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Risk Assessment of Copper and Streptomycin Resistance Development in Xanthomonas Citri Subsp. Citri

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0041938/00001

Material Information

Title: Risk Assessment of Copper and Streptomycin Resistance Development in Xanthomonas Citri Subsp. Citri
Physical Description: 1 online resource (157 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Behlau, Franklin
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: bacteria, canker, cbs, citrumelonis, citrus, cloning, conjugation, control, cop, disease, epiphytic, grapefruit, horizontal, mgy, monitoring, orange, phylogenetic, population, resistant, screening, spray, stenotrophomonas
Plant Pathology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Plant Pathology thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Despite more than two decades (1984-2006) of eradication attempts, citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), has spread across much of the Florida citrus industry. After eradication efforts were halted in 2006, canker management shifted to disease suppression strategies, including use of topical sprays of copper and streptomycin. One problem with these bactericides is that their widespread use may lead to development of resistance in Xcc. The major objectives of this dissertation were to assess the risk for the development of copper resistant (CuR) and streptomycin resistant (SmR) Xcc and to characterize and compare the genetics of copper resistance in Xcc with other bacteria. A number of factors favorable for the development of copper resistance in Xcc were identified, but further investigation is necessary to fully assess the risk for streptomycin resistance. Although no CuR strains of Xcc were detected in Florida and Brazil, many strains of Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis (Xac), the casual agent of citrus bacterial spot in Florida, were resistant to copper. This is the first time copper resistance has been reported in Xac and since Xac and Xcc share the same host and thrive under similar environmental conditions, the concern is that copper resistance may be horizontally transferred from Xac to Xcc. This concern is supported by experiments that showed that copper resistance genes can be conjugated among different species of Xanthomonas including Xcc and Xac. Moreover, although no CuR or SmR strains of Xcc were isolated from citrus trees repeatedly sprayed with copper or streptomycin for 3 consecutive seasons, the frequent sprays caused an increase in the population of endemic bacteria with resistance to these chemicals. The intensive use of these bactericides may consequently increase the risks for acquisition by Xcc of copper or streptomycin resistance genes from epiphytic bacteria. This possibility is supported by the presence of Xcc copper resistance gene homologues in bacteria from the citrus tree canopy which are able to confer resistance to copper sensitive strains of Xanthomonas. Cloning and characterization of copper resistance genes in Xcc revealed copL, copA and copB as the major determinants of resistance. Homologues of these genes with identity higher than 90% occurred in CuR strains of several other species of Xanthomonas and other bacterial species, indicating that these copper resistance determinants are widespread and may be transferable into Xcc populations under repeated use of copper for citrus canker management.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Franklin Behlau.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Graham, James H.
Local: Co-adviser: Jones, Jeffrey B.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2011-06-30

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0041938:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0041938/00001

Material Information

Title: Risk Assessment of Copper and Streptomycin Resistance Development in Xanthomonas Citri Subsp. Citri
Physical Description: 1 online resource (157 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Behlau, Franklin
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: bacteria, canker, cbs, citrumelonis, citrus, cloning, conjugation, control, cop, disease, epiphytic, grapefruit, horizontal, mgy, monitoring, orange, phylogenetic, population, resistant, screening, spray, stenotrophomonas
Plant Pathology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Plant Pathology thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Despite more than two decades (1984-2006) of eradication attempts, citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), has spread across much of the Florida citrus industry. After eradication efforts were halted in 2006, canker management shifted to disease suppression strategies, including use of topical sprays of copper and streptomycin. One problem with these bactericides is that their widespread use may lead to development of resistance in Xcc. The major objectives of this dissertation were to assess the risk for the development of copper resistant (CuR) and streptomycin resistant (SmR) Xcc and to characterize and compare the genetics of copper resistance in Xcc with other bacteria. A number of factors favorable for the development of copper resistance in Xcc were identified, but further investigation is necessary to fully assess the risk for streptomycin resistance. Although no CuR strains of Xcc were detected in Florida and Brazil, many strains of Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis (Xac), the casual agent of citrus bacterial spot in Florida, were resistant to copper. This is the first time copper resistance has been reported in Xac and since Xac and Xcc share the same host and thrive under similar environmental conditions, the concern is that copper resistance may be horizontally transferred from Xac to Xcc. This concern is supported by experiments that showed that copper resistance genes can be conjugated among different species of Xanthomonas including Xcc and Xac. Moreover, although no CuR or SmR strains of Xcc were isolated from citrus trees repeatedly sprayed with copper or streptomycin for 3 consecutive seasons, the frequent sprays caused an increase in the population of endemic bacteria with resistance to these chemicals. The intensive use of these bactericides may consequently increase the risks for acquisition by Xcc of copper or streptomycin resistance genes from epiphytic bacteria. This possibility is supported by the presence of Xcc copper resistance gene homologues in bacteria from the citrus tree canopy which are able to confer resistance to copper sensitive strains of Xanthomonas. Cloning and characterization of copper resistance genes in Xcc revealed copL, copA and copB as the major determinants of resistance. Homologues of these genes with identity higher than 90% occurred in CuR strains of several other species of Xanthomonas and other bacterial species, indicating that these copper resistance determinants are widespread and may be transferable into Xcc populations under repeated use of copper for citrus canker management.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Franklin Behlau.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Graham, James H.
Local: Co-adviser: Jones, Jeffrey B.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2011-06-30

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0041938:00001


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1 RISK ASSESSMENT OF COPPER AND STREPTOMYCIN RESISTANCE DEVELOPMENT IN Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri By FRANKLIN BEHLAU A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2010

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2 2010 Franklin Behlau

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3 To my lovely wife Lidiane and our families for making this possible

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am very thankful to my committee chair Dr. J ames H. Graham for en trusting me with this work for sharing his expertise and for the financial support I would like to especially acknowledge my cochair J effrey B. Jones for wisely guiding every step taken through out the entire research project My tha nks also go to the members of my committee Robert E. Stall Max Teplitski and James Preston for all their support, constructive criticism and helpful discussions. Special thanks go to Dr. Xiaoan Sun and Debra Jones from the Department of Plant Industry (DP I) in Gainesville, FL ; Dr. Rui Leite from the Agronomic Institute of Paran State (IAPAR), Londrina, Paran Brazil; and Dr. Blanca Canteros from Instituto Nacional de Tecnologa Agropecuaria, Bella Vista, Corrientes, Argentina for kindly providing bacter ial strains to this study. During this work I have collaborated with many colleagues from the bacteriology lab for whom I have great regard and I wish t o extend my warmest thanks. I would like to thank Aaron Hert, Botond Balogh Frank Figueiredo, Jason Hon g, Mine Hantal and Neha Potnis. I also would like to express my sincere gratitude to Daniele Liberti, Donna Perry, Ellen Dickstein, Gail Harris, Janice Sap, Jerry Minsavage, Lauretta Rahmes, Monty Myers, and Sherri Mizzel, who somehow willingly contributed for the accomplishment of this work I lovely and warmly thank my wife Lidiane for being by my side all the time with all the love and belief in me that I could ask, for participating decisively in the accomplishment of this work. Thanks go to our family for blessing our decision to fly higher and constant encouragement. They have been the reference I need to sail in the right direction. Thank you all.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 8 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 9 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 11 CHAPTER 1 COPPER AND STREPTOMYCIN RESISTANCE IN PLANT PATHOGENIC BACTERIA ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 13 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 13 Use of Copper an d Streptomycin for Control of Citrus Canker ............................... 14 Copper Resistance in Plant Pathogenic Bacteria ................................ ................... 17 Streptomycin Resistance in Plan t Pathogenic Bacteria ................................ .......... 24 Project Goal and Objectives ................................ ................................ ................... 27 2 SURVEY FOR COPPER RESISTANT STRAINS OF Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri I N FLORIDA AND BRAZIL AND X anthomonas alfalfae subsp citrumelonis IN FLORIDA ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 28 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 28 Material and Methods ................................ ................................ ............................. 30 Florida ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 30 Brazil ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 31 Results ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 33 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 33 3 RISK ASSESSMENT OF COPPER AND STREPTOMYCIN RESISTANCE DEVELOPMENT IN Xanthomonas citri subsp citri ................................ ................ 43 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 43 Material and Methods ................................ ................................ ............................. 45 Development of a Semi Selective Medium for the Isolation of Copper and S treptomycin Resistant Strains of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri from Plant Material ................................ ................................ ................................ 45 Monitoring for the Presence of Resistant Populations of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and Epiphytic Bact eria on Young Citrus Trees Treated with Copper or Streptomycin ................................ ................................ ................ 48 Trial description ................................ ................................ .......................... 48 Sampling and evaluations ................................ ................................ .......... 49 Disease assessment ................................ ................................ .................. 50

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6 Data analysis ................................ ................................ ............................. 51 Screening Bacteria from the Citrus Phy llosphere for Copper Resistance Genes ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 51 Isolation of citrus phyllosphere bacteria ................................ ..................... 51 PCR analysis ................................ ................................ ............................. 52 Horizontal Transfer of Copper and Streptomycin Resistance Genes ............... 53 Bacterial strains ................................ ................................ ......................... 53 Co njugation in vitro ................................ ................................ .................... 54 Conjugation in planta ................................ ................................ ................. 56 Isolation of plasmid DNA ................................ ................................ ............ 56 Assessment of Copper Resistance in Citrus Epiphytic Bacteria ....................... 57 Expression of copLAB from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in Xanthomonas .. 58 Results ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 60 Development of a Semi Selective Medium for the Isolation of Copper and Streptomycin Resistant Strains of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri from Plant Material ................................ ................................ ................................ 60 Monitoring for the Presence of Resistant Populations of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and Epiphytic Bacteria on Young Citrus Trees Treated with Copper or Streptomycin ................................ ................................ ................ 61 Screening Bacteria from the Citrus Phyllosphere for Copper Resistance Genes ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 63 Horizontal Transfer of Copper and Streptomycin Resistance Genes ............... 63 Assessment of Copper Resistance in Citrus Epiphytic Bacteria ....................... 64 Expression of copLAB from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in Xanthomonas .. 65 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 65 4 MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF COPPER RESISTANCE GENES FROM Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri AND Xanthomonas al falfae subsp. citrumelonis ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 93 Introduction ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 93 Material and Methods ................................ ................................ ............................. 95 Bacterial strains, plasmids, and culture conditions ................................ ........... 95 Construction of genomic libraries and isolation of copper resistant clones ...... 96 General DNA manipulations ................................ ................................ ............. 97 Transposon mutagenesis of copper resistance genes from Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri ................................ ................................ .............................. 97 Design of primers for copper resistance genes and PCR analysis ................... 98 DNA sequencing ................................ ................................ ............................ 100 Comparison of copper resistance genes ................................ ........................ 100 Results ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 101 Cloning and subcloning of copper resistance genes from Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp citrumelonis ......................... 101 Sequence analysis of the copper resistance genes ................................ ....... 102 PCR analysis of strains ................................ ................................ .................. 104 Comparison of copB sequences in copper resistant xanthomonads. ............. 105

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7 Transposon mutagenesis of copper resistance genes from Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri ................................ ................................ ............................ 106 Phylogenetic analysis of copper resistance genes ................................ ......... 106 Discussion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 107 5 SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ............ 137 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 144 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 157

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8 LIST OF TABL ES Table page 2 1 Geographical distribution of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri strains from Florida screened for copper resistance. ................................ ............................. 37 2 2 Geographical distribution of Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis strains from Florida screened for copper resistance. ................................ ..................... 38 2 3 Geographical distribution of Xanthomonas c itri subsp. citri strains from Paran State, Brazil, screened for copper resistance. ................................ ........ 39 2 4 Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis strains from F lorida resistant to copper ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 40 3 1 Steps used for development of a semi selective medium for the recovery of copper or streptomycin resistant strains of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri from plant material. ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 71 3 2 Recovery of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri on MGY KCH amended or not with copper or streptomycin. ................................ ................................ ............... 73 3 3 Oligonucleotide primer sets used for screening c itrus phyllosphere bacteria for the presence of copper resistance genes copL copA and copB .................. 74 3 4 Copper resistant bacterial strains isolated from the citrus phyllosphere and screened for co pper resistance genes. ................................ ............................... 7 5 3 5 Bacterial strains used in conjugation assays. ................................ ..................... 76 3 6 List of conjugation assays tested. ................................ ................................ ....... 77 4 1 Bacterial strains and plasmids used in this study. ................................ ............ 113 4 2 Bacterial strains tested for the presence of copper resistance genes thr ough PCR analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 114 4 3 Comparison of nucleotide sequences of genes copL copA copB copM copG copC, copD and copF from different strains. ................................ ......... 116 4 4 Oligonucleotide primer sets used for screening for the presence of copper resistance genes copL copA and copB ................................ .......................... 117 4 5 Site of transposon insertion of selected deriv atives and respective resistance to copper. ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 118 4 6 Accession numbers assigned by GenBank for partial sequences of copL copA and copB obtained from different strains. ................................ ............... 119

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9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2 1 Growth of different strains of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis from Florida on copper am ende d medium 24 h after plating ................................ ................................ ................... 41 2 2 Distribution of copper resistant strains of Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis in Florida. ................................ ................................ ........................ 42 3 1 Adjustment tests for the establishment of a semi selective medium for the recovery of copper or streptomycin resistant strains of Xcc from plant material. ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 79 3 2 Efficiency of MGY K CH for the selection of copper and streptomycin resistant str ains of Xcc from washings of inoculated grapefruit leaves. ............................ 81 3 3 Effect of copper and streptomycin sprays on the epiphytic bacteri al population resistant to these chemicals residing on citrus leaves. ...................... 82 3 4 Area under the progress curves of percentage of copper and streptomycin resistant epiphytic bacteria recovered on m annitol glutamate yeast extract agar amended with Cu or Sm from trees sprayed with Cu or Sm based bacteri cides and untreated control in comparison to MGY alone in 2008 and 2009. ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 83 3 5 Epiphy tic bacterial population on ci trus trees treated with copper and streptomycin ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 84 3 6 Incidence of citrus canker and premature defoliation of cit rus trees treated with copper or streptomycin ................................ ................................ ............... 85 3 7 Grapefruit trees from the field trial. ................................ ................................ ..... 86 3 8 Premature defoliation of untreated grapefruit trees due to citrus canker in Fort Pierce, FL, 2007. ................................ ................................ ......................... 87 3 9 Agarose gel electrophoresis of PCR analysis of copper resistance genes copL copA and copB ................................ ................................ ....................... 88 3 10 Agarose gel electrophoresis of plasmid extractions o btained from copper resistant, copper sensitive and transconjugant strains of Xanthomonas ........... 89 3 11 Copper resistance levels of selected copper resistant epiphytic bacteria isolated from the citrus phyllosphere and reference strains of Xanthomonas sensitive and resistant to copper.. ................................ ................................ ...... 90

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10 3 12 Survival of copper sensitive and copp er resistant strains of plant pathogenic Xanthomonas over time in sterile distilled water amended with magnesium sulfate and copper sulfate pentahydrate at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 mg L 1 .................... 91 3 13 Sur vival of copper resistant epiphytic bacteria isolated from the citrus phyllosphere over time in sterile distilled water amended with magnesium sulfate and copper sulfate pentahydrate at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 mg L 1 ................... 92 4 1 Copper resistance determinants in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri strain A44 and Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis strain 1381. ............................. 120 4 2 Comparison of genes invo lved in copper metabolism. ................................ ..... 121 4 3 Alignment of complete nucleotide sequences of copL ................................ ..... 122 4 4 Alignment of complete amino acid sequences of copL .. ................................ ... 123 4 5 Alignment of complete nucleotide sequences of copA. ................................ .... 124 4 6 Alignment of complete amino acid sequenc es of copA. ................................ ... 127 4 7 Alignment of complete nucleotide sequences of copB. ................................ ... 128 4 8 Alignment of complete amino acid sequences of c opB. ................................ .. 130 4 9 Alignment of complete amino acid sequences of copB from Xanthomonas citri subs p citri A44 Xanthomonas sp. and Xanthomonas euvesicatoria 81 23 ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 131 4 10 Transposon insertion sites within the copper resistance determinants of pXccCu2 from Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri strain A44. ................................ 133 4 11 Phylogenetic t ree constructed from alignments of partial nucleotide sequences of copper resistance gene copL using the method of maximum parsimony. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 134 4 12 Phylogenetic tree constructed from alignments of partial nucleotide sequences of copper resistance gene copA using the method of maximum parsimony. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 135 4 13 Phylogenetic tree constructed from alignments of partial nucleotide sequences of c opper resistance gene copB using the method of maximum parsimony. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 136

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11 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy RISK ASSESSMENT OF COPPER AND STREPTOMYCIN RESISTANCE DEVELOPMENT IN Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri By Franklin Behlau December 2010 Chair: James H. Graham Cochair: Jeffrey B. Jones Major: Plant Pathology Despite more than two decade s (1984 2006) of eradication attempts, citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xc c), has spread across much of the Florida citrus industry After eradication efforts were halted in 200 6 canker management shifted to diseas e suppression strategies, including use of topical sprays of copper and streptomycin One problem with these bactericides is that their widespread use may lead to development of resistan ce in Xcc The major objectives of this dissertation were to assess t he risk for the development of copper resistant (Cu R ) and streptomycin resistant (Sm R ) Xcc and to characterize and compare the genetics of copper resistance in Xcc with other bacteria. A number of factors favorable for the development of copper resistance in Xcc were identified, but further investigation is necessary to fully assess the risk for streptomycin resistance. Although no Cu R strains of Xcc were detected in Florida and Brazil, many strains of Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis (Xac), the cas ual agent of citrus bacterial spot in Florida, were resistant to copper. This is the first time copper resistance has been reported in Xac and s ince X ac and Xcc share the same host and thrive under similar environmental conditions, the

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12 concern is that copp er resistance may be horizontally transferred from Xac to Xcc. This concern is supported by experiments that showed that copper resistance genes can be conjugated among different species of Xanthomonas including Xcc and Xac. Moreover, a lthough n o Cu R or Sm R strain s of Xcc were isolated from citrus trees repeatedly sprayed with copper or streptomycin for 3 consecutive seasons, the frequ ent sprays caused an increase in the population of endemic bacteria with resistance to these chemicals. The intensive use of these bactericides may consequently increase the risks for acquisition by Xcc of copper or streptomycin resistance genes from epiphytic bacteria. This possibility is supported b y the presence of Xcc copper resistance gene homologues in bacteria from the c itrus tree canopy which are able to confer resistance to copper sensitive strains of Xanthomonas Cloning and characterization of copper resistance genes in Xcc revealed copL cop A and cop B as the major determinants of resistance. Homologues of these genes with identity higher than 90% occurred in Cu R strains of several other species of Xanthomonas and other bacterial species, indicating that these copper resistance determinants are widespread and may be transferable into Xcc populations under repeated use of copper for citrus canker management.

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13 CHAPTER 1 COPPER AND STREPTOMYCIN RESISTANCE IN PLANT PATHOGENIC BACTERIA Introduction Citrus canker caused by X anthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) (syn. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri ), is a globally distr ibuted, highly contagious bacterial disease of citrus species such as sweet orange, lime, lemon, or grapefruit ( Civerolo, 1984 ; Gottwald et al. 2002 ; Leite and Mohan 1990 ). Moreover, it is one of the most serious diseases of citrus with substantial impac t on the citrus production industry particularly fresh fruit ( Leite and Mohan, 1990; Stall and Seymour, 1983 ). Severe infection results in defoliation, die back, deformation of fruit and premature fruit drop with in fected fruits being less valuable or ent irely unmarketable ( Civerolo, 198 4 ; Stall and Seymour, 1983 ) The severity of the infection varies with different species and varieties and the prevailing climatic conditions. Disease symptoms are characterized by raised circular necrotic lesions that deve lop on leaves, twigs and fruits. On leaves, lesions first have an oily appearance usually on the abaxial surface and become evident on both the abaxial and adaxial surfaces of the leaf with age Older lesions on leaves and fruit tend to have more raised margins with a sunken center and may be surrounded by a yellow chlorotic halo. Sunken centers are especially noticeable on fruits, but the lesions do not penetrate far into the rind thus not affecting internal quality ( Civerolo, 198 4 ; Gottwald et al. 2002 ; Stall and Seymour, 1983 ). Control methods for citrus canker in Florida some of which have been very controversial, hav e included eradication of trees quarantine on transportation of fresh fruit and trees within Florida and to citrus producing states, p roduction of Xc c free nursery trees and sanitation and decontamination measures ( Gottwald et al., 2002 )

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14 Despite eradication attempts, by late 2005 the disease had spread across much of the state. In 2004 and 2005 the State and Federal agricultural surv eys indicated that the bacterium had probably been spread widely by hurricanes. Thus, in 2006 eradication was suspended and a new policy was established ( Gottwald and Irey, 2007; Irey et al., 2006 ). Hence, in Florida, the current efforts are focused on dev eloping new strategies for managing citrus canker. In the short term, foremost of the strategies for control of citrus canker is the optimization of copper sprays, such as number, timing and frequency of sprays ( Behlau et al., 2010 ), product rate and formu lation. Additionally, alternative materials, such as streptomycin, have been tested as a complementary measure to augment copper bactericides for use in citrus producing areas with endemic citrus canker ( Graham and Leite, 2004; Graham et al., 200 6; Graham et al., 2008 ). Use of Copper and Streptomycin for Control of Citrus Canker Copper based bactericides have been used as a standard control measure for citrus canker worldwide ( Leite and Mohan, 1990 ). Copper is an essential metal necessary at certain levels for the normal functioning of almost all life forms, including plants, animals and microorganisms, acting as a cofactor for a number of enzymes involved in respiration and electron transport proteins. However, above certain concentrations, copper is toxic to cells mainly due to its interaction with nucleic acids, disruption of enzyme active sites, interference with the energy transport system, and ultimately, the disruption of the integrity of cell membranes ( Cervantes and Gutierrez Corona, 1994; Garcia Ho rsman et al., 1994 ; Hegg and Burstyn, 1996 ). The relatively high toxicity to plant pathogens ( Cha and Cooksey, 1991) low cost and low toxicity of the fixed copper compounds ( Adaskaveg and Hine, 1985 ), and the fact that these

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15 materials are chemically stabl e and are not readily washed from plants ( Olson and Jones, 1983 ) have made their use widespread for control of bacterial diseases of foliage and fruit. Several copper based products have been evaluated regarding the efficiency on controlling citrus canker and other Xanthomonas triggered diseases on citrus. Fixed coppers are the predominant form used in citrus growing areas with endemic citrus canker. The most efficient and well studied are copper oxychloride ( Behlau et al., 2007; Graham et al. 2006; Leite e t al., 1987; Medina Urrata and Stapleton, 1985; Pere ira et al., 1981 ), copper sulfate ( McG uire, 1988; Medina Urrata and Stapleton, 1985 ), copper hydrox ide ( Graham et al. 2006; Leite et a l., 1987), cuprous oxide ( Pere ira et al., 1981) and copper ammonium carbonate ( Gottwald and Timmer, 1995; Mc G uire, 1988; Timmer, 1988 ). Copper ions are considered to be more toxic to microo rganisms than complexed forms ( Gadd and Griffiths, 1978; Menkissoglu and Lindow, 1991; Zevenhuizen et al., 1979 ) The concentration of copper ions on leaves depends on the equilibrium established between the complexed and soluble forms of copper ( Menkissoglu and Lindow, 1991 ). Fixed copper compounds are predominantly insoluble on the plant surface ( Menkissoglu and Lindow, 1991 ) and coppe r ions are slowly released after application. Thus, fixed coppers are less phytotoxic to plants and provide better residual activity against diseases than can be achieved with non fixed copper. Once applied, copper particles provide a protective film that acts as a barrier that when contacted with water and low pH slowly releases copper ions that are toxic to bacterial cells ( Gadd and Griffiths, 1978; Zevenhuizen et al., 1979 ). Exudates from the plant and microorganisms

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16 also play an important role in copper solubility by forming weak acids that lower the pH of the water on the plant surface, which increases copper solubility and availability ( Arman and Wain, 1958 ). Copper bactericides have no curative or systemic activity and are usually applied preventively for citrus canker control. Such bactericides are used to reduce inoculum buildup on susceptible leaf flushes and to protect expanding fruit surfaces from infection ( Timmer, 1988; McGuire, 1988; Gottwald and Timmer, 1995; Behlau et al., 2008; Graham and Le ite Jr., 2004 ). Timing of application and effectiveness of copper based sprays depend on several factors, such as environmental conditions, grove age, susceptibility of the citrus cultivar, and integration with other control measures ( Gottwald et al., 2002 ; Stall and Seymour, 1983 ). Usually copper is applied during the spring and summer months, when climatic conditions are most favorable to the pathogen and trees are constantly producing susceptible vegetative tissue. For effective control of citrus canker, the number of sprays per season may vary from two to five ( Leite and Mohan,1990; Leite et al., 1987 ). However, when climatic conditions for the development of the disease are highly favorable and/or the amount of susceptible plant tissue is abundant for a prolonged period, as observed for young groves, more sprays may be necessary ( Leite and Mohan,1990 ). Alternatively, streptomycin has been tested to complement copper sprays for control of citrus canker. Streptomycin is an antibiotic used for control of hu man pathogens which also is used as a pesticide to control bacteria affecting certain fruit, vegetables, seed, and ornamental crops. Streptomycin is a protein synthesis inhibitor. It prevents initiation of protein synthesis and leads to death of bacterial cells by biding to

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17 the S12 p rotein of the 30S su bunit of the bacterial ribosome and interfering with the binding of formyl met hionyl tRNA to the 30S subunit ( Sharma et al., 2007 ; Snyder and Champres s, 2003 ) Streptomycin is also known to prevent the normal dissociation of the 70S ribosome into the 50S and 30S subunits. Thus, formation of polysomes is inhibited. The overall effect of streptomycin seems to involve distorting the ribosome so that transition from initiation of the complex (30S mRNA tRNA) to cha in elongating ribosome is blocked. Thus, the normal sequence of translation is disrupted, the bacteria is unable to synthesize proteins vital for its cell growth and thereby fails to survive ( Sharma et al., 2007 ; Snyder and Champres s, 2003 ). Streptomycin a lso affects bacterial cells by impairing translation of mRNA, leading to the production of defective proteins ( Snyder and Champres s, 2003 ). In agriculture, the most extensive use of streptomycin is for control of fireblight on apple and pear. In citrus, st reptomycin has not been used in commercial groves for control of citrus canker. This antibiotic has been tested as a complementary measure to copper sprays ( Graham et al., 2008 ). The purpose is to reduce the load of copper seasonally applied in citrus grov es by replacing some copper applications by streptomycin or combining the two bactericides for higher effectiveness of control. Copper Resistance in Plant Pathogenic Bacteria The reduction in efficacy of copper sprays in controlling plant bacterial diseas es has been previously reported ( Adaskaveg and Hine, 1985 ; Cazorla et al., 2002; Martin at al., 2004 ; Rinaldi and Leite, 2000 ). Such a lack of effectiveness is mostly due to the development of bacterial strains resistant to copper. Previous studies indicat e that copper resistant (Cu R ) strains have been identified in many plant pathogenic bacterial species, including Pseudomonas ( Andersen et al., 1991 ; Bender and Cooksey, 1986 ;

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18 Cazorlae et al., 2002 ; Scheck and Pscheit, 1998; Sundin et al., 1989 ), Pantoea ( N ischwitz et al., 2007 ), Erwinia ( Al Daoude et al., 2009 ), and Xanthomonas ( Adaskaveg and Hine, 1985 ; Cooksey et al., 1990; Marco and Stall 1983 ; Martin e t al., 2004 ; Ritchie and Dittapongpitch 199 1; Stall et al., 1986 ). Plant pathogenic bacterial isol ates obtained from regions where copper has been regularly applied for an extended period to control bacterial diseases have shown higher levels of copper resistance ( Adaskaveg and Hine, 1985 ) and Cu R strains are poorly controlled by standard applications of copper based compounds (Marco and Stall, 1983). The selection of copper resistant strains seems to be the major reason for control failures following management with copper bactericides ( Cazorla et al., 2002). Once Cu R strains develop, the application o f copper on plants is no longer effective for disease control as resistant populations increase rapidly ( Sundin et al., 1989 ). Most of the genes associated with copper resistance from plant pathogenic bacteria are located on plasmids ( Bender and Cooksey, 1986 1987 ; Bender et al., 1990 ; Cazorlae et al., 2002; Cooksey, 1987 ; Cooksey, 1990 b; Stall et al., 1986 ). In P. syringae pv. tomato the copper resistance genes reside on a 35 kilobase pair plasmid in strains isolated in California ( Bender and Cooksey, 1 986, 1987; Cooksey 1987 ). In X. campestris pv. vesicatoria the copper resistance determinant resides on large plasm ids in strains isolated in Florida and Oklahoma ( Bender et al 1990 ; Mellano and Cooksey, 1988a ). Gene clusters associated with the chromo some also may be related to copper resistance in some bacteria such as Pseudomonas ( Lim and Cooksey 1993 ) and Xanthomonas ( Basim et al., 2005; Lee et al., 1994 ) According to Basim et al. ( 2005 ), chromosomal ORF1 is essential for copper resistance and was found to play an

PAGE 19

19 important role in regulation of the system for the strain XvP26 of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria In E scherichia coli additional chromosomal genes that function in copper uptake are required for resistance and apparently for normal trans port and management of cellular copper ( Rogers et al., 1991 ). Copper sequestration and copper efflux have been suggested as the main mechanisms for copper resistance in bacteria ( Cooksey, 1993 ). Cellular copper sequestration is the main mechanism for coppe r resistance in strains of Pseudomonas syringae ( Cooksey, 1990 ). Colonies of Cu R strains of P. syringae pv. tomato become blue on media amended with high levels of copper, suggesting that the bacteria accumulate this metal ( Cha and Cooksey, 1991 ). P syrin gae strains containing the cop operon accumulate more copper than strains lacking the operon ( Bender and Cooksey, 198 7; Cha and Cooksey, 1991; Cooksey and Azad, 1992 ) The cop operon which is composed of the copABCD genes ( Mellano and Cooksey, 1988a,b ) is thought to confer copper resistance to P. syringae at least in part by sequestering and accumulating copper in the periplasm with copper binding proteins which may prevent toxic levels of copper from entering the cytoplasm ( Cha and Cooksey, 1991 ; Cooks ey, 1993 ) According to Rouch et al. ( 1985 ), ge nes that confer c opper resistance are regulated and induced only by high levels of copper. Mills et al. (1993) demonstrated that P. syringae employs the copRS sensory transduction genes, located downstream of the copABCD operon, to alter gene expression in response to environmental stimuli and regulate copper resistance gene expression. In P syringae the Cop proteins, CopA (72 kDa), CopB (39 kDa), and CopC (12kDa), are produced only under copper induction ( Be nder and Cooksey, 198 7; Cha

