p i n r e se a r c h C o l l e ct i ve l y, t h e se a d d i t i o n a l d e scr i p t o r s h e l p d e f i n e t h i s ca s e st u d y. T h e r e se a r ch r e p r e se n t e d i n t h i s m a n u scr i p t i s a p a r t i cu l a r i s t i c, p sych o l o g i ca l a n d d e sc r i p t i ve ca se st u d y. T h i s d e scr i p t i o n i n f o r m s t h e r e a d e r t h a t t h i s ca se st u d y d e scr i b e s i n d i vi d u a l s a n d t h e i r b e h a vi o r s w i t h i n a sp e ci f i c e v e n t

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5 2 R e s e a r c h C o n t e x t T h i s se ct i o n p r o vi d e s a n o ve r vi e w o f t h e r e s e a r ch co n t e xt i n w h i ch t h i s st u d y o ccu r r e d T h e f o l l o w i n g s u b se ct i o n s f u r t h e r c l a r i f y t h e r e se a r c h co n t e x t R e s e a r c h S i t e T h e K 1 2 sc h o o l ch o s e n f o r t h i s r e se a r c h st u d y i s t h e l o ca l u n i ve r si t y s K 1 2 d e ve l o p m e n t a l r e s e a r ch sch o o l T h i s sch o o l h a s d e m o g r a p h i cs t h a t m a t ch t h e d e m o g r a p h i cs o f t h e su r r o u n d i n g r e g i o n T h u s, i t i n cl u d e s a d i ve r se p o p u l a t i o n a cr o ss n u m e r o u s ca t e g o r i e s su c h a s r a ce a n d so ci o e co n o m i c st a t u s. O t h e r r e a so n s f o r se l e ct i n g t h i s si t e i n cl u d e t h a t a m i ssi o n o f t h e sch o o l i s t o d e ve l o p i n n o va t i ve s o l u t i o n s t o e d u ca t i o n a l co n ce r n s ( sch o o l w e b si t e ) a n d t h a t t h e sc h o o l m a i n t a i n s a c o l l a b o r a t i ve r e l a t i o n sh i p w i t h t h e a ss o ci a t e d c o l l e g e o f e d u ca t i o n T h e sch o o l i s a l so cu r r e n t l y d e ve l o p i n g a m a t h i n t e r ve n t i o n m o d e l f o r st u d e n t s w h o a r e n o t p e r f o r m i n g w e l l i n m a t h a s i d e n t i f i e d b y s t a n d a r d i ze d t e st sco r e s. T h u s, u si n g t h i s si t e t o e va l u a t e a n a l t e r n a t i ve p e d a g o g i ca l a p p r o a ch b e n e f i t s t h e sch o o l a s w e l l a s t h e l a r g e r e d u ca t i o n a l co m m u n i t y. P r a c t i t i o n e r P r o f i l e A n i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e o f D B R i s co l l a b o r a t i o n b e t w e e n a r e se a r ch e r a n d a p r a ct i t i o n e r T h i s r e se a r ch e r co l l a b o r a t e d w i t h M r s. H a p r a ct i t i o n e r b a se d a t t h e sch o o l si t e se l e ct e d f o r t h i s st u d y M r s H p r e vi o u sl y e a r n e d a b a c h e l o r s d e g r e e i n e l e m e n t a r y e d u c a t i o n a n d a m a st e r s d e g r e e i n sp e ci a l e d u c a t i o n f r o m a n a ccr e d i t e d t e a ch e r e d u ca t i o n p r o g r a m a t a l a r g e s o u t h e a st e r n p u b l i c u n i ve r si t y S h e i s cu r r e n t l y w o r ki n g p a r t t i m e t o w a r d s a n e d u ca t i o n d o ct o r a t e i n cu r r i cu l u m t e a c h i n g a n d t e a ch e r e d u ca t i o n M r s. H i s a l so i n h e r 6 t h ye a r o f t e a ch i n g P r e vi o u sl y, sh e h a s t a u g h t 2 n d 3 rd a n d 5 t h g r a d e s.

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5 3 D u r i n g t h e c u r r e n t a ca d e m i c ye a r sh e se r ve s i n a n i n st r u c t i o n a l su p p o r t p o si t i o n t h a t i s d i vi d e d b e t w e e n p r o vi d i n g p r o f e ssi o n a l d e ve l o p m e n t t o e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s a n d w o r ki n g w i t h T i e r 3 r e a d i n g a n d m a t h st u d e n t s T i e r 3 st u d e n t s a r e i d e n t i f i e d a s n e e d i n g i n t e n si ve i n d i vi d u a l i ze d i n t e r ve n t i o n s t o r e m e d i a t e ski l l d e f i ci t s b a se d o n d a t a g a t h e r e d f r o m f o r m a l a sse ss m e n t s s u ch a s st a t e l e ve l st a n d a r d i ze d t e st s o r sch o o l a d m i n i st e r e d scr e e n i n g t e st s ( M a r st o n 2 0 0 5 ) I d e n t i f yi n g s t u d e n t s a s T i e r 3 r e f e r s t o t h e R e sp o n s e t o I n t e r v e n t i o n ( R t I ) f r a m e w o r k. S ch o o l s a d o p t i n g a n R t I f r a m e w o r k w o r k t o cr e a t e l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t s w h e r e i n st r u ct i o n i s l a ye r e d o ve r t i m e i n r e sp o n s e t o st u d e n t s i n c r e a si n g n e e d s ( V a u g h n 2 0 0 3 p 2 ) T i e r 3 i n t e r ve n t i o n r e p r e se n t s t h e m o st i n t e n si ve l a ye r S a m p l e S e l e c t i o n I n co n d u ct i n g a q u a l i t a t i ve ca se st u d y, i t i s n e ce ssa r y t o p e r f o r m t w o l e ve l s o f sa m p l i n g t o i d e n t i f y t h e u n i t o f a n a l ysi s ( M e r r i a m 1 9 9 8 ) F i r st t h e ca se i s s e l e ct e d T h e n p u r p o s e f u l sa m p l i n g i s co n d u ct e d w i t h i n t h e ca se F o r t h i s r e se a r c h st u d y, t h e se l e ct e d ca se i s t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f T i e r 3 st u d e n t s f o r m a t h i n 5 t h g r a d e a t t h e l o ca l u n i ve r si t y s K 1 2 d e ve l o p m e n t a l r e se a r ch sch o o l T h i s p o p u l a t i o n o f a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s n e e d s a d d i t i o n a l t a r g e t e d i n st r u ct i o n t o b e s u cce ssf u l i n a c a d e m i c s e t t i n g s. T r a d i t i o n a l t e a ch i n g m e t h o d s m a y n o t w o r k w i t h t h i s p o p u l a t i o n ye t a p p r o a ch e s t h a t cr e a t e i n n o va t i ve l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s m a y i n cr e a se m o t i va t i o n a n d a u g m e n t l e a r n i n g T i e r 3 st u d e n t s i n 5 t h g r a d e w e r e se l e c t e d b e c a u se S cr a t ch t h e d e si g n t o o l u se d b y p a r t i ci p a n t s i n t h i s st u d y w a s cr e a t e d f o r yo u n g p e o p l e a g e s 8 a n d u p w h i ch m a t ch e s t h e 5 t h g r a d e d e m o g r a p h i c. O n ce t h e ca s e w a s se l e ct e d p u r p o se f u l sa m p l i n g w a s co n d u ct e d w i t h i n t h e ca se T h e i n i t i a l ca s e p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h i s r e se a r c h st u d y i s a sch o o l s T i e r 3 st u d e n t s i n 5 t h

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5 4 g r a d e w h i c h co n si st s o f 8 st u d e n t s. T h e r e a r e 2 f e m a l e s ( o n e m i xe d r a ce a n d o n e H i sp a n i c) a n d 6 m a l e s ( 2 b l a ck 1 H i sp a n i c a n d 3 w h i t e ) T h e r e se a r ch e r i n co n j u n ct i o n w i t h t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r se l e ct e d t w o i n d i vi d u a l ca se s i n o r d e r t o c o n d u ct m a xi m u m va r i a t i o n sa m p l i n g a t yp e o f p u r p o se f u l sa m p l i n g ( M e r r i a m 1 9 9 8 ) M a xi m u m v a r i a t i o n sa m p l i n g a t t e m p t s t o ca p t u r e l e ve l s o f d i ve r si t y w i t h i n t h e st u d i e d p h e n o m e n o n F o r t h i s st u d y, t h e d i ve r si t y w a s d e t e r m i n e d b y o b se r vi n g t h e p a r t i ci p a n t s d u r i n g t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h i s r e se a r ch st u d y w h i l e p a r t i ci p a n t s l e a r n e d h o w t o u s e S cr a t ch O n e st u d e n t D o m i n i c, f r u st r a t e d q u i ckl y w h i l e l e a r n i n g h o w t o u se S cr a t c h A n o t h e r st u d e n t Je n n i f e r q u i ckl y a cq u i r e d n e w ski l l s i n S cr a t c h a n d e m e r g e d a s a l e a d e r i n d e m o n st r a t i n g h o w t o co m p l e t e t a sks i n S cr a t ch t o t h e o t h e r st u d e n t s. B e ca u se o f t h e m a xi m u m v a r i a t i o n w i t h r e sp e ct t o l e a r n i n g a b o u t S cr a t ch b e t w e e n t h e se 2 s t u d e n t s t h e r e se a r ch e r a n d t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r se l e ct e d D o m i n i c a n d J e n n i f e r a s t h e p a r t i ci p a n t s f o r a ca se st u d y. T h u s t h e u n i t o f a n a l ysi s f o r t h i s st u d y i s a T i e r 3 5 t h g r a d e st u d e n t R e s e a r c h E n v i r o n m e n t T h e T i e r 3 5 t h g r a d e st u d e n t s i n t h i s sch o o l m e e t d a i l y a s a g r o u p w i t h t h e M r s. H f o r a b o u t 2 5 m i n u t e s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e s ch o o l d a y. T h e y a r e p u l l e d f r o m t h e i r r e g u l a r cl a ssr o o m s a n d m e e t i n M r s. H s o f f i c e D u r i n g t h i s t i m e M r s. H p r o vi d e s a d d i t i o n a l i n st r u ct i o n r e l a t e d t o m a t h co n t e n t T h i s i n st r u c t i o n i s i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e m a t h i n st r u ct i o n p r o vi d e d i n t h e i r r e g u l a r cl a ss r o o m s. W h i l e t h e se st u d e n t s a r e w o r ki n g o n m a t h ski l l s w i t h M r s. H t h e o t h e r 5 t h g r a d e r s a r e w o r ki n g o n w r i t i n g ski l l s. T h e r e se a r ch e r a n d p r a ct i t i o n e r ( M r s. H ) c o l l a b o r a t i ve l y d e si g n e d a p r o t o t yp e o f a n i n n o va t i ve l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t t h a t i n t e g r a t e s l e a r n e r c o n st r u c t e d m u l t i m e d i a I n i t i a l l y, t h e r e se a r c h e r a n d p r a ct i t i o n e r i d e n t i f i e d a p p r o p r i a t e co n t e n t t h a t t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r s 5 t h g r a d e s t u d e n t s w o u l d a d d r e s s w h e n co n st r u ct i n g m u l t i m e d i a u si n g

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5 5 S cr a t ch T h e co n t e n t se l e ct e d f o r t h i s i n q u i r y i s t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c s o l i d s. T h i s co n t e n t w a s s e l e ct e d b e ca u se i t i s e m p h a si ze d i n cu r r i c u l u m st a n d a r d s e n d o r se d b y se ve r a l o r g a n i za t i o n s ( se e T a b l e 3 1 ) A d d r e ssi n g t h i s co n t e n t o ccu r r e d i n t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r s p a ci n g g u i d e a t t h e t i m e w h e n t h e r e se a r ch e r w a s a va i l a b l e t o co n d u ct t h i s i n q u i r y. T h e sch o o l si t e p r e vi o u sl y a d o p t e d E ve r d a y M a t h e m a t i cs ( B e l l B r e t zl a u f D i l l a r d H a r t f i e l d I sa a cs, M cB r i d e P i t vo r e c, S a e cke r & W i n n i n g h a m 2 0 0 7 ) f o r i t s m a t h cu r r i cu l u m a n d t h e t i m i n g o f t h i s r e se a r ch p r o j e ct co i n ci d e d w i t h t h e t e a ch i n g o f U n i t 1 1 i n t h e t e xt K n o w i n g t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s i s o n e o f t h e se cu r e ski l l s f o r t h i s u n i t I n a d d i t i o n t h e N a t i o n a l C o u n ci l o f T e a c h e r s o f M a t h e m a t i cs h a s i d e n t i f i e d t h i s co n t e n t a s o n e o f t h r e e cu r r i cu l a r f o ca l p o i n t s f o r 5 t h g r a d e T h i s c o n t e n t i s a l so i d e n t i f i e d a s a B i g I d e a i n t h e S t a t e o f F l o r i d a s N e xt G e n e r a t i o n S u n sh i n e S t a t e S t a n d a r d s. S p e ci f i c a l l y, t h e r e a r e t w o b e n ch m a r ks t h a t a d d r e ss t h i s co n t e n t : A n a l yze a n d co m p a r e t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f t w o d i m e n si o n a l f i g u r e s a n d t h r e e d i m e n si o n a l so l i d s ( p o l yh e d r a ) i n cl u d i n g t h e n u m b e r o f e d g e s, f a ce s, ve r t i ce s, a n d t yp e s o f f a c e s ( M A 5 G 3 1 ) a n d d e scr i b e d e f i n e a n d d e t e r m i n e su r f a ce a r e a a n d vo l u m e o f p r i sm s b y u si n g a p p r o p r i a t e u n i t s a n d se l e ct i n g st r a t e g i e s a n d t o o l s ( M A 5 G 3 2 ) T a b l e 3 1 C o n t e n t r a t i o n a l e O r g a n i za t i o n C o n t e n t e xp e ct a t i o n s E ve r d a y M a t h e m a t i cs, U n i ve r si t y o f C h i ca g o S ch o o l M a t h e m a t i cs P r o j e ct U n i t 1 1 se cu r e ski l l : K n o w t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s N a t i o n a l C o u n ci l o f T e a ch e r s o f M a t h e m a t i cs G r a d e 5 C u r r i cu l u m F o ca l P o i n t f o r G e o m e t r y a n d M e a su r e m e n t a n d A l g e b r a : D e scr i b i n g t h r e e d i m e n si o n a l s h a p e s a n d a n a l yzi n g t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s, i n cl u d i n g vo l u m e a n d s u r f a ce a r e a

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5 6 T a b l e 3 1 C o n t i n u e d S t a t e o f F l o r i d a N e xt G e n e r a t i o n S u n sh i n e S t a t e S t a n d a r d s S u b j e ct A r e a : M a t h e m a t i cs G r a d e L e ve l : 5 B o d y o f K n o w l e d g e : G e o m e t r y B i g I d e a : B I G I D E A 3 D e scr i b e t h r e e d i m e n si o n a l s h a p e s a n d a n a l yze t h e i r p r o p e r t i e s, i n cl u d i n g vo l u m e a n d s u r f a ce a r e a B e n ch m a r k N u m b e r : M A 5 G 3 1 B e n ch m a r k D e sc r i p t i o n : A n a l yz e a n d c o m p a r e t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f t w o d i m e n si o n a l f i g u r e s a n d t h r e e d i m e n si o n a l s o l i d s ( p o l yh e d r a ) i n cl u d i n g t h e n u m b e r o f e d g e s, f a c e s, ve r t i ce s a n d t yp e s o f f a ce s. B e n c h m a r k N u m b e r : M A 5 G 3 2 B e n ch m a r k D e sc r i p t i o n : D e scr i b e d e f i n e a n d d e t e r m i n e su r f a ce a r e a a n d vo l u m e o f p r i sm s b y u si n g a p p r o p r i a t e u n i t s a n d se l e ct i n g st r a t e g i e s a n d t o o l s. P a r t i ci p a n t s w e r e f i r st i n t r o d u c e d t o t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c s o l i d s i n t h e i r 5 t h g r a d e cl a ss r o o m s a s p a r t o f t h e E ve r yd a y M a t h e m a t i cs cu r r i cu l u m M r s H p r o vi d e d a d d i t i o n a l i n st r u ct i o n ( i n t e r v e n t i o n ) a n d r e vi e w o n t h i s sp e ci f i c c o n t e n t b e f o r e 5 t h g r a d e r s d e si g n e d a S c r a t ch m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct B o t h t yp e s o f i n st r u ct i o n o cc u r r e d b e f o r e t h e o n se t o f t h e cu r r e n t st u d y. D u r i n g t h e s t u d y, p a r t i ci p a n t s w e r e e xp e ct e d t o d e si g n a n d co n st r u ct m u l t i m e d i a t h a t d e m o n st r a t e s t h e i r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. T h e d e si g n p r o ce ss o ccu r r e d i n t w o g e n e r a l p h a se s: l e a r n i n g h o w t o u s e S cr a t ch ( P h a se 1 ) a n d d e si g n i n g a p r o j e ct u si n g S cr a t c h ( P h a se 2 ) E a ch p h a se co u l d b e f u r t h e r d i vi d e d i n t o su b p h a s e s t h a t b e t t e r r e p r e se n t t h e sp e ci f i c a ct i vi t i e s o f t h e p a r t i ci p a n t s ( se e T a b l e 3 2 ) D u r i n g P h a se 1 p a r t i ci p a n t s w e r e i n t r o d u ce d t o S cr a t ch P a r t i ci p a n t s u se d S cr a t ch ( V e r si o n 1 4 ) i n st a l l e d o n A p p l e i B o o k G 4 l a p t o p s r u n n i n g t h e M a c O S X V e r si o n 1 0 4 1 1 o p e r a t i n g syst e m T h e y e xp l o r e d S cr a t ch s i n t e r f a ce a n d b e ca m e f a m i l i a r w i t h

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5 7 so m e o f i t s f e a t u r e s. T h e S cr a t c h d e ve l o p e r s cr e a t e d S cr a t ch C a r d s, w h i ch a r e a co l l e ct i o n o f 1 2 ca r d s t h a t i n d i vi d u a l l y t e a ch a sp e ci f i c ski l l i n S cr a t ch F o r e xa m p l e t h e S a y S o m e t h i n g S cr a t c h C a r d ( se e F i g u r e 3 1 ) i d e n t i f i e s t h e st e p s r e q u i r e d t o h a ve a sp r i t e d i sp l a y a t e xt b u b b l e o n t h e sc r e e n D u r i n g P h a se 1 t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r sh a r e d t h e A n i m a t e I t M o vi n g A n i m a t i o n a n d S a y S o m e t h i n g S cr a t ch C a r d s w i t h p a r t i ci p a n t s t o l e a r n t h e sp e ci f i c ski l l i n t r o d u ce d b y e a ch c a r d T h e p a r t i ci p a n t s ch o se w h i ch S cr a t ch C a r d s t h e y w o u l d l i ke t o l e a r n F i g u r e 3 1 T h e f r o n t a n d b a ck o f t h e S a y S o m e t h i n g S cr a t ch ca r d D u r i n g P h a se 2 p a r t i ci p a n t s p l a n n e d d e si g n e d p r o d u ce d a n d t e st e d w a ys t o r e p r e se n t t h e i r kn o w l e d g e a b o u t t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s i n S cr a t ch T h e s e st e p s a r e si m i l a r t o t h e m u l t i m e d i a d e ve l o p m e n t p r o ce ss u se d b y p r o f e ssi o n a l

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5 8 d e si g n e r s ( L i u Jo n e s & H e m st r e e t 1 9 9 8 ) D u r i n g t h i s p h a se p a r t i ci p a n t s w e r e i n t r o d u ce d t o t h e p r o j e ct a n d b e g a n t o b r a i n st o r m w a ys t o e xp r e ss t h e i r kn o w l e d g e o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c s o l i d s. P a r t i ci p a n t s a d d e d sp r i t e s a n d b a ckg r o u n d s f r o m t h e e xi st i n g l i b r a r i e s i n S cr a t ch o r c r e a t e d t h e i r o w n T h r o u g h o u t t h i s p h a se p a r t i ci p a n t s a l so t e st e d a n d r e vi se d t h e i r p r o j e ct T a b l e 3 2 O ve r vi e w o f d a i l y a ct i vi t i e s D a y P h a se D e scr i p t i o n s o f cl a ss e ve n t s D a y 1 P h a se 1 I n t r o d u ct i o n t o S cr a t ch ; o ve r vi e w o f i n t e r f a c e D a y 2 P h a se 1 C r e a t i n g sp r i t e s i n S cr a t ch D a y 3 P h a se 1 U si n g t h e sa y b l o ck i n S cr a t ch D a y 4 P h a se 1 U si n g t h e a r r o w ke ys t o m o ve a sp r i t e i n S cr a t ch D a y 5 P h a se 1 U si n g sp r i t e co st u m e s i n S c r a t ch D a y 6 P h a se 1 S w i t ch i n g a sp r i t e s co s t u m e i n S cr a t ch D a y 7 P h a se 1 D r a w i n g g e o m e t r i c s o l i d s i n S cr a t ch D a y 8 D a t a co l l e ct i o n C o m p l e t e p r e t e st o n g e o m e t r i c so l i d s D a y 9 P h a se 2 R e vi e w p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s D a y 1 0 P h a se 2 I n t r o d u ct i o n t o d e si g n p r o j e ct u si n g S cr a t ch D a ys 1 1 2 1 P h a se 2 D e si g n i n g i n S cr a t c h D a ys 2 2 2 5 P h a se 2 P e e r r e vi e w i n g a n d r e vi si n g D a y 2 6 D a t a co l l e ct i o n C o m p l e t e p o st t e st o n g e o m e t r i c so l i d s D a t a S o u r c e s a n d C o l l e c t i o n T h i s se ct i o n p r o vi d e s a n o ve r vi e w o f t h e so u r ce s o f d a t a e m p l o y e d t o a d d r e ss t h e r e se a r ch q u e st i o n s p o se d i n t h i s st u d y. T h e r e a r e m u l t i p l e so u r ce s o f d a t a f o r t h i s st u d y ( se e T a b l e 3 3 f o r a S o u r ce o f D a t a C h a r t ) E a ch so u r ce o f d a t a i s f u r t h e r d e scr i b e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g su b se ct i o n s. T a b l e 3 3 S o u r ce o f D a t a T a b l e D a t a so u r ce R e se a r ch q u e st i o n 1 R e se a r ch q u e st i o n 2 I n t e r vi e w b e t w e e n r e se a r c h e r a n d p r a ct i t i o n e r X X D e b r i e f i n g n o t e s b e t w e e n r e se a r c h e r a n d p r a ct i t i o n e r X P r e a n d p o st e x p e r i e n c e co n t e n t t e st s X I n t e r vi e w s b e t w e e n p a r t i ci p a n t s a n d r e se a r ch e r X X R e se a r ch e r r e f l e c t i o n s o n p a r t i ci p a n t co n st r u c t e d S cr a t ch a r t i f a c t s X X

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5 9 R e s e a r c h e r a n d P r a c t i t i o n e r I n t e r v i e w A t t h e e n d o f t h e p r o j e ct t h e r e se a r c h e r i n t e r v i e w e d t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r ( M r s. H ) t o d e t e r m i n e t h e d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s n e ce s sa r y f o r e n g a g i n g i n a d d i t i o n a l i t e r a t i o n s o f t h i s D B R a n d f o r e va l u a t i n g t h e e f f e c t i ve n e ss o f t h i s e ve n t a s a p e d a g o g i ca l st r a t e g y. T h u s, t h e t r a n sc r i p t o f t h i s i n t e r vi e w ( se e A p p e n d i x A ) p r o vi d e s a d a t a s o u r ce f o r a d d r e ssi n g b o t h r e s e a r ch q u e st i o n s p o se d i n t h i s st u d y T h e se m i st r u c t u r e d i n t e r vi e w g u i d e u s e d d u r i n g t h i s i n t e r vi e w i s sh o w n i n A p p e n d i x E D e b r i e f i n g N o t e s D a i l y n o t e s r e c o r d e d b y t h e r e se a r ch e r t o d o c u m e n t d e b r i e f i n g se ssi o n s b e t w e e n t h e r e se a r ch e r a n d M r s. H t h a t o cc u r r e d i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r e a ch d e si g n s e ssi o n w e r e u se d t o d o cu m e n t t h e d e si g n a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h i s i n n o va t i ve l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t T h e d e b r i e f i n g n o t e s i n cl u d e d d e scr i p t i o n s o f t h e p a r t i ci p a n t s, t h e e ve n t s a n d t h e i n t e r a ct i o n s b e t w e e n t h e s e o b j e ct s. T h e se n o t e s a l so i n cl u d e d i r e ct q u o t e s m a d e b y p a r t i ci p a n t s o r n o t e s t h a t ca p t u r e t h e co r e o f w h a t i s ve r b a l i ze d d u r i n g t h e o b se r va t i o n s. I n a d d i t i o n f i e l d n o t e s i n cl u d e c o m m e n t s m a d e b y t h e r e se a r ch e r w h i l e i n t h e p r o ce ss o f o b se r vi n g T h e se e xt e n si ve f i e l d n o t e s, i n co n j u n ct i o n w i t h d e b r i e f i n g n o t e s b e t w e e n t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r a n d r e se a r c h e r p r o vi d e s o u r ce s o f d a t a f o r i n f o r m i n g t h e d e si g n o f f u t u r e i t e r a t i o n s o f t h i s D B R a n d f o r d e ve l o p i n g a h e a l t h y r e sp o n se t o r e se a r ch q u e st i o n # 2 C o n t e n t B a s e d P r e a n d P o s t T e s t s P a r t i ci p a n t s co m p l e t e d a p r e a n d p o st t e st o f co n t e n t m e a su r e s t o d e t e r m i n e i n i t i a l u n d e r st a n d i n g a n d g r o w t h i n c o n ce p t u a l u n d e r st a n d i n g o f st a n d a r d s b a se d co n t e n t ( s e e A p p e n d i x D ) T h e p r a ct i t i o n e r i d e n t i f i e d t h e p r e a n d p o st t e st cu r r i cu l u m b a se d co n t e n t m e a su r e f r o m t h e e xi st i n g E ve r yd a y M a t h e m a t i cs cu r r i cu l u m r e so u r ce s

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6 0 t h a t a r e r o u t i n e l y u se d a s a t r a d i t i o n a l s u m m a t i ve a sse ssm e n t a t t h e sch o o l si t e C h a n g e s i n sco r e s b e t w e e n t h e p r e a n d p o st t e st p r o vi d e d a t a f o r i d e n t i f yi n g l e a r n i n g g a i n s d u r i n g t h i s e ve n t a n d f o r r e sp o n d i n g t o r e se a r ch q u e st i o n # 1 R e s e a r c h e r a n d P a r t i c i p a n t I n t e r v i e w s T w o p a r t i ci p a n t s se l e c t e d f o r t h e c a se st u d i e s co m p l e t e d a p o st e xp e r i e n ce i n t e r vi e w w i t h t h e r e se a r ch e r t o d e t e r m i n e h o w a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s p e r c e i ve h o w co n st r u c t i n g m u l t i m e d i a c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e i r l e a r n i n g a n d m o t i va t i o n ( V a n M a n e n 2 0 0 1 ; S e i d m a n 2 0 0 6 ) A p p e n d i x E i n cl u d e s t h e se m i st r u ct u r e d I n t e r vi e w G u i d e u se d d u r i n g t h e i n t e r vi e w s. E a ch i n t e r vi e w w a s r e c o r d e d a n d t r a n scr i b e d ( P o l a n d 2 0 0 2 ) T h e se t r a n scr i p t s p r o vi d e va l u a b l e d a t a f o r a d d r e ssi n g r e se a r c h q u e st i o n s # 1 a n d # 2 R e s e a r c h e r R e f l e c t i o n s o n S c r a t c h M u l t i m e d i a A r t i f a c t s D u r i n g P h a se 2 o f t h i s st u d y ( t h e d e si g n p h a s e ) e a ch p a r t i ci p a n t u se d S cr a t ch t o d e si g n a n d c o n st r u ct a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct t h a t r e p r e s e n t e d h i s/ h e r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. A f t e r e a ch d e s i g n se ssi o n t h i s r e se a r ch e r e xa m i n e d e a ch S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct a n d n o t e d t h e p r o g r e ss o f e a ch p a r t i ci p a n t I n a sp r e a d sh e e t t h i s r e se a r ch e r r e co r d e d t h e n u m b e r o f s p r i t e s, t h e n u m b e r o f b a ckg r o u n d s, t h e n u m b e r o f scr i p t s, t h e n u m b e r o f c o m m a n d b l o cks u se d i n scr i p t s a n d t h e n u m b e r o f co m m a n d b l o ck t yp e s u se d i n scr i p t s C o l l e ct i ve l y, t h e s e d a t a se r ve a s q u a n t i f i a b l e m e a s u r e s o f e a ch p a r t i ci p a n t s p r o g r e ss ( se e A p p e n d i x G ) I n a d d i t i o n t h i s r e se a r c h e r r e co r d e d h i s r e f l e ct i o n s o n p a r t i ci p a n t s p r o g r e ss w h i l e a n a l yzi n g e a ch S cr a t c h a r t i f a ct ( se e A p p e n d i x C f o r a n e x a m p l e ) T h e se r e f l e ct i o n s p r o vi d e q u a l i t a t i ve d a t a f o r m e a su r i n g e a ch p a r t i ci p a n t s p r o g r e ss.

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6 1 D a t a A n a l y s i s P r o c e d u r e s T h i s se ct i o n i n cl u d e s a n o ve r vi e w o f t h e d a t a a n a l ysi s p r o ce d u r e s u se d t o a n a l yze t h e d a t a c o l l e ct e d d u r i n g t h i s st u d y. T h i s se ct i o n i s f u r t h e r d i vi d e d i n t o 4 su b s e ct i o n s t h a t e a ch a d d r e sse s a se p a r a t e d a t a a n a l ysi s p r o ce d u r e F i r st t h i s r e se a r ch e r d e scr i b e s t h e d a t a a n a l ysi s p r o ce d u r e u se d t o a n a l yze t h e t r a n sc r i p t s f r o m i n t e r vi e w s b e t w e e n t h e r e se a r ch e r a n d t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r a n d t h e r e se a r c h e r a n d t h e 2 ca se s t u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s. S e co n d t h e p r o ce d u r e u se d t o c o n d u ct a c r o ss ca s e a n a l ysi s o f t h e 2 se p a r a t e ca se s i s d o c u m e n t e d N e xt t h e p r o ce ss f o r co m p a r i n g sco r e s o n t h e cu r r i cu l u m b a se d p r e a n d p o st t e st i s i d e n t i f i e d F i n a l l y, t h i s r e s e a r ch e r sh a r e s t h e a n a l ysi s p r o ce ss f o r e xa m i n i n g t h e S cr a t c h a r t i f a ct s d e si g n e d a n d c o n st r u ct e d b y t h e p a r t i ci p a n t s. T e x t u a l D a t a A n a l y s i s T e sch ( 1 9 9 0 ) p r o vi d e d a syst e m a t i c e i g h t st e p p r o ce ss f o r a n a l yzi n g d a t a i n t h e f o r m o f t e xt ( S e e T a b l e 3 4 ) T h e r e se a r ch e r a p p l i e d t h i s syst e m a t i c p r o ce ss t o a n a l yze t r a n scr i p t s co l l e ct e d f r o m i n t e r vi e w s w i t h t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r a n d w i t h 2 ca se st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s ( se e A p p e n d i x F f o r a n e xa m p l e o f t h i s p r o ce ss ) T h e p r o ce ss d e scr i b e d b e l o w w a s a p p l i e d se p a r a t e l y t o t e xt f r o m b o t h t r a n sc r i p t s b a se d o n i n t e r vi e w s b e t w e e n t h e r e se a r ch e r a n d t h e 2 c a se st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s T h i s d a t a a n a l ysi s g e n e r a t e d a se p a r a t e ca se st u d y f o r b o t h p a r t i ci p a n t s a n d i s u se d t o a d d r e ss o n e o f t h e r e se a r ch q u e st i o n s: H o w e f f e ct i ve i s L C M a t i n c r e a si n g l e a r n i n g g a i n s i n t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s f o r a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s? T h e d a t a a n a l ysi s p r o ce d u r e w a s a l so a p p l i e d t o t h e t e xt f r o m t h e t r a n sc r i p t o f t h e i n t e r vi e w b e t w e e n t h e r e se a r c h e r a n d p r a ct i t i o n e r T h i s r e se a r ch e r u se d t h i s p a r t i cu l a r a n a l ysi s t o a d d r e ss t h e s e co n d

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6 2 r e se a r ch q u e st i o n : W h a t a r e t h e d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s f o r c r e a t i n g a n i n n o v a t i ve l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t t h a t i n t e g r a t e s L C M f o r a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s ? T a b l e 3 4 D a t a a n a l ysi s st e p s f o r t e xt u a l d a t a S t e p A ct i vi t y 1 R e a d t h r o u g h t e x t t o d e v e l o p i n i t i a l u n d e r st a n d i n g ; cr e a t e b r i e f n o t e s 2 R e r e a d t e x t t o d e v e l o p m e a n i n g ; c r e a t e n o t e s 3 I d e n t i f y l i st o f t h e m e s b a se d o n n o t e s 4 T r a n sl a t e t h e m e s i n t o c o d e s; l a b e l t e xt w i t h c o d e s 5 G r o u p t h e m e s i n t o ca t e g o r i e s 6 C o n ve r t ca t e g o r i e s i n t o co d e s 7 O r g a n i ze d a t a b a s e d o n c a t e g o r i ca l co d e s 8 R e co d e d a t a i f n e e d e d T h e f i r st st e p i s t o ca r e f u l l y r e a d t h r o u g h a l l o f t h e t r a n scr i p t s w i t h t h e p u r p o se o f d e ve l o p i n g a g e n e r a l u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e d a t a T h e r e se a r ch e r r e co r d e d e a r l y t h i n ki n g a n d o b se r va t i o n s i n t h e f o r m o f b r i e f n o t e s. T h i s f i r st st e p a ssi st s t h e r e se a r ch e r i n d e ve l o p i n g a n i n i t i a l u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e d a t a S e co n d e a ch o f t h e t r a n sc r i p t s i s r e r e a d A f t e r e a ch r e a d i n g t h e r e se a r ch e r t o o k n o t e s w i t h t h e i n t e n t o f ca p t u r i n g t h e o ve r a l l m e a n i n g o f t h e t e xt a n d n o t t h e s p e ci f i c d e t a i l e m b e d d e d w i t h i n t h e t e xt T h i s st e p e n su r e s a ca r e f u l r e a d i n g o f t h e t r a n sc r i p t s a n d f o cu se s t h e r e se a r c h e r o n d e ve l o p i n g a n u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e u n d e r l yi n g m e a n i n g o f e a ch p i e c e o f t e x t u a l d a t a N e xt t h e r e se a r c h e r i d e n t i f i e d a n i n i t i a l l i st o f t h e m e s g e n e r a t e d f r o m t h e n o t e s cr e a t e d d u r i n g t h e p r e vi o u s st e p T h e se t h e m e s se r ve d a s t h e i n i t i a l f r a m e w o r k f o r m a ki n g m e a n i n g o f t h e d a t a T h e f o u r t h st e p i n vo l ve s t r a n sl a t i n g t h e t h e m e s i n t o a b b r e vi a t e d c o d e s. T h e r e se a r ch e r t h e n r e t u r n e d t o t h e t r a n scr i p t s a n d l a b e l e d e a ch se n t e n ce p h r a se o r se n t e n ce w i t h a n a p p r o p r i a t e co d e P h r a s e s o r se n t e n ce s t h a t co u l d n o t b e l a b e l e d w i t h a n a p p r o p r i a t e co d e i n d i ca t e d t h a t a d d i t i o n a l co d e s a n d t h e m e s sh o u l d b e

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6 3 g e n e r a t e d T h i s st e p t e st s t h e i n i t i a l f r a m e w o r k o f t h e m e s a g a i n st t h e d a t a a n d yi e l d s a r e vi se d f r a m e w o r k o f t h e m e s t h a t a d d r e sse s t h e d a t a F i f t h t h e r e se a r ch e r n a r r o w e d t h e n u m b e r o f t h e m e s b y g r o u p i n g si m i l a r t h e m e s i n t o ca t e g o r i e s. T h i s st e p g e n e r a t e s a m a n a g e a b l e l i st o f ca t e g o r i e s. C a t e g o r i e s a n d t h e i r a sso ci a t e d t h e m e s a r e i d e n t i f i e d i n A p p e n d i x F S i xt h ca t e g o r i e s a r e c o n ve r t e d i n t o a b b r e vi a t e d co d e s. T h i s st e p f a ci l i t a t e s t h e p r o ce ss o f c o d i n g t h e d a t a N e xt t h e r e s e a r c h e r o r g a n i ze d t h e d a t a b a se d o n t h e ca t e g o r i ca l c o d e s. T h a t i s, i n d i vi d u a l p h r a se s o r se n t e n ce s f r o m t h e d a t a w e r e p u l l e d f r o m t h e t r a n scr i p t s a n d r e g r o u p e d w i t h si m i l a r d a t a b a se d o n t h e ca t e g o r i ca l co d e s a t t a ch e d t o t h e d a t a T h e se r e g r o u p i n g s p r o vi d e d e vi d e n c e f o r m a ki n g m e a n i n g f r o m t h e t r a n sc r i p t i o n s a n d f i e l d n o t e s. L a st l y, i f n e e d e d d a t a i s r e c o d e d T h e p r o ce ss d e sc r i b e d a b o ve w a s a p p l i e d t o e a ch o f t h e t r a n scr i p t s g e n e r a t e d f r o m t h e p o st e xp e r i e n ce i n t e r vi e w s w i t h t h e 2 ca se st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s a n d w i t h t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r T h i s p r o c e ss r e s u l t e d i n t h e p r o d u ct i o n o f t w o s e p a r a t e ca se s W i t h t h e a va i l a b i l i t y o f t w o ca s e s, t h e r e se a r ch e r a l so c o n d u ct e d a cr o ss ca se st u d y. C r o s s C a s e A n a l y s i s T h i s r e se a r ch st u d y i n cl u d e s t w o ca se s t u d i e s M e r r i a m ( 1 9 9 8 ) i d e n t i f i e d t w o st a g e s o f a n a l ysi s w h e n m u l t i p l e ca s e s a r e p r e se n t w i t h i n a s t u d y. F i r st t h e w i t h i n c a se a n a l ysi s o ccu r s t o g e n e r a t e a co m p r e h e n si ve ca se i n a n d o f i t se l f ( M e r r i a m 1 9 9 8 p 1 9 4 ) N e xt cr o ss ca se a n a l ysi s b e g i n s. T h i s st u d y i d e n t i f i e d t w o p a r t i ci p a n t s t o se r v e a s i n d e p e n d e n t ca s e s f o r t h e w i t h i n ca se a n a l ysi s w i t h t h e i n t e n t o f g e n e r a t i n g t w o se p a r a t e ca se st u d i e s. T h i s r e se a r ch e r a d o p t e d T e sch s ( 1 9 9 0 ) t e xt u a l d a t a a n a l ysi s f o r t h e w i t h i n ca se a n a l ysi s a s d e scr i b e d a b o v e

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6 4 T h e n e xt st a g e o f a n a l ysi s f o r a m u l t i p l e ca s e st u d y i s cr o ss ca se a n a l ysi s. C r o ss ca se a n a l ysi s a l l o w s t h e r e s e a r ch e r t o e n h a n ce g e n e r a l i za b i l i t y ( M i l e s & H u b e r m a n 1 9 9 4 p 1 7 3 ) a n d t o d e e p e n u n d e r st a n d i n g a n d e xp l a n a t i o n ( p 1 7 3 ) T h i s a p p r o a ch g e n e r a t e s u n d e r st a n d i n g b e y o n d t h e u n i q u e n e ss o f a n i n d i vi d u a l ca se a n d m a y l e a d t o a m o r e u n i ve r s a l a n d l e ss p a r t i cu l a r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p h e n o m e n o n o f i n t e r e s t M i l e s & H u b e r m a n a d vo c a t e d f o r a n i n t e r a ct i ve syn t h e si s ( p 1 7 6 ) w h e n co n d u ct i n g a cr o ss ca se a n a l ysi s. A n i n t e r a ct i ve sy n t h e si s co m b i n e s d a t a a n a l ysi s p r o ce d u r e s t h a t se p a r a t e l y f o cu s o n a n a l yzi n g v a r i a b l e s e vi d e n t a cr o ss ca s e s ( va r i a b l e o r i e n t e d st r a t e g i e s ) o r o n a n a l yzi n g t h e i n d i vi d u a l q u a l i t i e s o f e a ch c a se ( c a se o r i e n t e d st r a t e g i e s ) C o n d u ct i n g a n i n t e r a ct i ve syn t h e si s f i r st r e l i e s o n t h e p r e se n t a t i o n o f se p a r a t e ca se s. N e xt t h e m e s e vi d e n t a cr o ss ca se s a r e d e scr i b e d ( a v a r i a b l e o r i e n t e d st r a t e g y) T h e se t h e m e s a r e t h e n f r a m e d a n d su p p o r t e d w i t h i n e a ch ca se ( a ca se o r i e n t e d s t r a t e g y) P r e a n d P o s t T e s t A n a l y s i s S co r e s f r o m t h e p r e a n d p o st t e st w e r e co m p a r e d f o r e a ch p a r t i ci p a n t T h e sa m p l e si ze f o r t h i s st u d y i s t o o s m a l l t o m e a s u r e st a t i st i ca l si g n i f i ca n ce b e t w e e n t h e t w o m e a su r e s. H o w e ve r a n i n cr e a s e i n sco r e s i n d i ca t e d t h a t a p a r t i ci p a n t d i d g a i n so m e u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s d u r i n g t h e e xp e r i e n ce S c r a t c h A r t i f a c t A n a l y s i s I n t h i s r e se a r ch st u d y, e a c h p a r t i ci p a n t d e si g n e d a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct u si n g S cr a t ch t h a t r e p r e se n t e d h i s/ h e r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. T h e se S cr a t c h m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct s se r ve a s a d a t a so u r ce a n d ca n b e a n a l yze d H o w e ve r t h e r e e xi st s o n l y a si n g l e p r e c e d e n t f o r a n a l yzi n g S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct s. M a l o n e y e t a l ( 2 0 0 8 ) a n a l yze d S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct s f o r e vi d e n ce o f p r o g r a m m i n g co n ce p t s. T h e y

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6 5 e xa m i n e d l e a r n e d co n st r u ct e d S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct s a n d i d e n t i f i e d co m m a n d b l o cks i n cl u d e d i n e a ch S cr a t ch a r t i f a c t T h e y a r g u e d t h a t t h e u se o f a p a r t i cu l a r co m m a n d b l o ck i n d i ca t e d a s p e ci f i c p r o g r a m m i n g co n ce p t U n f o r t u n a t e l y, t h i s a p p r o a ch i s n o t a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e cu r r e n t st u d y b e ca u s e t h e r e se a r ch q u e st i o n s p o se d i n t h i s st u d y a r e n o t co n ce r n e d w i t h p r o g r a m m i n g co n c e p t s l e a r n e d b y p a r t i ci p a n t s. R a t h e r t h e S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct s n e e d e d t o b e a n a l yze d t o d e t e r m i n e a n i m p a ct o n l e a r n i n g W i t h t h i s p u r p o se i n m i n d t h i s r e se a r ch e r e xa m i n e d e a c h S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct d a i l y. I n a sp r e a d s h e e t h e r e c o r d e d t h e n u m b e r o f sp r i t e s, t h e n u m b e r o f b a ck g r o u n d s, t h e n u m b e r o f scr i p t s, t h e n u m b e r o f c o m m a n d b l o cks u se d i n sc r i p t s a n d t h e n u m b e r o f u n i q u e co m m a n d b l o ck t yp e s u se d i n sc r i p t s. I n a d d i t i o n h e a l so l i st e d t h e u n i q u e co m m a n d b l o cks u se d i n scr i p t s f o r e a ch p a r t i ci p a n t s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct ( se e A p p e n d i x G f o r a n e x a m p l e ) N e xt h e r e c o r d e d h i s r e f l e ct i o n s o n e a ch p a r t i ci p a n t s p r o g r e ss n o t i n g e vi d e n ce o f co n t e n t r e l a t e d t o t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s a n d i n t e r p r e t i n g p r o g r e ss b a se d o n t h e d a t a r e co r d e d i n t h e sp r e a d sh e e t T h e d a t a co n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e sp r e a d sh e e t co u l d se r ve a s a m e a su r e o f t h e co m p l e xi t y o f a p a r t i ci p a n t s a r t i f a ct I t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o a ssu m e t h a t a n i n cr e a se i n a n y o f t h e se va l u e s o ve r t i m e i n d i ca t e s t h a t a n a r t i f a ct i s e vo l vi n g a n d b e co m i n g m o r e co m p l e x. T h e r e f l e ct i o n s d o cu m e n t t h i s r e se a r ch e r s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e s p r e a d sh e e t d a t a C o l l e ct i ve l y, t h e sp r e a d sh e e t d a t a a n d r e f l e ct i o n s p r o vi d e d a d d i t i o n a l e vi d e n ce f o r co m p l e t i n g t h e w i t h i n c a se a n d cr o ss ca se a n a l yse s. T r u s t w o r t h i n e s s M e e t i n g su f f i ci e n t l e ve l s o f va l i d i t y a n d r e l i a b i l i t y a r e co n c e r n s f o r a l l t yp e s o f r e se a r ch b u t t h e se co n st r u ct s a r e m e a su r e d d i f f e r e n t l y i n q u a l i t a t i ve a n d q u a n t i t a t i v e st u d i e s. V a l i d i t y, r e l i a b i l i t y a n d g e n e r a l i za b i l i t y a l l co n t r i b u t e t o a q u a l i t a t i ve s t u d y s

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6 6 t r u st w o r t h i n e ss. T r u st w o r t h i n e ss e n su r e s t h a t r e se a r c h r e su l t s ca n b e t r u st e d w i t h a h i g h l e ve l o f co n f i d e n ce ( M e r r i a m 1 9 9 8 ) V a l i d i t y A ca se st u d y s va l i d i t y e n s u r e s t h a t t h e f i n d i n g s e vi d e n t w i t h i n t h e st u d y m a t ch t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e co n t e x t M e r r i a m ( 1 9 9 8 ) i d e n t i f i e d si x st r a t e g i e s f o r e n su r i n g su f f i ci e n t va l i d i t y i n q u a l i t a t i ve c a se st u d y d e si g n s: t r i a n g u l a t i o n m e m b e r ch e cks, l o n g t e r m o b se r va t i o n p e e r e xa m i n a t i o n c o l l a b o r a t i ve m o d e s o f r e se a r ch a n d r e s e a r ch e r s b i a se s. T r i a n g u l a t i o n i n vo l ve s u si n g m u l t i p l e i n ve st i g a t o r s, m u l t i p l e s o u r ce s o f d a t a o r m u l t i p l e m e t h o d s t o co n f i r m t h e e m e r g i n g f i n d i n g s ( M e r r i a m 1 9 9 8 p 2 0 4 ) T h i s c a se st u d y d e si g n i n c o r p o r a t e d m u l t i p l e s o u r ce s o f d a t a ( o b se r va t i o n a l f i e l d n o t e s, i n t e r vi e w t r a n scr i p t s co n t e n t m e a s u r e s a n d a r t i f a ct s o f i n t e r a ct i ve m u l t i m e d i a ) d u r i n g t h e d a t a a n a l ysi s p r o ce d u r e s t o e n su r e t h a t co n cl u si o n s r e p r e s e n t e d t h e d a t a M e m b e r ch e cks i n v o l ve t h e i n t e r vi e w p a r t i ci p a n t s i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p l a u si b i l i t y o f t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s d e ve l o p e d b y t h e r e se a r c h e r ( G u b a & L i n co l n 1 9 8 9 ; M i l e s & H u b e r m a n 1 9 9 4 ; M o u st a ka s, 1 9 9 4 ) I n t h i s s t u d y, a m e m b e r ch e ck w a s c o n d u ct e d w i t h t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r ( M r s. H ) a f t e r h e r i n t e r vi e w t r a n scr i p t w a s a n a l yze d t o e n su r e t h a t co n cl u si o n s a r r i ve d a t b y t h e r e se a r ch e r r e p r e se n t e d t h e d a t a p r o vi d e d b y h e r E n g a g i n g i n l o n g t e r m o b s e r va t i o n i n cr e a s e s va l i d i t y b y p r o vi d i n g su f f i ci e n t t i m e f o r t h e r e se a r ch e r t o co l l e ct d a t a F o r t h i s ca s e st u d y, t h e r e se a r ch e r o b se r ve d t h e p a r t i ci p a n t s d a i l y o ve r a p e r i o d o f s e ve n w e e k s. P e e r e xa m i n a t i o n o ccu r s w h e n c o l l e a g u e s h a ve t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r o vi d e co m m e n t s a s t h e r e se a r ch e r d e ve l o p s f i n d i n g s b a se d o n t h e d a t a F o r t h i s st u d y, o n ce a ca se w a s a n a l yze d t h e r e se a r ch e r sh a r e d p r e l i m i n a r y f i n d i n g s w i t h a su p e r vi si n g

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6 7 f a cu l t y m e m b e r t o e n su r e t h a t ca se s a n a l ysi s w a s p r o ce e d i n g i n a n a p p r o p r i a t e m a n n e r C o l l a b o r a t i ve m o d e s o f r e s e a r ch p r o vi d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e s t u d y s p a r t i ci p a n t s t o co n t r i b u t e t o t h e r e se a r c h p r o c e ss. S i n ce t h i s st u d y u se s a D B R f r a m e w o r k, co l l a b o r a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e r e se a r ch e r a n d t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r i s a n e sse n t i a l co m p o n e n t o f t h e ca se st u d y. T h e r e s e a r ch e r a n d p r a ct i t i o n e r h a d e xt e n d e d t i m e t o co l l a b o r a t e a n d t o d e si g n t h e e xp e r i e n ce a n d t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r se r ve d a s a p a r t i ci p a n t a n d a s a s o u r ce o f d a t a i n t h e ca se st u d y. B r a cke t i n g t h e r e se a r ch e r s b i a se s f o r ce s t h e r e se a r ch e r t o cl a r i f y a ssu m p t i o n s, w o r l d vi e w a n d t h e o r e t i ca l o r i e n t a t i o n ( M e r r i a m 1 9 9 8 p 2 0 5 ) so t h a t r e a d e r s u n d e r st a n d a r e se a r ch e r s b i a se s. B r a ck e t i n g a ckn o w l e d g e s t h a t b i a s e s a r e i n h e r e n t i n a l l h u m a n e n d e a vo r s a n d e n su r e t h a t t h e y a r e m a d e p u b l i cl y a va i l a b l e T h e t h e o r e t i ca l o r i e n t a t i o n w a s d e sc r i b e d a b o ve a n d cl e a r l y r e p r e se n t s t h i s r e s e a r ch e r s b i a se s R e l i a b i l i t y R e l i a b i l i t y r e f e r s t o t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e st u d y t o b e r e p l i ca t e d M e r r i a m ( 1 9 9 8 ) sh a r e d t h r e e t e c h n i q u e s f o r p r o m o t i n g r e l i a b i l i t y i n q u a l i t a t i ve ca se st u d y d e si g n s: i n ve st i g a t o r s p o si t i o n t r i a n g u l a t i o n a n d a u d i t t r a i l F i r st t h e r e se a r c h e r sh o u l d cl e a r l y d e scr i b e h i s o r h e r r o l e a n d d e ci si o n m a ki n g w i t h i n t h e st u d y. T h i s ch a p t e r o ve r a l l co n t r i b u t e s t o a n u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e r o l e o f t h e r e se a r c h e r i n t h i s ca se st u d y. D e ci si o n s m a d e b y t h e r e se a r ch e r a r e cl e a r l y a r t i cu l a t e d i n p r e vi o u s s e ct i o n s. S e co n d t r i a n g u l a t i o n co n t r i b u t e s t o va l i d i t y a s d e scr i b e d a b o v e a n d a l so co n t r i b u t e s t o t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f a c a se st u d y d e si g n T h i r d p r o vi d i n g a f u l l a n d t h o r o u g h a cco u n t o f h o w d a t a i s a n a l yze d g e n e r a t e s a n a u d i t t r a i l ( R o d g e r s & C o w l e s, 1 9 9 3 ) T h i s d o c u m e n t a t i o n e n s u r e s t h a t o t h e r s ca n u n d e r st a n d t h e l o g i c f o l l o w e d b y t h e r e se a r ch e r i n r e a c h i n g co n cl u si o n s

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6 8 b a se d o n t h e d a t a T h e d o c u m e n t a t i o n sh o u l d b e su f f i ci e n t l y t h o r o u g h su c h t h a t o t h e r s co u l d a r r i v e a t si m i l a r co n cl u si o n s b a se d o n t h e a n a l ysi s co n d u ct e d A p p e n d i ce s C D E a n d F p r o vi d e a n a u d i t t r a i l f o r t h e a n a l yse s co n d u ct e d i n t h i s ca se s t u d y. G e n e r a l i za b i l i t y G e n e r a l i za b i l i t y i s a n i n d i ca t i o n o f t h e e xt e n t t o w h i ch co n cl u si o n s d r a w n f r o m t h i s st u d y ca n b e a p p l i e d t o o t h e r co n t e xt s. M e r r i a m ( 1 9 9 8 ) a r t i cu l a t e d t h r e e st r a t e g i e s f o r e n su r i n g g e n e r a l i za b i l i t y i n q u a l i t a t i ve ca se s t u d y d e si g n : r i ch t h i ck d e scr i p t i o n s, t yp i ca l i t y a n d m u l t i si t e d e si g n s A s a r t i cu l a t e d a b o ve t h i s i s a d e scr i p t i ve ca se st u d y. A n o u t co m e o f a d e sc r i p t i ve ca s e st u d y i s a r i ch t h i ck d e scr i p t i o n o f a n e ve n t A r i ch t h i ck d e s cr i p t i o n p r o vi d e s a n o p p o r t u n i t y f o r r e a d e r s t o d e t e r m i n e i f f i n d i n g s ca n b e a p p l i e d i n t h e i r co n t e xt s. T yp i ca l i t y h i g h l i g h t s h o w r e p r e se n t a t i ve t h e p a r t i ci p a n t s a r e f o r a p a r t i cu l a r p o p u l a t i o n T h i s ca se st u d y s p a r t i ci p a n t s a r e w e l l d e scr i b e d a n d t h e p a r t i ci p a n t s e l e ct i o n i d e n t i f i e d t h e q u a l i t i e s r e q u i r e d f o r p a r t i ci p a t i o n i n t h i s st u d y. M u l t i si t e d e si g n s ca n u se d i f f e r e n t si t e s, ca se s, [ o r ] si t u a t i o n s ( p 2 1 2 ) w i t h i n t h e st u d y t o r e p r e se n t d i ve r si t y w i t h i n t h e e ve n t t o b e st u d i e d T h i s ca se st u d y u se s p u r p o s e f u l sa m p l i n g t o i d e n t i f y t w o c a se s t h a t r e p r e se n t m a xi m u m v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n t h e s a m p l e p o p u l a t i o n L i m i t a t i o n s o f T h i s S t u d y T h e r e a r e s e ve r a l l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h i s st u d y. T h i s st u d y a t t e m p t s t o p r o vi d e a r i ch d e scr i p t i o n o f t h e p a r t i ci p a n t s, co n t e xt e ve n t s a n d t h e i n t e r a ct i o n s b e t w e e n t h e s e o b j e ct s. Y e t i n t e r vi e w s, d e b r i e f i n g n o t e s a n d r e se a r ch e r r e f l e ct i o n s m a y n o t f u l l y a cco u n t f o r a n p a r t i ci p a n t s b e h a vi o r s. T h i s r e p r e se n t s a g e n e r a l l i m i t a t i o n o f ca s e st u d i e s b e st a r t i cu l a t e d b y M a cD o n a l d & W a l k e r ( 1 9 7 7 ) w h e n t h e y o b se r v e d t h a t a t a l l l e ve l s o f t h e syst e m w h a t p e o p l e t h i n k t h e y r e d o i n g w h a t t h e y sa y t h e y a r e d o i n g w h a t

