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The Acuera of the Ocklawaha River Valley

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0041966/00001

Material Information

Title: The Acuera of the Ocklawaha River Valley Keepers of Time in the Land of the Waters
Physical Description: 1 online resource (588 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Boyer, Willet
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: acuera, agency, archaeologist, archaeology, avino, belief, blas, bluff, boyer, ceramics, ceremonial, colonial, county, de, elocale, eloquale, faith, florida, historic, history, iii, indians, island, johns, landscape, lucia, luis, marion, moss, native, ocala, ocale, ocklawaha, religion, river, san, santa, southeast, southeastern, st, system, theory, timucuan, weeden, willet
Anthropology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Anthropology thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The Timucuan-speaking groups of north central Florida which were missionized by the Spanish in the 16th and 17th centuries included the Acuera, the Timucuan chiefdom which controlled what today is the Ocklawaha River Valley and the Ocala National Forest. The Acuera appear to have responded very differently to the process of missionization than did the other groups successfully missionized by the Spanish during this period. This dissertation examines the lifeways of the Acuera during the late precontact, contact, and mission periods, considering the historic, linguistic, and archaeological evidence for the lifeways of the Acuera during these periods. The historic evidence concerning the Acuera chiefdom suggests that they maintained traditional cultural and ritual practices, as well as a chiefdom social structure, both during and after the time Spanish missions existed in their territory. The linguistic evidence suggests that most known names of people and places within the Acuera chiefdom had ritual or supernatural significance. The archaeological evidence from precontact and colonial-era sites within Acuera territory suggests that the Acuera maintained a strong continuity between precontact and colonial-era cultural and ritual practices, including use of the same sites throughout both periods, continuation of ceramic traditions, use of mounds as markers of social space, and rejection and subversion of Spanish norms and controls. Taking all lines of evidence into consideration, the Acuera appear to have drawn on precontact systems of belief and practice to maintain and strengthen their culture in the face of Spanish attempts to change it. This use of their system of belief allowed the Acuera to maintain their traditional culture when other missionized groups did not.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Willet Boyer.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Marquardt, William H.
Local: Co-adviser: Worth, John E.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0041966:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0041966/00001

Material Information

Title: The Acuera of the Ocklawaha River Valley Keepers of Time in the Land of the Waters
Physical Description: 1 online resource (588 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Boyer, Willet
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: acuera, agency, archaeologist, archaeology, avino, belief, blas, bluff, boyer, ceramics, ceremonial, colonial, county, de, elocale, eloquale, faith, florida, historic, history, iii, indians, island, johns, landscape, lucia, luis, marion, moss, native, ocala, ocale, ocklawaha, religion, river, san, santa, southeast, southeastern, st, system, theory, timucuan, weeden, willet
Anthropology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Anthropology thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The Timucuan-speaking groups of north central Florida which were missionized by the Spanish in the 16th and 17th centuries included the Acuera, the Timucuan chiefdom which controlled what today is the Ocklawaha River Valley and the Ocala National Forest. The Acuera appear to have responded very differently to the process of missionization than did the other groups successfully missionized by the Spanish during this period. This dissertation examines the lifeways of the Acuera during the late precontact, contact, and mission periods, considering the historic, linguistic, and archaeological evidence for the lifeways of the Acuera during these periods. The historic evidence concerning the Acuera chiefdom suggests that they maintained traditional cultural and ritual practices, as well as a chiefdom social structure, both during and after the time Spanish missions existed in their territory. The linguistic evidence suggests that most known names of people and places within the Acuera chiefdom had ritual or supernatural significance. The archaeological evidence from precontact and colonial-era sites within Acuera territory suggests that the Acuera maintained a strong continuity between precontact and colonial-era cultural and ritual practices, including use of the same sites throughout both periods, continuation of ceramic traditions, use of mounds as markers of social space, and rejection and subversion of Spanish norms and controls. Taking all lines of evidence into consideration, the Acuera appear to have drawn on precontact systems of belief and practice to maintain and strengthen their culture in the face of Spanish attempts to change it. This use of their system of belief allowed the Acuera to maintain their traditional culture when other missionized groups did not.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Willet Boyer.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Marquardt, William H.
Local: Co-adviser: Worth, John E.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0041966:00001


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1 THE ACUERA OF THE OCKLAWAHA RIVER VALLEY: KEEPERS OF TIME IN THE LAND OF THE WATERS By WILLET A. BOYER III A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2010

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2 2010 Willet A. Boyer, III

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3 This work is dedicated to A. David Baillie, Jr., and Curtiss Baillie, my grandparents, two of my closest connections with Floridas past and to Josyane P. Boyer and our daughter Cheyenne, my closest connections with our future.

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4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The res earch which produced this dissertation has been helped indeed, has only been made possible by a huge number of people helping and supporting the work. I want here to acknowledge the members of my doctoral committee: Dr. Barbara Purdy, Dr. Michael Gann on, Dr. Jon Sensbach, and Dr. Kathleen Deagan. Their work and writings on Floridas history and archaeology we re all important in driving my own studies and Dr. Deagans patient teaching during my second field school was instrumental in training me for f ield research. I also want to acknowledge the help and service of Dr. Augusto Oyuela Caycedo, who served on my committee from 2006 to 2008 and was also helpful and inspirational in developing my understanding of how human belief systems can shape cultural form and practice. I am deeply and profoundly indebted to my committee co chairs, Dr. William Marquardt of the Florida Museum of Natural History, and Dr. John E. Worth of both the University of Florida and the University of West Florida. Dr. Marquardts constant work and patient effort in managing my grant funding, in answering my many questions about theoretical and research issues, in helping me manage deadlines and academic requirements, and in being there personally for help, assistance, and encouragement, were absolutely invaluable in bringing this work to a successful conclusion. Dr. Worths books on the Timucuan chiefdoms of Spanish Florida were the direct inspiration for this research, and he was always willing, for the years that this work was i n progress, to answer questions, to discuss finds in the field or lines of additional research, to offer advice and assistance on field methods, to teach me and prepare me for scholarly publication, and to encourage me to greater work and efforts. I thank them both for all of their work and help on my behalf; this project couldnt have been done without them.

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5 I want to extend my thanks and gratitude for other members of the professional archaeological community for their help and assistance with different aspects of this research. Keith Ashley and Vicki Rolland provided information and needed ceramic analysis on the collections from the Heather Island Preserve site, and their thoughts on the St. Johns II era cultures of this region were invaluable. Dr. Julian Granberry provided muc h needed and appreciated review of my translations of Timucuan names and language, and his linguistic studies were an enormous help in understanding the lifeways of the Acuera. Donna Ruhl, Elise LeCompte, and Gifford Waters, of the Florida Museum of Natur al History, provided access to and help with study of the collections in the Museum which came from the Ocklawaha River region. Patricia Neatfeld of the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian generously provided assistance with and access to t he C.B. Moore collections taken from sites on the Ocklawaha and allowed photography and measurement of the items in the Smithsonian collections. Dr. Kenneth Sassaman, both before and during his tenure as chair of the Department of Anthropology, provided h elp and thoughts on the research as it progressed. Scott Mitchell, both during his time as collections manager at the Florida Museum of Natural History, and currently as director of the Silver River Museum, offered me a great deal of help and advice as th is research proceeded. To all of them, my sincere thanks. Funding for any archaeological project is critical to its success. I want to acknowledge and thank Mrs. Ellie Schiller, the director of the Felburn Foundation, and Larry White and Charles Freeman members of the board of the Foundation, for their generous willingness to provide funding and support for my research in this area and to also thank Mrs. Schiller for her personal interest in this project and her personal

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6 encouragement to me and to my crew during the time that my doctoral research was continuing. I also want to acknowledge and thank Guy Marwick, founder of the Silver River Museum and the successor to Mrs. Schiller on the Felburn Foundation at her passing in 2009, for providing access t o the collections at the Silver River Museum during his tenure as director, and for continuing the Foundations support of my research during the final year of work on the project. The enormous amount of work that the surveys and excavation detailed in this dissertation took could not have been done without a dedicated field crew and many, many volunteers. I want to acknowledge the regular members of my work crew: Matthew McCarthy, our photographer from 2006 2008; Michael Tarleton, my field crew boss, w ho brought 40 years of experience in archaeology and his expertise in art history to the field; Edward Dudley; David Russell; and Lottie Williams, both as crew members and as volunteers. I want to also acknowledge and thank Nathan Harrell, Brandon, and Br ooke, my three students during excavations in the spring of 2009; they provided me with much help and inspiration during the work. Among the many volunteers who helped with this project are Daniel Mangum, Nick Weston, Matt Word (who completed his Eagle Scout project via service and work at the Hutto/Martin and Conner Landing sites), David Word, Guage Vincent, Jared Vincent, David Vinc ent, and the members and leaders of Boy Scout troop 113 of Weirsdale, Florida, as well as the Marion County high school students and teachers who participated in the fieldwork. I also wish to particularly thank my father, Willet A. Boyer, Jr., and my moth er, Kaye Johnson Boyer, for their generous willingness to allow use of their land and water for water screening collections from the project sites during the spring of 2009.

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7 The discoveries and research discussed in this dissertation would also not have been possible without the willingness of many private landowners to allow archaeological testing and excavation on their properties. I want to expressly thank Hubert Martin, Bonnie Young, Ruth Martin, Sarah Jane and David Vincent, Kenneth Hart, Michael Har t, Alan Griggs, Henry Holly, and Chuck Pardee for their gracious hospitality in allowing work to be done on their lands in this area. I also wish to thank Mickey Thomason and Buddy Kinsey, of the Florida Department of Greenways and Trails, for their support of this project, and their willingness to support my applications for work and research on lands managed by the Department. Mr. Thomason was instrumental in guiding me through the intricacies of work and research on Stateowned lands, and his help and support are much appreciated. Mr. Kinsey, from my intial meeting with him in the spring of 2003, has been one of this projects strongest supporters and an enormous and continuing help in work on the Greenways lands, in locating and contacting landowners and knowledgable informants about the archaeology and history of this region, and in actively helping me in the field where he could to locate and classify sites on the Ocklawaha both during intial survey and thereafter. I wish also to acknowledge and th ank Kelly Conley, D.J. Hunt, and Bre Ximenes, of the Department of Greenways and Trails, for their help and assistance throughout the course of this research. Two of my most valuable volunteers were and are also two of my personal links with the history o f the Ocklawaha River valley and the Ocala National Forest. My grandfather, A. David Baillie, Jr. (19172005), took me physically to sites that he knew and remembered in this area for more than a year, beginning in 2003, and provided me all

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8 he knew about the region when I began this research. He introduced me to Eugene Gallant, member of the Marion County Historical Society and my grandfathers friend, who provided me with further information about the regions archaeology and history and also with rare c opies of the 1930s Civilian Conservation Corps reports on the area. Both men provided me with profound personal interest and passion in discovering more about our homes past. Finally, I wish to acknowledge several very special people who helped in uniq ue ways with the research. Brittany Hermann Kryston and Thomas Kryston, longtime and very dear friends, not only served as volunteers but also provided deep and special personal encouragement while this project was in progress. Carolyn Vanderveen Kryston and Bruce Longback provided encouragement, support and help as well. And always, above all others my beloved wife, Josyane Paige Boyer, and our daughter, Cheyenne Dakota Boyer, have been my greatest inspirations and support throughout the time this wor k was in progress. To all of you my love and deepest thanks.

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9 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................................................................................................ 4 LIST OF TABLES ........................................................................................................................ 13 LIST OF FIGURES ....................................................................................................................... 15 ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................................. 20 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................. 22 Theoretical Bases for Research .............................................................................................. 22 Chiefdom Societies and the Historic Acuera ......................................................................... 33 Research Questions ................................................................................................................ 36 Plan of Study and Research ................................................................................................... 37 2 THE HISTORIC EVIDENCE THE ACUERA AS SEEN THROUGH DOCUMENTS ....................................................................................................................... 40 Documentary References to the Acuera Chiefdom and Missions ......................................... 41 The Contact Era .............................................................................................................. 41 Colonization and The Mission Era ................................................................................. 45 Summarizing the Historic Evidence: Acuera Culture During the Contact and Mission Eras ....................................................................................................................... 60 3 THE LINGUISTIC EVIDENCE THE ACUERA WORLDVIEW THROUGH LANGUAGE ......................................................................................................................... 68 Timucuan Names: A Linguistic A nalysis .............................................................................. 70 Discussion .............................................................................................................................. 71 Natural versus Supernatural: The Significance of Acuera Names ................................. 72 Social and Cultural Memory and the Making of Traditions ........................................... 78 4 THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE, PART 1 SITE FILE STUDY AND SURFACE SURVEY IN THE REGION OF STUDY .......................................................... 84 Overview ................................................................................................................................ 84 Survey Metho dology and Objectives .............................................................................. 84 The Environment of the Ocklawaha River Valley ......................................................... 86 Cultures of the Ocklawaha River Valley in Prehistory and History ............................... 88 Paleoindian (12,000 y.b.p 9,500 y.b.p) ................................................................. 88 Early and Middle Archaic Periods (9,500 y.b.p 4,500 y.b.p) ............................... 89 Late Archaic Period (4,500 y.b.p. 2,500 y.b.p) .................................................... 90 St. Johns I Period (500 B.C. 750 A.D.) ................................................................ 90

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10 St. Johns II Period (750 A.D. 1539 A.D.) ............................................................. 91 First Spanish Period (1539 A.D. 1763 A.D.) ........................................................ 92 British and Second Spanish Periods (1763 A.D. 1821 A.D.) ............................... 92 American Territorial and Statehood Periods (1821 A.D.present) .......................... 93 Previous Archaeological Studies of the Ocklawaha River Valley ................................. 94 Methodology and Techniques ......................................................................................... 95 The Ocklawaha Survey Project: Sites Observed ................................................................... 96 The Davenport Landing Mound (8PU50) and Davenport Landing Midden (8PU51) ....................................................................................................................... 97 Sites in the Region of the Eureka Dam ........................................................................... 98 Gores Landing Mound (8MR31), Gores Landing Midden (8MR30) and Gores Landing Borrow Pit (8MR80) ......................................................................... 99 Th e Shiner Pond Mound Complex (8MR19, 8MR20, 8MR21, 8MR22, and 8MR23) ..................................................................................................................... 100 The Conner Landing site and Turkey Landing site: 8MR2064 and 8MR2063 ............ 101 The Cedar Landing Sites: Cedar Landing 1(8MR5), Cedar Landing 2(8MR6), Cedar Landing 3(8MR7), Cedar Landing South (8MR 90), and Near Blue Springs(8MR107) .................................................................................................... 103 The Palmetto Landing Sites: Amys Dream (8MR230), Lithic Scatters (8MR231, 232), MacDonald Tobacco Shed (8MR133), and New Yarbrough Place (8MR134) ...................................................................................... 106 Buddy Kinseys Mound: Newly Discovered Site, not yet numbered ........................... 108 Piney Island Landing Site: 8MR848 ............................................................................. 109 The Bear Creek Mound and the Bear Creek Midden: 8PU644 and 8PU645 ............... 110 Pohlers Mound: 8PU1217 ........................................................................................... 112 The Penner Pond sites: Penner Pond Turpentine Camp (8PU666), Penner Pond Dump (8PU816), and Penner Ponds Crossroads (8PU818) ............................. 113 Hog Valley/Eureka East Sites: Cotton Patch Landing, Tobacco Patch Landing Mound (8MR 9, 10); Shell Knoll Mound, Shell Knoll Midden (8MR 75, 76) ............................................................................................................. 114 Orange Springs Ferry Road Mound (8MR127), the WTF Site (new site, unnumbered) and Steve Spencers Middens (new site, unnumbered) ...................... 116 Unnamed Lithic Scatters (new sites); Unnamed Midden Site (8MR242); and the Sunday Bluff Site (8MR13) ................................................................................ 119 Eaton Creek east sites: Old Site Eaton Creek(8MR14); Eaton Creek Island Pilings (new site, unnumbered); Eaton Creek Railroad Spike (new site, unnumbered); Ninas Dream (8MR262, formerly USFS 8161); Eaton Creek Lithic Scatters (new sites, unnamed); Homesteaders Site, Eaton Creek Road (new site, unnumbered); McCarthys Middens (new site, unnumbered) .............................................................................................................. 121 Masons Bay West Bridge (new site) ........................................................................... 125 Eaton Cree k Bridge (new site), Eaton Creek Bridge Midden (new site), and the Double Bridge Mound B (8MR149) ................................................................... 126 The Coffee Pot Mound/Shell Ring (8MR141) ............................................................. 128

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11 The Tuten Creek Sites: Tuten Creek Mounds (8MR1972); Tuten Creek Borrow Pits (New Site); Kelly and D.J.s Camp (Ne w Site); Tuten Creek Midden (new site) ...................................................................................................... 129 Ocklawaha River Shell Mound II (8MR224); Cedar Creek East Middens (new sites) ................................................................................................................. 132 Ricky Webbs Mound (new site); Conner Homestead (new site) ................................ 134 Charlie Perrys Mound 1(new site); Charlie Perrys Mound 2 (new site); Charlie Perrys Village (new site); Charlie Perrys Midden (new site); 315 Ridge (8MR1867) ..................................................................................................... 135 Colby Landing Midden (8MR57) ................................................................................. 138 De lks Bluff Midden (new site); Heather Island Preserve site (8MR2223) ................. 139 Delks Bluff West (new site) ........................................................................................ 141 Regional Analysis: Cultural and Site Patterning ................................................................. 142 5 THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE, PART II EXCAVATION DATA FROM PRECONTACT SITES TESTED IN THE REGION OF STUDY ......................... 213 The Northern Zone ............................................................................................................... 216 Site 1: Davenport Landing Mound (8PU50) ................................................................ 216 The Central Zone ................................................................................................................. 219 Site 2: Sunday Bluff (8MR13) ...................................................................................... 219 Site 3: Colby Landing (8MR57) ................................................................................... 221 Site 4: The Pardee/Harris Site (8MR3511) ................................................................... 222 The Southern Zone ............................................................................................................... 224 Site 5: Heather Island Preserve (8MR2223) ................................................................. 224 Site 6: McKenzie Mound (8MR64) .............................................................................. 225 Site 7: The Lake Weir Landing Mounds (8MR35) ...................................................... 225 Discussion ............................................................................................................................ 230 Conclusions: Precontact Cultural Practice in the Ocklawaha River Valley ........................ 236 6 THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE, PART III EVIDENCE FROM CONTACT/MISSION SITES WITHIN THE REGION OF STUDY ................................ 264 The Hutto/Martin Site (8MR3447) ...................................................................................... 264 Initial Location of the Site and Judgmental Testing ..................................................... 264 Systematic Shovel Testing and Results ........................................................................ 267 Controlled Excavation and Results ............................................................................... 269 The Heather Island Preserve Site (8MR2223) .............................................................. 279 The Conner Landing Site (8MR2064) .......................................................................... 280 Discussion ............................................................................................................................ 281 7 LIFEWAYS OF THE ACUERA OF THE CONTACT AND MISSION ERA: ANALYSIS, CONCLUSIONS AND AVENUES FOR FUTURE RESEARCH ............... 317 Continued Use of the Hutto/Martin Site Between the Early Contact and Mission Eras ................................................................................................................................... 318 Continuation of Ceramic Traditions Before and After Contact ........................................... 320

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12 Mounds as Markers of Social Space before and after European Contact ............................ 325 Differences Between European Assemblage and Fe atures at the Hutto/Martin Site From Contemporaneous Mission Sites ............................................................................. 327 Living With the Keepers of Time: Lifeways of the Acuera ............................................. 333 Initial Conclusions ........................................................................................................ 333 Avenues for Future Research ........................................................................................ 345 APPENDIX A SITE LOCATION, MEASUREMENTS, ORIENTATION, AND GPS COORDINATES FOR SIT ES MENTIONED IN THE TEXT ........................................... 350 B OCKLAWAHA SURVEY PROJECT MASTER FIELD SPECIMEN LIST, MATERIALS COLLECTED DURING SURFACE SURVEY .......................................... 364 C ARTIFACT COUNTS AND WEIGHTS FROM Testing and Excavation at all SITES IN THE REGION OF STUDY ................................................................................ 373 LIST OF REFERENCES ............................................................................................................ 576 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH....................................................................................................... 588

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13 LIST OF TABLES Table page 31 Acuera and Other Timucuan Name Translations .............................................................. 81 51 Artifact C ounts and Percentages from the Davenport Landing Mound Site ................... 255 52 Ceramic Counts and Percentages from the Sunday Bluff Site ........................................ 255 53 Lithic Counts and Percentaged from the Sunday Bluff site ............................................ 256 54 Artifact Counts and Percentages from the Colby Landing Site ...................................... 256 55 Artifacts Counts, Weights, and Percentages from the Pardee/Harris Site ...................... 257 56 Ceramic Counts, Weights, and Percentages from the Heather Island Preserve Site ................................................................................................................................... 258 57 Ceramics Counts and Percentages from the McKenzie Mound Site .............................. 258 58 Artifact Counts, Weights, and Percentages from Judgmental Shovel Testing, Lake Weir Landing Mounds ........................................................................................... 259 59 Artifact Counts, Weights and Percentages from Unit 1, Lake Weir Landing Mounds ............................................................................................................................ 260 510 Artifact Counts, Weights and Percentages from Unit 2, Lake Weir Landing Mounds ............................................................................................................................ 260 511 Artifact Counts, Weights, and Percentages from Unit 3, Lake Weir Landing Mounds ............................................................................................................................ 261 512 Artifact Counts, Weights, and Percentages from Unit 4, Lake Weir Landing Mounds ............................................................................................................................ 262 513 Artifact Counts, Weights, and Percentages from Unit 5, Lake Weir Landing Mounds ............................................................................................................................ 263 514 Relative Percentages by Count and Weight of Units dug, Lake Weir Landing Mounds ............................................................................................................................ 263 61 Artifact Counts, Weights and Percentages from Judgmental Shovel Testing, Hutto/Martin Site ............................................................................................................. 316 C 1 Pardee/Harris (8MR3511) ............................................................................................... 374 C 2 Heather Island Preserve (8MR222 3) ............................................................................... 390

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14 C 3 Lake Weir Landing Mounds (8MR35) ............................................................................ 401 C 4 Hutto/Martin site, shovel test results .............................................................................. 447 C 5 Hutto/Martin site, excavation units results ..................................................................... 539

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15 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 41 The Ocklawaha River valley and environs ..................................................................... 146 42 Locations of all sites mentioned in the text ..................................................................... 147 43 8PU50 Davenport Landing Mound .............................................................................. 148 44 Davenport Landing Mound and vicinity ......................................................................... 149 45 8MR96 Eureka Bluff site ............................................................................................. 150 46 Eureka Bluff site (8MR96) and vicinity.......................................................................... 151 47 Gores Landing sites ........................................................................................................ 152 48 Gores Landing sites detail .............................................................................................. 153 49 Shiner Pond Mound complex: 8MR19, 20, 21, 22, 23 also known as the Palmetto Landing Mounds .............................................................................................. 154 410 8MR19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 Palmetto Landing Mounds/Shiner Pond Mounds detail ................................................................................................................................ 155 411 Conner Landing (8MR2064) and Turkey Landing (8MR2063) ..................................... 156 412 Conner Landing (8MR2064) and Turkey Landing (8MR2063) detail ........................... 157 413 Cedar Landing sites ......................................................................................................... 158 414 Cedar Landing sites detail ............................................................................................... 159 415 Palmetto Landing sites .................................................................................................... 161 416 Palmetto Landing sites detail .......................................................................................... 162 417 Buddy Kinseys Mound .................................................................................................. 163 418 Buddy Kinseys Mound detail ......................................................................................... 164 419 Piney Island Landing midden, 8MR848 ......................................................................... 165 420 Piney Island midden, 8MR848 detail .............................................................................. 166 421 Bear Creek Mound, 8PU644 ........................................................................................... 167 422 Bear Creek Mound, 8PU644 detail ................................................................................. 168

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16 423 Pohlers Mound site, 8PU1217 ....................................................................................... 170 424 8PU1217, Pohlers Mound, Rodman Reservoir detail .................................................... 171 425 Penner Ponds sites ........................................................................................................... 172 426 Penner Ponds Crossroads, 8PU818 detail ....................................................................... 173 427 Shell Knoll Mound and midden sites, 8MR75, 8MR76 .................................................. 174 428 Shell Knoll Landing and Shell Knoll Mound detail ........................................................ 175 429 WTF site and vicinity ...................................................................................................... 176 430 The WTF site detail ......................................................................................................... 177 431 Steve Spencers Middens and vicinity ............................................................................ 178 432 Piney Island South lithic scatters, 8MR242, and the Sunday Bluff site (8MR13) and vicinity ...................................................................................................... 179 433 Piney Island Sout h lithic scatters detail........................................................................... 180 434 8MR242, unnamed shell midden detail ........................................................................... 181 435 Sites south of Sunday Bluff on east side of Eaton Creek and vicinity ............................ 182 436 Old Site, Eaton Creek (8MR14) and Eaton Creek Island pilings detail .......................... 183 437 Ninas Dream (8MR262) and McCarthys Middens detail ............................................. 184 438 Homesteaders site, Eaton Creek detail ........................................................................... 185 439 Mason Bay West bridge and vicinity .............................................................................. 187 440 Eaton Creek Bridge site, Eaton Creek Bridge midden, and 8MR149 Double Bridge Mound B and vicinity .......................................................................................... 188 441 Eaton Creek Bridge and Eaton Creek Bridge midden detail ........................................... 189 442 Double Bridge Mound B, 8MR149 detail ....................................................................... 190 443 8MR141 Coffee Pot Mound (shell ring) and vicinity .................................................. 191 444 Coffee Pot Mound (shell ring) detail ............................................................................... 192 445 Tuten Creek sites and vicinity ......................................................................................... 193

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17 446 Tuten Creek sites: Tuten Creek Mounds (8MR1972), Tuten Creek midden, Tuten Creek borrow pits, Kelly and D.J.s Camp detail ................................................. 194 447 8MR224 Ocklawaha River Shell Mound II and Cedar Creek East middens and vicinity ...................................................................................................................... 195 448 Ocklawaha River Shell Mound II (8MR224) and Cedar Creek East midden detail ................................................................................................................................ 196 449 Cedar Creek north midden detail .................................................................................... 197 450 Ricky Webbs Mound and Conner Homestead site and vicinity .................................... 198 451 Ricky Webbs Mound detail ........................................................................................... 199 452 Charlie Perrys Mound 1 detail ....................................................................................... 200 453 Charlie Perrys Mound 2 and Charlie Perrys village detail ........................................... 201 454 Charlie Perrys midden detail .......................................................................................... 203 455 8MR1867 The 315 Ridge site and vicinity .................................................................. 204 456 The 315 Ridge site detail ................................................................................................. 205 457 Colby Landing midden detail .......................................................................................... 206 458 Delks Bluff midden and vicinity .................................................................................... 207 459 Delks Bluff midden detail .............................................................................................. 208 460 Heather Island Preserve site, 8MR2223 and vicinity ...................................................... 209 461 Heather Island Preserve site, 8MR2223 detail ................................................................ 210 462 Zones of settlement within the Ocklawaha River valley ................................................. 211 463 General pattern, parallel/perpendicular mound s, Ocklawaha River valley ..................... 212 51 Davenport Landing Mound, 8PU50 aerial view .......................................................... 238 52 Davenport Landing Mound land contours. From Cerrato 1994:60. ............................ 239 53 Davenport Landing Mound patterns of site use. From Cerrato 1994:113. ................. 240 54 S unday Bluff From Bullen 1969:4 ................................................................................ 241 55 Colby Landing site, 8MR57, surface features ................................................................. 242

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18 56 Colby Landing and Pardee/Harris sites, aerial view ....................................................... 243 57 Pardee/Harris site, 8MR3511, shovel test locations ........................................................ 244 58 Heather Island Preserve, 8MR2223, aerial view ............................................................. 245 59 Heather Island Preseve site boundaries ........................................................................... 245 510 McKenzie Mound, 8MR64, aerial view .......................................................................... 246 511 McKenzie Mound, plan view of site. From Sears 1959:20. ........................................... 247 512 McKenzie Mound, profile view of mound excavation. From Sears 1959:21. ............... 248 513 Lake Weir Landing Mounds, 8MR35, aerial view .......................................................... 249 514 Lake Weir Landing Mounds, site excavation map .......................................................... 250 515 Lake Weir Landing Mounds, plan view, Unit 1 .............................................................. 252 516 Lake Weir Landing Mounds, plan view, Unit 2 .............................................................. 253 517 Lake Weir Landing Mounds, plan view, Unit 4 .............................................................. 254 61A The Hutto/Martin site, 8MR3447, topographic map ....................................................... 291 61B The Hutto/Martin site, 8MR3447, aerial view ................................................................ 292 62 Metal detector and judgmental testing, Hutto/Martin site, results .................................. 293 63 Hutto/Martin site, grid test map ...................................................................................... 294 64 Judgmental shovel tests and unit locations, all parcels, Hutto/Martin site ..................... 295 65 Unit and feature map, Hutto/Martin site, block excavations ........................................... 296 66 Unit 2, level 3, Hutto/Martin site .................................................................................... 297 67 Bolen point, Unit 2, level 3, Hutto/Martin site ................................................................ 298 68 Sevilla Blue on Blue majolica sherd, Unit 3, Hutto/Martin site ..................................... 299 69 Units 1 and 9, levels 3 and 4, Hutto/Martin site, showing postmolds in west wall .................................................................................................................................. 300 610 Beads recovered from Hutto/Martin site, Unit 6 and adjacent area ................................ 301 611 Whelk shell ( Busycon) recovered from Unit 23, level 3, Hutto/Martin site ................... 302 612 Olive jar sherds recovered, Hutto/Martin site ................................................................. 303

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19 613 Unit 29, level 4, Hutto/Martin site oblong stains visible in north base of unit ............ 304 614 Unit 27, level 4, Hutto/Martin site oblong features in southern half ........................... 305 615 Native American ceramics, Hutto/Martin site. St. Johns Check stamped, Fig Springs Roughened, Lochloosa Punctated, and sandtempered roughened .................... 306 616 Typical St. Johns ceramics, Hutto/Martin site soot on sherds ...................................... 307 617 The Conner Landing site, 8MR2064 ............................................................................... 308 618 Mission bell recovered at the Conner Landing site ......................................................... 309 619 Hand riveted copper bowl recovered at the Conner Landing site ................................... 310 620 The Hutto/Martin sites location relative to area of recorded de Soto sites .................... 311 621 Distance between the Hutto/Martin site and St. Augustine, known Spanish travel routes ..................................................................................................................... 312 622 Hutto/Martin site and adjacent sites in region ................................................................. 313 623 Hutto/Martin site to Heather Island Preserve site, straightline distance ........................ 314 624 Hutto/Martin site to Heather Island Preserve site, following river channel .................... 315

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20 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of The University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy THE ACUERA OF THE OCKLAWAHA RIVER VALLEY: KEEPERS OF TIME IN THE LAND OF THE WATERS By Willet A. Boyer, III August 2010 Chair: William H. Marquardt Major Department: Anthropology The Timucuan speaking groups of north central Florida wh ich were missionized by the Spanish in the 16th and 17th centuries included the Acuera, the Timucuan chiefdom which controlled what today is the Ocklawaha River Valley and the Ocala National Forest. The Acuera appear to have responded very differently to the process of missionization than did the other groups successfully missionized by the Spanish during this period. This dissertation examines the lifeways of the Acuera during the late precontac t, contact, and mission periods, considering the historic, l inguistic, and archaeological evidence for the lifeways of the Acuera during these periods. The historic evidence concerning the Acuera chiefdom suggests that they maintained traditional cultural and ritual practices, as well as a chiefdom social structur e, both during and after the time Spanish missions existed in their territo ry. The linguistic evidence suggests that most known names of people and places within the Acuera chiefdom had ritual or supernatural significance. The archaeological evidence fro m precontact and colonial era sites within Acuera territory suggests that the Acuera maintained a strong continuity between precontact and colonial era cultural and ritual

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21 practices, including use of the same sites throughout both periods, continuation of ceramic traditions, use of mounds as markers of social space, and rejection and subversion of Spanish norms and controls. Taking all lines of evidence into consideration, the Acuera appear to have drawn on precontact systems of belief and practice to maintain and strengthen their culture in the face of Spanish attempts to change it. This use of their system of belief allowed the Acuera to maintain their traditional culture when o ther missionized groups did not

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22 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The Timucuan chiefdom of Acuera, centered during the contact and colonial periods in what today is the Ocklawaha River Valley and the Ocala National Forest in northern Florida, interacted with the Spanish from at least the time of the expedition of Hernand o de Soto until the end of the seventeenth century. During this period, records of the Acuera suggest a people who resisted the effects of Spanish colonial influence to a degree much greater than the other Timucuan speaking peoples of the region, as well as the Apalachee and the Guale. This dissertation is intended to serve as a beginning study of the Acuera as a people, and to provide a set of baseline da ta for further understanding the ways in which the Acuera interacted with and responded to both the S panish and other Native American groups during the colonial era. I suggest here that, among other factors, the system of belief practiced by the Acuera played a significant role in the preservation of their culture, and that their history as seen by the S panish, their language as preserved in Spanish records, and the archaeology of precontact and mission era sites within their territory, indicate that a common system of traditional cultural practice persisted throughout the mission era in spite of Spanish influence. In this initial chapter, I describe the theoretical bases for the research performed to date, and justify describing the Acuera as a chiefdom Theoretical Bases for Research The primary theoretical source for my study focus and research desi gn is Walter Taylors conjunctive approach, supplemented by modern landscape and agency theory. While Taylors A Study of Archaeology is familiar to all modern archaeologists, the primary importance of his ideas in the sort of study I propose is his emph asis, in conjoining

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23 multiple sources of data for a complete understanding of human culture, on culture as a mental construct. Specifically, Taylor argued that By culture as a descriptive concept, I mean all th ose mental constructs or ideas which have be en learned or created after birth by an individual. As I said above, for the present purposes the term idea includes such categories as attitudes, meanings, sentiments, feelings, values, goals, p urposes, interests, knowledge, beliefs, relationships, associations (Taylor 1948:110) Furthermore: To summarize: culture consists of the increments which have accrued to individual minds after birth when the increments of a suffici ent number of minds are enough alike, we say we are dealing with a culture. Cu lture traits are manifested by cultural agents through the medium of vehicles In the case of human culture, these agents are human beings; the cultural vehicl es are the objectifications of human culture, i.e., the observable behavior and results of beha vior. Cultural processes are the dynamic factors involving cultural traits; they do not constitute culture but comprise the relationships between culture t raits. Culture, consisting as it does of mental constructs, is not directly observab leCulture can be studied only through the instrumentality of observable phe nomena, through what have been called the objectifications of culture: cultural beh avior and the material and non material results of such behavior (Taylor 1948:110111) In other words, under Ta ylors conjunctive approach, the mental constructs that compose human culture will determine the form and nature of the objectifications of culture including the material archaeological record, which is the subject of study for an archaeologist. Furthe rmore, under this approach, the form of archaeological sites, the location of artifacts and features within sites, and the overall p attern of sites within a region will reflect the worldview, cosmology, and mental outlook o f the people who created them, in cluding their choices about what sorts of lands capes and materials may be used and the meanings the sites, features, and artifacts would have had for their creators. T he most useful theoretical approaches for understanding the worldviews of past human cul tures and thus actualizing Taylors conjunctive approach in a meaningful way, are those

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24 based on landscape and agency theory. Under agency and landscape approaches, deriving from modern theories of contextual archaeology (Hodder 1986) several factors af fecting the form and placement of archaeological sites and artifacts are recognized. These include the conscious agency of human beings within a culture, the importance of the use of space within individual sites and between multiple sites within a region in understanding the form and nature of human cultures and the ways in which the form of sites and artifacts represent human worldviews. Under these approaches, human beings are conscious agents affecting the world around them: Agents are accepted as knowledg e able and this challenges archaeologie s which treat peoples actions as if they had been fully determined by external conditions. Agency is the means by which things are achieved. It therefore has the power to act and human agency operates knowledgably and refl exively. Agents are therefore accepted as monitoring their own actions as well a s the actions of others in the construction both of their world and of themselves culturally and socially. Agents do not appear upon the historical stage as a give n, rather they make themselves within and through their own specific social and cultural conditions (Barret in Hodder 2001:141) Since human beings are conscious agents, choosing the ways in which they will use the material landscape around the m, archaeologists must recognize that the material record is not simply the result of a process or processes Rather, the conscious decisions of agents in the past, reflecting their decisions as to what was the right way to act within their socially constructed environment, worked with the physical environment to create the record which the modern archaeologist studies. Social systems are regularized practices. They lack reason, purpose or needs and are incapable of adaptationOnly the actors with in a system share these attributes and are capable of adaptive response. Purposive, motivated action becomes the point of articulation between structure and the human agentImportantly, such action often sparks unintended consequences for the system (Clar k and Blake 1994:17)

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25 These unintended consequences however, are not necessarily detrimental to either the cultural or ecological systems at issue. As has been noted in dialectical approaches to historic ecology, human communities and cultures togeth er with the landscapes and regions with which they interact over time can be understood as total phenomena (Bale 1998:14). Such approaches thus focus on the interpenetration of culture and the environment, rather than on the adaptation of human beings to the environment (Ibid). Choices made by human beings, as conscious agents, will be made within the cultural framework they inhabit: It is clear that actors are constrained by past practice (history of system and structure) and opportunities for future practice (e.g., available technology, physical and social environment, personal social networks, etc.). Each actor knows a great deal about his/her social system and its constraints and limits under varying circumstances even to the extent that (s)he c an manipulate aspects of the system for personal advantage. We presume a primary motivation of self interested action based upon culturally bound rational choice (Clark and Blake 1994:17) This in turn implies that patterning and placement both within a n archaeological site and among multiple sites created by the same cultural group reflect the way that cultural group understood the use of space and the physical environment, which may be radically different from the way space is perceived by other groups there is no such thing as social relations. By this I mean that human relations are never simply between people, they always involve things as well. Relations are always material and social at once, so that material cu lture is not an added extra in social life, but right at its heart. Once we start to look at the creation of social relations through the medium of material things, the n objects become social agents in their own right and their formal propert ies and their combination into assemblages both become important. The durable nature o f material things, especially once landscape is included, makes it difficult to ignore questions of history. People are socialized within material settings, so that the world is an important part of social repro duction(Gosden 1999:120).

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26 Because social relations include both the material landscape and the way human beings perceive it, it follows that the patterning of sites in an area will reflect the social perceptions of the culture that created them, as well as that cultures understanding of human relationships between each other and the material environment. It is useful at the outset to differentiate space and place. Space is usually defined as a natural science concept, the physical settin g within which everything occurs. It is modeled in mathematics and physics as Euclidean, topological, and infinitePlaces can be regarded as the outcome of the social process of valuing space. They are the products of the imaginary, of desire, and are th e primary means by which we articulate with space and transform it into a humanized landscape. The crucial distinction here is that places require human agents and spaces do not (Preucel and Meskell 2004: 215) Given these conceptual bases for landscape a nd agency theory, and my desire to understand the worldviews of the historic Acuera and their late pre Columbian ancestors, I intend to adopt such approaches as the theoretical bases for my proposed work within the Acuera region because for the archaeolog ist using landscape and agency theory, the placem ent of sites within a landscape and the relationships within sites of spaces, artifacts and other human created features, provide the basis for understanding the values placed on such spaces and on the natur al and artificial landsc ape by the cultural agents who created them (Preucel and Meskell 2004:16): I have argued that there are two quite different understandings of the term landscape: as a territory which can be apprehended visually, and as a set of re lationships between people and places which provide the context for everyday conduct. In a more or less explicit way, archaeologists have recognized that landscape provides a framework for integrating many different forms of information and different aspe cts of human life. However, the landscapes to which they have been referring have generally been specular and objectified. Identifying the historical specificity of the landscape idea has opened up the conceptual space for a new kind of landscape archaeo logy. A new approach will still require that we identify and plot the traces of past activity in the countryside. But the uses to which these traces will be put will have to go beyond the reconstruction of economic regimes and speculations as to how the land may have been perceived by past people. In considering the ways in which the significance of the landscape gradually emerged, through practices of building, maintenance, tending, harvesting

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27 and dwelling, we are constructing in the present an analogy for past worlds of meaning (Thomas 2001:181) Thus, under these sorts of theoretical approaches, the archaeologist investigating the material record of past human cultures is not simply attempting to understand a process or processes by which the site s he or she is studying came to be, nor even to understand how the people who created the site or sites under study may have seen the material world around them. Rather, the ultimate goal of an archaeologist using such approaches is the elucidation of the meaning and significance of the material record including the cultural use of space for the human beings who shaped the site or sites in the past. [M odern archaeology] has come [to] the realization that space, as much as portable artifacts, can featur e in identity formation and expression[Space] may be the most powerful evidence we can obtain of social groupings and identities, as territory may be said to define peopleThe manipulation of space isa key strategy in self definition, as archaeologists a re increasingly recognizing (Blake 2004: 234) This in turn implies that one of the most important parts of any cultural system is worldview and system of belief practiced by peoples both in th e present and in the past. Becaus e culture is a mental constru ct (Taylor 1948), the things that people believe shape the way they interact with the world and the natural and cultural environment, and archaeological sites created by a specific culture will reflect that cultures understanding of the world and peoples place within it. Furthermore, when different cultures occupy the same region, sites created by each culture will reflect each cultures differing worldviews and will provide the modern archaeologist with a basis for understanding such differences I inte nd to apply these approaches both to the historic mission sites and the late prehistoric sites inv estigated within the study area because, under these approaches, the belief systems of human cultures, i.e. their cosmology and understanding of the world and human place wi thin it,

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28 are the primary determinant (though not the sole determinant) of the form of a culture, the sorts of reso urces that will be used by that culture, and the ways in which a culture perceives space, time, and the material world. Based on the historic record of contact and colonial period Acuera culture, I hypothesize that the Acuera system of belief was one of the most significant factors in their ability to maintain their traditional cultural practices and lifeways. By using Taylors conjunctive approach, and concepts drawn from landscape and agency theory, I intend to gain an understanding of the nature of Acuera culture and beliefs, the ways in which their belief system and worldview developed, and the ways in which their belief sys tem and worldview allowed them to maintain greater cultural cohesion and autonomy during the time of Spanish colonization. Specifically, the main points of these approaches I consider the most relevant for understanding Acuera culture are as follows: The social and cultural construction of spaces, l andscap es, and f eatures As Thomas noted in his discussion of archaeologies of place and landscape, the term landscape includes both what is visible in the material world, and a set of relationships between pe ople and their environment that is socially construed and imbued with meaning (Thomas 2001:181). For this reason, while plotting and measurement of traces of past human activity is as significant under landscape theory as under processual approaches, th e purpose in doing so is to create for the modern researcher an analogy for past worlds of meaning (Ibid). Furthermore, if patterning between and within sites reflects not simply space but place the outcome of the social process of valuing space (Preucel and Meskell 2004:215), reflective of the human imagination, desires, and outlook of the people using that place in the past (Ibid) then through a careful study of patterns between and within sites, the modern archaeologist can gain a picture of the worldviews, cultural values, and social meaning that constructed monuments, patterns of use,

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29 and the surrounding environment would have had for the past human cultures being studied (Blake 2004:234) Through a deliberate and careful study of both the relationships between sites in the area of study, as well as study of the relationships between space, features, and artifacts within sites under study, I intend through use of this element o f landscape theory to test the hypothesis that the social and cul tural meaning of their mo numents and their environment for the Acuera and their predecessors in the region can be understood by the modern observer The human worldview underlying cultural choice and p ractice. If one assumes, as do Clark and Blake, that human beings in the past had a primary motivation of self interested action based upon culturally bound rational choice (Clark and Blake 1994:17), then the use or nonuse of specific resources, the choice of whether or not to use certain types of environ ments or s paces, in fact all choices that lead to the archaeological record of a culture under study, will reflect the cultural bindings leading to those choices. In other words, under this element of landscape and agency theory, sites will reflect the human worldview that led people of the past to make the choices they made. It is important to note that this means the modern researcher cannot assume that rational choice exercised by individuals in the past will reflect what a modern researcher would consider rational Different cultures within the same environment will make different choices based on each cultures construction of what is right to do. In the case of Native Americans and the Spanish, throughout North America, cultural choices abo ut what was right to eat (Reitz and Scarry 1985; Hulton 1977), how space within environments should be used (Johnson 1989:366368; Worth 1998a and b), and the ways in which it was right for human beings to interact (Spielmann 1989:101111), caused significant differences between the ways in which Native A merican cultures interacted among themselves and with the environment

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30 before European contact, and the ways in which the Spanish and Spanish influenced cultures so interacted after colonization. Thus, the study of the form of pre contact and colonial period Native American sites can provide the modern researcher with an understanding of the worldviews and the cultural binding that influenced human choices during each period, and allow for a study of c hanges and continuity in worldviews and cultural form through time. By means of a careful study of the cultural choices and patterning reflected at colonial period Acuera sites, as well as late pre contact sites in the same region, I hope to elucidate the worldviews, cultural choices, and ideology of both the colonial period Acuera and their predecessors within the region. This, in turn, will provide a basis for understanding the ways in which the worldviews of the Acuera in the historic period may ha ve influenced their ability to resist the stresses of colonization. The reflection of ideology and cultural identity in the archaeological r ecord. It is a commonplace in anthropology that ideology provides one of the bases for cultural identity and cohesi on. However, landscape and agency theory provide additional theoretical bases for the identification of ideology and cultural identity in the archaeological record and not only by obvious means such as the repetitive use of certain forms of symbols (Hodder 1986:166191; Taylor 1948:110111), but by understanding that space itself, as well as evidence of human interaction with the environment, is itself reflective of human cultural identity (Blake 2004:234; Gosden 1999:120). Since the manipulation of spa ce is a key strategy in self identity (Blake 2004:234), archaeological study of the use of space is a way in which the ideology underlying self identity of past human cultures can be understood by the modern archaeologist. Because the Acuera of the historic period appear to have maintained their traditional identity through their system of belief longer than any other Timucuan speaking culture (Boyer

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31 2006), the use of this element of landscape and agency theory may allow for a deeper understanding of their ideology as reflected in their use of space and their environment. Through careful study of patterning within and between sites, the systems of belief that underlay the way the Acuera saw their world will become clearer and will provide a basis for understanding Acuera interaction with the Spanish in the historic period. In parti cular, I hypothesize that, if the traditional Timucuan system of belief was what a modern anthropologist would call shamanism, the material record at the sites studied and the patterning within the sites should reflect the following practices: The use of e dges as p lace s of ritual s ignificance. Certain cultures that practice traditional shamanism tend to regard edges or gaps in the natural landscape as places of spiritual power and significance. For example, Greenland shamans regard the edges of water, ice, and caverns as places of spiritual power (Jakobsen 1999 :59 65), and cracks in rock or stone are regarded as entrances to the spirit world in both African San and central Asian shamanism (Price 2001:33, 75). If the Acuera of the precontact and historic periods were practicing shamanism, a working hypothesis is that the archaeological record should r eflect more intense use and evidence of ritual practice where such edges exist for example, at the border between water and land, such as a rivers edge. If the material record in such locations at both sites is similar, this may be evidence for continuity of ritual practice and belief during the colonial period. The integration of the natural l andscape and the ritual/cultural landscape A characteristic of some shamanistic systems of belief is the erasure of ba rriers between the natural and cultural landscape, and the use of the natural environment as a source of spiritual power. For example, the Khanty of Siberia consider the riverine landscape in which they reside to reflect the

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32 spiritual world, and their pat terns of use within that landscape reflect their system of belief (Price 2001:94103). If the Acuera of the precontact and historic periods were practicing shamanism, a further working hypothesis is that the archaeological record at precontact sites withi n this region should reflect ritual patterns that make use of features within the natural landscape as a part of ritual activity, and Acuera sites dating from the colonial period should reflect such continuing patterns of use. It is critical to note that these constitute elements of working hypotheses for which I hope to find additional evidence. Only through substantial long term research in this region will we be able to fully answer, if at all, what system of belief was practiced by the Acuera and thei r cultural predecessors in the Ocklawaha River valley. Using these working hypotheses, I hope to gather sufficient data to allow more refined research questions and more fine grained data about the peoples of this region. Having discussed the th eoretical approaches upon which my research will be based, I turn now to a discussion of what is known of the Timucuan chiefdom of Acuera, and my proposed research issues. Because the Acuera, as well as the other Timucuan speaking cultures, appear to have been chiefdom societies during the contact and h istoric periods, I first discuss the nature of chiefdom level societies and justify consider ing the Acuera as such. I then present the research questions I propose to study as a part of my dis sertation work. Finally, I discuss the historic, linguistic, and existing archaeological evidence for the nature of Acuera society during the St. Johns II and historic periods.

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33 Chiefdom Societies and the Historic Acuera In order to justify the use of the term chiefdom to describe the culture of the Acuera and the other Timucuan cultures at the time of European contact and thereafter, we must first establish what is meant by chiefdom societies, and the nature of such cultures. A chiefdom [is] rather loosely defined as a polity that organizes centrally a regional population in the thousandsSome degree of heritable social ranking and economic stratification is characteristically associated. The question then becomes how we can understand the evolution of thes e societies out of a milieu of more simply organized community groupings, the development and cycling of these chiefdoms, and their eventual collapse, stasis or state formation (Earle 1991:1). when we talk about the Mississippian societies, we frequently speak of the Mississippian chiefdoms We see the Mississippian societies not as the mound builders or the shell tempered people, but as complex societies with formal, inherited political offices and ascriptive social ranking, that is, as chiefdoms (Scarry 1996:4) The anthropological definition of chiefdom propounded by John E. Worth in his work on the Timucuan missions is a more or less discrete human society consist ing of a number of settlements under the political control of a single heredita ry lea der, or chiefperhaps the most diagnostic feature of chiefdoms is that they are what anthropologists call rank societies, meaning that social status and political power are determined by genealogical nearness to a single noble family linea ge from whi ch the heirs to the principal chiefs office are always drawn. (Worth 1998a:5) Defining chiefdoms as multicommunity political units with ascribed s ocial rank, the Timucuan societies of the early historic period may be categorically described as chiefdoms (Worth 1998a:13). An important element of chiefdom societies is their size: One of the most fundamental characteristics of all complex societies is that they are regional in scope. That is to say, they are composed, not of a single settlement, but of a more or less well defined territory and the population that lives in that territory. The exploitation of the resources of that territory provides the economic base that

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34 sustains the society and underwrites the social, political, and economic relations be tween members of the regional population that comprise the complex organization that integrates them into a single society (Herrera, Drennan and Uribe 1989:xxi) Understanding the factors that affect the formation of chiefdom societies is critical to determining if the Acuera of the colonial period and their predecessors in the Ocklawaha River valley should be considered a chiefdom society. Earle notes that Chiefdoms are normally characterized as kin based societies, meaning that a persons place in a kinship system determines his or her social status and political positionBut kinship itself is a weak source of power. By definition, each person is the center of a kindred network, and each can attempt to build his or her relationships by extending claims of kinship. Kinship is thus critical in less hierarchical societies partly because it offers a strategy available to all by which to ask for aidIf we were looking at the origins of chiefdoms, we might focus on how kinship is manipulated by all to negotiate from emergent leaders a moral right to the necessities of life (Earle 1997: 5 6). Earle goes on to suggest that the social inequality inherent in a ranked society such as a chiefdom derive s from three primary sources of power economic power, military power, and ideological authority (Earle 1997: 610). The control by chiefs of these sources of power in turn leads to the ascribed authority of the chief and his or her lineage within a ch iefdom level society. It has also been argued that, further defining military strength as a source of chiefly power, One way to seek the source of chiefly power is to assess the role that warfare can play in the development of centralized chiefly decisio n makingI will be concentrating on the kind of warfare conducted by war parties outside the autonomous tribal village and beyond the boundaries of a chiefdom, which I call external warfare (Redmond 1994: 44) Using external warfare, chiefs show the value of centralized leadership and thus encourage the institutionalization of the authority of the chief:

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35 the chiefdom constitutes the permanent institutionalization of a tribal military alliance into a single, centralized political unit with a common territory. The centralized chiefdom has obvious advantages over the temporary groupings of allied villages that form to conduct tribal warfare, in terms of both offense and defenseThe power garnered by tribal war leaders through external warfare, when it is successfully manipulated and passed on to succeeding leaders, can thus give rise to centralized chiefdoms under the permanent authority of paramount chiefs (Redmond 1994:54). The Timucuan cultures of contact era and colonial period Florida, while exi sting at the time that the Mississippian chiefdoms to the north and west had emerged, were clearly not Mississipian societies. While some elements of Mississippian culture were present in the Timucuan cultures in certain areas for example, platform moun d construction and the use of material culture associated with the Southeastern ceremonial complex (Milanich 1996:17 21), the Timucuan cultures never developed or adopted the full spectrum of Mississippian characteristics (Milanich 1996:137, 160163). H owever, given the social and cultural elemen ts that characterize chiefdom level societies, it is equally clear that the Timucuan cultures of the contact and colonial periods were, in fact, chiefdom societies in the modern anthropological sense. The ethnohistoric accounts of the Timucuan societies of the contact and colonial periods make clear the fact that Timucuan cultures had ascribed, inherited social status and social inequality ( Hulton 1977; Milanich 1995, 1996; Worth 1998a ). Furthermore, chiefs within Timucuan culture had access to and control of certain prestige goods and controlled the performance of certain ritual activites, including the distribution of the casina, the black drink (Hulton 1977; Merrill 1979 ; Milanich 1995; Worth 1998a ). Finally, it is clear that the Timucuan chiefs practiced external warfare as defined by Redmond, and had both political and religious sanction for their roles as war leaders (Hulton 1977; Laudonni re 1564: 1114). Thus, taking into consideration the known charact eristics of Timucuan societies,

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36 Defining chiefdoms as multicommunity political un its with ascribed social rank, the Timucuan societies of the early historic period may be categorically described as chiefdoms (Worth 1998a:13). Documentary references to the Acuera and their territory during the colonial period suggest that this type of social structure persisted throughout the era of the Acuera missions and thereafter. Accordingly, the term chiefdom will be used throughout this paper to refer to Acuera cu lture. Research Questions My proposed research issues are intended to elucidate ( 1) whether the Acuera of the historic period differed from the other Timucuan chiefdoms in their responses to colonization and missionization, and if so, why; and ( 2) if dif ferences exist between the Acuera and other historic Timucuan chiefdoms, whether the differences between the Acuera and the other Timucua were solely a historic phenomenon, or have deeper roots in this regions prehistory. The research questions which are posited for research and testing during my doctoral studies are as follows: 1) What does the historic, linguistic, and archaeological evidence concerning the Acuera chiefdom suggest was the form of Acuera culture during the contact and mission periods? 2) What continuities and differences exist between the culture of the historic Acuera and th e cultures of the late (750 1539 A.D.) St. Johns II cultures of the Ocklawaha River Valley? 3) Is there historic, linguistic, and archaeological evidence for th e continuing use of traditional systems of belief and practice among the Acuera during the historic period? The importance of these questions lies in the fact that the historic Acuera were virtually unique among the missionized peoples of La Florida, Sp anish southeastern North America, in their response to missionization. A review of what is known of the Acuera during the colonial

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37 era suggests that much of their culture remained intact throughout the mission era and thereafter, despite the stresses of c olonization and missionization. Plan of Study and Research Because the theoretical bases for my research are drawn primarily from landscape and agency theory, the methodology used for this research is int ended to produce data sets that will lead to a greater understanding of the worldviews and nature of the Acuera and their late pre Columbian predecessors through the observation of patterns and use of space by people during both periods. The following summarizes the work and met hodology used to comp lete the field rese arch for this dissertation. A review of the Florida Master Site File records of known sites with in the region of study was completed and used as the basis for an initial pedestrian and informant survey, including mapping and surface coll ection, of sites located within the Ockla waha River Valley (Boyer 2007, 2008a ). C ollections reported from digs in the area of study curated at the Florida Museum of Natural History were also used, as well as col lect ions taken during surface reconn ais s ance and shovel testing from three sites : the Hutto/Martin site (8MR3447), the Lake Weir Landing Mounds site (8MR35), and the Heather Island Preserve site (8MR2223), originally noted during the 2006 pedestrian survey of this region. In addition, larger excavation units were opened at both the Lake Weir Landing Mounds site and the Hutto/Martin site, with a primary focus on the Hutto/Martin site. A study of all known historic documents, including both written documents and maps, was performed, to determine all that could be found about the Acuera chiefdom from the colonial era records kept by the Spanish. Further, a linguistic analysis of personal and place names from the Acuera region, using information drawn from the historic records, was performed to de termine if

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38 analysis of such names yielded additional data concerning the nature of Acuera culture during this period. The results of this research are presented in the chapters which follow. In Chapter 2 I examine the documentary evidence concerning t he Acuera chiefdom, through a study and analysis of all known historic records that refer to the Acuera or depict their territory on maps. The information de rived from these records is used as a basis for hypothesizing the form of Acuera culture during th e contact and historic periods. In Chapter 3 I present the results of a linguistic analysis of the names both of places and individuals from the Acuera chiefdom during the contact and historic period, as well as selected personal and place names from other Timucuan chiefdoms during the same time frame. The results of this analysis are used to compare and contrast the culture of the Acuera with that of the other Timucuan chiefdoms, as well as a basis for understanding the way in which the Acuera saw themsel ves in relationship to Spanish and the other Native American cultures of Spanish La Florida. In Chapter 4 I discuss the data resulting from a pedestrian survey of archaeological sites within the Ockla waha River Valley. The data provide a basis for unders tanding site patterning and location, the outlin es of cultural practice, the use of resources, and changes that took place in the region of study throughout the time human beings occupied the area. In Chapter 5 I present the results of study of collections taken during controlled excavations at four sites which contain a precontact, St. Johns II era component: the Davenport Landing Mounds site (8PU50), the Sunday Bluff site (8MR13), the Colby Landing Site (8MR57), and the McKenzie Mound site (8MR64). The results of st udy of these collections are collated with the results of shovel testing and limited excavations at three additional sites during

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39 the course of fieldwork in the area of study: the Lake Weir Landing Mo unds site (8MR35), the Heather Island Preserve site (8MR2223), and the Pardee/Harris site (8MR3501). The data from these seven sites, which all contain a St. Johns II e ra component, collectively provide a basis for discussing the cultural form and practic e of the St. Johns II era peoples of this region. In Chapter 6 I present the results of surface and metal detector survey, shovel testing, and block excavations at the Hutto/Martin site (8MR3447), a mission site located within the region of study. The d ata from this site, together with the results of surface survey of the region near the site, ar e compiled to provide a basis for discussing the cultural form and practice of the historic Acuera during the mission period. In Chapter 7 I compare and contras t the data sets from the St. Johns II era sites and the Hutto/Martin site to determine the nature of changes and continuity in cultural form and practice from the time prior to contact to the time after European contact. Conclusions as to the nature of Ac uera culture and its roots in pre existing cultural practice in this region are discussed, and possible avenues for future research in this region are presented. My ultimate goal in comp leting this dissertation is to add significantly to our knowledge of the Timucuan speaking cultures by developing as complete as possible a picture of a specific Timucuan chiefdom during the historic period, and to determine, if possible, the extent to which Acuera culture in the contact period was influenced by the form of its culture prior to contact I hope that this will provide a baseline for continuing research in this cultural region and for comparison with other Timucuan speaking cultures.

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40 CHAPTER 2 THE HISTORIC EVIDENC E THE ACUERA AS SEEN T HROUGH DOCUMENTS The Timucuan speaking cultures of the contact and colonial periods in Florida lived throughout the northern third of peninsular Florida and in southern Georgia, controlling the territory from the eastern coast south of Guale to what is now Cape Canaveral, west through Florida and southern Georgia to the borders of the Apalachee in Floridas panhandle (Milanich 1995:8094; Worth 1998a:134). Archaeologically, the Timucuan speakers are divided between the eastern Timucuan speaking cultures represented by St. Johns II ceramics, and the western Timucuan speakers represented by the Alachua and Suwannee Valley traditions (Milanich 1994:244247, 331353; Worth 1998a:20). These divisions, however, fail to reflect the enormous diversity that would have existed amon g the Timucuan chiefdoms at the time European explorers first encountered the Timucua. Despite having a common language, it is clear from historic records that the chiefdoms we conveniently call Timucuan or Timucuan speakers differed one from another p olitically, lived in widely differing physical environments, and existed within a shifting pattern of alliances between chiefdoms and internecine warfare between chiefdoms (Hann 1996; Hulton 1977; Milanich 1996; Worth 1998a, b). Despite the formation of a lliances between chiefdoms and the existence of paramount chiefs controlling complex alliances, such as the Utina confederacy (Worth1998a:1925), the Timucuan speakers as a whole were never controlled by a single dominant leader, as were the Apalachee and Calusa (Hann 1988, 1991) and never developed the full spectrum of Mississippian cultural traits common in cultures to the north during the late prehistoric and contact periods (Milanich 1996:160163), though some riverine Timucuan chiefdoms along the St. J ohns River had some Mississippian cultural characteristics, such as platform mounds (Worth 1998a:1921; Ashley 2003:319335).

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41 This chapter summarizes what is known of the Acuera chiefdom as recorded through the eyes of European observers throughout the co ntact period and the colonial era, particularly the mission period. While the Acuera were clearly a part of the Timucuan cultures, it will be argued here that, based purely on documentary evidence of the interaction between the Acuera and the Spanish thro ughout the colonial period, there are a number of ways in which their response to the Spanish seems to have differed significantly from the other Timucuan speaking cultures. Colonial period documents appear to indicate that the Acuera chiefdom maintained a higher degree of cultural autonomy and traditional lifeways than virtually all other Timucuan chiefdoms during the contact and mission periods, and retained their traditional lands and political structure after the missions to the Acuera were abandoned b y the Spanish in the wake of the Timucuan Rebellion. As noted in chapter 1, based the accepted definition of a chiefdom society as a multicommunity political structure with ascribed social ranking, the Acuera of the contact and mission period were clearly a chiefdom society. One issue examined in this chapter is how long the Acuera maintained a chiefdom social structure in the face of the stresses placed on their culture by the presence of the Spanish in the Southeast and the concomitant demographic, poli tical and social upheavals that colonization entailed. Documentary References to the Acuera Chiefdom and Missions The Contact Era The Acuera were one of the distinctive Native American groups noted by the explorers of the contact era. The first known ref erences to the Acuera as a distinctive people come from documents of the Hernando de Soto expedition. A letter written by Soto himself, dated July 9th, 1539, describes sending Baltazar de Gallegos into the country of Urriparacoxi, believed on

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42 current evid ence to have been southwest of modern day Orlando (Milanich and Hudson 1993:7375). In the letter, describing territory beyond that controlled by Urriparacoxi de Soto noted that They [Native American chiefs] say that three days journey from where the y are, going by some towns and huts, all well inhabited, is a large town called Acuera, where with much convenience we might winter; and that afterwards, farther on, at the distance of two days journey, there is another town, called Ocale. It is so large, and they so extol it, that I dare not repeat all that is said. There is to be found in it a great plenty of all the things mentioned; and fowls, a multitude of turkeys, kept in pens, and herds of tame deer that are tended (Smith 1968:285). Leaving aside the clear exaggerations, the distances recorded in Sotos letter indicate that Ocale was two days journey from Acuera, and Acuera three days journey beyond the territory of Urriparacoxi. This would place Ocale just beyond the cove of t he Withlacoochee, and Acuera in the vicinity of the Ocklawaha River, near Lake Weir and Lake Griffin, as argued by Milanich and Hudson in their 1993 analysis of the de Soto expedition (Milanich and Hudson 1993: 9198). Once the expedition reached Ocale, m en were sent into the territory of the Acuera to seize corn and supplies for the expedition (Ranjel in Clayton, et al. 1993:261). The Acuera strongly contested the presence of the Spanish and attempted to drive them away. The Ranjel account, generally r egarded as the most accurate of the accounts of the de Soto entrada, describes the encounter between the Spanish and the Acuera thus: But they [the Indians] had already wounded some soldiers who strayed and had killed a crossbowman who was named Mendoza. Having joined the army, they went to Ocale, a town in a region of good corn; and there, going to Acuera for supplies, the Indians, on two occasions, killed three soldiers of the guard of the Governor [Soto] and wounded others and killed a horse, and all th at was due to poor order, since those Indians, although they are archers and have very strong bows and are very skillful and accurate marksmen, their arrows do not have poison [hierba] nor do they know what it is (Ranjel in Clayton, et.al. 1993a:261). Aft er the encounter between the Spanish and the Acuera, both the Ranjel account and that of the Gentleman of Elvas agree in indicating that, in the days that followed, the expedition

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43 reached the town of Itara (Elvas) or Itaraholata (Ranjel) (Clayton, et.a l. 1993a:66, 262), meaning single chief (Granberry 1993:136, 144) after one days travel. The next day, the expedition reached the town of Potano (Clayton, et.al. 1993a:66, 262), which is accepted to have existed within the borders of what today is Alac hua County, Florida. After another days travel, Soto reached Utinama (Elvas) or Utinamocharra (Ranjel) (Ibid), meaning my powerful region (Granberry 1993:145, 173). While the account of Garcilaso de La Vega is far less reliable and more romanticize d than the other accounts of the de Soto expedition, a passage referring to the same encounter with the Acuera suggests that the Spanish perceived them as particularly proud and fierce warriors: The Cacique Acueras reply to [de Sotos] message was insolent. I have long since learned who you Castilians are through others of you who came years ago to my land To me you ar e professional vagabonds who wander from place to place, gaining your livelihood by robbing, sacking, and murdering people who have given you no offense. I want no manner of friendship or peace with people such as you, but instead prefer mortal and perpetual enmity During [the Spaniards ti me in Acuera territory], the Indians never slept and were always on the alert. In order to fulfill the fierce threats of the Curaca and to prove that his promises to the Castilians had not been made vainly, they ambushed their enemies so cautiously and skillfully that not a single Spaniard who strayed so much as a hundred yards from the camp escaped being shot and beheaded at once. (Varner 1951:118,120) This passage suggests that the Spaniards regarded the Acuera as unusually independent and unw illing to submit to the Spaniards presence or promises. Milanich and Hudsons excellent work on the de Soto entrada has firmly physically placed the Ocale chiefdom on the north side of the Withlacoochee River, in the southwest of modern Marion County, Fl orida (Milanich and Hudson 1993:9498), which in turn places Acuera at the time of contact within the region of the Ocklawaha River and the lakes district, including Lake Weir (ibid). In terms of the social geography of the Acuera and their nearest neighb ors at

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44 contact, however, the locations and names listed in the Ranjel and Elvas accounts are somewhat more elusive. It is most commonly accepted that de Sotos army passed through the western part of what is now Marion County, coming northward from Tampa Bay, and that the encounter with the Acuera described in the accounts above necessitated sending men from the main body of the army eastward to Acuera territory. The distance between the Withlacoochee River and the Ocklawaha River is approximately 25 miles, measured from the area where de Sotos Ocale was most likely located (Milanich and Hudson 1993:9498). Aside from this brief detachment, most likely by a small group of men, de Soto and his army appear to have gone directly northwards, taking a day t o reach Itara/Itaraholata, another day to reach Potano, and a third to reach Utinama/Utinamochorra, based on Ranjel and Elvas. In terms of the social geography and interaction, then, at the time of the de Soto entrada, Acuera would seem to have been borde red by a minimum of two other chiefdoms to the west: Ocale in the southern part of their territory, and Potano in the north. The single chief represented by Itara/Itaraholata may have been a town or village subject to Ocale or to Potano, or possibly a very small simple chiefdom serving as a border or buffer between the two. Furthermore, since both Ocale and Potano appear to have been relatively near Acuera territory, this suggests that the Acuera at this time controlled a territory long enough and large enough to border both other chiefdoms. This is consistent with the Acuera controlling the Ocklawaha River Valley, as the Ocklawaha River flows northward and then eastward before its confluence with the St. Johns River, at the junction of northern Marion, southeast Alachua, and southern Putnam counties.

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45 After the de Soto entrada, there is no further clear reference to the Acuera as a people until the illfated French settlement at Fort Caroline and the subsequent founding of St. Augustine. In the account of Rene de Laudonnire, Acquera is listed by name as one of nine chiefdoms expressly subject to the Utina confederacy (Bennett 2001:76), and it has been argued that the name Aquouena on the map of Jacques Le Moyne from the same period is a form of the word Acuera (Milanich and Hudson 1993:96). The map shows Aquouena as being near Eloquale, and on a tributary of what is clearly the St. Johns River (Hulton 1977:P98), both of which are consistent with accounts of the de Soto expedition and which pl ace the territory of the Acuera within the Ocklawaha River valley. Twenty five years had passed since the de Soto expedition by the time the Fort Caroline settlement was founded. It is unclear from the documentary evidence whether the Acuera had been a p art of a larger confederacy at the time of de Sotos passage, or whether the effects of European contact had caused shifts in the political and social landscape in the interim between de Soto and the coming of the French. It is intriguing, however, given the original location of the Acuera within the region of the Ocklawaha, that they appear to have continued to occupy this same territory during this interim. Colonization and The Mission Era Subsequent to the founding of St. Augustine by the Spanish in 1565, the Acuera are next mentioned in the accounts of Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda, a sixteenth century Spanish sailor shipwrecked on the Florida coast who lived among the Indians of Florida for nearly seventeen years (Worth 1995b). In his Memorial of the Caciques of Florida, Fontaneda describes the Acuera thus: And the cacique who has the pearls are two caciques, and one of them is named Aquera/ and the other/ Ostaga (Worth 1995b: 343)

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46 Given the fact that Acuera territory was located within Floridas interior as was Yustaga, to the east of Apalachee territory in the Panhandle (Hann 1996; Worth 1998a) it seems odd at first reading that Acuera would be listed explicitly as one of two chiefdoms who has the pearls. However, a further passage in Fontanedas Memoir suggests why such a description might have applied to the Acuera: Between Havalachi and Olagale is a river the Indians call Guasaca esgui, which means in our language, Rio de Caas (river of canes). On this river, arm of the sea, and coast, are the pearls, which are got in certain oysters and conchs. They are carried to all the provinces and villages of Florida, but principally to Tocobaja, the nearest town; because in it resides the king, who is chief cacique of the region lying on the right hand side coming to Havana (Smith 1854: 18). This passage is interesting for several reasons. First, it provides clues to the identity of the River of Canes. The river would have to be one of the Gulf coastal rivers, since it i s an arm of the sea, and coast lying on the right hand side coming to Havana (Smith 1854:18). Havalachi is clearly Apalachee in Floridas Panhandle; Olagale seems to be a variant name for Ocale, the chiefdom west of Acuera, as previously not ed. If this is the case, the River of Canes would be the Suwanee River, as it is the only Gulf coastal river present between Apalachee and Ocale which would fit the description. On the other hand, the passage describes the River of Canes as having Toc obaja as the nearest town. This would suggest the possibility that the River of Canes may have been the Withlacoochee, as it would be the largest river extending to the Gulf Coast between Tocobaga, on Tampa Bay, and the Ocale chiefdom. Second, the passa ge suggests both trade and interchange between the cultures of the Gulf coast and the interior of northern Florida during this period, including Acuera. If the River of Canes was the Suwanee River, which seems most likely based on the description, it woul d have provided a water route for trade which extended throughout a number of north Florida chiefdoms. The Suwannee River has several tributary rivers which bordered Timucuan

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47 chiefdoms in the north; these rivers include the Itchetucknee and the Santa Fe, which bordered or flowed through the territories of the Potano, the Yustaga, the Utina, and other smaller chiefdoms nearby (Hann 1996; Worth 1998a and b). The Withlacoochee River bordered the territory of the Ocale (Ibid) and provides water access to cent ral Florida; it would have provided a convenient route for trade that was within a days travel of Acuera territory (see Chapters 6 and 7). The fact that Fontaneda notes that the pearls are carried to all the provinces and villages of Florida suggests t hat trade and cultural interchange between the chiefdoms of both north and central Florida was taking place during this period. This fits well with the archaeological evidence discussed in Chapter 5. Third, the passage suggests that the Acuera may have s erved to a certain degree as middlemen for numerous other chiefdoms both in north and central Florida. Their territory centered on the Ocklawaha River valley, would have bordered numerous cultural groups and one of the major routes for travel between c entral and northern Florida. Fontanedas description of Acuera as the cacique with the pearls would appear to indicate that, in the sixteenth century at least, the Acuera were the recipients of an important trade item from the coast, suggesting that the y played an important role in the political and economic systems of the early contact period and possibly before as well. The Acuera are not clearly mentioned again in the documentary record until after the Guale rebellion of 1597. Among the interior T imucuan leaders who came to St. Augustine to render obedience to Spanish governor Gonzalo Mndez de Cano was the cacica of Acuera and her husband, arriving in St. Augustine on July 6, 1597, with her mandador (Timucuan iniha second in command (Hann 1996 :77), and 13 other Indians (Worth 1998a:5052). The Acuera cacica was described as one who now newly comes to negotiate in peace (Worth

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48 1998a:50). While this might be taken to imply this as the first time this cacica alone came before the Spanish, th e reference is included in a list of other leaders of interior chiefdoms rendering obedience to the Spanish on behalf of their people, implying that this was the first time the Acuera as a whole came to offer subordination to Spanish governance in Florida (Worth 1998a:50, Dr. John E. Worth, personal communication 2007). Subsequent to the 1597 obedience of the Acuera to the Spanish, but prior to the founding of the first mission to the Acuera, there is a documentary reference to the Acuera from the earliest part of the seventeenth century. While it is important to note that this reference is most likely the result of an error on the part of the writer of the document, if accurate, it provides a glimpse of some of the cultural and social dynamics of the Timu cuan and other chiefdoms during the onset of missionization and colonization by the Spanish. Dated April 13, 1605, during the rule of Governor Pedro de Ibarra, the document describes an encounter between Spanish officials and soldiers on a ship traveling the east coast of Florida five leagues from here to the south of the little bar that was named for Juan Ribas [Jean Ribault] (Ibarra 1605, unpublished translation). The Spanish are described as encountering an Indian who is very brave who governs all o f the province of Ais Indians in war [ de guerra] fifteen leagues from here (Ibid). This is what one would expect of an encounter with Native Americans in this region, as the Ais controlled the eastern coast of Florida immediately south of Timucuan territory (Milanich 1994, 1995; Worth 1998a). However, in addition to the references to the Ais and Surruque Indians being found in canoes on the Atlantic, the document refers to Acuera Indians being present and encountered by the Spanish as well (ibid).

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49 Wit hout further supporting evidence, it seems most likely that the reference to Acuera in this document is a simple error on the part of the writer, since it is the only reference amid contexts that clearly refer to the Ais and Surruque. However, if further supporting evidence is found that would confirm the presence of the Acuera at least some people on the coast in Ais territory, it would suggest the possibility that, at this point in the colonial period, there was movement between the people of Florida s interior and the coast through the territories of other groups. As will be discussed in the chapters concerning archaeological sites from the Ocklawaha River Valley, there is evidence from both pre contact and colonial sites in this region of trade and movement between that area of Floridas interior and the coast. The earliest known mission placed within Acuera territory was that of San Blas de Avino, believed to have been founded prior to 1612 and to have existed until the late 1620s. In a 1627 lett er, Spanish governor Rojas y Borja described the town of Avino as being two leagues and one and a half league apart from two other towns, Utiaca and Tucuru, and to be located in Floridas interior some forty leagues, or four days travel, from the coloni al capital at St. Augustine (Worth 1998b:189). This same letter describes Avino, along with the other nearby towns, as being located on low land and having a river that floods them [ que los baa ] (Worth 1998b:189). Governor Rojas y Borja suggested th at these towns would be an ideal location for the cultivation of hemp for making ropes, given their physical location and condition. Mission San Blas de Avino appears to have been in relatively close proximity to the mission of San Antonio de Enacape, l ocated on the St. Johns River. Both historic and archaeological evidence indicates that San Antonio de Enacape is the Mount Royal site (8PU35) (Milanich 1995:176; Worth 1998b:187188), north of Lake George on the eastern side of the St.

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50 Johns River. Duri ng the visitation of 1616, Father Or, embarking by canoe on the river of Tocoy (the St. Johns), was noted to have gone Twenty leagues up the river, [where] he and his companions arrived at the convent of San Antonio de Enacape where he had ordered t hat the guardian of that house and the guardian of the other convent called Avino should come together, as well as the religious of both guardianates and a definitor (Geiger 1940: 126) From this description, it would appear that San Antonio de Enacape and San Blas de Avino were located close enough for the religious of Avino to have traveled relatively quickly to Enacape, most likely by boat given the riverine environment. San Blas de Avino is not mentioned again in the historic records after t he 1620s. Two newer missions were founded in Acuera territory during this time: San Luis de Eloquale, and Santa Lucia de Acuera, the latter in the principal town of the Acuera chiefdom (Worth 1998b:189190). While the precise locations of these two missi ons are not known with certainty, the 1655 list of the missions of Florida lists San Luis de la provincia de Acuera, to the south, as being 32 leagues distance from St. Augustine, with Santa Lucia de Acuera, of the same, at 34 leagues, or two leagues distance further than San Luis. If one translates these distances into miles, using the Spanish legua legal of 2.63 miles of the 17th century (Dr. John E. Worth, personal communication 2008), this would place San Luis de Eloquale and Santa Lucia de A cuera approximately 5.26 miles apart, and would place San Luis at 84.2 and Santa Lucia at 89.4 miles from St. Augustine. The 1655 mission list, however, is not clear as to whether these distances refer to travel by land or travel by water. Given the locat ion of Acuera in the region of the Ocklawaha River valley, the latter mode of transportation would seem to have been preferable.

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51 Documents from the period of these latter two missions and thereafter provide glimpses of the culture and lifeways of the Acue ra during the mission era. These glimpses suggest that the Acuera as a people responded differently to the presence of the Spanish in their territory and the changes brought about by missionization than did the other missionized Timucua. The Spanish reco rds of the mission era in Florida indicate that, among most of the missionized Timucuan chiefdoms, the Timucua and their leaders gave over their original systems of belief relatively quickly, replacing their traditional religious leaders with the Francisca n friars and accepting the tenets of Catholicism thereby. Father Franciso Pareja, the friar of the mission San Juan del Puerto on Fort George Island east of modern Jacksonville, wrote in 1620 that Catholicism had vanquished many of the native, pagan superstitions so effectively that the mission Indians do not even remember them; so much so that the younger generation [who grew up under the missions] derides and laughs at those of the older generation, who occasionally still practice the old ways (Milanich 1995:198). In the account of the Or visitation of 1616, the visiting official noted of the people of San Antonio de Enacape He remained to examine the Indians in Christian doctrine and catechism and found that the greater number of th em, men and women, knew it well. The boys, and all in general, besides knowing the catechism well knew also how to serve MassHe did the same in all the towns [of Enacape]. And the greater part of the Indians, men and women, knew the Christian do ctrine (Geiger 1940:127) San Antonio de Enacape was founded in 1595. The passage from the account of the Or visitation, written some twenty years after the founding of the mission, suggests that, among the people of Enacape, Catholicism became common ly accepted within a single generation of the missions founding. Judging from the records from San Juan del Puerto and Enacape, it seems that at most missions the Spanish convinced the Timucua, as well as the Guale and Apalachee, to

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52 set aside their tradi tional lifeways and systems of belief in favor of Catholic Christianity. Varying reasons may have included political and economic benefits, depopulation and social change caused by the presence of epidemic diseases, and the attraction to new ways of life. Do they confe ss as Christians? I answer yes Many persons are found, men and women, who confess and who receive (Holy Communion) with tears, and who show up advantageously with many Spaniards. And I shall make bold and say and sustain my co ntention by what I have learned by experience that with regard to the mysteries of the faith, many of them answer better than the Spaniards (Milanich 1999:145, quoting Gernimo de Or 1936, 15253). In light of this apparently sincere acceptance o f Catholicism and Spanish lifeways among the other Timucuan chiefdoms, the experience of missionization by the Acuera seems to have been quite different if not unique within the mission system; and though the term unique may at first blush seem somew hat strong, I hope at the close of this chapter to have demonstrated otherwise. For among the Acuera, there existed the anomaly of a Timucuan chiefdom, missionized by the Spanish for several decades, with two major waterways providing relatively easy acce ss by the standards of the mission era, among whom substantial non Christian populations existed; who possessed traditional religious leaders with considerable followings long after their recorded conversion to Catholicism; and who ultimately appear to have rejected Catholicism and Spanish lifeways to practice their traditional ways of life through the end of the mission era. While simple distance from the center of Spanish power at St. Augustine and the camino real to the north may be sufficient to explain these differences, it may also be that they reflect either more powerful political leadership or something significantly different within Acuera culture during this period as compared to the other Timucuan cultures of the mission era. By the time of the founding of San Luis de Eloquale and Santa Lucia de Acuera, the territory of the Acuera had become more commonly known as Ibiniuti province from the

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53 Timucuan ibiniuti, literally water land. In an order dated November 5th, 1647, the royal officials Fra ncisco Menndez Mrquez and Pedro Benedit Horruytiner noted the presence of the Chisca Indians, pagans who travel scattered through the lands of the Christians, domineering [ senoreandose ] them and doing them other damages, in the province of Ybineiute (Marquez and Horruytiner to Carmenatiz 1647, Worth, unpublished translation). The order commanded Ensign Nicols de Carmenatiz to travel to Ibiniuti province where He will speak to them on our part, meeting with their cacique and principales so that they might fulfill what is commanded of them, and if some of them might wish to remain, with the approval of the Christian caciques, he will leave them settled in their towns, bringing an account of how many and who they are, endeavoring in everything to direct and arrange how it is executed, without disturbance or scandal, giving them to understand that as they live quietly in the said villages, all good correspondence will be had with them, and that if they try to become Chr istians, they will be able to achieve it attending in the said towns where they will be catequized by the religiosos doctrineros, to which he is to endeavor in guiding them (Marquez and Horruytiner to Carmenatiz 1647, Worth, unpublished transl ation) This passage is noteworthy for two reasons. First, it appears that, despite the Chiscas domineering and causing damages in Ibiniuti, they had apparently settled into communities alongside the converted peoples of the area. Further, the Chisca appear, from the quoted passage, to have lived there for some time; the description of their presence as settled in their towns would appear to indicate the Chiscas presence in Ibiniuti for long enough to have established substantial dwellings and reco gnized polities within the larger territory of the Acuera. This suggests that, perhaps, the damages the Chisca were causing were not sufficient to necessitate being driven from Acuera territory immediately. Second, it is noteworthy that, so long as the Christian caciques of the Acuera approved, the Chiscas would be allowed to remain in the mission province despite being pagan. Though the presence of unconverted populations may simply have been a function of distance from the centers of Spanish cont rol, or of the Acuera

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54 simply not having the strength to drive out the Chiscas on their own, it also may indicate that the Acuera, even after missionization, were more tolerant of the presence of non Christians in their territory than appears to have been t he case among the other mission populations. However, these possibilities are based on the assumption that the Chiscas had, in fact, been living in Acuera territory for some time. It is also possible that the Chiscas were very recent arrivals in Acuera a t the time of the 1647 order concerning them. If so, the fact that they were unconverted at that time would more likely have been because they had not been present in Acuera or in Spanish Florida long enough for any political or military pressure or socia l and cultural interchange to have taken place. This latter possibility is strengthened by evidence that, among the Acuera, there continued to exist traditional religious leaders with a substantial following long after missions were founded in their terri tory. An order from Benito Ruiz de Salazar dated April 18th, 1648, to Juan Dominguez, a soldier in the St. Augustine garrison, noted the following: Inasmuch as I have been advised that in the town of Piliuco, which is in the province of Acuera, there i s a sorcerer Indian [ yndio echisero ] (the Spanish term for the Timucuan jarva or shaman), and that he is the causer of some disquiet in the said town and province, and it is suitable to the service of His Majesty that he be brought to this presidio, and likewise that the cacique of the town of San Diego de Elaca should return with his vassals to his town for the present I order and command th at upon receiving this order [Ensign Juan Dominguez] should depart with the infantry that I have commanded to loan [him] for this effect and go to the said province and ask the cacique of the said town of Piliaco for the said sorcerer Indian, and having investigated if he is the same one that is causing the said disquiet, he will bring him u nder good security to this presidio, and that from the town of Santa Lucia [de Acuera] he will come gathering all the Indians from the stated town of Elaca and bring them and make them come to their town, advising me in this place of all that he do es so that I can go and in the said town determine what should be done for the conservation of the crossing [ paso] of the said town (Ruiz de Salazar Valecilla to Dominguez 1648, Worth, unpublished translation).

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55 In light of the previously quoted passages concerning San Juan del Puerto and San Antonio de Enacape, both of them missions of this period, this order is extremely interesting for several reasons. First, unlike other missionized Native American groups of La Florida, the Acuera appear to h ave maintained enough cultural autonomy and conservatism for traditional religious leaders to exist more than thirty years after the first mission was placed in their territory. Second, and equally significant, the fact that this sorcercer Indian could cause some disquiet suggests that enough of the people in Acuera territory continued to practice traditional systems of belief for such disquiet to be possible, again indicating that the Acuera maintained a more traditional culture and pattern of life than other Native American groups living within the Spanish mission system. Finally, the above passage indicates that the Acuera may have been regarded as a haven for fugitives fleeing the repartimiento, or labor draft, from other regions. Elaca is cle arly San Diego de Helaca, the mission town existing between 1624 and 1657 established for the crossing of the St. Johns River by Governor Rojas y Borja (Worth 1998b:165). The fact that the leader of that town and all the Indians from the stated town of E laca were present in Acuera territory suggests that the Acuera allowed fugitives from other missionized chiefdoms to come to their land, apparently including the whole or large parts of entire populations. This picture is complicated by the fact that, a t the time of the 1648 order, the chief and possibly the people of the San Diego de Helaca mission may themselves have been Acuera (Dr. John E. Worth, personal communication 2009). If the people stationed at San Diego de Helaca were Acuera who had moved t o the crossing town to serve the needs of the Spanish, then the cacique of Elaca was simply returning to his own territory with his people rather than fleeing to Acuera from elsewhere. However, if this is the case, it is still significant that an entire group

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56 of Acuera were willing to defy the orders of the Spanish concerning their movement and duties under the labor draft, particularly in view of the importance to the Spanish of maintaining a ferry crossing linking St. Augustine on the coast with the interior of Spanish Florida. The missions to the Acuera appear to have been abandoned in the wake of the Timucuan Rebellion in 1656. There are no further records from San Luis de Eloquale or Santa Lucia de Acuera after that date (Worth 1998b:100). However unlike other chiefdoms removed to mission stations along the camino real, the Acuera remained within their traditional territory, and Ibiniuti continued to be a haven for unconverted and fugitive Timucuan populations for the remainder of the seventeent h century (ibid). During the latter half of the seventeenth century, it appears that, at least for some time, there was some form of continued relationship between the Acuera and the Spanish despite the abandonment of active missions in Acuera territory. An order for the labor draft from Governor Guerra y Vega to Ensign Juan Dominguez, dated January 21st, 1668, reads in relevant part as follows: Don Franciso de la Guerra y de la Vega, governor and captain general of this city and presidio of St. Augustine Florida, and its provinces for His Majesty. Inasmuch as I have sent to the provinces of Timucua, Apalachee, and that of Ybineyuti [to look for] the people which are customarily brought for the labor of the infantry who serve His Majesty in the presidio of this city, so that they might sustain themselves better, and so that the post will have the necessary provision; and it is suitable to make a draft from the provinces of Guale and Mocama, as has been done for time immemorial in this place, and for this draft and transport, it is suitable to send a person who is capable among the natives, so that with all wisdom he brings them; and because I am informed that most who are in the habit of coming are pagans (Guerra y Vega 1668 in Worth 1995a :78) The references in this order indicate that, more than a decade after the abandonment of the Acuera missions, the people of Acuera province Ibiniuti continued to provide labor for the Spanish; or, at least, that the Spanish sent officials or orders to t he Acuera for service under the

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57 repartimiento at this time. This would suggest that at least some of the Acuera continued to maintain a relationship with the Spanish, perhaps indicating a split between leaders or parts of the Acuera chiefdom in the later seventeenth century. Another intriguing point to the language of the order is that most who are in the habit of coming [for service under the repartimiento] are pagans (Worth 1995a :78). If this is true, it seems likely that the Acuera (and possibly oth ers from Timucua, Apalachee, Guale and Mocama) were not reporting for the labor draft from any sense of continuing religious obligation or loyalty to the Spanish or the Catholic faith. Rather, their decision to serve most likely was based on a sense of potential benefit for themselves from participating in such service to the colonial governor. However, it is worthy to note that, during this period, Yamassee Indians from the north had entered the missions of Spanish Florida in considerable numbers (Worth 1998b), and that many of them remained unconverted while living within or near the missions. Thus, it is also possible that the reference to pagans in Guerra y Vegas order included the unconverted Yamassees who were a part of the mission system during this period. Other documents from this later period, postdating the missions, provide further evidence that the Acuera followed more traditional lifeways in the colonial period than the other Timucuan cultures. Records of the 1678 trial of the Acuera Cal esa provide the most detail on this issue, as well as the most complete picture of Acuera culture at this time. Calesa was a nephew and subject of Chief Jabajica of Acueras village of Alisa (Hann 1992:452). He and a woman of the Potano, Mara Jacoba, were tried for four killings which took place in 1677. The documents concerning the case describe Calesa as that heathen Indian man (Hann 1992:453), and refer to others present with Calesa, including his brother Pequata Nalis, as his heathen companions and all of whom were heathen (Hann 1992:454, 461).

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58 During the course of Mara Jacobas testimony at the trial of she and Calesa, she stated of the killings by Calesa that [asked if] she knows the name of the chief who ordered the said Calesa to go abo ut killing men and where he is. She said that he w as called Yabajica and that he is heathen and that he is in a little place (lugarcillo) called Bro Zebano close to (cercana a) Piriaco. And that there are up to six peo ple with the said cacique, all kins men (parientes), and the said Calesa one of the m. And they are all commanded and under orders from the said Chief Yabajica to kill people (Hann 1992:462463). Calesa personally testified of himself and the killings: He [Calesa] was asked what his name w as, where he is a native of, how old he is, and what occupation he has. He said that in his childhood they n amed him Calesa and now that he is a man, Yazah. He did not kn ow how to tell his age . And [he said] that he is a native of the village of A lisa in Acuera Province, and that his occupation has been hunter and that he is a vassal and nephew of cacique Yabajica . [Of one of the victims] He said that it is true that he killed him at the order of his said chief, Yabajica, even though t his witness [Calesa] sought to dissuade him, telling him that he did not wis h to kill him because he was a Christian and that if they were to capture him sometime, they would punish him. At this the said cacique replied to this witness that [th e victim] the sai d Alonsso had wanted to kill him and, accordingly, that he should kill himHe was asked if he knows that his cacique has commanded his vassals to k ill people. He said yes, that he knows it. He was asked if in those environs of his p lace there are other injurious Indians who go about doing harm. He said th at he is not aware of it (Hann 1992:463) Captain Juan de Pueyo, the defender nominated for Mara Jacoba and Calesa, defended Calesas actions on the following grounds: And as to th e guilt and responsibility that attaches to the said Calesa for the deaths of the said Alonsso and Loreno and a heathen, your lords hip should and must take note that my said client is a heathen who does not re cognize any other authority or superior in his land than his uncle the chief, Jabahica. And as his vassal, he and the rest were doing what he ordered them [to do] (as they we re obligated to do) . And it being a general rule as it is among the Indians, both heathen and Christian, [that] their gr eatest exploit (valentia) and trophy is to kill their enemies to obtain the name of noroco, he and the rest killed those whom they wer e able to in virtue of the said order both for the said [status] and to serve their chief (Hann 1992:466467)

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59 The term noroco used both among the Timucua and the Apalachee, refers to a warrior status gained from the killing of enemies in warfare (Hann 1996:101). The quoted passages suggest three things about the Acuera after the abandonment of the Acuera missions. First, at the time of the events described, twenty one years after the Timucuan Rebellion, the Acuera still practiced their traditional systems of belief. Calesa, his uncle Jabajica, and the other Indians from Acuera are explicitly described throughout the tria l documents as heathens, suggesting no practicing Catholics remained among the Acuera at this time, despite forty years of missionization. This is consistent with the reference in the 1668 Guerra y Vega order to most of those reporting for the labor dra ft being pagans, as well. Second, it would appear that, at least at the time of the Calesa trial (1678), the Acuera continued to possess a chiefdom social structure. The term Piriaco in the quoted passage from Mara Jacoba is a variant of the name Pi liaco, the Timucuan town referred to in Ruiz de Salazars 1648 order quoted earlier. The documents from the Calesa trial suggest that Chief Jabajica ruled both Biro Zebano and Alisa, and may possibly have ruled Piriaco/Pilicao as well. Likewise, given th e emphasis in the trial documents on the familial relationship of uncle/nephew between Jabajica and Calesa, it seems likely that Calesa may have been considered a potential heir to Jabajicas chiefly status under the matrilineal system traditional within T imucuan culture. While not definitive, the documents thus suggest that the Acuera continued to possess multicommunity political units with ascribed social rank (Worth 1998a:13) in 1678. Finally, the fact that these killings were defended on the grounds that they were ritual killings, intended to give Calesa the status of noroco through the addition of status (Hann 1992:466467), suggests that the Acuera, and those observing them, possessed a significant awareness and consciousness of their traditional c ultural practice even after more than three -

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60 quarters of a century within the colonial system. It is noteworthy on this point that Governor Pablo de Hita Salazar, after initially condemning Calesa to death, commuted the sentence to exile and forced labor ( Hann 1992:468, 473). At the time of the Calesa trial, the governor ordered the arrest and capture of Chief Jabajica (Hann 1992:470471). While it is unknown whether this order was ever carried out, it appears the Acuera continued to exist as a distinctiv e cultural unit through the end of the seventeenth century. Interestingly, the 1687 tally of items distributed from the Indian fund refers to gifts presented to Caciques of Ibiniuti e (rendering obedience). These caciques were given gifts of 24 knives, a hoe, 2 arrobas of wheat flour, and 12 pounds of hardtack (Worth 1998a:139). In that same year, some pagan Indians from Ibiniuti were also given 20 pounds of hardtack (Worth 1998a:141). While we cannot be certain that these caciques and pagan Indi ans were in fact Acuera, it is not unreasonable to assume they were, given the designation of Acuera province by the Timucuan name Ibiniuti noted earlier. The final known reference to the Acuera as a people comes from Governor Diego de Quiroga y Losada s term of office (1687 1693). The Governor noted that he had gathered the heathen Indians of Ayapaja and Acuera in the village of Ivitanayo (Hann 1996:244). While the chief of these two groups was baptized, ultimately the people of Ayapaja and Acuera l eft Ivitanayo to live in the woods (Hann 1996:244), suggesting that, despite earlier missionization and more than a century of colonial interaction with the Spanish, the Acuera at the end preferred to practice their traditional ways of life. Summarizing the Historic Evidence: Acuera Culture During the Contact and Mission Eras Taking the evidence from the historic documents as a whole, it appears that, based purely on the written records, the following things can be concluded with some certainty about the Acuera and their culture and practice during the contact and the mission periods.