PAGE 20

20 and Cooksey, 1991; Mellano and Cooksey, 1988 a,b ) CopA and CopC are periplasmic proteins and help to prevent the entry of toxic copper ions into the cytoplasm whereas CopB is an outer membrane protein and seems to be associated with external copper binding in the bacterial cell ( Cha and Cooksey, 1991 ). CopD, a probable inner membrane protein, apparently functions in copper transport ( Cha and Cooksey, 1991, 1993 ). CopC binds one atom of copper per protein molecule, while CopA bin ds about 11 atoms per protein However, since the concentration of these c op encoded proteins does not increase at higher levels of copper, while total accumulated copper does, their role at higher levels of copper, when their binding capacity would seem t o be saturated, might be in the delivery of copper ions to other binding components of the cell wall ( Cha and Cooksey, 1991 ) While copA and copB seem to be essential for resistance, copC and copD are requir ed for full resistance, but some resistance can b e conferred in the absence of the latter two genes ( Bender and Cooksey, 198 7; Mellano and Cooksey, 1988 a, b ). copCD seem to function in copper uptake, balancing the periplasmic copper sequestering activity ( Cha and Cooksey 199 3 ). In E. coli copper resista nce is regulated by different systems including the multi copper oxidase CueO which protect s periplasmic enzymes from copper mediated damage ( Grass and Rensing, 2001 ) the cus determinant that confers copper and sil ver resistance ( Munson et al., 2000 ) a nd the pcoABCD operon ( Rensing et al., 2000 ). The latter is an efflux mechanism and is responsible for pumping excess copper out of the cytoplasm ( Cooksey, 1993 ). According to Rouch et al. ( 1985 ), due to the export of copper to the outer cell environment, E. coli cells expressing pco genes accumulate less copper than wild type strains T he pcoABCD operon shares homology

PAGE 21

21 with t he copABCD operon of P. syringae and, as in P. syringae is followed by t wo regulatory genes, pcoR and pcoS responsible for inductio n of copper resistance ( Brown et al., 199 5 ; Mellano and Cooksey, 1988a ) Copper inducibility of the pco genes of E. coli showed that the lag phase observed upon addition of copper to the growth medium could be reduced by pre induction with copper sulfate ( Rouch et al. 1985 ) pcoE has also been associated with the pcoABCD RS operon ( Brown et al., 1995 ) however, Lee et al. ( 2002 ), demonstrated that this gene has no influence on copper resistance in E. coli C o pper resistance genes have also been cloned from Xanthomonas species, including X. vesicatoria ( Cooksey et at.. 1990; Garde and Bender, 1991 ; Basim et al., 2005 ) X. arboricola pv. juglandis ( Lee et al., 1994 ) and X. perforans ( Voloudakis et al., 2005 ). The plasmid borne copper resistance determinants in X. vesicatoria have similarities to the cop operon from P. syringae ( Voloudakis et al., 1993 ) However, on the chromosome the organiz ation of the copper resistance genes appears to be uncommon in X. vesicatoria and occurrence of this type of resistance i s rare ( Basim et al., 2005 ) Copper resistance genes in X. arboricola pv. juglandis are located on the chromosome and have the same general copABCD structure as the genes from P. syringae with some differences in DNA sequence and gene size ( Lee et al., 19 94 ) In Xanthomonas perforans copper resistance genes are plasmid encoded and expression of these genes was demonstrated to be regulated by copL which is the immediate ORF upstream of copAB ( Voloudakis et al., 2005) Other copM copG and cop F have been identified downstream of copLAB in Xanthomonas perforans ( Voloudakis et al., 2005 ) However, the involvement of these genes in copper resistance remains unclear. The cop RS regulatory genes, which are present in P. syringae

PAGE 22

22 ( Mellano and Cooksey 1988a ), have not been found in Xanthomonas ( Lee et al., 1994 ; Voloudakis et al., 2005 ) I ncreasing copper accumulation with exposure to increasing concentrations of copper is common to several species of copper resistant Pseudomonas suggesting that the y have similar resistance mechanisms involving copper sequestration ( Cooksey and Azad, 1992 ) T he re are similarities between the cop operon from P. syringae and copper resistance genes from X. campestris ( Cooksey et al., 1990; Voloudakis et al., 1993 ) and E. coli ( Tetaz and Luke, 1983 ) Cooksey et al. (1990) reported the occurrence of plasmid and chromosomal DNA homology to the copper resistance operon of P. syringae pv. tomato in three saprophytic species of Pseudomonas and two plant pathogenic species, P. cichorii and X. campestris pv. vesicatoria However, such homolog y d id not confer resistance in copper sensitive strains of P. syringae pv. tomato P. cichorii and P. flimorescens suggesting that these genes have some other function and may be indigeno us to certain Pseudomonas species ( Cooksey et al., 1990 ) The apparent lack of similarity between copper resistance genes from P. syringae and X. campestris observed in previous studies ( Bender and Cooksey, 1987 ) and the substantial conserved nature of th e 35 kb plasmid ( Cooksey, 1987 ), initially suggested that copper resistance may have developed independently in t hese two species. Nevertheless, a fter using uniform hybridization conditions Voloudakis et al. (1993 ) found a close relation between copper res istance genes from X. campestris pv. vesicatoria and the cop operon from P. syringae Thus, the e xchange of plasmid DNA between these two species or other bacteria, is a more plausible explanation for the observed similarities between cop and copper resis tance genes in xanthomonads

PAGE 23

23 The frequency of copper resistant bacterial strains may be enhanced by conjugation ( Sundin et al. 1989 ; Stall at al., 1986; Tetaz and L uke 1983 ). Plasmid transfer of antibiotic and copper resistance has been previously reporte d for P. syringae ( Bender and Cooksey, 198 6 ). Two conjugative plasmids of P. syringae pv. tomato PT23 are involved in the copper resi s tance phenotype ( Bender and Cooksey, 198 6 ). One of them, pPT23A, has a similar size to the conjugative copper plasmid iden tified previously in E. coli ( Tetaz and L uke 1983 ), however it is smaller than the plasmid identified in X. campestris pv vesicatoria ( Bender et al. 1990 ). Copper sensitive strains of P. syringae pv. syringae isolated from cherry trees were able to acquir e the 61 kb plasmid containing genes which confer copper resistance from all donors tested, and the transfer frequency was highest between isolates from the same orchard ( Sundin et al. 1989 ). The possibility for plasmid transfer between X. campestris path ovars exists on both host and nonhost plants ( Bender et al., 1990 ) According to Timmer et al. ( 1987 ) X. campestris pv. alfalfae, campestris, translucens and pruni can multiply on tomato leaves under conditions of high relative humidity Moreover, X. cam pestris pv. vesicatoria populations were able to multiply on the leaves of nonhost plants such as plum and peach. Once the right conditions are provided and bacteria are present, interpathovar transfer of copper resistance plasmid may occur in nature ( Bend er et al., 1990 ) A highly conjugative copper resistance plasmid from X campestris pv. campestris hybridized strongly with the cloned copper resistance gen es from X. campestris pv. vesicatoria ( Voloudakis et al., 1993) This observation points out the pro bability that copper resistance plasmids have been exchanged among pathovars of

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24 related plant pathogens, as suggested for P. sy r ingae ( Bender and Cooksey, 198 6; Cooksey, 1990 ). The development of Cu R strains of Xcc has been reported only in Argentina ( Cant eros, 1996 ). The resistant strains were first isolated in 1994 from a citrus grove located in the province of Corrientes which showed a lack of response to the numerous copper sprays used for control of recurrent outbreaks of citrus canker ( Canteros, 1996 ) Since then, according to Canteros et al. (2008) Cu R strains have not spread within the Xcc population in the citrus growing areas in Argentina. A recent survey showed that the resistance is presently occurring in a few different locations in Corrientes and in an isolated grove in the province of Formosa, northwest of Corrientes ( Canteros, 2008 ). Streptomycin Resistance in Plant Pathogenic Bacteria Other contact bactericides including antibiotics have not been as effective as copper for controlling citrus canker ( Leite and Mohan, 1990; Leite et al., 1987; McGuire, 1988; Timmer, 1988 ) Additionally, antibiotic resistance has developed within various plant pathogen populations ( Burr et al., 1988; De Boer, 1980; Schroth et al., 1979; Stall and Thayer, 1962 ). Development of resistance to streptomycin in plant pathogens and in other plant associated bacteria seems to be relatively common and resistance to this antibiotic has been reported in the phytopathogens Erwinia amylovora ( Chiou and Jones, 1991; Loper et a l., 1991 ; Schroth et al., 1979 ), P. syringae ( Burr et al., 1988, DeBoer, 1980; Jones et al., 1991 ), and X. campestris pv. vesicatoria ( Minsavage et al., 1990, Stall and Thayer, 1962 ). Good control of bacterial spot on tomato caused by X campestris pv. ves icatoria was obtained with streptomycin sprays in the early stages of the crop; however, later in the season, there was no significant control of the disease by this antibiotic ( Stall and Thayer, 1962 ). Furthermore, strains isolated early in the season

PAGE 25

25 we re more susceptible to the antibiotic than strains isolated later in the season, when streptomycin was visually ineffective ( Stall and Thayer, 1962 ). The d evelopment of resistance to streptomycin in Xcc populations affecting citrus has not been reported ye t and this is most likely due to the fact that this antibiotic has not been used for control of citrus canker in commercial groves. Streptomycin resistance has been shown to be associated with strA strB genes ( Chiou and Jones, 1995 ; Huang and Burr, 1999 ) c arried on a conjugative plasmid ( Burr et al., 198 8; Huang and Burr, 1999 ; Norell i et al., 1991 ). However, there is evidence to support that chromosomal mediated resistance ( Schroth et al., 1979 ) is also involved in streptomycin resistance in plant pathogen ic bacteria. Thus, the mechanisms for streptomycin resistance are related to a chromosomal mutation that results in the alteration of the ribosomal protein S12 which is the target site for binding of streptomycin on bacterial ribosomes ( Chang and Flaks 19 72 ) or to resistant plasmids that carry determinants homologous to strA strB genes, which encode streptomycin modifying enzymes, preventing it from binding to the bacterial ribosome ( Scholz et al. 1989 ). Modification of the target molecule results from a p oint mutation in the highly conserved gene rpsL which codes for the protein S12. Such a mutation makes bacteria resistant to extremely high levels of streptomycin, but the resistance cannot be easily transferred to other bacteria. It is usually transferred only during bacterial division. Bacteria that are able to enzymatically inactivate streptomycin have usually acquired this capability through the acquisition of strA strB genes, which code for the enzyme s necessary to inactivate streptomycin. These genes are carried by genetic elements, such as plasmids or transposons, which can be transferred and can confer resistance to

PAGE 26

26 other bacteria including bacteria from other species or other genera. Those bacteria are resistant to lower levels of streptomycin than bacteria that have a mutation in the rpsL gene ( McManus et al., 2002 ) Different mutation sites in rpsL gene ( Chiou and Jones, 1995 ) and ribotype fingerprints ( McManus and Jones, 1995 ) have been observed for Sm R mutants of E. amylovora from different regi ons of the world, indicating that that resistance developed independently and has been selected for multiple times. Hybridization analyses indicated that a homologous streptomycin resistant determinant has been detected in several phytopathogenic bacterial populations, including E amylovora P syringae pv. papulans P. syringae pv. syringae and X campestris pv. vesicatoria ( Chiou and Jones, 1993; Minsavage et al., 1990; Sundin and Bender, 1993 ). The strA strB genes in P. syringae and X. campestris were encoded on elements closely related to transposon Tn5393 previously reported in E amylovora ( Chiou and Jones, 1993 ), designated Tn5393a and Tn5393b, respectively ( Sundi n and Bender, 1995 ). The dissemination of Tn5393 and derivatives in phytopathogenic pro karyotes confirms the importance of these bacteria as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance in the environment ( Chiou and Jones, 1993 ; Sundi n and Bender, 1995 ) X. campestris pv. vesicatoria strains with different levels of streptomycin resistance were path ogenic to tomato plants, suggesting that resistance to this antibiotic is not related to pathogenicity ( Stall and Thayer, 1962 ). Apparently, the mechanism involved in development of streptomycin resistance is the selection of resistant strains rather than promoting adaptive change in the bacteria in the presence of the bactericide ( Stall and Thayer, 1962 ; Sundin and Bender 1995 ). Furthermore, evidence suggests that streptomycin resistance may be linked to copper resistance ( Ritchie and

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27 Dittapongpitch 1991 ; Sundin and Bender 1993 ) According to Sundin and Bender ( 1993 ) the P. syringae pv. syringae population developed resistance to one or both of these compounds on conjugative plasmids in response to the selection pressure of copper and streptomycin bacte ricidal sprays. For Ritchie and Dittapongpitch (1991) all streptomycin resistant strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria were also copper resistant; conversely, no copper sensitive strains showed streptomycin resistance. Project Goal and Object ives The goal of this project was to assess the risks for the development of copper and streptomycin resistant strains of Xcc The objectives were : (i) survey f or cop per resistant strains of Xcc in Florida and Brazil and Xanthomonas alfafae subsp. citrumel onis (Xac) in F lorida ; (ii) m onitor fo r the presence of resistant populations of Xcc and epiphytic bacteria on young citrus trees treated with copper or streptomycin ; (iii) s creen bacteria from the citrus phyllosphere for copper resistance genes ; (iv) anal yze the possibility of horizontal transfer of copper and streptomycin resistance genes ; (v) clone and characterize copper resistance determinants in Xcc and Xac; and (vi) compare copper resistance determinants from Xcc to other bacteria.

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28 CHAPTER 2 SURV EY FOR COPPER RESIST ANT STRAINS OF X anthomonas citri subsp. citri I N FLORIDA AND BRAZIL A ND X anthomonas alfalfae subsp citrumelonis IN FLORIDA Introduction One of the greatest concerns surrounding the use of copper based bactericides for control of citrus canker is that numerous sprays per season are usually necessary for efficacious disease control and frequent use of copper may lead to development of resistant strains of the pathogen as reported previously for Xanthomonas ( Adaskaveg and Hine, 1985; Cooks ey et al., 1990; Marco and Stall, 1983; Martin e t al., 2004; Ritchie and Dittapongpitch, 199 1 ; Stall et al., 1986 ) and Pseudomonas ( Andersen et al., 1991; Bender and Cooksey, 1986; Cazorla et al., 2002; Scheck and Pscheit, 1998; Sundin et al., 1989 ) affect ing different crops. Copper resistant (Cu R ) strains of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) (syn. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri ), the causal agent of citrus canker, have been reported only in Argentina ( Canteros, 1996 ). The resistant strains were first isolated in 1994 from a citrus grove located in the province of Corrientes which showed a lack of response to the numerous copper sprays used for control of recurrent outbreaks of citrus canker ( Canteros, 1996 ). Since then, according to Canteros et al. (20 08) Cu R strains have not spread within the Xcc population in the citrus growing areas in Argentina. A recent survey showed that the resistance is presently occurring in a few different locations in Corrientes and in an isolated grove in the province of Fo rmosa, northwest of Corrientes ( Canteros, 2008 ). Florida and Brazil have the larg est citrus growing areas in the world and together are responsible for more than 90% juice ( Agrianual, 20 09 ; Florida Citrus Mu tual, 2010 ) In Florida, the citrus canker

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29 eradication program was halted in 2005 after an unsuccessful attempt to control the spread of the disease throughout the s tate ( Gottwald and Irey, 2007 ) Since then, copper sprays have been incorporated as one of the most important strategies for managing the disease in Florida ( Graham et al, 2006 ) In Brazil, the citrus industry is concentrated in So Paulo, which is the only state where citrus canker eradication is still practiced in that country ( Barbosa et al., 2001; Massari and Belasque Jr., 2006 ; So Paulo, 1999; ) and copper sprays are not regularly used for control of this disease In contrast, in Paran state, loca ted in southern Brazil and bordered on the north by So Paulo stat e, citrus canker has been end emic for more than 20 years and copper bactericides have been widely used during this time as one of the main strategies of control ( Leite and Mohan, 1990 ). Nevertheless, there is a concern that long term use of copper based bactericides for managing citru s canker in Florida and Brazil may lead to development of Cu R strains of Xcc, which can potentially reduce the efficacy of copper against the pathogen as was observed in Argentina ( Canteros, 1996 ) and constrain the limited set of measures available for con trolling the disease ( Graham et al., 2008 ). Citrus bacterial spot (CBS) caused by Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis (Xac) (syn. X. campestris pv. citrumelo X. campestris pv. citri strain E) is another disease caused by xanthomonads on citrus in Florida. CBS has quite distinct symptoms compared to citrus canker and the disease has only been reported in Florida nurseries Although CBS has been important in outdoor nurseries, new regulations in Florida mandate the propagation of certified, pathogen free citrus trees in enclosed nurseries protected from pathogens and their insect vectors ( FDACS DPI, 2010 ). Thus, since CBS is restricted to nursery environments, the disease is not a threat to production

PAGE 30

30 citrus ( Graham and Gottwald, 1991 ). However, for several years, Xac populations in nurseries were exposed to frequent sprays of copper as a protective measure against CBS induced bud failure ( Graham et al, 1999 ) and other foliar diseases affecting citrus nursery plants. Considering that Xcc and Xac are t wo very closely related Xanthomonas species and Cu R genes are mostly harbored on conjugative plasmids which have been shown to move among different species of Xanthomonas as seen in Chapter 3, the concern in using copper for control of CBS is that if coppe r resistance has developed in strains of Xac, resistance could then move horizontally to Xcc in Florida. The objective of this study was to investigate whether copper resistance has been transferred to Xcc and Xac strains in Florida where the use of copp er sprays for control of citrus canker is a recent practice in commercial citrus fields but it has a long history of use in nurseries for control of CBS and in Paran State, Brazil, where copper has been applied to citrus groves for more than two decades. Material and M ethods Florida The presence of Cu R in Xanthomonas affecting citrus in Florida was assessed by screening strains from the collection of plant bacterial strains of the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant I ndustry (DPI), Gainesville, FL. Overall, 356 strains of Xcc isolated throughout the citrus growing area from 1997 to 2007 ( Table 2 1 ), 28 Xcc strains isolated from citrus nurseries from 2007 to 2009 ( Table 2 1 ) and 54 Xac strains obtained from citrus grove s and nurseries around the state between 1999 and 2009 were evaluated ( Table 2 2 ). The strains were single colony subcultured on nutrient agar (NA) from glycerol vials stored at 80 o C. For screening, cultures were grown overnight on NA amended with 20 mg L 1 of copper for induction of

PAGE 31

31 resistance ( Basim et al., 2005 ), suspended in tap water to an approximate concentration of 10 8 cfu mL 1 and then spotted in duplicate (10 L per spot) on MGY agar ( mannitol glutamate yeast agar) ( Cooksey and Azad, 1992 ) amende d with 200 mg L 1 of copper ( Basim et al., 2005 ). Inoculated plates were incubated at 28 o C for 96 h and then assessed for bacterial growth. Cu R A44 and copper sensitive (Cu S ) 306 strai ns of Xcc were used as positive and ne gative controls, respectively. C op per was added to the medium as copper sulfate pentahydrate ( CuSO 4 5H 2 O ) from a 50 mg m L 1 stock solution before autoclaving. Strains that developed confluent growth on MGY agar amended with 200 mg L 1 of copper after 96 h of incubation were rated as Cu R Brazil In Brazil, screening of Cu R strains of Xcc was conducted for strains isolated from citrus in Paran State, where citrus canker has been endemic for more than 20 years and copper based bactericides have been frequently sprayed for control of the dise ase during this period. Assessments were performed by evaluating pure strains of the pathogen and also by assessing wash ings of canker symptomatic citrus leaves collected from citrus groves treated regularly with copper. Xcc cultures were obtained from the collection of plant pathogenic bacteria of the laboratory of Bacteriology and Virology of the Agronomic Institute of Paran (IAPAR), Londrina, Paran, Brazil, where this part of the study was conducted. Forty strains of Xcc isolated in 1996 and 1997 from different regions of the citrus growing area in Paran state ( Table 2 3 ) were assessed on MGY agar amended with 200 mg L 1 of copper ( Basim et al., 2005 ). Before challenging on copper amended MGY, strains were grown overnight on NA amended with 20 mg L 1 o f copper for induction of resistance ( Basim et al., 2005 ). Following overnight incubation, bacterial

PAGE 32

3 2 suspensions were prepared in sterile tap water and adjusted to approximately 5 x 10 8 cfu mL 1 using a spectrophotometer (absorbance 0.3 at 600 nm). Aliquot s of 10 L of bacterial suspensions were spotted in triplicate on copper amended MGY agar for resistance assessment. Plates were incubated at 28 o C for 96 h before assessing growth. Cu R X. euvesicatoria 81 23 and Cu S Xcc 306 strai ns were used as positive a nd negative controls, respectively. MGY media was amended with copper as copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO 4 5H 2 O) which was added to the medium from a 50 mg m L 1 stock solution before autoclaving. Strains that produced confluent growth on MGY agar amended with 200 mg L 1 of copper after incubating for 96 h were rated as Cu R To assess for the presence of Cu R Xcc strains in the field, 46 sam ples of canker symptomatic leaves were collected from groves of the major citrus growing area in Paran located in the municipalities of Paranava (43 samples) and So Joo do Caiu (3 samples). Each sample was composed of 10 to 20 leaves randomly collected within the block. Citrus leaf washings were prepared in Erlenmeyer flasks by adding 10 mL of MGY broth per gram of le af MGY broth was amended with 1 mg L 1 of copper and 1% peptone to induce resistance of presumptive Cu R strains of Xcc prior to plating on a higher concentration of copper and to help release bacterial cells from the leaves into the broth, respectively. Flasks were shaken vigorously for 2 h at room temperature (RT) using a wrist shaker. Washing aliquots were plated on MGY KCH supplemented with 75 mg L 1 of copper (see Chapter 3 for more details) using 100 L of 10 1 to 10 3 dilutions per plate. Plates wer e incubated for 96 h at 28 o C before assessment of bacterial growth.

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33 Results While the Cu R positive control of Xcc grew overnight on MGY agar amended with 200 mg L 1 of copper, none of the Xcc strains isolated from citrus groves in Paran and Florida were a ble to grow on copper amended MGY agar after 4 days of incubation ( Figure 2 1 ). Likewise, no Cu R strai n of Xcc were recovered on the semi selective medium MGY KCH amended with copper from assays of washings of canker symptomatic leaves recently collected f rom citrus groves in Paran In contrast to Xac strains, numerous strains of Xac isolated from Florida nurseries were identified as Cu R Thirty one of 54 Xac strains screened (57%) grew overnight on MGY agar + 200 mg L 1 of copper ( Figure 2 1 ). Cu R strains of Xac were detected in isolates from 1999 to 2009 ,all of the years that nursery strains were screened, and were present in 1 4 of the 20 counties surveyed including Broward Clay Collier Glades Hendry Hernando Highlands Hillsborough Lake Lee Ma natee Miami Dade Saint Lucie and Polk ( Table 2 4 ). Discussion Several genes are involved in copper resistance in bacteria and spontaneous mutations are unlikely to confer resistance as commonly observed for several antibiotics. Copper resistance in bac teria is acquired through horizontal transfer of plasmids or transposable elements carrying the copper resistance genes ( Chiou and Jones 1991 1995 ; Han et al., 2003; McManus and Jones, 1994; Sundin and Bender, 1996 ). This is a process commonly used by ba cteria to exchange genetic material in the environment and promptly adapt to adverse and changing local conditions ( Lilley and Bailey, 1997 ; Lilley et al., 1994 ). The development of copper resistance in bacteria is highly dependent on the selection pressur e of copper exposure on the bacterial

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34 population. Thus, the frequent use of copper sprays for control of bacterial diseases affecting crops may lead to the development of Cu R strains ( Adaskaveg and Hine, 1985; Andersen et al., 1991; Bender and Cooksey, 198 6; Cazorla et al., 2002; Cooksey et al., 1990; Marco and Stall, 1983; Martin e t al., 2004; Ritchie and Dittapongpitch, 199 1 ; Scheck and Pscheit, 1998; Stall et al., 1986 ; Sundin et al., 1989 ) Florida and Paran State, Brazil are currently under a contrast ing scenario regarding the amount of copper that the citrus growing areas in these two regions have been exposed to in the last years. In Florida, frequent use of copper sprays for control of canker has been adopted just recently, after the citrus canker e radication program was suspended in 2005, but Xac have been exposed to copper for years to control CBS in nurseries. In contrast, Paran citrus groves have been sprayed with copper based bactericides for control of citrus canker for more than two decades. In Argentina, copper sprays had been used for a similar period in citrus growing areas with citrus canker and Cu R strains of Xcc have been discovered ( Canteros, 1996 ). In our survey for copper resistance none of the selected strains of Xcc from Florida and Brazil were identified as Cu R The strains from Brazil were isolated in 1996 1997, just a few years after the eradication program was replaced by an integrated management approach for citrus canker that includes, among other measures, the use of copper sp rays to protect the foliage and fruit from damage ( Leite and Mohan, 1990 ). Likewise, Xcc populations in Florida have not been exposed to copper for a prolonged period. Moreover, samples of leaves with citrus canker collected in 2009 and 2010 from groves i n Paran did not reveal the presence of Cu R strains in that area. Although this indicates that copper resistance in Xc c has either not yet developed or has not spread in the citrus growing

PAGE 35

35 areas of Parana or Florida, constant surveillance is advisable to a ssess the risk of copper resistance as long as copper sprays are repeatedly used in citrus groves with endemic canker. The majority of the Xac strains screened in this study were identified as Cu R Although strains isolated from CBS in nurseries as early as 1999 were found to be resistant, this is the first time copper resistance has been reported for Xac. The resistant strains were isolated from 14 counties throughout the state indicating that the resistance is widely spread. Most likely, copper resistanc e has developed in Xac because citrus nurseries have been frequently sprayed with copper bactericides for control of CBS from the time of the eradication program in 1984 ( Graham and Gottwald 1991 ). Dissemination of Cu R Xac throughout Florida has also likel y occurred due to the distribution and use of infected or contaminated budwood for citrus propagation in addition to the copious application of copper that promoted and maintained the selection of resistant strains statewide. Conditions for the developmen t of CBS in the field are not as favorable as in nurseries. Although incidence of this disease in groves is uncommon it can still be found in citrus producing areas in Florida. For most of the Cu R strains of Xac identified there is no information on whethe r they were isolated from citrus nurseries or groves. However, three of the strains identified as Cu R 1347, 1381 and 1382 from Collier County, are known to have been isolated from groves. Since X ac and Xcc share the same host and thrive under similar env ironmental conditions, the concern is that the interaction between these two bacteria in the mesophyll of leaves on newly planted nursery trees

PAGE 36

36 coinfected with CBS and citrus canker in citrus groves could result in horizontal transfer of Cu R from Xac to Xc c.

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37 Table 2 1. Geographical distribution of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri strains from Florida screened for copper resistance. Year of isolation County of origin (No. of strains tested) Total strains tested Xanthomonas citri subsp. cit ri isolated from citrus groves 1997 Manatee (4) 4 1998 Indian River (1), Manatee (1) 2 1999 Collier (2), Hendry (1) 3 2000 Hendry (6), Manatee (1) 7 2001 DeSoto (4), Collier (3), Hendry (2), Indian River (1) 10 2002 Orange(3), Okeechobee (2), Highlan ds (2), Hendry (1), Hardee (1), Brevard (1) 10 2003 Highlands (3), DeSoto (3), Lee (2), Orange (1), Manatee (1) 10 2004 Highlands (6), DeSoto (1) 10 2005 DeSoto (15), Hendry (14), Charlotte (13), Saint Lucie (12), Hardee (8), Hillsborough (7), Highland s (6), Polk (6), Indian River (4), Manatee (3), Martin (3), Collier (2), Glades (2), Lee (2), Okeechobee (2), Osceola (1) 100 2006 DeSoto (18), Hendry (14), Hardee (11), Indian River (10), Saint Lucie (9), Charlotte (6), Collier (6), Glades (6), Highland s (6), Martin (6), Polk (3), Manatee (2), Pinellas (1), Brevard (1), Lee (1) 100 2007 Saint Lucie (22), Hendry (16), Hardee (14), DeSoto (10), Highlands (8), Polk (7), Indian River (6), Manatee (5), Martin (5), Charlotte (2), Collier (2), Osceola (2), Gl ades (1) 100 Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri isolated from citrus nurseries 2007 Miami Dade (6), Polk (4) 10 2008 Miami Dade (2), Palm Beach (2), Manatee (1), Polk (1) 6 2009 Lake (6), Duval (2), Alachua (1), Broward (1), Miami Dade (1), Nassau (1) 12

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38 Table 2 2 Geographical distribution of Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citr umelonis strains from Florida screened for copper resistance. Year of isolation County of origin (No. of strains tested) Total strains tested 1999 Collier (1); Hillsborough (1); Lake (1) 3 2000 Collier (5); Palm Beach (2); Highlands (1); Hillsborough (1); Manatee (1) 10 2001 Broward (1); Hillsborough (1); Marion (1) 2004 Highlands (2); Saint Lucie (2); Hillsborough (1) 5 2005 Saint Lucie (4); Hendry (2); Orange (1); Clay (1); Collier (1); Lee (1) 10 2006 DeSoto (3); Charlotte (2); Broward (1); Hernando (1); Hillsborough (1); Polk (1); Saint Lucie (1) 2007 Polk (2); Collier (1); Broward (1); Glades (1); Hendry (1); Hillsborough (1); Miami Dade (1) 9 2008 Lee (1) 1 2009 Lak e (2); Miami Dade (1); Volusia (1) 4

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39 Table 2 3 Geographical distribution of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri strains from Paran State, Brazil, screened for copper resistance. Year of isolation Municipality of origin (No. of strains tested) To tal strains tested 1996 Alto Paran (1) 19 Loanda (1) Marilena (1) Mirador (1) Nova Aliana do Iva (1) Nova Londrina (2) Paraso do Norte (2) Paranava (7) Santa Cruz do Monte Castelo (1) So Carlos do Iva (1) So Joo do Ca iu (1) 1997 Alto Paran (1) 21 Amapor (1) ngulo (2) Guaira (1) Paranacity (1) Paranava (8) Planaltina do Paran (1) Querncia do Norte (1) Santa Isabel do Iva (4) So Pedro do Paran (1)

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40 Table 2 4 Xanthomo nas alfalfae subsp. citr umelonis strains from Florida resistant to copper. Year of isolation Strain County of origin 1999 1618 Hillsborough 1672 Lake 2000 1347 Collier 1381 Collier 1382 Collier 1383 Collier 1494 Collier 1620 Manatee 2001 18 88 Hillsborough 1902 Broward 2004 6301 Highlands 6309 Saint Lucie 6310 Highlands 2005 6575 Saint Lucie 6666 Hendry 6677 Hendry 6739 Collier 6922 Lee 7252 Clay 7833 Saint Lucie 2006 8320 Saint Lucie 8393 Hernando 8666 Broward 8761 Polk 2007 7589 Glades 8985 Miami Dade 9226 Broward 9440 Collier 9606 Hendry 2008 18410 Lee 2009 29354 Miami Dade

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41 Figure 2 1 Growth of different strains of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) and Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citr umelonis (Xac) from Florida on copper amended medium 24 h after plating. A) Xcc on mannitol glutamate yeast extract (MGY) agar amended (right) or not (left) with copper and B) Xac on MGY agar amended (right) or not (left) with copper as copper su lfate pent ahydrate (CuSO 4 5H 2 O) at 200 mg L 1 Copper resistant positive control strains Xcc A44 (A) and Xac 1381(B); ** copper sensitive negative control strains Xcc 306 (A) and Xac 1390 (B). B * * * A

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42 Figure 2 2 Distribution of copper resistant strains of Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citr umelonis ( Xac) in Florida. P resence of copper resistant strains of Xac No copper resistant Xac idenfified No strains tested

