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Brand-Ad Incongruency in High Product Involvement

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0041924/00001

Material Information

Title: Brand-Ad Incongruency in High Product Involvement
Physical Description: 1 online resource (65 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Lee, Seoungchul
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: ad, brand, congruency, high
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Advertising thesis, M.Adv.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This study explores how effective ad-brand incongruency is in high involvement product category. Using a 1 x 3 experiment, a congruent level is manipulated according to a pretest result. Traditional advertising measures of attitude toward the ad, brand, ad credibility, and purchase intention are examined as dependent variables. According to the results, although a congruent ad generates higher Aad, Ab, Ac, and PI than an extreme incongruent ad, a moderate incongruent ad also produces positive Aad and Ac than an extreme incongruent ad. The discussion provides implications for advertisers as well as suggestions for future study.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Seoungchul Lee.
Thesis: Thesis (M.Adv.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Weigold, Michael F.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0041924:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0041924/00001

Material Information

Title: Brand-Ad Incongruency in High Product Involvement
Physical Description: 1 online resource (65 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Lee, Seoungchul
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: ad, brand, congruency, high
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Advertising thesis, M.Adv.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This study explores how effective ad-brand incongruency is in high involvement product category. Using a 1 x 3 experiment, a congruent level is manipulated according to a pretest result. Traditional advertising measures of attitude toward the ad, brand, ad credibility, and purchase intention are examined as dependent variables. According to the results, although a congruent ad generates higher Aad, Ab, Ac, and PI than an extreme incongruent ad, a moderate incongruent ad also produces positive Aad and Ac than an extreme incongruent ad. The discussion provides implications for advertisers as well as suggestions for future study.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Seoungchul Lee.
Thesis: Thesis (M.Adv.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Weigold, Michael F.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0041924:00001


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BRAND-AD INCONGRUENCY IN HIGH PRODUCT INVOLVEMENT


BY

SEOUNGCHUL LEE

















A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ADVERTISING

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2010
































2010 Seoungchul Lee



























To my family









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I am heartily thankful to my supervisor, Dr. Michael Weigold and members of my

supervisory committee, Dr. Debbie Treise and Dr. Troy Elias for their mentoring and guidance. I

also would like to make a special reference to my family for their encouragement and financial

support, which motivated me to complete my study. Lastly, I offer my regards and blessings to

all of those who supported me in any respect during the completion of the thesis.










TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S .......................................................................................... .............. 4

L IST O F F IG U R E S ........ ................................................................................... ........... 8

L IST O F A B B R E V IA T IO N S ......................................................................................................... 9

A B S T R A C T ......... ....................... ............................................................. 10

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION ................................. .. .... .... ................. 11

2 L ITER A TU R E R E V IEW S................................................. ............................................... 14

B rand and B rand personality ...................................................... .................................. 14
Schem a Incongruency ........................................................ ...... ....... ............ .. 17
In v o lv e m e n t ................... ................... ...................................................... .. 2 1

3 H Y PO TH E SE S ......................................................... ............ .............. .. 25

4 METHOD ............................................................. 27

S tu d y D e sig n ................... ................... .............................7
P a rtic ip a n ts .......................................................................................................... .......... ...... 2 7
P retest................. ...................................... 27
Confound and M manipulation Checks ........................................ 29
M e a su re s ....................................................................... 2 9

5 R E S U L T S ......................................................................................................... .............. 3 3

S cale R eliab ility ..................................................................... 3 3
Product Involvem ent............................. .................... 33
R results of A N O V A analy sis ................................................................ .............................. 33
Tests of H hypothesis l(a)............................ .................... 33
Tests of Hypothesis l(b) ......................................... 34
Tests of H hypothesis l(c)............................ .................... 34
Tests of H hypothesis 2 .................................................................................................... ....... 34

6 D IS C U S S IO N ......................................................................................................... 4 1

