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The Biology of Heliconius Night Roosting

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0042032/00001

Material Information

Title: The Biology of Heliconius Night Roosting A Foundation
Physical Description: 1 online resource (124 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Salcedo, Christian
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: aggregation, behavior, chemical, communal, cue, environmental, heliconius, kin, longwings, ocimene, pollen, roosting, tropical
Entomology and Nematology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Entomology and Nematology thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Aggregative behaviors are usually adaptively important, not only in insects, but in almost every animal group. Understanding the importance of such behavior in a megadiverse tropical group can open windows towards the better understanding of key speciation and diversification mechanisms. Heliconius (L.) butterflies are a successful tropical group widely used in evolution and genetic studies. Some species within the genus express nocturnal roosting. Roosts are usually formed under relatively dense vegetation mats where dry vines or branches provide a perch for the night. These sites may last for months. Despite the lack of understanding of the importance of Heliconius roosting, only a few studies have been made. In order to understand the importance of factors related to the expression of Heliconius roosting, an ethological study was made, and data on light, temperature, relative humidity, wind, use of wing color cues, predation and disturbance events, and use of foraging resources were recorded at several Heliconius erato and H. sara roost sites in Honduras, Costa Rica, and Panama. Chemical compounds from the cuticle of H. erato males and females were analyzed and its importance in roosting interactions was tested in bioassays. Additionally, an already identified chemical compound found in H. melpomene, (E)-?-ocimene, was tested for attraction in bioassays. The results show that roost sites offer reduced light conditions at dusk, provide a drier environment compared to its vicinity, offer protection from wind and rain, and are almost predation-free. Individuals from different broods are able to roost together. Wing color recognition under reduced light conditions at dusk is essential to successfully assemble aggregations. Heliconius do not learn pollen preferences at roost sites and females digest pollen overnight. In addition, a variety of volatile and non-volatile compounds from the cuticle were identified. The roles of such compounds in chemical communication remain unknown, except for (E)-?-ocimene, which was found to attract males and females in diurnal interactions. These findings provide the first in-depth study of Heliconius roosting behavior and set a landmark for future studies on this particular behavior and on similar behaviors in other insect groups.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Christian Salcedo.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Emmel, Thomas C.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2012-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0042032:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0042032/00001

Material Information

Title: The Biology of Heliconius Night Roosting A Foundation
Physical Description: 1 online resource (124 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Salcedo, Christian
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: aggregation, behavior, chemical, communal, cue, environmental, heliconius, kin, longwings, ocimene, pollen, roosting, tropical
Entomology and Nematology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Entomology and Nematology thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Aggregative behaviors are usually adaptively important, not only in insects, but in almost every animal group. Understanding the importance of such behavior in a megadiverse tropical group can open windows towards the better understanding of key speciation and diversification mechanisms. Heliconius (L.) butterflies are a successful tropical group widely used in evolution and genetic studies. Some species within the genus express nocturnal roosting. Roosts are usually formed under relatively dense vegetation mats where dry vines or branches provide a perch for the night. These sites may last for months. Despite the lack of understanding of the importance of Heliconius roosting, only a few studies have been made. In order to understand the importance of factors related to the expression of Heliconius roosting, an ethological study was made, and data on light, temperature, relative humidity, wind, use of wing color cues, predation and disturbance events, and use of foraging resources were recorded at several Heliconius erato and H. sara roost sites in Honduras, Costa Rica, and Panama. Chemical compounds from the cuticle of H. erato males and females were analyzed and its importance in roosting interactions was tested in bioassays. Additionally, an already identified chemical compound found in H. melpomene, (E)-?-ocimene, was tested for attraction in bioassays. The results show that roost sites offer reduced light conditions at dusk, provide a drier environment compared to its vicinity, offer protection from wind and rain, and are almost predation-free. Individuals from different broods are able to roost together. Wing color recognition under reduced light conditions at dusk is essential to successfully assemble aggregations. Heliconius do not learn pollen preferences at roost sites and females digest pollen overnight. In addition, a variety of volatile and non-volatile compounds from the cuticle were identified. The roles of such compounds in chemical communication remain unknown, except for (E)-?-ocimene, which was found to attract males and females in diurnal interactions. These findings provide the first in-depth study of Heliconius roosting behavior and set a landmark for future studies on this particular behavior and on similar behaviors in other insect groups.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Christian Salcedo.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Emmel, Thomas C.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2012-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0042032:00001


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HELICONIUS

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Heliconius Heliconius erato

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HELICONIUS Heliconius HELICONIUS HELICONIUS