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43 CHAPTER 3 RISK ASSESSMENT OF C OPPER AND STREPTOMYC IN RESISTANCE DEVELOPMENT IN X anthomonas citri subsp citri Introduction Since halted in 200 6 attention has focused on management strategies that include the use of bactericides such as copper and streptomycin for control of this disease. A concern is that widespread use of these chemicals in citrus growing areas may lead to develop ment of resistan ce in strains of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), the causal bacterium of citrus canker. Copper and streptomycin resistance in bacteria develop through various processes. Because copper resistance in bacteria is regulated by several ge nes, the probability of spontaneous develop ment of copper resistant ( Cu R ) mutant s within a bacterial population is unlikely to occur On the other hand, spontaneous mutants could occur in the case of streptomycin resistance ( Snyder and Champness, 2003 ) St reptomycin has been shown to interact directly with the small ribosomal subunit ( Carter et al., 2000 ). A single mutation in the target site prevents streptomycin from binding rendering the bacteri um resistant to t his antibiotic ( Gale et al., 1981; Springe r et al 2001 ) Alternatively, streptomycin resistance may develop by horizontal gene transfer through conjugation of plasmids or transposable elements ( Bender, 1996 ; Burr et al., 1988; Chiou and Jones 1991 1995 ; Gale et al., 1981; Han et al., 2003; McM anus and Jones, 1994 ), which is also the primary mechanism for acquisition of copper resistance by bacteria ( Voloudakis et al., 1993; Cooksey et al., 1990 ) Genetic exchange of plasmids by conjugal transfer has been observed in different environments ( Bjo rklof et al., 2000 ; Canteros et al., 1995; Goodman et al., 1993; Kroer et al. 1998; Lilley et al., 1994; Sandaa and Enger, 1994; Sorensen, 1993; Weinberg and

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44 Stotzky, 1972 ) and is considered to be an important process in the selective adaptation of microor ganisms to shifting and challenging local environmental conditions ( Lilley and Bailey, 1997 ). Plant surfaces are colonized by numerous and diverse bacterial species U nder favorable environmental conditions such as high relative humidity or free water ba cterial population on leaves can reach 10 5 to 10 7 cfu per g of leaf ( Hirano and Upper, 1990 ; and Lindow. 1989 ) Bacterial communities living i n the phyllosphere are in constant and dynamic interacti on These epiphytic bacteria harbor divers e plasmi ds which potentially increase gene exchange in these communities ( Canteros et al., 1995; Lilley and Bailey, 1997; Sundin, and Bender, 1994 ; Sundin et al., 1994; Vivian et al., 2001 ) and make the phylloplane a microenvironment favorable for horizontal disse mination of genetic material ( Lindow and Leveau, 2002 ). The frequency of copper and streptomycin resistance genes is correlated with increasing loads of the selective chemical agents in the environment ( Beining et al., 1996 ; Burr et al., 1988 ; Huang and Bu rr 1999 ; Norelli et al., 1991; Sobiczewski et al., 1991 ; Stall and Thayer, 1962 ) Genetic horizontal transfer is a process highly dependent on bacterial populations ( Levin et al., 1979 ; Normander et al., 1998 ) The higher the frequency of resistant bacter ia to these chemicals in a given environment, the higher is the probability for horizontal transfer of resistance genes to sensitive bacterial strains. Thus, the expectation is that periodic application of copper or streptomycin based bactericides on crops to control bacterial diseases increases the selection pressure for the development of epiphytic bacteria l populations resistant to these chemicals elevating the risks for development of resistance within the plant pathogenic bacterial population. Once re sistance genes are acquired by the plant pathogen targeted by

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45 these chemicals, either by mutation or conjugation, the frequency of the resistant strains in the pathogen population will increase and further applications will be gradually be less effective f or disease control The objectives of this study are: 1) to assess the risks for the development of copper or streptomycin resistance in Xcc by monitoring the resistance levels in Xcc and epiphytic bacterial populations on citrus trees repeatedly sprayed w ith these chemicals for control of citrus canker and 2) to identify factors that enable the development of resistance including the presence of Xcc homologues for resistance genes in citrus epiphytic bacteria and their potential for horizontal transfer wi thin different Xanthomonas species and from citrus epiphytic bacteria to Xanthomonas Material and M ethods Development of a Semi Selective Medium for the Isolation of Copper and Streptomycin Resistant Strains of Xanthomonas c itri subsp. c itri from Plant Ma terial A series of tests were conducted to develop a semi selective medium for the recovery of Cu R or Sm R Xcc from plant material ( Table 2 1) The experiments aimed at suppressing contaminants to enhance growth of Xcc on various media amended with antibiot ics/fungicides and the major selective components, copper or streptomycin. Initially, NGA and MGY agar were tested as basic media to be amended with selective components. NGA agar (nutrient glucose agar nutrient agar 23.0 g L 1 glucose 0.1 g L 1 ) amende d with kasugamycin (K, 16 mg L 1 ) cephalexin (C, 16 mg L 1 ) and chlorothalonil BRAVO 720 (B, 12 mg L 1 ) has been previously used as a semi selective medium to isolate Xcc and Xac from diseased leaves ( Graham and Gottwald, 1990 ; R o istacher and Civerolo, 1989 ). M GY agar (mannitol glutamate yeast extract agar, mannitol 10 g L 1 L glutamic acid 2 g L 1 KH 2 PO 4 0.5 g L 1 NaCl 0.2 g L 1

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46 MgSO 4 .7H 2 O g L 1 yeast extract 1.0 g L 1 agar 15 g L 1 ) is a standard medium util ized to assess copper resistance in v itro ( Bender et al., 1990; Cooksey and Azad, 1992 ). Other adjustments consisted of assessing antibiotics and fungicides in different combinations and concentrations, evaluating growth of different Cu R or Sm R strains of Xcc and other species of Xanthomonas and determining the optimal concentration of copper and streptomycin for amendment of the semi selective medium to permit confluent growth of Cu R or Sm R Xcc and suppression of sensitive Xcc by the other selective components ( Table 2 1 ). Xcc strains 306, A44 and 306S were used as controls of copper/streptomycin sensitivity, copper resistance, and streptomycin resistance, respectively. Copper was used as copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO 4 .5H 2 O) and added to the medium from a 50 mg m L 1 stock solution before autoclaving. Plating of pure culture of Xcc was used to determine the recovery efficiency of Xcc on amended versus non amended medium. Xcc was pre grown overnight on NA (Nutrient Agar) amended with 20 mg L 1 of copper for induction of resistance ( Basim et al., 2005 ), suspended in sterile tap water, and plated on the selective medium using 100 L of suspensions at 10 6 10 4 and 10 2 cfu mL 1 to assess growth of individual colonies of Xcc. Bac terial cell suspensions were adjusted in a spectrophotometer (Spectr onic 20, Baush & Lomb, Inc.) to an OD of 0.3 at 600 nm, corresponding to approximately 5 x 10 8 cfu mL 1 and then diluted in sterile tap water before plating. Whenever used ( Table 2 1 ), washings from asymptomatic citrus leaves from commercial groves or was hings spiked with Cu R Xcc were plated on the medium to evaluate the efficiency of antibiotics and fungicides for suppressing growth of non target microorganisms present in the citrus phyllosphere in the presence and

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47 absence of Cu R Xcc. Citrus leaf washings were prepared in Erl e n meyer flasks by adding 10 mL of MGY broth per gram of leaf. MGY broth was amended with 1 mg L 1 of copper and 1% peptone to induce presumptive copper resistance genes present in the bacterial population prior to plating on a higher concentration of copper and to help release bacterial cells from the leaves into the broth, respectively. Flasks were shaken vigorously for 2 h at room temperature (RT) using a wrist shaker (Burrell, Pittsburgh, PA) Samples were plated using 100 L of 10 1 to 10 3 dilutions per plate For leaf washings amended with Xcc, Cu R A44 was added to the washing to yield 10 4 cfu mL 1 before shaking. Plates were incubated for 96 h at 28 o C before assessment of bacterial growth. The efficiency of the prospective semi s elective medium for recovering Cu R or Sm R Xcc was validated by plating pure cultures of Cu R or Sm R Xcc and washings from citrus leaves infected with these Xcc strains on the prospective medium Assays using pure cultures of Xcc strains Cu R A44, Sm R 306S or Cu S / Sm S 306 s were conducted as previously described. For assays using leaf washings y oung grapefruit leaves were infiltrated with the above strains of Xcc at low concentration s ( ca. 7 x 10 2 cfu mL 1 ) to obtain individual lesions that simulate natural i nfection s and lesion development on leaves. Because Cu R and Sm R strains of Xcc have not been found in Florida, naturally infected leaves could not be used to test for recovery of resistant strains to such chemicals on the selective media. Leaf washings we re prepared as described earlier. Samples were plated by spreading 100 L of 10 1 to 10 3 dilutions per pl ate. Bacterial counts were performed 96 h after plating by asses sing total number of Xcc colonies per plate and the presence of

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48 non target colonies Asymptomatic leaves from citrus groves were combined with the inoculated leaves at the ratio of 50% to increase diversity and concentration of microorganisms in the sample to be plated on the prospective selective media which was expected not only to supp ress other microorganisms from citrus phyllosphere, but also to allow typical growth of Xcc in the presence of selective components. Monitoring for the Presence of Resistant Populations o f Xanthomonas c itri subsp. citri and Epiphytic Bacteria on Young Citr us Trees Treated with Copper or Streptomycin Trial description The study was conducted in a commercial citrus grove with endemic citrus canker located in Fort Pierce, in Southeast Florida (latitude 27 o o altitude 11 m) Citrus paradisi Macfad ) trees grafted on Swingle citrumelo planted at spacing of 3.7 7.6 m ( approximately 360 trees per hectare) The trial started in 2008, when trees were 3 years old, and was conducted for three years. The experi ment was arranged in a completely randomized block design with five replicates per treatment and five trees per replicate (25 trees per treatment). Trees were treated with either copper, streptomycin or kept untreated (untreated control UTC). Experimenta l design and plot locations remained unchanged during the three seasons. Trees were sprayed with c opper hydroxide (Kocide 3000 30% m etallic copper) at 6.32 g per tree or streptomycin sulfate ( Firewall 22.3% a.i. ) at 4.69 g per tree on foliage every 2 1 days from March to October of each season. Approximately 3.0 3. 8 L per tree of spray, depending on the tree size, was applied with a with a handgun sprayer ( Chemical Containers Inc., Lake Wales, FL ) at 1380 kPa of air pressure. UTC trees were sprayed eve ry 21 days with water only

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49 Sampling and e valuations Epiphytic bacteria Citrus leaves were sampled monthly during the spray period of the first and second seasons (2008 and 2009, respectively) to assay for Cu R or Sm R epiphytic bacteria residing in the phyl losphere. Four mature, canker a symptomatic leaves were collected from different quadrants of each tree in the plot. In both seasons the first and last samplings were conducted before the first and after the last sprays, respectively. Leaves from the same p lot were bulked and washed under the same conditions previously described elsewhere in this chapter. Washings from the two treatments and UTC were diluted in tap water and 100 L of the 10 1 10 2 and 10 3 dilutions were plated onto plain MGY agar and MGY agar amended either with 200 mg L 1 of copper or 100 mg L 1 of streptomycin sulfate. Cycloheximide was added to all plates at 50 mg L 1 to suppress fungal growth. After 96 h of incubation at 28 o C, total colonies were counted on all three media. Cu R and Sm R epiphytic bacterial populations were expressed as the percentage of the number of colonies per gram of leaf obtained on MGY amended with copper or streptomycin, respectively, in comparison with the colony count present on plain MGY agar, which was also us ed to determine total bacterial population in the phyllosphere. Xanthomonas citri sub sp citri The development of Cu R or Sm R Xcc in sprayed trees was assessed monthly from March to October in the first two seasons as for the epiphytic bacteria and in May, June and July in the third season. For each assessment, 1 to 4 canker symptomatic citrus leaves per tree from the most recent mature flush were sampled from plots treated with copper or streptomycin. Leaves from the same plot were bulked and washed in MGY

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50 broth as described previously. Washings were diluted in tap water and plated onto the semi selective medium MGY KCH at 10 2 10 4 and 10 6 dilutions for determining total Xcc population and onto MGY KCH amended with 75 mg L 1 of copper or 100 mg L 1 of s treptomycin at 10 1 10 2 and 10 3 dilutions to assess for the presence of Cu R or Sm R strains of Xcc. Plates were incubated for 96 h at 28 o C before assessing for the presence of Xcc. Xcc like colonies were subcultured overnight in NA at 28 o C and infiltrate d in the mesophyll of grapefruit leaves at 10 8 cfu mL 1 to check for pathogenicity. Suspects were also streaked onto MGY agar amended with 200 mg L 1 of copper or 100 mg L 1 of streptomycin to confirm resistance to these chemicals. For Cu R suspects, strain s were pre grown overnight on NA + 20 mg L 1 of copper at 28 o C for induction of resistance before plating on MGY + 200 mg L 1 of copper ( Basim et al., 2005 ). Disease assessment The efficacy of copper and streptomycin for control of citrus canker was assess ed in August and October of the first two seasons by determining the incidence of canker symptomatic leaves and premature leaf drop ( Behlau et al., 2010 ). Six mature branches from all quadrants of each of the three innermost trees in the plots had the tota l number of leaves, leaves with canker and leaf scars quantified. Whenever possible, the most recent mature flushes on the branches (approximately 3 6 weeks old) were evaluated. Defoliation was assessed in October of each season only and was estimated as t he number of leaf scars present on the branch compared with the total of leaves initially presented on the branch (leaves present + scars observed). Both incidence of diseased leaves and defoliation were transformed to percentage data.

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51 Data analysis The p ercentage of Cu R or Sm R epiphytic bacteria and the logarithm of total bacterial population recovered from trees treated with copper or streptomycin were plotted over time for the two seasons assessed and compared at each evaluation by the standard error of the mean. Treatments were contrasted at the end of the season using the area under the progress curve (AUPC) of the percentage of Cu R or Sm R epiphytic bacteria ( Campbell and Madden, 1990 ). AUPC of citrus canker incidence and defoliation were compared amon g treatments by analyzing the variance with ANOVA and comparing the averages SAS Statistical Analysis System (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Screening Bacteria from the Citrus Phyllosphere for C opper Resistance Genes Isolation of citru s phyllosphere bacteria Cu R epiphytic bacterial strains were isolated from the citrus phyllosphere by washing mature canker asymptomatic citrus leaves as previously described and plating on MGY agar amended with 200 mg L 1 of copper. MGY agar was supplemen ted with cycloheximide at 50 mg L 1 to suppress fugal growth. Citrus leaf samples used in this study were collected from citrus commercial groves regularly treated with copper located in Fort Pierce, FL and Immokalee, FL in May and September 2007, respecti vely. After spreading 100 L of 10 1 to 10 3 dilutions of the leaf washings on MGY agar, plates were incubated for 96 h at 28 o C. For isolation, single colonies obtained on MGY + copper were subcultured on NA for culture purification and stored in sterile t ap water in 1.5 mL microfuge tubes at RT for further use. Strains were identified through fatty acid analysis as previously described ( Graham et al., 199 9 ). Fatty acid methyl esters were separated and profiles were identified using the Microbial Identifica tion (MIDI) System

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52 (Microbial ID, Inc. Newark, DE) in the Department of Plant Pathology, University of Florida, Gainesville. A similarity index was used to express the similarity of the test strain and strains in the library of fatty acid profiles stored i n the M IDI Library Generation Software. Based on the fatty acid identification the gram negative strains were selected and screened for Cu R genes A Cu R epiphytic strain of Xanthomonas sp. (INA69) stored in glycerol 20% at 80 o C isolated from the phyllosph ere of a Valencia sweet orange tree in Leesburg, Lake County, Florida in 1984, was included in this study. PCR analysis Fifty three selected gram negative bacterial strains from the citrus phyllosphere ( Table 3 5 ) were screened for the presence of Cu R gene s using PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis. The oligonucleotide primer seque nces used in this experiment were designed based on the Cu R genes copL copA and copB identified in Xcc A44 ( Table 3 3 ) as described in Chapter 4. Primers were synthesized b y Sigma Aldrich (Sigma Aldrich Co., St. Louis, MO). Amplification of target genes from all bacteria was performed using a DNA thermal cycler (MJ Research PTC 100, Cambridge, MA) and the Taq polymerase kit (Promega, Madison, WI). For extraction of template DNA, strains were individually grown overnight on NA, suspended in sterile deionized water (DI) in pools of 5 strains per suspension, boiled for 15 min, cooled on ice for 5 min, centrifuged at 15,000 rpm for 5 min and kept on ice to use the supernatant i n the PCR reaction mixture. Strains from pools that yielded positive results were further analyzed individually. Each PCR reaction mixture, prepared in 25 2 dATP, dTTP, dGTP, and dCTP), 0.5 25 pmol

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53 L 1 ), ate, and 0.2 DNA polymerase. PCR reactions were initially incubated at 95 C for 5 min. This was followed by 30 PCR cycles which were run under the following conditions: denaturation at 95C for 30 s, primer annealing at 60 o C for all set of primers for 30 s, and DNA extension at 72C for 45 s in each cycle. After the last cycle, PCR tubes were incubated for 10 min at 72 C and then at 4C. Cu R Xcc A44 alone and a 5 strain pool spiked with A44 were used as positive controls. PCR reaction mix tures w ere analyzed by 2 % a garose gel electrophoresis ( Bio Rad Laborat ories, Hercules, CA) with Tris acetate EDTA (TAE) buffer system. A 50 bp DNA ladder (Promega Madison, WI ) was used as the standard molecular size marker for PCR product sizing. R eaction products were visualized by staining the gel with ethidium bromide mL 1 ) for 20 min and then photographed using a UV transilluminator and Quantity One software ( Bio Rad Universal Hood II, Hercules, CA) Horizontal Transfer of Copper and Streptomyc in Resistance Genes Bacterial strains Horizontal gene transfer of copper and streptomycin resistance genes was investigated within different species of Xanthomonas and from citrus epiphytic bacteria to Xanthomona s. Rifamycin resistant (Rif R ) and spectinomy cin resistant (Spec R ) double mutants of Cu S Sm S strains of Xcc, Xac, X anthomonas vesicatoria (Xv) and X anthomonas perforans (Xp) were used as recipients ( Table s 3 5 and 3 6 ). Cu R strains of Xcc, Xac, Xv, Xp and X. sp. INA69, an epiphytic Xanthomonas strain isolated from the citrus phyllosphere, as well as eleven Gram negative non Xanthomonas strains resistant to copper and/or streptomycin isolated from the citrus phyllosphere were used as donors ( Table s 3 5 and 3 6 ).

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54 Th ese non Xanthomonas epiphytic strains were selected from the collection of strains screened for copper resistance genes as previously described in this chapter. The selected epiphytic strains initially identified through fatty acid analysis had the identity rechecked using 16S rRNA gene sequen cing method ( Han, 2006 ). Sequences obtained for the unknown organisms were compared to 16S data in Genbank using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool for Nucleotides (BLASTN), National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCB I), USA ( Altschul et al, 1990 ). Conjugation assays were also conducted using washings of citrus leaves collected in May, July and September 2009 from grapefruit trees treated with copper or streptomycin every 21 days from March to November 2008 and from March until the assessment month i n 2009. These washings were used for monitoring the development of Cu R and Sm R bacterial population s on grapefruit trees sprayed with these chemicals as detailed previously in this chapter. Washings from each of the five plots per treatment were mated sepa rately with the two recipient strains tested in the three months evaluated ( Table 3 6 ), resulting in15 matings per treatment per recipient strain. All other matings were tested three times ( Table 3 6 ). Conjugation in vitro Bacterial strains were mated in l iquid and on solid media. For conjugation on solid medium, which was used in matings involving pure cultures of Xanthomona strains s with other xanthomonads and Xanthomonas with epiphytic bacteria ( Table 3 6 ), a loop of 24 h bacterial culture of donor and recipient strains pre grown on NA was spot mixed and grown on NA agar amended with 20 mg L 1 of copper at 28 o C for 24 h. Bacterial cells were then suspended in sterile tap water before plating.

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55 Conjugation in liquid medium was used only for matings betwee n Xanthomonas and citrus epiphytic bacteria ( Table 3 6 ). Epiphytic bacteria were used as pure culture strains and as bacterial suspensions of citrus leaf washings ( Table 3 6 ), which were primarily used in this study for monitoring Cu R and Sm R bacterial pop ulation on citrus leaves sprayed with these chemicals as detailed previously in this chapter. For matings in liquid media involving pure culture epiphytic bacteria, 2 mL of MGY broth amended with 1 mg L 1 of copper were inoculated with a loop of 24 h NA ba cterial culture of donor (epiphytic bacteria) and recipient ( Xanthomonas ) strains ( Table 3 6 ) and incubated for 24 h at 28 o C under shaking at 200 rpm using a KS10 orbital shaker (BEA Enprotech Corp., Hyde Park, MA). For conjugation in liquid medium using b acterial suspensions from citrus leaves, 5 mL of washing was spiked separately with Xcc 306 and Xp 91 118. Before adding to the mating broth, these recipient strains were grown overnight on NA, resuspended in sterile tap water and added to the washing to y ield 10 4 cfu mL 1 a concentration similar to the epiphytic bacteria in the washing suspension. Tubes were incubated for 24 h at 28 o C under constant shaking using a KS10 orbital shaker (BEA Enprotech Corp., Hyde Park, MA). For each mating, either in liquid or on solid media, 50 and 300 L of the mating suspension were plated on NA amended with rifamycin (80 mg L 1 ), spectinomycin (100 mg L 1 ) and copper (200 mg L 1 ) or streptomycin (100 mg L 1 ) for transconjugant selection. To determine the population of th e donor strain, 100 L of the suspensions were also plated at 10 4 and 10 6 dilutions on NA amended with rifamycin and spectinomycin at the above concentrations. The conjugation frequency was determined as the ratio between the number of transconjugants ob tained for a

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56 specific mating and the total population of the recipient strain recovered per mL of mating suspension. Conjugation in planta Conjugation in planta was tested for transfer of copper resistance genes using Xcc and Xac strains only ( Table 3 6 ). Bacterial cells were previously grown overnight on NA, suspended in sterile tap water and infiltrated with a hypodermic needle and syringe into young grapefruit leaves. Recipient and donor strains were infiltrated separately at concentrations of 5 x 10 8 a nd 10 9 cfu mL 1 respectively. Bac terial cell suspensions were adjusted in a spectrophotometer (Spectronic 20, Baush & Lomb, Inc.) to an OD of 0.3 and 0.6 at 600 nm, corresponding to approximately 5 x 10 8 and 10 9 cfu mL 1 respectively. After infiltration of bacterial suspensions, plants were incubated at 28 o C for 72 h in a growth room wit h a diurnal light cycle of 12 h Following, four leaf tissue discs of 0.5 cm 2 were cut from each infiltrated leaf and macerated in 2 mL of MGY both amended with 1 mg mL 1 o f copper. From each mating, 200 and 500 L of bacterial suspension were immediately plated onto NA plates amended with rifamycin (80 mg L 1 ), spectinomycin (100 mg L 1 ) and copper (200 mg L 1 ). Isolation of p lasmid DNA Transfer of plasmid harboring copper resistance genes from Cu R to Cu S strains was substantiated through plasmid profil ing. Bacterial strains were grown overnight in 2 mL nutrient broth (NB) at 28 o C under agitation at 200 rpm using a KS10 orbital shaker (BEA Enprotech Corp., Hyde Park, MA). B acterial cell suspensions were then standardized to an OD of 0.3 A at 600 nm using a spectrophotometer ( Spectronic 20, Baush & Lomb, Inc.) Plasmid DNA was extracted following the method of Kado and Liu (1981 ) with modifications ( Minsavage et al., 1990 ). D etection of plasmids was

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57 performed by electrophoresis as described previously ( Minsavage et al., 1990 ). After extraction, 28 L of samples were run in a 0.5% agarose gel, stained with ethidium bromide mL 1 ) for 30 min and photographed using a UV tr ansilluminator and Quantity One software ( Bio Rad Universal Hood II, Hercules, CA) Plasmids of Pantoea stewartii SW2 (syn. Erwinia stewartii ) were used as molecular weight markers ( Coplin et al. 1981 ). Assessment of Copper Resistance in Citrus Epiphytic B acteria Epiphytic bacterial strains isolated from the citrus phyllosphere previously used for conjugation assays and screened for Cu R resistance genes using PCR, as aforementioned in this chapter, were characterized regarding the ability to grow and/or sur vive at different concentrations of copper on solid medium and in water. Cu R and Cu S strains of Xcc and Xac were included in this study as reference strains. Copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO 4 .5H 2 O) was used for the copper resistance assessments and strai ns were maintained on NA prior to the assays. For tests on solid medium, strains were grown overnight on NA amended with 20 mg L 1 of copper for induction of resistance ( Basim et al., 2005 ), suspended in sterile tap water at approximately 5 x 10 8 cfu mL 1 and then spotted in triplicate on MGY agar supplemented with 0, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 800 mg L 1 of copper. Plates were incubated for 96 h prior to assessment of bacterial growth. The level of copper resistance was determined by compari ng bacterial growth on MGY amended with various concentrations of copper and on MGY alone. For assessment in water, strains were previously induced on NA + 20 mg L 1 of copper as described above and added to a final concentration of 10 3 cfu mL 1 into 5 mL of sterile distilled (DI) water amended with 0.01 M of magnesium sulfate (MgSO 4 ) and

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58 copper at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 mg L 1 Test tubes were kept at 28 o C under agitation at 200 rpm using a KS10 orbital shaker (BEA Enprotech Corp., Hyde Park, MA). Bacterial sus pensions were sampled at 0, 1, 2 4, 8, and 24 h after exposing to copper by plating 100 L onto NA. Plates were incubated at 28 o C for 96 h prior to assessment of growth. Expression of copLAB from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in Xanthomonas The gene clust er copLAB was PCR amplified from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain FB03P ( Stm FB03P) isolated from the phyllosphere of a grapefruit tree and introduced through triparental mating into Cu S Xanthomonas species. Primers CopLABF GCGTGACTT TGTCCGTGAACTC CGCACCTCAATGGAA CGCTC gned based on the sequence of copper resistance determinants from Xcc A44 (Chapter 4), were used to amplify the 3.7 kp gene cluster from FB03P. Before cloning, the PCR product was purified using the QIAq uick PCR purification cloned into pGEM T Easy vector (Promega, Madison, WI) instructions and then cut from pGEM using Eco RI and introduced into pLA FR3 ( Staskawicz et al., 1987 ) to obtain pStmCu1. Ligations were performed with T4 DNA ligase ( Promega, Madison, WI ) as described by the manufacturer. Ligation products were transformed into competent cells of E scherichia coli DH5 produced by the calcium chloride procedure as described by Sambrook et al. ( 1989 ). pStmCu1 was then conjugated from E. coli DH5 in to Rif R and Spec R copper sensitive (Cu S ) strains of Xcc 306, Xac 1390, Xp 91 118, and Xv 82 8 by triparental matings with p RK2013 as the helper plasmid ( Figurski and Helinski, 1979 ) Matings were carried out by mixing mid exponential phase cells of the recipient strain ME24 w ith cosmid donor and with pRK2073 on NYG agar ( Turner et al., 1984 ) at the ratio of 2:1:1 (vol/vol/vol) of recipient,

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59 donor and helper strains, respectively After 24 h of incubation at 28C, the mating mixtures were resuspended in 2 mL of mannitol glutamate yeast extract ( MGY ) broth amended with 1 mg L 1 of copper for induction of copper resistance. Aliquo ts of 50 L were spread onto nutrient agar (NA) plates containing kanamycin and tetracycline for selection of transconjugants Plates were incubated for 96 h at 28 o C. Transconjugants were then grown overnight on NA amended with 20 mg L 1 o f copper for indu ction of resistance to copper ( Basim et al., 2005 ) and suspended in sterile tap water at approximately 10 8 cfu mL 1 Suspensions were spotted (10 L) on NA amended with 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, 300, and 400 mg L 1 of copper sulfate pentahydrate and ev aluated for resistance to copper after 96 h of incubation at 28 o C. Introduction of Stm FB03P copLAB on pStmCu1plasmid into Cu S strains of Xanthomonas was confirmed individually for each gene by PCR using primers designed for copL copA and copB from Xcc A44 ( Table 3 3 ) as mentioned earlier in this chapter. Finally, the 3.7 kb copLAB gene cluster from Stm FB03P in pGEM and PCR products from each gene obtained from the transconjugants were sequenced and compared. DNA sequencing was performed by the DNA Seq uencing Core Laboratory of the Interdisciplinary Center for Biotechnology Research (ICBR), University of Florida, Gainesville. For the 3.7 kb copLAB in pGEM, s equencing was initiated using the standard flanking vector F20 and R24 primers. Custom primers de signed based on the sequences obtained with F20 and R24 primers w ere used to complete the se quencing Sequencing of individual PCR products of copL copA and copB was performed with primers used for PCR analysis ( Table 3 3 ). Sequences were then aligned us ing Clustal W ( Thompson et al., 1994 )

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60 Results Development of a Semi Selective Medium for the Isolation of Copper and Streptomycin Resistant Strains of Xanthomonas c itri subsp. c itri from Plant Material Amendment of MGY with kasugamycin, cephalexin and chl orothalonil at previously reported concentrations ( Graham and Gottwald, 1990 ) did not affect recovery and growth of Cu R and Cu S Xcc. Recovery of Cu R Xcc on MGY KCB amended with 50 mg L 1 of copper was comparable to MGY KCB and MGY alone ( Figur e 3 1A ). Alth ough Cu S Xcc was fully recovered on NGA KCB, recovery of Cu R Xcc was reduced in the presence of KCB and completely suppressed when copper was added to NGA KCB ( Figure 3 1A ), leading to the selection of MGY as the basal medium. Color of Xcc colonies on MGY is slightly different than observed on NGA. On MGY Xcc colonies are light yellow or pale yellow, whereas on N G A colonies have a brighter and vivid yellow appearance ( Figure 3 1A ). No other differences in the colony characteristics were observed. Suppres sion of fungal growth on MGY KC agar was more satisfactory when chlorothalonil (Bravo 720) was replaced by cycloheximide (H) ( Figur e 3 1B ). Additional antibiotics were tested but were determined to be unsuitable for incorporating into MGY KCH medium for se veral reasons. 5 F luorouracil reduced growth and recovery of Xcc when added to MGY KCH ( Figur e 3 1C ) Boric acid and tobramycin reduced growth of Cu R Xcc in the presence of copper ( Figur e 3 1D) and, even when these two antibiotics were used at lower concen tration s and Xcc was fully recovered on MGY KC H, no improvement in suppression of contaminants and selectivity for Xcc was observed ( Figur e 3 1E ) The use of higher concentrations of cephalexin ( Figur e 3 1F ) and kasugamycin in MGY than used by Graham and G ottwald

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61 ( 1990 ) either impaired or prevented growth of Cu R Xcc. Satisfactory suppression of fungal contaminants was obtained with cycloheximide at 50 mg mL 1 The resistance level of Cu R Xcc to copper on MGY was reduced in the presence of KCH. As observed e lsewhere in this chapter, A44 can grow on MGY amended with up to 400 mg L 1 of copper. However, this level was reduced to 100 mg L 1 when the medium was amended with KCH ( Figur e 3 1G ). Satisfactory suppression of Cu S Xcc and confluent growth of Cu R Xcc was observed when MGY KCH was amended with 75 and 100 mg L 1 of copper ( Figur e 3 1G ). Likewise, 100 mg L 1 of streptomycin allowed and prevented efficient growth of Sm R and Sm S Xcc, respectively. Recovery of different Cu R or Sm R strains of Xcc or other specie s of Xanthomonas on MGY KCH amended with copper or streptomycin was comparable to MGY alone ( Figur e 3 1H ). MGY agar amended with 16 mg L 1 of kasugamycin (K), 16 mg L 1 of cephalexin (C), and 50 mg L 1 of cycloheximide ( H ) provided the most favorable re sul ts and the final medium was designated MGY KCH. It allowed selective growth of Cu R and S m R strain s of Xcc in the presence of copper at 75 mg L 1 or streptomycin at 100 mg L 1 respectively ( Figure 3 2; Table 3 2 ) and suppressed other microorganisms natural ly present in the citrus phyllosphere ( Figure 3 2 ) Monitoring for the Presence of Resistant Populations o f Xanthomonas c itri subsp. citri and Epiphytic Bacteria on Young Citrus Trees Treated with Copper or Streptomycin No significant difference in total epiphytic bacterial population on trees sprayed with copper or streptomycin was observed over time in comparison to the UTC ( Figure 3 5 ) From March to October in the two years assessed, total bacterial populations recovered from citrus leaves varied from 1.4 x 10 4 to 1.9 x 10 6 cfu per gram of plant material ( Figure 3 5 ). Copper and streptomycin sprays increased the ratios of epiphytic