7 LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH....................................... 47









APPENDIX

A SAMPLE OF PRETEST QUESTIONNAIRE................................ ........................ 50

B SAMPLE OF MAIN TEST QUESTIONNAIRES ......................................................... 52

C CONGRUENT AND INCONGRUENT ADS .................... ........................ ........... 55

L IST O F R E F E R E N C E S ..................... ......... ............................................................ .............. 59

B IO G R A PH IC A L SK E T C H .............................................. .................................................... 65









































6









LIST OF TABLES


Table Page


4 -1 S tu d y D e sig n ............... ................................................................................ .............. ...... 3 1
4-2 M ean Scores of A associated im ages .............. .......................................................... 31
4-3 M ean Scores of Perceived Fit.................................... .... ....... ................................. 31
4-4 P percentage of P perceived F it ................................................... ...................................... 32
4-5 The R results of Paired t-test. ........................................ .......................... ................... 32

5-1 Scale Reliability of each group (Cronbach's Alpha) ............................................. 36
5-2 Mean and Median Score of Product involvement .......................... .... ............. 36
5-3 Analysis of Variance: Ad-Brand Incongruence Effects on Ac.................................... 36
5-4 Analysis of Variance: Ad-Brand Incongruence Effects on Aad................... .............. 37
5-5 Analysis of Variance: Ad-Brand Incongruence Effects on Ab ...................................... 37
5-6 Analysis of Variance: Ad-Brand Incongruence Effects on PI .................... ........ 37
5-7 Aad, Ab, PI, and Ac Distribution, Means, and Standard Deviations............................. 38
5-8 Analysis of Multiple Comparisons (Tukey HSD): Aad ............................................... 38
5-9 Analysis of Multiple Comparisons (Tukey HSD): Ab ............. .................................... 39
5-10 Analysis of Multiple Comparisons (Tukey HSD): PI.................................. ................. 39
5-11 Analysis of Variance (Tukey HSD): Ac ........................... ......... ................ .... .......... 40

7-1 M ean of G ender D distributions ........... ................. ................. .................... .............. 49










LIST OF FIGURES
Figure Page
6-1 Attitude Toward the Ad by Congruent Level ...................................................... 45
6-2 Attitude Toward the Brand by Congruent Level .................................................... 45
6-3 Purchase Intention by Congruent Level ........................................ ................ ...... 46
6-4 A d C credibility by C ongruent L evel ......................................................................... .. 46










LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS


Ac Ad Credibility

Aad Attitude toward the Ad

Ab Attitude toward the Brand

PI Purchase Intention










Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising


BRAND-AD INCONGRUENCY IN HIGH PRODUCT INVOLVEMENT

By

Seoungchul Lee

August 2010

Chair: Michael F. Weigold
Major: Advertising

This study explores how effective ad-brand incongruency is in high involvement product

category. Using a 1 x 3 experiment, a congruent level is manipulated according to a pretest result.

Traditional advertising measures of attitude toward the ad, brand, ad credibility, and purchase

intention are examined as dependent variables. According to the results, although a congruent ad

generates higher Aad, Ab, Ac, and PI than an extreme incongruent ad, a moderate incongruent ad

also produces positive Aad and Ac than an extreme incongruent ad. The discussion provides

implications for advertisers as well as suggestions for future study.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Every brand has its image and brand image serves as a driving force for consumers to

buy a product (Mitchell, 1986). This brand image is called brand personality, and is defined as

"the set of human characteristics associated with a brand" (Aaker, 1997). Brand personality is

important because consumers tend to buy brands that match their self-image (Sirgy, 1982, 1986).

Previous research shows that brand personality can be created by sporting event

sponsorships, celebrity endorsements, and other promotions (Lee & Thorson, 2008; Lee & Cho,

2009). Advertising may be the most powerful tool in making and representing brand personality

(Biehal, Stephens, & Curlo, 1992).