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6 9 t h e y a p p e a r t o b e d o i n g a n d w h a t i n f a ct t h e y a r e d o i n g m a y b e so u r ce s o f co n si d e r a b l e d i scr e p a n cy ( p 1 8 6 e m p h a si s i n o r i g i n a l ) A n o t h e r l i m i t a t i o n o f t h i s st u d y i s t h e ch a l l e n g e o f i n t e r vi e w i n g yo u n g l e a r n e r s. H e t h e r i n g t o n a n d P a r ke ( 1 9 8 6 ) cl a i m e d t h a t ch i l d r e n a r e m o r e d i f f i cu l t t o i n t e r vi e w t h a n a d u l t s; ch i l d r e n a r e l e ss a t t e n t i ve a r e sl o w e r t o r e sp o n d a n d h a v e m o r e d i f f i cu l t y u n d e r st a n d i n g q u e st i o n s t h a n a d u l t s ( p 2 4 ) C h i l d r e n m a y p r o vi d e m o n o syl l a b i c r e sp o n se s o r a n sw e r I d o n t kn o w d u r i n g i n t e r vi e w s ( M a u t h n e r 1 9 9 7 ) T h e se r e sp o n se s a r e d i f f i cu l t t o i n t e r p r e t a n d m a y n o t p r o vi d e s u f f i ci e n t e vi d e n ce t o su p p o r t a p a r t i cu l a r f i n d i n g I t i s a l so n e ce ss a r y t o c o n si d e r t h e u n i q u e n e s s o f t h e r e se a r c h co n t e x t e m b e d d e d w i t h i n t h e sch o o l si t e u se d i n t h i s st u d y. T h e sm a l l g r o u p st r u ct u r e f o r t h e 5 t h g r a d e l e a r n e r s i n t h i s p a r t i cu l a r sch o o l m a y n o t e xi st i n o t h e r sc h o o l se t t i n g s. T h u s, i t m a y b e q u i t e d i f f i cu l t t o r e p l i ca t e t h i s st u d y i n a d d i t i o n a l sch o o l si t e s. T h e u n i q u e ch a r a ct e r i st i cs o f t h i s si t e m a y a l so l i m i t g e n e r a l i za t i o n s b e yo n d t h i s sch o o l A f i n a l l i m i t a t i o n i s t h e r e se a r ch e r s b i a s a n d i t s i m p a ct o n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e d a t a co l l e ct e d d u r i n g t h i s st u d y. T h i s r e se a r c h e r s b i a s p r o vi d e d a p e r sp e ct i ve t h r o u g h w h i ch a l l d a t a w a s i n t e r p r e t e d

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7 0 C H A P T E R 4 E V A L U A T I O N A N D T E S T I N G O F A S O L U T I O N I N P R A C T I C E I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s st u d y se e ks t o i d e n t i f y l e a r n i n g g a i n s w h e n a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk 5 t h g r a d e r s d e si g n a n d c o n st r u ct m u l t i m e d i a u si n g S cr a t c h t h a t r e p r e s e n t s t h e i r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c s o l i d s. B a se d o n t h i s p u r p o s e t h i s st u d y p o se d t h e f o l l o w i n g r e se a r ch q u e st i o n s: H o w e f f e ct i v e i s l e a r n e r co n st r u ct e d m u l t i m e d i a a t i n cr e a si n g l e a r n i n g g a i n s i n t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s f o r a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s? W h a t a r e t h e d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s f o r c r e a t i n g a n i n n o va t i ve l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t t h a t i n t e g r a t e s l e a r n e r c o n st r u ct e d m u l t i m e d i a f o r a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s? I n t h i s ch a p t e r t h i s r e se a r ch e r f i r st su m m a r i z e s t h e d a t a co l l e ct e d f r o m a l l p a r t i ci p a n t s t h e n r e p o r t s f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d t o t h e f i r st r e se a r ch q u e st i o n u si n g d a t a f r o m ca se s t u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s r e sp o n se s d u r i n g t h e p o st e xp e r i e n ce i n t e r vi e w s, p a r t i ci p a n t s p e r f o r m a n ce s o n t h e p r e a n d p o st t e st d e b r i e f i n g n o t e s f r o m t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r a n d t h i s r e se a r ch e r a n d a n a n a l ysi s o f p a r t i ci p a n t s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct s T h e n e xt ch a p t e r a d d r e sse s t h e d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s r e l a t e d t o t h e se co n d r e s e a r ch q u e st i o n S u m m a r y o f P a r t i c i p a n t D a t a E i g h t 5 t h g r a d e r s p a r t i ci p a t e d i n t h i s r e se a r ch st u d y. E a ch cr e a t e d a S cr a t ch m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct t h a t e x p r e sse d h i s/ h e r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. T h i s r e se a r c h e r d a i l y a n a l yze d e a ch a r t i f a ct a n d r e co r d e d s p e ci f i c d a t a a b o u t e a ch a s d e sc r i b e d i n C h a p t e r 3 I n a d d i t i o n e a ch p a r t i ci p a n t co m p l e t e d a p r e a n d p o st t e st a d d r e ssi n g t h i s sp e ci f i c co n t e n t T a b l e 4 1 co n t a i n s a s u m m a r y o f t h i s d a t a T a b l e 4 1 S u m m a r y o f p a r t i c i p a n t d a t a U n i t o f a n a l ysi s C a se st u d y: D o m i n i c C a se st u d y: Je n n i f e r O t h e r p a r t i ci p a n t s m e a n s

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7 1 N u m b e r o f sp r i t e s 2 2 1 1 4 3 N u m b e r o f b a ckg r o u n d s 5 4 2 2 N u m b e r o f scr i p t s 8 4 4 0 9 5 N u m b e r o f b l o cks u s e d i n scr i p t s 2 0 7 1 1 6 5 6 3 N u m b e r o f b l o ck t yp e s u s e d i n scr i p t s 1 1 1 2 1 1 5 P r e t e st sco r e 7 9 6 9 P o st t e st sco r e 6 6 7 6 T h i s d a t a r e ve a l s t h a t t h e 2 ca se st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s i n cl u d e d co n si d e r a b l y m o r e s p r i t e s, b a ckg r o u n d s, scr i p t s a n d c o m m a n d b l o cks t h a n t h e o t h e r p a r t i ci p a n t s, t h o u g h t h e n u m b e r o f c o m m a n d b l o ck t yp e s u se d i n t h e i r S cr a t ch a r t i f a c t s r e m a i n e d c o n si st e n t a cr o ss t h e p a r t i ci p a n t g r o u p T h e 2 ca se st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s w e r e t h e o n l y p a r t i ci p a n t s t o sco r e l o w e r o n t h e p o st t e st w h e n co m p a r e d t o t h e p r e t e st T h e n o n ca se st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s s c o r e d h i g h e r o n t h e p o st t e st w i t h t h e e xce p t i o n o f o n e p a r t i ci p a n t w h o sco r e d t h e sa m e o n b o t h T h e n e xt se ct i o n sh o w ca se s 2 c a se st u d i e s w i t h t h e i n t e n t o f d e ve l o p i n g a n u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e i m p a ct o f L C M o n l e a r n i n g T h e se ca se st u d i e s a r e f o l l o w e d b y a cr o ss ca se a n a l ysi s. I m p a c t o n L e a r n i n g O n e r e se a r ch q u e st i o n p o se d b y t h i s r e s e a r ch e r se e ks t o u n d e r st a n d t h e i m p a ct o n l e a r n i n g w h e n l e a r n e r s co n st r u ct m u l t i m e d i a u si n g S cr a t ch T o a d d r e ss t h i s r e se a r ch q u e st i o n t h i s r e se a r c h e r i n co l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r s e l e ct e d t w o p a r t i ci p a n t s f o r i n d e p t h ca se st u d i e s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i m p a ct o n t h e i r l e a r n i n g a s d e scr i b e d i n C h a p t e r 3 E a ch ca se st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t co m p l e t e d a c u r r i cu l u m b a se d p r e a n d p o st t e st o n t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c s o l i d s. I n a d d i t i o n e a c h ca se st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t d e si g n e d a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct u si n g S cr a t ch T h e se a r t i f a ct s w e r e a n a l yze d a f t e r e a c h d e si g n se ssi o n T h i s r e se a r c h e r a l so r e co r d e d t r a n scr i b e d a n d a n a l yze d a n

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7 2 i n t e r vi e w w i t h e a c h o f t h e ca se st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s. E a ch o f t h e se d a t a so u r ce s p r o vi d e s e vi d e n ce f o r t h e c a se st u d i e s p r e s e n t e d b e l o w C a s e S t u d y # 1 : D o m i n i c D o m i n i c i s a f r i e n d l y, p o l i t e A f r i ca n A m e r i ca n 5 t h g r a d e m a l e f r o m a p r o f e ssi o n a l f a m i l y. M r s H d e sc r i b e s h i m a s a st u d e n t w i t h l o w p e r se v e r a n c e b u t h i g h se l f r e f l e ct i o n M r s. H n o t e s t h a t h e f r u st r a t e s e a si l y w h e n e n co u n t e r i n g ch a l l e n g e s b u t h e i s q u i t e a w a r e o f h i s e m o t i o n s a n d d o e s n o t h e si t a t e t o sh a r e t h e m B e f o r e t h i s r e se a r ch p r o j e c t b e g a n D o m i n i c o f t e n st a ye d b e yo n d t h e sch e d u l e d t i m e f o r t h e m a t h i n t e r ve n t i o n cl a ss t o t a l k w i t h M r s H a b o u t p e r so n a l i ssu e s. D o m i n i c h a s b e e n a p a r t o f t h e i n t e r ve n t i o n cl a ss si n ce t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e sch o o l y e a r H e w a s p l a ce d i n t h e cl a ss b e ca u se o f l o w p e r f o r m a n ce o n st a n d a r d i ze d t e st s. D o m i n i c s f r a t e r n a l t w i n b r o t h e r i s a l so i n t h e i n t e r ve n t i o n cl a ss. B a se d o n a n a n a l ysi s o f t h e i n t e r vi e w b e t w e e n D o m i n i c a n d t h i s r e s e a r ch e r t h r e e t h e m e s e m e r g e d t h a t d o cu m e n t D o m i n i c s t h i n ki n g d u r i n g t h i s p r o j e ct a n d p r o vi d e e vi d e n ce f o r a d d r e ssi n g t h e r e s e a r c h q u e st i o n co n ce r n e d w i t h l e a r n i n g T h e t h r e e t h e m e s i d e n t i f i e d i n cl u d e ( 1 ) D o m i n i c s r e sp o n se t o l e a r n i n g a n d u si n g S cr a t ch ( 2 ) D o m i n i c s r e sp o n se t o t h i s p r o j e c t a n d ( 3 ) D o m i n i c s r e sp o n s e t o h i s l e a r n i n g T h e se t h e m e s w e r e f u r t h e r su p p o r t e d w i t h e vi d e n ce f r o m b o t h t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r s a n d r e se a r ch e r s o b s e r va t i o n n o t e s D o m i n i c s r e s p o n s e t o l e a r n i n g a n d u s i n g S c r a t c h D o m i n i c s r e sp o n se t o l e a r n i n g a n d u si n g S cr a t ch ca n b e b e st su m m a r i ze d i n h i s o w n w o r d s: S cr a t ch i s r e a l l y co n f u si n g a n d f r u st r a t i n g H e f o u n d S cr a t c h d i f f i cu l t t o l e a r n b e c a u se i t w a s h a r d t o kn o w w h a t t o d o b e ca u se t h e r e w a s so m u c h st u f f B y st u f f D o m i n i c i s r e f e r r i n g t o t h e n u m b e r o f c o m m a n d b l o cks t h a t a r e d i sp l a ye d o n

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7 3 S cr a t ch s i n t e r f a ce ( se e F i g u r e 4 1 f o r a scr e e n sh o t o f t h e m o t i o n co m m a n d b l o cks a va i l a b l e i n S cr a t ch ) T h e n u m b e r o f o p t i o n s a va i l a b l e t o h i m m a y h a ve o ve r w h e l m e d h i m a n d p r e ve n t e d h i m f r o m p r o g r e ssi n g w h e n l e a r n i n g a b o u t S cr a t ch M r s. H a l so o b se r ve d D o m i n i c s co n f u si o n a n d f r u st r a t i o n O n t h e t h i r d d a y o f l e a r n i n g S cr a t ch M r s. H r e co r d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g i n h e r d a i l y n o t e s: D o m i n i c h i t a w a l l a n d co u l d n t p e r se ve r e t h r o u g h a p r o b l e m h e r a n i n t o H e w a n t e d m e t o j u st t e l l h i m h o w t o g e t o u t o f t h e si t u a t i o n H e d i d n t w a n t t o t r y t o f i g u r e i t o u t o n h i s o w n a t a l l V e r y i n t e r e st i n g H e l e f t a b i t u p se t t o d a y. M r s. H a l so n o t e d D o m i n i c s f r u st r a t i o n o n t h e 8 t h d a y o f l e a r n i n g S cr a t ch ( D o m i n i c g o t a l i t t l e f r u st r a t e d t o d a y ) a n d o n t h e 1 0 t h d a y o f l e a r n i n g S cr a t ch : D o m i n i c w a s ve r y v o ca l a b o u t w a n t i n g t o g o b a ck t o l e a r n i n g m a t h t h i s r e g u l a r w a y i n st e a d o f w i t h S cr a t ch b e ca u se h e f e e l s l i ke h e s n o t r e a d y f o r h i s t e st

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7 4 F i g u r e 4 1 T h e S cr a t ch s p a l e t t e o f m o t i o n c o m m a n d b l o cks I n sp i t e o f D o m i n i c s se l f r e p o r t e d co n f u si o n a n d f r u st r a t i o n h e sh a r e d t h a t h e e n j o ye d u si n g S cr a t ch I n p a r t i cu l a r h e e n j o y e d m a ki n g a l l t h e n e w sp r i t e s a n d e d i t i n g t h e m a n d t h a t t h e r e w e r e so m a n y sp r i t e s t o u se l i ke a d r a g o n a n d g h o st a n d yo u ca n cr e a t e yo u r o w n s p r i t e s l i ke r a i n i n g m i l k I n f a ct h i s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct i n cl u d e d a d r a g o n

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7 5 sp r i t e a g h o st sp r i t e a n d t h r e e sp r i t e s o f cyl i n d e r s co n t a i n i n g m i l k t o p o r t r a y r a i n i n g m i l k. D o m i n i c b e c a m e q u i t e ski l l e d a t d r a w i n g a n d e d i t i n g sp r i t e s. H i s a r t i f a c t i n cl u d e d 2 2 sp r i t e s t o t a l ( t h e m e a n f o r t h e n o n c a se st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s i s 4 3 ) H e d r e w 1 0 o r i g i n a l sp r i t e s a n d e d i t e d 1 2 e xi st i n g s p r i t e s u si n g S cr a t ch s p a i n t e d i t o r O n t h e 1 2 t h d a y o f t h e p r o j e ct ( t h e se co n d d a y o f d e si g n i n g ) t h i s r e se a r c h e r r e co r d e d i n h i s f i e l d n o t e s t h a t D o m i n i c h a s sp e n t q u i t e a b i t o f t i m e a d d i n g a n d e d i t i n g sp r i t e s t o h i s p r o j e c t b u t h a s sp e n t ve r y l i t t l e t i m e w o r ki n g o n scr i p t s w h i ch d e t e r m i n e t h e a ct i o n s a n d b e h a vi o r s i n t h e p r o j e ct T h e f o l l o w i n g d a y t h i s r e se a r c h e r n o t e d t h a t D o m i n i c h a s q u i t e a n i m a g i n a t i o n b u t h e sp e n d s m u ch o f o u r m e e t i n g t i m e a d d i n g ch a r a c t e r s t o h i s a r t i f a ct t h a t a r e o n l y l o o s e l y r e l a t e d t o m a t h co n t e n t I f D o m i n i c n e e d e d a ssi st a n ce o n h i s a r t i f a ct a n d i f n e i t h e r t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r n o r t h e r e se a r ch e r w e r e a v a i l a b l e t o h e l p h i m h e w o u l d sp e n d t i m e cr e a t i n g o r e d i t i n g e xi st i n g sp r i t e s r a t h e r t h a n e xp l o r i n g co m m a n d b l o cks o r t e st i n g o u t scr i p t s f o r h i s a r t i f a ct O n t h e t h i r d d a y o f d e si g n i n g ( t h e 1 3 t h d a y o f t h i s p r o j e ct ) t h i s r e se a r c h e r r e co r d e d t h a t [ w ] i t h o u t a ssi st a n c e o r p r o m p t i n g f r o m t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r o r r e se a r ch e r h e d o e s n o t m a ke s i g n i f i ca n t p r o g r e ss. D o m i n i c a l so b e c a m e p r o f i ci e n t a t r e c o r d i n g s o u n d s i n S cr a t c h D o m i n i c w a s t h e o n l y p a r t i ci p a n t t o r e co r d h i s vo i ce a n d i n t e g r a t e t h i s vo i ce o ve r i n t o h i s a r t i f a c t H e l e a r n e d t h i s ski l l o n t h e 9 t h d a y o f d e si g n i n g ( D a y 1 9 o f t h e p r o j e ct ) A f t e r l e a r n i n g t h i s ski l l h e w o u l d r e c o r d r a n d o m t a l ki n g o r n o i se s w h i l e w a i t i n g f o r a ssi st a n ce r a t h e r t h a n m a ki n g i n d e p e n d e n t p r o g r e ss o n h i s a r t i f a ct o r t r yi n g t o r e so l v e a n i ssu e b y h i m se l f W h e n a ske d h o w h e t h o u g h t s o m e o n e sh o u l d l e a r n S cr a t c h h e e x p r e sse d o n e si m p l e t h i n g a t a t i m e B y t h i n g h e i s r e f e r r i n g t o t h e co m m a n d b l o cks ; h e sh a r e d t h a t so m e o n e sh o u l d l e a r n o n l y a f e w co m m a n d b l o cks f r o m e a c h o f t h e d i f f e r e n t

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7 6 ca t e g o r i e s, p r e f e r a b l y t h e m o s t co m m o n l y u se d b l o cks. T h i s m a y b e a n i n d i ca t i o n t h a t h e f e l t o ve r w h e l m e d w h e n f i r st l e a r n i n g a b o u t S cr a t ch T h e p a r t i ci p a n t s w e r e n o t i n t r o d u ce d t o co m m a n d b l o cks se p a r a t e l y. R a t h e r t h e y i d e n t i f i e d a b e h a vi o r o r a ct i o n t h a t t h e y w a n t e d t o i n cl u d e i n t h e i r a r t i f a ct s t h e n r e ce i ve d a ssi st a n ce i n i d e n t i f yi n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e co m m a n d b l o cks o r st a ck o f co m m a n d b l o cks t h a t w o u l d yi e l d t h e d e si r e d b e h a vi o r T h i s j u st i n t i m e a p p r o a ch m a y n o t h a ve w o r ke d f o r D o m i n i c si n ce h e su g g e st s a n a l t e r n a t i ve a p p r o a ch f o r l e a r n i n g S cr a t ch t h a t f o cu se s o n e xp l o r i n g i n d i vi d u a l co m m a n d b l o cks. O ve r a l l D o m i n i c s r e sp o n s e t o l e a r n i n g a n d u si n g S cr a t ch i s a m i xe d r e sp o n se W h i l e h e sh a r e d t h a t h e f o u n d S cr a t c h co n f u si n g a n d f r u st r a t i n g h e e n j o ye d cr e a t i n g a n d e d i t i n g s p r i t e s u si n g S cr a t ch s p a i n t e d i t o r I n f a ct t h i s r e se a r ch e r r e p e a t e d l y o b se r ve d a n d n o t e d D o m i n i c s a b i l i t y w i t h t h e se ski l l s i n h i s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct s o h e cl e a r l y l e a r n e d h o w t o u se t h i s a sp e ct o f S cr a t ch H e w a s a l so t h e o n l y p a r t i ci p a n t t o i n cl u d e a vo i ce o v e r i n h i s a r t i f a ct D o m i n i c s r e s p o n s e t o t h i s p r o j e c t D u r i n g t h e p o st e xp e r i e n ce i n t e r vi e w D o m i n i c sh a r e d t h a t h e w a s n o t p r o u d o f h i s S cr a t ch a r t i f a c t a n d t h a t h e w a s a l i t t l e e m b a r r a sse d b e c a u se e ve r yt h i n g w a s m e sse d u p t h e t i m e I d i d i t c a u se t h a t w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce t h a t w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce t h a t w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce E ve r yt h i n g w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce W h e n a ske d i f h e w o u l d l i ke t o sh a r e h i s a r t i f a ct w i t h h i s 5 t h g r a d e p e e r s, h e d e cl i n e d a n d s a i d t h a t h e w o u l d f e e l t o o e m b a r r a ss e d H e a l so a ckn o w l e d g e d t h a t i f h e w e r e g i ve n a n o t h e r o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e si g n i n S cr a t c h t h a t h e w o u l d w a n t t o m a ke i t b e t t e r t h a n t h e f i r s t o n e H e r e f l e ct e d t h a t I g u e ss I sh o u l d h a ve d o n e b e t t e r I sa i d i t l i ke I d i d n t ca r e l i ke i n t h e so u n d s I sa i d i t l i k e I d i d n t ca r e H e f e l t l i ke h e d i d n o t p r o vi d e m u ch e m o t i o n i n h i s

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7 7 vo i ce r e co r d i n g s, so h e e xp r e sse d t h a t h e sh o u l d h a ve i n cl u d e d m o r e i n f l e c t i o n s i n t h e vo i ce o ve r s. D o m i n i c s r e s p o n se s p r o vi d e e vi d e n ce t h a t h i s a r t i f a ct d o e s n o t m e e t h i s o w n e xp e ct a t i o n s. H i s co n c e r n s a b o u t h i s a r t i f a ct m a y st e m f r o m i n a d e q u a t e p r o g r e ss m a d e o ve r t h e c o u r se o f t h i s st u d y ( se e F i g u r e 4 2 f o r a sc r e e n sh o t o f D o m i n i c s p r o j e ct ) F i g u r e 4 2 A sc r e e n sh o t o f D o m i n i c s S cr a t c h p r o j e ct D o m i n i c h a d a d i f f i cu l t t i m e f i n i sh i n g h i s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct H e r e l i e d h e a vi l y o n t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r a n d r e se a r ch e r t o m a ke p r o g r e ss o n h i s a r t i f a ct W h e n n e i t h e r w a s a va i l a b l e D o m i n i c w o u l d u se S cr a t ch i n w a ys i n w h i ch h e a l r e a d y f e l t co n f i d e n t a n d co m p e t e n t su ch a s d r a w i n g a n d e d i t i n g s p r i t e s o r r e c o r d i n g h i s vo i ce H e w o u l d n o t e xp l o r e co m m a n d b l o cks i n d e p e n d e n t l y o r se e k h e l p f r o m h i s p e e r s. O n t h e 4 t h d a y o f

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7 8 d e si g n i n g i n S cr a t ch ( D a y 1 4 o f t h e p r o j e ct ) t h i s r e se a r ch e r o b se r ve d t h a t D o m i n i c d o e s n o t se e m t o b e m a ki n g p r o g r e ss o n h i s a r t i f a ct t h o u g h h e ce r t a i n l y ca n a d d a n d m o d i f y sp r i t e s a n d a d d b a ck g r o u n d s. H e u se s t h e sa y b l o cks t o t e l l a p a r t o f h i s i m a g i n a t i ve st o r y, b u t h e i s n o t a b l e t o syn ch r o n i ze t h e d i a l o g u e i n t o a co h e r e n t m e ssa g e o r co n n e ct h i s st o r y t o m a t h co n t e n t O n t h e 1 5 t h d a y o f t h e p r o j e ct ( t h e 5 t h d a y o f d e si g n i n g i n S cr a t c h ) M r s. H o b se r ve d a n d n o t e d t h a t D o m i n i c s a r t i f a ct d i d n o t a d d r e ss g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. T h e f o l l o w i n g d a y ( D a y 1 6 o f t h e p r o j e ct a n d t h e 6 t h d a y o f d e si g n i n g i n S cr a t ch ) M r s. H w o r ke d w i t h D o m i n i c t o ca p t u r e h i s t h i n ki n g o n p a p e r D o m i n i c h a d b r a i n st o r m e d a st o r y i d e a f o r h i s a r t i f a ct b u t h a d a d i f f i cu l t t i m e t r a n sf e r r i n g h i s i d e a s i n t o a w o r ki n g p r o j e ct M r s. H w o r ke d w i t h D o m i n i c t o ca p t u r e t h e s t o r y t h a t w o u l d u n f o l d t h r o u g h o u t h i s m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a c t D o m i n i c s h a r e d h i s st o r y w i t h M r s. H w h i l e sh e r e co r d e d h i s scr i p t o n p a p e r B e l o w i s t h e t e xt o f h i s sc r i p t I t a l i ci ze d w o r d s r e p r e se n t i m p r o vi s a t i o n s t h a t D o m i n i c m a d e w h i l e r e co r d i n g t h e vo i ce o ve r f o r h i s a r t i f a c t T h e se w o r d s a r e n o t p a r t o f t h e o r i g i n a l scr i p t r e co r d e d b y M r s. H w h i l e D o m i n i c n a r r a t e d T h e u n d e r l i n e d w o r d s r e p r e se n t D o m i n i c s a t t e m p t a t i n t e g r a t i n g co n t e n t vo ca b u l a r y a b o u t t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s i n t o h i s a r t i f a ct I t a l l st a r t e d a t t h e t h e a t e r T h e y w e r e g o i n g t o se e a p l a y a b o u t sh a p e s W h e n t h e y w e r e w a t ch i n g t h e p l a y, t h e y w e r e t r a n s p o r t e d t o t h e sh a p e d e s e r t W h e n t h e y g o t t o t h e d e se r t t h e d e se r t d r a g o n sh o w e d h i m se l f T h e c a t s a ske d t h e d e se r t d r a g o n t o t a k e t h e m h o m e b e ca u s e h e h a s t r a n s p o r t i n g p o w e r s T h e d r a g o n t h o u g h t t h e c a t s l i ve d i n a cr e e p y f o r e st so t h a t s w h e r e h e t r a n s p o r t e d t h e m b a ck t o a n d t h e l a n d sh a r k W h e n t h e c a t s g o t t o t h e f o r e st t h e y r a n i n t o g h o st s. T h e b o ss g h o st c a p t u r e d t h e g i r l ca t T h e g h o st s t h a t w o r ke d f o r t h e b o ss g h o st s ca p t u r e d t h e o t h e r ca t s i n a g h o st l y cyl i n d e r T h e se c o n d i n co m m a n d g h o st t r a n sp o r t e d e ve r yo n e e xce p t f o r t h e g i r l ca t t o t h e g e o m e t r i c se a a n d o n ce a g a i n t h e l a n d sh a r k t o o W h i l e t h e c a t s w e r e i n t h e g e o m e t r i c se a t h e y sa w a l o t o f sh a p e s. T h e ca t s f o u n d a t r a n sp o r t i n g s p h e r e t h a t t r a n s p o r t s t h e m b a ck t o t h e t h e a t e r T h e d r a g o n f r o m t h e d e se r t co m e s t o h e l p t h e m b e ca u s e t h e s p h e r e i s

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7 9 n o t p o w e r f u l e n o u g h b u t t h e l a n d sh a r k d e ci d e s t o l i ve i n t h e se a T h e y a l l g o t t r a n sp o r t e d b a ck t o t h e t h e a t e r W h e n t h e y g o t b a ck t o t h e t h e a t e r t h e y f o u n d t h e g i r l ca t w i t h t h e b o ss g h o st T h e b o ss g h o st t h e n sa ys, Y o u j u st p a ss e d t h e sh a p e t e st D o m i n i c d e ve l o p e d a n e l a b o r a t e st o r y a s t h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r h i s m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct H o w e ve r t h i s st o r y o n l y s u p e r f i ci a l l y a d d r e ss e s sp e ci f i c co n t e n t a b o u t t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. H e i n t e g r a t e d co n t e n t s p e ci f i c vo ca b u l a r y i n t o h i s a r t i f a ct ( cyl i n d e r g e o m e t r i c, sp h e r e ) b u t d o e s n o t d e f i n e o r d e s cr i b e t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f t h o se t e r m s H i s S cr a t ch a r t i f a c t d o e s i n cl u d e h a n d d r a w n r e p r e se n t a t i o n s o f a sp h e r e cyl i n d e r c o n e p yr a m i d a n d se ve r a l r e c t a n g u l a r p r i s m s ( S e e F i g u r e 4 3 ) H o w e ve r t h e se r e p r e se n t a t i o n s a r e r o u g h a p p r o xi m a t i o n s o f e a ch g e o m e t r i c so l i d T h e y a l so se r ve o n l y a s p r o p s f o r t h e a r t i f a ct ; t h e y a r e n o t s p e ci f i ca l l y r e f e r e n ce d o r d e sc r i b e d d u r i n g t h e a r t i f a ct

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8 0 F i g u r e 4 3 D o m i n i c s h a n d d r a w n r e p r e se n t a t i o n s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s B y D a y 2 0 o f t h e p r o j e ct ( t h e 1 0 t h d a y o f d e si g n i n g i n S cr a t ch ) D o m i n i c w a s st i l l n o t m a ki n g su b st a n t i a l p r o g r e ss p a r t i cu l a r l y w h e n co m p a r e d t o h i s p e e r s. M r s. H n o t e d : E ve r yb o d y w a s r e a l l y r o cki n a n d r o l l i n e xce p t D o m i n i c. H e r e a l l y st r u g g l e d w o r ki n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y t o d a y. S i m i l a r l y, t h i s r e se a r ch e d r e co r d e d : D o m i n i c i s d e p e n d e n t o n d i r e c t i o n s a n d i n si g h t f r o m a t e a ch e r D o m i n i c w o u l d t i n ke r w i t h b l o cks ( e sp e ci a l l y t h e so u n d b l o cks ) w h i l e w a i t i n g f o r e i t h e r t h e r e se a r ch e r o r p r a ct i t i o n e r t o h e l p h i m m a ke p r o g r e ss o n h i s a r t i f a ct O f t e n h e n e e d e d i n p u t f r o m t h e t e a ch e r t o h e l p cl a r i f y h i s t h i n ki n g a b o u t t h e i n t e n t o f h i s a r t i f a ct D o m i n i c co n t i n u e s t o st r u g g l e w i t h h i s a r t i f a ct H e h a s d e ve l o p e d a n e l a b o r a t e st o r y i n h i s m i n d t h a t i s o n l y l o o se l y r e l a t e d t o t h e i d e a o f t e a ch i n g so m e o n e e l se a b o u t g e o m e t r i c s o l i d s. H e u s e s t h e vo ca b u l a r y o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s b u t o n l y o n a su p e r f i ci a l l e ve l H e i s u n a b l e t o t r a n sl a t e h i s st o r y i n t o S cr a t ch w i t h o u t a ssi st a n c e f r o m e i t h e r t h e r e se a r ch e r o r p r a c t i t i o n e r T h i s w a s a co n si st e n t t h e m e o b se r ve d b y M r s H a n d t h i s r e se a r ch e r D o m i n i c o n l y m a d e su b s t a n t i a l p r o g r e ss i f M r s. H o r t h i s r e se a r ch e r a ssi st e d h i m H e w o u l d n o t t a ke i n i t i a t i ve t o e xp l o r e S cr a t c h i n d e p e n d e n t l y. H e a l so w o u l d n o t se e k h e l p f r o m p e e r s e ve n i f t h e y c o u l d co n t r i b u t e B y D a y 2 2 o f t h e p r o j e ct ( t h e 1 2 t h d a y o f d e si g n i n g i n S cr a t c h ) D o m i n i c a p p e a r e d t o n o t i ce t h a t h e w a s n o t m a ki n g a s m u ch p r o g r e ss a s h i s p e e r s. T h i s r e se a r ch e r r e co r d e d : D o m i n i c e xp r e ss e d f r u st r a t i o n t h a t h e i s o n l y a b l e t o m a ke sm a l l ch a n g e s t o h i s p r o j e ct e a c h d a y. H e e xp r e sse d t h a t h e d o e s n t u n d e r s t a n d w h y h e i s sa vi n g a n e w f i l e e a ch d a y ( p a r t i ci p a n t s sa ve a n e w ve r si o n o f t h e i r a r t i f a ct e a ch d a y) w h e n h e i s n o t m a ki n g m u ch p r o g r e ss H e e xp r e ss e d so m e f r u st r a t i o n t h a t h e i s n o t g e t t i n g a s m u ch h e l p a s h e n e e d s. H e a l so w a n t s t o kn o w w h e n h e ca n w o r k o n S cr a t ch f o r f u n a n d n o t a p r o j e ct a b o u t sh a p e s. D o m i n i c s f r u st r a t i o n m a y st e m f r o m r e a l i zi n g t h a t h i s p e e r s a r t i f a ct s a r e n e a r l y co m p l e t e y e t h e st i l l h a s m o r e w o r k o n h i s a r t i f a ct a n d t h a t h e o n l y m a ke s a sm a l l a m o u n t o f p r o g r e ss e a ch d a y

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8 1 W h i l e r e vi e w i n g h i s m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a c t w i t h t h i s r e se a r c h e r D o m i n i c e xp r e sse d I d o n t kn o w i f i t w a s a s g o o d a s e ve r yo n e e l se s ca u se t h e y r e a l l m o vi n g a n d h a vi n g co n ve r sa t i o n l i ke [ h i s b r o t h e r s] D o m i n i c o f t e n co m p a r e d h i m se l f t o h i s b r o t h e r I f h i s b r o t h e r w a s p r a i se d f o r a n a sp e ct o f h i s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct D o m i n i c sh o w e d f r u s t r a t i o n t h a t h i s a r t i f a ct w a s n o t r e c o g n i ze d E a r l y i n t h e d e si g n p h a se t h i s r e se a r ch e r p r a i se d D o m i n i c s b r o t h e r f o r cr e a t i n g a cl e ve r co n ve r sa t i o n b e t w e e n t w o ch a r a ct e r s u si n g t e xt b u b b l e s. T h i s m a y h a ve co n t r i b u t e d t o D o m i n i c s r e m a r ks a b o ve b e ca u se h e sp e ci f i ca l l y m e n t i o n s t h e co n ve r sa t i o n i n h i s b r o t h e r s a r t i f a ct M r s H h a d o b se r v e d si m i l a r b e h a vi o r i n D o m i n i c i n t h e p a st A n y p o si t i ve p r a i se f o r D o m i n i c s b r o t h e r co u l d l e a d t o a n e g a t i ve a t t i t u d e i n D o m i n i c. D o m i n i c a l so a ckn o w l e d g e d t h a t h i s m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct i s r e a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m e ve r yb o d y e l se s. E ve r yb o d y e l se s se e m e d b e t t e r b e ca u se t h e y r e s a yi n g w h a t sh a p e i s t h i s t h e n yo u t yp e i t i n D o m i n i c s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m h i s p e e r s. H i s a r t i f a ct w a s t h e o n l y S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct t o i n cl u d e a n a r r a t e d st o r y ( s e e scr i p t a b o ve ) A l l o f h i s p e e r s a r t i f a ct s i n cl u d e d t e x t b u b b l e s f o r o n e o r m o r e c h a r a ct e r s. D o m i n i c s a r t i f a ct d i d n o t i n cl u d e a n y t e x t b u b b l e s. F i ve o f h i s p e e r s ( o f 7 t o t a l ) i n t e g r a t e d a scr i p t t h a t a sks t h e u se r a q u e st i o n a l l o w s t h e u s e r t o e n t e r t e xt i n a t e xt b o x, a n d t h e n p r o vi d e s f e e d b a ck b a se d o n t h e e n t e r e d t e xt D o m i n i c ch o se n o t t o u se a si m i l a r sc r i p t i n h i s p r o j e ct C l e a r l y, D o m i n i c s a r t i f a ct i s d i f f e r e n t a n d h e a ckn o w l e d g e s i t Y e t h e a l so p e r ce i ve s t h a t h i s p e e r s S cr a t c h a r t i f a ct s a r e b e t t e r b e ca u se h i s a r t i f a c t i s so d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e i r s a n d d o e s n o t i n cl u d e t h e a b i l i t y t o t yp e i n a r e sp o n se I n su m m a r y, D o m i n i c w a s n o t p l e a s e d w i t h h i s f i n a l S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct H e p e r c e i ve d t h a t h i s a r t i f a ct d i d n o t w o r k p r o p e r l y, a n d t h e r e f o r e d i d n o t m e e t h i s e xp e ct a t i o n s f o r

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8 2 h o w h e i n t e n d e d h i s p r o j e ct t o w o r k. H e a l so p e r ce i ve d t h a t h i s a r t i f a ct w a s q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f r o m h i s p e e r s a n d t h a t i t d i d n o t i n cl u d e se ve r a l a sp e ct s t h a t w e r e co m m o n t o h i s p e e r s a r t i f a ct s. T h u s, h e d e t e r m i n e d t h a t h i s a r t i f a ct w a s n o t a s g o o d a s h i s p e e r s a r t i f a ct s. D o m i n i c s r e s p o n s e t o h i s l e a r n i n g D u r i n g t h e p o st e xp e r i e n ce i n t e r vi e w D o m i n i c sh a r e d t h a t h e d i d n o t t h i n k h e l e a r n e d a n y n e w m a t h co n t e n t d u r i n g t h i s p r o j e ct o t h e r t h a n h o w t o d r a w g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. H e b e l i e ve d t h a t t h e m a t h co n t e n t h e i n cl u d e d i n h i s a r t i f a ct a r e t h i n g s I a l r e a d y kn o w D o m i n i c s sc o r e s o n t h e p r e a n d p o st t e st su p p o r t h i s t h i n ki n g ( se e T a b l e 4 2 ) O f t h e 1 3 p o i n t s p o ssi b l e o n t h e p r e a n d p o st t e st D o m i n i c sco r e d a 7 o n t h e p r e t e st ( m e a n f o r t h e g r o u p i s 6 9 ) a n d h e sc o r e d a 6 o n t h e p o st t e s t ( m e a n f o r t h e g r o u p i s 7 6 ) D o m i n i c w a s n o t a b l e t o ca l cu l a t e t h e a r e a o f a r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm s f a c e o n t h e p o st t e st t h o u g h h e w a s a b l e t o s u cce ssf u l l y c o m p l e t e t h e sa m e ca l cu l a t i o n o n t h e p r e t e st T a b l e 4 2 O ve r vi e w o f D o m i n i c s p r e a n d p o st t e st r e su l t s T e st i t e m s P r e P o st A b l e t o i d e n t i f y g e o m e t r i c so l i d s? Y e s Y e s A b l e t o ca l cu l a t e a r e a o f a p r i sm s f a ce ? Y e s N o A b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e h e i g h t o f a p r i sm ? Y e s Y e s A b l e t o ca l cu l a t e t h e vo l u m e o f a p r i sm ? N o N o A b l e t o ca l cu l a t e t h e su r f a ce a r e a o f a p r i s m ? N o N o A b l e t o e xp l a i n h o w t o ca l cu l a t e t h e s u r f a ce a r e a o f a p r i sm ? N o N o O ve r a l l sco r e 7 / 1 3 6 / 1 3 W i t h r e sp e ct t o h i s l e a r n i n g D o m i n i c e xp r e ss e d t h a t h e l i ke d t o w r i t e a n d t e l l st o r i e s. T h i s i n t e r e st i s cl e a r l y p a r a l l e l e d i n h i s m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct H e d e v e l o p e d a n e l a b o r a t e scr i p t f o r h i s a r t i f a ct t h e n n a r r a t e d i t R e ca l l t h a t h i s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct co n t r a st s w i t h h i s p e e r s b e ca u se i t i s so cl e a r l y st o r y b a se d H e a l so a ckn o w l e d g e d t h a t h e d i d

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8 3 n o t l i ke t h e q u e st i o n a n sw e r a ct i o n u se d b y m a n y o f h i s p e e r s i n t h e i r S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct s ( I d o n t r e a l l y l i ke d o i n g t h a t ) D o m i n i c s r e s p o n se s m a y b e a n i n d i ca t i o n o f h i s l e a r n i n g st yl e H e m a y p r e f e r t o l e a r n t h r o u g h n a r r a t i ve r a t h e r t h a n t h r o u g h q u e st i o n a n d a n sw e r d i scu ssi o n s. W h e n g i ve n ch o i ce a n d co n t r o l t o d e si g n h i s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct h e ch o se a n a r r a t i ve a p p r o a c h r a t h e r t h a n a q u e st i o n a n d a n sw e r a p p r o a ch se l e ct e d b y m o st o f h i s p e e r s. I m p a c t o n D o m i n i c s l e a r n i n g B a se d o n D o m i n i c s r e sp o n s e s d u r i n g t h e p o s t e xp e r i e n ce i n t e r vi e w h i s p e r f o r m a n ce o n t h e p r e a n d p o st t e st f i e l d n o t e s f r o m t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r a n d r e s e a r ch e r a n d a n a n a l ysi s o f h i s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct i t i s e vi d e n t t h a t t h e p e d a g o g i ca l a p p r o a ch o f h a vi n g l e a r n e r s d e si g n a p r o j e ct i n S cr a t ch t h a t i n t e g r a t e s m a t h co n t e n t d i d n o t co n t r i b u t e t o D o m i n i c s l e a r n i n g a b o u t g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. O n s e ve r a l o cc a si o n s, h e b e ca m e f r u st r a t e d w i t h t h e p r o j e ct a n d u si n g S cr a t ch I n f a ct d u r i n g o n e o f D o m i n i c s i n st a n ce s o f f r u st r a t i o n h e q u e st i o n e d M r s. H a b o u t w h e n t h e g r o u p w o u l d r e t u r n t o t h e r e g u l a r w a y o f l e a r n i n g m a t h A l t h o u g h h e r e p o r t e d e n j o yi n g S cr a t ch h e w a s n o t su cce ssf u l u si n g S cr a t ch t o a d e q u a t e l y r e p r e s e n t a n u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. H i s S cr a t c h a r t i f a ct i n cl u d e s o n l y su p e r f i ci a l r e f e r e n ce s t o g e o m e t r i c so l i d s a n d d o e s n o t a d e q u a t e l y e xp r e ss a n u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. I n a d d i t i o n D o m i n i c sco r e d l o w e r o n t h e p o st t e st w h e n c o m p a r e d t o t h e p r e t e st T h u s, D o m i n i c s ca s e p r o vi d e s e vi d e n ce t h a t l e a r n e r co n st r u ct e d m u l t i m e d i a m a y n o t b e e f f e ct i ve a t i n cr e a si n g l e a r n i n g g a i n s i n t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s f o r l e a r n e r s si m i l a r t o D o m i n i c. T h o u g h D o m i n i c l e a r n e d a f e w si m p l e a ct i o n s i n S cr a t ch a n d co u l d r e p e a t t h o se a ct i o n s a s n e e d e d ( e g cr e a t i n g a sp r i t e e d i t i n g a sp r i t e r e c o r d i n g h i s vo i ce ) h e w a s

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8 4 n o t a b l e t o l e a r n m o r e a d va n ce d f e a t u r e s o f S cr a t ch r e l a t e d t o h i s a r t i f a ct e ve n w h e n t h e se a ct i o n s w e r e d e m o n s t r a t e d se ve r a l t i m e s t o h i m b y t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r o r r e se a r ch e r T h e n u m b e r o f o p t i o n s a va i l a b l e i n S cr a t ch m a y h a ve o ve r w h e l m e d h i m o r h e m a y n o t h a ve h a d t h e n e c e ssa r y ski l l s t o s u cce s sf u l l y l e a r n h o w t o u se a n e w m u l t i m e d i a a u t h o r i n g t o o l d e si g n a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct u si n g t h a t t o o l a n d i n t e g r a t e m a t h co n t e n t i n t o t h e d e si g n o f t h e a r t i f a ct D o m i n i c s p e e r s i n t h i s p r o j e c t w e r e m o r e su cce ssf u l l e a r n i n g a n d u si n g S cr a t ch t o d e si g n a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a c t t h a t i n t e g r a t e s t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. O ve r a l l i t i s d i sco u r a g i n g t o d i sco ve r t h a t u si n g S cr a t ch t o d e si g n a n d co n st r u ct a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct d i d n o t i m p a ct D o m i n i c s l e a r n i n g H o w e ve r i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o a ckn o w l e d g e t h a t l e a r n e r s d i f f e r i n h o w sp e ci f i c p e d a g o g i c a l a p p r o a ch e s w i l l i m p a ct t h e m a n d i t i s r e a so n a b l e t o a ssu m e t h a t t h e r e a r e a d d i t i o n a l l e a r n e r s t h a t s h a r e D o m i n i c s l e a r n i n g p r e f e r e n c e s. T h u s, i t i s i m p e r a t i ve t o u n d e r st a n d a n d i d e n t i f y w h i ch t yp e s o f l e a r n e r s m a y b e n e f i t f r o m a p a r t i c u l a r p e d a g o g i c a l a p p r o a ch C a s e S t u d y # 2 : J e n n i f e r Je n n i f e r i s a sh y H i sp a n i c 5 t h g r a d e f e m a l e H e r t e a ch e r s d e sc r i b e h e r a s q u i e t a n d a r e o f t e n u n su r e h o w m u ch sh e u n d e r st a n d s m a t e r i a l b e ca u se sh e d o e s n o t ve r b a l i ze m u ch S h e h a s a h i st o r y o f p o o r sc h o o l a t t e n d a n ce Je n n i f e r d i d n o t b e g i n t h e sch o o l ye a r i n t h e i n t e r ve n t i o n g r o u p S h e e n t e r e d t h e g r o u p m i d ye a r a f t e r sh e w a s r e co m m e n d e d b y a t e a ch e r b a se d o n h e r cl a s sr o o m p e r f o r m a n c e a n d a ch i e ve m e n t d a t a Je n n i f e r r e p o r t s t h a t sh e l i ke s sch o o l ( I l o ve t o l e a r n ca u se t h e n I ki n d o f g e t t h e su b j e ct m o r e ) a n d t h a t sh e i s g o o d a t m a t h i n so m e a r e a s, su c h a s a d d i n g a n d f r a ct i o n s a n d e xp o n e n t s

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8 5 B a se d o n a n a n a l ysi s o f t h e i n t e r vi e w b e t w e e n Je n n i f e r a n d t h i s r e se a r ch e r t w o t h e m e s e m e r g e d t h a t d o cu m e n t Je n n i f e r s t h i n ki n g d u r i n g t h i s p r o j e ct a n d p r o vi d e e vi d e n ce f o r a d d r e ssi n g t w o o f t h e r e se a r ch q u e st i o n s. T h e t w o t h e m e s i d e n t i f i e d i n cl u d e ( 1 ) Je n n i f e r s r e s p o n se t o l e a r n i n g a n d u si n g S cr a t ch a n d ( 2 ) J e n n i f e r s r e sp o n se t o t h i s p r o j e ct O b se r v a t i o n n o t e s b y t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r a n d t h i s r e se a r ch e r p r o vi d e a d d i t i o n a l d a t a t h a t su p p o r t t h e t h e m e s e vi d e n t i n Je n n i f e r s r e sp o n s e s. J e n n i f e r s r e s p o n s e t o l e a r n i n g a n d u s i n g S c r a t c h Je n n i f e r r e p o r t e d t h a t sh e e n j o ye d u si n g S cr a t ch S h e l i ke d m a ki n g t h e sh a p e s [ cr e a t i n g s p r i t e s] a n d u si n g t h e b a ckg r o u n d s a n d sh e a l so l i ke d w o r ki n g w i t h t h e co m m a n d b l o cks t o c r e a t e scr i p t s b e ca u se t h e y a l l o w e d t h e s p r i t e s i n h e r S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct t o m o v e a n d t h e y ca n d o [ i t ] b y t h e m s e l ve s A scr e e n sh o t o f Je n n i f e r s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct i s se e n i n F i g u r e 4 4 J e n n i f e r s a r t i f a c t i n cl u d e d 1 1 sp r i t e s ( m e a n f o r t h e n o n ca se st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s i s 4 3 ) S h e u se d 1 1 6 co m m a n d b l o cks a c r o ss 4 0 s e p a r a t e scr i p t s ( m e a n s f o r t h e n o n c a se st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s a r e 5 6 3 a n d 9 5 r e sp e ct i ve l y)

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8 6 F i g u r e 4 4 A sc r e e n sh o t o f Je n n i f e r s S cr a t c h p r o j e ct W h e n co m p a r e d w i t h h e r p e e r s, sh e cl e a r l y d e m o n st r a t e d t h a t sh e l e a r n e d h o w t o cr e a t e sp r i t e s a n d scr i p t s. B o t h M r s. H a n d t h i s r e se a r ch e r r e p e a t e d l y o b s e r ve d t h a t Je n n i f e r m a d e co n si st e n t p r o g r e ss o n h e r a r t i f a ct w i t h o u t h e l p f r o m a n a d u l t O n t h e f i r st d a y o f d e si g n i n g ( t h e 1 1 t h d a y o f t h e p r o j e ct ) t h i s r e se a r c h e r r e co r d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g i n h i s o b se r v a t i o n n o t e s: I m p l e a se d w i t h Je n n i f e r s p r o g r e ss t o d a y. S h e q u i ckl y d e ve l o p e d h e r a r t i f a ct i d e a S h e a t t e m p t e d t o c r e a t e a r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm t h o u g h i t a p p e a r s t o b e a t r a p e zo i d a l p r i sm S h e h a s st a r t e d scr i p t i n g a n d i n t e g r a t e d a n i n t e r a ct i ve a sp e ct t o h e r a r t i f a ct b y a l l o w i n g t h e u se r so m e l e ve l o f co n t r o l w h e n t h e u se r e n t e r s t e xt ( a n a m e ) a n d t h e a r t i f a ct r e sp o n d s a cco r d i n g l y ( h e l l o n a m e ) T h i s m a y r e p r e se n t a l o w e r l e ve l o f i n t e r a ct i o n b u t i n t e r a ct i o n i s st i l l e vi d e n t Je n n i f e r i s a t t e m p t i n g t o p e r so n a l i ze t h e a r t i f a ct f o r i t s u se r s.