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62 bacterial population s with resistance to these chemicals in the two seasons studied ( Figure 3 3 ) The frequency of Cu R bact eria on trees sprayed with copper was significantly higher than UTC and streptomycin treated trees for most of the assessments from the third month of sprays (May) to the end of the season (October) for both years studied ( Figure 3 3 A and B ). Likewise, Sm R bacterial population on streptomycin treated trees increased significantly from the fourth month (June) to the last month sprayed (October) ( Figure 3 3 C and D ). These trends were significant for the AUPC of resistant epiphytic bacteria ( Figure 3 4 ) The R and Sm R epiphytic bacteria for trees treated with copper and streptomycin, respectively, were Figure 3 3 ). Overall, the frequency of Sm R epiphytic bacteria on treated and untreated leaves wa s proportionally lower than the Cu R bacterial population ( Figure 3 3 ) No Cu R or Sm R Xcc was recovered from citrus trees treated with these chemicals for three consecutive seasons. The total population of Xcc recovered from canker symptomatic leaves ranged from 2 x10 5 to 3 x 10 7 cfu per gram of leaf. Citrus canker incidence on leaves and defoliation were significantly lower on copper treated trees ( Figure 3 6 ). In October 2008 the differences were evident ( Figure 3 7 ) and the percentage of leaves with canke r for copper treated trees and UTC was 21.7 and 70.8, respectively. In October 2009, the incidence followed the same trend observed in the previous year and reached 36.4% and 82.4% on treated and untreated trees, respectively ( Figure 3 6 A and B ) As a co nsequence of the high incidence of citrus canker, defoliation observed for UTC in October of 2008 ( Figure 3 8 ) and 2009 was more than four fold higher than for copper treated trees ( Figure 3 6C). While leaf drop

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63 for UTC reached 35 % and 29% in 2008 and 2009 respectively, defoliation did not exceed 8% for trees treated with copper during the same periods ( Figure 3 6C) Disease incidence and defoliation w ere intermediate for streptomycin treated trees and did not differ statistically from the UTC ( Figure 3 6 ) Screening Bacteria from the Citrus Phyllosphere for C opper Resistance Genes Of 53 epiphytic strains isolated from citrus trees tested using PCR, only strains INA69 and FB03P harbored copper resistance genes homologous to those found in Cu R Xcc. INA69 is an epiphytic Xanthomonas and FB03P is Stenotrophomonas maltophilia The Xanthomonas strain was isolated from the phyllosphere of a Valencia sweet orange tree in Leesburg, Lake County, Florida in 1984 and the S maltophilia strain is from a grapefruit grov e in Fort Pierce, Saint Lucie County, Florida obtained in 2007. INA69 and FB03P tested positive for the three genes involved in copper resistance that are described in Chapter 4. The sizes of PCR products obtained for these two strains using primers design ed for resistance genes copL copA and copB were comparable to the sizes observed for Cu R Xcc A44 ( Figure 3 9 ). No DNA amplification was observed for any of the cop genes for the other epiphytic strains tested. Horizontal Transfer of Copper a nd Streptomy cin Resistance Genes Conjugation assays demonstrated that copper resistance genes are likely harbored on large (~300 kb) conjugative plasmids ( Figure 3 10 ) which can be exchanged within different species of Xanthomonas ( Table 3 7 ). Cu R genes were shown to move from Xcc to Xcc, Xac and Xp, from Xac to Xac, Xcc and Xp, from Xp to Xp, Xcc, and Xac, and from Xv to Xv and Xcc ( Table 3 7 ). Conjugation frequency of copper resistance genes ranged from 10 7 to 10 5 transconjugants per recipient cell ( Table 3 7 ). On the contrary, conjugation of Cu R genes did not occur from Xcc, Xac, and Xp to Xv

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64 and from Xv to Xac and Xp ( Table 3 7 ). Likewise, conjugation assays in planta or involving epiphytic bacteria, either as isolated strains or from leaf washings were negative for recovery of Cu R or Sm R transconjugant strains on the selective medium. Assessment of Copper Resistance in Citrus Epiphytic Bacteria The selected Cu R epiphytic bacterial strains isolated from citrus groves treated with copper behaved differently when e xposed to several concentrations of copper on solid medium and in water ( Figures 3 1 1 and 3 1 3 ). On MGY agar, Cu S and Cu R control strains of Xanthomonas grew up to 75 and 400 mg L 1 of copper, respectively ( Figure 3 1 1 ). Among the epiphytic strains, the hi ghest and lowest resistance levels were observed for strains FB38P of Luteibacter yeojuensis and FB35P of Sphingomonas sp., respectively ( Figures 3 1 1 ) While the former strain grew on MGY amended with up to 800 mg L 1 of copper, the latter could not grow at concentrations higher than 200 mg L 1 ( Figure 3 11 ). Nine of the 12 epiphytic strains tested were able to grow at 400 mg L 1 or higher concentrations of copper on solid medium ( Figure 3 1 1 ). W hen the same strains were exposed to copper in water Sphingo monas sp. FB49P, which was one of the least resistant on MGY agar, showed the lowest levels of resistance and could not be recovered after 2 h of exposure at any of the copper concentrations tested ( Figure 3 13 ). By contrast, Methylobacterium sp. strains F B10P and FB61P and Sphingomonas melonis strain FB70P showed the highest resistance. For these strains, the number of viable cells increased at lower concentrations of copper and remained unchanged or declined slightly after being exposed to 8 mg L 1 of cop per for 24 h ( Figure 3 13 ). Cu S negative control strains Xcc 306 and Xac 1390 were not recovered after 4 h of exposure to any of the concentrations of copper tested ( Figure 3 12 ). By contrast, survival of control strains resistant to copper, Xcc A44 and Xa c 1381 in

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65 water amended with copper was inversely proportional to the concentration of copper in solution ( Figure 3 12 ). Viable cells of Xcc A44 and Xac 1381 were recovered on NA after exposure to 1, 2 and 4 mg L 1 of copper for 24 h. However, these bacter ia could not be recovered after 8 h at 8 mg L 1 of copper ( Figure 3 12 ). R esistance levels observed on solid medium and in water for these two strains was comparable to strains INA69 and FB03P ( Figures 3 11 to 3 12 ) which were shown to harbor homologues o f copper resistance genes found in Xanthomonas A44 and 1381 ( Figure 3 9 ). Expression of copLAB from Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in Xanthomonas Introduction of copLAB gene cluster from Stm FB03P through triparental mating conferred copper resistance to Cu S strains of Xcc, Xac, Xp, and Xv. Transconjugants were able to grow on MGY agar supplemented with 200 mg L 1 of Cu after 96 h of incubation. As a reference, the sensitive strains used as recipients can grow on MGY amended with up to 50 75 mg L 1 of Cu. S equence analysis of the 3.7 kb copLAB cloned gene cluster (GenBank accession number HM636054) confirmed the presence of ORFs copL copA and copB, which indicates accuracy of PCR amplification and confirm s the similarities of copLAB from Stm FB03P and Xcc A44, as detailed in Chapter 4. Moreover, PCR analyses confirmed the presence of each of the three genes in all recipient strains. Nucleotide sequences of PCR products of pStmCu1 i n Xcc 306 harboring the copper resistance genes from Stm FB03P were 100% iden tical with the 3.7 kb fragment originally cloned and used for conjugations. Discussion The newly developed semi selective medium, MGY KCH, amended with copper or streptomycin was satisfactory for recovery of Cu R and Sm R strains of Xcc from plant

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66 material p reviously inoculated with known resistant strains. As is typical of most semi selective media, the efficiency of MGY KC H for suppressi ng phyllosphere microorganisms was somewhat variable, ranging from complete inhibition of contaminants to high selectivity of Xcc. Several antib iotics could not be added to the medium a s selective agent s for recovery of Xcc be cause the presence of copper increased sensitivity of Xcc to certain compounds. For this reason, the level of copper added to MGY KC H had to be lowered from 200 mg L 1 a standard concentration used to assess copper resistance of Xcc in vitro ( Basim et al., 2005 ) to 75 mg L 1 S uch a concentration was high enough to suppress copper sensitive strains of Xcc and select for the Cu R one s. The use of MGY KCH amended with copper or streptomycin to screen resistant strains of Xcc alleviates the need for isolating the pathogen from plant material prior to testing for resistance to the compounds. Thus the semi selective medium was a very useful tool for efficientl y screening for the presence of Cu R and S m R strains of Xcc in citrus groves The development of strains resistant to copper has been reported for many bacterial pathogens affecting crops ( Adaskaveg and Hine, 1985; Andersen et al., 1991; Bender and Cooksey, 1986; Cazorla et al., 2002; Cooksey et al., 1990; Marco and Stall, 1983; Martin e t al., 2004; Ritchie and Dittapongpitch, 199 1 Scheck and Pscheit, 1998; Stall et al., 1986 ; Sundin et al., 1989 ). However, in the present study, no Cu R strain of Xcc was isol ated from citrus trees sprayed with a copper bactericide every 21 days for 3 consecutive seasons. Due to the nature of the genetics of copper resistance in bacteria, which is conferred by several genes normally organized in operons ( Cooksey, 1990; Mellano and Cooksey, 1988 a; Voloudakis et al., 2005 ), a natural spontaneous mutation

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67 conferring copper resistance is unlikely to occur within bacterial populations. Conjugation of plasmid or transposable elements carrying such resistance genes is likely to be the main means for enabling the development of copper resistance in bacterial populations ( Bender and Cooksey, 1986 ; Bender et al., 1990; Stall et al., 1986 ). This is a process difficult to track in nature and is highly dependent on many local environmental fa ctors such as cell density ( Levin et al., 1979 ; Normander et al., 1998 ), g rowth phase ( Muela et al., 1994 ), temperature ( Khalil and Gealt, 1987 ) as well as pH, cations, salinity, dissolved oxyge n, and nutrient availability ( Khalil and Gealt, 1987; Roszak a nd Colwell, 1987 ) Long history of exposure to copper bactericides is a common factor identified in previous reports of the development of Cu R in Xcc ( Canteros, 1996 ) and other bacterial plant pathogens ( Adaskaveg and Hine 1985 ; Andersen et al., 1991 ). Th e relatively short period that Xcc population was exposed to copper during this study (3 seasons) and before that, due to the recent adoption of copper sprays for control of citrus canker in Florida after the eradication program was halted in 2005, may hav e accounted for the absence of Cu R strains of Xcc in symptomatic trees repeatedly treated with copper in this study. As observed for copper, no Sm R strains were isolated after citrus trees had undergone 3 seasons of 21 day interval sprays of streptomycin in the present study. The efficacy of streptomycin sprays for control of citrus canker has been tested as a complementary measure to copper bactericides routinely used in citrus producing areas with endemic occurrence of the disease ( Graham et al., 2008 ). Streptomycin is widely used in apple and pear groves for control of bacterial blight caused by Erwinia amylovora However, the development of resistant strains to this antibiotic due to

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68 intensive use has been reported from many areas in the United States ( Coyier and Covey 1975 ; Miller and Schroth, 1972 ; Schroth et al. 1979 ; Shaffer and Goodman 1985 ) and Canada ( Sholberg et al., 2001 ) and has hampered disease control. Streptomycin has not been used in commercial citrus groves and the development of Xcc stra ins resistant to this antibiotic in the field has not been reported. Resistance to streptomycin develops either by horizontal transfer of resistance genes or by mutation ( Gale et al., 1981; Springer et al., 2001 ). The latter is the more common mechanism of streptomycin resistance acquisition and occurs through a single base pair mutation of the streptomycin binding site ( Springer et al., 2001 ) Evidences for these two processes have been demonstrated previously in plant pathogenic bacteria ( Burr et al., 198 8; Schroth et al., 1979 ). Occurrence of Sm R mutant strains is rare in nature due to reduced fitness ( Schroth et al., 1979 ). However, continued use of this antibiotic in the field for control of plant disease after the emergence of resistant genotypes allow s the mutant bacteria to compensate for lack of fitness associated with the newly acquired resistance genes ( Schroth et al., 1979 ). Thus, although a number of factors can contribute to the development of bacterial populations resistant to streptomycin, cle arly the selection pressure posed by regular sprays of the antibiotic and random mutations are the most important. Thus, although Sm R strains of Xcc were not found in the present study after 3 seasons of sprays, previous studies indicate that development o f resistance in the Xcc population could occur any time. With continued use of streptomycin resistance development is inevitable due to incessant mutation and selection in bacterial populations (Moller et al. 1981 ) What remains to be addressed is how li kely Sm R strains

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69 will develop in Xcc population s if only a few streptomycin sprays are intercalated or mixed with copper applications for control of citrus canker. Although no Cu R or Sm R strains of Xcc were found, the frequent sprays of copper and strepto mycin increased the population of epiphytic bacteria resistant to these chemicals residing i n the citrus phyllosphere. The increased frequency is likely to reflect changes in community structure, adaptation of the initial community as well as selection of resistant populations initially present. Previous studies report ed a correspondence between exposure to bactericides and the frequency of resistant strains to these chemicals in the environment ( Berg et al., 2005; Kunito et al. 1999 ; Smit et al. 1997 ). In the present study, total bacterial population in the phyllosphere did not differ between copper or streptomycin treated trees and untreated control. Therefore Cu R and Sm R bacterial communities may have taken over the sensitive ones, which were suppressed b y the frequent bactericide sprays. Considering that cell density plays an important role in conjugation frequency ( Levin et al., 1979 ; Normander et al., 1998 ) the concern for build up Cu R and Sm R bacterial communities in the phyllosphere is that it increa ses the likelihood for exchange of resistance genes. Consequently, there is greater risk for the development of resistant strains of Xcc to these chemicals. As reported previously for other Xanthomonas ( Bender et al., 1990 ; Cooksey et al., 1990 ; Stall et al., 1986 ), the Cu R genes in Xcc are located on large conjugative plasmids. We showed that Cu R genes can be transferred between different plant pathogenic species of Xanthomonas and that homologous of these resistance genes present in epiphytic bacteria r esiding on the citrus phyllosphere can confer copper resistance to sensitive strains of Xanthomonas Therefore, despite that the movement of

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70 copper or streptomycin resistance genes from epiphytic strains to Xanthomonas could not be demonstrated in the pres ent study, it is possible that in nature phyllosphere microorganisms represent a risk for the development of resistance in the Xcc population. In Erwinia amylovora causal agent of fireblight on pear and apple, mobilizable streptomycin resistance genes hav e been previously identified in common epiphytic bacteria found in orchards ( Beining et al., 1996 ; Burr et al., 1988 ; Huang and Burr 1999 ; Norelli et al., 1991; Sobiczewski et al., 1991 ). The common plasmid borne s treptomycin resistance genes strA strB ge nes have been well characterized in populations of epiphytic bacteria that co exist in close proximity to E. amylovora ( Huang and Burr 1999 ; Sobiczewski et al., 1991 ). According to Sundin (2002 ), strA strB genes can be carried within an integron, a transpo son, or on broad host range plasmids This genetic exchange has facilitated the world wide dissemination of this determinant for streptomycin resistance among at least 21 bacterial genera ( Sundin 2002 ). C ooksey et al. (1990) reported t he presence of Cu R s aprophytic P seudomonas p utida strains that harbor plasmid borne resistance genes homolog ous to those in P syringae pv. tomato from a commercial tomato seed lot In addition to the contribution of seedborne saprophytic bacteria to the spread of resistant b acterial populations between fields and between different geographical areas the results reported here illustrate that copper resistance genes can potentially be shared between pathogenic Xanthomonas sp. and non pathogenic epiphytic bacteria in the citrus phyllosphere.

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71 Table 3 1 Steps used for development of a semi selective medium for the recovery of copper or streptomycin resistant strains of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri from plant material. Step Purpose a Medium Tested b, c Selective components ( mg L 1 ) c Sample plated a Basic medium Verify the ability of Xcc to grow on NGA and MGY agar amended with KCB and Cu NGA NGA + KCB NGA + KCB + Cu MGY MGY + KCB MGY + KCB + Cu K (16) C (16) B (12) Cu (50) Pure culture of Xcc Cu R A44 and Cu S 306 Chlorotha lonil versus cycloheximide Asses the efficacy of fungicides chlorothalonil and cycloheximide to suppress fungal growth and allow confluent growth and selection of Xcc in the presence of Cu MGY MGY + KC + B MGY + KC + B + Cu MGY + KC + H MGY + KC + H + Cu K (16) C (16) B (12) H (40) Cu (50) Pure culture of Xcc Cu R A44 and Cu S 306, citrus leaf washing amended or not with Cu R A44. Additional antibiotics Evaluate the efficiency of other antibiotics to improve suppression of contaminants and allow confluent gro wth and selection of Xcc MGY MGY + KCH MGY + KCH + FBo MGY + KCH + FBoT K (16) C (16) H (40) F (6,12) Bo (150, 300) T (0.20, 0.40) Pure culture of Xcc Cu R A44 and Cu S 306, citrus leaf washing amended or not with Cu R A44. Concentration of KCH V erify the effect of different concentrations of KCeCy on the suppression of contaminants and growth of Xcc in the presence of Cu MGY MGY + KCH + Cu K (16, 32), C (16, 32, 60) H (50, 100) Pure culture of Xcc Cu R A44 and Cu S 306, citrus leaf washing amen ded or not with A44. Cu concentration Assess the optimal concentration of Cu that suppress Cu S strains and allow Cu R strains to grow in the presence of antibiotics/fungicides. MGY + KCH MGY + KCH + Cu K (16) C (16) H (50) Cu (25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200) Pure culture of Xcc Cu R A44 and Cu S 306

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72 a Cu R /Sm R and Cu S /Sm S indicate copper (Cu) or streptomycin (Sm) resistant and sensitive strains, respective ly; Xcc, Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri ; Xv, Xanthomonas vesicatoria ; Xcc, Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis ; b MGY, mannitol glutamate yeast extract agar; NGA, nutrient glucose agar; c K, kasugamycin; C, cephalexin; H, cycloheximide; F, 5 fluoro uracil; T, tobramaycin; Bo, boric acid; B, chlorothalonil (Bravo 720); Cu, copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO 4 .5H 2 O); Sm, streptomycin sulfate. Table 3 1 Continued Sm concentration Assess the optimal concentration of Sm that suppress Sm S strains and allow Sm R strains to grow in the presence of antibiotics/fungicides. MGY + KCH MGY + KCH + Sm K ( 16) C (16) H (50) Sm (25, 50, 75, 100) Pure culture of Xcc Sm R 306S and Sm S 306 Different strains and species Evaluate growth of different strains and different species of Cu R or Sm R Xanthomona s on the newly developed semi selective media, MGY KCH MGY + KCH MGY + KCH + Cu MGY + KCH + Sm K (16) C (16) H (50) Cu (75) Sm (100) Pure culture of Cu R Xcc A26 and A16, Xv 81 23, Xac 1381 and Sm R Xac 1620 c

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73 Table 3 2 Recovery of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) on MGY KC H amended or not with copper or streptomycin. Medium a Xcc Strain 306 (Cu S /Sm S ) b A44 (Cu R /Sm S ) 306S (Cu S /Sm R ) MGY 100.0 100.0 100.0 MGY KCH 92.8 c 103.6 92.3 MGY KCH Cu 0.0 96.4 0.0 MGY KCH Sm 0.0 0.0 94.0 a MGY, mannitol glutamate yeast extract agar; K, kasugamycin (16 mg L 1 ); C, cephalexin (16 mg L 1 ); H, cycloheximide (50 mg L 1 ); Cu, copper sulfate pentahydrate CuSO 4 .5H 2 O (75 mg L 1 ); Sm, streptomycin sulfate (100 mg L 1 ). b Cu R /Sm R and Cu S /Sm S indicate copper (Cu) or streptomycin (Sm) resistant and sensitive strains, re spectively; c Percentage relative to recovery on plain MGY agar.

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74 Table 3 3 O ligonucleotide primer sets used for screening citrus phyllosphere bacteria for the presence of copper resistance genes copL copA and copB Gene Primer name Sequen Length (bp a ) GC b (%) Tm c ( o C) Product size (bp) copL copLF CCGTGTCAAGCCTCCTCACTTCTAC 25 56 63 ~360 copLR CAGCGGCATGACATCCAGGCC 21 67 63 copA copAF CCTCCATGGCACGGACACTTCCATC 25 60 65 ~870 copAR CCAGACATATCCATCGACCCATGATCCA 28 50 63 co pB copBF CTCAGGATCACTCTGCACATCAG 23 52 60 ~535 copBR GCACGTAGCTCTTAATCGAGTTGTC 25 48 60 a bp, base pair; b guanine (G) and cytosine (C) content; c calculated melting temperature.

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75 Table 3 4 Copper resistant bacterial strains isolated fr om the citrus phyllosphere and screened for copper resistance genes. Organism a No. of strains tested Novosphingobium capsulatum 17 Sphingobium yanoikuyae 11 Novosphingobium subterraneum 8 Methylobacterium rhodesianum 4 Brevundimonas vesicularis 3 Xa nthobacter flavus 3 Lysobacter enzymogenes 1 Methylobacterium zatmanii 1 Pantoea ananatis 1 Sphingomonas adhaesiva 1 Sphingomonas sanguinis 1 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia 1 Xanthomonas sp. 1 a Based on the highest index of similarity obtained in th e fatty acid analysis.

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76 Table 3 5 Bacterial strains used in conjugation assays. a Cu S copper sensitive; Cu R copper resistant; Sm R streptomycin resistant; Spec R spectinomycin resistant; Rif R rifamycin resistan t. Organism/Strain Function in mating Relevant characteristic a Geographical origin Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri A44 Donor Cu R Argentina 306 Recipient Cu S ; Spec R ; Rif R Brazil Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelon is 1381 Donor Cu R Florida 1390 Recipient Cu S ; Spec R ; Rif R Florida Xanthomonas perforans 1 7 Donor Cu R Florida 91 118 Recipient Cu S ; Spec R ; Rif R Florida Xanthomonas euvesicatoria 81 23 Donor Cu R Florida 82 8 Recipient Cu S ; Spec R ; Rif R Florida Bacterial strains from the citrus phyllosphere Xanthomonas sp. INA69 Donor Cu R Florida Spingomonas sp. FB02P Donor Cu R ; Sm R Florida Stenotrophomonas maltophilia FB03P Donor Cu R Florida Methylobacterium sp. FB10P Donor Cu R Florida Naxi bacter sp. FB18P Donor Cu R Florida Spingomonas sp. FB35P Donor Cu R ; Sm R Florida Luteibacter yeojuensis FB38P Donor Cu R Florida Spingomonas s p. FB49P Donor Cu R ; Sm R Florida Methylobacterium sp. FB61P Donor Cu R Florida Spingomonas melonis FB70P Donor C u R ; Sm R Florida Spingomonas sp. FB74P Donor Cu R ; Sm R Florida

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77 Table 3 6 L ist of conjugation assays tested. a Conjugation assay s w ere separately tested for the transference of either copp e r (Cu) or streptomycin (Sm) re sistance genes. b Xcc, Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri ; Xac, Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis ; Xv, Xanthomonas vesicatoria ; Xp, Xanthomonas perforans. c VS, in vitro conjugation on solid medium; VL, in vitro conjugation in liquid medium; P, con jugation in planta d Conjugation assays were conducted using washing of citrus leaves collected in May, July and September 2009 from grapefruit trees treated with copper or streptomycin every 21 days from March to November 2008 and from March to the asses sment month in 2009. Washings from each of the five plots per treatment were mated separately with the two recipients strains tested in three months evaluated, resulting in15 matings per treatment per recipient strain. e nt, not tested. Recipient strain Xcc 306 Xac 1390 Xv 82 8 Xp 91 118 Conjugation tested a Donor strain Plant pathogenic Xanthomonas b Xcc A44 VS, P c VS, P VS VS Cu Xac 1381 VS, P VS, P VS VS Cu Xv 81 23 VS VS VS VS Cu Xp 1 7 VS VS VS V S Cu Epiphytic bacteria strains INA69 VS, VL VS, VL VS, VL VS, VL Cu FB2P VS, VL VS, VL VS, VL VS, VL Cu, Sm FB3P VS, VL VS, VL VS, VL VS, VL Cu FB10P VS, VL VS, VL VS, VL VS, VL Cu FB18P VS, VL VS, VL VS, VL VS, VL Cu FB35P VS, VL VS, VL VS, VL VS VL Cu, Sm FB38P VS, VL VS, VL VS, VL VS, VL Cu FB49P VS, VL VS, VL VS, VL VS, VL Cu, Sm FB61P VS, VL VS, VL VS, VL VS, VL Cu FB70P VS, VL VS, VL VS, VL VS, VL Cu, Sm FB74P VS, VL VS, VL VS, VL VS, VL Cu, Sm Epiphytic bacteria from citrus leaf washi ngs (LW) d LW from Cu treated trees VL nt e nt VL Cu LW from Sm treated trees VL nt nt VL Sm

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78 Table 3 7 Conjugation frequency of copper resistance genes between different plant pathogenic Xanthomonas species. Donor strain a Recipient strain Conjugation frequency b Xcc A44 Xcc 306 5 x 10 6 to 1 x 10 5 Xac 1390 1 x 10 6 to 2 x 10 6 Xp 91 118 1 x 10 7 to 6 x 10 7 Xv 82 8 0 Xac 1381 Xcc 306 1 x 10 8 to 1 x 10 7 Xac 1390 5 x 10 6 to 2 x 10 5 Xp 91 118 2 x 10 8 to 2 x 10 7 Xv 82 8 0 Xp 1 7 Xcc 306 3 x 10 6 to 1 x 10 5 Xac 1390 8 x 10 6 to 1 x 10 5 Xp 91 118 3 x 10 6 to 9 x 10 6 Xv 82 8 0 Xv 81 23 Xcc 306 3 x 10 7 to 1 x 10 6 Xac 1390 0 Xp 91 118 0 Xv 82 8 2 x 10 7 to 1 x 10 6 a Xcc, Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri ; Xv, Xanthomonas vesicatoria ; Xac, Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. c itrumelonis ; Xp, Xanthomonas perforans. b Number of transc onjuga n t per recipient.

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79 Figure 3 1. Adjustment tests for the establishment of a semi selective medium for the recovery of copper or streptomycin resistant strains of Xcc from plant material. A) growth of Cu R A44 and Cu S 306 Xcc on NGA and MGY agar amended or not with KCB and Cu, B) comparison of chlorothalonil and cycloheximide for suppressing growth of fungal contaminant from leaf washing on MGY amended with KC, C) growth of Cu R Xcc A44 on MGY and MGY KCH amended with F, Bo or T, D) growth of Cu R Xcc A44 on MGY and MGY KCH amended with Bo and T in the presence and absence of Cu, E) Growth of microorganisms naturally present in the citrus phyllosphere on

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80 Figure 3 1. Continued MGY and MGY KCH amended with Bo and T, F) Recovery of Cu R Xcc A44 on MGY KH amended with different concentrations of C, G) Recovery of Cu R and Cu S Xcc on MGY KCH amended with different concentrations of Cu, and H) Recovery of a different strain of Xcc and other species of Xanthomonas resistant to Cu or Sm on MGY and MGY KC H amended with Cu or Sm. NGA, nutrient glucose agar; MGY, mannitol glutamate yeast agar; Cu R / and Cu S /Sm R indicate copper (Cu) or streptomycin (Sm) resistant and sensitive strains, respectively ; Xcc, Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri ; Xv, Xanthomonas vesicat oria ; Xac, Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis ; K, kasugamycin (16 mg L 1 ); C, cephalexin (16 mg L 1 ); H, cycloheximide (50 mg L 1 ); F, 5 fluorouracil (6 and 12 mg L 1 for F and F, respectively); T, tobramaycin (0.2 and 0.4 mg L 1 for T and T, respectively); Bo, boric acid (150 and 300 mg L 1 for T and T, respectively); B, chlorothalonil Bravo 720 (12 mg L 1 ); Cu, copper sulfate pentahydrate CuSO 4 .5H 2 O (50 mg L 1 in panel A and D, 75 mg L 1 in panel F ); Sm, streptomycin sulfate (1 00 mg L 1 ).

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81 Figure 3 2 Efficiency of MGY KC H for the selecti on of copper and streptomycin resistant strains of Xcc (predominant yellow colonies) from wash ings of inoculated grapefruit leaves. a Cu S /Sm S and Cu R /Sm R indic ate copper (Cu) or streptomycin (Sm) sensitive and resistant strains, respectively; Xcc, Xanthomonas citri subsp citri b MGY, mannitol glutamate yeast extract agar; K, kasugamycin (16 mg L 1 ); C, cephalexin (16 mg L 1 ); H, cycloheximide (50 mg L 1 ) ; Cu, copper sulfate pentahydrate CuSO 4 .5H 2 O (75 mg L 1 ) ; Sm, streptomycin sulfate (100 mg L 1 ). c 10 1 10 2 and 10 3 indicate 10, 100, and 1000 fold dilutions from leaf washings, respectively.

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82 Figure 3 3 Effect of copper (Cu) and streptomycin (Sm) spray s on the epiphytic bacterial population resistant to these chemicals residing on citrus leaves. Frequency of resistant epiphytic bacteria to Cu (A and C ) or Sm ( B and D) in 2008 and 2009, as percentage of c olony forming units recovered on mannitol glutamat e yeast extract agar ( MGY ) amended with Cu or Sm from trees sprayed with Cu or Sm based bactericides and untreated control (UTC) in comparison to MGY alone. Error bars indicate the standard error of the mean

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83 Figure 3 4 Area under th e progress curves (AUPC) of percentage of copper (Cu) and streptomycin (Sm) resistant epiphytic bacteria recovered on mannitol glutamate yeast extract agar ( MGY ) amended with Cu or Sm from trees sprayed with Cu or Sm based bactericides and untreated contro l (UTC) in comparison to MGY alone in 2008 and 2009. A) AUPC of epiphytic bacteria resistant to Cu and B) AUPC of epiphytic bacteria resistant to Sm. Means followed by the same letter within the same year are not significantly different by Tukey test ( P <0.05).

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84 Figure 3 5 Epiphytic bacterial population on citrus trees treated with copper (Cu) and streptomycin (Sm). A and B) total epiphytic bacterial population recovered on mannitol glutamate yeast extract agar ( MGY ) from citrus trees treated with Cu or Sm based bactericides and untreated control (UTC) in 2008 and 2009, respectively.

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85 Figure 3 6 Incidence of citrus canker and premature defoliation of citrus trees treated with copper (Cu) or streptomycin (Sm). A and B) incidence of leaves with citrus canker on trees sprayed with Cu or Sm and untreated control (UTC) in 2008 and 2009, respectively and C) premature defoliation of trees treated with Cu or Sm and untreated control in October 2008 and 2009. Means fol lowed by the same letter within the same month in A and B and within the same year in C are not significantly different by Tukey test (P<0.05).