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61 First, throughout both the contact and the mission eras, the traditional territory of the Acuera was and remained what today is the Ocklawaha River Valley and the Ocala Nat ional Forest. The location of Acuera itself, and the locations of the neighboring chiefdoms as listed in the Ranjel and Elvas accounts of the de Soto entrada, clearly indicate that Acuera territory was near the territory of both the Ocale and the Potano c hiefdoms, which would suggest (1) an area bordering both territories, (2) which was within the interior of the Florida peninsula. The region of the Ocklawaha River and the forest that it surrounds is the only physical location which would fit this descrip tion. Furthermore, the description of the location of Acuera from the Or visitation in the early seventeenth century and the description of Acueras location from the Calesa murder trial in the later seventeenth century indicate that, throughout this per iod, Acuera was (1) west and south of the Enacape chiefdom on the eastern side of the St. Johns River (Or), (2) south of Potano (Calesa trial), and (3) accessible to mission San Antonio de Enacape by water travel (Or). These references thus would contin ue to place Acuera in the area of the Ocklawaha River Valley and its environs, because this is the only location that would fit these descriptions exactly. Second, and concomitant with these conclusions, the Acuera do not appear to have suffered the effec ts of demographic disruption and displacement to the same degree suffered by the other missionized Timucuan chiefdoms of Spanish Florida during the mission period (Worth 1998b). In the wake of the Timucuan Rebellion, other Timucua were uprooted and displa ced by the governor and secular authorities in St. Augustine and the western mission provinces (Worth 1998b:88116) to serve along the Camino Real, moving leaders and people from their traditional locations to way stations along the royal road across pen insular Florida (ibid). By contrast, the Acuera appear to have remained in their traditional territory throughout the entire time we have

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62 records of them. They appear to have either defied Rebolledos order to move or to never have been subject to the or der in the first place, and they continued to reside in the region of the Ocklawaha at least until the opening of the 18th century and the open colonial conflicts between Spain and England which eventually destroyed Floridas original Native American cultures. Third, the documents present a picture of a Timucuan chiefdom that appears to have responded in a significantly different way to the presence of the Spanish in Florida and, during a part of the mission period, directly within their territory. While the other missionized Timucua appear to have accepted Spanish Catholicism and to have engaged primarily in minor, sporadic, and individual acts of resistance to the processes of colonial assimilation, the Acuera seem to have acted as a whole to maintain th eir traditional lifeways and cultural practices in a way which appears to have been major, unified, and systemic; and they appear to have done so despite being a part of the mission system for more than four decades. This is, of course, a strong statemen t and a generalization of a very complex and changing cultural system during the colonial period, and I want to emphasize that it does not mean that other missionized Native American groups did not maintain certain important core beliefs despite conversion to Catholicism. It has been suggested that the language of Parejas Confesionario indicates that shamans and traditional practices existed among the other missionized Timucua (Milanich and Sturtevant 1972; Dr. Michael Gannon, historian, personal communic ation 2010), and that Fray Paivas account of the persistence of the Apalachee ball game after missionization, with its supernatural and religious significance, represents the retention of an important core belief among the missionized Apalachee (Hann 1988 ; Dr. Michael Gannon, personal comm unication 2010). While I concur that these examples indicate the persistence of some traditional belief s and practice s among other missionized groups t here are

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63 very important differences between the examples of such per sistence referred to in Pareja and Paiva, and the response seen among the Acuera, which I now discuss. Consider first the references to traditional beliefs and practices in Parejas Confesionario, and their context. As noted earlier in this chapter, Pareja described the degree to which the missionized Mocama under his ecclesiastical jurisdiction appeared to sincerely accept the tenets of Catholicism. Based on the historic evidence, it would thus seem that the people Pareja was most familiar with had largely assimilated into the mission system and Spanish colonial society, including Catholic belief and practice, by the time the Confesionario was written. Furthermore, the fact that questions and answers about shamanism and traditional beliefs and practices appear in a Catholic confessional imply that (1) the people being questioned accepted the right of the friar or priest giving confession to question them and to judge their actions and practices, and, concomitantly, t hat (2) the people being questioned accepted the system i.e., the Catholic mission system with all of its elements that allowed the friars control over so much of their lives and activities. This acceptance of Catholic practice and the mission system among most of the missionized Timucua is further reinforced by the historic record of the events surrounding the Timucuan Rebellion in 1656: This event seems to underline a basic feature of the Timucuan rebellion, at least as envisioned by its principal le ader. The uprising does not seem to have reflected an attempt to return to precontact cultural norms, with a subsequent rejection of everything Spanish. Instead, it seems to have centered on a political power struggle between the remaining Timucuan chief doms of Floridas interior and the Spanish military government in St. Augustine. Indeed, Lcas Menndez [the rebellions principal leader] later explained to a friar that the rebellion did not signify that the Timucuans were abandoning the law of God, nor refusing to be obedient to [His] Majesty; their actions were instead designed to liberate themselves from the offenses and continuous injuries (Worth 1998b:63) (emphasis added).

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64 Since Franciscan friars were specically exempt from the orders of the rebe l chiefs to kill all secular Spaniards (Worth 1998b: 62), the historic record suggests that, even in the midst of rebellion against a governor the Timucuan leaders perceived as abusive, most missionized Timucua by 1656 had accepted Catholicism and the Catho lic mission system as a given within which they lived, worked, and acted, and that the acts and practices referred to by Pareja would thus have been sporadic, occasional, and individual, rather than regular, continuous, and systemic. Considered in contex t, the same is true of the missionized Apalachee and the persistence of the ball game, with its association with traditional beliefs. The historic record surrounding Paivas campaign to have the ball game banned among the Apalachee indicates that, despite the strong attachment of the Apalachee to the game, even at the outset of Paivas campaign for its elimination, in the mid 1670s, there were Apalachee who supported the elimination of the game, going as far as to replace the goal posts in their villages with crosses (Hann 1988:90). And though there was continuing attachment to the game through the 1670s and 1680s, by 1694 the Apalachee had ultimately given up the ball game and played it no longer, despite its strong association with their traditional m yths and ritual practice (Hann 1988:9091). Thus, considering the historic record of the other missionized Timucuan chiefdoms, and the Apalachee, with the historic record of the Acuera, there do appear to have existed significant differences between the re sponse of other missionized Native Americans to missionization and the response of the Acuera. Acts of resistance in the form of adherence to traditional ritual practices among most missionized groups in 17thcentury La Florida seem to have been individu al acts, by specific persons or groups, which took place within a context where most missionized groups accepted the Spanish mission system, Catholic belief and practice, and their

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65 place within colonial society, even when rebellion broke out among the Ti mucua, and which ultimately led to the end of certain ritual practices such as the Apalachee ball game. By contrast, adherence to traditional systems of belief among the Acuera appears to have persisted throughout Acuera culture, even when Franciscan missi ons were present in their territory, and to have been openly practiced and sanctioned both by ordinary Acuera and by their leaders. In fact, in the case of the Calesa murder trial, such open acceptance of traditional beliefs and defiance of the tenets of Catholicism led to punishment by the secular authorities and an order of arrest for the Acuera chief. It is important to make clear that, in noting these differences in the Acuera response to missionization, that I am not arguing that other missionized gro ups completely gave over their core beliefs upon entry into the mission system, or that individual acts of resistance by adherence to traditional beliefs did not take place; I consider it likely that core beliefs persisted among many groups and that many i ndividuals among missionized chiefdoms maintained certain traditional practices. Furthermore, it is well known that groups outside the mission system, such as the Ais, Jeaga and Calusa, continued to practice their traditional systems of belief well into t he 18th century (Andrews 1985; Hann 1991, 2003). But the response by the Acuera differs from the other missionized groups in that they (1) entered the mission system relatively early; (2) remained within the mission system for more than four decades, with traditional spiritual leaders and ritual practices existing alongside Franciscan friars; (3) left the mission system, while remaining within their traditional territory; and (4) maintained a continuing relationship with Spanish colonial society for the re st of their recorded existence while at the same time retaining their traditional systems of belief and social practice. In other words, the reponses to missionization both by other missionized Timucua and by the Apalachee seem to have taken

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66 place within the context of an acceptance of the mission system, while the response of the Acuera has more the tenor of a negotiation by the Acuera, as a center of author ity, culture and belief, with other center s i.e., the Catholic Church, and the Spanish crown as represented by colonial Florida s secular authorities. Furthermore, despite the effects of depopulation and demographic shifts elsewhere, the Acuera appear to have maintained a chiefdom social structure, based upon their traditional beliefs and practices, throughout the entire time of their recorded existence. However, it is important to note that the historic evidence from the later 17th century, particularly the evidence from the Calesa murder trial documents, does not necessarily mean that larger numbe rs of Acuera survived than other missionized Timucua, or that they were not affected by the demographic shifts and disruption taking place in Spanish Florida during this period. While the presence of multiple towns in Acuera suggests larger numbers of peo ple than elsewhere in Timucua at this time, we do not know how many inhabitants each town had, nor is there firm historic evidence about the numbers of people in Acuera at this time when compared to other Timucuan chiefdoms. Thus, the seemingly smaller impact of demographic change and disruption in Acuera may simply be a function of a relative lack of information in the historic record rather than a reflection of an actual phenomenon. It might be argued that this divergence in Acuera culture, compared to the other missionized chiefdoms to the north, is simply a function of distance from the camino real and the heart of Spanish power at St. Augustine. Certainly, it seems likely that the distance of Acuera from the center of effective Spanish control played at least some role in the ability of the Acuera to maintain their traditional culture. However, it is important to remember that Acuera territory the Ocklawaha River valley and the modern Ocala National Forest was easily accessible by

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67 water. The St. Johns River and the Ocklawaha provide a much easier means of travel than would the overland transportation of the 17th century. Further, it is important to remember Fontanedas account and his description of Acuera as the cacique with the pearls, suggesting Acuera had connection by water and trade with numerous surrounding chiefdoms. Thus, to claim simple distance alon e as the reason for the continued traditional practices and lifeways of the Ac uera would seem somewhat simplistic, and contradict s some of the historic evidence suggesting relative ease of access between chiefdoms during this period Rather, while distanc e from the center of Spanish control likely played at least some role, the picture of the Acuera revealed in the colonial documents concerning them suggests a people whose culture in this period was more resilient and more traditional than the other missio nized Timucuan groups, though whether this was due to a fundamental difference in Acuera culture or to the leadership of certain persons or lineages is not known at this point. Having discussed the historical record of the Acuera as seen through the eyes of the Spanish, I wish now to discuss what is known of the ways in which the Acuera saw themselves in relationship to the Spanish and to the other missionized Native American peoples of the Spanish southeast.

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68 CHAPTER 3 THE LINGUISTIC EVIDE NCE TH E ACUERA WORLDVIEW T HROUGH LANGUAGE Having discussed what is known of the Acuera chiefdom through the colonial records which mention them, it is important to remember a truism familiar to all historic archaeologists: recorded information about socalled voiceless groups is of necessity seen from the perspective of the writers of such accounts, who, for the contact and colonial era, had worldviews radically differing from the peoples they described. As a consequence, there has been much discussion among modern researchers concerning the use of archaeological evidence as a source of data to counter the views of Native American and other groups which are evident in historic documents. However, there is a rich source of additional evidence within the histor ic texts which is very frequently overlooked in such discussions: i.e., names of people and places in the languages of the people being studied. In his classic A Study of Archaeology, Walter Taylor was one of the first archaeologists to recognize that, be cause culture consisted of all those mental constructs or ideas which have been learned or created after birth by an individual (Taylor 1948: 109), a study of the objectifications of culture, including artifacts and other material and non material r esults of [cultural] behavior, would provide the archaeologist with an understanding of the ideas within the minds of their creators (Taylor 1948:111). Thus, the goal of the study of the archaeological record should be to gain a deeper understanding of th e worldviews of the people who created it. In the case of historic archaeology, such objectifications of culture include both written texts and, where records exist, within language itself Language is itself an artifact, a human construct created fo r the purposes of communication, and a study of both language itself and of words and names can provide the modern researcher with clues to understanding peoples of the

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69 past. Such a study is particularly valuable when the peoples we study have disappeared as cultures, leaving no direct cultural descendents behind. This chapter will examine the Acuera from a linguistic perspective, using the historic source documents which provide names and places from Acuera and other Timucuan chiefdoms in the Timucuan language. Specifically what is known of the names of both places and individuals within the Acuera region within the context of contact and missionization of Acuera during the 17th century will be discussed in detail. The meaning of such names in the Timucuan language will be examined and compared with such names from other regions in the Timucuan speaking cultural area It will be argued here that, when compared with known names from the other Timucuan speaking cultures, the names used by the Acuera evidence a distinctive and unique perception of Acuera culture both by the Acuera themselves and by other Timucuan people s. This linguistic evidence will provide a context for the examination of archaeological evidence from the Ocklawaha River Valley in the following chapters. The limited Spanish records directly concerning Acuera province, as discussed in chapter 2, sugge st that there was a continuing adherence to traditional lifeways and systems of belief throughout the seventeenth century among the Acuera, both during and after missionization. However, the Spanish records alone cannot tell us either (1) what the Acuera themselves thought about their own culture in relationship to the Spanish, or to the other Timucuan chiefdoms, or (2) whether, in the eyes of the Acuera, the other Timucua, or the Spanish, there was some recognizable distinction between Acuera and the othe r missionized Timucuan chiefdoms. More importantly, the historic records alone cannot tell us the source of any such distinction, assuming that one could be shown to exist.

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70 The only source which may provide such clues are the names from Acuera province, as well as such names from other Timucuan chiefdoms, provided by the historic records. Names in Timucua, based on the linguistic evidence, appear to have been composites of words within the language (Granberry 1993), rather than discrete sound clusters. If these word composites provide descriptive information of the person or place they represent, they allow a modern researcher a glimpse into the patterns of thought and worldview of the people who created and used them. Thus, translating names from the historic records, because such names represent choices made by the Acuera (and other Timucua) themselves, can provide us with an understanding of how the Acuera saw themselves in relationship to the world and other people. Accordingly, following is a detailed analysis of Timucuan names both of people and places from Acuera, as well as from other Timucuan chiefdoms. Timucuan Names: A Linguistic Analysis To perform an analysis of Acuera placenames vis vis other Timucuan cultures, all of the known names f rom Acuera were drawn from the historic records, primarily from orders issued by the Spanish governors of Florida during the early 17th century, and from the documentary record of the Calesa murder trial. Then, a sampling of names both of people and indiv iduals from other Timucuan chiefdoms were taken from documents of the contact and colonial period, to provide a basis for comparison with the names used by the Acuera. The names as used within European records from the colonial period primarily Spanish, though names were taken from French documents concerning the 1564 settlement at Fort Caroline as well were tabulated and broken down into the discrete words each name represented, using Granberrys A Grammar and Dictionary of the Timucua Language (1993) These words were then translated into English, with alternative possible translations noted where

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71 single words could represent alternative meanings. Wherever possible, the composite translated words were then rendered into the best colloquial meaning. The results of this analysis of Acuera and other Timucuan names have been summa rized in the table at the close of this chapter Discussion Rendering Timucuan names into modern English is a matter of probability, since the Spanish renditions of most Timucua names are fractured Timucua and more than likely phonologically inaccurate (Julian Granberry, linguist, personal communication 2008). However, even allowing for this possibility, there are remarkable and significant differences between the name s used by the Acuera during the contact and mission periods, and those names used by the other Timucuan chiefdoms. Specifically, the names examined here suggest the following: a) The names used by most Timucuan cultures signify physical descriptions of people or locations, or descriptions of political status. Of the names used by the Acuera, on the other hand, nearly all appear to have supernatural or ritual significance, suggesting a fundamental difference in Acuera culture as seen both by themselves an d other Timucuan speakers. b) This difference appears to have persisted and grown stronger throughout the mission period and thereafter, and suggests the possibility that the Acuera helped to serve as a focus for resistance to colonization and missionizat ion among the Timucuan cultures. c) While the names examined date primarily to the 17th century, the Acuera of the colonial era may have drawn on much older traditions and beliefs to emphasize and strengthen their own culture in the face of Spanish efforts to change it.

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72 Natural versus Supernatural: The Significance of Acuera Names When examining the translated names listed in Table 1, it is clear that the names listed in the historic records for most Timucuan places and individuals are purely descriptive o f physical traits, locations, or, at most, political status. For example, the Machava of Santa Elena de Machava (Worth 1998b:180) is clearly the Timucuan machaba, swamp. Tarihica, of Santa Cruz de Tarihica (Worth 1998b;173), is the Timucuan words tar i hica literally workers town. The Asile of San Miguel de Asile (Worth 1998b:180), which also gives its name to the modern Aucilla, is clearly the Timucuan name asileco withered leaf. The place names rendered here for most Timucuan chiefdoms, th en, clearly appear to signify physical descriptions of the places themselves, or of natural features nearby. The same holds true for names of individuals from outside the Acuera region. For example, Saturiba, the chief of the Timucuan chiefdom near Fort Caroline in 1564 (Laudonnire), is clearly a combination of the words sa tori ba, or, literally, handsome burning chief (Granberry 1993). Saturibas rival Olata Ouae Outina, believed to occupy the territory near what is today Grandin in Putnam County (Milanich 1995), is a rendering by the French of the Timucuan holata aya(aye) utina, or chief of the forested region (Granberry 1993). Thus, of the names appearing in the Spanish and French records from the Timucuan cultural region outside Acuera, both places and people appear to have names that are either physical descriptions of the place or person, or descriptions of that persons political or social status. Within Acuera territory however, names were clearly different. Closely examining Acuera name s, in the light of what we know of Timucuan beliefs, nearly all such names from the historic records appear to have either supernatural or ritual significance. This difference is first evident in the name Acuera itself. The Timucuan words acu ero lite rally translated, mean moon/month and year/season. Taken as a word composite,

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73 Acuera can be translated as calendar or timekeeper; it can also imply ancient or old (Julian Granberry, linguist, personal communication 2008). This choice of nam e suggests that the Acuera may have seen themselves, and been seen by other Timucuan speakers, as timekeepers, as the keepers of times of importance. It may also imply that the Acuera saw themselves as somehow older or more ancient than the cultures w hich surrounded them, or that they were seen by the other Timucuan speakers as such. It is worthy of note, in discussing the name chosen by the Acuera for themselves, that it was already being used at the time of the first European accounts of the Acuer a chiefdom from the de Soto entrada, as discussed in the previous chapter. This implies that, from the outset of the time Europeans began observing the Acuera and other Timucuan speakers, there was a consciousness among the Acuera of being distinct from o ther Timucua. Calling oneself or ones culture the keepers of time or the ancient ones would suggest the possibility of a ritual significance for the name, particularly in view of the importance of time and its divisions to ritual specialists in cultu res throughout the world. It may also be worthy of note that both the Ranjel and Garcilaso accounts describe the first significant resistance as taking place upon the Spanish reaching this region. In a record of the earliest known Acuera mission, San Blas de Avino, dated 1627 (Worth 1998b:189, Boyer 2006b), the mission is described as being near two towns whose names were Utiaca and Tucuru. The name Utiaca can be a combination of either the Timucuan words uti aca, or utiti aca. The first combinatio n can mean earth, land, country, world, plus wind; colloquially, it can mean country of the wind, wind of the world or, with utiti meaning reverence, reverence of the wind. Tucuru is clearly a combination of the words tucu ura, meani ng accompanying or together with the live oak. This combination is not a

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74 physical description of nearness, as the term near in Timucua was usually rendered with the words eqete, cabichi, qela, nahe, or naheba (Granberry 1993:214). Rather, it sugg ests an erasing of barriers between the town itself, and the live oak. The absence of barriers between human beings and the natural world is a characteristic of many cultures practicing animism, or shamanism (Jordan 2001:8890). Finally, the very name o f the mission, Avino, itself may have ritual significance. The Timucuan words abi no can mean dress/now, hour/time/now, apart/now, or walk/now. The most likely rendering of this combination is the time is now, or we are apart now suggesti ng an emphasis on either time, or separation from others. I will return to this point at the close of the discussion. The 1648 order from Governor Benito Ruiz de Salazar, to Juan Dominguez, ordering the arrest of the sorcerer Indian causing disquiet in Acuera province and ordering the gathering and return of the refugees from San Diego de Helaca, specifically notes that this sorcerer Indian was in the town of Piliuco, which is also rendered in the same order as Piliaco (Boyer 2006; Ruiz de Salaz ar Valecilla to Dominguez 1648, Worth, unpublished translation). Pili aco in Timucua, means literally drag/draw most; pili uco drag/draw drink. The best rendering of this name, then, appears to be to draw most [of them] to drink. It is very like ly that this name refers to the ceremony of the black drink, which has long been known to have ritual and supernatural significance both among the Timucuan cultures and most Southeastern Native American groups (Merrill 1979, Milanich 1979, 1994, 1995, 1999). It is also significant that the order notes that the sorcerer at issue was living within the town of Piliaco/Piliuco at this time. This suggests that the town may have served as a meeting place for those of the

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75 Acuera who continued to practice the t raditional systems of belief, the place where most were drawn to drink. The documents dating from the early and middle seventeenth century thus indicate the growth of a consciousness by the Acuera of differences between themselves and the other missionized Timucua, differences that seem to have been grounded in ritual and the supernatural. However, these differences seem to have become more pronounced and obvious in the later seventeenth century, after the Timucuan Rebellion and the withdrawal of the Sp anish from the Acuera missions. The Acuera continued to reside in their traditional territory, and to have been a focus for runaways and fugitives from the repartimiento, or labor draft (Worth 1998b:100). The records of the Calesa murder trial, dating to 1678, are fully explicable only in light of the ritual and supernatural significance of the names of the participants and the places referred to. The testimony of Mara Jacoba, the Potano woman accused with Calesa of the four killings, indicated that Cal esa had been ordered to kill by his uncle Jabajica, who was said to live in a little town called Biro Zebano near to Piriaco (Hann 1992:462 463). Piriaco is clearly a variation of the name Piliaco or Piliuco, the same town mentioned in the 1648 order discussed earlier. The name Jabajica is clearly a combination of the Timucuan words yaba hica, which literally mean sorcerers town, wizards town, or shamans town. The little place of Biro Zebano, where Jabajica was said to be, is a c ombination of the words biro si bano(banehe) which means men like wolves (Granberry 1993; Julian Granberry, personal communication 2008). Thus, at the very beginning of the testimony, we have the wizards town, residing in the place of men like wolv es, near the town where most are drawn to drink. Clearly, there is a conscious attempt on the part of the Acuera to emphasize a difference between themselves and

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76 the still missionized Timucua at this time. The supernatural and ritual references of the Acuera names are obvious; furthermore, it is striking that an individual, even a chief, would be given a name that should refer to a place the sorcerers town. While a single instance of such an individual name might be considered an error in the tex t, the trial documents refer on several occasions to the cacique Jabajica (Hann 1992; Pablo de Hita Salazar 1678, Boyer, unpublished translation), suggesting that there is an essential identity between Jabahica the individual leader and the wizards tow n. Also significant in this context is the name of Calesas brother, Pequata Nalis. Pequata nalis is the golden servant or the golden vassal. The color gold is associated with the sun, which had a strong place in traditional Timucuan religious pract ice (Laudonnire in Bennet 2001:13; Hulton 1977). The name golden servant thus appears to be an invocation of spiritual power, suggesting that the role of Pequata Nalis in the killings may have had supernatural importance. The testimony provided by Cal esa himself, that Calesa was his childhood name but now that he is a man, his name is Yazah (Hann 1992: 463), is likewise inexplicable except in terms of Timucuan and other Native American ritual. Ca le sa as noted in Table 1, means literally here or this now handsome, or now agreeable. The best translation of this name would be The handsome one or The agreeable one. Ya sa by contrast, means literally not handsome or not agreeable. The implication of such a change in names is that as an unblooded child, Calesa was, literally, an agreeable one; the implication here would suggest a better term might be peaceful. However, now that Calesa has become a blooded warrior, he is not agreeable, suggesting an implication of warlike. Thus, the change in names

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77 suggests a symbolic passage from the innocence and peace of a child to the experience and violence of an adult warrior. This change of names is closely paralleled in the Apalachee myth of Nicoguadca, god of thunder, and the creation of the Apalachee ball game. In the account of the Apalachee myth as recorded by Fray Juan de Paiva, the principal character, grandson of a chi ef Ytononslac identified with another of the Apalachees gods, when a child, was named simply Chita (Hann and McEwan 1998:130). At the age of twelve, Chita became Oclafi, meaning lord of water; then, at age twenty, he was given the name Eslafiayu pi (ibid). The lafi portion of this name meant lord of, but the Apalachee informants upon whom Paiva based his account refused to give the meaning, suggesting an esoteric significance (Hann and McEwan 1998: 130). At the close of the myth, Eslafayupi was recognized to be Nicoguadca, the lightningflash born of the sun whose name is Nico, and of Nicotaijulo or woman of the sun (Hann and McEwan 1998: 131). The Apalachee account clearly shows that the change of names, in Apalachee culture, had both r itual and supernatural significance; in the Apalachee myth, the principal character proceeds from childhood innocence through growth and trial to the status of a deity. If such ritual and supernatural significance in changing names also applied to Timucua n culture, including the practices of the Acuera, the killings perpetrated by Calesa and ordered by Jabahica may be better understood not simply as an attempt by Calesa to gain warrior status and social significance, but as an attempt by Calesa, Jabahica and the Acuera as a whole to gain esoteric power and supernatural strength, both against the Spanish and against other Timucua. It is worthy of note that the people killed by Calesa were specifically said to be four Christians and one heathen (Hann 1992:464) from the Potano chiefdom. This suggests that, if the killings were perpetrated

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78 for supernatural and ritual purposes, the Acuera may have focused on missionized Timucua from another chiefdom as a means of symbolically rejecting both the Spanish and those Native Americans who had acculturated with them. Thus, by the seventeenth century, the names used by the Acuera, when compared to the names used by other Timucuan speaking groups, suggest an extraordinary degree of ritual and supernatural significan ce both in the names of places and individuals, and a high consciousness on the part of the Acuera of the symbolic and the spiritual in their relationships with both the Spanish and other Native Americans. Furthermore, this emphasis on ritual and the supe rnatural appears to have served as a means to separate Acuera as a region and a culture from the other Timucuan chiefdoms. Social and Cultural Memory and the Making of Traditions The historic evidence discussed in Chapter 2 is illuminated by the linguistic evidence of the meaning of Acuera names for places and individuals contained therein. Given the supernatural and ritual significance of Acuera names as compared to such names from the other Timucuan chiefdoms missionized by the Spanish, what can be said with reasonable certainty about the events described in the historic documents? It seems quite likely that what was taking place in this area was a deliberate attempt on the part of the Acuera to emphasize their traditional systems of belief as a means o f maintaining their cultural identity in the face of the stresses of colonization and missionization. Because Acuera province was a focus for runaways, unconverted Native American refugees, and others fleeing Spanish control, such an emphasis on tradition al systems of belief would have provided the Acuera a means to differentiate themselves from both the Spanish and from Native Americans who had assimilated into the mission system, and would have allowed them to clearly

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79 mark themselves both in their own vi ew and in the view of the other Timucuan speakers as abi no we are apart now. Furthermore, the use of ritual and traditional systems of belief as a focus of resistance to changes created by the presence of Europeans is known from elsewhere in North A merica as well. Pueblo cultures of the Southwest were able to provide a Native American alternative to Spanish missionization by adopting a pure Pubelo system of belief, discarding syncretized elements from other Native American groups and from Catholic ism and emphasizing true, pure Puebloan beliefs (Ware and Blinman 2000). If the Acuera were attempting to maintain their cultural identity in the same way, the increasingly more obvious emphasis on the supernatural seen in the documents becomes more explicable. The dual significance of the name Acuera, both as calendar/timekeeper and ancient, suggests that, from the time of European contact during the de Soto entrada and possibly before, there was a consciousness on the part of the Acuera of a distinct cultural identity based on ritual. If one accepts that such a conscious mental separation may have existed even before contact, that same mental divide between Acuera as a culture and other Native Americans would then have served to help reinforc e the idea of separation and maintenance of much older traditions of belief in the face of the new ways offered by Europeans through missionization. Furthermore, if such a conscious differentiation between Acuera and other Timucua did exist, both before an d after contact and during the mission era, one would expect to find archaeological evidence within Acuera territory that would reflect such a worldview. Taylors concept of archaeological evidence as objectifications of culture is highly relevant here. If the historic and linguistic evidence does indeed point to a consciousness on the part of the Acuera of a supernatural or ritual basis for differentiating their culture from others surrounding them, as

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80 well as resistance to the Spanish, one would expec t the following to emerge from the archaeological evidence from Acuera territory: 1) evidence of a common pattern of belief throughout the region known to have been controlled by the Acuera; 2) evidence of such a system of belief and practice existing pri or to European contact; and 3) evidence of the continued use of ritual and religious practice at sites which date from the contact and mission eras. In following chapters I discuss in detail the archaeological evidence both from the territory of the histor ic Acuera as a whole, i.e., the Ocklawaha River Valley, and from individual sites that date to the later St. Johns II era and from the historic period. Subsequently, the archaeological evidence will be further evaluated in the light of the historic and linguistic evidence discussed thus far.

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81 Table 3 1. Acuera and Other Timucuan Name Translations Acuera Names: Name Timucuan Words Meaning Jabajica yaba hica spell/curse/shaman town/village; i.e., town of spells, town of shamans, town of magic, town of sorcerers/wizards Calesa ca le sa here now handsome; this now handsome; also here now agreeable, this now agreeable; i.e., the hands ome one, the agreeable one Pequata Nalis pequata nalis golden servant; golden vassal Piliaco/Piliuco piliaco/pili uco drag/draw most; drag/draw drink; i.e. to draw to drink(?) Biro Zebano biro si banehe men same wolves; i.e. man wolves, wolf men, men like wolves Yazah ya sa not handsome; not agreeable Alisa a li sa Ah now handsome(?) Source: Hann 1992 Tucuru tucu ura live oak accomp anying; together with the live oak Utiaca uti aca; utiti aca earth wind; country wind world wind; i.e. country of the wind, wind (air?) of the world (OR)Utiti reverence of the world Avino abi no dress now; hour/time now; apart now; walk now; i.e. the time is now; we are apart now (?) Source: Worth 1998:b Acuera acu ero moon/month+year/season; calendar; timekeeper; Implies ancient, old

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82 Table 3 1, continued. Source: Julian Granberry, unpublished translation 2008 Other Timucuan Names: Name Timucuan Words Meaning Paracoxi paracusi prince; war prince Acela a se la ah close now Tocaste toca s te more happening now; more caused now Ocale, Cale oca le this now Itara ita tara sole embrace; stumble embrace; increased/multiplied embrace Potano pota no that happening now Utinama utina ma region his; power his; region the; power the; region their; power their; the region, the power, etc. Cholupaha chola paha drophouse; i.e. fallen dwelling (?) Caliquen cala qu ene cut because; freeze to death because; fruit because; cut like; freeze to death like; fruitlike; cut who; freeze to death who; fruitwho Napetuca na pataqui if tired; same tire d; this tired Source: Elvas, De Soto Chronicles (1993) Paracousi paracusi prince, war prince Satourina sa tori ba handsome burning we; handsome burning chiefs Atore a tori Ah burn Thimagona timu quana Extinguish like; Extinguish for; extinguish self Olata Ouae Outina holata aya(aye) utina chief forest region; i.e. chief of the wooded region Emola emo la before now; to now; against now; con cerning now

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83 Table 3 1, continued Astina asa ti na beautiful not our; beautiful not now; i.e. not beautiful now, not our beautiful Source: Laudonniere, Three Voyages Enacape ane ca peqe be able to (plural) ha ng up; i.e., we are able to hang up Machava machaba marsh; swamp Chuaquin chua quene hole/pitbecause; hole/pit like; hole/pitwhich Arapaja ara paha many houses; bear house; help house; i.e., man y houses, house of bear, house of help Cachpile cachi pile bitter huts; bitter fields; bitter ties Chamile cha mi le Where/what/ah ours now; i.e., where are we now? (?) Urihica uri hica s weep town; sweepers town Niahica nia hica female town; town of women Tarihica tari hica work town; town of laborers Asile asileco(?) withered leaf Tolapatafi tola patafi up in the air below; paddle below; laurel below; i.e., below the paddle, below the laurel, up and down Source: Worth 1998:b

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84 CHAPTER 4 THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL E VIDENCE, PART 1 SITE FILE STUDY AND SURFACE SURVEY IN THE REGION OF STUDY Having discussed at length what is known of the historic record and the linguistic evidence concerning the Acuera chiefdom, the archaeological evidence of the lifeways of the people of the region of study will now be presented. This chapter is int ended to describe in detail and to summarize records of sites and patterning in the area under consideration as recorded in Floridas Master Site File. It also is intended to provide detailed description, summary, and interpretation of the results of the work performed during the pedestrian survey permitted under 1A 32 permit # 0506.03, issued by the Division of Historical Resources on June 21, 2006. It is important to recall that any form of archaeological analysis is performed at varying scales. For th e initial levels of study within the region of the historic Acuera chiefdom, analysis was performed at the regional level. Thus, the results presented here are intended to provide data about overall patterning within the entire region of study, for the pu rposes of understanding entire cultural patterns in the Ocklawaha River Valley. Overview Survey Methodology and Objectives The survey performed during the first phase of dissertation fieldwork was informed by records from Floridas Master Site File and by informant reports of sites located throughout the region of study: the Ocklawaha River Valley and its environs (see Figure 41). The purpose of the survey was to locate both known and unknown archaeological sites within the Ocklawaha River valley to d etermine their nature, temporal and cultural affiliation, and any patterns within each site and the region as a whole, with a focus on those sites which

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85 appear to be either late prehistoric sites (750 A.D. or later) and colonial period sites. The objectiv es of the work were (1) to produce detailed information about the locations, dating, and cultural affiliation of sites in this region; (2) to generate maps of both individual sites found and the locations of sites within the region; (3) to collect artifacts that would allow for a determination of the temporal and cultural affiliation of each site; and (4) to collate this collected information to understand the lifeways and cultural patterns of the peoples of this region through time. The expected results o f the initial survey were as follows: if patterning within individual sites and between sites throughout the region existed, the survey might reveal such patterning through location and mapping of sites and surface features within individual sites; if such patterning existed, that it would provide a basis for an initial understanding of the lifeways of the peoples of the region of study and a basis for refined hypotheses for further testing and research in the region; and that collection of artifacts at sites throughout the region would allow for a better understanding of the cultural and temporal affiliations of the peoples who inhabited this region prior to contact and during the contact and colonial eras. In presenting the information collected during th e course of this survey, a more detailed description of the environment of the region and a chronologically arranged narrative of the different prehistoric and historic cultures believed to have inhabited this area will first be presented, to better illuminate the information presented from specific sites. The limited previous archaeological studies that have been performed in this region at some specific sites and locations will then be briefly mentioned; a more detailed analysis and description of each w ill be presented in Chapter 5. The methodology and techniques used in the field as this work was

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86 performed will be discussed. Finally, a detailed report of each area and archaeological site that was directly examined during the course of this survey will be presented in detail, and the initial results that provided a basis for the more detailed fieldwork discussed in chapters 5 and 6 will be presented. The Environment of the Ocklawaha River Valley The Ocklawaha River forms the western and northern border of the Ocala National Forest (see Figure 41). Originating in Lakes Griffin and Harris in the south, it flows northward roughly 70 miles until it turns eastward some thirty miles until its confluen ce with the St. Johns River. Three environmental zones are present throughout much of the rivers length: a zone of cypress swamp extending from the waters edge to roughly 5 meters above the water level; a zone of hardwood hammock from 5 meters to roughly 20 meters in elevation, consisting largely of live oak, pignut hickory, sabal palm, and palmetto; and, from 20 meters of elevation and higher, the scrub forest typical of most of the Ocala National Forest, consisting largely of sand pine and scrub oa k (Audubon 1998). The wildlife is typical of Florida environments of this region, including most aquatic and terrestrial species normal for the area. However, the age of the Ocklawaha River is a significant factor in understanding both the ecology and th e archaeology of this region. The Ocklawaha River was intended to become one of the largest stretches of the Cross Florida Barge Canal project, and was studied and tested geologically during the period before the Canal project was deauthorized and termina ted. These studies allow for a greater understanding of the rivers cycles of flow, and provide a basis for dating the rivers current cycle. Core samples and studies of the peats, mucks and marls underlying the Ocklawaha River in several locations sugge st that the Ocklawaha has existed as a river, on a cyclical basis, for in excess of 400,000 years (St. Johns River Water Management District hydrological data 2007).

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87 The rivers flow cycles consist of periods of higher water levels when the river flows as a river and accumulates muck and peat, and cycles of glaciation or water loss where the river dries up and the accumulated muck and peat dries and blows away, leaving layers of soil that form the base for the next wet cycle (St. Johns River Water Manage ment District, hydrological data 2007). Studies undertaken during the course of the Cross Florida Barge Canal preparation indicate that the rivers current cycle of flow as a flowing river rather than wetland or braided lake system began approxima tely 17,000 years B.P. (Brooks 1970:13), because the oldest accumulated muck and marl present for the current cycle of flow dates to that time. This in turn suggests that the Ocklawaha River is one of the oldest if not the oldest flowing rivers in Fl orida. The St. Johns River, of which the Ocklawaha is the major tributary, did not exist as a flowing river until much later, after the end of major glaciation at the beginnings of the Archaic period (i.e., 9,000 years B.P. (Milanich 1994:3848). Most of Floridas rivers did not exist until that same period or later (Milanich 1994). The implications of this for the archaeological study of the Ocklawaha River valley are significant. If the Ocklawaha River existed as a flowing body of water by 17,000 year s B.P., the region would have provided an environment allowing early human settlers a more permanent water source, as well as food and other riverine resources, much earlier than other regions of Florida since Floridas other modern rivers were not regula rly flowing until much later (Milanich 1994; Sassaman and Anderson 1996) Furthermore, because the river appears to have existed much longer than other comparable environments, human settlers in the region would have had access to these resources longer t han those in other areas, potentially encouraging

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88 increased sedentism in this region long before it would have been possible in other areas of peninsular Florida. Cultures of the Ocklawaha River Valley in Prehistory and History Paleoindian (12,000 y.b.p 9,500 y.b.p) This period marks the beginning of known human settlement of Florida, including the Ocklawaha River Valley, beginning at least 12,000 y.b.p. During this period, water levels throughout the world were substantially lower than at present due to glaciation, resulting in a much larger land area for what is now Florida, with water mostly concentrated in sinks or catchments (Milanich 1994:3839). I n addition, numerous species of now extinct megafauna were present in the area at this time, including mammoth, mastodon, saber tooth tiger, Bison antiquus and land tortoise (Milanich 1994:4248). The Paleoindians, entering the Americas from what is no w eastern Asia, are believed on current evidence to have congregated in areas where water would have attracted game for subsistence, possibly making use of both coastal and inland resources (Milanich 1994:3848). Geological research in the Ocklawaha River Valley, tied with radiocarbon dating of peats, mucks, and marls from cored samples taken during the Cross Florida Barge Canal project, suggests that flowing water was present in the Ocklawaha River Valley by 17,000 y.b.p. (Brooks 1970:13). Known sites wi th Paleoindian components in this area include 8MR130, the Silver Run Mammoth site and 8MR848, the Piney Island Midden site (Jones 1992:14). Paleoindian artifacts have been reported in the region of Eaton Creek and Strouds Creek as well (Alvin Hendrix, d iver and Marion County resident, personal communication 2006; Buddy Kinsey, manager, Department of Greenways and Trails, personal communications 2003, 2005, 2006). The presence of a Paleoindian component at 8MR848 suggests that, in the Ocklawaha River

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89 Val ley, people may have begun using aquatic and riverine resources earlier than in other regions of Florida. Early and Middle Archaic Periods (9,500 y.b.p 4,500 y.b.p) The Early and Middle Archaic periods are marked by the end of the glacial period and the extinction of the megafauna present during the Paleoindian era. This meant a gradual increase in the availability of water due to rising water levels, culminating in essentially modern climactic conditions prevailing by approximately 5,000 y.b.p. (Milani ch 1994:6375). This period is marked by the apparent use of seasonal resources in most parts of Florida, shifts in lithic toolkits, and an increasing use of aquatic resources for subsistence (Milanich 1994:6385). The latter is evidenced by the presence of freshwater shell middens in the Ocklawaha River valley, primarily concentrated in the region between the Silver River drainage and Eureka Dam. The presence of middens and of specialized areas of use, such as tool production sites, suggests increasing sedentism by Archaic peoples as time went on (Milanich 1994:6364, 7879). Lithic types typically associated with the Early Archaic period include the types Arredondo, Hamilton, Florida Morrow Mountain, and Kirk Serrated (Milanich 1994:6566). Points ty pical of the Middle Archaic period include the Hillsborough, Newnan, Putnam, and Marion points (Milanich 1994:7678). The Early and Middle Archaic periods are marked by the use of heat treatment to thermally alter chert for working (Milanich 1994:76). Rep resentatives of most of these point types, particularly Newnan and Marion points, are common in the central zone of the Ocklawaha River Valley (Buddy Kinsey, Florida Department of Greenways and Trails, personal communication 2006; William Franklin, diver, personal communication 2007). In the St. Johns region, of which the Ocklawaha River valley is a part, the terminal Middle Archaic period is marked by the emergence of the regional Mount Taylor culture, commencing

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90 around 4,000 B.C. (Milanich 1994:88). The Mount Taylor culture, while pre ceramic, made extensive use of riverine resources, including freshwater gastropods and mollusks, and represents a cultural predecessor to the later Orange and St. Johns cultures in the same region (Milanich 1994:8790). La te Archaic Period (4,500 y.b.p. 2,500 y.b.p) The beginning of the late Archaic period is marked by the emergence of pottery in Florida, specifically fiber tempered pottery (Sassaman 2002:400407). This type of ceramic is characterized by plant fiber, s uch as palmetto fiber or Spanish moss, mixed with the paste of the pot before firing (Milanich 1994:8586, Sassaman 2002:400407); surface decorations are primarily incising (Ibid). During this period, Archaic peoples had increased significantly in number s from earlier periods, and had begun to develop regional cultures adapted to specific environments (Milanich 1994:85). The use of aquatic resources continued during this period, and appears to have increased in importance, as areas in drier uplands known to have been used by middle Archaic peoples were not used as extensively during the late Archaic period (Milanich 1994:87; Stephenson, et al. 2002). In the Ocklawaha River Valley, one of the best studied sites with a Late Archaic component is the Sunday Bluff site, 8MR13 (Bullen 1969). Other sites in the region known to have Late Archaic components include 8MR1972, the Tuten Creek Mounds site, 8MR2063, the Turkey Landing site, and 8MR1867, the 315 Ridge site. St. Johns I Period (500 B.C. 750 A.D.) By 500 B.C., regional cultures had developed in most areas of Florida, with their own distinctive pottery and other cultural traditions. In the Ocklawaha River Valley, the primary cultural tradition found during this period is the St. Johns I culture (Bulle n 1969; Milanich 1994:243262; Sears 1959).

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91 St. Johns ceramics are characterized by ceramics made from clay with a large concentration of sponge spicules in the paste, giving them a chalky appearance and texture. The emergence of St. Johns ceramics ove rlaps the period for the production of fiber tempered wares (Sassaman 2002), and it has been argued that they represent a continuation of the fiber tempered pottery tradition through the gradual discard of plant fiber as a tempering agent (Bullen 1969). V ery early St. Johns wares include some incising; through the St. Johns I era, most St. Johns ceramics were undecorated. Dunns Creek Red wares are St. Johns ceramics with a red slipped surface, and were produced between 100 A.D. and 500 A.D. (Milanich 1994:247). All of these types of St. Johns ceramics have been found in the Ocklawaha River valley. The use of aquatic resources continued during the St. Johns I era in the Ocklawaha River valley, though towards the end of this period, there appears to have been a shift from wetland areas to a greater use of the upland regions, possibly corresponding to both a shift in subsistence and increasing numbers of people in this area (Boyer 2007). Deptford ceramics (500 B.C. 200 A.D) are also found at some sites in this area, including 8MR13, the Sunday Bluff site, and 8PU50, the Davenport Landing Mound (Bullen 1969; Cerrato 1994). Other sites in the region known to have St. Johns I components include the Lake Weir Landing Mounds (8MR35) and the 315 Ridge site (8M R1867). St. Johns II Period (750 A.D. 1539 A.D.) The beginning of the St. Johns II period is marked by the emergence of St. Johns checkstamped pottery, characterized by a small check pattern stamped onto the surface of ceramics (Milanich 1994:247). This period appears to have been characterized by increased sociopolitical complexity among the peoples of the St. Johns cultural region, as well as the emergence of maize agriculture as a means of subsistence (Milanich 1994:247, 262274; Milanich 1996; Wort h 1998a). In the Ocklawaha River valley, the shift previously noted, to uplands better suited for

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92 maize agriculture, appears to have continued during the St. Johns II era, though older sites, including ceremonial sites such as mound sites, continued to be used during this era (Boyer 2007). The St. Johns II peoples appear to be the various Timucuan speaking groups encountered by European explorers in Florida at the beginning of the contact and colonial periods. In the case of the Ocklawaha River valley an d its environs, the Timucuan speaking chiefdom that inhabited the area at the time of European contact was the Acuera (Hann 1996; Worth 1998a, b). First Spanish Period (1539 A.D. 1763 A.D.) The historic information concerning this region during the Firs t Spanish Period has previously been presented in Chapter 2. British and Second Spanish Periods (1763 A.D. 1821 A.D.) British rule of Florida lasted from 1763 until 1784. During this period, British territory lay east of the St. Johns River, with the t erritory west of the St. Johns granted to the Seminoles or lower Creeks through treat y with the British (Schafer 2001 ). There are no known British settlements or outposts located in the Ocklawaha River Valley. However, it is likely that nearby Seminole settlements, including that of Cowkeeper south of Paynes Prairie (Bartram 1775), made use of the region for hunting. Florida returned to the rule of Spain in 1784, and remained Spanish territory until 1821. During this period, the Spanish attempted to better control Florida through grants of land to settlers willing to swear allegiance to the Spanish crown (Gannon 1996:161). One such grant is known to have included a part of the Ocklawaha River valley proper: the Caravelle Ranch site, located on the nor thernmost edge of the Ocklawaha River (Buddy Kinsey, personal communication 2005).

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93 American Te rritorial and Statehood Periods ( 1821 A.D.present ) In 1821 A.D., control of Florida passed from Spain to the United States. Florida remained a territory from 1821 to 1845, when Florida became a State of the United States. During the territorial period, American settlers began moving into the region, and the U. S. Army established outposts nearby, including Fort King in modern Ocala an d Fort Brooke north of the Ocklawaha River (Florida Master Site File records; Ott and Chazal 1966:19 54). During the later 19th century, several small towns were established within the region, including Moss Bluff (Henry Holly, Moss Bluff resident, perso nal communication 2004), Conner Landing, and Grahamville (Terry Hopkins, resident of Conner, personal communication 2007). Steamboats regularly traveled the Ocklawaha River Valley during this period, and many landing sites and travelers accommodations we re established for their use, including the Davenport Landing (8PU50) site and the Randall Hotel at the Conner Landing site (8MR2064) (Florida Master Site File Records). The Ocklawaha River was slated to form a part of the proposed Cross Florida Barge Can al Project, and much of the land along its length was purchased for this purpose; a system of bridges, dams and locks, including the Moss Bluff lock and dam, the Eureka Dam, and the Rodman Reservoir were established for this purpose (Buddy Kinsey, Departme nt of Greenways and Trails, personal communication 2003; Ott and Chazal 1966:220221). However, with the de authorization of the canal project, the land originally purchased for this purpose has since been placed in the ownership of the State of Florida a nd put under the management of the Department of Greenways and Trails (Ibid). The remainder of the land in the region is either Federally owned, as a part of the Ocala National Forest, or held by private landowners.

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94 Previous Archaeological Studies of the Ocklawaha River Valley Very little previous archaeological work has been performed within the Ocklawaha River Valley. The earliest such work was a study of the area performed by C.B. Moore in 1895 (Mitchem 1999b). As with most of Moores work, his focus was primarily on mound sites, with an eye toward collecting artifacts. Moore was disappointed by what he referred to as the barren mound sites within the region, yielding very little in comparison with sites on the St. Johns River (Mitchem 1999b :139) Beyond Moores study, very few sites within the region have been investigated archaeologically in any detail. A Civilian Conservation Corps report of some sites within the Ocklawaha River Valley, dated 1935, provides some detail on artifacts found during small digs at some sites (Abshier, et al. 1935). Sites studied and reported professionally include the Sunday Bluff site, 8MR13, investigated by Ripley Bullen (Bullen 1969); the Colby Landing site, 8MR57, investigated by Thomas Gochnour (Ibid); the McKenzie Mound site, 8MR64, dug by William Sears in 1959 (Sears 1959), and the Piney Island Midden site, 8MR848, investigated by B. Calvin Jones (Florida Master Site File Records; Jones 1992). A surface survey of certain sites in the central region of the Ockl awaha River Valley was performed in the middle 1970s by personnel from the Florida Museum of Natural History (Elise LeCompte, Museum registrar, Florida Museum of Natural History, personal communication 2006). A surface survey of a limited number of sites between the mouth of the Silver River and the Gores Landing site, 8MR31, was performed by Robin Denson in 1992 (Denson 1992; Florida Master Site File records). Finally, Cynthia Cerrato performed an excavation and reconstruction of the Davenport Landing M ound site, 8PU50, in 19921993 (Cerrato 1994).

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95 Beyond these limited reports, most of the reported sites listed in the Florida Master Site File have not been professionally investigated and appear to have been based on very limited informant reports and observations (Florida Master Site File records.) Methodology and Techniques The work performed throughout this survey was intended to supplement and to build on this previous research in the region. A 1A 32 permit for surface collection or artifacts from lands owned by the Department of Greenways and Trails within the Ocklawaha R iver Valley was issued by the Florida Division of Historical Resources in 2006. Because the goal for this research was to ma p and date through pedestrian survey all of the accessible sites and lands in the region being studied, a number of previously visi ted sites located through informant reports were re visited to obtain additional data regarding their placement within the landscape, and also to collect artifact samples in accordance with the State permit where such existed. Thereafter, a systematic wal king survey of areas along the Ocklawaha River Valley to locate and map all sites within the area and to collect artifacts which allow dating of each site was performed. In order to provide as full a coverage of the sites within the region as possible, this survey was performed by commencing the survey at the northern end of the Ocklawaha River Valley, at the Ocklawahas confluence with the St. Johns River, and surveying the river from this region south, on both sides of the river. The area surveyed was t hat property owned by the Florida Department of Greenways and Trails within the Ocklawaha River Valley (see Figure 41). At each site, GPS coordinates and compass bearings and measurements of individual features, such as mounds or midden surfaces, were ta ken to allow both for easier location of the site in the future and to correctly map and place each site within the landscape and in relation to

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96 other sites in the region. At each site, a sufficient sample of artifacts to allow the temporal and cultural a ffiliation of each site to be determined was collected. The artifacts collected during the course of the survey were washed and dried at the laboratory provided for use by the Florida Department of Greenways and Trails at the Sharpes Ferry Road office o f the Department located in Marion County, Florida, and were curated there during the course of the survey. Identification of each class of artifact was made using comparative texts such as Milanich (1994), Bullen (1975) and Deagan (1987, 2001) as well as by comparison of collected artifacts with types curated at the Florida Museum of Natural History and the Silver River Museum in Ocala. Final curation of artifacts and notes concerning the sites and the survey was with the Bureau of Archaeological Resourc es. The Ocklawaha Survey Project: Sites Observed Following is a detailed description of the condition of each site within the region as each site was located, as well as a description of the access to each site and the specific actions performed at each s ite to record and collect needed data. The overall location of all sites mentioned in the text is noted in Figure 41. A pattern was observed at mound sites throughout this region that will be discussed in more detail at the close of this chapter, but t hat produced a dichotomy and terminology that requires some initial explanation: the existence throughout this region of parallel and perpendicular mounds. Both mound types are oblong, ovoid sand or sand and shell mounds. A perpendicular mound is a mound constructed with its long axis at a 90 angle perpendicular to the Ocklawaha Rivers axis of flow at that location; i.e., where the river flows north and south, the long axis of a perpendicular mound will run east and west, and vice versa. A paral lel mound is a mound constructed with its long axis running parallel to the Ocklawaha Rivers axis of flow at that location; i.e., where the river flows north and south, the long axis of a parallel

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97 mound will likewise run north and south (see Figure 431) A summary and a possible significance of this phenomenon will be presented at the close of this chapter. The Davenport Landing Mound (8PU50) and Davenport Landing Midden (8PU51) The Davenport Landing Mound and the Davenport Landing Midden are located o n the northern edge of the Ocala National Forest on the southern side of the Ocklawaha River where it flows east into its confluence with the St. Johns River (see Figure 42A). The site is accessible from Forest Road 77, though there is no direct vehicula r access to the site; it is necessary to park ones vehicle and walk a mile dirt trail to reach the Davenport Mound (see Figure 42B). The mound site is located atop a bluff overlooking the river, with the midden recorded as being located to the east of the mound site in the Florida Master Site Files. As has been noted in previously published material, the Davenport Mound is a perpendicular mound, with its long axis at a 90 degree angle perpendicular to the axis of flow of the Ocklawaha River at this location (Boyer 2006 a 2007). On June 7th, 2006, the Davenport Landing sites were surveyed to attempt to locate and date the midden recorded as being associated with the Davenport Landing Mound, to attempt to collect artifacts for a clearer dating of the mound itself, and to photograph and record both sites. Five areas on the mounds surface were gently scraped with a trowel to uncover the bare surface of the mound to see if artifacts were present; none were located at the time. An attempt was then mad e to locate, measure, and collect artifacts from the midden recorded as being associated with the mound site. Despite several attempts over the course of several hours, the midden reported as associated with the mound site could not be confidently locate d. A seasonal branch of the river separates the mound from the area recorded as possessing the midden site, and several other such branches exist to the east of both sites, which is typical of the cypress swamp zone existing at the

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98 margins of the Ocklawah a River in most locations; though the area surrounding the mound both south, and east into the woods and north, no midden was visible, nor any areas of shell that would provide evidence for its presence. Photographs of the area and of the mound site were t aken. Thereafter, the area west from the mound site on along the river margins for approximately one mile was surveyed to attempt to locate any further sites in the area. None were found, though modern rubbish was noted in some areas suggesting that fishe rmen or visitors make use of that area. Sites in the Region of the Eureka Dam On June 14th, 2006, the region of the public boat ramp at the eastern end of the Eureka Bridge on County Road 316 (see Figures 3A and 3B), located just south of the Eureka Dam w as surveyed. On June 14th, the rivers western margin in the vicinity of the dam was surveyed to locate and photograph the Eureka Bluff site (8MR96) and the Eureka Log Landing site (8MR12), both reported in the Florida Master Site File. Following the dir ections listed in the Florida Master Site File report, the Eureka Bluff site (8MR96) was located relatively easily. The site consists of a sand pit near a limestone road and parking lot (see Figure 3B), which was reported to have scattered chips and worked chert and 1 sherd in the brief original 1964 report in FMSF. Four worked flakes of chert, all non heat treated, were found on the surface of the site. The lack of heat treatment suggests a post Archaic date for this site, though in the absence of fur ther evidence this is impossible to determine with certainty; no ceramics were found. Based on the original report and description, the limestone road and parking lot appear to have been constructed after it was filed, and regular use of the road and lot may represent a continuing disturbance at the site. An attempt was then made to locate 8MR12, the Eureka Log Landing site, which was reported as having been a shell midden with both St. Johns plain and grit tempered sherds found

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99 in the original FMSF report. This site, however, proved elusive. The original report, dated 1957, placed the site northeast of the Eureka Post Office. The original Eureka post office building, a wood frame building that would have been in use in 1957, still stands, and th e original directions to the area where 8MR12 should have been located were followed. A very large depression that appears to have been dug out to anchor the western end of the Eureka Dam was found; no shell was present in the area. The river margin for some 200 meters south and approximately mile north of the dam was surveyed; no trace of shell midden throughout this area was visible. Because the Eureka Dam was constructed since the filing of the original report, and because the depression in which the dam was constructed is placed in the area where 8MR12 was originally reported, it seems likely the site may have been buried or destroyed during the process of dam construction. Gores Landing Mound (8MR31), Gores Landing Midden (8MR30) and Gores Land ing Borrow Pit (8MR80) On June 16th, 2006, Gores Landing, on the western margin of the Ocklawaha River, was surveyed to obtain surface samples from the sites associated with Gores Landing and to determine if other sites existed near them. Gores Landi ng itself is a public boat ramp with relatively easy access (see Figures 44A, 44B), and one of the sites, the Gores Landing midden (8MR30), is located directly around the boat ramp (see Figure 44B). Gores Landing mound is located approximately 100 meters north of the midden site and the boat ramp and is directly along the rivers edge, within the zone of cypress swamp associated with the river in most areas; the water literally touches the mounds ba se along its eastern side. As has been previously noted (Boyer 2006a 2007), this mound is a parallel mound, with its long axis running parallel to the rivers axis of flow at this location.

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100 The mound itself appears to be constructed of clean, light gray sand, and measures 30.6 m along its long axis (NNW SSE) and 10.74 m along its short axis (E W). Five areas on the mounds surface and sides were gently scraped with a trowel to determine if any artifacts were present at the surface which would give a basis for dating the site. No artifacts were found to be present at any location. The same type of tests on the ground surface within the borrow pit associated with this mound were then performed; though partly filled with water, five areas of ground su rface around the upper edges of the borrow pit could be scraped. No artifacts were found in this area either. The area mile north and mile south of the Gores Landing sites along the rivers western margin was then surveyed. In several areas to the north, some shell in the shallow water at the rivers edge was observed, but it did not appear to be concentrated midden shell, nor were any artifacts present at these locations. No artifacts or shell were found to be present in the area to the south. Th e Gores Landing sites, because of the relatively easy access to them, are in greater risk of potential looting than many of the other sites discussed here due to easier site access. It is possible the lack of artifacts here may be due to surface collecti on by looters at the site, though no sign of looters pits on the mound itself or nearby were observed. The Shiner Pond Mound Complex (8MR19, 8MR20, 8MR21, 8MR22, and 8MR23) The Shiner Pond Mound complex is a series of five mounds arranged in an arc, or semicircle, located near Scrambletown, Florida (see Figures 45A, 45B). The mounds themselves are accessible via a dirt trail that divides the three westernmost mounds from the two easternmost. Two of the mounds, 8MR19 and 20, were completely demolishe d by C.B. Moore in his travel along the Ocklawaha River (Mitchem 1999b ), leaving doughnut shaped rings of earth; but the other three mounds of the complex are relatively intact (see Figure 45B). These

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101 three mounds are perpendicular mounds with their a xes running relatively east and west, with the axis of flow of the river at this point running north and south (Boyer 2006a). On June 20th, 2006, the Shiner Pond complex was re visited to attempt to collect artifact samples from the site which would pro vide a basis for dating this complex. Surface scrapings were done in five locations on each mound, for a total of twenty five for the entire complex, including the two mounds dug by Moore. However, despite the numerous locations observed, no artifacts we re found on the surface of any of the mounds at this site. Thus, firmly dating this mound complex will require additional work and subsurface testing to provide clear dates for this complex and a cultural affiliation for this complex. Moores report desc ribes a sixth mound as being approximately mile east of the Shiner Pond complex itself ( Mitchem1999b :521). When the surface tests on the mounds were completed, the woods for approximately one mile to the east of the complex were surveyed to attempt to locate the sixth mound, as one of my informants in the area (Mr. Buddy Kinsey of the Department of Greenways and Trails) indicated that he thought he had seen the mound in the area described by Moore. However, despite diligent effort, this sixth reported m ound could not be located. There are several small lakes and ponds in this area (see Figure 45A), with a number of homes and areas cleared since Moores time; this region is one of the few such areas within the National Forest where private home construc tion is allowed. It is possible the mound is located on such a piece of private property, as Moore described it as being built on the e dge of a small lake (Mitchem 1999b :521). The Conner Landing site and Turkey Landing site: 8MR2064 and 8MR2063 The C onner Landing and Turkey Landing sites, 8MR2064 and 2063 respectively, are located north of the intersection of State Road 40 and County Road 314 in the area called Grahamville (see Figures 46A, 46B). Both sites were river landings during the steamboat era

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102 of the late 19th century (Eugene Gallant, president of the Marion County Historical Society, personal communication 2003), and both were reported from the Denson survey of 1992 (Denson 1992:1213). The sites are accessible by foot trail from the edge of County Road 314. Artifacts that appear to date to the colonial period, specifically an intact bronze Spanish mission bell and a hand hammered and riveted copper bowl, were located within the river at the Conner Landing site by divers (Boyer 2006b; Dens on 1992:13; Scott Mitchell, director of the Silver River Museum, Marion County, personal communication 2006). On June 22nd, 2006, these sites were surveyed to attempt to collect artifacts from the ground surface, which would give a clearer indication of the temporal and cultural affiliations of both sites, as neither Densons report nor informant information from this area provided a clear date range for the Native American terrestrial component of the two sites. An older dirt road that once gave access to Turkey Landing, the more southerly of the two sites (see Figure 46B), to the edge of the Ocklawaha River was surveyed. This area was primarily higher ground, with only a limited fringe of cypress and palm near the rivers edge, and the ground surface was clearly visible. No artifacts were located; however, several of what appeared to be looters pits were seen within two meters of the waters edge, as well as some modern refuse, suggesting the area continues to be used by visitors and looters despite being fenced off by the Department of Greenways and Trails. Seventy five meters north of the Turkey Landing road is a sinkhole with a quantity of modern garbage dumped at its base; on its western side, there is a mound of earth that informants have ind icated may represent a looted mound site (Buddy Kinsey, personal communication 2006). No artifacts were found at the surface of the ground here. The area north of the sinkhole

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103 was surveyed along a trail near the waters edge to the bluff overlooking the river where the Conner Landing site is located. This bluff is approximately ten meters in height and is composed primarily of yellow orange soil with clay inclusions. At depths of one and approximately 2.5 meters below the edge of the bluff, there are vi sible darker strata approximately 10 cm in depth, possibly representing layers of occupation at the site. Previous information by informants in the area indicates that there was a nineteenth century hotel located at the Conner Landing site. Near the base of the bluff, atop a pile of soil that appeared to have crumbled away from the bluffs face, several artifacts were collected that appeared to date from the nineteenth century occupation of the site. These included a large (>10 cm in width) piece of whit eware, appearing to be the remains of a plate; several fragments of aqua glass; and molded fragments of light brown glass, possibly representing the remains of light hoods. No Native American or Spanish era artifacts were found on either the ground surfac e atop the bluff or at its base, though dense brush and briars made it difficult to see the ground surface clearly. These sites thus appear to have some stratigraphic evidence suggesting multiple occupations, as well as the strong potential for disturbanc e due to continued use of the sites by boaters and visitors as well as evident looting activities. Further discussion of the Conner Landing Site will be presented in Chapters 5 and 6. The Cedar Landing Sites: Cedar Landing 1(8MR5), Cedar Landing 2(8MR6), Cedar Landing 3(8MR7), Cedar Landing South (8MR90), and Near Blue Springs(8MR107) The Cedar Landing sites are a cluster of shell middens (8MR5, 8MR6, 8MR7, and 8MR90), and an unnamed mound recorded only as Near Blue Springs (8MR107), all located in t he western to mid section of the flooded length of the Ocklawaha River west of Rodman Dam

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104 (see Figure 47A, 47B). Two of the sites, 8MR90 and 8MR107, are accessible by a private road off of Forest Road 77A, named Cedar Landing Road; on July 10th and Ju ly 11th, 2006, the Cedar Landing cluster of sites was surveyed to attempt to gather GPS coordinates, photograph the sites, and collect artifacts to provide a clear cultural and temporal affiliation for the sites. On July 10th, Cedar Landing Road in the ar ea recorded as directly adjacent to 8MR90, Cedar Landing South, which had been briefly visited three years previously at the start of the work in this area (see Figure 47B), was surveyed. This site is what remains of a shell midden that appears, based on the remnants of shell in a disturbed area, to have once covered approximately two acres of ground surface on the edge of Lake Ocklawaha. However, unfortunately, the site is nearly totally destroyed; the previous visit to the site did not adequately assess the damage done. Most of the shell midden layer is totally gone; one of the landowners at the site, who requested to remain anonymous, indicated that they come in here and dig for points and throw the shell in the lake. The ground surface bore out hi s statement, as most of the area where the midden was once located has numerous holes, clearly looters pits, throughout its length. There were, however, two locations where a part of the midden remained somewhat intact, and the depths of the shell at th ese two locations could be measured, due to the ground surface sloping towards the waters edge and the soil disturbance. The first, approximately 15 m from the middens eastern edge, measured 0.48 m below the surface of the ground to a layer of light gra y soil beneath the shell. The second, approximately 21 m east of the first, measured 0.68 m below the surface of the ground to the same layer of gray soil. No diagnostic artifacts were visible on the surface at any location. However, the landowner brought out a small bucket of chert points, which he said belonged to one of his neighbors and which he indicated had been taken from 8MR90. He permitted examination of the

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105 points. These included Marion and Levy points, some of them heat treated, corner notch ed points appearing to date to the Woodland period, and a number of Pinellas points, dating to the later St. Johns II era. If the informants information was accurate, the date range on 8MR90 would thus extend from the midto late Archaic period through t he later St. Johns II era and include a component from the time of the Acuera chiefdom. Having gotten GPS readings bounding 8MR90, the area 70 m west of its eastern edge to 8MR107, the mound site associated with this area was surveyed. Direct access to t he mound itself was prevented by higher water levels on Lake Ocklawaha, but the surface of the mound was visible approximately 7 m from the waters edge. Due to the high water level, GPS readings on this site could not be taken and surface collections wer e not possible. What was visible from the waters edge suggests this mound is a perpendicular mound, but more detailed evidence will be necessary to confirm this. The area approximately mile west of 8MR90 along the river margin was then surveyed. The ground surface rose up to a bluff 7 m or so above the water level and continued at this height throughout the area surveyed. The environment through this area was hardwood hammock including oak, pignut hickory, and sweetgum, with sand pine and other typi cal scrub flora visible in some locations; while no artifacts or features were visible on the ground surface, this area has a higher probability of archaeological sites being present due to the terrain. On July 11th, we initially returned to the area near 8MR90 at Cedar Landing to attempt to move east along the river margins to the area where 8MR5, 8MR6, and 8MR7 were located, according to FMSF maps. However, it was discovered that, since the initial visit to the location in 2003, two new homes have been built with fences blocking foot travel east from that area. To attempt to reach the sites, we returned to Forest Road 77A and drove east to an area with a clay

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106 and sand road which appeared to provide access to the area where the midden sites were located (see Figures 47A, 47B). Unlike the area closer to Cedar Landing itself, this region was primarily scrub forest, with sand pine and saw palmetto the principal plant species present; this type of vegetation is generally indicative of poor soil and little available water. The topographic map appeared to indicate that the trail ended just east of the area where 8MR5 and 6 were located. However, despite diligent effort, the midden sites could not be located. The Palmetto Landing Sites: Amys Dream (8MR230), Lithic Scatters (8MR231, 232), MacDonald Tobacco Shed (8MR133), and New Yarbrough Place (8MR134) On July 12th, 2006, the area west of the Shiner Pond Mound Complex and south along the rivers margin was surveyed. The primary goal for this was to survey the Amys Dream site (8MR230), a sheet midden site reported to have St. Johns II era ceramics present, and its associated lithic scatters (8MR231 and 232); due to their reported proximity, it was also hoped to locate and photograph the MacDonald Tobacco Shed (8MR133) and the New Yarbrough Place (8MR134) sites, both late 19thcentury to early twentieth century histo ric sites (see Figures 48A, 48B). Access to the sites was obtained by driving to the same location at which we previously parked for the work at the Shiner Pond complex (see Figure 45A) and walking east. This area is located in one of the few regions where private landowners can build or sell land near the Greenways properties, and there are a number of trails visible on the ground that are not listed on the map. Walking west and then south along two such trails, 8MR230, the Amys Dream site, was loca ted without much difficulty, though it was discovered that local residents had stretched rubber barriers and scattered roofing nails at several locations along the trails, apparently to strongly discourage vehicle travel.

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107 8MR230 is a sheet midden site l ocated on the bluff in this area that stretches from the level of the ground surface of the forest to the east down to the level of the cypress swamp along the rivers edge. Unlike the Cedar Landing midden, this site did not appear to be seriously disturb ed; there was no clear evidence of recent activity at the site. The midden itself appears to an estimated 600 square meters (30 meters along the upper edge of the bluff, the same near the base by the swamp, and 20 meters from the bluff edge to the base at the northern and southern ends of the midden) in size, with no areas of raised or mounded shell. A single fragment of St. Johns CheckStamped ceramic was found on the midden surface. What appeared to be the edges of three other sherds of St. Johns cera mic embedded in the midden were observed, but were not removed due to the potential of disturbing the midden surface. Having located 8MR230, the area south along the trail for a distance of mile or so, was surveyed, stopping to descend into the hammock and cypress zone along the river's edge at a number of locations. There were three areas where fragments of worked chert were found on the trail surface, all non heat treated, suggesting the possibility of special use or activity areas south of the Amys Dream site. However, no artifacts or further sign of shell middens were found on the bluff surface or in the cypress zone in this area. The area north and east of the Amys Dream site, along a second trail, was surveyed to the area where the other sites were reported (see Figures 48A, 48B). The 8MR231 and 8MR232 sites were located relatively easily; both were concentrations of worked chert, some heat treated and some not, located on the trail surface. There was evidence of recent vehicle traffic, and it would appear that such use of the trail would tend to wear away the soil surface and expose more of the lithic concentrations at both sites.

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108 The MacDonald Tobacco Shed and the New Yarbrough Place, 8MR133 and 134, were reported both by the FMSF maps and our informants (Buddy Kinsey, Michael Hutto) to be near the existing dirt road into this area. However, neither could be located; one of the landowners near the road has fenced off the area where both sites are reported to be and has posted No Trespassi ng signs. Because these sites could not be reached, the area north of the lithic scatters following the bluff was surveyed; the unrecorded trail appears to continue north for an undetermined distance. It was followed for approximately mile north and e ast along the bluff edge, again stopping in several areas to descend the bluff to the edge of the cypress swamp zone. No additional archaeological sites in this area were observed, though there was considerable evidence in the form of modern refuse of con tinuing use of this area, and the high bluff appears to be an area of high probability for past human usage of this region. Buddy Kinseys Mound: Newly Discovered Site, not yet numbered Buddy Kinseys Mound is a sand/shell mound site located approximately two miles south of the Shiner Pond Mound complex within the cypress swamp zone on the eastern side of the Ocklawaha River (see Figures 49A, 49B). On June 14th, 2006, Buddy Kinseys mound was re visited to collect artifacts previously observed on its su rface and to survey the area north and south of the mound site for other related archaeological sites. As previously noted in a published report (Boyer 2006a), this site is extremely remote, even by the standards of the Ocklawaha River. There are no road s leading to the site, and access is only possible by traveling a jeep trail which runs approximately mile east of the site (see Figure 49B) and then walking into the area where the mound is located. There is also no human disturbance at the site or ne arby, only a small animal burrow near the apex of the mound surface. The mound was measured and several scrapings were taken across its surface to obtain artifacts which would allow a clearer understanding of its temporal and cultural affiliation. Two

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109 sherds of St. Johns Check Stamped pottery were collected from the mounds surface, along with a larger sherd of sand tempered plain ceramic and several fragments of animal bone, one of which appears to be the remains of an alligator scute and the rest poss ibly turtle bone. There is some shell in the soil for a distance of between two and three meters surrounding the mound edge, but the site does not appear to be a midden site. Furthermore, the mound is a perpendicular mound (Boyer 2006a), suggesting its deliberate construction rather than its random accumulation as a midden heap. The edge of the cypress swamp zone and the hardwood hammock zone first for mile south of the mound site, and then for mile north of the mound site, was then surveyed, occa sionally intersecting the marked jeep trail and other unmarked trails through the woods, as well as moving through the cypress swamp to the rivers edge to see if shell or artifacts were present. In neither region did were either a rtifacts or features pre sent. The facts that this site has a St. Johns II cultural component, and that it is relatively remote and undisturbed, suggest it may yield more useful information than other, more disturbed sites along the river. Piney Island Landing Site: 8MR848 The P iney Island Landing site is a midden site located on the eastern side of the Ocklawaha River (see Figure 410A, 410B), south of the Eureka Bridge sites previously discussed. On July 18th, 2006, this site and the areas nearby were surveyed. Due to a rise in water levels, two seasonal streams were flooded between the main trail and the midden site; however, it was possible to cross the streams to take photographs and GPS readings of the site boundaries (see Figure 410A, 410B). The midden itself, like th e other middens observed in this region, is sheet midden covering an area of some 500 or so square meters on the northern side of a curve in the river (see Figure 410B). No artifacts were visible on the surface; however, a prior report filed on the Piney Island site suggests the presence of a

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110 Paleoindian and an early Archaic component (Florida Master Site File, Jones 1992), and informant reports (Michael Hutto) suggest that this site has yielded late prehistoric Native American ceramics, including St. Joh ns II and Alachua tradition ceramics. Having surveyed the midden site, the area northward along the trail for mile was surveyed, traveling into the cypress swamp zone in several locations to determine if further middens or other features were present. Neither artifacts nor features were observed throughout this area. The southern end of the area previously surveyed on June 15th was eventually reached. This appears to confirm, at least on the eastern margins of the river, that the area between Spencer s Middens and the Piney Island site has no visible archaeological sites. This supports the possibility that this region may represent a buffer zone of some sort between areas of occupation and use, though additional data placing each area firmly in its proper cultural and temporal category will be necessary to confirm this. The Bear Creek Mound and the Bear Creek Midden: 8PU644 and 8PU645 The Bear Creek Mound and the Bear Creek Midden, 8PU644 and 8PU645, respectively, are both located east of the SR19 bridge over the Ocklawaha River (see Figures 411A, 411B). On August 9th, and August 14th, the land margins between SR19 and the river mouth were surveyed, so far as these areas are accessible by land. On August 9th, the trail was surveyed to locate 8P U644, the Bear Creek Mound (see Figures 411A, 411B). The mound itself is located on the south side of the trail, literally touching the trail on its southern side. It appears to be a perpendicular mound with its long axis running NE SW, 21.52 m in le ngth, and its shorter axis NW SE and 19.5m in length. The central portion of the mound has been dug into at some point during the past; while not completely doughnut shaped, the dug area resembles the mounds at the Shiner Pond mound complex dug into by C.B. Moore.

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111 Five areas of the mound surface were gently scraped to see if artifacts were present below the accumulated layer of leaves and humus on the surface. In two of these areas, St. Johns Check Stamped ceramics were found, suggesting a late prehist oric date for this site. Photographs were taken, as well as GPS coordinates of the mounds location and boundaries. The trail between SR19 and the mound was carefully surveyed, regularly entering the cypress swamp zone through the hardwood hammock zone (s ee Figure 411A) to determine if artifacts or features of any kind were present between Bear Creek and the area where the mound was located. Neither artifacts nor surface features were found throughout this area. On August 14th, an attempt was made to locate the Bear Creek Midden, reported to be on the northern edge of a lake near the trails end (see Figure 411A). The trail was surveyed for more than two miles, past the Bear Creek Mound and much further, to the area where the lake and the midden were reported to be in the FMSF. Unfortunately, neither the lake nor the associated midden could be found; the trail terminated in the cypress swamp zone surrounding Bear Creek and the Ocklawaha River, and despite forays into the surr ounding woods and swamp, neither the lake n or the midden were visible. Upon completing this attempt, the trail and its environs were surveyed, making regular entries through the hardwood hammock zone near the trail into the cypress swamp zone along the wa ters edge to attempt to locate further artifacts or surface features in this area. None were found in this region. The original FMSF report on the Bear Creek Midden described the presence of Orange/St. Johns I ceramics, as well as reporting that burials had been found at the midden site during the 1940s. Since St. Johns II ceramics were present at the Bear Creek Mound, it is not certain whether the midden and the mound site would be contemporaneous during some

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112 phases of their use; it will be necess ary to locate the midden and determine if late prehistoric ceramics are present to provide some evidence for this assumption. Pohlers Mound: 8PU1217 The Pohlers Mound site is located on the southern edge of Lake Ocklawaha immediately to the west of Rodman Dam; access to the site is by a dirt trail leading from an unpaved parking area south of the dam itself (see Figures 412A, 412B). On August 15th, the region of the Pohlers Mound site was surveyed. Pohlers Mound is located some 100 meters west of t he metal gate at the entrance to the trail (see Figure 412B); the northern edge of the mound itself touches the southern side of the trail. The original FMSF report on the site described the presence of looters pits on the surface of the mound and recom mended the trail be shifted further north, to the lakes edge, to prevent regular travel near the mound. It was found that the older trail near the mound continues to be used by hikers. However, no further disturbance to the site appeared to have taken p lace since the filing of the original FMSF report. Measurements of the mounds length and width and GPS coordinates defining its edge and center were taken. As with all other sand mounds observed to date on the southern and eastern side of the Ocklawaha River, Pohlers Mound appears to be a perpendicular mound, with the long axis running NE SW, at 15.58m in length, and the shorter axis running NW SE at 12.2m in length. Five areas on the mounds surface and edge were gently scraped with a trowel to rem ove the humus layer on the surface to determine if artifacts were present. None were found at any location. Photographs of the site were taken. Having located Pohlers Mound, the area west along the trail bordering the southern edge of Lake Ocklawaha was surveyed to attempt to see if the Cedar Landing midden sites (8MR5, 6,

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113 and 7), previously discussed, could be reached on foot from this location. However, the edge of the lake proved impassable at this time from this location. It is important to note that the relative proximity of Pohlers mound to the waters edge in this area is due entirely to the fact that Rodman Dam and the creation of Lake Ocklawaha has raised the level of the water to an area where it would not naturally be found. Based on the topographic map of this area, it seems likely that, when Pohlers Mound was originally constructed, it would have been in the same location relativ e to the river that the Davenport Mound, the Shiner Pond Mounds, and the Bear Creek Mound would have been that is, within the hardwood hammock zone above the cypress swamp at the rivers edge. The vegetation near the mound is typical for this zone liv e oak, sabal palm, and some hardwoods such as sweetgum appear to predominate. The Penner Pond sites: Penner Pond Turpentine Camp (8PU666), Penner Pond Dump (8PU816), and Penner Ponds Crossroads (8PU818) The Penner Ponds are a cluster of small freshwater p onds south of the Pohlers Mound site (see Figures 413A, 413B). On August 22nd, 2006, the trail between the Pohlers Mound site and the Penner Ponds was surveyed. One such site, the Penner Ponds Crossroads site (8PU818), had been previously reported as being a small St. Johns period habitation site (Florida Master Site File Records), and may have represented a special use area or a hunting camp made use of by the inhabitants of the Cedar Landing sites a mile to the north. The ponds were found to be r oughly 1.2 miles down the trail from the Pohlers Mound site. The first site to be located was 8PU666, the Penner Pond Turpentine Camp. Three fragments of herty cup were found in the area described as the camp site; GPS coordinates were taken of this location. The trail on the northern edge of the ponds (see Figure 413B) was then surveyed, as well as the trail that passes between the largest of the Penner Ponds. On finding

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114 locating the ponds, the edges of both were surveyed until 8PU818 the Penner Ponds Crossroads site was located. This site, as noted, was reported to be a St. Johns period habitation site. However, during the course of the survey of the area, it was found that the site has a historic period component as well. On the northern po nd edge, where the Native American site was reported to have be en found, additional herty cup sherds including a relatively intact base were located. GPS coordinates were taken of the location and samples were collected. Further to the north and west som e 50 meters or so, a second and larger concentration of historic artifacts was found: sherds of whiteware, fragments of aqua glass, a bottle base of dark olive glass, > 4 cm. in thickness; and the remains of a tin washbasin rim which, due to its fragilit y, was not collected. These artifacts were found in the same location as the reported finding of the St. Johns ceramics and flakes in the original FMSF report. Hog Valley/Eureka East Sites: Cotton Patch Landing, Tobacco Patch Landing Mound (8MR 9, 10); Sh ell Knoll Mound, Shell Knoll Midden (8MR 75, 76) On September 1st, 2006, the area known locally in Marion County as Hog Valley was surveyed. This area is approximately four miles south of the Cedar Landing sites, on the eastern side of the Ocklawaha Ri ver (see Figure 414A, 414B). Determining the location and condition of certain reported sites in this region, including the Cotton Patch Landing and Tobacco Patch Landing Mound and Midden (8MR 9 and 8MR 10), as well as the Shell Knoll Landing Mound and midden (8MR75 and 76), previously reported, was a goal of this section of the survey. This stretch of the Ocklawaha River is partially flooded, and the rivers edge is within what would naturally be the hardwood hammock zone for this region. The area i s more accessible than some other parts of the river, however, as a paved road running north from County Road 316 and a series of unpaved roads along the rivers edge provide relatively easy

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115 access. However, this region is also an area where many private parcels were grandfathered when the Ocala National Forest and the Greenways were created by the State and Federal governments; consequently, the presence of privately held lands created a complicating factor in access to the rivers edge during the cours e of the survey. The survey was begun along the paved road and west down the road and unmarked boat ramp which provided access to the power line crossing the Ocklawaha River in this area (see Figure 414A). The rivers edge south for mile, and then nor th approximately 2 miles, from this location, was surveyed. The cypress swamp zone in this area is substantially narrower along the rivers edge than in areas further to the north and south, measuring only 1020 meters in most areas. The hardwood hammock zone adjoining the cypress swamp zone in this area had what appeared to be a wider bluff than in most areas observed to date. From the swamp zone to the beginning of the upland scrub, constituting the Ocala National Forest proper, it is estimated tha t the hardwood hammock zone in the area north of the ramp extended between 400 meters to nearly mile east of the river throughout this area. The soil in the hardwood hammock zone appeared to be the yellowish Tavares soil typically regarded as good, well drained soil in this area; furthermore, the vegetation included magnolia, live oak, longleaf yellow pine, and other plants which tend to grow in soils with a higher nutrient content (see Figure 414A). However, though the area north from the boat ramp to the area at the western end of Lake Ocklawaha was carefully surveyed, no trace of artifacts, surface features, or other sign of human occupation in this area was found. The Cotton Patch Landing and Tobacco Patch Landing sites, 8MR9 and 10 respectively, w ere found to be inaccessibly located on private lands, barred to visitors. The area marked on

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116 the Florida Master Site File maps as Shell Knoll Mound and Shell Knoll Midden, 8MR75 and 8MR76 respectively, was then surveyed. These sites were described in an initial report by John Goggin as consisting of a substantial concentration of shell and lithics (Florida Master Site File). During the survey of this site, no such substantial concentration of either shell or artifacts was found. Rather, the site co nsisted of some scattered shell at the edge of the western property boundary, near the rivers edge (see Figure 414B), as well as some worked chert flakes nearby. On the access road along the bluff, at the eastern property boundary, a fragment of 19thce ntury whiteware was discovered, suggesting a historic component to this site as well. No further areas of shell or other artifacts were located despite careful observation of the ground surface, and no visible signs of disturbance of the soil or looting w ere located. It is worthy of note that this area has been flooded by the construction of the Eureka and Rodman dams, as well as Lake Ocklawaha, since the time of Goggins initial report. Consequently, it is possible that the area described by Goggin was covered by water during the course of such construction. Substantial further research and possible underwater survey would be necessary to confirm this, however. Orange Springs Ferry Road Mound (8MR127), the WTF Site (new site, unnumbered) and Steve Spenc ers Middens (new site, unnumbered) On September 5th, 2006, the area of the Orange Springs Ferry Road Mound (8MR127), and the area south along the rivers western margin to the area around Eureka Bridge, was surveyed, following directions given us by Budd y Kinsey, land manager for the Department of Greenways and Trails (see Figure 415A, 415B). We had been warned by Mr. Kinsey that access to the site would involve potential landowner difficulties. Following Mr. Kinseys directions, we drove east along t he Orange Springs Ferry Road to the last unpaved road running south, and followed

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117 that road some 300 meters south to the edge of the Greenways land, and parked. At this point, a large bearded gentleman with three other men emerged from the log cabin nearb y and shouted, What the f k are you doing parking in my front yard? This is private property, G d damnit! We very quickly apologized and drove north, approximately 600 meters, to the Orange Springs boat ramp at the western end of Lake Ocklawaha, and pa rked there instead (see Figure 415B). The area south from the ramp to the area where the mound was reportedly located was surveyed. Approximately 400 meters south of the ramp, a scattering of lithics on the ground surface was located, in an area which appeared to have been disturbed by timbering; some 15 meters south of this lithic scatter, several herty cup fragments were found, as well as whiteware fragments (see Figure 415B). Based on the experience with the gentleman at the cabin, and the fact tha t this site was new and unrecorded, it was determined to name it the WTF site. The WTF site was s ome 100 meters south of an area cleared by the aforementioned gentleman, and the Orange Springs Ferry Road Mound appears to be south of this land. Though t he cleared land was Greenways land, it was decided for safetys sake to avoid further confrontation. GPS readings of the artifact locations and site boundaries were taken, as well as photographs of the artifacts at the site in situ An attempt was then m ade to locate and acquire GPS readings and photographs on Steve Spencers Middens, a previously unrecorded site near the Eureka Bridge. Approximately mile south of the bridge, on the rivers eastern margin, the northern edge of the site was located (see Figures 416). The Spencers Midden site is a freshwater midden site, within the cypress swamp zone on the rivers edge; it is a sheet midden site, which does not rise at any location above the level of the surrounding ground, covered with cypress and swe etgum trees. The site extends along the

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118 Ocklawaha Rivers eastern side for an estimated 500 meters, at a minimum, and east from the river over a very substantial area. Based on visible shell on the surface, the site is estimated to cover a minimum of twe nty (20) acres of ground surface, possibly as much as twice that. Trees throughout the site that were overturned had compact, concreted shell within their roots, and shell was visible on every exposed ground surface throughout the site; all of it was fres hwater shell, principally gastropod shell including pond and apple snail, as well as freshwater mussel shell. A number of hours were spent examining the site, because the drop in water level since the previous visit to this area left most of the ground surface relatively dry and easy to observe. At the time, it seemed extraordinary that a site of this size had not been previously found and recorded. Since then, based on observations at other sites (as will be discussed), it seems likely that the reason i s that this site, for all its size, is relatively easy to miss due to its location. Since it is in the cypress swamp zone, with no visible surface features rising above the soil surface, a casual observer from either the river or the higher ground nearby would find it difficult to see. And because there is not a boat landing or regularly traveled road on or immediately near the site, it seems likely that lack of regular visitors and the physical location and composition of the site have acted in concert t o protect it from discovery and exploitation. It is worthy of note that no pothunters holes or other evidence of looting were found at this midden, as were observed at other sites. The boundaries of the shell on the surface were walked and measured, tak ing GPS and compass readings at the edges of the site. A series of photographs of the visible shell and overturned trees were taken. Samples of the concreted shell were taken for analysis. No artifacts were found on the surface or the exposed midden edge s near the water.

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119 Unnamed Lithic Scatters (new sites); Unnamed Midden Site (8MR242); and the Sunday Bluff Site (8MR13) On September 7th, 2006, the area south from the Piney Island Landing Midden to Sunday Bluff (8MR13) along the eastern margin of the river was surveyed to examine the condition of recorded sites and to see if any new sites were present (see Figures 417A, 417B, 417C). B ecause the jeep trail in this area ran at the edge of the cypress swamp zone and the hardwood hammock zone throughout, it was followed, with regular observations east into the cypress swamp zone to determine if artifacts or sites were present. Four previo usly unreported archaeological sites along this stretch were discovered, which extends approximately two miles. All four sites were lithic concentrations on the road surface or nearby (see Figure 417A). Each consisted of clusters of worked chert, both h eat treated and non heat treated, found concentrated on the ground surface. The course of the road appeared to have been moved some distance from the original marked trail at several locations; at each such location, new erosion and wear to the soil surfa ce among the original plants were clearly visible. Lithic scatters 2 and 3 both were found in areas that appear to have been eroded since the creation of the new stretches of road; this suggests that these chert concentrations may only be the upper levels of larger sites beneath, made visible due to erosion. Because both heat treated and non heat treated flakes were found at the sites, they appear to date from the Archaic period onward. GPS readings of each sites location, as well as photographs of the artifacts at each site in situ were taken as the survey progressed. South of the last of these four lithic scatters, 8MR242 was found. The site is a recorded but unnamed shell midden located approximately mile north of Sunday Bluff, on the edge of the cypress swamp zone and the hardwood hammock zone on the eastern margin of the river. The site extends along and partially over the unpaved jeep trail that was being surveyed (see

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120 Figure 417C), with wear on the surface visible along the road margins. The site consists of the shell midden itself, a sheet midden covering the ground surface for some 30 40 meters north to south along the road edge and down the bluff slope towards the river edge, and a lithic scatter just south of the midden itself, also visib le on the road surface, with both heat treated and non heat treated chert flakes present. Vegetation at this site was typical of the zones in this region, including sabal palmetto, sweetgum, live oak trees, and some hickory, with cypress visible along the rivers edge. GPS readings of the midden boundaries and of the lithic scatter were taken, as well as photographs of each site. South of 8MR242, the Sunday Bluff site, 8MR13, originally excavated by Ripley Bullen in 1969, was located. This site consists of a series of sheet middens located along the margins of the bluff base, between the cypress swamp and hardwood hammock zones, as well as a historic component dating from the late 19th and early 20th centuries (Bullen 1969). Currently, the land between the Greenways property and the Ocala National Forest land is privately owned; only the areas located on the Greenways property were examined. The site is immediately north of the junction between Eaton Creek and the Ocklawaha River proper; a portion of th e site extends south along the eastern margin of Eaton Creek (see Figures 417A, 417B; Bullen 1969). Bullens collection from the Sunday Bluff site is currently curated at the Florida Museum of Natural History, and an analysis of this collection will be presented in Chapter 5. Accordingly, no surface material was collected at this site, since the site is one of the few along the river that has been professionally excavated. However, GPS readings of the site boundaries were taken, for the purpose of tyin g the site boundaries as recorded by Bullen into the overall locations of sites as recorded during the course of the survey. Photographs of the current conditions at the site were also taken.

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121 Eaton Creek east sites: Old Site Eaton Creek(8MR14); Eaton Cre ek Island Pilings (new site, unnumbered); Eaton Creek Railroad Spike (new site, unnumbered); Ninas Dream (8MR262, formerly USFS 8161); Eaton Creek Lithic Scatters (new sites, unnamed); Homesteaders Site, Eaton Creek Road (new site, unnumbered); McCarthy s Middens (new site, unnumbered) On September 19th, 2006, the area south of the Sunday Bluff site (8MR13) along the eastern side of Eaton Creek was surveyed. A trail that appeared to run south along the bluff at the creeks edge had been previously obse rved, and this trail was used for access throughout the area south of Sunday Bluff (see Figures 418A, 418B, 418C, 418D). The first of the sites recorded to be in this region, Old Site Eaton Creek (8MR14) was found approximately mile south of the Sunday Bluff site. Old Site Eaton Creek, like Sunday Bluff, is a freshwater sheet midden consisting primarily of gastropod shell, with some mussel visible. The midden extends roughly from the edge of the trail, on its eastern side, down the bluff to the sw amp fringe along the edge of Eaton Creek (see Figure 418B). Chert fragments, including heat treated chert, faunal remains in the form of bone fragments, and Native American ceramics, including St. Johns series, were found on the surface at this site. Di sturbances were also seen at the site: looters pits had been dug into the midden at some point in the past, though not recently, and the road itself runs over a portion of the middens eastern edge, thus disrupting a part of the site. GPS readings of the middens edges were taken, and artifact samples were collected. Photographs of the site and disturbances were taken, and the survey continued south along the trail. South of Old Site Eaton Creek, the first of several previously unreported sites found in this area was discovered, and named the Eaton Creek Island Pilings (see Figure 418B). The site is roughly 100 meters or so west of 8MR14, with access to the site near the south edge of the midden, and is located at the north end of an unmapped island wi thin Eaton Creek itself. The

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122 site was visible from the trail, and was accessible by crossing a part of Eaton Creek onto the island using a fallen log as a bridge. This site consisted of a double row of wooden pilings, apparently very worn, touching the i sland on its western side, the two rows approximately 2 m. apart and running some 70 m. north and south in Eaton Creek (see Figure 418B). Within the water near the rows of pilings, what appeared to be the remains of some sort of metal structure which app eared to include galvanized tin was observed. Based on the presence of this metal structure, it seems likely that this site may be the remains of a moonshiners still and camp, dating from the late 19th or early 20th centuries. Moonshiners tended to locat e their stills near or on the river to have water for cooling (Buddy Kinsey, Department of Greenways and Trails, personal communication 2006; Jack L. Webb, resident, personal communication 2006), and many of them had docks with boats both for access to the ir stills and a means of escape in the event of discovery (Ibid.) No further artifacts were found on the surface of the site, however, to confirm this hypothesis. Approximately 1/8 mile south of the Eaton Creek Island Pilings site, a second previously un reported site was located, which was named simply the Eaton Creek Railroad Spike (see Figure 418A). As the name implies, it consisted simply of a heavy gauge iron railroad spike which was found located in the surface of the trail. While no further archi tectural features at this site were observed, a longtime resident of the area (Eugene Gallant, Marion County Historical Society, personal communication 2003) had reported that there were several small, unrecorded bridges built with railroad ties at differe nt points along the Ocklawaha River. This site may be near or at one such bridge. GPS coordinates and photos of the spike in situ were taken, and the survey continued south along the trail.

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123 Approximately mile or so south of the Eaton Creek Railroad Spi ke, another previously recorded site was found: USFS 81 61, designated as 8MR262 in the Florida Master Site File Records. Despite the designation, the site previously had no formal name. The name Ninas Dream was suggested by the project photographer, and formally so named the site in the report to the Florida Master Site File. Ninas Dream is another, larger sheet midden along the eastern edge of Eaton Creek. The site is teardrop shaped, with the rounded end of the midden to the north and the point on the south (see Figure 418C). The northern portion of the sheet midden crosses the trail, and a fork in the road leading to an unmarked flat area, apparently used for boat landing, crosses the middens southern end. As with the Sunday Bluff and mos t other middens in this area, all observed shell was freshwater mussel or snail. Artifacts found on the surface of the midden included both heat treated and non heat treated chert flakes, concreted shell, and St. Johns plain ceramics, indicating both a St Johns and a possible Archaic occupation for this site. Also found throughout the site were old looters pits and disturbance; since the trail beside Eaton Creek crosses the midden in two separate areas, such disturbances seem likely to take place in the future. However, near one of the older pits was a femur, encrusted with shell, which was unquestionably mammalian and which appeared to be human; other bone fragments were observed in the same area. This suggests that human burials may be present at thi s site. Across Eaton Creek, west of the Ninas Dream site, a large overturned tree with what appeared to be a concentration of shell within its roots was observed, as well as what appeared to be possible shell in the soil. The land appeared to be a part of the land between Eaton and Cedar Creeks (see Figure 418C), with a channel of Eaton Creek north of the site.