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8 7 T h i s o b se r va t i o n d o cu m e n t s Je n n i f e r s a t t e m p t t o i n cl u d e a scr i p t i n h e r S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct t h a t a sks t h e u se r s n a m e a l l o w s t h e u se r t o t yp e i n a n a m e t h e n co m b i n e s h e l l o w i t h t h e u se r s n a m e i n a t e xt b u b b l e o n t h e scr e e n Je n n i f e r w a s t h e o n l y p a r t i ci p a n t t o i n cl u d e t h i s a ct i o n i n h e r a r t i f a ct a n d w h e n a s ke d w h y sh e ch o se t o i n cl u d e t h i s sc r i p t i n h e r a r t i f a ct sh e r e p l i e d t h a t i t w o u l d p r o b a b l y m a ke t h e m f e e l h a p p y W h e n r e f l e ct i n g o n l e a r n i n g S c r a t ch d u r i n g P h a se 1 o f t h e p r o j e ct Je n n i f e r sh a r e d a t f i r s t i t w a s ki n d o f h a r d b u t t h e n I g o t u se d t o i t S h e e xp r e ss e d t h a t l e a r n i n g h o w t o u se a l l t h e t o o l s f o r w h a t I co u l d d o m a d e S cr a t ch d i f f i cu l t t o l e a r n i n t h e b e g i n n i n g b u t o n ce s h e l e a r n e d h o w t o u s e a sp e ct s o f S cr a t ch sh e f e l t co n f i d e n t a n d co m p e t e n t u si n g S cr a t ch E a r l y i n t h e d e si g n p h a se o f t h e p r o j e ct Je n n i f e r w a n t e d t o cr e a t e a n a d d i t i o n a l sce n e b u t sh e d i d n o t w a n t t h e sp r i t e s f r o m t h e f i r st sce n e t o b e vi si b l e so sh e a ske d f o r h e l p T h i s r e se a r c h e r d e m o n st r a t e d h o w t o u se t h e h i d e a n d sh o w co m m a n d b l o c ks i n S cr a t ch so t h a t t h e p r o p e r sp r i t e s w o u l d b e vi si b l e d u r i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e sce n e S h e q u i ckl y i n t e g r a t e d t h e se a ct i o n s i n t o h e r a r t i f a ct T w o s e ssi o n s l a t e r Je n n i f e r sh a r e d h o w t o u se t h e h i d e a n d sh o w co m m a n d b l o cks a n d sw i t ch b a ckg r o u n d s t o t r a n si t i o n b e t w e e n d i f f e r e n t sc e n e s w i t h a p e e r w h o t h e n sh a r e d w i t h Je n n i f e r h o w t o i n co r p o r a t e a q u e st i o n a n d a n sw e r scr i p t M r s. H o b se r v e d t h i s co l l a b o r a t i o n a n d n o t e d : sa w so m e g r e a t co l l a b o r a t i o n b e t w e e n Je n n i f e r a n d S a r a t o d a y. Je n n i f e r r e p e a t e d l y d e m o n st r a t e d t h a t sh e w a s a ca p a b l e S cr a t ch d e si g n e r A n e xa m p l e o f Je n n i f e r s co m p e t e n ce u si n g S cr a t ch w a s r e co r d e d i n t h i s r e s e a r ch e r s o b se r va t i o n n o t e s: I o b se r ve d t h a t J e n n i f e r a d d e d a scr i p t t o h e r a r t i f a ct t h a t p l a ys a so u n d e f f e ct w h e n t h e a k e y i s p r e ss e d Je n n i f e r s a r t i f a ct co n t a i n s a q u e st i o n a n d a n sw e r

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8 8 scr i p t t h a t a sks t h e u se r a q u e st i o n a b o u t t h e n u m b e r o f b a s e s i n a co n e I f t h e u se r e n t e r s a c o r r e c t a n sw e r p o si t i ve f e e d b a c k i n t h e f o r m o f t e xt i s d i sp l a y e d o n t h e scr e e n W h e n J e n n i f e r i n t e r a ct s w i t h h e r S cr a t ch a r t i f a c t sh e p r e sse s t h e a ke y a f t e r s h e e n t e r s t h e co r r e ct r e sp o n se [ t o p l a y t h e so u n d e f f e ct ] I o b s e r ve d t h i s b e h a vi o r a n d a ske d h e r h o w t h e so u n d w o u l d p l a y i f sh e w e r e i n a d i f f e r e n t r o o m w h e n a u se r w a s i n t e r a ct i n g w i t h h e r a r t i f a ct [ a n d a n sw e r e d t h e q u e st i o n co r r e ct l y] S h e i m m e d i a t e l y b e g a n a d d r e ssi n g t h i s i ssu e w i t h o u t p r o m p t i n g o r a ssi st a n ce f r o m t h i s r e se a r ch e r o r M r s. H Je n n i f e r s a b i l i t y t o i n d e p e n d e n t l y r e vi se t h e s cr i p t s i n h e r a r t i f a ct t o e n su r e t h a t t h e y w o r ke d p r o p e r l y i s a cl e a r i n d i ca t i o n o f h e r co n f i d e n ce a n d co m p e t e n ce u si n g S cr a t c h A n o t h e r e xa m p l e o f Je n n i f e r s a b i l i t y t o i n d e p e n d e n t l y r e vi s e scr i p t s ca m e d u r i n g t h e 8 t h d a y o f d e si g n i n g ( t h e 1 8 t h d a y o f t h e p r o j e ct ) T h i s r e s e a r ch e r r e c o r d e d t h i s e xa m p l e i n h i s n o t e s: A st u d e n t w h o i s n o t p a r t o f t h i s l e a r n i n g g r o u p ca m e n e a r t h e e n d o f t h e m e e t i n g t i m e t o w o r k w i t h M r s. H W h i l e t h i s st u d e n t w a s w a i t i n g M r s. H h a d Je n n i f e r sh a r e h e r S cr a t ch a r t i f a c t w i t h t h e s t u d e n t O n ce t h e o p e n i n g sc e n e t o o k p l a ce t h e st u d e n t d i d n o t kn o w h o w t o p r o ce e d u n t i l Je n n i f e r t o l d h e r t o p r e ss t h e sp a ce ke y. O n ce Je n n i f e r r e a l i ze d t h a t a u se r w o u l d n o t kn o w h o w t o p r o ce e d w i t h o u t p r o m p t i n g sh e a d d e d a sa y b l o ck t o t h e e xi st i n g scr i p t t o p r o m p t t h e u se r t o p r e ss t h e s p a ce ke y t o t r a n si t i o n t o t h e n e xt s ce n e N e i t h e r M r s. H n o r t h i s r e se a r c h e r n e e d e d t o e xp l a i n h o w t o c h a n g e t h e e xi st i n g scr i p t t o e n su r e t h a t u se r co u l d p r o ce e d t h r o u g h t h e a r t i f a ct J e n n i f e r o b se r ve d h o w a u se r i n t e r a ct e d w i t h h e r a r t i f a c t d i sco ve r e d t h a t a u se r co u l d n o t p r o ce e d w i t h o u t a d d i t i o n a l p r o m p t i n g a n d t h e n m a d e t h e n e c e ssa r y ch a n g e s t o t h e e xi st i n g sc r i p t t o a d d r e ss t h e i ssu e T h i s e x a m p l e p r o vi d e s a d d i t i o n a l su p p o r t f o r Je n n i f e r s co m p e t e n ce i n u si n g S cr a t ch O ve r a l l Je n n i f e r s r e sp o n se t o l e a r n i n g a n d u si n g S cr a t ch i s p o si t i v e S h e r e p o r t e d t h a t sh e e n j o ye d u si n g S cr a t ch a n d sh e r e p e a t e d l y d e m o n st r a t e d t h a t sh e w a s co m p e t e n t d e si g n i n g i n S cr a t c h O n s e v e r a l o cca si o n s sh e i n d e p e n d e n t l y r e vi s e d t h e scr i p t s i n h e r a r t i f a ct w h e n co n f r o n t e d w i t h a n i ssu e t o e n su r e t h a t h e r a r t i f a ct

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8 9 w o r ke d p r o p e r l y. I n a d d i t i o n sh e a l so e xp r e s se d t h a t sh e w o u l d l i ke t o co n t i n u e u si n g S cr a t ch f o r o t h e r p r o j e c t s d u r i n g t h e p o st e x p e r i e n ce i n t e r vi e w J e n n i f e r s r e s p o n s e t o t h i s p r o j e c t Je n n i f e r r e sp o n s e t o t h i s p r o j e ct i s b e st su m m a r i ze d i n h e r o w n w o r d s: I g o t t o d o m a t h b u t i n a f u n w a y H e r m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a c t cl e a r l y d e m o n st r a t e s h e r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. B o t h o f t h e i m a g e s i n F i g u r e s 4 5 a n d 4 6 s h o w Je n n i f e r s u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h i s sp e ci f i c m a t h co n t e n t J e n n i f e r w a s n o t i n st r u ct e d t o i n cl u d e t h i s t e xt i n h e r a r t i f a c t ; sh e ch o se i t i n d e p e n d e n t l y. S h e a l so d i d n o t a sk e i t h e r a n a d u l t o r a p e e r f o r h e l p w i t h t h e w o r d i n g o f t h i s t e xt W h i l e Je n n i f e r w a s w o r ki n g o n t h i s p a r t i cu l a r scr i p t t h i s r e s e a r ch e r o b s e r ve d t h a t sh e o r i g i n a l l y t yp e d t h i s s h a p e h a s 7 ve r t e xs H e i n t e n d e d t o a sk h e r a b o u t t h i s e r r o r ( a r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm h a s 8 v e r t e xe s ) d u r i n g t h e n e xt s e ssi o n H o w e v e r sh e ch a n g e d t h e t e x t d u r i n g t h e c u r r e n t se ssi o n t o i n cl u d e a n d 1 t h a t yo u ca n t se e b e ca u s e t h e r e i s a ve r t e x t h a t i s n o t vi si b l e a s t h e r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm i s d r a w n N e i t h e r M r s. H n o r t h i s r e se a r ch e r a ssi st e d h e r w i t h t h i s ch a n g e so sh e w a s a b l e t o se l f co r r e ct i n d e p e n d e n t l y. T h i s t e xt r e p r e se n t s h e r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f a ve r t e x a n d t h e n u m b e r o f v e r t e xe s f o r a r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm W h e n a ske d h o w sh e l e a r n e d t h i s co n t e n t sh e r e p l i e d I l e a r n e d i t i n m a t h i n t h e cl a ssr o o m T h u s, sh e u se d S cr a t ch t o r e p r e se n t h e r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f co n t e n t sh e l e a r n e d d u r i n g h e r m a t h cl a ss. A n o t h e r e x a m p l e o ccu r s i n t h e n e xt sce n e o f h e r a r t i f a ct ( s e e F i g u r e 4 7 ) T h i s sce n e e m b e d s m a t h c o n t e n t sp e ci f i c t o t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f a co n e a n d t h e t e xt b u b b l e d i sp l a y e d i n t h i s sc e n e a ccu r a t e l y i d e n t i f i e d t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f a co n e

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9 0 F i g u r e 4 5 T e xt b u b b l e a b o u t a ve r t e x i n Je n n i f e r s S cr a t ch p r o j e ct F i g u r e 4 6 T e xt b u b b l e a b o u t a p r i sm s v e r t e xe s i n Je n n i f e r s S cr a t ch p r o j e ct

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9 1 F i g u r e 4 7 T e xt b u b b l e a b o u t t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f a co n e i n Je n n i f e r s S cr a t ch p r o j e ct D u r i n g t h e f i r st t w o sc e n e s o f h e r S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct Je n n i f e r w a s d e l i b e r a t e i n p a i r i n g a vi su a l ( e g a d r a w i n g o f a co n e ) w i t h a t e xt b u b b l e t h a t d e sc r i b e s t h e vi su a l T h i s w a s a n i n t e n t i o n a l a sp e ct o f t h e d e si g n o f h e r a r t i f a ct b e ca u se sh e b e l i e ve d t h a t l e a r n e r s u n d e r st a n d m o r e b y l o o ki n g a t t h e p i ct u r e s Je n n i f e r s a p p r o a ch m a y r e p r e se n t h o w s h e p r e f e r s t o l e a r n b u t i t a l so d e m o n st r a t e s t h a t sh e i s t h i n ki n g a b o u t t h e n e e d s o f t h e a u d i e n c e w h o m a y u se h e r S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct Je n n i f e r ca r e f u l l y co n si d e r e d h e r a u d i e n ce a n d s h e l i ke n e d t h e a ct o f d e si g n i n g a S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct f o r a n a u d i e n ce t o m a ki n g a su r p r i se f o r so m e b o d y e l se H e r a r t i f a c t i n cl u d e d se ve r a l q u e st i o n s f o r a u s e r t o a n sw e r I f a u s e r a n sw e r e d p r o p e r l y, s/ h e r e ce i ve d p o si t i ve f e e d b a ck a n d a so u n d e f f e ct w o u l d p l a y. W h e n a ske d w h y sh e i n cl u d e d f e e d b a ck, sh e r e sp o n d e d s o t h e y [ u se r s] ca n b e e xci t e d t h e y g o t t h e r i g h t a n sw e r H e r e a g a i n sh e co n si d e r s t h e a u d i e n ce a n d w a n t s t h e m t o f e e l e xci t e d w h e n t h e y a n sw e r p r o p e r l y.

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9 2 D u r i n g t h e p o st e xp e r i e n ce i n t e r vi e w Je n n i f e r a l so co n si d e r e d ch a n g e s t h a t sh e w o u l d l i ke t o m a ke i n h e r a r t i f a ct S h e a ckn o w l e d g e d I w o u l d m a ke i t a l i t t l e b i t l o n g e r a n d ch a n g e t h e c h a r a ct e r s. W h e n a sk e d a b o u t ch a n g i n g t h e c h a r a ct e r s i n h e r p r o j e ct sh e r e p l i e d ca u s e i t w a s m o st l y a l l g i r l s I n f a ct h e r p r o j e ct i n cl u d e d 3 sp r i t e s r e p r e se n t i n g yo u n g f e m a l e s. S h e m a y h a ve r e a l i ze d t h a t b o ys co u l d a l so u se h e r S cr a t ch a r t i f a c t ye t t h e y w e r e n o t r e p r e s e n t e d i n h e r a r t i f a ct O n ce a g a i n sh e m a y b e co n si d e r i n g t h e a u d i e n ce f o r h e r a r t i f a ct W i t h r e sp e ct t o m a ki n g h e r a r t i f a ct l o n g e r sh e e xp r e sse d t h a t sh e w o u l d ke e p o n g o i n g w i t h t h e g a m e t h e n a f t e r t h e g a m e I d p r o b a b l y g o t o a n o t h e r sce n e a n d t h e n m a yb e f o l l o w a n o t h e r sce n e a n d a n o t h e r sce n e T h e g a m e sh e r e f e r e n c e s i s t h e l a s t sce n e i n h e r a r t i f a ct w h i ch i n v o l ve s se ve r a l sh a p e s a ski n g t h e u se r h o w m a n y si d e s t h e y h a ve B a se d o n h e r r e sp o n se i t i s r e a so n a b l e t o a ss u m e t h a t Je n n i f e r i s ca p a b l e o f cr e a t i n g a d d i t i o n a l sce n e s i n S cr a t ch si n ce sh e h a s t h e ski l l s n e ce ssa r y t o d o so A n o t h e r i m p r o ve m e n t sh e w a n t e d t o m a ke w a s t o m a k e h e r a r t i f a c t m o r e i n t e r a c t i ve D u r i n g t h e i n t e r vi e w sh e w o n d e r e d a l o u d t h a t m a y b e i f t h e y co u l d cl i ck o n i t r e f e r r i n g t o h a vi n g t h e u se r cl i ck o n a s h a p e t h e n t h e s h a p e a sks a q u e st i o n a b o u t i t s p r o p e r t i e s. Je n n i f e r e x p r e sse d t h a t s h e d i d n o t w a n t t o sh a r e h e r S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct w i t h h e r 5 t h g r a d e p e e r s. S h e d i d n o t f e e l t h a t 5 t h g r a d e r s w o u l d b e a n a p p r o p r i a t e a u d i e n ce b e ca u se t h e y p r o b a b l y a l r e a d y k n o w t h i s. I t s p r o b a b l y m o r e f o r l i t t l e ki d s. T h e y d l e a r n a l i t t l e b i t m o r e T h i s r e sp o n s e p r o vi d e s a d d i t i o n a l e vi d e n ce f o r h o w J e n n i f e r ca r e f u l l y co n si d e r e d t h e a u d i e n ce f o r h e r a r t i f a ct S h e b e l i e ve d t h a t t h e m a t h co n t e n t i n t e g r a t e d i n t o h e r S cr a t c h a r t i f a ct i s m o r e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r yo u n g e r l e a r n e r s r a t h e r t h a n h e r p e e r g r o u p b e ca u se t h e y a l r e a d y u n d e r st a n d t h i s sp e ci f i c c o n t e n t

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9 3 I m p a c t o n J e n n i f e r s l e a r n i n g B a se d o n Je n n i f e r s r e sp o n se d u r i n g t h e p o st e xp e r i e n ce i n t e r vi e w f i e l d n o t e s f r o m t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r a n d r e se a r ch e r a n d a n a n a l ysi s o f h e r S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct i t i s e vi d e n t t h a t t h e p e d a g o g i ca l a p p r o a ch o f h a vi n g l e a r n e r s d e si g n a p r o j e ct i n S cr a t c h t h a t i n t e g r a t e s m a t h co n t e n t yi e l d e d m i xe d r e su l t s w i t h r e sp e ct t o Je n n i f e r s l e a r n i n g a b o u t g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. Je n n i f e r s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct i n t e g r a t e d a ccu r a t e co n t e n t r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f se ve r a l g e o m e t r i c s o l i d s, so h e r p r o j e ct d o e s r e p r e se n t h e r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h i s sp e ci f i c c o n t e n t a n d co u l d b e u se d a s a n a ss e ssm e n t o f h e r l e a r n i n g H o w e ve r h e r p e r f o r m a n c e s o n t h e p r e a n d p o st t e st i n d i ca t e t h a t sh e d i d n o t a cq u i r e n e w l e a r n i n g ( se e T a b l e 4 3 ) O f t h e 1 3 p o i n t s p o ssi b l e o n t h e p r e a n d p o st t e st Je n n i f e r sco r e d a 9 o n t h e p r e t e st ( m e a n f o r t h e g r o u p i s 6 9 ) a n d sh e sco r e d a 6 o n t h e p o st t e st ( m e a n f o r t h e g r o u p i s 7 6 ) J e n n i f e r w a s n o t a b l e t o ca l cu l a t e t h e vo l u m e o f a p r i sm o n t h e p o st t e st t h o u g h sh e w a s a b l e t o s u cce ssf u l l y co m p l e t e t h e sa m e ca l cu l a t i o n o n t h e p r e t e st S h e a l so f a i l e d t o i n cl u d e p r o p e r u n i t l a b e l s f o r se ve r a l o f t h e ca l cu l a t i o n s. T h u s, Je n n i f e r s ca se p r o vi d e s c o n f l i ct i n g e vi d e n ce o n t h e e f f e ct i ve n e ss o f l e a r n e r c o n st r u ct e d m u l t i m e d i a o n i n cr e a si n g l e a r n i n g g a i n s i n t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s f o r l e a r n e r s si m i l a r t o Je n n i f e r T a b l e 4 3 O ve r vi e w o f Je n n i f e r s p r e a n d p o st t e st r e su l t s T e st i t e m s P r e P o st A b l e t o i d e n t i f y g e o m e t r i c so l i d s? Y e s Y e s A b l e t o ca l cu l a t e a r e a o f a p r i sm s f a ce ? Y e s Y e s A b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e h e i g h t o f a p r i sm ? Y e s Y e s A b l e t o ca l cu l a t e t h e vo l u m e o f a p r i sm ? Y e s N o A b l e t o ca l cu l a t e t h e s u r f a ce a r e a o f a p r i s m ? N o N o A b l e t o e xp l a i n h o w t o ca l cu l a t e t h e s u r f a ce a r e a o f a p r i s m ? N o N o O ve r a l l sco r e 9 / 1 3 6 / 1 3

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9 4 B a se d o n Je n n i f e r s ca se i t i s e n co u r a g i n g t o d i sco ve r t h a t u si n g S cr a t ch t o d e si g n a n d c o n st r u ct a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct m a y i m p a c t Je n n i f e r s l e a r n i n g Je n n i f e r r e p o r t e d t h a t t h i s p r o j e ct a l l o w e d h e r t o d o m a t h b u t i n a f u n w a y O n c e a g a i n i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o a ck n o w l e d g e t h a t l e a r n e r s d i f f e r i n h o w sp e ci f i c p e d a g o g i c a l a p p r o a ch e s w i l l i m p a ct t h e m a n d i t i s r e a so n a b l e t o a ssu m e t h a t t h e r e a r e a d d i t i o n a l l e a r n e r s t h a t sh a r e Je n n i f e r s l e a r n i n g p r e f e r e n ce s T h u s, i t i s i m p e r a t i ve t o u n d e r st a n d a n d i d e n t i f y w h i ch t yp e s o f l e a r n e r s m a y b e n e f i t f r o m a p a r t i cu l a r p e d a g o g i c a l a p p r o a ch C r o s s C a s e A n a l y s i s : D o m i n i c a n d J e n n i f e r E a ch p a r t i ci p a n t ca se w a s s h a r e d se p a r a t e l y a b o ve T h i s se ct i o n p r o vi d e s a cr o ss ca se a n a l ysi s t h a t i d e n t i f i e s t h e m e s e vi d e n t a cr o ss b o t h c a se s ( a va r i a b l e o r i e n t e d s t r a t e g y) a n d a t t e m p t s t o d e ve l o p a n u n d e r st a n d i n g o f h o w t h e t h e m e s a r e r e p r e se n t e d b y e a ch ca se ( a c a se o r i e n t e d st r a t e g y) A n a n a l ysi s o f t h e S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct s c r e a t e d b y p a r t i ci p a n t s r e ve a l s t h a t D o m i n i c a n d Je n n i f e r i n cl u d e d su b st a n t i a l l y m o r e sp r i t e s, m o r e co m m a n d b l o cks a n d m o r e scr i p t s i n t h e i r p r o j e ct s t h a n t h e n o n ca s e st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s ( se e T a b l e 4 4 ) D o m i n i c s a r t i f a ct i n cl u d e d n u m e r o u s sp r i t e s. T h i s i s n o t su r p r i si n g co n si d e r i n g t h a t D o m i n i c s a r t i f a ct co n si st e d o f m u l t i p l e sce n e s. H e a l so r e p o r t e d t h a t h e e n j o ye d d r a w i n g a n d e d i t i n g sp r i t e s. I n a d d i t i o n h e w o u l d d r a w a n d e d i t sp r i t e s i f h e d i d n o t k n o w h o w t o m a ke p r o g r e ss o n h i s a r t i f a ct J e n n i f e r a l so i n cl u d e d n u m e r o u s sp r i t e s t h o u g h h e r a r t i f a ct co n t a i n e d f e w e r sp r i t e s w h e n co m p a r e d t o D o m i n i c s a r t i f a ct b u t co n t a i n e d m o r e sp r i t e s w h e n c o m p a r e d t o t h e o t h e r p a r t i ci p a n t s a r t i f a ct s. J e n n i f e r s a r t i f a c t a l so co n si st e d o f m u l t i p l e sce n e s, a n d sh e a l so r e p o r t e d t h a t sh e e n j o ye d a d d i n g s p r i t e s t o h e r p r o j e ct

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9 5 T a b l e 4 4 O ve r vi e w o f a n a l ysi s o f S cr a t c h p r o j e ct s U n i t o f a n a l ysi s D o m i n i c Je n n i f e r O t h e r p a r t i ci p a n t s m e a n s N u m b e r o f sp r i t e s 2 2 1 1 4 3 N u m b e r o f b a ckg r o u n d s 5 4 2 2 N u m b e r o f scr i p t s 8 4 4 0 9 5 N u m b e r o f b l o cks u s e d i n scr i p t s 2 0 7 1 1 6 5 6 3 N u m b e r o f b l o ck t yp e s u se d i n scr i p t s 1 1 1 2 1 1 5 B o t h D o m i n i c a n d J e n n i f e r i n cl u d e d m a n y m o r e scr i p t s a n d co m m a n d s b l o cks t h a n t h e o t h e r p a r t i ci p a n t s. H o w e v e r t h e h i g h n u m b e r o f scr i p t s a n d c o m m a n d b l o cks i n D o m i n i c s a r t i f a c t ca n b e l a r g e l y a t t r i b u t e d t o a ssi st a n ce f r o m e i t h e r M r s. H o r t h i s r e se a r ch e r H e d i d n o t i n d e p e n d e n t l y a d d t h e scr i p t s a n d b l o cks. M r s. H o r t h i s r e se a r c h e r d e m o n st r a t e d h o w t o c r e a t e scr i p t s t h a t m a t c h e d t h e i n t e n d e d b e h a vi o r s f o r h i s a r t i f a ct I n f a ct f i ve e n t r i e s i n t h i s r e se a r c h e r s o b se r va t i o n n o t e s a n d t w o e n t r i e s i n M r s. H s n o t e s i n cl u d e r e f e r e n ce s t o D o m i n i c s ch o i ce t o cr e a t e s p r i t e s ( a ski l l h e e n j o ye d a n d d e m o n st r a t e d co m p e t e n ce ) r a t h e r t h a n i n d e p e n d e n t l y d e si g n i n g t e st i n g a n d r e vi si n g h i s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct I n co n t r a st o n l y a sm a l l p o r t i o n o f t h e sc r i p t s a n d co m m a n d s b l o cks i n Je n n i f e r s a r t i f a ct c a n b e a t t r i b u t e d t o a ssi st a n ce f r o m a n a d u l t M o st o f t h e scr i p t s a n d co m m a n d b l o cks a d d e d t o Je n n i f e r s a r t i f a ct a r e a d i r e ct r e su l t o f Je n n i f e r s i n d e p e n d e n t a ct i o n s o r t h r o u g h co l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h a p e e r T h i s co n t r a st w a s n o t e d i n t h i s r e se a r ch e r s r e f l e ct i o n s o n t h e 1 0 t h d a y o f d e si g n i n g i n S c r a t ch ( D a y 2 0 o f t h e p r o j e c t ) : T h e r e i s a f a sci n a t i n g d yn a m i c p l a yi n g o u t i n t h i s l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t t h a t j u xt a p o se s t w o d i f f e r e n t t yp e s o f l e a r n e r s. T h r o u g h o u t t h i s p r o j e ct Je n n i f e r h a s d e m o n st r a t e d t h a t sh e i s a n a ct i v e p a r t i ci p a n t i n t h e l e a r n i n g p r o ce ss w h i l e D o m i n i c d e m o n st r a t e s t h e c h a r a ct e r i st i cs o f a p a ssi ve l e a r n e r J e n n i f e r i s a b l e t o w o r k i n d e p e n d e n t l y. W h e n co n f r o n t e d w i t h a n i ssu e w h i l e d e si g n i n g h e r a r t i f a ct sh e w i l l t i n ke r w i t h b l o cks a n d a t t e m p t t o r e s o l ve t h e i ssu e i n d e p e n d e n t l y. D o m i n i c i s d e p e n d e n t o n d i r e c t i o n s a n d i n si g h t f r o m a t e a ch e r D o m i n i c w o u l d t i n ke r w i t h b l o cks ( e sp e ci a l l y t h e so u n d b l o cks ) w h i l e w a i t i n g f o r e i t h e r t h e

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9 6 r e se a r ch e r o r p r a ct i t i o n e r t o h e l p h i m m a ke p r o g r e ss o n h i s a r t i f a ct O f t e n h e n e e d e d i n p u t f r o m t h e t e a ch e r t o h e l p cl a r i f y h i s t h i n ki n g a b o u t t h e i n t e n t o f h i s a r t i f a ct T h i s r e f l e c t i o n su m m a r i ze s a ke y d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e t w o ca se st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s. D o m i n i c a n d Je n n i f e r w e r e t h e o n l y p a r t i ci p a n t s t o h a ve l o w e r sco r e s o n t h e p o st t e st w h e n co m p a r e d t o t h e p r e t e st ( S e e T a b l e 4 5 ) O n e p a r t i ci p a n t s sco r e s r e m a i n e d t h e sa m e b e t w e e n t e st s. T h e r e m a i n i n g p a r t i ci p a n t s i n cr e a se d t h e i r sco r e s. D o m i n i c w a s n o t a b l e t o ca l cu l a t e t h e a r e a o f a r e ct a n g u l a r p r i s m s f a ce o n t h e p o st t e s t t h o u g h h e w a s a b l e t o su cce ssf u l l y c o m p l e t e t h e sa m e ca l cu l a t i o n o n t h e p r e t e st Je n n i f e r w a s n o t a b l e t o ca l cu l a t e t h e vo l u m e o f a r e c t a n g u l a r p r i sm o n t h e p o st t e st t h o u g h sh e d i d su cce ssf u l l y ca l cu l a t e t h e v o l u m e o n t h e p r e t e st T h e se r e s u l t s a r e p e r p l e xi n g I t i s d i f f i cu l t t o u n d e r st a n d h o w a l e a r n e r ca n su cc e ssf u l l y d e m o n st r a t e a ski l l o n o n e o cca si o n b u t c a n f a i l t o r e p l i ca t e t h e ski l l a t a l a t e r o cca si o n T h i s su g g e s t s t h a t i t m a y b e n e ce ssa r y t o p r o vi d e m u l t i p l e a ss e ssm e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l e a r n e r s t o a d e q u a t e l y d o cu m e n t w h e t h e r o r n o t l e a r n e r s h a ve e f f e ct i ve l y a cq u i r e d sp e ci f i c ski l l s. T a b l e 4 5 O ve r vi e w o f p r e a n d p o st t e st r e s u l t s f o r se l e ct e d ca se s D o m i n i c Je n n i f e r T e st i t e m s P r e P o st P r e P o st A b l e t o i d e n t i f y g e o m e t r i c so l i d s? Y e s Y e s Y e s Y e s A b l e t o ca l cu l a t e a r e a o f a p r i sm s f a ce ? Y e s N o Y e s Y e s A b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e h e i g h t o f a p r i sm ? Y e s Y e s Y e s Y e s A b l e t o ca l cu l a t e t h e vo l u m e o f a p r i sm ? N o N o Y e s N o A b l e t o ca l cu l a t e t h e su r f a ce a r e a o f a p r i s m ? N o N o N o N o A b l e t o e xp l a i n h o w t o ca l cu l a t e t h e s u r f a ce a r e a o f a p r i s m ? N o N o N o N o O ve r a l l sco r e 7 / 1 3 6 / 1 3 9 / 1 3 6 / 1 3 D o m i n i c s a n d Je n n i f e r s p r e a n d p o st t e st d a t a p r o vi d e i n co n cl u si ve e vi d e n ce f o r d e t e r m i n i n g a n i m p a ct o n l e a r n i n g sp e ci f i c m a t h co n t e n t w h e n l e a r n e r s d e si g n m u l t i m e d i a r e p r e se n t i n g t h e m a t h co n t e n t i n S cr a t ch H o w e v e r w h e n t h i s d a t a i s

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9 7 co m b i n e d w i t h p a r t i ci p a n t r e sp o n se s d u r i n g i n t e r vi e w s a n d w i t h d a t a f r o m a n a n a l ysi s o f p a r t i ci p a n t S cr a t ch p r o j e ct s, t h e r e i s r e a so n a b l e su p p o r t f o r c o n si d e r i n g t h e i m p a ct o f t h i s a p p r o a ch i f t h e l e a r n i n g st yl e s o f i n d i vi d u a l s a r e su p p o r t e d D o m i n i c s l e a r n i n g st yl e w a s n o t su p p o r t i n g d u r i n g t h i s p r o j e ct T h e d e si g n o f t h i s p r o j e ct d i d n o t p r o vi d e t h e r e q u i r e d su p p o r t f o r D o m i n i c t o b e su cc e ssf u l r a t h e r t h a n f r u st r a t e d A l i n e a r p r o ce ss t h a t i n cl u d e d sp e ci f i c, sh o r t t e r m g o a l s m a y h a ve b e n e f i t e d D o m i n i c. A si m i l a r p r o ce ss m a y h a ve a l s o b e n e f i t e d Je n n i f e r H o w e ve r sh e a cco m p l i sh e d co n si d e r a b l y m o r e i n h e r p r o j e ct t h a n D o m i n i c e v e n t h o u g h t h e y b o t h w o r ke d i n t h e sa m e e d u ca t i o n a l e n vi r o n m e n t Je n n i f e r a p p e a r e d t o t h r i ve w h e n sh e w a s g r a n t e d ch o i ce a n d co n t r o l i n t h e d e si g n o f h e r a r t i f a ct S h e sh a r e d w i t h t h e r e se a r c h e r t h a t sh e g o t t o d o m a t h b u t i n a f u n w a y. S h e i n d e p e n d e n t l y cr e a t e d se v e r a l sce n e s f o r h e r a r t i f a ct b a se d o n h e r vi si o n f o r h o w h e r a r t i f a ct s h o u l d b e u se d F o r D o m i n i c, ch o i c e a n d c o n t r o l s e e m e d t o se r ve a s b a r r i e r s f o r h i s l e a r n i n g t h a t h e n e e d e d t o o ve r co m e D o m i n i c co u l d n o t i n d e p e n d e n t l y cr e a t e t h e sce n e s h e w a n t e d t o i n cl u d e b a se d o n h i s vi si o n Je n n i f e r co u l d i n d e p e n d e n t l y i m p l e m e n t t h e p l a n f o r t h e d e si g n o f h e r a r t i f a ct w i t h o cca si o n a l a d u l t su p p o r t w h i l e D o m i n i c n e e d e d a l m o st co n st a n t a d u l t su p p o r t t o e n su r e t h a t h e p r o g r e ss e d S u m m a r y o f C a s e S t u d y F i n d i n g s I n su m m a r y, b o t h ca se st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s p a r t i ci p a t e d i n t h e sa m e i n n o va t i ve l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t t h a t cr e a t e d a n o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s t o d e si g n a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct u si n g S cr a t c h t h a t r e p r e s e n t s t h e i r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s, ye t b o t h p a r t i ci p a n t s se e m e d h e a d e d i n d i f f e r e n t d i r e ct i o n s. M r s. H o b se r v e d h o w Je n n i f e r e m e r g e d a s o n e o f t h e l e a d e r s w h o r e a l l y f e l t g o o d a b o u t h e r se l f w h i l e D o m i n i c g o t l o s t i n t h e p r o j e ct b e ca u se o f n o t m a y b e

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9 8 f u l l y u n d e r st a n d i n g t h e m a t h b e h i n d i t n o t f u l l y u n d e r st a n d i n g h i s t h o u g h t s o r h o w t o t a ckl e p r o j e ct s o r p e r se ve r e C o l l e ct i ve l y, b o t h ca s e st u d i e s p r o vi d e a m i xe d r e sp o n s e f o r a d d r e ssi n g t h e f o l l o w i n g r e se a r ch q u e st i o n : H o w e f f e ct i ve i s l e a r n e r co n st r u ct e d m u l t i m e d i a a t i n cr e a si n g l e a r n i n g g a i n s i n t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c s o l i d s f o r a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s ? D o m i n i c s ca se p r o vi d e s e vi d e n ce t h a t i n d i ca t e s t h a t L C M u si n g S cr a t c h m a y n o t b e e f f e ct i ve a t i n c r e a si n g l e a r n i n g g a i n s i n t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s f o r c e r t a i n t yp e s o f l e a r n e r s G e n e r a l l y, d e si g n i n g a S cr a t ch a r t i f a c t w a s f r u st r a t i n g f o r D o m i n i c, a n d t h e r e i s n o s u p p o r t i n g e vi d e n ce t o i n d i ca t e t h a t D o m i n i c d e ve l o p e d a n i n cr e a se d u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c s o l i d s. Je n n i f e r s ca s e p r o vi d e s m i xe d e vi d e n ce t h a t t h i s p e d a g o g i ca l a p p r o a ch i n c r e a se d h e r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. A d e cr e a se i n sc o r e s f r o m p r e t e st t o p o st t e st d o e s n o t p r o vi d e su p p o r t f o r i n cr e a si n g l e a r n i n g g a i n s. H o w e ve r Je n n i f e r s S cr a t c h a r t i f a ct i n cl u d e d a ccu r a t e c o n t e n t r e p r e s e n t i n g s o m e o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. T h i s p r o vi d e s e vi d e n ce t h a t sh e u n d e r st a n d s a n d ca n e x p r e ss a sp e ct s o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. I t a l so su g g e st s t h a t s h e e n g a g e d i n t h i s sp e ci f i c co n t e n t d u r i n g t h e d e si g n a n d co n st r u ct i o n o f h e r S cr a t ch m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct I n co n cl u si o n t h e se ca s e st u d i e s r e ve a l t h a t t h e e d u ca t i o n a l co m m u n i t y sh o u l d co n si d e r t h e r e l a t i o n sh i p b e t w e e n t h e l e a r n i n g p r e f e r e n ce s o f t h e i n d i vi d u a l a n d t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p e d a g o g i ca l a p p r o a ch t o e n s u r e t h a t l e a r n i n g i s m a xi m i ze d N o t a l l l e a r n e r s w i l l t h r i ve w h e n a p a r t i cu l a r p e d a g o g i ca l st r a t e g y i s e m p l o ye d D o m i n i c s a n d Je n n i f e r s e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h i n t h i s st u d y su p p o r t t h i s cl a i m B o t h e xp e r i e n ce d a si m i l a r

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9 9 l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t w i t h t h e co m m o n p e d a g o g i ca l a p p r o a ch o f L C M ye t t h e i r e xp e r i e n ce s yi e l d e d d i st i n c t l y se p a r a t e o u t co m e s f o r e a ch l e a r n e r

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1 0 0 C H A P T E R 5 D O C U M E N T A T I O N A N D R E F L E C T I O N T O P R O D U C E D E S I G N P R I N C I P L E S I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s ch a p t e r a d d r e sse s t h e f i n a l r e se a r ch q u e st i o n : W h a t a r e t h e d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s f o r cr e a t i n g a n i n n o va t i ve l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t t h a t i n t e g r a t e s l e a r n e r c o n st r u ct e d m u l t i m e d i a ( L C M ) f o r a ca d e m i c a l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s? A n a p p r o p r i a t e r e sp o n s e t o t h i s q u e st i o n sh o u l d i d e n t i f y t h e d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s f o r i n t e g r a t i n g L C M f o r a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i s k l e a r n e r s. T o a d d r e ss t h i s q u e st i o n t h i s r e se a r ch e r a n a l yze d d a t a c o l l e ct e d f r o m t h e t w o ca se s t u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s p r e se n t e d i n t h e p r e vi o u s ch a p t e r a n d i n t e r vi e w e d t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r M r s. H t o d i scu ss t h e f e a t u r e s t h a t b e n e f i t e d l e a r n e r s i n t h e i n n o va t i ve l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t t h a t i n t e g r a t e d L C M ( se e A p p e n d i x A f o r a t r a n scr i p t o f t h i s i n t e r vi e w ) T h i s r e se a r c h e r a n a l yze d t h e t r a n scr i p t u si n g T e sch s ( 1 9 9 0 ) e i g h t st e p p r o ce ss d e sc r i b e d i n C h a p t e r 3 t o e xt r a c t t h e d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s. T h e se d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s se r ve a s o u t co m e s o r f i n d i n g s f o r t h i s r e se a r c h st u d y a n d i n f o r m t h e n e xt i t e r a t i o n o f t h e D B R p r o ce ss a n d t h e e d u ca t i o n a l c o m m u n i t y. D e s i g n P r i n c i p l e s S e ve r a l d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s e m e r g e d f r o m a n a l y se s o f t h e t w o ca se s p r e se n t e d i n t h e p r e vi o u s ch a p t e r i n c o n j u n ct i o n w i t h a n a n a l ysi s o f t h e i n t e r vi e w w i t h M r s. H t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r R e ca l l t h a t M r s. H r e f l e ct e d t h a t Je n n i f e r e m e r g e d a s o n e o f t h e l e a d e r s w h i l e D o m i n i c a p p e a r e d t o g e t l o st i n t h e p r o j e ct I t i s r e a so n a b l e t o a ss u m e t h a t o t h e r l e a r n e r s sh a r e co m m o n ch a r a ct e r i st i cs w i t h J e n n i f e r a n d D o m i n i c, so t h e i r e xp e r i e n ce s w i t h i n t h i s st u d y ca n i n f o r m t h e e d u ca t i o n a l co m m u n i t y a b o u t a b r o a d e r p o p u l a t i o n o f l e a r n e r s. T h e f o l l o w i n g d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s e m e r g e d o ve r t h e co u r se o f t h i s st u d y: U se m u l t i p l e a p p r o a c h e s t o l e a r n S cr a t ch S ca f f o l d t h e d e si g n e xp e r i e n ce

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1 0 1 E xp l i ci t l y a n d r e p e a t e d l y st a t e l e a r n i n g g o a l s A sse ss a r t i f a ct s r e g u l a r l y E a ch o f t h e se d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s i s d i scu ss e d b e l o w U s e M u l t i p l e A p p r o a c h e s t o L e a r n S c r a t c h L e a r n i n g h o w t o u se a m u l t i m e d i a t o o l i s a p r e r e q u i si t e f o r d e si g n i n g w i t h t h e t o o l S p e ci f i ca l l y, i t i s n e ce ssa r y t o h a ve so m e l e ve l o f co m p e t e n ce w i t h S cr a t ch b e f o r e d e si g n i n g a n a r t i f a c t u si n g S cr a t ch T h e r e i s n o si n g l e a p p r o a c h t o l e a r n i n g S cr a t ch t h a t ca n m e e t t h e n e e d s o f a l l l e a r n e r s. Y e t t h i s st u d y d e m o n st r a t e d t h a t se ve r a l a p p r o a c h e s t o l e a r n i n g S c r a t ch u s e d t o g e t h e r e n su r e d t h a t p a r t i ci p a n t s d e ve l o p e d co m p e t e n c e u si n g S cr a t ch T h e se a p p r o a ch e s i n cl u d e d i r e c t i o n i n st r u ct i o n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n st r u ct i o n a n d p e e r co l l a b o r a t i o n B o t h D o m i n i c s a n d Je n n i f e r s e xp e r i e n ce s p r o vi d e e xa m p l e s o f h o w t h e se t h r e e a p p r o a c h e s a ssi st e d t h e m i n l e a r n i n g h o w t o u se S cr a t ch B o t h Je n n i f e r a n d D o m i n i c h a d t i m e t o l e a r n h o w t o u se S cr a t c h b e f o r e u si n g i t t o d e si g n a n a r t i f a ct T h e i r i n i t i a l l e a r n i n g i n S cr a t ch w a s st r u c t u r e d t o e n s u r e t h a t b a si c co m p e t e n ci e s w e r e l e a r n e d su ch a s h o w t o a d d o r c r e a t e a sp r i t e o r h o w t o a d d co m m a n d b l o cks t o a scr i p t T h e s e ski l l s a r e n e ce ssa r y t o cr e a t e a w i d e v a r i e t y o f a r t i f a ct s i n S cr a t ch a n d t h e se ski l l s w e r e e xp l i ci t l y t a u g h t t o t h e e n t i r e g r o u p o f p a r t i ci p a n t s. A d d i t i o n a l d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n st r u ct i o n w a s p r o vi d e d j u st i n t i m e o n ce p a r t i ci p a n t s i d e n t i f i e d a n a ct i o n o r b e h a vi o r t h e y w a n t e d t o i n cl u d e i n t h e i r S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct s b u t d i d n o t kn o w h o w t o d o s o T h i s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a p p r o a c h a l l o w s l e a r n e r s t o cu st o m i ze t h e i r m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct s. P a r t i ci p a n t s a l so co l l a b o r a t e d w i t h e a ch o t h e r t o l e a r n n e w a sp e ct s o f S cr a t ch I f o n e p a r t i ci p a n t l e a r n e d a n e w ski l l i n S cr a t ch t h e n t h i s n e w e xp e r t i s e co u l d b e sh a r e d w i t h p e e r s. T h e r e f o r e t h e a p p r o a ch t o l e a r n i n g S cr a t ch

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1 0 2 i n t h i s r e se a r ch st u d y i n cl u d e d d i r e ct i n st r u ct i o n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n st r u ct i o n a n d p e e r co l l a b o r a t i o n Je n n i f e r s ca s e p r o vi d e s a n e x a m p l e o f t h e t h r e e t yp e s o f i n st r u ct i o n i n a ct i o n Je n n i f e r d e m o n st r a t e d co m p e t e n ce a d d i n g e x i st i n g sp r i t e s f r o m t h e S cr a t c h l i b r a r y t o h e r m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct a n d d e si g n i n g h e r o w n u n i q u e sp r i t e s r e l e v a n t t o h e r a r t i f a ct T h e se ski l l s w e r e p a r t o f t h e d i r e ct i n st r u ct i o n t h a t a l l p a r t i ci p a n t s r e ce i ve d b e f o r e p a r t i ci p a n t s w e r e a l l o w e d t o d e si g n i n S cr a t ch Je n n i f e r e xp r e sse d a n i n t e r e s t i n h a vi n g m u l t i p l e sce n e s i n h e r a r t i f a c t t h r o u g h w h i ch a u se r w o u l d n a vi g a t e so sh e n e e d e d t o l e a r n h o w t o u se t h e sh o w a n d h i d e co m m a n d b l o cks so t h a t t h e p r o p e r sp r i t e s w o u l d b e vi si b l e o r h i d d e n d e p e n d i n g i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e sce n e s. Je n n i f e r l e a r n e d h o w t o i n t e g r a t e t h e se c o m m a n d b l o cks w i t h i n st r u ct i o n f r o m t h i s r e s e a r ch e r a n i n st a n ce o f d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n st r u ct i o n s p e ci f i c t o Je n n i f e r S a r a h o n e o f Je n n i f e r s p e e r s, o b se r ve d Je n n i f e r s a r t i f a ct a n d w a n t e d t o i n cl u d e a si m i l a r a ct i o n i n h e r p r o j e ct Je n n i f e r o b se r ve d t h a t S a r a h s a r t i f a ct i n cl u d e d a q u e s t i o n a n d a n sw e r sc r i p t a n d d e ci d e d t h a t sh e w o u l d l i ke a si m i l a r a ct i o n i n h e r p r o j e ct S o Je n n i f e r a n d S a r a h co l l a b o r a t e d t o l e a r n t h e a ct i o n s f r o m e a ch o t h e r D o m i n i c s ca se p r o vi d e s a n a d d i t i o n a l e xa m p l e o f t h e t h r e e t yp e s o f i n st r u ct i o n i n a ct i o n D o m i n i c d e m o n st r a t e d co m p e t e n ce m o d i f yi n g e xi st i n g s p r i t e s f r o m t h e S cr a t ch l i b r a r y a n d d e si g n i n g h i s o w n u n i q u e s p r i t e s. R e ca l l t h a t t h e s e sp e ci f i c ski l l s w e r e i n t e n t i o n a l l y t a u g h t b e f o r e t h e d e si g n p h a se o f t h e st u d y b e g a n I n a d d i t i o n D o m i n i c w a s t h e o n l y p a r t i ci p a n t t o l e a r n a n d i n t e g r a t e vo i ce r e co r d i n g s. W h e n D o m i n i c e xp r e sse d a n i n t e r e st i n n a r r a t i n g t h e st o r y h e co n ce i ve d f o r h i s m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct b o t h t h i s r e se a r c h e r a n d M r s. H a ssi st e d h i m i n l e a r n i n g h o w t o r e co r d h i s vo i ce a n d

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1 0 3 i n t e g r a t e t h e r e co r d i n g s i n t o h i s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct T h i s ski l l w a s n o t t a u g h t t o t h e o t h e r p a r t i ci p a n t s b e ca u se t h e o t h e r p a r t i ci p a n t s d i d n o t e xp r e ss a n i n t e r e st i n i n t e g r a t i n g vo i ce r e co r d i n g s i n t o t h e i r p r o j e ct s so D o m i n i c r e ce i ve d d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n s t r u ct i o n sp e ci f i c t o t h i s ski l l D o m i n i c o b se r ve d t h a t Je n n i f e r s S cr a t ch a r t i f a c t i n cl u d e d m u l t i p l e sce n e s a n d e xp r e ss e d a n i n t e r e st i n h a vi n g m u l t i p l e sce n e s i n h i s a r t i f a c t a s w e l l Je n n i f e r co l l a b o r a t e d w i t h D o m i n i c t o t e a ch h i m h o w t o u s e t h e h i d e a n d s h o w co m m a n d b l o cks j u st a s sh e d i d w i t h S a r a h I n su m m a r y, b o t h Je n n i f e r s a n d D o m i n i c s e x p e r i e n ce s d e m o n s t r a t e h o w t h r e e a p p r o a c h e s t o l e a r n i n g S c r a t ch u s e d co l l e ct i v e l y a ssi st e d t h e m i n l e a r n i n g S cr a t ch U si n g m u l t i p l e a p p r o a c h e s m a y e n su r e m o r e e f f e ct i ve l e a r n i n g o v e r a d o p t i n g a si n g l e a p p r o a c h P r o vi d i n g j u st d i r e ct i n st r u ct i o n m a y n o t a l l o w l e a r n e r s o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o cu st o m i ze t h e i r a r t i f a ct s. L i m i t i n g l e a r n i n g t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n st r u ct i o n m a y b e a n u n w i e l d y b u r d e n o n t h e t e a ch e r a s s/ h e a t t e m p t s t o i n d i vi d u a l i ze l e a r n i n g f o r a l l st u d e n t s. W h e n so l e l y r e l yi n g o n p e e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n l e a r n e r s m a y n o t d e ve l o p su f f i c i e n t co m p e t e n c e b e ca u se t h e r e m a y n o t b e e n o u g h e xp e r t i se w i t h i n t h e p e e r g r o u p W h e n a l l t h r e e a p p r o a ch e s a r e i n t e g r a t e d d i r e c t i n st r u ct i o n a l l o w s l e a r n e r s t o d e ve l o p b a si c co m p e t e n cy w h i l e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n st r u ct i o n a n d p e e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n cr e a se co m p e t e n cy a n d a l l o w f o r cu st o m i za t i o n S c a f f o l d t h e D e s i g n E x p e r i e n c e B o t h Je n n i f e r a n d D o m i n i c d e si g n e d a S cr a t c h a r t i f a ct ye t t h e i r i n d i vi d u a l c a se s su p p o r t t h e d e si g n p r i n ci p l e t h a t i t i s i m p e r a t i v e t o sca f f o l d t h e d e si g n e xp e r i e n ce t o m e e t t h e n e e d s o f t h e i n d i vi d u a l l e a r n e r D o m i n i c m a y h a ve b e n e f i t e d f r o m a d d i t i o n a l sca f f o l d i n g t h a t w a s n o t p r o vi d e d d u r i n g t h e d e si g n st a g e o f t h i s r e se a r c h st u d y. T o o m u ch ch o i ce a n d co n t r o l a n d t o o f e w ch e ckp o i n t s t o m e e t t h r o u g h o u t t h e d e si g n

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1 0 4 p r o ce ss m a y h a ve c o n t r i b u t e d t o D o m i n i c s f r u st r a t i o n d u r i n g t h i s st u d y. M r s. H r e f l e ct e d t h a t D o m i n i c st r u g g l e d b e ca u se t h e r e w a sn t e n o u g h st r u ct u r e f o r h i m S h e a l so r e f l e ct e d t h a t D o m i n i c n e e d e d se q u e n t i a l sca f f o l d i n g t h a t i n cl u d e d sp e ci f i c s t e p s t h a t h e n e e d e d t o ch e ck o f f D u r i n g a n i n t e r vi e w t h i s r e se a r ch e r a ske d D o m i n i c a b o u t t h e b e st w a y t o l e a r n h o w t o u se S cr a t c h D o m i n i c sh a r e d t h a t h e t h o u g h t i t s h o u l d b e o n e si m p l e t h i n g a t a t i m e I n h i s r e sp o n se D o m i n i c m a y b e e xp r e ssi n g h o w h e l i ke s t o l e a r n n o t o n l y h o w t o l e a r n S cr a t ch b u t a l s o h o w h e p r e f e r s t o l e a r n i n g e n e r a l D o m i n i c m a y n e e d t o l e a r n s o m e t h i n g n e w i n sm a l l st e p s. A d d i t i o n a l sca f f o l d i n g co u l d r e d u ce D o m i n i c s f r u st r a t i o n H o w e ve r w h i l e Je n n i f e r m a y h a v e a l so b e n e f i t e d f r o m a d d i t i o n a l sca f f o l d i n g sh e a p p e a r e d t o t h r i ve w i t h t h e a m o u n t o f ch o i ce a n d co n t r o l o f f e r e d d u r i n g t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss. R e c a l l t h a t M r s. H n o t e d t h a t Je n n i f e r e m e r g e d a s a l e a d e r a m o n g t h e p a r t i ci p a n t s. S h e co u l d i n d e p e n d e n t l y t r o u b l e sh o o t a n d r e vi se h e r S cr a t c h a r t i f a ct w h e n sh e e n co u n t e r e d a n i ssu e S h e co u l d a l so sh a r e h e r e xp e r t i se a b o u t S cr a t ch w i t h h e r p e e r s. I n f a ct s e ve r a l a c t i o n s e vi d e n t i n h e r S cr a t ch a r t i f a c t e ve n t u a l l y f o u n d t h e i r w a y i n t o se ve r a l o f h e r p e e r s a r t i f a ct s. D o m i n i c s a n d Je n n i f e r s n e a r l y p o l a r p e r f o r m a n ce s d u r i n g t h i s r e se a r c h st u d y su g g e st t h a t sca f f o l d i n g i s a n e ce ssa r y c o m p o n e n t t o co n st r u ct m u l t i m e d i a b u t t h e sca f f o l d i n g a n d su p p o r t m u st b e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e i n d i vi d u a l l e a r n e r D o m i n i c m a y r e q u i r e s u b st a n t i a l l y m o r e sca f f o l d i n g t h a n Je n n i f e r I t i s l i ke l y t h a t l e a r n e r s m a y b e n e f i t a l o n g a co n t i n u u m o f sca f f o l d i n g w i t h so m e l e a r n e r s r e q u i r i n g m o r e sca f f o l d i n g a n d o t h e r s r e q u i r i n g l e ss sca f f o l d i n g

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1 0 5 E x p l i c i t l y a n d R e p e a t e d l y S t a t e L e a r n i n g G o a l s B e f o r e p a r t i ci p a n t s b e g a n d e si g n i n g t h e i r S cr a t ch a r t i f a c t s, M r s. H a n d t h i s r e se a r ch e r sh a r e d t h e l e a r n i n g g o a l f o r t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss. T h e l e a r n i n g g o a l w a s e xp l i ci t l y st a t e d a n d r e c o r d e d o n t h e w a l l w h e r e i t r e m a i n e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h i s st u d y. T h o u g h t h e l e a r n i n g g o a l w a s e xp l i ci t l y st a t e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p r o j e ct i t w a s n o t co n si st e n t l y r e a d d r e sse d d u r i n g t h e e xt e n t o f t h i s st u d y. T h i s m a y p r o vi d e so m e a cco u n t f o r w h y t h e r e i s n o t a si g n i f i ca n t i m p a ct o n l e a r n i n g o b se r ve d I f l e a r n e r s a r e n o t r e p e a t e d l y m a d e a w a r e o f t h e l e a r n i n g t a r g e t w h e n d e si g n i n g m u l t i m e d i a t h e n t h e y m a y f o r g e t t h e i r p u r p o s e f o r l e a r n i n g a n d t h e i r m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct m a y n o t f u l l y r e p r e se n t o r a d d r e ss t h e l e a r n i n g g o a l D o m i n i c s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct o n l y i n cl u d e d s u p e r f i ci a l r e f e r e n ce s t o t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. T h i s i n d i ca t e s t h a t a t so m e p o i n t d u r i n g t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss h e w a s a w a r e t h a t h i s a r t i f a ct sh o u l d i n cl u d e s o m e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. H o w e ve r h a d t h e l e a r n i n g g o a l b e e n r e p e a t e d l y r e st a t e d D o m i n i c s S cr a t ch a r t i f a c t m a y h a ve a d d r e sse d a d e e p e r l e ve l o f co n t e n t D u r i n g t h e p o st e xp e r i e n ce i n t e r vi e w b e t w e e n D o m i n i c a n d t h i s r e se a r c h e r t h i s r e se a r ch e r a ske d D o m i n i c i f h e co u l d r e ca l l t h e g o a l o f t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss. D o m i n i c st a t e d t h a t h e d i d b u t h e co u l d n o t a r t i cu l a t e t h e o r i g i n a l g o a l Je n n i f e r s S cr a t c h a r t i f a ct a d d r e sse d m o r e co n t e n t o n t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s t h a n D o m i n i c s a r t i f a c t I t i s r e a so n a b l e t o a ssu m e t h a t Je n n i f e r w a s a l so a w a r e t h a t h e r a r t i f a c t sh o u l d i n cl u d e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s a n d t h a t sh e w a s a b l e t o r e t a i n t h i s l e a r n i n g g o a l l o n g e r t h a n D o m i n i c. Je n n i f e r m a y a l so h a ve b e n e f i t e d f r o m m u l t i p l e r e m i n d e r s a b o u t t h e l e a r n i n g g o a l T h e y m a y h a ve h e l p e d