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86 Figure 3 7 Grapefruit trees from the field trial. A) Tree treated with copper (Cu) and B) untreated control. The picture was taken in October 2009, after trees under Cu treatment had been sprayed with this chemical every 21 days from March to October in 2008 and 2009. A B

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87 Figure 3 8 Premature defoliation of untreated grap efruit trees due to citrus canker in Fort Pierce, FL, 2007.

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88 Figure 3 9 Agarose gel electrophoresis of PCR analysis of copper resistance genes copL copA and copB Lanes: (1) marker; (2, 5, and 8) co pL copA and copB o f Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri A44, respectively; (3, 6, and 9) co pL copA and copB of epiphytic Xanthomonas sp. INA69, respectively; (4, 7, and 10) co pL copA and copB of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia FB03P, respectively. bp, base pair. 870 535 360 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Size (kb ) Size (kb ) 800 50 500 300

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89 Figure 3 10 Agarose gel electrophoresis of plasmid extractions obtained from copper resistant (Cu R ), copper sensitive (Cu S ) and transconjugant strains of Xanthomonas Lanes:(1) Pantoea stewartii used as plasmid size ladde r; (2) Cu R Xcc donor strain A44; (3) Cu S Xcc recipient strain 306; (4) Cu R transconjugant of Xcc resulted from the mating between A44 and 306; (5) Cu S Xac recipient strain 1390; (6) Cu R transconjugant of Xac resulted from the mating between A44 and 1390; ( 7) Cu S Xp recipient strain 91118; (8) Cu R transconjugant of Xp resulted from the mating between A44 and 91 118. Xcc, Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri ; Xac, Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis ; Xp, Xanthomonas perforans. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Size (bp) Chromossomal DNA Plasmid harboring Cu resistance genes 318 107 4 13 25 35 78

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90 Figure 3 11 Copper resistance levels of selected copper resistant epiphytic bacteria isolated from the citrus phyllosphere and reference strains of Xanthomonas sensitive (306 and 1381) and resistant (A44 and 1381) to copper. Cu, copper sulfate pe ntahydrate ( CuSO 4 .5H 2 O ); MGY, mannitol glutamate yeast agar.

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91 Figure 3 12 Survival of copper sensitive (Cu S ) and copper resistant (Cu R ) strains of plant pathogenic Xanthomonas over time in sterile distilled water amended with 0.01 M of magnesium sulfat e (MgSO 4 ) and copper sulfate pentahydrate ( CuSO 4 .5H 2 O ) at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 mg L 1 A and B) Cu S and Cu R Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri ( Xcc), respectively; C and D) Cu S and Cu R Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis ( Xa c ), respectively.

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92 Figure 3 13 Survival of copper resistant epiphytic bacteria isolated from the citrus phyllosphere over time in sterile distilled water amended with 0.01 M of magnesium sulfate ( MgSO 4 ) and copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO 4 .5H 2 O) at 0 (circle) 1 (triangle) 2 (square) 4 (diamond) and 8 (hexagon) mg L 1 A) Xanthomonas sp. INA69, B) Sphingomonas sp. FB02P, C) Stentrophomonas maltophilia FB03P, D) Sphingomonas sp. FB08P, E) Methylobacterium FB10P, F) Naxibacter sp. FB18P, G) Sphingomonas sp. FB3 5P, H) Luteibacter yeojuensis FB38P, I) Sphingomonas sp. FB49P, J) Methylobacterium FB61P, K) Sphingomonas melonis FB70P and L) Sphingomonas sp. FB74P.

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93 CHAPTER 4 MOLECULAR CHARACTERI ZATION OF COPPER RES ISTANCE GENES FROM X anthomonas citri subsp. citri AND X anthomonas alfalfae subsp citrumelonis Introduction The copious use of copper based bactericides on vegetable and fruit crops for control of bacterial and fungal pathogens has led to the development and prevalence of copper resistant (Cu R ) strains o f several species of bacteria affecting plants ( Adaskaveg and Hine, 1985; Cooksey et al., 1990; Marco and Stall, 1983; Martin e t al., 2004; Ritchie and Dittapongpitch, 199 1 ; Stall et al., 1986 ; Andersen et al., 1991; Bender and Cooksey, 1986; Cazorla et al ., 2002; Scheck and Pscheit, 1998; Sundin et al., 1989 ). Although, most copper resistance genes characterized from plant pathogenic bacteria have been shown to be plasmid encoded ( Carzola et al., 2002; Mellano and Cooksey, 1988; Bender et al., 1990; Bender and Cooksey, 1986 ; Cooksey, 1987; Cooksey, 1990; Stall et al., 1986; Voloudakis et al., 1993 ), chromosomal copper resistance genes have also been identified ( Basim et al., 2005 ; Lee et al., 1994; Lim and Cooksey, 1993 ). Cellular copper sequestration has been suggested as the copper resistance mechanism in resistant strains of Pseudomonas syringae ( Cooksey, 1990 ). In P syringae the copper resistance operon, copABCD encodes four proteins, CopA, B, C, and D, and is present on plasmid pPT23D ( Cha and Co oksey, 1991 ; Mellano and Cooksey, 1988 a ). This operon is regulated by a copper inducible promoter that requir es the regulatory genes copR and copS located downstream of copD ( Mills et al., 1993 ) Mills et al. (1993 ) suggests that P. syringae employs the two component sensory transduction to alter gene expression in response to environmental stimuli and regulate copper resistance gene expression. When grown on copper amended medi um these

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94 strains harboring plasmid pPT23D accumulate copper indicating that resistance is due to an uptake mechanism ( Cooksey, 1994 ) Studies have shown that P syringae containing the cop operon accumulates more copper than strains lacking the operon ( Bender and Cooksey, 1987; Cha and Cooksey, 1991; Cooksey and Azad, 1992 ) and th at this operon confer s copper resistance to P. syringae at least in part by sequestering and accumulating copper in the periplasm with copper binding proteins, which may prevent toxic levels of copper from entering the cytoplasm ( Cha and Cooksey, 1991; Coo ksey, 1993 ). According to Rouch et al. (1985) genes that confer copper resistance are regulated and induced only by high levels of copper Copper inducibility of the pco genes of Escherichia coli showed that the lag phase observed upon addition of copper to the growth medium could be reduced by preinduction with copper sulfate ( Rouch et al., 1985 ). In E. coli copper resistance is regulated by different systems including the multicopper oxidase CueO which protect s periplasmic enzymes from copper mediated damage ( Grass and Rensing, 2001 ) the cus determinant that confers copper and sil ver resistance ( Munson et al., 2000 ) and the pcoABCD operon ( Rensing et al., 2000 ). The latter is known as an efflux mechanism and is responsible for pumping excess copper o ut of the cytoplasm ( Cooksey, 1993 ). T he pcoABCD operon shares homology with t he copABCD operon for P. syringae and, as in P. syringae is followed by t wo regulatory genes, pcoR and pcoS ( Mellano and Cooksey, 1988a ) C o pper resistance genes have also been cloned from Xanthomonas vesicatoria (Xv) ( Cooksey et at.. 1990; Garde and Bender, 1991 ; Basim et al., 2005 ) Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis (Xaj) ( Lee et al., 1994 ) and Xanthomonas perforans (Xp)

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95 ( Voloudakis et al., 2005 ). Genetics of the plasmid bo rne copper resistance in Xv h ave similarities to the cop operon from P. syringae ( Voloudakis et al., 1993 ) Nevertheless, on the chromosome, the organiz ation of the copper resistance genes appears to be uncommon, and occurrence of this type of resistance i s rare in Xv ( Basim et al., 2005 ) Copper resistance genes in Xaj are located on the chromosome and have the same general copABCD structure as the genes from P. syringae with some differences in DNA sequence and gene size ( Lee et al., 1994 ) In Xp copper resistance genes are plasmid encoded and expression of these genes was demonstrated to be regulated by copL which is the immediate open reading frame (ORF) upstream of copAB ( Voloudakis et al., 2005) The copRS regulatory genes, which are present in P. syr ingae ( Mellano and Cooksey, 1988a ), have not been found in Xanthomonas ( Lee et al., 1994 ; Voloudakis et al., 2005 ) The objective of this study was to characterize the copper resistance determinants in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) (syn. Xanthomona s axonopodis pv. citri ) and Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis (Xac) (syn. X. campestris pv. citrumelo X. campestris pv. citri strain E), causal agents of citrus canker and citru s bacterial spot, respectively and compare with other copper resistance bacteria. Material and M ethods Bacterial strains, plasmids, and culture conditions Bacterial strains and plasmids used in molecular studies and their relevant characteristics and sources are listed in Table 4 1 Cu R strain A44 from Argentina isolated in 1 994 and strain 1381 from Florida isolated in 2000 were used for characterization of the Cu R genes from Xcc and Xac, respectively Xanthomonas strains were maintained in n utrient a gar (NA) at 28 o C, whereas cultures of Escherichia coli

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96 were grown in Luria Be rtani (LB) ( Maniatis et al., 1982 ) broth at 37C A pLAFR3 cosmid library of Xcc A44 and Xac 1381 was maintained in E. coli on LB medium containing tetracycline. All other strains were stored in sterile tap water at room temperature or in 2 0% glycerol at 70C or both. Antibiotics were used to maintain selection for resistance markers at the following final concentrations : ampicillin 100 mg L 1 kanamycin 50 mg L 1 spectinomycin 100 mg L 1 ,rifamycin 80 mg L 1 and tetracycline 12.5 mg L 1 Nutrient broth (N B ), and LB broth were used as liquid media to grow Xanthomonas and E. coli respectively. Cultures were grown for 24 h at 28C on a KS10 orbital shaker (BEA Enprotech Corp., Hyde Park, MA) at 200 rpm. Copper was used as copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO 4 .5H 2 O) and added to the liquid and solid medium from a 1 or 50 mg m L 1 stock solution, respectively, before autoclaving Construction of genomic libraries and i solati on of copper resistant clones A pLAFR3 cosmid ( Staskawicz et al., 1987 ) library of DNA from strain s Xcc A44 and Xac 1381 was created as previously described ( Maniatis et al., 1982 ) and maintained in E. coli DH 5 Total genomic DNA was extracted using Illustra plasmidPrep Mini Spin Kit ( GE Healthcare, Piscataway, N.J.) instructions. Constructed plasmids were introduced into Kan R Xp ME24 from E. coli DH5 by triparental matings with pRK20 13 as the helper plasmid ( Figurski and Helinski, 1979 ) Matings were carried out by mixing mid exponential phase cells of the recipient strain ME24 w ith cosmid donors and with pRK2073 on NYG agar ( Turner et al., 1984 ) at the ratio of 2:1:1 (vol/vol/vol) of recipient, donor and helper strains, respectively After 24 h of incubation at 28C, the mating mixtures were resuspended in 2 mL of mannitol glutamate yeast extract ( MGY ) broth amended with 1 mg L 1 of copper for induction of presumptive copper resistanc e genes to be screened. Aliquots of 50 L were spread

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97 onto NA plates containing kanamycin and tetracycline for selection of transconjugants Transconjugants were grown overnight on NA amended with 20 mg L 1 o f copper for induction of resistance to copper ( Basim et al., 2005 ) and suspended in sterile tap water visually to approximately 10 8 cfu mL 1 Suspensions were then spotted on NA amended with 200 mg L 1 of copper to screen for clones carrying copper resistance genes. General DNA manipulations Miniscale preparations of E. coli plasmid DNA were obtained by alkaline lysis as described by Sambrook et al. (1989) Su bcloning of the DNA insert from a cosmid carrying the copper resistance gene cluster w as performed by restriction digestion of the original clone with various enzymes and purification of fragments from an agarose gel by using the Wizard PCR Preps DNA purification system ( Promega, Madison, WI ). F ragments were ligated into pBluescript II/KS (Stratagene, La Jolla, CA) and pLAFR3 ( Staskawicz et al., 19 87 ) vectors for nucleotide sequencing and for checking for copper resistance activity in ME24 by triparental mating as aforementioned. Ligation was performed with T4 DNA ligase ( Promega, Madison, WI ) used according to the Ligat ion products were transformed into competent cells of E. coli DH5 produced by the calcium chloride procedure as described by Sambrook et al. ( 1989 ). Transposon muta genesis of copper resistance gen e s from Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri Mutagenesis was performed by randomly inserting Tn3 uidA transposon as previously des cribed ( Bonas et al., 1989 ) into pXccCu2 from Xcc A44 to assess for genes involved in copper resistance. Individual insertion derivatives were analyzed by extracting plasmid DNA and sequencing for location of transposon insertion within the

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98 9. 5 kb cloned f ragment carrying copper resistance genes. Selected pXccCu2 derivatives were transferred to the recipient strain Xp 91 118 resistant to rifamycin and spectinomycin through triparental mating as described previously. To assess for copper resistance, transcon jugants were grown overnight on NA amended with 20 mg L 1 o f copper for induction of resistance ( Basim et al., 2005 ), suspended in sterile tap water at approximately 10 8 cfu mL 1 and then spotted (10 L) on MGY agar ( Cooksey and Azad, 1992 ; Bender et al., 1990 ) amended with 0, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, 600 and 800 mg L 1 of copper. Growth of transconjugants was assessed after 96 h of incubation at 28 o C. Design of primers for copper resistance genes and PCR analysis Custom primers were designed to s pecifically amplify partial nucleotide sequences of copper resistance genes copL copA and copB from Xcc using PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis Due to the presence of homologous genes in the chromosome of copper sensitive (Cu S ) strains of Xcc nuc leotide sequences of copL copA and copB from Xcc A44 were aligned with chromosomal homologous ORFs of these genes ( ORFXAC3629 ORF XAC3630 and ORF XAC3631 respectively) from Cu S Xcc 306 ( da Silva et al., 2002 ) using Clustal W ( Thompson et al., 1994 ) P rimer sets were designed based on regions of low or no similarity between resistant and sensitive strains to specifically amplify Cu R strains. Bacterial strains tested for the presence of copper resistance genes using the newly designed primers are listed in Table 4 2 Primers were synthesized by Sigma Aldrich (Sigma Aldrich Co., St. Louis, MO). Amplification of target genes from all bacteria was performed using a DNA thermal cycler (MJ Research PTC 100, Cambridge, MA) and the Taq polymerase kit (Promega,

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99 M adison, WI). For extraction of template DNA, strains were individually grown overnight on NA, suspended in sterile deionized water (DI), boiled for 15 min, cooled on ice for 5 min, centrifuged at 15,000 rpm for 5 min and kept on ice. The supernatant was u sed for PCR reaction s. Each PCR reaction mixture consisted of included10.3 PCR buffer 1.5 2 deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (0.8 mM each dATP, dTTP, dGTP, and dCTP), 0.5 25 pmol L 1 ), template, and 0.2 DNA polymerase. PCR reactions were initially incubated at 95 C for 5 min then 30 PCR cycles which were run under the following conditions: denaturation at 95C for 30 s, primer annealing at 60 o C for all set of primers for 30 s, and DNA extension at 72C for 45 s in each cycle. After the last cycle, PCR tubes were incubated for 10 min at 72 C and then at 4C. Cu R Xcc A44 and Cu S Xcc 306 were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. PCR reaction mixtures w ere analyzed by 2 % a garose gel electrophoresis ( Bio Rad Laborat ories, Hercules, CA) with Tris acetate EDTA (TAE) buffer system. A 50 bp DNA ladder (Promega Madison, WI ) was used as the standard molecular size marker for PCR product sizing. R eaction products were visualized by staining the gel with ethidium bromide mL 1 ) for 20 min and then photographed using a UV transilluminator and Quantity One software ( Bio Rad Universal Hood II, Hercules, CA) Complete sequences of copB from Xanthomonas strains sh owing different sizes AGGTAGCCGACGCACG TATC CCACCGCAACCAATGCCACG the pXccCu2 sequence. Amplification of copF from Xcc A44 was performed by using

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100 prim GCCCTGTTCCAGAGCACCTACGG CCTTGTTGGCATCGAGCTTGGTG Stenotrophomonas maltophilia K279a (Stm K279a ) ( Crossman et al., 2008 ) These PCR reactions were performed as previously described and analyzed by 1 % agarose gel electrophoresis. Lambda DNA digested with HindIII and EcoRI ( Promega, Madison, WI ) was used as m olecular size marker. DNA sequencing DNA sequencing was performed by the DNA Sequencing Core Laboratory of the Interdisciplinary Center for Biotechnology Research (ICBR), University of Florida, Gainesville. For sequence analysis, DNA fragments were cloned into the vector pBluescript II/KS (Stratagene, La Jolla, CA) using appropriate enzymes S equencing was initiated using the standa rd flanking vector F20 and R24 primers. Custom primers designed based on the sequences obtained with F20 and R24 primers w ere used to complete the sequencing. The exact location of Tn3 uidA insertions was determined by sequencing plasmid DNA from insertion derivatives using primer RST92 GATTTCACGGGTTGGGGTT TCT which is complementary to the N termin al of the transposon. Sequencing of PCR products of copL copA copB and copF was performed with primers used for PCR analysis. Additional custom prim ers designed based on sequences obtained with PCR primers were utilized for the complete sequencing of copF Comparison of copper resistance genes Nucleotide sequences of clones carrying Cu R genes from Xcc A44 and Xac 1381 were analyzed in Genbank using B asic Local Alignment Search Tool for Nucleotides (BLASTN), National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCB I) ( Altschul et al, 199 7 ).

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101 Sequences of copper resistance genes copL copA and copB from Cu R strains ( Table 4 6 ) generated in this study and from o ther strains previously sequenced, such as Stm K279a ( Crossman et al., 2008 ) and Xp 7882 ( Voloudakis et al., 2005 ) were compared phylogenetically. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 4.0 (MEGA 4) s oftware suite ( Tamura et al., 2007 ) Chromosomal homologues of copL copA and copB ( ORFXAC3629 ORF XAC3630 and ORF XAC3631 respectively) from Cu S Xcc 306 ( da Silva et al., 2002 ) were used as outgroups. Each set of sequences was aligned using the default settings of Clustal W ( Thompson et al., 1994 ). The alignments were assembled into m aximum parsimony trees using heuristic searches with random stepwise addition Branch support for the maximum parsimony tree was estimated using nonparametric bootstrap ana lysis with 1 ,000 replicates ( Efron et al., 1996; Felsenstein, 1985 ) and 70% branch cut off ( Hillis and Bull, 1993 ) The percentage of replicate trees in which the associated strains clustered together in the bootstrap test is shown next to the branches ( Felsenstein, 1985 ). Res ults Cloning and subcloning of copper resistance genes from Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis Approximately 600 and 1,600 clones were screened for Xcc A44 and Xac 1381 genomic libraries, respectively. One cosmid cl one from each genomic library conferred copper resistance to Cu S Xp ME24 transconjugants. Different fragment sizes from the original clones were subcloned into pLAFR3 ( Staskawicz et al., 1987 ) and checked for copper resistance. An EcoRI EcoRI 9. 5 kb subclo ne (pXccCu2) obtained from the ~17 kb Sau3AI Sau3AI cosmid clone from Xcc A44 (pXccCu1) and an HindIII EcoRI 9.6 kb

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102 subclone (pXacCu2) from the ~17 kb Sau3AI Sau3AI original clone (pXacCu1) from Xac 1381 conferred resistance to copper on media containing 200 mg L 1 of copper sulfate Sequence analysis of the copper resistance genes The nucleotide sequence s for the copper resistance genes from Xcc and Xac have been assigned accession numbers HM362782 and HM579937 respectively, by GenBank. Ten ORFs were i dentified for the sequence of the 9.5 kb DNA insert of p XccCu2 from Xcc A44 ( Figure 4 1 ). These ORFs are located within ~7.9 kb. No ORF was identified in 1.6 kb positioned upstream of the first ORF. Seven ORFs are closely related to copper resistance genes previously sequenced ( Crossman et al., 2008 ; Voloudakis et al., 2005 ). ORF2, ORF3, ORF4, ORF5, ORF7, ORF9, and ORF10 are copL copA copB c opM copG copC and copD respectively, from Stm K279a isolat ed from a n immuno suppressed patient ( Crossman et al., 2008 ) ( Table 4 3 ; Figure 4 2 A and B ). Additionally, copL copA and copB cop genes from Xp 7882 (Xp 7882) ( Voloudakis et al., 2005 ), which lacks copC and copD ( Table 4 3 ; Figure 4 2 A and B ). copM and copG from Xcc A44 are not as similar to the homologs in Xp 7882 as Stm K279a ( Table 4 3; Figure 4 2 B) Identity of copM and copG between the Xcc and Xp strains is lower than 70% and 90%, respectively ( Table 4 3) Im mediately downstream of copD and copG i n Stm K279a and Xp 7882, respectively, there is an ORF named copF that is absent in p XccCu2 ( Figure 4 2A ), whose sequence, based on Stm K279a, ends 44 bp upstream of the last nucleotide of copD PCR analysis of Xcc A 44 using primers designed based on Stm K279a and

PAGE 103

103 sequencing of PCR product revealed the existence of copF in Xcc A44 (ORF11) ( Figure 4 1 copF from Stm K279a and Xp 7882 ( Table 4 3; Figure 4 2 B ). It also confirmed that t he cloned fragment harboring the copper resistance determinants from Xcc A44 lacks the last 44 nucleotides of copD ORF1, ORF6 and ORF8 from p XccCu2 are also present in Stm K279a and seem to be related to a hypothetical transcriptional repressor, a transp osase and a hypothetical protein, respectively ( Figure 4 1 and 4 2 A ). Only part of the C terminal of ORF1 is present in Xp 7882 and ORF6 and ORF8 are absent in that strain ( Voloudakis et al., 2005 ) ( Figure 4 2A ) Seven ORFs were identified for the sequence of the 9.6 kb DNA insert of p XacCu2 from Xac 1381 ( Figure 4 1 ). These ORFs are located within ~8.1 kb. No significant ORF was identified in 1.2 kb and 0.3 kb positioned upstream and downstream, respectively of the first ORF. All ORFs except ORF1 are relat ed to copper resistance genes previously described for Stm K279a ( Crossman et al., 2008 ) and Xp 7882 ( Voloudakis et al., 2005 ). Copper resistance genes from Xac 1381 are closer related to Xp 7882, whereas Xcc A44 showed greater similarity with Stm K279a ( Table 4 3; Figure 4 2A and B ). ORF2, ORF3, ORF4, ORF5, ORF6, copL copA copB c opM copG and cop F from Xp 7882 ( Table 4 3; Figure 4 2B ). There copL copA copB and copF from Xcc 1381 and Xcc A44, Xp 7882, and Stm K279a ( Table 4 3; Figure 4 2B). How e ver, in Xac 1381 and Xp 7882 copC and copD are absent and nucleotide sequences of copM and copG are not as identical to the homolog ues in Xcc A44 and Stm K279a ( Table 4 3; Figu re 4 2 B ). ORFs related to a transposase and a hypothetical protein present in pXccCu2 from

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104 XccA44 are absent in pXacCu2 from Xcc1381 and as for Xcc A44, ORF1 from Xac 1381 has higher homology to a hypothetical transcriptional repressor ( Figures 4 1 and 4 2 A ). The cluster copLAB is the most conserved region among the strains Xcc A44, Xac 1381, Xp 7882 and Stm K279a ( Figures 4 2 to 4 8 ). The identity of these genes among the strains ranges from 92 to 99%. These copper resistance genes are presumptively loca ted on plasmids. Homologues of these plasmid borne copper resistance genes are present on the chromosome of copper sensitive and resistant Xanthomonas strains and display the same organizational pattern observed for the resistance genes from Cu R strains A4 4, Xac 1381, Xp 7882 and Stm K279a ( Figure s 4 2 A and C ). However, on the chromosome no other homolog or additional gene is present downstream of copB ( Figure 4 2 C ). Homology level between chromosomal and plasmid borne genes is higher for copA and copB in c omparison to copL Copper resistance genes cop A and cop B are approximately 50 to 75% similar to the chromosomal homologs from strains Xcc 306 ( da Silva et al., 2002 ) and Xv 85 10 ( Thieme et al., 2005 ), which are known to be copper sensitive strains. In con trast, similarity of copL from Xcc A44 to Xcc 306 and 85 10 is lower than 40%. PCR analysis of strains PCR products were specifically amplified from Cu R strains ( Table 4 2 ) using primers designed based on nucleotide sequences of copL copA and copB from Xc c A44 ( Table 4 4 ). According to PCR analysis, these three genes are conserved in Cu R strains of Xcc, Xac, Xv, Xp, Xaj, X. euvesicatoria X gardneri epiphytic X sp. and S maltophilia No amplification was detected for Cu S strains.

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105 Three different size s for copB were observed in the PCR amplification of partial sequences of this gene. Most of the strains analyzed have an intermediate copB size. Based on PCR amplification of partial sequence of copB of the 37 Cu R strains included in this study ( Table 4 2 ) 1 (3%), 9 (24%) and 27 (73%) strains were larger, smaller and intermediate in size. No differences in size were observed for copL and copA for the strains based on partial gene sequences analyzed. Comparison of copB sequences in copper resistant xantho monads. Xcc A44, Xe 81 23 and a pathogenic Xanthomonas with no defined host ( X sp 1219 ) were selected as representative strains for intermediate, small and large size copB sequences, respectively, and compared regarding the nucleotide sequence of the comple te gene. Sequence analysis revealed that copB is 1269 bp, 1158 bp and 1425 bp in length in Xcc A44, Xe 81 23 and Xsp 1219 respectively ( Figure 4 9 ). The alignment of nucleotide sequences of the three copB sizes demonstrates that the shorter sequence leng th in Xcc A44 and Xe 81 23 are due to a major nucleotide gap present in the same region of the gene in comparison to Xsp 1219 ( Figure 4 9). In Xcc A44 the re is a 153 bp gap from position 414 to 567 in Xsp 1219 ( Figure 4 9) The same gap in Xe 81 23 is 300 bp long ranging from nucleotide position 375 to 674 in Xsp 1219 ( Figure 4 9) Other differences include a 36 bp gap in Xcc A44 and Xsp 1219 in comparison to Xe 81 23 and an extra codon in the beginning of the N terminal of copB in Xsp 1219 in compari s on wi th the other two strains ( Figure 4 9) All gaps observed when comparing the nucleotide sequence of copB for these strains were in frame ( Figure 4 9)

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106 Transposon mutagenesis of copper resistance genes from Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri Transposon mutagenes is of cloned copper resistance determinants in X cc A44 revealed that copL copA and copB are the most important genes for copper resistance in Xcc. Transconjugant Xp 91 118 strains carrying mutated pXccCu2 was plated on MGY agar supplemented with different concentrations of copper. Mutation of copL and co pA lowered copper resistance to levels tolerated by copper sensitive strains. Irrespective of the mutation site in the genes copL copA and copB mutants had resistance reduced to 50, 50 and 75 mg L 1 of co pper, respectively ( Table 4 5; Figure 4 10 ). As a reference, transconjugant 91 118 harboring pXccCu2 or pXacCu2 can resist up to 300 mg L 1 of copper on MGY and WT Xcc A44 and Xac 1381 are able to grow on MGY supplemented with 400 mg L 1 of copper. Mutatio ns in the N terminal region of copM that shares high homology with other copper resistant strains, such as Xac 1381, Xp 7882 and Stm K279a reduced copper resistance slightly and mutants were able to grow up to 200 mg L 1 of Cu ( Table 4 5; Figure 4 10 ). Ir respective of the insertion site in the gene, no change in copper resistance was observed when the transposon was inserted in copG copC and copD or in the ORF1, which homolog to a transcriptional repressor and is located right before of copL ( Table 4 5; Figure 4 10 ). Insertional mutations of the region upstream of ORF1 did not affect resistance to copper ( Table 4 5; Figure 4 10 ). Phylogenetic analysis of copper resistance genes Partial sequences of copL copA and copB obtained from different strains ( Tab le 4 2 ) were used for phylogenetic analysis. Accession numbers assigned by GenBank for these sequences are listed in Table 4 6 S equence alignment of PCR products revealed

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107 high homology (>90%) for copL copA and copB among different species and/or strains of Xant homonas and Stenotrophomonas Slight differences were discerned through phylogenetic anal ysis, which separated or grouped the strains based on the conservation of nucleotide sequences of these genes. Strain grouping showed consistency and the same branching pattern was observed for the three genes. However, such a pattern was not based on species or geographical origin. Phylogenetic analysis grouped together strains of different species from different countries around the world ( Figures 4 11 to 13 ). cop genes in Xac were more diverse than in Xcc. Of five Xcc strains, all from Argentina, four were always branched together with other strains of Xe, Xg, and Xv from Costa Rica and Xe from Guadeloupe ( Figures 4 11 to 13 ). The remaining one, Xcc AR79, was grouped differently with other strains, including BV5 4, a strain of Xv isolated from Argentina as well ( Figures 4 11 to 13 ). Conversely, the five Xac strains were placed into three different groups with other species ( Figures 4 11 to 13 ) Discussion This is the first time copper resistance has been characterized in Xcc and Xac strains. We identified the determinants for copper resistance on a 7.9 kp EcoRI EcoRI fragment in X cc strain A44 from Argentina and a 8.1 kb EcoRI HindIII in Xac strain 1381 from Fl orida. As a result of sequencing of the se fragments ten and seven ORFs were identified in the cluster of genes associated with copper resistance in Xcc and Xac, respectively In Xcc, ORF 2, ORF3 and ORF4 were required for a high level of resistance in trans conjugant screening. These three ORFs have high homology with copL copA and copB respectively from Stm K279a ( Crossman et al., 2008 ) and Xp 7882 ( Voloudakis et al., 2005 ). Insertional mutation of ORF 7, ORF 8, ORF 9, and

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108 ORF 10, which exhibit homology to th e copG copC and copD respectively from Stm K279a ( Crossman et al., 2008 ) had no observable effect on copper resistance when tested in the Xp 91 118 transconjugant background Likewise, mutation of ORF1, which is homologous to a hypothetical transcriptio nal repressor from several bacteria, did not affect copper resistance. Mutation of ORF5, which is homologous to copM (also referred as cytocrom c) from Stm K279a ( Crossman et al., 2008 ) slightly reduced copper resistance of transconjugants. Copper resist ance of transconjugant strains of different Cu S Xanthomonas species carrying pXccCu2, which harbors the copper determinants from Xcc, showed a slight reduction of resistance on MGY agar (from 400 to 300 mg L 1 ) when compared to the WT strain Xcc A44. Such a decrease on resistance could be explained by the absence of copF and incompleteness of copD in pXccCu2. However, the fact that the same behavior was observed for WT Xac 1381 and its clone pXacCu2, which harbors all the same genes identified in pXccCu2 an d copL suggests either that copF is not important for resistance and the slight decrease of resistance was due to the fact that the cloned copper resistance determinants were expressed in a different strain or that other genes might be involved in full co pper resistance. If the latter is correct, the presumptive additional gene(s) is likely to be located far from the cloned gene cluster. No other ORF related to copper resistance was found upstream of ORF1 in pXccCu2 and Stm K279a or downstream of copF in S tm K279a As discussed earlier, the organization, size and nucleotide sequences of genes in pXccCu2 and Stm K279a which belongs to the Xanthomonadaceae family as well, are highly similar, thus making Stm K279a a reliable reference. S. maltophilia is ubiqu itous in aqueous environments, soil and plants,

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109 including water, urine, or respiratory secretions and w as grouped in the genus Xanthomonas before becoming the type species of the genus Stenotrophomonas ( Palleroni and Bradbury, 1993 ) Comparison of copper r esistance determinants in Xcc A44, Xac 1381, Stm K279a ( Crossman et al., 2008 ) and Xp 7882 ( Voloudakis et al., 2005 ) revealed that high copLAB 70% of the N terminal of copM which is positioned immediately after copB and copF which is located at the end of the gene cluster in all strains. Although we could not determine the importance of copF for copper resistance by insertional mutation because this gene is absent in pXccCu2, we were able to demonstrate that the conserved region copLAB and part of copM has direct involvement in copper resistance. cop LAB is essential for copper resistance and the N terminal of copM is necessary for full resistance. The individual function of the homologous genes identified in pXccCu2 and pXacCu2 for conferring copper resistance in Xanthomonas is not completely reveale d. Besides CopL, which was demonstrated to be involved in regulation of copper resistance ( Voloudakis et al., 2005) the putative role of the other genes has been presumed based on homologous genes from other organisms. It seems that CopA and CopB are copp er binding proteins, CopM is a cytochrome C oxidase involved in electron transport, CopG is a hypothetical exported protein CopC and copD are transmembrane transporter protein s, and CopF is a putative copper transporting p type ATPase ( Crossman et al., 20 08 ; Voloudakis et al., 2005 )

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110 Homologues of the copper resistance genes copLAB cloned from Xcc A44 and Xac 1381 are present on the chromosome of Cu R strains, such as Xv 1111 (data not published), and strains that have been tested to be Cu S such as Xcc 306 ( da Silva et al., 2002 ) and Xv 85 10 ( Thieme et al., 2005 ). Homologues of these genes are also present in many other Xanthomonas strains, including X oryzae pv. oryzae X campestris pv. vesicatoria X campestris pv. campestris whose resistance or sensi tivity to copper is unconfirmed. On the chromosome the ho mologues display the same organizational pattern observed for the resistance genes from Cu R strains, however no other ORF related to copper resistance is identified downstream of chromosomal copLAB in Xcc 306 and Xv 85 10, as demonstrated for the actual resistance genes from Xcc A44 and Xac1381. The presence of homologues of copper resistance genes on the chromosome has been previously reported for other bacteria. Chromosomal genes that hybridize with the cop operon were detected in Cu R and Cu S strains of Pseudomonas ( Cooksey et al., 1990 ). In P. syringae cop homolog ue s have been detected in more than 20 Cu S strains from eight pathovars ( Lim and Cooksey, 1993 ). Furthermore, it has been demonstrate d that in several strains of P. syringe these chromosomal homologues can activate the plasmid borne cop promoter ( Lim and Cooksey, 1993 ; Mills et a., 1993 ) reflect ing a possible chromosomal origin of the plasmid borne resistance genes. D ifferently from wh at has been annotated chromosomal cop LAB is not responsible for copper resistance but likely necessary for homeostasis and/or tolerance. Teixeira et al. (2008) demonstrated that chromosomal copAB from Xcc 306 is responsive to copper amendments, however t his strain was mistakenly rated as copper

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111 resistant. This was probably due to pH adjustments made to medium with potassium phosphate buffer which chelates copper ions and changes the actual concentration of copper available in the medium (Teixeira et al ., 2008) While strains harboring the copper resistance genes copLAB can grow on MGY agar amended up to 400 mg L 1 of Cu, strains that have only the chromosomal copLAB genes such as Xcc 306, grow up to 75 mg L 1 of Cu hence, are Cu S Thus, t o avoid further confusion or misinterpretation we suggest that the nomenclature of chromosomal homologues of copL copA and copB in xanthomonads which are probably copper homeostasis genes should be changed to cohL cohA and cohB respectively. Sequence alignments of copLAB genes from different strains and/or species of Xanthomonas indicated that the resistance genes are conserved among the Cu R strains with identity of nucleotide sequences higher than 90%. P hylogene tic analysis revealed that the minor differences which exist in the nucleotide sequences of these strains are not related to the species or geographical origin. Xcc strains from Argentina were clustered into two different groups. Four strains were more clo sely related to strains of Xe, Xg and Xv from Costa Rica and Guadeloupe, and one Xcc strain was associated with an Xv strain also isolated from Argentina. This indicates that the copper resistance in xanthomonads may have a common origin and that the Cu R g enes have been independently exchanged among different species of xanthomonads, possibly by horizontal transfer. The presence of copper resistance genes from plant pathogenic xanthomonads in epiphytic bacteria such as Xanthomonas and Stenotrophomonas as d emonstrated in this study and the incessant movement of plant material, especially

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112 seeds, among countries may account for such wide dissemination of these genes into different Xanthomonas populations in different parts of the world, indicating a relatively high risk for copper resistance development in Xanthomonas pathogens under constant exposure to copper.