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124 As the survey continued south along the Eaton Creek trail from the Ninas Dream site, four more new and unrecorded sites were discovered. T hree of these sites were lithic scatters, all three within the road itself, each roughly separated from the others by 250 meters or so (see Figure 418A). The first scatter was located approximately 100 meters south of Ninas Dream. At each site, there we re concentrations of chert flakes, some heat treated, some not. The spacing of these sites suggests the likelihood that they represent special use sites, possibly tool making areas or butchering or hunting sites, because lithics were the only artifacts pr esent, or possibly pre ceramic habitation sites. The road throughout this area appeared to have been recently shifted a meter or two east or west of an older roadbed. This suggests that these unrecorded sites have become visible due to wear and erosio n of the new road surface. GPS points at each of these new sites and photographs of the artifacts in situ were taken, and the survey continued south. Between the second and third lithic scatters, the fourth previously unreported site was located: what ap pears to be an old homesteaders site or other region of use, which was formally named Homesteaders Site, Eaton Creek Road. A whiteware fragment and aqua glass were present on the road surface, and an area of trees, smaller than the others in the area an d suggestive of an old cleared field, was present surrounding the artifacts (see Figure 418D). This area was approximately 80 meters in diameter and seemed to be roughly circular, extending along a bluff edge wider than most of those which had been trave ling along throughout the course of this days survey, and ending short of the cypress swamp zone. The site appears to be late 19th century or early 20th century in date; GPS readings of the artifact locations and photographs of the cleared area and the a rtifacts in situ were taken, and the survey continued

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125 south until terminated at a parcel of private property 1/3 mile south of Homesteaders Site, Eaton Creek. The next day, September 20th, 2006, the project photographer returned to the GPS point recorded where the overturned tree and shell was visible west across Eaton Creek. Having returned to this location, he floated his kayak and crossed Eaton Creek to the overturned tree. Another new and unrecorded site was discovered in doing so: another very larg e sheet midden, very similar to the Piney Island Midden and Steve Spencers Middens, previously noted in this report. This midden extended north to the tip of the land observed on the previous day, and extended south to an area which was partially covered by water, blocking further travel south. Like the Piney Island Midden and Steve Spencers Middens, this new site was covered by trees and had no visible ceramics or lithics present, though there was much concreted shell. It was estimated that that porti on of the site that was visible covered two acres of ground surface, at a minimum. The site appeared to continue further south for an unknown distance. Some concreted shell was collected, and GPS coordinates and photographs of the site were taken. The n ewly reported site was formally named McCarthys Midden. Masons Bay West Bridge (new site) On September 22nd, Masons Bay, a much larger wetland surrounding Mud Lake, the source of Eaton Creek (see Figure 419) was surveyed. While the ground was relatively dry, the vegetation was typical of the cypress swamp zone and the lower edges of the hardwood hammock zone throughout the rest of the region; cypress, sweetgum, and ferns were visible everywhere, and the gro und had some standing water in many areas. The area north and east of the Shiner Pond Mound Complex was surveyed for more than two hours, at the end of which a creek, possibly a branch of Eaton Creek, was encountered, which rendered further eastward trave l impossible. However, the only site located during this days work was located: what

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126 appeared to be an old bridge of cut, squared logs, fallen into the water and partially covered by mud from the water (see Figure 19A). A GPS reading of the site, and sev eral photographs of the bridge and vegetation nearby, were taken. Given the large number of sites located along the eastern side of Eaton Creek, it seemed unusual that a similar environment on the western side of the Creek and Mud Lake was not similarly made use of by the Native Americans of this region. The absence of sites in a similar area on different sides of the same waterway may be an important datum in understanding site patterning for this region. Eaton Creek Bridge (new site), Eaton Creek Bridg e Midden (new site), and the Double Bridge Mound B (8MR149) On September 26th, 2006, the eastern side of Eaton Creek south of the privately owned parcel described previously was surveyed by traveling around the northern end of Mud Lake, past the southern boundary of the privately owned land, to the eastern side of Eaton Creek (see Figures 420A, 420B, 420C). Here was located the first of the sites informant reports placed in the area: the Eaton Creek Bridge. Local informants had indicated that the orig inal road east and west across what is now the Ocala National Forest had once been along the trail found in this area (Buddy Kinsey, personal communication 2006; A. David Baillie, Jr., personal communication 2003), and that Eaton Creek had been bridged to allow passage. Where the trail ended at Eaton Creek, the remains of this bridge were clearly visible (see Figure 420B). Worked timber spans were still visible, which had fallen into the Creek, with bolts and iron connectors attached; on both sides of th e creek, an earthwork embankment had been raised above the general ground level to allow for better passage over the water. Since Eaton Creek itself was too deep to attempt a crossing on foot at

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127 this point, GPS coordinates were taken on the eastern side o f the site, as well as photographs of the visible features. At the bridge a second previously unreported site was also found. The site appeared to be a small freshwater shell midden, a sheet midden, some 4 5 meters in width, on the southern side of the r oad leading up to the bridge (see Figure 420B). No artifacts were visible on the surface of this midden, which consisted of apple snail and freshwater mussel shells, as is typical of such sites in this area. A GPS reading of the center of the site was t aken, since it was not large enough to effectively mark the outer edges, as well as photographs of the surface. A second marked site was recorded in the Master Site Files as being to the north of the road some mile: the Double Bridge Mound B, 8MR149. The area north along the eastern side of Eaton Creek was surveyed. For most of this distance, the land was typical cypress swamp zone. Nearly mile north, the ground began to rise into the hardwood hammock zone, up to a low bluff some 3 meters higher t han the ground to the south. The site was located at the edge of the rising ground (see Figure 420C). The Double Bridge Mound B is a sand and shell mound, with its long axis running east and west, perpendicular to the axis of flow of Eaton Creek, which r uns north and south at this point. The mound is constructed of sand and shell; the record of the site refers to it as a midden, but virtually no shell in the soil surrounding the mound was observed beyond a meter or two around its edge, suggesting that this mound, like others conforming to this pattern in this area, was deliberately constructed. Scrapings on the mound surface revealed Deptford check stamped ceramics, indicating an early St. Johns I component to this site, as well as a worked blade made from heat treated chert. The area to the north of the site appeared to be a zone of

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128 higher ground, continuing along the creeks edge for some distance. Old looters pits and a more recent animal burrow on the surface of the mound were visible. The Coff ee Pot Mound/Shell Ring (8MR141) On September 29th, 2006, the area north of Masons Bay between Eaton and Cedar Creeks was surveyed with the goal of locating 8MR141: the Coffee Pot Mound site. Locating the site proved difficult. This land is located on a ridge of higher ground, with the vegetation in this area being primarily oak, sabal palmetto, longleaf yellow pine, and other plant species characteristic of those islands in the forest with good soil and better water. Based on the survey results and the USGS quadrangle maps, it appears that this surrounding region of cypress swamp extends to the area to the McCarthy Middens, north adjoining Eaton Creek (see Figure 421A, 418A, 418C). Further investigation will be needed to confirm this. After sev eral hours of exploration, the site was successfully located. However, the site appears to be somewhat misnamed, as the Coffee Pot Mound is not a true mound; rather, the site is a shell ring composed of freshwater shell (see Figure 421B). The ring is a pproximately thirty meters across, with an opening at the southeastern side adjoining the dirt road leading to the site; the height of the ring varies from .5 meters at the eastern side to nearly three meters on the west. The ring is constructed so that t he upper surface is even across a sloping landscape (see Figure 421B). The inner area of the ring is relatively free from shell, with the exception of a pedestal of shell running roughly northeast and southwest across its center. The entire surface of the ring was examined in so much as was possible. The only artifacts present on the surface were lithic fragments and concreted shell; no ceramics were found at any point on the rings surface, though twelve separate scrapings were taken, substantially m ore than had been the practice at other sites in the area.

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129 The ring itself was in easy view of Cedar Creek, which flows northward on the western side of the land until it joins the main body of the Ocklawaha (see Figures 421A, 421B). It is at the mouth of Cedar Creek that a Spanish mission bell was reported found by Leon Cheatham (Buddy Kinsey, personal communication 2003, 2006; Eugene Gallant, Marion County Historical Society President, 2003; Leon Cheatham, personal communication 2003). Furthermore, the infrequent visitors to this area have reported European artifacts on and near the mounds surface (Buddy Kinsey, personal communication 2006). The Tuten Creek Sites: Tuten Creek Mounds (8MR1972); Tuten Creek Borrow Pits (New Site); Kelly and D.J.s Camp (New Site); Tuten Creek Midden (new site) On October 3rd, 2006, the area of the Tuten Creek Mounds site (8MR1972) (see Figures 422A, 422B) was surveyed with the assistance of officials from the Florida Department of Greenways and Trails. In the co urse of the days research, three new and unreported sites were also located. The mound site itself is located on the western edge of Tuten Creek, north of the Gores Landing Mound sites by some two miles. It is accessible via a long series of dirt roads (see Figures 422A,422B). One of the roads leads directly to the edge of the southernmost mound, making these sites relatively easily accessible. When the sites land manager had first mentioned these mounds, he indicated that there were three sand and shell mounds at the site (Buddy Kinsey, personal communication 2006). Informant reports suggested that there had been significant damage done to the mounds as the result of a recent fire to the west of the mound sites. A fire grader, in the course of cutting a firebreak between the mounds and Tuten Creek, had inadvertently cut directly through the central mound and damaged the southwestern third of the northernmost mound, leaving only the southernmost mound intact (see Figure 422B). All three moun ds, consistent with the pattern

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130 common to this region, appeared to be parallel mounds, though the damage to the central mound made its precise orientation difficult to ascertain; however, the northen and southern mounds could be measured with greater pre cision. Particularly striking was the fact that, since Tuten Creek curves at this site (see Figure 422B), the way in which each mound was parallel to the creek was especially obvious; the long axis of the southernmost mound ran east to west, as Tuten Cree k does at that location, while the long axis of the northernmost mound ran north to south conforming exactly with the shifts in the creeks axis of flow. After measuring the mounds, the western edge of Tuten Creek was surveyed for approximately mile to the south of the mound site. Approximately 120 meters south of the southernmost mound, at a distance of roughly 40 meters to the west of the creek, artifacts were observed on the ground surface that appeared to date from the late 19th and early 20th cen turies, including aqua glass and whiteware fragments (see Figure 422B). The area west of the mounds was surveyed from south southwest to due west of the central mound approximately 150 meters. Throughout this area, artifacts were found that dated to the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including additional aqua and amethyst glass fragments from bottles, additional whiteware fragments, and herty cup fragments. The character of the finds suggests this area was an unreported turpentine camp; because Mr. Conley and Mr. Hill of t he Department of Greenways and Trails were the first to find these artifacts, the newly located site was named Kelly and D.J.s Camp. GPS coordinates of the boundaries of this area were taken and samples of the artifacts found on the surface collected f or analysis. North of this area, and west of the northernmost mound, a second new site was located, suggesting that this area was a habitation area, in addition to being a mound site. Lithic fragments, as well as ceramic fragments including St. Johns pla in and fiber tempered plain, were

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131 found some 50 meters west of the northernmost mound site; several pits near the artifacts were discovered that appeared to be borrow pits used in the construction of the mounds (see Figure 422B). These finds suggest an a rea of habitation near the mounds themselves. GPS readings were taken of the boundaries of the area of both pits and artifacts, which appear to be concentrated in this area alone; the area along the grader path was surveyed for approximately mile north o f the newly located site to ascertain no further artifacts or features were present on the ground surface. The pits present at this site vary somewhat in size and depth, but on average, they measured roughly a meter to a meter and a half in depth and betw een 15 20 meters in length. Fallen trees and brush made a precise count of the pits impossible, but there appear to be between 5 8 pits total, though more might be visible if the brush and trees were cleared. The cypress swamp zone at the edge of Tuten Creek was surveyed, since some additional shell had been visible when we made our initial measurements. North and east of the eastern edge of the mound, the land dropped a distance of a meter or so in depth to the edge of a third newly located site: a s wamp midden or supermidden (defined as a large, flat sheet midden, near the waters edge, extending two acres or more in extent) which appears to run from the edge of the mounds and Tuten Creek north for an undetermined distance. Determining the midden s precise boundaries was not possible due to standing water several hundred meters to the north of the mound site; however, shell was visible in several overturned trees north of the standing water (see Figure 422B). Like the other supermidden sites d iscovered in this area, the Tuten Creek Midden is covered with cypress trees and does not appear to rise at any location above the ground surface; no artifacts of any kind were visible on the midden surface, again suggesting a much older date for this site than either the mounds themselves or the presumed habitation area near the borrow pits to the west.

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132 Artifacts from the surface of the spoil from the destroyed portion of the northern and central mounds were collected for analysis. This area yielded in e xcess of 50 artifacts of varying kinds, including many types of Native American ceramics, faunal remains including shell and bone fragments, and additional lithic fragments, primarily chert flakes. It is important to note that the ceramics at this site ap peared to include fiber tempered ceramics, St. Johns I era ceramics including Dunns Creek Red and Weeden Island Red, and St. Johns II ceramics including St. Johns checkstamped pottery and Alachua Cob Marked. There were also two ceramic fragments which m ay be Mission Red Filmed, though it is possible they are variants of Weeden Island Red. However, it is clear that this site includes a late prehistoric component, as well as possible evidence that the site may have been occupied (at least sporadically) fr om the late Archaic period onward through the late prehistoric and, potentially, the colonial period as well. Ocklawaha River Shell Mound II (8MR224); Cedar Creek East Middens (new sites) On Friday, October 13th, 2006, the area west and south of the Co ffee Pot Mound was surveyed to locate 8MR224, the Ocklawaha River Shell Mound II. Despite the inauspicious date, both 8MR224 and several newly observed midden sites in the same area were found. The region surveyed is on the eastern side of Cedar Creek, s outh of the Coffee Pot Mound site and on the northwestern side of the McBride Parcel (see Figures 423A, 423B, 423C). An old road exists on the western side of the higher ground previously noted in this chapter for this area (see Figures 423A, 423B) a nd appears to run into the area where the Coffee Pot Mound site is located. The survey was performed on the edge of the hardwood hammock zones and the cypress swamp zones with frequent entry into the swamp to determine if additional sites or features we re visible. Approximately 100 yards north of the fallen timber, a newly observed, relatively small

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133 site was found: a small swamp midden visible at only two locations, an overturned tree with shell in its roots, and a small patch with some shell in the s oil, in close enough association to suggest the two were part of the same site. Unlike the other swamp middens or supermiddens observed in this area, this site was small (less than 20 meters in diameter), though no artifacts were visible and no aboveground features were noticeable. GPS readings of both locations were taken and the survey continued northward to attempt to locate the mound site. Approximately mile north of this new midden site, 8MR224 was found. The site is a small perpendicular m ound site, running northwest to southeast on its long axis for 9.6m; Cedar Creek runs northeast and southwest at this location (see Figure 423B). The mound is sand and shell, with an old unpaved immediately adjacent to its eastern/southeastern edge. The site is situated at the edge of the hardwood hammock and cypress swamp zones. Looters pits were visible over a large part of its surface, and the site was badly disturbed in consequence. Though several surface scrapings were taken, no ceramics were vis ible at this site only lithics and shell. A second newly reported site was located in the cypress swamp zone nearby a small sheet midden that appears to be associated with 8MR224. Shell was visible on the ground surface at two locations. GPS readin gs of both areas and of the mounds boundaries, were taken as well as measurements of the mounds dimensions. The area northward along the trail for roughly mile was then surveyed, until the unpaved road ended in a low lying area of the swamp near the c reek that did not allow further access at that time. However, near the end of the trail was located what may be a third new site: a small scattering of shell on the trails western side, between the trail and the creek. The concentration was less than tw o meters in diameter,

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134 and not as concentrated as the other areas previously observed. A GPS reading of its location was taken (see Figure 423C). Ricky Webbs Mound (new site); Conner Homestead (new site) On November 4th, 2006, the area between Conner an d Buddy Kinseys Mound, was surveyed, prior to the beginning of hunting season in this area and the correspondingly greater risk entailed by entering the Ocala National Forest during this period. The survey began at the northern edge of the Conner Landing site and proceeded northward along the rivers eastern edge (see Figures 424A, 424B). The area surveyed was the border of the cypress swamp zone and the hardwood hammock zone; a bluff continued to exist for some 200 meters or so north of Conner Landing but descended to a height of some 23 meters above the cypress swamp zone for the rest of the distance traveled. The area north of Conner Landing for a total distance of 1.5 miles was surveyed, with no sites observed until the first of two previously un recorded sites was located: a sand and shell mound that was named for an aunt, Ricky Webbs Mound. Ricky Webbs Mound is a sand and shell mound located approximately 5 meters from the rivers eastern edge (see Figure 424B). Strouds Creek appears to branch from the Ocklawaha approximately 200 meters south of this site. The mound itself is a perpendicular mound, with the long axis running northwest to southeast a distance of 14.63 meters. Surface scrapings were perfoemd at five locations on the moun ds surface for artifacts; St. Johns ceramics were present, as well as lithic fragments. GPS readings of the mounds edges and center were taken, as well as measurements of its dimensions. The survey then proceeded northward. Only of a mile north of Ri cky Webbs Mound was surveyed with no additional sites observed. The survey then returned of a mile through the area previously surveyed to an unpaved path running eastward into the wooded uplands, which was surveyed to its end. After a

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135 distance of mile or so, the trail opened into a larger dirt road, and it was within 30 meters of this area that a second newly reported site was located: a scatter of whiteware fragments suggesting a late 19thearly 20th century presence at that location (see Figure 424A). Since Conner Landing and the area nearby was known to have several American homesteads during the late 19th century and thereafter (Eugene Gallant, personal communication 2003; Chuck Pardee, local resident, personal communication 2004, 2005), this s ite was named the Conner Homestead site. GPS coordinates where the artifacts were present were taken. Charlie Perrys Mound 1(new site); Charlie Perrys Mound 2 (new site); Charlie Perrys Village (new site); Charlie Perrys Midden (new site); 315 Ridg e (8MR1867) On November 9th, 2006, the area between Gores Landing and State Road 40 was surveyed with the assistance of two local informants, Mr. Buddy Kinsey and Mr. Charlie Perry, a supervisor for the Smurfit Stone corporation who lives within a mile o f Gores Landing. Mr. Perry had indicated that he had access to the vast area between Gores Landing and State Road 40, on the western side of the Ocklawaha River (see Figures 425A, 425B, 425C, 426A, 426B), and knew of a number of unreported and unre corded sites in that area. This day ultimately became one of the most productive days throughout the course of this survey, as Mr. Perry was able to provide access to five highly significant sites, four of them previously unrecorded. The first such site was a large, undisturbed sand and shell mound on the western edge of Strouds Creek (see Figure 425A ). This mound had no visible looters pits or animal burrows anywhere on its surface; it was a substantial distance away from any of the roads in the area and Mr. Perry indicated that he had worked to prevent access to the site for the specific purpose of deterring looters from finding it. Accordingly, the site was named for him, Charlie Perrys Mound 1.

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136 Like the other mounds on the western side of the river, Charlie Perrys Mound 1 is a parallel mound, its long axis following the axis of flow of Strouds Creek. The central portion of the mound is some 2.5 meters in height, the long axis 31.2 meters. Artifacts present on its surface included St. Jo hns Check stamped and St. Johns Plain ceramics, as well as bone and shell fragments, indicating this site has a late prehistoric component. GPS readings of the mounds edges were taken and artifact samples were collected. The second newly reported site w as another unrecorded sand and shell mound on the western side of the Ocklawaha River, which was named Charlie Perrys Mound 2. Unlike the first mound, Charlie Perrys Mound 2 had a number of looters pits dug into its surface, as well as artifacts scat tered across its surface (see Figure 425B ). Like Charlie Perrys Mound 1, this second mound was a parallel mound, with its long axis following the rivers axis of flow. Because the road came nearer this site than the first, Mr. Perry indicated he was unable to protect this site as he could the first. The mounds dimensions were measured and GPS readings of its location were taken. Artifacts present at this site included fiber tempered ceramics, Weeden Island Red and Dunns Creek Red ceramics, and St. Johns check stamped sherds, as well as a considerable number of lithics. Thus, the ceramic evidence suggests that both these mound sites have a late prehistoric component, as well as potential continuing occupation from the Archaic period onward. Mr. Pe rry also located an area approximately 75 meters south of this second mound site where he had been present during a scrape logging some twelve years ago (see Figure 425B ). Mr. Perry explained that, during a scrape logging, trees are removed and the g round cut with a backhoe much like the process used for some archaeological excavations. He further indicated that, during this scrape, there had been found three huge circular stains filled with charcoal

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137 each between 2 3 meters in diameter all in a row, together with a great deal of Indian pottery and ashes. When asked if he could recall what the Indian pottery looked like, Mr. Perry indicated that it was that stuff with the squares apparently St. Johns checkstamped pottery. Though no artifacts were present on the surface, GPS readings of this location were taken and the area was recorded as a third new site, Charlie Perrys Village since what Mr. Perry describes strongly suggests a habitation site accidentally uncovered during the logging process. The area south of the mound and habitation site approximately mile was surveyed, then the area mile east on an unmarked dirt road that Mr. Perry indicated was an old logging trail (see Figure 426A, 425C ). Approximately 300 meters south, into the woods (primarily the hardwood hammock zone) a smaller, unrecorded sheet midden was located at the edge of the area where the land drops into the beginning of the cypress swamp zone (see Figure 425C ); it was named Charlie Perrys Midden. The site itself is roughly mile from the western edge of the Ocklawaha River, suggesting that the presence of the river itself may not always have been a determining factor in the placement of habitation sites. Like all other observed middens in this region, the shell was composed of gastropod and freshwater mussel shell. Artifacts recovered from this midden included shell and faunal remains. GPS readings of the sites boundaries were taken. The final site observed during survey was a recorded sit e, the 315 Ridge Site, 8MR1867. This site was located partly on Greenways land and partly on land owned by the Rayonier Corporation. It consists of a large area of shell, which may be either a dense midden or, possibly, the looted remains of a large moun d. Based on observations at the site, the former seems much more likely (see Figures 426A, 426B). The shell is within a clearing that is

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138 normally overgrown with broadleaved coogan grass. Looters had herbicided large areas of the grass to expose the ground surface and had dug a series of looters pits, apparently searching for chert points. A very large number of artifacts, in excess of 100, were found scattered across the ground surface due to looting; they included fiber tempered ceramics, Dunns Creek Red and Weeden Island Red ceramics, St. Johns Plain and St. Johns Check stamped ceramics, as well as chert and other lithics and faunal remains. This suggests this site was occupied regularly from the Archaic period onwards. GPS readings of the sites boundaries were taken and the artifacts visible on the surface were collected. Colby Landing Midden (8MR57) On November 18th, 2006, the area south from Turkey Landing to State Road 40, along the r ivers eastern side (see Figure 427) was surveyed to locate any unrecorded sites between Turkey Landing and the Delks Bluff Bridge, and to locate the Colby Landing Midden, 8MR57. The area south along the eastern side of the river for a distance of some two miles was surveyed. In this area, the bluffs generally slope into higher areas, most of which are controlled by private landowners. Previous information by informants, as well as some archaeological testing on privately owned land in this area prior to the commencement of the Ocklawaha Survey Proje ct, indicates that there are several Native American and historic occupations throughout this area. The land surveyed consisted primarily of cypress swamp and hardwood hammock. A number of unmarked trails throughout this area were observed, as well as sev eral areas that appear to be used as occasional boat landings. There were no signs of artifacts or features on the surface in the area controlled by the Department of Greenways and Trails until the site of the Colby Landing Midden, 8MR57 (see Figure 427)

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139 Though the midden itself is on land owned by the Department of Greenways and Trails, it is immediately adjacent to a privately owned campground, Colby Woods. The midden itself is very near an older paved area, and appears to have been once used as a bo at landing and staging area. While the surface seemed mostly intact, there were several areas that appeared to be somewhat disturbed, though no looters pits were visible. Artifacts recovered from the surface included St. Johns plain and checkstamped sh erds, sand tempered ceramics, and fiber tempered plain sherds, as well as numerous lithics and bone fragments. As with all of the middens and mounds observed during the course of this survey, the midden shell was freshwater shell including pond and apple snail and mussel shell. GPS readings of the boundaries of the midden were taken. Delks Bluff Midden (new site); Heather Island Preserve site (8MR2223) On November 28th, 2006, the area south from the Delks Bluff Bridge, where State Road 40 crosses the O cklawaha River (see Figures 428A, 428B), to the Sharpes Ferry bridge (see Figure 428A) was surveyed on the Ocklawahas eastern side. Approximately 400 meters south of the State Road 40 bridge, a newly located, unmarked site was found: a shell midden near the mouth of the Silver River, where it flows into the Ocklawaha. The site itself is underwater in large part, with only a part of the midden visible at an overturned cypress tree at the rivers edge (see Figure 428B). No artifacts were visible ei ther in that area above the waters edge or underneath the surface. Since the midden was mostly underwater, a GPS reading of the portion of the midden visible above the surface was taken. The cypress swamp zone in this area grew increasingly wet until, roughly one mile south of the bridge, the rising water in the swamp made further passage impossible. Moving south to the Sharpes Ferry Bridge by vehicle, the survey went north, along the eastern side of the river, through the cypress swamp zone until the southern boundary of the submerged area within the

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140 swamp was located (see Figure 428A), some mile north of the Sharpes Ferry Road bridge. The survey then proceeded south along the rivers edge on foot for a distance of some mile. Throughout this a rea, other than the Delks Bluff Midden, no further middens or other sites of any kind were observed. This appeared to confirm previous informant testimony that no sites were present for an undetermined distance south of the Silver Springs/Ocklawaha River junction. Mr. Buddy Kinsey of Department of Greenways and Trails then provided access to the next site of which he was aware south of the Delks Bluff midden: the Heather Island Preserve site, 8MR2223, located on the western side of Heather Island and th e Marshall swamp (see Figures 429A, 429B). The Heather Island Preserve site is an open field, overgrown with dog fennel and grasses, at the western side of the Marshall Swamp (see Figure 429B), accessible by a short drive from the gate at the entranc e to the site. Mr. Kinsey indicated that numerous ceramic sherds and lithic fragments had been observed on the surface at this location. During the relatively brief initial visit to this site, several chert flakes scattered on the ground surface were fou nd in the area. The surface of the field during this visit could not be fully surveyed due to time constraints. The survey returned to the Heather Island Preserve site on December 5th, 2006. At this time, the road that surrounds the open field at the si te (see Figure 429B) and the field itself was surveyed, as well as the surrounding woods and swamps to determine the extent of the site. On this second visit, ceramics and other material were located. Sherds were found to be present in several areas, pr imarily concentrated along the road located on the eastern and southern sides of the site (see Figure 429B); these included St. Johns checkstamped and plain ceramics, Alachua tradition ceramics including Lochloosa Punctated and plain sherds, and many add itional lithics, including chert flakes and expedient tools. Equally significantly, just to the

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141 south of the southern road, in an area which appeared to have been disturbed in the past, two sherds of European ceramic, green glazed Spanish olive jar, were f ound (identification by Dr. Gifford Waters, Florida Museum of Natural History, 2006). The presence of numerous Native American ceramics at this site, dating from the late prehistoric period, as well as the presence of Spanish olive jar, indicates that this site represents both a Native American habitation site and, possibly, a mission period site as well. The Heather Island preserve site is approximately three miles northwest of the Hutto/Martin site, the mission site located near Moss Bluff, Florida whic h will be discussed in detail in Chapter 6. Delks Bluff West (new site) On December 18th, 2006, the area north of the Delk's Bluff Bridge on the western side of the Ocklawaha River was surveyed, based on an informant report of a mound site in this area (Charlie Perry, personal communication 2006). The area north of the bridge, following an unmarked road and trail into the cypress swamp zone along the rivers western edge, across the river from the Colby Landing Midden, 8MR57 (see Figure 427, 428A ), wa s surveyed. The site was found to be a badly degraded sand mound consisting of a region of sand barely three meters in width and breadth, and a little above 1.5 meters in height. Scattered sand near the rise may represent a part of the mound previously d isturbed, but no artifacts of any kind were found visible on the surface. The pattern of the sand suggests this was originally a parallel mound, but the condition of the site made this impossible to determine precisely. GPS coordinates and photographs were taken for the site. Having discussed the many sites observed during regional archaeological survey, I wish now to discuss some apparent trends and patterns which emerge from regional analysis of sites.

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142 Regional Analysis: Cultural and Site Patternin g Based on the presence and absence of visible surface features, artifacts, and other archaeological evidence collected during regional survey, certain initial patterns that provide insight into the lifeways of the people of this region emerge from th e data. First, the material collected from sites observed and recorded to date, including all new sites found during the course of the surface survey, suggests that there are three zones of Native American settlement in this area (see Figure 430, from Boyer 2007, below). The oldest sites in this region, including all known Paleoindian and Early to Middle Archaic sites, are clustered in the central region located between the Tobacco Patch Landing and Shell Knoll Landing sites, north of the Eureka Dam, and the region around Silver Springs. North of Tobacco Patch Landing and the Shell Knoll Mound site, and south of Silver Springs, there are no known sites for a distance of several miles. All known shell midden sites, as well as mounds constructed of bot h sand and shell, are confined to this central region as well, with the exception of the Cedar Landing site. The supermidden sites such as Steve Spencers Middens are all located in this central region as well. If the material reported by B. Calvin Jone s and Mike Stallings from the Piney Island Midden, 8MR848, in the Florida Master Site Files is typical of the age and cultural affiliation of the supermidden sites (Jones 1992), these sites may contain components that date to the Paleoindian period. Cert ainly, it seems likely that they predate the Late Archaic Period and may be considerably older. North of Shell Knoll Mound, sites appear again at the Orange Springs Ferry Road Mound site (8MR127), and continue to be present at least through the area of th e Bear Creek Mound (8PU644), nearest the conjunction of the Ocklawaha River and the St. Johns River. All of these sites appear to be St. Johns I and St. Johns II sites. This area includes habitation sites such as the

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143 Penner Ponds Crossroads (8PU818) and t he sites on Kaufman Island, which are reported to date to the late St. Johns I and St. Johns II eras (Florida Master Site File records.) South of Silver Springs, the first site known to exist is the Heather Island Preserve site (8MR2223), which, as noted in this report, has St. Johns CheckStamped and Alachua tradition sherds, as well as a Spanish mission era component. This third region includes the Brad Holly mound and habitation site, including both late St. Johns I and St. Johns II ceramics, the Lake Weir Landing Mounds (8MR35), containing late St. Johns I and St. Johns II ceramics, and the Hutto/Martin site, containing St. Johns II, Alachua tradition, and mission era Native American as well as colonial Spanish ceramics. These sites appear to be chrono logically the most recent of the sites in the region. Taken as a whole, the evidence from the surface survey suggests that the central zone of settlement is the oldest in the area. From there, the people of the region appear to have expanded first into t he northern zone, including the region around Lake Kerr and Kaufman Island, and then into the southern zone from Heather Island south, to a distance yet to be determined. The presence of St. Johns II sites on Lake Weir, including the McKenzie Mound site ( 8MR64), suggests that Lake Weir was a part of the Acuera cultural region in the late prehistoric period as well, as will be discussed in greater detail in Chapter 5. Secondly, the mound patterning discussed in the initial published report on mound pattern ing in this region (Boyer 2006a) was visually confirmed at every mound site within this region with one exception, the Coffee Pot Mound site, 8 MR141 (See Figure 431, from Boyer 2007, below). In other words, every mound site observed in this area, with the sole exception of 8MR141, is parallel to the rivers axis of flow on the western side, and perpendicular to it on the eastern side.

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144 The fact that this pattern is common to all mound sites in this area strongly suggests two things. First, it is like ly that a common culture constructed the mound sites observed during the course of regional survey. A pattern that replicates itself in this fashion is almost certainly the result of common cultural practice followed by people who possessed shared traditi ons and beliefs. Thus, the initial survey would seem to confirm the hypothesis that the Ocklawaha River Valley represents a geographic boundary for a common culture. Secondly, the replication of this pattern at all sites but one would appear to indicate that both the replicated pattern of mound construction and the exception represented by 8MR141 have cultural meaning and significance. Mound sites are significant to Native American cultures throughout the Southeast; mounds constructed in a common pattern throughout an area most likely represent a physical manifestation of a shared system of belief that held great importance for the people who constructed them. Third, this patterning may have continued literally over millennia in this region. The oldest sites, those in the central region, have sandand shell mounds conforming to this pattern; the Tuten Creek Mounds site includes ceramics in a relatively continuo us series from the Late Archaic including all known ceramic types from this region through the late prehistoric St. Johns II and Alachua traditions. This suggests there may have been great temporal depth at least from the Late Archaic period onwards t o this system of cultural practice. However, it is also possible that the mounds built to this pattern were constructed in the later St. Johns I or St. Johns II eras. Because both sand, and sand and shell in combination, were used to construct mounds in this region, it may be that certain mounds were constructed of materials deposited earlier by ancestral cultures in the area. Additional analysis of mound sites in the area for stratigraphy,

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145 dating of strata for times of construction, and other data will be needed to determine more precisely when the mounds conforming to this pattern were built. Fourth, the placement of both parallel and perpendicular mounds relative to the Ocklawaha River suggests that the river itself, as well as the space between the mounds and the river, had cultural significance for the people of this region. The fact that the mound sites that conform to this pattern "follow" the course of the river that is, their placement changes at each location where the river itself changes o rientation seems to indicate that there was some significance not just in the river, but in its orientation, the space adjoining the river, and the space between both the mounds built to this pattern and the rivers edge. If so, then more detailed archa eological observation of specific sites, including subsurface testing at mound sites in this area, should provide evidence of such significance in the archaeological record from each site. With these general patterns established by regional survey and ana lysis as background, I wish now to turn to a more detailed study of specific sites within the region of study.

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146 Figure 41. The Ock lawaha River valley and environs

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147 Figure 42. Locations of all sites mentioned in the text

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148 Figure 43. 8PU50 Davenport Landing Mound

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149 Figure 44. Davenport Landing Mound and vicinity

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150 Figure 45. 8MR96 Eureka Bluff s ite

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151 Figure 46. Eureka Bluff s ite (8MR96) and vicinity

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152 Figure 47. Gores Landing sites

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153 Figure 48. Gores Landing sites detail

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154 Figure 49. Shiner Pond Mound complex: 8MR19, 20, 21, 22, 23 also known as the Palmetto Landing Mounds

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155 Figure 410. 8MR19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 Palmetto Landing Mounds/Shiner Pond Mounds detail

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156 Figure 411. Conner Landing (8MR2064) and Turkey Landing (8MR2063)

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157 Figure 412. Conner Landing (8MR2064) and Turkey Landing (8MR2063) detail

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158 Figure 413. Cedar Landing sites

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159 Figure 414. Cedar Landing sites detail

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160

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161 Figure 415. Palmetto Landing sites

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162 Figure 416. Palmetto Landing sites detail

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163 Figure 417. Buddy Kinseys Mound

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164 Figure 418. Buddy Kinseys Mound detail

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165 Figure 419. Piney Island Landing midden, 8MR848

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166 Figure 420. Piney Island midden, 8MR848 detail

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167 Figure 421. Bear Creek Mound, 8PU644

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168 Figure 422. Bear Creek Mound, 8PU644 detail

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169

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170 Figure 423. Pohlers Mound site, 8PU1217

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171 Figure 424. 8PU1217, Pohlers Mound, Rodman Reservoir detail

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172 Figure 425. Penner Ponds sites

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173 Figure 426. Penner Ponds Crossroads, 8PU818 detail

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174 Figure 427. Shell Knoll Mound and midden sites, 8MR75, 8MR76

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175 Figure 428. Shell Knoll Landing and Shell Knoll Mound detail

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176 Figure 429. WTF site and vicinity

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177 Figure 430. The WTF site detail

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178 Figure 431. Steve Spencers Middens and vicinity

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179 Figure 432. Piney Island South lithic scatters, 8MR242, and the Sunday Bluff site (8MR13) and vicinity

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180 Figure 433. Piney Island South lithic scatters detail

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181 Figure 434. 8MR242, unnamed shell midden detail

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182 Figure 435. Sites south of Sunday Bluff on east side of Eaton Creek and vicinity

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183 Fig ure 4 36. Old Site, Eaton Creek (8MR14) and Eaton Creek Island pilings detail

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184 Figure 437. Ninas Dream (8MR262) and McCarthys Middens detail

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185 Figure 438. Homesteaders site, Eaton Creek detail

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186

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187 Figure 439. Mason Bay West bridge and vicinity

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188 Figure 440. Eaton Creek Bridge site, Eaton Creek Bridge midden, and 8MR149 Double Bridge Mound B and vicinity

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189 Figure 441. Eaton Creek Bridge and Eaton Creek Bridge midden detail

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190 Figure 442. Double Bridge Mound B, 8MR149 detail

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191 Figure 443. 8MR141 Coffee Pot Mound (shell ring) and vicinity

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192 Figure 444. Coffee Pot Mound (shell ring) detail

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193 Figure 445. Tuten Creek sites and vicinity

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194 Figure 446. Tuten Creek sites: Tuten Creek Mounds (8MR1972), Tuten Creek midden, Tuten Creek borrow pits, Kelly and D.J.s C amp detail

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195 Figure 447. 8MR224 Ocklawaha River Shell Mound II and Cedar Creek East middens and vicinity

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196 Figure 448. Ocklawaha River Shell Mound II (8MR224) and Cedar Creek East midden detail

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197 Figure 449. Cedar Creek north midden detail

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198 Figure 450. Ricky Webbs Mound and Conner Homestead site and vicinity

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199 Figure 451. Rick y Webbs Mound detail

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200 Figure 452. Charlie Perrys Mound 1 detail

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201 Figure 453. Charlie Perrys Mound 2 and Charlie Perrys village detail

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202

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203 Figure 454. Charlie Perrys midden detail

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204 Figure 455. 8MR1867 The 315 Ridge site and vicinity

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205 Figure 456. The 315 Ridge site detail

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206 Figure 457. Colby Landing midden detail

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207 Figure 458. Delks Bluff midden and vicinity

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208 Figure 459. Delks Bluff midden detail

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209 Figure 460. Heather Island Preserve site, 8MR2223 and vicinity

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210 Figure 461. Heather Island Preserve site, 8MR2223 detail

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211 Figure 462. Zones of settlement within the Ocklawaha River valley

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212 Figure 463. General pattern, parallel/perpendicular mounds, Ocklawaha River valley

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213 CHAPTER 5 THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDE NCE, PART II EXCAVATION DATA FROM PRECONTACT SITES TES TED IN THE REGION OF STUDY As noted in Chapter 4, the goal of initial surface survey and artifact sampling at sites within the region of study was to determine if certain common p atterns suggesting common cultural practice were present. Because evidence was found that suggests that the Ocklawaha River Valley, prior to European contact, did in fact represent a cultural unit, at least during the later St. Johns period, it then is ne cessary to reduce the scale of analysis to individual sites within the region with components dating to the later St. Johns I and St. Johns II eras, to see if specific sites within the area have further evidence of common cultural practices and can provide information about the precontact lifeways of the Native American groups of the Ocklawaha River Valley. Briefly summarizing the results of the survey, all known mound sites but one throughout this region were found to have been built in a common pattern Constructed as oblong ovals, the long axes of mounds on the western side of the Ocklawaha River were found to be constructed parallel to the rivers axis of flow at that location, while the long axes of mounds on the eastern side of the river were found to be constructed at a 90 perpendicular angle to the rivers axis of flow (see Figure 4 31) (Boyer 2006a, 2007 ). The sole exception, the Coffee Pot Mound site (8MR141), was found to be a ring of sand and shell with its opening facing the southeas t (see Figure 421B ) (Boyer 2006a, 2007), though it is not yet clear whether this represents the sites original form or is the result of unrecorded digging at the site (Buddy Kinsey, Florida Department of Greenways and Trails, personal communication 2007). Furt hermore, the initial walking survey of the region, as well as study of Florida Master Site File records, suggests that three zones of settlement existed in the Ocklawaha River Valley prior to European contact. The central zone, extending from roughly the region of Eureka to the

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214 mouth of the Silver River at its confluence with the Ocklawaha, has the oldest concentration of sites, with the area containing Paleoindian, Early, Middle and Late Archaic, St. Johns I, and St. Johns II era sites. This region is als o the location of all known shell middens in th e region except one (Boyer 2007, 2008a ). The northern zone, extending from the western end of Lake Ocklawaha to the confluence of the Ocklawaha River and the St. Johns River, contains the only known shell mid den on the Ocklawaha outside the central zone (the Cedar Landing South site, 8MR90), as well as sites with Deptford, St. Johns I, and St. Johns II components (Boyer 2007). The southern zone appears to contain the most recent sites of the three, with all k nown sites in the area dating to the later St. Johns I era and t he St. Johns II era (Boyer 2007). The common pattern to the mounds suggested that there was a common, shared culture throughout this region prior to European contact, one that represented a s pecific group with common cultural practices and beliefs rather than simply a general shared material culture. Furthermore, surface collections at the sites in the area performed during the walking survey in 2006, as well as data from the Master Site Fi les, suggested that certain of the mound sites have been used relatively continuously throughout the period from the late Archaic onward, thus suggesting great continuity in systems of be lief in this region (Boyer 2007 ). However, none of the materials collected during the surface survey had clear context, for obvious reasons. To determine settlement patterns, cultural affiliations, and other information about sites in this region, it is necessary to have data collected during controlled, scientific invest igations at multiple sites in the area to see if there is good contextual evidence of a shared culture at the sites in this region, and for how long such a shared culture may have persisted. Only a few limited excavations with good scientific control over excavation practices had been previously performed at sites in this area; since Moores excavations (Mitchem 1999a, b),

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215 only four such digs are known to have been performed in the area prior to the beginnings of the Ocklawaha Survey Project (Cerrato 1994; Bullen 1969; Sears 1959). However, these four digs at Davenport Landing Mound (8PU50), Sunday Bluff (8MR13), Colby Landing (8MR57), and the McKenzie Mound (8MR64) meant that good data existed for at least one site in each of the three zones of settle ment. Furthermore, the data from Davenport Landing Mound, as well as data from three sites tested as a part of the Ocklawaha Survey Project the Pardee/Harris Site (8MR3511), the Heather Island Preserve Site (8MR2223) and the Lake Weir Landing Mounds sit e (8MR35) provide a basis for understanding not merely ceramic and other artifactual data from the sites, but also spatial patterns of use within several individual sites, from each of the three zones of human settlement in this area, which have componen ts dating either partially or wholly to the period when the Acuera are believed to have inhabited this region. Accordingly, the collections and records curated at the Florida Museum of Natural History for Sunday Bluff, Colby Landing, and the McKenzie Moun d were pulled and re examined, together with the published reports for each site where such existed (Bullen 1969; Sears 1959). Data for the Davenport Landing Mound site was taken from Cynthia Cerratos published masters thesis on the site (Cerrato 1994). Finally, the data from the initial testing at the Pardee/Harris site, the Heather Island Preserve site, and the Lake Weir Landing Mounds site were tabulated to determine patterns of use and cultural affiliations at each site. The refined research questi ons posited as a basis for fieldwork and analysis at these sites were as follows: Did the studied sites show evidence of common cultural affiliations throughout the Ocklawaha River Valley, and if so, what ceramic or other markers were distinctive to this a rea?

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216 If common cultural affiliations and distinctive ceramic markers existed throughout this region, suggesting a common culture at sites in the area, how long did such a common culture persist? If evidence of common cultural practices existed at these sit es, what can it tell us about precontact cultural practices and beliefs for the people of this region during the later St. Johns era? Following are the results of the analyses performed on the collections from each of the seven sites studied for this secti on of this research, together with a comparison of site patterning for the Sunday Bluff, Davenport Landing, Lake Weir Landing Mounds, and Heather Island Preserve sites. Because ceramics appeared to be the best markers of cultural affiliation through time, it was determined to analyze primarily the counts of ceramic types at this stage of research to determine if common patterns emerged. Because comparable data collected by comparable strategies existed for the Heather Island Preserve site and the Lake Wei r Landing Mounds site, additional data could be included in analysis of collections from those sites; these data are incorporated here. The sites discussed will be placed within the three zones of settlement noted for this area, and the results of excavat ions at each presented in the following sections. This data will then be used as a basis for understanding in more detail the pre contact cultural practices of the people of this region. The Northern Zone Site 1: Davenport Landing Mound (8PU50) The Davenport Landing Mound is located within the northern zone of settlement for this region (see Figure 4 30). This site was originally excavated by C.B. Moore during his 1895 expedition along the Ocklawaha River (Mitchem 1999a ), leaving severe damage to th e mound. In 1994, Cynthia Cerrato and others performed an excavation to determine the nature of the site

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217 and to stabilize the remains of the mound (Cerrato 1994). Today, the site has been stabilized and is under the control of the Nati onal Park Service ( see Figure 5 1). Because Davenport Landing Mound is the only site located within the northern zone excavated using scientific methodology, it is the only such site presented in this section, though it is fully possible that this site may be atypical of si tes for this area. During the course of the dig performed by Cerrato, shovel testing was performed and three larger excavation units were dug (see Figure s 5 2 and 53). Two of these larger units were placed within the remains of the mound itself, while t he third was dug in an area Cerrato hypothesized represented a village area. The ceramics recovered from both the mound and the village area were analyzed by type. The total number of sherds of each ceramic type, and the percentage of the total numbe r of ceramics each type represents, are re presented in Table 5 1, at the close of this chapter. As can be seen from the tabulated results, based on the relative counts and percentages of the total sherd assemblage from the site, the overwhelmingly predominant ceramics at the site were St. Johns ceramics, with St. Johns Plain, St. Johns Check Stamped, and St. Johns Incised/Punctated sherds forming 90% of the total. Two minor components at the site, forming some 7% of the total assemblage, included W akulla Check Stamped and Carrabelle Punctated ceramics as well as Alachua cord marked and Lochloosa Punctated ceramics. Based on the presence of sherds dating to the Weeden Island II period (500900 A.D.) (Milanich, Cordell et al. 1984:6268), as well as St. Johns Check Stamped sherds postdating 750 A.D. (Milanich 1994), the Davenport Landing Mound site appears to date primarily to the later St. Johns I and the St. Johns II era.

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218 This would seem to be confirmed by visual observation of a part of C.B. Moore s collection taken from the Davenport Landing Mound site in 1894. The objects listed by Moore in his Plate XXVIII as Unidentified Object of Earthenware, Davenport and as a Vase of Earthenware, Davenport (Mitchem 1999a :368) were examined during study at the Smithsonians National Museum of the American Indian during the spring of 2007. Both objects, while formed of typical St. Johns sponge spiculate paste, were found to have traces of the red pigment typical of Dunns Creek Red ceramics, with a date r ange between 300 500 A.D. (Milanich 1994). Based on the presence of these items as well as the sherd assemblage collected by Cerrato, it seems most likely that the site dates to the later St. Johns I and St. Johns II eras. Collating the maps of Cerrato s shovel tests and excavations at Davenport Landing Mound with the site map noted in Chapter 4 (see Figure 4.2B), the patterns of artifact concentrations at the site suggest that the primary areas of human activity at the site were between the mound recon structed by Cerrato and the Ocklawaha River itself. As can be seen in Figure 53, the primary area where shovel tests containing lithic and ceramic artifacts was concentrated atop the bluff where the mound was located, near the mound itself and between th e mound and the river. South of the mound, the concentrations drop, within 2030 meters of the mounds southern edge, to an area of negative shovel tests. Moores original description of this interesting little mound, on a bluff of the Ocklawaha at Dave nport, about 12 miles by water from the St. Johns ( Mitchem 1999 a :285), concluded, Nothing in the mound at Davenport indicated a knowledge of the Whites by its makers (Mitchem 1999a :286). Cerratos analysis of the collections taken during her excavation s at

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219 Davenport Landing Mound placed the site within the St. Johns II era for this region, with no contact or colonial period deposits present at the site (Cerrato 1994). The Central Zone Site 2: Sunday Bluff (8MR13) The Sunday Bluff site is located within the central zone of settlement for this region (see Chapter 4 Figure 430). The site is a series of freshwater shell middens, located at the base of the clay bluff which gives the site its name (see Figure 5 4), on the eastern side of the Ocklawaha Rive r. The most common vegetation at the site is live oak and sabal palm, forming the principal vegetation for the hardwood hammock zone at this location. However, the top of the bluff is typical sand pine forest common throughout the Big Scrub in this reg ion. Currently, the site is managed by the Florida Department of Greenways and Trails. This site was excavated by Ripley P. Bullen of the Florida State Museum (today the Florida Museum of Natural History), through contract with the National Park Service, under the presumption it would be flooded by the then planned Cross Florida Barge Canal (Bullen 1969). Bullen dug a series of trenches, tests and extensions within the sheet midden located at the site, as well as nearb y (see Figure 5 4). Since the cana ls de authorization, the bulk of the site remains intact. The ceramics recovered by Bullen from this excavation were analyzed by type. The total number of each ceramic type, and the percentage of the total number of ceramics each type represents, are re presented in Table 5 2 at the close of this chapter. Fiber tempered ceramics form 48% of the total assemblage of sherds collected at Sunday Bluff, clearly indicating the site has a substantial Late Archaic component (Milanich 1994). St. Johns ceramics, in cluding St. Johns Plain, St. Johns CheckStamped, St. Johns Simple Stamped, and St. Johns Incised form roughly 40% of the remaining total assemblage from this site.

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220 Intriguingly, Deptford and Pasco Ware ceramics form nearly all the remaining total of this sites assemblage (11%). The presence of these ceramic types at Sunday Bluff suggest a long range of occupation at this site, including the Late Archaic, St. Johns I, and St. Johns II eras (Milanich 1994). The fact that 40% of the total comprises St. Joh ns ceramics further suggests that this site was within the St. Johns cultural region. However, the presence of Deptford and Pasco Wares at this site is something of an anomaly; such ceramics are rarely found in any quantity at sites within the St. Johns heartland (Keith Ashley, University of North Florida, personal communication 2009; Milanich 1994). Intriguingly, the relative proportions of datable lithics for the Sunday Bluff site differ from the relative percentages of da table ceramics. T able 53 at the close of this chapter summarizes the datable lithics found at Sunday Bluff by numbers and relative percentages of the total. Pinellas points are contemporaneous with the St. Johns II period in Florida, dating between 750 A.D. and the historic period (Bullen 1975; Milanich 1994). OLeno points date between 200 A.D. and 1250 A.D. (Ibid). Together, Pinellas and OLeno points comprise 45% of the identifiable point types from the Sunday Bluff assemblage. Hernando and Lafayette points date between 500 B.C 200 A.D. and 500 B.C.200 B.C. respectively (Ibid), and would thus be contemporaneous with the Deptford ceramics in the assemblage. These points comprise 8% of the total lithic assemblage. Clay, Newnan and Archaic Stemmed Points date to the middle to l ate Archaic periods (Ibid). Together, all three types comprise 29% of the lithic assemblage from the Sunday Bluff site. Unlike the ceramic assemblage collected during Bullens excavations, the lithic assemblage

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221 appears to date to the St. Johns I and, mor e predominantly, to the St. Johns II eras, with less than 30% of the total identifiable lithics belonging to the sites Archaic component. As is visible in Figure 5 4, the primary areas of visible features at this site are located in the area between the b ase of Sunday Bluff itself and the zone of cypress swamp bordering the Ocklawaha River. Bullen did not test the bluff nor the higher upland atop the bluff, and access to those areas, due to their control by private landowners and the USDA Forest Service, was not possible for the purpose of this research. Thus, while patterning at this site would suggest that the primary areas of human activity were within the hardwood hammock zone, it is possible that another occupation is present atop the bluff, and that the apparent presence of primary activity in the areas reported by Bullen is the result of skewed data caused by inability to test in other adjacent areas. Site 3: Colby Landing (8MR57) The Colby Landing site is a freshwater shell midden located on land currently managed by the Florida Department of Greenways and Trails approximately mile north of the State Road 40 Bridge, on the eastern side of the Ocklawaha River (see Figures 55 and 56). Like Sunday Bluff, this site is located within the central z one of settlement for this region (see Figure 4 30). The Colby Landing site was excavated by Dr. Thomas Gochnour of Jacksonville, at approximately the same time as Bullen excavated at Sunday Bluff, and Gochnour provided the collection taken at Colby to th e Florida State Museum (Bullen 1969). The material was collected from two excavation units dug within the sheet midden by Gochnour (Bullen 1969). The ceramics recovered from this excavation were analyzed by type. The total number of each ceramic type, an d the percentage of the total number of ceramics each type represents, are re presented in Table 5 4 at the close of this chapter.

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222 The analysis of the materials from Colby Landing is intriguing. While fiber tempered ceramics are present at this site, the y form only 25% of the total sherd assemblage, significantly less than the relative total percentage of such ceramics found at the Sunday Bluff midden to the north. Furthermore, fiber tempered ceramics are slightly surpassed in number by Deptford and Pasc o ware ceramics found at Colby Landing, which form roughly 28% of the total assemblage taken from the site. The largest percentage of ceramics found at Colby Landing were St. Johns ceramics, comprising slightly more than 44% of the total collected from t he site. However, Alachua tradition ceramics were present at Colby Landing as well, including Alachua Cord Marked and Alachua Cob Marked varieties, forming 2% of the assemblage. Like the ceramics found at Sunday Bluff, the presence of substantial quantit ies of Deptford and Pasco ceramics as well as others is an anomaly within the larger St. Johns cultural area, where such ceramics are found in negligible amounts if found at all (Keith Ashley, personal communication 2009; Milanich, Cordell et al. 1984; Mi lanich 1994). The most visible surface feature at the Colby Landing Site, the surface of the midden itself, is within the hardwood hammock zone, in approximately the same location relative to the river and the adjacent uplands as the midde n at Sunday Bluff (see Figure 5 5). Site 4: The Pardee/Harris Site (8MR3511) The Pardee/Harris site, 8MR3511, is located on the eastern margins of the Ocklawaha River, atop a sand bluff, 1/8 mile north of the C olby Landing site (see Figure 5 6). The owner of the site reported the presence of Native American artifacts on the ground surface and requested testing be performed in the property to determine if an archaeological site was present. During 2004 and 2005, with the permission of the lan downer, shovel testing was performed at the site to

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223 make such a determination and to see if anything could be determined concerning the sites temporal and cultural affiliations, if so. The site itself is located on a sand bluff bordering the cypress swam p zone located along the river margins, which slopes south and eastward from its highest point near the swamp to its lowest some 200 mete rs from the bluff (see Figure 5 6). As with most of the land in this area, the primary vegetation at the site consists of oak, sweetgum, pignut hickory, and sabal palm, with a grass cover over most of the site. At the Pardee/Harris site, because the primary goal of the sites testing was to determine if artifacts were present in certain areas where the landowner wished to potentially build or develop, a random sampling strategy was employed. Judgmental shovel tests 50 cm x 50 cm x 100 cm were placed in random order around the property (see Figure 5 7) with the material from each shovel test screened through mesh to recover archaeological remains. The artifacts collected were analyzed and weighed to determine their temporal and cultural proveniences. The results of this analysis are summarized in T able 55 at the close of this chapter Like the Colby Landing and S unday Bluff sites, the Pardee/Harris site had a significant Archaic component, represented by fiber tempered ceramics present. Unlike the other two sites, however, the fiber tempered ceramics were concentrated atop the sand bluff, rather than in the areas closer to the water. Furthermore, the primary artifact category found at this site was lithics, represented by chert flakes and stone tools of various sorts, both heat treated and non heat treated. As will be discussed, this suggests that there may have been a shift in use patterns in the central zone of the Ocklawaha River valley between the Archaic and the later St. Johns eras.

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224 The Southern Zone Site 5: Heather Island Preserve (8MR2223) The Heather Island Preserve site is located on the western side of the Marshall Swamp and Heather Island, on land managed by the Florida Department of Green ways and Trails (see Figures 58 and 59). Based on the presence of Native American and colonial era Spanish artifacts recovered from the ground surface during th e initial pedestrian survey of the site, as well as reports of artifacts found in spoil during fencing construction by the Department of Greenways and Trails in late 2008 and early 2009, permit #0809.064 was issued for subsurface testing at the site by the Florida Bureau of Archaeological Resources. Based on the reported presence of artifacts on the ground surface, the areas tested were located on the northern edge of the land, which was further divided into two areas on the eastern and western s ides of pro perty (see Fi gure 5 9). A datum with an arbitrary measurement of N3000, E3000 meters was established at the southeast corner of the western area to be tested. Following protocols for previous work done on the Ocklawaha Survey Project, a grid of shovel tests was set up at 12.5m i ntervals throughout both the western area and the eastern area to be tested and the material removed from the shovel tests screened through mesh to recover artifacts. Pursuant to the permit guidelines, these tests were dug 50 cm x 50 cm x 50 cm in depth. The complete results of the analysis of the ceramics recovered at the Heather Island Preserve site are presented in the table presented in Appendix 3. A summary of the ceramic counts by type, weights by type, and the relative percentages by count and weight of each type within the overall totals f or the site, is presented in T able 56 at the close of this chapter. In contrast with the sites located on the eastern side of the Ocklawaha River, St. Johns ceramics form a relatively small part of the assem blage of sherds collected at Heather Island.

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225 While St. Johns ceramics are present (21% of the total assemblage), the majority of the sherds collected from the Heather Island Preserve site are sand tempered varieties (39%), and grit tempered sherds (20% of the total assemblage) including plain, punctated, and cob marked sherds. Furthermore, among the ceramics collected at the Heather Island Preserve site were Weeden Island Plain, Carrabelle Punctated, and Swift Creek Complicated Stamped ceramics. As is vi sible in Figure 5 9, the primary areas of activity at the Heather Island Preserve site are located on the eastern side of the property on the ridge of higher ground, which is immediately adjacent to the wetlands forming the edge of the Marshall Swamp in th is area. Site 6: McKenzie Mound (8MR64) The McKenzie Mound site was originally located on Bird Island on Lake Weir, on the western side of the Ocklawaha River within th e river drainage (see Figure 5 10) in the southern zone of settlement. The McKenzie fa mily, the original owners of Bird Island, requested that salvage archaeology be performed on the site by William Sears of the Florida State Museum, prior to the mounds destruction through development of the island (see Figure 5 11). Sears excavations, u nfortunately, concentrated almost entirely upon t he mound itself (see Figure 5 12), so it is uncertain whether or not any sort of occupation existed on Bird Island apart from the mound. The ceramics recovered from the site by Sears were analyzed by type. The total number of each ceramic type, and the percentage of the total number of ceramics each type represents, ar e represented in Table 5 7 at the close of this chapter. Site 7 : The Lake Weir Landing Mounds (8MR35) The Lake Weir Landing Mounds site was f irst reported by C.B. Moore during his 1895 expedition (Moore 1895), though he apparently did not dig at the site (Sarah Jane and David Vincent, site owners, personal communication 2008). The site is located on privately owned land on the western side of the Ocklawaha River (see Figure 5 13). The site is currently used for

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226 the pasturage of cattle, and has been used for growing crops on different occasions in the past (David Vincent, personal communication 2008). As a part of ongoing research on this regi on through the Ocklawaha Survey Project, this site was incorporated for testing into the project research design as a presumed pre contact site with a late St. Johns I St. Johns II era component. Permission was obtained from the landowners for archaeolo gical testing and excavation at the site. Initial testing began by digging twenty five 50x50 x 100cm shovel tests using a judgmental testing strategy. Material from each test was screened through inch mesh to recover any artifacts or other material ( see Fig ure 514). The material recovered was then analyzed, counted, and weighed by category. Each artifact type by category, including each ceramic type, the total number and weight of each category of artifact, as well as the relative percentages for each category, from the initial 25 judgmental shovel tests, is rep resented in Table 5 8 at the close of this chapter. After the initial judgmental shovel tests, a regular grid of shovel tests was established at 12.5m intervals running due north and south and east and west from a datum established at an arbitrary point of N500, E500 meters between Moun d A and Mound B (see Figure 514). This grid was marked to a distance of N400m south of the datum, E400 west of the datum, and E600 east of the datum point, and dug between these lines and the edge of the Ocklawaha River itself (see Figure 5 14). As with the initial judgmental shovel tests, material recovered from the shovel test grid was screened through mesh to recover archaeological materials, and the recovered materials then analyzed to determine cultural affiliation, patterns of use, and other information concerning the site. The results of the analysis of the collection from the Lake Weir Landing Mounds shovel tests are summarized in the table fou nd in Appendix C Certain patterns emerged from the

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227 analysis of both the judgmental shovel tests and the regular patterned grid of shovel tests performed which appear significant for understanding cultural practice at the site. First, the density of artifacts per shovel test, when measured by weight per cubic meter excavated, decreases significantly in the tests dug south of the leading edge of Mound A. Measured by weight of artifacts per m of soil, the density decreases from 105.27g/m in those tests dug in the N587.5m line, to 73.1/m in the N400m line. Based on the grid of shovel tests, the primary area of human activity at Lake Weir Landing Mounds appears to have been between Mound A and the rivers edge, though artifacts appear outside this area as well. Second, while the principal identifiable ceramic types at this site are St. Johns ceramics (24% of the total assemblage), Weeden Island ceramics form a considerable part of the total as well, roughly 9% of the total assemblage collected. Furthe rmore, 12% by count and 5% by weight of the total assemblage are sand tempered sherds which could be classed with the Alachua or other western ceramic traditions. Comparable percentages of these ceramic types are not found at St. Johns sites in the heart land of the St. Johns culture (Keith Ashley, personal communication 2009) or at sites on the eastern coast of Florida (Carl Halbirt, City Archaeologist of St. Augustine, personal communication 2009). Based on the materials collected during shovel testing at the site, five 2 m x 2m excavation units were placed and dug within the previously established grid of sh ovel tests (see Figure 514). The materials dug from the unit were provenienced by arbitrary 10 cm levels and initially screened through mesh to recover artifacts and other material for analysis. Photographs were taken where sufficient features were found to warrant photography, and corresponding maps were drawn of such features by level within each unit. Analysis of the

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228 materials was performe d to determine type, numbers, and weight of each category of artifact recovered from each unit. Units 1 and 2 were dug immediately to the east of Mound A, the closest mound to the Ocklawaha Riv er at this site (see Figure 5 14). Following conventions esta blished for measurement on the Ocklawaha Survey Project, each unit was measured by the distance of its southwestern corner from the datum at N500, E500 meters. Accordingly, Unit 1 was established at N525 m, E537.5 m. Unit 2 was dug immediately north of U nit 1, creating a 4m x 2m trench, at N527 m, E537.5 m. Both Units 1 and 2, when dug to the base of Level 3 (1.53cmbd), were found to have features and soil mottling suggesting human activity. Both Unit 1 and Unit 2 were found to have postmold stains, t hough no postholes were visible (see Figures 5 15 and 516). These stains were visible within larger mottled areas which appeared to indicate some prehistoric disturbance of the soil in this area. Unit 1 and Unit 2 were placed to the immediate east of Mo und A (see Figure 513), and it is possible the staining of the soil at this level represents movement of the soil during construction of Mound A or other activity for this area of the site. Complete data concerning the artifacts and other materials recov ered by provenience for Units 1 and 2 are provided in the Appendices t o this chapter. T ables 59 and 510 at the close of this chapter summarize artifact types, artifact counts, artifact weights, and the relative percentage of total count and weight for e ach category of artifact recovered from Units 1 and 2. Unit 3, placed at N524 m, E498.5 m, was located west of Mound A (see Figure 5 14). Unlike Units 1 and 2, Unit 3 had no staining indicating any sort of features at this location; the base of Unit 3, Level 3, had only a layer of mottled light brown and pale brown soils, with no evidence of structural or other features.

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229 Detailed information recovered by provenience from this unit is provided i n the Appendix. T able 511 at the close of this chapter sum marizes the artifact types, artifact counts, artifact weights, and the relative percentage of total count and weight for each category of artifact recovered from Unit 3. Unit 4, placed at N550 m, E437.5 m, was placed surrounding the shovel test previously dug a t this location (see Figure 5 14). This unit, of the five excavation units dug, was the only unit placed completely north of the northern edge of Mound A, and thus placed entirely within the zone of space between the mounds at the site and the Ocklaw aha River. This unit was placed near the cypress tree previously noted in the descripti on of this site (see Figure 5 14), and, due to roots which could not be disturbed, was not dug to Level 3 as were the other four units. The base of Unit 4, Level 2 was the only unit that had clear evidence of structural features among the five excavation units dug for this site. An arc of postmold stains, three of which had postholes surrounding the post stains, was observed running from the northeast corner of the unit tending southwest towards the western wall of Unit 4 (see Figure 5 17). These post stains appeared to define the wall of a structure of some sort, possibly a dwelling, though no features were visible within the wall arc which would indicate the function o f the structure (see Figure 5 17). T able 512 at the close of this chapter summarizes the artifact types, artifact counts, artifact weights, and the relative percentage of total count and weight for each category of artifact recovered from Unit 4. Unit 5, also placed surrounding a previously dug shovel test (see Figure 5 14), was placed at N537.5 m, E437.5 m, immediately south of Unit 4 and south of the leading edge of Mound A

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230 relative to the Ocklawaha River. As with Unit 3, when dug to the base of Level 3 no clear evidence of features was found, only a layer of mottled light brown and pale brown soil. T able 513 at the close of this chapter summarizes the artifact types, artifact counts, artifact weights, and the relative percentage of total count and wei ght for each category of artifact recovered from Unit 5. In determining patterns of use at the Lake Weir Landing Mounds site, it is helpful to further integrate the relative numbers of artifacts, weights of collected artifacts, and the relative percentages by count and weight of the totals for each unit within the site as a whole. This information is summarized in Table 5 14 at the close of this chapter. Discussion The data on the materials recovered from all seven sites clearly show St. Johns ceramics pr edominating in all but one assemblage during the St. Johns era. At Davenport Landing Mound (90% of the total assemblage), Sunday Bluff (40%), Colby Landing (44%), McKenzie Mound (86%), and the Lake Weir Landing Mounds (24%), St. Johns series sherds compri se the largest total category of ceramics recovered. At the Pardee/Harris site, though fiber tempered ceramics predominate in the assemblage, St. Johns ceramics are the largest ceramic category clearly associable with a specific ceramic tradition. Accord ingly, previous placement of this region within the St. Johns cultural area (Milanich 1994:244; Worth 1998a, b) would appear to be accurate, based on the data from these sites. However, the Heather Island Preserve site, though located on the western side of the cypress swamp zone along the Ocklawaha River, exhibits a different ceramic complex entirely. The predominant ceramics present at Heather Island Preserve are sand tempered ceramics including cob marked and cordmarked sherds (59% of the total assemb lage from the site), and grit tempered ceramics (20%), with only 21% of the assemblage consisting of St. Johns

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231 ceramics. Furthermore, at all seven pre contact sites, ceramics are present in varying quantities which are more commonly associated with the cu ltures of Floridas Gulf Coast (Milanich 1994; Willey 1949). The presence of these types of ceramics appears to have persisted through time, from the late Archaic period through at least the beginngs of the St. Johns II era. At Sunday Bluff and Colby Lan ding, Bullens published data on the excavations indicate that limestone tempered Pasco wares, as well as Deptford ceramics, were found at the same stratigraphic levels as concentrations of St. Johns plain sherds and some fiber tempered ceramics (Bullen 19 69:1112, 14, 16, 2122, 39). Furthermore, the analysis performed on the ceramics from these sites indicates a substantial presence of these wares both at Sunday Bluff (11% of the total assemblage) and at Colby Landing (27% of the total assemblage). Both of these sites are in the central zone, in the areas of the oldest sites in the region. Deptford ceramics are firmly dated between 500 B.C. and 200 A.D., indicating these types of ceramics were present in the Ocklawaha River Valley during that period in some quantity. At the Davenport Landing Mound in the northern zone, as well as the McKenzie Mound, Heather Island Preserve, and the Lake Weir Landing Mounds in the southern zone of settlement, Weeden Island ceramics were present. Deptford ceramics were al so present at Davenport Landing (Cerrato 1994; Sears 1959), and Pasco wares were present at the McKenzie Mound and the Lake Weir Landing Mounds. These types of ceramics were only present in small quantities at Davenport (approximately 1% of the total asse mblage) but at the Lake Weir Landing Mounds (2% by count and 9% by weight of the total assemblage) and the Mckenzie Mound (10 % of the total assemblage) were present in larger amounts. Weeden Island ceramics are firmly dated to the period between 200 A.D. and 900 A.D. (Milanich, Cordell et. al. 1997; Milanich 1994, 2002). The presence of Dunns Creek Red at the McKenzie Mound, firmly dated to between 100

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232 and 500 A.D. (Milanich 1994:247) and comprising 16% of the total assemblage from the site, suggests an occupation for the site during that period and a continuing presence of Gulf Coast region ceramics at sites in this area throughout that at least that time. St. Johns check stamped sherds found within the McKenzie Mound suggest usage of the site continue d until at least 750 A.D. (Milanich 1994:247). Thus, it can be inferred with some certainty that, though the Ocklawaha River Valley was indeed a part of the St. Johns cultural region, a marker for pre contact sites in this region is a smaller but signific ant presence of ceramics normally associated with Gulf Coastal cultures to the west, which in turn suggests cultural influence and interchange between these regions throughout this time. Based on the dating of ceramics found at the sites analyzed for this study, the presence of these ceramics appears to have begun by the late Archaic or early St. Johns I period and to have continued through at least the beginnings of the St. Johns II period, between 750 or 800 A.D. The presence of a small number of Safet y Harbor sherds at the McKenzie Mound site in association with a Spanish bead (Sears 1959) hints at the possibility that such contact and interchange may have continued on a smaller scale later, even into the early contact period. However, the absence of Safety Harbor ceramics at any of the other sites analyzed for this study suggests that it is more likely such interchange decreased dramatically after the early St. Johns II period. This may reflect increasing sedentism on the part of both the peoples of the Ocklawaha River Valley and the peoples of the coast during this later period. Since this period is also the time large scale maize agriculture appears to have begun in this re gion (Milanich 1994; Boyer 2007), there may also have been a decreased need on the part of the people in the Ocklawaha River Valley for use of the resources of the coast.

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233 The predominance of sand tempered and grit tempered ceramics at the Heather Island Preserve site, despite its relative proximity to the Ocklawaha River, further suggests the possibility that the Ocklawaha River valley represented a fairly sharply defined barrier between cultures during the St. Johns I and II periods. The Heather Island Preserve site, the McKenzie Mound site, and the Lake Weir Landing Mounds site are all located on the western side of the Ocklawaha River. As previously noted, sandtempered and grit tempered ceramics comprise 79% of the total assemblage from the Heather Island Preserve site, which is mile west of the river itself. At the McKenzi e Mound site, St. Johns ceramics predominate (86%) while at Lake Weir Landing Mounds, the percentages are roughly 2:1 (24% to 12% St. Johns to sandtempered ceramics by count alone, though the types are equal 5% of the total artifact assemblage each by weight). These data suggest that the river itself, and those watersheds such as Lake Weir within its drainage, were within the broader cultural unit of the Ocklawaha River valley as a whole while sites to the west of the river drainage would more likely have been associated with other cultural units and archaeological complexes during the St. Johns I and II eras. Thus, the Ocklawaha River appears to have represented an interaction zone between multiple cultures, with people from many nearby cultural unit s and regions interacting in this area, and the river itself forming a natural barrier as well as a means of interchange between them. Finally, the fact that this presence of coastal ceramics is common to all pre contact sites studied, through all three zones of settlement in this region, would suggest that, in fact, a common culture indeed existed throughout this region prior to European contact. While much more study will be needed to confirm this, it appears, based on the existing data, that this regi on represents a discrete cultural entity within the larger region of the St. Johns cultures.

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234 The finer grained data on patterns of spatial use at the Davenport Landing Mound and the Lake Weir Landing Mounds also provides some basis for refined hypotheses concerning cultural practice for the people of the Ocklawaha River Valley prior to European contact, as well as the function of the mound patterning described in Chapter 4. At both Davenport Landing Mound and the Lake Weir Landing Mounds, subsurface testi ng indicated that the areas of use and activity for both sites were concentrated between the mounds present at the sites and the Ocklawaha River itself. This pattern was noticeable at both sites; the grid of shovel tests performed both at Davenport Mound by Cerrato and during the Ocklawaha Survey Projects initial testing at Lake Weir Landing Mounds revealed high concentrations of multiple types of artifacts in the space between the mounds and the river, falling away to nothing within a few meters beyond t he outside edges of the mounds at both sites. At Lake Weir Landing Mounds, this pattern appears to be confirmed by the finer data from the excavation units dug at the site. Unit 4, the only unit placed entirely between the leading edge of Mound A and t he Ocklawaha River (Figure 5 14), had the largest number of artifacts present (33% of the total assemblage from the 2 m x 2m excavation units), and the second highest weight (29% of the total assemblage) of artifacts collected per unit. Unit 4 also had t he clearest evidence of the pres ence of a structure (Figure 5 17). Units 1 and 2 had features as well, though not as clearly de fined as in Unit 4 (Figures 515 and 516). Units 3 and 5, both of which were furthest from the river, had no features present in either. Thus, both the concentrations of artifacts present and the locations of features found within the excavation units suggest that, at the Lake Weir Landing Mounds site, the mounds served to mark the edge of human activity when the site was occupi ed.

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235 Furthermore, the fact that the mounds at Lake Weir Landing seem to mark the edge of this area of use suggests that this limitation may not have been due to physical or environmental conditions of any sort. Rather, given the significance of mound site s for Native American cultures in this region, the relative absence of artifacts beyond the mounds at this site may indicate a ritual or ceremonial significance to the space between the mounds and the river. The Timucua of the historic period practiced wh at modern anthropologists recognize as shamanism (Milanich and Sturtevant 1972). Shamanistic systems of belief place spiritual power and significance in certain regions of the physical landscape, based on the presence of spirits therein (Jakobsen 1999; Pr ice, et. al. 2001), and one archaeological marker of some systems of shamanism is emphasis placed on spaces between human constructions and elements of the natural landscape, such as rock art surrounding rock crevices (Price, et. al. 2001:1739). The use of space at both Davenport Landing Mound and the Lake Weir Landing Mounds may be evidence of a form of shamanistic practice involving the river as a part of the natural landscape, though it may also reflect the use of the area for ordinary tasks in easy re ach of the waters edge. The presence of mica fragments in this area at the Lake Weir Landing Mounds site, due to mica's association with ritual, suggests the former, though fine grained studies of many other mound sites within this region will be necessa ry to confirm that this use of space was common to the mound sites of the region of study. C.B. Moores descriptions of the mounds of the Ocklawaha River Valley indicated that, at a number of sites, the mounds showed evidence of neither human burials nor u se for domiciliary purposes (Mitchem 1999 b :141), including the Shiner Pond Mound complex (Ibid 141) and the Lake Eustis Mound (Ibid: 155). The archaeological evidence from the Davenport Landing Mound and the Lake Weir Landing Mounds sites suggests that the mounds of the

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236 Ocklawaha, built to the pattern noted in chapter 4, may have served a third purpose: that of pure monuments, whose sole function was to mark the edges of human occupation or space considered significant by the people who created them. Rather than being built as mortuary sites or platform mounds, for this region, constructed mounds within the noted pattern of parallel/perpendicular may have served the primary purpose of creating political, social, or ritual space, as has been suggested f or shell rings constructed during the Archaic period on the coast (Russo 1996:284287). Conclusions: Precontact Cultural Practice in the Ocklawaha River Valley Taking all of the data tabulated from the seven sites studied, the following are tentative conclusions and hypotheses for testing about cultural patterning in this region in the St. Johns I and II periods. 1) The central zone represented the primary area for human habitation during the later Archaic period, based on the presence of fiber tempere d ceramics at the Sunday Bluff, Pardee/Harris, and Colby Landing sites and the relative absence of such ceramics in the northern and southern zones. During the St. Johns I and II eras, the central zone continued to be utilized by the people of the region however, based on the lithic data from Sunday Bluff and the Pardee/Harris site, the function of sites in the central zone seems to have changed. The presence of constructed mound and habitation sites in the northern and southern zones and the higher per centages of lithics from the St. Johns II period at Sunday Bluff suggest that during the St. Johns II period, the people of this region primarily inhabited the northern and southern zones and used the older sites of the central zone as bases for hunting an d gathering of resources. 2) The culture of the Ocklawaha River Valley before European contact is properly included within the St. Johns cultural area. However, a distinctive marker for the culture of this region, between the late Archaic and the early St Johns II era, is the presence of ceramics more

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237 commonly associated with the cultures of Floridas Gulf Coast. These distinctive ceramics do not appear in sites after roughly 800 A.D., suggesting an increase in sedentism or a decrease in cultural interch ange between the peoples of the Ocklawaha River Valley and the peoples of the Gulf Coast after this date. 3) Taken in conjunction with the mound patterning common throughout the Ocklawaha River Valley, the presence of this common ceramic assemblage at site s in all three zones of settlement in this region suggests that a shared culture existed throughout this area prior to European contact. 4) Despite the regions inclusion in the St. Johns cultural complex, the Ocklawaha River marked a barrier as well as an interaction sphere between the St. Johns cultures to the east and the Weeden Island, and later, Alachua cultures to the west during the later St. Johns I and St. Johns II eras. The Ocklawaha River represents a zone of contact between these differing arch aeological cultures, and sites from the archaeological cultures to the west of the Ocklawaha itself are present in the region. 5) During the St. Johns I and II eras, limited space within a certain distance of the Ocklawaha River was utilized by the people living within the region. While simple distance or resource presence may explain a part of this use of space, the evidence from Davenport Landing Mound and the Lake Weir Landing Mounds suggests that this utilization of space may reflect certain patterns o f belief about the significance of the Ocklawaha River and the space which surrounded it. Having presented the evidence concerning cultural practice and patterning within the Ocklawaha River Valley during the St. Johns II era, the archaeological evidence f rom a colonial period historic site within the same region will now be presented.

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238 Figure 51. Davenport Landing Mound, 8PU50 aerial view

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239 Figure 52. Davenport Landing Mound land contours. From Cerrato 1994:60.

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240 Figure 53. Davenport Landing Mound patterns of site use. From Cerrato 1994:113.

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241 Figure 54. Sunday Bluff. From Bullen 1969:4

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242 Figure 55. Colby Landing site, 8MR57, surface features

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243 Figure 56. Colby Landing and Pardee/Harris sites, aerial view

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244 Figure 57. Pardee/Harris site, 8MR3511, shovel test locations

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245 Figure 58. Heather Island Preserve, 8MR2223, aerial view Figure 59. Heather Island Preseve site boundaries

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246 Figure 510. McKenzie Mound, 8MR64, aerial view

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247 Figure 511. McKenzie Mound, plan view of site. From Sears 1959:20.

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248 Figure 512. McKenzie Mound, profile view of mound excavation. From Sears 1959:21.

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249 Figure 513. Lake Weir Landing Mounds, 8MR35, aerial view

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250 Figure 514. Lake Weir Landing Mounds, site excavation map

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251

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252 Figure 515. Lake Weir Landing Mounds, plan view, Unit 1

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253 Figure 516. Lake Weir Landing Mounds, plan view, Unit 2

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254 Figure 517. Lake Weir Landing Mounds, plan view, Uni t 4

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255 Table 5 1. Artifact Counts and Percentages from the Davenport Landing Mound Site Ceramic type Artifact count Percentage of total St. Johns Plain 1,095 81% Sand tempered plain 76 6% Tomoka Plain 38 3% St. Johns Check Stamped 115 8% Deptford Check Stamped 2 <1% Wakulla Check Stamped 3 <1% Carabelle Punctated 1 <1% Alachua Cord Marked 8 <1% Lochloosa Punctated 1 <1% St. Johns Punctated/Incised 11 1% Other decorated/untreated 5 <1% Total : 1,355 100% Table 52. Ceramic Counts and Percentages from the Sunday Bluff Site Ceramic type Artifact count Percentage of total Deptford Plain 93 6% Deptford Simple Stamped 38 2% Deptford Check Stamped 9 1% Pasco Plain 34 2% Pasco/Perico Stamped/Punctated 3 <1% Fiber tempered plain 458 29% Fiber tempered incised, punct ated 292 19% St. Johns plain 592 38% St. Johns Check Stamped 8 <1% St. Johns Incised 18 1% St. Johns Simple Stamped 1 <1% Sand tempered complicated stamped 8 <1% Grit tempered plain 4 <1% Total : 1,558 100%

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256 Table 5 3. Lithic Counts and Percentaged from the Sunday Bluff site Lithic type Artifact count Percentage of total Pinellas points, including Jackson like variations 14 37% OLeno points 3 8% Hernando point 1 3% Lafayette points 2 5% Clay point 1 3% Newnan point 1 3% Archaic Stemmed points 9 23% Small asymmetric trianguloid knives 5 13% ovate knives 2 5% Totals: 38 100% Table 5 4. Artifact Counts and Percentages from the Colby Landing Site Ceramic type Artifact count Percentage of total Deptford Plain 419 25% Deptford Check Stamped 12 1% Deptford Simple Stamped 5 <1% Pasco Plain 22 1% Limestone tempered incised/punctated 5 <1% Fiber tempered plain 258 15% Fiber tempered incised/punctuated 174 10% St. Johns Plain 648 38% St. Johns Check Stamped 59 3% St. Johns Incised 52 3% St. Johns Simple Stamped 2 <1% Alachua Cord Marked 14 1% Alachua Cob Marked 18 1% Weeden Island Punctated 2 <1% Total: 1,690 100%

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257 Table 5 5. Artifacts Counts, Weights, and Percentages from the Pardee/Harris Site Artifact type Artifact count % of total count Artifact Weight (g) % of total weight St. Johns Plain 50 3% 29.8 1% St. Johns Check Stamped 1 <1% 3.5 <1% St. Johns Punctated 1 <1% 1.5 <1% Sand tempered plain 87 5% 176.8 7% Sand tempered incised 2 <1% 10.9 <1% Fiber tempered plain 263 14% 148.2 6% Fiber tempered incised 114 6% 254.4 10% Grit tempered plain 1 <1% 1.0 <1% Pasco wares (limestone tempered plain) 5 <1% 4.6 <1% Chert flakes 1,266 69% 1,631.1 64% Archaic Stemmed Points 4 <1% 28 1% Chert tools, other types 10 1% 228.1 9 Iron fragments 7 <1% 5.7 <1% Other Metal fragments 3 <1% 4.8 <1% Bone fragments 9 1% 4.8 <1% Totals: 1,823 100% 2,533.2 100%

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258 Table 56. Ceramic Counts, Weights, and Percentages from the Heather Island Preserve Site Ceramic type Artifact count % of total count for site Artifact weight (g) % of total weight for site St. Johns Plain 40 17% 196.2g 12% St. Johns Check Stamped 10 4% 122.2g 7% Sand tempered cob marked 29 12% 268.6g 16% Sand tempered cord marked 15 6% 21.8g 2% Weeden Island Plain 2 1% 11.1g 1% Carrabelle Punctated 3 1% 17.8g 1% Sand tempered plain 91 39% 703.5g 43% Grit tempered plain 46 20% 298.4g 18% Totals : 236 100% 1,639.6g 100% Table 5 7. Ceramics Counts and Percentages from the McKenzie Mound Site Ceramic type Artifact count Percentage of total Safety Harbor Incised 2 <1% St. Johns Plain 1,540 69% Dunns Creek Red 363 16% St. Johns Check Stamped 51 1% St. Johns Incised 4 <1% Pasco Plain 118 5% Pasco Red Filmed 4 <1% Weeden Island Incised 68 3% Weeden Island Red 3 <1% Carrabelle Incised 9 <1% Keith Incised 1 <1% Alachua Cob Marked 1 <1% Sand tempered plain 61 3% Swift Creek Complicated Stamped 1 <1% Sand tempered Complicated Stamped 1 <1% Sand tempered incised 1 <1% Total: 2,228 100%

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259 Table 5 8. Artifact Counts, Weights, and Percentages from Judgmental Shovel Testing, Lake Weir Landing Mounds Artifact type Artifact count % of total Artifact weight % of total Sand tempered Plain 43 20% 56.9g 18% Sand tempered cord marked 1 <1% 17g 5% St. Johns Plain 54 25% 32.9g 10% St. Johns Check Stamped 4 2% 11g 4% Weeden Island Red 1 <1% 4g 1% Weeden Island Incised 1 <1% 10g 3% Sand tempered red filmed 1 <1% 6g 2% Wakulla Check Stamped 1 <1% 8g 3% Archaic points 3 1% 54g 18% Chert flakes 89 40% 90.7g 30% Faunal (bone) 15 7% 8.2g 3% 20 th century material 7 3% 8.5g 3% Totals : 220 100% 307.2g 100%

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260 Table 59. Artifact Counts, Weights and Percentages from Unit 1, Lake Weir Landing Mounds Artifact type Artifact count % of total count Artifact weight % of total weight St. Johns Plain, ceramics 46 33% 25.8 g 19% Weeden Island Plain 1 <1% 0.6g <1% Pasco Ware (Limestone tempered plain) 4 3% 8.4g 6% Sand tempered plain 26 19% 54.1g 40% Nondecortication flakes, chert 41 29% 31.3g 23% River cobbles, quartz 22 16% 14.1g 11% Totals : 140 100% 134.3g 100% T able 5 10. Artifact Counts, Weights and Percentages from Unit 2, Lake Weir Landing Mounds Artifact type Artifact count % of total count Artifact weight % of total weight St. Johns Plain 30 28% 30.8g 24% St. Johns Check Stamped 2 2% 15.3g 12% Weeden Island Plain 2 2% 3.8g 3% Sand tempered plain 17 15% 38.6g 30% Expedient tool, chert (scraper?) 1 1% 15.1g 12% Nondecortication flakes, chert 45 41% 19.2g 15% Bone fragments, species UID 3 3% 0.7g <1% River cobbles, quartz 9 8% 4.4g 3% Totals : 109 100% 127.9g 100%

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261 Table 5 11. Artifact Counts, Weights, and Percentages from Unit 3, Lake Weir Landing Mounds Artifact type Artifact count % of total count Artifact weight % of total weight St. Johns Plain 21 21% 48.1g 34% Sand tempered plain 22 23% 27.8g 20% Pasco ware (Limestone tempered plain) 4 4% 4.0g 3% Sand tempered check stamped 1 1% 9.0g 6% Nondecortication flakes, chert 14 14% 4.9g 3% Iron nails, cut nails 2 2% 4.6g 3% Bone fragments, species UID 2 2% 0.2g <1% River cobbles, quartz 31 32% 37.2g 26% Stone fragment, sandstone 1 1% 6.2g 4% Totals : 98 100% 142g 100%

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262 Table 5 12. Artifact Counts, Weights, and Percentages from Unit 4, Lake Weir Landing Mounds Artifact type Artifact count % of total count Artifact weight % of total weight St. Johns Plain 72 30% 64g 17% St. Johns Check Stamped 3 1% 38.8g 11% St. Johns Simple Stamped 2 1% 3.4g 1% St. Johns Cord Marked 1 <1% 22.8g 6% Sand tempered plain 43 18% 67.2g 18% Pasco ware (Limestone tempered plain ) 3 1% 3.8g 1% Grit tempered plain 1 <1% 27.4g 7% Expedient tool, chert 1 <1% 14.5g 4% Secondary decortication flakes, chert 18 7% 78.0g 21% Nondecortication flakes, chert 83 34% 35.8g 9% Bone fragment, species UID 1 <1% <.1g <1% Glass fragment, amethyst 1 <1% 1.1g <1% River cobbles, quartz 12 5% 11.3g 3% Totals : 241 100% 368.1g 100%

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263 Table 5 13. Artifact Counts, Weights, and Percentages from Unit 5, Lake Weir Landing Mounds Artifact type Artifact count % of total count Artifact weight % of total weight St. Johns Plain 37 26% 34.7g 7% St. Johns Check Stamped 2 1% 26.8g 5% St. Johns incised 1 1% 1.3g <1% Scraper/handaxe, chert 1 1% 65.5g 13% Cores, chert 2 1% 120.3g 24% Core, silicified coral 1 1% 15.0g 3% Secondary decortication flakes, chert 8 6% 53.1g 11% Nondecortication flakes, chert 18 12% 11.3g 2% Bone fragments (turtle, mammal, other species UID) 19 13% 9.2g 2% River cobbles, quartz 14 10% 13.1g 2% Totals : 144 100% 493.4g 100% Table 5 14. Relative Percentages by Count and Weight of Units dug, Lake Weir Landing Mounds Unit Total artifact count % of total count, all units Total artifact weight % of total weight, all units Unit 1 140 19% 134.3g 11% Unit 2 109 15% 127.9g 10% Unit 3 98 13% 142g 11% Unit 4 241 33% 368.1g 29% Unit 5 144 20% 493.4g 39% Totals : 732 100% 1,265.7g 100%

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264 CHAPTER 6 THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL E VIDENCE, PART III EVIDENCE FROM CONTACT/MISSION SITE S WITHIN THE REGION OF STUDY Having presented the archaeological evidence for the lifeways practiced by the St. Johns II era peoples of the Ocklawaha River Valley, I now focus on the archaeological evidence from sites within the region that have contact era and mission era colonial components. Three such sites have been confir med to date: the Hutto/Martin site (8MR3447); the Heather Island Preserve site (8MR2223); and the Conner Landing site (8MR2064). I argue here that the Hutto/Martin site represents the primary mission described in the historic documents concerning the Acue ra: Santa Lucia de Acuera, the mission placed in the principal town of the Acuera chiefdom. I further argue that the Heather Island Preserve site and the Conner Landing site contain components that are related to the missions of San Luis de Eloquale and S an Blas de Avino, respectively. The Hutto/Martin Site (8MR3447) Initial Location of the Site and Judgmental Testing The Hutto/Martin site is located on privately owned property north of the town of Moss Bluff, Florida (see Figures 6 1A, 61B ). The land o n which the site was discovered is a rectangular parcel immediately adjacent to the Ocklawaha River, approximately six hundred meters in length from north to south and approximately four hundred meters in width from east to west, with a ridge running roughly north and south, crossed by a second smaller ridge in its center running east and west (see Figure s 6 1A, 61B ). A seepage spring exists in the northwestern quadrant, at the base of the junction of the two ridges, with a seasonal stream running between the seepage spring and the river. Immediately to the east of this spring is a second water source, a pond, permanently filled throughout the year (Hubert Martin, landowne r, personal communication 2005), with several other permanent and seasonal ponds wit hin to

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265 miles distance. The area is currently used for the pasturage of cattle, though the land has been used for crops at different times in the past (Hubert Martin, personal communication 2005). To the immediate north, east, and south of the central rectangular parcel are three additional parcels of land owned by the same landowners. To the southeast of the main parcel is a fourth parcel owned by a friend of the familys. The southeastern parc el contains a mound which was been greatly damaged through agricultural activity at the site, though the mound is still clearly visible on the g round surface (see Figure 6 1B ). Surface finds at the site included fragments of St. Johns check stamped potter y, Fig Springs roughened, Lochloosa punctated, and sandtempered plain sherds. These ceramics are those that would be expected from a Timucuan cultural region at the edge of both the St. Johns cultural region of the eastern Timucua, and the Alachua/Suwann ee valley tradition of the western chiefdoms (Milanich 1994:244247, 331353; Worth 1998a:20) and are consistent with the data from the precontact sites in the region presented in Chapter 5 Also found on the surface were three fragments of Spanish olive jar, two green glazed and one unglazed. Finally, Spanish glass beads were also found on the surface at the Hutto/Martin site, including a Nueva Cadiz bead and a seven layer faceted chevron bead. The olive jar sherds were confirmed to be middle style olive jar (Dr. Kathleen Deagan, curator, Florida Museum of Natural History, personal communication 2006), with a date range of 15701800 (Deagan 1987), while the Nueva Cadiz and faceted chevron beads date to the early to middle sixteenth century (Ibid.) A me tal detector survey was performed on the site with the permission of the landowners. Five clusters of metal detector hits were found and plotted on a map, including a cluster on the east west ridge approximately one hundred fifty meters south of the sprin g (see Figure 6 2).

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266 Upon agreement from the landowners, judgmental shovel testing of the site was begun to determine if the site potentially represented the site of one of the Acuera missions. A datum stake was placed in the center of the property and tw enty five standard shovel tests, 50 cm x 50 cm x 1m deep were dug. These shovel tests were placed both on the edges of the clusters of metal detector hits and within them to determine if they represented structural remains. Material from the shovel test s was screened through mesh. The result of analysis of the material recovered is tabulated in Table 6.1, below No artifacts were found during initial testing, which clearly predated the St. Johns II era. The principal aboriginal ceramic type recovered was St. Johns check stamped and sandtempered plain ceramic sherds, as well as two Pinellas points diagnostic of the late prehistoric and contact eras. Additional Spanish ceramics were found in two of the tests dug in Cluster 2, including both unglazed olive jar fragments and a small (<2cm) fragment of orange micaceous ware. Four of the test pits also yielded Mission Red Filmed sherds. No ceramic comparable to Mission Red Filmed is known to exist in this area prior to the colonial period (Milan ich 1994:247). Taken in conjunction with the presence of Spanish ceramics, the presence of Mission Red Filmed indicated a mission era component at the site (Vernon and Cordell 1993:418). Three of the test pits contained clear features. These features in cluded post stains, a posthole/postmold within a packed earth floor, and a layer of charcoal and daub fragments within whitish soil, which may represent a second structural floor. Nueva Cadiz beads are found only at sites that include a pre 1550 occupatio n (Deagan 1987:163). Faceted chevron beads can be dated on the basis of the number of layers they possess; the bead recovered from the Hutto/Martin site has seven layers, which would indicate a sixteenth century date (Deagan 1987:165). Orange micaceous wa re has a date range between

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267 1550 and 1650 (Deagan 1987:28), which place s a part of the Hutto/Martin site between the late sixteenth and early to mid seventeenth centuries. Mission Red Filmed sherds are regarded as a variant of colonoware (Vernon and Corde ll 1993:418), though vessel forms are the only reliable indicator of the presence of colonoware (ibid. 419). However, nothing like Mission Red Filmed is found in this region prior to the time of European contact (Milanich 1994:247), with St. Johns wares b eing the ceramic type most commonly found at sites. The olive jar sherds found at the site are middle style olive jar, postdating the time of the de Soto expedition and including the mission period (Deagan 1987; Kathleen Deagan, curator, Florida Museum of Natural History, personal communication 2006). Further, the presence of both unglazed and glazed olive jar sherds at the Hutto/Martin site indicates the breakage of multiple vessels at the site This in turn suggests the presence of at least one r esiden t Spaniard at the site, because olive jar would not typically be present as a result of trade, but rather due to the transport of food and supplies to missionaries resident at a mission (John Worth, personal communication 2008). The following table represe nts the results of the initial judgmental testing at the Hutto/Martin site. Each artifact type by category, including each ceramic type, the total number and weight of each category of artifact, as well as the relative percentages for each category, is r e presented in Table 6 1 at the close of this chapter Systematic Shovel Testing and Results Based on the results of the metal detector survey and the initial judgmental shovel testing performed at the Hutto/Martin site, it was determined that the site had a high probability of being the location of one of the Acuera missions. Accordingly, a grid of shovel tests was established surrounding the datum at 12.5m intervals. The grid was dug, with each test measuring 50 cm x 50 cm x 100 cm in depth. The west p rofile of each test was recorded to determine the natural stratification of the site, as well as any features encountered during the course of the digging.