However, there are many competing ads; this creates a problem for companies that wish

to use advertising to create a brand personality. This so called "ad clutter" makes it difficult to

capture consumers' attention. To make matters worse, consumers tend to process the information

in which they are interested (Tellis, 2004); rather than perceiving the world as it really is,

consumers view a product and process associated information as they expect (Macrae &

Bodenhausen, 2001).

To resolve ad clutter problems and catch consumers' attention, researchers have

conducted many studies on ad incongruence. Ad incongruence is defined as the extent to which

new information does not conform to consumers' expectation and memory based on previous

experience (Mandler, 1982). Many researchers question this idea. For instance, what happens

when the ad is incongruent with the brand and the associations that consumers hold, or which

advertisement is more effective in the instance of extreme incongruence, moderate incongruent

and congruent ads?









In these situations, Lee and Thorson (2008) established a theory that moderately

mismatched ads show higher purchase intention than either completely matched or extremely

mismatched ads in product-celebrity endorsements. Micael, Fredrik L, Henrik and Fredrik T

(2005) found that incongruent ads produced a lower ad attitude and ad credibility, but higher

brand attitude and more sophisticated processing of brand-related information. However, as they

mentioned in their research, their focus was only on a low involvement product, a chocolate bar,

as a stimulus. This is the starting point for this thesis. How do consumers perceive incongruent

ads compared to congruent ads in high involvement product categories?

Extending the research of Micael et al. (2005), it is worthy stating their findings first:



a) Ad attitude is lower for brand-incongruent ads than for brand-congruent ads.

b) Ad credibility is lower for brand-incongruent ads than for brand-congruent ads.

c) Brand attitude is higher for brand-incongruent ads than for brand-congruent ads.



Most noticeably, in their research, the main factor leading to the above results is

disturbance. It suggests consumers tend to process new information as disturbing when it is

different from their brand schema, especially under a low involvement condition. In other words,

an incongruent ad is perceived as disturbing because it conflicts with consumers' expectations,

and therefore leads to low ad attitude (Micael et al, 2005).

If true, let us go back to starting point again, "What if consumers do not think of an

incongruent ad as disturbing?" We can assume that as they put more effort and time into

understanding an incongruent ad, attitudes toward a high involvement product ad will be

enhanced.









If this assumption is correct, this research will play an important role in the relationship

between ad and brand. Furthermore, these results will give us a clue to better understand the

relationship between product involvement and ad-brand incongruency; helping us to overcome

ad clutter and leading us to make more effective advertisements.

This study chose the real cell phone brand, iPhone, as a high involvement product

stimulus since consumers value cell phones as important accessory in life (Zaichkowsky, 1994),

and also put special value into a cell phone as a tool for identifying themselves (Krugman, 1967).









CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEWS

Brand and Brand personality

The definition of a brand is "no tangible, physical, or functional properties. It is a mental

translation, an abstraction of that object or service. It exists solely as a mental construct, a

typification, an idea in the minds of those who behold it." (Kim, 1990) Despite the fact that the

brand is not a real object, consumers perceive it as genuine; it does not belong to the owners, but

to the eye of consumers. The eye of the beholder assimilates pieces of experiences, thoughts,

feelings, associations, and images (Kim, 1990).

Brand personality is defined as "the set of human characteristics associated with a

brand." (Aaker, 1997) In contrast to product related attributes, which tend to functionally appeal

to consumers, brand personality tends to be symbolic or serve as a function of self-expression

(Keller, 1993). Foumier (1994) found that the symbolic use of brands is possible because

consumers often relate brand images to human characteristics. For example, Absolute vodka is

described as a cool, hip, contemporary 25-year old, whereas Stoli is described as an intellectual,

conservative, and traditional.

The main reason for this resulting phenomenon is advertising. Advertisers often use

celebrity endorsers in their ads. This is not only for utilizing credibility and attractiveness of

celebrities; but this also allows advertisers to channel celebrity personalities into a brand. (Tellis,

2004; Aaker, 1997). Through this process, consumers can easily compare brands to famous

celebrities or famous figures.