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113 Table 4 1 Bacterial strains and plasmids used in this study Strain or plasmid Relevant characteristic Reference or source Escher ichia coli F80d lacZ 15 recA1 GIBCO BRL C2110 Nal R polA Bonas et al., 1991 Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri A44 Cu R Canteros, 1996 Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis 1381 Cu R This study Xanthomonas perforans 91 118 Kan R Plasmids pLAFR3 Tet R rlx + RK2 replicon Staskawicz et al., 1987 pBluescript KS+/ Phagemid, pUC derivative, Amp R Stratagene pRK2073 ColEI replicon, Tra + Mob + Sp R Figurski and Helinski, 1979 pXccCu1 Tet R Cu R ~17 kb EcoRI HindII fragment of Xcc A44 in pLAF R3 This study pXccCu2 Tet R Cu R 9.5 kb EcoRI EcoRI fragment of pXccCu1 This study pXacCu1 Tet R Cu R ~17 kb EcoRI HindII fragment of Xac 1381 in pLAFR3 This study pXacCu2 Tet R Cu R 9.6 kb HindIII EcoRI fragment of pXacCu1 This study

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114 Ta ble 4 2 Bacterial strains tested for the presence of copper resistance genes through PCR analysis using primers designed based on copL copA and copB genes from Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri A44. Organism a Strain copper resistant a Geographical origin Year of isolation Source d Xcc 306 N Brazil 1997 da Silva et al., 2002 Xcc FB06C N Florida 2007 This study Xcc AR78 N Argentina 2008 This study Xcc AR81 N Argentina 2008 This study Xcc A44 Y Argentina 1994 Canteros, 1996 Xcc AR63 Y Argentina 2008 Thi s study Xcc AR72 Y Argentina 2008 This study Xcc AR77 Y Argentina 2008 This study Xcc AR79 Y Argentina 2008 This study Xac 1390 N Florida 2000 DPI c Xac 1381 Y Florida 2000 DPI Xac 1382 Y Florida 2000 DPI Xac 1383 Y Florida 2000 DPI Xac 7589 Y Flori da 2007 DPI Xac 9226 Y Florida 2007 DPI Xac 29354 Y Florida 2009 DPI Xv 82 8 N Florida 1982 Stall, R. E. Xv 1111 Y New Zealand 1955 ATCC Xv BV5 4 Y Argentina 1987 Canteros, B.I. Xv Xv56 Y Brazil nd d nd Xv Xv446 Y Costa Rica 1991 Jones, J. B. Xv Xv1 288 Y Michigan nd Jones, J. B. Xsp 1219 Y Ohio 1995 Jones, J. B. Xe 81 23 Y Florida 1981 Stall, R. E. Xe E 3 Y Florida 1960 Stall, R. E. Xe 75 3 Y Florida 1975 Stall, R. E. Xe Xv221 Y Guadeloupe 1990 Jones, J. B. Xe Xv264 Y Guadeloupe 1990 Jones, J. B. Xe Xv304 Y Barbados 1990 Jones, J. B. Xe Xv477 Y Costa Rica 1991 Jones, J. B. Xe Xv669 Y Puerto Rico 1991 Jones, J. B. Xe Xv718 Y Puerto Rico 1991 Jones, J. B. Xe Xv787 Y US Virgin Islands 1991 Jones, J. B.

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115 Table 4 2 Continued Xe Xv80 0 Y US Virgin Islands 1991 Jones, J. B. Xe Xv818 Y Spain nd Jones, J. B. Xe Xv881 Y Mexico 1992 Jones, J. B. Xe Xv1025 Y Mexico 1992 Jones, J. B. Xp 91 118 N Florida 1991 Stall, R. E. Xp 1 7 Y Florida 2006 Stall, R. E. Xg Xv444 Y Costa Rica 1991 Jone s, J. B. Xaj Xj71 Y Italy 2008 Dallai, D. Xaj Xj79 Y Italy 2008 Dallai, D. Xsp INA69 Y Florida 1984 Minsavage, G. V. Stm FB03P Y Florida 2008 This Study a Xcc Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri ; Xac, Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis ; Xv, Xanth omonas vesicatoria ; Xe, Xanthomonas euvesicatoria ; Xp, Xanthomonas perforans ; ; Xp, Xanthomonas gardneri ; Xaj, Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis ; X sp Xanthomonas sp. (1219, pathogenic; INA69, non pathogenic) ; Stm, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia; b N, no ; Y, yes; c DPI, Division of Plant Industry, Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Gainesville, FL ; ATCC, American Type Culture Collection ; Canteros, B.I., Instituto Nacio nal de Tecnologa Agropecuaria Bella Vista, Argentina ; Dallai, D., Unive rsity of Modena & Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia Italy; Stall, R. E., University of Florida, Gainesville, FL; Jones, J. B., University of Florida, Gainesville, FL; Minsavage, G.V., University of Florida Gainesville, FL. d nd, not determined.

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116 Table 4 3 Comparison of nucleotide sequences of genes copL copA copB c opM copG copC copD and cop F from different strains. Organism/Strain a Xcc A44 Xac 1381 Xp 7882 Xcc A44 Xac 1381 92 (100) b Xp 7882 93 (100) 96 (100) Stm K279a 96 (100) 94 (100) 95 (100) Xcc A44 Xac 1381 95 (100) Xp 7882 95 (100) 97 (100) Stm K279a 97 (100) 95 (100) 95 (100) Xcc A44 Xac 1381 92 (100) Xp 7882 93 (100) 94 (100) Stm K279a 99 (100) 92 (100) Xcc A44 Xac 1381 91 (75) Xp 7882 89 (75) 94 (100) Stm K279a 99 (100) 91 (69) 89 (75) Xcc A44 Xac 1381 69 (52) Xp 7882 68 (55) 96 (100) Stm K279a 100 (100) 69 (70) 68 (55) Xcc A44 Xac 1381 nc c Xp 7882 nc nc Stm K279a 99 (100) nc nc Xcc A44 Xac 1381 nc Xp 7882 nc nc Stm K279a 98 (100) nc nc Xcc A44 Xac 1381 97 (97) Xp 7882 95 (100) 94 (100) Stm K279a 99 (100) 97 (92) 95 (97) a Xcc, Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri ; Xac, Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis ; Xp, Xanthomonas perforans ; Stm, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia b numbers indicate identity and coverage of comparable sequence as % in parenthesis respectively. c nc, not comparable due to the absence of the gene in one or both strains

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117 Table 4 4 O ligon ucleotide primer sets used for screening for the presence of copper resistance genes copL copA and copB Gene Primer name Length (bp a ) GC b (%) Tm c ( o C) Product size (bp) copL copLF CCGTGTCAAGCCTCCTCACTTCTAC 25 56 63 ~360 copLR CAGCG GCATGACATCCAGGCC 21 67 63 copA copAF CCTCCATGGCACGGACACTTCCATC 25 60 65 ~870 copAR CCAGACATATCCATCGACCCATGAT CCA 28 50 63 copB copBF CTCAGGATCACTCTGCACATCAG 23 52 60 ~535 copBR GCACGTAGCTCTTAATCGAGTTGTC 25 48 60 a bp, base pair; b guanine (G) and c ytosine (C) content; c calculated melting temperature

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118 Table 4 5. Site of transposon insertion of selected derivatives and respective resistance to copper. Mutant Region mutated Mutation site in the gene (bp) a Gen e size (bp) Portion deleted (%) Resistance to copper (mg L 1 ) b M60 upstream of cop genes 1029 upstream of copL 300 M114 upstream of cop genes 717 upstream of copL 300 M257 hypothetical repressor 16 327 95 300 M357 copL 26 420 94 50 M377 cop L 401 420 5 50 M206 between copL and copA 2 upstream of copA 50 M122 copA 659 1872 65 50 M08 copA 788 1872 58 50 M06 copA 1190 1872 36 50 M167 copA 1389 1872 26 50 M125 copA 1821 1872 3 50 M169 copB 113 1269 91 75 M160 copB 376 1269 70 75 M46 copB 647 1269 49 75 M10 copB 817 1269 36 75 M120 copM 90 771 88 200 M48 copM 138 771 82 200 M149 copG 67 525 87 300 M155 copG 271 525 48 300 M89 copG 505 525 4 300 M159 copC 341 384 11 300 M101 copD 194 930 79 300 M98 copD 686 930 26 300 a bp, ba se pair; b maximum tolerated concentration of copper, as copper sulfate pentahydrate, amended to mannitol glutamate yeast extract ( MGY) agar.

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119 Table 4 6. Accession n umbers assigned by GenBank for p artial sequences of copL copA and copB obtain ed from different strains Organism a Strain Gene copL copA copB Xac 9226 HM623134 HM626518 HM626553 Xac 7589 HM623135 HM626519 HM6265 Xac 29354 HM623136 HM626520 HM6265 Xcc AR63 HM623137 HM626521 HM6265 Xcc AR77 HM623138 HM626522 HM6265 Xcc AR79 H M623139 HM626523 HM6265 Xcc AR82 HM623140 HM626524 HM6265 Xe 81 23 HM623141 HM626525 HM6265 Xe E 3 HM623142 HM626526 HM6265 Xv 1111 HM623143 HM626527 HM6265 Xe 75 3 HM623144 HM626528 HM6265 Xv BV5 4 HM623145 HM626529 HM6265 Xp 1 7 HM623146 HM626530 HM6265 Xg Xv444 HM623147 HM626531 HM6265 Xsp INA69 HM623148 HM626532 HM6265 Stm FB03P HM623149 HM626533 HM6265 Xaj 71 HM623150 HM626534 HM6265 Xaj 79 HM623151 HM626535 HM6265 Xe Xv669 HM623152 HM626536 HM6265 Xac 1382 HM623153 HM626537 HM6265 Xe Xv 718 HM623154 HM626538 HM6265 Xv Xv446 HM623155 HM626539 HM6265 Xe Xv881 HM623156 HM626540 HM6265 Xe Xv264 HM623157 HM626541 HM6265 Xe Xv304 HM623158 HM626542 HM6265 Xac 1383 HM623159 HM626543 HM6265 Xe Xv787 HM623160 HM626544 HM6265 Xe Xv800 HM62316 1 HM626545 HM6265 Xsp 1219 HM623162 HM626546 HM6265 Xe Xv818 HM623163 HM626547 HM6265 Xv Xv1188 HM623164 HM626548 HM6265 Xe Xv1025 HM623165 HM626549 HM6265 Xe Xv221 HM623166 HM626550 HM6265 Xe Xv447 HM623167 HM626551 HM6265 Xv Xv56 HM623168 HM626552 HM6265 a Xcc Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri ; Xac, X. alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis ; Xv, X vesicatoria ; Xe, X euvesicatoria ; Xp, X perforans ; ; Xp, X gardneri ; Xaj, X arboricola pv. juglandis ; Xsp, X sp.(1219, pathogenic; INA69, non pathogenic); Stm, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

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120 Figure 4 1 Copper resistance determinants in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) strain A44 and Xanthomonas alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis (Xac) strain 1381. ORF number is indicated inside the shapes.

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121 Figure 4 2 Comparison of genes involved in copper metabolism. A) comparison of different bacterial strains regarding the composition of the copper resistance gene cluster, B) comparison of copper resistance gene cluster regardi ng the identity of nucleotide sequences. Areas with the same color indicate conservation of nucleotide sequence among the strains with chromosomal genes homolog to copL copA and copB respectively, which are present in both copper sensitive and resistant strains of Xanthomonas Xcc Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri ; Stm, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ; Xac, X anthomonas al falfae subsp. citrumelonis ; Xp, Xanthomonas perforans A B C

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122 XccA44 ATGTCGCCCGTGTCAGCCTCCTCACTTCTACTGCGACTGCTCCTGATCGTCATGCTCGTG 60 StmK279a ATGTCGCCCGTGTCAGCCTCCTCACTTCTACTGCGACTGTTCCTGATCGCCATGCTCGTG 60 Xac1381 ATGTCGCCCGTGTCAGCCTCCTCACTTCTACTG CGACTGCTCCTGATCGCCATGCTCGTG 60 Xp7882 ATGTCGCCCGTGTCAGCCTCCTCACTTCTACTGCGACTGTTCCTGATCGCCATGCTCGTG 60 *************************************** ********* ********** XccA44 CTTAACGGCGCGTGGTCGGCATTTGCGTCGATCAGTATGAACCCGGCCATGGAAGCGCAG 120 StmK279a CTTAACGGCGCGTGGTCGGCGTTTGCGTCCGTCAGTATGAACCCGGTCATGGAAGAGCAG 120 Xac1381 CTTAACGGGGCGTGGTCGGCGTTTGCGTCGGTCAGTATGAATCCGGTGATGGAAGAGCAG 120 Xp7882 CTTAACGGGGCGTGGTCGGCGTTTGCGTCGGTCAGTATGAATCCGGTGATGGAAGAGCAG 120 ***** *** *********** ******** ********** **** ******* **** XccA44 GCCAGCGAAGTGGCTGCCGCGGTGCAAGGCGACGAAGACTGCGTCGCCCATCACAGTGCT 180 StmK279a GCCAGCGAAGTGGCTGCCGCGGTGCAAGTCGACGAAGACTGCTTCGCCCATCACAGTGCT 180 Xac1381 GCCAGTGAAGTGGCTGCCGCTGTGCAAGTCG ACGAGGACTGCGTCGCCCATCACAGTGCT 180 Xp7882 GCCAGCGAAGTCGCTGCCGCGGTGCAAGTCGACGAAGACTGCGTCGCCCATCACAGTGCT 180 ***** ***** ******** ******* ****** ****** ***************** XccA44 GAGAATCATCCCGATGCCACCTCGATTGAAAGGGCTGGCACTGGGCATGGCGACCAT GCC 240 StmK279a GAGCATCATCCCGATGCCACATCGATTGAAAAGGCTGGCACTGGGCATGGCGACCATGCC 240 Xac1381 GAGCATCATCCCGATGCCACATCGATTGAAATGGCTGGCACTGGGCACGGCGACCATGCC 240 Xp7882 GAGCATCATCCCGATGCCACATCGATTGAAAAGGCTGGCACTGGGCACGGCGATCATGCC 240 ** **************** ********** *************** ***** ****** XccA44 GGTCCCGACTGTTGCAAGTCTTCTGCGTGCCGGTGCGCCTGCGTACACGCGTGCGCGAGC 300 StmK279a GGTCCCGACTGTTGCAAGTCTTCTGCGTGCCGGTGCGCCTGCGTACACGCTTGCGCGAGC 300 Xac1381 GGTCCCGACTGTTGCAAGTCGTCTGCG TGCCGGTGCGCCTGCGTGCACGCGTGCGCGAGC 300 Xp7882 GGCCCCGACTGTTGCAAGTCGTCTGCGTGCCGGTGCGCCTGCGTGCACGCGTGCGCGAGC 300 ** ***************** *********************** ***** ********* XccA44 GCACTTCCGGCGCGCCTGCATGTTTCGGTGCAACTGGCCTTGGGCCTGGATGT CATGCCG 360 StmK279a GCACTTCCTGCGCGCCTGCATGTTTCGGTGCAACTGGCCTTGGGCCTGGATGTCATGCCG 360 Xac1381 GCATTGCCTGCGCGCCTGCATATTGCCGTACAACTGGCCTTGGGCCTGGATGTCATGCCG 360 Xp7882 GCATTGCCTGCGCGCCTGCATGTTTCGGTACAACTGGCCTTGGGCCTGGATGTCATGCCG 360 *** ** ************ ** ** ****************************** XccA44 CTGCCCCAAGGGCATGCGGCACCTGCCTTGCCTCATCTGATCCGACCACCGATCGGCTAA 420 StmK279a CTGCCCCTAGGGCATGCGGCACCTGCCTTGCCTCATCTGATCCGACCACCGATCGGCTAA 420 Xac1381 CTGCCGTTGGGGCATCCGGCACC CGCCTTGCCTCATCTGATCCGACCACCGATCGGCTAA 420 Xp7882 CTGCCCTTGGGGCATCCGGCGCCTGCCTTGCCTCATCTGATCCGACCACCGATCGGCTAA 420 ***** ****** **** ** ************************************ Figure 4 3 Alignment of complete nucleotide sequences of cop L Xcc A44 Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri A44 ; Stm K279a Stenotrophomonas maltophilia K 279a; Xac1381 X. alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis 1381; Xp7882 X. perforans 7882. The homology line indicates the degree of amino acid homology among all aligned sequence members. Asterisk (*), identical residue; gap, no conservation ( Thompson et al., 1994 ).

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123 Xp7882 MSPVSASSLLLRLFLIAMLVLNGAWSAFASVSMNPVMEEQASEVAAAVQVDEDCVAHHSA 60 Stm K279a MSPVSASSLLLRLFLIAMLVLNGAWSAFASVSMNPVMEEQASEVAAAVQVDEDCFAHHSA 60 Xav1381 MSPVSASSLLLRLLLIAMLVLNGAWSAFASVSMNPVMEEQASEVAAAVQVDEDCVAHHSA 60 XccA44 MSPVSASSLLLRLLLIVMLVLNGAWSAFASISMNPAMEAQASEVAAAVQGDEDCVAHHSA 60 *************:**.*************:****.** ********** ****.***** Xp7882 EHH PDATSIEKAGTGHGDHAGPDCCKSSACRCACVHACASALPARLHVSVQLALGLDVMP 120 Stm K279a EHHPDATSIEKAGTGHGDHAGPDCCKSSACRCACVHACASALPARLHVSVQLALGLDVMP 120 Xav1381 EHHPDATSIEMAGTGHGDHAGPDCCKSSACRCACVHACASALPARLHIAVQLALGLDVMP 120 XccA44 ENHPDATSIERAGTGH GDHAGPDCCKSSACRCACVHACASALPARLHVSVQLALGLDVMP 120 *:******** ************************************::*********** Xp7882 LPLGHPAPALPHLIRPPIG 139 Stm K279a LPLGHAAPALPHLIRPPIG 139 Xav1381 LPLGHPAPALPHLIRPPIG 139 XccA44 LPQGHAAPALPHLIRPPIG 139 ** **.************* Figure 4 4 Alignment of complete amino acid sequences of copL Xcc A44 Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri A44 ; Stm K 279a Stenotrophomonas maltophilia K 279a; Xac1381 X. alfalfae subsp. ci trumelonis 1381; Xp7882 X. perforans 7882. The homology line indicates the degree of amino acid homology among all aligned sequence members. Asterisk (*), identical residue; colon ( : ), conserved substitution; period ( ), semiconserved substitution; gap, n o conservation ( Thompson et al., 1994 ).

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124 XccA44 ATGTCGCATGATGATTTTCGTGGTCCACACGGTGGACCGCCGCTGCTACCTTCGCGGCGG 60 Stm K279a ATGTCGCATGATGATTTTCGTGGTCCACGCGGTGGACCGC --TGCTGCCTTCGCGGCGG 57 Xac1381 ATGTCGCATGATGATTTTCGTGGTCCACACGGTGGAC CGC --TGCTGCCTTCGAGGCGG 57 Xp7882 ATGTCGCATGATGATTTTCGTGGTCCACATGGTGGACCGC --TGCTGCCTTCGCGGCGG 57 **************************** ********** **** ****** ***** XccA44 CGATTTGTCCAGGGCTTGGCCTTGGGAGGCGCAGTCGCAGGATTAGGTTTCTGGCCCAAA 120 Stm K279a CGATTTGTCCAAGGCTTGGCCTTGGGAGGCGCAGTCGCAGGATTAGGTTTCTGGCCCAAA 117 Xac1381 CGATTTGTCCAGGGCTTGGCCTTGGGAGGCGCAGTCGCAGGATTAGGGTTCTGGCCCAAG 117 Xp7882 CGATTTGTCCAAGGCTTGGCCTTGGGAGGCGCAGTCGCAGGATTGGGGTTCTGGCCCAAA 117 *********** **** **************************** ** *********** XccA44 GCCAGTTGGGCGCTCAAGGGCCCGGGACAACCCAACGTACTATCGGGCACCGAGTTTGAC 180 Stm K279a GCCAGTTGGGCGCTCAAGGGGCCGGGACAACCCAACGTACTATCGGGCACTGAGTTTGAC 177 Xac1381 GCCAGTTGGGCGCTCAAGGGCCCGGGACAAGCCAACGTACTGTCG GGCACCGAGTTCGAC 177 Xp7882 GCCAGTTGGGCGCTCAAGGGCCCCGGACAAGCCAACGTATTGTCGGGCACCGAGTTTGAC 177 ******************** ** ****** ******** ******** ***** *** XccA44 CTAACCATCGGCGAGACGCCGATGAACTTCACCGGCAAGACCCGCACCGCGATCACCGTC 240 Stm K279a CTGACCATTGGCGAGACGCCGATGAACTTCACCGGCAAGACCCGCACCGCGATCACGGTC 237 Xac1381 CTGACCATCGGCGAGACGCCGATGAACTTCACCGGCAAGACCCGCACCGCGATCACGGTC 237 Xp7882 CTGACCATCGGCGAGACGCCGATGAACTTCACCGGCAAGACCCGCACCGCGATCACGGTC 237 ** ***** ************* ********************************** *** XccA44 AATGGGTCCGTTCCGGCGCCGTTGCTGCGGTGGCGGGAAGGCACCACGGTCAGCCTCCGT 300 Stm K279a AACGGGTCCGTTCCGGCGCCGTTGCTGCGGTGGCGGGAAGGCACCACGGTCAACTTGCGC 297 Xac1381 AACGGATCCGTTCCGGCGCCGTTGCTGCGATGGCGGGAAGGCACCACGGTC AACCTGCGT 297 Xp7882 AACGGGTCCGTTCCGGCGCCGTTGCTGCGGTGGCGGGAAGGCACCACGGTCAACCTGCGT 297 ** ** *********************** ********************** ** XccA44 GTCTCTAATGCATTGCCGGCCAACTCCCTCCATGGCACGGACACTTCCATCCATTGGCAC 360 Stm K279a GTC TCCAATGCATTGCCCGCTAACTCCATCCATGGCGCGGACACCTCCATCCATTGGCAC 357 Xac1381 GTCTCCAATGCATTGCCGGCCAATTCCCTCCATGGCACGGACACTTCCATCCATTGGCAC 357 Xp7882 GTCTCCAATGCATTGCCGGCCAACTCCCTCCATGGCACGGATACTTCCATCCATTGGCAC 357 ***** *********** ** ** *** ******** **** ** *************** XccA44 GGCATCATTCTGCCGGCCAACATGGACGGCGTGCCGGGCCTGAGCTTTGACGGTATCGGA 420 Stm K279a GGCATCATTTTGCCGGCCAACATGGACGGCGTGCCGGGTCTGAGCTTTGACGGTATCGGA 417 Xac1381 GGCATCATTCTGCCGGCCAACATGGACGGCGTGCCGGGACTGAGCTTTGACGGCATC GGA 417 Xp7882 GGCATCATTCTGCCGGCCAACATGGACGGCGTGCCGGGCCTGAGCTTTGACGGCATCGGA 417 ********* **************************** ************** ****** XccA44 CGTGGTGAGACCTACCACTATCGGTTCACCCTGCATCAGGGCGGCACCTACTGGTACCAC 480 Stm K279a CGTGGTGAG ACCTACCACTACCGGTTCACCCTGCATCAGGGCGGAACCTACTGGTACCAC 477 Xac1381 CGTGGTGAGACCTACCACTACCGGTTCACCCTGCATCAGGGCGGCACCTACTGGTACCAC 477 Xp7882 CGTGGTGAGACCTACCACTATAGGTTCACCCTGCATCAGGGCGGAACCTACTGGTACCAC 477 ******************** ************ ********** *************** XccA44 AGCCACTCAGGATTCCAGGAACAAGCCGGGCTTTATGGGCCGATCGTGATCGATCCACTG 540 Stm K279a AGCCACTCAGGGTTCCAGGAACAAGCCGGGCTCTATGGCCCGATCGTCATCGACCCATTG 537 Xac1381 AGCCACTCAGGTTTCCAGGAACAAGCAGGGCTTTATGGACCGATCGTGATCGATCCACTG 53 7 Xp7882 AGCCACTCAGGTTTCCAGGAACAAGCTGGGCTTTATGGACCGATCGTGATCGATCCACTG 537 *********** ************** ***** ***** ******** ***** *** ** XccA44 GAGCCAGAGCCTTTCAGCTTCGATCGCGACTACGTCGTGATGCTGAGCGATTGGACAGAC 600 Stm K279a GAGCCGGAGCCCTTC AGTTTCGATCGCGACTACGTCGTGATGCTGAGCGATTGGACAGAC 597 Xac1381 GAGCCAGAGCCTTTTAGCTTCGATCGCGACTACGTCGTGATGCTGAGCGATTGGACAGAC 597 Xp7882 GAGCCAGAGCCTTTCAGCTTCGATCGCGACTACGTCGTGATGCTGAGCGATTGGACAGAC 597 ***** ***** ** ** ********************** ******************** Figure 4 5 Alignment of complete nucleotide sequences of copA Xcc A44 Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri A44 ; Stm K 279a Stenotrophomonas maltophilia K 279a; Xac1381 X. alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis 1381; Xp7882 X. perforans 7882. The ho mology line indicates the degree of amino acid homology among all aligned sequence members. Asterisk (*), identical residue; gap, no conservation ( Thompson et al., 1994 ).