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268 The material removed from each shovel test was screened through mesh to recover any archaeologic al material. Charcoal samples were taken from each test where charcoal was found to be present. Each shovel test was placed within a larger map of the site, with the locations of tests recorded, as well as the specific locations where European artifacts were found. Figure 63 shows the locations and pattern of grid testing at the Hutto/Martin site, while the artifacts recovered during shovel testing can be found in the Appendix to this chapter. As can be seen, there were three principal locations where European artifacts were found: on the center of the ridge where Spanish artifacts had been found during initial judgmental testing; a scatter of European ceramics on the eastern side of the site; and a scatter of European artifacts on the western side of t he site (see Figure 6 3). Finds on the eastern side of the site included glazed sherds of middle style olive jar and a fragment of Spanish redware. The central ridge cluster of artifacts included additional sherds of Spanish olive jar, while the smaller concentration on the west side of the site included two cobalt blue seed beads as well as olive jar sherds. These additional finds of European artifacts strengthened the hypothesis that the Hutto/Martin site represented the remains of one of the Acuera mi ssions. Native American artifacts present within the tests included St. Johns check stamped, St. Johns plain, sand tempered ceramics, Mission Red Filmed sherds, Pinellas points, and other artifacts that date to the late St. Johns II period as well as the colonial period. No fiber tempered ceramics, or St. Johns I ceramics such as Deptford or early Weeden Island ceramics, were found within the regular grid of shovel tests. A test in the northwest corner of the grid yielded a late Archaic Levy point, but n o further artifacts to suggest the presence of an Archaic occupation at the Hutto/Martin site. Rather, the evidence from the regular grid of shovel tests suggests the primary, if not the only, occupation at the Hutto/Martin site dated to the St. Johns II era or later.

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269 As significant as the presence of European artifacts and Native American artifacts was the extent and concentration of all types of artifacts present at the site. The regular grid of shovel tests dug within the main parcel of the Hutto/Mart in site contained more than 350 shovel tests. Of these tests, only three were found to be sterile. Based on this evidence, additional judgmental shovel tests were dug in the north, east, and south parcels. These additional judgmental shovel tests produc ed St. Johns ceramics including St. Johns check stamped sherds, sandtempered plain, cobmarked and cordmarked sherds, and numerous lithics. Shovel testing in the southeastern parcel revealed that the occupation continued to the location of the disturbed mound present on the parcel; to the east of the mound, additional shovel tests produced no arti facts of any kind (see Figure 64). Thus, the physical area covered by the occupation at the Hutto/Martin site is roughly twenty acres (8.09 hectares) or more in extent. Furthermore, throughout this area, virtually all shovel tests dug produced artifacts dating to the period when the Acuera missions would have been present. Together, these pieces of evidence suggest that the occupation at the Hutto/Martin site would have been both spatially large and very dense, with a large number of people occupying a large area, with both Spanish and Native Americans present at the site. Controlled Excavation and Results Based on the results of the systematic grid of shovel tests dug at the Hutto/Martin site, three areas within the main parcel were selected for the placement of larger 2 m x 2m units for controlled excavation. These areas were the central cluster of Spanish artifacts located near the center of the main rid ge, the concentration of Spanish ceramics on the eastern side of the site, and the smaller concentration of olive jar sherds and seed beads on the western side of the site (see Figure 6 3). Units were excavated in arbitrary 10 cm levels, with each level i nitially dry screened through mesh to recover archaeological materials, and then water screened

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270 through nested 1/8, and 1/32 mesh to recover any remaining materials in the sample. Because the primary goal of excavation for this fieldwork was to d etermine if European structures and firmly datable European artifacts were present at the Hutto/Martin site, each unit was excavated until clearly European features were found, if such were present. No unit in the primary areas where Spanish artifacts had been previously found was excavated to more than 40 cmbd during the course of the fieldwork, because this depth was found sufficient to clearly reveal European features where such were present. Where a unit was found to contain European features, the pla cement of additional units was determined based upon the apparent direction and location of the features previously found, such as the orientation of apparent walls. Where no clear direction or orientation was apparent, additional units were dug based on the locations of artifacts recovered near each unit during shovel testing. Where clear features were found within a level, that level was photographed and mapped to allow a determination of the patterns of use and cultural practice within the site as a wh ole. Following this strategy, each of the three locations where European artifacts were found during initial shovel testing was excavated, beginning with the central ridge where the highest concentrations of Spanish artifacts per shovel test had or iginally been found. Figures 64 and 65 provide the locations of the twenty nine units dug during the course of excavations. The results of excavations will be discussed. Unit 1, placed at N549.35 m, E499.03 m, was dug to level 4, 1.50 m below datum. The upp ermost two levels were dark brown soil, appearing to be a plow zone from previous agricultural activity at the site. At the base of level 4, a north south line of squared post stains, each some 20 cm in width, was found within the western profile and base of the unit (see Figure 65). The largest of the stains was 25 cm in width, with a posthole surrounding it some 15 cm in

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271 width; two other posts a lso had postholes (see Figure 65). In the center of the unit were a series of darker stains that appeared t o represent the remains of fallen debris (see Figure 6 5). Level 4 also produced the only European ceramic found in Unit 1, a fragment of orange micaceous ware. The north south line of squared post stains appeared to represent a European style wall, constructed with posts that had been squared or shaped with metal tools. Since the largest post stain in Unit 1 was believed to represent a corner post, based on previous such features observed and reported from other mission sites (Michael Tarleton, crew boss, Ocklawaha Survey Project, personal communication 2009; John Worth, personal communication 2009; Tesar et al., 2008), Unit 2 was placed at N549.35 m, E489.28 m, 9 m west of Unit 1, to see if any connecting features to those observed in Unit 1 were vi sible. Due to ground slope, Unit 2 was dug to level 3, at 1.55m below datum, and thus in the same stratigraphic level where features were observed in Unit 1. At this level, a north south line of squared posts was discovered. The largest such post was fo und in the northeastern corner of the unit, with a width of 30 cm (see Figure 6 6). Four additional squared post stains were found, two 20 cm in width and two 15cm in width; three of these stains had accom panying postholes (see Figure 66). These feature s appeared to represent a European style wall, very similar to the features observed in Unit 1. To the west of the north south wall feature, an additional series of post stains was found. Unlike the eastern stains, these were roughly circular and unsqua red, with an average diameter between 10 and 15 cm; three such stains had accompanying postholes. These stains appeared to represent the remains of a smaller wall constructed in a circular arc running from the northwestern quadrant of Unit 2 to the center southern wall of the unit. These stains appeared to represent the remains of a part of a Native American structure. While the stains were at the same

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272 stratigraphic level as the European wall feature, it was not clear if the structures were contemporaneo us. Unit 2 produced several fragments of unglazed Spanish olive jar, as well as numerous sherds of St. Johns checkstamped and plain and other Native American ceramics. Significantly, between the northernmost squared post stain and the stain immediately s outh of it within the European structural wall, an intact Bolen point was found at the same stratigraphic le vel as the stains (see Figure 6 7). Bolen points date to the late Paleoindian and very Early Archaic period in Florida (Bullen 1975). The presence of this point, as well as other finds discussed below, within the walls of the European structure, raises intriguing issues that will be more fully discussed in Chapter 7. Unit 3, placed at N560.35 m, E488.03 m, was placed over one of the shovel tests th at had produced Spanish ceramics during initial judgmental shovel testing; it was located between Unit 2 and the seepage spring downhill from and north of the central ridge. When dug to level three, this unit revealed additional squared stains in the sou thern portion of the unit base (see Figure 6 5), in a pattern running east to west. Numerous other stains were visible in the bott om of Unit 3 (see Figure 65). This unit also produced a fragment of Sevilla Blue on Blue majolica (see Figure 6 8) and a co balt blue drawn glass bead, from level 3, as well as numerous Native American ceramics and lithics. Sevilla Blue on Blue majolica has a very tightly defined date range, produced between 1550 and 1630 and falling into disuse between 1630 and 1640 (Deagan 1987; Florida Museum of Natural History, Historical Archaeology type collection data). Likewise, orange micaceous ware has a tightly defined date range between 1550 and 1650 (Deagan 1987). The presence of these two ceramic types, at the same stratigraphi c level, together with squared post stains shaped with metal tools, confirmed the presence of a European style structure at the Hutto/Martin site

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273 with a date, based on the presence of 17thcentury Spanish ceramics at the same stratigraphic level that the f eatures were found, that would place the structure firmly within the time the Acuera missions were known to be present and active in this region. Based on this evidence, after the excavation of Unit 3, a strategy of chasing features was adopted. Additi onal units were dug based on the locations and orientations of the features found in Units 1, 2, and 3, with the goal of fully outlining and defining at least one complete European structure for the site, as well as determining the nature and function of t he structure if possible. Consequently, all further excavations were performed with the goal of horizontal excavations to the same relative depth as the initial three units, to locate as many additional features as possible with the goal of integrating the data obtained in the excavations into a unified whole. Figure 65 shows the units excavated in the central ridge in their relative positions. When excavations were complete, Units 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 16, 20, 22, 23, 24, 26, 27, and 28 were found to define what appeared to be a single rectangular structure, roughly 11 meters east to west and 13 meters north to south. Units 3, 5, 7, 8, 10, 15, 17, 18, and 25 contained features that appeared to represent the remains of at least one and possibly two additiona l European structures in the same location. Certain specific characteristics and distinctive features within these units will be particularly discussed and noted. Units 1, 2, 6, 9, and 22 revealed the northern wall of the rectangular structure (see Figur e 65 and 69). The larger post stains previously described in the northwestern corner of Unit 1 and the northeastern corner of Unit 2 appeared to represent the remains of the northeastern and northwestern corner posts for the structure, respectively. Be tween these two corner posts was a line of squared post stains running east and west through Units 6, 9, and 22 (see Figures 65 and

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274 69). To the south of this line of squared post stains, and thus within the walls of the structure, was a series of oblong ovoid stains running north west to southeast (see Figure 6 5). These stains consisted of areas of mottled brown and pale brown soil and appeared to represent areas of historic soil disturbance contemporaneous with the post stains comprising the structure Artifacts recovered from these units included additional cobalt blue and a yellow amber drawn glass bead, as well as Native American ceramics a nd bone fragments (see Figure 610). Units 16, 23, and 24 revealed the western wall of the rectangular struct ure. Unit 16, dug at N547.35, E489.28, had a series of five squared post stains, running north to south, continuing the western European wall located initially in Unit 2, which was located immediately north of Unit 16 (see Figure 65). This unit also had a series of rounded post stains between 10 and 15 cm in diameter, commencing in the center northern wall of Unit 16 and running in an arc to the southwestern cor ner of Unit 16 (see Figure 65). The arc of circular post stains continued the wall of the Na tive American structure found in Unit 2 (see Figures 65 and 66). A concentration of burned charcoal, appearing to be the remains of a post associated with neither structure, was found between t hese two features (see Figure 6 5). Unit 23, placed south o f Unit 16 at N542, E489.28, contained one of the most intriguing finds at the Hutto/Martin site. The line of squared stains representing the western wall of the rectangular structure continued south through this unit (see Figure 65), with other stains vi sible within the unit floor. Placed between two of the squared post stains was a complete shell tool, possibly a cup, made from a marine whelk shell ( Busycon ) (see Figure 6 11). This artifact was centered between the posts, in the same relative position as the wall, and was not found in either fill or a posthole. Rather, the shell tool was placed within a rectangular stain between the visible

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275 post stains. Based on the relative position of the shell and the visible post stains, the shell appears to have been deliberately buried within the wall of the European structure during its construction, rather than incidentally or accidentally deposited there as fill or during some other activity at the site. Unit 24, placed at N537.35m, E489.28m, was found to co ntain the southwestern corner of the structure. Two rows of squared post stains, one running north and south, the other running east and west, were found within this unit (see Figure 6 5). To the east of the north south wall line and north of the east we st wall line, and thus within the walls of the structure, was found a clust er of mammal bone (see Figure 6 5). This unit also produced additional fragments of Spanish olive jar (see Figure 6 12). Units 4, 20, and 26 revealed the eastern wall of the rectangular structure. Unit 4, placed immediately south of Unit 1 at N546.35 m, E499.03 m, contained squared post stains in the western wall and floor of the unit running north to south in the same relative position as the posts dis covered in Unit 1 (see Figure 65). Unit 20, placed at N544.35 m, E499.03 m, had the same series of stains con tinuing southward (see Figure 65). In both Units 4 and 20, to the east of the squared post stains, there were clustered brown soil stains that appeared to originate f rom the wall feature and to be patterned at random within the units. Very similar features were found at the Mount Royal site during the excavation of the Spanish structure found there. At Mount Royal, such features were interpreted as the remains of a b urned structures collapse (Tesar 2008). While the features found in Units 4 and 20 may indeed represent the remains of a collapsed structure, no clear evidence of the structures burning was found, as was the case at Mount Royal.

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276 Unit 26, placed at N537.5 m, E499.03 m, was found to contain the southeastern corner of the structure. A series of squared post stains running north and south, in the same relative position as those found in Units 1, 4, and 20 to the north, was observed, together with a series of squared post stains running east and west f rom a corner post (see Figure 6 5). Spanish olive jar sherds, bone fragments, and Native American ceramics were all present in Unit 26. Units 28 and 29 provided the final firm outline of the walls of the stru cture. Dug at N536.85 m, E493.48 m, Unit 28 contained several squared post stains with a gap between two of the posts somewhat more than a meter in width (see Figure 6 5). North of the two posts with the gap between them, clusters of three smaller posts were found in Level 3 (see Figure 65). Because these posts were placed directly north of two of the wall posts, and the largest gap between posts was observed at this location, the gap between posts appears to represent the doorway to the structure. Uni t 29, dug immediately east of Unit 28, revealed additional squared post stains completing the southern wall of the structure, as well as oblong ovoid stains within the structure (see Fig ure 6 13). These oblong stains had mottled pale gray and light brown soil noticeablely different in color than the soil outside the structural wall, suggesting the stains were deliberately created by human activity wit hin the structure (see Figure 6 13). This interpretation of the stains is strengthened by the strong similarity of the features in Units 28 and 29 to those found in Units 6, 9, and 22, suggesting that the episodes of soil disturbance that produced these features were contemporaneous with the building of the structure and took place within the walls of the str ucture. Unit 27, placed at N540.65 m, E489.78 m, was the only unit dug during the course of excavations that was placed entirely inside the walls of the rectangular structure. Unit 27 did not produce any clear feature within the first three levels of exc avation, as the other units

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277 surrounding it had. Rather, the soil at the base of Level 3 appeared to be mottled brown, light brown, and pale brown soil, with no clear features present, suggesting soil disturbance within the walls of the structure. However at Level 4, the same oblong features, including the pale grey soil observed in the other units, becam e clearly visible (see Figure 6 14). This further indicates these features are both contemporaneous with the structure surrounding them, and that they w ere placed within the walls of the structure. Interestingly, Unit 27, Level 4 had these features confined roughly to the southern half of the unit (see Figure 6 14). This suggests that certain areas within the structure may have been used for different p urposes. To the north of this rectangular structure, the units placed between Units 2 and 3 had further evidence of additional European structures in this location. Units 15 and 17, placed immediately south of Unit 3 and forming a single 2 m x 6m trench at N559.35 m and N557.35 m, respectively, contained several large (50 cm or greater in widt h) squared stains (see Figure 6 5), though these squared stains did not appear to form a clear pattern as did those in the units to the south. Unit 17 also contain ed an arc of post stains in the western half of the unit floor which appeared to represent the remains of another Native A merican structure (see Figure 6 5), as well as three smaller squared post stains in the southern portion of the unit. Artifacts pres ent in these units included St. Johns checkstamped and other Native American ceramics, Spanish ceramics including olive jar sherds and Sevilla Blue on Blue majolica, and additional glass beads. Unit 5, dug at N553.35 m, E490.18 m, and Unit 8, dug at N553.35 m, E487.18 m, both contained squared posts. In the center of Unit 5 was a very large square stain (45 cm on a side) (see Figure 6 5). To the east of this larger stain was a north south row of squared posts, including two with postholes (see Figure 65), which may represent a part of a wall. Unit 8 had seven clearly defined squared posts: a row of four running east and west in the southern portion

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278 of the unit, possibly representing a portion of a wall (see Figure 6 5), including one with an associated posthole, and three more nearer the center of the unit, including a second stain with an as sociated posthole (see Figure 6 5). Though these units were dug to the same stratigraphic level and at the same distance north of the datum, it is not clear if the two rows of stains are a part of the same structure. Artifacts found in these units included Native American ceramics (see Figures 615 and 616), olive jar sherds, Sevilla Blue on Blue majolica, and additional beads, including Itchetucknee Blue beads dating to the mission period (Deagan 1987; John E. Worth, personal communication 2009). None of the other units dug within this area produced clear European features. Thus, based on the evidence from Units 3, 5, 8, 15, and 17, at least one other European structure, and possibly more, existed north of the rectangular structure found in the southern portion of this area. Units 11, 12, 13, and 14 were dug in the eastern concentration of Spanish artifacts found at the site (see Figure 6 3). However, none of these units produced any clearly European features. Unit 11, dug at N449m, E612.5m, contained a concentration of mammal bone in the northeastern qu arter of the unit (see Figure 6 4). Unit 13, dug at N460.5 m, E651 m, had an arc of circular post stains, which may represent a part of a Native American structure running from the northern center of the unit to the southeastern corner. Unit 12, dug at N462.5 m, E625 m, and Unit 14, dug at N449 m, E614.50 m, produced some smaller post stains that did not for m discernible patterns, and whose functio ns were not clear (see Figure 6 4). Units 11 and 14 produced additional sherds of green glazed Spanish olive jar; neither of the remaining units produced any Spanish material, though Native American ceramics and li thics were present in these units.

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279 Units 19 and 21 were dug on the western side of the site, in the area that had produced the cobalt blue seed beads during grid shovel testing. Unit 19, dug at N550 m, E374 m, had a series of oblong or rounded stains, including two with high concentrations of charcoal in the southern half of the unit (see Figure 6 4). Unit 21, dug at N574 m, E375 m, had a single post stain with a surrounding area of charcoal, within an area of mottled soil stains that had no discernible pattern or fun ction (see Figure 6 4). These units produced a substantial amount of lithics and some Native American ceramics, as well as a high quantity of charcoal; no European artifacts of any kind were found in either Unit 19 or Unit 21. The Heather Is land Preserve Site (8MR2223) While the Heather Island Preserve site contains a substantial pre contact component, as discussed in Chapter 5, a colonial era component is present at the site as well. During the initial survey of the site, two sherds of mid dle style Spanish olive jar, both green glazed, were found on the ground surface at the site (Gifford Waters, Florida Museum of Natural History, historic archaeology collections manager, personal communication 2006). In addition, the Native American ceram ics recovered at the site during shovel testing, as well as surface collections from the site, included cobmarked ceramics and St. Johns Check Stamped ceramics, both varieties of ceramics which continued to be made through the contact and mission periods (Milanich 1995; Worth 1998a, b; John E. Worth, personal communication 2009). The Heather Island Preserve site is thus the only other known site in the Ocklawaha River Valley, besides the Hutto/Martin site, at which Spanish ceramics have been confirmed to be present. The implications of these finds, as well as the possible relationships between the Heather Island Preserve site and the Hutto/Martin site, will be discussed in the closing portion of this chapter.

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280 The Conner Landing Site (8MR2064) The Conner Landing site, 8MR2064, was first reported in a sur vey performed by Robin Denson (Denson 1992:12). The site is located near a bluff 34 meters in height overlooking the eastern side of the Ocklawaha River (see Figure 6 17). The property is currently owned by the Florida Department of Greenways and Trails, as well as two private landowners, and is located in the hammock zone between the cypress swamp and scrub forest zones previously noted. A freshwater spring, located within the Ocklawaha River itself, is present at the site (see Figure 6 17). Native American sherds associated with the Conner Landing site included sand tempered plain and St. Johns sherds as well as fiber tempered plain and fiber tempered incised sherds During the course of the Denson surveys investigations at the site, two cypress canoes were found in the river; one of the two was radiocarbon dated to an adjusted date of A.D. 12601284 (Denson 1992:13). Both an aquatic and a terrestrial Spanish mission component were found at the Con ner Landing site. Within the river itself, divers have recovered an intact bronze bell (Denson 1992:13; Guy Marwick, former director, Silver River Museum, personal communication 2003). This bell has a cross on its outer surface composed of squares contai ning geometric patterns, as well as a crown attachment composed of three loops, both characteristic of Spanish mission bells (Deagan 2002:152153). This specific bell has been clearly identified as a Spanish mission bell in Deagans work on Spanish artifa cts (Dea gan 2002:152153) (see Figure 618). In the same location, a copper bowl was recovered (see Figure 6 19). The bowl is hand hammered and hand riveted. Currently curated at the Silver River Museum in Marion County, it is similar to Spanish era art ifacts recovered at other mission era sites (Scott Mitchell, director, Silver River Museum, personal communication 2006). Prior surface finds at the site, by hunters crossing the

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281 privately held portion of the property, include three Spanish coins, includi ng a silver real (Scott Mitchell, personal communication 2006). The surface survey performed at the Conner Landing site covered both the land owned by the Department of Greenways and Trails under the Ocklawaha Survey Projects state permit, and the private properties held immediately to the east by permission of both landowners at the site. It found only prehistoric and 19thcentury components, the latter dating to the riverboat era. Accordingly, permission was obtained from one of the private landowners holding a part of the Conner Landing site for judgmental shovel testing at the site. Shovel tests were dug at the site using a judgmental random sampling strategy. Following project protocols, each test was dug 50 cm x 50 cm x 1 m deep, and the material screened through mesh to recover archaeological material. The finds collected during shovel testing were then analyzed to determine their temporal and cultural affiliations. The materials collected in context from the Conner Landing site did not contain either a colonial Spanish or late St. Johns era Native American component. Consistent with the precontact cultural patterns discussed in Chapter 5, the primary ceramic recovered from this site was fiber tempered ceramics, including fiber tempered plain and fiber tempered incised sherds. Historic materials found during shovel testing all dated to the 19th and early 20th centuries and were clearly associated with American settlers in this region. Discussion In considering the data from the three sites having mission period components, it is necessary to begin with the site for which we have the best contextual data: the Hutto/Martin site. A consideration of the data concerning this site and the remaining two sites, as well as sites located nearby, prov ides a basis for hypotheses concerning the identity of the Hutto/Martin site

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282 as well as both other sites, and for understanding what was taking place in this region during the colonial period. The Spanish artifacts found at the Hutto/Martin site include s everal ceramics and other material with tightly and clearly defined date ranges. Orange micaceous ware, found in several locations at the site, is firmly dated between 1550 and 1650 A.D. (Deagan 1987:28, 4041). Sevilla Blue on Blue majolica, the only firmly identifiable majolica found at the Hutto/Martin site, is firmly dated between 1550 and 1630 A.D., falling into disuse between 1630 and 1640 A.D. (Deagan 1987:29, 6364). The presence of these ceramics at the site thus suggests an occupation between t he latter sixteenth and first half of the seventeenth centuries. The glass bead assemblage from the Hutto/Martin site also includes several tightly dated varieties of beads. The oldest found at the site are the Nueva Cadiz and faceted chevron beads. N ueva Cadiz beads have a date range between 1500 and 1550 A.D., while faceted chevron beads date between 1500 and 1580 A.D. (Deagan 1987:172). The site thus includes a component that dates to the first half of the sixteenth century. Itchetucknee Blue Be ads heat altered drawn beads of opaque turquoise glass in a spherical, oval, or barrel shape (Deagan 1987:171) are present at the Hutto/Martin site. Deagan notes of this variety of bead that Such beads were more typically present during the seventeenth century, and are in fact the most common beads at Spanish mission sites of the first half of the seventeenth century in Florida (Deagan 1987:171). In addition, a wire wound oval glass bead, amber in color, was found at the Hutto/Martin site. Previously unknown except from shipwreck sites, this bead type has a date range between 1650 and 1800 A.D. (Deagan 1987:174). Thus, taking into consideration both the firmly dated ceramics and bead types found at the Hutto/Martin site, it is clear that th e site includes a historic occupation dating to both the early sixteenth century and the first half of the seventeenth century,

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283 including the time that the Acuera missions were known to be present in this region (ca. 1611 to 1656). Furthermore, taking the ceramics in conjunction with the other Spanish ceramics found at the site, including middle style olive jar and redware sherds, the presence of these artifacts at the site indicates a resident Spaniard at the Hutto/Martin site, as ceramics were not traded to the Native American populations of Floridas interior during this period (John Worth, personal communications 2008, 2009). The Native American assemblage from the Hutto/Martin site includes Mission Red Filmed ceramics. Mission Red Filmed wares, of va rying kinds, are one of the varieties of colonowares typically found at Spanish mission sites of the seventeenth century (Milanich 1995; Worth 1998 a and b). The bulk of the Native American assemblage is St. Johns ceramics, including St. Johns checkstamp ed ceramics, which would have been the most common ceramic type in this area during the time of the Acuera missions. Finally, the presence of at least two European style structures at the Hutto/Martin site provides further evidence of a resident Spaniard at the site. The structures and the construction techniques observed at the Hutto/Martin site are similar to those found at other known mission sites within Spanish Florida during the seventeenth century, including San Antonio de Enacape (Tesar, et al. 20 08); the Fig Springs mission site (Weisman 1992, 1993); and others. Taking all of the evidence into consideration, it is highly likely that the Hutto/Martin site represents one of the missions to the Acuera. Having made that determination, it then beco mes necessary to determine which of the three known missions the site may represent ; i.e., does the Hutto/Martin site represent the site of San Blas de Avino, San Luis de Eloquale, or Santa Lucia de Acuera?

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284 Based on the existing evidence, both direct and circums tantial, it is most likely that the Hutto/Martin site represents the site of Santa Lucia de Acuera: the mission constructed in the principal town of the Acuera chiefdom, dating from approximately 1626 through the time of the Timucuan Rebellion in 16 56 (Worth 1998a and b). It is further likely that the Hutto/Martin site, in addition to being the site of Santa Lucia de Acuera, represents the site of the sixteenth century town of Acuera referred to in the de Soto expedition accounts. The bases for mak ing these assertions are: the presence of sixteenth century Spanish artifacts at the site; the sites relative distance from St. Augustine and other known Spanish sites in the region; the size of the Hutto/Martin site compared to other Native American site s within this area; and the Hutto/Martin sites relative distance and apparent relationships with other Native American sites in the area. Each of these factors will now be discussed in turn. The presence of sixteenth century Spanish beads at the Hutto/M artin site, and the sites location relative to other known Spanish sites, are both significant factors in determining the sites identity. Recall from chapter 2 that the town of Acuera referred to by de Soto was a days travel beyond the town of Ocale, a nd that de Sotos men were sent from Ocale to Acuera to gather food for the army. The best current evidence places the Ocale of de Soto just north of the Withlacoochee River, in what is now southwestern Marion County (Milanich and Hudson 1993:9295). Seve ral archaeological sites in this area are known to have de Soto era components, including the Ruth Smith Mound and Tatham Mound (Milanich and Hudson 1993:89, 9495; Hutchinson 2006:3160) and the vicinity of Drake Ranch (Milanich and Hudson 1993:89, 9495) The distance from the area north of the Withlacoochee River, believed to be the site of de Sotos Ocale, to the Hutto/Martin site is appro ximately 25 miles (see Figure 6 20), which would

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285 be very consistent with the distance of a days travel report ed in Sotos letter between Ocale and Acuera (Smith 1968:285). For a small column of men and horsemen, 25 miles is a reasonable distance to travel within a day in this region. Furthermore, Nueva Cadiz beads are a strong marker for early sixteenth century Spanish sites. The only expedition from the early sixteenth century known to have entered this region was that of Hernando de Soto, and it is highly likely that the presence of these bead types at the Hutto/Martin site is related to the de Soto entrada. Given these artifacts, the known distances between de Sotos Ocale and Acuera based on the accounts of the entrada, and the sites relative distance from known de Soto sites to the west, the evidence strongly suggests that the Hutto/Martin site is de Sotos Acuera. Furthermore, the Hutto/Martin sites relative distance from St. Augustine suggests that the site is most lik ely to be the site of Santa Lucia de Acuera. The 1655 mission list indicates that the two missions in existence in Acuera province at that time, San Luis de Eloquale and Santa Lucia de Acuera, were 32 and 34 leagues from St. Augustine respectively (Worth 1998b:189190). At 2.73 modern miles to the league, this would place Santa Lucia de Acuera at 92.8 miles from St. Augustine and San Luis de Eloquale at 87.3 miles from St. Augustine, though it is not likely that these distances represent straightline d istances from the colonial capital. Rather, they more likely represent distances based on travel along the known Spanish routes of that time. The most likely route for travel between St. Augustine and the Santa Lucia de Acuera mission would have been ove rland to the St. Johns River, and thereafter by water down the St. Johns to the mouth of the Ocklawaha River and down the Ocklawaha to the area of the mission (Worth 1998b:189190; Dr. John Worth, personal communication 2009). Following this route, the di stance between St. Augustine and the Hutto/Martin si te is 94.12 miles (see Figure 621),

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286 which is very consistent with the 34 league distance noted for the Santa Lucia de Acuera mission in the 1655 mission list. Furthermore, the archaeological evidence fr om both the Hutto/Martin site, including its size, and Native American sites nearby strongly suggests that the site is the principal town of Acuera and thus the site of Santa Lucia de Acuera. Sites along the Ocklawaha River tend to be relatively small for the most part. Bullens description of the settlement pattern as a series of small villages along minor waterways (Bullen 1969:3) was borne out by the evidence found during the 2006 surface survey and the more precise testing done during Ocklawaha Surv ey Project fieldwork at the Pardee/Harris, Heather Island Preserve, and Lake Weir Landing Mounds sites. All three sites tested, as well as the sites observed on the surface, tended to be small in area, an acre or less in spatial extent. By contrast, the Hutto/Martin site covers approximate ly 20 acres (see Figures 6 1, 62, and 64), with a dense concentration of artifacts through out most of the area tested. The Hutto/Martin site is thus the largest currently known archaeological site in this region, and its individual site patterning is what would be expected if the site represents the remains of a St. Johns II era chiefdoms principal town. Additionally, the relationship of the Hutto/Martin site to other contemporaneous sites nearby is also consistent w ith the sites being the principal town of the Acuera chiefdom. Within mile to three miles from the Hutto/Martin site are a series of smaller sites, all having St. Johns II era components, which appear to represent smaller habitation sites or special us e sites such as hunters camps, including the Lake Weir Landing Mounds site, the Ancient Fields site (8MR3509), the Brad Holly mound site (8MR3512), and lithic and ceramic scatters at the smaller lakes and ponds and on Heather Island across the Ocklawaha R iver from the Hutto/Martin site (see Figure 622). This patterning of smaller habitation and special use sites

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287 surrounding a larger site is precisely what would be expected if the Hutto/Martin site represents a principal town for a Timucuan chiefdom. Con sidering all of the documentary evidence concerning the principal town of the Acuera chiefdom and the Santa Lucia de Acuera mission, and the archaeological evidence from the Hutto/Martin site and areas nearby, it is most likely that the Hutto/Martin site c an be identified as the site of the mission of Santa Lucia de Acuera. Furthermore, it is highly likely that the site also represents the site of Hernando de Sotos Acuera, suggesting that the site was occupied for more than a century between contact and t he mission period. The presence of Spanish artifacts dating from the early sixteenth century through the middle seventeenth century, the presence of mission period Spanish structures at the site, the presence of Native American artifacts which should be present at a contact/mission period site, the location of Hutto/Martin relative to other de Soto period sites and to St. Augustine, the size of the site, and the sites relative distance from other contemporaneous, smaller Native American sites in the area, taken as a whole, appear to identify the site as the Acuera chiefdoms principal town and thus the site of the Santa Lu cia de Acuera mission, based on the current evidence Given this relatively firm identification of the Hutto/Martin site as the Santa L ucia de Acuera mission, it becomes possible to suggest more specific identities or at least associations for the other two known mission period sites in this area. Recall that, in 1655, the San Luis de Eloquale mission was located 2 leagues north of S anta Lucia de Acuera (Worth 1998b:189190), or 5.46 modern miles. The Heather Island Preserve site is the only other site in the region of study which has Spanish ceramics present. A straight line distance between the Hutto/Martin site and the Heather Is land Preserve s ite is 5.82 miles (see Figure 6 23). Assuming travel by water along the

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288 Ocklawaha River, following the original river channel before modern alterations, the distance between the two sites would be approximately 6.80 miles (see Figure 6 24). These distances would be consistent with the 5.46 mile distance recorded in the 1655 list between San Luis de Eloquale and Santa Lucia de Acuera, given the cartographic imperfections of maps of that time. The Native American ceramics at the Heather Isla nd Preserve site, as discussed in chapter 5, include cobmarked and cord marked ceramics, both of which might have been present at sites during the mission period (McEwan 1993; Milanich 1995; John Worth, personal communication 2009). Furthermore, the San Luis de Eloquale mission is currently presumed to be the relocated site of the Ocale chiefdom, and to have been inhabited by the resettled remnants of the Ocale and others within Acuera territory (Worth 1998a and b; John Worth, personal communication 2009) Because the predominant ceramic types at the Heather Island Preserve site are sand tempered and grit tempered varieties that would be more common west of the St. Johns region, this would be consistent with a principal population at the site from further west. Base d on this evidence, it is reasonable that the colonial period component at the Heather Island Preserve site represents an occupation associated with the San Luis de Eloquale mission. However, the only Spanish artifacts found at Heather Island to date are the small fragments of olive jar found on the ground surface, and the distance from Heather Island Preserve to the Hutto/Martin site is not a precise fit for the distance between San Luis de Eloquale and Santa Lucia de Acuera. Thus, based on c urrent evidence, the Heather Island Preserve site is not likely to be the site of the San Luis mission itself. It is more likely that the colonial component at the Heather Island Preserve site represents a smaller village occupied at the same time as the mission, possibly as a visita for the resident friar at the San Luis mission. It is also possible, given the records of communities of runaways from missions to the north in the territory of the

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289 Acuera during the mission period, that the Heather Island P reserve site may represent a small settlement of such refugees. The Conner Landing site, north of both the Heather Island Preserve site and the Hutto/Martin site, has some of the largest and most clearly mission related artifacts among its assemblage, par ticularly the Spanish mission bell found within the river at the site. Unfortunately, subsurface testing to date has not provided firm contextual evidence that Spanish ceramics or mission era structures are present at this location. The largest Native Am erican component at the site dates to the Late Archaic period, based on the ceramics recovered during shovel testing. However, subsurface testing at the site has been extremely limited to date, so the presence of a larger St. Johns II occupation in the ar ea cannot be ruled out. As discussed in Chapter 2, the historical records concerning the San Blas de Avino mission provide few clues as to its location. The only details concerning San Blas are that (1) it was located in an area of low lying ground, flooded by a river, within Acuera territory; (2) that at least two other towns, Utiaca and Tucuru, were located within a league of the town of Avino; and that (3) in 1617, Avino was located near enough to the San Antonio de Enacape mission to allow the friar o f San Blas de Avino to meet visiting bishop Or at San Antonio reasonably easily. We do not have precise records of San Blas distance from St. Augustine or from the other missions currently available. The location of the Conner Landing site suggests the hypothesis that it may be associated with the San Blas de Avino mission. However, it is critical to note that, of the three colonial period sites within the area of study, this hypothesis is the most tentative and subject to revision based on additional evidence. In the absence of solid contextual evidence of a terrestrial mission period component at Conner Landing, the presence of the mission bell, the copper bowl,

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290 and the Spanish coins, while striking and compelling, is insufficient to identify the sit e as anything other than a site with a mission period component. Further survey and testing of Conner Landing itself, and of sites nearby, to determine if mission era artifacts are present in clear context will be needed before the site can be identified with certainty. Summarizing the evidence from the three sites with known mission period components in the area of study, the following conclusions and avenues for further research are suggested: 1) The Hutto/Mart in site, on current evidence, appears to be the site of the Santa Lucia de Acuera mission, as well as the site of the principal town of the Acuera chiefdom during the mission era. 2) The Hutto/Martin site also appears to be the site of the Acuera referred to in the records of the de Soto entrada. The site was occupied from at least the early sixteenth century through at least the middle of the seventeenth century and may have been occupied both before and after those dates. 3) The Heather Island Preserve site has a mission period component that i s likely to be related to the San Luis de Eloquale mission. The Conner Landing site has a mission period component that may be related to the San Blas de Avino mission. However, both sites will need substantial further testing and research to determine t heir identities and nature. Having discussed the archaeological evidence from sites within the Ocklawaha River Valley dating to the contact and mission eras, in the final chapter of this dissertation I discuss what the evidence from these sites, particula rly the Hutto/Martin site, suggests about the lifeways of the historic Acuera, and the ways in which their cultural patterns both derived from and differed from those practiced during the St. Johns II era. Final conclusions and avenues for longer term res earch in this region are discussed as well.

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291 Figure 61A. The Hutto/Martin site, 8MR3447, topographic map

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292 Figure 61B. The Hutto/Martin site, 8MR3447, aerial view

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293 Figure 62. Metal detector and judgmental testing, Hutto/Martin site, results

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294 Figure 63. Hutto/Martin site, grid test map

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295 Figure 64. Judgmental shovel tests and unit locations, all parcels, Hutto/Martin site

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296 Figure 65. Unit and feature map, Hutto/Martin site, block excavations

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297 Figure 66. Unit 2, level 3, Hutto/Martin site

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298 Figure 67. Bolen point, Unit 2, level 3, Hutto/Martin site

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299 Figure 68. Sevilla Blue on Blue majolica sherd, Unit 3, Hutto/Martin site

PAGE 300

300 Figure 69. Units 1 and 9, levels 3 and 4, Hutto/Martin site, showing postmolds in west wall

PAGE 301

301 Figure 610. Beads recovered from Hutto/Martin site, Unit 6 and adjacent area

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302 Figure 611. Whelk shell ( Busycon) recovered from Unit 23, level 3, Hutto/Martin site

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303 Figure 612. Olive jar sherds recovered, Hutto/Martin site

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304 Figure 613. Unit 29, level 4, Hutto/Martin site oblong stains visible in north base of unit

PAGE 305

305 Figure 614. Unit 27, level 4, Hutto/Martin site oblong features in southern half

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306 Figure 615. Native American ceramics, Hutto/Martin site. St. Johns Check stamped, Fig Springs Roughened, Lochloosa Punctated, and sandtempered roughened

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307 Figure 616. Typical St. Johns ceramics, Hutto/Martin site soot on sherds

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308 Figure 617. The Conner Landing site, 8MR2064

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309 Figure 618. Mission bell recovered at the Conner Landing site

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310 Figure 619. Handriveted copper bowl recovered at the Conner Landing site

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311 Figure 620. The Hutto/Martin sites location relative to area of recorded de Soto sites

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312 Figure 621. Distance between the Hutto/Martin site and St. Augustine, known Spanish travel routes

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313 Figure 622. Hutto/Martin site and adjacent sites in region

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314 Figure 623. Hutto/Martin site to Heather Island Preserve site, stra ight line distance

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315 Figure 624. Hutto/Martin site to Heather Island Preserve site, following river channel

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316 Table 6 1. Artifact Counts, Weights and Percentages from Judgmental Shovel Testing, Hutto/M artin Site Artifact type Artifact count % of total Artifact weight % of total St. Johns Check Stamped 60 13% 149.1g 23% St. Johns Plain 131 28% 126.2g 19% Sand tempered Plain 111 24% 171.7g 26% Sand tempered simple stamped 1 <1% 2g <1% Limestone tempered plain 1 <1% 1g <1% Mission Red Filmed 11 2% 27g 4% Olive Jar, unglazed 4 1% 26g 4% Orange Micaceous ware 1 <1% .5g <1% Coarse earthenware, European 4 1% 3g <1% Chert flakes 100 21% 78.4g 12% Pinellas points 3 <1% 3.4g <1% Other lithics 15 3% 40g 6% Faunal (Bone, Shell) 18 4% 9.3g 1% Metal artifacts, historic 6 1% 15.4g 2% 20 th century material 5 1% 2.5g <1% Totals: 471 100% 655.5 100%

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317 CHAPTER 7 LIFEWAYS OF THE ACUE RA OF THE CONTACT AND MISSION ERA: ANALY SIS, CONCLUSIONS AND AVENUES FOR FUTURE RESEARCH The archaeological evidence from the St. Johns II era sites discussed in Chapter 5, when compared and contrasted with the archaeological evidence from the Hutto/Martin site and the other colonial era sites discussed in Chap ter 6, provides a basis for better understanding the lifeways of the Acuera during the colonial period, and for reaching some initial conclusions about Acuera culture. Furthermore, these data provide a foundation upon which to build avenues for future res earch in this region. Based on the evidence from both the precontact and colonial period sites of the Ocklawaha River valley, particularly the data from the Hutto/Martin site, Acuera culture seems to have su ffered less demographic change and disruption d uring the contact and mission eras than the other missionized Timucuan and other Native American chiefdoms, and maintained a more traditional way of life than did other missionized Timucua. The archaeological evidence upon which these conclusions are base d is (1) the continued use, without apparent change or shift in location, of the same site for the principal town of the Acuera chiefdom throughout the period between the de Soto entrada and the end of the mission period among the Acuera; (2) the continuat ion, without change, of the same ceramic traditions in the mission period as were seen before contact; (3) the continued use of the parallel/perpendicular mounds seen in this region before contact as markers of social space during the mission period; and (4) the differences between both European structural features and artifact assemblages at contemporaneous mission sites, and those found and recorded at the Hutto/Martin site. Each of these data sets will be discussed in turn.

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318 Continued Use of the Hutto /Martin Site Between the Early Contact and Mission Eras As discussed in detail in Chapter 6, the European artifacts recovered from the Hutto/Martin site indicate an occupation of the site that lasted from at least the early sixteenth century (pre 1550) to at least the middle of the seventeenth century (1650 and later). This is consistent with the documentary evidence that the San Luis de Eloquale and Santa Lucia de Acuera missions were abandoned after the Timucuan Rebellion (Worth 1998b). In other words, despite the disruption and devastation caused by the passage of de Sotos army in 1539, the principal town of the Acuera chiefdom continued to be used by the Acuera for more than a century thereafter, apparently at least until the time of the Timucuan Reb ellion in 1656, if not later. The date range for the yellow wire wound bead found at the Hutto/Martin site begins in 1650, but extends more than a century thereafter (Deagan 1987:174), suggesting the possibility that the bead may have been deposited at t he site in the later seventeenth century. Recall that, from the documentary evidence, the Acuera continued to have some form of involvement with the Spanish colonial government, via the repartimiento, in the latter half of the 1600s (Worth 1995). The be ad may have been brought to the site after the rebellion, during the period after the abandonment of the Acuera missions. If so, given the documentary references indicating a continued presence by the Acuera in this region, the site may potentially have c ontinued to be occupied to the very end of the seventeenth century more than 150 years after the first recorded contact with Europeans in 1539. This long, continuing occupation of the Hutto/Martin site stands in stark contrast to what both the documenta ry and archaeological evidence suggest about virtually all other Native American towns and chiefdoms that had direct or indirect contact with the de Soto entrada. De Sotos army devastated every chiefdom and town through which it passed, and most sites kn own to be associated with the de Soto expedition show signs of abandonment very soon after the

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319 armys passage. The Parrish mounds, associated with the Safety Harbor chiefdoms of Uzita and Mocozo recorded in the accounts of the de Soto entrada (Milanich an d Hudson 1993:6266; Willey 1949:142158), contain de Sotoperiod European artifacts, and also show signs of having been abandoned upon the passage of de Sotos army (Ibid.) Tatham Mound, 8CI203, believed to be associated with the Ocale (Milanich and Huds on 1993:100110), as well as the Weeki Watchee Mound (8HE12), both contained the remains of Native Americans slain by edged weapons (Tatham), and apparently by an episode of disease (Tatham and Weeki Watchee), after which both sites were abandoned (Hutchinson 2006; Milanich and Hudson 1993:100110). The Governor Martin site, 8LE853, represents the site of Anhaica Apalachee, the contact era capital of the Apalachee chiefdom (Ewen and Hann 1998; Milanich and Hudson 1993:211230). The site was abandoned afte r its occupation during the winter of 15391540 by de Sotos army (Ibid), despite the continued existence of the Apalachee chiefdom. Thus, the archaeological evidence from other known sites associated with the initial phase of the de Soto expedition sugge sts that most were devastated or destroyed, and soon abandoned, in the wake of the Spaniards passage. But the evidence from the Hutto/Martin site suggests that this devastation and abandonment did not take place among the Acuera. The presence of both si xteenth century de Soto era artifacts and seventeenth century mission artifacts indicates that the same principal town of Acuera encountered by de Sotos soldiers continued to be the principal town of the Acuera in the mission period more than a century la ter. De Sotos men were only present in Acuera for a brief period, which may partially account for this apparent lack of disruption of Acuera culture by the entrada. However, other towns at which de Soto spent equally brief periods of time, such as Potan o, lost population or shifted location, or both, between the contact and mission periods (Milanich 1995). For whatever reason, the Acuera seem to have been able

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320 to maintain the same principal town, in the same location, for more than a century, when most other chiefdoms referred to in the de Soto chronicles either vanished, lost population, or abandoned older sites to move to new ones. It is important to note, in reaching this conclusion, that the continuing occupation of the Hutto/Martin site does not ne cessarily mean that its occupants remained ethnically Acuera throughout this period. Given the records of fugitivism among missionized Timucuan groups, as well as the recorded inflow of other Native American groups, particularly the Yamassee, into Spani sh Florida in the mission era, it is possible that the continuing occupation of the Hutto/Martin site may be due to the amalgamation of other groups into Acuera territory and culture at this time. Substantial further work at the Hutto/Martin site, as well as study of other mission and mission era sites in this region, will be needed to determine if the Acuera were able to continue occupation of their territory by supplementing their population with other peoples coming from elsewhere. Continuation of Ceram ic Traditions Before and After Contact As discussed in Chapter 5, the Acuera clearly can be classed as belonging to the St. Johns archaeological culture, with St. Johns ceramics forming the largest category of classifiable ceramics during the St. Johns I and II eras for six of the seven sites for which good data are available. While Deptford, Weeden Island, and Alachua tradition ceramics are present at these sites in significantly higher quantities than at St. Johns sites elsewhere, St. Johns ceramics non etheless comprise the bulk of the identifiable St. Johns era ceramics at every site except the Heather Island Preserve site (8MR2223). The Ocklawaha River itself appears to have served as both a cultural and archaeological boundary, and an interaction zon e, during the St. Johns I and II eras, up until the time of European contact.

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321 It has been widely shown, in colonial era contexts elsewhere in Spanish La Florida, that major shifts in ceramic traditions are markers for the time after colonization and missionization of Native American groups. In the area around St. Augustine, and on the coast, St. Johns ceramics including St. Johns Check Stamped and related ceramic types are the typical ceramics found in St. Johns II era contexts (Deagan 1993:95; Milanich 1994, 1995, 1996). After contact, and thereafter throughout the colonial period, St. Johns ceramics are eclipsed and largely replaced by Altamaha/ San Marcos ware ceramics, derived from the Irene and Altamaha ceramic traditions (Deagan 1993:95101; Deagan 1990; Goggin 1952:5861; Saunders 2000:4950; Degan and Thomas, ed., 2009). This replacement of the St. Johns ceramics traditional in this area by San Marcos wares has been argued to indicate that non Guale native ceramic traditions associated with the mi ssions did not survive the general decimation and decline brought about by relocation in St. Augustine. Guale peoples and ceramics were already well established in St. Augustine and may have dominated and eclipsed other Native American traditions during t his period of cultural disruption (Deagan 1993:99). To the west, in peninsular Florida, the Alachua and Suwannee Valley traditions predominate among the western Timucuan cultural groups prior to European contact (Milanich 1994, 1995, 1996; Weisman 1992: 127128). However, at known mission sites in this region, the same sort of changes in ceramic assemblages took place after contact as occurred on the coast, to the Leon Jefferson wares first described by Hale Smith (Smith 1948). At the Fig Springs missio n site, believed to be the mission of San Martn de Ayacuto (Weisman 1992), Leon Jefferson wares comprised more than 60% of the mission era ceramic assemblage (Weisman 1992:132). Leon Jefferson wares are present at the Santa F de Toloca mission site, 8AL 190 (Johnson1993:143); they predominate at the Baptizing Spring mission site (Loucks 1993:200); and form a large part of the ceramic assemblage from the San Pedro y San Pablo de Patale

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322 mission site (Marrinan 1993:271). The presence of the Spanish in the S outheast, and the consequent demographic shifts and disruption caused by colonization and missionization, thus appear to have caused enormous changes in the ceramic traditions among the Timucua and Apalachee during the mission period. However, the data fr om the Hutto/Martin site suggests a very different picture from that found at the coastal missions, the missions of the camino real and within St. Augustine itself. In the Hutto/Martin assemblage, St. Johns ceramics continue to predominate. St. Johns pl ain and St. Johns Check Stamped ceramics form 42%, both by count and by weight, of the entire artifact assemblage collected from the Hutto/Martin site. Furthermore, considering only the ceramics, St. Johns series sherds dominate the Hutto/Martin assemblag e, forming 61% by count and 58% by weight of the entire collection of Native American ceramics taken from the site. As a corollary to this, equally significant to what ceramics are present at the Hutto/Martin site is what varieties are not. No Leon Jef ferson ceramics at all are present among the types collected from the Hutto/Martin site. While sand tempered wares are present in the Hutto/Martin assemblage (35% by count and 36% by weight of the total), most of these wares are similar or identical to th e types found in this area in the later St. Johns II era, such as Alachua ceramics; there are virtually no sherds present at Hutto/Martin that have the any of the characteristics of Leon Jefferson wares. Furthermore, neither Altamaha/San Marcos ware ceram ics, indeed no ceramics at all with clear affiliations with the Irene or Altamaha ceramic traditions, are present at the Hutto/Martin site. The ceramic traditions present in this region before contact continue to be present after contact at the Hutto/Mart in site without change or obvious interruption, despite the presence of the Spanish.

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323 In considering the recognized changes in ceramic styles which took place during the mission era, Worth has posited that the best explanation for their emergence is a comb ination of two factors: What, then, is the most likely explanation for the emergence and spread of two new aboriginal ceramic style zones within and adjacent to Spanish Florida during the colonial era? Using all the data discussed above, as well as the lo gical inferences derived from this data, I would argue that the maximal spatial distribution of these two new multiregional and multiethnic style zones Altamaha/San Marcos and Jefferson represented a manifestation of new regional interaction networks r eflecting a combination of two governing influences; geographic location (particularly with respect to coastal vs. interior regions), and overarching integration into the evolving colonial system of greater Spanish Florida (incorporating all aspects of integration, from sociopolitical to economic). In the absence of one or the other of these two factors, the resultant distribution would likely have been different (Worth in Deagan and Thomas, ed., 2009:206) If this explanation for the presence of Altamaha/San Marcos wares, as well as Jefferson wares, at colonial era sites is correct, then the absence of either style at the Hutto/Martin site would represent the absence of one or the other of these two factors (Ibid). Altamaha/San Marcos wares a s well as some Jefferson or Jefferson influenced wares were present at Mount Royal, the site of San Antonio de Enacape (Tesar 2001), which was directly across the St. Johns River from Acuera territory and near enough for the friar of Avino to be summoned there to meet a visiting bishop in 1616 (Geiger 1940:126; Tesar 2001). Whatever the precise explanation for the absence of both Altamaha/San Marcos wares and Leon Jefferson wares from the Hutto/Martin site, it is very significant that this is the only 1 7thcentury mission site found to date at which neither sort of ceramic has been found. Mission Red Filmed sherds are present at the Hutto/Martin site. However, they form a tiny fraction of the overall assemblage from the site, less than 1% by count and by weight of the total number of artifacts recovered, and the same fraction for the ceram ic assemblage alone. And

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324 of all the sherds found at Hutto/Martin, only one sherd of the entire assemblage appears to have been colonoware defined as a Native American ceramic in a European vessel form. The flat and rounded edges typical of ceramics fou nd in the Ocklawaha River valley before contact are the same forms found at the Hutto/Martin site for virtually all identifiable rim sherds (see Appendix.) Despite a European presence at the Hutto/Martin site, and the documentary evidence of the presence of extralocal Native American groups at the Acuera missions, the ceramic traditions found at the site are those used in the region before contact. Thus, the evidence from the Hutto/Martin site indicates that these traditions continued to be followed after contact with virtually no change. While the Heather Island Preserve site clearly belongs within the more westerly ceramic traditions from the Weeden Island period on through contact, the ceramic evidence from that site also suggests continuity in cultura l practice in this regard. The latest datable ceramics from the Heather Island Preserve site are cob marked and cord marked ceramics from the Alachua tradition, which would have been those existing in north central Florida west of the St. Johns and Ocklaw aha Rivers prior to European contact (Milanich 1994, 1995; Weisman 1992; Vicki Rolland, ceramic specialist, personal communication 2009). Like the Hutto/Martin site, no Leon Jefferson wares or San Marcos related ceramics were present in the assemblage fro m the Heather Island Preserve site, despite the presence of European artifacts. More data from the Heather Island Preserve site will help to clarify the issue of continuity in ceramics in this region, but the evidence at 8MR2223 gathered to date is consis tent with that from the Hutto/Martin site. The ceramic evidence from the contact and mission sites examined for this research, then, suggests that, almost uniquely among mission sites studied and reported to date, there were no massive or sudden shifts in cultural practice concerning ceramics among the Acuera during the

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325 contact and mission eras. Unlike the other missionized cultures of La Florida, where major and recognized changes took place upon Spanish colonization of the region, the Acuera appear to h ave maintained their ceramic traditions, both in style and in vessel form, without clearly visible change during the colonial period. Mounds as Markers of Social Space before and after European Contact As discussed in chapters 4 and 5, prior to European c ontact, both sand and shell mounds constructed in the Ocklawaha River valley follow a common pattern throughout the area studied. On the rivers eastern side, perpendicular mounds were built, during the St. Johns I and II eras and possibly before, at a 90 angle to the axis of flow of the Ocklawaha River. On the rivers western side, parallel mounds were built, with their long axes following the axis of flow of the river at each location. And based upon the evidence from the Davenport Landing Mound a nd the Lake Weir Landing Mounds sites, the space between these mounds and the rivers edge was recognized as social space, with the activity at both sites taking place between the mounds and the rivers edge and disappearing when one passes beyond the mounds edge. Whatever the exact significance to the symbolism of mound construction in this region and the precise function of each mound site, mounds constructed to this pattern, before European contact, served to denominate and bound socially recognize d space within the St. Johns culture of the Ocklawaha, and to exclude the space beyond the mounds edges for regular human use. Did this pattern continue after contact and missionization? The evidence from the Hutto/Martin site suggests that, in fact, it did. As presented in Chapter 6, the mound present at the Hutto/Martin site a perpendicular mound on the sites eastern side was tested, along with the areas both east and west of the mound itself. All of the tests to the west of the mound were fou nd to contain artifacts, suggesting regular human activity between the mound and the rivers edge. Tests placed to the east of the mound were found to be sterile devoid of both

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326 artifacts and features, which, like the precontact sites tested for this are a, suggests the mound marked the edge of regularly used space at the Hutto/Martin site. The Acuera who occupied the town at the site bounded its edge, and the limits of socially recognized space for themselves, by marking those limits with a patterned mou nd identical to those used at sites within the region for at least a thousand years before the contact and mission eras. It could be argued that these limits are merely a function of physical distance from the rivers edge, and that no social significance was attached to the bounded space between mounds and the river by their builders. This, however, is contradicted by the facts that (1) mounds had ritual and social significance to all known Native American cultures which used them, and (2) both the patte rn of the mounds and, based on current evidence, the bounded use of space between mounds and the river was repeated throughout the entire region of study, regardless of the size of the site observed. Considering the first point, mounds are known to have r itual or social significance in every culture throughout the Southeast, though their specific meaning varied depending on time and culture. As early as the Middle Archaic, shell mounds and rings have been argued to serve the purpose of marking social and ritual space and separation (Russo 1996a, b), and it is widely known and accepted that some constructed mounds served as burial monuments for the dead (Anderson and Mainfort 2002; Hudson 1976; Milanich 1994) as well as, in Mississippian and other cultures, monuments to differential and hierarchical social organization (Hudson 1976; Pauketat 1994; Scarry 1996). As with all other Native American societies in the Southeast and elsewhere prior to European contact, the Acuera and their cultural predecessors in this region had to have used constructed mounds within a social framework most likely, a religious or ritual context. And even if a number of the mounds within the Ocklawaha River valley served the

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327 function of pure monuments, as argued in Chapter 5, t hat still clearly implies a social function and significance to the mounds themselves. As to the second point, it is significant to note again that the Hutto/Martin site is the largest confirmed site, in spatial area, yet discovered within the Ocklawaha River valley and yet, like the precontact mound sites examined for this study, its limits are marked by a constructed mound, beyond which social activity at the site does not appear to have taken place. Furthermore, if mere distance from water as a phy sical resource was the controlling factor in setting spatial boundaries at sites in this region, one would expect the Hutto/Martin site to be even larger than it is, as there are multiple permanent water sources at the site which would have provided easier access to water than the river itself. The potential meaning of the bounding of social space through mound construction in this region will be discussed further in providing conclusions and avenues for future research based on this data. However, it is important to note that the practice of bounding socially recognized and usable space by patterned mound construction, apparently practiced throughout this region prior to European contact, continued to be practiced in the contact and mission period at the Hutto/Martin site. This suggests that, despite the presence of the Spanish, this aspect of precontact St. Johns I and II era culture remained significant for the people of the historic Acuera chiefdom. Differences Between European Assemblage and Features at the Hutto/Martin Site From Contemporaneous Mission Sites It is not merely the evidence from the Native American component of the Hutto/Martin site that suggests much stronger cultural norms and much greater continuity between the precontact and the hi storic periods in this region. Equally significant are the differences between

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328 the Spanish artifact assemblage and the Spanish structural features found at the Hutto/Martin site, and those found at other mission sites to date. The artifact assemblages re ported from other mission sites dating to the time that the Acuera missions existed i.e., the first half of the seventeenth century contain a much wider variety of Spanish artifacts than those found to date at the Hutto/Martin site. For example, ten c learly identifiable majolica types were found during the excavation of the Fig Springs mission site, as well as other unclassifiable varieties and Spanish olive jar (Weisman 1992:120 121, 172), in addition to numerous metal artifacts and glass beads and fr agments (Weisman 1992:110119). At the Baptizing Spring site, seven majolica types were reported, as well as numerous other European artifacts (Loucks 1993:204). Numerous metal and other artifacts were found at the Santa Catalina de Guale mission site (T homas 1993:921), as well as the other coastal and interior missions found to date (McEwen 1993). By contrast, at the Hutto/Martin site, only one clearly identifiable majolica type Sevilla Blue on Blue has been recovered from the site thus far. Olive jar sherds form the most common variety of Spanish ceramic found at the Hutto/Martin site, as well as Spanish redware and orange micaceous ware. Thus, only four distinct clearly identifiable types of European ceramic have been found at the Hutto/Martin s ite to date, in contrast to the richer and more varied European assemblages found at mission sites on the coast and along the Camino Real The European structures found at the Hutto/Martin site thus far are consistent with those reported from other cont emporaneous mission sites, both in size and construction technique. However, the Native American artifacts found within the southern structure described in Chapter 6 are not. Remember that, in the western wall of that structure, two significant Native Am erican artifacts appear to have been deliberately placed within the wall during its construction: a late

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329 Paleoindian/early Archaic Bolen point in the northwest corner of the structure, and the whelk shell deposited in the midcenter of the wall, found in U nit 23. Even in the time of the historic Acuera, Bolen points would have been ancient (Bullen 1975), and there is no sign of an Early Archaic component at the Hutto/Martin site to suggest that the point may somehow have accidentally been swept into the wa ll as fill during construction (though such accidental placement is possible nonetheless) The point was recovered between two posts, at the same stratigraphic level the wall became clearly visible, placed in a position suggesting its deliberate burial be tween the posts forming the structures wall. While it is possible that the presence of the Bolen point is in fact accidental, if deliberately placed within the structure, it likely had some significance for the people who placed it there. The same is tr ue of the whelk shell found within the western walls center. Marine shell would have to have been brought from the coast to the Ocklawaha River valley, most likely as described in Fontanedas Memoir (Smith 1854:18). Furthermore, the shell was found withi n a stain placed between and at the same stratigraphic level as two wall posts (see Figure 6.5), again suggesting its deliberate burial within the walls of the structure. Shells of this kind are known to have ritual associations; most commonly with the ce remony of the black drink (Hulton 1977; Hudson 1979), as cups or vessels to hold the drink. The shell found at the Hutto/Martin site does not appear to be a dipper or cup, as the columella of the shell was not removed. However, it has been argued that th e sinistral or lefthanded whelk, in southeastern Native American cultures from Mississippian times through the present, symbolically represents a clockwise spiral, which was important in the ideology of many Southeastern cultures: The clockwise path of the sun is associated with war and death. Many ethnohistoric accounts observe that a dead persons spirit travels west or follows

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330 the sun or that the sun dies at sunset . The association of death with the clockwise path of the sun now become s clear. Clockwise is therefore a dangerous path . Ethnohistoric and ethnographic accounts in the Southeast indicate that sinistral spirals were sacred, akin to the clockwise path of the sun (Kozuch 1998:133). If this conclusion is correct, then the presence of the sinistral whelk shell within the western wall of the structure may have a link with traditional Timucuan beliefs about death and the sun, since spiral symbolism was widespread among Mississippian artifacts in the Southeast and continued to play an important role in a number of Southeastern cultures throughout the historic period (Kozuch 1998: 111135). No other mission sites have been reported to have Native American ritual or burial deposits placed within European structures found at the sites. Areas of primarily European ritual activity, such as the mission churches (Hann and McEwen 1998; Loucks 1993; Weisman 1992, 1993) and other areas of primarily Native American ritual or social activity have been reported from other mission sites stu died to date (Ibid.) However, there are no known mission sites where there is archaeological evidence that Native American ritual was practiced within European structures, even covertly during construction (John E. Worth, University of West Florida, perso nal communication 2009). Thus, the presence of the finds within the complete structure found at the Hutto/Martin site is highly unusual, if not unique, within the context of the mission sites discovered thus far. This being the case, what best accounts f or the differences between the European artifact assemblage and features found at the Hutto/Martin site and those found at other missions elsewhere? It can be argued that, to some degree, these differences could be accounted for by simple physical distanc e from St. Augustine and the concomitant difficulty of the Spanish in reaching the area easily enough to enforce cultural norms. Mission Santa Lucia de Acuera, despite its placement within the principal town of a Timucuan chiefdom, lay at a considerable

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331 distance from St. Augustine (Worth 1998a and b). Arguably, during its time in existence, Santa Lucia de Acuera was the mission that marked the southernmost boundary of effective Spanish control during the first half of the seventeenth century, lying at the terminus of the southern trail and navigable waterways used by the Spanish for transportation (Worth 1998 a and b; John E. Worth, personal communication 2009). This sheer distance from the center of Spanish power in the Southeast could be argued to be suf ficient to account for the disparity between the Hutto/Martin assemblage and those found at other missions. Certainly, aside from Santa Lucia de Acueras resident friar, Spanish soldiers and government officials would have been present only infrequently i n Acuera province, which accounts for the limited historic records concerning the Acuera missions and the Acuera chiefdom as a whole (Hann 1996; Worth 1998 a, b). However, if one considers the relative position of the Santa Lucia de Acuera mission to th e transportation network of the early seventeenth century, as well as the social means by which the Spanish and missionized Native Americans interacted, simple physical distance from St. Augustine may be too facile an explanation for the disparity in artif act assemblages. The Santa Lucia de Acuera mission, and most likely the other two Acuera missions, were immediately situated on the Ocklawaha River, which in turn is the major tributary to the St. Johns River. In other words, once a Spaniard or Native Am erican leaving St. Augustine with goods reached the ferry crossing on the St. Johns the San Diego de Helaca mission, during the time the Acuera missions existed (Worth 1998b:165166) the entire remaining distance to Santa Lucia could have been traveled by boat, which would have been far easier than overland transportation during this period. On the other hand, it is also possible that, compared to the present, climactic shifts may have rendered the Ocklawaha River less navigable in the past (Dr. Willia m

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332 Marquardt, personal communication 2010). If so, this may also have played a role in ease of access by the Spanish to Acuera territory, and vice versa. Furthermore, there would have been at least some regular yearly contact between the Acuera missions an d St. Augustine via workers from Acuera reporting for the repartimiento, which appears to have continued even after the abandonment of the Acuera missions (Milanich 1995, 1999; Worth 1995, 1998a and b). Arguably, it would have been physically harder to t ransport goods to the Fig Springs mission site from St. Augustine, let alone sites further west on the Camino Real since a large part of the distance to those westerly missions would have had to be by land rather than water. Yet, as noted, the European a rtifact assemblage from these western sites is both larger and more varied than that recovered to date from the Hutto/Martin site. I t is also important to recall that, from both the Spanish and Native American perspective, it was in the interest of the le aders of both groups to reinforce chiefly power, which, in both contact and mission era Timucuan cultures, seems to have been accomplished through the mechanism of the giving of gifts by the Spanish to converted Native American chiefs, and the giving of gi fts by chiefs to their subjects (Milanich 1995:199201; Worth 1998a:3643). From the perspective of the resident friar at the Santa Lucia de Acuera mission, as well as that of the converted leaders of the Acuera, it would have been in their best interests to have European goods readily available, thus necessitating exchange with or support from St. Augustine. Thus, given the relative ease of transportation to the site compared with overland sites further west, as well as the need for European goods in t he context of the known missions social structures, mere distance from St. Augustine may be insufficient to account for the relative paucity of European artifacts in the Hutto/Martin assemblage.

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333 And even if simple distance accounts for the disparities in artifact assemblages, it does not account for the presence of Native American deposits, likely associated with ritual, within and forming a part of a European structure at the site. This type of find has not been reported to date from European structures found at other mission sites, and suggests a difference in the relationship between the resident friar and the Native Americans living at Santa Lucia de Acuera, and such relationships between the Spanish and other missionized Native American groups. Having discussed the archaeological evidence concerning Acuera lifeways during the mission period, I now use the historic, linguistic, and archaeological evidence concerning the Acuera to present some conclusions about Acuera lifeways during the contact an d mission eras, and to discuss avenues for future and continuing research in the Ocklawaha River valley. Living With the Keepers of Time: Lifeways of the Acuera Initial C onclusions Considering the historic, linguistic, and archaeological evidence as an integrated whole, the following conclusions about the lifeways of the Acuera in the mission period can be reached. (1) The people of the Timucuan chiefdom of Acuera responded to contact and missionization by the Spanish in ways that seem to have differed from virtually all other missionized Native American chiefdoms during this period. This distinctive response appears to have constituted cultural resistance by the Acuera to attempts at cultural change and transformation initiated by the Spanish. The historic evidence, as discussed in Chapter 2, indicates that the Acuera maintained traditional religious leaders, cultural practices, and social structures throughout the time of their existence within the Spanish colonial system, both before and aft er the time of the Acuera missions existence. Furthermore, unlike the other Timucuan chiefdoms, they did so within their

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334 traditional territory, defying or ignoring Governor Diego Rebolledos order to concentrate missionized populations along the Camino R eal after the Timucuan Rebellion. The linguistic evidence, as discussed in Chapter 3, indicates that the Acuera, from the time of their appearance within the records of the de Soto expedition onwards, seem to have had a greater emphasis on the supernatura l and on ritual in their daily practice than existed among the other Timucuan chiefdoms missionized by the Spanish. The archaeological evidence from the sites studied throughout this region, particularly that from the Hutto/Martin site, appears to indicate that the massive cultural disruption and demographic change and collapse that took place elsewhere in the Southeast during the contact and mission periods does not seem to have taken place among the Acuera though much further work needs to be done to co nfirm this with certainty The site of their principal town continued to be occupied from the time of de Soto through the seventeenth century; their ceramic traditions survived and continued with little change even after missionization by the Spanish; the ir use of patterned mound construction to mark social space continued even at their territorys principal mission; and the Spanish presence at their principal mission was both minimal and apparently defined and possibly subverted by the actions of the Acuera themselves. Conjoining the three lines of evidence, it is clear that major differences existed between the response of the other missionized chiefdoms to the Spanish, and the response of the Acuera. Given the archaeological evidence from both prec ontact, St. Johns II era sites in what was Acuera territory, and the Hutto/Martin site, this differing response by the Acuera appears to be resistance to Spanish control via missionization. More properly, the response of the Acuera to the presence of th e Spanish and the missions in their territory should be considered a form of negotiation between two centers of authority: that represented by the Spanish Crown and its

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335 officers, and that represented by the traditional authority and practice of the Acuera and their leaders. A part of de Sotos army entered and passed through Acuera territory, and Franciscan missions were present within Acuera for more than forty years, but traditional cultural forms, beliefs and practices seem to have held greater power an d authority among t he Acuera than within other missionized Timucuan chiefdoms. Unlike groups such as the Calusa, who quickly rejected missionization by the Spanish (Hann 1991; Marquardt 1987), the Acuera seem to have created a system of parallel authoriti es that existed side by side with Spanish power for as long as the Acuera continued to exist. Taking the evidence, then, as a whole, what precisely allowed the Acuera to respond so differently to colonization and control of la Florida by the Spanish? And if their actions be considered a negotiation between two centers of authority, what gave Acuera culture the ability so effectively to defy and subvert the overt control represented by the missions in their territory? (2) Unlike the sporadic acts of individual resistance that took place among other missionized Native American chiefdoms, resistance by the Acuera to Spanish controls and norms was systemic and culture wide. This resistance took the form of adherence to traditional systems of spiritual belief, and appears to have strengthened and become more open throughout the colonial period. Certainly individual acts of defiance of Spanish rule took place among other missionized Native Americans. Fray Parejas Confesionario lists numerous ways in which adhe rence to traditional systems of belief, such as use of a shaman, belief in omens, and so forth, were considered sins under Catholic practice (Milanich and Sturtevant 1979). However, the mere fact that these acts are listed and condemned in a Timucuan lang uage Catholic confessional implies (1) the priests and the Spanish assumed that the missionized Timucua were believers in and

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336 subject to Catholic doctrine and practice, and, more importantly, that (2) the missionized Timucua in fact accepted the discipline and control by the friars that belief in Catholic doctrine and practice required. As discussed in Chapter 2, for most of the Timucuan chiefdoms, these assumptions appear to have been true. Even in the wake of the Timucuan Rebellion, its leaders proclaim ed their loyalty to the Crown and the Catholic Church; the spark that caused the rebellion was Governor Diego Rebolledos order to the caciques to carry their own supplies (Worth 1998b:59), and when the rebellion broke out, the rebel leaders exempted the f riars from the order to kill the secular Spanish officials (Worth 1998b:60). In other words, by the time of the Timucuan Rebellion, among nearly all of the Timucuan chiefdoms, acceptance of Spanish Catholic beliefs was the new cultural practice for missio nized Timucua, and acts of defiance to these beliefs sporadic and individual except among the Acuera. Considering all lines of evidence, the Acuera seem to have used their traditional system of supernatural belief, ritual, and practice as a means of mai ntaining their identity and traditional social order in the face of the stresses of colonization and missionization. And unlike the sporadic, individual acts of defiance implied in the historic record for the other Timucua, this practice seems to have bee n systemic, to have encompassed the whole of the Acuera chiefdom, and to have grown stronger and more open as the seventeenth century progressed. As discussed in Chapter 2, the historic record of the Acuera indicates that they had traditional religious le aders with significant followings, openly living as a part of Acuera society, at the height of the mission period. Furthermore, they not only defied or ignored Rebolledos order to move from their traditional territory in the wake of the Timucuan Rebellio n; they also seem to have openly abandoned even nominal Catholic practice and beliefs in the second half of the seventeenth century, because all references to them after the abandonment of San Luis de Eloquale and Santa

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337 Lucia de Acuera specifically call th em pagan. Calesas defense in the 1678 murder trial was that he was a heathen who does not re cognize any other authority or superior in his land than his un cle the chief, Jabahica (Hann 1992:466467), and the records of the trial also indicate the killings were specifically directed against converted Potano from the north (Hann 1992:452467). Thus, the Acuera are the only Timucuan chiefdom missionized by the Spanish who entered the mission system and then came out again, still following traditiona l cultural practice. As discussed in Chapter 3, the same is true of the linguistic evidence. Naming an entire culture the keepers of time or the ancient ones is not accidental. As has been discussed in the anthropological literature, lived time, s ocalled A series time, as opposed to B series represented or objectified time (Gell 1992:286291), is most commonly associated with ritual practice, embodied in a rich accumulation of traditional attitudes; practical life is mythology in action ( Gell 1992:286). For the Acuera to name themselves both the keepers of time and the ancient ones suggests a consciousness of the temporal and of the ritual in their culture from the time of their first appearance in the historic records onward. And, a s also noted in Chapter 3, this consciousness of ritual and the supernatural grew stronger throughout the seventeenth century. By the time of the Calesa murder trial in 1678, the names of people and places within Acuera territory had clear ritual and supe rnatural significance, and the acts of killing upon which the trial was based are explicable only in the context of traditional Timucuan cultural and spiritual beliefs. Finally, the archaeological evidence also suggests the historic Acuera were drawing on traditional systems of ritual belief and practice in confronting the presence of the Spanish within their own territory and within greater La Florida. The patterning of parallel/perpendicular mound construction, discussed in chapters 4 and 5, which sugge sts a common culture throughout

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338 the Ocklawaha River valley prior to European contact, is also evidence of an anthropogenic landscape; that is, a landscape shaped and given social meaning by the people who live within it. As has been previously noted, moun ds have ritual and supernatural associations in Native American cultures throughout the Southeast, suggesting that the social meaning assigned to the patterned landscape of the Ocklawaha River was supernatural in nature, and likely associated with time as well: Human persons are bound, at all times and in all places, into a complex web of reciprocal relationships with supernatural beings. Yet while active requests to spirits are generally made at holy sites settlements of the sacred they are subsequent ly fulfilled at other times and in other places of the landscape through success in hunting, successful childbirth, general health, welfare, and so on. Without these wider contexts of time, space and social praxis the holy sites and their material culture would have no essential authority or meaning. In this sense, the multi layered human:spirit dialogue is played out through time over the spaces and places of an enculturated landscape. (Jordan 2001:102) The Hutto/Martin site fits within this pattern of practice using the spaces and places of an enculturated landscape. By placing a perpendicular mound at the eastern edge of the occupation at the site, this historic site was fitted within the greater context of social and ritual practice found at other patterned mound sites in this region. Whatever the precise social significance of both the mounds and the use of space surrounding them, it is highly likely to have been ritual or supernatural in nature, based on the ritual usage of mound sites among othe r Native American cultures. Thus, by placing the historic site within this larger context, the Acuera appear symbolically to have fitted the mission within their own system of ritual practice, rather than the reverse. The same holds true for the archaeol ogical evidence from the southern structure found at the Hutto/Martin site, particularly the deposits placed within the western wall. Based on the features described in Chapter 6, the southern structure appears to have been a mission church. While no cle arly identified human burials have been found within the structure that would

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339 absolutely confirm this, some bone scatter exists throughout the structure, and the oblong, ovoid stains within the structure suggest burial pits of the type found at mission sites elsewhere (Boyer 2005; McEwen 1993; Milanich 1995, 1999; Worth 1998a, b). Also, the bulk of the Spanish artifacts found at the site, including burned bone, were found in the northern units, suggesting that the northern area was domestic rather than rel igious in nature. If the southern structure is indeed the mission church, it is highly significant and unusual if not unique that what appear to have been ritual deposits were placed within the walls of the structure during construction. Marine shell particularly at sites away from the coast, would have been valuable and harder to obtain than at coastal sites. Furthermore, such shells appear to have had symbolic and ritual associations with the clockwise spirals symbolizing death and the sun in th e ideology of a number of Southeastern cultures (Kozuch 1998:111135) Likewise, Bolen points, such as the one deposited in the structures northeast corner, date to the Early Archaic, at least 8,000 years in the past (Bullen 1975). Deposition of such an ancient artifact in the walls of a European structure may represent a link between the chosen name of the Acuera, the ancient ones, and a symbolic material object with a similar cultural meaning. The historic, linguistic, and archaeological evidence al l suggest that the means by which the Acuera maintained their traditional culture and lifeways during the colonial period was through increased emphasis on their traditional system of belief, both in their daily practice and in the social and material land scape within which they lived. Through a culture wide, systemic emphasis on traditional beliefs and practices, the Acuera were able to resist the stresses of colonization and missionization in a way that the other Timucuan chiefdoms did not. (3) In emphas izing traditional beliefs and practices as a means of cultural resistance and survival, the Acuera symbolically drew on and linked their culture to much older beliefs,

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340 practices, and material features already existing in the region of study, whether such l inkage was literal or fictive. The evidence discussed thus far, while intriguing, does not tell us how long the customs the Acuera followed in the historic period had existed prior to European contact, nor whether the cultures that created such customs we re directly linked to the historic Acuera chiefdom. However, both the linguistic and the archaeological evidence suggest that the historic Acuera believed that such a link between past and present existed, and acted on that belief by symbolically attempting to manifest that linkage through material symbols particularly the patterned mounds of the region whether such a link was in fact real or not. Obviously, it cannot be asserted without substantial further data that the Acuera of the historic per iod were the descenda nts of the people wh o constructed the mounds in the parallel/perpendicular pattern described in chapter 4, or that they continued to practice the same cultural traditions as the builders of the mounds Given the fact that, in other pa rts of the Timucuan cultural region, there appears to have been a substantial shift from more egalitarian social structures to more ranked and hierarchical societies from the St. Johns I to the St. Johns II eras (Ashley 2008; Milanich 1994: 246247, 254274), it is possible that major political changes took place in the St. Johns culture of the Ocklawaha River valley as well, though a great deal of additional research is needed to make any definite assertions on this issue. However, mounds, as with any visi ble monument, are continuing makers of social memory. Simply by continuing to be physically present, such monuments can assist any cultural group in maintaining social cohesion and in marking group identity, and the patterned mounds of the area would have been able to serve as such markers for the Acuera during the colo nial period and the mission era, even if the patterned mounds had held different meanings for their ancestors

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341 or their predecessors in the region than for the Acuera themselves. So long as the Acuera believed that a link existed between themselves and the builders of the mounds so long as they saw themselves as the keepers of time, the ancient ones who inherited a tradition passed down from older ancestors the mounds would have serve d as visible, structural reminders of that link between themselves and the ones who had inhabited the Ocklawaha River valley before the coming of the Spanish, whether the Acuera were their direct cultural and genetic descendants or not. Furthermore, bey ond the evidence from the Hutto/Martin site, we do have additional direct archaeological evidence that people in this region during the colonial period made use of at least one older mound site for later ritual purposes. Recall that, a t the McKenzie Mound site (8MR64), the bulk of the ceramics recovered archaeologically were St. Johns series, including St. Johns plain and checkstamped ceramics and Weeden Island ceramics ( Boyer 2008b; Sears 1959). However, one burial in the upper levels of the McKenzie Mo und was fo und with Safety Harbor ceramics and a Spanish trade bead in close association (Ibid .) Th is burial was found near the apex of the mound and appears to have represented the last Native American use of the mounds for burial purposes (Sears 1959). It also clearly represents a burial that took place after contact and thus during the time of the Acuera. It is highly unlikely that the later, historic era Acuera would simply have made use of an older mound at random. Thus, the people of this region appear to have known of and, in this case, deliberately used a mound site for ritual purposes after contact. Furthermore, since burial mounds appear to have been used by individual chiefly lineages in the contact era (Hulton 1977:132), such a use of an o lder mound site quite likely was an attempt by the Acuera of the colonial period to visibly tie their own culture to the peoples who built such sites in the past

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342 through claims of kinship, whether such kinship was real or fictive. As a site with spiritual associations, the use of an existing mound site would have represented a symbolic kinship link between the people of the historic period and the people interred within the mound, particularly in view of the use of burial mounds by specific lineages in the his toric period (Ibid.) Given the ritual and supernatural significance of the names used by the Acuera during the seventeenth century, the archaeological evidence of re use of at least one ritual site within the older pattern of mound sites in this region, and the historic evidence of continuing traditional ritual practice and traditional social and political structure within the Acuera chiefdom, it seems quite likely that what was taking place in this area was a deliberate attempt on the part of the Acuera to emphasize their traditional systems of belief as a means of maintaining their cultural identity in the face of the stresses of colonization and missionization. Since Acuera province was a focus for runaways, unconverted Native American refugees, and ot hers fleeing Spanish control, such an emphasis on traditional systems of belief would have provided the Acuera a means to differentiate themselves from both the Spanish and from Native Americans who had assimilated into the mission system, and would have a llowed them to clearly mark themselves both in their own view and in the view of the other Timucuan speakers as abi no we are apart now Furthermore, the patterning observed at mound sites in this region, together with the ceramic evidence suggesting the persistence of this pattern through time from at least the Deptford period through the St. Johns II era, may have made such differentiation easier. Pueblo cultures of the Southwest were able to provide a Native American alternative to Spani sh missionization by adopting a pure Pubelo system of belief, discarding syncretized elements from other Native American groups and from Catholicism and emphasizing true pure

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343 Puebloan beliefs (Ware and Blinman 2000). If the Acuera were attempting t o maintain their cultural identity in the same way, the presence of many permanent monuments, built to a common pattern, would likely have assisted the process, as visible markers of sep aration and cultural identity, particularly if older sites were delibe rately re used in the colonial period for ritual purposes, as seems to be the case at the McKenzie Mound or if a pre existing cultural practice continued visibly at a mission, as seems to have been the case at the Hutto/Martin site The dual significance of the name Acuera, both as calendar/timekeeper and ancient, would then have served to reinforce the idea of separation and maintenance of much older traditions of belief in the face of the new ways offered by Europeans through missionization with the mounds serving as symbols of the links between the Acuera and their ancestors, whether literal or not These conclusions about the Acuera chiefdom imply that, for Native American studies of the colonial period, in Florida and elsewhere, we should not draw a clear or sharp distinction between precontact and historic sites in considering archaeological evidence of past cultures, and that, to effectively understand Native American cultures of the historic period, it will be necessary to take a regiona l approach to archaeological study. If, as the evidence suggests for the Acuera, Native Americans of the colonial period used older sites and objects as markers of social boundaries and cultural memory and significance, archaeological studies of historic cultures must necessarily research precontact sites within such cultures territories as well, and determine if the historic and archaeological evidence suggests such sites were incorporated into the cultural practice and socia l structure of historic Nat ive American groups Concomitantly, modern researchers cannot assume that even the most detailed study of individual sites dating to the historic period will allow a sufficient understanding of the sites to draw firm conclusions. Rather, regional study, aimed at producing multiple lines of evidence from many sites, including

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344 their relationships with each other, may be the only effective way to understand even the best documented historic sites. The linguistic evidence, taken from the colonial documents c oncerning the Acuera, suggests that even the most familiar documents concerning Native Americans (and other groups) during the colonial period will yield new insights when subjected to linguistic analysis. If a goal of historic archaeological research is to provide evidence of the cultural practice of persons and groups which were insufficiently documented in the historic record, the clues present in language itself a window into the worldviews of the people who created and spoke it may open new vistas of understanding. Documents such as the Calesa trial record and the orders concerning the Acuera become much more explicable and clear when the significance of the names of persons and places in the record is known; such studies may yield a great deal of new information concerning Native American cultures throughout the colonial period, both in Florida and elsewhere in the Americas. Finally, these conclusions suggest that Native American groups of the colonial period may have possessed a deep understandi ng of the temporal significance of older artifacts and objects, and that modern archaeologists must be extremely cautious about assuming that both older sites and artifacts were somehow unrelated to the cultures of the historic period. The evidence from A cuera territory suggests that the Acuera were consciously re using older artifacts and sites to validate and symbolize their chosen name of the keepers of time, the ancient ones and that they possessed a consciousness of the past that was materialize d within their culture through the use of such older artifacts and sites. Thus, modern researchers cannot assume that, when Archaic or precontact artifacts are found at historic sites, or when a precontact site is re used by a historic culture, that the artifacts were simply there incidentally

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345 or accidentally, or that such re use of older sites happened at random. Rather, archaeological study of historic Native American cultures should incorporate the possibility that such cultures had a full unders tanding of the temporal significance of certain artifacts and of their own history, and older artifacts and sites were incorporated into the historic cultures thought and practice. Avenues for Future R esearch I hope that the data and initial conclusion s presented in this dissertation will provide bases and avenues for future research in the region of study. One such avenue, clearly, is the firm location of the two remaining undiscovered Acuera missions. While the Heather Island Preserve site and the C onner Landing site both appear to be associated with the remaining missions, only substantial additional surface survey and subsurface testing at both sites and nearby areas in both locations will confirm or disprove this hypothesis. Furthermore, a fuller understanding of cultural practice at the Santa Lucia de Acuera mission will only come with much additional research at the Hutto/Martin site and the smaller sites nearby, which represent occupations connected to that at Hutto/Martin. A comparatively sma ll area of a vastly larger site has been tested and excavated in the course of this research; only through much additional excavation, research and analysis will a more complete picture of the lives of the people of the mission in the first half of the sev enteenth century emerge. Even more critically important will be fine grained excavation and analysis, which will give us a better understanding of the changes and continuity in cultural practice at the site in the century between the passing of the de Sot o entrada in 1539 and the founding of the Santa Lucia mission in the 1620s. Finally, understanding the ties between the principal town of the Acuera at the Hutto/Martin site and the smaller sites such as villages, campsites, mound sites, and other sites w ithin its range of cultural control will only be possible with study at all sites tied with the principal occupation at Hutto/Martin.

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346 To understand better the patterned mound sites of this region, and their place within the cultural systems of both the pr e contact period and the historic period, fine grained studies of intrasite patterning need to be performed, as was done at Davenport Landing Mound and at the Lake Weir Landing Mounds sites, as well as intersite studies throughout the region. While the da ta from these two sites are intriguing and significant, it cannot be assumed without additional evidence that the same sort of cultural practice took place at all mound sites in this area, or within the same cultural period. The same sort of intrasite and intersite studies are needed for sites of all types in this region to determine more precisely the temporal sequencing and cultural growth and change that took place in the Ocklawaha River valley from initial human settlement through the contact and histo ric eras. Additionally, the fact that Deptford, Pasco, Weeden Island, and Alachua ceramics appear within a St. Johns culture in some quantities needs substantial additional analysis and research to determine the reasons why and how such interchange took p lace, and why it seems to have ended prior to European contact. An intriguing avenue for research is the degree to which the culture of the Acuera was influenced both by the cultures of South Florida and, possibly, other cultures from elsewhere. The hi storic evidence from Fontanedas writings suggests that the Acuera were a part of a system of cultural interchange that included contact with and influence from the Gulf coastal cultures, including those to the south such as the Tocobaga (Smith 1854:18; Wo rth 1995b:343). And, as discussed, the archaeological evidence from the sites studied in the Acuera region also appears to indicate that the Weeden Island cultures of the Gulf coast and further south influenced the culture of the Acuera prior to contact. Fontaneda also refers to many Indians from Cuba who entered the ports of the province of Carlos (Smith 1854:17), and indicated that there was a

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347 settlement of them present in south Florida in the sixteenth century (Ibid ) While there is currently no direct historic or archaeological evidence that any such refugees were among the groups of fugitives which fled to Acuera territory, there appears to have been influence on Acuera culture from the cultures of the south, and determining the degree and natu re of such in fluence would be a fruitful avenue for future research. The role the Acuera played within the larger Timucuan cultural region needs additional research as well. If, as has been argued here, the Acuera maintained their cultural structure and practices through an emphasis on ritual and the supernatural, then larger fine grained historic and linguistic studies of each of the Timucuan chiefdoms may help to determine if the Acuera were recognized as ritual specialists by the other Timucuan speaker s, and if so, what role they may have played outside their own territory in the context of Spanish/Native American interaction. An intriguing possibility is that the focus on ritual and the supernatural observed among the historic Acuera in fact arose duri ng the late St. Johns I and St. Johns II eras in this region as a response to pressures from the cultures which surrounded the Ocklawaha River valley. The Ocklawaha River valley borders numerous surrounding cultural areas, including the Weeden Island and, later, Safety Harbor cultures to the west; the cultures of central and south Florida; the St. Johns "heartland" to the east; and the Cades Pond and later Alachua traditions to the north and west (Milanich 1994). A working hypothesis for future research is that an emphasis on ritual knowledge arose prior to contact in this region as a means of preserving cultural identity in the face of pressures from these surrounding cultures, since spiritual and supernatural knowledge helps transcend cultural boundaries. If so, the emphasis on ritual and the supernatural among the historic Acuera was simply an intensification of an existing cultural pattern in the face of the greater cultural stress represented by Spanish colonization; this may help explain why the Acuer a

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348 were able to maintain their traditional culture in a way the other Timucua did not. It is intriguing to note that Diego Salvador, the Native American interpreter who translated at the trials of the leaders of the Timucuan Rebellion, and then twenty year s later at the murder trial of Calesa and Maria Jacoba, was himself a native of Acuera province who had been raised elsewhere (Hann 1992; Worth 1998b; John E. Worth, personal communication 2009). Additional study on these issues may reveal new roles the A cuera, as well as other Timucuan chiefdoms, played within the Timucuan cultural sphere and the larger sphere of Spanish and Native American interaction during the colonial period. Finally, given the conclusion presented here that the Acuera of the histori c period attempted to create a link between themselves and their ancestors or predecessor cultures in this region, a highly fascinating topic remains for research: was such a connection, in fact, real? In other words, were the Acuera of the historic per iod the direct cultural and genetic descendants of the builders of the patterned mounds and the Archaic and earlier peoples living in this region? Ultimately, this question may be unanswerable. We have no access to the oral traditions of the Timucuan peo ples, except as vague echoes in the language and records of their European observers, so we can never fully understand how they perceived time and history. As noted in Chapter 4, the Ocklawaha River is one of the oldest, if not truly the oldest, flowing rivers in Florida, and there is a pattern of human use in this region, with no apparent periods of abandonment based on current data, from the Paleoindian era onwards. However, to even begin to answer the issue of whether the link between the ancient c ultures of the Ocklawaha and the Acuera of the historic period was real in a modern, literal sense, or fictive and symbolic, would and will require many years of extensive archaeological research to understand long term patterns of human life for this re gion.

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349 It is however, highly intriguing to consider the possibility that, in proclaiming themselves the keepers of time and the ancient ones that the Acuera were literally drawing on an actual cultural history of themselves and their ancestors, an d that their self assumed name, possibly, was a description of a literal truth. The historic, linguistic, and archaeological evidence of the lifeways of the Acuera provide a picture of a people who used ritual and the supernatural to survive the stresses o f European contact and Spanish colonization and missionization of la Florida Through emphasis on their traditional beliefs, practices, cosmology, and worldview, the Acuera were able to resist the effects of colonization and missionization long after othe r Native American chiefdoms were devastated or destroyed by demographic disruption and change. From their first recorded contact with Europeans until their last, the Ancient Ones survived in their own territory, practicing their traditional lifeways and following their own system of belief.