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1 0 6 h e r f o cu s o n i m p o r t a n t a sp e ct s o f t h e co n t e n t o r h a ve e n co u r a g e d h e r t o i n cl u d e a d d i t i o n a l co n t e n t T h o u g h t h e l e a r n i n g g o a l f o r t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss d o cu m e n t e d i n t h i s r e se a r ch st u d y w a s n o t r e p e a t e d l y r e st a t e d w h i l e p a r t i ci p a n t s w e r e d e si g n i n g t h e i r S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct s, i t w a s e xp l i ci t l y st a t e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e st u d y. Y e t e xp l i ci t l y st a t i n g a l e a r n i n g g o a l i s n e ce ss a r y b u t n o t s u f f i ci e n t f o r e n su r i n g t h a t a l l st u d e n t s m e e t a l e a r n i n g g o a l T h e l e a r n i n g g o a l f o r d e si g n i n g a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct sh o u l d co n si st e n t l y b e a d d r e sse d t o e n su r e t h a t l e a r n e r s a r e w o r k i n g t o w a r d s t h e a p p r o p r i a t e t a r g e t A s s e s s A r t i f a c t s R e g u l a r l y O n e o f t h e a n a l yse s c o n d u ct e d b y t h i s r e se a r ch e r w a s a n a n a l ysi s o f e a ch p a r t i ci p a n t s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct T h i s a n a l ysi s w a s co n d u ct e d a f t e r e a ch d e si g n se ssi o n T h i s r e se a r ch e r co l l e ct e d d a t a f r o m e a ch a r t i f a ct ( se e A p p e n d i x G ) a n d r e co r d e d o b se r va t i o n s o f e a c h p a r t i ci p a n t s p r o g r e ss ( s e e A p p e n d i x C ) T h i s d a i l y a n a l ysi s e n su r e d t h a t t h i s r e se a r ch h a d so m e d e g r e e o f a w a r e n e ss o f e a c h p a r t i ci p a n t s p r o g r e ss d u r i n g t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss. I f i n a ccu r a t e co n t e n t a p p e a r e d i n a S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct o r i f a S cr a t c h a r t i f a ct w a s n o t w o r ki n g p r o p e r l y, M r s. H o r t h i s r e se a r ch e r c o u l d a d d r e ss t h e i ssu e w i t h t h e p a r t i ci p a n t H o w e v e r t h i s i s o n l y p o ssi b l e i f so m e o n e i s a w a r e o f a n y i ssu e s, a n d i t i s o n l y p o ssi b l e t o b e a w a r e o f i ssu e s i f s o m e o n e h a s a sse sse d t h e a r t i f a c t s. R e g u l a r l y a sse ssi n g a r t i f a ct co u l d b e co n si d e r e d a d a u n t i n g t a sk i f a t e a c h e r i s r e sp o n si b l e f o r a l a r g e n u m b e r o f s t u d e n t s H o w e ve r h a vi n g st u d e n t s co l l e ct a n d r e co r d t h e i r o w n d a t a i n a co m m u n i t y s p r e a d s h e e t co u l d m i t i g a t e t h i s co n ce r n T h u s, a t e a ch e r c o u l d r e vi e w t h e sp r e a d s h e e t t o d e t e r m i n e p r o g r e ss t h e n e x a m i n e i n d i vi d u a l S cr a t ch a r t i f a c t s a s n e e d e d S t u d e n t s c o u l d a l so r e co r d a n d r e f l e ct o n t h e i r d a i l y

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1 0 7 p r o g r e s s i n l e a r n i n g j o u r n a l s, w h i ch t h e t e a ch e r co u l d r e vi e w t o a sce r t a i n i n d i vi d u a l p r o g r e ss S u m m a r y o f D e s i g n P r i n c i p l e s T h i s r e se a r ch st u d y r e v e a l e d f o u r d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s t h a t p r o vi d e g u i d e l i n e s a n d i n si g h t f o r t e a ch e r s w h o ch o o se t o i n t e g r a t e L C M i n t o t h e i r e xi st i n g p r a ct i ce T h e d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s i n cl u d e : U se m u l t i p l e a p p r o a c h e s t o l e a r n S cr a t ch S ca f f o l d t h e d e si g n e xp e r i e n ce E xp l i ci t l y a n d r e p e a t e d l y st a t e l e a r n i n g g o a l s A sse ss a r t i f a ct s r e g u l a r l y T h e se d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s a l so s e r ve t o i n f o r m t h e n e xt i t e r a t i o n o f D B R e xa m i n i n g t h e i m p a ct o f L C M o n l e a r n i n g co n t e n t T h e se f o u r p r i n ci p l e s sh o u l d b e e xp l i ci t l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a f u t u r e d e si g n o f a n i n n o va t i ve l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t t h a t a l l o w s l e a r n e r s t o co n st r u ct m u l t i m e d i a t o r e p r e s e n t t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f sp e ci f i c co n t e n t

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1 0 8 C H A P T E R 6 C O N C L U S I O N S u m m a r y o f F i n d i n g s B a se d o n t h e a n a l yse s o f i n t e r vi e w s b e t w e e n ca se st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s a n d t h i s r e se a r ch e r a n d t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r a n d t h i s r e se a r ch e r a n a n a l ysi s o f p a r t i ci p a n t co n st r u ct e d S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct s, a n a n a l ysi s o f t h i s r e se a r c h e r s r e f l e ct i ve o b se r va t i o n n o t e s a n d d a t a f r o m a cu r r i cu l u m b a se d p r e a n d p o st t e st t h i s st u d y r e ve a l s t h a t l e a r n i n g g a i n s m a y o r m a y n o t o ccu r w h e n l e a r n e r s d e si g n a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct u si n g S cr a t ch D a t a c o l l e ct e d a n d a n a l yz e d i n t h i s s t u d y yi e l d i n co n cl u si v e e vi d e n ce f o r a n i m p a ct o n l e a r n i n g Y e t t h i s d o e s n o t i m p l y t h a t t h e r e i s n o i m p a ct o n l e a r n i n g O n e r e a so n a b l e e xp l a n a t i o n f o r w h y n o i m p a ct w a s m e a su r e d m a y b e a r e su l t o f t h e co n t e n t b a se d m e a su r e u se d f o r t h e p r e a n d p o st t e st d u r i n g t h i s st u d y. R e ca l l t h a t b o t h ca se st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s, J e n n i f e r a n d D o m i n i c, sco r e d l o w e r o n t h e p o st t e st t h a n t h e p r e t e st T h i s m e a su r e m a y n o t h a v e a d e q u a t e l y ca p t u r e d p a r t i ci p a n t s co n t e n t kn o w l e d g e b e f o r e o r a f t e r t h e e xp e r i e n ce S i t u a t i n g T h i s S t u d y w i t h i n E x i s t i n g L i t e r a t u r e R e ca l l f r o m C h a p t e r 2 t h a t t h e r e i s a r e a so n a b l e a m o u n t o f e vi d e n ce w i t h i n t h e e xi st i n g l i t e r a t u r e t h a t i d e n t i f i e s p o si t i ve o u t co m e s w h e n l e a r n e r s d e si g n m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct s. H o w e v e r t h e r e e xi st s l i t t l e d o c u m e n t a t i o n t h a t ca p t u r e s h o w l e a r n e r s u se S cr a t ch t o d e si g n m u l t i m e d i a i n a cl a ssr o o m s e t t i n g t h o u g h t h e u se o f S cr a t ch i n a f t e r sch o o l p r o g r a m s co m m u n i t y t e c h n o l o g y ce n t e r s a n d S cr a t ch s o n l i n e co m m u n i t y i s d o cu m e n t e d T h i s st u d y d o cu m e n t s h o w y o u n g l e a r n e r s u se S cr a t ch i n a cl a ssr o o m co n t e xt t o d e si g n a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct t h a t r e p r e se n t s t h e i r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f r e q u i r e d m a t h co n t e n t T h i s st u d y co n t r i b u t e s t o t h e cu r r e n t vo i d o f l i t e r a t u r e t h a t d o cu m e n t s

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1 0 9 h o w l e a r n e r s u se S cr a t ch i n f o r m a l K 1 2 e d u c a t i o n a l e n vi r o n m e n t s t o l e a r n r e q u i r e d cu r r i cu l u m co n t e n t I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r P r a c t i c e T h e r e a r e s e ve r a l i m p l i ca t i o n s f o r cu r r e n t p r a c t i ce s w h e n t e a c h e r s a n d sch o o l s co n si d e r i n t e g r a t i n g L C M u si n g S cr a t ch a s a p e d a g o g i ca l a p p r o a ch T h e se i m p l i ca t i o n s i n cl u d e : L C M a l l o w s m u l t i p l e l e a r n i n g p a t h s f o r st u d e n t s. L C M e n co u r a g e s s e l f d i r e ct e d l e a r n i n g L C M p r o m o t e s co l l a b o r a t i o n L C M cr e a t e s a n a l t e r n a t i v e m e t h o d o f a sse ss m e n t L C M ch a n g e s t h e r o l e o f t h e t e a ch e r f r o m g i v e r o f kn o w l e d g e t o co a ch E a ch o f t h e se i m p l i ca t i o n s i s d i scu sse d b e l o w L C M A l l o w s M u l t i p l e L e a r n i n g P a t h s f o r S t u d e n t s O n e o f t h e i m p l i ca t i o n s e vi d e n t f r o m t h i s st u d y i s t h a t i n t e g r a t i n g L C M i n sch o o l s cr e a t e s a n o p p o r t u n i t y f o r l e a r n e r s t o e n g a g e i n m a t h co n t e n t i n a n a l t e r n a t i ve m a n n e r t o r o t e l e a r n i n g M r s. H r e f l e ct e d t h a t i n s t e a d o f j u st t h e m b e i n g t h e c o n su m e r s o f t h e kn o w l e d g e a n d t h e n j u st sp i t t i n g i t b a ck o u t o n a t e st a n d r e g u r g i t a t i n g i t t h e y a ct u a l l y h a d t o t h i n k o u t si d e o f t h e m se l ve s a n d t h i n k h o w w o u l d so m e b o d y b e e n g a g e d i n l e a r n i n g a b o u t t h i s sh a p e T h e e n vi r o n m e n t f e a t u r e d i n t h i s st u d y cr e a t e d a n o p p o r t u n i t y f o r l e a r n e r s t o b e co m e p r o d u ce r s r a t h e r t h a n c o n su m e r s. P a r t i ci p a n t s d e si g n e d a S c r a t ch a r t i f a ct t h a t e xp r e sse d t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s T h e r e f o r e p a r t i ci p a n t s n e e d e d t o t h i n k a b o u t w h i ch sp e ci f i c c o n t e n t t h e y w a n t e d t o i n cl u d e i n t h e i r S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct s a n d t o m a ke d e ci si o n s a b o u t h o w t h a t co n t e n t w o u l d b e e xp r e sse d i n t h e i r a r t i f a c t s. T h i s a p p r o a ch c r e a t e d m u l t i p l e p a t h s f o r p a r t i ci p a n t s t o d e si g n t h e i r a r t i f a c t s. T h e r e w a s n o si n g l e co m m o n p a t h t h a t a l l p a r t i ci p a n t s u se d

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1 1 0 I t i s l i ke l y t h a t p a r t i ci p a n t s ch o se t o e xp r e ss t h e i r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s i n a m a n n e r t h a t r e f l e ct e d h o w t h e y p r e f e r t o l e a r n F o r e x a m p l e d u r i n g t h e i n t e r vi e w b e t w e e n D o m i n i c a n d t h i s r e se a r c h e r D o m i n i c sh a r e d t h a t h e e n j o ye d w r i t i n g a n d t e l l i n g st o r i e s. H i s S cr a t c h a r t i f a ct w a s cl e a r l y st o r y b a s e d I t i n cl u d e d a r e co r d e d n a r r a t i o n o f a st o r y h e cr e a t e d a n d i t w a s t h e o n l y S cr a t ch a r t i f a c t t h a t i n cl u d e d a vo i ce r e co r d i n g T h o u g h D o m i n i c s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct su p e r f i ci a l l y r e f e r e n ce d t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s, h i s n a r r a t i ve a p p r o a ch t o d e si g n i n g h i s a r t i f a ct m a y r e p r e se n t h o w h e p r e f e r s t o l e a r n I f a l l p a r t i ci p a n t s w e r e e xp e c t e d t o f o l l o w a co m m o n p a t h w h i l e d e si g n i n g t h e i r S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct D o m i n i c m a y n o t h a v e b e e n a b l e t o d e si g n a n a r r a t i ve a r t i f a ct A n o t h e r a sp e ct o f a l l o w i n g m u l t i p l e l e a r n i n g p a t h s r e l a t e s t o a p p r o a c h e s f o r l e a r n i n g S cr a t ch t h e m u l t i m e d i a a u t h o r i n g t o o l u se d i n t h i s r e se a r ch st u d y. T h e r e a r e m u l t i p l e w a ys t o l e a r n h o w t o u s e a n e w t o o l s u ch a s S cr a t ch O n e a p p r o a ch a s M r s. H sh a r e d i n vo l ve s w a t c h m e n o w yo u d o i t w a t ch m e n o w yo u d o i t T h i s a p p r o a c h co n si st s o f a cycl e o f m o d e l i n g b y t h e t e a c h e r f o l l o w e d b y g u i d e d p r a ct i ce f o r t h e st u d e n t W h e n t h e p a r t i ci p a n t s w e r e f i r st l e a r n i n g S cr a t ch t h i s d i r e ct i n st r u ct i o n w a s t h e a p p r o a ch a d o p t e d b y t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r a n d r e se a r ch e r H o w e ve r a f t e r s h a r i n g so m e o f t h e m o st co m m o n a ct i o n s i n S cr a t c h o t h e r a p p r o a c h e s t o l e a r n i n g S c r a t ch w e r e e m p l o ye d P a r t i ci p a n t s w e r e e n co u r a g e d t o e xp l o r e S cr a t ch i n d e p e n d e n t l y t o d e t e r m i n e w h i ch co m m a n d b l o cks w e r e r e q u i r e d f o r t h e i r scr i p t s, a n d t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r a n d r e se a r ch e r p r o vi d e d j u st i n t i m e i n st r u ct i o n d e p e n d i n g o n t h e i n d i vi d u a l n e e d s o f t h e p a r t i ci p a n t s. I n a d d i t i o n p a r t i ci p a n t s co l l a b o r a t e d w i t h e a ch o t h e r t o sh a r e e xp e r t i se

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1 1 1 R e g a r d l e ss o f t h e a p p r o a ch f o r l e a r n i n g S cr a t ch n o si n g l e a p p r o a ch o r l e a r n i n g p a t h w o r ks f o r a l l l e a r n e r s. S o m e l e a r n e r s n e e d t h e a d d i t i o n a l st r u ct u r e o f t h e cycl e o f m o d e l i n g a n d g u i d e d p r a ct i ce a n d d o n o t t h r i v e w h e n g i ve n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o t i n k e r D o m i n i c r e p r e se n t s t h i s t yp e o f l e a r n e r H e w o u l d o n l y m a ke p r o g r e ss o n h i s S cr a t c h a r t i f a ct w h e n a n a d u l t w a s a va i l a b l e t o g u i d e h i m O t h e r s f e e l co n st r a i n e d b y t h e cycl e o f m o d e l i n g a n d g u i d e d p r a ct i ce a n d l e a r n m o r e w h e n a l l o w e d t o i n d e p e n d e n t l y f i g u r e o u t h o w S cr a t c h w o r ks. O n e o f t h e n o n ca se st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s e m e r g e d a s a l e a d e r w h i l e l e a r n i n g S cr a t ch H e i n d e p e n d e n t l y t e st e d a n d r e vi se d scr i p t s a n d t r i e d o u t va r i o u s co m m a n d b l o cks u n t i l t h e scr i p t s w o r k e d t h e w a y h e i n t e n d e d t h e m t o w o r k, t h e n h e w o u l d sh a r e h i s n e w l e a r n i n g w i t h h i s p e e r g r o u p O f a l l t h e p a r t i ci p a n t s, t h i s i n d i vi d u a l i n cl u d e d 1 6 u n i q u e co m m a n d b l o ck s i n h i s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct m o r e t h a n a n y o t h e r p a r t i ci p a n t ( m e a n f o r t h e g r o u p i s 1 1 5 w i t h a r a n g e o f 5 1 6 ) T h i s d e m o n st r a t e s t h a t t h i s i n d i vi d u a l w a s w i l l i n g t o t i n k e r i n S cr a t ch a n d t o f i g u r e o u t h o w ce r t a i n co m m a n d b l o cks w o r k e d W h e n a t e a c h e r c r e a t e s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l e a r n e r s t o f o l l o w m u l t i p l e l e a r n i n g p a t h s, s/ h e e n co u r a g e s c h o i ce S ch i e f e l e ( 1 9 9 1 ) r e p o r t e d t h a t ch o i ce e n co u r a g e s l e a r n e r s t o e xp e n d m o r e e f f o r t o n l e a r n i n g a n d u n d e r st a n d i n g co n t e n t T u r n e r a n d P a r i s ( 1 9 9 5 ) a r g u e d t h a t ch o i ce ca n b e a st r o n g m o t i va t o r O p e n e n d e d a c t i vi t i e s cr e a t e n u m e r o u s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r ch o i ce a n d p r o vi d e s t u d e n t s w i t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o m o l d t a sks t o i n t e r e st s a n d va l u e s, t h u s su p p o r t i n g t h e i r e f f o r t s t o m a ke m e a n i n g w h i l e e n g a g i n g t h e m a f f e ct i ve l y ( T u r n e r & P a r i s, 1 9 9 5 p 6 6 5 )

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1 1 2 C r e a t i n g m u l t i p l e l e a r n i n g p a t h s e n s u r e s t h a t l e a r n e r s h a ve t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n i n a m a n n e r t h a t r e f l e ct s t h e w a ys t h e y p r e f e r t o l e a r n T h i s i m p l i ca t i o n i s a l so r e l a t e d t o a n o t h e r i m p l i ca t i o n r e l e va n t t o t h i s e n vi r o n m e n t : s e l f d i r e ct e d l e a r n i n g L C M E n c o u r a g e s S e l f D i r e c t e d L e a r n i n g P a r t i ci p a n t s i n t h i s p r o j e ct w e r e a f f o r d e d a f a i r a m o u n t o f ch o i ce a n d co n t r o l i n t h e d e si g n o f t h e i r S cr a t c h a r t i f a ct s. T h e o ve r a l l g o a l o f d e si g n i n g a S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct t h a t i n cl u d e s t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s w a s a co m m o n e xp e ct a t i o n f o r a l l p a r t i ci p a n t s. H o w e ve r h o w t h e y ch o se t o a d d r e ss t h a t g o a l va r i e d si g n i f i ca n t l y a cr o ss t h e p a r t i ci p a n t s. O n e p a r t i ci p a n t c h o se a n a r r a t i ve a p p r o a ch T h e p a r t i ci p a n t r e c o r d e d h i s vo i ce t e l l i n g a s t o r y h e h a d w r i t t e n o ve r t h e co u r se o f se ve r a l sce n e s. A se co n d p a r t i ci p a n t i n cl u d e d a se r i e s o f sce n e s t h a t e a ch sh a r e d i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f a sp e ci f i c g e o m e t r i c so l i d t h e n a ske d t h e u s e r t o r e sp o n d t o a q u e st i o n a b o u t t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n a n d t o a n sw e r i t co r r e ct l y b e f o r e t r a n si t i o n i n g t o t h e n e xt sce n e S e ve r a l p a r t i ci p a n t s u se d a q u i z l i ke f o r m a t t h a t i n cl u d e d a se r i e s o f q u e st i o n s a b o u t g e o m e t r i c so l i d s w i t h o u t i n cl u d i n g b a ckg r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n A l l t h r e e o f t h e se a p p r o a c h e s m e t t h e e x p e c t a t i o n o f a d d r e ssi n g t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s t o so m e e xt e n t t h o u g h so m e p a r t i ci p a n t s i n t e g r a t e d m o r e co n t e n t t h a n o t h e r s. S e l f d i r e ct e d l e a r n i n g w a s a l so e vi d e n t t h r o u g h t h e l e ve l o f e n g a g e m e n t d i sp l a ye d b y p a r t i ci p a n t s. M r s. H n o t e d t h a t p a r t i ci p a n t s a r r i ve d a t e a ch se ssi o n a n d i m m e d i a t e l y st a r t e d w o r ki n g T h e y d o n t e ve r d o t h a t E ve r A n d i f y o u g o w a t ch t h e m i n t h e i r r o o m s, t h e y r e t h e l e a st a t t e n t i ve a n d m o st ch e cke d o u t i n t h e i r r e g u l a r cl a ssr o o m s. S o f o r t h e m t o co m e i n a n d j u s t b a m g e t d o w n t o w o r k w a s h u g e W h i l e t h e r e i s n o t su f f i ci e n t e vi d e n ce t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e xa ct ca u s e o f t h i s e n g a g e m e n t a n d

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1 1 3 co n si d e r i n g t h a t t h e r e m a y b e i n f l u e n ce s f r o m o t h e r f a ct o r s, i t i s st i l l r e a so n a b l e t o a ssu m e t h a t e n g a g e m e n t m a y i n cr e a s e w h e n l e a r n e r s a r e r e sp o n si b l e f o r t h e i r l e a r n i n g Je n n i f e r s e x p e r i e n c e d u r i n g t h i s p r o j e ct p r o vi d e s su p p o r t f o r t h i s a ssu m p t i o n w h i l e D o m i n i c s e xp e r i e n ce r e f u t e s i t M r s. H r e co g n i ze d Je n n i f e r a s o n e o f t h e l e a d e r s d u r i n g t h i s p r o j e ct w h i l e D o m i n i c g o t l o st i n t h e p r o j e ct T h i s m a y i n d i ca t e t h a t se l f d i r e ct e d l e a r n i n g o n l y b e n e f i t s l e a r n e r s w h e n t h e y h a ve n e ce ssa r y ski l l s t o b e se l f d i r e ct e d S e l f d i r e ct e d l e a r n i n g m a y b e a l e a r n e d ski l l ; o n e t h a t n e e d s t o b e d e ve l o p e d o ve r t i m e Je n n i f e r r e p e a t e d l y d e m o n st r a t e d t h a t sh e co u l d b e a se l f d i r e ct e d l e a r n e r so d u r i n g h e r p a st e xp e r i e n ce s, sh e d e v e l o p e d t h e n e c e ssa r y ski l l s t o b e a su cc e ssf u l se l f d i r e ct e d l e a r n e r D o m i n i c, h o w e ve r m a y n o t h a ve h a d t h e n e ce ssa r y ski l l s t o b e a se l f d i r e ct e d l e a r n e r S o w h e n h e w a s p l a ce d i n a n e n vi r o n m e n t t h a t e n co u r a g e d se l f d i r e ct e d l e a r n i n g h e b e ca m e f r u st r a t e d a n d c o n f u se d r a t h e r t h a n t h r i vi n g H e r e q u i r e d n e a r co n s t a n t g u i d a n ce f r o m e i t h e r M r s. H o r t h e r e se a r ch e r t o m a ke p r o g r e ss o n h i s m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct S e l f d i r e ct e d l e a r n i n g e n co u r a g e s co n t r o l o f l e a r n i n g w i t h t h e l e a r n e r R ya n a n d G r o l n i ck ( 1 9 8 6 ) r e p o r t e d t h a t st u d e n t s i n cl a ss r o o m s w h e r e t h e co n t r o l o f l e a r n i n g i s sh a r e d b e t w e e n t h e st u d e n t a n d t h e t e a ch e r d e m o n st r a t e i n cr e a se d i n t e r e st i n sch o o l w o r k a n d p e r c e i ve d co m p e t e n ce t h a n s t u d e n t s i n t e a ch e r co n t r o l l e d cl a ss r o o m s T u r n e r & P a r i s ( 1 9 9 5 ) r e p o r t e d t h a t [ s] h a r e d co n t r o l p r o vi d e s st u d e n t s w i t h b o t h t h e t o o l s a n d t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o t a k e r e sp o n si b i l i t y f o r t h e i r l e a r n i n g ( p 6 6 7 ) E n co u r a g i n g s e l f d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g m a y r e q u i r e t h a t l e a r n e r s h a ve a d d i t i o n a l ski l l s i n p l a ce b e f o r e b e c o m i n g a su cce ssf u l s e l f d i r e c t e d l e a r n e r O n e ski l l t h a t m a y b e b e n e f i ci a l f o r se l f d i r e ct e d l e a r n i n g i s co l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h p e e r s.

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1 1 4 L C M P r o m o t e s C o l l a b o r a t i o n M r s. H n o t e d t h a t a si g n i f i ca n t i m p l i ca t i o n o f t h i s e n vi r o n m e n t w a s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r co l l a b o r a t i o n : co l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h e a ch o t h e r w h e n t h e y w e r e h a vi n g t o cr e a t e b u t t h e n a l so w h e n t h e y w e r e h a vi n g t o r e vi se S o m e b o d y w o u l d sa y h o w d o yo u d o t h a t ? S o m e b o d y e l se w o u l d sa y j u s t d o h i d e a n d t h e n b r o a d ca st o r w h a t e v e r T h a t s co l l a b o r a t e T h r o u g h o u t t h e d e si g n p r o ce ss, p a r t i ci p a n t s w e r e e n co u r a g e d t o l e a r n f r o m e a ch o t h e r s e xp e r i e n ce s I f a p a r t i ci p a n t w a n t e d t o i n cl u d e a p a r t i cu l a r a ct i o n ( e g h i d i n g a n d sh o w i n g s p r i t e s so t h e y a p p e a r i n t h e p r o p e r sce n e s ) b u t w a s u n su r e h o w t o b u i l d t h e scr i p t f o r t h a t a ct i o n t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r o r r e s e a r ch e r p a r t n e r e d t h a t p a r t i ci p a n t w i t h a n o t h e r p a r t i ci p a n t w h o h a d p r e vi o u sl y i n t e g r a t e d t h a t a ct i o n a n d scr i p t i n t o h i s/ h e r p r o j e ct T h i s t yp e o f co l l a b o r a t i o n r e su l t e d i n m u l t i p l e i n st a n c e s o f cr o ss co n t a m i n a t i o n w h e n a p a r t i cu l a r a ct i o n a n d scr i p t i n t e g r a t e d i n t o o n e p a r t i ci p a n t s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct w o u l d b e co m e p a r t o f a n o t h e r p a r t i ci p a n t s S c r a t ch a r t i f a ct a f t e r t h e t w o p a r t i ci p a n t s co l l a b o r a t e d N e a r t h e e n d o f t h e p r o j e ct p a r t i ci p a n t s a l so c o l l a b o r a t e d i n a p e e r r e vi e w p r o ce ss. P a r t i ci p a n t s r e vi e w e d e a ch o t h e r s S cr a t ch a r t i f a c t s t o e n su r e t h a t t h e y w o r ke d p r o p e r l y. P a r t i ci p a n t s a l so r e vi e w e d t h e a r t i f a ct s f o r s p e l l i n g p u n ct u a t i o n a n d co n ve n t i o n e r r o r s. T h i s t yp e o f co l l a b o r a t i o n r e su l t e d i n m o r e p o l i sh e d S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct s b u t a l so a l l o w e d p a r t i ci p a n t s t o d e m o n st r a t e a n d sh a r e t h e i r e xp e r t i s e i n S cr a t ch T h e r e i s a r e a so n a b l e a m o u n t o f r e se a r ch e vi d e n ce i n t h e e xi st i n g e d u ca t i o n l i t e r a t u r e t o su p p o r t i n cl u d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p e e r co l l a b o r a t i o n i n sch o o l s. S ch u n k ( 1 9 8 9 ) o b se r ve d t h a t yo u n g l e a r n e r s o b se r vi n g e a ch o t h e r s p r o g r e ss i n cr e a se d t h e i r o w n co n f i d e n c e S l a vi n ( 1 9 8 7 ) r e p o r t e d t h a t w o r ki n g w i t h p e e r s p r o m o t e d e n g a g e m e n t

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1 1 5 o n t a sks. T u r n e r a n d P a r i s ( 1 9 9 5 ) a r g u e d t h a t so ci a l g u i d a n ce a n d co o p e r a t i o n i n cl a ssr o o m s a r e a l so f u n d a m e n t a l t o m o t i va t i o n ( p 6 6 8 ) W h i l e t h e co l l a b o r a t i o n d e scr i b e d a b o ve yi e l d e d p o si t i ve r e su l t s, co l l a b o r a t i o n ca n a l so r e su l t i n a n e g a t i ve co n se q u e n ce L a t e i n t h e p r o j e ct o n e p a r t i ci p a n t d i sc o ve r e d a n e xi st i n g sp r i t e i n t h e S cr a t ch l i b r a r y o f a j e t p a ck t h a t i n cl u d e d se ve r a l p r e m a d e scr i p t s t h a t a l l o w a u se r t o m o ve t h e j e t p a ck s p r i t e a r o u n d t h e scr e e n u si n g t h e ke yb o a r d s a r r o w k e ys. H e a d d e d t h e j e t p a ck sp r i t e t o h i s p r o j e c t e ve n t h o u g h i t h a d n o r e l a t i o n sh i p t o t h e d e si g n a n d co n t e n t o f h i s m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct H e si m p l y f o u n d i t e n t e r t a i n i n g T h e f o l l o w i n g d a y, 3 p a r t i ci p a n t s i n cl u d i n g t h e o n e w i t h t h e j e t p a ck sp r i t e co l l a b o r a t e d t o p e e r r e vi e w e a ch o t h e r s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct s. N o t su r p r i si n g l y, t h e o t h e r 2 p a r t i ci p a n t s a d d e d t h e sa m e j e t p a ck sp r i t e t o t h e i r m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct s a f t e r t h i s co l l a b o r a t i o n e ve n t h o u g h i t w a s a n i r r e l e va n t a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r a r t i f a ct s. L C M C r e a t e s a n A l t e r n a t i v e M e t h o d o f A s s e s s m e n t D u r i n g t h i s p r o j e ct p a r t i ci p a n t s co m p l e t e d a c u r r i cu l u m b a se d p r e a n d p o st t e st t h a t w a s t a ke n d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e t e st b a n k o f t h e m a t h cu r r i cu l u m u se d i n t h i s sch o o l T h i s t yp e o f a sse ssm e n t w a s t h e m o s t co m m o n t yp e o f s u m m a t i ve a sse ss m e n t u s e d i n t h e 5 t h g r a d e Y e t t h e S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct s cr e a t e d b y p a r t i ci p a n t s co u l d a l so se r ve a s a su m m a t i ve a sse ssm e n t o f p a r t i ci p a n t s l e a r n i n g E a ch S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct i n cl u d e d co n t e n t r e l a t e d t o t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s, a n d p a r t i ci p a n t s e xp r e sse d t h e i r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h i s co n t e n t t o va r yi n g d e g r e e s i n t h e se a r t i f a ct s. T h e r e f o r e t h e se S cr a t ch a r t i f a c t s co u l d r e p r e se n t a f o r m o f su m m a t i ve a ss e ssm e n t t h a t d o cu m e n t s st u d e n t s u n d e r st a n d i n g o f r e q u i r e d c o n t e n t B a se d o n S cr a t c h a r t i f a ct s t h e p a r t i ci p a n t s i n t h i s p r o j e ct d e m o n st r a t e d va r i o u s l e ve l s o f u n d e r st a n d i n g F o r e x a m p l e D o m i n i c, o n e o f t h e ca se s t u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s o n l y

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1 1 6 i n cl u d e d su p e r f i ci a l r e f e r e n ce s t o g e o m e t r i c s o l i d s i n h i s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct H e cr e a t e d sp r i t e s o f se v e r a l g e o m e t r i c so l i d s a n d i n cl u d e d t h e m i n h i s a r t i f a ct b u t d i d n o t r e f e r e n ce t h e m o r e l a b o r a t e o n t h e m T h e y e xi st e d a s p r o p s i n se ve r a l sce n e s. A s a su m m a t i ve a sse ssm e n t o f h i s l e a r n i n g a t e a ch e r m i g h t c o n cl u d e t h a t D o m i n i c d o e s n o t h a ve a m e a n i n g f u l u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s b e ca u se h e w a s n o t a b l e t o a r t i cu l a t e a n y p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s i n h i s S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct t h o u g h h e d i d u se se ve r a l r e l a t e d vo c a b u l a r y t e r m s I n co n t r a st Je n n i f e r t h e o t h e r ca s e st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t e xp l i ci t l y st a t e d t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f t w o g e o m e t r i c so l i d s i n h e r S cr a t ch a r t i f a ct S h e w a s a b l e t o a r t i cu l a t e t h e se p r o p e r t i e s b a se d o n h e r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f t h i s sp e ci f i c co n t e n t I n t h e d e si g n o f h e r S cr a t c h a r t i f a ct sh e i s a p p l yi n g t h i s u n d e r st a n d i n g b y a r t i cu l a t i n g t h e p r o p e r t i e s. A s a su m m a t i ve a sse ss m e n t o f Je n n i f e r s l e a r n i n g a t e a ch e r m i g h t co n cl u d e t h a t sh e d o e s h a v e a m e a n i n g f u l u n d e r st a n d i n g o f so m e o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f t w o g e o m e t r i c so l i d s b e ca u se s h e a r t i c u l a t e d a sp e ct s o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f a c o n e a n d r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm R e ca l l t h a t n e i t h e r D o m i n i c n o r Je n n i f e r sh o w e d g a i n s o n t h e p o st t e s t w h e n co m p a r e d t o t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e p r e t e st I f t h e p o st t e st u se d i n t h i s st u d y w a s u se d a s a t r a d i t i o n a l s u m m a t i ve a sse ssm e n t o f D o m i n i c s a n d Je n n i f e r s l e a r n i n g t h e n n e i t h e r i n d i vi d u a l d e m o n st r a t e d l e a r n i n g g a i n s f o r t h e co n t e n t a d d r e sse d b y t h e p o st t e st Y e t su ch a l i m i t e d a p p r o a ch d o e s n o t n e ce ssa r i l y ca p t u r e t h e f u l l r a n g e o f a l e a r n e r s u n d e r st a n d i n g f o r a p a r t i cu l a r co n t e n t a r e a J e n n i f e r s S cr a t c h a r t i f a ct cl e a r l y co n t a i n e d co n t e n t r e l a t e d t o t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f g e o m e t r i c so l i d s t h a t w e r e n o t a sse sse d b y t h e p o st t e st I n r e a l i t y, n o si n g l e a sse ss m e n t i n cl u d i n g a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct ca n f u l l y d o cu m e n t a l e a r n e r s u n d e r st a n d i n g o f sp e ci f i c co n t e n t A s a f o r m o f a sse ss m e n t

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1 1 7 d e si g n i n g a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct co u l d s e r ve a s o n e o f se v e r a l a ss e ssm e n t t o o l s t h a t t e a ch e r s e m p l o y t o ca p t u r e a n d d o cu m e n t w h a t l e a r n e r s r e a l l y kn o w a n d u n d e r st a n d I n f a ct M c F a r l a n e W i l l i a m s a n d B o n n e t t ( 2 0 0 0 ) su p p o r t e d t h e st u d e n t u s e o f m u l t i m e d i a a u t h o r i n g so f t w a r e a s a f o r m o f a l t e r n a t i ve a ss e ssm e n t t h o u g h t h e r e i s a d e a r t h o f r e s e a r ch t h a t i n d i ca t e s h o w t o a sse s s a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct f o r e vi d e n ce o f l e a r n i n g L C M C h a n g e s t h e R o l e o f t h e T e a c h e r f r o m G i v e r o f K n o w l e d g e t o C o a c h M r s. H cl e a r l y o b se r ve d h o w h e r r o l e i n t h i s p r o j e ct ch a n g e d f r o m a g i ve r o f kn o w l e d g e t o a co a ch ( C a r v e r L e h r e r C o n n e l l & E r i ckso n 1 9 9 2 ) W h e n st u d e n t s b e co m e m o r e s e l f d i r e ct e d a n d h a v e a m p l e c h o i ce a n d co n t r o l o ve r a p r o j e ct t h e r o l e o f t h e t e a ch e r m u st ch a n g e t o a cc o m m o d a t e t h e w a y st u d e n t s w o r k. M r s. H n o t e d t h a t d u r i n g t h e d e si g n p h a se o f t h i s p r o j e ct i t w a s n o t p o ssi b l e f o r e ve r yb o d y [ t o b e ] l o ck st e p w e r e a l l g o i n g t o d o t h i s a t t h e sa m e t i m e R a t h e r i t w a s w a y m o r e i n d i vi d u a l i ze d M r s. H r e f l e ct e d : I n st e a d o f m e sa yi n g e ve r y b o d y o n t h e i r p a p e r d r a w a co n e O K N o w l e t s a l l l a b e l t h e co n e I n st e a d o f t h a t m o st o f t h e m i n cl u d e d so m e t h i n g a b o u t a co n e o r a d i f f e r e n t sh a p e a n d t h e y g o t t o ch o o se h o w t h e y w e r e g o i n g t o t a l k a b o u t t h e f a ce s o r t h e b a se s A n d t h e y st i l l d i d t h a t ski l l ; t h e y j u st d i d i t b e ca u s e h o w e ve r t h e y ch o se t o d o i t I t w a sn t m e h a vi n g e ve r y b o d y d o t h e sa m e t h i n g a t t h e s a m e t i m e W h e n st u d e n t s b e co m e se l f d i r e ct e d t h e t e a c h e r s r o l e c h a n g e s b e ca u s e a s M r s. H o b se r ve d t h e l e a r n e r i s d r i vi n g t h e t r a i n a n d [ t h e ] t e a c h e r i s b e h i n d t h e sce n e s I t m a y b e a ssu m e d t h a t w h e n a t e a ch e r m o ve s a w a y f r o m t h e r o l e o f g i ve r o f kn o w l e d g e t h a t l e a r n i n g m a y b r e a k d o w n si n c e t h e r e i s n o t r a n sf e r o f co n t e n t f r o m t h e t e a ch e r t o t h e l e a r n e r s. Y e t i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o a ckn o w l e d g e t h a t t e a ch e r s st i l l p l a y cr i t i ca l r o l e s i n e n su r i n g t h a t l e a r n e r s l e a r n r e q u i r e d co n t e n t i n t h e i r r o l e s a s c o a ch e s.

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1 1 8 I n t h e r o l e o f t e a ch e r a s co a ch t e a ch e r s m u st h a ve a n i n f o r m e d u n d e r st a n d i n g o f i n d i vi d u a l l e a r n e r s n e e d s t o b e a b l e t o p r o vi d e a p p r o p r i a t e su p p o r t a s l e a r n e r s p r o g r e ss t h r o u g h a p r o j e ct su ch a s w h e n l e a r n e r s d e si g n a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct t h a t r e p r e se n t s a n u n d e r st a n d i n g o f sp e ci f i c co n t e n t S u m m a r y o f I m p l i c a t i o n s B a se d o n ca se st u d y a n a l yse s a n d a n a n a l ysi s o f t h e i n t e r vi e w b e t w e e n M r s. H a n d t h i s r e se a r c h e r se v e r a l i m p l i ca t i o n s e xi st w h e n t e a ch e r s i n t e g r a t e L C M a s a p e d a g o g i ca l a p p r o a ch f o r a ca d e m i ca l l y a t r i sk l e a r n e r s C o l l e ct i ve l y, t h e se i m p l i ca t i o n s a r e i m p o r t a n t a sp e ct s t o co n si d e r w h e n i m p l e m e n t i n g t h i s p e d a g o g i ca l a p p r o a c h T h e i m p l i ca t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s s t u d y i n cl u d e : L C M a l l o w s m u l t i p l e l e a r n i n g p a t h s f o r st u d e n t s. L C M e n co u r a g e s s e l f d i r e ct e d l e a r n i n g L C M p r o m o t e s co l l a b o r a t i o n L C M cr e a t e s a n a l t e r n a t i v e m e t h o d o f a sse ss m e n t L C M ch a n g e s t h e r o l e o f t h e t e a ch e r f r o m g i v e r o f kn o w l e d g e t o co a ch W h e n d e si g n i n g a m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct u si n g S cr a t ch l e a r n e r s ca n se l e ct f r o m m u l t i p l e l e a r n i n g p a t h s i f t h e y a r e g i ve n a c o m m o n g o a l b u t p r o vi d e d w i t h c h o i ce a n d co n t r o l f o r h o w t o r e a ch t h a t g o a l C h o i ce a n d co n t r o l a l so e n co u r a g e se l f d i r e ct e d l e a r n i n g a s l e a r n e r s w o r k t o r e a l i ze t h e i r d e si g n s. A s se l f d i r e ct e d l e a r n e r s, l e a r n e r s b e co m e a ct i ve p a r t i ci p a n t s i n t h e l e a r n i n g p r o ce ss a n d t e a ch e r s p r o vi d e su p p o r t a s n e e d e d a s t h e y t a ke o n a c o a ch i n g r o l e C o l l a b o r a t i o n a m o n g p e e r s i s a l so e n co u r a g e d a s l e a r n e r s w o r k o n t h e i r d e si g n s. C o m p l e t e d m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct s ca n se r ve a s a n a l t e r n a t i ve f o r m o f a su m m a t i ve a sse ss m e n t d e p e n d i n g o n h o w t h e d e si g n g o a l i s st r u ct u r e d S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h T h e cu r r e n t s t u d y se r ve s a s t h e f i r st i t e r a t i o n o f t h e D B R p r o c e ss. T h e d e si g n p r i n ci p l e s i d e n t i f i e d b y t h i s st u d y se r ve a s a d e si g n f r a m e w o r k f o r t h e n e xt i t e r a t i o n

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1 1 9 E a ch p r i n ci p l e w i l l b e i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e n e xt i t e r a t i o n o f t h i s st u d y. I n a d d i t i o n f u r t h e r r e se a r ch i s n e e d e d i n se ve r a l a r e a s. R a t h e r t h a n a ssu m i n g t h a t a p a r t i cu l a r p e d a g o g i ca l a p p r o a ch w o r ks e q u a l l y w e l l f o r a l l st u d e n t s, t h e r e se a r ch c o m m u n i t y m u st i d e n t i f y t h e t y p e s o f l e a r n e r s t h a t b e n e f i t t h e m o st f r o m a p a r t i cu l a r a p p r o a ch W e m u s t a ckn o w l e d g e t h a t l e a r n e r s b e n e f i t a l o n g a co n t i n u u m f o r a p a r t i cu l a r p e d a g o g i ca l a p p r o a ch o r st r a t e g y. A st r a t e g y m a y w o r k p a r t i cu l a r l y w e l l f o r ce r t a i n t yp e s o f st u d e n t s t h o u g h i t m a y h a ve n o i m p a c t o n o t h e r t yp e s o f st u d e n t s. I d e n t i f yi n g sp e ci f i c a p p r o a c h e s f o r sp e ci f i c l e a r n e r s w i l l e n su r e t h a t a n i n d i vi d u a l s l e a r n i n g n e e d s a r e m e t T h o u g h t h i s st u d y d i d n o t i d e n t i f y l e a r n i n g p r e f e r e n ce s o f t h e p a r t i ci p a n t s f u t u r e i t e r a t i o n s o f t h i s st u d y s h o u l d a t t e m p t t o a sce r t a i n t h e se p r e f e r e n ce s i n o r d e r t o u n d e r st a n d w h i c h t yp e s o f l e a r n e r s b e n e f i t t h e m o st f r o m a L C M a p p r o a ch T h e r e se a r ch co m m u n i t y a l so n e e d s t o f u r t h e r d o cu m e n t t h e o u t co m e s f o r l e a r n e r s w h e n t h e y u se S cr a t ch t o d e si g n m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct s t h a t r e p r e se n t t h e i r u n d e r st a n d i n g o f sp e ci f i c co n t e n t T h i s st u d y r e p r e se n t s a si n g l e co n t r i b u t i o n t o u n d e r st a n d i n g t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p h e n o m e n o n b u t su b st a n t i a l l y m o r e s t u d i e s a r e n e e d e d t o d e ve l o p a cl e a r e r u n d e r st a n d i n g W e a l so n e e d t o d e t e r m i n e e f f e ct i v e p r o c e d u r e s f o r a sse ssi n g l e a r n i n g e vi d e n t i n S cr a t c h m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct s. L i t t l e r e se a r ch cu r r e n t l y e xi st s t o a sse ss l e a r n i n g w h e n l e a r n e r s d e si g n m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct s. W i t h a d d i t i o n a l r e se a r ch i n t h i s a r e a t r a d i t i o n a l p r e a n d p o st t e st s m a y n o l o n g e r b e n e ce ssa r y t o so l e l y ca p t u r e a l e a r n e r s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f co n t e n t A d d i t i o n a l f o r m s o f a ss e ssm e n t su ch a s a sse ssi n g a l e a r n e r s m u l t i m e d i a a r t i f a ct co u l d co m p l e m e n t d a t a g e n e r a t e d f r o m p r e a n d p o s t t e st s.

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1 2 0 A P P E N D I X A I N T E R V I E W T R A N S C R I P T B E T W E E N P R A C T I T I O N E R A N D R E S E A R C H E R T h i s a p p e n d i x i n cl u d e s t h e t r a n scr i p t o f t h e p o st p r o j e ct d e b r i e f i n g i n t e r vi e w r e c o r d e d b e t w e e n t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r a n d r e se a r ch e r R e s e a r c h e r P r a c t i t i o n e r ( M r s H ) H o w d i d yo u r st u d e n t s r e a ct t o u si n g S cr a t ch ? I f yo u w a n t t o g i ve sp e ci f i c e xa m p l e s f e e l f r e e I f yo u w a n t t o g e n e r a l i ze f e e l f r e e T r y t o g i ve a n y e vi d e n ce t h a t yo u ca n o r yo u r o b s e r va t i o n s o r t h i n ki n g F e e l f r e e t o e x p l a i n t h a t I t h i n k t h e y r e a ct e d i n a l o t o f d i f f e r e n t w a ys A n d I t h i n k t h e y r e a ct e d i n d i f f e r e n t w a ys b a se d o n w h e r e w e w e r e i n t h e p r o j e ct t o o S o I t h i n k a t f i r st t h e y w e r e a l l su p e r e xci t e d a b o u t l e a r n i n g r e a l l y d i f f e r e n t l y, l e a r n i n g b e yo n d j u st t h e w h i t e b o a r d a n d t h e m a r k e r s a n d p e n ci l a n d p a p e r g o i n g m o r e d i g i t a l I t h i n k t h e y r e r e a l l y e xci t e d a b o u t t h a t A n d t h e n I t h i n k w h e n i t t u r n e d i n t o w e l l i t s t i m e f o r t h e m t o r e a l l y i n cl u d e so m e m a t h s t u f f i t s n o t j u st a b o u t l e a r n i n g p l a yi n g w i t h t h e co m p u t e r I t s t i m e t o i n cl u d e so m e m a t h st u f f I t h i n k s o m e p e o p l e w e r e l i ke w a i t a s e co n d b u t t h e n I t h i n k t h e y p u sh e d t h r o u g h t h a t S o t h e n I t h i n k t h e r e a c t i o n m a y b e a t f i r st w a s l i ke w e l l I d o n t w a i t n o w i t h a s t o g e t a ct u a l l y d o w n t o so m e w o r k. B u t t h e n I t h i n k t h e y p u sh e d t h r o u g h i t b e ca u se i t w a s so e n g a g i n g S o I t h i n k t h a t r e a l l y d i d n t m a t t e r A n d t h e n I t h i n k a s t h e y st a r t e d r e a l l y g e t t i n g i n t o i t I d sa y f o r a g o o d p e r i o d e v e r yb o d y w a s r e a l l y a ct i ve l y e n g a g e d r e a l l y r e sp o n d i n g ve r y p o si t i ve l y. A n d t h e n I t h i n k o n ce i t st a r t e d g e t t i n g t o w a r d s t h e e n d a n d i t w a s t i m e t o f i n i sh t h a t s w h e n I t h i n k I s t a r t e d t o se e so m e p e o p l e t h e r e a ct i o n s st a r t i n g t o s p l i t a l i t t l e b i t m o r e I t h i n k so m e p e o p l e d i se n g a g e d b e ca u se t h e y d i d n t t h e y h i t ki n d o f a l e ve l o f O K I d o n t r e a l l y k n o w h o w t o ke e p g o i n g I t h i n k s o m e p e o p l e ke p t p e r s e ve r i n g a n d j u st ke p t ki n d o f a l t e r i n g t h e i r p r o j e ct a n d a d d i n g a n o t h e r r o o m a n d t h e n j u st a d d i n g l a ye r s t o i t w h i ch w a s g r e a t A n d t h e n I t h i n k so m e p e o p l e l i ke D o m i n i c, i t j u st i t j u st g o t t o b e l i ke t h i s m o u n t a i n a n d h e d i d n t h a v e a n y c l u e h o w t o g e t u p t h e m o u n t a i n H e kn e w H e ki n d o f kn e w t h a t h e w a s o n a m o u n t a i n b e ca u se o f t h e l i t t l e p a n i c a t t a cks, b u t h e h a d n o r e a l st r a t e g y t o g e t u p t h e m o u n t a i n A n d so I t h i n k h i s r e a ct i o n i s o n e t h a t w a s m o r e n e g a t i ve b u t I t h i n k t h a t s o n e o u t o f t h e w h o l e g r o u p so I d o n t t h i n k t h a t w a s h o w e ve r yb o d y w a s

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1 2 1 S o yo u t a l ke d e a r l i e r a b o u t a r a n g e o f r e a c t i o n s t o u si n g S cr a t ch I n i t i a l l y, e v e r yo n e i s i n t e r e st e d cu r i o u s. A n d t h e n w h e n t h e p r o j e ct i s i n t r o d u c e d t h e g o a l t o d e si g n a b o u t m a t h w h o d i d yo u t h i n k r e a ct e d ? D i d t h e y a l l r e a ct n e g a t i ve l y o r w e r e t h e r e sp e ci f i c st u d e n t s ? I w o u l d sa y C a l e b m a yb e ki n d o f r e a ct e d l i ke w a i t a se co n d I t h i n k, I d o n t r e m e m b e r sp e ci f i ca l l y, I w i sh I co u l d r e m e m b e r sp e ci f i c t i m e s o r sp e ci f i c i n st a n ce s o r q u o t e s b u t I d o n t I m j u st g o i n g b a se d o n w h a t I ki n d o f f e e l a n d I t h i n k t h a t D i e t r i ch m a yb e h a d t h a t r e a ct i o n t o o B u t I d o n t I t h i n k e ve r yb o d y e l se w a s f i n e E ve r yb o d y e l se j u st ki n d o f o h O K t h e n w e l l d o t h a t A n d t h e n yo u a l so t a l ke d a b o u t h o w o n ce w e g o t g o i n g t o o ve r co m e t h a t i n i t i a l r e a ct i o n t o b r i n g i n g i n t h e m a t h t h e n e ve r yb o d y w a s d o i n g f i n e A n d yo u m e n t i o n e d n e a r t h e e n d w e h a d so m e r e a ct i o n a s w e l l m a yb e so m e n e g a t i ve r e a ct i o n t o ki n d o f f i n i sh i n g u p W h o d o yo u t h i n k, a s w e st a r t e d g o i n g t h r o u g h t h e p r o j e ct w h o d o yo u t h i n k r e a l l y r e a ct e d p o si t i ve l y t o t h e p r o j e ct a n d w h o d o yo u t h i n k r e a ct e d n e g a t i ve l y t o t h e p r o j e ct ? I t h i n k a l m o st e ve r yb o d y r e a ct e d p o si t i ve l y, so S a b r i n a C o n n o r Je n n i f e r F e r n a n d o I w o u l d g i ve T r o y ki n d o f a i n t h e m i d d l e b u t I t h i n k i n g e n e r a l I m e a n h e w a s a ct i ve l y e n g a g e d a n d h e d i d w h a t h e n e e d e d t o d o I j u st t h i n k t o w a r d s t h e e n d t h a t s w h e n h e st a r t e d t o ki n d o f f a l l o f f C a l e b sa m e t h i n g P r e t t y a ct i ve l y e n g a g e d b u t t h e n t o w a r d s t h e e n d st a r t e d t o f a l l o f f B u t S a b r i n a J e n n i f e r N a t h a n i e l a n d F e r n a n d o I t h i n k w e r e p r e t t y s o l i d a l l t h e w a y t h r o u g h D i d yo u m e n t i o n D o m i n i c? N o D o m i n i c w a s n o t so l i d a l l t h e w a y t h r o u g h I t h i n k h e w a s so l i d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g ki n d o f i n D o m i n i c s w a y. B u t a t t h e e n d h e j u st ki n d o f f e l l a p a r t H e l p l e ss. D o yo u t h i n k t h a t t h e r e a n y i d e a w h a t t h e ca u se o f t h a t m i g h t b e t h a t h e l p l e ss f e e l i n g t h a t D o m i n i c h a s? I t h i n k a n xi e t y i s a b i g p a r t o f i t f o r h i m A n xi e t y a b o u t ? H e h a s a h i g h e r l e ve l o f a n xi e t y i n l i f e I d o n t t h i n k i t s j u st a n xi e t y a b o u t t e c h n o l o g y o r a n xi e t y a b o u t m a t h o r sch o o l I t h i n k i t s j u st a n xi e t y. I t h i n k t h a t s j u st D o m i n i c. H e w o u l d h a ve a n xi e t y a b o u t g e t t i n g u p i n t h e m o r n i n g a n d b r u sh i n g h i s t e e t h a n d t h a t s j u st D o m i n i c S o I t h i n k, b u t i f w a s so m e t h i n g p a r t i cu l a r t o t h e p r o j e c t I t h i n k i t w a s b e ca u se t h e r e w a sn t e n o u g h st r u ct u r e f o r h i m M a y b e h e d i d n t h a ve t h i n g s t h a t h e n e e d e d t o c h e ck o f f a n d d o t h i s f i r st a n d se q u e n t i a l D o t h i s. D o t h i s. O r I d o n t kn o w I j u st t h i n k h e g o t h e st a r t e d ch a si n g h i s t a i l a n d g o t l o s t i n t h e w h o l e t h i n g w h i ch ca u s e d e ve n m o r e a n xi e t y. D o yo u t h i n k i t w a s e a sy o r d i f f i cu l t f o r yo u r st u d e n t s t o l e a r n I t h i n k i t w a s p r e t t y e a sy f o r t h e m t o l e a r n h o w t o u se S c r a t ch I t h i n k t h e y r e n a t u r a l l y i n q u i si t i v e a n d

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1 2 2 h o w t o u se S cr a t ch ? I t h i n k o n ce t h e y st a r t e d t o se e t h e f e a t u r e s a n d st a r t e d t o n o t i ce o h I ca n m a ke t h i n g s g l i d e m a ke t h i n g s m o ve w i t h a r r o w s, t h e y st a r t e d t o I t h i n k, co m e u p w i t h e ve n m o r e o f a st o r y l i n e o r a co n ce p t b a se d o n t h e i r sch e m a o f g a m e s a n d s t u f f S o I t h i n k t h e y t o o k t o i t ve r y n a t u r a l l y. A r e t h e r e w a ys t h a t a r e b e t t e r t o l e a r n S cr a t ch t h a n o t h e r s d o yo u t h i n k b a se d o n t h i s p o p u l a t i o n ? I d o n t kn o w T h a t s a g o o d q u e st i o n I t h i n k b a se d o n t h i s p o p u l a t i o n I w o u l d p r o b a b l y l e a n t o w a r d s w a t ch m e n o w yo u d o i t w a t ch m e n o w yo u d o i t a n d I t h i n k w e d i d t h a t b u t n o t a s s t r u ct u r e d m a yb e a s t h e y w o u l d n o r m a l l y g e t i n st r u ct e d b e ca u s e o f t h e m A n d I d o n t t h i n k t h a t w a s b a d Y o u d o n t t h i n k i t w a s b a d t h a t t h e y d i d n t g e t a s m u ch st r u ct u r e ? N o I d o n t t h i n k t h a t s b a d B u t yo u t h i n k m o r e st r u ct u r e m i g h t h a ve h e l p e d t h e m ? F o r ce r t a i n ki d s l i ke D o m i n i c. A n yb o d y e l se ? N o I m e a n I t h i n k i n d i vi d u a l l y t h a t s r e a l l y w h e n w e w e r e co a ch i n g t h e m t h a t s r e a l l y w h a t w a s h a p p e n i n g b u t i t w a s j u st n o t e ve r yb o d y l o ck st e p w e r e a l l g o i n g t o d o t h i s a t t h e sa m e t i m e I t w a s j u st w a y m o r e i n d i vi d u a l i ze d H o w d o yo u t h i n k h a vi n g st u d e n t s cr e a t e so m e t h i n g i n S cr a t ch h e l p s t h e m l e a r n ? B e ca u se I t h i n k i t h e l p s t h e m t h i n k a b o u t t h e co n ce p t s o n a co m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t l e ve l t h a n t h e y w o u l d h a ve t o t h i n k a b o u t j u st i d e n t i f yi n g t h e m w i t h a p i e ce o f p a p e r a n d a p e n ci l o r i f I w e r e j u st d o i n g i t o n t h e b o a r d a n d t h e y h a d t o ve r b a l l y sa y i t I t h i n k i t h e l p s t h e m t h i n k a b o u t i t i n su ch a d e e p e r w a y. W h a t d o yo u m e a n b y a d e e p e r w a y? W e l l I m e a n I d o n t r e a l l y kn o w h o w I f e e l a b o u t B l o o m s b u t i t s b e yo n d j u st i d e n t i f y o r a n a l yze o r t h o se t yp e s o f t h i n g s T h e y h a ve t o a ct u a l l y t h i n k a b o u t h o w s o m e o n e e l se m a y t h i n k a b o u t a s h a p e a n d h o w ca n I g e t t h i s p e r so n t o s a y co n e a n d n o w I a ct u a l l y h a ve t o d r a w a co n e a n d n o w I a ct u a l l y h a ve t o n o w cr e a t e so m e t h i n g a r o u n d t h i s co n e t o m a ke so m e o n e e l s e e n g a g e i n t h i s, t o n o t g i v e t h e m t h e a n sw e r Y o u h a d t o r e a l l y t h i n k o n s o m a n y d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s b e yo n d p o i n t i n g t o a c o n e a n d sa yi n g ye p I kn o w t h a t t h a t s a co n e o r ye p co n e s h a ve t h i s I d o n t k n o w i f t h a t r e a l l y m a d e s e n se Y o u sa i d so m e t h i n g a b o u t d i f f e r e n t w a ys o f t h i n ki n g M a yb e e xp a n d a l i t t l e b i t m o r e so m e o f t h e d i f f e r e n t w a ys o f t h i n ki n g y o u t h o u g h t t h e y h a d t o w r e s t l e w i t h w h i l e d e si g n i n g i n S cr a t ch I t h i n k t h e y h a d t o u se cr i t i ca l t h i n ki n g ski l l s t h a t m a yb e t h e y t yp i ca l l y w o u l d n t h a ve h a d t o u se i f t h e y w e r e l e a r n i n g a b o u t sh a p e s o r g e o m e t r i c so l i d s j u st i n a r e g u l a r w a y.