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HELICONIUS HELICONIUS ERATO Heliconius erato Heliconius erato Heliconius erato HELICONIUS ERATO E HELICONIUS

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Heliconius Heliconius erato H. sara Heliconius erato H. sara Heliconiu s erato Heliconius erato Heliconius erato Heliconius erato Heliconius sara Heliconius erato Heliconius erato Heliconius erato Heliconius erato Heliconius

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erato E Hel iconius erato E 5 Heliconius erato E Heliconius erato E Helic onius erato E Heliconius erato E

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Heliconius Heliconius erato Heliconius erato H. sara Heliconius erato H. sara Psiguria. Heliconius sara Psiguria Psiguria Heliconius sara Heliconius erato Heliconius erato Heliconius erato Heliconius erato Heliconius erato Heliconius erato

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Heliconius erato Heliconius erato Heliconius erato Heliconius erato Heliconius erato Heliconius erato Heliconius erato Heliconius erato Heliconius erato E Heliconius erato E

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Heliconius erato E Heliconius erato E Heliconius erato E Heliconius erato E

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Heliconius erato Dasyprocta punctata Heliconius erato Heliconius erato Heliconius erato

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HELICONIUS Heliconius Heliconius Heliconius H eliconius erato H. sara H. erato H. melpomene E

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Heliconius E Heliconius

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Heliconius Heliconius Passifloraceae Heliconius

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Heliconius erato H. hewitsonii, H. sara, H. charithonia Celaenorrhinus fritzgaertneri Marpesia berania Eumaeus atala Estigmene acrea Danaus plexippus Heliconius Heliconius

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Heliconius Heliconius Heliconius Heliconius Heliconius

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Heliconius

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HELICONIUS Introduction Heliconius H eliconius eratoH. sara H. hecale H. charithonia H. hewitsoni Heliconius Heliconius H. erato

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H. sara H. erato H. charithonia Methods Ethogram Production Heliconius charithoniaH. erato H. sara H. erato H. sara Video Recordings and Video Analysis Heliconius e rato favorinus

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H. e rato petiverana H. sara H. charithonia Results and Discussion General D escription of Heliconius R oosting B ehavior Heliconius Heliconius

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H eliconius erato H. melpomene H. pachinus H. hewitsonii H. hecaleH. ismenius Behav ioral Interactions H elicoius erato

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H. erato

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Heliconius Heliconius H. cydno H. cydno Heliconius

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Heliconius

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Heliconius Heliconius erato H. sara H. erato H. sara

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HELICONIUS Introduction Heliconius Heliconius Danaus p. plexippus

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Helic onius Heliconius Heliconius Methods Study Organisms H eliconius erato H. sara H. erato H. sara

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Field S ites Heliconius sara Heliconius H. erato H. sara L ight Levels at Roost Sites Heliconius erato

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Relative Humidity, Temperature, and Wind Recordings at Roost Sites Heliconius erato H. sara H. erato H. sara H. erato

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Importance o f Color Cues a t Roosting Aggregations Heliconius erato Results and Discussion

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Heliconius Heliconius Heliconius Heliconius Heliconius H. erato Heliconius Heliconius erato H. charithonia H. sara

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H. sara H. erato

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Heliconius H. charithonia Heliconius

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Heliconius Heliconius

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Heliconius erato H. sara H. erato H. erato H. erato H. erato H. sara H. sara H. sara H. sara H. sara

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Heliconius erato

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Heliconius erato Heliconius erato H. sara

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Heliconius erato H. sara

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HELICONIUS Introduction Heliconius Heliconius Heliconius charithonia H. charithonia Laparus Heliconius Heliconius

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Gurania Psiguria Psychotria Heliconius Heliconius Heliconius

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Heliconius Heliconius H. erato H. sara Methods Pollen Preference Experiments Heliconius H. erato Passiflora biflora Psychotria Gurania Psiguria Psychotria

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Nocturnal Pollen digestion S tudy organisms and field sites Heliconius H eliconius sara H. sara Roost finding Heliconius

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Collection a nd Analysis o f Pollen Samples Heliconius sara Psiguria sp Gurania sp Psiguria Psychotri a sp Heliconius

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Results and Discussion Pollen Preference Experiments Psychotri a Heliconius erato Heliconius Psychotria Psychotria

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Heliconius Nocturnal Pollen Digestion Heliconius sara Psiguria Heliconius Psiguria Psiguria sp Psiguria sp Heliconius