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350 APPENDIX A : SITE LOCATION, MEASU REMENTS, ORIENTATION AND GPS COORDINATE S FOR SITES MENTIONED IN T HE TEXT This appendix is intended to summarize and present the specific locations, measurements, orientation and shape, and the GPS coordinates for the specific sites visited, recorded, and tested during the course of the Ocklawaha Survey Project between June and December, 2006. Locations use the Township, Range, Section as recorded on the USGS Quadrangle maps for each location, as well as the quadrangle plat within which each site is located. Where the site is a mound site, its classification within the perpend icular/parallel categories described in my original limited publication on mound sites in this region, as well as the length, orientation, and breadth of the mounds axes, are recorded. Where there is no clearly defined shape to the site, the classificat ion amorphous is used. Where the site is a site previously recorded in Floridas Master Site File, the FMSF file number is presented. Where a site is near a fixed marker or permanent landscape feature such as the Ocklawaha River, or a marked trail the GPS coordinates listed will include the locations and relative positions of such a marker. Davenport Landing Mound: 8PU50 Lake Delancy Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps Township: 12S Range: 25E Section: 11 Site Type: Sand mound Mound Type: Perpendicular Mound Orientation of long axis: NE SW Length of long axis: 23.4m Orientation of short axis: NW SE Length of short axis: 17.5m Orientation of Ocklawaha River at this location: NW SE GPS Coordinates: NE mound edge: N29 SW mound edge: N29 NW mound edge: N29 SE mound edge: N29 Mound center: N29 Rivers edge relative to mound: N29 5, W81 Eureka Bluff Site: 8MR96 Fort McCoy Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps Township:13S Range: 24E Section: 9 Site Type: Lithic scatter GPS Coordinates: SW corner: N29 NW cor ner: N29 NE corner: N29 E side, center: N29 Gores Landing Mound: 8MR31

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351 Fort McCoy Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps Township: 14S Range: 24E Section: 7 Site Type: Sand Mound Mound Type: Parallel Mound Orientation of long axis: NNW SSE Length of long axis: 30.6m Orientation of short axis: E W Length of short axis: 10.74m Orientation of Ocklawaha River at this location: N S GPS Coordinates: NNW edge: N29 SSE edge: N29 E edge: N29 W edge: N29 Mound Center: N29 Rivers edge relative to mound: Identical with coordinates for E and SSE edge Shiner Pond Mound Complex: 8MR19, 8MR20, 8MR21, 8MR22, and 8MR23 Fort McCoy Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps Township: 14S Range: 24E Section: 8 Site Type: Sand Mounds Mound Type: Perpendicular mounds Note: 8MR19 and 8MR20 are the mounds reported completely demolished in Moores report of 1895. Observation on the ground confirmed this destruction of these two sites, as noted in the text of the main report. Accordingly, GPS coordinates were only taken at the three remaining mound sites: 8MR21, 8MR22, and 8MR23. 8MR21 : Orientation of long axis: ENE WSW Length of long axis: 21.65m Orientation of short axis: NNW SSE Length of short axis: 19.2m GPS Coordinates: WSW edge: N29 ENE edge: N29 NNW edge: N29 SSE edge: N29 Center: N29 8MR22 : Orientation of long axis: E W Length of long axis: 20.52m Orientation of short axis: N S Length of short axis: 15.1m GPS Coordinates: E edge: N29 W edge: N29 (8MR22, continued)

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352 N edge: N29 S edge: N29 Center: N29 8MR23: Orientation of long axis: ESE WNW Le ngth of long axis: 19.7m Orientation of short axis: NNE SSW Length of short axis: 13.7m GPS Coordinates: ESE edge: N29 WNW edge: N29 NNE edge: N29 SSW edge: N29 Center: N29 Orientation of the Ocklawaha River at this location: N S Lake Weir Landing Mound: 8MR35 Lake Weir Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps Township: 16S Range: 24E Section: 22 Site Type: Sand Mound Mound Type: Parallel Mound Orientation of long axis: NW SE Length of long axis: 30.2m Orientation of short axis: NE SW Length of short axis: 23.4m Orientation of the Ocklawaha River at this location: NW SE (based on Moores original map, 1895, and the Hart Steam Lines map, 1911; river channelized at this location. GPS Coordinates: NW edge: N29 SE edge: N29 NE edge: N29 SW edge: N29 Center: N29 Cedar Landing South: 8MR90 Rodman Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps Township: 11S Range: 24E Section: 26 Site Type: Sheet midden, shell GPS Coordinates: NW edge: N29 2.074 SW corner: N29 S edge, center: N29 NE edge: N29 SE edge: N29 ; W81 Rivers edge relative to midden site: Identical with NW and NE edge coordinates for midden

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353 Near Blue Springs: 8MR107 Rodman Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps Township: 11S Range: 24E Section: 26 Site Type: Sand mound Mound Type: Perpendicular Mound (see below) As noted in the main body of the report, this site could not be measured, nor GPS coordinates taken, due to partial submergence of the site by high water in Lake Ocklawaha; thus, this sites classification as a perpen dicular mound site must be taken as tentative. Amys Dream: 8MR230 Fort McCoy Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps Township: 14S Range: 24E Sections: 7, 18 Site type: Sheet midden, shell GPS Coordinates: SE corner: N29 SW corner: N29 NE corner: N29 NW corner: N29 Position of water relative to this location: identical with NW and SW coordinates for site Lithic Scatters: 8MR231, 8MR232 Fort McCoy Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps Township: 14S Range: 24E Section: 8 Site Type: Lithic production/scatter GPS Coordinates: 8MR231: N29 8MR232: N29 Buddy Kinseys Mound: Newly discovered site, not numbered Fort McCoy Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps Township: 14S Range: 24E Section: 18 Site Type: Sand/shell mound Mound Type: Perpendicular mound Orientation of long axis: E W Length of long axis: 30.2m Orientation of short axis: N S Length of short axis: 26.4m Orientation of the Ocklawaha River at this location: N S GPS Coordinates: E edge: N29 W edge: N29 N edge: N29 S edge: N29 Center: N29 Piney Island Landing Site: 8MR848

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354 Fort McCoy Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps Township: 13S Range: 24E Section: 15 Site Type: Sheet Midden, shell GPS Coordinates: NW edge: N29 SW edge, riverbank: N29 N edge: N29 NE edge: N29 SE edge, riverbank: N29 Rivers edge relative to midden site: Identical to SW and SE edges of midden site Bear Creek Mound: 8PU644 Welaka Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps Township: 12S Range: 26E Section: 44 Site Type: Sand mound Mound Type: Perpendicular Mound Orientation of long axis: NE SW Length of long axis: 21.52m Orientation of short axis: NW SE Length of short axis: 19.5m Orientation of the Ocklawaha River at this location: NW SE GPS Coordinates: NE edge: N29 SW edge: N29 SE edge: N29 NW edge: N29 Pohlers Mound: 8PU1217 Rodman Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps Township: 11S Range: 25E Section: 29 Site Type: Sand mound Mound Type: Perpendicular moun d Orientation of long axis: NE SW Length of long axis: 15.58m Orientation of short axis: NW SE Length of short axis:12.2m Orientation of Ocklawaha River at this location: NW SE (based on Moores 1895 map an d original channel marked on quadrangle map; this area flooded due to Rodman Dam.) GPS Coordinates: NE edge: N29 SW edge: N29 NW edge: N29 937 SE edge: N29 Center: N29 Penner Pond Turpentine Camp: 8PU666 Lake Delancy Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps

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355 Township: 11S Range: 25E Section: 31 Site Type: 19th20th century historic campsite/turpentine processing GPS Coordinates: N29 Penner Ponds Crossroads: 8PU818 Lake Delancy Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps Township: 11S Range: 25E Section: 32 Site Type: Multicomponent; St. Johns I habitation/campsite, historic homestead/turpentine processing camp GPS Coordinates: N29 of artifact concentrations noted in main body of report.) Shell Knoll Mound(8MR75) and Shell Knoll Midden(8MR76) Eureka Dam Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps Township:11S Range:24E Section:32 Site Type: Shell/lithic scatter, historic habitation GPS Coordina tes: Shell/lithic scatter: N29 Whiteware fragment: N29 WTF Site (New Site) Keuka Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps Township:11S Range:24E Section:29 Site Type: Lithic scatter, historic habitation GPS Coordinates: Lithic scatter: N29 Historic artifacts:N29 Steve Spencers Middens (New Site) Fort McCoy Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps Township:13S Range:24E Sections: 9,16 Site Type: Sheet midden, freshwater shell, amorphous in shape GPS Coordinates: NW edge: N29 SE edge: N29 SW edge: N29 the midden touches the rivers edge at these coordinates. W edge, center: N29 Location of uprooted tree from which shell samples were taken: N29, W81 Unnamed Lithic Scatters (new sites)

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356 Fort McCoy Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps Township: 13S Range:24E Section: 22 Site Type: Lithic scatters GPS Coordinates: Scatter 1: N29 Scatter 2: N29 Scatter 3: N29 Scatter 4: N29 Unnamed Sheet Midden (8MR242) Fort McCoy Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps Township: 13S Range:24E Section:22 Site Type: Freshwater sheet midden with lithic scatter to the south GPS Coordinates: N edge of shell midden: N29 S edge of shell m idden: N29 W edge of shell midden: N29 E edge of shell midden: N29 Lithic scatter: N29 .564, W81 Sunday Bluff (8MR13) Fort McCoy Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps Township: 13S Range: 24E Section: 22,27 Site Type: Freshwater sheet middens, habitation site GPS Coordinates: Northern midden: N29 Central midden: N edge: N29 S edge: N29 Eaton Creek midden: Center: N29 W edge: N29 this edge touches Eaton Creek. S edge: N29 this edge also touches Eaton Creek. Old Site Eaton Creek (8MR14) Fort McCoy Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps Township: 13S Range: 24E Section: 27 Site Type: Freshwate r sheet midden GPS Coordinates: W side of midden: N29 N side of midden: N29 E side of midden: N29 S side of midden: N29

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357 Eaton Creek Island Pilings (new site) Township: 13S Range: 24E Section: 27 Site Type: possible boat landing/moonshine still site GPS Coordinates: Location of S end of pilings: N29 Eaton Creek Road Railroad Spike (new site) Township: 13S Range: 24E Section: 27 Site Type: Bridge/railroad remnant GPS Coordinates: N29 USFS 8161, Ninas Dream (8MR262) Township: 13S Range: 24E Section: 27 Site Type: Freshwater sheet midden GPS Coordinates: S side of midden: N29 W side of midden, center: N29 W81 NW corner of midden: N29 N side of midden, center: N29 NE corner of midden: N29 Mammal bone, possibly human, located at: N29 McCarthys Midden (new site) Township: 13S Range: 24E Section: 27 Site Type: Freshwater sheet midden GPS Coordinates: Visible from: N29 250 across Eaton Creek to land surface. Eaton Creek Road lithic scatters (new sites) Township: 13S Range: 24E Sections: 27, 34 Site Type: Lithic scatters GPS Coordinates: Scatter 1: N29 Scatter 2: N29 Scatter 3: N29 Homesteaders Site, Eaton Creek Road (new site) Township: 13S Range: 24E Section: 27 Site Type: Historic homestead GPS Coordinates: Artifacts found at N29 Mason Bay West bridge (new site)

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358 Township: 14S Range: 24 E Section: 3 Site Type: Historic bridge, remnant GPS Coordinates: N29 Eaton Creek Bridge (new site) Township: 14S Range: 24E Section: 3 Site Type: Historic bridge, remnant GPS Coordinates: E side of bridge: N29 Eaton Creek Bridge Midden (new site) Township: 14S Range: 24E Sec tion: 3 Site Type: Freshwater shell midden GPS Coordinates: N29 Double Bridge Mound B (8MR149) Township: 13S Range: 24E Section: 34 Site Type: Sand and shell mound Mound Type: Perpendicular Mound Orientation of long axis: E W Length of long axis: 24.35m Orientation of short axis: N S Length of short axis: 22.2m Orientation of Eaton Creek at this location: N S GPS Coordinates: E side of mound: N29 0, W81 W side of mound: N29 S side of mound: N29 N side of mound: N29 Coffee Pot Mound (8M R141) Township: 13S Range: 24E Section: 34 Site Type: Sand and shell ring Mound Type: Unique shell ring GPS Coordinates: E side of ring: N29 W side of ring: N29 N side of ring: N29 S side of ring: N29 Interior tongue or pedestal of shell, NE side: N29 Interior tongue or pedestal of shell, SW side: N29 Bone fragments in tree root, W side of ring: N29 Tuten Creek Mounds (8MR1972) Fort McCoy Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps

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359 Township:13S Range:24E Sections:27, 28 (at the border) Site Type: Sand and shell mounds Mound Type: Parallel Mounds Mound 1 (northernmost mound): Orientation of long axis: N S Length of long axis: 14.5m Orientation of short axis:E W Length of short axis: approximately 7 8 m (precise length uncertain due to damage noted in text of report) Orientation of Tuten Creek at this location: N S GPS Coordinates: S edge of mound: N29 N edge of mound: N29 W81 W edge of mound: N29 E edge of mound: N29 Mound 2 (southernmost mound): Orientation of long axis: E W Length of long axis: 22.5m Orientation of s hort axis: N S Length of short axis:12.2m Orientation of Tuten Creek at this location: E W GPS Coordinates: E edge of mound: N29 W edge of mound: N29 N edge of mound: N29 S edge of mound: N29 Mound 3 (central mound) not measured due to destruction of mound noted in text. Tuten Creek Borrow Pits (new site) Fort McCoy Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps Township: 13S Range:24E Section: 28 (at extreme eastern edge) Site Type: Borrow pits for mound construction/habitation site GPS Coordinates: S edge of site: N29 W edge of site: N29 E edge of site: N29 Rise between borrow pits: N29 Looters pits: N29 Kelley and D.J.s Camp (new site) Fort McCoy Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps Township: 13S Range: 24E Section: 28 Site Type: Historic habitation or turpentine camp site GPS Coordin ates: Artifacts found at two locations:

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360 Aqua glass fragments found at: N29 Herty cup fragments found at: N29 Tuten Creek Midden (new site) Fort Mc Coy Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps Township: 13S Range: 24E Section: 27 Site Type: Freshwater shell midden GPS Coordinates: E edge of site: N29 Tuten Creek at this location. NE edge: N29 NW edge: N29 W81 Cedar Creek East Midden (new site) Fort McCoy Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps Township: 14S Range: 24E Section: 4 Site Type: Freshwater shell midden GPS Coordinates: Overturned tree with shell: N29 Shell on soil surface at: N29 Ocklawaha River Shell Mound II (8MR224) Fort McCoy Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps Township: 14S Range: 24E Section: 4 Site Type: Sand and shell mound with an associated midden Mound Type: Perpendicular Mound Orientation of long axis: NW SE Length of long axis: 9.6m Orientation of short axis: NE SW Length of short axis: 7.7m Orientation of Cedar Creek at this location : NE SW GPS Coordinates: SE edge of mound: N29 NW edge of mound: N29 NE edge of mound: N29 SW edge of mound: N29 Midden to the west of the mound, between mound and Cedar Creek, visible at: N29 N29 Cedar Creek North midden (new site) Fort McCoy Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps Township: 14S Range: 24E Section: 4 Site Type: Freshwater shell midden GPS Coord inates: Shell visible on surface at: N29

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361 Ricky Webbs Mound (new site) Fort McCoy Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps Township: 14S Range: 23E Section: 24 Site Type: Sand and shell mound Mound Type: Perpendicular Mound Orientation of long axis: NW SE Length of long axis: 14.63m Orientation of short axis: NE SW Length of short axis: 11.6m Orientation of Ocklawaha River at this location: NE SW GPS Coordinates: NW edge of mound: N29 SE edge of mound: N29 NE edge of mound: N29 SW edge of mound: N29 Rivers edg e relative to mound: N29 Conner Homestead (new site) Lynne Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps Township: 14S Range: 23E Section: 25 Site Type: Historic habitation GPS Coordinates: Artifac ts found on surface: N29 Charlie Perrys Mound 1(new site) Fort McCoy Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps Township: 14S Range: 24E Section: 7 Site Type: Sand and shell mound Mound Type: Parallel mound Orientation of long axis: NE SW Length of long axis: 31.2m Orientation of short axis: NW SE Length of short axis: 24.3m Orientation of Strouds Creek at this location: NE SW GPS Coordinates: SW edge of mound: N29 NE edge of mound: N29 SE edge of mound: N29 NW edge of mound: N29 6.263, W81 Charlie Perrys Mound 2(new site) Fort McCoy Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps Township: 14S Range: 23E Section: 13 Site Type: Sand and shell mound Mound Type: Parallel Mound Orientation of long axis: N E SW Length of long axis: 30.2m Orientation of short axis: NW SE Length of short axis: 16.9m Orientation of Strouds Creek at this location: NE SW

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362 GPS Coordinates: NE edge of mound: N29 SW edge of mound: N29 NW edge of mound: N29 SE edge of mound: N29 Charlie Perrys Village (new site) Fort McCoy Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps Township: 14S Range: 23E Section: 13 Site type: prehistoric habitation site GPS Coordinates: Location of firepit features, ceramics: N29 Charlie Perrys Midden (new site) Fort McCoy Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps Township: 14S Range: 23E Section: 13 Site type: Freshwater sheet midden GPS Coordinates: N edge of midden: N29 NW edge of midden: N29 W edge of midden: N29 S edge of midden: N29 E edge of midden: N29 315 Ridge (8MR1867) Lynne Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps Township: 14S Range: 23E Section: 26 Site type: Freshwater sheet midden GPS Coordinates: N edge of midden: N29 W edge of midden: N29 S edge of midden: N29 E edge of midden: N29 Turkey Landing (8MR2063; update) Lynne Q uadrangle, USGS Survey Maps Township: 14S Range: 23E Section: 35 Site Type: updated pottery and lithic scatter, freshwater shell midden and habitation site GPS Coordinates: Chert flakes on surface: N29 Bone Fragments on surface: N2914.141, W81 Shell midden edges: N edge of midden: N29 W edge of midden: N29 this edge is identical to the eastern edge of the Ocklawaha River at this location. S edge of midden: N29

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363 Conner Landing (8MR2064, update) Lynne Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps Township: 14S Range: 23E Section: 25 Site Type: Native American, Spanish mission component, 19th century American GPS Coordinates: 19thcentury artifacts located at: N29 Colby Landing Midden (8MR57) Lynne Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps Township: 15S Range: 23E Section: 2 Site Type: Freshwater shell midden GPS Coordinates: N side of midden: N29 E side of midden: N29 S side of midden: N29 W side of midden: N29 Delks Bluff Midden (new site) Lynne Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps Township: 15S Range: 23E Section: 2 Site Type: Freshwat er shell midden GPS Coordinates: First tree with shell in roots located at: N29 Second tree with shell in roots located at: N29 Heather Island Preserve (8MR2223) Ocala East Quadrangle, USGS Survey Maps Township: Range: Section: 33 Site Type: Lithic scatter, possible habitation site GPS Coordinates: Lithic concentration found at: N29

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364 APPENDIX B OCKLAWAHA SURVEY PROJECT MASTER FIELD SPECIME N LIST, MATERIALS COLLECTED DURING SUR FACE SURVEY This appendix contains a complete list of the materials collected under the initial permit issued by the Division of Historical Resources for the Ocklawaha Survey Proje ct. The materials have been organized by field specimen number, site number and designation, artifact type, and artifact count. Field s pecimen # Site number and designation Artifact t ype Artifact c ount F.S. # 1.1 8MR96 Eureka Bluff Lithic Debitage chert fragments, non heat treated 2 F.S. # 2.1 8MR90 Cedar Landing South Lithic Debitage chert flakes, non heat treated 2 F.S. # 2.2 8MR90 Cedar Landing South Faunal remains shell fragment, freshwater mussel 1 F.S. # 2.3 8MR90 Cedar Landing South Faunal remains bone fragment, UID 1 F.S. # 3.1 8MR230 Amys Dream Lithic Debitage cert flakes, heat treated 2 F.S. # 3.2 8MR230 Amys Dream Lithic Debitage chert flakes, non heat treated 7 F.S. # 4.1 8MR231 Lithic Scatter Lithic Debitage chert flake, non heat treated 1 F.S. # 5.1 8MR232 Lithic Scatter Lithic Object core/platform, chert, non heat treated 1 F.S. # 6.1 8MR New Site Buddy Kinseys Mound Native American ceramics sand and grit tempered plain, body and rim sherds 3 F.S. # 6.2 8MR New Site Buddy Kinseys Mound Native American ceramics St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherd 1 F.S. # 6.3 8MR New Site Buddy Kinseys Mound Lithic Debitage chert flake, non heat treated 1 F.S. # 6.4 8MR New Site Buddy Kinseys Faunal remains bone fragments; 8

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365 Mound turtle(3), Aves (2), mammal (1), UID (2) F.S. # 6.5 8MR New Site Buddy Kinseys Mound Faunal remains shell (3 mussell, 2 gastropodal) 5 F.S. # 7.1 8PU644 Bear Creek Mound Nat ive American ceramics St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds 3 F.S. # 7.2 8PU644 Bear Creek Mound Native American ceramics St. Johns plain, body sherds 4 F.S. # 8.1 8PU666 Penner Pond Turpentine Camp Historic ceramics herty cup fragments (2 rim, 1 body) 3 F.S. # 9.1 8PU818 Penner Pond Crossroads Historic ceramics herty cup fragments (2 rim, 1 body, 1 base) 4 F.S. # 10.1 8PU818 Penner Pond Crossroads Historic ceramics whiteware (7 body sherds, 2 rim sherds) 9 F.S. # 10.2 8PU818 Penner P ond Crossroads Historic ceramics herty cup fragments (2 rim, 1 body) 3 F.S. # 10.3 8PU818 Penner Pond Crossroads Glass molded brown bottle base (C5 molded in base center), aqua glass bottle base; clear glass fragment 3 F.S. # 10.4 8PU818 Penner Pond Crossroads Historic ceramics refined earthenware, white, UID body sherd 1 F.S. # 11.1 8MR76 Shell Knoll Midden Historic ceramic whiteware, rim sherd 1 F.S. # 11.2 8MR76 Shell Knoll Midden Lithic object quartz pebble 1 F.S. # 11.3 8MR76 Shell Knoll Midden Faunal remains shell fragments, UID 3 F.S. # 12.1 8MR New Site WTF Site Lithic Debitage chert flake, heat treated 1 F.S. # 12.2 8MR New Site Lithic Debitage 2

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366 WTF Site chert flakes, non heat treated F.S. # 12.3 8MR New Site WTF Site Historic ceramics herty cup, body sherds 3 F.S. # 13.1 8MR New Site Steve Spencers Middens Faunal remains gastropodal shell, concreted 5 F.S. # 14.1 8MR New Site Lithic Scatter #1, Piney Island South Lithic Debitage chert fragment, worked, possible expedient tool 1 F.S. # 15.1 8MR New Site Lithic Scatter # 2, Piney Island South Lithic Debitage limestone fragment and chert flake, non heat treated 2 F.S. # 16.1 8MR New Site Lithic Scatter # 4, Piney Island S outh Lithic Debitage chert fragments, non heat treated 4 F.S. # 16.2 8MR New Site Lithic Scatter # 4, Piney Island South Faunal Remains shell, gastropodal 1 F.S. # 17.1 8MR14 Old Site Eaton Creek Lithic Debitage chert flakes, heat treated 3 F.S. # 17.2 8MR14 Old Site Eaton Creek Lithic Debitage chert flakes, non heat treated 8 F.S. # 17.3 8MR14 Old Site Eaton Creek Faunal remains gastropodal shell 1 F.S. # 17.4 8MR14 Old Site Eaton Creek Glass clear glass fragment, patinated 1 F.S. # 18.1 8MR New Site Eaton Creek Railroad Spike Metal iron railroad spike 1 F.S. # 19.1 8MR262 Ninas Dream Lithic Debitage chert flakes, heat treated 3 F.S. # 19.2 8MR262 Ninas Dream Lithic Debitage chert flakes, non heat treated 13 F.S. # 19.3 8MR262 Ninas Dream Native American ceramics fiber tempered plain, St. Johns paste 2 F.S. # 19.4 8MR262 Ninas Faunal remains 2

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367 Dream concreted shell fragments F.S. # 19.5 8MR262 Ninas Dream Lithic Object quartz cobble 1 F.S. # 20.1 8MR New Site Eaton Creek Road Lithic Scatter #1 Lithic Debitage chert flake, non heat treated 1 F.S. # 21.1 8MR New Site Eaton Creek Road Lithic Scatter # 2 Lithic Debitage chert flakes, heat treated 2 F.S. # 21.2 8MR New Site Eaton Creek Road Lithic Scatter # 2 Lithic Debitage chert flakes, non heat treated 2 F.S. # 22.1 8MR New Site Eaton Creek Road Lithic Scatter # 3 Lithic Debitage chert flakes, non heat treated 5 F.S. # 23.1 8MR New Site Homesteaders Site, Eaton Creek Road Historic ceramic whiteware, rim sherd 1 F.S. # 23.2 8MR New Site Homesteaders Site, Eaton Creek Road Glass amethyst glass fragment 1 F.S. # 24.1 8MR149 Double Bridge Mound B Native American ceramics Deptford Check stamped 3 F.S. # 24.2 8MR149 Double Bridge Mound B Lithic object chert blade/tool, heat treated 1 F.S. # 25.1 8MR141 Coffee Pot Mound Faunal Remains shell, saltwater, possible clam 1 F.S. # 25.2 8MR141 Coffee Pot Mound Lithic object worked sandstone, possible tool 1 F.S. # 25.3 8MR141 Coffee Pot Mound Lithic Debitage blade/tool fragments, chert, heat treated 2 F.S. # 25.4 8MR141 Coffee Pot Mound Faunal remains bone fragments, mammal (1) and turtle (3) 4 F.S. # 26.1 8MR1972 Tuten Creek Moun ds Native American ceramics fiber tempered plain (8 body, 1 rim sherds) 9

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368 F.S. # 26.2 8MR1972 Tuten Creek Mounds Native American ceramics St. Johns plain (6 body, 1 rim sherd) 7 F.S. # 26.3 8MR1972 Tuten Creek Mounds Native American ceramics Sand tempered plain, body sherds 15 F.S. # 26.4 8MR1972 Tuten Creek Mounds Native American ceramics Weeden Island Red, body sherds 3 F.S. # 26.5 8MR1872 Tuten Creek Mounds Native American ceramics St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds 2 F.S. # 26.6 8MR1972 Tuten Creek Mounds Native American ceramics Sand tempered check stamped, badly worn, possible Deptford body sherd 1 F.S. # 26.7 8MR1972 Tuten Creek Mounds Native American ceramics grit and grog tempered plain, body sherd 1 F.S. # 2 6.8 8MR1972 Tuten Creek Mounds Native American ceramics St. Johns Simple Stamped, body sherd 1 F.S. # 26.9 8MR1972 Tuten Creek Mounds Lithic Debitage chert fragments, heat treated 9 F.S. # 26.10 8MR1972 Tuten Creek Mounds Lithic Debitage chert flakes, non heat treated 24 F.S. # 26.11 8MR1972 Tuten Creek Mounds Lithic Object Florida Archaic Stemmed Point, heat treated 1 F.S. # 26.12 8MR1972 Tuten Creek Mounds Lithic Object worked tool, knife/scraper, chert, heat treated 1 F.S. # 26.13 8MR1972 Tuten Lithic Objects 2

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369 Creek Mounds worked chert, possible core/hammerstones non heat treated F.S. # 26.14 8MR1972 Tuten Creek Mounds Lithics Pinellas point, chert, non heat treated 1 F.S. # 26.15 8MR1972 Tuten Creek Mounds Faunal remains bone fragments (includes mammal, turtle, UID) 48 F.S. # 26.16 8MR1972 Tuten Creek Mounds Faunal remains shell, gastropodal (1) and freshwater bivalve (5) 6 F.S. # 26.17 8MR1972 Tuten Creek Mounds Faunal remains coprolites 2 F.S. # 26.18 8MR1972 Tuten Creek Mounds Historic ceramics whiteware, body (2) and rim (3) sherds 5 F.S. # 26.19 8MR1972 Tuten Creek Mounds Historic ceramics herty cup, body sherd 1 F.S. # 27.1 8MR New Site Tuten Creek Borrow Pits Native American ceramics fiber tempered plain, rim sherd 1 F.S. # 27.2 8MR New Site Tuten Creek Borrow Pits Lithic Debitage chert flake, heat treated 1 F.S. # 27.3 8MR New Site Tuten Creek Borrow Pits Lithic Debitage chert flakes, non heat treated 10 F.S. # 28.1 8MR New Site Tuten Creek Midden Faunal remains concreted shell fragment 1 F.S. # 28.2 8MR New Site Tuten Creek Midden Lithic Debitage chert fragment, possibly heat treated 1 F.S. # 29.1 8MR New Site Kelly and D.J.s Camp Historic ceramics whiteware, body sherds 2 F.S. # 29.2 8MR New Site Kelly and D.J.s Camp Historic ceramics herty cup, rim (2) and body (1) sherds 3 F.S. # 29.3 8MR New Site Historic ceramics 1

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370 Kelly and D.J.s Camp refined earthenware, cream colored glaze, body sherd F.S. # 29.4 8MR New Site Kelly and D.J.s Camp Glass Fragments Aqua glass (4), clear glass bottleneck (1) 5 F.S. # 29.5 8MR New Site Kelly and D.J.s Camp Metal brass shell casing, .44 Remington Magnum 1 F.S. # 30.1 8MR New Site Ricky Webbs Mound Faunal remains shell, mussel (1) and gastropodal (6) 7 F.S. # 30.2 8MR New Site Ricky Webbs Mound Faunal remains bone, turtle (3), Aves (3) one modified by cutting 6 F.S. # 30.3 8MR New Site Ricky Webbs Mound Lithic Debitage chert flake, non heat treated 1 F.S. # 30.4 8MR New Site Ricky Webbs Mound Faunal remains concreted shell 1 F.S. # 31.1 8MR New Site Conner Homestead Historic ceramic whiteware, body sherd 1 F.S. # 32.1 8MR New Sit e Charlie Perrys Mound 1 Faunal remains bone, turtle (2), Aves (1) and UID (2) 5 F.S. # 32.2 8MR New Site Charlie Perrys Mound 1 Faunal remains concreted shell 1 F.S. # 32.3 8MR New Site Charlie Perrys Mound 1 Native American ceramics sand tempered plain, body sherds 2 F.S. # 32.4 8MR New Site Charlie Perrys Mound 1 Native American ceramics sand tempered complicated stamped, body sherd 1 F.S. # 32.5 8MR New Site Charlie Perrys Mound 1 Native American ceramics St. Johns plain, body sherd 1 F.S. # 32.6 8MR New Site Charlie Perrys Mound 1 Lithic debitage chert pieces, non heat treated, 2

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371 possible expedient tools F.S. # 33.1 8MR New Site Charlie Perrys Mound 2 Native American ceramics St. Johns plain, body sherds 8 F.S. # 33.2 8MR New Site Charlie Perrys Mound 2 Native American ceramics Fiber tempered incised, body sherds 2 F.S. # 33.3 8MR New Site Charlie Perrys Mound 2 Native American ceramics Fiber tempered plain, body(1) and rim(1) sherds 2 F.S. # 33.4 8MR New Site Charlie Perrys Mound 2 Native American ceramics St. Johns simple stamped, body sherd 1 F.S. # 33.5 8MR New Site Charlie Perrys Mound 2 Native American ceramics grog and shell tempered plain, body sherd, red painted 1 F.S. # 33.6 8MR New Site Charlie Perrys Mound 2 Lithic object chert, heat treated, possible expedient tool 1 F.S. # 33.7 8MR New Site Charlie Perrys Mound 2 Lithic debitage chert fragments, non heat treated 21 F.S. # 3 3.8 8MR New Site Charlie Perrys Mound 2 Faunal remains bone, turtle (3) and UID (1) 4 F.S. # 33.9 8MR New Site Charlie Perrys Mound 2 Faunal remains concreted shell/soil fragment 1 F.S. # 34.1 8MR New Site Charlie Perrys Midden Faunal remains gastropodal shell 8 F.S. # 34.2 8MR New Site Charlie Perrys Midden Faunal remains bone fragments, UID 3 F.S. # 34.3 8MR New Site Charlie Perrys Midden Lithic Debitage chert flakes, heat treated 2 F.S. # 34.4 8MR New Site Lithic Debitage 1

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372 Char lie Perrys Midden chert flake, non heat treated F.S. # 34.5 8MR New Site Charlie Perrys Midden Native American ceramics Sand tempered plain, badly eroded, body sherd 1 F.S. # 35.1 8MR1867 315 Ridge Native American ceramics St. Johns plain, rim sherds (8) and body sherds (22) 30 F.S. # 35.2 8MR1867 315 Ridge Native American ceramics St. Johns check stamped, body(1) and rim(1) sherds 2 F.S. # 35.3 8MR1867 315 Ridge Native American ceramics Deptford simple stamped, body (1) and rim (1) sherds 2 F.S. # 35.4 8MR1867 315 Ridge Native American ceramics Sand tempered plain, body(5) and rim(1) 6 F.S. # 35.5 8MR1867 315 Ridge Native American ceramics limestone tempered plain, body sherds 3 F.S. # 35.6 8MR1867 315 Ridge Native American ceramics grit tempered plain, body (2) and rim(1) sherds 3 F.S. # 35.7 8MR1867 315 Ridge Native American ceramics Fiber tempered plain, body sherd 1 F.S. # 35.8 8MR1867 315 Ridge Native American c eramics Weeden Island Red, body sherds 3

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373 APPENDIX C ARTIFACT CO UNTS AND WEIGHTS FRO M TESTING AND EXCAVA TION AT ALL SITES IN THE REGION OF STUDY This appendix includes the complete artifact counts, categories and weights for the sites where subsurface testing was performed during the course of this research: the Pardee/Harris site (8MR3511), the Heather Island Preserve Site (8MR2223), the Lake W eir Landing Mounds site (8MR35), and the Hutto/Martin Site (8MR3447.) The analysis for the Heather Island Preserve site was performed in a slightly different format than those for the remaining sites, by Vicki Rolland of Flagler College. Her work focused not only on ceramic types, but vessel forms as well. The tables are organized by fie ld specimen number and provenience. The field specimen number is provided first. Where the material was collected from a shovel test or excavation unit the distance north and east from the datum is provided. These measurements were made from an arbitra ry N500, E500 datum measurement for the Lake Weir Landing and Hutto/Martin sites, and an arbitrary N3000, E3000 measurement for the Heather Island Preserve site, due to the relative sizes of the parcels tested. W here a shovel test was placed using a judgme ntal strategy, the term J.S.T., for judgmental shovel test, is noted. Abbreviations for type and composition of the artifacts collected are as follows: ss sponge speculate ceramic sn sand tempered ceramic gt grittempered ceramic lt limestone t empered ceramic ec European ceramic li lithics fe metal bone bone fragments shell shell fragments con construction remains, including daub or possible daub fragments gl cu glass fragments soil soil samples ch charcoal UID unidentifiable material The count and weight of each class of artifacts by provenience is noted.

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374 Table C 1. Pardee/Harris (8MR3511)

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375 F.S. # N Artifact Type Co Coun Weight(g) 1 J.S.T. 1 St. Johns Plain, body sherd ss 1 0.7 1 J.S.T. 1 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 6.6 1 J.S.T. 1 Primary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 41 50mm, c li 1 15.2 1 J.S.T. 1 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 2NHT; 1 21 30mm, 2 31 40mm, all b li 3 8.7 1 J.S.T. 1 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 6 1 10mm, 5c, 1b; 12 11 20mm, 2 31 40mm, all b li 18 3.1 1 J.S.T. 1 Archaic Stemmed Point, chert, HT li 1 3.1 1 J.S.T. 1 Bone fragment bone 1 <.1 1 J.S.T. 1 Shotgun shell base, brass fe 1 4 1 J.S.T. 1 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2.4 2 J.S.T. 2 St. Johns Plain, body sherd ss 1 0.1 2 J.S.T. 2 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 9.6 2 J.S.T. 2 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 11 HT, 7NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 17 11 20mm, 6c, 11b li 18 3.7 2 J.S.T. 2 Unidentified object UID 1 0.2 2 J.S.T. 2 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.3 2 J.S.T. 2 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3.1 3 J.S.T. 3 St. Johns Plain, body sherd ss 14 5.7 3 J.S.T. 3 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.6 3 J.S.T. 3 Secondary Decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 2NHT; 3 21 30mm, all b li 3 3.4 3 J.S.T. 3 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 10HT, 25NHT; 14 1 10mm, 6c, 8b; 21 11 20mm, 8c, 13b li 35 4.3 3 J.S.T. 3 Limestone fragment li 1 1.9 3 J.S.T. 3 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5.4 4 J.S.T. 4 Fiber tempered plain, body sherds ft 3 4.2 4 J.S.T. 4 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 10 16.6 4 J.S.T. 4 Nondecortication flakes, chert,5HT,11NHT; 3 1 10mm,1c,2b; 9 11 20mm,3c,6b; 3 21 30mm, 1c, 2b; 1 31 40mm,b li 16 7.3

PAGE 376

376 4 J.S.T. 4 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1 5 J.S.T. 5 Fiber tempered plain, body sherds ft 14 2.5 5 J.S.T. 5 Fiber tempered incised, body sherds ft 3 6.9 5 J.S.T. 5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 1 5 J.S.T. 5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT,6NHT;1 1 10mm,c;6 11 20mm, 3c,3b;1 21 30mm, b li 8 4 5 J.S.T. 5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4.5 6 J.S.T. 6 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 11 20mm, 1c, 2b li 3 0.3 6 J.S.T. 6 River cobble, quartz li 1 2.4 6 J.S.T. 6 Clay/soil sample, uncounted fragments soil 32.3 7 J.S.T. 7 Secondary decortication flake, chert, HT; 1 31 40mm, b li 1 4 7 J.S.T. 7 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 3 1 10mm, 2c, 1b; 5 11 20mm, 1c, 4b li 8 0.9 7 J.S.T. 7 Chert knife, NHT li 1 47.1 7 J.S.T. 7 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.4 7 J.S.T. 7 Fulgurite gl cu 1 <.1 7 J.S.T. 7 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 0.5 8 J.S.T. 8 St. Johns Plain, body sherd ss 1 0.4 8 J.S.T. 8 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 0.4 8 J.S.T. 8 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 9NHT; 2 1 10mm, c; 8 11 20mm, 4c, 4b; 1 21 30mm, b li 11 4 8 J.S.T. 8 Chert fragment li 1 7 8 J.S.T. 8 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.5 8 J.S.T. 8 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4.3 9 J.S.T. 9 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 1 9 J.S.T. 9 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.3 9 J.S.T. 9 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 13NHT; 6 1 10mm, b; 9 11 20mm, 6c, 3b; 1 21 30mm, b li 16 4.1 9 J.S.T. 9 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3.1 10 J.S.T. 10 Fiber tempered plain, body sherds ft 1 0.9 10 J.S.T. 10 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.4 10 J.S.T. 10 Primary decortication flakes, chert, HT; 2 11 20mm, 1 21 30mm, all c li 3 3.2

PAGE 377

377 10 J.S.T. 10 Secondary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, b li 1 1.2 10 J.S.T. 10 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 4HT, 11 NHT; 5 1 10mm, 4b, 1c; 9 11 20mm, 4c, 5b; 1 21 30mm, c li 15 3.6 10 J.S.T. 10 Archaic Stemmed Point, chert, HT li 1 2.8 10 J.S.T. 10 Limestone fragment li 1 1 10 J.S.T. 10 Bone fragment bone 2 0.1 10 J.S.T. 10 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1 10 J.S.T. 10 Unidentified object UID 2 0.3 11 J.S.T. 11 Fiber tempered plain, body sherds ft 2 1.2 11 J.S.T. 11 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 10 17.5 11 J.S.T. 11 St. Johns Plain, body sherd ss 5 1.8 11 J.S.T. 11 St. Johns Plain, rim sherd ss 1 2.6 11 J.S.T. 11 Primary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 41 50mm, c li 1 4.7 11 J.S.T. 11 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 8NHT; 3 1 10mm, 1c, 2b; 6 11 20mm, 4c, 2b; 1 21 30mm, b li 10 1.6 11 J.S.T. 11 River cobble, quartz li 2 0.6 11 J.S.T. 11 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 15.8 12 J.S.T. 12 Fiber tempered plain, rim sherd ft 1 3.9 12 J.S.T. 12 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 2 HT, 3 NHT; 3 21 30mm, c; 2 41 50mm, 1b, 1c li 5 16.5 12 J.S.T. 12 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 5HT, 8NHT; 2 1 10mm, 1b, 1c; 10 11 20mm, 5b, 5c; 1 21 30mm, b li 13 4.6 12 J.S.T. 12 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 0.5 13 J.S.T. 13 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 3 1 10mm, 2c, 1b; 2 11 20mm, 1b, 1c; 3 21 30mm, c li 8 2.3 13 J.S.T. 13 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1.1 14 J.S.T. 14 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1 HT, 5NHT; 2 1 10mm, 1b, 1c; 4 11 20mm, 2b, 2c li 6 2 14 J.S.T. 14 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 0.4 15 J.S.T. 15 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 4 11 20mm, 3c, 1b li 5 1.5 15 J.S.T. 15 Clay/soil sample, uncounted fragments soil 88.9 15 J.S.T. 15 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5.5 16 UPF Fiber tempered plain, body sherds f t 4 9.5

PAGE 378

378 16 UPF Knife/blade, chert, broken li 1 5.4 16 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 8NHT; 10 11 20mm, 9c, 1b; 1 21 30mm, b li 11 5.1 16 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5 17 Fiber tempered plain, body sherds ft 1 0.4 17 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 0.6 17 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 4HT, 5NHT; 3 1 10mm, c; 6 11 20mm, 1c, 5b li 9 2.7 17 Limestone fragment li 1 0.3 17 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 8.7 17 Clay/soil sample, uncounted fragments soi l >1000 18 J.S.T. 16 Archaic Stemmed Point, chert, HT li 1 16.6 18 J.S.T. 16 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 1NHT; 2 11 20mm, b li 2 0.5 18 J.S.T. 16 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 17.3 18 J.S.T. 16 Clay/soil sample, uncounted fragments soil >1000 19 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 3 11 20mm, 1c, 2b; 1 21 30mm, c li 4 4.1 19 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 9.1 19 Clay/soil sample, uncounted fragments soil >100 0 20 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 6 11 20mm, 3b. 3c; 1 21 30mm, c li 8 2.9 20 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.3 20 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 13.4 20 Clay/soil sample, uncounted fragments soil 52.5 21 J.S.T. 17 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 3 11 20mm, 2c, 1b; 1 21 30mm, b; 1 31 40mm, b li 5 3.7 21 J.S.T. 17 River cobble, quartz li 2 2.8 21 J.S.T. 17 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5.2 21 J.S.T. 17 Clay/soil sample, uncounted fragments soil 22.5 22 J.S.T. 18 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 3 11 20mm, 2c, 1b li 3 2.1 22 J.S.T. 18 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.3 22 J.S.T. 18 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 11.3 23 J.S.T. 19 Chert core, NHT li 1 55.2

PAGE 379

379 23 J.S.T. 19 Metal fragment fe 1 0.8 23 J.S.T. 19 Primary decortication flake, chert, HT; 1 41 50mm, c li 1 13.8 23 J.S.T. 19 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 1 HT, 1NHT; 1 21 30mm, 1 31 40mm, both c li 2 5 23 J.S.T. 19 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2 HT, 5NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 4 11 20mm, 1c, 4b; 1 21 30mm, b li 7 2.4 23 J.S.T. 19 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.3 23 J.S.T. 19 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1.6 23 J.S.T. 19 Clay/soil sample, uncounted fragments soil 32.4 24 J.S.T. 20 Fiber tempered plain, body sherds ft 2 0.5 24 J.S.T. 20 Grit tempered plain, body sherd gt 1 1 24 J.S.T. 20 River cobble, quartz li 4 3.5 24 J.S.T. 20 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 0.7 24 J.S.T. 20 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 7NHT; 3 1 10mm, 1c, 2b; 4 11 20mm, 2c, 2b; 1 21 30mm, b li 8 3.7 24 J.S.T. 20 Stone fragments li 2 0.8 24 J.S.T. 20 Bone fragment bone 1 0.3 24 J.S.T. 20 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2 25 J.S.T. 21 Fiber tempered plain, body sherds ft 4 4.7 25 J.S.T. 21 St. Johns Plain, body sherd ss 5 1.4 25 J.S.T. 21 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 1.4 25 J.S.T. 21 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.4 25 J.S.T. 21 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, b; 2 31 40mm, c li 3 6.1 25 J.S.T. 21 Expedient tool, chert, NHT li 1 9.8 25 J.S.T. 21 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 11NHT; 6 1 10mm, 2c, 4b; 6 11 20mm, 2c, 4b; 1 21 30mm, c li 13 2.4 25 J.S.T. 21 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 0.6 26 J.S.T. 22 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 0.4 26 J.S.T. 22 Chert tool, HT li 1 14 26 J.S.T. 22 Archaic Stemmed Point, chert,NHT li 1 5.5 26 J.S.T. 22 River cobble, quartz li 2 1.8 26 J.S.T. 22 Primary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, c li 1 2.6

PAGE 380

380 26 J.S.T. 22 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 17HT, 29NHT; 13 1 10mm, 8c, 5b; 30 11 20mm, 12c, 18b; 3 21 30mm, 1c, 2b li 46 11.9 26 J.S.T. 22 Quartz crystal li 1 1 26 J.S.T. 22 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 0.4 27 J.S.T. 23 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 0.2 27 J.S.T. 23 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 5HT, 6NHT; 2 1 10mm, 1b. 1c; 7 11 20mm, 3c, 4b; 2 21 30mm, b li 11 4.6 27 J.S.T. 23 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1 28 J.S.T. 24 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 0.9 28 J.S.T. 24 Blade preform, chert, NHT li 1 4.9 28 J.S.T. 24 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b; 3 21 30mm, 1c, 2b; 1 31 40mm, b li 5 6.1 28 J.S.T. 24 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 24HT, 42NHT; 19 1 10mm, 8c, 11b; 45 11 20mm, 20c, 25b; 2 21 30mm, 1c, 1b li 66 17.3 28 J.S.T. 24 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3 29 J.S.T. 25 Fiber tempered plain, body sherds ft 2 0.7 29 J.S.T. 25 Secondary decortication flakes, chert,5HT,6NHT;3 11 20mm,2c,1b; 5 21 30mm,2c,3b;1 31 40mm, c; 2 41 50mm,c li 11 31.4 29 J.S.T. 25 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 9HT, 36 NHT; 6 1 10mm, 3c, 3b; 37 11 20mm, 21c, 16b; 2 21 30mm, both b li 45 12.7 29 J.S.T. 25 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.3 29 J.S.T. 25 Clay/soil sample, uncounted fragments soil 16.8 29 J.S.T. 25 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1.1 30 J.S.T. 26 Clay/soil sample, uncounted fragments soil 81.2 30 J.S.T. 26 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1.3 31 J.S.T. 27 Secondary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, b li 1 1.1 31 J.S.T. 27 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.2 31 J.S.T. 27 Clay/soil sample, uncounted fragments soil >1000 31 J.S.T. 27 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4.8 32 J.S.T. 27 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 2NHT; 3 11 20mm, 1c, 2b li 3 0.8 33 J.S.T. 28 St. Johns Plain, rim sherd ss 1 2.9 33 J.S.T. 28 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 6NHT; 2 11 20mm, 1c, 1b; 5 21 30mm, 1c, 4b; 1 31 40mm, b li 8 17.5

PAGE 381

381 33 J.S.T. 28 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 6 11 20mm, 3c, 3b li 6 1.1 33 J.S.T. 28 Clay/soil sample, uncounted fragments soil >1000 34 J.S.T. 29 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 3NHT; 3 21 30mm, 1c, 2b; 1 31 40mm, c li 4 8 34 J.S.T. 29 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 10NHT; 2 1 10mm, c; 11 11 20mm, 5c, 6b li 13 2.8 34 J.S.T. 29 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.9 34 J.S.T. 29 Clay/soil sample, uncounted fragments soil 25.1 34 J.S.T. 29 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1.6 35 J.S.T. 30 Fiber tempered plain, body sherds ft 7 3.1 35 J.S.T. 30 Fiber tempered plain, rim sherd ft 1 0.8 35 J.S.T. 30 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, HT; 2 41 50mm, 1 61 70mm, all c li 3 16.6 35 J.S.T. 30 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 1 10mm, b; 3 11 20mm, 1c, 2b li 5 0.4 35 J.S.T. 30 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.2 35 J.S.T. 30 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1.1 36 J.S.T. 31 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 0.2 36 J.S.T. 31 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 1 HT, 1NHT; 1 11 20mm, 1 21 30mm, both b li 2 1.8 36 J.S.T. 31 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 4NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 4 11 20mm, 1c, 3b li 5 0.9 36 J.S.T. 31 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1 37 J.S.T. 32 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 5 4.5 37 J.S.T. 32 Secondary decortication flakes, 1HT, 5NHT; 1 11 20mm, c; 2 21 30mm, b; 1 41 50mm, c; 2 51 60mm, c li 6 35.7 37 J.S.T. 32 Nondecortication flakes, 6HT, 19NHT; 4 1 10mm,c; 19 11 20mm, 7c,12b; 2 21 30mm, both b li 25 6.8 37 J.S.T. 32 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.9 37 J.S.T. 32 Clay/soil sample, uncounted fragments soil 10.1 37 J.S.T. 32 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 8.6 38 J.S.T. 33 Nondecortication flakes, 1HT, 5NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 5 11 20mm, 1c, 4b li 6 3.4 38 J.S.T. 33 Sandstone fragment li 1 0.5 38 J.S.T. 33 River cobble, quartz li 1 1.1 38 J.S.T. 33 Clay/soil sample, uncounted fragments soil 7.3 38 J.S.T. 33 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 8.1

PAGE 382

382 39 J.S.T. 34 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 2NHT; 1 21 30mm, 2 31 40mm, all c li 3 8.3 39 J.S.T. 34 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 5NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 6 11 20mm, 3c, 3b li 7 1 39 J.S.T. 34 Clay fragments soil 6 2.1 39 J.S.T. 34 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1.5 40 J.S.T. 35 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 6NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 5 11 20mm, 3c, 2b; 2 21 30mm, 1c, 1b li 8 6.2 40 J.S.T. 35 Clay/soil sample, uncounted fragments soil 0.8 41 J.S.T. 36 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 21 30mm, b li 2 3.2 41 J.S.T. 36 Clay/soil sample, uncounted fragments soil 58.7 42 J.S.T. 37 Clay/soil sample, uncounted fragments soil 3.7 43 J.S.T. 38 Fiber tempered incised, body sherds ft 1 0.9 43 J.S.T. 38 River cobble, quartz li 2 0.3 43 J.S.T. 38 Clay/soil sample, uncounted fragments soil 85.9 44 J.S.T. 39 Clay/soil sample, uncounted fragments soil 140.1 45 J.S.T. 40 Fiber tempered plain, body sherds ft 6 0.8 45 J.S.T. 40 Clay/soil sample, uncounted fragments soil 114.2 45 J.S.T. 40 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1.5 46 J.S.T. 42 Fiber tempered plain, body sherds ft 20 5.5 46 J.S.T. 42 Pasco ware, limestonetempered plain, body sherd lt 1 0.4 46 J.S.T. 42 Clay/soil sample, uncounted fragments soil >1000 46 J.S.T. 42 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 11.1 47 J.S.T. 43 Clay/soil sample, uncounted fragments soil >1000 48 J.S.T. 44 Clay/soil sample, uncounted fragments soil 111.2 48 J.S.T. 44 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 17.5 49 J.S.T. 45 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 1.6 49 J.S.T. 45 Clay/soil sample, uncounted fragments soil >1000 49 J.S.T. 45 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5.3 50 J.S.T. 46 Iron fragments fe 3 1.2 50 J.S.T. 46 Glass fragment, clear gl cu 1 0.8 50 J.S.T. 46 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, b li 1 0.8

PAGE 383

383 50 J.S.T. 46 Clay/soil sample, uncounted fragments soil 6.2 50 J.S.T. 46 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1 51 J.S.T. 47 Limestone fragment li 2 34.4 51 J.S.T. 47 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 11 20mm, b; 1 21 30mm, c li 3 2.1 51 J.S.T. 47 Clay/soil sample, uncounted fragments soil 4 5.9 51 J.S.T. 47 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch <.1 52 J.S.T. 48 River cobble, quartz li 1 1 52 J.S.T. 48 Clay fragments soil 1 11.9 52 J.S.T. 48 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 0.6 53 J.S.T. 49 Iron fragments fe 4 4.5 53 J.S.T. 49 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.9 53 J.S.T. 49 Clay/soil sample, uncounted fragments soil 12.7 53 J.S.T. 49 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1.1 54 UPF Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 8 1 10mm, 4c, 4b; 3 11 20mm, 2c, 1b li 11 1.3 54 UPF River cobble, quartz li 4 0.4 54 UPF Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1.1 55 UPF Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 0.1 55 UPF Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 2NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 1 11 20mm, c; 1 21 30mm, c li 3 1.8 55 UPF Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 11.8 56 UPF Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 6.6 56 UPF Fiber tempered plain, body sherds ft 2 0.6 56 UPF Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 12NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 12 11 20mm, 8c, 4b; 1 21 30mm, c li 14 4.4 56 UPF River cobble, quartz li 1 0.3 56 UPF Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7.9 57 UPF Nondecortication flakes, 2HT, 4NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 3 11 20mm, 2c, 1b; 2 21 30mm, 1c, 1b li 6 2.3 57 UPF River cobble, quartz li 2 0.9 57 UPF Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 40.1 58 UPF Fiber tempered incised, body sherds ft 1 1.9

PAGE 384

384 58 UPF Fiber tempered plain, body sherds ft 7 2 58 UPF Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 2NHT; 4 31 40mm, 1 41 50mm, c li 5 27.9 58 UPF Nondecortication flakes, chert, 5HT, 18NHT; 13 1 10mm, 5c, 8b; 10 11 20mm, 3c, 7b li 23 2.6 58 UPF River cobble, quartz li 1 0.4 58 UPF Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3.8 59 UPF Fiber tempered plain, body sherds ft 1 0.7 59 UPF River cobble, quartz li 4 1.6 59 UPF Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 1NHT; 1 21 30mm, 1 31 40mm, both c li 2 3.4 59 UPF Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 1 11 20mm, c li 2 0.2 59 UPF Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 11.2 60 UPF St. Johns Check stamped, body sherd ss 1 3.5 60 UPF Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 15 33.8 60 UPF Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 2 11 20mm, b; 1 21 30mm, c li 4 1.6 60 UPF Limestone fragment li 2 1.6 60 UPF Sandstone fragment li 1 3.1 60 UPF River cobble, quartz li 1 0.6 60 UPF Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 50.1 61 UPF Fiber tempered incised, body sherds ft 1 0.7 61 UPF Fiber tempered plain, body sherds ft 4 1.6 61 UPF St. Johns Plain, body sherd ss 3 4.1 61 UPF Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 1.4 61 UPF Nondecortication flakes, chert, 10HT, 29NHT; 14 1 10mm, 7b, 7c; 23 11 20mm, 11c, 12b; 2 21 30mm, 1c, 1b li 39 8.9 61 UPF Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1.6 62 UPF St. Johns Plain, body sherd ss 7 1.5 62 UPF Fiber tempered plain, body sherds ft 1 0.3 62 UPF Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 0.2 62 UPF River cobble, quartz li 4 4 62 UPF Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 6NHT; 3 1 10mm, b; 3 11 20mm, b; 1 21 30mm, b li 7 1.7

PAGE 385

385 63 UPF St. Johns Plain, body sherd ss 3 3.3 63 UPF Fiber tempered plain, body sherds ft 7 1.3 63 UPF Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 0.2 63 UPF Metal fragment fe 1 0.2 63 UPF Nondecortication flakes, chert, 5HT, 16NHT; 8 1 10mm, 2c, 6b; 11 11 20mm, 7c, 4b; 2 21 30mm, 1c, 1b li 21 7.4 63 UPF Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2.4 64 UPF Fiber tempered plain, body sherds ft 3 0.9 64 UPF Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 1 10mm, 1c, 1b; 11 11 20mm, 7c, 4b li 13 3.4 64 UPF Bone fragment bone 1 <.1 64 UPF Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4.1 65 UPF Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 0.9 65 UPF Bone fragment bone 1 0.2 65 UPF Nondecortication flakes, chert, 6HT, 11NHT; 2 1 10mm, b; 14 11 20mm, 9c, 5b; 1 21 30mm, c li 17 6.9 65 UPF River cobble, quartz li 3 1.2 65 UPF Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 66 UPF Fiber tempered plain, body sherds ft 9 15 66 UPF River cobble, quartz li 1 1.2 66 UPF Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 11NHT; 6 1 10mm, 4c, 2b; 6 11 20mm, 4c, 2b; 1 21 30mm, b li 13 4.8 66 UPF Bone fragment bone 1 <.1 66 UPF Limestone fragment li 1 0.4 66 UPF Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 42.1 67 UPF Nondecortication flakes, 2HT, 6NHT; 3 1 10mm, 1c, 2b; 5 11 20mm, 1c, 4b li 8 1.8 67 UPF River cobble, quartz li 1 0.6 67 UPF Clay/soil sample, uncounted fragments soil 5.7 67 UPF Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7.4 68 UPF Fiber tempered plain, body sherds ft 3 0.7 68 UPF Limestone fragment li 2 0.9 68 UPF Lithic debitage, chert fragments li 300+ >1000

PAGE 386

386 68 UPF Soil sample, board feature soil 1 90.1 68 UPF Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3 69 UPF Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 6.8 69 UPF Bone fragment bone 1 0.5 69 UPF Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 2NHT; 4 11 20mm, 3c, 1b li 4 1.2 69 UPF Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 16.6 70 UPF Secondary decortication flake, chert, HT; 1 41 50mm, c li 1 12.8 70 UPF Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 2 11 20mm, b li 2 0.5 70 UPF River cobble, quartz li 2 2.1 70 UPF Clay/soil sample, uncounted fragments soil 14 70 UPF Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7.3 71 UPF Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 12.7 71 UPF Pasco ware, limestone tempered plain, body sherd lt 4 4.2 71 UPF Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 1 11 20mm, b li 2 1.2 71 UPF River cobble, quartz li 4 0.7 71 UPF Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7.1 72 UPF Fiber tempered plain, body sherds ft 11 9.8 72 UPF Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 6NHT; 4 21 30mm, 2b, 2c; 2 31 40mm, 1b, 1c; 1 41 50mm, c li 7 19.6 72 UPF Nondecortication flakes, chert, 6HT, 18NHT; 7 1 10mm, 2c, 5b; 16 11 20mm, 4c, 12b; 1 21 30mm, b li 24 4.7 72 UPF Chert tool, HT li 1 1.4 72 UPF River cobble, quartz li 2 1 72 UPF Clay/soil sample, uncounted fragments soil 26.2 72 UPF Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6.7 73 UPF Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 5NHT; 3 1 10mm, 2c, 1b; 3 11 20mm, 1c, 2b li 6 1.7 73 UPF River cobble, quartz li 1 0.3 73 UPF Clay/soil sample, uncounted fragments soil 75.4 73 UPF Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 0.7 74 UPF St. Johns Plain, body sherd ss 1 0.1

PAGE 387

387 74 UPF Secondary decortication flakes, chert, HT; 1 11 20mm, 3 21 30mm, all b li 4 15.8 74 UPF Nondecortication flakes, chert, HT; 3 11 20mm, 1c, 2b li 3 1 74 UPF Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3.1 75 UPF Fiber tempered plain, body sherds ft 13 7.9 75 UPF River cobble, quartz li 1 0.3 75 UPF Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 1NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 1 21 30mm, b li 2 1.1 75 UPF Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 76 UPF Nondecortication flake, chert, HT; 1 1 10mm, b li 1 <.1 76 UPF River cobble, quartz li 1 1.7 76 UPF Limestone fragment li 1 0.3 76 UPF Clay/soil sample, uncounted fragments soil 5.9 76 UPF Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10.5 77 UPF Fiber tempered plain, body sherds ft 4 0.8 77 UPF Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 1.7 77 UPF Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 1 10mm, c; 8 11 20mm, 5c, 3b; 1 21 30mm, b; 1 31 40mm, c li 12 4.7 77 UPF Limestone fragment li 2 1 77 UPF Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6.2 78 UPF Fiber tempered incised, body sherds ft 28 91.9 78 UPF Fiber tempered plain, body sherds ft 42 17.4 78 UPF Fiber tempered plain, rim sherds ft 2 7.7 78 UPF Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 18.2 78 UPF Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 3 29.3 78 UPF Sand tempered incised, body sherds, effigy figure sn 2 10.9 78 UPF Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.2 78 UPF Metal fragment fe 1 0.6 78 UPF Limestone fragment li 15 17.6 78 UPF Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 16.9 79 UPF Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 18NHT; 2 1 10mm, b; 14 11 20mm, 2c, 12b; 4 21 30mm, 1c, 3b li 20 12.8

PAGE 388

388 79 UPF River cobble, quartz li 11 5.9 79 UPF Clay/soil sample, uncounted fragments soil 24.9 80 UPF Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 0.4 80 UPF Bone fragment bone 1 3.6 80 UPF Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 11 20mm, 1b, 1c li 2 1 81 UPF Fiber tempered incised, body sherds ft 6 12.2 81 UPF Fiber tempered plain, body sherds ft 32 14.1 81 UPF St. Johns Plain, body sherd ss 7 5.2 81 UPF St. Johns punctated, body sherd ss 1 1.5 81 UPF Secondary decortication flakes, 1HT, 3NHT; 1 21 30mm, b; 1 31 40mm, b; 1 41 50mm, c; 1 51 60mm, c li 4 38.5 81 UPF Nondecortication flakes, chert, 8HT, 35NHT; 14 1 10mm, 5c, 7b; 25 11 20mm, 12c, 13b; 4 21 30mm, 3c, 1b li 43 14.3 81 UPF Limestone fragment li 1 0.5 81 UPF River cobble, quartz li 15 12.2 81 UPF Clay fragment soil 1 45.8 81 UPF Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 8.5 82 UPF Fiber tempered plain, body sherds ft 4 2.6 82 UPF Fiber tempered incised, body sherds ft 1 0.4 82 UPF Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 3NHT; 1 1 10mm, 2 11 20mm, 2 21 30mm, all b li 5 2.3 82 UPF River cobble, quartz li 2 1.2 83 UPF Fiber tempered incised, body sherds ft 59 134.5 83 UPF Fiber tempered incised, rim sherds ft 1 5 83 UPF Fiber tempered plain, body sherds ft 48 23.9 83 UPF Fiber tempered plain, rim sherds ft 2 2.2 83 UPF Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 1.3 83 UPF Chert preforms/tools. NHT li 2 83.3 83 UPF Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 7NHT; 4 21 30mm, b; 6 31 40mm, 4c, 2b li 10 34.9 83 UPF Nondecortication flakes, chert, 6HT, 38NHT; 7 1 10mm, 2c, 5b; 34 11 20mm, 15c, 19b; 3 21 30mm, 2c, 1b li 44 18.4 83 UPF Limestone fragment li 1 0.6

PAGE 389

389 83 UPF River cobble, quartz li 3 1.6 83 UPF Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7.3

PAGE 390

390 Table C 2. Heather Island Preserve (8MR2223)

PAGE 391

391 FS n e tu # type mm g Ext con int con mod lp mm lp fm vess shape diam cm ch mm 1.01 s s pt 1 sta 8.4 2.4 pl3 3 1.02 s s pt 1 spo 6.5 2.5 Uid er 2 4.01 s s pt 1 sta 6.8 6.8 Cpc 4 4.02 s s pt 1 sta 8.7 15.7 pl2 2 6.01 s s pt 1 gt 7.4 3.7 pl2 2 7.01 s s pt 2 <2cm 5.1 1.7 was66.01 7.02 s s pt 1 st 6.2 3.2 pl1 1 7.03 s s pt 2 gta 5.1 4.6 pl3 3 7.04 s s pt 1 gtb 5.4 14.8 Uid spalled 3 30 8.01 s s pt 3 <2cm 3.9 was59.01 8.02 s s pt 1 sp1 6.9 3 pl2 2 8.03 s s pt 1 sp1 6.1 2.6 Fab er 2 8.04 s s pt 1 gta 8.3 11.8 Cob vague 4 att sti 9.01 s s pt 1 sta 7.3 4.1 pluid 11.01 s s pt 1 sp1 5.2 8.1 Chs er 2 5.2 dir,fl simp 30 2 11.02 s s pt 1 gt 9.5 15 Uid vague 2 11.03 s s pt 1 sp1 4 1.5 pluid er 2 11.04 s s pt 2 sta 8.1 3.3 pl3 2 12.01 s s pt 1 sp1 5.9 3.5 pluid er 2 er 5.4 dir,fl simp 14 12.02 s s pt 2 <2cm 6.1 3.9 13.01 s s pt 9 <2cm 4.8 10.7 was63.01 13.02 s s pt 1 gt 5.8 11.4 Fab 3 13.03 s s pt 1 st 6.6 9.2 Cob 2 se 13.04 s s pt 1 sp1 4.8 1.7 Uid er 1 er 14.01 s s pt 1 <2cm 7.1 3 15.01 s s pt 3
PAGE 392

392 20.01 s s pt 2 <2cm 6.7 2.3 22.01 s s pt 1 sp1 5.4 1.9 pluid er 2 er 22.02 s s pt 1 gt 6.8 3.7 Uid 3 22.03 s s pt 1 gt 10.5 4.2 pluid pit 1 22 23.01 s s pt 4 <2cm 5.1 4.2 25.01 jst1 pt 1 sp1 6.6 6.1 pluid er 2 25.02 jst1 pt 1 st 6.6 3.9 25.03 jst1 pt 3 <2cm 6.5 3.6 26.01 jst2 pt 1 gta 6.3 5.2 pl3 3 27.01 jst3 pt 3 <2cm 6.6 2.1 27.02 jst4 pt 1 gt 5.6 2.3 pl1 3 28.01 jst4 pt 3 <2cm 6.9 4.5 30.01 jst6 pt 2 <2cm 5.2 0.7 31.01 jst7 pt 1 <2cm 3.4 0.2 34.01 jst10 pt 1 <2cm 5.1 0.5 35.01 s s fc 1 1.7 42.01 jst20 pt 1 <2cm 7.3 1.3 44.01 jst22 pt 1 sp1 7.3 18.8 pl2 2 44.02 jst22 pt 1 <2cm 7.6 3.2 20 47.01 jst25 pt 2 <2cm 6.6 1 49.01 jst27 pt 1 sta 6 2.3 pl1 2 150.01 2875 3375 pt 1 gt 6.9 10.1 pl3 3 158.01 2887.5 3400 pt 1 st 8.7 26.6 pl3 2 att se 51.01 jst29 pt 6 <2cm 4.5 9 158.02 2887.5 3400 pt 1 st 6.9 19.2 pl3 3 se 158.03 2887.5 3400 pt 5 <2cm 7.1 9.2 134.01 2912.5 3375 pt 1 st 5 4.4 pl1 1 att 52.01 jst30 pt 2 <2cm 1 53.01 jst31 pt 4 <2cm 8 2.9 54.01 jst32 bn 1 uid 0.5 54.02 jst32 pt 9 <2cm 5.7 14 54.03 jst32 pt 1 sp1 8.6 7.7 Chr 2 54.04 jst32 pt 1 st 7.1 5.6 Cob 3 54.05 jst32 pt 1 st 8.2 4.8 pl4 3 54.06 jst32 pt 1 st 4.7 6.3 Cob pl4 4 54.07 jst32 pt 1 st 5.5 3 Cm v 2

PAGE 393

393 55.01 3000 3300 pt 0 0 57.01 jst36 pt 1 st 7.1 7.4 Cob 3 57.02 jst36 pt 1 st 9.6 7.6 ocob 3 57.03 jst36 pt 1 sp1 6.1 3.1 pluid er 2 er 57.04 jst36 pt 1 sp1 5.7 12.5 chuid er 2 121.01 2937.5 3312.5 bn 1 rept 0.01 kino 58.01 jst37 hi 1 mortar 121.02 2937.5 3312.5 bo 1 0.2 uid seed 58.02 jst37 pt 12 <2cm 5.4 21.8 121.03 2937.5 3312.5 pt 3 <2cm 0.9 58.03 jst37 pt 1 sta 5.7 1.2 pl3 3 5.2 dir,fl simp 8 121.04 2937.5 3312.5 pt 1 sta 10 3.5 Uid 3 58.04 jst37 pt 1 sta 7.7 12.5 pl2 bdsc 3 bdsc 4.8 dir, rd simp 20 58.05 jst37 pt 1 sta 8.1 8.8 pl2 bdsc 3 58.06 jst37 pt 1 sta 6.1 3.8 pl4 spalled 4 58.07 jst37 pt 1 st 7.6 13.4 ocob pl3 3 58.08 jst37 pt 1 st 4.9 5.5 Cob 4 58.09 jst37 pt 1 sp1 6.5 2.1 pl2 2 59.01 jst38 pt 7 <2cm 6.1 14.5 59.02 jst38 pt 1 gt 6.1 39.1 pl2 att 3 59.03 jst38 pt 1 st 4.3 5.4 pl3 fnsc 3 fnsc 3.5 dir,rd simp 8 59.04 jst38 pt 1 st 9.3 5.6 pl3 4 59.05 jst38 pt 1 sp1 3.7 1.8 pl2 3 59.06 jst38 pt 1 st 7.9 4.6 ocob pl4 4 59.07 jst38 pt 1 st 6 4.1 Uid rough 3 59.08 jst38 pt 1 st 6.8 4.3 pl3 3 136.01 2925 3312.5 pt 1 gt 5.8 20.4 pl3 3 se 60.01 jst39 pt 1 stgg 7.6 5.3 Wip 3 60.02 jst39 pt 1 sp1 7.4 2.5 chuid er 2 61.01 jst40 pt 1 st 6.7 3.9 pluid er 2 61.02 jst40 pt 4 <2cm 7.8 9.1 62.01 jst41 pt 5 <2cm 6.8 8.8 62.02 jst41 pt 1 gt 9.7 5.2 pl2 3 62.03 jst41 pt 1 sta 6.7 7.9 pl4 bdsc 3 62.04 jst41 pt 1 st 7.8 8.8 ouid 4

PAGE 394

394 62.05 jst41 pt 1 sp1 5.5 7.7 Chr er 2 62.06 jst41 pt 1 sp1 4.4 6.4 Chs er 3 20 2.6 63.01 jst42 pt 1 st sp 5.2 pl4 sp 122.01 2937.5 3325 pt 1 sta 4.9 4.8 pl1 att 1 64.01 jst43 pt 6 <2cm 5.1 5.6 122.02 2937.5 3325 pt 1 sta 5 1.8 pl4 2 64.02 jst43 pt 1 st 9.2 4.5 cob 2 122.03 2937.5 3325 pt 1 <2cm 4.7 0.7 132.01 2912.5 3350 pt 4 <2cm 5 6.5 65.01 jst44 pt 1 sta 6 101.8 pl3 bdsc 3 4.6 sltinc,thn glob 16 132.02 2912.5 3350 pt 1 st 4.3 3.2 pl2 2 3.3 incu,rd glob 20 65.02 jst44 pt 2 sta 20 8.8 pl2 bdsc 2 6.1 sltinc,rd glob 28 132.03 2912.5 3350 pt 1 st 5.1 3.7 cpuid att 4 65.03 jst44 pt 6 sta 6.9 40.1 pl2 bdsc 2 132.04 2912.5 3350 pt 1 st 7.5 8.8 ocob 4 65.04 jst44 pt 1 sta 5.6 6.7 pl2 4 st 65.05 jst44 pt 1 sta 9.5 6.5 pl2 3 132.05 2912.5 3350 pt 1 sp1 6.6 5.7 pl2 2 22 65.06 jst44 pt 2 sp1 7.2 42.7 chs 3 st 38 4.8 65.07 jst44 pt 1 sp1 7.7 12.6 chs 3 3.1 65.08 jst44 pt 1 st 4.3 7.9 pl4 3 65.09 jst44 pt 1 st 5.2 9.7 ocob pl4 4 65.1 jst44 pt 1 st 6.1 3.4 uid v 2 4 dir,fl simp 8 65.11 jst44 pt 1 st 6.3 4.5 pl2 4 65.12 jst44 pt 1 sta 7.3 2.6 pl2 3 4.5 dir,fl simp 28 65.13 jst44 pt 1 sta 6.9 4.8 pl2 2 5.5 dir, bevext simp 8 65.14 jst44 pt 1 sta 6 2.1 pl2 2 6.7 dir,rd simp 8 65.15 jst44 pt 22 <2cm 7.3 31.2 66.01 jst45 pt 2 <2cm 6.3 1.4 pl2 2 5.1 uid,bevext 66.02 jst45 pt 1 <2cm 6.4 0.5 68.01 jst47 pt 1 <2cm 0.9 71.01 s s pt 1 st 4 8.3 fab 2 2.8 rest coll 18 71.01 jst50 pt 8
PAGE 395

395 71.03 jst50 pt 1 st 6.9 6.2 pl2 3 71.04 s s pt 1 st 6.5 7.3 uid vague 3 71.04 jst50 pt 1 st 6 4.4 ouid pl4 4 71.05 s s pt 1 gta 5.2 5.3 uidst vague 2 71.05 jst50 pt 1 gt 9 9.6 uid v 2 6.9 sltinc,bevext simp 50 71.06 s s pt 1 gt 6.9 7.3 pl2 att 2 71.07 s s pt 1 sta 5.5 3.7 pl2 2 3 dir,fl simp 22 71.08 s s pt 1 gt 6.1 6.8 ip 4 2 4.8 dir,rd simp 20 71.09 s s pt 1 <2cm 7.2 0.7 er 72.01 s s pt 10 gta 6.3 2.1 cm 2 3 incu.thn glob 20 72.01 jst51 pt 8 <2cm 2.8 8.8 72.02 s s pt 1 sp1 4.9 3.3 chs 2 er se 2.2 72.02 jst51 pt 1 gt 4 ouid v sp 72.03 s s pt 1 sp1 5.1 3.4 pl1 1 72.03 jst51 pt 1 st 6.5 25.2 pl3 4 72.04 jst51 pt 1 st 6.6 9.6 ouid pl3 4 73.01 jst52 pt 2 sp1 6.4 5 pluid 4 73.02 jst52 pt 1 sp1 5.7 7.8 chuis er 2 73.03 jst52 pt 1 sp1 5.1 1.9 pl2 2 2.5 exp,thn open 12 73.04 jst52 pt 1 st 4.7 4.7 pl2 2 se 73.05 jst52 pt 1 st 8.1 4.1 ocob pl4 4 73.06 jst52 pt 5 <2cm 5.2 5.6 74.01 jst53 pt 4 st 6.5 46.6 ocob pl3 3 5.1 sltin,fl glob 36 74.02 jst53 pt 2 st 5.9 10.7 ocob pl4 2 74.03 jst53 pt 1 st 10.9 7.2 pl4 4 bs uid 74.04 jst53 pt 3 <2cm 8.3 1.9 75.01 jst54 pt 1 st 5.6 4.4 uid v 3 76.01 jst55 pt 1 sp1 6.3 24.3 chs 4 sp th 77.01 jst56 pt 1 sta 6.9 12.6 pl2 2 77.02 jst56 pt 3 <2cm 8.1 5 78.01 jst57 pt 4 <2cm 7.1 3.9 78.02 jst57 pt 1 st 9.5 11.8 pl2 2 bs rd 78.03 jst57 pt 1 gt 6.1 8 pl3 3 78.04 jst57 pt 1 st 6.4 7.1 pl3 2 79.01 jst58 pt 3 <2cm 7.3 6.9

PAGE 396

396 80.01 jst59 pt 1 <2cm 7.3 2.2 81.01 jst60 pt 1 sp1 11.6 11.1 pl3 2 er 81.02 jst60 pt 1 st 9.2 7.2 pl4 4 81.03 jst60 pt 11 <2cm 20.2 103.01 3025 2975 pt 1 <2cm 0.9 104.01 3037.5 2937.5 pt 2 <2cm 0.8 105.01 3037.5 2950 pt 2 <2cm 6.2 1.6 107.01 3037.5 2975 pt 1 <2cm 0.2 111.01 3050 2975 pt 1 st 5.2 8.3 pl3 was33.01 3 116.01 2962.5 3337.5 pt 1 sp1 4.2 5.8 pl2 was 61.01 2 se 116.02 2962.5 3337.5 pt 1 gta 7.1 12.6 cob was 61.02 3 117.01 2937.5 3375 pt 1 gt 5.2 7.3 cpc was 62.01 2 118.01 2950 3362.5 pt 1 gt 6 5.8 wip 3 se 119.01 2950 3375 pt 9 <2cm 7 5.8 119.02 2950 3375 pt 1 sp1 6 4.7 pluid 2 119.03 2950 3375 pt 1 sp1 6.5 26.2 pl2 2 2.7 dir,thn simp 18 162.01 2900 3350 pt 1 <2cm 5.5 1 164.01 2900 3375 pt 1 st 5.5 2.9 cm 4 164.02 2900 3375 pt 5 <2cm 4.7 5.9 se 167.01 2962.5 3350 pt 6 <2cm 7.3 8.1 168.01 2975 3325 pt 1 st 6.9 16.5 pl3 4 170.01 2975 3350 pt 1 st 3.7 2.7 cm 3 170.02 2975 3350 pt 3 <2cm 6.4 3.8 173.01 2987.5 3350 pt 12 <2cm 8.3 12.5 173.02 2987.5 3350 pt 1 sp0 6.4 1.9 chs 1 er 2.9 173.03 2987.5 3350 pt 1 sp1 6.2 2.9 pu er 2 2.3 173.04 2987.5 3350 pt 1 sp1 6 3.3 uid er 2 er bs ps 173.05 2987.5 3350 pt 1 gt 8.1 4.1 chs 4 att sti 3.6 173.06 2987.5 3350 pt 1 gt 6 4.2 pl3 3 7.7 dir,rd simp 18 173.07 2987.5 3350 pt 1 sta 6.4 5.1 sc4 4 175.01 3000 3325 pt 1 sp1 6.2 6.5 pl2 2 se 5.1 incu,rd glob 175.02 3000 3325 pt 1 sp1 8 6.4 pl1 3 175.03 3000 3325 pt 1 sta 4.8 2.3 pl3 2 pit 175.04 3000 3325 pt 1 sta 6.2 1.9 pl2 pit 4 4.7 op,rd open

PAGE 397

397 175.05 3000 3325 pt 1 sta 7.7 7.1 chs vague 4 2.8 175.06 3000 3325 pt 1 <2cm 1.3 176.01 3000 3337.5 pt 1 st 6.5 15.2 pl2 3 176.02 3000 3337.5 pt 1 st 6.2 4.3 pl2 att 3 176.03 3000 3337.5 pt 1 sta 6.2 2.6 uidst 4 176.04 3000 3337.5 pt 4 <2cm 6.5 6.6 176.05 3000 3337.5 pt 1 sp1 5.7 1.1 pl2 2 177.01 3300 3350 pt 16 <2cm 4.8 17.4 177.02 3300 3350 co 1 bead? 0.8 178.01 2975 3300 pt 1 <2cm 4.8 1.1 179.01 2975 3312.5 pt 1 <2cm 0.4 182.01 3000 3312.5 pt 1 <2cm 6.1 1.8 185.01 2862.5 3312.5 pt 1 sta 6 11.1 pl4 abr 3 185.02 2862.5 3312.5 pt 1 gt 9 4.3 cm 2 185.03 2862.5 3312.5 pt 1 st 5.5 6.1 pl4 abr 4 185.04 2862.5 3312.5 pt 1 sta 8.4 14.4 pl4 4 185.05 2862.5 3312.5 pt 9 <2cm 4.4 7.5 186.01 2862.5 3325 pt 1 gt 4.9 5.7 186.02 2862.5 3325 pt 1 sp1 7.2 10.3 chs 3 1.9 186.03 2862.5 3325 pt 2 <2cm 5.8 1.1 189.01 2862.5 3375 pt 4 <2cm 0.4 190.01 2862.5 3387.5 pt 1 sp1 3.3 2.2 pl2 2 8 191.01 2862.5 3400 pt 1 <2cm 6 1 192.01 2862.5 3412.5 pt 1 <2cm 2.6 194.01 2875 3385 pt 1 sta 9.6 2.9 pl3 2 194.02 2875 3385 pt 1 <2cm 0.6 195.01 2875 3400 pt 1 sta 6.8 6.6 pl2 2 195.02 2875 3400 pt 2 <2cm 4.6 4 196.01 2837.5 3437.5 pt 1 st 6.7 2.5 uid v 2 er 196.02 2837.5 3437.5 pt 1 st 4.7 3.9 ocob pl3 3 196.03 2837.5 3437.5 pt 3 <2cm 3.8 4.2 198.01 2850 3312.5 pt 1 sta 7.4 2.5 pl2 2 16 203.01 2850 3375 pt 1 sta 5.3 3.6 pl3 bdsc 3 5.9 inc,fl glob 10 205.01 2850 3400 pt 2 <2cm 6 1.6 206.01 2850 3412.5 pt 2 <2cm 4.4 1 208.01 2850 3437.5 pt 2 <2cm 7.9 4

PAGE 398

398 213.01 2837.5 3312.5 pt 3 <2cm 6 2.1 214.01 2837.5 3325 pt 3 sta 8.1 7.6 2 214.02 2837.5 3325 pt 10 <2cm 10.2 14.2 215.01 2837.5 3337.5 pt 1 <2cm 0.3 216.01 2837.5 3350 pt 1 <2cm 0.5 217.01 2837.5 3362.5 pt 4 <2cm 4.7 1.8 218.01 2825 3325 pt 1 <2cm 5.7 3 219.01 2837.5 3387.5 pt 9 <2cm 5.4 8.8 219.02 2837.5 3387.5 pt 1 st 4.5 3.5 stu v 1 pit 219.03 2837.5 3387.5 pt 1 sta 5.5 6.5 pl2 fnsc 3 220.01 2837.5 3412.5 pt 6 <2cm 5 5.5 222.01 2837.5 3425 pt 1 sp1 5.4 3.5 uid 2 er 222.02 2837.5 3425 pt 1 <2cm 9.2 2.1 223.01 2812.5 3400 pt 5 <2cm 4 4.6 226.01 2825 3400 pt 1 st 7.1 18.8 ocob pl4 4 cmat si 226.02 2825 3400 pt 2 <2cm 8.8 2.2 227.01 2825 3412.5 pt 4 <2cm 6.6 6.5 228.01 2825 3425 pt 1 st 7.3 11.9 uid att 3 228.02 2825 3425 pt 1 gt 10.5 16.8 ouid pitted 3 228.03 2825 3425 pt 1 gt 10 5.8 pl2 ?pu 2 5.9 inc,bevext glob 16 228.04 2825 3425 pt 8 <2cm 7.3 15.7 229.01 2825 3437.5 pt 1 gt 8.3 5.5 pl3 pitted 2 229.02 2825 3437.5 pt 1 <2cm 0.6 0.6 237.01 2812.5 3350 pt 6 <2cm 4.8 4.5 240.01 2825 3350 pt 1 <2cm 7.6 2.6 rough 2 5.8 inc,bevext glob 10 241.01 2825 3362.5 pt 1 <2cm 6.4 2.7 242.01 3012.5 3350 pt 11 <2cm 6.6 11.1 242.02 3012.5 3350 pt 1 st 7.3 4 pl3 4 4.9 dir,fl simp 12 242.03 3012.5 3350 pt 1 st 5.8 3.6 ocob pl4 4 se 242.04 3012.5 3350 pt 1 st 5.4 3.3 cm 2 se 243.01 3312.5 3325 pt 12 <2cm 8.1 17.7 1se 243.02 3312.5 3325 pt 1 st 7 10.5 cob 4 243.03 3312.5 3325 pt 1 st 6.5 4.4 ocob 4 243.04 3312.5 3325 pt 1 st 6.8 5.9 ocob pl4 4 3.6 dir,rd simp 20 243.05 3312.5 3325 pt 1 st 5.8 20.9 cob 3 244.01 3012.5 3337.5 pt 1 gt 9.3 8.2 pl2 3

PAGE 399

399 244.02 3012.5 3337.5 pt 4 <2cm 5.7 5.6 246.01 2862.5 3287.5 pt 1 sta 7.2 8 pl2 3 246.02 2862.5 3287.5 pt 4 <2cm 4.9 3.9 253.01 2950 3287.5 pt 1 st 6.3 3.7 pl3 3 4 dir,rd simp 12 255.01 2975 3287.5 pt 1 <2cm 0.4 258.01 3012.5 3312.5 pt 30 <2cm 5.3 43.6 258.02 3012.5 3312.5 pt 1 st 4.2 3.5 cm 2 3.1 dir,rd simp 12 258.03 3012.5 3312.5 pt 1 st 5.4 11.8 uid 2 4.3 inc,bevint glob 16 258.04 3012.5 3312.5 pt 1 st 6.9 9.4 ocob pl3 2 258.05 3012.5 3312.5 pt 6 st 6.3 33.9 uid rough 2 4.9 dir,fl simp 22 264.01 2937.5 3275 pt 1 st 6.8 6.5 pl2 2 5.4 sltincu,bevext glob 24 269.01 3325 3325 pt 10 <2cm 4.9 18.8 269.02 3325 3325 pt 1 st 9.4 13.8 cob 3 att 269.03 3325 3325 pt 1 st 7.4 4.5 cob 3 att 271.01 3337.5 3325 pt 1 sp1 6.2 12.6 chs 2 3.7 271.02 3337.5 3325 pt 1 sta 7.7 10.2 pl2 2 272.01 3337.5 3337.5 pt 1 <2cm 5.7 1.5 280.01 2875 3275 pt 1 sta 5.7 2.6 pl3 3 283.01 2812.5 3412.5 pt 5 <2cm 7.4 6.8 286.01 s s pt 1 sta 7.5 uid pu was67.01 2 12 5 5.8 230.01 2800 3300 pt 1 sta 6.3 2.7 pl2 bdsc 3 120.01 2912.5 3325 pt 1 st 6.1 4 pl3 3 se 146a.01 2875 3325 pt 1 <2cm 6.7 0.5 146b.01 2875 3325 pt 1 sta 7.8 3.1 pl3 3 133.01 2912.5 3362.5 pt 2 <2cm 5.9 4.9 137.01 2925 3325 pt 1 st 7 4.1 pl4 3 137.02 2925 3325 pt 1 <2cm 0.6 149.01 2875 3362.5 pt 3 <2cm 8.3 4.8 153.01 2887.5 3337.5 pt 1 sp1 7.9 6.8 pluid er 2 er 155.01 2887.5 3362.5 pt 2 <2cm 5.8 3.7 141.01 2937.5 3337.5 pt 1 <2cm 6.3 1.3 141.02 2937.5 3337.5 pt 1 st 7.6 5.8 pl4 3 126.01 2950 3337.5 pt 1 <2cm 7.1 1.5 127.01 2950 3350 pt 2 <2cm 6.9 1.3 127.02 2950 3350 pt 1 sp1 5.9 1.3 pl4 2 3.2 dir,thn 6 125.01 2950 3325 pt 2 <2cm 0.5

PAGE 400

400 125.02 2950 3325 pt 1 st 5.8 6.1 pl2 2 123.01 2950 3300 pt 2 <2cm 4 3.1 124.01 2950 3312.5 pt 1 gt 8.4 4.9 pl4 1 120.01 2937.5 3300 pt 6 <2cm 0.5 140.01 2925 3362.5 pt 1 <2cm 0.9 139.01 2925 3350 pt 2 <2cm 5.7 1 139.02 2925 3350 pt 1 sp1 3.8 0.5 pl2 2 3.2 x,rd 6 154.01 2887.5 3350 pt 1 <2cm 0.7 156.01 2887.5 3375 pt 1 <2cm 4.5 1.4

PAGE 401

401 Table C 3. Lake Weir Landing Mounds (8MR35) F.S. # N E Artifact Type Co Count Weight(g) 1 JST 1 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 1 1 JST 1 Partial point, chert, type UID; NHT li 1 8 1 JST 1 River cobbles, quartz li 6 2 1 JST 1 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 27 2 JST 2 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 2 2 JST 2 Sand tempered cord marked, body sherd sn 1 17 2 JST 2 St. Johns Plain, body sherd ss 1 0.4 2 JST 2 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.6 2 JST 2 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 226 3 JST 3 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 2 0.7 3 JST 3 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 3 3 JST 3 Bone fragment bone 1 0.1 3 JST 3 River cobbles, quartz li 2 0.4 3 JST 3 Fulgurite gl 1 0.3 3 JST 3 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4 4 JST 4 Iron fragment fe 1 0.3 4 JST 4 Nondecortication flake, chert, HT 1 1 10mm, b li 1 0.2 4 JST 4 River cobbles, quartz li 6 2 4 JST 4 Bone fragments bone 2 1 4 JST 4 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4 5 JST 5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 5 3 5 JST 5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2 HT, 1NHT 3 21 30mm, 2 b, 1c li 3 5 5 JST 5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5 6 JST 6 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 2 1 6 JST 6 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 2

PAGE 402

402 6 JST 6 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1 HT, 1 NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 1 21 30mm, b li 2 3 6 JST 6 River cobbles, quartz li 4 2 6 JST 6 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3 7 JST 7 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 13 7 7 JST 7 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 5 HT, 5NHT; 4 1 10mm, 2b, 2c; 5 11 20 mm, 3b, 2c; 1 21 30mm, c li 10 3 7 JST 7 Bone fragments bone 11 7 7 JST 7 River cobbles, quartz li 4 1 7 JST 7 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6 8 JST 8 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 8 13 8 JST 8 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 9 6 8 JST 8 St. Johns check stamped, body sherd ss 1 2 8 JST 8 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2 HT, 2NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 3 11 20mm, 2b, 1c li 4 1 8 JST 8 River cobbles, quartz li 2 0.5 8 JST 8 Lead bullet, .30 caliber metal 1 5 8 JST 8 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1 9 JST 9 St. Johns check stamped, body sherd ss 1 2 9 JST 9 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 4 2 9 JST 9 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 8 9 JST 9 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1 HT, 1 NHT; 2 1 10mm, c li 2 0.4 9 JST 9 River cobbles, quartz li 2 1 9 JST 9 Fulgurites gl 3 0.2 9 JST 9 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5 10 JST 10 Nondecortication flake, chert, HT 1 11 20mm, c li 1 0.3 10 JST 10 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 9 11 JST 11 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 2 11 JST 11 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 3 1 10mm, c; 1 11 20mm, b; 1 21 30mm, b li 5 2 11 JST 11 River cobbles, quartz li 2 2 11 JST Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5

PAGE 403

403 11 12 JST 12 St. Johns check stamped, body sherd ss 1 4 12 JST 12 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 4 2 12 JST 12 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 3 12 JST 12 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 11NHT; 3 1 10mm, c; 7 11 20 mm, 3b, 4c; 2 21 30mm, c li 12 5 12 JST 12 Bone fragment bone 1 0.1 12 JST 12 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.4 12 JST 12 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 13 13 JST 13 River cobbles, quartz li 29 11 13 JST 13 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7 14 JST 14 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 0.9 14 JST 14 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 0.2 14 JST 14 Projectile point/knife, possible preform, chert, NHT li 1 27 14 JST 14 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20 mm, b li 1 0.1 14 JST 14 Secondary decortication flake, chert, HT; 1 31 40 mm, b li 1 13 14 JST 14 River cobbles, quartz li 2 1 14 JST 14 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 15 15 JST 15 Wakulla check stamped, rim sherd ss 1 8 15 JST 15 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 3 2 15 JST 15 Primary decortication flakes, chert, 1 HT, 1 NHT; 1 31 40mm, 1 41 50mm, both c li 2 13 15 JST Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 1 10mm, b; 4 11 20mm, 3 c, 1 b; 1 21 30 mm, c li 7 3

PAGE 404

404 15 15 JST 15 River cobbles, quartz li 2 0.6 15 JST 15 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3 16 JST 16 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 3 0.6 16 JST 16 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20 mm, c li 1 0.3 16 JST 16 River cobbles, quartz li 7 3 17 JST 17 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 2 17 JST 17 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 2 17 JST 17 Iron fragments fe 4 2 17 JST 17 River cobbles, quartz li 5 2 17 JST 17 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c li 1 <.1 17 JST 17 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 17 18 JST 18 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.6 18 JST 18 River cobbles, quartz li 4 1 18 JST 18 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6 19 JST 19 Weeden Island Red, body sherd sn 1 4 19 JST 19 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 1 19 JST 19 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 2 1 19 JST 19 Archaic Stemmed Point, chert, HT li 1 19 19 JST 19 Primary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 41 50 mm, c li 1 15 19 JST River cobbles, quartz li 2 2

PAGE 405

405 19 19 JST 19 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 8 20 JST 20 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1 HT, 6 NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 3 11 20mm, 1c, 2b; 3 21 30 mm, 2b, 1 c li 7 4 20 JST 20 River cobbles, quartz li 9 2 20 JST 20 Iron fragment fe 1 0.5 20 JST 20 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 15 21 JST 21 Weeden Island Plain, body sherds sn 9 5 21 JST 21 Weeden Island Incised, rim sherd sn 1 10 21 JST 21 River cobbles, quartz li 4 3 21 JST 21 Bone fragments/charcoal fragments bone 36 22 JST 22 St. Johns check stamped, body sherd ss 1 3 22 JST 22 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 3 2 22 JST 22 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 6 22 JST 22 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 5 22 JST 22 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 1NHT; 1 21 30mm, b; 2 31 40mm, c li 3 13 22 JST 22 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 1 10mm, c; 6 11 20mm, 4 c, 2 b li 8 2 22 JST 22 River cobbles, quartz li 6 2 22 JST 22 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 26 23 JST 23 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 1 23 JST 23 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 2 1 23 JST Nondecortication flakes, chert, 4 HT, 5 NHT; 3 1 10mm, c; 5 11 20mm, 4 c, 1 b; 1 21 30mm, c li 9 3

PAGE 406

406 23 23 JST 23 River cobbles, quartz li 4 1 23 JST 23 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6 24 JST 24 River cobbles, quartz li 2 2 24 JST 24 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5 25 JST 25 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 3 25 JST 25 Sand tempered red filmed, body sherd sn 1 6 25 JST 25 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 2 25 JST 25 Secondary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 41 50 mm, c li 1 3 25 JST 25 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 5 11 20mm, 2 b, 3 c li 6 0.7 25 JST 25 Limestone fragment li 1 2 25 JST 25 Iron fragment fe 1 1 25 JST 25 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.3 25 JST 25 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10 26 512.5 500 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 1.2 26 512.5 500 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, b li 1 0.1 26 512.5 500 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.3 26 512.5 500 Daub fragments, uncounted db 6.3 26 512.5 500 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 13.1 27 500 587.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 4.1 27 500 587.5 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 3.1 27 500 587.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1 HT, 1 NHT; 2 11 20mm, 1c, 1b li 2 0.5 27 500 587.5 River cobbles, quartz li 3 0.9 27 500 587.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 0.8

PAGE 407

407 28 550 500 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 5 3.4 28 550 500 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 1 28 550 500 Fiber tempered plain, body sherds ft 9 1.1 28 550 500 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 5 HT, 11 NHT; 6 1 10mm, 3b, 3c; 8 11 20mm, 7b, 1c; 1 21 30mm, 1 31 40mm, c li 16 4.2 28 550 500 River cobbles, quartz li 5 4.8 28 550 500 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 11.6 29 500 512.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 2 0.4 29 500 512.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 1.5 29 500 512.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, b li 1 0.8 29 500 512.5 River cobbles, quartz li 6 1.9 29 500 512.5 Stone fragment li 1 0.3 29 500 512.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 13.8 30 562.5 500 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 5 16.5 30 562.5 500 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 7 11.2 30 562.5 500 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 13 30 562.5 500 Limestone tempered plain, Pasco ware, body sherd lt 1 1.3 30 562.5 500 Chert tool, scraper, NHT li 1 8.8 30 562.5 500 River cobbles, quartz li 5 2.4 30 562.5 500 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 4NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 2 11 20mm, 1b, 1c; 3 21 30mm, b; 1 31 40mm, b li 7 6.4 30 562.5 500 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2.2 31 562.5 512.5 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 1 31 562.5 512.5 Weeden Island Incised, body sherd sn 1 3 31 562.5 512.5 Alachua Plain, body sherd sn 1 4.2 31 562.5 512.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 3.7 31 562.5 512.5 Primary decortication flake, chert, HT; 1 31 40mm, c li 1 6.6 31 562.5 512.5 Secondary decortication flake, chert, HT; 1 31 40 mm, c li 1 6.3 31 562.5 512.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert 6HT, 27NHT; 15 1 10mm, 12c, 3b; 15 11 20mm, 6c, 9b; 3 21 30mm, 1c, 2b li 33 9.6 31 562.5 512.5 Chert core, NHT; 31 40 mm li 1 9 31 562.5 512.5 Levy/Marion point, chert, HT li 1 16.4

PAGE 408

408 31 562.5 512.5 River cobbles, quartz li 4 2.1 31 562.5 512.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 11.9 32 462.5 500 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 6 2.3 32 462.5 500 Weeden Island Plain, body sherds sn 4 3.3 32 462.5 500 Iron fragment, function unidentified fe 1 7 32 462.5 500 River cobbles, quartz li 14 5.8 32 462.5 500 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7.8 33 Sfc Dunn's Creek Red, body sherds ss 2 10.2 34 Sfc Chert fragment/core, HT; 31 40 mm li 1 13.1 35 550 537.5 St. Johns check stamped, body sherd ss 1 5.7 35 550 537.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 9 8.7 35 550 537.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 15.5 35 550 537.5 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 3 2.1 35 550 537.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 1 10mm, 1b, 1c; 2 11 20mm, c; 3 21 30mm, 2c, 1b li 7 3.2 35 550 537.5 River cobbles, quartz li 2 0.4 35 550 537.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 25.2 36 487.5 500 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 2 0.4 36 487.5 500 River cobbles, quartz li 10 4.3 36 487.5 500 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6.2 37 550 550 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 7 9.4 37 550 550 Weeden Island Plain, body sherds sn 1 5.5 37 550 550 Sand tempered incised, body sherd sn 1 3.8 37 550 550 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 0.3 37 550 550 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1 HT, 2 NHT; 3 1 10mm, c li 3 0.4 37 550 550 River cobbles/burnishing stones, quartz li 3 3.1 37 550 550 Bone fragment bone 1 0.3 37 550 550 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 8.1 38 487.5 462.5 Weeden Island Plain, body sherds sn 2 3.4 38 487.5 462.5 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 0.1 38 487.5 462.5 River cobbles, quartz li 4 1.6 38 487.5 462.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 11

PAGE 409

409 39 525 537.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 8.4 39 525 537.5 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 1.2 39 525 537.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 2 1.8 39 525 537.5 Bone fragments bone 2 0.4 39 525 537.5 River cobbles, quartz li 6 2.6 39 525 537.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 7NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 8 11 20mm, 5b, 3c li 9 3 39 525 537.5 Iron fragment fe 1 2.8 39 525 537.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5.8 39 525 537.5 Burned wood fragments, partial charring, uncounted ch 10 40 537.5 500 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 3 3 40 537.5 500 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 2NHT; 2 1 10mm, 1c, 1b; 2 11 20mm, 1c, 1b li 4 1 40 537.5 500 River cobbles, quartz li 4 4 40 537.5 500 Iron sheath knife fe 1 44.1 40 537.5 500 Fulgurites gl 1 <.1 40 537.5 500 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 9.9 41 525 500 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 14 58.8 41 525 500 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 20.8 41 525 500 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 2 0.4 41 525 500 Secondary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30 mm, c li 1 2.1 41 525 500 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 15.1 42 475 500 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 3 1.6 42 475 500 St. Johns check stamped, body sherd ss 1 0.2 42 475 500 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 0.8 42 475 500 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 0.3 42 475 500 Lime fragment con 1 0.4 42 475 500 River cobbles, quartz li 7 2 43 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 2.8 43 Primary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 0.3 43 River cobbles, quartz li 12 2.9 43 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 24.2 44 500 575 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 2 1.5