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1 2 3 C r i t i ca l t h i n ki n g ski l l s i s ki n d o f g e n e r a l C a n yo u b e m o r e sp e ci f i c a b o u t t h i n ki n g ski l l s, cr i t i ca l t h i n ki n g ski l l s? W h e n I sa y cr i t i ca l t h i n ki n g ski l l s, I t h i n k a b o u t co m m u n i ca t i o n a n a l yzi n g i n a d i f f e r e n t w a y. R e a l l y h a vi n g t o a n a l yze t h i n g s n o t j u st f i g u r e o u t a n a n sw e r b u t r e a l l y h a vi n g t o a n a l yze t h i n g s. I g u e ss w h e n I sa y cr i t i c a l t h i n ki n g I a l so t h i n k a b o u t p e r se ve r a n ce a s w e l l T h a t s n o t r e a l l y a t h i n ki n g ski l l b u t I t h i n k i t s a b e h a vi o r t h a t co m e s w h e n yo u a r e t h i n ki n g cr i t i ca l l y. I m t r yi n g t o t h i n k o f a n o t h e r sp e ci f i c ski l l t h a t w o u l d b e u n d e r c r i t i ca l t h i n ki n g I m e a n I co u l d p u l l o u t a n y t o n s o f d i f f e r e n t ve r b s, b u t I d o n t r e a l l y kn o w co m p a r i n g I t s c r i t i ca l t h i n ki n g I t s h a r d t o e xp l a i n S o t h e n r e l a t e d t o t h a t q u e s t i o n t h i s f o cu s o n c r i t i ca l t h i n ki n g so h o w w a s l e a r n i n g a b o u t m a t h d i f f e r e n t f o r yo u r st u d e n t s w h e n t h e y u se d S cr a t ch a s o p p o se d t o h o w t h e y t r a d i t i o n a l l y h a ve l e a r n e d t h a t co n t e n t ? W e l l b e ca u se I t h i n k t h e y g o t t o e n g a g e i n i t i n t h e w a ys t h a t t h e y ch o se t o e n g a g e i n i t s o I t h i n k ch o i ce i s a h u g e p i e ce b e h i n d i t G i ve m e a n e xa m p l e o f t h a t ch o i ce S o a n e xa m p l e w o u l d b e i n st e a d o f m e sa yi n g e ve r yb o d y o n t h e i r p a p e r d r a w a c o n e O K N o w l e t s a l l l a b e l t h e c o n e I n st e a d o f t h a t t h e y g o t t o m o st o f t h e m i n cl u d e d so m e t h i n g a b o u t a co n e o r a d i f f e r e n t s h a p e a n d t h e y g o t t o ch o o se h o w t h e y w e r e g o i n g t o t a l k a b o u t t h e f a ce s o r t h e b a se s. A n d t h e y st i l l d i d t h a t ski l l t h e y j u s t d i d i t b e ca u se h o w e ve r t h e y ch o se t o d o i t I t w a sn t m e h a vi n g e ve r yb o d y d o t h e sa m e t h i n g a t t h e sa m e t i m e T h e y g o t t o m a t ch t h e i r p e r so n a l i t y t o i t I f o r g o t t h e q u e st i o n S o i t w a s a b o u t h o w t h e y r e l e a r n i n g a b o u t m a t h d i f f e r e n t l y, yo u kn o w u si n g S cr a t ch ve r su s, yo u kn o w yo u r n o r m a l i n st r u ct i o n o r e ve n cl a ss r o o m i n st r u ct i o n I a l so t h i n k h a vi n g t o t h i n k a b o u t h o w t o e xp l a i n i t t o so m e o n e e l se i s a l so a n o t h e r l e ve l o f t h e cr i t i c a l t h i n ki n g a n d h o w t h e y h a d t o l e a r n i t d i f f e r e n t l y. B e ca u se i n st e a d o f j u st t h e m b e i n g t h e co n su m e r s o f t h e kn o w l e d g e a n d t h e n j u st sp i t t i n g i t b a ck o u t o n a t e st a n d r e g u r g i t a t i n g i t t h e y a ct u a l l y h a d t o t h i n k o u t si d e o f t h e m se l ve s a n d t h i n k h o w w o u l d so m e b o d y b e e n g a g e d i n l e a r n i n g a b o u t t h i s s h a p e W e l l I m g o i n g t o d o i t b y h a vi n g c a t s sp i n n i n g a r o u n d O r I m g o i n g t o d o i t b y h a vi n g t w o si st e r s st a n d i n g t h e r e d o i n g a g a m e s h o w I t h i n k t h a t i s co m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t t h a n i f t h e y j u st h a d t o si t t h e r e t a ke i t i n a n d sp i t i t b a ck o u t o n a t e st S o i t so u n d s l i ke t h e e n g a g e m e n t o n t h e p a r t st u d e n t e n g a g e m e n t i s d i f f e r e n t w h e y t h e y r e u si n g I t h i n k. I d o n t h a ve t h a t m e a su r e d T h a t s w h a t I sa w Ju st b a se d o n t h e a n e c d o t a l d a t a

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1 2 4 S cr a t ch ve r su s i n o t h e r l e a r n i n g co n t e xt s. H o w d o yo u t h i n k yo u r s t u d e n t s r e a ct e d t o cr e a t i n g so m e t h i n g f o r 2 n d g r a d e r s t o u s e ? W e l l t h a t w a s i n t e r e st i n g w a t ch i n g t h e m I d i d n t t h i n k t h e y w o u l d h a ve t o d o i t t o 2 n d g r a d e r s I r e a l l y t h o u g h t t h e y w e r e g o i n g t o w a n t t o 5 t h g r a d e r s Y o u w e r e su r p r i se d t h e y ch o s e t o sh o w i t t o 2 n d g r a d e r s r a t h e r t h a n t h e i r p e e r s? I r e a l l y w a s. I d o n t r e a l l y kn o w I g u e ss I k n o w w h a t t h a t s a b o u t i t w a s j u st ki n d o f a f e a r o f b e i n g j u d g e d b y t h e i r p e e r s. B u t I e xp e ct e d t h e m t o w a n t t o sh o w t h a t t o t h e i r p e e r s. B u t I d o n t r e a l l y k n o w h o w m u ch p l a n n i n g i t f o r 2 n d g r a d e r s r e a l l y t h a t t h e y t o o k i n t o a cc o u n t I t h i n k, I t h i n k t h e y t h o u g h t a b o u t t h a t t o w a r d s t h e e n d w h e n t h e y w e r e r e vi si n g I t h i n k a s t h e y w e r e c r e a t i n g I d o n t k n o w h o w m u ch o f t h e a u d i e n ce t h e m b e i n g 2 n d g r a d e r s, r e a l l y p l a ye d i n t o h o w t h e y m a d e t h e i r p r o j e ct s. A n d t h a t w a sn t n e ce ssa r y p a r t o f t h e g o a l I t j u st sa i d t o so m e o n e e l se W e d i d n t s p e ci f y 2 n d g r a d e r s T h e y ch o se t h a t l a t e r S o t h a t m a y h a ve a l so b e e n p a r t o f t h e m n o t f o cu si n g o n 2 n d g r a d e H o w w a s st u d e n t m o t i va t i o n t o w o r k o n t h i s p r o j e ct a f f e ct e d b y h a vi n g t o d e si g n f o r so m e o n e e l s e I d o n t kn o w i f t h e d e si g n i n g f o r so m e o n e e l se a f f e ct e d t h e m o t i v a t i o n b u t I t h i n k j u st t h e f a ct t h a t t h e y w e r e g e t t i n g t o cr e a t e a n d d o t h i s t yp e o f m a t h a n d l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h t h i s p r o g r a m a f f e ct e d t h e m o t i va t i o n T h e y c a m e i n a n d t h e y w e r e i m m e d i a t e l y st a r t e d w o r ki n g T h e y d o n t e ve r d o t h a t b e f o r e E ve r A n d i f yo u g o w a t ch t h e m i n t h e i r r o o m s, t h e y r e t h e l e a st a t t e n t i ve a n d m o st ch e cke d o u t i n t h e i r r e g u l a r cl a ss r o o m s. S o f o r t h e m t o co m e i n a n d j u st b a m g e t d o w n t o w o r k w a s h u g e I t h i n k t h a t w a sn t b e ca u se t h e y w e r e c r e a t i n g f o r so m e o n e e l se I t h i n k i t w a s b e ca u se t h e y w e r e e n g a g e d i n t h e p r o j e ct i t s e l f T h e p r o j e ct o r i n S cr a t ch d o yo u t h i n k? S cr a t ch I t h i n k i t w a s S cr a t ch I t h i n k t h e co m p u t e r t o o S o st u d e n t m o t i va t i o n w a s i m p a ct e d b y u si n g S cr a t c h ? Y e s. D o yo u t h i n k st u d e n t l e a r n i n g w a s i m p a ct e d b y u si n g S cr a t c h b a se d o n yo u r o b se r va t i o n s? I t h i n k so T h a t w o u l d b e s o m e t h i n g I w o u l d w a n t t o p r o b a b l y f u r t h e r e xp l o r e a n d m a yb e p u sh a l i t t l e b i t m o r e I d o n t r e a l l y kn o w h o w t o d o t h a t B u t I t h i n k t h a t i f w e w e r e t o a sk t h e se ki d s a b o u t g e o m e t r i c so l i d s 5 ye a r s d o w n t h e r o a d t h e y w i l l kn o w i t m o r e t h a n i f w e w e r e t o a sk t h e m w h e n t h e y h a ve t h e r e t r a d i t i o n a l t y p e o f i n s t r u ct i o n S o I d o n t r e a l l y kn o w i f i t s g o i n g t o s h o w r i g h t n o w b u t I t h i n k i t w o u l d sh o w l a t e r o n I f e e l l i ke i t w e n t s o m e w h e r e d i f f e r e n t i n t h e i r b r a i n b e ca u se o f w h a t t h e y w e r e d o i n g T e l l m e m o r e a b o u t t h a t a b o u t i t w e n t so m e w h e r e e l se i n t h e i r b r a i n W e l l I f e e l l i ke i t ki n d o f e m b e d d e d i t se l f f u r t h e r d o w n i n t h e r e i n t o a m e m o r y, a p l a ce i n t h e i r m e m o r y t h a t s d i f f e r e n t I d o n t kn o w w h a t t yp e o f

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1 2 5 m e m o r y t h a t s ca l l e d I d o n t t h i n k t h a t s w o r ki n g m e m o r y, b u t l o n g t e r m r e t r i e va l I d o n t kn o w I f e e l l i ke i t w a s w a y m o r e o f a si g n i f i ca n t e ve n t o f l e a r n i n g i n t h e i r l i f e w h i ch t h e n i n t u r n w i l l h e l p t h e m r e a l l y kn o w i t ve r su s j u st l e a r n i n g i t w i t h p e n ci l a n d p a p e r i n t h e i r r e g u l a r w a y. R e g u l a r w a y m e a n i n g ? W i t h o u t S cr a t ch w i t h o u t cr e a t i n g s o m e p r o j e c t a r o u n d a se cu r e ski l l Ju st ki n d o f si t t i n g a n d g e t t i n g D i r e ct i n st r u ct i o n ? Y e a h W h a t d i d yo u o b se r ve a b o u t t h e sh a r i n g t o d a y t h a t yo u t h o u g h t w a s a p o si t i ve ? I l o ve d w a t ch i n g t h e sh a r i n g T h a t w a s p r o b a b l y o n e o f m y f a vo r i t e p a r t s o f t h e w h o l e t h i n g S o w h a t d i d I o b se r ve ? I j u s t f e l t l i ke t h e y r e a l l y b r o u g h t t h e m se l ve s d o w n t o t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s a n d t h e y w e r e a ski n g t h e m q u e st i o n s a n d sc a f f o l d i n g t h e i r l e a r n i n g g i vi n g t h e m h i g h f i v e s a n d t a l ki n g t h e m t h r o u g h t h e i r p r o j e ct s a n d so m e o f t h e m s t a r t e d sh o w i n g t h e m e xt r a p a r t s o f S cr a t ch a n d s h o w i n g i t o f f a l i t t l e b i t F o r m e w a t ch i n g t h e m f e e l h a p p y a n d p r o u d o f t h e i r w o r k i s so m e t h i n g t h a t I t h i n k i s, t h a t s e ve r yt h i n g T h a t s h o u l d h a p p e n w i t h e ve r yt h i n g a n d i t d o e sn t A r e t h e r e a n y n e g a t i ve a sp e ct s o f t h e sh a r i n g t h a t y o u o b s e r ve d ? N o O ve r a l l i t w a s o v e r w h e l m i n g l y p o si t i ve ? Y e a h I ca n t t h i n k o f so m e t h i n g t h a t w o u l d b e n e g a t i ve o u t o f i t Y o u f e l t l i ke t h e 5 t h g r a d e r s, d o yo u t h i n k t h e 5 t h g r a d e r s a l so b e l i e ve t h a t i t w a s a p o si t i ve e xp e r i e n ce ? I t h i n k so I t h i n k i f I w e r e t h e i r cl a ssr o o m t e a ch e r a n d h a d m o r e o f a I t h i n k, st r o n g e r co n n e ct i o n r e l a t i o n sh i p t o t h e m I w o u l d b e a b l e t o a n sw e r t h a t b e t t e r b u t si n ce I o n l y se e t h e m f o r 2 0 m i n u t e s, i t s h a r d f o r m e t o r e a l l y g e t a r e a d b u t I t h i n k t h a t t h e y w e r e h a p p y. D o m i n i c g a ve m e a h u g a s w e w a l ke d o u t Y o u co u l d j u st t e l l b y t h e sm i l e s, b u t I d o n t h a ve a n y sp e ci f i c q u o t e s t o g o a l o n g w i t h t h a t I f w e w e r e t o d o t h i s a l l o ve r a g a i n w h a t w o u l d yo u c h a n g e a b o u t t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e p r o j e ct ? W h a t sh o u l d b e d i f f e r e n t a b o u t w h a t h a p p e n e d t h i s t i m e ? W e l l I d o n t kn o w i f a n yt h i n g r e a l l y n e e d s t o b e d i f f e r e n t m e a n i n g t h a t i t co u l d b e b e t t e r I t h i n k t h i n g s m a yb e t o e x p l o r e i f t h i s w e r e t o g e t d o n e a g a i n w o u l d m a yb e b e g i vi n g so m e st r u ct u r e t o t h e ki d s t h a t st a r t e d j u st ch a si n g t h e i r t a i l I d o n t kn o w i f t h a t w o u l d l o o k m o r e o f l i ke a r u b r i c o r j u st a g r a p h i c o r g a n i ze r t o h e l p t h e m t h i n k. M a yb e a g r a p h i c o r g a n i ze r f o r a l l o f t h e m u p f r o n t t o h e l p t h e m sce n e s o r s o m e t h i n g B u t t h e n a g a i n I w o u l d n t w a n t t o st r u ct u r e i t t o b e l i ke y o u m u st i n cl u d e a r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm a c o n e yo u m u st i n cl u d e ce r t a i n t h i n g s B u t o n t h e o t h e r h a n d I d o

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1 2 6 w a n t t h e m t o i n cl u d e t h a t st u f f so I d o n t kn o w I w o u l d h a ve t o t h i n k a b o u t t h a t I t h i n k f o r ce r t a i n ki d s t h o u g h I t h i n k I w o u l d i n cl u d e so m e t h i n g l i ke t h a t b u t I d o n t t h i n k e ve r yb o d y w o u l d n e e d t h a t b e ca u se I t h i n k t h e y w o u l d g e t i t j u st b y so m e i n d i vi d u a l i ze d co a c h i n g t h e y d p i ck u p w h a t t h e g o a l i s. S o kn o w i n g yo u r ki d s a b i l i t i e s, kn o w i n g yo u r st u d e n t s a b i l i t i e s t h e n d e t e r m i n e s l e ve l o f s u p p o r t w h e t h e r i t s g r a p h i c o r g a n i ze r s, r u b r i cs, e t c. t o m e e t t h e g o a l s o f t h e p r o j e c t ? Y e a h I t h i n k f o r p a r e n t s t h o u g h t h e y w o u l d w a n t t o kn o w j u st b e ca u se t h i s i s h o w i t i s, a b o u t g r a d e s a n d h o w yo u w o u l d g e t a n A o n t h a t a n d h o w d o yo u g e t a B so t h a t w o u l d b e a n i n t e r e st i n g t h i n g t o e xp l o r e l i ke h o w d o yo u q u a n t i f y t h e se p r o j e ct s w i t h a l e t t e r g r a d e H o w w o u l d y o u g r a d e i t ? I d o n t kn o w H o w d o t h e y g e t f e e d b a ck a n d k n o w t h a t ye a h t h i s, yo u kn o w yo u d o n t w a n t t o t e l l t h e m t h a t i s cr a p p y. Y o u g e t a n F b e ca u se t h a t s st u p i d I s t h e r e a w a y t o g i v e t h e m m o r e d i r e c t f e e d b a ck a n d sa y, I d o n t kn o w i t t h a t s ve r b a l o r t h a t s w r i t t e n d o w n o r w h a t W h a t d o yo u t h i n k w e r e t h e d e si g n e l e m e n t s t h a t w e r e a p a r t o f t h i s p r o j e ct ? W h a t d o yo u t h i n k a b o u t t h e d e si g n f e a t u r e s? W h a t w e r e t h e d e si g n st r u ct u r e s t h a t so r t o f g u i d e d t h i s p r o j e ct ? W h a t s a d e si g n s t r u ct u r e ? A d e si g n e l e m e n t a d e si g n st r u ct u r e a r e s o r t o f w h a t a r e t h e ke y e l e m e n t s t h a t m a ke t h i s p r o j e ct w o r k? I m p r o b a b l y n o t e xp l a i n i n g t h i s a s w e l l a s I m t h i n ki n g a b o u t i t I t s, y o u kn o w w h a t w e r e t h e f e a t u r e s i n t h e p a st 6 w e e ks o r s o t h a t w e ve b e e n t o g e t h e r ? W h a t w e r e so m e o f t h e ke y a sp e ct s o f w h a t w a s g o i n g o n ? F o r e xa m p l e o n e e l e m e n t i s ki d s a s d e si g n e r s o r l e a r n e r s a s d e si g n e r s. T o m e t h a t s a d e si g n e l e m e n t o f t h i s w h e r e w e r e p u t t i n g ki d s, 5 t h g r a d e r s, i n t h e r o l e o f a d e si g n e r o f m e d i a a m e d i a d e si g n e r T h e y c r e a t e d m e d i a u si n g S cr a t ch a b o u t co n t e n t S o a r e t h e r e a n y o t h e r d e si g n f e a t u r e s t h a t yo u n o t i ce d o r d e si g n e l e m e n t s t h a t y o u S o I i m m e d i a t e l y t h i n k o f a n d I d o n t kn o w i f t h i s i s t h i s i s r e a l l y, b u t so m e t h i n g a b o u t i n t e r ve n t i o n st u d e n t s, st u d e n t s w h o st r u g g l e A l l o w i n g st u d e n t s w h o st r u g g l e a d i f f e r e n t w a y o f l e a r n i n g s o m e t h i n g l i ke t h a t

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1 2 7 n o t i ce d a s p a r t o f t h i s p r o j e ct t h a t yo u t h o u g h t o h t h a t s a k e y, yo u kn o w p i e ce o f t h i s ki n d o f w o r k. I t h i n k t h a t a ct u a l l y m a ke s se n se b e ca u se N o t t h a t t h a t s a d e si g n W e l l i t i s p a r t A t h e m e A t h e m e t h a t s a w a y t o t h i n k a b o u t i t A t h e m e o f t h e p r o j e ct i s t h a t w e r e c r e a t i n g o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n t e r ve n t i o n st u d e n t s t o h a ve a l t e r n a t i ve w a ys o f l e a r n i n g co n t e n t S o t h a t w o u l d b e a t h e m e W o u l d yo u a g r e e w i t h t h a t ? Y e a h A r e t h e r e a n y o t h e r t h e m e s, e l e m e n t s, f e a t u r e s, yo u c a n ca l l i t w h a t e ve r yo u w a n t t o ca l l i t t h a t yo u o b se r v e d a s p a r t o f t h i s p r o j e ct ? S e l f d i r e ct e d l e a r n i n g T e l l m e m o r e a b o u t t h a t S o t h e y g o t t o ch o o se h o w t h e y w e r e g o i n g t o d i sp l a y t h e i r k n o w l e d g e T h e y w e r e n t h a vi n g t o f i t i n t o a b o x. S o ch o i ce ? Y e s. C o l l a b o r a t i o n i n l o t s o f d i f f e r e n t w a ys. C o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h u s a s t h e i r co a ch e s, co l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h e a ch o t h e r w h e n t h e y w e r e h a vi n g t o c r e a t e b u t t h e n a l so w h e n t h e y w e r e h a vi n g t o r e vi se a n d t h e y w e r e h a vi n g t o ki n d o f s o m e b o d y w o u l d sa y h o w d o yo u d o t h a t S o m e b o d y e l se w o u l d sa y j u st d o h i d e a n d t h e n b r o a d c a st o r w h a t e v e r T h a t s co l l a b o r a t e A n d t h e n co l l a b o r a t e w i t h t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s t o co l l a b o r a t i n g t o s h o w a f i n a l p r o d u ct I w o u l d l i ke t o t h i n k o f a m a t h t h e m e b u t I d o n t r e a l l y kn o w I m e a n A l t e r n a t i v e a sse ssm e n t i n m a t h e m a t i cs t h e m e ki n d o f E ve n t h o u g h w e d i d u se a u se so r t o f a t r a d i t i o n a l p r e p o st b u t t h e i r i n d i vi d u a l p r o j e ct s co u l d b e e va l u a t e d c o u l d b e a sse sse d A n d I a l so t h i n k t e a ch e r a s co a c h i s a t h e m e I t s n o t t e a ch e r a s g i v e r o f k n o w l e d g e L e a r n e r i s d r i vi n g t h e t r a i n a n d t e a ch e r i s b e h i n d t h e sce n e s. I s t h e r e a n yt h i n g e l se ? A m I m i ssi n g o n e ? N o T h i s i sn t a r i g h t o r w r o n g S o r r y. T h a t s O K I s t h e r e a n yt h i n g e l se I sh o u l d kn o w a b o u t t h e e xp e r i e n ce ? I s t h e r e a n yt h i n g e l se yo u w a n t t o sh a r e t h a t I d i d n t a sk yo u a b o u t t h a t yo u w a n t t o t e l l m e a b o u t t h i s e xp e r i e n ce ? I j u st t h i n k i t w a s r e a l l y p o w e r f u l f o r m e t o se e t h a t T i e r 3 st u d e n t s c a n d o s o m e t h i n g l i ke t h i s, a n d I w i sh t h a t t h a t kn o w l e d g e co u l d b e sh a r e d t o e ve r yb o d y b e ca u se I f e e l l i ke t h a t so m e t h i n g t h a t j u st p i sse s m e o f f i n t h i s p o si t i o n w i t h t h e se ki d s i s t h a t t h e y r e g e t t i n g I f e e l l i ke t h e y r e i n st r u ct i o n a l

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1 2 8 ca su a l t i e s. T h e y r e n o t d u m b ki d s t h a t ca n t d o i t o r ca n t l e a r n I f e e l l i ke t h i s sh o w s i t t o o T h i s i s a h a r d p r o g r a m a n d t h e y d i d i t A n d so i t t h e r e w o u l d b e a w a y t o j u st u se t h i s a s a p l a t f o r m t o sh o w t h a t t h e se ki d s ca n d o t h i s t y p e o f st u f f D i d yo u e ve r f e e l l i ke t h a t m a yb e t h e y w o u l d n t b e a b l e t o d o t h i s i n t h e b e g i n n i n g ? D i d yo u h a ve a co n ce r n t h a t m a yb e t h i s m i g h t b e st r e t ch i n g t h e m ? N o t h e r e w a sn t A n yt h i n g e l se yo u w a n t t o a d d ? N o p e I t h i n k I m g o o d H o w d o yo u t h i n k Je n n i f e r h a n d l e d t h i s p r o j e ct ? G r e a t I t h i n k sh e w a s o n e o f t h e l e a d e r s, a v e r y q u i e t l e a d e r b u t t h a t d o e sn t m e a n t h a t s n o t b a d I t h i n k sh e r e a l l y sh i n e d a n d I t h i n k sh e r e a l l y f e l t g o o d a b o u t h e r se l f d o i n g i t t o o A n d I t h i n k sh e h a d a ve r y va r i e d i n t r i ca t e st o r y l i n e l o t s o f I d o n t kn o w ch a n g e s a n d c h a r a ct e r s. G o o d M a d e a l o t o f se n se R e a l l y, I t h i n k t o o k i n t o a cco u n t t h e p e r so n w h o w a s g o i n g t o b e w a t ch i n g h e r st u f f V e r y g i r l y. T w o g i r l ch a r a ct e r s. Y o u ve t a l ke d a l o t a b o u t D o m i n i c. H o w d o yo u t h i n k D o m i n i c h a n d l e d t h e p r o j e ct ? I t h i n k D o m i n i c g o t l o st i n t h e p r o j e ct a n d I t h i n k t h a t w a s a m i x o f a l o t o f t h i n g s. A m i x o f h i m n o t m a yb e f u l l y u n d e r st a n d i n g t h e m a t h b e h i n d i t n o t f u l l y u n d e r st a n d i n g h i s t h o u g h t s o r h o w t o t a c kl e p r o j e ct s o r p e r s e ve r e j u st f i g u r e t h i n g s o u t a n d I t h i n k i t s j u st a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f w h a t g o e s o n i n D o m i n i c s l i f e

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1 2 9 A P P E N D I X B D E B R I E F I N G N O T E S 5 / 1 2 / 1 0 P r a ct i t i o n e r ( P ) : t o d a y w a s a b i g sh i f t ; f e l t g r o u p w a s ch a r g e d u p t o d a y; m o vi n g f o r w a r d o n t h e p r o j e ct ; p r o j e ct s a r e co m i n g t o g e t h e r ; s t o r i e s a r e d e ve l o p i n g R e se a r ch e r ( R ) : p r o j e c t s a r e m e a t i e r : d e t a i l s s u ch a s h i d i n g / sh o w i n g ; c h a n g i n g b a ckg r o u n d s a n d cr e a t i n g n e w sce n e s; a n sw e r i n g r e p e a t ; s p r i t e s m o vi n g t h e n t a l ki n g ; n e e d t o t e a ch h o w t o r e se t p o si t i o n s i f sp r i t e s a r e m o vi n g d u r i n g t h e p r o j e ct 5 / 1 3 / 1 0 ( C o a b s e n t t o d a y) P : p r o u d o f S : sh o w e d i n d e p e n d e n ce r e cr e a t e d si m i l a r b e h a vi o r t h a t w a s w o r ke d o u t co l l a b o r a t i ve l y w i t h P t h e d a y b e f o r e ; F i s m o r e a w a r e o f h i s e n vi r o n m e n t t h a t g a ve cr e d i t f o r t h o u g h t h e w a s i n h i s o w n w o r l d b u t h e i s l i st e n i n g t o h i s p e e r s R : o b se r ve d m o r e i n d e p e n d e n c e ; a t t i m e s, I w a s j u st w a t ch i n g s t u d e n t s w o r k; st u d e n t s d i d n t n e e d h e l p ; D n e e d s t o b e r e f o cu se d ; se e m s t o sp e n d m o r e t i m e d r a w i n g ; ve r y ca r e f u l d r a w i n g s p r o vi d e f i n e d e t a i l s; N s e e m e d t o sp e n d m o r e t i m e d r a w i n g 5 / 1 4 / 1 0 P : sa w co l l a b o r a t i o n b e t w e e n S a n d G e vi d e n ce o f r e ci p r o ci t y; C a s e e m e d o f f t a sk t o d a y; N w a n t e d h e l p b u t d i d n t g e t i t b e ca u se o f t i m e ; C o w a n t e d t o d e m o n st r a t e h i s p r o j e ct t o b o t h o f u s; F i s o f t e n o f f t a sk, d a z e d i n h i s cl a ssr o o m i s f o cu s e d o n t h e t a sk, ca p a b l e o f n o t g o i n g i n t o t h e d a ze d o u t zo n e R : D m o r e f o cu se d w i t h i n t e g r a t i n g co n t e n t ; s p e n t a l o t o f t i m e d r a w i n g sp r i t e s a n d f o cu se d o n a st o r y ; st i l l n e e d s h e l p d e v e l o p i n g h i s st o r y t o i n t e g r a t e 5 / 1 7 / 1 0 P : w o r ke d w i t h D t o s t o r yb o a r d a n d scr i p t o u t h i s p r o j e ct ; h i s p r o j e c t i s b a se d o n a s t o r y h e cr e a t e d R : w o r ke d w i t h G t o i n t e g r a t e a l e sso n a b o u t c a l cu l a t i n g su r f a ce a r e a o f a r e c t a n g u l a r p r i sm 5 / 1 8 / 1 0 N o p r o j e ct t i m e ; 5 t h g r a d e st u d e n t s p r e se n t e d t h e i r 2 0 t h ce n t u r y p r o j e ct 5 / 1 9 / 1 0 P : N d i d r e a l l y w e l l o n h i s 2 0 t h ce n t u r y p r o j e ct ye st e r d a y a n d r e ce i ve d a l o t o f p o si t i ve f e e d b a ck, s o D m a y h a ve f e l t a l i t t l e j e a l o u s o f h i s b r o t h e r s su cce ss; h a s o b s e r ve d t h i s b e h a vi o r b e f o r e ; w h e n l e a vi n g cl a ss r o o m t o d a y, D w a s f r u st r a t e d w i t h h i s p r o j e ct a n d t h i n ks t h a t h i s p r o j e ct i s n o t ve r y g o o d sa i d m i n e s n o t b e t t e r t h a n N s b u t t h i s a t t i t u d e m a y st e m f r o m y e st e r d a y 5 / 2 0 / 1 0 ( O n l y G F a n d D a t t e n d e d t o d a y; S N C o C a & T w e r e a b s e n t ) R : a b l e t o sp e n d m o st o f t h e t i m e w o r ki n g w i t h D ; h e h a d a m u ch b e t t e r a t t i t u d e t o d a y; w i l l i n g t o w o r k b u t r e l i e d o n r e s e a r ch e r f o r p r o m p t i n g o n n e xt st e p s ; st i l l h a s a n

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1 3 0 e l a b o r a t e st o r y i n m i n d t h a t i s o n l y l o o se l y r e l a t e d t o g e o m e t r i c so l i d s; a sk e d G i f co n e m a y b e i n t h e w r o n g p o si t i o n ; F a d d e d a j e t p a ck sp r i t e f r o m t h e S cr a t ch s p r i t e l i b r a r y t h a t i n cl u d e s s e ve r a l sc r i p t s; h i s i n t e n t i s t o h a ve t h e u se r co n t r o l t h e j e t p a ck w h i l e r e sp o n d i n g t o t h e q u e st i o n s. P : a n o t h e r s t u d e n t l o o ke d a t G s p r o j e ct ye st e r d a y b u t w a sn t su r e h o w t o p r o ce e d so G a d d e d a s a y t o d i r e ct t h e u se r ; D a ske d w h e n w e co u l d u se S cr a t ch t o d e si g n a b o u t so m e t h i n g o t h e r t h a n s h a p e s. 5 / 2 1 / 1 0 C a a n d S n e e d e d t o f i n i sh t e st i n g so t h e y d i d n o t p a r t i ci p a t e t o d a y. D d i d n o t p r o g r e ss u n l e ss t h e r e se a r ch e r o r p r a ct i t i o n e r i s w o r ki n g w i t h h i m H e w i l l p r a ct i ce r e co r d i n g G w a s a b l e t o f i x d e si g n e r r o r s i n h e r p r o j e ct o n ce D w o r ke d t h r o u g h i t o r t h e r e se a r ch e r a ske d h e r a b o u t t h e so u n d cl i p e v e n t h o u g h P h a s t r i e d t o g e t h e r t o i d e n t i f y t h e e r r o r s i n d e p e n d e n t l y. T h i n ki n g o u t si d e o n e s se l f i s d i f f i cu l t f o r yo u n g l e a r n e r s. D d e m o n st r a t e d t h a t h e ca n m a n i p u l a t e t h e d i r e ct i o n o f a sp r i t e a n d c h a n g e t h e si ze o f a sp r i t e u si n g t h e g r o w a n d sh r i n k t o o l s. T h e r e i s a f a sci n a t i n g d yn a m i c p l a yi n g o u t i n t h i s l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t t h a t j u xt a p o se s t w o d i f f e r e n t t yp e s o f l e a r n e r s. T h r o u g h o u t t h i s p r o j e ct G h a s d e m o n st r a t e d t h a t sh e i s a n a ct i ve p a r t i cp a n t i n t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e ss w h i l e D d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t ch a r a ct e r i st i cs o f a p a ssi ve l e a r n e r G i s a b l e t o w o r k i n d e p e n d e n t l y. W h e n co n f r o n t e d w i t h a n i ssu e w h i l e d e si g n i n g h e r p r o j e ct s h e w i l l t i n ke r w i t h b l o cks a n d a t t e m p t t o r e so l ve t h e i ssu e i n d e p e n d e n t l y. D i s d e p e n d e n t o n d i r e ct i o n s a n d i n si g h t f r o m a t e a ch e r D w o u l d t i n ke r w i t h b l o cks ( e sp e ci a l l y t h e so u n d b l o cks ) w h i l e w a i t i n g f o r e i t h e r t h e r e se a r ch e r o r p r a ct i t i o n e r t o h e l p h i m m a ke p r o g r e ss o n h i s p r o j e ct O f t e n h e n e e d e d i n p u t f r o m t h e t e a ch e r t o h e l p cl a r i f y h i s t h i n ki n g a b o u t t h e i n t e n t o f h i s p r o j e ct D i n t e r a ct e d w i t h G s p r o j e ct a n d G o b s e r ve d t h a t D d i d n o t kn o w h o w t o p r o c e e d i n se v e r a l i n st a n ce s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o j e ct S h e w a s a b l e t o o b se r ve h o w a n i n d i vi d u a l u se r w i l l e n co u n t e r h e r p r o j e ct a n d n o t i ce d t h a t sh e n e e d t o p r o vi d e a d d i t i o n a l p r o m p t i n g i n o r d e r f o r t h e u se r t o su cc e ssf u l l y i n t e r a ct w i t h h e r p r o j e ct A s so o n a s D f i n i sh e d i n t e r a ct i n g w i t h h e r p r o j e ct G i m m e d i a t e l y b e g a n a d d i n g a d d i t i o n a l b l o cks t o e xi st i n g scr i p t s t o p r o vi d e a p p r o p r i a t e p r o m p t s f o r t h e u se r S h e d i d n o t n e e d a ssi st a n ce f r o m e i t h e r t h e r e se a r ch e r o r t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r A n o t h e r e xa m p l e o f G s w i l l i n g n e ss t o b e r e sp o n si b l e f o r h e r l e a r n i n g st e m s f r o m a n i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n G a n d t h e r e s e a r ch e r T h e r e se a r c h e r o b se r ve d t h a t G a d d e d a scr i p t t o h e r p r o j e ct t h a t p l a ys a s o u n d e f f e ct w h e n t h e a k e y i s p r e sse d G s p r o j e c t co n t a i n e d a q u e st i o n a n d a n sw e r scr i p t t h a t a sks t h e u se r a q u e st i o n a b o u t t h e n u m b e r o f b a se s i n a co n e I f t h e u s e r e n t e r s a co r r e ct a n sw e r p o si t i ve f e e d b a ck i n t h e f o r m o f t e x t i s d i sp l a y e d o n t h e scr e e n W h e n G i n t e r a ct s w i t h h e r p r o j e ct sh e w o u l d p r e ss t h e a ke y w h e n sh e e n t e r e d t h e co r r e ct r e sp o n se T h e r e se a r ch e r o b se r ve d t h i s b e h a vi o r a n d a ske d h e r h o w t h e so u n d w o u l d p l a y i f sh e w a s i n a d i f f e r e n t r o o m w h e n a u se r w a s i n t e r a ct i n g w i t h h e r p r o j e ct S h e i m m e d i a t e l y b e g a n a d d r e ssi n g t h i s i ssu e w i t h o u t p r o m p t i n g o r a ssi st a n ce f r o m t h e r e se a r ch e r o r p r a ct i t i o n e r D co n t i n u e s t o st r u g g l e w i t h h i s p r o j e ct H e h a s d e ve l o p e d a n e l a b o r a t e

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1 3 1 st o r y i n h i s m i n d t h a t i s o n l y l o o se l y r e l a t e d t o t h e i d e a o f t e a ch i n g so m e o n e e l se a b o u t g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. H e u se s t h e v o ca b u l a r y o f g e o m e t r i c s o l i d s b u t o n l y o n a s u p e r f i ci a l l e ve l H e i s u n a b l e t o t r a n sl a t e h i s st o r y i n t o S cr a t ch w i t h o u t a ssi st a n ce f r o m e i t h e r t h e r e se a r ch e r o r p r a ct i t i o n e r N w o r ke d o n a sce n e c o n si st i n g o f a d i a l o g u e b e t w e e n 2 c h a r a ct e r s a b o u t r i d i n g d r a g o n s. T h i s sc e n e d o e s n o t r e l a t e d t o m a t h co n t e n t T a d d e d a cyl i n d e r t o h i s p r o j e ct C f i n a l i ze d a d i a l o g u e b e t w e e n a p r i sm a n d a cyl i n d e r b u t t h e co n ve r sa t i o n i s n o t r e l a t e d t o m a t h co n t e n t H i s p r o j e ct h a s n u m e r o u s sp e l l i n g a n d p u n ct u a t i o n e r r o r s. 5 / 2 4 / 1 0 ( G w a s a b s e n t t o d a y) R : N n e e d e d a ssi st a n ce t o d a y w i t h t h e f l yi n g d r a g o n sc e n e T h i s sce n e i s n o t r e l a t e d t o m a t h co n t e n t T n e e d e d a ssi st a n c e co o r d i n a t i n g d i a l o g u e b e t w e e n 2 sp r i t e s. T h e t i m i n g w a s o f f D r e co r d e d t h e d e se r t p a r t o f h i s sc r i p t H e n e e d e d a ssi st a n ce se t t i n g u p h i s 3 rd sce n e ( t h e w o o d s ) H e e xp r e sse d f r u s t r a t i o n t h a t h e i s o n l y a b l e t o m a ke s m a l l ch a n g e s t o h i s p r o j e ct e a c h d a y. H e e xp r e sse d t h a t h e d o e s n t u n d e r s t a n d w h y h e i s sa vi n g a n e w p r o j e ct e a c h d a y ( p a r t i ci p a n t s sa ve a n e w ve r si o n o f t h e i r p r o j e ct e a ch d a y) w h e n h e i s n o t m a ki n g m u ch p r o g r e ss. H e e xp r e ss e d so m e f r u st r a t i o n t h a t h e i s g e t t i n g a s m u ch h e l p a s h e n e e d s. H e a l so w a n t s t o kn o w w h e n h e ca n w o r k o n a p r o j e ct f o r f u n a n d n o t a p r o j e ct a b o u t sh a p e s. C n e e d e d a s si st a n ce w i t h f i xi n g a n e r r o r h e c o u l d n t i d e n t i f y. T h e p r o j e ct ke p t a ski n g t h e q u e st i o n r e p e a t e d l y e ve n i f t h e co r r e ct r e s p o n se w a s e n t e r e d b y t h e u se r T h e e r r o r w a s d u e t o a m i ssp e l l i n g ( cyi n d e r cyl i n d e r ) F i s f i n i sh e d w i t h h i s p r o j e ct f r o m h i s p e r sp e ct i ve C d i d n o t a sk f o r a ssi st a n ce n o r a cce p t e d i t w h e n o f f e r e d H e e xp r e sse d t h a t h e w a s w r a p p i n g u p h i s p r o j e ct 5 / 2 5 / 1 0 T h o se t h a t w e r e f i n i sh e d w i t h t h e i r p r o j e ct s sh a r e d t h e i r p r o j e ct s w i t h e a ch o t h e r a n d r e ce i ve d f e e d b a ck. 5 / 2 7 / 1 0 P r o o f i n g e a c h o t h e r s p r o j e ct s 5 / 2 8 / 1 0 P r o o f i n g e a c h o t h e r s p r o j e ct s 6 / 1 / 1 0 C h e cke d f o r p u n ct u a t i o n sp e l l i n g a n d co n ve n t i o n s. C o C a F & S r e vi e w e d e a c h o t h e r s p r o j e ct R w o r ke d w i t h D P w o r ke d w i t h G T o f i n i sh p r o j e ct s

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1 3 2 D l i t e r a l l y h i t a w a l l : h e p l a ce d h i s h e a d o n t h e d o o r a n d r e s t e d i t H e s f e e l i n g f r u st r a t e d b e ca u se h e s co m p a r i n g h i s p r o j e ct t o o t h e r s. H e d o e sn t f e e l co n f i d e n t t h a t h e w i l l b e a b l e t o sh a r e h i s p r o j e ct w i t h o t h e r s. G n e e d s m o r e t i m e 6 / 2 / 1 0 C a S T & N a r e a b se n t t o d a y. P w o r ke d w i t h F a n d C o t o p r o o f t h e i r p r o j e ct s p a r t i cu l a r l y sp e l l i n g a n d p u n c t u a t i o n R w o r ke d w i t h G a n d D t o co m p l e t e p r o j e ct s. D i s ca p a b l e a n d co n f i d e n t i m p o r t i n g s p r i t e s, s h r i n ki n g o r g r o w i n g sp r i t e s e d i t i n g sp r i t e co st u m e s, ch a n g i n g a sp r i t e s d i r e ct i o n s. H e h a s n u m e r o u s sp r i t e s i n h i s p r o j e c t ( m o r e t h a n a n y o t h e r p a r t i ci p a n t ) H e n e e d s co n si st e n t h e l p w i t h t h e p r o g r a m m i n g a sp e ct s o f h i s p r o j e ct H e d o e s n o t t r y t o w o r k i n d e p e n d e n t l y. H e w i l l w a i t u n t i l e i t h e r t h e r e se a r ch e r a n d p r a ct i t i o n e r i s a b l e t o h e l p h i m 6 / 3 / 1 0 ( G w a s a b se n t t o d a y) C a S C o T a n d N p r o o f e d t h e i r p r o j e ct s D a t t e m p t e d t o co m p l e t e h i s p r o j e c t H e c o n si st e n t l y ch a n g e s w h e r e t h e sp r i t e s a r e d i sp l a ye d f o r e a ch sc e n e r a t h e r t h a n f o cu si n g o n t h e p r o g r a m m i n g H e st i l l n e e d s t o r e co r d t h e vo i ce o v e r f o r h i s se a sce n e a n d t h e f i n a l t h e a t r e sce n e H e d i d r e co r d t h e se 2 f i n a l vo i ce o ve r s. T h e R h e l p e d h i m sy n ch r o n i ze h i s co m p l e t e d p r o j e ct N a t h a n i e l r e m o ve d a n i r r e l e va n t sc e n e f r o m h i s p r o j e ct t h e n w a n t e d t o a d d a n o t h e r g e o m e t r i c so l i d t o h i s p r o j e ct H e a l so n e e d e d t o sl o w d o w n t h e d i a l o g u e t o e n su r e t h a t 2 n d g r a d e r s co u l d r e a d t h e t e x t d i sp l a ye d o n t h e scr e e n N : W h e r e s t h e t h i n g h i d e ? R : I t s u n d e r l o o ks. C o n n o r w o r ke d o n co o r d i n a t i n g a d i a l o g u e b e t w e e n a cyl i n d e r a n d a p r i s m C a S a n d T a r e f i n i sh e d

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1 3 3 A P P E N D I X C S C R A T C H A R T I F A C T A N A L Y S I S 5 / 3 / 1 0 G cr e a t e d a co st u m e f o r t h e e xi st i n g ca t s p r i t e a n d a d d e d 2 sp r i t e s t o h e r p r o j e ct S h e cr e a t e d a co st u m e o f a r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm f o r t h e d e f a u l t ca t sp r i t e T h i s sp r i t e n o w h a s 3 co st u m e s b u t t w o o f t h e s e co st u m e s a r e d e f a u l t co st u m e s. T h e r e c t a n g u l a r p r i s m co st u m e i s cu r r e n t l y d i sp l a ye d T h e r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm d r a w n b y G a p p e a r s t o b e a t r a p e zo i d a l p r i sm r a t h e r t h a n a r e g u l a r r e ct a n g u l a r p r i s m S h e a d d e d a sp r i t e o f a yo u n g f e m a l e w h o i s st a n d i n g a n d a f a n t a sy ch a r a ct e r l a b e l e d a s a g o b o B o t h sp r i t e s a r e f r o m t h e e xi st i n g sp r i t e l i b r a r y. S h e h a s n o t a l t e r e d t h e st a g e ; sh e i s c u r r e n t l y u si n g t h e d e f a u l t w h i t e b a ckg r o u n d S h e h a s cr e a t e d 2 sc r i p t s. O n e scr i p t i s f o r t h e r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm W h e n t h e p r o j e c t i s st a r t e d ( g r e e n f l a g ) t h e p r i sm st a t e s H e l l o T h e se co n d scr i p t i s f o r t h e yo u n g f e m a l e W h e n t h e p r o j e ct st a r t s, t h e f e m a l e a sks W h a t s yo u r n a m e ? a n d w a i t s f o r a r e s p o n se t o b e t yp e d i n t o a t e xt b o x. A f t e r t h e u se r t y p e s i n t e xt a n d p r e s se s e n t e r o r u s e s t h e m o u se t o cl i ck o n ch e ck m a r k l o ca t e d i n t h e t e xt b o x, t h e f e m a l e st a t e s h e l l o < t e xt > f o l l o w e d b y t w o st a t e m e n t s : t h i s i s a r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm a n d a n d t h i s i s m y f r i e n d g o b o H o w e ve r t h e f i r st o f t h e se 2 st a t e m e n t s i s o n l y f l a sh e d o n t h e scr e e n b e ca u s e G u se d t h e sa y b l o ck r a t h e r t h a n t h e sa y f o r x se cs b l o ck S cr a t ch p r o ce sse s sc r i p t s i n a l i n e a r f a sh i o n W h e n t h e r e a r e 2 o r m o r e sa y b l o cks i n s e q u e n ce S cr a t ch d i sp l a ys t h e t e xt f r o m t h e f i r st sa y b l o ck t h e n i m m e d i a t e l y d i sp l a ys t h e t e xt f r o m t h e n e xt sa y b l o ck, w h i ch m a ke s t h e t e xt f r o m t h e f i r st sa y b l o ck u n r e a d a b l e G w i l l n e e d t o r e p l a ce t h e sa y b l o cks w i t h sa y f o r x se cs b l o cks t o e n su r e t h a t t h e t e xt i s d i sp l a ye d p r o p e r l y a n d i s r e a d a b l e b y t h e u se r I n b o t h scr i p t s, sh e u se d 9 b l o cks t o t a l a n d s h e u se d 6 d i f f e r e n t b l o ck t yp e s. I m p l e a se d w i t h G s p r o g r e ss t o d a y. S h e q u i ckl y d e ve l o p e d h e r p r o j e ct i d e a S h e a t t e m p t e d t o cr e a t e a r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm t h o u g h i t a p p e a r s t o b e a t r a p e zo i d a l p r i sm S h e h a s st a r t e d scr i p t i n g a n d i n t e g r a t e d a n i n t e r a ct i ve a sp e ct t o h e r p r o j e ct b y a l l o w i n g t h e u se r s o m e l e v e l o f co n t r o l w h e n t h e u s e r e n t e r s t e xt a n d t h e p r o j e ct s r e s p o n d s a cco r d i n g l y. T h i s m a y r e p r e se n t a l o w e r l e ve l o f i n t e r a c t i o n b u t i n t e r a ct i o n i s st i l l e vi d e n t G i s a t t e m p t i n g t o p e r so n a l i ze t h e p r o j e ct f o r i t s u se r s.