In addition to personality characteristics, Levy (1959) suggests that brand personality

also includes demographic characteristics such as gender, age, and class. Similar to personality

characteristics, these demographic characteristics are stemmed directly from the image of the
14









brand user or, endorsers and indirectly from other associated brand images. For example, Apple

is considered young, whereas IBM is considered older. Also, based on different pricing strategies,

Saks Fifth Avenue is perceived as upper class, whereas Kmart is perceived as blue collar.

Brand personality has two dimensions; enduring, and distinct. For example, the

personality traits associated with Coca-Cola are cool, all-American, and real; these traits are

relatively enduring (Pendergrast, 1993) and differ from its competitors (e.g., Pepsi being young,

exciting, and hip; Dr Pepper being nonconforming, unique, and fun (Plummer, 1985). For a

brand to be successful, its images and symbols must be not only related to the needs, values, and

life styles of consumers, but also different from other brands (Broadbent & Cooper, 1987).

With regard to brand personality, brands can be described by consumers; moreover,

consumers often prefer brands and stores with images consistent with their own self-image (Sirgy,

1982), and they tend to be attracted to a brand image which matches their self-image (Sirgy,

1986).

Why are consumers more attracted to those brands with which they share

characteristics? Perhaps, brand image is a way consumers can express their self-image

(McEnally & Chernatony, 1999). Consumers express themselves as they want to be viewed by

using the associated images of brands; Cadillac DeVille's advertising campaign is a good

example, "My DeVille says it all, without me having to say anything." Consumers can be viewed

the same as a campaign promotes (e.g., upper class and/or important person) by using this brand.

In other words, consumers often purchase products to maintain and enhance their self-image;

consumers make purchase decisions based on a product's symbolic meanings and images, which

can be used to create and enhance their self-image (Levy, 1959; Solomon & Douglas, 1987).









Motivated by this logic, Sirgy (1982) found that consumers have greater preference for

the brand that has unique and ideal personalities. The idea that consumers have more favorable

attitude toward brands with images similar to their own self-image can be explained by image

congruence hypothesis (Belk, Bahn, & Mayer, 1982; Hong & Zinkhan, 1995; Onkvisit & Shaw,

1987). Specifically, integration of certain images into the brand makes it more attractive to

consumers who possess the same personality or their desire to enhance their existing self image

through the use of a brand (McEnally & Chernatony, 1999). This is the reason why a strong and

consistent brand image is critical to the long-term success of the brand (Gardner & Levy, 1955;

Park, Jaworski, & Maclnnis, 1986; Ries & Trout, 1986).

Even though consumers think brands have similar characteristics that correlate with

human personality traits, the formation process is different from that of a human personality.

While human personality traits are inferred from an individual's behavior, physical

characteristics (i.e., attractiveness), attitudes, beliefs, and even demographic attributes, brand

personality traits can be created and influenced by a consumer's direct or indirect contact with a

brand (Plummer, 1985).

While companies market brand concepts to their targets, consumers formulate a brand

image in their memories from a stimulus such as media exposure or consumption (McEnally &

Chernatony, 1999). Establishing a unique brand image cannot be completed in a day; it is an

evolutionary process (Goodyear, 1996) and establishing unique brand image is the final stage of

this process. Consumers form brand schemas by storing their experiences and associations with a

brand (Keller, 1993; Kent & Allen, 1994; Low & Lamb, 2000). Once consumers store brand

schema, they can retrieve brand related information from their schema; they can control and

discriminate new brand information as well (Alba & Hutchinson, 1987; Pechmann & Stewart,









1990). This seems to explain the ineffectiveness related to the ad-brand attitude for familiar

brands and brand schema (Machleit & Wilson, 1988); in other words, if a familiar brand does not

incorporate new information in advertising, consumers will not find it as interesting (Dahlen,

2001; Tellis, 1997).