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125 XccA44 CTGGACCCGACGGCCCTGTTCGATCGTTTGAAGAAGATGCCGGGCCATGACAACTATTAC 660 Stm K2 79a CTGGACCCGACGGCCCTGTTCGATCGTTTGAAGAAGATGCCGGGCCATGACAATTACTAC 657 Xac1381 CTGGACCCGGCGGCCCTGTTCGATCGTTTGAAGAAGATGCCGGGCCATGACAATTACTAC 657 Xp7882 CTGGACCCGACGGCCCTGTTCGATCGTTTGAAGAAGATGCCGGGCCATGACAACTACTAC 657 ********* ******** *********************************** ** *** XccA44 AAGCGCACGGTCGGCGATTTTGCGCGCGATGTGAAGCGCTACGGTCTGTCGGCCACGTTG 720 Stm K279a AAGCGCACGGTCGGCGATTTTGCGCGCGATGTGAAGCGCAACGGCCTGTCGGCCACGTTG 717 Xac1381 AAGCGCACGGTCGGCGATTTTGCACGCGATGTGAAGCGCAACGGTCT GTCGGCCACGTTG 717 Xp7882 AAGCGCACGGTCGGCGATTTCGCGCGCGATGTGAAGCGCAATGGTCTGTCGGCCACGTTG 717 ******************** ** *************** ** *************** XccA44 GAAGATCGCAAGATGTGGGGCGTGATGCGGATGACGCCCACGGATCTGTCCGACGTCAAC 780 Stm K279a GAAGATCGCAAGATGTGGGGCGTGATGCGGATGACGCCCACGGACCTGTCCGACGTCAAC 777 Xac1381 GAGGATCGCAAGATGTGGGGCGTGATGCGGATGACGCCCACGGATCTGTCCGACGTCAAC 777 Xp7882 GAAGATCGCAAGATGTGGGGCGTGATGCGAATGACGCCCACGGATCTGTCCGACGTCAAC 777 ** ********************* ***** ************** *************** XccA44 GCCAACACCTACACCTACTTGATGAACGGCACGACCTCACTGGGCAACTGGACCGGTTTG 840 Stm K279a GCCAACACCTACACCTACCTGATGAACGGCACGACCTCACTGGGCAACTGGACCGGTTTG 837 Xac1381 GCCAACACCTACACCTACCTGATGAACGGCACGACCTCTCTGGGCAACTGGAC AGGTTTG 837 Xp7882 GCCAACACCTACACCTACCTGATGAACGGCACGACCTCTCTGGGCAACTGGACCGGGTTG 837 ****************** ******************* ************** ** *** XccA44 TTCCGCAGTGGCGAGAAGGTGCGCCTGCGTTTCATCAATGGCTCTGCCATGACGTACTTC 900 Stm K279a TTCCG CAGTGGCGAGAAGGTGCGCCTGCGTTTCATCAATGGCTCTGCCATGACGTACTTC 897 Xac1381 TTCCGCAGTGGCGAAAAGGTGCGTCTGCGTTTCATCAATGGCTCTGCCATGACGTACTTC 897 Xp7882 TTCCGCAGTGGCGAGAAGGTGCGTCTGCGTTTCATCAATGGCTCTGCCATGACGTACTTC 897 ************** ******** ****** ****************************** XccA44 GATGTGCGTATTCCGGGGCTGAAGATGACCGTGGTGGCGGCAGATGGCTTGTATGTCCAT 960 Stm K279a GATGTGCGTATTCCGGGGCTGAAGATGACCGTGGTGGCGGCAGATGGCTTGTATGTCCAT 957 Xac1381 GATGTGCGCATTCCGGGGTTGAAGATGACCGTGGTGGCGGCAGATGGCTTGTACGTCCA T 957 Xp7882 GATGTGCGTATTCCGGGGTTGAAGATGACCGTGGTCGCGGCGGATGGCTTGTACGTCCAT 957 ******** ********* **************** ***** *********** ****** XccA44 CCGGTTTCCGTCGACGAGTTCCGCATCGCGGTAGCAGAAACCTTCGATGTGATCGTGGAG 1020 Stm K279a CCGGTTTCCG TCGACGAGTTCCGCATCGCGGTAGCAGAAACCTTCGATGTGATCGTGGAG 1017 Xac1381 CCGGTTTCCGTCGACGAGTTCCGCATTGCAGTAGCTGAAACCTTCGATGTGATCGTGGAG 1017 Xp7882 CCGGTTTCGGTCGACGAGTTCCGCATTGCAGTAGCAGAAACCTTCGATGTGATCGTGGAG 1017 ******** ***************** ** ** *** ************************ XccA44 CCCTCCGGGCAGGACGCATTCACCATCTTTGCCCAAGACTCCGGTCGCACCGGCTACATC 1080 Stm K279a CCCTCCGGGCAGGACGCATTCACCATCTTTGCCCAAGACTCCGGTCGCACCGGCTACATC 1077 Xac1381 CCCTCCGGGCAGGACGCATTCACCATCTTTGCCCAGGACTCCGGTCGCACCGGCTACGT C 1077 Xp7882 CCCTCCGGGCAGGACGCATTCACCATCTTTGCCCAGGACTCCGGTCGCACCGGCTACGTC 1077 *********************************** ********************* ** XccA44 AGCGGCACGCTCGCTGTGCGCGAAGGATTACGCGCGCCCGTTCCGTCTGTGGATCCCCGG 1140 Stm K279a AGCGGCAC GCTCGCTGTGCGCGAAGGATTACGCGCGCCCGTTCCGTCTGTGGATCCCCGG 1137 Xac1381 AGCGGCACGCTCGCCGTGCGCGAAGGACTACGCGCGCCTGTTCCGCCTGTGGATCCCCGG 1137 Xp7882 AGCGGCACGCTCGCCGTGCGCGAAGGACTACGCGCGCCTCTTCCGTCTGTGGATCCCCGG 1137 ************** ************ ** ******** ***** ************** XccA44 CCGCTGCTGACGATGGCAGACATGGGCATGGATCATGGGTCGATGGATATGTCTGGCGGC 1200 Stm K279a CCGCTGCTGACGATGGCAGACATGGGCATGGATCATGGGTCGATGGATATGTCTGGCGGC 1197 Xac1381 CCGCTGCTGACGATGGCAGACATGGGCATGGATCATGGATCGATGGATATGTCTGGC GGC 1197 Xp7882 CCGCTGCTGACGATGGCAGACATGGGCATGGATCATGGATCGATGGATATGTCTGGCGGC 1197 ************************************** ********************* XccA44 AGCAAGGGCATGGAAGGCGGCTGTGGTGCGGCCATGGGCATGCCTGGCATGACCCCACCT 1260 Stm K279a AGCAAG GGCATGGAAGGCGGCTGTGGTGCGGCCATGGGCATGCCTGGCATGACCCCACCT 1257 Xac1381 AGCAAGGGCATGGAAGGCGGCTGTGGTGCGGCCATGGGTATGCCCGGCATGGCCCCACCT 1257 Xp7882 AGCAAGGGCATGGAAGGCGGCTGTGGTGCAGCCATGGGCATGCCCGGCATGACCCCACCT 1257 **************************** ******** ***** ****** ******** XccA44 GTCAGCGGTAACGCGACCTCGGCCCATGCAGGCCATGCGATGCCCGCCGCCGGCGATGGT 1320 Stm K279a GTCAGCGGTAACGCGACCTCGGCCCATGCAGGCCATGCGATGCCCGCCGCCGGCGATGGT 1317 Xac13 GCCAGCGGTAACGAGACCTCGGCCCATGCAGGCCACGCGATGCCCGCCGCCGGCG ATGGT 1317 Xp7882 GCCAGCGGCAATGAGGCCTCGGCCCATGCGGGTCACGCGATGCCCGCCGCCGGCGATGGT 1317 ****** ** ************* ** ** ************************

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126 Figure 4 5 Continued XccA44 GCCATGGCAGGCATGCAGCACGGGGGCATGCAATCACACCCTGCTAGCGAGACCAACA AT 1380 Stm K279a GCCATGGCAGGCATGCAGCACGGGGGCATGCAATCACACCCTGCTAGCGAGACCAACAAT 1377 Xac1381 GCCATGGCCGGCATGCAGCACGGGGGCATGCAATCACACCCTGCCAGCGAGACCAACAAT 1377 Xp7882 GCCATGGCCGGCATGCAGCATGGGGGCATGCAATCACACCCTGCCAGCGAGACCAACAAT 1377 ** ****** *********** *********************** *************** XccA44 CCCCTGTTGGACAACCAAGCCATGAGCGTGAGTTCGCGCTTGGATGATCCGGGCAATGGC 1440 Stm K279a CCCCTGTTGGACAACCAAGCCATGAGCGTGAGTTCGCGCTTGGATGATCCGGGCAATGGC 1437 Xac1381 CCCCTGTTGGACAACCAAGCCATGAGCGT GACTTCGCGCTTGGACGATCCGGGCAATGGC 1437 Xp7882 CCCCTGTTGGACAACCAAGCCATGAGCGTGACTTCGCGCTTGGACGATCCGGGCAATGGC 1437 ******************************* ************ *************** XccA44 CTGCGCGATAACGGCCGTCATGTGCTGACGTATTCCATGCTCAAGAGCACCTTTGA AGAC 1500 Stm K279a CTGCGCGATAACGGCCGTCATGTGCTGACGTATTCCATGCTCAAGAGCACCTTTGAAGAC 1497 Xac1381 CTGCGCGATAACGGCCGTCATGTACTGACGTATTCCATGCTCAAGAGCACCTTTGAAGAC 1497 Xp7882 CTGCGCGATAACGGCCGTCATGTACTGACGTATTCCATGCTCAAGAGCACCTTTGAAGAC 1497 *********************** ************************************ XccA44 CCTGACGGACGCGACCCCGGTCGCGAGATCGAGCTGCATCTGACCGGACACATGGAGAAA 1560 Stm K279a CCTGACGGACGCGACCCCGGTCGCGAGATCGAGCTGCATCTGACCGGACACATGGAGAAA 1557 Xac1381 CCTGACGGACGCGACCCCGGTCGCGAG ATCGAGCTGCATCTGACCGGACACATGGAGAAA 1557 Xp7882 CCTGACGGACGCGACCCCGGTCGCGAGATCGAGCTGCATCTGACCGGACACATGGAGAAA 1557 ************************************************************ XccA44 TTCTCCTGGGGCTTCAACGGTCAGAAGTTTTCCGATGTCGAGCCGCTGCGGCTG AACTAC 1620 Stm K279a TTCTCCTGGGGCTTCAACGGTCAGAAGTTTTCCGATGTCGAGCCGCTGCGGCTGAACTAC 1617 Xac1381 TTCTCCTGGGGTTTCAATGGTCAGAAGTTTTCCGATGTCGAGCCGCTGCGGCTGAACTAC 1617 Xp7882 TTCTCCTGGGGTTTCAATGGTCAGAAGTTTTCCGATGTCGAGCCGCTACGGCTGAACTAC 1617 *********** ***** ***************************** ************ XccA44 GGCGAGCGTATGCGCATCGTATTGGTTAACGACACGATGATGACCCATCCCATCCATTTG 1680 Stm K279a GGCGAGCGTATGCGCATCGTATTGGTTAACGACACGATGATGACCCATCCCATCCATTTG 1677 Xac1381 GGCGAGCGCATGCGCATCGTGTTGG TCAACGACACGATGATGACCCATCCGATCCATTTG 1677 Xp7882 GGCGAGCGCATGCGCATCGTATTGGTCAACGACACGATGATGACCCACCCGATCCATTTG 1677 ******** *********** ***** ******************** ** ********* XccA44 CACGGCATGTGGAGTGACGTGGAGGACGACAACGGCAACTTCATGGTGCGCA AGCACACG 1740 Stm K279a CACGGCATGTGGAGTGACGTGGAGGACGACAACGGCAACTTCATGGTGCGCAAGCACACG 1737 Xac1381 CATGGCATGTGGAGCGATGTGGAAGACGATAACGGCAACTTCATGGTGCGCAAGCACACG 1737 Xp7882 CACGGCATGTGGAGCGATGTGGAAGACGATAGCGGCAACTTCATGGTGCGCAAGCACACG 1737 ** *********** ** ***** ***** **************************** XccA44 GTGGATATGCCGCCAGGTAGCCGACGCACGTATCGCGTGCGTGCCGATGCGTTGGGCAGC 1800 Stm K279a GTGGATATGCCGCCAGGTAGCCGACGCACGTATCGCGTGCGTGCCGATGCGTTGGGCAGC 1797 Xac1381 GTGGACATGCCGCCGGGTAGCCG ACGTACGTATCGCGTGCGTGCCGATGCGTTGGGCAGC 1797 Xp7882 GTGGACATGCCGCCAGGCAGCCGACGTACGTATCGCGTGCGTGCCGATGCGTTGGGCAGC 1797 ***** ******** ** ******** ********************************* XccA44 TGGGCGTTCCATTGCCACCTGCTTTATCACATGGAAGCCGGAATGATGCG CACGGTGAGG 1860 Stm K279a TGGGCGTTCCATTGCCACCTGCTTTATCACATGGAAGCCGGAATGATGCGCACGGTGAGG 1857 Xac1381 TGGGCGTTCCATTGCCACCTGCTTTATCACATGGAAGCCGGAATGATGCGCACGGTGAGG 1857 Xp7882 TGGGCGTTCCATTGCCACCTGCTCTATCACATGGAAGCCGGAATGATGCGCACGGTGAGG 1857 *********************** ************************************ XccA44 GTCGACGAATGA 1872 Stm K279a GTCGACGAATGA 1869 Xac1381 GTCGACGAATGA 1869 Xp7882 GTCGACGAATGA 1869 ************ Figure 4 5 Continued

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127 XccA44 MS HDDFRGPHGGPPLLPSRRRFVQGLALGGAVAGLGFWPKASWALKGPGQPNVLSGTEFD 60 Stm K279a MSHDDFRGPRGGP LLPSRRRFVQGLALGGAVAGLGFWPKASWALKGPGQPNVLSGTEFD 59 Xac1381 MSHDDFRGPHGGP LLPSRRRFVQGLALGGAVAGLGFWPKASWALKGPGQANVLSGTEFD 59 Xp7882 MSHDDFRGPHGGP LLPSRRRFVQGLA LGGAVAGLGFWPKASWALKGPGQANVLSGTEFD 59 *********:*** ************************************.********* XccA44 LTIGETPMNFTGKTRTAITVNGSVPAPLLRWREGTTVSLRVSNALPANSLHGTDTSIHWH 120 Stm K279a LTIGETPMNFTGKTRTAITVNGSVPAPLLRWREGTTVNLRVSNALPANSIHGAD TSIHWH 119 Xac1381 LTIGETPMNFTGKTRTAITVNGSVPAPLLRWREGTTVNLRVSNALPANSLHGTDTSIHWH 119 Xp7882 LTIGETPMNFTGKTRTAITVNGSVPAPLLRWREGTTVNLRVSNALPANSLHGTDTSIHWH 119 *************************************.***********:**:******* XccA44 GI ILPANMDGVPGLSFDGIGRGETYHYRFTLHQGGTYWYHSHSGFQEQAGLYGPIVIDPL 180 Stm K279a GIILPANMDGVPGLSFDGIGRGETYHYRFTLHQGGTYWYHSHSGFQEQAGLYGPIVIDPL 179 Xac1381 GIILPANMDGVPGLSFDGIGRGETYHYRFTLHQGGTYWYHSHSGFQEQAGLYGPIVIDPL 179 Xp7882 GIILPANMDGVPGLSFDGIGRGET YHYRFTLHQGGTYWYHSHSGFQEQAGLYGPIVIDPL 179 ************************************************************ XccA44 EPEPFSFDRDYVVMLSDWTDLDPTALFDRLKKMPGHDNYYKRTVGDFARDVKRYGLSATL 240 Stm K279a EPEPFSFDRDYVVMLSDWTDLDPTALFDRLKKMPGHDNYYKRTVGDFARD VKRNGLSATL 239 Xac1381 EPEPFSFDRDYVVMLSDWTDLDPAALFDRLKKMPGHDNYYKRTVGDFARDVKRNGLSATL 239 Xp7882 EPEPFSFDRDYVVMLSDWTDLDPTALFDRLKKMPGHDNYYKRTVGDFARDVKRNGLSATL 239 ***********************:***************************** ****** XccA44 EDRKMWGVMRMTPTDLSDVNANTYTYLMNGTTSLGNWTGLFRSGEKVRLRFINGSAMTYF 300 Stm K279a EDRKMWGVMRMTPTDLSDVNANTYTYLMNGTTSLGNWTGLFRSGEKVRLRFINGSAMTYF 299 Xac1381 EDRKMWGVMRMTPTDLSDVNANTYTYLMNGTTSLGNWTGLFRSGEKVRLRFINGSAMTYF 299 Xp7882 EDRKMWGVMRMTPTDLSDVN ANTYTYLMNGTTSLGNWTGLFRSGEKVRLRFINGSAMTYF 299 ************************************************************ XccA44 DVRIPGLKMTVVAADGLYVHPVSVDEFRIAVAETFDVIVEPSGQDAFTIFAQDSGRTGYI 360 Stm K279a DVRIPGLKMTVVAADGLYVHPVSVDEFRIAVAETFDVIVEPSGQDA FTIFAQDSGRTGYI 359 Xac1381 DVRIPGLKMTVVAADGLYVHPVSVDEFRIAVAETFDVIVEPSGQDAFTIFAQDSGRTGYV 359 Xp7882 DVRIPGLKMTVVAADGLYVHPVSVDEFRIAVAETFDVIVEPSGQDAFTIFAQDSGRTGYV 359 ***********************************************************: XccA44 SGTLAVREGLRAPVPSVDPRPLLTMADMGMDHGSMDMSGGSKGMEGGCGAAMGMPGMTPP 420 Stm K279a SGTLAVREGLRAPVPSVDPRPLLTMADMGMDHGSMDMSGGSKGMEGGCGAAMGMPGMTPP 419 Xac1381 SGTLAVREGLRAPVPPVDPRPLLTMADMGMDHGSMDMSGGSKGMEGGCGAAMGMPGMAPP 419 Xp7882 SGTLAVREGLRAPLPS VDPRPLLTMADMGMDHGSMDMSGGSKGMEGGCGAAMGMPGMTPP 419 *************:*.*****************************************:** XccA44 VSGNATSAHAGHAMPAAGDGAMAGMQHGGMQSHPASETNNPLLDNQAMSVSSRLDDPGNG Stm K279a VSGNATSAHAGHAMPAAGDGAMAGMQHGGMQSHPASETNNPLLDN QAMSVSSRLDDPGNG 479 Xac1381 ASGNETSAHAGHAMPAAGDGAMAGMQHGGMQSHPASETNNPLLDNQAMSVTSRLDDPGNG 479 Xp7882 ASGNEASAHAGHAMPAAGDGAMAGMQHGGMQSHPASETNNPLLDNQAMSVTSRLDDPGNG 479 .*** :********************************************:********* XccA44 LRDNGRHVLTYSMLKSTFEDPDGRDPGREIELHLTGHMEKFSWGFNGQKFSDVEPLRLNY 540 Stm K279a LRDNGRHVLTYSMLKSTFEDPDGRDPGREIELHLTGHMEKFSWGFNGQKFSDVEPLRLNY 539 Xac1381 LRDNGRHVLTYSMLKSTFEDPDGRDPGREIELHLTGHMEKFSWGFNGQKFSDVEPLRLNY 539 Xp7882 LRDNGRHVLTYSMLK STFEDPDGRDPGREIELHLTGHMEKFSWGFNGQKFSDVEPLRLNY 539 ************************************************************ XccA44 GERMRIVLVNDTMMTHPIHLHGMWSDVEDDNGNFMVRKHTVDMPPGSRRTYRVRADALGS 600 Stm K279a GERMRIVLVNDTMMTHPIHLHGMWSDVEDDNGNFMVRKHTV DMPPGSRRTYRVRADALGS 599 Xac1381 GERMRIVLVNDTMMTHPIHLHGMWSDVEDDNGNFMVRKHTVDMPPGSRRTYRVRADALGS 599 Xp7882 GERMRIVLVNDTMMTHPIHLHGMWSDVEDDSGNFMVRKHTVDMPPGSRRTYRVRADALGS 599 ******************************.***************************** Xc cA44 WAFHCHLLYHMEAGMMRTVRVDE 623 Stm K279a WAFHCHLLYHMEAGMMRTVRVDE 622 Xac1381 WAFHCHLLYHMEAGMMRTVRVDE 622 Xp7882 WAFHCHLLYHMEAGMMRTVRVDE 622 *********************** Figure 4 6 Alignment of complete amino acid sequenc es of copA Xcc A44 Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri A44 ; Stm K 279a Stenotrophomonas maltophilia K 279a; Xac1381 X. alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis 1381; Xp7882 X. perforans 7882. The homology line indicates the degree of amino acid homology among all aligned sequence members. Asterisk (*), identical residue; colon ( : ), conserved substitution; period ( ), semiconserved substitution; gap, no conservation ( Thompson et al., 1994 ).

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128 XccA44 ATGAACATCAATAGACGCGATACCACCCTGACTGCGCTGAC --GGCTATCTCGCTGGCC 57 Stm K279 a ATGAACATCAATAGACGCGATACCACCCTGACTGCGCTGAC --GGCTATCTCGCTGGCC 57 Xac1381 ATGAACATCAATAGACGCGATACCACCCTGACTGCGCTGACGCTGGCTATCTCGCTGGCC 60 Xp7882 ATGAACATCAATAGACGCAATACCACCCTGACTGCGCTGACCCTGGCTATCTCGCTGGCC 60 ****************** **** ****************** **************** XccA44 CTGGCCAATGCGGCCAGCGCCCAATCTATGCAGCACGGCTCCATGCAGATGGAGCAGGGC 117 Stm K279a CTGGCCAATGCGGCCAGCGCCCAATCTATGCAGCACGGCTCCATGCAGATGGAGCAGGGC 117 Xac1381 CTGGCCAGTGCGGCCAGCGCCCAATCCATGCAGCACGGCTCCATGCCGATGG GGCAGAGC 120 Xp7882 CTGGCCAATGCGGCCAGCGCCCAATCCATGCAGCACGGCTCCATGCCGATGGAGCAGGGC 120 ******* ****************** ******************* ***** **** ** XccA44 GCGCAGACCCAGACTCAGGATCACTCTGCACATCAGGCGCCGACATCAAAACCTGCGCCA 177 Stm K279a GCGC AGACCCAGACTCAGGATCACTCTGCACATCAGGCGCCGACATCAAAACCTGCGCCA 177 Xac1381 GCGCAGACCCAGACGCAGGATCACTCTGCACATCAGGCGCCGACATCAAAACCTGCGCCC 180 Xp7882 GCGCAGACCCAGGCTCAGGATCACTCTGCACATCAGGCGCCGACATCAAAGCCTGCGCCA 180 ************ ************** ********************* ******** XccA44 GCCCAAAAGCCTGCAACACCGGCCAAGACGAGCGAAGCGACGATCGATCATGCGGCGATG 237 Stm K279a GCCCAAAAGCCTGCAACACCGGCCAAGACGAGCGAAGCGACGATCGATCATGCGGCGATG 237 Xac1381 ACCCAAAAGCCTGCAACACCGGCCAAGACCAGCGAAGCGACCATCGATCATGCGGCGA TG 240 Xp7882 GCCCCCAAACCTACAACACCGGCCAAGACCAGCGAAGCGACTATCGATCATGCGGCGATG 240 *** ** *** **************** *********** ****************** XccA44 GGCCACGCCGAGCCGCAGGCTAACGCAGCCGAGCCTGCCATGCAGGGCATGGACCATTCG 297 Stm K279a GGCCACGCCG AGCCGCAGGCTAACGCAGCCGAGCCTGCCATGCAGGGCATGGACCATTCG 297 Xac1381 GGTCATCCCGCGCCACCGGCTAAAGCAGCCGAGCCTGCGATGCAAGGGATGGACCATTCC 300 Xp7882 GGCCATGCCGCGCCGCCGGCTCAAGCAGCCGAGCCTGCCATGCAGGGCATGGACCACTCG 300 ** ** *** *** **** *********** *** ***** ** ******** ** XccA44 CAGATGGGGCACGGCTCGCCCGCGAGCACACCTGCGGCGCCCACAGCGCAGGCGCAGTCG 357 Stm K279a CAGATGGGGCACGGCTCGCCCGCGAGCACACCTGCGGCGCCCACAGCGCAGGCGCAGTCG 357 Xac1381 AAGATGGGGCACGGCTCGCCTCCAAGTACGCCTGTAGCGCCCAAAGCGCAGACGCAGTCG 360 Xp7882 CAGATGGGGCACAGCTCGCCCGCGAGTACACCTGCAGCGCCCAAAGCGCAGACGCAGCCG 360 *********** ******* ** ** **** ******* ******* ***** ** XccA44 ATGCAGGGCATGGATCACAGTCAGATGGCACAGCCCGCTGCAGCCGACACCTCCGGCACG 417 Stm K279a ATGCAGGGCATGGATC ACAGTCAGATGGCACAGCCCGCTGCAGCCGACACCTCCGGCACG 417 Xac1381 ATGCAGGGCATGGATCACAGTCAGATGGCACAGCCCGCTGCAGCCGACACCTCCA --TG 417 Xp7882 ATGCAGGGCATGGATCACAGTCAGATGGCACAGCCCGCTGCGTCCGACGCCTCCAGCACG 420 ***************************************** ***** ***** XccA44 GCCACGCCTGCGATGCAGGGGATGGACCATTCGCAGATGGGCCATGATTCGCCCGCGCCC 477 Stm K279a GCCACGCCTGCGATGCAGGGGATGGACCATTCGCAGATGGGCCATGATTCGCCCGCGCCC 477 Xac1381 ACCACACCTGCGATGCAGGGGATGGACCATTCGCAGATGGGGCATGGTTCGCCCGCACCC 477 Xp788 2 TCCACGCCTGCGATGCAGGGGATGGACCATTCGCAGATGGGCCACGGTTCGCCCGCATCC 480 **** *********************************** ** ********* ** XccA44 GCTACACCAGAAGCGGGAATGCAATCGATGGAGGGCATGGACCACAGTCAGATGGGACAC 537 Stm K279a GCTACACCAGAAGCGGGAATGC AATCGATGGAGGGCATGGACCACAGTCAGATGGGACAC 537 Xac1381 GCTACGCCAGAAGCGGGTATGCAATCAATGGAAGGCATGGACCACAGTCAGATGGGACAC 537 Xp7882 GCTACGCCAGAAGCTGGCATGCAATCGATGGAGGGCATGGACCACAGTCAGATGGGACAT 540 ***** ******** ** ******** ***** ************** ************ XccA44 GGGCCTGCAGCGCCAACGCAGCCGCGCACCCCGATTCCCGCGGTGACGGACGCGGATCGC 597 Stm K279a GGGCCTGCAGCGCCAACGCAGCCGCGCACCCCGATTCCCGCGGTGACGGACGCGGATCGC 597 Xac1381 GGGTCTGCAGCGCCAACGCAGCCGCGCACCCCGATTCCGGCGGTGACCGAGGCTGATCGT 597 Xp7882 GGGCCTGTCGCACCAACGCAGCCGCGCACCCCGATTCCTGCGGTGACCGAGGCTGATCGT 600 *** *** ** ************************** ******** ** ** ***** XccA44 AAGGCGGCCATCGCGCCGGAACACGCGCATCCGGTGCATGACAACTCGATTAAGAGCTAC 657 Stm K279a AAGGCGGCCATCGCGCCGGAACACGCGC ATCCGGTGCATGACAACTCGATCAAGAGCTAC 657 Xac1381 CAGGCGGCCATCGCGCCCGCACACGCGCATCCGGTGCATGACAATTCGATCAAGAGCTAT 657 Xp7882 CAGGCGGCCATCGCGCCCGCACACGCGCATCCGGTGCATGACAATTCGATCAAGAGCTAC 660 **************** ************************ ***** ** ****** Figure 4 7 Alignment of complete nucleotide sequences of copB Xcc A44 Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri A44 ; Stm K 279a Stenotrophomonas maltophilia K 279a; Xac1381 X. alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis 1381; Xp7882 X. perforans 7882. The homology line in dicates the degree of amino acid homology among all aligned sequence members. Asterisk (*), identical residue; gap, no conservation ( Thompson et al., 1994 ).

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129 XccA44 GTGCTGCTCAATCGCCTGGAAACCTGGGATGCCGATCCGGGCACCGGGCTGGGCTGGGAG 717 Stm K279a GTGCTGCTC AATCGCCTGGAAACCTGGGATGCCGATCCGGGCACCGGGCTGGGCTGGGAG 717 Xac1381 GTACTGCTCAATCGCCTGGAAGCCTGGGATGCCGATCCTGGAACCGGGCTGGGTTGGGAG 717 Xp7882 GTACTGCTCAATCGCCTGGAAGCCTGGGATGCCGATCCGGGCACCGGGCTGGGTTGGGAG 720 ** ****************** ************ **** ** *********** ****** XccA44 GGCCAGGGCTGGATCGGTACGGACCTCAATCGCGTCTGGCTCCGCAGTGAAGGCGAACGC 777 Stm K279a GGCCAGGGCTGGATCGGTACGGACCTCAATCGCGTCTGGCTCCGCAGTGAAGGCGAACGC 777 Xac1381 GGTCAGGGCTGGATCGGTACGGACCTCAATCGCGTCTGGTTGCGCAGTGAAGGCGAACGC 77 7 Xp7882 GGTCAGGGTTGGATCGGTACGGACCTCAATCGCGTCTGGTTCCGCAGTGAAGGCGAACGC 780 ** ***** ****************************** ****************** XccA44 ACGGATGGTCAGACCGAGTCGGCTGATCTGGAAGTGCTTTACGGCCGCAGTATCTCCACG 837 Stm K279a ACGGATGGTCAGACC GAGTCGGCTGATCTGGAAGTGCTTTACGGCCGCAGTATCTCCACG 837 Xac1381 ACAGATGGTCAGACAGAATCGGCTGATCTGGAAGTGCTCTACGGCCGCAGTATCTCCACG 837 Xp7882 ACAGATGGTCAGACCGAGTCGGCTGATCTGGAAGTGCTCTACGGCCGCAGTATCTCCACG 840 ** *********** ** ******************** ******************** XccA44 TGGTGGGATGTGGTGGCCGGTGTGCGTCATGACTTCAAGCCTGGGGCATCGCAGAACTTC 897 Stm K279a TGGTGGGATGTGGTGGCCGGTGTGCGTCATGACTTCAAGCCTGGGGCATCGCAGAACTTC 897 Xac1381 TGGTGGGATGTGGTGGCCGGTGTGCGCCATGACTTCAAGCCGGGGGCTTCGCAGAACTTC 897 Xp78 82 TGGTGGGATGTGGTAGCCGGTGTGCGCCATGACTTCAAGCCGGGGGCTTCGCAGAACTTC 900 ************** *********** ************** ***** ************ XccA44 GCCGCTATCGGTGTACAGGGCTTGGCGCCGATGAAGTTCGAAGTGTCCGCCACAGCCTAT 957 Stm K279a GCCGCTATCGGTGTACAGGGC TTGGCGCCGATGAAGTTCGAAGTGTCCGCCACAGCCTAT 957 Xac1381 GCCGCTATCGGCGTACAGGGCTTGGCACCGATGAAGTTCGAAGTGTCCGCCACAGCCTAT 957 Xp7882 GCCGCTATCGGCGTACAGGGCTTGGCACCGATGAAGTTCGAAGTATCCGCCACAGCCTAT 960 *********** ************** ***************** *********** XccA44 CTCGGCGAAGGGGGCCAGACTGCCGCCAATGTCGAGGCCGAGTACGAATTGCTGCTAACC 1017 Stm K279a CTCGGCGAAGGGGGCCAGACTGCCGCCAATGTCGAGGCCGAGTACGAGTTGCTGCTAACC 1017 Xac1381 CTCGGCGAAGGCGGCCAGACTGCCGCCAATGTCGAGGCTGAGTACGAACTGCTGCTGACC 1017 Xp7882 CTCGGCGAAGGCGGCCAGACTGCTGCCAATGTCGAGGCCGAGTACGAACTGCTGCTGACC 1020 *********** *********** ************** ******** ******* XccA44 AACCGGCTGATCTTGCAGCCGCTGGTGGAAGTCACCGCCTATGGCAAGAACGATCCATTG 1077 Stm K279a AACCGGCTGATCTTGCAGCCGCTGGTGG AAGTCACCGCCTATGGCAAGAACGATCCATTG 1077 Xac1381 AATCGGCTGATCCTACAGCCGCTGGTGGAGGTCACGGCGTATGGCAAGAACGATCCACTG 1077 Xp7882 AATCGGCTGATCCTGCAGCCGCTGGTGGAGGTCACGGCGTATGGCAAGAACGATCCATTG 1080 ** ********* ************** ***** ** *********** ******* XccA44 CGCGGGATAGGTTCGGGTCTGAGTGCCGCTGAGGCGGGGCTACGACTTCGCTATGAGTTC 1137 Stm K279a CGCGGGATAGGTTCGGGTCTGAGTGCCGCTGAGGCGGGGCTACGACTTCGCTATGAGTTC 1137 Xac1381 CGCGGAATAGGTTCGGGTCTGAGTACCGCTGAGGCGGGCCTGCGACTTCGTTATGAGTTC 1137 Xp7882 CG CGGAATAGGTTCGGGTCTGAGTACCGCTGAGGCGGGCCTGCGACTTCGTTATGAGTTC 1140 ***** ****************** ************* ** ******** ****** XccA44 ACCCGAAAGTTCGCTCCCTACATCGGCGTGGTGTACGAGCGCGCGTTTGGCAATACCGCA 1197 Stm K279a ACCCGAAAGTTCGCTCCCTACATCGGCGTGGT GTACGAGCGCGCGTTTGGCAATACCGCA 1197 Xac1381 ACCCGAAAGTTCGCTCCCTACATCGGCGTGGTGTACGAGCGTGCGTTTGGCAATACCGCA 1197 Xp7882 ACCCGAAAGTTCGCTCCCTACATCGGCGTGGTGTACGAGCGTGCGTTTGGCAATACCGCA 1200 ***************************************** ************ *** XccA44 GACATGCGACGCGAGCATGGCGAGTCCTTTGAAGACACGCGCTTGGTCATCGGCCTTCGT 1257 Stm K279a GACATGCGACGCGAGCATGGCGAGTCCTTTGAAGACACGCGCTTGGTCATCGGCCTTCGT 1257 Xac1381 GACATGCGACGCGAGCATGGCGAGTCCTTTGAAGACACGCGCTTGGTCGTCGGCCTTCGT 1257 Xp7882 GACATG CGACGCGAGCATGGCGAGTCTTTTGAAGACACGCGCTTGGTCATCGGCCTTCGT 1260 ************************** ********************* ******** XccA44 ACCTGGTTCTAA 1269 Stm K279a ACCTGGTTCTAA 1269 Xac1381 ACCTGGTTCTAA 1269 Xp7882 ACCTGGTTCTAA 1272 ************ Figure 4 7 Continued