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1 3 4 5 / 1 0 / 1 0 G i s st i l l u si n g t h e s a m e sp r i t e s. S h e d i d a d d a n e w b a ckg r o u n d o f a b e a ch sce n e t o h e r p r o j e ct G c o n t i n u e d t o d e v e l o p h e r scr i p t s. S h e r e m o ve d t h e sa y b l o ck f r o m t h e p r i sm so i t n o l o n g e r st a t e s H e l l o B e ca u se sh e u se d a sa y b l o ck r a t h e r t h a n a sa y f o r x se cs b l o ck t h e t e xt r e m a i n e d o n t h e scr e e n i n d e f i n i t e l y. S h e d i d l e a ve t h e w h e n f l a g cl i cke d b l o ck i n t h e scr i p t s a r e a so sh e m a y p l a n t o h a ve t h e p r i s m co m p l e t e a d i f f e r e n t a ct i o n G u p d a t e d t h e scr i p t o n t h e f e m a l e b y ch a n g i n g t h e sa y b l o cks t o sa y f o r x se cs b l o cks s o t h a t t h e t e x t d i sp l a ys a p p r o p r i a t e l y. S h e n o w h a s t h e y o u n g g i r l st a t i n g : t h i s i s m y f r i e n d o r a n g e a n d t h i s i s a r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm a ve r t e x i s a p o i n t t h a t i s co n n e ct e d b y e d g e s. t h i s sh a p e h a s 7 ve r t e xs t h a t yo u c a n se e a n d 1 t h a t yo u ca n t se e l e t s g o t o a d i f f e r e n t r o o m t o s e e o u r n e xt sh a p e E a ch o f t h e se st a t e m e n t s i s d i sp l a ye d o n t h e scr e e n f o r 5 se c o n d s. W h i l e G w a s w o r ki n g o n t h i s sc r i p t t h e r e se a r ch e r o b se r ve d t h a t s h e o r i g i n a l l y t yp e d t h i s sh a p e h a s 7 v e r t e xs H e i n t e n d e d t o a sk h e r a b o u t t h i s e r r o r d u r i n g t h e n e xt m e e t i n g H o w e ve r sh e c h a n g e d t h e t e xt d u r i n g t h e m e e t i n g so s h e w a s a b l e t o se l f co r r e ct N e i t h e r t h e r e s e a r ch e r n o r t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r a d d r e sse d t h i s co n ce r n w i t h h e r S h e m a y h a ve r e ce i ve d a cl u e f r o m t h e m e e t i n g sp a ce s w h i t e b o a r d w h i ch d i d i n cl u d e a d r a w i n g o f a r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm w i t h i t s 8 ve r t i ce s i d e n t i f i e d G a l so cr e a t e d a scr i p t f o r t h e g o b o S h e u se d t h e w h e n s p a ce ke y p r e sse d b l o ck t o t r i g g e r t h e g o b o t o st a t e H e l l o I n b o t h sc r i p t s, sh e u se d 1 2

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1 3 5 b l o cks t o t a l a n d sh e u se d 7 d i f f e r e n t b l o ck t y p e s. I n a d d i t i o n sh e h a s o n e b l o ck o n t h e p r i sm sp r i t e t h a t i s n o t p a r t o f a scr i p t I h e l p e d G w i t h h e r t e xt d i sp l a y i ssu e b e c a u se sh e w a s u si n g s a y b l o cks r a t h e r t h a n sa y f o r x se cs b l o cks. S h e q u i ckl y u p d a t e d h e r scr i p t a n d a d d e d t o i t I m i m p r e sse d w i t h h o w sh e se l f co r r e ct e d h e r ve r t e x e r r o r d u r i n g o u r m e e t i n g t i m e T h i s t o o k n o p r o m p t i n g f r o m e i t h e r t h e r e se a r ch e r o r t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r 5 / 1 1 / 1 0 G w a s a b se n t t o d a y. S h e w a s p a r t i ci p a t i n g i n F A I R t e st i n g 5 / 1 2 / 1 0 G i s u si n g t h e s a m e sp r i t e s a n d h a s a d d e d a d d i t i o n a l sp r i t e s S h e cr e a t e d 2 sp r i t e s: o n e t h a t i s a n o u t l i n e o f a c o n e a n d a n o t h e r t h a t i s a p a i r o f sh o r t h o r i zo n t a l l i n e s S h e a l so a d d e d a ch a l kb o a r d sc e n e a s a n a d d i t i o n a l b a ckg r o u n d a n d r e m o ve d t h e d e f a u l t w h i t e b a ckg r o u n d f r o m h e r p r o j e ct S h e cr e a t e d 2 sm a l l sc r i p t s f o r t h e st a g e O n e scr i p t s se t s t h e b e a c h sce n e a s t h e o p e n i n g b a ckg r o u n d T h e o t h e r scr i p t ch a n g e s t h e b a ckg r o u n d t o t h e ch a l kb o a r d w h e n t h e sp a ce ke y i s p r e sse d S h e a l so i n cl u d e d a w h e n u p a r r o w ke y p r e sse d b l o ck i n t h e scr i p t s a r e a b u t t h e r e a r e n o a d d i t i o n a l b l o cks a t t a ch e d t o i t T o t h e r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm s h e a d d e d t w o s m a l l scr i p t s t o i n d i ca t e t h a t t h e

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1 3 6 p r i sm sh o u l d b e vi si b l e i n t h e b e g i n n i n g b u t sh o u l d n o t b e vi si b l e o n ce t h e sp a ce ke y i s p r e sse d G d i d n o t a l t e r t h e sc r i p t s o n t h e yo u n g f e m a l e o r g o b o T o t h e co n e s p r i t e sh e a d d e d t h e vi si b l e / n o t vi si b l e sc r i p t s si m i l a r t o t h e sc r i p t s f o r t h e p r i sm H o w e ve r sh e r e ve r se d t h e b e h a vi o r T h e co n e i s n o t vi si b l e i n t h e b e g i n n i n g b u t d o e s b e co m e vi si b l e w h e n t h e s p a ce ke y i s p r e sse d G a l so cr e a t e d a sm a l l sc r i p t f o r t h e p a i r o f l i n e s t h a t m a ke s t h e m d i sa p p e a r a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p r o j e ct G h a s n o c r e a t e d 9 scr i p t s f o r h e r p r o j e c t A cr o ss a l l sc r i p t s, sh e h a s u s e d 2 6 b l o cks, a n d sh e u se d 9 d i f f e r e n t t yp e s o f b l o cks. I n a d d i t i o n sh e h a s o n e b l o c k o n t h e st a g e t h a t i s n o t p a r t o f a scr i p t G i s cl e a r l y m a ki n g p r o g r e ss. S h e i s w o r ki n g t o cr e a t e a n a d d i t i o n a l sce n e f o cu s e d o n a co n e T h e r e se a r ch e r d e m o n s t r a t e d h o w t o sh o w a n d h i d e sp r i t e s u si n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e b l o cks a n d s h e q u i ckl y i n t e g r a t e d t h i s a ct i o n i n t o h e r p r o j e ct I t s n o t cl e a r ye t h o w a u s e r w i l l kn o w t h a t t h e s p a ce b a r n e e d s t o b e p r e sse d i n o r d e r t o a d va n ce t o t h e n e x t sce n e 5 / 1 3 / 1 0 G i s u si n g t h e s a m e sp r i t e s a n d cr e a t e d 2 a d d i t i o n a l sp r i t e s. O n e sp r i t e i s f r o m t h e S cr a t ch l i b r a r y; i t i s a si t t i n g ve r si o n o f t h e sa m e yo u n g f e m a l e sh e u se d p r e vi o u sl y. S h e u se d t h e p a i n t e d i t o r t o cr e a t e a sp r i t e t h a t r e se m b l e s a ch a i r a n d h a s p l a c e d t h e ch a i r so t h a t t h e p r e vi o u s sp r i t e a p p e a r s t o b e si t t i n g o n i t H e r b a ck g r o u n d s h a ve

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1 3 7 r e m a i n e d t h e sa m e S h e n o w h a s a t o t a l o f 1 6 scr i p t s. S h e d i d n o t a l t e r t h e scr i p t s o n t h e st a g e p r i sm g o b o a n d co n e S h e a d d e d 2 sm a l l scr i p t s t o t h e s t a n d i n g f e m a l e t o e n su r e t h a t sh e i s vi si b l e a t t h e b e g i n n i n g b u t i s n o t vi si b l e w h e n t h e sce n e ch a n g e s ( w h e n t h e sp a ce ke y i s p r e ss e d ) I t i s n o w a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e p a i r o f sh o r t h o r i zo n t a l l i n e s r e p r e se n t p i e c e s o f ch a l k f o r t h e ch a l k b o a r d sc e n e G cr e a t e d 2 sm a l l scr i p t s t o h i d e t h e ch a l k a t t h e b e g i n n i n g a n d m a ke t h e ch a l k vi si b l e w h e n t h e sce n e c h a n g e s G cr e a t e d 2 scr i p t s f o r t h e si t t i n g f e m a l e sp r i t e S h e h a s h i d d e n t h i s sp r i t e a t t h e b e g i n n i n g b u t m a d e i t vi si b l e w h e n t h e sc e n e ch a n g e s. T h e sp r i t e t h e n st a t e s t h i s i s a co n e a n d i t h a s o n e cu r ve d su r f a ce a n d o n e b a se w i t h o n e a p e x G a l so a d d e d 2 scr i p t s t o t h e ch a i r s p r i t e t o e n su r e t h a t i t i s n o t vi si b l e i n t h e b e g i n n i n g b u t i s vi si b l e w h e n t h e sce n e ch a n g e s. A cr o ss a l l 1 6 sc r i p t s, sh e h a s 4 1 b l o cks, a n d sh e h a s u se d 9 d i f f e r e n t t yp e s o f b l o cks. I n a d d i t i o n sh e h a s o n e b l o ck o n t h e st a g e t h a t i s n o t p a r t o f a scr i p t T h o u g h t h e n u m b e r o f scr i p t s a n d b l o c ks h a s i n cr e a s e d t h e n u m b e r o f d i f f e r e n t t yp e s o f b l o cks h a s r e m a i n e d t h e sa m e G h a sn t a d d r e sse d h o w t h e u se r w i l l kn o w t o p r e ss t h e s p a ce ke y t o t r a n si t i o n t o t h e n e xt sce n e I n a d d i t i o n so m e o f t h e t e xt d i sp l a ys t o o q u i ckl y, s o i t m a y b e d i f f i cu l t t o r e a d f o r st r u g g l i n g r e a d e r s. G w o r ke d i n d e p e n d e n t l y t o d a y. S h e n e e d e d n o h e l p

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1 3 8 5 / 1 4 / 1 0 G d i d n o t c r e a t e a d d i t i o n a l s p r i t e s o r b a ck g r o u n d s t o d a y. S h e sp e n t m o st o f t h e m e e t i n g t i m e w o r ki n g o n a scr i p t t h a t a sks a q u e st i o n o f t h e u se r t h e n p r o vi d e s p o si t i ve o r n e g a t i ve f e e d b a ck d e p e n d i n g o n t h e r e sp o n se T h e q u e st i o n i s a ske d b y t h e si t t i n g f e m a l e i n t h e ch a l kb o a r d sc e n e a n d i s p r e ce d e d b y a d e sc r i p t i o n o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f a co n e T h e u se r m u st e n t e r a r e sp o n se u n t i l t h e co r r e c t o n e i s p r o vi d e d S h e o r i g i n a l l y cr e a t e d t h i s scr i p t o n t h e s t a n d i n g f e m a l e sp r i t e T h e r e se a r ch e r sh o w e d h e r h o w t o m o ve t h e sc r i p t t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s p r i t e G d i sco n n e ct e d t h e o r i g i n a l o p e n i n g sc r i p t o n t h e st a n d i n g f e m a l e f r o m i t s co r r e sp o n d i n g t r i g g e r so t h e o p e n i n g sce n e n o l o n g e r f u n ct i o n s a p p r o p r i a t e l y. S h e a l so a d d e d a m u si c so u n d e f f e ct t h a t i s t r i g g e r e d w h e n t h e u se r p r e sse s t h e a ke y. A cr o ss a l l 1 6 scr i p t s sh e h a s 4 2 b l o cks, a n d sh e h a s u se d 1 0 d i f f e r e n t t yp e s o f b l o cks. I n a d d i t i o n sh e h a s 2 2 b l o cks o n s p r i t e s a n d t h e st a g e t h a t a r e n o t p a r t o f a n y sc r i p t s. T h e m a j o r i t y ( 1 8 ) o f t h o se b l o cks a r e f o u n d i n 2 st a cks l o ca t e d o n t h e st a n d i n g sp r i t e O n e st a ck w a s se p a r a t e d f r o m i t s t r i g g e r T h e o t h e r st a ck w a s o r i g i n a l l y cr e a t e d o n t h e w r o n g sp r i t e b u t w a s l a t e r co p i e d t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e sp r i t e G st i l l h a sn t a d d r e sse d h o w t h e u se r w i l l kn o w t o p r e ss t h e sp a ce ke y t o t r a n si t i o n t o t h e n e xt sce n e o r co r r e ct e d t h e sp e e d o f t h e t e xt a s d e scr i b e d ye st e r d a y. T h e u se r w i l l a l so n o t kn o w h o w t o t r i g g e r t h e m u si c. G i n t e g r a t e d a q u e s t i o n / a n sw e r scr i p t t h a t w a s d e m o n st r a t e d b y t h e r e s e a r ch e r f o r a n o t h e r st u d e n t s p r o j e ct ( F ) G co l l a b o r a t e d w i t h S t o sh a r e e xp e r t i se G sh a r e d h o w t o h i d e a n d sh o w sp r i t e s a n d sw i t ch b a ckg r o u n d s t o t r a n si t i o n b e t w e e n d i f f e r e n t sce n e s S sh a r e d h o w t o a sk a q u e st i o n f o r t h e u se r t o e n t e r a r e sp o n se a n d r e ce i ve a p p r o p r i a t e f e e d b a ck. B o t h G a n d S s p r o j e ct s d e m o n st r a t e t h i s c o l l a b o r a t i o n si n ce e a ch p r o j e ct co n t a i n s a n a sp e c t o f t h e o t h e r s p r o j e ct

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1 3 9 5 / 1 7 / 1 0 G d i d n o t c r e a t e a d d i t i o n a l s p r i t e s t o d a y b u t d i d cr e a t e a n a d d i t i o n a l b a ck g r o u n d a l i vi n g r o o m sc e n e G r e co n n e ct e d t h e t r i g g e r t o a st a ck o f b l o cks t h a t cr e a t e d t h e o p e n i n g sce n e o n t h e st a n d i n g f e m a l e S h e a l so r e m o ve d so m e u n n e c e ssa r y b l o cks f r o m t h a t sp r i t e S h e a d d e d a sc r i p t t o t h e g o b o sp r i t e t h a t st a t e s w e l l i ve g o t t o g o n o w b ye g u ys w h e n t h e sp a c e ke y i s p r e sse d H o w e ve r t h i s scr i p t co n f l i ct s w i t h a si m i l a r scr i p t o n t h e s p r i t e G n o w h a s 1 8 sc r i p t s t h a t co n t a i n 5 4 b l o cks t h a t r e p r e se n t 1 0 d i f f e r e n t t yp e s o f b l o cks. I n a d d i t i o n sh e h a s 5 b l o cks o n sp r i t e s a n d t h e st a g e t h a t a r e n o t p a r t o f a n y sc r i p t s. G st i l l h a sn t a d d r e sse d h o w t h e u se r w i l l kn o w t o p r e ss t h e sp a ce ke y t o t r a n si t i o n t o t h e n e xt sce n e o r kn o w h o w t o cu e t h e m u si c o r co r r e ct e d t h e sp e e d o f t h e t e xt a s d e scr i b e d p r e vi o u sl y.

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1 4 0 5 / 1 8 / 1 0 N o m e e t i n g b e ca u se o f 5 t h g r a d e 2 0 t h ce n t u r y p r o j e ct p r e se n t a t i o n s. 5 / 1 9 / 1 0 G a d d e d a n e w sp r i t e o f a d i f f e r e n t st a n d i n g f e m a l e a va i l a b l e i n t h e S c r a t ch sp r i t e l i b r a r y. G p r o vi d e d a sa y b l o ck t o p r o m p t t h e u se r t o p r e ss t h e sp a ce ke y t o t r a n si t i o n t o t h e n e x t sce n e ( a d i f f e r e n t r o o m ) A st u d e n t w h o i s n o t p a r t o f t h i s l e a r n i n g g r o u p ca m e n e a r t h e e n d o f t h e m e e t i n g t i m e t o w o r k w i t h t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r W h i l e t h i s st u d e n t w a s w a i t i n g t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r h a d G sh a r e h e r p r o j e ct w i t h t h e st u d e n t O n ce t h e o p e n i n g sce n e t o o k p l a ce t h e st u d e n t d i d n o t kn o w h o w t o p r o ce e d u n t i l G t o l d h e r t o p r e ss t h e s p a ce ke y. O n ce G r e a l i ze d t h a t a u se r ca n n o t p r o ce e d w i t h o u t p r o m p t i n g sh e a d d e d t h e p r o m p t a s d e sc r i b e d a b o ve T h e co n e i s n o t vi si b l e w h e n t h e t e xt a p p e a r s t h a t d e scr i b e s t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e c o n e G p r e vi o u sl y c r e a t e d a t h i r d b a ckg r o u n d w h i ch i n d i c a t e s a n e w sce n e S h e a l so h a s a d d e d s e ve r a l sc r i p t s t o va r i o u s sp r i t e s t o co o r d i n a t e w h e n s p r i t e s w i l l b e vi si b l e o r n o t vi si b l e d e p e n d i n g o n t h e sce n e F o r e xa m p l e t h e n e w sp r i t e sh e a d d e d t o d a y i s h i d d e n a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p r o j e ct b u t w i l l a p p e a r w h e n t h e u se r p r e sse s t h e u p a r r o w ke y S h e a d d e d a sa y f o r x se cs b l o ck t h a t st a t e s p r e ss t h e u p a r r o w t o g o p l a y a g a m e T h e r e s e a r ch e r ch a l l e n g e d h e r t o i n cl u d e so m e t h i n g a b o u t su r f a ce a r e a i n h e r p r o j e ct I t a p p e a r s t h a t sh e i n t e n d s t o h a ve t h e u s e r p l a y a g a m e i n t h e n e w sce n e S h e n o w h a s 2 4 sc r i p t s i n

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1 4 1 h e r p r o j e ct t h a t u se 6 7 b l o cks. I n a d d i t i o n sh e h a s 3 b l o cks o n sp r i t e s t h a t a r e n o t p a r t o f a n y scr i p t s G h a s cr e a t e d a n e w sce n e t h a t w i l l i n co r p o r a t e so m e t h i n g a b o u t su r f a ce a r e a t h o u g h i t i s n o t f u n ct i o n i n g co m p l e t e l y ye t S h e h a s i n cl u d e d scr i p t s t o co o r d i n a t e t h e h i d i n g a n d sh o w i n g o f h e r sp r i t e s a n d t o d i sp l a y t h e a p p r o p r i a t e b a ckg r o u n d f o r e a ch sce n e i n cl u d e d i n h e r p r o j e ct 5 / 2 0 / 1 0 R e se a r ch e r e n co u r a g e d G t o m o ve t h e co n e t o a d i f f e r e n t l o ca t i o n o n t h e st a g e so t h a t i t w o u l d b e vi si b l e w h e n t h e f e m a l e si t t i n g sp r i t e d e scr i b e s t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f a co n e P r e vi o u sl y, t h e t e x t a p p e a r e d i n f r o n t o f t h e co n e s o o n l y a sm a l l p o r t i o n o f t h e t o p o f t h e co n e w a s vi si b l e G a d d e d a sa y b l o ck t h a t st a t e s t h e n a m e ( a l l y) o f t h e yo u n g st a n d i n g f e m a l e sp r i t e a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e p r o j e ct G a d d e d a n o t h e r b a ckg r o u n d t o h e r p r o j e ct T h e b a ckg r o u n d i s a st a g e w i t h s p o t l i g h t s. G n o w h a s 4 sce n e s i n h e r p r o j e ct : t h e b e a c h t h e c h a l kb o a r d a l i vi n g r o o m a n d a s t a g e T h e p r o j e ct p r o vi d e s a p r o m p t t o t r a n si t i o n b e t w e e n t h e f i r st 2 sce n e s d o e s n o t p r o vi d e a p r o m p t t o t r a n si t i o n t o t h e 3 rd sce n e t h o u g h t h e sa y b l o ck w i t h a p r o m p t i s l o ca t e d i n t h e scr i p t s a r e a ( h o w e ve r i t i s n o t a t t a ch e d t o a sc r i p t ) d o e s p r o vi d e a p r o m p t t o t r a n si t i o n t o t h e l a st sce n e G n o w h a s 2 8 scr i p t s t h a t u se 8 0 b l o c ks f r o m 1 0 d i f f e r e n t b l o ck t yp e s. I n

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1 4 2 a d d i t i o n t h e r e a r e 2 b l o cks t h a t a r e i n t e g r a t e d i n t o a n y scr i p t ( o n e o f t h e se i s t h e sa y b l o ck m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r o n t h e si t t i n g f e m a l e s p r i t e ; t h e o t h e r a p p e a r s t o b e a m i sp l a ce d w h e n sp a ce ke y p r e sse d b l o ck o n t h e p r i sm sp r i t e ) 5 / 2 1 / 1 0 G i s cl o se t o f i n i sh i n g u p h e r p r o j e ct S h e h a d D i n t e r a ct w i t h h e r p r o j e ct t o d a y. G w a s a b l e t o f i x d e si g n e r r o r s i n h e r p r o j e ct o n ce D w o r ke d t h r o u g h i t o r t h e r e s e a r ch e r a ske d h e r a b o u t t h e s o u n d cl i p e ve n t h o u g h P h a s t r i e d t o g e t h e r t o i d e n t i f y t h e e r r o r s i n d e p e n d e n t l y. T h i n ki n g o u t si d e o n e s se l f i s d i f f i cu l t f o r yo u n g l e a r n e r s. D i n t e r a ct e d w i t h G s p r o j e ct a n d G o b se r ve d t h a t D d i d n o t kn o w h o w t o p r o ce e d i n se ve r a l i n st a n ce s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o j e c t S h e w a s a b l e t o o b se r ve h o w a n i n d i vi d u a l u se r w i l l e n co u n t e r h e r p r o j e c t a n d n o t i ce d t h a t sh e n e e d t o p r o vi d e a d d i t i o n a l p r o m p t i n g i n o r d e r f o r t h e u se r t o su cce ssf u l l y i n t e r a ct w i t h h e r p r o j e ct A s so o n a s D f i n i sh e d i n t e r a ct i n g w i t h h e r p r o j e ct G i m m e d i a t e l y b e g a n a d d i n g a d d i t i o n a l b l o cks t o e xi st i n g sc r i p t s t o p r o vi d e a p p r o p r i a t e p r o m p t s f o r t h e u s e r S h e d i d n o t n e e d a ssi st a n ce f r o m e i t h e r t h e r e se a r ch e r o r t h e p r a ct i t i o n e r A n o t h e r e xa m p l e o f G s w i l l i n g n e ss t o b e r e sp o n si b l e f o r h e r l e a r n i n g st e m s f r o m a n i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n G a n d t h e r e s e a r ch e r T h e r e se a r c h e r o b se r ve d t h a t G a d d e d a scr i p t t o h e r p r o j e ct t h a t p l a ys a s o u n d e f f e ct w h e n t h e a k e y i s p r e sse d G s p r o j e c t co n t a i n e d a q u e st i o n a n d a n sw e r scr i p t t h a t a sks t h e u se r a q u e st i o n a b o u t t h e n u m b e r o f b a se s i n a co n e I f t h e u s e r e n t e r s a co r r e ct a n sw e r

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1 4 3 p o si t i ve f e e d b a ck i n t h e f o r m o f t e x t i s d i sp l a y e d o n t h e scr e e n W h e n G i n t e r a ct s w i t h h e r p r o j e ct sh e w o u l d p r e ss t h e a ke y w h e n sh e e n t e r e d t h e co r r e ct r e sp o n se T h e r e se a r ch e r o b se r ve d t h i s b e h a vi o r a n d a ske d h e r h o w t h e so u n d w o u l d p l a y i f sh e w a s i n a d i f f e r e n t r o o m w h e n a u se r w a s i n t e r a ct i n g w i t h h e r p r o j e ct S h e i m m e d i a t e l y b e g a n a d d r e ssi n g t h i s i ssu e w i t h o u t p r o m p t i n g o r a ssi st a n ce f r o m t h e r e se a r ch e r o r p r a ct i t i o n e r

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1 4 4 A P P E N D I X D C U R R I C U L U M B A S E D P R E A N D P O S T T E S T

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1 4 5 A P P E N D I X E I N T E R V I E W G U I D E S S e m i S t r u c t u r e d I n t e r v i e w G u i d e f o r C a s e S t u d y P a r t i c i p a n t s I w a n t t o t a l k t o yo u a b o u t y o u r e x p e r i e n c e d e si g n i n g a b o u t m a t h i n S cr a t ch I w a n t y o u t o b e h o n e st I f y o u d o n o t f e e l co m f o r t a b l e a n sw e r i n g a q u e st i o n yo u d o n o t n e e d t o a n sw e r t h e q u e st i o n 1 D i d yo u e n j o y u si n g S cr a t ch ? E xp l a i n 2 W a s i t e a sy o r d i f f i cu l t t o l e a r n h o w t o u se S cr a t ch ? E xp l a i n 3 W h a t i s t h e b e s t w a y t o l e a r n h o w t o u se S cr a t ch ? 4 D o yo u t h i n k t h a t cr e a t i n g so m e t h i n g i n S cr a t c h h e l p s yo u l e a r n ? H o w ? 5 D i d d e si g n i n g i n S cr a t ch h e l p yo u l e a r n m a t h ? 6 D i d yo u r sco r e o n t h e m a t h p o st t e st i m p r o ve f r o m t h e p r e t e st ? W h y o r w h y n o t ? 7 D i d yo u e n j o y c r e a t i n g s o m e t h i n g f o r 2 n d g r a d e r s t o u se ? E xp l a i n 8 D o e s d e si g n i n g s o m e t h i n g f o r so m e o n e e l se t o u se e n co u r a g e yo u t o w o r k h a r d e r ? E xp l a i n 9 I s t h e r e a n yt h i n g y o u w a n t m e t o kn o w a b o u t t h i s e xp e r i e n c e t h a t I d i d n t a sk yo u ? T h a n k yo u so m u c h f o r t a l ki n g w i t h m e Y o u v e b e e n ve r y h e l p f u l S e m i S t r u c t u r e d I n t e r v i e w G u i d e f o r P r a c t i t i o n e r I w a n t t o t a l k t o yo u a b o u t y o u r e x p e r i e n c e 1 H o w d i d yo u r st u d e n t s r e a ct t o u s i n g S cr a t ch ? E xp l a i n 2 W a s i t e a sy o r d i f f i cu l t f o r yo u r s t u d e n t s t o l e a r n h o w t o u se S cr a t c h ? E xp l a i n 3 W h a t i s t h e b e s t w a y t o t e a ch st u d e n t s h o w t o u se S cr a t ch ? 4 H o w d o yo u t h i n k t h a t h a vi n g st u d e n t s c r e a t e so m e t h i n g i n S cr a t ch h e l p s t h e m l e a r n ? H o w ? 5 H o w w a s l e a r n i n g a b o u t m a t h d i f f e r e n t f o r yo u r st u d e n t s b e ca u s e t h e y u s e d S cr a t ch ? E xp l a i n 6 H o w d o yo u t h i n k yo u r s t u d e n t s r e a ct e d t o c r e a t i n g so m e t h i n g f o r 2 n d g r a d e r s t o u se ? E xp l a i n 7 H o w w a s st u d e n t m o t i va t i o n t o w o r k h a r d a f f e ct e d b e ca u s e t h e y w e r e cr e a t i n g so m e t h i n g f o r 2 n d g r a d e r s t o u se ? E xp l a i n 8 I s t h e r e a n yt h i n g y o u w a n t m e t o kn o w a b o u t t h i s e xp e r i e n c e t h a t I d i d n t a sk yo u ? T h a n k yo u so m u c h f o r t a l ki n g w i t h m e Y o u v e b e e n ve r y h e l p f u l

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1 4 6 A P P E N D I X F T R A N S C R I P T A N D A N A L Y S I S O F D O M I N I C S I N T E R V I E W T h i s a p p e n d i x i n cl u d e s t h e t r a n scr i p t a n d 8 st e p a n a l ysi s o f t h e p o s t e xp e r i e n ce i n t e r vi e w r e c o r d e d w i t h D o m i n i c, o n e o f t h e ca se st u d y p a r t i ci p a n t s. R e s e a r c h e r q u e s t i o n s P a r t i c i p a n t r e s p o n s e s R e c o r d b r i e f n o t e s w h i l e r e a d i n g t r a n s c r i p t ( S t e p 1 ) D i d yo u e n j o y u si n g S cr a t ch ? W e l l ye s. E n j o ye d S cr a t ch W h a t a b o u t u si n g S cr a t ch d i d yo u l i ke ? W e l l t h e p a r t w a s m a ki n g a l l t h e n e w sp r i t e s a n d e d i t i n g t h e m l i ke t h a t ca t r i g h t t h e r e < ye s> I m a d e h e r a t o n g u e a n d e y e l a sh e s, m a d e h e r l o o k l i ke a g i r l n o t a b o y ca t b e c a u se I t h i n k e ve r y ca t i n h e r e i s a b o y. E n j o ye d cr e a t i n g a n d e d i t i n g sp r i t e s S o yo u l i ke d t a ki n g t h e e xi st i n g sp r i t e s a n d ch a n g i n g t h e m r i g h t ? Y e a h O K W h a t e l se d i d yo u l i ke a b o u t u si n g S cr a t ch ? W e l l t h a t t h e r e w e r e so m a n y sp r i t e s t o u s e l i ke a d r a g o n a n d g h o st a n d yo u ca n cr e a t e yo u r o w n sp r i t e s l i ke r a i n i n g m i l k. E n j o ye d e xi st i n g l i b r a r y o f s p r i t e s w i t h i n S cr a t ch O K S o yo u l i ke t h a t yo u co u l d d e si g n yo u r o w n sp r i t e s < ye a h > a n d yo u a l so l i ke t h a t t h e r e w e r e l o t s o f o t h e r sp r i t e s t h a t w e r e p a r t o f S cr a t ch t h a t y o u co u l d u se ? Y e s. Y e s. O K G o o d D o yo u t h i n k i t w a s e a sy o r d i f f i cu l t t o l e a r n h o w t o u se S cr a t ch ? I sa y i t w a s d i f f i cu l t S cr a t ch i s d i f f i cu l t I t w a s d i f f i cu l t t o l e a r n h o w t o u se S cr a t ch ? Y e s. W h a t m a d e i t d i f f i cu l t t o l e a r n h o w t o u se ? W e l l p r e t t y m u ch i t w a s h a r d t o kn o w w h a t t o d o b e ca u se t h e r e w a s so m u ch st u f f L i ke w h e n yo u w e r e sa yi n g a t a n d t u r n a r o u n d ca u se l o o k a t a l l t h e se s t u f f g l i d e 1 se n s x 2 9 a n d y 1 0 a n d ch a n g e x b y 1 0 a n d a l l t h i s o t h e r st u f f S c r a t ch i s d i f f i cu l t b e ca u se o f t o o m a n y co m m a n d b l o cks S u r e S o a l l t h o se Y e a h

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1 4 7 b l o cks, m a yb e t h e r e a r e j u st t o o m a n y b l o cks sh o w i n g so i t g e t s co n f u si n g ? O K S o b e ca u se t h e r e a r e a l o t o f b l o cks t h e r e w h a t d o yo u t h i n k w o u l d b e t h e b e st w a y t o l e a r n h o w t o u se S cr a t ch ? O r w h a t w o u l d b e t h e b e st w a y f o r yo u t o l e a r n h o w t o u se S cr a t ch ? I d o n t r e a l l y kn o w Y o u d o n t r e a l l y kn o w ? W h a t w o u l d h a ve b e e n t h e b e st w a y t o h e l p y o u l e a r n S cr a t ch ? M a yb e g e t so m e p r o f e ssi o n a l h e l p G e t so m e p r o f e ssi o n a l h e l p ? Y e a h W h a t d o yo u m e a n b y t h a t ? M a yb e a p e r so n w h o s d o n e S cr a t ch f o r a w h i l e o r a p e r so n w h o m a yb e cr e a t e d i t G e t h e l p f r o m a n e xp e r i e n ce d S cr a t ch u se r ( d i d n o t p e r ce i ve r e se a r ch e r o r p r a ct i t i o n e r a s a n e xp e r i e n ce d u se r ) O h m a yb e t h e p e r so n w h o cr e a t e d i t D o yo u t h i n k t h e y w o u l d b e a b l e t o h e l p yo u ? Y e a h W h a t a b o u t i n a cl a ssr o o m ? H o w co u l d w e l e a r n S cr a t c h i n t h e cl a ssr o o m b e ca u se w e p r o b a b l y w o u l d n t b e a b l e t o b r i n g i n Y o u m e a n t h e 5 t h g r a d e cl a ssr o o m ? S u r e i n t h e 5 t h g r a d e cl a ssr o o m W h a t w o u l d b e t h e b e st w a y t o l e a r n S cr a t ch ? I f yo u w e r e g o i n g t o w o r k w i t h yo u r b e ca u se yo u kn o w so m e t h i n g a b o u t S cr a t ch n o w H o w w o u l d yo u t e a c h yo u r cl a ssm a t e s a b o u t S cr a t ch ? M a yb e o n e si m p l e t h i n g a t a t i m e T e a ch i n s m a l l st e p s O K M a yb e o n e si m p l e I g u e ss b u t i f I d i d n t k n o w i t h o w

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1 4 8 t h i n g a t a t i m e D o y o u t h i n k t h a t w o u l d h e l p yo u t o o ? co u l d I t e a c h i t ? W e l l r i g h t b u t I m sa yi n g i f so m e o n e w a s t e a ch i n g yo u w o u l d i t h e l p yo u t o d o o n e si m p l e t h i n g a t a t i m e ? Y e a h D o m i n i c m a y l i ke i t w h e n t a u g h t i n sm a l l st e p s A n d w h a t d o yo u m e a n b y o n e si m p l e t h i n g ? L i ke t h e f i r st t h i n g a f t e r a n o t h e r l i ke cr e a t i n g t h e sp r i t e s. T h e n w e l l f i r st t h e m o t i o n t h e n t h e l o o ks so u n d p e n co n t r o l se n si n g o p e r a t i o n va r i a b l e s. L e a r n t o cr e a t e sp r i t e s f i r st ( h e e n j o ye d ) t h e n w o r k t h r o u g h ca t e g o r i e s o f co m m a n d b l o cks S o a r e yo u s a yi n g w e sh o u l d g o t h r o u g h e a ch b l o ck t o t e a c h yo u o n e b l o ck a t a t i m e ? W e l l n o t a l l o f t h e se T h a t w o u l d t a ke f o r e v e r D o n t t e a ch a l l co m m a n d b l o cks T h a t w o u l d t a ke a l o n g t i m e ? Y e a h j u st l i ke m o t i o n a n d t h a t a n d t h a t a n d t h a t a n d t h a t a n d t h e n l o o ks T e a ch a f e w co m m a n d b l o cks i n e a ch ca t e g o r y O K so m a yb e d o a f e w b l o cks f r o m e a ch o f t h o se ca t e g o r i e s? U h h u h ( y e s) M a yb e t h e o n e s y o u d u se t h e m o st ? Y e a h T e a ch m o st co m m o n l y u s e d co m m a n d b l o cks O K T h a t s r e a so n a b l e D o yo u t h i n k d e si g n i n g i n S cr a t ch h e l p s y o u l e a r n ? D o y o u t h i n k y o u l e a r n so m e t h i n g w h i l e d e si g n i n g i n S cr a t ch w h i l e w o r ki n g o n t h i s p r o j e ct ? L e a r n i n g m a t h ? S u r e l e t s t a l k a b o u t l e a r n i n g m a t h D o yo u t h i n k y o u ca n l e a r n m a t h w h i l e w o r ki n g o n t h i s p r o j e ct ? U m m I r e a l l y d o n t S o m e o f t h a t st u f f I a l r e a d y kn o w l i ke a p yr a m i d I d o n t kn o w t h a t m u c h a b o u t p yr a m i d s b u t cyl i n d e r a n d c o n e I a l r e a d y kn o w a b o u t t h o se t w o A l r e a d y kn o w s a b o u t co n t e n t O K S o yo u a l r e a d y kn e w a b o u t s o m e o f t h e m a t h yo u u se d ? Y e s S o yo u d i d n t r e a l l y l e a r n a b o u t m a t h i n t h i s p r o j e ct ? N o D i d n t l e a r n m a t h I s t h e r e a n yt h i n g y o u W e l l h o w t o d r a w so m e o f t h e m L e a r n e d h o w t o d r a w

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1 4 9 f e l t l i ke yo u d i d l e a r n f r o m t h i s p r o j e ct ? so m e g e o m e t r i c s o l i d s S o h o w t o d r a w t h o se sh a p e s? Y e a h Y e a h yo u d r e w a n u m b e r o f sh a p e s. I se e a co n e r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm cyl i n d e r s e ve n a p yr a m i d t h e r e Y o u ve l e a r n e d h o w t o d r a w t h e m A n yt h i n g e l se yo u t h i n k yo u l e a r n e d i n t h i s p r o j e ct ? W e l l I d i d l e a r n t h a t n o t r e a l l y. I w a s j u st sa yi n g t h a t I w a s a l i t t l e e m b a r r a sse d w h e n I w a s s a yi n g m y p r o j e ct b e c a u se e v e r yt h i n g w a s m e sse d u p t h e t i m e I d i d i t ca u se t h a t w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce t h a t w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce t h a t w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce E ve r yt h i n g w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce E m b a r r a sse d b y p r o j e ct Y o u m e a n w h e n yo u w e r e sh o w i n g i t t o t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s? Y e s, e ve r yt h i n g w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce E m b a r r a sse d w h e n sh o w i n g t o 2 n d g r a d e r s E ve r yt h i n g w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce ? M a yb e n o t e ve r yt h i n g N o t i n t h e r i g h t p o si t i o n T h e y r e a l l s u p p o se d t o b e H e n e e d s t o b e b i g g e r T h e y r e a l l su p p o se d t o b e f a ci n g P r o j e ct i sn t w o r ki n g co r r e ct l y; d i d n t f i n i sh O h so so m e o f t h e si ze s a r e n o t r i g h t S e e l o o k. S e e S o h e s f a ci n g t h e w r o n g d i r e ct i o n ? Y e a h t h a t s o n e O K O K W e l l d o yo u w a n t t o se e ? W e l l g o t h r o u g h i t i n a m i n u t e O K ? A n yt h i n g e l se yo u l e a r n e d ? A n yt h i n g e l se yo u c a n t h i n k o f t h a t yo u l e a r n e d w h i l e d o i n g t h i s p r o j e ct ? U h m p r o b a b l yu h m m a yb e m a yb e l e a r n i n g h o w t o d o i t L e a r n i n g h o w t o d o S cr a t ch ? Y e s. L e a r n e d h o w t o u se S cr a t ch Y e a h yo u l e a r n e d h o w t o d o S cr a t ch a l i t t l e b i t b e ca u se yo u sa i d yo u o n e t h i n g y o u l i ke d w a s d r a w i n g t h e sp r i t e s a n d e d i t i n g t h e s p r i t e s, s o yo u d e f i n i t e l y l e a r n e d h o w t o d o t h a t r i g h t ? Y e a h L e a r n e d h o w t o d r a w a n d e d i t sp r i t e s i n S cr a t ch D i d yo u l e a r n h o w t o r e co r d y o u r vo i c e ? Y e a h L e a r n e d h o w t o r e co r d h i s vo i ce i n S cr a t ch I t h i n k yo u r e i n f a ct t h e o n l y p e r so n t h a t r e co r d e d t h e i r vo i ce W e l l ye a h I t h i n k. O n l y st u d e n t t o r e c o r d vo i ce i n S cr a t ch p r o j e ct

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1 5 0 r i g h t ? I t h i n k yo u w e r e Y o u l e a r n e d t h a t a n d I d o n t t h i n k a n yb o d y e l se l e a r n e d a b o u t t h a t W h e n yo u w e r e d e si g n i n g t h i s, w e r e yo u t h i n ki n g a b o u t d e si g n i n g f o r 2 n d g r a d e r s? I d i d n t e ve n kn o w w e w e r e g o i n g t o sh o w i t t o 2 n d g r a d e r s. D i d n t kn o w h e w o u l d s h a r e h i s p r o j e ct w i t h 2 n d g r a d e r s Y o u d i d n t r e a l i ze w e w e r e g o i n g t o sh o w i t t o 2 n d g r a d e r s? N o O K T h a t s f a i r D o yo u r e m e m b e r t h e o r i g i n a l g o a l o f t h e p r o j e c t ? Y e a h C l a i m s t o r e m e m b e r t h e p r o j e c t g o a l W h a t w a s t h e g o a l o f t h e p r o j e c t ? M a ke i t cr e a t i ve ? T h o u g h t g o a l w a s t o m a ke a c r e a t i ve p r o j e ct T o m a ke i t cr e a t i ve I d o n t kn o w i f t h a t w a s o n e o f t h e m I d o n t kn o w i f t h a t w a s o n e o f t h e m N o t su r e i f g o a l i s t o m a ke a c r e a t i ve p r o j e ct O K S o t h i n k b a ck t o w h y d i d yo u d e si g n w h a t yo u d e si g n e d W h a t w a s t h i s t r yi n g t o sh o w ? I w a s t r yi n g t o m a ke i t cr e a t i ve a n d m a ke t h e m m o ve a n d m a ke t h e m h a ve a co n v e r sa t i o n b u t i n st e a d I w a s t h e o n l y o n e t a l ki n g I t h o u g h t t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s w o u l d g e t b o r e d W a n t e d t o h a ve sp r i t e s m o v e a n d h a ve a co n v e r sa t i o n b u t i n st e a d r e co r d e d h i s vo i ce W e l l so w h a t h a p p e n e d ye st e r d a y w i t h t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s ? D i d t h e y g e t b o r e d ? W e l l t h e y w e r e l o o ki n g a t i t I d o n t kn o w i f t h e y g o t b o r e d b e c a u se I m n o t t h e m b u t I d o n t kn o w i f i t w a s a s g o o d a s e ve r yo n e e l se s ca u se t h e y r e a l l m o vi n g a n d h a vi n g co n ve r sa t i o n l i ke N a t h a n i e l s. H e w a s l i ke i t i m p r e ss e d m e l i ke f i n e l e t s g o o n t h e d r a g o n s. D u h d u h d u h D u d d u h d u h F i n e l e t s g o Y e e h a w A n d t h a t s w h a t h a p p e n e d A n d m i n e s n o t a m a zi n g a s t h a t M i n e s j u st b l a h b l a h b l a h b l a h b l a h b l a h b l a h B l a h b l a h b l a h b l a h b l a h B L A H b l a h A n d t h e n b l a h b l a h B L A H b l a h Y e a h C o m p a r e d h i s p r o j e ct t o h i s b r o t h e r s; h e i s i m p r e sse d b y h i s b r o t h e r s p r o j e c t ; h e t h i n ks h i s p r o j e ct i s n o t a s g o o d W e l l so e ve r yb o d y h a s a d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a ch t o d o i n g i t a n d d i d yo u kn o w t h a t N a t h a n i e l g o t r i d o f t h a t d r a g o n W h y? D o e sn t u n d e r st a n d w h y h i s b r o t h e r r e m o ve d a sce n e a b o u t d r a g o n s t h a t h e r e a l l y l i ke s

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1 5 1 sce n e ? Y o u h a ve t o a sk h i m Y o u m e a n t h e d r a g o n s g o l i ke t h i s? Y e a h h e g o t r i d o f i t W h y? Y o u l l h a ve t o a sk h i m I d o n t kn o w w h y S o w h a t d i d h e m a ke ? W e l l h e h a d t h e co n ve r sa t i o n g o i n g a t t h e b e g i n n i n g O h I w a n t t o l o o k a t yo u r p r o j e ct w i t h yo u so l e t s g o t h r o u g h yo u r p r o j e ct O K S o f i r st sce n e o f yo u r p r o j e ct yo u r t e l l i n g a st o r y. P L A Y F I R S T S C E N E T h a t s w r o n g S e e h o w e ve r y t h i n g i s m e sse d u p P r o j e ct d o e s n o t l o o k t h e w a y i t i s su p p o se d t o l o o k W h a t s m e sse d u p h e r e W e l l h e s su p p o se d t o b e f a ci n g l e f t H e s su p p o se d t o b e r i g h t t h e r e T h e r e s s o m e ca t s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce a n d t h e y r e f a ci n g t h e w r o n g d i r e ct i o n s W A T C H I N G W O O D S S C E N E : O h co m e o n U g h F r u st r a t e d t h a t sp r i t e s a r e i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce s H e s su p p o se d t o b e b e h i n d ? T h a t s su p p o se d t o b e g r a b b i n g i t s t a i l S p r i t e i s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce D i d t h a t g e t c h a n g e d ? W a s i t l i ke t h a t ye st e r d a y? Y e s. D i d n t f i n i sh t h e p r o j e ct ( y e st e r d a y w a s t h e l a st d a y t o w o r k o n p r o j e ct s) H o w d o e s t h e l a n d sh a r k S e e E ve r yt h i n g i s m e sse d u p F r u st r a t e d T h a t l o o ks r i g h t t o m e Y o u kn o w t h o se a r e n t s u p p o se d t o b e l i ke t h a t W e l l w e t a l ke d a b o u t t h a t ye st e r d a y. W h a t a b o u t t h e l a n d sh a r k. H o w d o e s t h e l a n d sh a r k r e l a t e d t o g e o m e t r i c so l i d s? W a i t W h a t d o yo u m e a n ? W e l l h e w e n t t h e r e b e ca u s e i t s t h e s e a a n d I g u e ss h e d o e sn t l i ke i t A r e l a n d sh a r ks r e a l ? T r yi n g t o r a t i o n a l i ze w h y t h e r e i s a l a n d sh a r k i n a p r o j e ct a b o u t g e o m e t r i c so l i d s I d o n t t h i n k s o I l i ke t h e e n d b y t h e w a y. I l i ke h o w yo u u se d yo u r f l u ct u a t i o n i n y o u r vo i c e t h e r e S o h o w d o a l l t h e se ca t s, g h o st s, l a n d sh a r k, d r a g o n h o w d o e s t h o se r e l a t e t o t e a ch i n g so m e o n e W e l l t h e sh a p e s a r e t h e r e a n d I s a i d t o p a y w e l l t h e l a st p a r t w h e n t h e y w e r e d o n e t h a t I j u st w a n t e d t o m a ke su r e t h e y w e r e p a yi n g a t t e n t i o n I sa i d w h a t w e r e t h e sh a p e s i n t h e b a ckg r o u n d S h a p e s a r e p a r t o f p r o j e ct

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1 5 2 a b o u t g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. S o t h e sh a p e s a r e i n t h e b a ckg r o u n d D o yo u e ve r t a l k a b o u t t h e sh a p e s? U h d o I e ve r w e l l w h e n i t s d o n e I sa y w h a t sh a p e i s t h a t ? a n d t h e y r e t r yi n g t o g u e ss i t A sks w h a t sh a p e i s t h a t ve r b a l l y b u t i t i s n o t p a r t o f h i s p r o j e ct S o e xp l a i n t h a t t o m e a g a i n C a u se w h e n I m d o n e I w a n t t o m a ke su r e i f t h e y r e p a yi n g a t t e n t i o n S o w h e n yo u w e r e d o n e w h e n yo u w a t ch e d t h i s, s o yo u a ske d d i d yo u a sk t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s w h a t sh a p e i s t h i s? U h h u h ( y e s) S o t h a t w a sn t p a r t o f yo u r p r o j e ct t h a t w a s j u st so m e t h i n g yo u j u st a ske d t h e m ? Y e a h O K T h a t s f a i r W e a ske d yo u so m e q u e st i o n s b e f o r e t h e p r o j e ct st a r t e d a n d t h e n l a st w e e k n e a r t h e e n d o f t h e p r o j e ct yo u a n sw e r e d t h o se sa m e q u e st i o n s. Y o u m i g h t n o t h a ve r e m e m b e r e d i t O K l e t s t a ke a l o o k. I l l sh o w yo u w h a t I m t a l ki n g a b o u t S o t h i s i s w h a t yo u d i d w h e n w e st a r t e d t h e p r o j e ct R e m e m b e r l o o ki n g a t t h i s? A n d t h i s i s w h a t yo u d i d l a st w e e k ? S o w e w a n t t o co m p a r e a n sw e r s. S o cyl i n d e r cyl i n d e r p yr a m i d p yr a m i d c o n e c o n e r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm I n t h e b e g i n n i n g a n d a t t h e e n d yo u co u l d i d e n t i f y w h i ch g e o m e t r i c so l i d i t i s. N o p r o b l e m S o t h e n h e r e w e h a v e w h a t i s t h e a r e a o f t h e b a se I s t h a t r i g h t o r w r o n g ? C o n ce r n e d a b o u t g e t t i n g co r r e ct a n sw e r

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1 5 3 o f t h e p r i sm Y o u s a i d 8 W h a t d o yo u t h i n k i t i s? I g u e ss r i g h t S o h o w d o yo u f i n d a r e a ? I f o r g o t B u t o ve r h e r e yo u h a ve t h e a r e a o f t h e b a se i s 1 6 S o i t l o o ks l i ke I t s 8 I t s 8 S o yo u ca n co u n t t h e cu b e s. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 B u t h e r e y o u p u t 1 6 S o o n e o f m y q u e st i o n s i s w h a t h a p p e n e d h e r e Y o u f o r g o t ? I t h o u g h t i t w a s 8 1 6 8 p l u s 8 i s 1 6 ? O K t h e n l o o k a t h e r e W h a t s t h e h e i g h t o f t h e p r i sm Y o u h a ve 2 a n d t h e n yo u h a ve 2 I s i t 2 ? Y e s Y e a h b e ca u se yo u ca n co u n t so t h a t w a s n o p r o b l e m W h a t i s t h e vo l u m e o f t h e p r o b l e m I sa i d 1 6 A n d t h e n o ve r h e r e I ca n t t e l l i f i t s 1 6 o r i f t h a t s 1 0 I t h i n k i t s 1 0 I m n o t su r e h o w yo u w e n t f r o m h e r e t o h e r e b u t w h e n w e I t h i n k t h i s i s r i g h t T h i s o n e s r i g h t Y e a h Y e a h yo u r e r i g h t b e ca u se yo u t a ke O K w h i ch o n e s t h e o n e I d i d f i r st ? T h i s o n e s f i r st t h i s o n e s se co n d O h O K T h e n yo u d i d Y o u r e r i g h t b e ca u se yo u t a ke t h e a r e a o f t h e b a se t i m e s t h e h e i g h t I t h i n k I i m p r o ve d m o r e o n t h i s o n e ( p r e t e st ) T h i n ks h e d i d b e t t e r o n p r e t e st Y o u t h i n k yo u i m p r o ve d m o r e Y o u t h i n k yo u d i d b e t t e r o n t h i s o n e ( p r e t e st ) Y e a h t h a t o n e ( p o st t e s t ) I d i d h o r r i b l e W e l l I d o n t t h i n k y o u d i d h o r r i b l e I t h i n k t h a t Y e s

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1 5 4 m a yb e yo u j u st ki n d o f f o r g o t A n d t h e n h e r e b u t I w a n t t o sh o w yo u so m e t h i n g L o o k h e r e 8 a n d 9 Y o u j u st p u t q u e st i o n m a r ks, w h i ch l o o ks t o m e l i ke yo u d i d n t t r y, b u t h e r e yo u t r i e d yo u p u t a n sw e r s a n d yo u sa i d I j u st l o o ke d a t t h e su r f a ce S o a t l e a st yo u t r i e d yo u t r i e d s o m e t h i n g r i g h t ? S o d o yo u t h i n k y o u i m p r o ve d o n t h e se co n d o n e co m p a r e d t o t h e f i r st ? I t h i n k I d i d b e t t e r o n t h e f i r st o n e I w o u l d sa y m a yb e j u st a l i t t l e b i t b e t t e r I t s p r e t t y si m i l a r d o n t yo u t h i n k? Y e s I s t h e r e a n yt h i n g e l se yo u w a n t t o t e l l m e a b o u t u si n g S cr a t ch o r d o i n g t h i s ki n d o f p r o j e ct ? S cr a t ch i s r e a l l y co n f u si n g a n d f r u st r a t i n g S cr a t ch i s co n f u si n g a n d f r u st r a t i n g S cr a t ch i s co n f u si n g a n d f r u st r a t i n g I w a s w o n d e r i n g w h y w h e n I g o t t o t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s i t w a s d o i n g a l l t h i s st u f f t o m e L i ke w h a t d o y o u m e a n ? W h e n w e w e r e d o i n g t h i s p r o j e ct w i t h o u t t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s, n o t h i n g w a s h a p p e n i n g i t w a s j u st n o r m a l b u t t h e n o n ce I g o t t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s, a l l t h e se l u n a t i c s t u f f st a r t e d t o h a p p e n e d l i ke t h e c o m p u t e r sh u t o f f t h e se C h i n e se w o r d s a p p e a r e d a n d e ve r yt h i n g g o t m i xe d u p H a d i ssu e s w i t h co m p u t e r w h e n h e sh a r e d h i s p r o j e ct w i t h 2 n d g r a d e r s Y e a h t h a t w a s s t r a n g e ye st e r d a y, w a sn t i t ? H o w w e h a d t o s h u t d o w n yo u co m p u t e r t h a t w a s, b e c a u se t h a t h a d n t h a p p e n e d t o yo u t h i s w h o l e t i m e ? N o T h e n i t su d d e n l y d i d Y e s

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1 5 5 S o yo u sa i d i t w a s f r u st r a t i n g W o u l d yo u e ve r w a n t t o u se S cr a t ch a g a i n ? U h m ye a h I d o A n d I w a n t t o m a ke i t b e t t e r t h a n t h e f i r st o n e I w a n t t o m a k e i t m o r e b e t t e r M y vo i ce co u l d b e t a l ki n g a n d t h e y c o u l d b e m o vi n g a n d st u f f W a n t s t o m a k e a b e t t e r p r o j e ct i n S cr a t ch w a n t s t o i n t e g r a t e m o ve m e n t O K I d o n t kn o w i f I ca n d o i t a g a i n b e ca u se I l l b e i n 6 t h g r a d e W e l l yo u ca n u se S cr a t ch T h e n i ce t h i n g a b o u t S cr a t c h i t s f r e e F r e e ? I ca n d o i t o n m y co m p u t e r ? Y o u ca n d o w n l o a d i t o n yo u r co m p u t e r H o w ? Y o u j u st h a ve t o d o w n l o a d i t f r o m t h e S cr a t ch w e b si t e H a ve yo u r p a r e n t s h e l p yo u S a y I w a n t t o f i n d S cr a t ch a n d yo u ca n d o i t f o r f r e e S o yo u d b e i n t e r e s t e d i n u si n g S cr a t ch a g a i n Y e a h Y o u ke p t t e l l i n g m e d u r i n g t h e p r o j e c t t h a t w h e n a r e w e g o i n g t o d o a p r o j e ct t h a t s n o t a b o u t sh a p e s Y e a h D u r i n g t h e p r o j e ct h e w a n t e d t o d o a d i f f e r e n t p r o j e ct n o t a b o u t sh a p e s D i d yo u n o t l i ke t h e sh a p e s? W e l l t h e sh a p e s I w e l l n o I ki n d o f l i ke d i t O K B u t yo u ke p t w a n t i n g t o m o ve o n t o a d i f f e r e n t p r o j e ct ? Y e a h W a n t e d t o d o a n e w p r o j e ct H o w co m e ? W e l l t h e sh a p e s I t h o u g h t i t w a s ki n d o f w e i r d w h e n t h e y w e r e s a yi n g t h e y l o o ke d l i ke a d u l t s b u t t h e y w e r e sa yi n g t h e y w e r e g o i n g t o se e a m o vi e a b o u t sh a p e s. R e f l e ct i n g o n h i s st o r y i d e a W h a t w a s t h e i d e a f o r yo u r yo u k n o w yo u h a d t h i s st o r y. H o w d i d yo u co m e u p w i t h a l l t h o se d i f f e r e n t i d e a s? I d o n t kn o w I t j u st p o p s u p i n m y h e a d Ju st p o p s u p i n yo u r h e a d ? O K D o yo u l i ke m a t h ? A l i t t l e L i ke s m a t h a l i t t l e

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1 5 6 D o yo u t h i n k yo u r e g o o d a t m a t h ? N o n o P e r ce i ve s h e s n o t g o o d a t m a t h D o yo u t h i n k t h a t yo u co u l d l e a r n m a t h u si n g S cr a t ch ? M a yb e ? N o t su r e i f yo u ca n l e a r n m a t h u si n g S cr a t ch M a yb e h o w ? T h e t h i n g s I m w r i t i n g d o w n a r e t h i n g s I a l r e a d y kn o w so h o w co u l d i t t e a ch m e ? W h a t h e i n cl u d e d i n h i s p r o j e ct i s w h a t h e a l r e a d y kn o w s a b o u t t h e co n t e n t G r e a t q u e st i o n I d o n t kn o w t h e a n sw e r S o w h a t yo u w e r e d o i n g w a s d e m o n st r a t i n g w h a t yo u kn o w a b o u t m a t h i n t h i s p r o j e ct ? Y e a h K n o w s t h a t h e w a s d e m o n st r a t i n g w h a t h e kn o w s a b o u t m a t h A n yt h i n g e l se yo u w a n t t o sh a r e w i t h m e a b o u t t h e p r o j e c t ? H e r e s yo u r ch a n g e t o t e l l m e a n yt h i n g yo u w a n t t o t e l l m e a b o u t t h e p r o j e ct ? T h e t h i n g s I d i d n t l i ke w a s j u st I g u e ss I sh o u l d h a ve d o n e b e t t e r I sa i d i t l i ke I d i d n t c a r e l i ke i n t h e so u n d s I sa i d i t l i ke I d i d n t ca r e R e f l e ct i n g o n h i s p r o j e ct : h e sh o u l d h a ve t r i e d h a r d e r o n h i s r e co r d i n g s O h so yo u w o u l d w a n t t o r e d o y o u r s o u n d s? N o t a l l o ve r ca u se I w a s s p e a ki n g l i ke I d i d n t ca r e R i g h t d i d n t p u t a l o t o f e m o t i o n i n t o i t E xce p t f o r t h e l a st p a r t T h e l a st p a r t y e a h yo u d e f i n i t e l y p u t a l o t e m o t i o n i n t h e l a st l i n e h o w e ve r yo u sa i d t h a t t h e sh a p e t e st w h i ch i s p r e t t y f u n n y. A n yt h i n g e l se I sh o u l d kn o w a b o u t w o r ki n g o n t h e p r o j e c t a n yt h i n g e l se yo u w a n t t o t e l l m e a b o u t t h i s U h m u h m u h m m a y b e u h m I j u st kn o w w h a t s g o i n g t o h a p p e n i f I d o n t t e l l yo u t h i s a n d t h e n l a t e r w h e n t h e n m a yb e M o n d a y co m e s I l l h a ve so m e t h i n g I w a n t t o t e l l yo u t h e n i t w i l l b e t o o l a t e s o I m t r yi n g t o t h i n k o f s o m e t h i n g I a p p r e c i a t e t h a t U h m w e l l m a yb e i t s a b o u t h o w m i n e i s r e a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m e ve r yb o d y e l se s. E ve r yb o d y e l se s se e m e d b e t t e r b e ca u se t h e y r e sa yi n g w h a t s h a p e i s t h i s t h e n yo u t yp e i t i n R e f l e ct i n g o n p r o j e ct : h i s i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m o t h e r st u d e n t s ( o t h e r st u d e n t s a sk q u e st i o n s o f u se r h i s t e l l s a st o r y ) S o t o yo u t h a t se e m e d b e t t e r W e l l n o t n o I d o n t r e a l l y l i ke d o i n g t h a t D o e sn t l i ke t h e q u e st i o n a p p r o a c h Y o u d o n t l i ke d o i n g w h a t ? T h e p a r t w h e n yo u sa y w h a t s t h i s sh a p e