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Heliconius Psiguria Psiguria H. sara de novo H. sara H. charithonia Heliconius Psiguria H. erato

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Heliconius H. sara

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Psiguria. Heliconius sara Psiguria Psiguria Heliconius sara Time (h)

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Heliconius erato Psychot ria

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HELICONIUS Introduction Heliconius Heliconius Heliconius Heliconius

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Heliconius Heliconius erato H. sara H. erato Methods Nocturnal Video Recording of Roost Sites Kin selection Experiments H eliconius erato

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Results and discussion Nocturnal Video Recording of Roost Sites H eliconius erato H. erato H. H. erato H. sara

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Heliconius Artibeus jamai censis Carollia perspicillata H. erato Heliconius Heliconius

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Kin Selection Experiments

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Heliconius erato Heliconius erato Heliconius sara

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A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6, C3, C4, C5, C6, C11, C12, C13

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Heliconius erato Heliconius erato 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 0 5 101520Roost size 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 0 5 10 15 20

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Heliconius erato Dasyprocta punctata Heliconius erato Heliconius erato Heliconius erato

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HELICONIUS ERATO Introduction Heliconius Heliconius Heliconius H. melpomene H. charithonia H eliconius erato Heliconius H. erato H. melpomene

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Heliconius H. erato Methods Extraction of Cuticular Chemical Compounds from Heliconius e rato Butterflies Analysis of Heliconius erato Cuticular Extracts

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Bioassays using Heliconius erato C uticular E xtracts

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Results and Discussion Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Analysis Heliconius

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H eliconius melpomene H. erat o, H. melpomene H. melpomene H. erato H. erato H. melpomene

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H. melpomene Heliconius Polistes Cypripedium Heliconius

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H. melpomene Drosophila Bioassays using Cuticular Extracts

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Heliconius erato

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Heliconius erato Hydrocarbons Heliconius erato

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Heliconius erato Heliconius erato

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Heliconius erato Average # of eventsContact Fanning

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Heliconius erato Average # of eventsContact Fanning

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Heliconius erato Heliconius erato

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Heliconius erato Heliconius erato

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Heliconius erato Heliconius erato

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Heliconius erato Heliconius erato

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Heliconius erato Heliconius erato

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HELICONIUS ERATO Introduction Heliconius Heliconius melpomene H. erato H. melpomene H. erato H. erato H. erato Methods ( E )ocimene P reparation Z E

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Analytical P rocedures H eliconius erato Passiflora ca erulea Lantana camara H. erato Passiflora oerstedi Psiguria Psychotria poeppigiana L. camara

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Behavioral B ioassays Heliconius erato Passiflora biflora Psiguria Psychotria

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Results and D iscussion Heliconius erato

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H. erato H. melpomene H. melpomene H. erato H. melpomene H. erato

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H. melpomene H. erato H. melpomene H. erato H. melpomene Heliconius Psychotria Psiguria Gurania Heliconius Heliconius Heliconius. Heliconius

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Heliconius erato E

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Heliconius erato E 5 Heliconius erato E

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Heliconius erato E

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Heliconius erato E

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Heliconius erato E

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Heliconius erato E Average # of events *Approach Fanning

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Heliconius erato E Average # of events*Approach Fanning

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Heliconius erato E Average # of events*Approach *Fanning

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Heliconius erato E Average # of events*Approach Fanning

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Heliconius erato E Average # of events *Approach Fanning

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Heliconius erato E Average # of events*Approach Fanning

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Heliconius Heliconius Heliconius H eliconius er ato Heliconius E

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E H. melpomene Heliconius Heliconius H. sara Heliconius Heliconius Psychotria Psychotria Heliconiu s

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Psiguria Gurania Heliconius Heliconius Heliconius

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HELICONIUS Introduction Heliconius Heliconius Heliconius Heliconius Heliconius Heliconius

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Heliconius Heliconius erato H. erato Methods Butterfly R earing Heliconius erato Passiflora biflora, P. punctata, P. auriculata Butterfly Marking a nd Wing Measurement

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Roost Structure a nd Roost ing Patterns Statistical A nalyses

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S m S m

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Results and Discussion Cl ustering Patterns a nd Perch Choice Heliconius erato H. erato H. erato

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Roost Structure

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Conclusion Heliconius

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Introduction Heliconius

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System D escription

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Electrical C onnections for LSA B attery, IR I lluminator, and C harger: Prepa ration of the System Before Use