PAGE 410

410 44 500 575 Expedient tool, chert, NHT li 1 2.5 44 500 575 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 0.3 44 500 575 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.4 44 500 575 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 19.9 45 500 537.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 3 3.2 45 500 537.5 St. Johns check stamped, body sherd ss 1 3.8 45 500 537.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 5 2.8 45 500 537.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT' 1 1 10mm, 1 11 20mm, both b li 2 0.4 45 500 537.5 River cobbles, quartz li 3 1.4 45 500 537.5 Fulgurites gl 5 0.7 45 500 537.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 12.6 46 500 562.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 3 2.1 46 500 562.5 River cobbles, quartz li 2 1.6 46 500 562.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 31.3 47 550 512.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 12 18.8 47 550 512.5 Weeden Island Plain, body sherds sn 2 4.1 47 550 512.5 Pasco ware, body sherd lt 1 1.3 47 550 512.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 8 6.7 47 550 512.5 River cobbles, quartz li 6 1.3 47 550 512.5 Pinellas points, chert, HT li 2 8.6 47 550 512.5 Primary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 41 50 mm, c li 1 5.7 47 550 512.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 7 1 10 mm, 6 b, 1c; 14 11 20 mm, 11b, 3c; 2 21 30mm, b li 23 8.3 47 550 512.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 27.7 48 512.5 512.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 6.3 48 512.5 512.5 Weeden Island Incised, body sherd sn 1 8.3 48 512.5 512.5 Pasco ware, body sherds lt 2 6.5 48 512.5 512.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 1 1.2 48 512.5 512.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10 mm, 1 11 20mm, both c li 2 0.4 48 512.5 512.5 River cobbles, quartz li 5 1.2 48 512.5 512.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 29.5 49 462.5 450 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 12.5

PAGE 411

411 49 462.5 450 Dunn's Creek Red, body sherds ss 1 0.4 49 462.5 450 Nondecortication flake, chert, HT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 1.6 49 462.5 450 River cobble, quartz li 4 1.9 49 462.5 450 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7.2 50 500 525 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 5 1.3 50 500 525 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 1.9 50 500 525 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.2 50 500 525 River cobbles, quartz li 2 1.3 50 500 525 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 21.2 51 537.5 537.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 8 17.1 51 537.5 537.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 6 3.3 51 537.5 537.5 River cobbles, quartz li 8 4 51 537.5 537.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 3 1 10mm, b; 6 11 20mm, 2b, 4c; 4 21 30mm, 2b, 2c li 13 7.8 51 537.5 537.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 22 52 550 525 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 19 29.6 52 550 525 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 12 25.3 52 550 525 River cobbles, quartz li 3 2 52 550 525 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 9NHT; 2 1 10mm, b; 5 11 20mm, 2b, 3c; 3 21 30mm, 2b, 1c li 10 5.8 52 550 525 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 23.4 53 475 462.5 Weeden Island Red, body sherds sn 4 14.5 53 475 462.5 Dunn's Creek Red, body sherds ss 2 8.5 53 475 462.5 Sand tempered check stamped, rim sherd sn 1 16.8 53 475 462.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 10 7.1 53 475 462.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 1 11 20mm, b li 2 0.2 53 475 462.5 River cobbles, quartz li 7 2 53 475 462.5 Fulgurites gl 1 0.1 53 475 462.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 8 54 450 475 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 6.8 54 450 475 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 14 7.3 54 450 475 River cobbles, quartz li 5 1.3 54 450 475 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7.9

PAGE 412

412 55 487.5 487.5 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 0.5 55 487.5 487.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 0.3 55 487.5 487.5 River cobbles, quartz li 7 2.7 55 487.5 487.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, b li 1 <.1 55 487.5 487.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 11 56 462.5 462.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 11 8 56 462.5 462.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, HT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 0.3 56 462.5 462.5 River cobbles, quartz li 8 2 56 462.5 462.5 Fulgurites gl 1 <.1 56 462.5 462.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 11.7 57 512.5 537.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 10 31.4 57 512.5 537.5 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 4 8.1 57 512.5 537.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 11 8 57 512.5 537.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 11 20mm, 1c, 1b li 2 0.4 57 512.5 537.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.3 57 512.5 537.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 11.9 58 500 550 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 0.9 58 500 550 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 0.2 58 500 550 River cobbles, quartz li 4 3.3 58 500 550 Nondecortication flake, chert, HT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.2 58 500 550 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7.7 59 562.5 525 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 9 6.8 59 562.5 525 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 20NHT; 8 1 10mm, 4b, 4c; 13 11 20mm, 9b, 4c; 2 21 30mm, b li 23 10.5 59 562.5 525 River cobbles, quartz li 8 5.5 59 562.5 525 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6.6 60 537.5 512.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 9 25.8 60 537.5 512.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 2 60 537.5 512.5 Pasco ware, body sherd lt 1 2.8 60 537.5 512.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 2 11 20mm, b; 1 21 30mm, c li 4 1.7 60 537.5 512.5 River cobbles, quartz li 2 0.5

PAGE 413

413 60 537.5 512.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 24.8 61 Sfc Weeden Island Red, body sherds sn 2 5.1 62 537.5 550 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 6.8 62 537.5 550 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 5 2.6 62 537.5 550 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 4 11 20mm, 1 c, 3b; 1 21 30mm, c li 6 4.1 62 537.5 550 River cobbles, quartz li 10 5.6 62 537.5 550 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 11.2 63 525 562.5 St. Johns check stamped, body sherd ss 1 3.7 63 525 562.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 4 5.6 63 525 562.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 0.7 63 525 562.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.7 63 525 562.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, 2 11 20mm, all c li 3 0.8 63 525 562.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 11.2 64 525 550 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 12 8.3 64 525 550 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 2 1 64 525 550 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 2NHT; 2 1 10mm, 1b, 1c; 1 11 20mm, b; 2 21 30mm, b li 5 4.5 64 525 550 River cobbles, quartz li 4 4 64 525 550 Rubber, patterned mod 2 0.6 64 525 550 Mica fragment li 1 <.1 64 525 550 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6 65 576 562.5 Chert object, NHT, 41 50 mm li 1 8.5 65 576 562.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 11 20mm, b li 2 0.8 65 576 562.5 River cobbles, quartz li 4 4.7 65 576 562.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1.6 66 562.5 550 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 3 4.1 66 562.5 550 St. Johns check stamped, body sherd ss 1 5.7 66 562.5 550 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 6 16.5 66 562.5 550 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 2.2 66 562.5 550 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2 67 562.5 562.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 4 3.1 67 562.5 562.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 0.6

PAGE 414

414 67 562.5 562.5 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 2.5 67 562.5 562.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.2 67 562.5 562.5 Iron fragments, uncounted fe 5.1 67 562.5 562.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1.9 68 512.5 562.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 2.9 68 512.5 562.5 River cobbles, quartz li 2 1.2 68 512.5 562.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 12.5 69 575 550 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 3 11 20mm, b li 3 0.6 69 575 550 River cobble, quartz li 1 2.4 69 575 550 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 0.2 70 512.5 550 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 3 2.2 70 512.5 550 Alachua Cob Marked, body sherd sn 1 1.3 70 512.5 550 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.2 70 512.5 550 River cobbles, quartz li 5 3.2 70 512.5 550 Glass fragment, clear gl 1 0.1 70 512.5 550 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4 71 575 587.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.4 72 512.5 575 Sand tempered check stamped, body sherd sn 1 10.7 72 512.5 575 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 1.3 72 512.5 575 River cobbles, quartz li 3 3.6 72 512.5 575 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10.7 73 550 562.5 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 1 4.8 73 550 562.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 8 3.2 73 550 562.5 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 1 0.5 73 550 562.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 6NHT; 2 1 10mm, 1b, 1c; 2 11 20mm, b; 3 21 30mm, 2b, 1c li 7 3.9 73 550 562.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.8 73 550 562.5 Glass fragment, brown gl 1 <.1 73 550 562.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 14.1 74 537.5 562.5 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 4 7.9 74 537.5 562.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 8 2.3 74 537.5 562.5 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 1 0.8

PAGE 415

415 74 537.5 562.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 8 12.7 74 537.5 562.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 5NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 6 11 20mm, 4c, 2b li 7 3.3 74 537.5 562.5 River cobbles, quartz li 6 3.2 74 537.5 562.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 22.7 75 575 575 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 3 11 20mm, b li 3 0.7 75 575 575 River cobbles, quartz li 2 1.8 75 575 575 Bone fragment, mammal bone 1 111.9 76 587.5 575 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 11 20mm, b; 1 21 30mm, c li 3 3.8 76 587.5 575 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.6 76 587.5 575 Bone fragment, mammal bone 10 15.4 76 587.5 575 Iron fragments fe 12 5.5 77 550 575 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 2 2.5 77 550 575 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 2.3 77 550 575 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 5NHT; 6 11 20mm, 2c, 4b; 2 21 30mm, b li 8 3.2 77 550 575 River cobbles, quartz li 4 0.9 77 550 575 Chert tool, scraper, NHT li 1 37.9 77 550 575 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1.1 78 562.5 575 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 0.6 78 562.5 575 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 7NHT; 4 1 10mm, b; 3 11 20mm, 1 c, 2b; 2 21 30mm, b li 9 2.8 78 562.5 575 River cobbles, quartz li 4 1.6 79 537.5 575 St. Johns check stamped, body sherd ss 1 3.6 79 537.5 575 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 7 7.6 79 537.5 575 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 3.8 79 537.5 575 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 4 11 20mm, 3 c, 1b; 1 21 30mm, c li 6 1.7 79 537.5 575 River cobbles, quartz li 3 1.8 79 537.5 575 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 18.1 80 525 575 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 5 80 525 575 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 2.6 80 525 575 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 2 0.8 80 525 575 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.2 80 525 575 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7

PAGE 416

416 81 562.5 587.5 Florida spike, chert, HT li 1 6.4 81 562.5 587.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 1NHT; 1 21 30mm, 1 31 40mm, both c li 2 6.1 82 512.5 587.5 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 5.8 82 512.5 587.5 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 6.5 82 512.5 587.5 Fulgurites gl 1 0.3 83 537.5 587.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 12 12.8 83 537.5 587.5 St. Johns plain, rim sherds ss 2 4.1 83 537.5 587.5 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 3 2.2 83 537.5 587.5 Archaic Stemmed Point, chert, HT li 1 3 83 537.5 587.5 Chert fragment, NHT; 41 50 mm li 1 14.1 83 537.5 587.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 0.2 83 537.5 587.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.8 83 537.5 587.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5.4 84 550 587.5 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 2 1.5 84 550 587.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 9 4.4 84 550 587.5 River cobbles, quartz li 2 0.7 84 550 587.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2.1 85 525 587.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 5.6 85 525 587.5 Sand tempered incised, body sherd sn 1 0.8 85 525 587.5 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 1.1 85 525 587.5 Secondary decortication flake, chert, HT; 1 31 40mm, b li 1 8 85 525 587.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 12.5 86 512.5 600 Carrabelle Punctated, rim sherd sn 1 5.2 86 512.5 600 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 6.5 86 512.5 600 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 2.5 86 512.5 600 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 21 30 mm, b li 2 2.3 86 512.5 600 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 196 87 562.5 537.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 1.4 87 562.5 537.5 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 0.3 88 575 600 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 3NHT; 3 11 20mm, 1 21 30mm, b li 4 2.8 88 575 600 River cobbles, quartz li 5 2

PAGE 417

417 89 537.5 600 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 6.9 89 537.5 600 Weeden Island red, body sherd sn 1 4.3 89 537.5 600 Limestone tempered plain, Pasco ware, body sherd lt 1 2.2 89 537.5 600 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 0.4 89 537.5 600 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2.2 90 550 600 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 5 1.2 90 550 600 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 3.7 90 550 600 Secondary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 31 40mm, c li 1 6.6 90 550 600 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1 HT, 4 NHT; 4 11 20mm, 3c, 1b; 1 21 30mm, b li 5 2.3 90 550 600 River cobbles, quartz li 3 1.4 90 550 600 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5.4 91 600 600 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 3 23.1 91 600 600 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5.6 92 587.5 562.5 River cobbles, quartz li 6 2.6 92 587.5 562.5 Charcoal fragment ch 1 < .1 92 587.5 562.5 UID material, uncounted UID 0.7 93 575 537.5 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 9.9 93 575 537.5 Chert core, NHT; 41 50mm li 1 27.9 93 575 537.5 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 1NHT; 2 31 40mm, b li 2 7.2 93 575 537.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, 1 21 30mm, both b li 2 0.8 93 575 537.5 Quartz fragment li 1 0.6 93 575 537.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1.6 94 587.5 550 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 2 11 20mm,c ; 1 21 30mm, c li 4 3.1 94 587.5 550 River cobbles, quartz li 3 1 95 562.5 600 Chert fragment, NHT; 21 30mm li 1 6.2 95 562.5 600 River cobbles, quartz li 2 1.6 96 587.5 537.5 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 2NHT; 1 11 20mm, b; 2 31 40mm, 1b, 1c li 3 7.4 96 587.5 537.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 11 20mm, b li 2 0.8 96 587.5 537.5 River cobbles, quartz li 5 1.9 96 587.5 537.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4.4 97 525 600 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 1.7

PAGE 418

418 97 525 600 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 2 0.4 97 525 600 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 4 11 20mm, 2b, 2c li 4 1.3 97 525 600 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 15.1 98 587.5 500 River cobble, quartz li 1 1.1 99 575 500 Chert core, NHT, 41 50mm li 1 38 99 575 500 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b; 2 31 40mm, 1b, 1c li 3 6.8 99 575 500 Limestone fragment li 3 15.9 99 575 500 River cobbles, quartz li 2 0.8 100 587.5 512.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.2 100 587.5 512.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.4 101 575 512.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 34.3 101 575 512.5 Primary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 51 60mm, c li 2 30.1 101 575 512.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.1 102 575 525 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, 1 21 30mm, both b li 2 1.9 102 575 525 River cobbles, quartz li 2 3.4 103 587.5 525 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 3 11 20mm, 1b, 2c li 3 1 103 587.5 525 River cobbles, quartz li 3 0.6 104 500 412.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 1.7 104 500 412.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 2 0.6 104 500 412.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 0.3 104 500 412.5 River cobbles, quartz li 2 0.2 104 500 412.5 Shells, freshwater gastropodal she 3 0.8 104 500 412.5 Fulgurites gl 1 <.1 104 500 412.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 16.9 105 500 400 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 0.1 105 500 400 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b; 1 21 30mm, c li 2 1.8 105 500 400 Shell fragments, freshwater she 2 1.1 105 500 400 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.1 105 500 400 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 15.4 106 487.5 400 River cobbles, quartz li 3 3 106 487.5 400 Fulgurites gl 1 <.1

PAGE 419

419 106 487.5 400 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 8.9 107 475 400 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 11 20mm, 1c, 1b li 2 0.3 107 475 400 River cobbles, quartz li 2 0.3 107 475 400 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 12.6 108 462.5 425 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 0.3 108 462.5 425 Secondary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 31 40mm, c li 1 8.6 108 462.5 425 River cobbles, quartz li 3 2 108 462.5 425 Iron key fe 1 3.7 108 462.5 425 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6.6 109 462.5 412.5 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 1 0.4 109 462.5 412.5 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 0.2 109 462.5 412.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 0.1 109 462.5 412.5 River cobbles, quartz li 12 6.7 109 462.5 412.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 13 110 462.5 400 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 2 3.4 110 462.5 400 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 4.6 110 462.5 400 River cobbles, quartz li 14 6.6 110 462.5 400 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 13 111 450 462.5 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 0.3 111 450 462.5 River cobbles, quartz li 6 4.6 111 450 462.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 9.8 112 462.5 437.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 0.3 112 462.5 437.5 River cobbles, quartz li 3 2.5 112 462.5 437.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1.4 113 450 450 Sand tempered check stamped, body sherd sn 1 2.6 113 450 450 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 0.4 113 450 450 Secondary decortication flake, chert, HT; 1 41 50mm, c li 1 6.7 113 450 450 River cobbles, quartz li 10 3.1 113 450 450 Fulgurites gl 1 <.1 113 450 450 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 16.7 114 450 437.5 River cobbles, quartz li 7 5.9

PAGE 420

420 114 450 437.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5.9 115 450 425 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 2 0.7 115 450 425 River cobbles, quartz li 6 2.8 115 450 425 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 11.7 116 437.5 450 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 9 18.4 116 437.5 450 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 1.4 116 437.5 450 River cobbles, quartz li 6 2.4 116 437.5 450 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4.9 117 437.5 462.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 3 5.7 117 437.5 462.5 Blade/expedient tool, chert, HT; 31 40 mm, b li 1 1.7 117 437.5 462.5 River cobbles, quartz li 4 7.2 117 437.5 462.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 9.3 118 437.5 437.5 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 0.2 118 437.5 437.5 River cobbles, quartz li 9 3.2 118 437.5 437.5 Burnishing stone, quartz li 1 3.5 118 437.5 437.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.5 118 437.5 437.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7.5 119 450 400 St. Johns check stamped, body sherd ss 1 5.5 119 450 400 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 0.4 119 450 400 River cobbles, quartz li 26 9 119 450 400 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 0.3 119 450 400 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 11.7 120 450 412.5 Bone fragment, mammal bone 7 12.6 120 450 412.5 River cobbles, quartz li 22 120 450 412.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 121 437.5 400 River cobbles, quartz li 26 121 437.5 400 Fulgurites gl 1 121 437.5 400 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 122 437.5 412.5 River cobbles, quartz li 13 122 437.5 412.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 123 437.5 425 Nondecortication flake, chert, HT: 1 11 20mm, b li 1

PAGE 421

421 123 437.5 425 River cobbles, quartz li 9 123 437.5 425 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 124 437.5 475 River cobbles, quartz li 7 124 437.5 475 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 125 437.5 487.5 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 125 437.5 487.5 Weeden Island Plain, body sherds sn 1 125 437.5 487.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 125 437.5 487.5 Burnishing stone, quartz li 1 125 437.5 487.5 River cobbles, quartz li 6 125 437.5 487.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 126 425 425 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 126 425 425 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 126 425 425 River cobbles, quartz li 7 126 425 425 Glass fragments, clear gl 4 126 425 425 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 127 425 400 River cobbles, quartz li 23 127 425 400 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 128 425 412.5 River cobbles, quartz li 8 128 425 412.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 129 425 437.5 River cobbles, quartz li 5 129 425 437.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 130 425 450 Nondecortication flake, chert, HT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 130 425 450 River cobbles, quartz li 14 131 425 475 River cobbles, quartz li 6 131 425 475 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 132 425 487.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 132 425 487.5 River cobbles, quartz li 5 132 425 487.5 Fulgurites gl 1 132 425 487.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 133 412.5 487.5 River cobbles, quartz li 1 133 412.5 487.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch

PAGE 422

422 134 425 462.5 River cobbles, quartz li 6 134 425 462.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10.9 135 500 462.5 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 0.1 135 500 462.5 River cobbles, quartz li 3 0.7 135 500 462.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 8.8 136 500 450 Weeden Island Red, body sherd sn 1 2.3 136 500 450 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.2 136 500 450 Bone fragment bone 1 0.8 136 500 450 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6.2 137 500 437.5 Chert fragment, NHT li 1 1.3 137 500 437.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c li 1 <.1 137 500 437.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.4 137 500 437.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4.1 138 487.5 425 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 2.3 138 487.5 425 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 2NHT; 2 21 30mm, c; 1 31 40mm, c li 3 6.7 138 487.5 425 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c li 1 <.1 138 487.5 425 River cobbles, quartz li 3 1.3 138 487.5 425 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6.8 139 500 425 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 0.2 139 500 425 Nondecortication flake, chert, HT; 1 21 30mm, c li 1 0.6 139 500 425 River cobbles, quartz li 2 1.3 139 500 425 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6 140 500 437.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 2 0.4 140 500 437.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 1.2 140 500 437.5 River cobbles, quartz li 1 1 3.6 140 500 437.5 Bone fragment bone 1 0.4 140 500 437.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 8.1 141 487.5 450 Dunn's Creek Red, body sherds ss 1 0.3 141 487.5 450 Secondary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30 mm, c li 1 1.9 141 487.5 450 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5.1

PAGE 423

423 142 500 475 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 4 7.4 142 500 475 River cobbles, quartz li 4 2 142 500 475 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 15.7 143 412.5 400 River cobbles, quartz li 3 8 17.4 143 412.5 400 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6 144 400 412.5 River cobbles, quartz li 3 2 11.9 144 400 412.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5 144 400 412.5 Fulgurites gl 1 0.1 145 Sfc St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 4 0.9 146 412.5 412.5 River cobbles, quartz li 1 9 9.2 146 412.5 412.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 14.6 147 412.5 425 River cobbles, quartz li 1 3 6.5 147 412.5 425 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10.7 148 400 400 River cobbles, quartz li 5 7 32.6 148 400 400 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 14.9 148 400 400 Fulgurites gl 1 <.1 149 400 425 River cobbles, quartz li 1 5 5.9 149 400 425 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 18.3 149 400 425 Fulgurites gl 1 0.2 150 Sfc Weeden Island Plain, body sherds sn 2 1.7 151 400 450 Iron fragments fe 1 0.3 151 400 450 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0 4.5 151 400 450 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10.9 152 400 462.5 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 0.1 152 400 462.5 Secondary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 31 40mm, c 1 2.3 152 400 462.5 River cobbles, quartz li 5 2.5 152 400 462.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5.1

PAGE 424

424 153 412.5 450 River cobbles, quartz li 2 0 7.8 153 412.5 450 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7 154 412.5 437.5 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0 3.8 154 412.5 437.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 13.8 155 400 437.5 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 <.1 155 400 437.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 1 10mm, 1b, 1c; 3 11 20mm, 1b, 2c; 1 31 40mm, c li 6 3.8 155 400 437.5 River cobbles, quartz li 2 0 11.5 155 400 437.5 Bone fragment bone 1 <.1 155 400 437.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 9.2 156 Sfc St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 3 0.7 157 475 450 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 4 6.3 157 475 450 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 0.6 157 475 450 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, b li 1 <.1 157 475 450 River cobbles, quartz li 2 1 157 475 450 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2.4 158 412.5 500 Bone fragments bone 3 0.6 158 412.5 500 River cobbles, quartz li 2 0.4 158 412.5 500 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7.3 159 425 500 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 0.2 159 425 500 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c li 1 <.1 159 425 500 Bone fragments bone 2 0.2 159 425 500 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4.6 160 400 500 River cobbles, quartz li 6 2.4 160 400 500 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3.6 161 437.5 500 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.2 161 437.5 500 River cobbles, quartz li 6 2.9 161 437.5 500 Bone fragment bone 1 0.3 161 437.5 500 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6.4 162 450 500 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 7 1.1

PAGE 425

425 162 450 500 River cobbles, quartz li 5 1 162 450 500 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1.2 163 400 475 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 0.1 163 400 475 River cobbles, quartz li 7 2.7 163 400 475 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 9.7 164 400 487.5 River cobbles, quartz li 8 5.8 164 400 487.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3.9 165 412.5 475 River cobbles, quartz li 8 3 165 412.5 475 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3.4 166 412.5 462.5 River cobbles, quartz li 4 1.6 166 412.5 462.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2.6 167 475 437.5 Secondary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 31 40mm, b li 1 2.5 167 475 437.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, b li 1 <.1 167 475 437.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3.7 168 475 412.5 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 0.3 168 475 412.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, HT; 2 11 20mm, b li 2 0.3 168 475 412.5 River cobbles, quartz li 3 0.9 168 475 412.5 Unidentified object 1 0.7 168 475 412.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6.3 169 475 425 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.1 169 475 425 Sandstone fragment li 1 0.8 169 475 425 River cobbles, quartz li 4 1.8 169 475 425 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10.9 170 550 487.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 3 3 170 550 487.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 4.9 170 550 487.5 Limestone tempered plain, Pasco ware, body sherd lt 1 0.4 170 550 487.5 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 2NHT; 1 11 20mm, b; 1 21 30mm, b; 1 31 40mm, c li 3 6.4 170 550 487.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 7NHT; 8 11 20mm, 5b, 3c li 8 2.1 170 550 487.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10.1 171 487.5 437.5 Limestone tempered plain, Pasco ware, body sherd lt 1 <.1 171 487.5 437.5 Bone fragment bone 1 1.6

PAGE 426

426 171 487.5 437.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 1 10mm, 1b, 1c; 1 11 20mm, c; 1 21 30mm, b li 4 2.5 171 487.5 437.5 River cobbles, quartz li 2 1.1 171 487.5 437.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4.6 172 487.5 475 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 0.4 172 487.5 475 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 0.3 172 487.5 475 River cobbles, quartz li 2 0.1 172 487.5 475 Bone fragment bone 1 1.7 172 487.5 475 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10.1 173 537.5 487.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 3 0.9 173 537.5 487.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 1.4 173 537.5 487.5 Secondary decortication flake, chert, HT; 1 21 30mm, b li 1 0.7 173 537.5 487.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 2NHT; 2 1 10mm, 1c, 1b; 2 11 20mm, c li 4 0.6 173 537.5 487.5 River cobbles, quartz li 3 1.4 173 537.5 487.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10.1 174 512.5 487.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 3 1 174 512.5 487.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c li 1 <.1 174 512.5 487.5 River cobbles, quartz li 4 2.3 174 512.5 487.5 Bone fragments bone 2 0.2 174 512.5 487.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4.2 175 487.5 412.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 0.5 175 487.5 412.5 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.8 175 487.5 412.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7.9 176 575 475 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 5 4.2 176 575 475 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 3 176 575 475 Hernando point, chert, HT li 1 11.5 176 575 475 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 6NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 4 11 20mm, 3b, 1c; 1 21 30mm, b li 7 3.6 176 575 475 Unidentified object UID 8 13.5 177 562.5 475 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 5 2.4 177 562.5 475 Bone fragment bone 1 0.6 177 562.5 475 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 3 21 30mm, 1b, 2c; 1 31 40mm, c li 4 10.1 177 562.5 475 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 4NHT; 5 11 20mm, 2b, 3c li 5 1.8

PAGE 427

427 177 562.5 475 Limestone fragment li 1 5.9 177 562.5 475 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.7 177 562.5 475 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10.3 178 575 487.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, HT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.6 178 575 487.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 17.1 179 512.5 475 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 6 5.6 179 512.5 475 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 2.3 179 512.5 475 St. Johns simple stamped, body sherds ss 2 14.1 179 512.5 475 River cobbles, quartz li 5 3.7 179 512.5 475 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 1 21 30mm, b li 2 0.4 179 512.5 475 Unidentified object UID 1 1.6 179 512.5 475 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 20.4 180 562.5 487.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 4 4.9 180 562.5 487.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 21.5 180 562.5 487.5 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 3NHT; 4 21 30mm, 2b, 2c li 4 9.3 180 562.5 487.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 5NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 6 11 20mm, 5b, 1c; 1 21 30mm, b li 8 3.5 180 562.5 487.5 Bone fragment bone 1 <.1 180 562.5 487.5 River cobbles, quartz li 2 2.2 180 562.5 487.5 Limestone fragment li 1 1.7 180 562.5 487.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7.8 181 537.5 475 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 7 2.5 181 537.5 475 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 0.7 181 537.5 475 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 3 1 10mm, 2c, 1b; 2 11 20mm, c; 1 21 30mm, c li 6 2.2 181 537.5 475 River cobbles, quartz li 2 2.8 181 537.5 475 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7.4 182 587.5 475 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 6 182 587.5 475 Limestone object li 1 43 182 587.5 475 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 1 11 20mm, c; 1 21 30mm, b li 3 1.9 183 550 475 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 8 3.2 183 550 475 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 1.8 183 550 475 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 2.2

PAGE 428

428 183 550 475 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 5HT, 9NHT; 10 11 20mm, 3c, 7b; 4 21 30mm, c li 1 4 10.4 183 550 475 Bone fragment bone 1 0.1 183 550 475 Unidentified object UID 5 2.6 183 550 475 River cobbles, quartz li 4 2.5 183 550 475 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7.6 184 587.5 487.5 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 2 4.2 184 587.5 487.5 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 2 9.3 184 587.5 487.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 4 4.2 184 587.5 487.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 1NHT; 1 11 20mm, b; 1 21 30mm, c li 2 2.9 184 587.5 487.5 Chert tool, NHT; handaxe/scraper li 1 107.4 184 587.5 487.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2.5 185 562.5 450 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 8 4.3 185 562.5 450 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 0.4 185 562.5 450 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 4HT, 12 NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 14 11 20mm, 10c, 4b; 1 21 30mm, b li 1 6 5.9 185 562.5 450 Bone fragment bone 1 1 185 562.5 450 Limestone fragment li 1 0.6 185 562.5 450 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.7 185 562.5 450 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 13.7 186 600 487.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 3NHT; 2 11 20mm, b; 2 21 30mm, 1b, 1c; 1 31 40mm, c li 5 3.8 186 600 487.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2.4 187 550 450 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 2 3.3 187 550 450 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 1.4 187 550 450 Limestone fragment li 1 2.8 187 550 450 Mica fragment li 1 <.1 187 550 450 Secondary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 31 40mm, c li 1 5.3 187 550 450 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 9NHT; 2 1 10mm, c; 9 11 20mm, 3c, 6b li 1 1 3.5 187 550 450 Bone fragments bone 3.1 187 550 450 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7.9 188 512.5 462.5 St. Johns check stamped, body sherd ss 1 1.4

PAGE 429

429 188 512.5 462.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 2 0.7 188 512.5 462.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 5.1 188 512.5 462.5 Sand tempered simple stamped, body sherds sn 2 6.8 188 512.5 462.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 0.9 188 512.5 462.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.3 188 512.5 462.5 River cobbles, quartz li 4 1.4 188 512.5 462.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10.3 189 537.5 462.5 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 2 0.6 189 537.5 462.5 Weeden Island Plain, body sherds sn 1 0.9 189 537.5 462.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 7.2 189 537.5 462.5 Red ochre/hematite fragment li 1 0.4 189 537.5 462.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 4NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 4 11 20mm, 2c, 2b; 1 21 30mm, b; 1 31 40mm, c li 7 7.4 189 537.5 462.5 River cobbles, quartz li 2 0.5 189 537.5 462.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10.2 190 525 462.5 St. John check stamped, body sherds ss 3 12.6 190 525 462.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 1 5 18 190 525 462.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 4NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 3 11 20mm, 2c, 1b; 1 21 30mm, c li 5 2.6 190 525 462.5 Clay fragment li 1 2.1 190 525 462.5 River cobbles, quartz li 2 1.3 190 525 462.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 14 191 550 462.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 8 10.6 191 550 462.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 3.1 191 550 462.5 Weeden Island Red, body sherds sn 1 0.4 191 550 462.5 Primary decorticationflakes, chert, 1HT, 1NHT; 1 11 20mm, 1 31 40mm, c li 2 5.1 191 550 462.5 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 1NHT; 1 21 30mm, 1 41 50mm, c li 2 4.1 191 550 462.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 5HT, 8NHT; 3 1 10mm, 2b, 1c; 9 11 20mm, 1c, 8b; 1 21 30mm, c li 1 3 4.5 191 550 462.5 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.4 191 550 462.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 13.1 192 525 450 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 4.7

PAGE 430

430 192 525 450 Nondecortication flake, chert, HT; 1 21 30mm, b li 1 1.6 192 525 450 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.7 192 525 450 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6.1 193 512.5 450 Weeden Island Plain, body sherds sn 1 3.8 193 512.5 450 Pasco ware, body sherd lt 1 5.5 193 512.5 450 St. Johns check stamped, body sherd ss 1 2.3 193 512.5 450 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 5 6.6 193 512.5 450 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 1 1.6 193 512.5 450 River cobbles, quartz li 2 0.9 193 512.5 450 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 13.2 194 537.5 450 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 8 4.5 194 537.5 450 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 3NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 3 11 20mm, 1c, 2b; 1 21 30mm, c li 5 3.6 194 537.5 450 Bone fragments bone 2 1.2 194 537.5 450 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.5 194 537.5 450 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 8.7 195 562.5 462.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 9 195 562.5 462.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 5 1.6 195 562.5 462.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 13NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 8 11 20mm, 4c, 4b; 6 21 30mm, 3c, 3b li 1 5 9.2 195 562.5 462.5 Limestone fragment li 1 0.6 195 562.5 462.5 River cobbles, quartz li 1 1 195 562.5 462.5 Bone fragments bone 3 2.2 195 562.5 462.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6.8 196 537.5 425 Weeden Island Plain, body sherds sn 1 4.9 196 537.5 425 Sand tempered incised, body sherd sn 1 5.7 196 537.5 425 Weeden Island Punctated, body sherd sn 1 3.7 196 537.5 425 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 0.3 196 537.5 425 Primary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, c li 1 3.2 196 537.5 425 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 3 11 20mm, c; 1 21 30mm, b li 4 3 196 537.5 425 Limestone fragment li 1 0.1 196 537.5 425 River cobbles, quartz li 1 4.5

PAGE 431

431 196 537.5 425 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 8.9 197 525 437.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 7 20.3 197 525 437.5 Wakulla check stamped, rim sherd ss 1 7.1 197 525 437.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 <.1 197 525 437.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5.3 198 525 425 Limestone tempered plain, Pasco ware, body sherd lt 3 13.8 198 525 425 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 3 10.6 198 525 425 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 0.8 198 525 425 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c; 2 31 40mm, 1c, 1b li 3 11.5 198 525 425 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 1 10mm, c; 1 11 20mm, b li 3 0.3 198 525 425 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5.1 199 512.5 437.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 3 2.5 199 512.5 437.5 St. Johns check stamped, body sherd ss 2 9.3 199 512.5 437.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 9.7 199 512.5 437.5 Bone fragment bone 1 0.1 199 512.5 437.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6.7 200 575 462.5 St. Johns check stamped, body sherd ss 1 1.8 200 575 462.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 2 8 40 200 575 462.5 Secondary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 31 40mm, c li 1 1 200 575 462.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 6NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 6 11 20mm, 2b, 4c li 7 0.9 200 575 462.5 Bone fragment bone 1 0.1 200 575 462.5 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.5 200 575 462.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10.2 201 512.5 425 Weeden Island Plain, body sherds sn 3 10.7 201 512.5 425 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 2 1.2 201 512.5 425 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 8.2 201 512.5 425 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 2.3 201 512.5 425 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 0.1 201 512.5 425 Bone fragment bone 1 0.3 201 512.5 425 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3.7

PAGE 432

432 202 537.5 425 St. Johns check stamped, body sherd ss 1 1.4 202 537.5 425 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 3 0.8 202 537.5 425 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 2.6 202 537.5 425 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 2NHT; 2 1 10mm, 1b, 1c; 1 11 20mm, b; 1 31 40mm, c li 4 4.4 202 537.5 425 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.3 202 537.5 425 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10.5 203 550 425 St. Johns check stamped, body sherd ss 1 1.3 203 550 425 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 6 5.7 203 550 425 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 8.9 203 550 425 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 4NHT; 2 1 10mm, 2 11 20mm, 1 21 30mm, all b li 5 2 203 550 425 Bone fragments bone 3 1.8 203 550 425 River cobbles, quartz li 4 1.8 203 550 425 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 11.4 204 562.5 437.5 St. Johns check stamped, body sherd ss 1 0.4 204 562.5 437.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 9 3.5 204 562.5 437.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 6 6 204 562.5 437.5 Sand tempered check stamped, body sherd sn 1 0.9 204 562.5 437.5 Expedient tool, chert, HT(?); 31 40mm li 1 4.2 204 562.5 437.5 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 2NHT; 1 21 30mm, b; 1 31 40mm, 1b, 1c li 3 10.1 204 562.5 437.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 4HT, 15NHT; 3 1 10mm, 2b, 1c; 16 11 20mm, 8b, 8c li 1 9 5.2 204 562.5 437.5 Bone fragments bone 9 4.7 204 562.5 437.5 River cobbles, quartz li 1 1 204 562.5 437.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 9.7 205 550 437.5 St. Johns plain, body sherd, effigy sherd ss 1 6.4 205 550 437.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 1 2 4.9 205 550 437.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 1 15.8 205 550 437.5 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 6 205 550 437.5 Limestone tempered plain, Pasco ware, rim sherd lt 1 4 205 550 437.5 Archaic Stemmed Point, chert, HT li 1 7.4

PAGE 433

433 205 550 437.5 River cobbles, quartz li 1 2.2 205 550 437.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 4NHT; 4 11 20mm, 2b, 2c; 2 21 30mm, b li 6 3.5 205 550 437.5 Unidentified object UID 1 <.1 205 550 437.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 20.6 206 587.5 425 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 2.4 206 587.5 425 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 1.8 206 587.5 425 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 14NHT; 3 1 10mm, 2c, 1b; 13 11 20mm, 6c, 7b; 1 21 30mm, b li 1 7 6.9 206 587.5 425 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.5 206 587.5 425 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5.8 207 587.5 450 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 3 207 587.5 450 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 1.4 207 587.5 450 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 0.4 207 587.5 450 Weeden Island Plain, body sherds sn 1 2.1 207 587.5 450 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 5HT, 11NHT; 3 1 10mm, 1b, 2c; 7 11 20mm, 4b, 3c; 6 21 30mm, 3b, 3c li 1 6 12.5 207 587.5 450 Limestone fragment li 1 4.9 207 587.5 450 River cobbles, quartz li 3 1.7 207 587.5 450 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4.9 208 587.5 462.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 2.5 208 587.5 462.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5.6 209 575 425 St. Johns simple stamped, body sherds ss 1 11.5 209 575 425 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 0.2 209 575 425 Sand tempered punctated, body sherd sn 1 11.3 209 575 425 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 0.4 209 575 425 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 9NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 6 11 20mm, 3c, 3b; 2 21 30mm, 1b, 1c; 2 31 40mm, c li 1 1 15.8 209 575 425 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3.6 210 600 462.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 3 11 20mm, 1c, 2b li 3 0.6 210 600 462.5 River cobbles, quartz li 1 2.1 210 600 462.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1 211 575 450 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 2 2.8

PAGE 434

434 211 575 450 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 2 2.4 211 575 450 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 5 5.3 211 575 450 Limestone tempered plain, Pasco ware, body sherd lt 1 5.2 211 575 450 Florida spike, chert, HT li 1 7.3 211 575 450 Limestone fragment li 6 11.5 211 575 450 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, b; 1 41 50mm, c li 2 5.3 211 575 450 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 4HT, 8NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 10 11 20mm, 4c, 6b; 1 21 30mm, c li 1 2 7 211 575 450 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.3 211 575 450 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5 212 575 437.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 2.6 212 575 437.5 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 8.7 212 575 437.5 Chert fragment, expedient tool (scraper?), HT, 41 50 mm li 1 13.9 212 575 437.5 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 0.2 212 575 437.5 River cobbles, quartz li 5 5.9 212 575 437.5 Primary decortication flake, chert, HT; 1 31 40mm, c li 1 2 212 575 437.5 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 7NHT; 3 11 20mm, 1c, 2b; 7 21 30mm, 5c, 2b li 1 0 21.8 212 575 437.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 7HT, 16NHT; 7 1 10mm, 4c, 3b; 15 11 20mm, 6c, 9b; 1 21 30mm, b li 2 3 6.3 212 575 437.5 Limestone fragment li 1 1.6 212 575 437.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2.8 213 562.5 425 St. John plain, body sherds ss 1 2 13.7 213 562.5 425 Secondary decortication flake, chert, HT; 1 41 50mm, c li 1 9.3 213 562.5 425 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 8NHT; 3 1 10mm, c; 5 11 20mm, 3c, 2b; 1 21 30mm, b li 9 3.2 213 562.5 425 Bone fragments bone 8 6.1 213 562.5 425 River cobbles, quartz li 5 2.5 213 562.5 425 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 11.5 214 612.5 425 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 2 1.9 214 612.5 425 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 3NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 4 11 20mm, 2b, 2c li 5 0.8 214 612.5 425 River cobbles, quartz li 3 1.5 214 612.5 425 Bone fragment bone 1 0.6

PAGE 435

435 214 612.5 425 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1.7 215 537.5 412.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 5.9 215 537.5 412.5 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 9.3 215 537.5 412.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 11 20mm, b li 2 0.3 215 537.5 412.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 11.7 216 575 400 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 5 7.3 216 575 400 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 0.6 216 575 400 Weeden Island Plain, body sherds sn 1 2.9 216 575 400 St. Johns incised, rim sherd ss 1 1.8 216 575 400 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 1 10mm, c; 5 11 20mm, 3b, 3c; 1 21 30mm, c li 8 2.2 216 575 400 River cobbles, quartz li 8 5.9 216 575 400 Bone fragment bone 1 <.1 216 575 400 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 8.4 217 512.5 400 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 5.9 217 512.5 400 Nondecortication flake, chert, HT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.1 217 512.5 400 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.2 217 512.5 400 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 9.4 218 550 400 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 0.7 218 550 400 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 1NHT; 2 11 20mm, 1b, 1c li 2 0.6 218 550 400 River cobbles, quartz li 3 2.1 218 550 400 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 9.9 219 537.5 400 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 3 1.1 219 537.5 400 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 0.4 219 537.5 400 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 1NHT; 2 21 30mm, b li 2 1.8 219 537.5 400 River cobbles, quartz li 5 4.4 219 537.5 400 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7.7 220 550 412.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 2 0.9 220 550 412.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 3NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 3 11 20mm, 2c, 1b li 4 1.1 220 550 412.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 8.6 221 512.5 412.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 0.2 221 512.5 412.5 River cobbles, quartz li 1 1.1

PAGE 436

436 221 512.5 412.5 Unidentified object UID 1 <.1 221 512.5 412.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 15.2 222 425 400 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 1 4 30.8 222 425 400 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 3.6 222 425 400 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, b li 1 <.1 222 425 400 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6.8 223 425 412.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 2 0.5 223 425 412.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 3.1 223 425 412.5 River cobbles, quartz li 3 0.8 223 425 412.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 13.2 224 562.5 412.5 St. Johns check stamped, body sherd ss 1 3.7 224 562.5 412.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 3 18.4 224 562.5 412.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 1.3 224 562.5 412.5 Limestone fragment li 1 1.8 224 562.5 412.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 4HT, 6NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 7 11 20mm, c; 2 21 30mm, 1b, 1c li 1 0 4.2 224 562.5 412.5 River cobbles, quartz li 4 2.8 224 562.5 412.5 Bone fragment bone 1 1 224 562.5 412.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 9.6 225 562.5 400 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 2 1.6 225 562.5 400 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 7 2.2 225 562.5 400 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 0.4 225 562.5 400 Sand tempered punctated, body sherd sn 1 2.6 225 562.5 400 Limestone tempered plain, Pasco ware, body sherd lt 2 1 225 562.5 400 Bone fragment bone 1 0.3 225 562.5 400 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 6 11 20mm, 4c, 2b; 1 21 30mm, b li 7 2.1 225 562.5 400 River cobbles, quartz li 2 0.6 225 562.5 400 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 14.6 226 587.5 450 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 2 1.7 226 587.5 450 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 3.4 226 587.5 450 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 4NHT; 5 11 20mm, 4c, 1b; 1 21 30mm, c li 6 6.1

PAGE 437

437 227 600 425 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 1 5.3 227 600 425 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 4 11 20mm, 3c, 1b; 4 21 30mm, c; 1 31 40mm, c li 9 16.3 227 600 425 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.7 228 600 437.5 St. Johns check stamped, body sherd ss 1 1.3 228 600 437.5 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 3.2 228 600 437.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 4 228 600 437.5 River cobbles, quartz li 3 1.5 228 600 437.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 5 11 20mm, 3c, 2b; 1 21 30mm, c li 6 2.8 229 612.5 437.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 3 3 229 612.5 437.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 1.4 229 612.5 437.5 Limestone tempered plain, Pasco ware, body sherd lt 1 6.1 229 612.5 437.5 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, 1 21 30mm, c li 2 3.2 229 612.5 437.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 4NHT; 6 11 20mm, c li 6 1.7 229 612.5 437.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 8.4 230 587.5 412.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 2 0.8 230 587.5 412.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 1.4 230 587.5 412.5 Scrapers/knives, chert, 1 HT, 2NHT; all 41 50mm li 3 52.4 230 587.5 412.5 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, 1 31 40mm, c li 2 4.4 230 587.5 412.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 14NHT; 5 1 10mm, 1c, 4b; 10 11 20mm, 5c, 5b; 1 21 30mm, c li 1 6 4.3 230 587.5 412.5 River cobbles, quartz li 3 1.4 230 587.5 412.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2.3 231 Sfc St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 0.2 231 Sfc Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, b li 1 1.6 232 575 412.5 St. Johns check stamped, body sherd ss 1 0.7 232 575 412.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 1 1 4.1 232 575 412.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 4.4 232 575 412.5 Iron fragments fe 1 0.1 232 575 412.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 5NHT; 2 1 10mm, c; 6 11 20mm, 3c, 3b li 8 2.4 232 575 412.5 River cobbles, quartz li 5 3.7 232 575 412.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5.2

PAGE 438

438 233 600 400 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 4 4 233 600 400 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 0.3 233 600 400 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 4NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 6 11 20mm, 3c, 3b li 7 0.8 233 600 400 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.2 233 600 400 Lead shell, modern (?) fe 1 9.3 233 600 400 Bone fragments bone 2 0.5 233 600 400 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1.6 234 612.5 400 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 1 0.5 234 612.5 400 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 11 20mm, 1c, 1b; 2 21 30mm, 1c, 1b li 4 4.2 234 612.5 400 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 9.7 235 612.5 412.5 Wakulla check stamped, rim sherd ss 1 27.1 235 612.5 412.5 Sand tempered simple stamped, rim sherd sn 1 3.1 235 612.5 412.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 2 1.1 235 612.5 412.5 Bone fragments bone 2 0.6 235 612.5 412.5 Nondecortication flakes, 2HT, 2NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 2 11 20mm, 1b, 1c; 1 21 30mm, b li 4 2.4 235 612.5 412.5 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.5 235 612.5 412.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4.7 236 475 525 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 4 2.1 236 475 525 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 1.3 236 475 525 River cobbles, quartz li 4 1.5 236 475 525 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 12.9 237 475 512.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 2.6 237 475 512.5 River cobbles, quartz li 4 3.8 237 475 512.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 11 238 487.5 525 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 0.1 238 487.5 525 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 0.6 238 487.5 525 River cobbles, quartz li 2 1.1 238 487.5 525 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10.3 239 450 525 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 1 1.3 239 450 525 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 0.1 239 450 525 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 13.8

PAGE 439

439 240 450 512.5 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 0.4 240 450 512.5 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.4 240 450 512.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2.6 241 462.5 525 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 14.4 241 462.5 525 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.6 241 462.5 525 Nondecortication flakes, chert, HT; 1 21 30mm, c li 1 0.5 241 462.5 525 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7.9 242 462.5 512.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 5 2.8 242 462.5 512.5 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 1 0.8 242 462.5 512.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 11 20mm, c li 2 0.3 242 462.5 512.5 Bone fragments bone 1 0.4 242 462.5 512.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10.9 243 487.5 512.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c li 1 <.1 243 487.5 512.5 River cobbles, quartz li 3 0.8 243 487.5 512.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6.3 244 477.5 525 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 0.2 244 477.5 525 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 1.7 244 477.5 525 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 13.8 245 425 512.5 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 0.1 245 425 512.5 River cobbles, quartz li 3 1.6 245 425 512.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 12.2 246 412.5 525 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10.5 247 425 525 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.5 247 425 525 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5.2 248 412.5 512.5 St. Johns check stamped, body sherd ss 4 14.1 248 412.5 512.5 River cobbles, quartz li 5 2.1 248 412.5 512.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 18.9 249 437.5 512.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, c li 1 2 249 437.5 512.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2.9 250 487.5 577.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 1.1 250 487.5 577.5 River cobbles, quartz li 1 2.9

PAGE 440

440 250 487.5 577.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.7 250 487.5 577.5 Sandstone fragment li 1 47.8 250 487.5 577.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 8.9 251 487.5 550 Sand tempered punctated, body sherd sn 1 14.7 251 487.5 550 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 1.9 251 487.5 550 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 13.6 252 412.5 550 Limestone tempered plain, Pasco ware, body sherd lt 1 2 34.7 252 412.5 550 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 0.5 252 412.5 550 River cobbles, quartz li 2 0.7 252 412.5 550 Secondary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30 mm, c li 1 6.8 253 400 512.5 River cobbles, quartz li 3 1.5 253 400 512.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 9.7 254 400 525 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, 1 21 30mm, both c li 2 1.2 254 400 525 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 12.1 255 400 537.5 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 0.3 255 400 537.5 St. Johns check stamped, body sherd ss 1 1.1 255 400 537.5 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 1 41.9 255 400 537.5 Bone fragments bone 1 <.1 255 400 537.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10.2 256 400 550 Limestone tempered plain, Pasco ware, body sherd lt 1 1.9 256 400 550 River cobbles, quartz li 1 3 256 400 550 Bone fragments bone 1 0.1 256 400 550 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10.9 257 412.5 537.5 St. Johns check stamped, body sherd ss 1 0.9 257 412.5 537.5 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 0.3 257 412.5 537.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 6.1 257 412.5 537.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 12.9 258 437.5 550 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 0.2 258 437.5 550 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.4 258 437.5 550 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5.5

PAGE 441

441 259 437.5 537.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 3 7.7 259 437.5 537.5 Weeden Island Plain, body sherds sn 2 1.7 259 437.5 537.5 Weeden Island Plain, rim sherd sn 1 6.5 259 437.5 537.5 Sandstone fragment li 2 2 259 437.5 537.5 River cobbles, quartz li 5 4.1 259 437.5 537.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 0.3 259 437.5 537.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10.6 260 425 550 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 8.9 260 425 550 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 3NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 3 11 20mm, 1c, 2b li 4 2 260 425 550 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10.3 261 425 537.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 18.3 262 462.5 537.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 3.5 262 462.5 537.5 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 0.5 262 462.5 537.5 Iron fragments fe 1 0.9 262 462.5 537.5 River cobbles, quartz li 1 1 262 462.5 537.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, HT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.6 262 462.5 537.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 25.8 263 450 537.5 River cobbles, quartz li 1 1 263 450 537.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, b li 1 0.7 263 450 537.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 35.8 264 475 537.5 Weeden Island Plain, body sherds sn 2 5.5 264 475 537.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 2 1.9 264 475 537.5 Bone fragments bone 1 0.2 264 475 537.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7.3 265 487.5 562.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 9.3 265 487.5 562.5 Limestone tempered plain, Pasco ware, body sherd lt 3 6 265 487.5 562.5 Secondary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 41 50 mm, c li 1 8.2 265 487.5 562.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 1NHT; 1 110mm, 1 11 20mm, 1 21 30mm, all c li 3 0.7 265 487.5 562.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 15.2 266 462.5 562.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 4.9 266 462.5 562.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 2 0.2

PAGE 442

442 266 462.5 562.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 14 267 475 562.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 1.6 267 475 562.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, HT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 0.2 267 475 562.5 Shell fragments, freshwater she 1 0.1 267 475 562.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7.5 268 450 562.5 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 4 2.5 268 450 562.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 2.5 268 450 562.5 St. Johns plain, rim sherds ss 2 4.7 268 450 562.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 <.1 268 450 562.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 12 269 412.5 562.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 3 2 269 412.5 562.5 Limestone tempered plain, Pasco ware, body sherd lt 1 0.4 269 412.5 562.5 River cobbles, quartz li 3 7.5 269 412.5 562.5 Limestone fragment li 1 2.9 269 412.5 562.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 22 270 400 562.5 River cobbles, quartz li 3 1.3 270 400 562.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 19.2 271 425 562.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 9.2 271 425 562.5 River cobbles, quartz li 2 1.2 271 425 562.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 27.9 272 437.5 562.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 12.9 273 475 550 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5.1 274 400 575 River cobbles, quartz li 2 0.6 274 400 575 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3.8 275 487.5 575 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 1.1 275 487.5 575 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 2NHT; 1 1 10mm, 2 11 20mm, c li 3 1.4 275 487.5 575 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 12.8 276 412.5 575 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 2 5 276 412.5 575 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.8 276 412.5 575 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7.8 277 425 575 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 1.9

PAGE 443

443 277 425 575 River cobbles, quartz li 3 1 277 425 575 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 15.5 278 475 575 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 13.6 279 462.5 575 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 0.8 279 462.5 575 River cobbles, quartz li 3 1.2 279 462.5 575 Lithic, function unidentified li 1 0.4 279 462.5 575 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 13.5 280 450 575 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 2 4.2 280 450 575 River cobbles, quartz li 3 2.3 280 450 575 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6.4 281 437.5 600 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.5 281 437.5 600 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4.7 282 425 587.5 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 13.1 282 425 587.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3.2 283 400 600 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3.2 284 450 600 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 3 0.3 284 450 600 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 2.4 284 450 600 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 1 4 284 450 600 River cobbles, quartz li 2 0.4 284 450 600 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5.2 285 437.5 575 Quartz fragment li 1 2.2 285 437.5 575 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2 286 487.5 587.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, b li 1 4.1 286 487.5 587.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2.1 287 JST 26 Limestone fragments li 2 8.4 287 JST 26 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 5 11 20mm, 2c, 3b li 5 1.2 287 JST 26 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.3 287 JST 26 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5.5 288 JST St. Johns check stamped, body sherd ss 2 4.4

PAGE 444

444 27 288 JST 27 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 2 9 24.7 288 JST 27 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 5 11 20mm, 3c, 2b li 5 1.5 288 JST 27 Bone fragments bone 1 0.4 289 JST 28 Thumbnail scraper, chert, NHT li 1 2.5 289 JST 28 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 3NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 2 11 20mm, 1c, 1b; 1 21 30mm, c li 4 1 289 JST 28 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.2 289 JST 28 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 11.7 290 JST 29 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 8 11 20mm, 4b, 4c li 9 3.2 290 JST 29 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2.6 291 JST 30 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 0.3 291 JST 30 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1.1 292 JST 31 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2.7 293 JST 32 Chert scraper/core, NHT li 1 46.8 293 JST 32 River cobbles, quartz li 3 1.1 293 JST 32 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, b; 1 31 40mm, c li 2 6.1 293 JST 32 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 6 11 20mm, 3b, 3c li 7 2.2 293 JST 32 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3.1 294 JST 33 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, 1 31 40mm, both b li 2 7.2 294 JST 33 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 2 11 20mm, 1c, 1b; 1 21 30mm, c li 4 4.1 294 JST River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.2

PAGE 445

445 33 295 400 587.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 3.4 295 400 587.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 9.4 296 400 587.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 4 8.1 296 400 587.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 0.5 297 450 550 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 3 1.5 297 450 550 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 3.7 297 450 550 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c li 1 0.4 297 450 550 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10.4 298 587.5 412.5 St. Johns check stamped, body sherd ss 3 5.5 298 587.5 412.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 1 3 13.2 298 587.5 412.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 0 20.3 298 587.5 412.5 River cobbles, quartz li 3 2.3 298 587.5 412.5 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 1NHT; 1 31 40mm, 1 51 60mm, both c li 2 17.1 298 587.5 412.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 4 HT, 6NHT; 7 11 20mm, 6b, 1c; 1 21 30mm, c; 1 31 40mm, 1b, 1c li 1 0 9.6 298 587.5 412.5 Chert core, NHT li 1 6.9 298 587.5 412.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10.4 299 462.5 550 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 3 2.8 299 462.5 550 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 9.7 300 475 600 St. Johns plain, body sherd ss 1 0.7 300 475 600 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1.5 301 487.5 600 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 1 6 136.6 301 487.5 600 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 5 11.7 301 487.5 600 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.2 302 462.5 587.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 12.1 302 462.5 587.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.2 303 JST 34 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 7 14.6 303 JST 34 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 3NHT; 1 11 20mm, b; 2 21 30mm, 1c, 1b; 1 41 50mm, b li 4 5.6

PAGE 446

446 303 JST 34 River cobbles, quartz li 3 2.3

PAGE 447

447 Table C 4. Hutto/Martin site, shovel test results F.S. # N E Artifact Type Co Count Weight(g) 1 JST 1 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 4 12 1 JST 1 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 1 1 JST 1 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 6 7 1 JST 1 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 1 1 1 JST 1 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 5 7 1 JST 1 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 1NHT; 1 11 20 mm, 1 21 30mm, both c li 2 2 1 JST 1 Bone fragments bone 2 1 1 JST 1 Lime/sand concretions soil 125 1 JST 1 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3 2 JST 2 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 5 2 JST 2 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 2 9 2 JST 2 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 1 1 2 JST 2 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 23 2 JST 2 Primary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, 1 21 30mm, both b li 2 6 2 JST 2 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 11 20 mm, 1 21 30mm, both b li 2 3 2 JST 2 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.3 2 JST 2 Daub fragment soil 1 5 2 JST 2 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4 3 JST 3 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 4 8 3 JST 3 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 7 3 JST 3 Iron nail fe 1 11 3 JST 3 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, 3 11 20mm, all b li 4 1 3 JST 3 Lime/sand concretions soil 8 17 3 JST 3 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1 4 JST 4 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 17 4 JST 4 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 4 5 4 JST 4 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 5

PAGE 448

448 4 JST 4 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 1 4 JST 4 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2 5 JST 5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 2 5 JST 5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 6 5 5 JST 5 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 1 6 5 JST 5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 0.5 5 JST 5 Pinellas point, chert, HT li 1 0.6 5 JST 5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 1 5 JST 5 Bone fragments bone 3 2 5 JST 5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2 6 JST 6 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 4 6 6 JST 6 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 2 9 6 JST 6 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 5 14 6 JST 6 Daub fragment soil 1 <.1 6 JST 6 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, b li 1 0.3 6 JST 6 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.9 6 JST 6 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 0.6 7 JST 7 Spanish olive jar, body sherd ec 1 16 7 JST 7 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 4 7 JST 7 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 0.1 7 JST 7 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 2 7 JST 7 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 3 7 JST 7 Primary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 0.6 7 JST 7 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 3NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 3 11 20mm, 1b, 2c li 4 1 7 JST 7 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2 8 JST 8 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 1 8 JST 8 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 2 0.5 8 JST 8 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 0.7 8 JST 8 Blade/tool, chert, NHT li 1 2 8 JST 8 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 3NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 2 11 20mm, 1c, 1b; 1 21 30mm, c li 4 5 8 JST 8 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch <.1

PAGE 449

449 9 JST 9 Spanish olive jar, body sherd ec 1 3 9 JST 9 Orange micaceous ware, body sherd ec 1 0.5 9 JST 9 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 0.3 9 JST 9 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 1 13 9 JST 9 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 5 2 9 JST 9 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 2 9 JST 9 Secondary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 41 50mm, c li 1 4 9 JST 9 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 1 10mm, 1c, 1b; 2 11 20mm, 1c, 1b li 4 1 9 JST 9 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.5 9 JST 9 Bone fragments bone 5 3 10 JST 10 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 8 8 10 JST 10 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 8 2 10 JST 10 Secondary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, b li 1 2 10 JST 10 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 2NHT; 3 1 10mm, b; 2 11 20mm, 1c, 1b li 5 0.8 10 JST 10 Metal object fe 1 0.7 10 JST 10 Charcoal fragments ch 2 0.9 10 JST 10 Fulgurite gl 1 0.4 11 JST 11 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 6 11 JST 11 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 12 9 11 JST 11 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 9 12 11 JST 11 Limestone tempered plain, rim sherd lt 1 1 11 JST 11 Spanish olive jar, body sherd ec 1 3 11 JST 11 Secondary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 31 40mm, c li 1 2 11 JST 11 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 2 11 20mm, 1c, 1b li 3 <.1 11 JST 11 River cobbles, quartz li 3 1 11 JST 11 Bone fragments bone 3 2 11 JST 11 Lime/sand concretions soil 10 6 11 JST 11 Metal shell casings, brass fe 4 2 11 JST 11 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5 12 JST 12 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 3 12 JST 12 Spanish olive jar, body sherd ec 1 4

PAGE 450

450 12 JST 12 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 3 12 JST 12 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 2NHT; 2 1 10mm, 1b, 1c; 2 11 20mm, b; 1 21 30mm, b li 5 1 12 JST 12 Stone fragment, pumice li 1 2 12 JST 12 Lime fragment soil 1 0.3 12 JST 12 Bone fragments bone 1 0.4 12 JST 12 Charcoal sample, uncounted ch 4 13 JST 13 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 5 14 13 JST 13 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 6 2 13 JST 13 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 14 22 13 JST 13 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 1 13 JST 13 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 2 4 13 JST 13 Pinellas point, chert, NHT li 1 0.8 13 JST 13 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 2NHT; 3 1 10mm, 2 11 20mm, all c li 5 0.9 13 JST 13 River cobbles, quartz li 2 1 13 JST 13 Daub fragment con 8 6 13 JST 13 Charcoal sample, uncounted ch 7 14 JST 14 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 4 13 14 JST 14 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 0.4 14 JST 14 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 1 10 14 JST 14 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 8 4 14 JST 14 Daub fragment con 5 4 14 JST 14 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 1 10mm, 2 11 20mm, all c li 4 1 14 JST 14 Charcoal sample, uncounted ch 5 15 JST 15 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 10 19 15 JST 15 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 13 5 15 JST 15 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 5 4 15 JST 15 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, b; 2 31 40mm, 1b, 1c li 3 13 15 JST 15 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 6NHT; 6 11 20mm, 4b, 2c; 1 21 30mm, b li 7 3 15 JST 15 Projectile points, chert, 1HT, 1NHT; broken li 2 3 15 JST 15 Pinellas point, chert, NHT li 1 2 15 JST 15 Lime/sand concretions soil 3 4

PAGE 451

451 15 JST 15 Bone fragments bone 1 0.3 15 JST 15 Lime fragment soil 1 0.2 15 JST 15 Charcoal sample, uncounted ch 11 16 JST 16 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 1 16 JST 16 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 5 5 16 JST 16 Secondary decortication flake, chert, HT; 1 31 40 mm, b li 1 10 16 JST 16 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, 1 11 20mm, both c li 2 0.7 16 JST 16 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 0.5 16 JST 16 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 1 16 JST 16 Iron/hematite concretions soil 4 5 16 JST 16 Bone fragments bone 2 0.1 16 JST 16 Shell fragment shell 1 0.5 16 JST 16 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.3 16 JST 16 Daub fragments, uncounted con 197 16 JST 16 Charcoal fragment ch 1 0.5 17 JST 17 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 6 17 JST 17 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 4 17 JST 17 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 3 17 JST 17 Sandstone fragment li 1 28 17 JST 17 Nondecortication flake, chert, HT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.4 17 JST 17 Daub fragment con 1 8 17 JST 17 Shell casing, brass fe 1 0.5 17 JST 17 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3 18 JST 18 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 2 2 18 JST 18 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 8 12 18 JST 18 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 7 9 18 JST 18 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 5 18 JST 18 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 5 3 18 JST 18 Secondary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, c li 1 2 18 JST 18 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 2NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 2 11 20mm, 1b, 1c li 3 1 18 JST 18 Daub fragments con 2 2

PAGE 452

452 18 JST 18 Charcoal sample, uncounted ch 4 19 JST 19 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 6 3 19 JST 19 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 0.8 19 JST 19 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 1 19 JST 19 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 1 3 19 JST 19 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 3 11 20mm, 2b, 1c li 4 1 19 JST 19 Daub fragment con 1 1 19 JST 19 Charcoal fragments ch 3 0.1 20 JST 20 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 10 20 JST 20 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 9 11 20 JST 20 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 2 3 20 JST 20 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 6 9 20 JST 20 Coarse earthenware, sand and grit tempered, body sherds sn 4 3 20 JST 20 Iron fragment fe 1 0.7 20 JST 20 Primary decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 1NHT; 1 21 30mm, c; 1 31 40mm, c li 2 5 20 JST 20 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 6NHT; 3 1 10mm, c; 5 11 20mm, 3b, 2c li 8 2 20 JST 20 Daub fragments con 15 11 20 JST 20 Charcoal sample, uncounted ch 1 21 JST 21 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 10 6 21 JST 21 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 9 9 21 JST 21 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 4 6 21 JST 21 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 11 20mm, 1b, 1c li 2 1 21 JST 21 Daub fragments con 6 7 21 JST 21 Charcoal sample, uncounted ch 1 22 JST 22 Iron nail fe 1 2 22 JST 22 Iron fragments fe 3 12 22 JST 22 Charcoal sample, uncounted ch 0.5 23 JST 23 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 4 23 JST 23 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 0.2 23 JST 23 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, b li 1 0.1 23 JST 23 Fulgurite gl 1 0.4

PAGE 453

453 23 JST 23 Charcoal sample, uncounted ch 6 24 JST 24 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 2 24 JST 24 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 2 24 JST 24 Sand tempered simple stamped, body sherd sn 1 2 24 JST 24 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 3 24 JST 24 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 4HT, 7NHT; 2 1 10mm, c; 8 11 20mm, 4b, 4c; 1 21 30mm, b li 11 4 24 JST 24 Lime/sand concretions soil 63 24 JST 24 Charcoal sample, uncounted ch 4 25 JST 25 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 6 12 25 JST 25 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 2 7 25 JST 25 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 7 2 25 JST 25 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 7 25 JST 25 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 1 1 25 JST 25 Tool/blade fragment, chert, NHT li 1 1 25 JST 25 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 2NHT; 3 11 20mm, 2c, 1b li 3 0.7 25 JST 25 Daub fragments con 10 9 25 JST 25 Charcoal sample, uncounted ch 3 26 550 487.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 5 19 26 550 487.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 2 3 26 550 487.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 5 26 550 487.5 Sand tempered incised, body sherd sn 1 6 26 550 487.5 Sand and grog tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 2 26 550 487.5 Primary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, c li 1 6 26 550 487.5 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, 1 31 40mm, both c li 2 5 26 550 487.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 7NHT; 3 1 10mm, 2b, 1c; 4 11 20mm, 2b, 2c; 2 21 30mm, 1b, 1c li 9 3 26 550 487.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.4 26 550 487.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4 27 587.5 450 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 4 4 27 587.5 450 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 2 1 27 587.5 450 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 1

PAGE 454

454 27 587.5 450 Sand tempered punctated, body sherds sn 1 2 27 587.5 450 Primary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, c li 1 3 27 587.5 450 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 3NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 3 11 20mm, 2b, 1c li 4 0.6 27 587.5 450 Sandstone fragment li 1 43 27 587.5 450 River cobbles, quartz li 2 0.4 27 587.5 450 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 53 27 587.5 450 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2 27 587.5 450 Daub fragments, uncounted con 12 27 587.5 450 Limestone fragment li 1 6 28 500 475 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 1 28 500 475 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 6 28 500 475 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 2 28 500 475 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 2 0.8 28 500 475 Bone fragments bone 1 0.3 28 500 475 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 3NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 4 11 20mm, 2c, 2b; 1 21 30mm, c li 6 3 28 500 475 Daub fragment con 1 3 28 500 475 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4 29 575 550 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 0.4 29 575 550 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 4 29 575 550 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 1 29 575 550 Coarse earthenware, European ec 1 1 29 575 550 Chert tool, heat treated li 1 11 29 575 550 Nondecortication flake, chert, HT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 0.3 29 575 550 Daub fragment con 1 0.8 29 575 550 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7 29 575 550 Fulgurite gl 1 0.6 30 587.5 612.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 9 30 587.5 612.5 Primary decortication flake, chert, NHT li 1 2 30 587.5 612.5 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 31 40mm, 1 41 50mm, both c li 2 5 30 587.5 612.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 5HT, 5NHT; 3 1 10mm, c; 7 11 20mm, 3c, 4b li 10 3 30 587.5 612.5 Daub fragments con 6 4

PAGE 455

455 30 587.5 612.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3 31 587.5 525 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 1 1 31 587.5 525 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 3 31 587.5 525 Fig Springs Roughened, rim sherd ss 1 3 31 587.5 525 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 0.2 31 587.5 525 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 0.3 31 587.5 525 Bone fragments bone 2 0.3 31 587.5 525 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.5 31 587.5 525 Daub fragments con 2 1 31 587.5 525 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4 32 562.5 587.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 6 6 32 562.5 587.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 4 3 32 562.5 587.5 Daub fragment con 1 0.7 32 562.5 587.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, c li 1 2 32 562.5 587.5 Bone fragments bone 3 4 32 562.5 587.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3 33 587.5 512.5 Fig Springs Roughened, body sherd ss 1 4 33 587.5 512.5 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 3 3 33 587.5 512.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 7 8 33 587.5 512.5 Daub fragment con 1 0.3 33 587.5 512.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 11 20mm, c li 2 0.8 33 587.5 512.5 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 21 30mm, c li 2 4 33 587.5 512.5 Primary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 21 30mm, c li 1 2 33 587.5 512.5 Charcoal sample, uncounted ch 1 34 550 550 Coarse earthenware, European, rim sherd ec 1 3 34 550 550 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 0.8 34 550 550 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 4 5 34 550 550 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 0.4 34 550 550 Chert core, HT; 41 50 mm li 1 18 34 550 550 Daub fragment con 1 0.3 34 550 550 Charcoal fragments ch 3

PAGE 456

456 35 575 612.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 7 11 35 575 612.5 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 1 1 35 575 612.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 4 35 575 612.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 6 35 575 612.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 0.6 35 575 612.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, 1 31 40mm, both b li 2 4 35 575 612.5 Daub fragments con 3 2 35 575 612.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4 36 575 575 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 1 36 575 575 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 7 36 575 575 Sand temperd plain, rim sherd sn 1 6 36 575 575 Sand tempered incised, body sherd sn 1 0.8 36 575 575 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4 37 562.5 512.5 Coarse earthenware, European ec 1 5 37 562.5 512.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 12 7 37 562.5 512.5 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 1 6 37 562.5 512.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 2 37 562.5 512.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 5 8 37 562.5 512.5 Sand tempered burnished, rim sherd sn 1 9 37 562.5 512.5 Daub fragments, uncounted con 23 37 562.5 512.5 Bone fragments bone 3 0.8 37 562.5 512.5 Shell fragment shell 1 0.2 37 562.5 512.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 4 11 20mm, 3b, 1c li 4 1 37 562.5 512.5 Quartz fragment li 1 0.5 37 562.5 512.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7 38 562.5 550 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 6 38 562.5 550 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 7 6 38 562.5 550 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 7 22 38 562.5 550 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 1 3 38 562.5 550 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 2NHT; 1 11 20mm, c; 2 21 30mm, 1b, 1c li 3 4 38 562.5 550 Bone fragments bone 3 0.2

PAGE 457

457 38 562.5 550 Coarse earthenware ec 2 0.8 38 562.5 550 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6 39 550 537.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 16 39 550 537.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 6 4 39 550 537.5 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 1 27 39 550 537.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 0.6 39 550 537.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.3 39 550 537.5 Stone fragment li 1 0.4 39 550 537.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2 40 512.5 462.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 23 40 512.5 462.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 4 3 40 512.5 462.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 4 40 512.5 462.5 Limestone fragment li 1 9 40 512.5 462.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 4NHT; 2 1 10mm, 1b, 1c; 3 11 20mm, 1b, 2c; 1 21 30mm, c li 6 4 40 512.5 462.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3 41 550 562.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 8 6 41 550 562.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 6 41 550 562.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 1 41 550 562.5 Pinellas point, chert, HT li 1 0.8 41 550 562.5 Chert fragment, NHT li 1 5 42 600 462.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 9 5 42 600 462.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 0.6 42 600 462.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 2 11 20mm, 1b, 1c li 3 0.5 42 600 462.5 Coarse earthenware, European, body sherd ec 1 1 42 600 462.5 Daub fragments con 4 3 42 600 462.5 Chert tool, blade, NHT li 1 2 42 600 462.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4 43 562.5 537.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 6 18 43 562.5 537.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 2 2 43 562.5 537.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 0.4 43 562.5 537.5 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 2 6

PAGE 458

458 43 562.5 537.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4 44 562.5 487.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 2 44 562.5 487.5 Daub fragment con 1 0.6 44 562.5 487.5 Primary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 0.2 44 562.5 487.5 Bone fragments bone 1 0.6 44 562.5 487.5 Charcoal fragments ch 1 45 537.5 562.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 6 45 537.5 562.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 12 45 537.5 562.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 6 4 45 537.5 562.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 2 45 537.5 562.5 Iron fragment fe 1 <.1 45 537.5 562.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1 46 550 587.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 4 9 46 550 587.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 17 46 550 587.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 2 2 46 550 587.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 9 46 550 587.5 Bone fragments bone 3 0.4 46 550 587.5 Burned shell shell 1 0.3 46 550 587.5 River cobbles, quartz li 2 11 46 550 587.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4 47 475 412.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 7 47 475 412.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 7 5 47 475 412.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 14 9 47 475 412.5 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 2 2 47 475 412.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 7 4 47 475 412.5 Daub fragments con 8 9 47 475 412.5 Primary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, c li 1 0.8 47 475 412.5 Secondary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, c li 1 2 47 475 412.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2 HT, 3NHT; 3 1 10mm, 2b, 1c; 2 11 20mm, 1b, 1c li 5 0.9 47 475 412.5 Bone fragments bone 2 4 47 475 412.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2

PAGE 459

459 48 525 550 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 5 48 525 550 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 8 48 525 550 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 1 7 48 525 550 Coarse earthenware, European ec 2 7 48 525 550 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 6 48 525 550 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 31 40mm, b li 1 7 48 525 550 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.3 48 525 550 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 11 49 525 362.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 7 19 49 525 362.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 10 7 49 525 362.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 12 21 49 525 362.5 Spanish olive jar, body sherd ec 1 4 49 525 362.5 Coarse earthenware, European ec 3 63 49 525 362.5 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 2 3 49 525 362.5 Lime fragment soil 2 26 49 525 362.5 Daub fragments con 16 12 49 525 362.5 Nondecortication flakes, 8chert, 1 exotic lithic; 2HT, 7NHT; 2 1 10mm, b; 6 11 20mm, b; 1 21 30mm, c li 9 3 49 525 362.5 River cobbles, quartz li 3 2 49 525 362.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 18 50 562.5 612.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 4 50 562.5 612.5 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 2 50 562.5 612.5 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 2 0.6 50 562.5 612.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 2 11 20mm, c; 1 21 30mm, b li 4 2 50 562.5 612.5 Daub fragments con 8 5 50 562.5 612.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.4 50 562.5 612.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 11 51 537.5 362.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 8 4 51 537.5 362.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 9 8 51 537.5 362.5 Daub fragments con 3 2 51 537.5 362.5 Secondary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 41 50mm, b li 1 9

PAGE 460

460 51 537.5 362.5 Partial blade/tool, exotic stone, NHT li 1 1 51 537.5 362.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 4 1 10mm, c; 4 11 20mm, 3c, 1b li 8 3 51 537.5 362.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.2 51 537.5 362.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 19 52 562.5 575 Coarse earthenware, black paste, molded rim ec 1 0.3 53 550 575 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 4 53 550 575 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 14 21 53 550 575 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5 54 437.5 362.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 26 32 54 437.5 362.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 14 29 54 437.5 362.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 6 54 437.5 362.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 2 16 54 437.5 362.5 Sand tempered incised, body sherd sn 1 4 54 437.5 362.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 31 40mm, b li 1 7 54 437.5 362.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4 55 487.5 475 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 10 11 55 487.5 475 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 5 26 55 487.5 475 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 3 11 55 487.5 475 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 15 13 55 487.5 475 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 11NHT; 4 1 10mm, 2c, 2b; 6 11 20mm, 3c, 3b; 2 21 30mm, 1c, 1b li 12 8 55 487.5 475 Bone fragments bone 4 2 55 487.5 475 Daub fragments con 22 13 55 487.5 475 River cobble, quartz li 1 <.1 55 487.5 475 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 56 600 612.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 6 12 56 600 612.5 Coarse earthenware, European ec 1 1 56 600 612.5 Iron fragment fe 3 0.7 56 600 612.5 Daub fragments con 15 5 56 600 612.5 Chert projectile point, NHT li 1 2 56 600 612.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 2 11 20mm, 1b, 1c li 3 2

PAGE 461

461 56 600 612.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 24 57 475 400 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 21 35 57 475 400 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 5 57 475 400 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 21 18 57 475 400 Daub fragments con 19 48 57 475 400 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 2 1 57 475 400 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 11 20mm, c li 2 1 57 475 400 River cobbles, quartz li 3 3 57 475 400 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4 58 487.5 462.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 9 58 487.5 462.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 15 40 58 487.5 462.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 13 21 58 487.5 462.5 Dunn's Creek Red, body sherd ss 1 0.8 58 487.5 462.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 3NHT; 5 11 20mm, 3b, 2c li 5 2 58 487.5 462.5 Daub fragments, uncounted con 16 58 487.5 462.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 19 59 450 387.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 6 59 450 387.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 20 10 59 450 387.5 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 3 2 59 450 387.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 10 11 59 450 387.5 Coarse earthenware, European ec 1 2 59 450 387.5 Daub fragments con 9 8 59 450 387.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 6NHT; 4 1 10mm, 2b, 2c; 4 11 20mm, 2b, 2c; 1 21 30mm, c li 9 2 59 450 387.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 12 60 500 437.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 12 3 60 500 437.5 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 2 2 60 500 437.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 3 60 500 437.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 15 60 500 437.5 Secondary decortication flake, chert, HT; 1 31 40 mm, c li 1 2 60 500 437.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 9NHT; 4 1 10mm, 2c, 2b; 7 11 20mm, 6c, 1b li 11 1 60 500 437.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 1

PAGE 462

462 60 500 437.5 Bone fragments bone 2 <.1 60 500 437.5 Daub fragments, uncounted con 7 60 500 437.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 22 61 600 362.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 0.8 61 600 362.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 2 61 600 362.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, HT; 2 11 20mm, b li 2 1 61 600 362.5 Daub fragments con 3 2 61 600 362.5 Unidentified object UID 1 <.1 62 487.5 412.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 4 10 62 487.5 412.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 3.6 62 487.5 412.5 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 3 4 62 487.5 412.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 5 7 62 487.5 412.5 Chert blade, NHT li 1 7 62 487.5 412.5 European ceramic, body sherd ec 1 0.6 62 487.5 412.5 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 1 0.5 62 487.5 412.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 4 11 20mm, 2b, 2c li 4 0.8 62 487.5 412.5 Daub fragments con 6 3 62 487.5 412.5 Bone fragments bone 1 2.5 62 487.5 412.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4 63 437.5 387.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 22 15 63 437.5 387.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 3 63 437.5 387.5 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 1 63 437.5 387.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 15 17 63 437.5 387.5 Spanish olive jar, body sherd ec 1 5 63 437.5 387.5 Alachua cob marked, rim sherd sn 1 8 63 437.5 387.5 Iron nail fe 2 2 63 437.5 387.5 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 1 0.3 63 437.5 387.5 Daub fragments con 11 20 63 437.5 387.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 3NHT; 4 11 20mm, 1b, 3c li 4 1 63 437.5 387.5 Bone fragments bone 2 63 437.5 387.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.3

PAGE 463

463 63 437.5 387.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3 64 562.5 412.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 6 64 562.5 412.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 9 3 64 562.5 412.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 2 64 562.5 412.5 Sand tempered simple stamped, body sherd sn 1 3 64 562.5 412.5 Shell fragment shell 2 2 64 562.5 412.5 Bone fragments bone 1 0.6 64 562.5 412.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 5HT, 3NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 5 11 20mm, 2b, 3c; 2 21 30mm, b li 8 6 64 562.5 412.5 Daub fragments con 7 8 64 562.5 412.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 65 612.5 600 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 6 65 612.5 600 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 5 5 65 612.5 600 Daub fragments con 5 12 65 612.5 600 Bone fragments bone 1 0.3 65 612.5 600 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 5 11 20mm, 2b, 3c li 5 0.8 65 612.5 600 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 66 600 600 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 4 66 600 600 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 0.3 66 600 600 Daub fragments con 2 0.8 66 600 600 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 4HT, 8NHT; 6 1 10mm, 4b, 2c; 4 11 20mm, 3b, 1c; 2 21 30mm, 1b, 1c li 12 6 66 600 600 Primary decortication flakes, chert, HT; 3 11 20mm, 2b, 1c li 3 1 66 600 600 Bone fragments bone 2 1 66 600 600 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7 67 600 587.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 8 67 600 587.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, 1 11 20mm, both c li 2 0.4 67 600 587.5 Daub fragments con 6 3 67 600 587.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3 68 587.5 587.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 14 68 587.5 587.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 6 8 68 587.5 587.5 Primary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 0.5

PAGE 464

464 68 587.5 587.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 4NHT; 3 1 10mm, c; 4 11 20mm, b li 7 4 68 587.5 587.5 Daub fragments con 6 13 68 587.5 587.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3 69 637.5 587.5 Chert fragment, HT li 1 2 69 637.5 587.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 5NHT; 5 1 10mm, 3b, 2c; 2 11 20mm, 1b, 1c li 7 1 69 637.5 587.5 Iron fragment fe 1 0.8 69 637.5 587.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.2 69 637.5 587.5 Lime/sand concretions soil 20 69 637.5 587.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6 70 637.5 600 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 2 70 637.5 600 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 0.4 70 637.5 600 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, 1 21 30mm, c li 2 2 70 637.5 600 Bone fragments bone 1 <.1 71 475 450 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 12 15 71 475 450 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 24 71 475 450 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 4 7 71 475 450 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 2 25 71 475 450 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 8 7 71 475 450 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 1 1 71 475 450 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 9NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 8 11 20mm, 3b, 5c; 2 21 30mm, 1b, 1c li 11 4 71 475 450 Chert tools, 1HT, 1NHT; HT 21 30mm; NHT 31 40mm li 2 9 71 475 450 Bone fragments bone 7 14 71 475 450 Daub fragments, uncounted con 15 71 475 450 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 15 71 475 450 Fulgurite gl cu 1 0.2 72 637.5 612.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 4 1 72 637.5 612.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, HT; 1 11 20mm, c; 1 31 40mm, b li 2 2 72 637.5 612.5 Daub fragment con 1 0.4 72 637.5 612.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4 73 625 612.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 0.6

PAGE 465

465 73 625 612.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c li 1 0.2 73 625 612.5 Daub fragment con 1 1 73 625 612.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2 74 625 600 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 5 3 74 625 600 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 2NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 1 11 20mm, b; 1 21 30mm, c li 3 1 74 625 600 River cobbles, quartz li 2 0.5 74 625 600 Daub fragments con 10 9 74 625 600 Bone fragments bone 1 0.3 74 625 600 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10 75 625 587.5 Nondecortication flake, silicified coral, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 0.3 75 625 587.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.4 75 625 587.5 Daub fragments con 3 4 75 625 587.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4 76 575 450 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 2 76 575 450 Daub fragments con 4 10 76 575 450 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 0.6 76 575 450 Iron fragment fe 1 0.3 76 575 450 Bone fragments bone 1 0.2 76 575 450 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4 77 600 450 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 5 13 77 600 450 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 0.6 77 600 450 Nondecortication flakes, NHT; 3 11 20mm, 2 b, 1c li 3 0.4 77 600 450 Daub fragments con 6 5 77 600 450 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 0.9 78 587.5 462.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 3 78 587.5 462.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 2 78 587.5 462.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 8 11 78 587.5 462.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 4 78 587.5 462.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 2NHT; 3 11 20mm, 2c, 1b li 3 0.8 78 587.5 462.5 River cobbles, quartz li 2 2 78 587.5 462.5 Daub fragments, uncounted con

PAGE 466

466 78 587.5 462.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3 79 500 462.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 8 79 500 462.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 13 6 79 500 462.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 11 17 79 500 462.5 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 3 2 79 500 462.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 4NHT; 2 1 10mm, 1c, 1b; 5 11 20mm, 3b, 2c li 7 2 79 500 462.5 Daub fragments con 6 1 79 500 462.5 Bone fragments bone 2 0.2 79 500 462.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2 80 562.5 450 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 6 30 80 562.5 450 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 4 5 80 562.5 450 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 5 80 562.5 450 Chert tool, NHT li 1 2 80 562.5 450 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 2NHT; 2 11 20mm, 1 1 10mm, all c li 3 0.4 80 562.5 450 Daub fragments con 11 10 80 562.5 450 Bone fragments bone 1 <.1 80 562.5 450 Shell fragment shell 1 <.1 80 562.5 450 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.2 80 562.5 450 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2 81 512.5 450 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 6 81 512.5 450 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 6 4 81 512.5 450 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 3 81 512.5 450 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 1 4 81 512.5 450 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 5NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 4 11 20mm, 1b, 3c; 1 21 30mm, b li 6 3 81 512.5 450 River cobbles, quartz li 4 2 81 512.5 450 Lime/sand concretions soil 24 81 512.5 450 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 82 562.5 500 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 4 4 82 562.5 500 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 6 82 562.5 500 Sand tempered simple stamped, body sherd sn 1 2 82 562.5 500 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 6NHT; 5 1 10mm, c; 2 11 20mm, 1c, 1b li 7 0.8

PAGE 467

467 82 562.5 500 River cobble, quartz li 1 1 82 562.5 500 Daub fragments con 2 1 82 562.5 500 Shell fragment shell 1 0.2 82 562.5 500 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1 83 562.5 475 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 4 3 83 562.5 475 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 7 4 83 562.5 475 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 0.8 83 562.5 475 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 0.5 83 562.5 475 Secondary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 2 21 30mm, b li 2 5 83 562.5 475 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 3NHT; 1 110mm, c; 2 11 20mm, b; 1 21 30mm, c li 4 2 83 562.5 475 River cobbles, quartz li 2 1 83 562.5 475 Daub fragments con 6 6 83 562.5 475 Bone fragments bone 3 0.4 83 562.5 475 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1 84 537.5 475 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 6 10 84 537.5 475 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 52 84 537.5 475 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 6 2 84 537.5 475 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 3 84 537.5 475 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 2 0.8 84 537.5 475 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 1NHT; 1 11 20mm, 1 21 30mm, both b li 2 2 84 537.5 475 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.1 84 537.5 475 Daub fragments con 5 2 84 537.5 475 Bone fragments bone 1 0.4 84 537.5 475 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4 85 562.5 462.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 8 13 85 562.5 462.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 20 85 562.5 462.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 2 85 562.5 462.5 Chert fragment, NHT li 1 4 85 562.5 462.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 4NHT; 2 1 10mm, c; 2 11 20mm, c; 1 21 30mm, c li 5 2 85 562.5 462.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.7 85 562.5 462.5 Lime/sand concretions soil 6 6

PAGE 468

468 85 562.5 462.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 9 86 550 450 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 3 86 550 450 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 6 18 86 550 450 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 3 86 550 450 Sand tempered complicated stamped,body sherd sn 1 5 86 550 450 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 0.6 86 550 450 Clay/soil concretions soil 14 17 86 550 450 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 1NHT; 3 11 20mm, c li 3 0.4 86 550 450 Chert tool, NHT; 21 30mm li 1 0.7 86 550 450 Bone fragments bone 12 7 86 550 450 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3 87 550 450 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 14 87 550 450 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 22 87 550 450 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 7 12 87 550 450 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 7 87 550 450 Sand tempered check stamped, rim sherd sn 1 4 87 550 450 Clay/soil concretions soil 296 87 550 450 Bone fragments bone 2 0.2 87 550 450 Iron ball fe 1 5 87 550 450 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6 88 587.5 500 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 6 88 587.5 500 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 5 3 88 587.5 500 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 2 7 88 587.5 500 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 2 88 587.5 500 Sand tempered complicated stamped,body sherd sn 1 8 88 587.5 500 Primary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c li 1 <.1 88 587.5 500 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 1 0.8 88 587.5 500 Iron object, function unidentified fe 1 2 88 587.5 500 Clay/soil concretions soil 2 0.8 88 587.5 500 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 12 89 437.5 487.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 4

PAGE 469

469 89 437.5 487.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 5 89 437.5 487.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 5 89 437.5 487.5 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 1 1 89 437.5 487.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 11 20mm, c li 2 2 89 437.5 487.5 Clay/soil concretions soil 80 89 437.5 487.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 9 90 462.5 362.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 44 38 90 462.5 362.5 St. Johns plain, incisions, body sherd ss 1 3 90 462.5 362.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 12 27 90 462.5 362.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 22 35 90 462.5 362.5 Pasco ware, limestone tempered plain, body sherd lt 1 3 90 462.5 362.5 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 2 5 90 462.5 362.5 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 2 2 90 462.5 362.5 Clay/soil concretions soil 4 3 90 462.5 362.5 Expedient tools, chert, NHT li 2 7 90 462.5 362.5 Nondecortication flakes, 4 chert, 1 agatized coral; 4NHT, 1HT; 5 11 20mm, all c li 5 0.9 90 462.5 362.5 Bone fragments bone 3 0.2 90 462.5 362.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3 91 500 387.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 4 5 91 500 387.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 9 8 91 500 387.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 5 6 91 500 387.5 Clay/soil concretions soil 7 10 91 500 387.5 Chert blade, NHT li 1 3 91 500 387.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 3NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 3 11 20mm, 2b, 1c li 4 0.6 91 500 387.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.4 91 500 387.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3 92 512.5 375 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 27 19 92 512.5 375 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 5 6 92 512.5 375 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 1 0.7 92 512.5 375 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 7 15 92 512.5 375 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 7

PAGE 470

470 92 512.5 375 Coarse earthenware, 2 body sherds, 1 rim sherd ec 3 4 92 512.5 375 Clay/soil concretions soil 6 8 92 512.5 375 River cobbles, quartz li 4 2 92 512.5 375 Secondary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, b; 1 31 40mm, c li 2 5 92 512.5 375 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 2NHT; 2 11 20mm, 1b, 1c; 1 21 30mm, c li 3 0.8 92 512.5 375 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7 93 525 387.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 5 7 93 525 387.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 11 16 93 525 387.5 Olive jar, unglazed, body sherd ec 1 4 93 525 387.5 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 1 0.3 93 525 387.5 Clay/soil concretions soil 6 3 93 525 387.5 Expedient tools, chert, NHT li 2 2 93 525 387.5 Chert fragments, NHT li 2 4 93 525 387.5 Chert core, NHT; 21 30mm li 1 5 93 525 387.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 4 1 10mm, 1b, 3c; 4 11 20mm, 1b, 3c li 8 1 93 525 387.5 Fulgurite gl cu 1 <.1 93 525 387.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2 94 575 337.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 3 94 575 337.5 Alachua plain, body sherd sn 1 21 94 575 337.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 5 6 94 575 337.5 Sand tempered roughened, body sherd sn 1 2 94 575 337.5 Expedient tools, chert, 1HT, 1NHT; 1 21 30mm, 1 31 40mm li 2 8 94 575 337.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 11 20mm, 1b, 1c li 2 0.5 94 575 337.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 83 94 575 337.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2 95 450 375 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 2 95 450 375 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 20 7 95 450 375 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 11 7 95 450 375 Olive jar, unglazed, body sherd ec 1 3 95 450 375 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 1 0.4

PAGE 471

471 95 450 375 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 1 1 95 450 375 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, 1 31 40mm, both c li 2 5 95 450 375 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, 2 11 20mm, all b li 3 0.2 95 450 375 Clay/soil concretions soil 2 0.3 95 450 375 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6 96 525 412.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 6 16 96 525 412.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 9 4 96 525 412.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 11 15 96 525 412.5 Sandstone fragment li 1 19 96 525 412.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3 HT, 5NHT; 2 110mm, 1b, 1c; 5 11 20mm, 3b, 2c; 1 21 30mm, c li 8 3 96 525 412.5 Chert blade, HT li 1 0.2 96 525 412.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.2 96 525 412.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 4 96 525 412.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 11 97 512.5 350 St. Johns simple stamped, body sherd ss 1 10 97 512.5 350 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 1 97 512.5 350 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 20 28 97 512.5 350 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 1 0.5 97 512.5 350 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 16 21 97 512.5 350 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 1 3 97 512.5 350 Chert tool, NHT; 21 30mm li 1 2 97 512.5 350 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 1 10mm, 1b, 1c; 1 11 20mm, b; 1 21 30mm, b li 4 2 97 512.5 350 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 17 97 512.5 350 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1 98 537.5 550 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 3 98 537.5 550 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 2 2 98 537.5 550 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 1 3 98 537.5 550 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 4 98 537.5 550 Clay/soil concretion soil 1 0.4 98 537.5 550 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10 99 462.5 412.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 6 13

PAGE 472

472 99 462.5 412.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 2 99 462.5 412.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 2 99 462.5 412.5 Mission Red Filmed, rim sherd sn 1 3 99 462.5 412.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 2 99 462.5 412.5 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 3 99 462.5 412.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 2NHT; 1 110 mm, c; 2 11 20mm, 1b, 1c; 1 21 30mm, b; 1 31 40mm, c li 5 4 99 462.5 412.5 Clay/soil concretions soil 3 5 99 462.5 412.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 0.1 100 462.5 437.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 4 100 462.5 437.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 7 100 462.5 437.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 6 6 100 462.5 437.5 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 2 2 100 462.5 437.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 5 100 462.5 437.5 Sand tempered incised, body sherd sn 1 6 100 462.5 437.5 Pasco ware, limestonetempered plain, body sherd lt 1 0.5 100 462.5 437.5 Olive jar, unglazed, body sherd ec 1 0.7 100 462.5 437.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 84 100 462.5 437.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1 101 562.5 375 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 2 101 562.5 375 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 15 17 101 562.5 375 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 5 101 562.5 375 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 0.4 101 562.5 375 Pasco ware, limestone tempered plain, body sherd lt 1 2 101 562.5 375 Fiber tempered plain, body sherd ft 1 2 101 562.5 375 Modern ceramic, black paste ec 11 10 101 562.5 375 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 7 11 20mm, 6b, 1c; 1 21 30mm, b li 9 3 101 562.5 375 Chert scraper, NHT li 1 11 101 562.5 375 Tool fragment, chert, NHT li 1 1 101 562.5 375 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 29 101 562.5 375 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3

PAGE 473

473 102 587.5 350 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 2 102 587.5 350 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 5 8 102 587.5 350 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 11 102 587.5 350 River cobbles, quartz li 2 2 102 587.5 350 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.4 102 587.5 350 Clay/soil concretions soil 8 3 102 587.5 350 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5 103 537.5 587.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 5 13 103 537.5 587.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 6 4 103 537.5 587.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 3 103 537.5 587.5 Daub fragment con 1 1 103 537.5 587.5 Limestone fragment li 1 14 103 537.5 587.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3 104 437.5 475 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 29 104 437.5 475 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 8 8 104 437.5 475 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 1 4 104 437.5 475 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 6 104 437.5 475 Sand tempered complicated stamped,body sherd sn 1 9 104 437.5 475 River cobbles, quartz li 2 2 104 437.5 475 Pinellas point, chert, NHT li 1 0.5 104 437.5 475 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 4NHT; 5 11 20mm, 2b, 2c; 1 21 30mm, b li 6 3 104 437.5 475 Chert cores, NHT li 2 6 104 437.5 475 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 55 104 437.5 475 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 9 105 575 400 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 8 105 575 400 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 9 6 105 575 400 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 1 105 575 400 Clay/soil concretions soil 6 3 105 575 400 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 4NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 3 11 20mm, b; 1 21 30mm, b li 5 4 105 575 400 Bone fragments bone 2 <.1 105 575 400 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4

PAGE 474

474 106 600 387.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 2 106 600 387.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 0.3 106 600 387.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 0.5 106 600 387.5 Clay/soil concretions soil 12 11 106 600 387.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 7NHT; 2 1 10mm, b; 6 11 20mm, 3b, 3c; 1 21 30mm, c li 9 3 106 600 387.5 Bone fragments bone 1 <.1 106 600 387.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2 107 575 525 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 5 4 107 575 525 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 2 107 575 525 Bone fragments bone 1 <.1 107 575 525 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 18 108 512.5 387.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 7 108 512.5 387.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 26 27 108 512.5 387.5 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 1 9 108 512.5 387.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 10 10 108 512.5 387.5 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 1 1 108 512.5 387.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 108 512.5 387.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 2NHT; 3 11 20mm, 1c, 2b li 3 0.7 108 512.5 387.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2 109 487.5 387.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 4 109 487.5 387.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 8 6 109 487.5 387.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 2 109 487.5 387.5 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 2 2 109 487.5 387.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 2NHT; 4 11 20mm, 2c, 2b li 4 1 110 450 362.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 4 4 110 450 362.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 8 7 110 450 362.5 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 1 3 110 450 362.5 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 1 0.2 110 450 362.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, b li 1 2 110 450 362.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5 111 512.5 437.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 5