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130 XccA44 MNINRRDTTLTALT AISLALANAASAQSMQHGSMQMEQGAQTQTQDHSAHQAPTSKPAP 59 Stm K279a MNINRRDTTLTALT AISLALANAASAQSMQHGSMQMEQGAQTQTQDHSAHQAPTSKPAP 59 Xcc1381 MNINRRDTTLTALTLAISLALASAASAQSMQHGSMPMGQSAQT QTQDHSAHQAPTSKPAP 60 Xp7882 MNINRRNTTLTALTLAISLALANAASAQSMQHGSMPMEQGAQTQAQDHSAHQAPTSKPAP 60 ******:******* *******.************ *.****:*************** XccA44 AQKPATPAKTSEATIDHAAMGHAEPQANAAEPAMQGMDHSQMGHGSPASTPAAPTAQAQS 119 Stm K27 9a AQKPATPAKTSEATIDHAAMGHAEPQANAAEPAMQGMDHSQMGHGSPASTPAAPTAQAQS 119 Xcc1381 TQKPATPAKTSEATIDHAAMGHPAPPAKAAEPAMQGMDHSKMGHGSPPSTPVAPKAQTQS 120 Xp7882 APKPTTPAKTSEATIDHAAMGHAAPPAQAAEPAMQGMDHSQMGHSSPASTPAAPKAQTQP 120 : **:********** *******. *:************:***.**.***.**.**:*. XccA44 MQGMDHSQMAQPAAADTSGTATPAMQGMDHSQMGHDSPAPATPEAGMQSMEGMDHSQMGH 179 Stm K279a MQGMDHSQMAQPAAADTSGTATPAMQGMDHSQMGHDSPAPATPEAGMQSMEGMDHSQMGH 179 Xcc1381 MQGMDHSQMAQPAAADTSMT TPAMQGMDHSQMGHGSPAPA TPEAGMQSMEGMDHSQMGH 179 Xp7882 MQGMDHSQMAQPAASDASSTSTPAMQGMDHSQMGHGSPASATPEAGMQSMEGMDHSQMGH 180 **************:*:* **************.***.******************** XccA44 GPAAPTQPRTPIPAVTDADRKAAIAPEHAHPVHDNSIKSYVLLNRLETWDADPGTGLGWE 239 St m K279a GPAAPTQPRTPIPAVTDADRKAAIAPEHAHPVHDNSIKSYVLLNRLETWDADPGTGLGWE 239 Xcc1381 GSAAPTQPRTPIPAVTEADRQAAIAPAHAHPVHDNSIKSYVLLNRLEAWDADPGTGLGWE 239 Xp7882 GPVAPTQPRTPIPAVTEADRQAAIAPAHAHPVHDNSIKSYVLLNRLEAWDADPGTGLGWE 240 *..******** *****:***:***** ********************:************ XccA44 GQGWIGTDLNRVWLRSEGERTDGQTESADLEVLYGRSISTWWDVVAGVRHDFKPGASQNF 299 Stm K279a GQGWIGTDLNRVWLRSEGERTDGQTESADLEVLYGRSISTWWDVVAGVRHDFKPGASQNF 299 Xcc1381 GQGWIGTDLNRVWLRSEGERTDGQTESADLEVLYGRS ISTWWDVVAGVRHDFKPGASQNF 299 Xp7882 GQGWIGTDLNRVWFRSEGERTDGQTESADLEVLYGRSISTWWDVVAGVRHDFKPGASQNF 300 *************:********************************************** XccA44 AAIGVQGLAPMKFEVSATAYLGEGGQTAANVEAEYELLLTNRLILQPLVEVTAYGKNDPL 35 9 Stm K279a AAIGVQGLAPMKFEVSATAYLGEGGQTAANVEAEYELLLTNRLILQPLVEVTAYGKNDPL 359 Xcc1381 AAIGVQGLAPMKFEVSATAYLGEGGQTAANVEAEYELLLTNRLILQPLVEVTAYGKNDPL 359 Xp7882 AAIGVQGLAPMKFEVSATAYLGEGGQTAANVEAEYELLLTNRLILQPLVEVTAYGKNDPL 360 ******* ***************************************************** XccA44 RGIGSGLSAAEAGLRLRYEFTRKFAPYIGVVYERAFGNTADMRREHGESFEDTRLVIGLR 419 Stm K279a RGIGSGLSAAEAGLRLRYEFTRKFAPYIGVVYERAFGNTADMRREHGESFEDTRLVIGLR 419 Xcc1381 RGIGSGLSTAEAGLRLRYEFTRKFAPYIGVVYE RAFGNTADMRREHGESFEDTRLVVGLR 419 Xp7882 RGIGSGLSTAEAGLRLRYEFTRKFAPYIGVVYERAFGNTADMRREHGESFEDTRLVIGLR 420 ********:***********************************************:*** XccA44 TWF 422 Stm K279a TWF 422 Xcc1381 TWF 422 Xp7882 TWF 423 *** Figure 4 8 Alignment of complete amino acid sequences of copB Xcc A44 Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri A44 ; Stm K 279a Stenotrophomonas maltophilia K 279a; Xac1381 X. alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis 1381; Xp7882 X. perforans 7882. The homology line indicates the degree of amino acid homology among all aligned sequence members. Asterisk (*), identical residue; colon ( : ), conserved substitution; period ( ), semiconserved substitution; gap, no conservation ( Thompson et al., 1994 ).

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131 XccA44 ATGAACATCAATAGACGCGATACCACCCTGACTGCGCTGACG --GCTATCTCGCTGGCC 57 Xsp1219 ATGAACATCAATAGACGCGATACCACCCTGACTGCGCTGACGCTGGCTATCTCGCTGGCC 60 Xe81 23 ATGAACATCAATAGACGCGATACCACCCTGACTGCGCTGACG --GCTATCTCGCTGGCC 57 **** ************************************** *************** XccA44 CTGGCCAATGCGGCCAGCGCCCAATCTATGCAGCACGGCTCCATGCAGATGGAGCAGGGC 117 Xsp1219 CTGGCCAATGCCGCCAGCGCCCAATCCATGCAGCACGGCTCCATGCCGATGGAGCAGGGC 120 Xe81 23 CTGGCCAATGCGGCCAGCGCCCAATCTATGCAG CACGGCTCCATGCAGATGGAGCAGGGC 117 *********** ************** ******************* ************* XccA44 GCGCAGACCCAGACTCAGGATCACTCTGCACATCAGGCGCCGACATCAAAACCTGCGCCA 177 Xsp1219 GCGCAGACCCAGACTCAGGATCACTCTGCACATCAGGCGCCGACATCAAAACCTGCGCCA 1 80 Xe81 23 GCGCAGACCCAGACTCAGGATCACTCTGCACATCAGGCGCCGACATCAAAACCTGCGCCA 177 ************************************************************ XccA44 GCCCAAAAGCCTGCAACACCGGCCAAGACGAGCGAAGCGACGATCGATCATGCGGCGATG 237 Xsp1219 GCCAAAAAGCCTGC AACACCGGCCAAGAAGAGCGAAGCGACGATCGATCATGCGGCGATG 240 Xe81 23 GCCCAAAAGCCTGCAACACCGGCCAAGACGAGCGAAGCGACGATCGATCATGCGGCGATG 237 *** ************************ ******************************* XccA44 GGCCACGCCGAGCCGCAGGCTAACGCAGCCGAGCCTGCCATGC AGGGCATGGACCATTCG 297 Xsp1219 GGCCACGCCGCGCCGCCGGCTAAAGCAGCCGAGCCTGCCATGCAGGGCATGGACCATTCG 300 Xe81 23 GGCCACGCCGAGCCGCAGGCTAACGCAGCCGAGCCTGCCATGCAGGGCATGGACCATTCG 297 ********** ***** ****** ************************************ XccA44 CAGATGGGGCACGGCTCGCCCGCGAGCACACCTGCGGCGCCCACAGCGCAGGCGCAGTCG 357 Xsp1219 CAGATGGGGCACGGCTCGCCCGCGAGCACACCTGCGGCGCCCACAGCACAGGCGCAGTCG 360 Xe81 23 CAGATGGGGCACGGCTCGCCCGCGAGCACACCTGCGGCGCCCACAGCGCAGGCGCAGTCG 357 ******************** *************************** ************ XccA44 ATGCAGGGCATGGATCACAGTCAGATGGCACAGCCCGCTGCAGCCGACACCTC ------410 Xsp1219 ATGCAGGGCATGGATCACAGTCAGATGGCACAGCCCGCTGCAGCCGACACCTCTGGTACG 420 Xe81 23 ATGCAGGGCATGGA --------------------------------------------371 ************** XccA44 -----------------------------------------------------------Xsp1219 GCCACGCCTGCGATGCAGGGGATGGACCATTCCAAGATGGGGCACGGCGCGCCTCCGAGC 480 Xe81 23 ----------------------------------------------------------XccA44 -----------------------------------------------------------Xsp1219 ACGCCCGCAACGCCCAAAGCGCAGACACAGTCGATGCA GGGCATGGATCACAGTCAGATG 540 Xe81 23 -----------------------------------------------------------XccA44 -------------------------CGGCACGGCCACGCCTGCGATGCAGGGGATGGAC 444 Xsp 1219 GCACAGCCCGCGGCGGCCGACACCTCCGGCACGGCCACGCCTGCGATGCAGGGGATGGAC 600 Xe81 23 -----------------------------------------------------------XccA44 CATTCGCAGATGGGCCATGA TTCGCCCGCGCCCGCTACACCAGAAGCGGGAATGCAATCG 504 Xsp1219 CATTCGCAGATGGGCCATGATTCGCCCGCGTCCGCTACACCAGAAGCGGGAATGCAATCG 660 Xe81 23 -----------------------------------------------------------XccA44 ATGGAGGGCATGGACCACAGTCAGATGGGACACGGGCCTGCAGCGCCAACGCAGCCGCGC 564 Xsp1219 ATGGAGGGCATGGACCACAGTCAGATGGGACACGGGCCTGCAGCGCCAACGCAGCCGCGC 720 Xe81 23 -------------CCACAGTCAGATGGGACACGGGCCTGCAGCGCCAACGCAGCCGCGC 417 ********************************************** XccA44 ACCCCGATTCCCGCGGTGACGGACGCGGATCGCAAGGCGGCCATCGCGCCGGAACACGCG 624 Xsp1219 ACCCCGATACCCGCGGTGACGGACGCGGATCGCAAGGCGGCCATCGCGCCGGAACACGCG 780 Xe81 23 ACCCCGATTCCCGCGGTGACGGACGC GGATCGCAAGGCGGCCATCGCGCCGGAACACGCG 477 ******** *************************************************** XccA44 CATCCGGTGCATGACAACTCGATTAAGAGCTACGTGCTGCTCAATCGCCTGGAAACCTGG 684 Xsp1219 CATCCGGTGCATGACAACTCGATCAAGAGCTATGTGCTGCTCAATCGCCTGGAAA CCTGG 840 Xe81 23 CATCCGGTGCATGACAACTCGATCAAGAGCTACGTGCTGCTCAATCGCCTGGAAACCTGG 537 *********************** ******** *************************** Figure 4 9. Alignment of complete amino acid sequences of cop B from Xanthomonas citri subs p ci tri A44 (XccA44 ), Xanthomonas sp. (Xsp1219), and Xanthomonas euvesicatoria 81 23 ( Xe81 23). Asterisk (*) identical residue; gap, no conservation ( Thompson et al., 1994 ).

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132 XccA44 GATGCCGATCCGGGCACCGGGCTGGGCTGGGAGGGCCAGGGCTGGATCGGTACGGACCTC 744 Xsp1219 GATGCCGATCCGGGCACCGGGTTTGGCTGGGAGGGCCAAGGCTGGATCGGTACGGACCTC 900 Xe81 23 GATGCCGATCCGGGCACCGGGCTGGGCTGGGAGGGCCAGGGCTGGATCGGTACGGACCTC 597 ********************* ************** ********************* XccA44 AATCGCGTCTGGCTCCGCAGTGAA GGCGAACGCACGGATGGTCAGACCGAGTCGGCTGAT 804 Xsp1219 AATCGCGTCTGGCTCCGCAGTGAAGGCGAACGCACGGATGGTCGGACCGAGTCGGCTGAT 960 Xe81 23 AATCGCGTCTGGCTCCGCAGTGAAGGCGAACGCACGGATGGTCAGACCGAGTCGGCTGAT 657 ******************************************* **** ************ XccA44 CTGGAAGTGCTTTACGGCCGCAGTATCTCCACGTGGTGGGATGTGGTGGCCGGTGTGCGT 864 Xsp1219 CTGGAAGTGCTTTACGGCCGCAGTATCTCCACGTGGTGGGATGTGGTGGCCGGTGTGCGT 1020 Xe81 23 CTGGAAGTGCTTTACGGCCGCAGTATCTCCACGTGGTGGGATGTGGTGGCCGGTGTGCGT 717 ************************************************************ XccA44 CATGACTTCAAGCCTGGGGCATCGCAGAACTTCGCCGCTATCGGTGTACAGGGCTTGGCG 924 Xsp1219 CATGACTTCAAGCCTGGGGCATCGCAGAACTTCGCCGCTATCGGTGTACAGGGCTTGGCG 1080 Xe81 23 CATGACTTCAAGCCTGGGGCATCGCAG AACTTCGCCGCTATCGGTGTACAGGGCTTGGCG 777 ************************************************************ XccA44 CCGATGAAGTTCGAAGTGTCCGCCACAGCCTATCTCGGCGAAGGGGGCCA ---------974 Xsp1219 CCGATGAAGTTCGAAGTGTCCGCCACAGCCTATCTCGGCGAAGGGGGCCA --------1130 Xe81 23 CCGATGAAGTTCGAAGTGTCCGCCACAGCCTATCTCGGCGAAGGGGGCCAAGTGTCCGCC 837 ************************************************** XccA44 -------------------------GACTGCCGCCAATGTCGAGGCCGAGTACGAATTG 1008 Xsp1219 ------------------------GACGGCCGCCAATGTCGAGGCCGAGTACGAATTG 1164 Xe81 23 ACAGCCTATCTCGGCGAAGGGGGCCAGACTGCCGCCAATGTCGAGGCCGAGTACGAATTG 897 *** ****************************** XccA44 CTGCTAACCAACCGGCTGATCTTGCAGCCGCTGG TGGAAGTCACCGCCTATGGCAAGAAC 1068 Xsp1219 CTGCTAACCAACCGGCTGATCTTGCAGCCGCTGGTGGAAGTCACCGCCTATGGCAAGAAC 1224 Xe81 23 CTGCTAACCAACCGGCTGATCTTGCAGCCGCTGGTGGAAGTCACCGCCTATGGCAAGAAC 957 ********************************************************* *** XccA44 GATCCATTGCGCGGGATAGGTTCGGGTCTGAGTGCCGCTGAGGCGGGGCTACGACTTCGC 1128 Xsp1219 GATCCATTGCGCGGGATAGGTTCGGGTCTGAGTACCGCTGAGGCGGGGCTACGACTTCGT 1284 Xe81 23 GATCCATTGCGCGGGATAGGTTCGGGTCTGAGTGCCGCTGAGGCGGGGCTACGACTTCGC 1017 ****** *************************** ************************* XccA44 TATGAGTTCACCCGAAAGTTCGCTCCCTACATCGGCGTGGTGTACGAGCGCGCGTTTGGC 1188 Xsp1219 TATGAGTTCACCCGAAAGTTCGCTCCCTACATCGGCGTGGTGTACGAGCGCGCGTTTGGC 1344 Xe81 23 TATGAGTTCACCCGAAAGTTCGCTCCCTACATC GGCGTGGTGTACGAGCGCGCGTTTGGC 1077 ************************************************************ XccA44 AATACCGCAGACATGCGACGCGAGCATGGCGAGTCCTTTGAAGACACGCGCTTGGTCATC 1248 Xsp1219 AATACCGCAGACATGCGACGCGAGCATGGCGAGTCCTTTGAAGACACGCGCTTGGTCATC 1404 Xe81 23 AATACCGCAGACATGCGACGCGAGCATGGCGAGTCCTTTGAAGACACGCGCTTGGTCATC 1137 ************************************************************ XccA44 GGCCTTCGTACCTGGTTCTAA 1269 Xsp1219 GGCCTTCGTACCTGGTTCTAA 1425 Xe81 23 GGCCTTCG TACCTGGTTCTAA 1158 ********************* Figure 4 9. Continued

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133 Figure 4 10. Transposon insertion sites within the copper resistance determinants of pXccCu2 from Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri strain A44. Black t riangles indicate site of transposon insertion.

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134 Figure 4 11. Phylogenetic tree constructed from alignments of partial nucleotide sequences of copper resistance gene copL using the method of ma ximum parsimony. Bootstrap values, as percentage out of 1000 replicates, are shown at each node. Taxon information indicates organism, strain and geographical origin, respectively. Xcc, Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri ; Xac, X alfalfae subsp. citrumelonis ; Xv, X vesicatoria ; Xe, X euvesicatoria ; Xp, X perforans ; X g X gardneri ; Xaj, X arboricola pv. juglandis ; Xsp, Xanthomonas sp.(1219, pathogenic; INA69, non pathogenic); Stm, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Xcc 306 cohL outgroup copL homolog gene fro m Xcc 306 present on the chromosome of copper resistant and sensitive Xanthomonas strains.

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135 Figure 4 12. Phylogenetic tree constructed from alignments of partial nucleotide sequences of copper resistance gene cop A using the method of maximum parsimony. Bootstrap values, as percentage out of 1000 replicates, are shown at each node. Taxon information indicates organism, strain and geographical origin, respectively. Xcc, Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri ; Xac, X alfalfae subs p. citrumelonis ; Xv, X vesicatoria ; Xe, X euvesicatoria ; Xp, X perforans ; X g X gardneri ; Xaj, X arboricola pv. juglandis ; Xsp, Xanthomonas sp.(1219, pathogenic; INA69, non pathogenic); Stm, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Xcc 306 coh A outgroup cop A homolog gene from Xcc 306 present on the chromosome of copper resistant and sensitive Xanthomonas strains.

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136 Figure 4 13. Phylogenetic tree constructed from alignments of partial nucleotide sequences of copper resistance gene cop B using the method of maximum parsimony. Bootstrap values, as percentage out of 1000 replicates, are shown at each node. Taxon information indicates organism, strain and geographical origin, respectively. Xcc, Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri ; Xac, X alfalfae subs p. citrumelonis ; Xv, X vesicatoria ; Xe, X euvesicatoria ; Xp, X perforans ; X g X gardneri ; Xaj, X arboricola pv. juglandis ; Xsp, Xanthomonas sp.(1219, pathogenic; INA69, non pathogenic); Stm, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Xcc 306 coh A outgroup cop B homolog gene from Xcc 306 present on the chromosome of copper resistant and sensitive Xanthomonas strains.

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137 C HAPTER 5 SUMMARY AND DISCUSSI ON After eradication efforts were suspended in Florida attention has focused on alternative strategies to control ci trus canker, including use of bactericides such as copper and streptomycin One of the greatest concerns surrounding the use of these bactericides for control of citrus canker is that numerous sprays per season are usually necessary for efficacious disease control and frequent use may lead to development of resistant strains of the pathogen Copper resistant (Cu R ) strains of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) (syn. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri ), the causal agent of citrus canker, have been reported on ly in Argentina ( Canteros, 1996 ) Streptomycin has not been used in commercial groves for control of citrus canker. Hence, t he d evelopment of resistance to streptomycin in Xcc populations affecting citrus has not been reported yet. This antibiotic has been tested as a complementary measure to copper sprays ( Graham et al., 2008 ). The purpose is to reduce the load of copper seasonally applied in citrus groves by replacing some copper applications by streptomycin or combining the two bactericides for higher ef fectiveness of control. The major objectives of this dissertation were to assess the risk for the development of copper resistant (Cu R ) and streptomycin resistant (Sm R ) Xcc and to characterize and compare the genetics of copper resistance in Xcc with other bacteria. N one of the screened strains of Xcc from Florida and Brazil were identified as Cu R The strains from Brazil were isolated in 1996 1997, just a few years after the eradication program was replaced by an integrated management approach for citrus canker that includes, among other measures, the use of copper sprays to protect the foliage and fruit from damage ( Leite and Mohan, 1990 ). Likewise, Xcc populations in Florida have

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138 not been exposed to copper for a prolonged period. Moreover, samples of le aves with citrus canker collected in 2009 and 2010 from groves in Paran did not reveal the presence of Cu R strains in that area. Although this indicates that copper resistance in Xc c has either not yet developed or has not spread in the citrus growing are as of Parana or Florida, constant surveillance is advisable to assess the risk of copper resistance as long as copper sprays are repeatedly used in citrus groves with endemic canker. Conversely, t he majority of the Xanthomonas alfafae subsp. citrumelonis (Xac) strains screened in this study were identified as Cu R T his is the first time copper resistance has been reported for Xac. Most likely, copper resistance has developed in Xac because citrus nurseries have been frequently sprayed with copper bacterici des for control of citrus bacterial spot ( CBS ) from the time of eradication program in 1984 ( Graham and Gottwald 1991 ). Since X ac and Xcc share the same host and thrive under similar environmental conditions, the concern is that the interaction between th ese two bacteria in the mesophyll of leaves on newly planted nursery trees coinfected with CBS and citrus canker in citrus groves could result in horizontal transfer of Cu R from Xac to Xcc. In the present study, no Cu R strain of Xcc was isolated from citru s trees sprayed with a copper bactericide every 21 days for 3 consecutive seasons. Due to the nature of the genetics of copper resistance in bacteria, which is conferred by several genes normally organized in operons ( Cooksey, 1990; Mellano and Cooksey, 19 88 a; Voloudakis et al., 2005 ), a natural spontaneous mutation conferring copper resistance is unlikely to occur within bacterial populations. Conjugation of plasmid or transposable

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139 elements carrying such resistance genes is likely to be the main means for enabling the development of copper resistance in bacterial populations ( Bender and Cooksey, 1986 ; Bender et al., 1990; Stall et al., 1986 ). The relatively short period that Xcc population was exposed to copper during this study (3 seasons) and before that, due to the recent adoption of copper sprays for control of citrus canker in Florida after the eradication program was halted in 200 6 may have accounted for the absence of Cu R strains of Xcc in symptomatic trees repeatedly treated with copper in this stud y. As observed for copper, no Sm R strains were isolated after citrus trees had undergone 3 seasons of 21 day interval sprays of st reptomycin in the present study Resistance to streptomycin develops either by horizontal transfer of resistance genes or by mutation ( Gale et al., 1981; Springer et al., 2001 ). The latter is the more common mechanism of streptomycin resistance acquisition and occurs through a single base pair mutation of the streptomycin binding site ( Springer et al., 2001 ) A lthough Sm R strain s of Xcc were not found in the present study after 3 seasons of sprays, previous studies indicate that development of resistance in the Xcc population could occur any time. With continued use of streptomycin resistance development is inevitable due to in cessant mutation and selection in bacterial populations (Moller et al. 1981 ) What remains to be addressed is how likely Sm R strains will develop in Xcc population s if only a few streptomycin sprays are intercalated or mixed with copper applications for co ntrol of citrus canker. Although no Cu R or Sm R strains of Xcc were found, the frequent sprays of copper and streptomycin increased the population of epiphytic bacteria residing i n the citrus phyllosphere resistant to these chemicals. The increased frequen cy is likely to reflect

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1 40 changes in community structure, adaptation of the initial community as well as selection of resistant populations initially present. In the present study, total bacterial population in the phyllosphere did not differ between copper or streptomycin treated trees and untreated control. Therefore Cu R and Sm R bacterial communities may have taken over the sensitive ones, which were suppressed by the frequent bactericide sprays. Considering that cell density plays an important role in conj ugation frequency ( Levin et al., 1979 ; Normander et al., 1998 ) the concern for build up Cu R and Sm R bacterial communities in the phyllosphere is that it increases the likelihood for exchange of resistance genes. Consequently, there is greater risk for th e development of resistant strains of Xcc to these chemicals. We showed that Cu R genes can be transferred between different plant pathogenic species of Xanthomonas and that homologous of these resistance genes present in epiphytic bacteria residing on the citrus phyllosphere can confer copper resistance to sensitive strains of Xanthomonas D espite that the movement of copper or streptomycin resistance genes from epiphytic strains to Xanthomonas could not be demonstrated in the present study, it is possible that in nature phyllosphere microorganisms represent a risk for the development of resistance in the Xcc population. In Erwinia amylovora mobilizable streptomycin resistance genes have been previously identified in common epiphytic bacteria found in orcha rds ( Beining et al., 1996 ; Burr et al., 1988 ; Huang and Burr 1999 ; Norelli et al., 1991; Sobiczewski et al., 1991 ). According to Sundin (2002 ), strA strB genes can be carried within an integron, a transposon, or on broad host range plasmids This genetic exchange has facilitated the world wide dissemination of this determinant for streptomycin resistance among different bacterial genera ( Sundin

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141 2002 ). C ooksey et al. (1990) reported t he presence of Cu R saprophytic P seudomonas p utida strains that harbor pla smid borne resistance genes homolog ous to those in P syringae pv. tomato from a commercial tomato seed lot T he results reported here illustrate that copper resistance genes can potentially be shared between pathogenic Xanthomonas sp. and non pathogenic e piphytic bacteria in the citrus phyllosphere. This is the first time copper resistance has been characterized in Xcc and Xac strains. copL copA copB copM copG copC copD and copF genes were identified in Xcc A44. The same cop genes except copC and co pD occurred in Xac 1381. Comparison of copper resistance determinants in Xcc A44 and Xac 1381 to previously sequenced copper resis tance determinats such as Stm K279a ( Crossman et al., 2008 ) and Xp 7882 ( Voloudakis et al., 2005 ) revealed that high homology nucleotide sequences is maintained among these strains only for copLAB the N terminal of copM which is positioned immediately after copB and copF which is located at the end of the gene cluster in all strains. Although we could not determine the importance of copF for copper resistance by insertional mutation because this gene is absent in pXccCu2, we were able to demonstrate that the conserved region copLAB and part of copM has direct involvement in copper resistance. copLAB is essential for copper resistance and the N terminal of copM is necessary for full resistance. Homologues of the copper resistance genes copLAB cloned from Xcc A44 and Xac 1381 are present on the chromosome of Cu R strains, such as Xv 1111 (data not published), and strai ns that have been tested to be Cu S such as Xcc 306 ( da Silva et al., 2002 ) and Xv 85 10 ( Thieme et al., 2005 ). Homologues of these genes are also present in many other Xanthomonas strains whose resistance or sensitivity to copper is

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142 unconfirmed. T he pres ence of homologues of copper resistance genes on the chromosome has been previous ly reported for other bacteria ( Cooksey et al., 1990 ; Lim and Cooksey, 1993 ) and d ifferently from what has been annotated chromosomal cop LAB is not responsible for copper res istance but likely necessary for homeostasis and/or tolerance. While strains harboring the copper resistance genes copLAB highly can grow on MGY agar amended up to 400 mg L 1 of Cu, strains that have only th e chromosomal copLAB genes such as Xcc 306, grow up to 75 mg L 1 of Cu hence, are Cu S Thus, t o avoid further confusion or misinterpretation we suggest that the nomenclature of chromosomal homologues of copL copA and copB in xanthomonads which are prob ably copper homeostasis genes should be changed to cohL cohA and cohB respectively. Primers designed based on the A44 clone were used to PCR amplify copL copA and copB from other copper resistant xanthomonads strains. All copper resistant and copper se nsitive strains tested positive and negative with the three primer sets, respectively. Sequence alignments of copLAB genes from different strains indicated that the resistance genes are conserved among the Cu R strains with identity of nucleotide sequences higher than 90%. P hylogenetic analysis revealed that the minor differences which exist in the nucleotide sequences of these strains are not related to the species or geographical origin. Xcc strains from Argentina were clustered into two different groups. Four strains were more closely related to strains of Xe, Xg and Xv from Costa Rica and Guadeloupe, and one Xcc strain was associated with an Xv strain also isolated from Argentina. This indicates that the copper resistance in xanthomonads may have a

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143 common origin and that the Cu R genes have been independently exchanged among different species of xanthomonads, possibly by horizontal transfer. T he presence of copper resistance genes from plant pathogenic xanthomonads in epiphytic bacteria such as Xanthomonas and Stenotrophomonas as demonstrated in this study and the incessant movement of plant material, especially seeds, among countries may account for such wide dissemination of these genes into different Xanthomonas populations in different parts of the wor ld, indicating a relatively high risk for copper resistance development in Xanthomonas pathogens under constant exposure to copper.

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157 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Franklin Behlau was born in Assis, S o P aulo State Brazil, in 1980. From 1999 to 2003 h e attended the State University of Londrina, Lond r ina, P a ran State Brazil where he obtained the title of Agronomic Eng i neer D uring this time he got involved in research activities under supervision of Dr. Rui Pereira Leite at the Agronomic Institute of Parana (IAPAR), where he first started working with pla nt pathology. In 2004, he was admitted for the Master of Science program in plant pathology at Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz University of S o Paulo (ESALQ/USP) Piracicaba, So Paulo State Brazil, under the supervision of Dr. Armando B ergamin Filho. research was focused on epidemiological studies of citrus canker on sweet orange trees under copper and windbreak protection. In 2006 he received an assistantship from the Citrus Research and Education Center (CREC), Lake Alfre d FL, to pursue a PhD degree in p lant p athology at University of Florida Gainesville, FL, where he conducted research on risk assessment of copper and streptomycin resistance development in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri under supervision of Drs. James H Graham and Jeffrey B. Jones.