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1 5 7 Y e a h so W e l l m a yb e i t w o u l d b e f u n D o yo u l i ke t o t e l l st o r i e s Y e s L i ke s t o t e l l st o r i e s D o yo u w r i t e st o r i e s a l o t ? Y e s W r i t e s st o r i e s S o w h a t yo u d i d s e e m s so m e t h i n g t h a t yo u r e g o o d a t t h e n R e a l l y? T o m e C a u se yo u h a d t h i s ve r y e l a b o r a t e st o r y a n d n o b o d y e l se r e a l l y h a d a st o r y l i ke yo u h a d a st o r y, so I t h o u g h t i t w a s i n t e r e st i n g t h a t y o u j u st sa i d t h a t o t h e r ki d s a ske d w h a t sh a p e i s t h i s b u t yo u s a i d w e l l I d o n t r e a l l y l i ke t h a t S o i t se e m s l i ke t o m e i n yo u r p r o j e ct yo u d i d w h a t yo u l i ke t o d o W e l l I d i d R e f l e ct i n g o n h o w h e l i ke s t o l e a r n h o w h i s p r o j e ct r e f l e ct s t h a t I sn t t h a t O K yo u d i d i t t h e w a y yo u l i ke t o d o i t ? W e l l ye a h i t s O K T h e w a y yo u l i ke t o d o i t ? W e l l ye a h i t s O K W h i l e I m t h i n ki n g a b o u t i t w o u l d yo u w a n t t o sh a r e t h i s w i t h yo u r 5 t h g r a d e cl a ss m a t e s? I d f e e l t o o e m b a r r a sse d D o e s n o t w a n t t o sh a r e w i t h p e e r s Y o u d f e e l e m b a r r a sse d t o sh a r e t h a t w i t h t h e m ? H o w co m e ? E ve r yo n e i n t h e 5 t h g r a d e i s m e a n E ve r yb o d y i n t h e 5 t h g r a d e i s m e a n ? N o t e ve r yo n e E ve r yo n e s m e a n a n d r o u g h a n d t o u g h a n d I d o n t w a n t t o d o i t I l l b e sca r e d O K a n d w e r e n o t g o i n g t o d o i t so I d o n t w a n t yo u t o t h i n k I m g o i n g t o d o i t I j u st w a n t e d t o kn o w w h a t yo u t h i n k I w o u l d d o b u t I l l b e t o o sca r e d Y e a h I a p p r e ci a t e t h a t A n d d o yo u t h i n k o t h e r 5 t h g r a d e r s sh o u l d l e a r n h o w t o u se S cr a t ch T h e y co u l d T h e y co u l d l e a r n h o w t o Y e a h

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1 5 8 u se S cr a t ch ? D o yo u t h i n k t h e y d l i ke t o l e a r n S cr a t ch ? S o m e ki d s b u t s o m e ki d s w o u l d t h i n k i t w o u l d b e a w a st e o f t h e i r t i m e W h y d o yo u t h i n k so m e ki d s w o u l d t h i n k i t w o u l d b e a w a st e o f t h e i r t i m e ? C a u se t h e y r e n o t g r a t e f u l C a u se t h e y r e n o t g r a t e f u l ? A n yt h i n g e l se yo u w a n t t o s h a r e w i t h m e ? P r o b a b l y n o t G e n e r a l n o t e s r e c o r d e d w h i l e r e r e a d i n g t r a n s c r i p t ( S t e p 2 ) E n j o ye d cr e a t i n g a n d e d i t i n g sp r i t e s L i ke t h e l i b r a r y o f s p r i t e s i n S cr a t ch S cr a t ch i s d i f f i cu l t f r u st r a t i n g a n d co n f u si n g ; t o o m a n y b l o cks T h i n ks i t w o u l d b e h e l p f u l t o l e a r n o n e b l o ck a t a t i m e a n d t o l e a r n j u st a f e w b l o cks f r o m e a ch o f t h e ca t e g o r i e s. H e m a y l i ke t o l e a r n t h i s w a y D i d n t l e a r n m a t h f r o m t h i s e xp e r i e n ce ; a l r e a d y kn e w t h e m a t h ; d i d l e a r n h o w t o d r a w g e o m e t r i c s o l i d s L e a r n e d h o w t o d r a w a n d e d i t s p r i t e s a n d r e c o r d vo i ce i n S cr a t ch N o t p r o u d o f p r o j e ct ; e m b a r r a sse d ; m a n y s p r i t e s a r e i n t h e w r o n g l o ca t i o n o r f a ci n g t h e w r o n g d i r e ct i o n ; co m p a r e d h i s p r o j e ct t o h i s b r o t h e r s p r o j e ct a n d t o p e e r s; d i d n t f i n i sh h i s p r o j e ct ; co u l d h a ve t r i e d h a r d e r ; d o e sn t w a n t t o sh a r e w i t h 5 t h g r a d e r s R e f l e ct i ve o n h i s p r o j e ct ; w o n d e r i n g a b o u t h i s st o r y i d e a S u p e r f i ci a l r e p r e se n t a t i o n o f m a t h co n t e n t W o u l d l i ke t o u se S cr a t ch i n t h e f u t u r e ; i m p r o v e h i s p r o j e ct L i ke s st o r i e s R e f l e ct s o n h o w h e l i ke s t o l e a r n G e n e r a t e d t h e m e s b a s e d o n g e n e r a l n o t e s ( S t e p 3 ) D o m i n i c s r e a ct i o n t o u si n g S cr a t ch E n j o ye d cr e a t i n g a n d e d i t i n g sp r i t e s L i ke t h e l i b r a r y o f s p r i t e s i n S cr a t ch S cr a t ch i s d i f f i cu l t f r u st r a t i n g a n d co n f u si n g ; t o o m a n y b l o cks W o u l d l i ke t o u se S cr a t ch i n t h e f u t u r e ; i m p r o v e h i s p r o j e ct D o m i n i c r e f l e ct i n g o n l e a r n i n g S cr a t ch T h i n ks i t w o u l d b e h e l p f u l t o l e a r n o n e b l o ck a t a t i m e a n d t o l e a r n j u st a f e w b l o cks f r o m e a ch o f t h e ca t e g o r i e s. H e m a y l i ke t o l e a r n t h i s w a y L e a r n e d h o w t o d r a w a n d e d i t s p r i t e s a n d r e c o r d vo i ce i n S cr a t ch D o m i n i c r e f l e ct i n g o n l e a r n i n g m a t h d u r i n g t h i s p r o j e ct D i d n t l e a r n m a t h f r o m t h i s e xp e r i e n ce ; a l r e a d y kn e w t h e m a t h ; d i d l e a r n h o w t o d r a w g e o m e t r i c s o l i d s

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1 5 9 D o m i n i c r e f l e ct i n g o n h o w h e l e a r n s L i ke s st o r i e s R e f l e ct s o n h o w h e l i ke s t o l e a r n D o m i n i c s r e a ct i o n t o h i s p r o j e ct N o t p r o u d o f p r o j e ct ; e m b a r r a sse d ; m a n y s p r i t e s a r e i n t h e w r o n g l o ca t i o n o r f a ci n g t h e w r o n g d i r e ct i o n ; co m p a r e d h i s p r o j e ct t o h i s b r o t h e r s p r o j e ct a n d t o p e e r s; d i d n t f i n i sh R e f l e ct i ve o n h i s p r o j e ct ; w o n d e r i n g a b o u t h i s st o r y i d e a C o d e s f r o m T h e m e s a n d C o d i n g D a t a ( S t e p 4 ) ( C o d e : T h e m e ) S cr a t ch r e a ct i o n : D o m i n i c s r e a ct i o n t o u si n g S cr a t ch L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n : D o m i n i c r e f l e ct i n g o n l e a r n i n g S cr a t ch L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n : D o m i n i c r e f l e ct i n g o n l e a r n i n g m a t h d u r i n g t h i s p r o j e ct L e a r n i n g r e f l e ct i o n : D o m i n i c r e f l e ct i n g o n h o w h e l e a r n s P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n : D o m i n i c s r e a ct i o n t o h i s p r o j e ct R e s e a r c h e r P a r t i c i p a n t C o d i n g D a t a D i d yo u e n j o y u si n g S cr a t ch ? W e l l ye s. S cr a t ch r e a ct i o n W h a t a b o u t u si n g S cr a t ch d i d yo u l i ke ? W e l l t h e p a r t w a s m a ki n g a l l t h e n e w sp r i t e s a n d e d i t i n g t h e m l i ke t h a t ca t r i g h t t h e r e < ye s> I m a d e h e r a t o n g u e a n d e y e l a sh e s, m a d e h e r l o o k l i ke a g i r l n o t a b o y ca t b e c a u se I t h i n k e ve r y ca t i n h e r e i s a b o y. S cr a t ch r e a ct i o n S o yo u l i ke d t a ki n g t h e e xi st i n g sp r i t e s a n d ch a n g i n g t h e m r i g h t ? Y e a h S cr a t ch r e a ct i o n O K W h a t e l se d i d yo u l i ke a b o u t u si n g S cr a t ch ? W e l l t h a t t h e r e w e r e so m a n y sp r i t e s t o u s e l i ke a d r a g o n a n d g h o st a n d yo u ca n cr e a t e yo u r o w n sp r i t e s l i ke r a i n i n g m i l k. S cr a t ch r e a ct i o n O K S o yo u l i ke t h a t yo u co u l d d e si g n yo u r o w n sp r i t e s < ye a h > a n d yo u a l so l i ke t h a t t h e r e w e r e l o t s o f o t h e r sp r i t e s t h a t w e r e p a r t o f S cr a t ch t h a t y o u co u l d u se ? Y e s. S cr a t ch r e a ct i o n Y e s. O K G o o d D o yo u t h i n k i t w a s e a sy o r d i f f i cu l t t o l e a r n h o w t o u se S cr a t ch ? I sa y i t w a s d i f f i cu l t L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n

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1 6 0 I t w a s d i f f i cu l t t o l e a r n h o w t o u se S cr a t ch ? Y e s. L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n W h a t m a d e i t d i f f i cu l t t o l e a r n h o w t o u se ? W e l l p r e t t y m u ch i t w a s h a r d t o kn o w w h a t t o d o b e ca u se t h e r e w a s so m u ch st u f f L i ke w h e n yo u w e r e sa yi n g a t a n d t u r n a r o u n d ca u se l o o k a t a l l t h e se s t u f f g l i d e 1 se n s x 2 9 a n d y 1 0 a n d ch a n g e x b y 1 0 a n d a l l t h i s o t h e r st u f f L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n S u r e S o a l l t h o se b l o cks, m a yb e t h e r e a r e j u st t o o m a n y b l o cks sh o w i n g so i t g e t s co n f u si n g ? Y e a h L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n O K S o b e ca u se t h e r e a r e a l o t o f b l o cks t h e r e w h a t d o yo u t h i n k w o u l d b e t h e b e st w a y t o l e a r n h o w t o u se S cr a t ch ? O r w h a t w o u l d b e t h e b e st w a y f o r yo u t o l e a r n h o w t o u se S cr a t ch ? I d o n t r e a l l y kn o w L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n Y o u d o n t r e a l l y kn o w ? W h a t w o u l d h a ve b e e n t h e b e st w a y t o h e l p y o u l e a r n S cr a t ch ? M a yb e g e t so m e p r o f e ssi o n a l h e l p L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n G e t so m e p r o f e ssi o n a l h e l p ? Y e a h L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n W h a t d o yo u m e a n b y t h a t ? M a yb e a p e r so n w h o s d o n e S cr a t ch f o r a w h i l e o r a p e r so n w h o m a yb e cr e a t e d i t L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n O h m a yb e t h e p e r so n w h o cr e a t e d i t D o yo u t h i n k t h e y w o u l d b e a b l e t o h e l p yo u ? Y e a h L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n W h a t a b o u t i n a cl a ssr o o m ? H o w co u l d w e l e a r n S cr a t c h i n t h e cl a ssr o o m b e ca u se w e p r o b a b l y w o u l d n t b e a b l e t o b r i n g i n Y o u m e a n t h e 5 t h g r a d e cl a ssr o o m ? C l a r i f i ca t i o n : I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r ch q u e st i o n s S u r e i n t h e 5 t h g r a d e cl a ssr o o m W h a t w o u l d b e t h e b e st w a y t o l e a r n S cr a t ch ? I f yo u w e r e g o i n g t o w o r k w i t h yo u r M a yb e o n e si m p l e t h i n g a t a t i m e L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n

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1 6 1 b e ca u se yo u kn o w so m e t h i n g a b o u t S cr a t ch n o w H o w w o u l d yo u t e a c h yo u r cl a ssm a t e s a b o u t S cr a t ch ? O K M a yb e o n e si m p l e t h i n g a t a t i m e D o y o u t h i n k t h a t w o u l d h e l p yo u t o o ? I g u e ss b u t i f I d i d n t k n o w i t h o w co u l d I t e a c h i t ? L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n W e l l r i g h t b u t I m sa yi n g i f so m e o n e w a s t e a ch i n g yo u w o u l d i t h e l p yo u t o d o o n e si m p l e t h i n g a t a t i m e ? Y e a h L e a r n i n g r e f l e ct i o n A n d w h a t d o yo u m e a n b y o n e si m p l e t h i n g ? L i ke t h e f i r st t h i n g a f t e r a n o t h e r l i ke cr e a t i n g t h e sp r i t e s. T h e n w e l l f i r st t h e m o t i o n t h e n t h e l o o ks so u n d p e n co n t r o l se n si n g o p e r a t i o n va r i a b l e s. L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n S o a r e yo u s a yi n g w e sh o u l d g o t h r o u g h e a ch b l o ck t o t e a c h yo u o n e b l o ck a t a t i m e ? W e l l n o t a l l o f t h e se T h a t w o u l d t a ke f o r e v e r L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n T h a t w o u l d t a ke a l o n g t i m e ? Y e a h j u st l i ke m o t i o n a n d t h a t a n d t h a t a n d t h a t a n d t h a t a n d t h e n l o o ks L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n O K so m a yb e d o a f e w b l o cks f r o m e a ch o f t h o se ca t e g o r i e s? U h h u h ( y e s) L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n M a yb e t h e o n e s y o u d u se t h e m o st ? Y e a h L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n O K T h a t s r e a so n a b l e D o yo u t h i n k d e si g n i n g i n S cr a t ch h e l p s y o u l e a r n ? D o y o u t h i n k y o u l e a r n so m e t h i n g w h i l e d e si g n i n g i n S cr a t ch w h i l e w o r ki n g o n t h i s p r o j e ct ? L e a r n i n g m a t h ? C l a r i f i ca t i o n : I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r ch q u e st i o n s S u r e l e t s t a l k a b o u t l e a r n i n g m a t h D o yo u t h i n k yo u ca n l e a r n m a t h w h i l e w o r ki n g o n t h i s p r o j e ct ? U m m I r e a l l y d o n t S o m e o f t h a t st u f f I a l r e a d y kn o w l i ke a p yr a m i d I d o n t kn o w t h a t m u c h a b o u t p yr a m i d s b u t cyl i n d e r a n d c o n e I a l r e a d y kn o w a b o u t t h o se t w o L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n O K S o yo u a l r e a d y kn e w a b o u t s o m e o f t h e Y e s L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n

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1 6 2 m a t h yo u u se d ? S o yo u d i d n t r e a l l y l e a r n a b o u t m a t h i n t h i s p r o j e ct ? N o L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n I s t h e r e a n yt h i n g y o u f e l t l i ke yo u d i d l e a r n f r o m t h i s p r o j e ct ? W e l l h o w t o d r a w so m e o f t h e m L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n S o h o w t o d r a w t h o se sh a p e s? Y e a h L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n Y e a h yo u d r e w a n u m b e r o f sh a p e s. I se e a co n e r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm cyl i n d e r s e ve n a p yr a m i d t h e r e Y o u ve l e a r n e d h o w t o d r a w t h e m A n yt h i n g e l se yo u t h i n k yo u l e a r n e d i n t h i s p r o j e ct ? W e l l I d i d l e a r n t h a t n o t r e a l l y. I w a s j u st sa yi n g t h a t I w a s a l i t t l e e m b a r r a sse d w h e n I w a s s a yi n g m y p r o j e ct b e c a u se e v e r yt h i n g w a s m e sse d u p t h e t i m e I d i d i t ca u se t h a t w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce t h a t w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce t h a t w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce E ve r yt h i n g w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n Y o u m e a n w h e n yo u w e r e sh o w i n g i t t o t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s? Y e s, e ve r yt h i n g w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n E ve r yt h i n g w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce ? M a yb e n o t e ve r yt h i n g N o t i n t h e r i g h t p o si t i o n T h e y r e a l l s u p p o se d t o b e H e n e e d s t o b e b i g g e r T h e y r e a l l su p p o se d t o b e f a ci n g P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n O h so so m e o f t h e si ze s a r e n o t r i g h t S e e l o o k. S e e P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n S o h e s f a ci n g t h e w r o n g d i r e ct i o n ? Y e a h t h a t s o n e P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n O K O K W e l l d o yo u w a n t t o se e ? C l a r i f i ca t i o n : I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r ch q u e st i o n s W e l l g o t h r o u g h i t i n a m i n u t e O K ? A n yt h i n g e l se yo u l e a r n e d ? A n yt h i n g e l se yo u c a n t h i n k o f t h a t yo u l e a r n e d w h i l e d o i n g t h i s p r o j e ct ? U h m p r o b a b l yu h m m a yb e m a yb e l e a r n i n g h o w t o d o i t L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n L e a r n i n g h o w t o d o S cr a t ch ? Y e s. L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n Y e a h yo u l e a r n e d h o w t o d o S cr a t ch a l i t t l e b i t b e ca u se yo u sa i d yo u o n e t h i n g y o u l i ke d w a s d r a w i n g t h e sp r i t e s a n d e d i t i n g t h e s p r i t e s, s o yo u d e f i n i t e l y l e a r n e d Y e a h L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n

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1 6 3 h o w t o d o t h a t r i g h t ? D i d yo u l e a r n h o w t o r e co r d y o u r vo i c e ? Y e a h L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n I t h i n k yo u r e i n f a ct t h e o n l y p e r so n t h a t r e co r d e d t h e i r vo i ce r i g h t ? W e l l ye a h I t h i n k. L e a r n i n g S cr a t ch r e f l e ct i o n I t h i n k yo u w e r e Y o u l e a r n e d t h a t a n d I d o n t t h i n k a n yb o d y e l se l e a r n e d a b o u t t h a t W h e n yo u w e r e d e si g n i n g t h i s, w e r e yo u t h i n ki n g a b o u t d e si g n i n g f o r 2 n d g r a d e r s? I d i d n t e ve n kn o w w e w e r e g o i n g t o sh o w i t t o 2 n d g r a d e r s. P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n Y o u d i d n t r e a l i ze w e w e r e g o i n g t o sh o w i t t o 2 n d g r a d e r s? N o P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n O K T h a t s f a i r D o yo u r e m e m b e r t h e o r i g i n a l g o a l o f t h e p r o j e c t ? Y e a h P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n W h a t w a s t h e g o a l o f t h e p r o j e c t ? M a ke i t cr e a t i ve ? P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n T o m a ke i t cr e a t i ve I d o n t kn o w i f t h a t w a s o n e o f t h e m I d o n t kn o w i f t h a t w a s o n e o f t h e m P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n O K S o t h i n k b a ck t o w h y d i d yo u d e si g n w h a t yo u d e si g n e d W h a t w a s t h i s t r yi n g t o sh o w ? I w a s t r yi n g t o m a ke i t cr e a t i ve a n d m a ke t h e m m o ve a n d m a ke t h e m h a ve a co n v e r sa t i o n b u t i n st e a d I w a s t h e o n l y o n e t a l ki n g I t h o u g h t t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s w o u l d g e t b o r e d P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n W e l l so w h a t h a p p e n e d ye st e r d a y w i t h t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s ? D i d t h e y g e t b o r e d ? W e l l t h e y w e r e l o o ki n g a t i t I d o n t kn o w i f t h e y g o t b o r e d b e c a u se I m n o t t h e m b u t I d o n t kn o w i f i t w a s a s g o o d a s e ve r yo n e e l se s ca u se t h e y r e a l l m o vi n g a n d h a vi n g co n ve r sa t i o n l i ke N a t h a n i e l s. H e w a s l i ke i t i m p r e ss e d m e l i ke f i n e l e t s g o o n t h e d r a g o n s. D u h d u h d u h D u d d u h d u h F i n e l e t s g o Y e e h a w A n d t h a t s w h a t h a p p e n e d A n d m i n e s n o t a m a zi n g a s t h a t M i n e s j u st b l a h b l a h b l a h b l a h b l a h b l a h b l a h B l a h b l a h b l a h b l a h b l a h B L A H b l a h A n d t h e n b l a h b l a h B L A H b l a h Y e a h P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n W e l l so e ve r yb o d y h a s W h y? I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r c h

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1 6 4 a d i f f e r e n t a p p r o a ch t o d o i n g i t a n d d i d yo u kn o w t h a t N a t h a n i e l g o t r i d o f t h a t d r a g o n sce n e ? q u e st i o n s Y o u h a ve t o a sk h i m Y o u m e a n t h e d r a g o n s g o l i ke t h i s? I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r c h q u e st i o n s Y e a h h e g o t r i d o f i t W h y? I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r c h q u e st i o n s Y o u l l h a ve t o a sk h i m I d o n t kn o w w h y S o w h a t d i d h e m a ke ? I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r c h q u e st i o n s W e l l h e h a d t h e co n ve r sa t i o n g o i n g a t t h e b e g i n n i n g O h I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r c h q u e st i o n s I w a n t t o l o o k a t yo u r p r o j e ct w i t h yo u so l e t s g o t h r o u g h yo u r p r o j e ct O K I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r c h q u e st i o n s S o f i r st sce n e o f yo u r p r o j e ct yo u r t e l l i n g a st o r y. P L A Y F I R S T S C E N E T h a t s w r o n g S e e h o w e ve r y t h i n g i s m e sse d u p P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n W h a t s m e sse d u p h e r e W e l l h e s su p p o se d t o b e f a ci n g l e f t H e s su p p o se d t o b e r i g h t t h e r e P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n T h e r e s s o m e ca t s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce a n d t h e y r e f a ci n g t h e w r o n g d i r e ct i o n s W A T C H I N G W O O D S S C E N E : O h co m e o n U g h P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n H e s su p p o se d t o b e b e h i n d ? T h a t s su p p o se d t o b e g r a b b i n g i t s t a i l P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n D i d t h a t g e t c h a n g e d ? W a s i t l i ke t h a t ye st e r d a y? Y e s. P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n H o w d o e s t h e l a n d sh a r k S e e E ve r yt h i n g i s m e sse d u p P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n T h a t l o o ks r i g h t t o m e Y o u kn o w t h o se a r e n t s u p p o se d t o b e l i ke t h a t P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n W e l l w e t a l ke d a b o u t t h a t ye st e r d a y. W h a t a b o u t t h e l a n d sh a r k. H o w d o e s t h e l a n d sh a r k r e l a t e d t o g e o m e t r i c so l i d s? W a i t W h a t d o yo u m e a n ? W e l l h e w e n t t h e r e b e ca u s e i t s t h e s e a a n d I g u e ss h e d o e sn t l i ke i t A r e l a n d sh a r ks r e a l ? L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n I d o n t t h i n k s o I l i ke t h e e n d b y t h e w a y. I l i ke h o w yo u u se d yo u r f l u ct u a t i o n i n y o u r vo i c e W e l l t h e sh a p e s a r e t h e r e a n d I s a i d t o p a y w e l l t h e l a st p a r t w h e n t h e y w e r e d o n e t h a t I j u st w a n t e d t o m a ke su r e t h e y w e r e p a yi n g a t t e n t i o n I L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n

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1 6 5 t h e r e S o h o w d o a l l t h e se ca t s, g h o st s, l a n d sh a r k, d r a g o n h o w d o e s t h o se r e l a t e t o t e a ch i n g so m e o n e a b o u t g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. sa i d w h a t w e r e t h e sh a p e s i n t h e b a ckg r o u n d S o t h e sh a p e s a r e i n t h e b a ckg r o u n d D o yo u e ve r t a l k a b o u t t h e sh a p e s? U h d o I e ve r w e l l w h e n i t s d o n e I sa y w h a t sh a p e i s t h a t ? a n d t h e y r e t r yi n g t o g u e ss i t L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n S o e xp l a i n t h a t t o m e a g a i n C a u se w h e n I m d o n e I w a n t t o m a ke su r e i f t h e y r e p a yi n g a t t e n t i o n L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n S o w h e n yo u w e r e d o n e w h e n yo u w a t ch e d t h i s, s o yo u a ske d d i d yo u a sk t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s w h a t sh a p e i s t h i s? U h h u h ( y e s) L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n S o t h a t w a sn t p a r t o f yo u r p r o j e ct t h a t w a s j u st so m e t h i n g yo u j u st a ske d t h e m ? Y e a h L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n O K T h a t s f a i r W e a ske d yo u so m e q u e st i o n s b e f o r e t h e p r o j e ct st a r t e d a n d t h e n l a st w e e k n e a r t h e e n d o f t h e p r o j e ct yo u a n sw e r e d t h o se sa m e q u e st i o n s. Y o u m i g h t n o t h a ve r e m e m b e r e d i t O K l e t s t a ke a l o o k. I l l sh o w yo u w h a t I m t a l ki n g a b o u t S o t h i s i s w h a t yo u d i d w h e n w e st a r t e d t h e p r o j e ct R e m e m b e r l o o ki n g a t t h i s? A n d t h i s i s w h a t yo u d i d l a st w e e k ? S o w e w a n t t o co m p a r e a n sw e r s. S o cyl i n d e r cyl i n d e r p yr a m i d p yr a m i d c o n e co n e r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm I n t h e b e g i n n i n g a n d a t t h e I s t h a t r i g h t o r w r o n g ? L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n

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1 6 6 e n d yo u co u l d i d e n t i f y w h i ch g e o m e t r i c so l i d i t i s. N o p r o b l e m S o t h e n h e r e w e h a v e w h a t i s t h e a r e a o f t h e b a se o f t h e p r i sm Y o u s a i d 8 W h a t d o yo u t h i n k i t i s? I g u e ss r i g h t L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n S o h o w d o yo u f i n d a r e a ? I f o r g o t L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n B u t o ve r h e r e yo u h a ve t h e a r e a o f t h e b a se i s 1 6 S o i t l o o ks l i ke I t s 8 L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n I t s 8 S o yo u ca n co u n t t h e cu b e s. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 B u t h e r e y o u p u t 1 6 S o o n e o f m y q u e st i o n s i s w h a t h a p p e n e d h e r e Y o u f o r g o t ? I t h o u g h t i t w a s 8 1 6 L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n 8 p l u s 8 i s 1 6 ? O K t h e n l o o k a t h e r e W h a t s t h e h e i g h t o f t h e p r i sm Y o u h a ve 2 a n d t h e n yo u h a ve 2 I s i t 2 ? Y e s L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n Y e a h b e ca u se yo u ca n co u n t so t h a t w a s n o p r o b l e m W h a t i s t h e vo l u m e o f t h e p r o b l e m I sa i d 1 6 L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n A n d t h e n o ve r h e r e I ca n t t e l l i f i t s 1 6 o r i f t h a t s 1 0 I t h i n k i t s 1 0 L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n I m n o t su r e h o w yo u w e n t f r o m h e r e t o h e r e b u t w h e n w e I t h i n k t h i s i s r i g h t L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n T h i s o n e s r i g h t Y e a h L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n Y e a h yo u r e r i g h t b e ca u se yo u t a ke O K w h i ch o n e s t h e o n e I d i d f i r st ? L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n T h i s o n e s f i r st t h i s o n e s se co n d O h O K L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n T h e n yo u d i d Y o u r e r i g h t b e ca u se yo u t a ke t h e a r e a o f t h e b a se I t h i n k I i m p r o ve d m o r e o n t h i s o n e ( p r e t e st ) L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n

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1 6 7 t i m e s t h e h e i g h t Y o u t h i n k yo u i m p r o ve d m o r e Y o u t h i n k yo u d i d b e t t e r o n t h i s o n e ( p r e t e st ) Y e a h t h a t o n e ( p o st t e s t ) I d i d h o r r i b l e L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n W e l l I d o n t t h i n k y o u d i d h o r r i b l e I t h i n k t h a t m a yb e yo u j u st ki n d o f f o r g o t A n d t h e n h e r e b u t I w a n t t o sh o w yo u so m e t h i n g L o o k h e r e 8 a n d 9 Y o u j u st p u t q u e st i o n m a r ks, w h i ch l o o ks t o m e l i ke yo u d i d n t t r y, b u t h e r e yo u t r i e d yo u p u t a n sw e r s a n d yo u sa i d I j u st l o o ke d a t t h e su r f a ce S o a t l e a st yo u t r i e d yo u t r i e d s o m e t h i n g r i g h t ? Y e s L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n S o d o yo u t h i n k y o u i m p r o ve d o n t h e se co n d o n e co m p a r e d t o t h e f i r st ? I t h i n k I d i d b e t t e r o n t h e f i r st o n e L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n I w o u l d sa y m a yb e j u st a l i t t l e b i t b e t t e r I t s p r e t t y si m i l a r d o n t yo u t h i n k? Y e s L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n I s t h e r e a n yt h i n g e l se yo u w a n t t o t e l l m e a b o u t u si n g S cr a t ch o r d o i n g t h i s ki n d o f p r o j e ct ? S cr a t ch i s r e a l l y co n f u si n g a n d f r u st r a t i n g S cr a t ch r e a ct i o n S cr a t ch i s co n f u si n g a n d f r u st r a t i n g I w a s w o n d e r i n g w h y w h e n I g o t t o t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s i t w a s d o i n g a l l t h i s st u f f t o m e S cr a t ch r e a ct i o n L i ke w h a t d o y o u m e a n ? W h e n w e w e r e d o i n g t h i s p r o j e ct w i t h o u t t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s, n o t h i n g w a s h a p p e n i n g i t w a s j u st n o r m a l b u t t h e n o n ce I g o t t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s, a l l t h e se l u n a t i c s t u f f st a r t e d t o h a p p e n e d l i ke t h e c o m p u t e r sh u t o f f t h e se C h i n e se w o r d s a p p e a r e d a n d e ve r yt h i n g g o t m i xe d u p C o m p u t e r i ssu e s d u r i n g sh a r i n g w i t h 2 n d g r a d e r s : I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r ch q u e st i o n s Y e a h t h a t w a s s t r a n g e N o C o m p u t e r i ssu e s

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1 6 8 ye st e r d a y, w a sn t i t ? H o w w e h a d t o s h u t d o w n yo u co m p u t e r t h a t w a s, b e c a u se t h a t h a d n t h a p p e n e d t o yo u t h i s w h o l e t i m e ? d u r i n g sh a r i n g w i t h 2 n d g r a d e r s : I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r ch q u e st i o n s T h e n i t su d d e n l y d i d S o yo u sa i d i t w a s f r u st r a t i n g Y e s S cr a t ch r e a ct i o n W o u l d yo u e ve r w a n t t o u se S cr a t ch a g a i n ? U h m ye a h I d o A n d I w a n t t o m a ke i t b e t t e r t h a n t h e f i r st o n e I w a n t t o m a k e i t m o r e b e t t e r M y vo i ce co u l d b e t a l ki n g a n d t h e y c o u l d b e m o vi n g a n d st u f f S cr a t ch r e a ct i o n ; P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n O K I d o n t kn o w i f I ca n d o i t a g a i n b e ca u se I l l b e i n 6 t h g r a d e I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r c h q u e st i o n s W e l l yo u ca n u se S cr a t ch T h e n i ce t h i n g a b o u t S cr a t c h i t s f r e e F r e e ? I ca n d o i t o n m y co m p u t e r ? I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r c h q u e st i o n s Y o u ca n d o w n l o a d i t o n yo u r co m p u t e r H o w ? I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r c h q u e st i o n s Y o u j u st h a ve t o d o w n l o a d i t f r o m t h e S cr a t ch w e b si t e H a ve yo u r p a r e n t s h e l p yo u S a y I w a n t t o f i n d S cr a t ch a n d yo u ca n d o i t f o r f r e e S o yo u d b e i n t e r e s t e d i n u si n g S cr a t ch a g a i n Y e a h I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r c h q u e st i o n s Y o u ke p t t e l l i n g m e d u r i n g t h e p r o j e ct t h a t w h e n a r e w e g o i n g t o d o a p r o j e ct t h a t s n o t a b o u t sh a p e s Y e a h P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n D i d yo u n o t l i ke t h e sh a p e s? W e l l t h e sh a p e s I w e l l n o I ki n d o f l i ke d i t O K B u t yo u ke p t w a n t i n g t o m o ve o n t o a d i f f e r e n t p r o j e ct ? Y e a h P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n H o w co m e ? W e l l t h e sh a p e s I t h o u g h t i t w a s ki n d o f w e i r d w h e n t h e y w e r e s a yi n g t h e y l o o ke d l i ke a d u l t s b u t t h e y w e r e s a yi n g t h e y w e r e g o i n g t o se e a m o vi e a b o u t sh a p e s. P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n W h a t w a s t h e i d e a f o r I d o n t kn o w I t j u st p o p s u p i n m y P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n

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1 6 9 yo u r yo u k n o w yo u h a d t h i s st o r y. H o w d i d yo u co m e u p w i t h a l l t h o se d i f f e r e n t i d e a s? h e a d Ju st p o p s u p i n yo u r h e a d ? O K D o yo u l i ke m a t h ? A l i t t l e L e a r n i n g r e f l e ct i o n D o yo u t h i n k yo u r e g o o d a t m a t h ? N o n o L e a r n i n g r e f l e ct i o n D o yo u t h i n k t h a t yo u co u l d l e a r n m a t h u si n g S cr a t ch ? M a yb e ? L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n M a yb e h o w ? T h e t h i n g s I m w r i t i n g d o w n a r e t h i n g s I a l r e a d y kn o w so h o w co u l d i t t e a ch m e ? L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n G r e a t q u e st i o n I d o n t kn o w t h e a n sw e r S o w h a t yo u w e r e d o i n g w a s d e m o n st r a t i n g w h a t yo u kn o w a b o u t m a t h i n t h i s p r o j e ct ? Y e a h L e a r n i n g m a t h r e f l e ct i o n A n yt h i n g e l se yo u w a n t t o sh a r e w i t h m e a b o u t t h e p r o j e c t ? H e r e s yo u r ch a n c e t o t e l l m e a n yt h i n g yo u w a n t t o t e l l m e a b o u t t h e p r o j e ct ? T h e t h i n g s I d i d n t l i ke w a s j u st I g u e ss I sh o u l d h a ve d o n e b e t t e r I sa i d i t l i ke I d i d n t c a r e l i ke i n t h e so u n d s I sa i d i t l i ke I d i d n t ca r e P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n O h so yo u w o u l d w a n t t o r e d o y o u r s o u n d s? N o t a l l o ve r ca u se I w a s s p e a ki n g l i ke I d i d n t ca r e P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n R i g h t d i d n t p u t a l o t o f e m o t i o n i n t o i t E xce p t f o r t h e l a st p a r t P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n T h e l a st p a r t y e a h yo u d e f i n i t e l y p u t a l o t e m o t i o n i n t h e l a st l i n e h o w e ve r yo u sa i d t h a t t h e sh a p e t e st w h i ch i s p r e t t y f u n n y. A n yt h i n g e l se I sh o u l d kn o w a b o u t w o r ki n g o n t h e p r o j e c t a n yt h i n g e l se yo u w a n t t o t e l l m e a b o u t t h i s U h m u h m u h m m a y b e u h m I j u st kn o w w h a t s g o i n g t o h a p p e n i f I d o n t t e l l yo u t h i s a n d t h e n l a t e r w h e n t h e n m a yb e M o n d a y co m e s I l l h a ve so m e t h i n g I w a n t t o t e l l yo u t h e n i t w i l l b e t o o l a t e s o I m t r yi n g t o t h i n k o f s o m e t h i n g P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n I a p p r e ci a t e t h a t U h m w e l l m a yb e i t s a b o u t h o w m i n e i s r e a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m e ve r yb o d y e l se s. E ve r yb o d y e l se s se e m e d b e t t e r b e ca u se t h e y r e P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n

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1 7 0 sa yi n g w h a t s h a p e i s t h i s t h e n yo u t yp e i t i n S o t o yo u t h a t se e m e d b e t t e r W e l l n o t n o I d o n t r e a l l y l i ke d o i n g t h a t L e a r n i n g r e f l e ct i o n Y o u d o n t l i ke d o i n g w h a t ? T h e p a r t w h e n yo u sa y w h a t s t h i s sh a p e L e a r n i n g r e f l e ct i o n Y e a h so W e l l m a yb e i t w o u l d b e f u n L e a r n i n g r e f l e ct i o n D o yo u l i ke t o t e l l st o r i e s Y e s L e a r n i n g r e f l e ct i o n D o yo u w r i t e st o r i e s a l o t ? Y e s L e a r n i n g r e f l e ct i o n S o w h a t yo u d i d s e e m s so m e t h i n g t h a t yo u r e g o o d a t t h e n R e a l l y? L e a r n i n g r e f l e ct i o n T o m e C a u se yo u h a d t h i s ve r y e l a b o r a t e st o r y a n d n o b o d y e l se r e a l l y h a d a st o r y l i ke yo u h a d a st o r y, so I t h o u g h t i t w a s i n t e r e st i n g t h a t y o u j u st sa i d t h a t o t h e r ki d s a ske d w h a t sh a p e i s t h i s b u t yo u s a i d w e l l I d o n t r e a l l y l i ke t h a t S o i t se e m s l i ke t o m e i n yo u r p r o j e ct yo u d i d w h a t yo u l i ke t o d o W e l l I d i d L e a r n i n g r e f l e ct i o n I sn t t h a t O K yo u d i d i t t h e w a y yo u l i ke t o d o i t ? W e l l ye a h i t s O K L e a r n i n g r e f l e ct i o n T h e w a y yo u l i ke t o d o i t ? W e l l ye a h i t s O K L e a r n i n g r e f l e ct i o n W h i l e I m t h i n ki n g a b o u t i t w o u l d yo u w a n t t o sh a r e t h i s w i t h yo u r 5 t h g r a d e cl a ss m a t e s? I d f e e l t o o e m b a r r a sse d P r o j e ct r e a ct i o n Y o u d f e e l e m b a r r a sse d t o sh a r e t h a t w i t h t h e m ? H o w c o m e ? E ve r yo n e i n t h e 5 t h g r a d e i s m e a n I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r c h q u e st i o n s E ve r yb o d y i n t h e 5 t h g r a d e i s m e a n ? N o t e ve r yo n e E ve r yo n e s m e a n a n d r o u g h a n d t o u g h a n d I d o n t w a n t t o d o i t I l l b e sca r e d I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r c h q u e st i o n s O K a n d w e r e n o t g o i n g t o d o i t so I d o n t w a n t yo u t o t h i n k I m g o i n g t o d o i t I j u st w a n t e d t o I w o u l d d o b u t I l l b e t o o sca r e d I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r c h q u e st i o n s

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1 7 1 kn o w w h a t yo u t h i n k Y e a h I a p p r e ci a t e t h a t A n d d o yo u t h i n k o t h e r 5 t h g r a d e r s sh o u l d l e a r n h o w t o u se S cr a t ch T h e y co u l d I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r c h q u e st i o n s T h e y co u l d l e a r n h o w t o u se S cr a t ch ? Y e a h I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r c h q u e st i o n s D o yo u t h i n k t h e y d l i ke t o l e a r n S cr a t ch ? S o m e ki d s b u t s o m e ki d s w o u l d t h i n k i t w o u l d b e a w a st e o f t h e i r t i m e I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r c h q u e st i o n s W h y d o yo u t h i n k so m e ki d s w o u l d t h i n k i t w o u l d b e a w a st e o f t h e i r t i m e ? C a u se t h e y r e n o t g r a t e f u l I r r e l e va n t t o r e se a r c h q u e st i o n s C a u se t h e y r e n o t g r a t e f u l ? A n yt h i n g e l se yo u w a n t t o s h a r e w i t h m e ? P r o b a b l y n o t I r r e l e va n t t o r e s e a r c h q u e st i o n s G r o u p s i m i l a r t h e m e s i n t o c a t e g o r i e s ( S t e p 5 ) T h i s st e p n a r r o w s t h e n u m b e r o f t h e m e s b y g r o u p i n g si m i l a r t h e m e s i n t o c a t e g o r i e s. T h e r e w e r e 5 t h e m e s g e n e r a t e d f r o m t h e d a t a i n S t e p 3 T h e se 5 t h e m e s w e r e g r o u p e d i n t o 3 c a t e g o r i e s. P r e v i o u sl y i d e n t i f i e d t h e m e s : 1 D o m i n i c s r e a ct i o n t o u si n g S cr a t ch 2 D o m i n i c r e f l e ct i n g o n l e a r n i n g S cr a t ch 3 D o m i n i c r e f l e ct i n g o n l e a r n i n g m a t h d u r i n g t h i s p r o j e ct 4 D o m i n i c r e f l e ct i n g o n h o w h e l e a r n s 5 D o m i n i c s r e a ct i o n t o h i s p r o j e ct C a t e g o r i e s ( b a se d o n g r o u p i n g si m i l a r t h e m e s ) : 1 D o m i n i c s r e sp o n se t o l e a r n i n g a n d u si n g S cr a t ch a D o m i n i c r e f l e ct i n g o n l e a r n i n g S cr a t ch b D o m i n i c s r e a ct i o n t o u si n g S cr a t ch 2 D o m i n i c s r e sp o n se t o t h i s p r o j e c t a D o m i n i c s r e a ct i o n t o h i s p r o j e ct 3 D o m i n i c s r e sp o n se t o h i s l e a r n i n g a D o m i n i c r e f l e ct i n g o n l e a r n i n g m a t h d u r i n g t h i s p r o j e ct b D o m i n i c r e f l e ct i n g o n h o w h e l e a r n s C o n v e r t c a t e g o r i e s i n t o c a t e g o r i c a l c o d e s ( S t e p 6 ) 1 S cr a t ch : D o m i n i c s r e sp o n s e t o l e a r n i n g a n d u si n g S cr a t ch 2 P r o j e ct : D o m i n i c s r e sp o n se t o t h i s p r o j e ct 3 L e a r n i n g : D o m i n i c s r e sp o n se t o h i s l e a r n i n g

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1 7 2 O r g a n i ze d a t a b a s e d o n c a t e g o r i c a l c o d e s ( S t e p 7 ) S cr a t ch : D i d yo u e n j o y u si n g S cr a t ch ? W e l l ye s. W h a t a b o u t u si n g S cr a t c h d i d yo u l i ke ? W e l l t h e p a r t w a s m a ki n g a l l t h e n e w sp r i t e s a n d e d i t i n g t h e m l i ke t h a t ca t r i g h t t h e r e < ye s> I m a d e h e r a t o n g u e a n d e ye l a sh e s, m a d e h e r l o o k l i ke a g i r l n o t a b o y c a t b e ca u se I t h i n k e ve r y c a t i n h e r e i s a b o y. S o yo u l i ke d t a ki n g t h e e xi st i n g sp r i t e s a n d ch a n g i n g t h e m r i g h t ? Y e a h O K W h a t e l se d i d yo u l i ke a b o u t u si n g S cr a t ch ? W e l l t h a t t h e r e w e r e so m a n y sp r i t e s t o u se l i ke a d r a g o n a n d g h o st a n d yo u ca n cr e a t e yo u r o w n sp r i t e s l i ke r a i n i n g m i l k. O K S o yo u l i ke t h a t y o u co u l d d e si g n yo u r o w n sp r i t e s < ye a h > a n d yo u a l so l i ke t h a t t h e r e w e r e l o t s o f o t h e r sp r i t e s t h a t w e r e p a r t o f S cr a t ch t h a t yo u co u l d u se ? Y e s. I s t h e r e a n yt h i n g e l se yo u w a n t t o t e l l m e a b o u t u si n g S cr a t ch o r d o i n g t h i s ki n d o f p r o j e ct ? S cr a t ch i s r e a l l y co n f u si n g a n d f r u st r a t i n g S cr a t ch i s co n f u si n g a n d f r u st r a t i n g I w a s w o n d e r i n g w h y w h e n I g o t t o t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s i t w a s d o i n g a l l t h i s st u f f t o m e L i ke w h a t d o y o u m e a n ? W h e n w e w e r e d o i n g t h i s p r o j e ct w i t h o u t t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s, n o t h i n g w a s h a p p e n i n g i t w a s j u st n o r m a l b u t t h e n o n ce I g o t t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s, a l l t h e se l u n a t i c st u f f st a r t e d t o h a p p e n e d l i ke t h e c o m p u t e r sh u t o f f t h e s e C h i n e se w o r d s a p p e a r e d a n d e ve r yt h i n g g o t m i xe d u p Y e a h t h a t w a s s t r a n g e ye st e r d a y, w a sn t i t ? H o w w e h a d t o s h u t d o w n yo u co m p u t e r t h a t w a s, b e c a u se t h a t h a d n t h a p p e n e d t o yo u t h i s w h o l e t i m e ? N o T h e n i t su d d e n l y d i d S o yo u s a i d i t w a s f r u st r a t i n g Y e s W o u l d yo u e ve r w a n t t o u se S cr a t c h a g a i n ? U h m ye a h I d o Y e s. O K G o o d D o yo u t h i n k i t w a s e a sy o r d i f f i cu l t t o l e a r n h o w t o u se S cr a t ch ? I sa y i t w a s d i f f i cu l t I t w a s d i f f i cu l t t o l e a r n h o w t o u s e S cr a t ch ? Y e s. W h a t m a d e i t d i f f i cu l t t o l e a r n h o w t o u s e ? W e l l p r e t t y m u ch i t w a s h a r d t o kn o w w h a t t o d o b e ca u se t h e r e w a s so m u ch

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1 7 3 st u f f L i ke w h e n yo u w e r e sa yi n g a t a n d t u r n a r o u n d ca u se l o o k a t a l l t h e se st u f f g l i d e 1 se n s x 2 9 a n d y 1 0 a n d ch a n g e x b y 1 0 a n d a l l t h i s o t h e r st u f f S u r e S o a l l t h o se b l o cks, m a yb e t h e r e a r e j u st t o o m a n y b l o cks sh o w i n g so i t g e t s co n f u si n g ? Y e a h O K S o b e ca u se t h e r e a r e a l o t o f b l o cks t h e r e w h a t d o yo u t h i n k w o u l d b e t h e b e st w a y t o l e a r n h o w t o u se S cr a t ch ? O r w h a t w o u l d b e t h e b e st w a y f o r yo u t o l e a r n h o w t o u se S cr a t ch ? I d o n t r e a l l y kn o w Y o u d o n t r e a l l y kn o w ? W h a t w o u l d h a v e b e e n t h e b e st w a y t o h e l p y o u l e a r n S cr a t ch ? M a yb e g e t so m e p r o f e ssi o n a l h e l p G e t so m e p r o f e ssi o n a l h e l p ? Y e a h W h a t d o yo u m e a n b y t h a t ? M a yb e a p e r so n w h o s d o n e S cr a t ch f o r a w h i l e o r a p e r so n w h o m a yb e cr e a t e d i t O h m a yb e t h e p e r so n w h o cr e a t e d i t D o yo u t h i n k t h e y w o u l d b e a b l e t o h e l p yo u ? Y e a h W h a t a b o u t i n a cl a ssr o o m ? H o w co u l d w e l e a r n S cr a t ch i n t h e cl a ss r o o m b e ca u s e w e p r o b a b l y w o u l d n t b e a b l e t o b r i n g i n Y o u m e a n t h e 5 t h g r a d e cl a ssr o o m ? S u r e i n t h e 5 t h g r a d e cl a ss r o o m W h a t w o u l d b e t h e b e st w a y t o l e a r n S cr a t ch ? I f yo u w e r e g o i n g t o w o r k w i t h yo u r b e c a u se yo u kn o w so m e t h i n g a b o u t S cr a t ch n o w H o w w o u l d yo u t e a ch yo u r cl a ssm a t e s a b o u t S cr a t ch ? M a yb e o n e si m p l e t h i n g a t a t i m e O K M a yb e o n e si m p l e t h i n g a t a t i m e D o yo u t h i n k t h a t w o u l d h e l p yo u t o o ? I g u e ss b u t i f I d i d n t k n o w i t h o w co u l d I t e a ch i t ? A n d w h a t d o yo u m e a n b y o n e si m p l e t h i n g ? L i ke t h e f i r st t h i n g a f t e r a n o t h e r l i ke cr e a t i n g t h e sp r i t e s. T h e n w e l l f i r st t h e m o t i o n t h e n t h e l o o ks so u n d p e n co n t r o l se n si n g o p e r a t i o n va r i a b l e s. S o a r e yo u s a yi n g w e sh o u l d g o t h r o u g h e a ch b l o ck t o t e a ch y o u o n e b l o ck a t a t i m e ? W e l l n o t a l l o f t h e se T h a t w o u l d t a ke f o r e ve r T h a t w o u l d t a ke a l o n g t i m e ? Y e a h j u st l i ke m o t i o n a n d t h a t a n d t h a t a n d t h a t a n d t h a t a n d t h e n l o o ks O K so m a yb e d o a f e w b l o cks f r o m e a c h o f t h o se ca t e g o r i e s? U h h u h ( y e s) M a yb e t h e o n e s y o u d u se t h e m o st ? Y e a h W e l l g o t h r o u g h i t i n a m i n u t e O K ? A n yt h i n g e l se yo u l e a r n e d ? A n yt h i n g e l se U h m p r o b a b l yu h m m a yb e m a yb e l e a r n i n g h o w t o d o i t

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1 7 4 yo u ca n t h i n k o f t h a t yo u l e a r n e d w h i l e d o i n g t h i s p r o j e ct ? L e a r n i n g h o w t o d o S cr a t ch ? Y e s. Y e a h yo u l e a r n e d h o w t o d o S cr a t ch a l i t t l e b i t b e ca u se y o u sa i d yo u o n e t h i n g yo u l i ke d w a s d r a w i n g t h e sp r i t e s a n d e d i t i n g t h e sp r i t e s, so yo u d e f i n i t e l y l e a r n e d h o w t o d o t h a t r i g h t ? Y e a h D i d yo u l e a r n h o w t o r e co r d yo u r vo i ce ? Y e a h I t h i n k yo u r e i n f a ct t h e o n l y p e r s o n t h a t r e c o r d e d t h e i r vo i ce r i g h t ? W e l l ye a h I t h i n k. P r o j e ct : Y e a h yo u d r e w a n u m b e r o f sh a p e s. I s e e a co n e r e ct a n g u l a r p r i sm cyl i n d e r s e ve n a p yr a m i d t h e r e Y o u ve l e a r n e d h o w t o d r a w t h e m A n yt h i n g e l se yo u t h i n k yo u l e a r n e d i n t h i s p r o j e ct ? W e l l I d i d l e a r n t h a t n o t r e a l l y. I w a s j u st sa yi n g t h a t I w a s a l i t t l e e m b a r r a sse d w h e n I w a s s a yi n g m y p r o j e ct b e c a u se e v e r yt h i n g w a s m e ss e d u p t h e t i m e I d i d i t c a u se t h a t w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce t h a t w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce t h a t w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce E ve r yt h i n g w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce Y o u m e a n w h e n yo u w e r e sh o w i n g i t t o t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s? Y e s, e ve r yt h i n g w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce E ve r yt h i n g w a s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce ? M a yb e n o t e ve r yt h i n g N o t i n t h e r i g h t p o si t i o n T h e y r e a l l su p p o se d t o b e H e n e e d s t o b e b i g g e r T h e y r e a l l su p p o se d t o b e f a ci n g O h so so m e o f t h e si ze s a r e n o t r i g h t S e e l o o k. S e e S o h e s f a ci n g t h e w r o n g d i r e ct i o n ? Y e a h t h a t s o n e I t h i n k yo u w e r e Y o u l e a r n e d t h a t a n d I d o n t t h i n k a n yb o d y e l s e l e a r n e d a b o u t t h a t W h e n yo u w e r e d e si g n i n g t h i s, w e r e yo u t h i n ki n g a b o u t d e si g n i n g f o r 2 n d g r a d e r s ? I d i d n t e ve n kn o w w e w e r e g o i n g t o sh o w i t t o 2 n d g r a d e r s. Y o u d i d n t r e a l i ze w e w e r e g o i n g t o sh o w i t t o 2 n d g r a d e r s? N o O K T h a t s f a i r D o yo u r e m e m b e r t h e o r i g i n a l g o a l o f t h e p r o j e c t ? Y e a h W h a t w a s t h e g o a l o f t h e p r o j e ct ? M a ke i t cr e a t i ve ? T o m a ke i t cr e a t i ve I d o n t kn o w i f t h a t w a s o n e o f t h e m I d o n t kn o w i f t h a t w a s o n e o f t h e m O K S o t h i n k b a ck t o w h y d i d yo u d e si g n w h a t yo u d e si g n e d W h a t w a s t h i s t r yi n g t o sh o w ? I w a s t r yi n g t o m a ke i t cr e a t i ve a n d m a ke t h e m m o ve a n d m a ke t h e m h a v e a co n ve r sa t i o n b u t i n st e a d I w a s t h e o n l y o n e t a l ki n g I t h o u g h t t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s w o u l d g e t b o r e d W e l l so w h a t h a p p e n e d ye st e r d a y w i t h t h e W e l l t h e y w e r e l o o ki n g a t i t I d o n t