PAGE 475

475 111 512.5 437.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 6 29 111 512.5 437.5 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 2 2 111 512.5 437.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 14 34 111 512.5 437.5 Olive jar, unglazed, body sherd ec 1 4 111 512.5 437.5 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 1 0.3 111 512.5 437.5 Iron fragment fe 1 <.1 111 512.5 437.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 2NHT; 3 110mm, b; 1 11 20mm, b li 4 0.6 111 512.5 437.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 12 111 512.5 437.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 0.4 112 550 612.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 2 8 112 550 612.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 7 112 550 612.5 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 2 2 112 550 612.5 Sand tempered incised, body sherd sn 1 2 112 550 612.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.4 112 550 612.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 11 113 562.5 562.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 15 12 113 562.5 562.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 6 2 113 562.5 562.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 0.7 113 562.5 562.5 Chert tool, HT li 1 1 113 562.5 562.5 Shell fragment shell 2 0.2 113 562.5 562.5 Bone fragments bone 2 113 562.5 562.5 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 1 0.5 113 562.5 562.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 8 114 487.5 450 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 6 114 487.5 450 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 13 12 114 487.5 450 Pasco ware, limestone tempered plain, body sherd lt 3 3 114 487.5 450 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 6 7 114 487.5 450 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 7 114 487.5 450 Sand tempered incised, body sherd sn 3 9 114 487.5 450 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 2NHT; 2 21 30mm, c; 1 31 40mm, b li 3 5 114 487.5 450 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 5NHT; 3 1 10mm, 1b, 2c; 3 11 20mm, 2b, 1c li 6 1

PAGE 476

476 114 487.5 450 Bone fragments bone 3 <.1 114 487.5 450 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 61 114 487.5 450 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2 115 612.5 612.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 0.7 115 612.5 612.5 Nondecortication flakes, 1chert, 11 20mm, b; 1 silicified coral, 11 20mm, b li 2 1 115 612.5 612.5 Bone fragments bone 1 0.3 115 612.5 612.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 12 116 562.5 387.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 9 116 562.5 387.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 9 4 116 562.5 387.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 2 116 562.5 387.5 Pinellas point, chert, NHT li 1 1 116 562.5 387.5 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 1NHT; 4 21 30mm, 3b, 1c li 4 5 116 562.5 387.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 6NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 5 11 20mm, 2c, 3b; 2 21 30mm, 1b, 1c li 8 3 116 562.5 387.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.5 116 562.5 387.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 51 116 562.5 387.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2 117 525 375 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 10 117 525 375 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 26 17 117 525 375 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 9 16 117 525 375 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 3 11 20mm, c li 3 2 117 525 375 Pinellas point, chert, NHT li 1 1 117 525 375 Clay/soil concretions soil 3 2 117 525 375 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5 118 575 600 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 3 118 575 600 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 4 118 575 600 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 3NHT; 2 11 20mm, 2 21 30mm, all c li 4 3 118 575 600 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.2 118 575 600 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 1 118 575 600 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4 119 575 512.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 5 12 119 575 512.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 19 11

PAGE 477

477 119 575 512.5 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 1 2 119 575 512.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 1 119 575 512.5 Primary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 41 50mm, c li 1 7 119 575 512.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 5NHT; 2 1 10mm, c; 4 11 20mm, 3b, 1c; 2 21 30mm, b li 8 3 119 575 512.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.8 119 575 512.5 Bone fragments bone 2 0.3 119 575 512.5 Clay/soil concretion soil 1 <.1 119 575 512.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6 120 575 537.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 15 120 575 537.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 5 4 120 575 537.5 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 2 2 120 575 537.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 8 29 120 575 537.5 Sand tempered complicated stamped,body sherd sn 1 0.4 120 575 537.5 Clay/soil concretions soil 4 2 120 575 537.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 21 121 525 350 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 2 121 525 350 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 7 2 121 525 350 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 4 121 525 350 Chert tool, NHT; 31 40mm li 1 2 121 525 350 Secondary decortication flake, chert, HT; 1 21 30mm, c li 1 1 121 525 350 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 5NHT; 2 1 10mm, c; 5 11 20mm, b; 1 21 30mm, b li 8 3 121 525 350 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 13 121 525 350 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2 122 437.5 400 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 7 33 122 437.5 400 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 12 6 122 437.5 400 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 1NHT; 1 21 30mm, b; 1 31 40mm, c li 2 5 122 437.5 400 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, b li 1 0.4 122 437.5 400 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 23 122 437.5 400 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4 123 550 600 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 4 24 123 550 600 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 9 14

PAGE 478

478 123 550 600 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 2 123 550 600 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 1NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 1 11 20mm, b li 2 0.5 123 550 600 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 11 124 575 612.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 0.7 124 575 612.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 3 124 575 612.5 Nondecortication flakes, 5 chert, 2 silicified coral, all NHT; 2 1 10mm, c; 3 11 20mm,2b,1c; 2 21 30mm, 1b, 1c li 7 3 124 575 612.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 2 124 575 612.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5 125 587.5 387.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 2 125 587.5 387.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 3 125 587.5 387.5 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 1 13 125 587.5 387.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 3 125 587.5 387.5 Primary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 41 50mm, b li 1 7 125 587.5 387.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 1 10mm, 1b, 1c; 2 11 20mm, 1b, 1c; 1 21 30mm, b li 5 1 125 587.5 387.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.4 125 587.5 387.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 26 125 587.5 387.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 8 126 450 425 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 4 2 126 450 425 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 9 17 126 450 425 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 2 3 126 450 425 Pasco ware, limestonetempered plain, body sherd lt 1 1 126 450 425 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 2NHT; 1 21 30mm, b; 2 31 40mm, 1c, 1b li 3 8 126 450 425 Primary decortication flake, chert, HT; 1 51 60mm, c li 1 7 126 450 425 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 4HT, 8NHT; 2 1 10mm, 1b, 1c; 8 11 20mm, 4b, 4c; 2 21 30mm, c li 12 5 126 450 425 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 27 126 450 425 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1 127 550 412.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 12 127 550 412.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 11 9 127 550 412.5 Grit tempered plain, body sherd gt 1 2 127 550 412.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 9 18

PAGE 479

479 127 550 412.5 Olive jar, unglazed, body sherd ec 1 0.4 127 550 412.5 Chert tool, HT; 31 40mm li 1 4 127 550 412.5 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, b; 1 31 40mm, c li 2 4 127 550 412.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 1NHT; 2 11 20mm, c li 2 1 127 550 412.5 Bone fragments bone 6 1 127 550 412.5 Shell fragment shell 1 7 127 550 412.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 25 127 550 412.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 9 128 575 350 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 2 128 575 350 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 9 12 128 575 350 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 4 128 575 350 Primary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.5 128 575 350 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 1 1 128 575 350 Glass bead, blue gl cu 1 <.1 128 575 350 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 3 11 20mm, c li 3 0.4 128 575 350 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 63 128 575 350 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1 129 437.5 412.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 5 129 437.5 412.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 23 59 129 437.5 412.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 12 46 129 437.5 412.5 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 2 8 129 437.5 412.5 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 1 2 129 437.5 412.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 2NHT; 2 110mm, b; 3 11 20mm, 2b, 1c li 5 2 129 437.5 412.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 36 129 437.5 412.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 23 130 587.5 400 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 2 6 130 587.5 400 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 11 18 130 587.5 400 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 4 130 587.5 400 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 2 6 130 587.5 400 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 4HT, 5NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 6 11 20mm, 3b, 3c; 2 21 30mm, c li 9 4

PAGE 480

480 130 587.5 400 Chert fragment, NHT li 1 4 130 587.5 400 River cobble, quartz li 1 1 130 587.5 400 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 32 130 587.5 400 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1 131 487.5 400 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 7 2 131 487.5 400 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 11 131 487.5 400 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 11 12 131 487.5 400 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 3 3 131 487.5 400 Chert object, NHT; 31 40mm li 1 6 131 487.5 400 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 7NHT; 7 11 20mm, 2b, 5c; 1 21 30mm, c li 9 4 131 487.5 400 Clay/soil concretions soil 2 1 131 487.5 400 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6 132 462.5 400 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 20 17 132 462.5 400 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 10 9 132 462.5 400 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, 1 21 30mm, both b li 2 3 132 462.5 400 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 11 132 462.5 400 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6 133 525 425 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 2 133 525 425 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 6 4 133 525 425 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 6 5 133 525 425 Iron fragment fe 1 0.4 133 525 425 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 4NHT; 2 1 10mm, b; 3 11 20mm, 1c, 2b li 5 2 133 525 425 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.1 133 525 425 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 22 133 525 425 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1 133 525 425 Fulgurite gl cu 1 0.4 134 487.5 425 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 6 7 134 487.5 425 St. Johns incised, rim sherd ss 1 3 134 487.5 425 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 19 5 134 487.5 425 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 9 10

PAGE 481

481 134 487.5 425 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 1 2 134 487.5 425 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 5NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 3 11 20mm, c; 2 21 30mm, 1b, 1c li 6 4 134 487.5 425 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 4 134 487.5 425 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3 135 487.5 437.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 4 6 135 487.5 437.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 22 22 135 487.5 437.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 8 7 135 487.5 437.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 10NHT; 3 1 10mm, 1c, 2b; 9 11 20mm, 4c, 5b li 12 3 135 487.5 437.5 Bone fragments bone 3 0.2 135 487.5 437.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 20 135 487.5 437.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4 136 412.5 362.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 9 136 412.5 362.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 4 3 136 412.5 362.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 5 13 136 412.5 362.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c li 1 0.2 136 412.5 362.5 Carved bone fragment, species unidentified bone 1 <.1 136 412.5 362.5 Bone fragments bone 8 2 136 412.5 362.5 Clay/soil concretions soil 2 2 136 412.5 362.5 Charcoal fragments ch 1 0.1 137 537.5 350 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 7 3 137 537.5 350 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 4 137 537.5 350 Chert tool, HT; 41 50mm li 1 28 137 537.5 350 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 3NHT; 2 11 20mm, 1b, 1c; 2 21 30mm, 1b, 1c; 1 31 40mm, c li 5 5 137 537.5 350 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 60 137 537.5 350 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2 138 562.5 337.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 6 138 562.5 337.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 14 22 138 562.5 337.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 9 3 138 562.5 337.5 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 2 138 562.5 337.5 Sand tempered burnished, body sherd sn 1 3 138 562.5 337.5 Fiber tempered plain, body sherd ft 1 0.5

PAGE 482

482 138 562.5 337.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 7NHT; 1 110mm, b; 7 11 20mm, 4b, 3c; 1 21 30mm, b li 9 5 138 562.5 337.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 429 138 562.5 337.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6 139 487.5 375 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 4 6 139 487.5 375 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 10 7 139 487.5 375 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 10 139 487.5 375 Sand tempered simple stamped, body sherd sn 1 1 139 487.5 375 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 1 6 139 487.5 375 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 6NHT; 3 1 10mm, c; 4 11 20mm, 2b, 2c; 1 21 30mm, c li 8 2 139 487.5 375 River cobble, quartz li 1 <.1 139 487.5 375 Clay/soil concretions soil 3 4 139 487.5 375 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 8 140 512.5 400 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 3 140 512.5 400 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 10 17 140 512.5 400 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 1 2 140 512.5 400 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 6 5 140 512.5 400 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 24 140 512.5 400 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 8 140 512.5 400 River cobble, quartz li 2 0.4 140 512.5 400 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 3 11 20mm, 1b, 2c li 3 0.5 140 512.5 400 Iron nail fe 1 2 141 500 425 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 4 3 141 500 425 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 11 6 141 500 425 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 8 8 141 500 425 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 4NHT; 2 1 10mm, c; 2 11 20mm, 1b, 1c; 1 21 30mm, b li 5 2 141 500 425 Bone fragments bone 2 0.2 141 500 425 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 56 141 500 425 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4 142 487.5 362.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 3 142 487.5 362.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 20 20 142 487.5 362.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 9 22

PAGE 483

483 142 487.5 362.5 Secondary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 41 50mm, c li 1 18 142 487.5 362.5 Primary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 31 40mm, c li 1 4 142 487.5 362.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 7NHT; 2 1 10mm, b; 4 11 20mm, 1c, 3b; 2 21 30mm, 1c, 1b li 8 3 142 487.5 362.5 Pinellas point, chert, NHT li 1 1 142 487.5 362.5 River cobble, quartz li 2 1 142 487.5 362.5 Clay/soil concretions soil 4 2 142 487.5 362.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3 143 450 450 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 4 13 143 450 450 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 11 143 450 450 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 4 2 143 450 450 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 11 13 143 450 450 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 8NHT; 2 1 10mm, b; 7 11 20mm, 3b, 4c li 9 3 143 450 450 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 78 143 450 450 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6 144 475 462.5 Redware, rim sherd ec 1 2 144 475 462.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 4 144 475 462.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 5 2 144 475 462.5 Alachua Cord marked, body sherd sn 1 9 144 475 462.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 6 11 144 475 462.5 Grog tempered plain, body sherds gt 2 2 144 475 462.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 6NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 6 11 20mm, 3b, 3c; 2 21 30mm, b li 9 6 144 475 462.5 Bone fragments bone 1 2 144 475 462.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 56 144 475 462.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 29 145 587.5 562.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 5 145 587.5 562.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 4 10 145 587.5 562.5 Coarse earthenware, rim sherd ec 1 6 145 587.5 562.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, HT; 1 21 30mm, b li 1 2 145 587.5 562.5 Bone fragments bone 1 1 145 587.5 562.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4 146 562.5 362.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 4

PAGE 484

484 146 562.5 362.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 6 5 146 562.5 362.5 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 1 0.2 146 562.5 362.5 Chert fragment, NHT; 41 50mm li 1 6 146 562.5 362.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 6NHT; 2 1 10mm, 1b, 1c; 6 11 20mm, 2c, 4b; 1 21 30mm, b li 9 4 146 562.5 362.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 47 146 562.5 362.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 0.5 147 537.5 450 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 2 147 537.5 450 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 6 5 147 537.5 450 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 2 147 537.5 450 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 2NHT; 1 1 10mm, 2 11 20mm, all b li 3 0.4 147 537.5 450 Glass fragment, clear gl cu 1 1 147 537.5 450 River cobble, quartz li 2 0.3 147 537.5 450 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 8 147 537.5 450 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2 148 525 450 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 12 148 525 450 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 5 2 148 525 450 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 8 10 148 525 450 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 3 11 20mm, 1c, 2b li 4 0.5 148 525 450 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 18 148 525 450 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5 149 537.5 462.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 7 4 149 537.5 462.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 6 149 537.5 462.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 10 23 149 537.5 462.5 Grog tempered plain, body sherds gt 1 0.4 149 537.5 462.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 1 149 537.5 462.5 Bone fragments bone 1 0.3 149 537.5 462.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted li 5 2 149 537.5 462.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5 150 575 475 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 2 150 575 475 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 5 5

PAGE 485

485 150 575 475 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 4 150 575 475 Lochloosa punctated, body sherd sn 1 3 150 575 475 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 3NHT; 4 11 20mm, 2b, 2c li 4 0.4 150 575 475 River cobble, quartz li 3 4 150 575 475 Bone fragments bone 4 1 150 575 475 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 56 150 575 475 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10 151 500 450 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 4 9 151 500 450 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 0.3 151 500 450 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 9 6 151 500 450 Sand tempered punctated, body sherds sn 1 8 151 500 450 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 11 20mm, 1b, 1c li 2 2 151 500 450 Bone fragments bone 4 1 151 500 450 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 12 151 500 450 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3 152 525 462.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 2 2 152 525 462.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 2 152 525 462.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 0.5 152 525 462.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 8NHT; 5 1 10mm, 2c, 3b; 4 11 20mm, 2c, 2b li 9 2 152 525 462.5 River cobble, quartz li 2 2 152 525 462.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 18 152 525 462.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2 153 462.5 450 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 5 153 462.5 450 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 4 1 153 462.5 450 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 4 153 462.5 450 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 5NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 5 11 20mm, 1c, 4b; 1 21 30mm, b li 7 4 153 462.5 450 Shell fragment shell 1 0.4 153 462.5 450 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 103 153 462.5 450 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10 154 550 512.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 5 154 550 512.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 2 4

PAGE 486

486 154 550 512.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert. 1HT, 2NHT; 1 1 10mm, 1 11 20mm, 1 21 30mm, all c li 3 1 154 550 512.5 Clay/soil concretions soil 6 6 154 550 512.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7 155 550 350 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 4 155 550 350 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 11 4 155 550 350 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 7 7 155 550 350 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 1 155 550 350 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 9NHT; 2 1 10mm, b; 7 11 20mm, 4c, 3b; 1 21 30mm, c li 10 4 155 550 350 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 21 155 550 350 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch <.1 156 525 337.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 11 8 156 525 337.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 11 8 156 525 337.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 4HT, 7NHT; 9 11 20mm, 1c, 8b; 2 21 30mm, b li 11 6 156 525 337.5 Iron nail fe 1 4 156 525 337.5 Iron fragment fe 1 0.2 156 525 337.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 57 156 525 337.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5 157 575 375 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 4 5 157 575 375 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 2 157 575 375 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 3 157 575 375 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 7NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 3 11 20mm, 2c, 1b; 4 21 30mm, 2c, 2b li 8 10 157 575 375 Chert tool, NHT; 31 40mm li 1 7 157 575 375 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 186 157 575 375 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5 158 587.5 362.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 4 7 158 587.5 362.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 1 158 587.5 362.5 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 1 20 158 587.5 362.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 2 158 587.5 362.5 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 1 2 158 587.5 362.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 11 20mm, 1b, 1c li 2 0.3 158 587.5 362.5 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 31 40mm, 1 41 50mm, both c li 2 10

PAGE 487

487 158 587.5 362.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 31 158 587.5 362.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1 159 475 362.5 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 1 8 159 475 362.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 17 7 159 475 362.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 0.4 159 475 362.5 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 2 159 475 362.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 1 159 475 362.5 Limestone fragment li 1 3 159 475 362.5 Chert cores, NHT li 1 115 159 475 362.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 4HT, 6NHT; 4 1 10mm, 1c, 3b; 4 11 20mm, 2c, 2b; 2 21 30mm, 1c, 1b li 10 6 159 475 362.5 Chert blade, NHT li 1 7 159 475 362.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 6 159 475 362.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3 160 587.5 375 St. Johns incised, body sherd ss 1 2 160 587.5 375 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 3 3 160 587.5 375 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 0.3 160 587.5 375 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 5 160 587.5 375 Primary decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 1NHT; 1 21 30mm, b; 1 41 50mm, c li 2 9 160 587.5 375 Secondary decortication flake, chert, HT; 1 31 40mm, c li 1 3 160 587.5 375 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 9NHT; 2 1 10mm, 1c, 1b; 7 11 20mm, 3c, 4b; 1 21 30mm, b li 10 3 160 587.5 375 River cobble, quartz li 1 <.1 160 587.5 375 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 76 160 587.5 375 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1 161 587.5 575 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 8 18 161 587.5 575 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 6 161 587.5 575 Alachua Cord marked, body sherd sn 1 6 161 587.5 575 Sand tempered simple stamped, body sherd sn 1 8 161 587.5 575 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 3 161 587.5 575 Sandstone fragment li 1 19 161 587.5 575 Nondecortication flake, chert, HT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.4

PAGE 488

488 161 587.5 575 Bone fragments bone 4 161 587.5 575 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 17 161 587.5 575 Clay sample from unit, uncounted soil 591 161 587.5 575 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4 162 512.5 412.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 12 8 162 512.5 412.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 8 4 162 512.5 412.5 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 0.3 162 512.5 412.5 Iron fragment fe 1 <.1 162 512.5 412.5 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 1NHT; 3 21 30mm, 1c, 2b; 1 31 40mm, c li 4 12 162 512.5 412.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 5HT, 22NHT; 12 1 10mm, 5c, 7b; 14 11 20mm, 6c, 8b; 1 21 30mm, b li 27 5 162 512.5 412.5 Bone fragments bone 2 <.1 162 512.5 412.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 13 162 512.5 412.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 8 163 450 487.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 2 163 450 487.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 4 163 450 487.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 8NHT; 2 1 10mm, 1b, 1c; 7 11 20mm, 5c, 2b; 1 21 30mm, c li 10 2 163 450 487.5 Chert tool, NHT li 1 1 163 450 487.5 Bone fragments bone 2 0.6 163 450 487.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 21 163 450 487.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 14 164 450 475 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 4 17 164 450 475 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 22 22 164 450 475 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 5 164 450 475 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 1 2 164 450 475 Secondary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, c li 1 2 164 450 475 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 9NHT; 3 1 10mm, 2b, 1c; 9 11 20mm, 6b, 3c li 12 3 164 450 475 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.2 164 450 475 Bone fragments bone 3 0.7 164 450 475 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 37 164 450 475 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 31 165 600 400 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 1

PAGE 489

489 165 600 400 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 0.2 165 600 400 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 0.4 165 600 400 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 21 30mm, 1b, 1c; 1 41 50mm, c li 3 18 165 600 400 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 3 11 20mm, 2b, 1c li 3 2 165 600 400 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 39 165 600 400 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3 166 600 425 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 2 2 166 600 425 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 2 2 166 600 425 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 8 166 600 425 Chert blade, NHT li 1 5 166 600 425 Nondecortication flake, chert, HT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.1 166 600 425 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.2 166 600 425 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 7 166 600 425 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 9 167 462.5 425 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 4 10 167 462.5 425 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 5 4 167 462.5 425 Fiber tempered plain, rim sherd ft 1 4 167 462.5 425 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 7 5 167 462.5 425 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 2 167 462.5 425 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 1NHT; 1 1 10mm, 2 11 20mm, all b li 3 1 167 462.5 425 Bone fragments bone 1 167 462.5 425 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 40 167 462.5 425 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 16 168 575 362.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 3 168 575 362.5 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 1 1 168 575 362.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 2 168 575 362.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 3 168 575 362.5 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 2 168 575 362.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 5NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 5 11 20mm, 2c, 3b; 1 21 30mm, b li 7 4 168 575 362.5 River cobble, quartz li 3 0.7 168 575 362.5 Bone fragments bone 1 <.1

PAGE 490

490 168 575 362.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 96 168 575 362.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4 169 587.5 412.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 11 169 587.5 412.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 5 4 169 587.5 412.5 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 0.3 169 587.5 412.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 3 169 587.5 412.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 2NHT; 1 11 20mm, 2 21 30mm, all b li 3 5 169 587.5 412.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 187 169 587.5 412.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2 170 500 400 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 3 170 500 400 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 13 8 170 500 400 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 6 6 170 500 400 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 4HT, 8NHT; 5 1 10mm, 4b, 1c; 6 11 20mm, 3b, 3c; 1 21 30mm, c li 12 3 170 500 400 River cobble, quartz li 2 0.4 170 500 400 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 16 170 500 400 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 14 171 450 437.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 6 171 450 437.5 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 21 25 171 450 437.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 10 13 171 450 437.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 5NHT; 2 1 10mm, c; 5 11 20mm, 3c, 2b; 1 21 30mm, c li 8 4 171 450 437.5 Bone fragments bone 2 1 171 450 437.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 23 171 450 437.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 8 172 462.5 375 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 1 18 172 462.5 375 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 2 172 462.5 375 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 1 172 462.5 375 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 14 10 172 462.5 375 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 11 10 172 462.5 375 Chert blade, NHT li 1 4 172 462.5 375 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 4NHT; 5 11 20mm, 2c, 3b li 5 2 172 462.5 375 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 14

PAGE 491

491 174 437.5 425 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 0.2 174 437.5 425 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 5 8 174 437.5 425 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 9 18 174 437.5 425 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 0.5 174 437.5 425 Pasco ware, limestone tempered plain, body sherd lt 2 2 174 437.5 425 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 1 0.3 174 437.5 425 Mission Red Filmed, rim sherd sn 1 2 174 437.5 425 Chert blade, NHT li 1 6 174 437.5 425 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 3NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 1 11 20mm, b; 2 21 30mm, 1b, 1c li 4 3 174 437.5 425 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 42 175 537.5 375 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 7 6 175 537.5 375 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 17 9 175 537.5 375 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 11 18 175 537.5 375 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 6NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 4 11 20mm, b; 2 21 30mm, 1b, 1c li 7 5 175 537.5 375 River cobble, quartz li 2 0.4 175 537.5 375 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 16 176 437.5 450 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 5 19 176 437.5 450 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 10 13 176 437.5 450 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 6 14 176 437.5 450 Chert blade, NHT li 1 10 176 437.5 450 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 2NHT; 2 11 20mm, 2 21 30mm, all b li 4 3 176 437.5 450 Bone fragments bone 1 <.1 176 437.5 450 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 133 176 437.5 450 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5 177 537.5 387.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 10 177 537.5 387.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 19 8 177 537.5 387.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 9 8 177 537.5 387.5 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 2 3 177 537.5 387.5 Sand tempered simple stamped, body sherd sn 1 0.7 177 537.5 387.5 Olive jar, unglazed, body sherd ec 1 2 177 537.5 387.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 4HT, 13NHT; 2 1 10mm, 1b, 1c; 14 11 20mm, 4c, 10b; 1 21 30mm, b li 17 8

PAGE 492

492 177 537.5 387.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 1 177 537.5 387.5 Bone fragments bone 2 1 177 537.5 387.5 Clay/soil concretions soil 5 2 177 537.5 387.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7 178 550 387.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 10 11 178 550 387.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 4 178 550 387.5 Sand tempered check stamped, rim sherd sn 1 5 178 550 387.5 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, HT; 2 21 30mm, b li 2 3 178 550 387.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 1 10mm, 2 11 20mm, 1 21 30mm, all b li 5 1 178 550 387.5 Clay/soil concretions soil 3 0.5 178 550 387.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10 179 550 375 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 4 21 179 550 375 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 4 179 550 375 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 10 6 179 550 375 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 10 179 550 375 Fiber tempered plain, body sherd ft 2 6 179 550 375 Glass bead, blue gl cu 1 <.1 179 550 375 Chert tool, HT li 1 2 179 550 375 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 6HT, 14NHT; 8 1 10mm, 5b, 3c; 11 11 20mm, 7b, 4c; 1 21 30mm, c li 20 4 179 550 375 Iron fragment fe 1 4 179 550 375 River cobble, quartz li 2 1 179 550 375 Bone fragments bone 5 1 179 550 375 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 13 179 550 375 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4 180 500 375 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 24 15 180 500 375 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 0.4 180 500 375 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 7 10 180 500 375 Sand tempered incised, body sherd sn 2 7 180 500 375 Grit tempered plain, body sherd gt 1 5 180 500 375 Chert blade, HT li 1 8

PAGE 493

493 180 500 375 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 7NHT; 2 1 10mm, c; 6 11 20mm, 5b, 1c; 1 21 30mm, b li 9 5 180 500 375 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 18 180 500 375 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2 181 450 537.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 4 181 450 537.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 11 15 181 450 537.5 Secondary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, c li 1 3 181 450 537.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3 182 462.5 525 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 5 4 182 462.5 525 Bone fragments bone 3 <.1 182 462.5 525 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6 183 412.5 600 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 4 4 183 412.5 600 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 2 183 412.5 600 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 2NHT; 3 11 20mm, 1 21 30mm, all b li 4 3 183 412.5 600 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.4 183 412.5 600 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 25 183 412.5 600 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 9 184 537.5 337.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 10 14 184 537.5 337.5 Iron fork, broken fe 1 55 184 537.5 337.5 Iron nail fe 7 9 184 537.5 337.5 Glass fragments, 3 clear, 1 brown gl cu 4 2 184 537.5 337.5 Primary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 0.5 184 537.5 337.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 4NHT; 4 11 20mm, 2b, 2c; 3 21 30mm, 2b, 1c li 7 5 184 537.5 337.5 River cobble, quartz li 4 3 184 537.5 337.5 Shell fragment shell 7 4 184 537.5 337.5 Bone fragments bone 2 0.2 184 537.5 337.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 26 184 537.5 337.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1 185 462.5 512.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 9 185 462.5 512.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 0.7 185 462.5 512.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 11 20mm, 1b, 1c li 2 3

PAGE 494

494 185 462.5 512.5 Bone fragments bone 3 1 185 462.5 512.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 8 186 475 525 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 6 186 475 525 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 2 3 186 475 525 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 1NHT; 2 11 20mm, 1b, 1c li 2 0.4 186 475 525 Bone fragments bone 4 2 186 475 525 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 12 186 475 525 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 16 187 512.5 562.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 5 10 187 512.5 562.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 6 7 187 512.5 562.5 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 1 2 187 512.5 562.5 Secondary decortication flake, chert, HT; 1 21 30mm, b li 1 3 187 512.5 562.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.2 187 512.5 562.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 2 187 512.5 562.5 Bone fragments bone 1 1 187 512.5 562.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3 188 562.5 600 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 4 8 188 562.5 600 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 0.3 188 562.5 600 Fiber tempered plain, body sherd ft 1 1 188 562.5 600 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, 1 11 20mm, both c li 2 1 188 562.5 600 Bone fragments bone 6 188 562.5 600 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 8 188 562.5 600 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 12 189 562.5 575 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 10 189 562.5 575 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 12 6 189 562.5 575 Sand tempered simple stamped, body sherd sn 1 4 189 562.5 575 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 2 189 562.5 575 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1 190 562.5 525 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 8 190 562.5 525 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 0.2 190 562.5 525 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 5 30

PAGE 495

495 190 562.5 525 Mission Red Filmed, rim sherd sn 1 14 190 562.5 525 Iron fragment fe 1 0.2 190 562.5 525 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.4 190 562.5 525 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.2 190 562.5 525 Clay/soil concretions soil 2 1 190 562.5 525 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 11 191 450 637.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 1 191 450 637.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 7 191 450 637.5 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 1 191 450 637.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 1 21 30mm, c li 2 2 191 450 637.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.3 191 450 637.5 Clay/soil concretion soil 1 13 191 450 637.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5 192 437.5 637.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 1 192 437.5 637.5 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 1 192 437.5 637.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.2 192 437.5 637.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 8 192 437.5 637.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 8 193 425 637.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 4 193 425 637.5 Clay/soil concretion soil 1 1 193 425 637.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7 194 450 625 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 2 194 450 625 Sand tempered punctated, body sherds sn 1 4 194 450 625 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 3 11 20mm, 1b, 2c li 3 2 194 450 625 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6 195 450 462.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 2 195 450 462.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 3 195 450 462.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 7 195 450 462.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, b li 1 1 195 450 462.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.1 195 450 462.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 49

PAGE 496

496 196 487.5 512.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 6 12 196 487.5 512.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 5 2 196 487.5 512.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 3 196 487.5 512.5 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 14 196 487.5 512.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 2 11 20mm, c li 3 0.5 196 487.5 512.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 25 196 487.5 512.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 24 197 512.5 537.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 5 197 512.5 537.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 8 6 197 512.5 537.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 2 197 512.5 537.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 <.1 197 512.5 537.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 11 198 412.5 587.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 1 198 412.5 587.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 2 198 412.5 587.5 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 2 8 198 412.5 587.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, 1 21 30mm, both b li 2 4 198 412.5 587.5 Clay/soil concretions soil 3 3 198 412.5 587.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 9 199 462.5 450 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 1 2 199 462.5 450 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 4 2 199 462.5 450 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 7 9 199 462.5 450 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 1 6 199 462.5 450 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 8 13 199 462.5 450 Sand tempered check stamped, body sherd sn 1 3 199 462.5 450 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 1 0.5 199 462.5 450 Limestone fragment li 1 5 199 462.5 450 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 5HT, 3NHT; 2 1 10mm, c; 4 11 20mm, 1c, 3b; 2 21 30mm, b li 8 2 199 462.5 450 Bone fragments bone 2 <.1 199 462.5 450 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 275 199 462.5 450 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 13 200 412.5 650 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 2

PAGE 497

497 200 412.5 650 Pinellas point, chert, HT li 1 1 200 412.5 650 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, 1 11 20mm, both b li 2 0.4 200 412.5 650 Hematite fragments soil 2 <.1 200 412.5 650 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 12 201 462.5 525 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 2 0.8 201 462.5 525 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 4 201 462.5 525 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 1 0.3 201 462.5 525 Nondecortication flake, chert, HT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.2 201 462.5 525 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 11 201 462.5 525 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3 202 525 625 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 4 202 525 625 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 0.3 202 525 625 Iron fragment fe 1 0.4 202 525 625 Clay/soil concretion soil 1 0.3 202 525 625 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7 203 600 375 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 2 203 600 375 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 0.1 203 600 375 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 11 20mm, c; 2 21 30mm, 1b, 1c li 4 3 203 600 375 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.2 203 600 375 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 62 203 600 375 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 9 204 437.5 600 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 1 204 437.5 600 Sand tempered incised, body sherd sn 1 6 204 437.5 600 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 2 1 204 437.5 600 Bone fragments bone 1 <.1 204 437.5 600 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2 205 412.5 537.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 0.4 205 412.5 537.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 5 3 205 412.5 537.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 5 205 412.5 537.5 Chert blade, HT li 1 0.6 205 412.5 537.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 3 11 20mm, 1 21 30mm, all b li 4 2

PAGE 498

498 205 412.5 537.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 16 206 412.5 562.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 7 206 412.5 562.5 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 1 4 206 412.5 562.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 4NHT; 4 11 20mm, 2 21 30mm, all b li 6 3 206 412.5 562.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 10 206 412.5 562.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7 207 425 550 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 3 207 425 550 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 3 11 20mm, 1 21 30mm, all b li 4 2 207 425 550 Clay/soil concretion soil 1 2 208 437.5 587.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 10 208 437.5 587.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 0.4 208 437.5 587.5 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 1 0.3 208 437.5 587.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 1 208 437.5 587.5 Grit and grog tempered plain, body sherds gt 2 10 208 437.5 587.5 Grit and grog tempered plain, rim sherd gt 1 3 208 437.5 587.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 2 11 20mm, 1c, 1b li 3 0.5 208 437.5 587.5 Bone fragments bone 1 <.1 208 437.5 587.5 Clay/soil concretion soil 1 1 208 437.5 587.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 26 209 462.5 625 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 4 2 209 462.5 625 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, b li 1 2 209 462.5 625 Clay/soil concretions soil 5 2 210 437.5 650 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 0.4 210 437.5 650 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 3 11 20mm, 1c, 2b; 2 21 30mm, b li 5 3 210 437.5 650 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7 211 450 575 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 18 211 450 575 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 1 211 450 575 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 1 10mm, 1 11 20mm, 1 21 30mm, all c li 4 2 211 450 575 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.4 211 450 575 Lime fragment li 1 <.1 211 450 575 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 13

PAGE 499

499 212 437.5 537.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 5 212 437.5 537.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 9 16 212 437.5 537.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 4 212 437.5 537.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 5NHT; 2 11 20mm, 4 21 30mm, 1 31 40mm, all b li 7 8 212 437.5 537.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 9 213 425 587.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 2 213 425 587.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 2 213 425 587.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 3 213 425 587.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, c li 1 0.6 213 425 587.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.2 213 425 587.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 11 214 412.5 575 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 6 15 214 412.5 575 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 10 14 214 412.5 575 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 13 214 412.5 575 Sandstone fragment li 1 29 214 412.5 575 Primary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 31 40mm, b li 1 4 214 412.5 575 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, b li 1 0.5 214 412.5 575 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 11 215 412.5 525 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 2 1 215 412.5 525 Sand tempered incised, body sherd sn 2 6 215 412.5 525 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 13 215 412.5 525 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, 2 21 30mm, all b li 3 2 215 412.5 525 Bone fragments bone 2 <.1 216 412.5 550 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 11 216 412.5 550 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 2 216 412.5 550 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 2 216 412.5 550 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 4 11 20mm, 2b, 2c li 4 2 216 412.5 550 Clay/soil concretions soil 2 3 217 437.5 525 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 4 217 437.5 525 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 5 217 437.5 525 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 2

PAGE 500

500 217 437.5 525 Primary decortication flake, chert, HT; 1 31 40mm, b li 1 6 217 437.5 525 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 6HT, 4NHT; 3 1 10mm, 2c, 1b; 6 11 20mm, 3c, 3b; 1 21 30mm, b li 10 2 217 437.5 525 Clay/soil concretions soil 3 4 217 437.5 525 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4 218 437.5 562.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 3 218 437.5 562.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4 219 425 462.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 4 5 219 425 462.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 2 3 219 425 462.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 4 219 425 462.5 Pasco ware, limestonetempered plain, body sherd lt 1 2 219 425 462.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 2NHT; 5 11 20mm, 2b, 3c; 1 21 30mm, c li 5 3 219 425 462.5 Clay/soil concretions soil 3 4 219 425 462.5 Charcoal fragments ch 1 2 220 437.5 625 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 4 8 220 437.5 625 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 6 7 220 437.5 625 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 5 10 220 437.5 625 Secondary decortication flake, chert, HT; 1 31 40mm, b li 1 4 220 437.5 625 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.4 220 437.5 625 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 15 220 437.5 625 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6 221 587.5 337.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 8 9 221 587.5 337.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 2 221 587.5 337.5 Chert point, HT li 1 20 221 587.5 337.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 1NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 1 11 20mm, b li 2 0.4 221 587.5 337.5 River cobble, quartz li 2 1 221 587.5 337.5 Lime fragment li 1 0.2 221 587.5 337.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 21 221 587.5 337.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 0.4 222 550 337.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 32 222 550 337.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 12 8 222 550 337.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 16 23

PAGE 501

501 222 550 337.5 Fiber tempered incised, rim sherd ft 1 2 222 550 337.5 Chert core, NHT li 1 95 222 550 337.5 Chert tool, NHT; 41 50mm li 1 12 222 550 337.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 7 11 20mm, 1c, 6b; 2 21 30mm, 1c, 1b li 9 8 222 550 337.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 1 222 550 337.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3 223 475 387.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 8 223 475 387.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 16 17 223 475 387.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 19 36 223 475 387.5 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 2 2 223 475 387.5 Primary decortication flakes, silicified coral; 1 21 30mm, 1 41 50mm, both c li 2 13 223 475 387.5 Secondary decortication flakes, silicified coral; 1 31 40mm, b li 1 3 223 475 387.5 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 1 9 223 475 387.5 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 2NHT; 1 21 30mm, b; 2 31 40mm, 1c, 1b li 3 16 223 475 387.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 10 11 20mm, 4c, 6b; 1 21 30mm, b li 12 6 223 475 387.5 Bone fragments bone 1 1 223 475 387.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 56 223 475 387.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 18 224 437.5 575 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 3 224 437.5 575 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 6 224 437.5 575 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 3NHT; 4 11 20mm, 3b, 1c li 4 2 225 475 650 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 4 225 475 650 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 0.2 225 475 650 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 22 225 475 650 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 52 225 475 650 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3 226 437.5 512.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 6 4 226 437.5 512.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 5 226 437.5 512.5 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 3 226 437.5 512.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 6NHT; 5 11 20mm, 4b, 1c; 1 21 30mm, c li 6 6 226 437.5 512.5 Shell fragment shell 1 3

PAGE 502

502 226 437.5 512.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 10 227 412.5 612.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 4 227 412.5 612.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 6 227 412.5 612.5 Pasco ware, limestonetempered plain, body sherd lt 8 4 227 412.5 612.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 4 1 227 412.5 612.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 11 20mm, 1b, 1c li 2 0.6 227 412.5 612.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.5 227 412.5 612.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3 228 412.5 625 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 4 5 228 412.5 625 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 16 228 412.5 625 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 4 228 412.5 625 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 5 228 412.5 625 Fiber tempered plain, body sherd ft 3 2 228 412.5 625 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5 229 537.5 600 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 14 229 537.5 600 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 0.6 229 537.5 600 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 1 8 229 537.5 600 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 6 0.5 229 537.5 600 Chert blade, NHT li 1 5 229 537.5 600 Nondecortication flake, chert, HT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.2 229 537.5 600 Soapstone fragment li 1 10 229 537.5 600 Bone fragments bone 1 0.2 229 537.5 600 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 53 229 537.5 600 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4 230 475 637.5 Fig Springs Roughened, body sherd ss 1 3 230 475 637.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 7 3 230 475 637.5 Clay/soil concretions soil 4 15 230 475 637.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 13 231 412.5 637.5 Chert core, NHT li 1 30 231 412.5 637.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.9 231 412.5 637.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6

PAGE 503

503 232 437.5 550 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 4 232 437.5 550 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 4 1 232 437.5 550 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 1 232 437.5 550 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4 233 437.5 500 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 4 233 437.5 500 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 3 233 437.5 500 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 3 233 437.5 500 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 2NHT; 4 11 20mm, 2c, 2b li 4 2 233 437.5 500 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 12 233 437.5 500 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7 234 425 575 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 5 234 425 575 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 0.9 234 425 575 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, 1b, 1c li 2 2 234 425 575 River cobble, quartz li 2 0.3 234 425 575 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7 235 475 625 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 0.1 235 475 625 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c li 1 0.1 235 475 625 Lime fragment li 1 0.4 235 475 625 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6 236 462.5 587.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 4 236 462.5 587.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 0.2 236 462.5 587.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 4 236 462.5 587.5 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 1 1 236 462.5 587.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, HT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.2 236 462.5 587.5 Bone fragments bone 1 <.1 236 462.5 587.5 Clay/soil concretion soil 1 0.9 236 462.5 587.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 14 237 600 500 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 0.9 237 600 500 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 2 0.5 237 600 500 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 1 0.2 237 600 500 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 1

PAGE 504

504 237 600 500 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.5 237 600 500 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1 238 425 625 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 4 4 238 425 625 St. Johns Incised, body sherd ss 1 4 238 425 625 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 5 2 238 425 625 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, b li 1 1 238 425 625 Clay/soil concretions soil 2 0.4 238 425 625 Lime fragment li 4 238 425 625 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 14 239 450 500 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 4 13 239 450 500 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 5 239 450 500 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 11 20mm, b; 2 21 30mm, c li 4 2 239 450 500 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 33 239 450 500 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10 240 525 600 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 2 240 525 600 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 6 2 240 525 600 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 2 240 525 600 Chert fragment, NHT, 21 30mm li 1 2 240 525 600 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5 241 462.5 550 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6 242 475 612.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 4 242 475 612.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 0.1 242 475 612.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 29 242 475 612.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 3 11 20mm, 2b, 1c li 3 0.5 242 475 612.5 Stone fragment li 1 0.3 242 475 612.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 6 242 475 612.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 26 243 512.5 587.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 15 22 243 512.5 587.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 1 243 512.5 587.5 Chert point, NHT li 1 0.2 243 512.5 587.5 River cobble, quartz li 2 0.3

PAGE 505

505 243 512.5 587.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10 244 462.5 500 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 4 6 244 462.5 500 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 0.9 244 462.5 500 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 1 244 462.5 500 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 2 244 462.5 500 Chert blades, 1HT, 1NHT; 2 41 50mm li 2 12 244 462.5 500 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 1 10mm, 1b, 1c; 2 11 20mm, 1b, 1c li 4 1 244 462.5 500 River cobble, quartz li 2 0.7 244 462.5 500 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6 245 462.5 575 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 36 245 462.5 575 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 15 245 462.5 575 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 4 7 245 462.5 575 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.2 245 462.5 575 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4 246 450 612.5 Olive jar, green glazed, body sherd ec 1 4 246 450 612.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 4 246 450 612.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 0.2 246 450 612.5 Secondary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 41 50mm, c li 1 13 246 450 612.5 Bone fragments bone 1 0.1 246 450 612.5 Clay/soil concretions soil 2 0.4 246 450 612.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 11 247 450 587.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 8 247 450 587.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 3 247 450 587.5 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 1 6 247 450 587.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 0.5 247 450 587.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, 2 11 20mm, all b li 3 2 247 450 587.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.8 247 450 587.5 Bone fragments bone 3 1 247 450 587.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 11 248 437.5 612.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 3 248 437.5 612.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 2

PAGE 506

506 248 437.5 612.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 0.1 248 437.5 612.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10 249 450 650 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 8 2 249 450 650 Coarse earthenware, body sherd sn 1 2 249 450 650 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6 250 462.5 562.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 10 250 462.5 562.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 16 250 462.5 562.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 2 1 250 462.5 562.5 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 3 7 250 462.5 562.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7 251 475 562.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 20 251 475 562.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 7 18 251 475 562.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 7 14 251 475 562.5 Polished ivory/bone fragment bone 1 2 251 475 562.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.3 251 475 562.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 25 252 Surface Finds St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 2 86 252 Surface Finds St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 8 252 Surface Finds St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 16 252 Surface Finds Fig Springs Roughened, body sherd ss 1 78 252 Surface Finds Sand tempered simple stamped, body sherd sn 1 48 252 Surface Finds Lochloosa Punctated, rim sherd sn 1 27 253 Surface Finds Olive jar, green glazed, body sherd ec 2 79 253 Surface Finds Olive jar, unglazed, body sherd ec 1 46 254 462.5 612.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 3 254 462.5 612.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 4 5 254 462.5 612.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 1 254 462.5 612.5 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 2 254 462.5 612.5 Bone fragments bone 4 2 254 462.5 612.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 19 254 462.5 612.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 11

PAGE 507

507 255 525 437.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 4 7 255 525 437.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 11 11 255 525 437.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 6 11 255 525 437.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 6NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 6 11 20mm, 1b, 5c; 2 21 30mm, b li 11 6 255 525 437.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 101 255 525 437.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 8 256 500 562.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 16 9 256 500 562.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 11 14 256 500 562.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 4 11 20mm, 2b, 2c li 5 3 256 500 562.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 22 256 500 562.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4 257 450 600 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 7 5 257 450 600 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 1 2 257 450 600 Iron nail fe 1 4 257 450 600 River cobble, quartz li 2 0.3 257 450 600 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 11 257 450 600 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 8 258 462.5 650 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 4 258 462.5 650 Spanish redware, rim sherd ec 1 5 258 462.5 650 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 0.1 258 462.5 650 River cobble, quartz li 2 3 258 462.5 650 Charcoal fragment ch 1 0.1 259 487.5 587.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 10 259 487.5 587.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 16 259 487.5 587.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 5 4 259 487.5 587.5 Bone fragments bone 6 259 487.4 587.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4 260 475 587.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 7 9 260 475 587.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 5 2 260 475 587.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 1 260 475 587.5 Pinellas point, chert, NHT li 1 2

PAGE 508

508 260 475 587.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 1 260 475 587.5 Bone fragments bone 2 0.3 260 475 587.5 Clay/soil concretions soil 2 5 260 475 587.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 19 261 600 437.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 1 261 600 437.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 2 261 600 437.5 Iron fragment fe 1 <.1 261 600 437.5 Pinellas point, chert, NHT li 1 2 261 600 437.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 1NHT; 2 21 30mm, c li 2 1 261 600 437.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7 262 525 612.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 11 262 525 612.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 2 1 262 525 612.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, b li 1 0.1 262 525 612.5 Bone fragments bone 3 0.2 262 525 612.5 Clay/soil concretions soil 4 1 262 525 612.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2 263 525 575 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 2 263 525 575 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 9 5 263 525 575 Sand tempered punctated, body sherds sn 1 28 263 525 575 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 11 12 263 525 575 Bone fragments bone 1 2 263 525 575 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5 264 525 512.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 6 31 264 525 512.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 3 264 525 512.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 9 6 264 525 512.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 7 264 525 512.5 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 6 2 264 525 512.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 0.3 264 525 512.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 2 264 525 512.5 Bone fragments bone 7 1 264 525 512.5 Unidentified material, nature unknown UID 1 0.4

PAGE 509

509 264 525 512.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 12 264 525 512.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 11 265 412.5 500 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 4 265 412.5 500 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 2 3 265 412.5 500 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 2 265 412.5 500 Nondecortication flakes, chert, HT; 3 11 20mm, 2b, 1c li 3 2 265 412.5 500 Bone fragments bone 1 2 266 512.5 525 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 8 266 512.5 525 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 4 6 266 512.5 525 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 2 266 512.5 525 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.5 266 512.5 525 Fulgurite gl cu 1 0.1 266 512.5 525 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 15 267 537.5 487.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 4 3 267 537.5 487.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 1 267 537.5 487.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 2NHT; 1 1 10mm, 3 11 20mm, c li 4 2 267 537.5 487.5 River cobble, quartz li 2 0.4 267 537.5 487.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 9 268 425 650 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 2 268 425 650 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 1 268 425 650 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 1NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 1 11 20mm, b li 2 0.4 268 425 650 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 11 268 425 650 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 11 269 512.5 600 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 2 269 512.5 600 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, b li 1 0.4 269 512.5 600 Clay/soil concretions soil 4 5 269 512.5 600 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 23 270 475 512.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 5 22 270 475 512.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 13 3 270 475 512.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 2

PAGE 510

510 270 475 512.5 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 1 1 270 475 512.5 Olive jar, unglazed, body sherd ec 1 1 270 475 512.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, HT; 1 21 30mm, b li 1 0.4 270 475 512.5 Bone fragments bone 1 0.2 270 475 512.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.3 270 475 512.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 7 271 500 575 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 3 271 500 575 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 4 3 271 500 575 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 31 40mm, b li 1 2 271 500 575 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5 272 475 550 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 6 272 475 550 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 6 3 272 475 550 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 1 2 272 475 550 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 6 13 272 475 550 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 6 272 475 550 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 29 273 450 562.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 2 273 450 562.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 2 273 450 562.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b; 1 21 30mm, c li 2 0.8 273 450 562.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.6 273 450 562.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 14.2 274 500 500 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 4.9 274 500 500 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 1 2 274 500 500 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 2 274 500 500 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 0.9 274 500 500 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 2.4 274 500 500 Alachua Cob marked, body sherd sn 1 2.9 274 500 500 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 2 3.5 274 500 500 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 21 30mm, 1b, 1c li 2 4.9 274 500 500 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 4NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 4 11 20mm, 1b, 3c li 5 1.5 274 500 500 Bone fragments bone 1 4

PAGE 511

511 274 500 500 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 7.5 274 500 500 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5.9 275 500 487.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 1.2 275 500 487.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 9 16.7 275 500 487.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 6 13.7 275 500 487.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.2 275 500 487.5 Bone fragments bone 2 0.4 275 500 487.5 Copper/brass object fe 1 2.4 275 500 487.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 1.5 275 500 487.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6.4 276 550 500 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 0.7 276 550 500 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 6 2.4 276 550 500 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 2 4.8 276 550 500 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 6.7 276 550 500 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 0.4 276 550 500 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 1NHT; 2 1 10mm, 1b, 1c li 2 0.1 276 550 500 Iron fragment fe 1 0.4 276 550 500 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 65.3 276 550 500 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 0.6 277 500 550 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 11.5 277 500 550 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 6 13.4 277 500 550 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 6.2 277 500 550 Primary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 1.5 277 500 550 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10.7 278 475 537.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 5.6 278 475 537.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 2 0.3 278 475 537.5 Secondary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, c li 1 2.4 278 475 537.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, HT; 1 1 10mm, b; 1 11 20mm, c li 2 0.5 278 475 537.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 8.2 279 512.5 612.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 5 279 512.5 612.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 0.3

PAGE 512

512 279 512.5 612.5 Bone fragments bone 2.4 279 512.5 612.5 Clay/soil concretion soil 1 1.1 279 512.5 612.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 8.3 280 512.5 487.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 6 10.3 280 512.5 487.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 1 280 512.5 487.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 1.4 280 512.5 487.5 Secondary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 31 40mm, c li 1 5.5 280 512.5 487.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 3 11 20mm, 1c, 2b li 4 2.8 280 512.5 487.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 9.8 281 550 487.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 2.8 281 550 487.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 3.7 281 550 487.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 5 3.4 281 550 487.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 5 4.5 281 550 487.5 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 0.2 281 550 487.5 Sand tempered incised, body sherd sn 1 6.9 281 550 487.5 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 1 0.4 281 550 487.5 Pinellas point, chert, NHT li 1 1.3 281 550 487.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 11 20mm, 1b, 1c li 2 1.1 281 550 487.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3.8 282 512.5 625 Grit tempered plain, body sherd gt 1 1.5 282 512.5 625 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.3 282 512.5 625 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 8 283 475 575 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 9 31.2 283 475 575 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 10 10.4 283 475 575 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 2 283 475 575 Clay/soil concretion soil 1 0.3 283 475 575 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 19.1 284 412.5 387.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 0.2 284 412.5 387.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 18 9.9 284 412.5 387.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 10 10.9 284 412.5 387.5 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 2.2

PAGE 513

513 284 412.5 387.5 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 2 6 284 412.5 387.5 Iron fragment fe 1 0.5 284 412.5 387.5 Glass fragment, clear gl cu 1 1.2 284 412.5 387.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 5 11 20mm, 3c, 2b li 6 1.2 284 412.5 387.5 Primary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 3 284 412.5 387.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 10.8 284 412.5 387.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 0.8 285 537.5 425 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 5 3 285 537.5 425 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 5 9.6 285 537.5 425 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 2 285 537.5 425 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 1 11 20mm, b li 2 0.2 285 537.5 425 Stone fragment li 1 0.7 285 537.5 425 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 48.3 285 537.5 425 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4.4 286 475 500 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, 1 11 20mm, both b li 2 0.1 286 475 500 Glass fragment, clear gl cu 1 0.8 286 475 500 Bone fragments bone 2.3 286 475 500 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 8.3 286 475 500 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 22.2 287 525 637.5 Sand tempered burnished, body sherd sn 1 13.2 287 525 637.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 5.8 287 525 637.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 2 0.3 287 525 637.5 Sand tempered ware, rim sherd; circular motif on rim, possible San Marcos ware sn 1 5.6 287 525 637.5 Secondary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 31 40mm, c li 1 4.3 287 525 637.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c li 1 0.1 287 525 637.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.2 287 525 637.5 Clay/soil concretions soil 3 4.3 287 525 637.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2.5 288 512.5 425 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 0.2 288 512.5 425 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 15 13.3

PAGE 514

514 288 512.5 425 Sand tempered simple stamped, body sherd sn 1 0.8 288 512.5 425 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 5 7.2 288 512.5 425 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 4NHT; 2 1 10mm, 1b, 1c; 3 11 20mm, 1c, 2b li 5 0.8 288 512.5 425 Bone fragments bone 27.5 288 512.5 425 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 90.6 288 512.5 425 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 20.8 289 512.5 512.5 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 9 8.5 289 512.5 512.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 2.4 289 512.5 512.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 4 289 512.5 512.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 4.1 289 512.5 512.5 Clay sample, uncounted fragments soil 200+ 289 512.5 512.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 13.3 290 487.5 550 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 0.3 290 487.5 550 Nondecortication flake, chert, HT; 1 1 10mm, c li 1 0.1 290 487.5 550 Bone fragments bone 5 3.5 290 487.5 550 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10 291 500 537.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 1.9 291 500 537.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 4 291 500 537.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c li 1 0.2 291 500 537.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 9.8 292 462.5 600 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 3.4 292 462.5 600 River cobble, quartz li 2 0.8 292 462.5 600 Clay/soil concretions soil 2 1.3 293 412.5 512.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 1.8 293 412.5 512.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 6.9 293 412.5 512.5 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 1 2.3 293 412.5 512.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 3 11 20mm, 1c, 2b li 3 1.9 293 412.5 512.5 Clay/soil concretions soil 4 6.6 293 412.5 512.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1.5 294 500 587.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 0.6 294 500 587.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 0.8

PAGE 515

515 294 500 587.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, HT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 0.2 294 500 587.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.3 294 500 587.5 Bone fragments bone 1 0.3 294 500 587.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 20.5 295 Surface Finds St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 13.9 295 Surface Finds Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, 1 31 40mm, both c li 2 4 295 Surface Finds Chert tool, NHT; 61 70mm li 1 19 295 Surface Finds Fish bone/scale bone 1 0.7 296 425 525 St. Johns simple stamped, body sherd ss 1 5.6 296 425 525 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 1.7 296 425 525 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 8 4.5 296 425 525 Sand tempered simple stamped, body sherd sn 1 0.9 296 425 525 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 5 3.2 296 425 525 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 4NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 5 11 20mm, 2c, 3b li 6 1.7 296 425 525 Clay/soil concretions soil 2 1.5 296 425 525 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2.6 297 450 525 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 7 9.3 297 450 525 Primary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, c li 1 2.1 297 450 525 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 1NHT; 1 1 10mm, 1 11 20mm, both b li 2 0.4 297 450 525 Iron fragment fe 1 0.3 297 450 525 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 87.4 298 500 350 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 9 10.8 298 500 350 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 6 10.8 298 500 350 Pasco ware, limestone tempered plain, body sherd lt 1 0.7 298 500 350 Secondary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 41 50mm, c li 1 7 298 500 350 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 4 11 20mm, 2c, 2b li 5 1 298 500 350 River cobble, quartz li 2 9.6 298 500 350 Coarse earthenware, rim sherd ec 1 2.1 298 500 350 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 1.5 298 500 350 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5.3 299 550 362.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 3.5

PAGE 516

516 299 550 362.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 0.7 299 550 362.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 22 18.7 299 550 362.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 8 7.9 299 550 362.5 Sand tempered simple stamped, body sherd sn 1 13.9 299 550 362.5 Secondary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, c li 1 2.6 299 550 362.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 6NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 7 11 20mm, 4c, 3b li 8 2.4 299 550 362.5 Clay/soil concretions soil 4 2.9 299 550 362.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3.9 300 575 587.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 8.3 300 575 587.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 4 3 300 575 587.5 Lochloosa Punctated, body sherd sn 1 3.6 300 575 587.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.2 300 575 587.5 Clay/soil concretions soil 3 1.6 300 575 587.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 9.8 301 425 500 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 3.2 301 425 500 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 4 4.3 301 425 500 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 0.3 301 425 500 Secondary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 31 40mm, c li 1 2.9 301 425 500 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 3 11 20mm, c li 4 1.3 301 425 500 Clay/soil concretion soil 1 1.1 302 425 512.5 Olive jar, green glazed, body sherd ec 1 0.6 302 425 512.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 3.9 302 425 512.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 6.2 302 425 512.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 1 302 425 512.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10.6 303 425 537.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 1.1 303 425 537.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 6 4.7 303 425 537.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 1.8 303 425 537.5 Chert core, NHT li 1 21.2 303 425 537.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 4NHT; 1 11 20mm, b; 4 21 30mm, 3c, 1b li 5 6.5 303 425 537.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 28.5

PAGE 517

517 303 425 537.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5.7 304 500 600 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 9 304 500 600 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 2 3.8 304 500 600 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 0.9 304 500 600 Chert fragment, NHT, 11 20mm li 1 2 304 500 600 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.1 305 487.5 562.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 1.8 305 487.5 562.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 0.4 305 487.5 562.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 12.6 305 487.5 562.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 21 30mm, b li 2 4.4 305 487.5 562.5 Metal fragment fe 1 <.1 305 487.5 562.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2.8 306 437.5 462.5 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 1 1.6 306 437.5 462.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 5 4.9 306 437.5 462.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 2.5 306 437.5 462.5 Alachua Cord marked, body sherd sn 1 2.7 306 437.5 462.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 11 20mm, 1b, 1c li 2 0.6 306 437.5 462.5 River cobble, quartz li 2 0.8 306 437.5 462.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 68.8 306 437.5 462.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1.2 307 487.5 525 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 4 14.4 307 487.5 525 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 1.2 307 487.5 525 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 6 6.3 307 487.5 525 Shell object shell 1 5.3 307 487.5 525 Nondecortication flake, chert, HT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.5 307 487.5 525 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 4 308 525 562.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 4 9.3 308 525 562.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 12 16.6 308 525 562.5 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 1 1 308 525 562.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 4 308 525 562.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 4NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 4 11 20mm, 1b, 3c li 5 1.3

PAGE 518

518 308 525 562.5 River cobble, quartz li 2 0.6 308 525 562.5 Bone fragments bone 1 0.2 308 525 562.5 Clay/soil concretions soil 3 2.3 308 525 562.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 12.3 309 512.5 637.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 8 7.1 309 512.5 637.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 4.9 309 512.5 637.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 5NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 2 11 20mm, 1c, 1b; 3 11 20mm, all b li 6 4.8 309 512.5 637.5 Clay/soil concretions soil 2 3.5 309 512.5 637.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3.5 310 537.5 612.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 3.6 310 537.5 612.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 4 2 310 537.5 612.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 1.6 310 537.5 612.5 Bone fragments bone 1 0.6 310 537.5 612.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.5 310 537.5 612.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 39.4 310 537.5 612.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 11.8 312 Surface Finds Chert core, NHT li 1 1000+ 313 Surface Finds St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 1.2 313 Surface Finds Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, c li 1 1.5 313 Surface Finds Clay/soil concretions soil 5 20 314 587.5 437.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 9.9 314 587.5 437.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 4 4.3 314 587.5 437.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, b li 1 1.5 314 587.5 437.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.2 314 587.5 437.5 Clay/soil concretions soil 6 7.2 314 587.5 437.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2.4 315 500 362.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 7.3 315 500 362.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 1.4 315 500 362.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 16 6.7 315 500 362.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 6 7.8 315 500 362.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 6NHT; 4 1 10mm, 1b, 3c; 3 11 20mm, 2c, 1b li 7 0.8

PAGE 519

519 315 500 362.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.3 315 500 362.5 Bone fragments bone 1 0.1 315 500 362.5 Clay/soil concretions soil 3 0.9 315 500 362.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5 316 575 500 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 1.4 316 575 500 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 6 3.2 316 575 500 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 1.7 316 575 500 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 6 16.9 316 575 500 Clay/soil concretions soil 7 8.9 316 575 500 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 11 10mm, b li 2 0.5 316 575 500 Bone fragments bone 2 0.3 316 575 500 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5.3 317 525 500 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 5 5.2 317 525 500 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 7 1.8 317 525 500 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 3.1 317 525 500 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 1NHT; 1 11 20mm, 1 31 40mm, both b li 2 2.5 317 525 500 Stone fragment li 1 0.5 317 525 500 Bone fragments bone 1 0.4 317 525 500 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 4.6 317 525 500 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4.6 318 512.5 500 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 14.6 318 512.5 500 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 9.4 318 512.5 500 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 5 7 318 512.5 500 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 6 4.8 318 512.5 500 Chert point, NHT li 1 2.7 318 512.5 500 Bone fragments bone 1 0.1 318 512.5 500 Clay/soil concretions soil 3 2.4 318 512.5 500 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1.4 319 537.5 500 Spanish redware, body sherds ec 2 1.3 319 537.5 500 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 17.3 319 537.5 500 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 10 16.1

PAGE 520

520 319 537.5 500 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 5 4.4 319 537.5 500 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 9.3 319 537.5 500 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 2NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 2 11 20mm, 1b, 1c li 3 2.3 319 537.5 500 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 37.2 320 550 475 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 8 10.1 320 550 475 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 2.6 320 550 475 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 2.8 320 550 475 Clay/soil concretion soil 1 0.6 320 550 475 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7.8 321 487.5 575 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 3 321 487.5 575 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 10 8.5 321 487.5 575 Alachua Cob marked, body sherd sn 1 18.7 321 487.5 575 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 7 13.9 321 487.5 575 Iron fragment fe 1 1.3 321 487.5 575 River cobble, quartz li 1 1 321 487.5 575 Chert fragment, HT; 21 30mm li 1 3.4 321 487.5 575 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 1 10mm, 1c, 1b; 6 11 20mm, 2c, 4b; 3 21 30mm, 1c, 2b li 11 5.6 321 487.5 575 Clay/soil sample, uncounted fragments soil 1000+ 321 487.5 575 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6 322 587.5 475 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 7.6 322 587.5 475 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 6 6.3 322 587.5 475 St. Johns simple stamped, body sherd ss 1 5.7 322 587.5 475 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 0.4 322 587.5 475 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 3NHT; 2 11 20mm, c; 3 21 30mm, 1c, 2b li 5 1.9 322 587.5 475 Bone fragments bone 2 0.3 322 587.5 475 Iron fragment fe 1 0.3 322 587.5 475 Clay/soil sample, uncounted fragments soil 1000+ 322 587.5 475 Charcoal fragment ch 1 0.3 323 587.5 487.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 2 1.8 323 587.5 487.5 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 1 0.7 323 587.5 487.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 0.7

PAGE 521

521 323 587.5 487.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 0.5 323 587.5 487.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 0.2 323 587.5 487.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.4 323 587.5 487.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2 324 512.5 475 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 5 12.4 324 512.5 475 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 5 4.8 324 512.5 475 Sand tempered punctated, body sherds sn 1 8.2 324 512.5 475 Sand tempered simple stamped, body sherd sn 1 5.5 324 512.5 475 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 2.2 324 512.5 475 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.5 324 512.5 475 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b; 1 31 40mm, c li 2 5.7 324 512.5 475 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 3NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 2 11 20mm, 1b, 1c; 1 21 30mm, c li 4 1.5 324 512.5 475 Chert fragments, 1HT, 1NHT li 2 6.4 324 512.5 475 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1.6 325 525 475 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 4.2 325 525 475 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 7 3.7 325 525 475 St. Johns simple stamped, body sherd ss 1 5.5 325 525 475 St. Johns Incised, body sherd ss 1 3.2 325 525 475 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 1 325 525 475 Chert fragment, NHT, 21 30mm li 1 1.6 325 525 475 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 2NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 2 11 20mm, 1b, 1c li 3 0.4 325 525 475 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6.8 326 575 462.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 9.6 326 575 462.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 5.9 326 575 462.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 1.4 326 575 462.5 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, HT; 1 21 30mm, 1 31 40mm, c li 2 2.4 326 575 462.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 1NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 2 11 20mm, b li 3 0.6 326 575 462.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.2 326 575 462.5 Sand/lime concretions, uncounted soil 15.3 326 575 462.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6.1 327 600 475 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 3.1

PAGE 522

522 327 600 475 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 0.3 327 600 475 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 13.3 327 600 475 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6.3 328 550 462.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 5 12.6 328 550 462.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 1.2 328 550 462.5 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 4.4 328 550 462.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 4 3.5 328 550 462.5 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 1 1.1 328 550 462.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, 1 21 30mm, both c li 2 1.6 328 550 462.5 Bone fragments bone 2 1.2 328 550 462.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.5 328 550 462.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 18.8 328 550 462.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10.6 329 587.5 600 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 1.2 329 587.5 600 St. Johns simple stamped, body sherd ss 1 1 329 587.5 600 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 7.2 329 587.5 600 Chert point, HT li 1 4.4 329 587.5 600 Secondary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 41 50mm, c li 1 6.9 329 587.5 600 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 4HT, 10NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 12 11 20mm, 4c, 8b; 1 21 30mm, b li 14 4.1 329 587.5 600 Clay/soil concretions soil 2 1.3 329 587.5 600 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 148.7 330 612.5 587.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 2.2 330 612.5 587.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 7.7 330 612.5 587.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 4NHT; 2 1 10mm, b; 3 11 20mm, 2c, 1b; 1 21 30mm, b li 6 1.8 330 612.5 587.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 2.8 330 612.5 587.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.1 330 612.5 587.5 Clay/soil sample, uncounted fragments soil 14.7 330 612.5 587.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7 331 550 525 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 17.8 331 550 525 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 0.8 331 550 525 Nondecortication flakes, chert, HT; 2 11 20mm, 1b, 1c li 2 1.2

PAGE 523

523 331 550 525 Shell fragment shell 1 0.4 331 550 525 Clay/soil sample, uncounted fragments soil 1000+ 331 550 525 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 71.8 332 525 537.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 1.6 332 525 537.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 0.5 332 525 537.5 St. Johns simple stamped, body sherd ss 1 1.6 332 525 537.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 0.2 332 525 537.5 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 5 5.4 332 525 537.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.3 332 525 537.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5.4 333 537.5 537.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 3.3 333 537.5 537.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 0.2 333 537.5 537.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, b li 1 0.1 333 537.5 537.5 Bone fragments bone 1 <.1 333 537.5 537.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 11 334 462.5 462.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 14 18.9 334 462.5 462.5 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 2 1.9 334 462.5 462.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 6 7.6 334 462.5 462.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 6 10.1 334 462.5 462.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 5NHT; 4 1 10mm, 3b, 1c; 1 11 20mm, c; 1 21 30mm, c li 6 1.5 334 462.5 462.5 Lime/sand concretions, uncounted soil 41 334 462.5 462.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 23.3 335 475 475 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 8 21.7 335 475 475 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 11 6.6 335 475 475 St. Johns simple stamped, body sherd ss 1 2.4 335 475 475 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 7.3 335 475 475 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 1 1.4 335 475 475 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 14.3 335 475 475 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 4NHT, 1HT; 1 1 10mm, b; 3 11 20mm, 1c, 2b; 1 21 30mm, c li 5 2 335 475 475 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 9.3 336 537.5 437.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 5 16.3

PAGE 524

524 336 537.5 437.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 17 26.4 336 537.5 437.5 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 2 11.6 336 537.5 437.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 9 32.4 336 537.5 437.5 Grit tempered plain, body sherd gt 1 4.2 336 537.5 437.5 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 2 2.6 336 537.5 437.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 4HT, 7NHT; 3 1 10mm, 2c, 1b; 7 11 20mm, 2c, 5b; 1 21 30mm, b li 11 3.6 336 537.5 437.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.2 336 537.5 437.5 Bone fragments bone 1 0.2 336 537.5 437.5 Iron object fe 1 7.5 336 537.5 437.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 9.9 337 525 400 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 5 10.5 337 525 400 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 11 10.7 337 525 400 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 8 8.3 337 525 400 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 1 1.6 337 525 400 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 1 NHT; 2 21 30mm, b li 2 2.8 337 525 400 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, 1b, 1c li 2 1 337 525 400 Bone fragments bone 4 0.7 337 525 400 Lime/sand concretions, uncounted soil 5 9.4 337 525 400 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4.3 338 537.5 400 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 4 5.8 338 537.5 400 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 2.2 338 537.5 400 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 8 28.2 338 537.5 400 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 1 7.7 338 537.5 400 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 2.9 338 537.5 400 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 1 1.2 338 537.5 400 Limestone fragment li 1 7.7 338 537.5 400 Pinellas point, chert, NHT li 1 0.4 338 537.5 400 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 21 30mm, b li 2 4 338 537.5 400 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, 1 21 30mm, both c li 2 1.3 338 537.5 400 Shell bead, tubular shell 1 4.8 338 537.5 400 Unidentified material, nature unknown UID 1 1.2

PAGE 525

525 338 537.5 400 Bone fragments bone 4 7.5 338 537.5 400 River cobble, quartz li 1 4.8 338 537.5 400 Clay/soil concretions soil 5 3.8 339 550 400 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 6.1 339 550 400 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 6 4.3 339 550 400 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 1 0.7 339 550 400 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 5.3 339 550 400 Limestone tempered plain, body sherd lt 1 1.5 339 550 400 Bone fragments bone 3 0.8 339 550 400 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 2 NHT; 3 11 20mm, 1c, 2b li 3 2.7 339 550 400 Fulgurite gl cu 1 <.1 339 550 400 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4.9 340 562.5 400 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 1.3 340 562.5 400 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 0.8 340 562.5 400 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 10.8 340 562.5 400 Lime/sand concretions, uncounted soil 111.4 340 562.5 400 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 1NHT; 1 11 20mm, c; 1 31 40mm, b li 2 6.5 340 562.5 400 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2.7 341 575 412.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 2.6 341 575 412.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 5 5.4 341 575 412.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 5 4.9 341 575 412.5 Lime/sand concretions, uncounted soil 200+ 341 575 412.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 4HT, 6NHT; 7 11 20mm, 4c, 3b; 3 21 30mm, c li 10 6.5 341 575 412.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1 342 575 425 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 2.8 342 575 425 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 7 3.5 342 575 425 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 2.3 342 575 425 Chert fragment, NHT, 21 30mm li 1 9.1 342 575 425 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 5NHT; 2 1 10mm, b; 3 11 20mm, 1c, 2b; 1 21 30mm, c li 6 3.7 342 575 425 Bone fragments bone 2 0.3

PAGE 526

526 342 575 425 Lime/sand concretions, uncounted soil 35.3 342 575 425 Charcoal fragments ch 4 0.7 343 500 412.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 6.5 343 500 412.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 8 2.9 343 500 412.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 8 5.7 343 500 412.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 10.1 343 500 412.5 Primary decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 1NHT; 1 11 20mm, c; 1 21 30mm, b li 2 2.8 343 500 412.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 6NHT; 2 1 10mm, 1c, 1b; 5 11 20mm, 3c, 2b; 2 21 30mm, 1c, 1b li 9 3.2 343 500 412.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.5 343 500 412.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6.7 344 475 425 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 4 8.5 344 475 425 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 17 13.6 344 475 425 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 4.2 344 475 425 Alachua Cord marked, body sherd sn 1 4.6 344 475 425 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 11 12.8 344 475 425 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 6.9 344 475 425 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 21 30mm, 1c, 1b li 2 3.5 344 475 425 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 2 11 20mm, b li 3 1.3 344 475 425 Bone fragments bone 2 0.2 344 475 425 Lime/sand concretions, uncounted soil 103.7 344 475 425 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3.3 345 475 437.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 1.1 345 475 437.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 10 13.9 345 475 437.5 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 1 0.8 345 475 437.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 13 10.2 345 475 437.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 7 17 345 475 437.5 Lime/sand concretions soil 1 13.5 345 475 437.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 4 11 20mm, 2c, 2b; 1 2130mm, c li 5 2.5 345 475 437.5 Bone fragments bone 1 0.1 345 475 437.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3.3

PAGE 527

527 346 Surface Finds Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 3.4 346 Surface Finds Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, b li 1 2.5 347 Surface Finds St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 2 4.1 348 437.5 437.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 9 7.8 348 437.5 437.5 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 1 3.2 348 437.5 437.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 0.2 348 437.5 437.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 9 17.3 348 437.5 437.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 2NHT; 2 11 20mm, 1 21 30mm, all b li 3 1.2 348 437.5 437.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.4 348 437.5 437.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 55.4 348 437.5 437.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 13.8 349 450 412.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 5.8 349 450 412.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 24 51.9 349 450 412.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 6 23.9 349 450 412.5 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 0.4 349 450 412.5 Sand tempered simple stamped, body sherd sn 1 2.9 349 450 412.5 Sandstone object, worked li 1 2.6 349 450 412.5 Bone fragments bone 1 0.2 349 450 412.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.2 349 450 412.5 Chert fragment, NHT, 41 50mm li 1 6.5 349 450 412.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 349 450 412.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 4HT, 4NHT; 2 1 10mm, c; 6 11 20mm, 5b, 1c li 8 3.1 349 450 412.5 Stone fragment li 1 0.3 349 450 412.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1.4 350 450 400 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 15 11 350 450 400 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 4 9.5 350 450 400 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 5 7.3 350 450 400 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.3 350 450 400 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 5NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 5 11 20mm, 1c, 4b li 6 2 350 450 400 Lime/soil concretions, uncounted soil 116.7 350 450 400 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 21.2

PAGE 528

528 351 600 412.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 7 4 351 600 412.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 0.2 351 600 412.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 11 20mm, 1b, 1c; 1 21 30mm, b li 3 1 351 600 412.5 Clay/soil concretions soil 2 2.7 351 600 412.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10.5 352 Surface Finds Chert/limestone core, NHT li 1 67.6 353 562.5 350 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 1 0.3 353 562.5 350 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 4 1.8 353 562.5 350 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 3.3 353 562.5 350 Sand tempered simple stamped, body sherd sn 2 2 353 562.5 350 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c; 1 21 30mm, b; 1 31 40mm, b li 3 9.7 353 562.5 350 Nondecortication flakes, 1 1 10mm, c; 3 11 20mm, 2c, 1b li 4 0.7 353 562.5 350 Lime/sand concretions, uncounted soil 162.6 353 562.5 350 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6.7 354 587.5 425 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 4 7.8 354 587.5 425 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 1 354 587.5 425 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 1 3.4 354 587.5 425 Chert core, NHT li 1 12.7 354 587.5 425 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.3 354 587.5 425 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.3 354 587.5 425 Clay sample, uncounted fragments soil 111 354 587.5 425 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 4 355 462.5 387.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 15 6.1 355 462.5 387.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 5 12.6 355 462.5 387.5 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 1.4 355 462.5 387.5 Limestone tempered plain, body sherd lt 1 2.3 355 462.5 387.5 Bone fragments bone 1 0.5 355 462.5 387.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 10 NHT; 11 11 20mm, 5c, 6b li 11 4.5 355 462.5 387.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 20.1 355 462.5 387.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6.7 356 475 375 St. Johns Punctated, body sherd ss 1 3

PAGE 529

529 356 475 375 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 0.5 356 475 375 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 12 3.3 356 475 375 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 9 5.7 356 475 375 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 0.6 356 475 375 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 1 2 356 475 375 Primary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 41 50mm, c li 1 7.9 356 475 375 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 8NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 8 11 20mm, 2c, 6b li 9 2.6 356 475 375 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.4 356 475 375 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 26.5 356 475 375 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3.4 357 JST 2 East Fld. Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 0.6 357 JST 2 East Fld. Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 38.6 357 JST 2 East Fld. Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 8.2 358 JST 3 East Fld. St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 0.4 358 JST 3 East Fld. Lead fragment fe 1 3 358 JST 3 East Fld. Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 19.9 358 JST 3 East Fld. Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6.1 359 487.5 500 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 2.6 359 487.5 500 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 6 6.8 359 487.5 500 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 7.4 359 487.5 500 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 1.3 359 487.5 500 Bone fragments bone 1 0.4 359 487.5 500 Chert fragment, NHT, 31 40mm li 1 6.5 359 487.5 500 Secondary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 41 50mm, c li 1 5.3 359 487.5 500 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 3 11 20mm, c li 3 2.3 359 487.5 500 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 52.2 359 487.5 500 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 29.5

PAGE 530

530 360 500 525 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 2.9 360 500 525 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 1.8 360 500 525 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, b li 1 0.2 360 500 525 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.9 360 500 525 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 12.1 360 500 525 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 13.5 361 500 512.5 Clay pigeon fragments ec 21 8.7 361 500 512.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 8.5 361 500 512.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 7 6 361 500 512.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 6 2.9 361 500 512.5 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 11 20mm, b; 2 21 30mm, 1c, 1b li 4 6 361 500 512.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c li 1 <.1 361 500 512.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 200+ 361 500 512.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 17.6 362 500 612.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 30.6 362 500 612.5 Pinellas point, chert, NHT li 1 0.8 362 500 612.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, HT; 1 21 30mm, b li 1 0.9 362 500 612.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 66.4 363 487.5 575 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 2.1 363 487.5 575 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 5 8.5 363 487.5 575 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 5.1 363 487.5 575 River cobble, quartz li 2 0.5 363 487.5 575 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, c li 1 0.9 363 487.5 575 Bone fragments, uncounted bone 0.6 363 487.5 575 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 28.7 364 525 587.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 2.8 364 525 587.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 0.4 364 525 587.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 0.6 364 525 587.5 Bone fragment bone 1 0.1 364 525 587.5 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 0.5 364 525 587.5 River cobble, quartz li 2 0.7

PAGE 531

531 364 525 587.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7.3 365 487.5 612.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 12.9 366 JST 7B St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 4 18.1 366 JST 7B St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 7 4.4 366 JST 7B Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 2.8 366 JST 7B Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c li 1 <.1 366 JST 7B Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 15.8 366 JST 7B Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 8.1 367 JST 7A St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 2 3.5 367 JST 7A St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 1 3.2 367 JST 7A St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 0.9 367 JST 7A St. Johns simple stamped, body sherd ss 1 1.2 367 JST 7A Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 1.6 367 JST 7A Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 3 11 20mm, 2c, 1b li 3 0.6 367 JST 7A Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 8.3 367 JST 7A Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10.9 368 Post Holes St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 8 15.1 368 Post Holes St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 1 368 Post Holes Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 2.8 368 Post Holes Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 2 11 20mm, c li 3 0.6 368 Post Holes Clay/soil concretions soil 2 1.6 368 Post Holes Fulgurite gl cu 1 <.1 369 512.5 550 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 5 9.9 369 512.5 550 Chert fragment, NHT; 11 20mm li 1 2 369 512.5 550 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2 370 525 525 Clay pigeon fragments ec 1 0.4 370 525 525 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 4 1.6 370 525 525 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 0.2 370 525 525 St. Johns Punctated, body sherd ss 1 0.8 370 525 525 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 0.7

PAGE 532

532 370 525 525 Bone fragment bone 1 0.4 370 525 525 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7.4 371 512.5 575 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 3.4 371 512.5 575 St. Johns simple stamped, body sherd ss 1 3 371 512.5 575 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 6.7 371 512.5 575 Sand tempered punctated, body sherds sn 1 5 371 512.5 575 Lime/sand concretions, uncounted soil 79.7 371 512.5 575 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 63.8 372 450 512.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 2.6 372 450 512.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 9.1 372 450 512.5 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 1NHT; 2 21 30mm, 1c, 1b li 2 2.9 372 450 512.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 3NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 4 11 20mm, 3c, 1b li 5 0.9 372 450 512.5 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 189.1 372 450 512.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 24.6 373 475 600 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 17.7 373 475 600 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 14.4 373 475 600 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 5 3.9 373 475 600 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.9 373 475 600 River cobble, quartz li 2 0.8 373 475 600 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 15.1 374 425 612.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 5.3 374 425 612.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 10 10.7 374 425 612.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 1 0.2 374 425 612.5 Fiber tempered incised, body sherd ft 1 1.2 374 425 612.5 Iron fragment fe 1 0.4 374 425 612.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.4 374 425 612.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1NHT, 2HT; 2 1 10mm, b; 1 11 20mm, b li 3 0.2 374 425 612.5 Bone fragments, uncounted bone 3.8 374 425 612.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 19.5 375 462.5 637.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 14.4 376 JST 35 Whiteware, rim sherd ec 1 6.2

PAGE 533

533 376 JST 35 Glass fragment, clear gl cu 1 0.8 376 JST 35 Glass fragment, clear gl cu 1 2.8 376 JST 35 Glass fragment, brown gl cu 1 1.6 376 JST 35 Brick fragment con 1 1.7 376 JST 35 Iron fragments fe 2 0.4 376 JST 35 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 0.2 376 JST 35 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6.4 377 JST 26 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, b li 1 1.9 377 JST 26 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 18.2 378 JST 27 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.4 378 JST 27 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7.6 379 JST 28 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 1.3 379 JST 28 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4.2 380 JST 31 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 1.6 380 JST 31 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c; 1 21 30mm, c li 2 0.8 380 JST 31 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1.6 381 JST 32 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 9.6 382 JST 33 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 6 7.5 382 JST 33 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 0.8 382 JST 33 Sand tempered punctated, body sherds sn 1 6.5 382 JST 33 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 8.7 382 JST 33 Iron nails fe 5 10.7 382 JST 33 Glass fragment, clear gl cu 1 0.9 382 JST 33 Mortar/limestone fragments con 2 17.1 382 JST 33 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.2 382 JST 33 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 8NHT; 1 110mm, b; 7 11 20mm, 1c, 6b; 2 21 30mm, 1c, 1b li 10 6.5 382 JST 33 Brick fragments, uncounted con 200+ 382 JST 33 Unidentified material, nature unknown UID 1 0.1 382 JST 33 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 11.3

PAGE 534

534 383 JST 36 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 9 6 383 JST 36 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 1 0.4 383 JST 36 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 13.4 383 JST 36 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 31 40mm, b li 1 1.9 383 JST 36 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 2NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 4 11 20mm, 2c, 2b li 5 1.4 383 JST 36 River cobble, quartz li 5 1.6 383 JST 36 Bone fragment bone 1 0.2 383 JST 36 Clay/soil concretion soil 1 3.8 383 JST 36 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6.1 384 JST 37 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 3.7 384 JST 37 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 5.9 384 JST 37 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 7.9 384 JST 37 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 5.6 384 JST 37 Sand tempered incised, body sherd sn 1 2 384 JST 37 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 2.9 384 JST 37 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 4 11 20mm, b; 1 21 30mm, c li 5 3.4 384 JST 37 River cobble, quartz li 2 1 384 JST 37 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4 385 JST 38 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 18 385 JST 38 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 1.2 385 JST 38 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 9 21.1 385 JST 38 Sand tempered plain, body sherds; red filmed interior sn 2 12.5 385 JST 38 Limestone fragment li 2 2.1 385 JST 38 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 17NHT; 2 1 10mm, c; 14 11 20mm, 6c, 8b; 2 21 30mm, c li 18 6.7 385 JST 38 River cobble, quartz li 5 1.5 385 JST 38 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 13.3 386 JST 39 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 2 386 JST 39 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 3.1 386 JST 39 Sandstone object, worked li 1 2.2 386 JST 39 Quartz fragment li 1 0.6 386 JST 39 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 11 20mm, 1c, 1b li 2 1.3

PAGE 535

535 386 JST 39 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4.3 387 GPS only St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 4.6 387 GPS only St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 2 387 GPS only Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 5.5 387 GPS only Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, b; 1 31 40mm, c li 2 2.4 387 GPS only Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 23.9 388 JST 41 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 2 3.6 388 JST 41 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 4NHT; 2 1 10mm, b; 3 11 20mm, 1c, 2b li 5 0.6 388 JST 41 Clay/soil concretion soil 1 0.3 388 JST 41 River cobble, quartz li 9 3 389 JST 42 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 14 389 JST 42 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 5 22.9 389 JST 42 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 4 3.8 389 JST 42 Weeden Island punctated, body sherd sn 1 2.2 389 JST 42 Sand tempered plain, body sherds, red interior sn 1 3.8 389 JST 42 Primary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, b li 1 4.9 389 JST 42 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, b; 1 31 40mm, c; 1 51 60mm, c li 3 14.3 389 JST 42 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 27NHT; 5 1 10mm, 2c, 3b; 22 11 20mm, 7c, 15b; 2 21 30mm, 1c, 1b li 29 5.6 389 JST 42 River cobble, quartz li 1 2.4 389 JST 42 Bone fragments bone 3 0.2 389 JST 42 Clay/soil concretion soil 1 0.3 389 JST 42 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3.6 390 487.5 537.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 3 16.1 390 487.5 537.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 4 8.2 390 487.5 537.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 5 11.5 390 487.5 537.5 Sand tempered cob marked, body sherd sn 1 4.7 390 487.5 537.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.3 390 487.5 537.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5 391 487.5 525 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 16.4 392 575 387.5 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 4 10.3

PAGE 536

536 392 575 387.5 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 14 7.4 392 575 387.5 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 3.5 392 575 387.5 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.4 392 575 387.5 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 4 11 20mm, 1c, 3b li 5 1.5 392 575 387.5 Stone fragment li 1 0.3 392 575 387.5 Clay/soil, lime/soil concretions, uncounted soil 82.7 392 575 387.5 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6.2 393 JST 43 Primary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 1.1 393 JST 43 Secondary decortication flake, chert, HT; 1 31 40mm, c li 1 1.4 393 JST 43 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 3 1 10mm, 2c, 1b; 2 11 20mm, c li 5 0.8 393 JST 43 Clay/soil concretions soil 2 3.5 393 JST 43 Charcoal fragments ch 3 0.1 394 JST 44 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 2 1 394 JST 44 Chert core, NHT li 1 42.6 394 JST 44 Secondary decortication flake, chert, HT; 1 41 50mm, c li 1 7.6 394 JST 44 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 3 11 20mm, 2c, 1b li 3 1 394 JST 44 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.2 394 JST 44 Clay/soil concretion soil 1 0.4 395 JST 45 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 0.4 395 JST 45 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 1 6.6 395 JST 45 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 7 11 20mm, 5c, 2b; 1 21 30mm, b li 8 5.4 395 JST 45 Clay/soil concretions soil 2 1.9 396 JST 47 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 2 2.9 396 JST 47 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 14.2 396 JST 47 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 5NHT; 2 1 10mm, 1c, 1b; 4 11 20mm, 3c, 1b li 6 0.8 396 JST 47 Clay/soil concretions soil 3 1.2 397 JST 48 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 1.4 397 JST 48 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 3 1.9 397 JST 48 St. Johns Incised, body sherd ss 1 0.7 397 JST 48 Charcoal fragment ch 1 0.1 398 JST 49 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 17 14.9

PAGE 537

537 398 JST 49 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 1.5 398 JST 49 Sand tempered simple stamped, body sherd sn 1 5.6 398 JST 49 Weeden Island punctated, body sherd sn 2 10.5 398 JST 49 Secondary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 31 40mm, c li 1 7 398 JST 49 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 8NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 8 11 20mm, 2c, 6b li 9 3.2 398 JST 49 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.2 398 JST 49 Clay/soil concretion soil 1 0.1 399 JST 50 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 8.8 399 JST 50 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 4 2.1 399 JST 50 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 1NHT; 1 21 30mm, b; 1 31 40mm, c li 2 4.5 399 JST 50 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 7NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 7 11 20mm, 4c, 3b li 8 2.8 400 JST 51 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 3.6 400 JST 51 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 3 8.4 400 JST 51 Secondary decortication flakes, 1HT, 1NHT; 1 21 30mm, b; 1 31 40mm, b li 2 4 400 JST 51 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 2NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 4 11 20mm, 2c, 2b li 5 1 400 JST 51 Bone fragments bone 3 0.8 401 JST 40 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 2.7 401 JST 40 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 2.3 401 JST 40 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1 402 JST 53 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 1 0.9 402 JST 53 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 0.7 402 JST 53 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 6NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 6 11 20mm, 1b, 5c; 2 21 30mm, c li 9 3.4 403 JST 54 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 2 0.8 403 JST 54 Sand tempered plain, body sherd sn 1 3.5 403 JST 54 Secondary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, c li 1 2 403 JST 54 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 3NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 3 11 20mm, 2c, 1b li 4 1.2 403 JST 54 River cobble, quartz li 1 0.4 404 JST 56 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 7 12.3 404 JST 56 Sand tempered plain, rim sherds sn 1 2.3 404 JST 56 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT; 3NHT; 4 11 20mm, 1c, 3b li 4 1.4 404 JST 56 Bone fragments bone 3 1

PAGE 538

538 404 JST 56 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5.3 405 JST 58 St. Johns simple stamped, body sherd ss 1 5.8 405 JST 58 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 2 8 405 JST 58 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 1.3 405 JST 58 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 5 7.2 405 JST 58 Jackson point, chert, HT; 41 50mm li 1 7 405 JST 58 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 21 30mm, b; 1 31 40mm, b li 3 6.9 405 JST 58 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 9NHT; 2 1 10mm, 1b, 1c; 8 11 20mm, 1c, 7b li 10 3 406 Surface Finds St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 1 2.4 407 Surface Finds Whiteware, body sherds ec 3 13.5 407 Surface Finds Whiteware, blue floral pattern, body sherd ec 1 5.1 407 Surface Finds Bone fragments bone 1 1.5 408 Surface Finds Limestone fragment li 1 3.8 409 JST 59 St. Johns Check Stamped, body sherds ss 12 55.3 409 JST 59 St. Johns Check Stamped, rim sherds ss 1 2.3 409 JST 59 St. Johns simple stamped, body sherd ss 2 11.3 409 JST 59 St. Johns Plain, body sherds ss 53 153.8 409 JST 59 St. Johns Plain, rim sherds ss 1 3.4 409 JST 59 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 32 163.3 409 JST 59 Chert blade, blank, HT; 51 60mm li 1 34.4 409 JST 59 Secondary decortication flakes, 2HT, 4NHT; 4 21 30mm, 2 31 40mm, all c li 6 17.6 409 JST 59 Limestone fragment li 1 3.2 409 JST 59 Bone fragments bone 6 4 409 JST 59 Iron fragment fe 1 4.7 409 JST 59 Shotgun shell, cap, brass fe 1 2.3

PAGE 539

539 Table C 5. Hutto/Martin site, excavation units results 410 1 549.35 499.03 1 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 11 9.3 410 1 549.35 499.03 1 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 20 8.2 410 1 549.35 499.03 1 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 1 3.1 410 1 549.35 499.03 1 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 10 8.3 410 1 549.35 499.03 1 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 0.4 410 1 549.35 499.03 1 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 1 0.1 410 1 549.35 499.03 1 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 7NHT; 3 1 10mm, b; 3 11 20mm, b; 2 21 30mm, b li 8 5.3 410 1 549.35 499.03 1 Daub fragments con 5 2.5 410 1 549.35 499.03 1 Bone fragments bone 4 1.3 410 1 549.35 499.03 1 Charcoal fragment ch 1 0.7 411 1 549.35 499.03 2 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 10 12.9 411 1 549.35 499.03 2 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 1 2.2 411 1 549.35 499.03 2 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 21 15.4 411 1 549.35 499.03 2 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 1 2.6 411 1 549.35 499.03 2 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 21 15.5 411 1 549.35 499.03 2 Sand tempered cord marked, body sherd sn 1 2.4 411 1 549.35 499.03 2 Limestone tempered plain, body sherd lt 1 3.2 411 1 549.35 499.03 2 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 1 0.3 411 1 549.35 499.03 2 Iron fragment fe 1 0.4 411 1 549.35 499.03 2 River cobbles, quartz li 6 1.3 411 1 549.35 499.03 2 Nondecortication flakes, 1 silicified coral, 15 chert, 1HT, 15NHT; 5 1 10mm, 3b, 2c; 11 11 20mm, 4c, 7b li 16 6.8 411 1 549.35 499.03 2 Bone fragments bone 3 0.3 411 1 549.35 499.03 2 Lime/sand concretions, uncounted soil 4.1 411 1 549.35 499.03 2 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 9.2 412 1 549.35 499.03 3 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 8 16.6 412 1 549.35 499.03 3 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 13 16.3 412 1 549.35 499.03 3 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 8 22 412 1 549.35 499.03 3 River cobbles, quartz li 2 2.4

PAGE 540

540 412 1 549.35 499.03 3 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 3 11 20mm, 2c, 1b; 2 21 30mm, b li 6 5.3 412 1 549.35 499.03 3 Lime fragments li 4 5.1 412 1 549.35 499.03 3 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 12.9 413 1 549.35 499.03 4 Orange micaceous ware, rim sherd ec 1 9.8 413 1 549.35 499.03 4 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 4 1.3 413 1 549.35 499.03 4 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 4 13.4 413 1 549.35 499.03 4 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 1 7.3 413 1 549.35 499.03 4 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 6.4 413 1 549.35 499.03 4 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 3.7 413 1 549.35 499.03 4 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 6NHT; 2 1 10mm, b; 5 11 20mm, 2c, 3b; 1 21 30mm, b li 8 7.4 413 1 549.35 499.03 4 Bone fragments, uncounted bone 0.4 413 1 549.35 499.03 4 Daub fragments con 21.1 413 1 549.35 499.03 4 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 14.2 413 1 549.35 499.03 4 Fulgurite gl cu 1 <.1 414 2 549.35 490.03 1 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 25 34.6 414 2 549.35 490.03 1 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 1 4.6 414 2 549.35 490.03 1 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 30 10.3 414 2 549.35 490.03 1 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 20 18.3 414 2 549.35 490.03 1 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 2 1.5 414 2 549.35 490.03 1 Olive jar, body sherd ec 1 1.4 414 2 549.35 490.03 1 Bone fragments bone 3 0.2 414 2 549.35 490.03 1 River cobbles, quartz li 7 0.7 414 2 549.35 490.03 1 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 1NHT; 2 21 30mm, c li 2 2.2 414 2 549.35 490.03 1 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 27NHT; 7 1 10mm, 2b, 5c; 22 11 20mm, 5c, 17b; 1 21 30mm, b li 30 7.8 414 2 549.35 490.03 1 Limestone fragments li 5 2 414 2 549.35 490.03 1 Stone fragment li 1 2 414 2 549.35 490.03 1 Heat altered drawn glass bead, opaque white gl cu 1 <.1 415 2 549.35 490.03 2 Olive jar, body sherd ec 2 28.1 415 2 549.35 490.03 2 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 30 13.5 415 2 549.35 490.03 2 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 3 1.1