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Operation of the System

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Ann u. Rev. of Ent omol. 30 Int. R ev Cytol. 67 Cypripedium Phytochemistry 44 Heliconius Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 92 Marpesia berania Ecology 54 Science 206 Heliconius Oecologia 48 J. Lepid. Soc. 62 Proc Natl Acad. Sci. 57 Heliconius Annu Rev Ent omol 26 Plant animal interactions: Evolutionary ecology i n tropical and temperate regions rends Plant Sci. 10

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Self organization in Biological Systems Psychotria nuda Plant Systematics and Evolution 244 Heliconius J. Trop Ecol 17 Heliconius Naturwissenschaften 94 Galbula ruficauda Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 29 Adaptive Coloration in Invertebrates: Proceedings of a Symposium Sponsored by the American Society of Zoologists. Heliconius charithonius J. Anim. Ecol. 45 Adaptive coloration in animals Heliconius erato hydara Zoologica 40 Acta Zool 40 Ann. Zool. Fennici 43 Polistes dominulus Polistes sulcifer J. Chem. Ecol. 21 Ann Bot 18

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Celaenorrhinus fritzgaertneri Zool. J. Linn. Soc 89 Estigmene acreaJ Insect Sci. 3 Plant Syst Evol 222 Science 197 Defence in animals : a survey of anti predator defences Heliconius Trans En tomol Soc. London 73 Heliconius Zoologica (NY) 50 Mass Spectrom Rev 1 J. Chem. Ecol. 33 Polistes fuscatus J. Chem. Ecol. 20 5th International Conference on the Biology of butterflies. Heliconius Proc. R. Soc. Lond B 277 Bull. Southern Cal. Acad. Sci. 59 Proceedings of the eighth international conference on Artificial life.

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Caligo memnon Morpho peleides J. Exp. Biol. 211 Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 2 51 Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 265 Heliconius Proc Natl. Acad. Sci. 69 Science 193 Helic onius Plant animal Interactions: Evolutionary ccology in tropical and temperate Regions Cordulecerus alopecinus J. N.Y. Entomol. Soc. 108 Natur e 423 Ocalaria J. Lepid. Soc. 40 Biol J Linnean Soc. 31 2000. Eumaeus atala J Theor Biol. 31 Heliconius Entomology and Nematology J. Chem. Ecol. 33

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The Ants Heliconius and realted genera Drosophila birchii D. serrata D. serrata J. Chem. Ecol. 29 J. Chem. Ecol. 31 Nature 411 J. Nat Hist 30 Chalybion bengalense Entomon. India. 7 Heliconius erato phyllis ( J. Ethol Phytochemistry 33 Heliconius ArthropodPlant Inte 3 International J Insect Morphol Embryol 27 Pheromone Communication in Social Insects Heliconius erato Oecologia 68

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Heliconius National Geoographic Research 2 Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 55 Heliconius Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 55 Heliconius xanthocles Zool. J. L inn. Soc. 70 Randomization, bootstrap and Monte Carlo methods in biology J. Org Chem 47 Annu Rev Entomol 45 Heliconius pachinus E xperientia 45 Bombus terrestris Naturwissenschaften 96 Ituna and Thyridia Proc. Entomol. Soc. London. 1879 Psiguria WarscewicziiEcology 68 Psiguria war scewiczii Heliconius Oecologia 68 Comp Biochem Phys. 75B Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 270

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Amer Nat t 132 Plant Phys 114 Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 127 Rev. Bras. entomol. 52 Sympetrum depressiusculum Odonatologica 22 Heliconius erato petiverana Biochem .Sys. and Ecol. 32 Philos Trans R. Soc Lond B. Biol. Sci. 342 Heliconius melpomene J. Chem. Ecol. 34 He liconius cydno Heliconius pachinus Org Biomol Chem 5 Microscopal Anatomy of Invertebrates Psychotria suerrensis Oecologia 107 Heliconius, Ageronia J. Insect Physiol. 13:

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Naturwissenschaften 83 Heliconius Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 12 J. Lepid. Soc. 28 Contributions to the Theory of Natural Selection Heliconius charithonia J. Lepid. Soc. 36 Agrotis segetum J. Chem. Ecol. 25 Tetrahedron 57 The Biology of the Honey Bee Adoxophyes J. Chem. Ecol. 35 Atlas of Arthropod Sensory Receptors: Dynamic Morphology in Relation to Function Heliconius charithonius Entomol News 89 Heliconius charitonius J. Kansas Entomol Soc 49 Heliconius charitonius J. Lepid. Soc. 29

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Heliconius Heliconius