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1 7 5 2 n d g r a d e r s? D i d t h e y g e t b o r e d ? kn o w i f t h e y g o t b o r e d b e c a u se I m n o t t h e m b u t I d o n t kn o w i f i t w a s a s g o o d a s e ve r yo n e e l se s ca u s e t h e y r e a l l m o vi n g a n d h a vi n g c o n ve r s a t i o n l i ke N a t h a n i e l s. H e w a s l i ke i t i m p r e sse d m e l i ke f i n e l e t s g o o n t h e d r a g o n s D u h d u h d u h D u d d u h d u h F i n e l e t s g o Y e e h a w A n d t h a t s w h a t h a p p e n e d A n d m i n e s n o t a m a zi n g a s t h a t M i n e s j u st b l a h b l a h b l a h b l a h b l a h b l a h b l a h B l a h b l a h b l a h b l a h b l a h B L A H b l a h A n d t h e n b l a h b l a h B L A H b l a h Y e a h S o f i r st sce n e o f yo u r p r o j e ct yo u r t e l l i n g a st o r y. P L A Y F I R S T S C E N E T h a t s w r o n g S e e h o w e ve r y t h i n g i s m e sse d u p W h a t s m e sse d u p h e r e W e l l h e s su p p o se d t o b e f a ci n g l e f t H e s su p p o se d t o b e r i g h t t h e r e T h e r e s s o m e ca t s i n t h e w r o n g p l a ce a n d t h e y r e f a ci n g t h e w r o n g d i r e ct i o n s W A T C H I N G W O O D S S C E N E : O h co m e o n U g h H e s su p p o se d t o b e b e h i n d ? T h a t s su p p o se d t o b e g r a b b i n g i t s t a i l D i d t h a t g e t c h a n g e d ? W a s i t l i ke t h a t ye st e r d a y? Y e s. H o w d o e s t h e l a n d sh a r k S e e E ve r yt h i n g i s m e sse d u p T h a t l o o ks r i g h t t o m e Y o u kn o w t h o se a r e n t s u p p o se d t o b e l i ke t h a t W o u l d yo u e ve r w a n t t o u se S cr a t c h a g a i n ? U h m ye a h I d o A n d I w a n t t o m a ke i t b e t t e r t h a n t h e f i r st o n e I w a n t t o m a ke i t m o r e b e t t e r M y vo i ce c o u l d b e t a l ki n g a n d t h e y co u l d b e m o vi n g a n d st u f f Y o u ke p t t e l l i n g m e d u r i n g t h e p r o j e ct t h a t w h e n a r e w e g o i n g t o d o a p r o j e ct t h a t s n o t a b o u t sh a p e s Y e a h D i d yo u n o t l i ke t h e sh a p e s? W e l l t h e sh a p e s I w e l l n o I ki n d o f l i ke d i t O K B u t yo u ke p t w a n t i n g t o m o ve o n t o a d i f f e r e n t p r o j e ct ? Y e a h H o w co m e ? W e l l t h e sh a p e s I t h o u g h t i t w a s ki n d o f w e i r d w h e n t h e y w e r e sa yi n g t h e y l o o ke d l i ke a d u l t s b u t t h e y w e r e sa yi n g t h e y w e r e g o i n g t o se e a m o vi e a b o u t sh a p e s. W h a t w a s t h e i d e a f o r yo u r y o u kn o w yo u h a d t h i s st o r y. H o w d i d y o u co m e u p w i t h a l l t h o se d i f f e r e n t i d e a s? I d o n t kn o w I t j u st p o p s u p i n m y h e a d A n yt h i n g e l se yo u w a n t t o s h a r e w i t h m e a b o u t t h e p r o j e c t ? H e r e s yo u r ch a n ce t o T h e t h i n g s I d i d n t l i ke w a s j u st I g u e ss I sh o u l d h a v e d o n e b e t t e r I sa i d i t l i ke I

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1 7 6 t e l l m e a n yt h i n g yo u w a n t t o t e l l m e a b o u t t h e p r o j e c t ? d i d n t ca r e l i ke i n t h e s o u n d s I sa i d i t l i ke I d i d n t ca r e O h so yo u w o u l d w a n t t o r e d o yo u r so u n d s ? N o t a l l o ve r ca u se I w a s s p e a ki n g l i ke I d i d n t ca r e R i g h t d i d n t p u t a l o t o f e m o t i o n i n t o i t E xce p t f o r t h e l a st p a r t T h e l a st p a r t y e a h yo u d e f i n i t e l y p u t a l o t e m o t i o n i n t h e l a st l i n e h o w e ve r yo u sa i d t h a t t h e sh a p e t e st w h i ch i s p r e t t y f u n n y. A n yt h i n g e l se I sh o u l d kn o w a b o u t w o r ki n g o n t h e p r o j e ct a n yt h i n g e l se yo u w a n t t o t e l l m e a b o u t t h i s U h m u h m u h m m a y b e u h m I j u st kn o w w h a t s g o i n g t o h a p p e n i f I d o n t t e l l yo u t h i s a n d t h e n l a t e r w h e n t h e n m a y b e M o n d a y co m e s I l l h a ve so m e t h i n g I w a n t t o t e l l yo u t h e n i t w i l l b e t o o l a t e so I m t r yi n g t o t h i n k o f so m e t h i n g I a p p r e ci a t e t h a t U h m w e l l m a yb e i t s a b o u t h o w m i n e i s r e a l l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m e v e r yb o d y e l se s. E ve r yb o d y e l se s se e m e d b e t t e r b e ca u se t h e y r e sa yi n g w h a t sh a p e i s t h i s t h e n y o u t yp e i t i n W h i l e I m t h i n ki n g a b o u t i t w o u l d yo u w a n t t o sh a r e t h i s w i t h yo u r 5 t h g r a d e cl a ssm a t e s? I d f e e l t o o e m b a r r a sse d L e a r n i n g : W e l l r i g h t b u t I m sa yi n g i f so m e o n e w a s t e a ch i n g yo u w o u l d i t h e l p yo u t o d o o n e si m p l e t h i n g a t a t i m e ? Y e a h Ju st p o p s u p i n yo u r h e a d ? O K D o yo u l i ke m a t h ? A l i t t l e D o yo u t h i n k yo u r e g o o d a t m a t h ? N o n o S o t o yo u t h a t se e m e d b e t t e r W e l l n o t n o I d o n t r e a l l y l i ke d o i n g t h a t Y o u d o n t l i ke d o i n g w h a t ? T h e p a r t w h e n yo u sa y w h a t s t h i s sh a p e Y e a h so W e l l m a yb e i t w o u l d b e f u n D o yo u l i ke t o t e l l st o r i e s Y e s D o yo u w r i t e st o r i e s a l o t ? Y e s S o w h a t yo u d i d s e e m s so m e t h i n g t h a t yo u r e g o o d a t t h e n R e a l l y? T o m e C a u se yo u h a d t h i s ve r y e l a b o r a t e st o r y a n d n o b o d y e l se r e a l l y h a d a st o r y l i ke yo u h a d a s t o r y, s o I t h o u g h t i t w a s i n t e r e st i n g t h a t yo u j u st sa i d t h a t o t h e r ki d s a ske d w h a t sh a p e i s t h i s b u t yo u sa i d w e l l I d o n t r e a l l y l i ke t h a t S o i t se e m s l i ke t o m e i n yo u r p r o j e ct yo u d i d w h a t yo u l i ke t o d o W e l l I d i d I sn t t h a t O K yo u d i d i t t h e w a y yo u l i ke t o d o i t ? W e l l ye a h i t s O K T h e w a y yo u l i ke t o d o i t ? W e l l ye a h i t s O K

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1 7 7 S u r e l e t s t a l k a b o u t l e a r n i n g m a t h D o yo u t h i n k yo u ca n l e a r n m a t h w h i l e w o r ki n g o n t h i s p r o j e ct ? U m m I r e a l l y d o n t S o m e o f t h a t st u f f I a l r e a d y k n o w l i ke a p y r a m i d I d o n t kn o w t h a t m u ch a b o u t p y r a m i d s b u t cyl i n d e r a n d co n e I a l r e a d y kn o w a b o u t t h o se t w o O K S o yo u a l r e a d y kn e w a b o u t so m e o f t h e m a t h yo u u se d ? Y e s S o yo u d i d n t r e a l l y l e a r n a b o u t m a t h i n t h i s p r o j e ct ? N o I s t h e r e a n yt h i n g y o u f e l t l i ke y o u d i d l e a r n f r o m t h i s p r o j e ct ? W e l l h o w t o d r a w so m e o f t h e m S o h o w t o d r a w t h o se s h a p e s? Y e a h D o yo u t h i n k t h a t yo u c o u l d l e a r n m a t h u si n g S cr a t ch ? M a yb e ? M a yb e h o w ? T h e t h i n g s I m w r i t i n g d o w n a r e t h i n g s I a l r e a d y kn o w so h o w c o u l d i t t e a ch m e ? G r e a t q u e st i o n I d o n t k n o w t h e a n sw e r S o w h a t yo u w e r e d o i n g w a s d e m o n st r a t i n g w h a t yo u kn o w a b o u t m a t h i n t h i s p r o j e ct ? Y e a h W e l l w e t a l ke d a b o u t t h a t ye st e r d a y. W h a t a b o u t t h e l a n d sh a r k. H o w d o e s t h e l a n d sh a r k r e l a t e d t o g e o m e t r i c so l i d s ? W a i t W h a t d o yo u m e a n ? W e l l h e w e n t t h e r e b e ca u s e i t s t h e s e a a n d I g u e ss h e d o e sn t l i ke i t A r e l a n d sh a r ks r e a l ? I d o n t t h i n k s o I l i ke t h e e n d b y t h e w a y. I l i ke h o w yo u u se d yo u r f l u ct u a t i o n i n yo u r vo i ce t h e r e S o h o w d o a l l t h e s e ca t s, g h o st s, l a n d sh a r k, d r a g o n h o w d o e s t h o se r e l a t e t o t e a ch i n g so m e o n e a b o u t g e o m e t r i c so l i d s. W e l l t h e sh a p e s a r e t h e r e a n d I s a i d t o p a y w e l l t h e l a st p a r t w h e n t h e y w e r e d o n e t h a t I j u st w a n t e d t o m a ke s u r e t h e y w e r e p a yi n g a t t e n t i o n I sa i d w h a t w e r e t h e s h a p e s i n t h e b a ck g r o u n d S o t h e sh a p e s a r e i n t h e b a ckg r o u n d D o yo u e v e r t a l k a b o u t t h e sh a p e s? U h d o I e ve r w e l l w h e n i t s d o n e I sa y w h a t sh a p e i s t h a t ? a n d t h e y r e t r yi n g t o g u e ss i t S o e xp l a i n t h a t t o m e a g a i n C a u se w h e n I m d o n e I w a n t t o m a ke su r e i f t h e y r e p a yi n g a t t e n t i o n S o w h e n yo u w e r e d o n e w h e n y o u w a t ch e d t h i s, so yo u a sk e d d i d y o u a sk t h e 2 n d g r a d e r s w h a t s h a p e i s t h i s? U h h u h ( y e s) S o t h a t w a sn t p a r t o f y o u r p r o j e ct t h a t w a s j u st so m e t h i n g yo u j u st a ske d t h e m ? Y e a h O K T h a t s f a i r W e a ske d yo u so m e q u e st i o n s b e f o r e t h e p r o j e ct st a r t e d a n d t h e n l a st w e e k n e a r t h e e n d o f t h e p r o j e ct yo u a n sw e r e d t h o s e sa m e q u e st i o n s Y o u m i g h t n o t h a ve r e m e m b e r e d i t O K l e t s I s t h a t r i g h t o r w r o n g ?

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1 7 8 t a ke a l o o k. I l l sh o w yo u w h a t I m t a l ki n g a b o u t S o t h i s i s w h a t yo u d i d w h e n w e st a r t e d t h e p r o j e ct R e m e m b e r l o o ki n g a t t h i s? A n d t h i s i s w h a t yo u d i d l a st w e e k? S o w e w a n t t o co m p a r e a n sw e r s. S o cyl i n d e r cyl i n d e r p yr a m i d p y r a m i d co n e co n e r e ct a n g u l a r p r i s m r e ct a n g u l a r p r i s m I n t h e b e g i n n i n g a n d a t t h e e n d yo u c o u l d i d e n t i f y w h i ch g e o m e t r i c so l i d i t i s. N o p r o b l e m S o t h e n h e r e w e h a ve w h a t i s t h e a r e a o f t h e b a s e o f t h e p r i s m Y o u sa i d 8 W h a t d o yo u t h i n k i t i s? I g u e ss r i g h t S o h o w d o yo u f i n d a r e a ? I f o r g o t B u t o ve r h e r e yo u h a ve t h e a r e a o f t h e b a se i s 1 6 S o i t l o o ks l i ke I t s 8 I t s 8 S o yo u ca n co u n t t h e cu b e s. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 B u t h e r e y o u p u t 1 6 S o o n e o f m y q u e st i o n s i s w h a t h a p p e n e d h e r e Y o u f o r g o t ? I t h o u g h t i t w a s 8 1 6 8 p l u s 8 i s 1 6 ? O K t h e n l o o k a t h e r e W h a t s t h e h e i g h t o f t h e p r i s m Y o u h a ve 2 a n d t h e n yo u h a v e 2 I s i t 2 ? Y e s Y e a h b e ca u se yo u ca n co u n t s o t h a t w a s n o p r o b l e m W h a t i s t h e vo l u m e o f t h e p r o b l e m I sa i d 1 6 A n d t h e n o ve r h e r e I ca n t t e l l i f i t s 1 6 o r i f t h a t s 1 0 I t h i n k i t s 1 0 I m n o t su r e h o w yo u w e n t f r o m h e r e t o h e r e b u t w h e n w e I t h i n k t h i s i s r i g h t T h i s o n e s r i g h t Y e a h Y e a h yo u r e r i g h t b e ca u se y o u t a ke O K w h i ch o n e s t h e o n e I d i d f i r st ? T h i s o n e s f i r st t h i s o n e s se co n d O h O K T h e n yo u d i d Y o u r e r i g h t b e ca u se yo u t a ke t h e a r e a o f t h e b a se t i m e s t h e h e i g h t I t h i n k I i m p r o ve d m o r e o n t h i s o n e ( p r e t e st ) Y o u t h i n k yo u i m p r o ve d m o r e Y o u t h i n k yo u d i d b e t t e r o n t h i s o n e ( p r e t e s t ) Y e a h t h a t o n e ( p o st t e s t ) I d i d h o r r i b l e W e l l I d o n t t h i n k y o u d i d h o r r i b l e I t h i n k t h a t m a yb e yo u j u st ki n d o f f o r g o t A n d t h e n h e r e b u t I w a n t t o sh o w yo u so m e t h i n g L o o k h e r e 8 a n d 9 Y o u j u st p u t q u e st i o n m a r ks, w h i ch l o o ks t o m e l i ke yo u d i d n t t r y, b u t h e r e yo u t r i e d yo u p u t a n sw e r s a n d yo u sa i d I j u st l o o ke d a t t h e su r f a ce S o a t l e a st yo u t r i e d y o u t r i e d so m e t h i n g r i g h t ? Y e s S o d o yo u t h i n k y o u i m p r o ve d o n t h e se co n d o n e co m p a r e d t o t h e f i r st ? I t h i n k I d i d b e t t e r o n t h e f i r st o n e

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1 7 9 I w o u l d sa y m a yb e j u st a l i t t l e b i t b e t t e r I t s p r e t t y si m i l a r d o n t yo u t h i n k ? Y e s R e c o d e d a t a ( S t e p 8 ) T h i s st e p w a s n o t n e ce ssa r y.

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1 8 0 A P P E N D I X G D A T A C O L L E C T E D F R O M S C R A T C H A R T I F A C T S D a y N u m b e r o f s p r i t e s N u m b e r o f b a c k g r o u n d s N u m b e r o f s c r i p t s N u m b e r o f c o m m a n d b l o c k s i n s c r i p t s N u m b e r o f u n i q u e c o m m a n d b l o c k s i n s c r i p t s U n i q u e c o m m a n d b l o c k s u s e d i n s c r i p t s 1 4 2 0 0 0 N o n e 2 7 2 0 0 0 N o n e 3 8 2 2 6 3 f o r e v e r ; s a y ; w h e n f l a g c l i c k e d 4 9 3 2 5 3 s a y ; w h e n f l a g c l i c k e d ; w a i t 5 1 2 5 2 4 2 w h e n f l a g c l i c k e d ; s a y f o r s e c s 6 8 6 2 4 2 w h e n f l a g c l i c k e d ; s a y f o r s e c s 7 1 1 7 3 6 2 w h e n f l a g c l i c k e d ; s w i t c h t o b a c k g r o u n d 8 1 4 7 1 5 3 1 7 w h e n f l a g c l i c k e d ; s w i t c h t o b a c k g r o u n d ; s h o w ; h i d e ; p l a y s o u n d u n t i l d o n e ; b r o a d c a s t ; w h e n I r e c e i v e 9 1 7 7 2 8 5 8 7 w h e n f l a g c l i c k e d ; s w i t c h t o b a c k g r o u n d ; s h o w ; h i d e ; p l a y s o u n d u n t i l d o n e ; b r o a d c a s t ; w h e n I r e c e i v e 1 0 1 7 7 3 0 6 6 7 w h e n f l a g c l i c k e d ; s w i t c h t o b a c k g r o u n d ; s h o w ; h i d e ; p l a y s o u n d u n t i l d o n e ; b r o a d c a s t ; w h e n I r e c e i v e 1 1 1 8 7 3 6 8 4 9 w h e n f l a g c l i c k e d ; s w i t c h t o b a c k g r o u n d ; p l a y s o u n d u n t i l d o n e ; b r o a d c a s t ; w h e n I r e c e i v e ; p o i n t i n d i r e c t i o n ; g o t o x : y : ; h i d e ; s h o w 1 2 1 8 7 4 1 7 6 9 w h e n f l a g c l i c k e d ; s w i t c h t o b a c k g r o u n d ; p l a y s o u n d u n t i l d o n e ; b r o a d c a s t ; w h e n I r e c e i v e ; p o i n t i n d i r e c t i o n ; g o t o x : y : ; h i d e ; s h o w 1 3 1 8 7 5 2 1 2 9 1 0 w h e n f l a g c l i c k e d ; s w i t c h t o b a c k g r o u n d ; p l a y s o u n d u n t i l d o n e ; b r o a d c a s t ; w h e n I r e c e i v e ; p o i n t i n d i r e c t i o n ; g o t o x : y : ; h i d e ; s h o w ; s e t s i z e t o 1 4 2 2 7 6 6 1 5 2 1 0 w h e n f l a g c l i c k e d ; s w i t c h t o b a c k g r o u n d ; p l a y s o u n d u n t i l d o n e ; b r o a d c a s t ; w h e n I r e c e i v e ; p o i n t i n d i r e c t i o n ; g o t o x : y : ; h i d e ; s h o w ; s e t s i z e t o 1 5 2 2 7 8 4 2 0 7 1 1 w h e n f l a g c l i c k e d ; s w i t c h t o b a c k g r o u n d ; p l a y s o u n d ; p l a y s o u n d u n t i l d o n e ; w h e n I r e c e i v e ; p o i n t i n d i r e c t i o n ; g o t o x : y : ; s h o w ; h i d e ; b r o a d c a s t ; s e t s i z e t o

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1 8 1 L I S T O F R E F E R E N C E S A n d e r so n L W & K r a t h w o h l D R ( E d s. ) ( 2 0 0 1 ) A t a xo n o m y f o r l e a r n i n g t e a ch i n g a n d a sse ssi n g : A r e vi si o n o f B l o o m s T a xo n o m y o f e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e ct i ve s: C o m p l e t e e d i t i o n N e w Y o r k: L o n g m a n B a t t i st a M T C l e m e n t s, D H A r n o f f J. B a t t i st a K & B o r r o w C V A ( 1 9 9 8 ) S t u d e n t s sp a t i a l st r u ct u r i n g o f 2 D a r r a ys o f sq u a r e s. J o u r n a l f o r R e se a r ch i n M a t h e m a t i cs E d u c a t i o n 2 9 ( 5 ) 5 0 3 5 3 2 B l o o m B S & K r a t h w o h l D R ( 1 9 5 6 ) T a xo n o m y o f e d u ca t i o n a l o b j e ct i ve s: T h e cl a ssi f i ca t i o n o f e d u ca t i o n a l g o a l s, b y a co m m i t t e e o f co l l e g e a n d u n i ve r si t y e xa m i n e r s. H a n d b o o k 1 : C o g n i t i ve d o m a i n N e w Y o r k: L o n g m a n s. B e i ch n e r R J. ( 1 9 9 4 ) M u l t i m e d i a e d i t i n g t o p r o m o t e s ci e n ce l e a r n i n g J o u r n a l o f E d u ca t i o n a l M u l t i m e d i a a n d H yp e r m e d i a 3 ( 1 ) 5 5 7 0 B e l l M B r e t zl a u f J D i l l a r d A H a r t f i e l d R I sa a cs, A M cB r i d e J. P i t vo r e c, K S a e cke r P & W i n n i n g h a m N ( 2 0 0 7 ) E ve r d a y m a t h e m a t i cs ( 3 rd e d ) N e w Y o r k: W r i g h t G r o u p / M cG r a w H i l l B l a u I Z u cke r m a n O & M o n r o y H e r n n d e z A ( 2 0 0 9 ) C h i l d r e n s p a r t i ci p a t i o n i n a m e d i a co n t e n t cr e a t i o n co m m u n i t y : I sr a e l i l e a r n e r s i n a S cr a t ch p r o g r a m m i n g e n vi r o n m e n t I n Y E sh e t A l ka l a i A C a sp i S E d e n N G e r i Y Y a i r ( E d s. ) P r o ce e d i n g s o f t h e C h a i s C o n f e r e n ce o n I n st r u ct i o n a l T e c h n o l o g i e s R e se a r c h 2 0 0 9 R a a n a n a : T h e O p e n U n i ve r si t y o f I s r a e l B r o w n A L ( 1 9 9 2 ) D e si g n e xp e r i m e n t s: T h e o r e t i ca l a n d m e t h o d o l o g i ca l c h a l l e n g e s i n cr e a t i n g co m p l e x i n t e r ve n t i o n s i n cl a ssr o o m s e t t i n g s. T h e Jo u r n a l o f t h e L e a r n i n g S ci e n ce s, 2 ( 2 ) 1 4 1 1 7 8 B r o w n C ( 2 0 0 7 ) L e a r n i n g t h r o u g h m u l t i m e d i a co n st r u ct i o n a co m p l e x st r a t e g y. Jo u r n a l o f E d u ca t i o n a l M u l t i m e d i a a n d H yp e r m e d i a 1 6 ( 2 ) 9 3 1 2 4 C a r ve r S M L e h r e r R C o n n e l l T & E r i ck so n J. ( 1 9 9 2 ) L e a r n i n g b y h yp e r m e d i a d e si g n : I ssu e s o f a sse ss m e n t a n d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n E d u ca t i o n a l P sych o l o g i st 2 7 ( 3 ) 3 8 5 4 0 4 C h e n P & M cG r a t h D ( 2 0 0 3 ) K n o w l e d g e c o n st r u ct i o n a n d kn o w l e d g e r e p r e se n t a t i o n i n h i g h sch o o l s t u d e n t s d e si g n o f h y p e r m e d i a d o cu m e n t s. Jo u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l M u l t i m e d i a a n d H yp e r m e d i a 1 2 ( 1 ) 3 3 6 1 C o l l i n s, A ( 1 9 9 2 ) T o w a r d a d e si g n sci e n ce o f e d u ca t i o n I n E S ca n l o n & T O S h e a ( E d s. ) N e w d i r e ct i o n s i n e d u ca t i o n a l t e ch n o l o g y B e r l i n : S p r i n g e r V e r l a g D e si g n b a se d R e se a r c h C o l l e ct i ve ( 2 0 0 3 ) D e si g n b a se d r e se a r ch : A n e m e r g i n g p a r a d i g m f o r e d u ca t i o n a l i n q u i r y. E d u ca t i o n a l R e se a r ch e r 3 2 ( 1 ) 5 8

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1 8 2 E h r m a n n S C & B a l e st r i D P ( 1 9 9 2 ) L e a r n i n g t o d e si g n d e si g n i n g t o l e a r n : A m o r e cr e a t i ve r o l e f o r t e ch n o l o g y. I n D P B a l e st r i S C E h r m a n n & D L F e r g u so n ( E d s. ) L e a r n i n g t o d e si g n d e si g n i n g t o l e a r n : U si n g t e ch n o l o g y t o t r a n sf o r m t h e cu r r i cu l u m ( p p 1 2 0 ) W a sh i n g t o n D C : T a yl o r & F r a n ci s. E r i ckso n J. ( 1 9 9 7 ) B u i l d i n g a co m m u n i t y o f d e si g n e r s: R e st r u ct u r i n g l e a r n i n g t h r o u g h st u d e n t h yp e r m e d i a d e si g n Jo u r n a l o f R e se a r ch i n R u r a l E d u ca t i o n 1 3 ( 1 ) 5 2 7 F i t zp a t r i ck, E ( 2 0 0 7 ) I n n o va t i o n A m e r i ca : A f i n a l r e p o r t N a t i o n a l G o ve r n o r s A sso ci a t i o n : W a sh i n g t o n D C F o r g i o n e P ( 1 9 9 8 ) A ch i e ve m e n t i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s: P r o g r e ss si n ce a N a t i o n a t R i sk? U S D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n N a t i o n a l C e n t e r f o r E d u ca t i o n a l S t a t i st i cs, C e n t e r f o r E d u ca t i o n R e f o r m a n d E m p o w e r A m e r i ca : W a sh i n g t o n D C G a r t h w a i t A ( 2 0 0 7 ) M i d d l e sch o o l h y p e r m e d i a co m p o si t i o n : A q u a l i t a t i ve c a se st u d y. Jo u r n a l o f E d u ca t i o n a l M u l t i m e d i a a n d H yp e r m e d i a 1 6 ( 4 ) 3 5 7 3 7 5 G u b a E G & L i n c o l n Y S ( 1 9 8 9 ) F o u r t h g e n e r a t i o n e va l u a t i o n N e w b u r y P a r k, C A : S a g e G u t h r i e J. T ( 2 0 0 1 ) C o n t e xt s f o r e n g a g e m e n t a n d m o t i va t i o n i n r e a d i n g R e a d i n g O n l i n e A va i l a b l e o n l i n e a t h t t p : / / w w w r e a d i n g o n l i n e o r g / a r t i cl e s/ h a n d b o o k/ g u t h r i e / i n d e x. h t m l G u t h r i e J. T & W i g f i e l d A ( E d s. ) ( 1 9 9 7 ) R e a d i n g e n g a g e m e n t : M o t i va t i n g r e a d e r s t h r o u g h i n t e g r a t e d i n s t r u ct i o n N e w a r k, D E : I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e a d i n g A sso ci a t i o n G u t h r i e J. T & W i g f i e l d A ( 2 0 0 0 ) E n g a g e m e n t a n d m o t i va t i o n i n r e a d i n g I n M L K a m i l P B M o se n t h a l P D P e a r so n & R B a r r ( E d s. ) H a n d b o o k o f r e a d i n g r e se a r ch ( V o l 3 p p 4 0 3 4 2 2 ) M a h w a h N J: L a w r e n ce E r l b a u m H a t ch J. A ( 2 0 0 2 ) D o i n g q u a l i t a t i ve r e s e a r ch i n e d u ca t i o n se t t i n g s A l b a n y, N Y : S t a t e U n i ve r si t y o f N e w Y o r k P r e ss. H a y, K E G u zd i a l M Ja ckso n S B o yl e R A & S o l o w a y, E ( 1 9 9 4 ) S t u d e n t s a s m u l t i m e d i a c o m p o se r s. C o m p u t e r s a n d E d u c a t i o n 2 3 ( 4 ) 3 0 1 3 1 7 H a r e l I ( 1 9 9 1 ) C h i l d r e n d e si g n e r s: I n t e r d i sci p l i n a r y co n st r u ct i o n s f o r l e a r n i n g a n d kn o w i n g m a t h e m a t i cs i n a co m p u t e r r i ch sch o o l N o r w o o d N J: A b l e x P u b l i sh i n g C o r p o r a t i o n H a r e l I & P a p e r t S ( 1 9 9 1 ) C o n st r u c t i o n i sm N o r w o o d N J: A b l e x P u b l i sh i n g C o r p o r a t i o n H e t h e r i n g t o n E M & P a r ke R D ( 1 9 8 6 ) C h i l d p sych o l o g y: A co n t e m p o r a r y vi e w p o i n t ( 3 rd e d ) N e w Y o r k : M cG r a w H i l l

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1 8 3 H o a g l i n D C M o st e l l e r F L i g h t R J. S t o t o M A & M cP e e k, B ( 1 9 8 2 ) D a t a f o r d e ci si o n s: I n f o r m a t i o n st r a t e g i e s f o r p o l i cym a ke r s. C a m b r i d g e M A : A b t B o o ks. Jo n a sse n D H P e ck, K L & W i l so n B G ( 1 9 9 9 ) L e a r n i n g w i t h t e c h n o l o g y: A co n st r u ct i vi st p e r sp e ct i v e U p p e r S a d d l e R i ve r N e w Je r se y: P r e n t i ce H a l l I n c. Jo n a sse n D H W i l so n B G W a n g S & G r a b i n g e r R S ( 1 9 9 3 ) C o n st r u c t i vi st u se s o f e xp e r t syst e m s t o su p p o r t l e a r n i n g Jo u r n a l o f C o m p u t e r B a se d I n st r u ct i o n 2 0 ( 3 ) 8 6 9 4 Je n ki n s, H ( 2 0 0 6 ) C o n ve r g e n ce cu l t u r e : W h e n o l d a n d n e w m e d i a co l l i d e L o n d o n : N e w Y o r k U n i ve r si t y P r e ss. K a f a i Y B P e p p l e r K A & C h i u G M ( 2 0 0 7 ) H i g h t e ch p r o g r a m m e r s i n l o w i n c o m e co m m u n i t i e s: C r e a t i n g a co m p u t e r cu l t u r e i n a co m m u n i t y t e ch n o l o g y ce n t e r I n C S t e i n f e l d B P e n t l a n d M A cke r m a n n & N C o n t r a ct o r ( E d s. ) P r o ce e d i n g s o f t h e T h i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n ce o n C o m m u n i t i e s a n d T e ch n o l o g y ( p p 5 4 5 5 6 2 ) N e w Y o r k: S p r i n g e r K a m i l M L ( 2 0 0 3 ) A d o l e ssce n t s a n d l i t e r a cy : R e a d i n g f o r t h e 2 1 s t ce n t u r y. W a sh i n g t o n D C : A l l i a n ce f o r E xce l l e n t E d u c a t i o n K a f a i Y B ( 1 9 9 5 ) M i n d s i n p l a y: C o m p u t e r g a m e d e si g n a s a co n t e xt f o r ch i l d r e n s l e a r n i n g H i l l sd a l e N J: L a w r e n ce E r l b a u m A s so ci a t e s. K a f a i Y & R e sn i ck, M ( 1 9 9 6 ) C o n st r u ct i o n i sm i n p r a ct i c e : D e si g n i n g t h i n ki n g a n d l e a r n i n g i n a d i g i t a l w o r l d M a h w a h N J: L a w r e n ce E r l b a u m K i m b e r K & W ya t t S m i t h C ( 2 0 0 6 ) U si n g a n d cr e a t i n g kn o w l e d g e w i t h n e w t e ch n o l o g i e s: a ca se f o r st u d e n t s a s d e si g n e r s. L e a r n i n g M e d i a a n d T e ch n o l o g y 3 1 ( 1 ) 1 9 3 4 L a g e m a n n E C ( 2 0 0 2 ) A n e l u si ve sci e n c e : T h e t r o u b l i n g h i st o r y o f e d u ca t i o n r e se a r ch C h i ca g o : U n i ve r si t y o f C h i ca g o P r e s s. L e h r e r R E r i ckso n J & C o n n e l l T ( 1 9 9 4 ) L e a r n i n g b y d e si g n i n g h yp e r m e d i a d o cu m e n t s C o m p u t e r s i n t h e S ch o o l s, 1 0 ( 1 / 2 ) 2 2 7 2 5 4 L i u M & H si a o Y ( 2 0 0 2 ) M i d d l e sch o o l st u d e n t s a s m u l t i m e d i a d e si g n e r s: A p r o j e ct b a se d l e a r n i n g a p p r o a c h Jo u r n a l o f I n t e r a ct i v e L e a r n i n g R e se a r ch 1 3 ( 4 ) 3 1 1 3 3 7 L i u M Jo n e s, C & H e m s t r e e t S ( 1 9 9 8 ) I n t e r a ct i ve m u l t i m e d i a d e si g n a n d p r o d u ct i o n p r o ce sse s. J o u r n a l o f R e se a r ch o n C o m p u t i n g i n E d u ca t i o n 3 0 ( 3 ) 2 5 4 2 8 0 L i u M & P e d e r se n S ( 1 9 9 8 ) T h e e f f e ct o f b e i n g h yp e r m e d i a d e si g n e r s o n e l e m e n t a r y sch o o l st u d e n t s m o t i va t i o n a n d l e a r n i n g o f d e si g n k n o w l e d g e Jo u r n a l o f I n t e r a ct i ve L e a r n i n g R e se a r ch 9 ( 2 ) 1 5 5 1 8 2

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1 8 4 L i u M & R u t l e d g e K ( 1 9 9 7 ) T h e e f f e ct o f a l e a r n e r a s m u l t i m e d i a d e si g n e r e n vi r o n m e n t o n a t r i sk h i g h sch o o l st u d e n t s m o t i va t i o n a n d l e a r n i n g o f d e si g n kn o w l e d g e Jo u r n a l o f E d u ca t i o n a l C o m p u t i n g R e se a r ch 1 6 ( 2 ) 1 4 5 1 7 7 L e h r e r R E r i ckso n J & C o n n e l l T ( 1 9 9 4 ) L e a r n i n g b y d e si g n i n g h yp e r m e d i a d o cu m e n t s C o m p u t e r s i n t h e S ch o o l s, 1 0 ( 1 / 2 ) 2 2 7 2 5 4 M a Y & H a r m o n S W ( 2 0 0 9 ) A ca s e st u d y o f d e si g n b a se d r e se a r ch f o r cr e a t i n g a vi si o n p r o t o t y p e o f a t e ch n o l o g y b a se d i n n o va t i ve l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t Jo u r n a l o f I n t e r a ct i ve L e a r n i n g R e se a r ch 2 0 ( 1 ) 7 5 9 3 M a cD o n a l d B & W a l ke r R ( 1 9 7 7 ) C a se st u d y a n d t h e so ci a l p h i l o so p h y o f e d u ca t i o n a l r e se a r ch I n D H a m i l t o n e t a l ( E d s. ) B e yo n d t h e n u m b e r s g a m e L o n d o n : M a cm i l l a n E d u ca t i o n M a l o n e y, J. P e p p l e r K K a f a i Y B R e sn i ck M & R u sk, N ( 2 0 0 8 ) P r o g r a m m i n g b y ch o i ce : U r b a n yo u t h l e a r n i n g p r o g r a m m i n g w i t h S cr a t ch P a p e r p r e se n t e d a t t h e a n n u a l m e e t i n g o f t h e A sso ci a t i o n o f C o m p u t i n g M a ch i n e r y s S p e ci a l I n t e r e st G r o u p o n C o m p u t e r S ci e n ce E d u ca t i o n P o r t l a n d O R M a r ch 2 0 0 8 M a r st o n D ( 2 0 0 5 ) T i e r s o f i n t e r ve n t i o n i n r e s p o n si ve n e ss t o i n t e r v e n t i o n : P r e ve n t i o n o u t co m e s a n d l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s i d e n t i f i ca t i o n p a t t e r n s. Jo u r n a l o f L e a r n i n g D i sa b i l i t i e s, 3 8 ( 6 ) 5 3 9 5 4 4 M a t t h e w s, W J. ( 2 0 0 3 ) C o n st r u ct i vi sm i n t h e cl a ssr o o m : E p i st e m o l o g y, h i st o r y, a n d e m p i r i ca l e vi d e n ce T e a ch e r E d u ca t i o n Q u a r t e r l y, 3 0 ( 3 ) 5 1 6 4 M a u t h n e r M ( 1 9 9 7 ) M e t h o d o l o g i ca l a sp e ct s o f co l l e ct i n g d a t a f r o m ch i l d r e n : L e sso n s f r o m t h r e e r e se a r ch p r o j e ct s. C h i l d r e n & S o ci e t y, 1 1 ( 1 ) 1 6 2 8 M cF a r l a n e A W i l l i a m s, J. M & B o n n e t t M ( 2 0 0 0 ) A sse ss m e n t a n d m u l t i m e d i a a u t h o r i n g a t o o l f o r e xt e r n a l i si n g u n d e r st a n d i n g Jo u r n a l o f C o m p u t e r A ssi st e d L e a r n i n g 1 6 ( 3 ) 2 0 1 2 1 2 M cG r a t h D C u m a r a n a t u n g e C Ji M C h e n H B r o ce W & W r i g h t K ( 1 9 9 7 ) M u l t i m e d i a sci e n ce p r o j e ct s: S e ve n c a se st u d i e s. Jo u r n a l o f R e se a r ch o n C o m p u t i n g i n E d u ca t i o n 3 0 ( 1 ) 1 8 3 8 M e r r i a m S B ( 1 9 9 8 ) Q u a l i t a t i ve r e se a r ch a n d ca se st u d y a p p l i ca t i o n s i n e d u c a t i o n S a n F r a n ci sco : Jo sse y B a ss. M i l e s, M B & H u b e r m a n A M ( 1 9 9 4 ) Q u a l i t a t i ve d a t a a n a l ysi s: A n e xp a n d e d so u r ce b o o k ( 2 n d e d ) T h o u s a n d O a ks C A : S a g e

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1 8 5 M i t ch e l l M A n d r e a t t a P a n d C a p e l l a E ( 2 0 0 4 ) I n t e g r a t i n g m u l t i m e d i a : D e m o n st r a t i o n s o f s t u d e n t g e n e r a t e d m u l t i m e d i a p r o d u ct s m a d e w i t h i n r e g u l a r co n t e n t d r i ve n co u r se s. I n L C a n t o n i a n d C M cL o u g h l i n ( E d s. ) P r o c e e d i n g s o f W o r l d C o n f e r e n ce o n E d u ca t i o n a l M u l t i m e d i a H yp e r m e d i a a n d T e l e co m m u n i ca t i o n s 3 9 6 2 3 9 6 7 L u g a n o S w i t ze r l a n d : A sso ci a t i o n f o r t h e A d va n ce m e n t o f C o m p u t e r s i n E d u ca t i o n ( A A C E ) M o n r o y H e r n n d e z, A & R e sn i ck, M ( 2 0 0 8 ) E m p o w e r i n g ki d s t o cr e a t e a n d sh a r e p r o g r a m m a b l e m e d i a I n t e r a ct i o n s, 1 5 ( 2 ) 5 0 5 3 M o u st a ka s, C ( 1 9 9 4 ) P h e n o m e n o l o g i ca l r e s e a r ch m e t h o d s T h o u sa n d O a ks, C A : S a g e N a t i o n a l C o u n ci l o f T e a c h e r s o f M a t h e m a t i cs. ( 2 0 0 6 ) C u r r i cu l u m f o c a l p o i n t s f o r p r e ki n d e r g a r t e n t h r o u g h g r a d e 8 m a t h e m a t i cs : A q u e st f o r co h e r e n ce R e s t o n V A : N C T M I n c. O r e y, M F a n H S co t t E T h u m a T R o b e r t sh a w B H o g l e J. T ze n g S & C r e n sh a w K ( 2 0 0 0 ) S t o r i e s a b o u t ch i l d r e n a n d t e a ch e r s a s t h e y cr e a t e m u l t i m e d i a d o cu m e n t s i n a u n i ve r si t y i n f l u e n c e d sm a l l ci t y sch o o l a n d a l a r g e i n n e r ci t y sch o o l M e r i d i a n : A M i d d l e S ch o o l C o m p u t e r T e c h n o l o g i e s J o u r n a l 3 ( 1 ) P a p e r t S ( 1 9 8 0 ) M i n d st o r m s. N e w Y o r k : B a si c B o o ks. P a p e r t S ( 1 9 9 0 ) C o n st r u c t i o n i st l e a r n i n g C a m b r i d g e M A : M I T M e d i a L a b o r a t o r y. P a p e r t S ( 1 9 9 1 ) S i t u a t i n g co n s t r u ct i o n i sm I n I H a r e l & S P a p e r t ( E d s. ) C o n st r u ct i o n i s m N o r w o o d N J: A b l e x P u b l i sh i n g C o r p o r a t i o n P a p e r t S ( 1 9 9 3 ) T h e c h i l d r e n s m a ch i n e N e w Y o r k: B a si c B o o ks. P B S ( 2 0 0 9 ) D i g i t a l l y i n cl i n e d su r ve y. A va i l a b l e o n l i n e a t h t t p : / / w w w p b s. o r g / t e a ch e r s/ f i l e s/ p d f / a n n u a l p b s su r ve y r e p o r t p d f P e p p l e r K A & K a f a i Y B ( 2 0 0 5 ) C r e a t i ve co d i n g : P r o g r a m m i n g f o r p e r s o n a l e xp r e ssi o n A va i l a b l e o n l i n e a t h t t p : / / scr a t c h m i t e d u / f i l e s/ C r e a t i ve C o d i n g p d f P e p p l e r K A & K a f a i Y B ( 2 0 0 7 a ) F r o m S u p e r G o o t o S cr a t ch : E xp l o r i n g c r e a t i ve d i g i t a l m e d i a p r o d u ct i o n i n i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g L e a r n i n g M e d i a a n d T e ch n o l o g y, 3 2 ( 2 ) 1 4 9 1 6 6 P e p p l e r K A & K a f a i Y B ( 2 0 0 7 b ) W h a t vi d e o g a m e m a ki n g ca n t e a ch u s a b o u t l i t e r a cy a n d l e a r n i n g : A l t e r n a t i v e p a t h w a ys i n t o p a r t i ci p a t o r y cu l t u r e P r o c e e d i n g s o f D i G R A 2 0 0 7 C o n f e r e n ce P e r ki n s, D N ( 1 9 8 6 ) K n o w l e d g e a s d e si g n H i l l sd a l e N J: L a w r e n c e E r l b a u m A sso ci a t e s, I n c.

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1 8 6 P i a g e t J. ( 1 9 8 0 ) T h e p sych o g e n e si s o f kn o w l e d g e a n d i t s e p i st e m o l o g i ca l si g n i f i ca n ce I n M P i a t t e l l i P a l m a r i n i ( E d ) L a n g u a g e a n d l e a r n i n g C a m b r i d g e M A : H a r va r d U n i ve r si t y P r e ss. P h i l l i p s, D C ( 1 9 9 5 ) T h e g o o d t h e b a d a n d t h e u g l y: T h e m a n y f a ce s o f co n st r u ct i vi s m E d u ca t i o n a l R e s e a r ch e r 2 4 ( 6 ) 5 1 2 P o l a n d B D ( 2 0 0 2 ) T r a n sc r i p t i o n q u a l i t y. I n J F G u b r i u m & J. A H o l st e i n ( E d s. ) H a n d b o o k o f i n t e r vi e w r e se a r ch : C o n t e xt a n d m e t h o d ( p p 6 2 9 6 4 9 ) T h o u s a n d O a ks, C A : S a g e P u b l i ca t i o n s. R e e ve s, T C ( 1 9 9 5 ) Q u e st i o n i n g t h e q u e st i o n s o f i n st r u c t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g y r e se a r ch P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e N a t i o n a l C o n v e n t i o n o f t h e A sso ci a t i o n f o r E d u ca t i o n a l C o m m u n i ca t i o n s a n d T e ch n o l o g y ( A E C T ) A n a h e i m C A R e e ve s, T C H e r r i n g t o n J & O l i ve r R ( 2 0 0 4 ) A d e ve l o p m e n t r e s e a r ch a g e n d a f o r o n l i n e co l l a b o r a t i ve l e a r n i n g E d u c a t i o n a l T e c h n o l o g y R e se a r ch a n d D e ve l o p m e n t 5 2 ( 4 ) 5 3 6 5 R e e ve s, T C ( 2 0 0 0 ) E n h a n ci n g t h e w o r t h o f i n st r u ct i o n a l t e ch n o l o g y r e se a r ch t h r o u g h d e si g n e x p e r i m e n t s a n d o t h e r d e ve l o p m e n t r e se a r ch st r a t e g i e s P a p e r p r e se n t e d a t t h e a n n u a l m e e t i n g o f t h e A m e r i ca n E d u ca t i o n a l R e se a r c h A sso ci a t i o n N e w O r l e a n s, L A R e sn i ck, L B ( 1 9 8 7 ) L e a r n i n g i n sch o o l a n d o u t E d u ca t i o n a l R e se a r c h e r 1 6 ( 9 ) 1 3 2 0 R e sn i ck, M ( 2 0 0 6 ) C o m p u t e r a s p a i n t b r u sh : T e ch n o l o g y, p l a y, a n d t h e cr e a t i ve so ci e t y. I n S i n g e r D G o l i ko f f R a n d H i r sh P a se k, K ( e d s. ) P l a y = L e a r n i n g : H o w p l a y m o t i va t e s a n d e n h a n ce s ch i l d r e n s co g n i t i ve a n d so ci a l e m o t i o n a l g r o w t h N e w Y o r k : O xf o r d U n i ve r si t y P r e ss. R e sn i ck, M M a l o n e y, J. M o n r o y H e r n n d e z, A R u sk, N E a st m o n d E B r e n n a n K M i l l n e r A R o se n b a u m E S i l ve r J. S i l ve r m a n B & K a f a i Y ( 2 0 0 9 ) S cr a t ch : P r o g r a m m i n g f o r a l l C o m m u n i ca t i o n s o f t h e A C M 5 2 ( 1 1 ) 6 0 6 7 R i ch a r d so n V ( 2 0 0 3 ) C o n st r u ct i vi st p e d a g o g y. T e a ch e r s C o l l e g e R e co r d 1 0 5 ( 9 ) 1 6 2 3 1 6 4 0 R o d g e r s, B L & C o w l e s, K V ( 1 9 9 3 ) T h e q u a l i t a t i ve r e se a r ch a u d i t t r a i l : A co m p l e x co l l e ct i o n o f d o cu m e n t a t i o n R e s e a r ch i n N u r s i n g & H e a l t h 1 6 ( 3 ) 2 1 9 2 2 6 R o e M ( 2 0 0 1 ) C o m b i n i n g e n a b l e m e n t a n d e n g a g e m e n t t o a ssi s t st u d e n t s w h o d o n o t r e a d a n d w r i t e w e l l I n J. A R yci k & J. L I r vi n ( E d s. ) W h a t a d o l e sce n t s d e se r ve : A co m m i t m e n t t o st u d e n t s l i t e r a cy l e a r n i n g ( p p 1 0 1 9 ) N e w a r k, D E : I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e a d i n g A sso ci a t i o n

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1 8 7 R i ch e y, R C ( 1 9 9 8 ) T h e p u r su i t o f u se a b l e k n o w l e d g e i n i n st r u ct i o n a l t e ch n o l o g y. E d u ca t i o n a l T e ch n o l o g y R e se a r c h a n d D e v e l o p m e n t 4 6 ( 4 ) 7 2 2 R ya n R M & G r o l n i ck, W S ( 1 9 8 6 ) O r i g i n s a n d p a w n s i n t h e cl a ss r o o m : S e l f r e p o r t a n d p r o j e ct i ve a sse ss m e n t s o f i n d i vi d u a l d i f f e r e n ce s i n ch i l d r e n s p e r ce p t i o n s Jo u r n a l o f P e r so n a l i t y a n d S o ci a l P sych o l o g y, 5 0 ( 3 ) 5 5 0 5 5 8 S ch i e f e l e U ( 1 9 9 1 ) I n t e r e st l e a r n i n g a n d m o t i va t i o n E d u ca t i o n a l P sych o l o g i st 2 6 ( 3 / 4 ) 2 9 9 3 2 3 S ch o e n f e l d A H ( 2 0 0 4 ) T h e m a t h w a r s. E d u ca t i o n a l P o l i cy, 1 8 ( 1 ) 2 5 3 2 8 6 S ch u n k, D H ( 1 9 8 9 ) S o ci a l c o g n i t i ve t h e o r y a n d se l f r e g u l a t e d l e a r n i n g I n B J. Z i m m e r m a n & D H S ch u n k ( E d s. ) S e l f r e g u l a t e d l e a r n i n g a n d a ca d e m i c a ch i e ve m e n t ( p p 8 3 1 1 0 ) N e w Y o r k: S p r i n g e r V e r l a g S e i d m a n I ( 2 0 0 6 ) I n t e r vi e w i n g a s q u a l i t a t i ve r e se a r c h : A g u i d e f o r r e se a r c h e r s i n e d u ca t i o n a n d t h e so ci a l sci e n ce s N e w Y o r k: T e a ch e r s C o l l e g e P r e ss. S e n n e t t R ( 2 0 0 8 ) T h e cr a f t s m a n L o n d o n : Y a l e U n i ve r si t y P r e ss. S i n g h K G r a n vi l l e M & D i ka S ( 2 0 0 2 ) M a t h e m a t i cs a n d sci e n ce a ch i e ve m e n t : E f f e ct s o f m o t i va t i o n i n t e r e st a n d a ca d e m i c e n g a g e m e n t Jo u r n a l o f E d u ca t i o n a l R e se a r ch 9 5 ( 6 ) 3 2 3 3 3 2 S l a vi n R E ( 1 9 8 7 ) C o o p e r a t i ve l e a r n i n g : W h e r e b e h a vi o r a l a n d h u m a n i st i c a p p r o a c h e s t o cl a ss r o o m m o t i va t i o n m e e t E l e m e n t a r y S ch o o l Jo u r n a l 8 8 ( 1 ) 2 9 3 7 S p o e h r K T ( 1 9 9 3 ) P r o f i l e s o f h y p e r m e d i a a u t h o r s: H o w st u d e n t s l e a r n b y d o i n g P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e a n n u a l m e e t i n g o f t h e A m e r i ca n E d u ca t i o n R e se a r ch A sso ci a t i o n A t l a n t a G A A p r i l 1 9 9 3 S t a g e r G S ( 2 0 0 2 ) C o m p u t a t i o n a l l y r i ch co n st r u ct i o n i sm a n d a t r i sk l e a r n e r s. P a p e r p r e se n t e d a t t h e S e ve n t h W o r l d C o n f e r e n c e o n C o m p u t e r s i n E d u ca t i o n C o p e n h a g e n Ju l y 2 0 0 1 T e sch R ( 1 9 9 0 ) Q u a l i t a t i ve r e s e a r ch : A n a l ys i s t yp e s a n d s o f t w a r e t o o l s L o n d o n : F a l m e r P r e ss. T u r n e r J. & P a r i s, S G ( 1 9 9 5 ) H o w l i t e r a cy t a sks i n f l u e n ce c h i l d r e n s m o t i va t i o n f o r l i t e r a cy. T h e R e a d i n g T e a ch e r 4 8 ( 8 ) 6 6 2 6 7 3 V a n M a n e n M ( 2 0 0 1 ) R e se a r ch i n g l i ve d e xp e r i e n ce C o b o u r g O n t a r i o : T r a n sco n t i n e n t a l P r i n t i n g I n c

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1 8 8 V a u g h n S ( 2 0 0 3 D e ce m b e r ) H o w M a n y T i e r s A r e N e e d e d f o r R e sp o n se t o I n t e r ve n t i o n t o A ch i e ve A cce p t a b l e P r e ve n t i o n O u t co m e s? P a p e r p r e se n t e d a t t h e N a t i o n a l R e se a r ch C e n t e r o n L e a r n i n g D i sa b i l i t i e s R e sp o n si ve n e ss t o I n t e r v e n t i o n S ym p o si u m K a n sa s C i t y, M O W a n g F & H a n n a f i n M ( 2 0 0 5 ) D e si g n b a s e d r e se a r ch a n d t e ch n o l o g y e n h a n c e d l e a r n i n g e n vi r o n m e n t s. E d u c a t i o n a l T e ch n o l o g y R e se a r ch a n d D e ve l o p m e n t 5 3 ( 4 ) 5 2 3 W i l h e l m J. D F r i e d e m a n n P & E r i ckso n J. ( 1 9 9 8 ) H yp e r L e a r n i n g : S t u d e n t s i n q u i r i n g l e a r n i n g a n d sh a r i n g w i t h t e ch n o l o g y C o l u m b u s, O H : S t e n h o u s e P u b l i sh e r s. W i sn u d e l M ( 1 9 9 4 ) C o n st r u ct i n g h yp e r m e d i a a r t i f a ct s i n m a t h a n d sci e n ce cl a ssr o o m s. J o u r n a l o f C o m p u t e r s i n M a t h e m a t i cs a n d S ci e n ce T e a ch i n g 1 3 ( 1 ) 5 1 5

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1 8 9 B I O G R A P H I C A L S K E T C H Je f f r e y B o ye r i s a t e a c h e r a n d a l e a r n e r i n t h e f i e l d o f e d u ca t i o n a l t e ch n o l o g y. H e b e g a n h i s t e a ch i n g c a r e e r a s a m i d d l e sch o o l sci e n ce a n d m a t h t e a ch e r a t C a st l e R o ck M i d d l e S ch o o l i n B i l l i n g s, M T N e xt Je f f r e y t a u g h t h i g h sc h o o l sci e n c e co u r s e s a n d se r ve d a s a d i st r i ct l e ve l t e ch n o l o g y a n d cu r r i cu l u m co a ch f o r P K Y o n g e D e ve l o p m e n t a l R e se a r c h S ch o o l i n G a i n e svi l l e F L M o st r e ce n t l y, h e w a s a vi si t i n g l e ct u r e r a n d a d o ct o r a l ca n d i d a t e i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l t e ch n o l o g y p r o g r a m o f t h e S ch o o l o f T e a ch i n g & L e a r n i n g a t t h e U n i ve r si t y o f F l o r i d a s C o l l e g e o f E d u ca t i o n A s a vi si t i n g l e ct u r e r Je f f r e y t a u g h t a t e c h n o l o g y i n t e g r a t i o n co u r se t h a t i s r e q u i r e d co u r se w o r k f o r U F s e l e m e n t a r y a n d e a r l y ch i l d h o o d t e a ch e r p r e p a r a t i o n p r o g r a m s. A s a l e a r n e r a n d a r e se a r ch e r i n t h e f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n a l t e c h n o l o g y, Je f f r e y i n v e st i g a t e s t h e i m p a ct o n co n t e n t l e a r n i n g w h e n l e a r n e r s c o n st r u ct i n t e r a ct i ve m u l t i m e d i a A s a t e a ch e r h e i s p a ssi o n a t e a b o u t p r e p a r i n g f u t u r e t e a ch e r s t o u se t e ch n o l o g y i n m e a n i n g f u l w a ys w i t h t h e i r st u d e n t s.