PAGE 541

541 415 2 549.35 490.03 2 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 8 9.5 415 2 549.35 490.03 2 St. Johns simple stamped, body sherd ss 1 3.9 415 2 549.35 490.03 2 St. Johns incised, body sherds ss 2 1.6 415 2 549.35 490.03 2 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 16 14.9 415 2 549.35 490.03 2 Sand tempered cord marked, body sherd sn 1 2.6 415 2 549.35 490.03 2 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c; 2 21 30mm, b li 3 6.7 415 2 549.35 490.03 2 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 15NHT; 2 1 10mm, c; 14 11 20mm, 6c, 8b li 16 5.3 415 2 549.35 490.03 2 Iron fragment fe 1 0.2 415 2 549.35 490.03 2 Bone fragment bone 1 0.9 416 2 549.35 490.03 3 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 27 55.8 416 2 549.35 490.03 3 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 35 17.9 416 2 549.35 490.03 3 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 32 33 416 2 549.35 490.03 3 Sand tempered incised, body sherd sn 1 2.2 416 2 549.35 490.03 3 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 2 1.8 416 2 549.35 490.03 3 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 1 3.9 416 2 549.35 490.03 3 Bone fragments bone 5 0.9 416 2 549.35 490.03 3 River cobbles, quartz li 2 0.6 416 2 549.35 490.03 3 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b; 3 21 30mm, c; 1 31 40mm, c li 5 7.5 416 2 549.35 490.03 3 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 5HT, 31NHT; 9 1 10mm, 5c, 4b; 27 11 20mm, 14c, 13b li 36 8 416 2 549.35 490.03 3 Reworked tool, chert, NHT li 1 5.9 416 2 549.35 490.03 3 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 18.4 417 3 560.35 488.03 1 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 21 18.7 417 3 560.35 488.03 1 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 43 36.8 417 3 560.35 488.03 1 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 25 31 417 3 560.35 488.03 1 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 2 5.3 417 3 560.35 488.03 1 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 1 0.4 417 3 560.35 488.03 1 Bone fragment bone 1 0.2 417 3 560.35 488.03 1 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 4 21 30mm, b; 1 31 40mm, c li 5 7.2 417 3 560.35 488.03 1 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 22NHT; 4 1 10mm, 2b, 2c; 16 11 20mm, 6c, 10b; 4 21 30mm, 1c, 3b li 24 10.2

PAGE 542

542 417 3 560.35 488.03 1 Chert fragment, NHT; 31 40mm li 1 4.9 417 3 560.35 488.03 1 Limestone fragments li 1 0.9 417 3 560.35 488.03 1 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 0.9 418 3 560.35 488.03 2 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 8 7.6 418 3 560.35 488.03 2 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 1 3.9 418 3 560.35 488.03 2 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 43 22.5 418 3 560.35 488.03 2 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 18 12.5 418 3 560.35 488.03 2 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 21 30, 1 31 40mm, both b li 2 5.9 418 3 560.35 488.03 2 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 13 11 20mm, 5c, 8b; 1 21 30mm, b li 15 3.3 418 3 560.35 488.03 2 Daub fragments con 5 2.8 418 3 560.35 488.03 2 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.8 419 3 560.35 488.03 3 Sevilla Blue on Blue majolica, body sherd ec 1 0.5 419 3 560.35 488.03 3 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 34 68.3 419 3 560.35 488.03 3 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 52 31.6 419 3 560.35 488.03 3 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 4 7.1 419 3 560.35 488.03 3 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 41 75.6 419 3 560.35 488.03 3 Limestone tempered plain, body sherd lt 1 0.8 419 3 560.35 488.03 3 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 2 2.3 419 3 560.35 488.03 3 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 1 0.3 419 3 560.35 488.03 3 Itchetucknee Blue bead, fragment gl cu 1 <.1 419 3 560.35 488.03 3 Glass fragment, clear gl cu 1 0.1 419 3 560.35 488.03 3 Iron fragments fe 5 2.9 419 3 560.35 488.03 3 Bone fragments, uncounted bone 5.5 419 3 560.35 488.03 3 River cobbles, quartz li 9 4.8 419 3 560.35 488.03 3 Primary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, 1 41 50mm, both c li 2 17.5 419 3 560.35 488.03 3 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 21 30mm, 1b, 1c; 2 31 40mm, c li 4 15.3 419 3 560.35 488.03 3 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 32NHT; 8 1 10mm, 5c, 3b; 24 11 20mm, 12c, 12b; 1 21 30mm, b li 33 9.4 419 3 560.35 488.03 3 Daub fragments con 28.1 419 3 560.35 488.03 3 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 94.7 420 4 546.35 499.03 1 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 12 19.5

PAGE 543

543 420 4 546.35 499.03 1 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 11 6.2 420 4 546.35 499.03 1 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 19 15.8 420 4 546.35 499.03 1 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 2 2 420 4 546.35 499.03 1 Limestone tempered plain, body sherd lt 1 0.3 420 4 546.35 499.03 1 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 1 11.2 420 4 546.35 499.03 1 Pinellas point, chert, NHT li 1 1.6 420 4 546.35 499.03 1 Chert core, NHT li 1 34.1 420 4 546.35 499.03 1 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.7 420 4 546.35 499.03 1 Lime fragment li 1 0.8 420 4 546.35 499.03 1 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.8 420 4 546.35 499.03 1 Daub fragments con 9.4 420 4 546.35 499.03 1 Charcoal fragment ch 1 <.1 421 4 546.35 499.03 2 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 23 34.6 421 4 546.35 499.03 2 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 23 15 421 4 546.35 499.03 2 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 1 4.6 421 4 546.35 499.03 2 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 17 10.7 421 4 546.35 499.03 2 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 2 2.1 421 4 546.35 499.03 2 Bone fragments bone 6 3.7 421 4 546.35 499.03 2 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 3 21 30mm, 1b, 2c; 1 31 40mm, c li 4 10.7 421 4 546.35 499.03 2 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 7 11 20mm, 4c, 3b; 1 21 30mm, b li 9 3.2 421 4 546.35 499.03 2 River cobbles, quartz li 2 0.9 421 4 546.35 499.03 2 Lime/sand concretions soil 4 2.5 422 4 546.35 499.03 3 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 16 52.6 422 4 546.35 499.03 3 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 16 17.7 422 4 546.35 499.03 3 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 12 14.7 422 4 546.35 499.03 3 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 2 3.4 422 4 546.35 499.03 3 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 7 11 20mm, 3c, 4b; 2 21 30mm, b li 9 4.4 422 4 546.35 499.03 3 Bone fragments bone 10 2.3 422 4 546.35 499.03 3 Daub fragments con 2 422 4 546.35 499.03 3 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10.1 423 5 553.35 490.18 1 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 22 34.2

PAGE 544

544 423 5 553.35 490.18 1 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 1 3.1 423 5 553.35 490.18 1 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 24 10.7 423 5 553.35 490.18 1 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 1 0.2 423 5 553.35 490.18 1 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 19 20.4 423 5 553.35 490.18 1 Sand tempered cord marked, body sherd sn 1 2.4 423 5 553.35 490.18 1 Sand tempered cob marked, body sherd sn 1 3.4 423 5 553.35 490.18 1 Itchetucknee Blue beads, heat altered, drawn gl cu 2 1.1 423 5 553.35 490.18 1 Bone fragments bone 3 0.5 423 5 553.35 490.18 1 Pinellas point, silicified coral li 1 0.8 423 5 553.35 490.18 1 River cobbles, quartz li 3 2.6 423 5 553.35 490.18 1 Nondecortication flakes, 16 chert, 3 silicified coral, 1HT, 18NT; 5 1 10mm, 4c, 1b; 14 11 20mm, 2c, 12b li 19 8.5 423 5 553.35 490.18 1 Iron fragment fe 1 0.1 423 5 553.35 490.18 1 Lime fragments li 4 1.6 424 5 553.35 490.18 2 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 22 21.4 424 5 553.35 490.18 2 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 1 3.1 424 5 553.35 490.18 2 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 39 23.4 424 5 553.35 490.18 2 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 25 20.2 424 5 553.35 490.18 2 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 2 2.5 424 5 553.35 490.18 2 Sand tempered incised, body sherd sn 1 6 424 5 553.35 490.18 2 Itchetucknee Blue bead, heat altered, drawn gl cu 1 0.4 424 5 553.35 490.18 2 Iron nail, forged fe 1 1.1 424 5 553.35 490.18 2 Iron fragments fe 4 0.6 424 5 553.35 490.18 2 Bone fragments bone 3 5.1 424 5 553.35 490.18 2 Stone blade (?), possible obsidian li 1 3.3 424 5 553.35 490.18 2 Limestone fragments li 3 3.1 424 5 553.35 490.18 2 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 5HT, 21NHT; 9 1 10mm, 4c, 5b; 15 11 20mm, 3c, 12b; 2 21 30mm, c li 26 8.3 424 5 553.35 490.18 2 Shell, freshwater shell 1 <.1 424 5 553.35 490.18 2 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 9.4 425 5 553.35 490.18 3 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 34 59.5 425 5 553.35 490.18 3 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 29 30.7

PAGE 545

545 425 5 553.35 490.18 3 St. Johns punctated, body sherd ss 1 15.5 425 5 553.35 490.18 3 St. Johns incised, body sherds ss 1 3.4 425 5 553.35 490.18 3 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 24 32.9 425 5 553.35 490.18 3 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 1.9 425 5 553.35 490.18 3 Limestone tempered plain, body sherd lt 1 0.3 425 5 553.35 490.18 3 Sevilla Blue on Blue majolica, body sherd ec 1 0.6 425 5 553.35 490.18 3 Sand tempered incised, body sherd sn 2 10 425 5 553.35 490.18 3 Olive jar, body sherd ec 1 2.8 425 5 553.35 490.18 3 Pinellas point, chert, NHT li 1 1.9 425 5 553.35 490.18 3 Chert core, NHT li 1 37.2 425 5 553.35 490.18 3 Chert blade/reworked scraper, HT, 31 40mm li 1 11.3 425 5 553.35 490.18 3 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 4NHT; 1 11 20mm, c; 4 21 30mm, 1c, 3b; 1 3140mm, c li 6 13 425 5 553.35 490.18 3 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 5HT, 25NHT; 6 1 10mm, 3b, 3c; 23 11 20mm, 14c, 9b; 1 21 30mm, c li 30 12.6 425 5 553.35 490.18 3 River cobbles, quartz li 2 9.5 425 5 553.35 490.18 3 Shell, marine shell 1 10.3 425 5 553.35 490.18 3 Bone fragments bone 5 1.1 425 5 553.35 490.18 3 Lime fragments li 7 3.5 425 5 553.35 490.18 3 Daub fragments con 10.9 425 5 553.35 490.18 3 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 30.2 426 6 549.85 494.07 1 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 16 17.5 426 6 549.85 494.07 1 St. Johns simple stamped, rim sherd ss 1 3.9 426 6 549.85 494.07 1 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 24 21.8 426 6 549.85 494.07 1 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 1 10.7 426 6 549.85 494.07 1 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 12 7.7 426 6 549.85 494.07 1 Sevilla Blue on Blue majolica, body sherd ec 1 <.1 426 6 549.85 494.07 1 Iron fragment fe 1 2.4 426 6 549.85 494.07 1 Brass button fe 1 0.6 426 6 549.85 494.07 1 Lead bullet fe 1 2.5 426 6 549.85 494.07 1 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 16NHT; 8 1 10mm, 6c, 2b; 9 11 20mm, 4c, 5b; 1 21 30mm, b li 18 3.8

PAGE 546

546 426 6 549.85 494.07 1 Bone fragments bone 3 1.2 426 6 549.85 494.07 1 Limestone fragments li 3 1.8 426 6 549.85 494.07 1 Fulgurite gl cu 1 0.4 427 6 549.85 494.07 2 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 17 25.6 427 6 549.85 494.07 2 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 3 17.5 427 6 549.85 494.07 2 St. Johns simple stamped, body sherd ss 1 9.8 427 6 549.85 494.07 2 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 32 19 427 6 549.85 494.07 2 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 1 2 427 6 549.85 494.07 2 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 16 10.6 427 6 549.85 494.07 2 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 2 1.1 427 6 549.85 494.07 2 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 2NHT; 3 21 30mm, c li 3 7.3 427 6 549.85 494.07 2 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 18NHT; 5 1 10mm, c; 15 11 20mm, 6b, 9c; 1 21 30mm, c li 21 7.3 427 6 549.85 494.07 2 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.2 427 6 549.85 494.07 2 Lime fragments li 4 2.4 427 6 549.85 494.07 2 Bone fragment bone 1 0.6 428 6 549.85 494.07 3 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 13 19 428 6 549.85 494.07 3 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 3 17.5 428 6 549.85 494.07 3 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 20 18 428 6 549.85 494.07 3 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 1 2.8 428 6 549.85 494.07 3 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 15 11.6 428 6 549.85 494.07 3 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 0.3 428 6 549.85 494.07 3 Sand tempered punctated, body sherd sn 1 1.3 428 6 549.85 494.07 3 Limestone tempered plain, body sherd lt 4 5.2 428 6 549.85 494.07 3 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 1 1 428 6 549.85 494.07 3 Itchetucknee Blue bead, heat altered, drawn gl cu 1 0.5 428 6 549.85 494.07 3 Pinellas point, chert, NHT li 1 1.6 428 6 549.85 494.07 3 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 1NHT; 1 21 30mm, 2 31 40mm, all b li 3 9.4 428 6 549.85 494.07 3 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 6HT, 22NHT; 8 1 10mm, 6c, 2b; 19 11 20mm, 11c, 8b; 1 21 30mm, c li 28 9 428 6 549.85 494.07 3 Quartz fragment li 1 0.3 428 6 549.85 494.07 3 Bone fragments bone 2 2.1

PAGE 547

547 428 6 549.85 494.07 3 Carbonized seed ch 1 0.4 428 6 549.85 494.07 3 Daub fragments con 16.3 428 6 549.85 494.07 3 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 99.9 429 7 556.35 490.18 1 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 28 30.7 429 7 556.35 490.18 1 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 1 0.3 429 7 556.35 490.18 1 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 34 19.8 429 7 556.35 490.18 1 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 2 4.2 429 7 556.35 490.18 1 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 10 7.8 429 7 556.35 490.18 1 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 3 2.8 429 7 556.35 490.18 1 Sand tempered punctated, rim sherd sn 1 3.2 429 7 556.35 490.18 1 Olive jar, body sherd ec 1 6.9 429 7 556.35 490.18 1 Pinellas point, broken tip, chert, NHT li 1 3.6 429 7 556.35 490.18 1 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 11 20mm, b; 1 21 30mm, b; 1 31 40mm, c li 4 7.6 429 7 556.35 490.18 1 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 9NHT; 5 1 10mm, 3c, 2b; 6 11 20mm, 5c, 1b li 11 1.8 429 7 556.35 490.18 1 River cobbles, quartz li 2 0.6 429 7 556.35 490.18 1 Lime fragment li 1 1 429 7 556.35 490.18 1 Bone fragment bone 1 1 430 7 556.35 490.18 2 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 29 24.6 430 7 556.35 490.18 2 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 2 3.3 430 7 556.35 490.18 2 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 33 19.9 430 7 556.35 490.18 2 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 27 27 430 7 556.35 490.18 2 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 1 430 7 556.35 490.18 2 Olive jar, body sherd ec 1 2.1 430 7 556.35 490.18 2 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 3 5.6 430 7 556.35 490.18 2 Iron nail/pin fe 1 2.6 430 7 556.35 490.18 2 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 11 20mm, 3 21 30mm, all b li 5 5.5 430 7 556.35 490.18 2 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 4HT, 20NHT; 4 1 10mm, 1c, 3b; 20 11 20mm, 11c, 9b li 24 7.1 430 7 556.35 490.18 2 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.2 430 7 556.35 490.18 2 Bone fragments bone 3 0.7 430 7 556.35 490.18 2 Shell fragment, freshwater shell 1 0.2

PAGE 548

548 430 7 556.35 490.18 2 Clay/soil concretions soil 4 2.2 431 7 556.35 490.18 3 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 22 68.8 431 7 556.35 490.18 3 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 1 5.3 431 7 556.35 490.18 3 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 2 4 431 7 556.35 490.18 3 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 39 26.9 431 7 556.35 490.18 3 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 1 1.3 431 7 556.35 490.18 3 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 24 35.2 431 7 556.35 490.18 3 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 1.2 431 7 556.35 490.18 3 Orange micaceous ware, body sherd ec 1 0.8 431 7 556.35 490.18 3 Itchetucknee Blue bead, heat altered, drawn gl cu 1 0.3 431 7 556.35 490.18 3 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 21 30mm, 1b, 1c; 1 31 40mm, b li 3 8.8 431 7 556.35 490.18 3 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 17NHT; 6 1 10mm, 4c, 2b; 13 11 20mm, 9c, 4b li 19 6.1 431 7 556.35 490.18 3 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.9 431 7 556.35 490.18 3 Bone fragments bone 3 0.8 431 7 556.35 490.18 3 Shell fragment, marine shell 1 0.1 431 7 556.35 490.18 3 Daub fragments con 4 2.6 431 7 556.35 490.18 3 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 63.9 432 8 553.35 487.18 1 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 19 14.8 432 8 553.35 487.18 1 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 37 31.4 432 8 553.35 487.18 1 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 17 14.1 432 8 553.35 487.18 1 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 4.1 432 8 553.35 487.18 1 Sand tempered incised, body sherd sn 1 2.2 432 8 553.35 487.18 1 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 1 0.4 432 8 553.35 487.18 1 Itchetucknee Blue bead, heat altered, drawn gl cu 1 0.2 432 8 553.35 487.18 1 Primary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 31 40mm, b li 1 1.9 432 8 553.35 487.18 1 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 11 20mm, b; 4 21 30mm, 2c, 2b li 6 6.8 432 8 553.35 487.18 1 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 3 1 10mm, 2b, 1c; 8 11 20mm, 3c, 5b li 11 3.5 432 8 553.35 487.18 1 Bone fragments bone 2 0.5 433 8 553.35 487.18 2 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 27 25.9 433 8 553.35 487.18 2 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 1 11.5 433 8 553.35 487.18 2 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 72 63.4

PAGE 549

549 433 8 553.35 487.18 2 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 28 30.3 433 8 553.35 487.18 2 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 3.5 433 8 553.35 487.18 2 Chert fragment, NHT li 1 16.1 433 8 553.35 487.18 2 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, b; 1 31 40mm, c li 2 4.7 433 8 553.35 487.18 2 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 15NHT; 2 1 10mm, b; 15 11 20mm, 8b, 7c li 17 5.9 433 8 553.35 487.18 2 River cobbles, quartz li 2 3.6 433 8 553.35 487.18 2 Iron fragment fe 1 0.2 433 8 553.35 487.18 2 Lead bullet fe 1 1.7 433 8 553.35 487.18 2 Lime/sand concretions, uncounted soil 1.6 433 8 553.35 487.18 2 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 4.8 434 8 553.35 487.18 3 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 29 93.3 434 8 553.35 487.18 3 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 11 5.9 434 8 553.35 487.18 3 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 21 35.9 434 8 553.35 487.18 3 Limestone tempered plain, body sherd lt 4 11.4 434 8 553.35 487.18 3 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 1 1.5 434 8 553.35 487.18 3 Mission Red Filmed, rim sherd sn 1 2.2 434 8 553.35 487.18 3 Sand tempered cob marked, body sherd sn 1 6.7 434 8 553.35 487.18 3 Sevilla Blue on Blue majolica, rim sherd ec 1 1.8 434 8 553.35 487.18 3 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, 1c, 1b; 4 21 30mm, 1c, 3b; 1 41 50mm, c li 6 10.8 434 8 553.35 487.18 3 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 19NHT; 2 1 10mm, 1c, 1b; 18 11 20mm, 9c, 9b; 1 21 30mm, b li 21 5.8 434 8 553.35 487.18 3 Limestone fragments li 1 1.1 434 8 553.35 487.18 3 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.3 434 8 553.35 487.18 3 Lime/sand concretions soil 3 4 434 8 553.35 487.18 3 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10.3 435 9 549.62 497.03 1 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 9 5.3 435 9 549.62 497.03 1 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 13 15.9 435 9 549.62 497.03 1 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 8 11.6 435 9 549.62 497.03 1 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 1 0.8 435 9 549.62 497.03 1 Pinellas point, chert, NHT li 1 1.7 435 9 549.62 497.03 1 Chert flake/expedient tool, worked edge, NHT; 21 30mm li 1 4.3

PAGE 550

550 435 9 549.62 497.03 1 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 3NHT; 1 110mm, b; 4 11 20mm, 3c, 1b li 5 1.2 435 9 549.62 497.03 1 Limestone fragments li 1 0.7 435 9 549.62 497.03 1 Lime fragment li 1 0.2 435 9 549.62 497.03 1 Lead bullet fe 1 2.5 435 9 549.62 497.03 1 Iron fragments fe 2 0.4 436 9 549.62 497.03 2 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 14 21.9 436 9 549.62 497.03 2 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 27 21.2 436 9 549.62 497.03 2 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 16 23.7 436 9 549.62 497.03 2 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 1.5 436 9 549.62 497.03 2 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 1 1 436 9 549.62 497.03 2 Limestone fragments li 1 11.1 436 9 549.62 497.03 2 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 3 21 30mm, b li 3 3.6 436 9 549.62 497.03 2 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 13NHT; 4 1 10mm, 2b, 2c; 10 11 20mm, 6c, 4b; 1 21 30mm, b li 15 5 436 9 549.62 497.03 2 Flaked stone, 11 20mm, b li 1 0.3 436 9 549.62 497.03 2 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.4 436 9 549.62 497.03 2 Shell fragment, marine shell 1 0.2 436 9 549.62 497.03 2 Charred seeds ch 2 0.2 436 9 549.62 497.03 2 Lime fragments li 5 1.1 436 9 549.62 497.03 2 Lime/sand concretions, uncounted soil 4.7 437 9 549.62 497.03 3 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 26 58.5 437 9 549.62 497.03 3 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 1 7.5 437 9 549.62 497.03 3 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 24 38.3 437 9 549.62 497.03 3 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 1 9.1 437 9 549.62 497.03 3 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 21 34 437 9 549.62 497.03 3 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 4 6.3 437 9 549.62 497.03 3 Sand tempered incised, rim sherd sn 1 5 437 9 549.62 497.03 3 Spanish redware, body sherd ec 1 1.6 437 9 549.62 497.03 3 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 1 1.3 437 9 549.62 497.03 3 Archaic stemmed point, chert, HT li 1 6.1 437 9 549.62 497.03 3 Chert tool, NHT li 1 1.2

PAGE 551

551 437 9 549.62 497.03 3 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 6NHT; 1 11 20mm, b; 4 21 30mm, 2c, 2b; 3 3140mm, 1c, 2b li 8 13.2 437 9 549.62 497.03 3 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 18NHT; 4 1 10mm, 2b, 2c; 16 11 20mm, 11c, 5b; 1 21 30mm, c li 21 6 437 9 549.62 497.03 3 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.5 437 9 549.62 497.03 3 Limestone fragments li 1 2 437 9 549.62 497.03 3 Bone fragments bone 3 10.9 437 9 549.62 497.03 3 Bone fragment, worked bone 1 0.1 437 9 549.62 497.03 3 Shell fragment, marine shell 1 0.3 437 9 549.62 497.03 3 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 18.2 437 9 549.62 497.03 3 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 31.7 438 10 551.35 490.28 1 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 20 15 438 10 551.35 490.28 1 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 1 0.6 438 10 551.35 490.28 1 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 35 44.3 438 10 551.35 490.28 1 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 2 4.7 438 10 551.35 490.28 1 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 11 11.4 438 10 551.35 490.28 1 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 2 7.6 438 10 551.35 490.28 1 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 4NHT; 6 21 30mm, 4c, 2b li 6 13.6 438 10 551.35 490.28 1 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 11NHT; 3 1 10mm, 2c, 1b; 11 11 20mm, 7c, 4b li 14 4.2 438 10 551.35 490.28 1 Daub fragments con 3 2 439 10 551.35 490.28 2 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 16 12.7 439 10 551.35 490.28 2 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 25 17.1 439 10 551.35 490.28 2 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 25 20.6 439 10 551.35 490.28 2 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 0.9 439 10 551.35 490.28 2 Sand tempered punctated, rim sherd sn 1 3.6 439 10 551.35 490.28 2 Limestone tempered plain, body sherd lt 2 1.4 439 10 551.35 490.28 2 Olive jar, body sherd ec 1 7.1 439 10 551.35 490.28 2 Chert blades, NHT li 2 0.6 439 10 551.35 490.28 2 Secondary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, c li 1 1.6 439 10 551.35 490.28 2 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 16NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 16 11 20mm, 13c, 3 b li 17 4.9 439 10 551.35 490.28 2 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.2 439 10 551.35 490.28 2 Shell fragment shell 1 0.6

PAGE 552

552 439 10 551.35 490.28 2 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1.5 440 10 551.35 490.28 3 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 31 47.4 440 10 551.35 490.28 3 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 3 23.5 440 10 551.35 490.28 3 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 28 13.5 440 10 551.35 490.28 3 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 3 2.8 440 10 551.35 490.28 3 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 1 3.3 440 10 551.35 490.28 3 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 39 34.2 440 10 551.35 490.28 3 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 2 1.1 440 10 551.35 490.28 3 Sand tempered incised, body sherd sn 2 5.7 440 10 551.35 490.28 3 Sand tempered simple stamped, rim sherd sn 1 7 440 10 551.35 490.28 3 Sand tempered punctated, body sherd sn 1 1.5 440 10 551.35 490.28 3 Iron nail, forged fe 1 2.4 440 10 551.35 490.28 3 Primary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 31 40mm, c li 1 5.4 440 10 551.35 490.28 3 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 6NHT; 1 11 20mm, b; 4 21 30mm, 2c, 2b; 1 3140mm, c; 1 41 50mm, b li 7 14.1 440 10 551.35 490.28 3 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 9 1 10mm, 4c, 5b; 23 11 20mm, 16c, 7b li 32 6.4 440 10 551.35 490.28 3 Chert blade, NHT li 1 3.6 440 10 551.35 490.28 3 River cobbles, quartz li 2 2 440 10 551.35 490.28 3 Bone fragments bone 5 1.4 440 10 551.35 490.28 3 Lime/sand concretions soil 4 4.5 440 10 551.35 490.28 3 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 54.1 441 11 449 612.5 1 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 7 8.3 441 11 449 612.5 1 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 5 3.5 441 11 449 612.5 1 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 1 1.1 441 11 449 612.5 1 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 16 14.4 441 11 449 612.5 1 Sand tempered incised, body sherd sn 1 1.7 441 11 449 612.5 1 Limestone fragments li 4 6 441 11 449 612.5 1 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c li 1 <.1 441 11 449 612.5 1 Hematite fragments li 2 0.1 442 11 449 612.5 2 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 11 8.6 442 11 449 612.5 2 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 18 7.6

PAGE 553

553 442 11 449 612.5 2 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 15 15.5 442 11 449 612.5 2 Sand tempered incised, body sherd sn 1 0.8 442 11 449 612.5 2 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b; 1 31 40mm, c li 2 4.7 442 11 449 612.5 2 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c li 1 <.1 442 11 449 612.5 2 Bone fragments bone 4 0.6 442 11 449 612.5 2 Iron fragment fe 1 <.1 442 11 449 612.5 2 Limestone fragments li 2 1.8 443 11 449 612.5 3 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 10 36.4 443 11 449 612.5 3 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 3 26.1 443 11 449 612.5 3 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 11 5.8 443 11 449 612.5 3 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 19 37.9 443 11 449 612.5 3 Sand tempered simple stamped, rim sherd sn 1 3.3 443 11 449 612.5 3 Olive jar, body sherd ec 1 6.8 443 11 449 612.5 3 Pinellas point, chert, NHT li 1 1.1 443 11 449 612.5 3 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 6 5.3 443 11 449 612.5 3 Bone fragments bone 16+ 2.2 443 11 449 612.5 3 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 1NHT; 2 1 10mm, c li 2 0.2 443 11 449 612.5 3 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 16.2 443 11 449 612.5 3 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 24.3 444 12 462.5 625 1 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 4 12.7 444 12 462.5 625 1 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 25 21.9 444 12 462.5 625 1 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 8 5.9 444 12 462.5 625 1 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 2.2 444 12 462.5 625 1 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 1NHT; 2 1 10mm, 1b, 1c; 1 11 20mm, c li 3 0.6 444 12 462.5 625 1 River cobbles, quartz li 2 0.7 444 12 462.5 625 1 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 13.6 444 12 462.5 625 1 Daub fragments, uncounted con 2.2 444 12 462.5 625 1 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2.6 445 12 462.5 625 2 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 6 5.9 445 12 462.5 625 2 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 2 3.9 445 12 462.5 625 2 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 3.7

PAGE 554

554 445 12 462.5 625 2 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 2 0.3 445 12 462.5 625 2 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 11 20mm, c li 2 0.8 445 12 462.5 625 2 River cobbles, quartz li 2 0.7 445 12 462.5 625 2 Wood post remains (?) con 1 123.8 445 12 462.5 625 2 Lime/soil concretions, uncounted soil 7.7 445 12 462.5 625 2 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 39.5 446 13 460.5 651 1 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 2 5.8 446 13 460.5 651 1 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 8 11.8 446 13 460.5 651 1 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 8 8.6 446 13 460.5 651 1 Glass fragment, clear gl cu 1 1.8 446 13 460.5 651 1 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 11 20mm, 1b, 1c li 2 2.1 446 13 460.5 651 1 Lime/soil concretions, uncounted soil 6.8 446 13 460.5 651 1 Lime fragments soil 2 0.6 447 13 460.5 651 2 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 5 12.9 447 13 460.5 651 2 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 9 8.5 447 13 460.5 651 2 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 5.6 447 13 460.5 651 2 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, 1 21 30mm, both c li 2 2 447 13 460.5 651 2 Lime/soil concretions soil 10 14.6 447 13 460.5 651 2 Lime fragments soil 3 1.9 448 13 460.5 651 3 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 14 13.3 448 13 460.5 651 3 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 34 13.5 448 13 460.5 651 3 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 4 1.4 448 13 460.5 651 3 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 20 22.4 448 13 460.5 651 3 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 3.5 448 13 460.5 651 3 Sand tempered cob marked, body sherd sn 2 3.5 448 13 460.5 651 3 Limestone fragments li 2 0.5 448 13 460.5 651 3 River cobbles, quartz li 2 2.2 448 13 460.5 651 3 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, 1 31 40mm, both b li 2 3.1 448 13 460.5 651 3 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 14NHT; 4 1 10mm, 3c, 1b; 11 11 20mm, 7c, 4b li 15 3.2 448 13 460.5 651 3 Iron fragment fe 1 3.4 448 13 460.5 651 3 Bone fragments bone 1.9

PAGE 555

555 448 13 460.5 651 3 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 6.5 448 13 460.5 651 3 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 12.8 449 14 449 614.5 1 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 2 2.3 449 14 449 614.5 1 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 7 8.9 449 14 449 614.5 1 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 7 12.5 449 14 449 614.5 1 Sand tempered simple stamped, body sherd sn 1 0.8 449 14 449 614.5 1 Whiteware, body sherd ec 1 1.1 449 14 449 614.5 1 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, 1 11 20mm, both b li 2 0.5 449 14 449 614.5 1 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.3 449 14 449 614.5 1 Lead object fe 1 2.4 449 14 449 614.5 1 Clay/soil concretion soil 1 2.7 449 14 449 614.5 1 Lime fragment soil 1 0.1 450 14 449 614.5 2 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 2 17.2 450 14 449 614.5 2 St. Johns simple stamped, body sherd ss 1 5.6 450 14 449 614.5 2 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 10 8 450 14 449 614.5 2 Sand tempered simple stamped, body sherd sn 2 10.3 450 14 449 614.5 2 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 9 7.5 450 14 449 614.5 2 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 3.5 450 14 449 614.5 2 Grog tempered plain, body sherds grt 2 2 450 14 449 614.5 2 Olive jar, body sherd ec 1 0.8 450 14 449 614.5 2 Pinellas point, chert, NHT li 1 1.6 450 14 449 614.5 2 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.2 450 14 449 614.5 2 Secondary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, c li 1 1.7 450 14 449 614.5 2 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 11 20mm, 1c, 1b li 2 0.6 450 14 449 614.5 2 Bone fragments bone 4 2.1 450 14 449 614.5 2 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 6.2 450 14 449 614.5 2 Lime fragments, uncounted soil 16.1 450 14 449 614.5 2 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 18.8 451 14 449 614.5 3 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 7 18.3 451 14 449 614.5 3 St. Johns simple stamped, body sherd ss 1 3.4 451 14 449 614.5 3 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 7 25.6

PAGE 556

556 451 14 449 614.5 3 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 1 2.9 451 14 449 614.5 3 Sand tempered complicated stamped, body sherd sn 1 5.4 451 14 449 614.5 3 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 4 7.9 451 14 449 614.5 3 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 2 7.5 451 14 449 614.5 3 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 11 20mm, c li 2 1.3 451 14 449 614.5 3 Sandstone fragment li 1 62.1 451 14 449 614.5 3 Bone fragments bone 2 0.5 451 14 449 614.5 3 Clay/soil concretions soil 8 16.6 451 14 449 614.5 3 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 10.2 452 15 559.35 488.03 1 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 29 43.9 452 15 559.35 488.03 1 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 54 37.3 452 15 559.35 488.03 1 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 18 19.8 452 15 559.35 488.03 1 Limestone tempered plain, body sherd lt 2 6.3 452 15 559.35 488.03 1 Large chert fragment, NHT; 41 50mm li 1 25.6 452 15 559.35 488.03 1 Primary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, c li 1 2.2 452 15 559.35 488.03 1 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 4NHT; 3 11 20mm, 1c, 2b; 2 21 30mm, b li 5 4.8 452 15 559.35 488.03 1 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 1 10mm, b; 7 11 20mm, 3c, 4b li 9 2.5 452 15 559.35 488.03 1 River cobbles, quartz li 3 1.5 452 15 559.35 488.03 1 Bone fragments bone 2 0.9 452 15 559.35 488.03 1 Clay/soil concretions soil 4 3.5 453 15 559.35 488.03 2 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 18 16.7 453 15 559.35 488.03 2 St. Johns incised, body sherds ss 1 4 453 15 559.35 488.03 2 St. Johns incised, rim sherd ss 1 0.9 453 15 559.35 488.03 2 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 50 39.5 453 15 559.35 488.03 2 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 1 1.4 453 15 559.35 488.03 2 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 18 20.1 453 15 559.35 488.03 2 Limestone tempered plain, body sherd lt 2 10.3 453 15 559.35 488.03 2 Glass beads, Spanish, wirewound gl cu 2 0.6 453 15 559.35 488.03 2 Pinellas point, chert, NHT li 1 1 453 15 559.35 488.03 2 Blade/point edges, chert, NHT li 2 4.3 453 15 559.35 488.03 2 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 3 21 30mm, 1c, 2b; 2 31 40mm, 1c, 1b li 5 10.7

PAGE 557

557 453 15 559.35 488.03 2 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 5 1 10mm, 2c, 3b; 10 11 20mm, 3c, 7b; 1 21 30mm, b li 16 5.3 453 15 559.35 488.03 2 Bone fragments bone 8 11.3 453 15 559.35 488.03 2 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 18 454 15 559.35 488.03 3 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 15 15.1 454 15 559.35 488.03 3 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 59 55.1 454 15 559.35 488.03 3 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 2 6.1 454 15 559.35 488.03 3 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 14 13.5 454 15 559.35 488.03 3 Olive jar, body sherd ec 1 7.5 454 15 559.35 488.03 3 Itchetucknee Blue bead, heat altered, drawn gl cu 1 0.3 454 15 559.35 488.03 3 Primary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 41 50mm, b li 1 4.1 454 15 559.35 488.03 3 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 2NHT; 2 11 20mm, 1 21 30mm, 1 51 60mm, all c li 4 13.3 454 15 559.35 488.03 3 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 8 11 20mm, 5c, 3b li 9 2.6 454 15 559.35 488.03 3 River cobbles, quartz li 2 1.3 454 15 559.35 488.03 3 Bone fragments, uncounted bone 57.3 454 15 559.35 488.03 3 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 113.8 454 15 559.35 488.03 3 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 49.6 455 16 547.35 489.28 1 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 32 35 455 16 547.35 489.28 1 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 2 5.8 455 16 547.35 489.28 1 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 40 17.5 455 16 547.35 489.28 1 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 9 7.6 455 16 547.35 489.28 1 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 1.5 455 16 547.35 489.28 1 Chert fragments, 1HT, 2NHT; 1 11 20mm, 2 31 40mm li 3 15.1 455 16 547.35 489.28 1 Primary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 21 30mm, c li 2 8.1 455 16 547.35 489.28 1 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 3NHT; 1 11 20mm, 2 21 30mm, 1 31 40mm, all b li 4 11.3 455 16 547.35 489.28 1 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 17NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 17 11 20mm, 4b, 13c li 18 3.8 455 16 547.35 489.28 1 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.3 455 16 547.35 489.28 1 Lead bullet fe 1 2.5 455 16 547.35 489.28 1 Lime fragment soil 1 0.2 456 16 547.35 489.28 2 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 31 60.6

PAGE 558

558 456 16 547.35 489.28 2 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 33 26.6 456 16 547.35 489.28 2 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 1 2 456 16 547.35 489.28 2 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 18 20.9 456 16 547.35 489.28 2 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 0.4 456 16 547.35 489.28 2 Sevilla Blue on Blue majolica, body sherd ec 1 0.2 456 16 547.35 489.28 2 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.2 456 16 547.35 489.28 2 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 4NHT; 4 11 20mm, 1c, 3b; 1 21 30mm, c li 5 4.1 456 16 547.35 489.28 2 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 16NHT; 6 1 10mm, 4c, 2b; 12 11 20mm, 8c, 4b li 18 4 456 16 547.35 489.28 2 Bone fragments bone 4 1.2 456 16 547.35 489.28 2 Lime fragments soil 2 1.2 456 16 547.35 489.28 2 Fulgurite gl cu 1 1.4 456 16 547.35 489.28 2 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 16.4 457 16 547.35 489.28 3 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 20 47.1 457 16 547.35 489.28 3 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 1 4.5 457 16 547.35 489.28 3 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 27 30.5 457 16 547.35 489.28 3 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 2 6.6 457 16 547.35 489.28 3 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 23 37.1 457 16 547.35 489.28 3 Sand tempered punctated, body sherd sn 2 4.1 457 16 547.35 489.28 3 Fig Springs roughened, body sherd ss 1 0.7 457 16 547.35 489.28 3 Limestone tempered plain, body sherd lt 2 3.6 457 16 547.35 489.28 3 Olive jar, body sherd ec 1 5 457 16 547.35 489.28 3 Bolen point, chert, NHT li 1 6.8 457 16 547.35 489.28 3 River cobbles, quartz li 3 1.9 457 16 547.35 489.28 3 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 5NHT; 3 11 20mm, 1c, 2b; 3 21 30mm, 1c, 2b li 6 9 457 16 547.35 489.28 3 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 7 1 10mm, 5c, 2b; 29 11 20mm, 13c, 16b li 36 12.1 457 16 547.35 489.28 3 Bone fragments, uncounted bone 1.3 457 16 547.35 489.28 3 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 10.2 457 16 547.35 489.28 3 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 120.2 458 17 557.35 488.03 1 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 11 13.6 458 17 557.35 488.03 1 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 1 5.1

PAGE 559

559 458 17 557.35 488.03 1 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 24 20.4 458 17 557.35 488.03 1 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 12 12.5 458 17 557.35 488.03 1 Olive jar, body sherd ec 2 26.7 458 17 557.35 488.03 1 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b; 4 21 30mm, b li 5 7.7 458 17 557.35 488.03 1 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 13NHT; 2 1 10mm, b; 13 11 20mm, 6c, 7b li 15 4.5 458 17 557.35 488.03 1 Clay/soil concretion soil 1 0.4 458 17 557.35 488.03 1 Bone fragments bone 2 0.2 459 17 557.35 488.03 2 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 19 21.9 459 17 557.35 488.03 2 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 1 2.5 459 17 557.35 488.03 2 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 51 32.2 459 17 557.35 488.03 2 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 21 12.3 459 17 557.35 488.03 2 Olive jar, body sherd ec 1 11.8 459 17 557.35 488.03 2 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 1 4.2 459 17 557.35 488.03 2 Iron nail, forged fe 1 2.9 459 17 557.35 488.03 2 Iron fragment fe 1 0.1 459 17 557.35 488.03 2 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, 1 31 40mm, c li 2 8.4 459 17 557.35 488.03 2 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 4HT, 11NHT; 4 1 10mm, 2c, 2b; 11 11 20mm, 4c, 7b li 15 3.5 459 17 557.35 488.03 2 River cobbles, quartz li 1 1.5 459 17 557.35 488.03 2 Limestone fragments li 1 0.7 459 17 557.35 488.03 2 Bone fragments bone 2 0.7 459 17 557.35 488.03 2 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 4.6 460 17 557.35 488.03 3 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 47 101.3 460 17 557.35 488.03 3 Fig Springs roughened, body sherd ss 2 7.8 460 17 557.35 488.03 3 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 49 30.4 460 17 557.35 488.03 3 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 2 7 460 17 557.35 488.03 3 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 23 45.1 460 17 557.35 488.03 3 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 2 13.8 460 17 557.35 488.03 3 Sand tempered incised, body sherd sn 1 0.7 460 17 557.35 488.03 3 Olive jar, body sherd ec 1 2.2 460 17 557.35 488.03 3 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 1 2.3 460 17 557.35 488.03 3 Limestone tempered plain, body sherd lt 2 3.2

PAGE 560

560 460 17 557.35 488.03 3 Colonoware sherd, St. Johns paste ss 1 4.7 460 17 557.35 488.03 3 Glass fragment, clear gl cu 1 0.5 460 17 557.35 488.03 3 Secondary decortication flakes, 5 chert, 1 exotic; 3HT, 3NHT; 5 21 30mm, 3c, 2b; 1 31 40mm, b li 6 13.6 460 17 557.35 488.03 3 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 15NHT; 2 1 10mm, 1c, 1b; 14 11 20mm, 5c, 9b li 16 7.3 460 17 557.35 488.03 3 River cobbles, quartz li 4 4.1 460 17 557.35 488.03 3 Bone fragments bone 3 0.8 460 17 557.35 488.03 3 Clay/soil concretions soil 9 6.6 460 17 557.35 488.03 3 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 40.3 461 18 551.35 486.18 1 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 32 37.1 461 18 551.35 486.18 1 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 1 3 461 18 551.35 486.18 1 Fig Springs roughened, body sherd ss 1 10.9 461 18 551.35 486.18 1 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 19 8.6 461 18 551.35 486.18 1 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 13 13.6 461 18 551.35 486.18 1 Olive jar, body sherd ec 1 4 461 18 551.35 486.18 1 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 1 2.3 461 18 551.35 486.18 1 Iron fragment fe 1 0.1 461 18 551.35 486.18 1 Pinellas point, chert, NHT li 1 0.9 461 18 551.35 486.18 1 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 21 30mm, 1c, 1b li 2 2.7 461 18 551.35 486.18 1 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 15 11 20mm, 7c, 8b; 1 21 30m, b li 17 6.7 461 18 551.35 486.18 1 River cobbles, quartz li 2 1.2 461 18 551.35 486.18 1 Bone fragment bone 1 0.2 461 18 551.35 486.18 1 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 6.2 462 18 551.35 486.18 2 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 28 47.7 462 18 551.35 486.18 2 St. Johns check stamped, large vessel fragment; 12 cm x 5 cm, body sherd ss 1 168.7 462 18 551.35 486.18 2 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 2 14.3 462 18 551.35 486.18 2 St. Johns zoned punctated, body sherd ss 1 6.4 462 18 551.35 486.18 2 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 31 38.4 462 18 551.35 486.18 2 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 1 0.8 462 18 551.35 486.18 2 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 14 24.4 462 18 551.35 486.18 2 Blade/tool, chert, NHT li 1 1.8

PAGE 561

561 462 18 551.35 486.18 2 Primary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 1.2 462 18 551.35 486.18 2 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 4NHT; 2 11 20mm, 1c, 1b; 1 21 30mm, b; 2 31 40mm, b li 5 8.9 462 18 551.35 486.18 2 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 6 1 10mm, 4c, 2b; 12 11 20mm, 4c, 8b li 18 4.1 462 18 551.35 486.18 2 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.5 462 18 551.35 486.18 2 Clay/soil/lime concretions soil 2 2.4 462 18 551.35 486.18 2 Bone fragments, uncounted bone 2.6 463 18 551.35 486.18 3 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 22 80 463 18 551.35 486.18 3 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 1 4.8 463 18 551.35 486.18 3 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 23 17.1 463 18 551.35 486.18 3 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 10 17.2 463 18 551.35 486.18 3 Sand tempered plain, red/roughened interior, body sherd sn 1 2.4 463 18 551.35 486.18 3 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 1 2.4 463 18 551.35 486.18 3 Sandstone fragment li 1 8.1 463 18 551.35 486.18 3 Primary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 41 50mm, b li 1 6.8 463 18 551.35 486.18 3 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 4NHT; 1 11 20mm, b; 4 21 30mm, b li 5 4.5 463 18 551.35 486.18 3 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 36NHT; 10 1 10mm, 7c, 3b; 28 11 20mm, 7c, 21b; 1 21 30mm, b li 39 11.2 463 18 551.35 486.18 3 River cobbles, quartz li 2 0.7 463 18 551.35 486.18 3 Bone fragments bone 2 0.7 463 18 551.35 486.18 3 Clay/soil concretions soil 5 1.8 463 18 551.35 486.18 3 Burned coal/charcoal fragments ch 4 0.2 463 18 551.35 486.18 3 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 13 464 19 550 374 1 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 13 23.8 464 19 550 374 1 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 1 2.5 464 19 550 374 1 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 42 26.2 464 19 550 374 1 St. Johns punctated, body sherd ss 1 1 464 19 550 374 1 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 23 22.4 464 19 550 374 1 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 1 8 464 19 550 374 1 Chert tools, 1HT, 1NHT li 2 4.3 464 19 550 374 1 River cobbles, quartz li 1 9.1 464 19 550 374 1 Primary decortication flake, chert, HT; 1 21 30mm, b li 1 7.3

PAGE 562

562 464 19 550 374 1 Nondecortication flakes, 7HT, 12NHT; 6 1 10mm, 2c, 4b; 11 11 20mm, 2c, 9b; 2 21 30mm, 1c, 1b li 19 6.6 464 19 550 374 1 Bone fragments bone 2 0.6 464 19 550 374 1 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 10.7 465 19 550 374 2 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 15 15 465 19 550 374 2 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 37 24.6 465 19 550 374 2 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 20 14.5 465 19 550 374 2 River cobbles, quartz li 4 1.4 465 19 550 374 2 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 4NHT; 1 11 20mm, c; 2 21 30mm, b; 1 31 40mm, c; 1 41 50mm, b li 5 19.4 465 19 550 374 2 Quartz tool (?), broken li 1 1.6 465 19 550 374 2 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 6HT, 20NHT; 7 1 10mm, 2c, 5b; 18 11 20mm, 3c, 15b; 1 21 30mm, b li 26 5.3 465 19 550 374 2 Limestone fragments li 1 3.8 465 19 550 374 2 Bone fragment bone 1 0.2 465 19 550 374 2 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 7.9 466 19 550 374 3 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 12 31.1 466 19 550 374 3 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 1 0.2 466 19 550 374 3 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 49 27 466 19 550 374 3 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 1 0.9 466 19 550 374 3 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 22 18.9 466 19 550 374 3 Sand tempered punctated, body sherd sn 1 18.1 466 19 550 374 3 Grit and limestone tempered plain, body sherds gt/lt 4 1.4 466 19 550 374 3 Fiber tempered incised, body sherd ft 1 2.1 466 19 550 374 3 Fiber tempered plain, body sherd ft 1 1.8 466 19 550 374 3 River cobbles, quartz li 3 0.9 466 19 550 374 3 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 3NHT; 2 11 20mm, 1c, 1b; 2 21 30mm, b li 4 6.9 466 19 550 374 3 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 4HT, 26NHT; 7 1 10mm, 2c, 5b; 23 11 20mm, 10c, 13b li 30 6.2 466 19 550 374 3 Bone fragments, uncounted bone 1.9 466 19 550 374 3 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 12.4 466 19 550 374 3 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 12.2 467 20 544.35 499.03 1 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 19 18.9

PAGE 563

563 467 20 544.35 499.03 1 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 31 31 467 20 544.35 499.03 1 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 3 3.7 467 20 544.35 499.03 1 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 16 20.7 467 20 544.35 499.03 1 Sand tempered simple stamped, body sherd sn 1 11 467 20 544.35 499.03 1 Sand tempered cord marked, body sherd sn 1 4.5 467 20 544.35 499.03 1 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 21 30mm, 1c, 1b; 1 31 40mm, c li 3 10.6 467 20 544.35 499.03 1 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 3NHT; 2 1 10mm, 1c, 1b; 4 11 20mm, 1c, 3b li 6 1.3 467 20 544.35 499.03 1 Iron nail, forged fe 1 0.6 467 20 544.35 499.03 1 Lime/clay/soil concretions soil 2 0.8 468 20 544.35 499.03 2 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 18 37.5 468 20 544.35 499.03 2 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 21 11.3 468 20 544.35 499.03 2 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 2 9.8 468 20 544.35 499.03 2 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 5 3.1 468 20 544.35 499.03 2 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 41 50mm, b li 1 12.8 468 20 544.35 499.03 2 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 3 11 20mm, 1c, 2b; 1 21 30mm, c li 4 2.6 468 20 544.35 499.03 2 River cobbles, quartz li 2 1.5 468 20 544.35 499.03 2 Metal fragment fe 1 0.3 468 20 544.35 499.03 2 Bone fragment bone 1 0.2 468 20 544.35 499.03 2 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 4.2 469 20 544.35 499.03 3 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 8 18.2 469 20 544.35 499.03 3 St. Johns punctated, body sherd ss 1 7.9 469 20 544.35 499.03 3 St. Johns incised, body sherds ss 1 4.6 469 20 544.35 499.03 3 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 19 15.2 469 20 544.35 499.03 3 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 1 2.3 469 20 544.35 499.03 3 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 11 14 469 20 544.35 499.03 3 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 0.8 469 20 544.35 499.03 3 Grit tempered plain, body sherd gt 1 0.8 469 20 544.35 499.03 3 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 6NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 5 11 20mm, 2c, 3b; 1 21 30mm, c li 7 4.4 469 20 544.35 499.03 3 Bone fragments, uncounted bone 1.8 469 20 544.35 499.03 3 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 22.3

PAGE 564

564 469 20 544.35 499.03 3 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 6.2 470 21 574 375 1 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 17 31.6 470 21 574 375 1 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 1 9 470 21 574 375 1 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 47 35.1 470 21 574 375 1 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 32 37.7 470 21 574 375 1 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 2 4.2 470 21 574 375 1 Clay pigeon fragments ec 3 1.1 470 21 574 375 1 River cobbles, quartz li 3 2 470 21 574 375 1 Primary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 51 60mm, c li 1 16.1 470 21 574 375 1 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, c; 1 31 40mm, b li 2 8.8 470 21 574 375 1 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 6HT, 8NHT; 13 11 20mm, 5c, 8b; 1 21 30mm, c li 14 2.8 470 21 574 375 1 Drill point, chert, NHT li 1 0.4 470 21 574 375 1 Clay/soil concretions, uncounted soil 53 471 21 574 375 2 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 10 21.2 471 21 574 375 2 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 1 2.5 471 21 574 375 2 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 39 21.5 471 21 574 375 2 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 25 22.2 471 21 574 375 2 Fiber tempered plain, body sherd ft 2 4.5 471 21 574 375 2 Limestone tempered plain, body sherd lt 2 2.4 471 21 574 375 2 River cobbles, quartz li 1 1 471 21 574 375 2 Blade/point, chert, NHT li 1 3.8 471 21 574 375 2 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 5NHT; 1 11 20mm, c; 6 21 30mm, 5c, 1b li 7 10.9 471 21 574 375 2 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 4HT, 21NHT; 8 1 10mm, 4c, 4b; 17 11 20mm, 7c, 10b li 25 6 471 21 574 375 2 Iron fragment fe 1 0.6 471 21 574 375 2 Lime/sand concretions, uncounted soil 71.7 471 21 574 375 2 Daub fragments, uncounted con 17.6 471 21 574 375 2 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 2.4 472 21 574 375 3 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 7 31 472 21 574 375 3 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 1 14.2 472 21 574 375 3 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 7 7.7

PAGE 565

565 472 21 574 375 3 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 1 4.8 472 21 574 375 3 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 10 18.6 472 21 574 375 3 Sand tempered punctated, body sherd sn 1 2.4 472 21 574 375 3 Chert core, NHT li 1 200+ 472 21 574 375 3 Archaic stemmed point, chert, NHT; 31 40mm li 1 6.3 472 21 574 375 3 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 4NHT; 2 11 20mm, 1c, 1b; 1 21 30mm, b; 2 31 40mm, c li 5 6.7 472 21 574 375 3 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 12NHT; 4 1 10mm, 1c, 3b; 9 1120mm, 6c, 3b li 13 3.1 472 21 574 375 3 Hematite fragments li 2 1 472 21 574 375 3 Daub fragments, uncounted con 18.4 472 21 574 375 3 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 25.9 473 22 549.85 491.82 1 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 17 28.3 473 22 549.85 491.82 1 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 32 27.6 473 22 549.85 491.82 1 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 8 8.2 473 22 549.85 491.82 1 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.9 473 22 549.85 491.82 1 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 11 20mm, b; 1 21 30mm, c li 3 2.3 473 22 549.85 491.82 1 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 5 11 20mm, 3c, 2b li 6 1.4 473 22 549.85 491.82 1 Limestone fragments li 2 2.1 473 22 549.85 491.82 1 Shell fragment, marine shell 1 0.1 473 22 549.85 491.82 1 Lime fragments soil 2 0.4 474 22 549.85 491.82 2 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 25 43.2 474 22 549.85 491.82 2 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 50 27.9 474 22 549.85 491.82 2 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 1 0.7 474 22 549.85 491.82 2 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 24 17.1 474 22 549.85 491.82 2 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 0.6 474 22 549.85 491.82 2 Sand tempered cob marked, body sherd sn 1 3 474 22 549.85 491.82 2 Limestone tempered plain, body sherd lt 2 0.8 474 22 549.85 491.82 2 Olive jar, body sherd ec 1 1.2 474 22 549.85 491.82 2 Lime fragment soil 1 0.2 474 22 549.85 491.82 2 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 4NHT; 2 11 20mm, 3 21 30mm, 1 31 40mm, all b li 6 8.8 474 22 549.85 491.82 2 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 25 NHT; 7 1 10mm, 3c, 4b; 20 11 20mm, 8c, li 28 7.8

PAGE 566

566 12b; 1 21 30mm, b 474 22 549.85 491.82 2 Bone fragment bone 1 0.5 474 22 549.85 491.82 2 Shell fragment, marine shell 1 0.1 474 22 549.85 491.82 2 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1.3 475 22 549.85 491.82 3 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 11 19.6 475 22 549.85 491.82 3 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 8 9.6 475 22 549.85 491.82 3 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 2 2.5 475 22 549.85 491.82 3 St. Johns simple stamped, body sherd ss 1 5.3 475 22 549.85 491.82 3 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 7 12 475 22 549.85 491.82 3 Sand tempered cob marked, rim sherd sn 1 16 475 22 549.85 491.82 3 Sand tempered simple stamped, rim sherd sn 1 2.6 475 22 549.85 491.82 3 Grit tempered plain, body sherd gt 2 2.5 475 22 549.85 491.82 3 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 21 30mm, 1c, 1b li 2 4.5 475 22 549.85 491.82 3 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 7 11 20mm, 3c, 4b li 7 3.9 475 22 549.85 491.82 3 Spanish glass bead, green/yellow, wire wound gl cu 1 0.3 475 22 549.85 491.82 3 Bone fragments bone 6 1.7 475 22 549.85 491.82 3 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 7.5 476 22 549.85 491.82 4 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 4 5.5 476 22 549.85 491.82 4 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 2 9.1 476 22 549.85 491.82 4 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 7 13.7 476 22 549.85 491.82 4 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 1 0.4 476 22 549.85 491.82 4 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 6 7.6 476 22 549.85 491.82 4 Sand tempered simple stamped, body sherd sn 1 2.8 476 22 549.85 491.82 4 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 0.5 476 22 549.85 491.82 4 Olive jar, body sherd ec 1 2.8 476 22 549.85 491.82 4 Sevilla Blue on Blue majolica, body sherd ec 1 0.4 476 22 549.85 491.82 4 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 3NHT; 3 21 30mm, 2c, 1b; 1 31 40mm, b li 4 9.2 476 22 549.85 491.82 4 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 20NHT; 8 1 10mm, 6c, 2b; 15 11 20mm, 7c, 8b li 23 4.4 476 22 549.85 491.82 4 Chert blade, NHT li 1 10.4 476 22 549.85 491.82 4 Lime/sand concretion soil 1 2.3 476 22 549.85 491.82 4 Bone fragments bone 4 1.4

PAGE 567

567 476 22 549.85 491.82 4 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 28.7 477 23 542.65 489.28 1 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 19 69.1 477 23 542.65 489.28 1 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 2 11.1 477 23 542.65 489.28 1 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 10 12 477 23 542.65 489.28 1 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 7 16.8 477 23 542.65 489.28 1 Sand tempered punctated, body sherd sn 1 1.8 477 23 542.65 489.28 1 Sand tempered incised, body sherd sn 1 1.1 477 23 542.65 489.28 1 Itchetucknee Blue bead, heat altered, drawn gl cu 1 0.2 477 23 542.65 489.28 1 Lime/sand concretions soil 4 7 477 23 542.65 489.28 1 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b; 1 21 30mm, c li 2 4.2 478 23 542.65 489.28 2 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 23 49.3 478 23 542.65 489.28 2 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 49 38.1 478 23 542.65 489.28 2 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 1 0.7 478 23 542.65 489.28 2 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 17 20.7 478 23 542.65 489.28 2 Sand tempered simple stamped, body sherd sn 1 3.4 478 23 542.65 489.28 2 Sand tempered punctated, body sherd sn 1 4.4 478 23 542.65 489.28 2 Sand tempered cord marked, body sherd sn 2 6.3 478 23 542.65 489.28 2 Grit tempered plain, body sherd gt 5 4.4 478 23 542.65 489.28 2 Olive jar, body sherd ec 1 10 478 23 542.65 489.28 2 River cobbles, quartz li 2 5.2 478 23 542.65 489.28 2 Primary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, 1 21 30mm, 1 31 40mm, all c li 3 7.7 478 23 542.65 489.28 2 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 4 11 20mm, 2c, 2b; 5 21 30mm, all b li 9 9.9 478 23 542.65 489.28 2 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 14NHT; 3 1 10mm, 2c, 1b; 12 11 20mm, 8c, 4b li 15 3 478 23 542.65 489.28 2 Lead shot fe 1 3.5 478 23 542.65 489.28 2 Bone fragments bone 10 1.6 479 23 542.65 489.28 3 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 22 59.6 479 23 542.65 489.28 3 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 1 5.1 479 23 542.65 489.28 3 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 23 20 479 23 542.65 489.28 3 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 9 15.2 479 23 542.65 489.28 3 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 1 0.3 479 23 542.65 489.28 3 St. Johns punctated, body sherd ss 1 1.4

PAGE 568

568 479 23 542.65 489.28 3 Primary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, c li 1 1.8 479 23 542.65 489.28 3 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 3NHT; 2 11 20mm, 3 21 30mm, all b li 5 6.1 479 23 542.65 489.28 3 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 13NHT; 4 1 10mm, c; 10 11 20mm, 6c, 4b li 14 3.3 479 23 542.65 489.28 3 Quartz flake li 1 1.1 479 23 542.65 489.28 3 Bone fragments, uncounted bone 4.8 479 23 542.65 489.28 3 Whelk shell, busycon sinistral shell shell 1 70.2 479 23 542.65 489.28 3 Lime/sand concretions soil 5 3.4 480 24 544.85 491.82 1 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 26 36.1 480 24 544.85 491.82 1 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 2 9.5 480 24 544.85 491.82 1 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 48 35.2 480 24 544.85 491.82 1 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 15 25.1 480 24 544.85 491.82 1 Sand tempered cord marked, body sherd sn 2 2.1 480 24 544.85 491.82 1 Olive jar, body sherd ec 1 5.9 480 24 544.85 491.82 1 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 1 0.2 480 24 544.85 491.82 1 Chert scraper, NHT, 51 60mm li 1 62.8 480 24 544.85 491.82 1 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 2NHT; 3 21 30mm, 2c, 1b li 3 6.7 480 24 544.85 491.82 1 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 6NHT; 3 1 10mm, 2c, 1b; 4 11 20mm, 3c, 1b li 7 2.7 480 24 544.85 491.82 1 River cobbles, quartz li 1 1.6 480 24 544.85 491.82 1 Bone fragments bone 14 8.8 480 24 544.85 491.82 1 Iron fragment fe 1 0.4 481 24 544.85 491.82 2 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 14 14.6 481 24 544.85 491.82 2 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 20 16.6 481 24 544.85 491.82 2 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 14 13 481 24 544.85 491.82 2 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 0.8 481 24 544.85 491.82 2 Olive jar, body sherd ec 1 4 481 24 544.85 491.82 2 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 3 21 30mm, 2c, 1b li 3 4.6 481 24 544.85 491.82 2 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 4NHT; 5 11 20mm, 3c, 2b li 5 1.9 481 24 544.85 491.82 2 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.5 481 24 544.85 491.82 2 Bone fragments bone 3 0.7 482 24 544.85 491.82 3 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 25 85.4 482 24 544.85 491.82 3 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 33 29.8

PAGE 569

569 482 24 544.85 491.82 3 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 1 5.9 482 24 544.85 491.82 3 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 14 19 482 24 544.85 491.82 3 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 1.2 482 24 544.85 491.82 3 Colonoware fragment, sand tempered plain sn 1 1.6 482 24 544.85 491.82 3 Bone fragments bone 7 1.8 482 24 544.85 491.82 3 Primary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b; 1 21 30mm, c li 2 7.2 482 24 544.85 491.82 3 Secondary decortication flakes,chert,3HT,8NHT;4 11 20mm, 2c,2b; 5 21 30mm, 2c,3b;1 31 40mm,b;1 41 50mm,c li 11 26.7 482 24 544.85 491.82 3 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 5 11 20mm, 2c, 3b li 6 2 482 24 544.85 491.82 3 Lime/sand concretions soil 3 0.9 482 24 544.85 491.82 3 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.2 482 24 544.85 491.82 3 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 8 483 25 551.35 481.18 1 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 15 15.9 483 25 551.35 481.18 1 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 1 2 483 25 551.35 481.18 1 St. Johns incised, body sherds ss 1 0.4 483 25 551.35 481.18 1 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 31 19.4 483 25 551.35 481.18 1 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 1 4.5 483 25 551.35 481.18 1 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 19 26.6 483 25 551.35 481.18 1 Sand tempered simple stamped, body sherd sn 1 0.5 483 25 551.35 481.18 1 Sand tempered simple stamped, rim sherd sn 1 6.8 483 25 551.35 481.18 1 Limestone tempered plain, body sherd lt 3 0.9 483 25 551.35 481.18 1 Olive jar, body sherd ec 1 3.5 483 25 551.35 481.18 1 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.2 483 25 551.35 481.18 1 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 13NHT; 6 1 10mm, 3c, 3b; 9 11 20mm, 5c, 4b li 15 4.5 484 25 551.35 481.18 2 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 40 67.1 484 25 551.35 481.18 2 St. Johns incised, body sherds ss 1 0.8 484 25 551.35 481.18 2 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 33 32.7 484 25 551.35 481.18 2 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 28 36.5 484 25 551.35 481.18 2 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 2 3 484 25 551.35 481.18 2 Sand tempered simple stamped, body sherd sn 2 3.9 484 25 551.35 481.18 2 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 1 3.5

PAGE 570

570 484 25 551.35 481.18 2 Olive jar, body sherd ec 1 8.6 484 25 551.35 481.18 2 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 4NHT; 1 11 20mm, b, 2 21 30mm, 2 41 50mm, all b li 5 22.2 484 25 551.35 481.18 2 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 13NHT; 5 1 10mm, 1c, 4b; 9 11 20mm, 7c, 2b li 14 3.4 484 25 551.35 481.18 2 River cobbles, quartz li 1 2 484 25 551.35 481.18 2 Lime/sand concretions soil 2 1.3 484 25 551.35 481.18 2 Bone fragments bone 2 2.7 484 25 551.35 481.18 2 Wood post remains (?) ch 1 0.6 485 25 551.35 481.18 3 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 21 29.6 485 25 551.35 481.18 3 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 1 4.2 485 25 551.35 481.18 3 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 31 20.3 485 25 551.35 481.18 3 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 1 2.2 485 25 551.35 481.18 3 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 11 9.5 485 25 551.35 481.18 3 Sand tempered punctated, body sherd sn 1 3.2 485 25 551.35 481.18 3 Sand tempered incised, body sherd sn 1 1.4 485 25 551.35 481.18 3 Olive jar, body sherd ec 1 8.9 485 25 551.35 481.18 3 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 6NHT; 3 1 10mm, 2c, 1b; 4 11 20mm, 2c, 2b li 7 2.2 485 25 551.35 481.18 3 Iron fragment fe 1 0.3 485 25 551.35 481.18 3 Bone fragments, uncounted bone 3.4 485 25 551.35 481.18 3 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 16 519 26 537.35 497.28 1 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 5 10.6 519 26 537.35 497.28 1 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 15 17.8 519 26 537.35 497.28 1 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 8 6.5 519 26 537.35 497.28 1 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 1 4 519 26 537.35 497.28 1 Olive jar, body sherd ec 1 7.3 519 26 537.35 497.28 1 Bone fragment bone 1 0.2 519 26 537.35 497.28 1 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, 1 11 20mm, both c li 2 0.6 520 26 537.35 497.28 2 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 19 21.9 520 26 537.35 497.28 2 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 24 12.1 520 26 537.35 497.28 2 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 19 18.1 520 26 537.35 497.28 2 Olive jar, body sherd ec 1 0.8

PAGE 571

571 520 26 537.35 497.28 2 Chert fragments, NHT li 3 6.9 520 26 537.35 497.28 2 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 4NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 4 11 20mm, 1c, 3b; 1 21 30mm, b li 6 4.1 520 26 537.35 497.28 2 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.8 520 26 537.35 497.28 2 Iron fragment fe 1 2.3 520 26 537.35 497.28 2 Bone fragment bone 1 0.3 520 26 537.35 497.28 2 Unidentified objects UID 2 0.8 520 26 537.35 497.28 2 Charcoal fragments ch 2 0.1 521 26 537.35 497.28 3 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 14 35.3 521 26 537.35 497.28 3 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 21 16.9 521 26 537.35 497.28 3 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 2 12.9 521 26 537.35 497.28 3 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 21 22 521 26 537.35 497.28 3 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 3.2 521 26 537.35 497.28 3 Sand tempered cord marked, rim sherd sn 1 2.3 521 26 537.35 497.28 3 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 1 1.7 521 26 537.35 497.28 3 Limestone tempered plain, body sherd lt 1 0.9 521 26 537.35 497.28 3 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 9NHT; 1 1 10mm, b; 6 11 20mm, 3c, 3b; 3 21 30mm, 1c, 2b li 10 9.3 521 26 537.35 497.28 3 Lime/sand concretions soil 4 4.5 521 26 537.35 497.28 3 Iron fragment fe 1 0.7 521 26 537.35 497.28 3 Bone fragments, uncounted bone 23.3 521 26 537.35 497.28 3 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 11.7 522 26 537.35 497.28 4 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 8 22.4 522 26 537.35 497.28 4 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 2 30.8 522 26 537.35 497.28 4 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 6 16.7 522 26 537.35 497.28 4 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 5 10.1 522 26 537.35 497.28 4 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 1.6 522 26 537.35 497.28 4 River cobbles, quartz li 1 1.2 522 26 537.35 497.28 4 Chert fragment, HT li 1 17.7 522 26 537.35 497.28 4 Secondary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 31 40mm, c li 1 5.8 522 26 537.35 497.28 4 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 4NHT; 4 1 10mm, 1c, 3b; 1 11 20mm, b; 1 21 30mm, c li 6 3.1

PAGE 572

572 522 26 537.35 497.28 4 Bone fragment bone 1 0.5 522 26 537.35 497.28 4 Daub fragments con 2 9.6 522 26 537.35 497.28 4 Clay sample soil 200+ 522 26 537.35 497.28 4 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 8.5 523 27 540.65 489.78 1 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 7 11.5 523 27 540.65 489.78 1 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 2 8 523 27 540.65 489.78 1 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 23 20.5 523 27 540.65 489.78 1 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 1 0.2 523 27 540.65 489.78 1 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 6 10.9 523 27 540.65 489.78 1 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 2 4.1 523 27 540.65 489.78 1 Nondecortication flakes, chert, NHT; 2 11 20mm, 1b, 1c li 2 0.4 523 27 540.65 489.78 1 Glass fragment, clear gl cu 1 1.8 524 27 540.65 489.78 2 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 11 38.4 524 27 540.65 489.78 2 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 31 27.8 524 27 540.65 489.78 2 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 1 0.8 524 27 540.65 489.78 2 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 8 7.2 524 27 540.65 489.78 2 Sand tempered punctated, body sherd sn 1 6.4 524 27 540.65 489.78 2 Glass bead, white, opaque gl cu 1 0.2 524 27 540.65 489.78 2 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 9NHT; 4 1 10mm, 2b, 2c; 4 11 20mm, 2b, 2c; 2 21 30mm, 1b, 1c li 10 3.1 524 27 540.65 489.78 2 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.2 524 27 540.65 489.78 2 Tooth bone 1 4.9 524 27 540.65 489.78 2 Bone fragments bone 2 0.1 524 27 540.65 489.78 2 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 1 525 27 540.65 489.78 3 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 4 18.4 525 27 540.65 489.78 3 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 10 10.4 525 27 540.65 489.78 3 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 19 12.8 525 27 540.65 489.78 3 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 2 3.7 525 27 540.65 489.78 3 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 3NHT; 2 110mm, 1b, 1c; 2 11 20mm, 1b, 1c li 4 1.6 525 27 540.65 489.78 3 Bone fragments bone 10 2.1 525 27 540.65 489.78 3 Clay/soil concretions soil 2 3.1

PAGE 573

573 525 27 540.65 489.78 3 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 3.3 526 28 536.85 493.48 1 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 7 9.4 526 28 536.85 493.48 1 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 14 24 526 28 536.85 493.48 1 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 9 11.1 526 28 536.85 493.48 1 Chert fragment, NHT, 21 30mm li 1 2.1 526 28 536.85 493.48 1 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 11 20mm, b li 1 0.6 526 28 536.85 493.48 1 Bone fragment bone 1 0.1 526 28 536.85 493.48 1 River cobbles, quartz li 3 1.2 527 28 536.85 493.48 2 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 8 14.7 527 28 536.85 493.48 2 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 18 13.2 527 28 536.85 493.48 2 St. Johns punctated, body sherd ss 1 3.1 527 28 536.85 493.48 2 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 8 9 527 28 536.85 493.48 2 Olive jar, body sherd ec 1 15.9 527 28 536.85 493.48 2 Chert fragment, HT li 1 3.9 527 28 536.85 493.48 2 Nondecortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 1 10mm, c li 1 <.1 527 28 536.85 493.48 2 Bone fragments bone 2 0.2 527 28 536.85 493.48 2 Lime/sand concretion soil 1 0.4 527 28 536.85 493.48 2 Charcoal fragments ch 2 0.2 528 28 536.85 493.48 3 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 15 28.4 528 28 536.85 493.48 3 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 1 4.3 528 28 536.85 493.48 3 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 17 23 528 28 536.85 493.48 3 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 14 12.9 528 28 536.85 493.48 3 Sand tempered simple stamped, rim sherd sn 1 8.7 528 28 536.85 493.48 3 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 0.8 528 28 536.85 493.48 3 Sand tempered punctated, body sherd sn 1 7.8 528 28 536.85 493.48 3 Limestone tempered plain, body sherd lt 1 0.9 528 28 536.85 493.48 3 Mission Red Filmed, body sherd sn 1 2.4 528 28 536.85 493.48 3 Olive jar, body sherd ec 2 17.2 528 28 536.85 493.48 3 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 4 21 30mm, 1c, 3b li 4 7.7 528 28 536.85 493.48 3 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 6NHT; 4 1 10mm, 3c, 1b; 3 11 20mm, 1c, 2b li 7 2.4 528 28 536.85 493.48 3 Lime/sand concretions soil 2 1.1

PAGE 574

574 528 28 536.85 493.48 3 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.4 528 28 536.85 493.48 3 Bone fragments, uncounted bone 7.9 528 28 536.85 493.48 3 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 5.8 529 28 536.85 493.48 4 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 7 42.7 529 28 536.85 493.48 4 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 13 22.7 529 28 536.85 493.48 4 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 10 17.3 529 28 536.85 493.48 4 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 1 0.4 529 28 536.85 493.48 4 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, NHT; 1 21 30mm, b; 2 31 40mm, c li 3 10.3 529 28 536.85 493.48 4 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 5NHT; 1 1 10mm, c; 5 11 20mm, 3c, 2b li 6 2 529 28 536.85 493.48 4 Iron nail, forged fe 1 1.8 529 28 536.85 493.48 4 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.3 529 28 536.85 493.48 4 Bone fragment bone 1 0.4 529 28 536.85 493.48 4 Lime/sand concretions, uncounted soil 13.3 529 28 536.85 493.48 4 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 20.8 600 29 536.85 491.28 1 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 17 25.3 600 29 536.85 491.28 1 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 1 21.2 600 29 536.85 491.28 1 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 36 14 600 29 536.85 491.28 1 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 17 15.4 600 29 536.85 491.28 1 Sand tempered plain, rim sherd sn 2 1.5 600 29 536.85 491.28 1 Olive jar, body sherd ec 1 3.7 600 29 536.85 491.28 1 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 2NHT; 4 21 30mm, 1c, 3b li 4 8.6 600 29 536.85 491.28 1 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 4NHT; 4 1 10mm, 2c, 2b; 1 11 20mm, c li 5 0.9 600 29 536.85 491.28 1 River cobbles, quartz li 1 0.3 600 29 536.85 491.28 1 Bone fragments bone 6 0.3 600 29 536.85 491.28 1 Iron fragments fe 4 2 601 29 536.85 491.28 2 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 23 64.4 601 29 536.85 491.28 2 St. Johns check stamped, rim sherd ss 1 7.1 601 29 536.85 491.28 2 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 35 20 601 29 536.85 491.28 2 St. Johns plain, rim sherd ss 2 3.2 601 29 536.85 491.28 2 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 21 21.3 601 29 536.85 491.28 2 Olive jar, body sherd ec 1 7.6

PAGE 575

575 601 29 536.85 491.28 2 Orange micaceous ware, body sherd ec 1 0.5 601 29 536.85 491.28 2 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 3NHT; 1 11 20mm, b; 3 21 30mm, 1c, 2b li 4 5.4 601 29 536.85 491.28 2 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 3HT, 4NHT; 4 1 10mm, 2c, 2b; 3 11 20mm, c li 7 1 601 29 536.85 491.28 2 River cobbles, quartz li 2 0.8 601 29 536.85 491.28 2 Bone fragments bone 2 0.8 602 29 536.85 491.28 3 St. Johns check stamped, body sherds ss 16 33.5 602 29 536.85 491.28 3 St. Johns plain, body sherds ss 17 28.4 602 29 536.85 491.28 3 Sand tempered plain, body sherds sn 16 16.6 602 29 536.85 491.28 3 Sand tempered incised, body sherd sn 1 2.3 602 29 536.85 491.28 3 Pinellas point, chert, HT li 1 1.5 602 29 536.85 491.28 3 Chert fragment/core, NHT li 1 5.1 602 29 536.85 491.28 3 Primary decortication flake, chert, NHT; 1 31 40mm, c li 1 4.1 602 29 536.85 491.28 3 Secondary decortication flakes, chert, 2HT, 2NHT; 2 11 20mm, 1c, 1b; 2 21 30mm, b li 4 5.5 602 29 536.85 491.28 3 Nondecortication flakes, chert, 1HT, 4NHT; 5 11 20mm, 4c, 1b li 5 1.2 602 29 536.85 491.28 3 Coarse earthenware, body sherd ec 1 2.6 602 29 536.85 491.28 3 Bone fragments bone 4 1.2 602 29 536.85 491.28 3 Charcoal fragments, uncounted ch 8

PAGE 576

576 LIST OF REFERENCES Abshier, A.E., Alden L. Potter, Allen R. Taylor, Clyde H. Neel, Walter H. Anderson, John I. Rutledge, Stevenson B. Johnson, Johnny F. Woods, John W. Greenleaf, Wesley V. Fancher, and George R. Capes. 1935. Some Further Papers on Aboriginal Man in the Nei ghborhood of the Ocala National Forest. Civilian Conservation Corps, Company 1420, Ocala, Camp Florida F 5 Reports. Anderson, David G., and Robert C. Mainfort, Jr., editors. 2002. The Woodland Southeast. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. Andr ews, Evangeline Walker, and Charles McLean Andrews (editors). 1985. Johnathan Dickinsons Journal or, Gods Protecting Providence; Being the Narrative of a Journey from Port Royal in Jamaica to Philadelphia between August 23, 1696 and April 1, 1697. Yal e: Yale University Press. Ashley, Keith H. 2003. Interaction, Population Movement, and Political Economy: The Changing Social Landscape of Northeastern Florida (A.D. 9001500). A Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy. University of Florida. Ashley, Keith, and Robert Thunen. 2008. Copper Among St. Johns II Co mmunities in Northern Peninsular Florida: Distributions and Contexts. Paper Presented at the 65th Annual Meeting of the Southeastern Archaeological Conference, Charlotte, North Carolina. Audubon Society. 1998. National Audubon Society Field Guide to Florida. Alfred A. Knopf: New York. Bale, William. 1998. Historical Ecology: Premises and Postulates. In Advances in Historical Ecology, edited by William Bale, pp. 13 19. Columbia University Press, New York.

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577 Barret, John C. 2001. Agency, the Duality of Structure, and the Problem of the Archaeological Record. In Archaeological Theory Today, edited by Ian Hodder, pp. 141164. Cambridge: Polity Press. Bartram, William. 1775. Travels Through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West F lorida, The Cherokee Country, The Extensive Territories of the Muscogulges, or Creek Confederacy, and the Country of the Choctaws. Reprinted by Penguin Books. New York: Viking Penguin Inc. Bennett, Charles E. 2001. Laudonnire and Fort Caroline: History and Documents. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. Blake, Emma. 2004. Space, Spatiality and Archaeology. In A Companion to Social Archaeology, edited by Lynn Meskell and Robert W. Preucel, pp. 230254. Malden: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Boyer, III, Willet A. 2005. Nuestra Senora del Rosario de la Punta: Lifeways of an Eighteenth Century Colonial Spanish Refugee Mission Community, St. Augustine, Florida. Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Ful fillment for the Requirements of the Degree of Master of Arts. 2006a. Mound Patterning in the Late Prehistoric Ocklawaha River Valley: Possible Archaeological Evidence of Shamanistic Practice. Paper presented at the 58th Annual Meeting of the Florida An thropological Society, Stuart, Florida. 2006b. Missions to the Acuera: An Analysis of the Historic and Archaeological Evidence for European Interaction with a Timucuan Chiefdom. Paper presented at the 58th Annual Meeting of the Florida Anthropological Society, Stuart, Florida. 2007. Lifeways in the Ocklawaha River Valley: Patterns Through Time. Paper presented at the 59th Annual Meeting of the Florida Anthropological Society, Avon Park, Florida. 2008a. Final Report on Pedestrian Survey, Ocklawaha S urvey Project, June 2006 December 2006. Prepared for the Florida Division of Historical Resources.

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578 2008b. Changes and Continuity from the Late Prehistoric to the Colonial Periods at Sites in the Ocklawaha River Valley. Paper presented at the 60th Annu al Meeting of the Florida Anthropological Society, Ybor City, Florida. Brooks, H.K. 1970. Geology and Physiography of the Oklawaha Regional Ecosystem. Report prepared for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Canal Authority, Cross F lorida Barge Canal. Bul len, Ripley P. 1969. Excavations at Sunday Bluff, Florida. Contributions of the Florida State Museum, Social Sciences, No. 15. Gainesville: University of Florida. 1975. A Guide to the Identification of Florida Projectile Points. Gainesville: Kendall Books Cerrato, Cynthia L. 1994. Davenport: A Prehistoric Village and Mo und Site in the Ocala National Forest. Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of t he Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts, Department of Anthropolo gy, University of South Florida. Clark, John E., and Michael Blake. 1994. The Power of Prestige: Competitive Generosity and the Emergence of Ranked Societies in Lowland Mesoamerica. In Factional Competition and Political Development in the New World, e d. by Elizabeth M. Brumfiel and John W. Fox, pp. 1730. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Clayton, Lawrence, Vernon James Knight, Jr., and Edward C. Moore, Editors. 1993. The De Soto Chronicles: The Expedition of Hernando De Soto to North America in 15391543 (2 volumes.) Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. Deagan, Kathleen. 1987. Artifacts of the Spanish Colonies of Florida and the Caribbean, Volume 1: Ceramics, Glassware and Beads. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. 1990. Accommodation and Resistance: The Process and Impact of Spanish Colonization in the Southeast. In Columbian Consequences, Volume 2: Archaeological and Historical Perspectives on the Spanish Borderlands East, edited by David Hurst Thomas, pp. 297314. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

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579 1993. St. Augustine and the Mission Frontier. In The Spanish Missions of La Florida, edited by Bonnie G. McEwan, pp. 87110. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. 2001. Artifacts of the Spanish Colonies of Florida and the Caribbean, Volume 2: Portable Personal Possessions. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. Denson, Robin. 1992. The Ocklawaha River Survey. Report Prepared for the Bureau of Archaeological Research, Florida Division of Historical Resources, Florida Department of State. Earle, Timothy K. 1991. Toward a Behavioral Archaeology. In Processual and Postprocessual Archaeologies: Multiple Ways of Knowing the Past, ed. by R.W. Preucel. Chicago: Southern Illinois University. 1997. How Chiefs Come to Power: The Political Economy in Prehistory. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Ewen, Charles R., and John H. Hann. 1998. Hernando de Soto Among the Apalachee: The Archaeology of the First Winter Encampment. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. Gannon, Michael, Editor. 1996. The New History of Florida. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. Geiger, Maynard. 1940. Biographical Dictionary of the Franciscans in Spanish Florida and Cuba (15281841) Franciscan Studies, vol. 21. Paterson, N.J.: St. Anthony Guild Press. Gell, Alfred. 1992. The Anthropology of Time. Oxford: Oxford International Publishers, Ltd. Goggin, John M. 1952. Space and Time Perspective in Northern St. Johns Archaeology, Florida. Yale University Publications in Anthropology, No. 47. New Haven. Gosden, Chris. 1999. Anthropology and Archaeology: A Changing Relationship. London: Routledge.

PAGE 580

580 Granberry, Julian. 1993. A Grammar and Dictionary of the Timucua Language. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. Hann, John H. 1988. Apalachee: Land Between the Rivers. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. 1991. Missions to the Calusa. Gainesville: University Press o f Florida. 1992. Heathen Acuera, Murder, and a Potano Cimarrona: The St. Johns River and the Alachua Prairie in the 1670s. Florida Historical Quarterly 70: 451474. 1996. A History of the Timucua Indians and Missions. Gainesville: University Press o f Florida. 2003. Indians of Central and South Florida, 1513 1763. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. Hann, John H., and Bonnie G. McEwan. 1998. The Apalachee Indians and Mission San Luis. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. Herrera, Luisa Fernanda, Robert D. Drennan, and Carlos A Uribe, editors. 1989. Prehisoanic Chiefdoms in the Valle de la Plata, Volume 1: The Environmental Context of Human Occupation. University of Pittsburgh Memoirs in Latin American Archaeology No. 2. Pittsbu rgh: University of Pittsburgh Latin American Archaeology Publications. Hodder, Ian. 1986. Reading the Past. Cambridge: University Press of Cambridge. Hudson, Charles. 1976. The Southeastern Indians. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. 1979. (Editor). Black Drink: A Native American Tea. Athens: University of Georgia Press.

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581 Hulton, Paul. 1977. The Work of Jacques Le Moyne de Morgues: A Huguenot Artist in France, Florida and England (2 volumes). London: British Museum Publications Ltd. Hutchinson, Dale L. 2006. Tatham Mound and the Bioarchaeology of European Contact: Disease and Depopulation in Central Gulf Coast Florida. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. Jakobsen, Merete Demant. 1999. Shamanism: Traditional and Cont emporary Approaches to the Mastery of Spirits and Healing. New York: Berghahn Books. Johnson, John R. 1989. The Chumash and the Missions. In Columbian Consequences, Volume 1: Archaeological and Historical Perspectives on the Spanish Borderlands West, e dited by David Hurst Thomas, pp. 365376. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press. Johnson, Kenneth W. 1993. Mission Santa F de Toloca. In The Spanish Missions of La Florida, edited by Bonnie G. McEwan, pp. 141164. Gainesville: University Press o f Florida. Jones, B. Calvin. 1992. Survey and Assessment of Piney Island Site (8MR848) Located on Canal Authority Property on the Ocklawaha River. Report Prepared for the Bureau of Archaeological Research, Florida Division of Historical Resources, Florida Department of State. Jordan, Peter. 2001. The Materiality of Shamanism as a World View: Praxis, Artefacts and Landscape. In The Archaeology of Shamanism edited by Neil Price, pp. 87104. London: Routledge. Kozuch, Laura. 1998. The Signif icance of Sinistral Whelks from Mississippian Archaeological Sites. A Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy. University of Florida.

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582 La udonnire, Rene. 1564. Three Voyages. Translated from the French and with an Introduction and Notes by Charles E. Bennett. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. Loucks, L. Jill. 1993. Spanish Indian Interaction on the Florida Missions: The Archae ology of Baptizing Spring. In The Spanish Missions of La Florida, edited by Bonnie G. McEwan, pp. 193216. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. Marquardt, William H. 1987. The Calusa Social Formation in Protohistoric South Florida. In Power Rela tions and State Formation, edited by T.C. Patterson and C.W. Gailey, pp. 98116. Archaeology Section, American Anthropological Association, Washington, D.C. [Reprinted 1992] Marrinan, Rochelle A. 1993. Archaeological Investigations at Mission Patale, 19841992. In The Spanish Missions of La Florida, edited by Bonnie G. McEwan, pp. 244294. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. McEwan, Bonnie G. 1993 (editor). The Spanish Missions of La Fl orida. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. Merrill, William L. 1979. The Beloved Tree: Ilex vomitoria Among the Indians of the Southeast and Adjacent Regions. In Black Drink: A Native American Tea, edited by Charles M. Hudson, pp. 4082. Athens: University of Georgia Press. Milanich, Jerald T. 1979. Origins and Prehistoric Distributions of Black Drink and the Ceremonial Shell Drinking Cup. In Black Drink: A Native American Tea, edited by Charles M. Hudson, pp. 83119. Athens: University of G eorgia Press. 1994. Archaeology of Precolumbian Florida. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. 1995. Florida Indians and the Invasion from Europe. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. 1996. The Timucua. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, Inc.

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583 1999. Laboring in the Fields of the Lord: Spanish Missions and Southeastern Indians. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press. Milanich, Jerald T., and Charles Hudson. 1993. Hernando de Soto and the Indians of Florida. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. Milanich, Jerald T., and William C. Sturtevant. 1972. Francisco Parejas Confesionario: A Documentary Source for Timucuan Ethnography. Trans. By E.F. Moran. Division of Archives, History, and Records Management: Tallahassee. Milanich, Jerald T., Ann S. Cordell, Vernon J. Knight, Jr., Timothy A. Kohler, and Brenda J. Sigler Lavelle. 1984. Archaeology of Northern Florida, A.D. 200 900: The McKeithen Weeden Island Culture. Reprint 1997. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. Mitchem Jeffrey M. 1999a. The East Florida Expeditions of Clarence Bloomfield Moore. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. 1999b. The West and Central Florida Expeditions of Clarence Bloomfield Moore. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. Ott, Elois e Robinson, and Louis Hickman Chazal. 1966. Ocali Country: Kingdom of the Sun. Ocala: Marion Publishers, Inc. Pauketat, Timothy R. 1994. The Ascent of Chiefs: Cahokia and Mississippian Politics in Native North America. Tuscaloosa: University of Ala bama Press. Preucel, Robert W., and Lynn Meskell. 2004. Kowledges. Places. In A Companion to Social Archaeology, edited by Lynn Meskell and Robert W. Preucel, pp. 322, 215229. Malden: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Price, Neil. 2001. The Archaeology of Shamanism. London: Routledge.

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584 Redmond, Elsa M. 1994. External Warfare and the Internal Politics of northern South American Tribes and Chiefdoms. In Factional Competition and Political Development in the New World, edited by Elizabeth M. Brumfiel and John W. Fox, pp. 4454. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Reitz, Elizabeth J., and C. Margaret Scarry. 1985. Reconstructing Historic Subsistence With an Example from Sixteenth Century Spanish Florida. Special Publication Series, Number 3: Society for Historical Archaeology. Russo, Michael. 1996a. Southeastern MidHolocene Coastal Settlements. In Archaeology of the MidHolocene Southeast edited by K.E. Sassaman and D.G. Anderson, pp. 177199. Gainesville: U niversity Press of Florida. 1996b. Southeastern Archaic Mounds. In Archaeology of the MidHolocene Southeast edited by K.E. Sassaman and D.G. Anderson, pp. 259287. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. Sassaman, Kenneth E. 2002. Woodland Cera mic Beginnings. In The Woodland Southeast edited by D.G. Anderson and R.C. Mainfort, Jr., pp. 398420. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. Saunders, Rebecca. 2000. The Guale Indians of the Lower Atlantic Coast: Change and Continuity. In Indians of the Greater Southeast: Historical Archaeology and Ethnohistory, edited by Bonnie G. McEwan, pp. 2656. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. Scarry, John F., ed. 1996. Political Structure and Change in the Prehistoric Southeastern United States Gainesville: University Press of Florida. Schafer, Daniel. 2001. St. Augustines British Years, 17631784. El Escribano, The St. Augustine Journal of History. Annual Publication of the St. Augustine Historical Society.

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585 Sears, William H. 1959. Two Weeden Island Period Burial Mounds, Florida. Contributions of the Florida State Museum, Social Sciences, No. 5. Gainesville: University of Florida. Smith, Buckingham. 1854. Letter of Hernando de Soto and Memoir of Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda. Translated from the Spanish. Washington. 1968. Narratives of de Soto in the Conquest of Florida. Gainesville: Kallman Publishing Company. Smith, Hale G. 1948. Two Historical Archaeological Periods in Florida. American Antiquity 13(4):313319. Spiel mann, Katherine A. 1989. Colonists, Hunters, and Farmers: Plains Pueblo Interaction in the Seventeenth Century. In Columbian Consequences, Volume 1: Archaeological and Historical Perspectives on the Spanish Borderlands West, edited by David Hurst Thomas, pp. 101114. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press. Stephenson, Keith, Judith A. Bense, and Frankie Snow. 2002. Aspects of Deptford and Swift Creek of the South Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains. In The Woodland Southeast edited by D.G. Anderson and R.C. Mainfort, Jr., pp. 318351. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press Taylor, Walter W. 1948. A Study of Archaeology. Reprinted 1983. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University, Center for Archaeological Investigations. Tesar, Louis D. 2001. The Mount Royal Site (8PU35): A Place to Remember. Report Prepared for the Bureau of Archaeological Research, Florida Division of Historical Resources, Department of State. Thomas, David Hurst. 1993. The Archaeology of Mission Santa Catalina de Guale: Our First 15 Years. In The Spanish Missions of La Florida, edited by Bonnie G. McEwan, pp. 134. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.

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586 Thomas, Julian. 2001. Archaeologies of Place and Landscape. In Archaeological Theory Today, edited by Ian Hodder, pp. 165 186. Cambridge: Polity Press. Varner, John Grier, and Jeanette Johnson Varner. 1951. The Florida of the Inca. Austin: University of Texas Press. Vernon, Richard, and Ann S. Cordell. 1993. A Distributional and Technological Study of A palachee Colono Ware from San Luis de Talimali. In The Spanish Missions of La Florida, edited by Bonnie G. McEwan, pp. 418441. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. Ware, John A., and Eric Blinman. 2000. Cultural Collapse and Reorganization: The Origin and Spread of Pueblo Ritual Sodalities. In The Archaeology of Regional Interaction. Denver: University Press of Colorado. Weisman, Brent R. 1992. Excavations on the Franciscan Frontier: Archaeology at the Fig Springs Mission. Gainesville: Univ ersity Press of Florida. 1993. Archaeology of Fig Springs Mission, Itchetucknee Springs State Park. In The Spanish Missions of La Florida, edited by Bonnie G. McEwan, pp. 165192. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. Willey, Gordon R. 1949. Archaeology of the Florida Gulf Coast. Reprinted 1998. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. Worth, John E. 1995a The Struggle for the Georgia Coast: An EighteenthCentury Spanish Retrospective on Guale and Mocama. Anthropological Papers no. 75, American Museum of Natural History, New York. 1995b. Fontaneda Revisited: Five Descriptions of Sixteenth Century Florida. The Florida Historical Quarterly, Vol. 73, No. 3, pp. 339352. 1998a. The Timucuan Chiefdoms of Spanish Florida, Volume 1: Assim ilation. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.

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587 1998b. The Timucuan Chiefdoms of Spanish Florida, Volume 2: Resistance and Destruction. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.

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588 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Willet A. Boyer, III, is a seventh generation Florida native, as well as a seventh generation native of Marion County, whose principal areas of academic interest include the late pre Columbian and colonial era history and archaeology of Florida and of the greate r Southeast, landscape and agency theory in archaeology, and the role of belief systems in shaping human culture and practice. His acad emic background includes a Bachelor of Arts in English, a Juris Doctor in law, and a Master of Arts in anthropology, all from the University of Florida. He is currently a member of the Florida Anthropological Society, the Florida Archaeological Council, the Southeastern Archaeology Conference, and the Society for Historical Archaeology. When not doing archaeology, his per sonal interests include reading, hiking, camping, swimming, weightlifting, and spending time with his family.