Brand schemas serve to interpret the input when brand-related information is

encountered (Braun, 1999), since schemas present previous experience that directs behavior,

perception, and thought (Mandler, 1982). Specifically, when consumers' expectations using

brand schemas are similar to the encountered information, it promotes consumers to process the

information, because consumers consider familiar information interesting (Kent & Allen, 1994;

Machleit & Wilson, 1988). This seems to explain why advertisers focus on making their brands

noticeable or familiar. Advertisers try to make their brands more strongly established than other

brands since, strongly established brands not only promote consumers to process the information,

but also make the information more persuasive (Kent & Allen, 1994).

Schema Incongruency

There are not only too many brands, but also too many competing ads in the market. To

overcome this ad clutter and make their brand noticeable, advertisers try to differentiate their ads

from competing ads by making them humorous or catching; therefore, they need a powerful tool

to capture consumers' attention. For example, advertisers make their ads funny to make them

more appealing and catching by challenging consumers' expectation; and, this strategy makes

their ads different from other competing ads. Related to this situation, theoretical researches have

been conducted under the term "incongruency," or "incongruity" (Lee & Mason, 1999).

According to Mandler (1982), incongruency is "the extent to which new information

does not conform to consumer expectations based on a previously defined category of schemas

17









in the memory." Previous research also suggested that incongruity occurs at the individual level

and the level of incongruity can be different from individual's expected beliefs, attitudes, and

behaviors (Meyer, 1986). For example, consider the sex appeal of Volvo's advertising. Since its

brand has a strong product image of safety and consumers have been exposed to the image,

based on their expectancy, consumers might be surprised when they watched Volvo's sex appeal

ad. In contrast, if consumers did not have any information about Volvo before exposure, they

would not be surprised since they did not have any expectation about the ad.

There are two dimensions that lead to congruency and incongruency; expectancy and

relevancy. Related to this terms, Lee and Mason (1999) defined expectancy as the extent to

which an element of information falls into a previous pattern or example, and suggested that

unexpected information leads to more favorable attitude compared to the expected. Relevancy

refers to the extent to which an element of information contributes to identifying the primary

message (Heckler & Childers, 1992). Unlike previous researches where expectancy and

relevancy were the two dimensions that lead to level of incongruency, Heckler and Childers

suggest that humor may be another exceptional factor that leads to the information incongruency

beyond those two dimensions. With regard to humor and its relationship with incongruency,

humor can only be unexpected information (either relevant or irrelevant), whereas unexpected

information can be either humorous or not; the humor itself is based on, by nature,

unexpectedness (Heckler & Childers, 1992).

Meyers-Levy and Tybout (1989) suggested product evaluations on three different levels

of schema (in)congruity; congruity, moderate incongruity, and extreme incongruity. They found

that congruent information is easy to comprehend but does not produce arousal whereas extreme

incongruent information is hard to comprehend but produces intense arousal. However, moderate









incongruent information is more comprehensible but does not produce as intense arousal as

extreme incongruent information does. The author found that moderate incongruent information

leads to higher evaluations than congruent and extreme incongruent information.

There have been many researches studying the terms, congruent and incongruent. Novel

information that is congruent or incongruent with consumers' established schema can have an

effect on their judgment of the information in category based processing (Suj an, Bettman, &

Sujan, 1986; Wansink & Ray, 1996).

Traditionally, congruent stimuli have been perceived as being more positive than

incongruent stimuli (Fisk & Pavelchak, 1986). Consumers perceive advertisements which are

schema-congruent more favorably than schema incongruent advertisements (Meyers-Levy &

Tybout, 1989). Furthermore, consumers think of congruent information as relevant (Kamins &

Gupta, 1994).

However, Heckler and Childers (1992) found that recall differs from the level of

congruency; incongruent information showed higher memorability than congruent information

whereas congruent information produced higher recall than incongruent information. In addition,

Lee and Mason (1999) found that incongruent information can enhance ad and brand attitudes, as

well as, ad attitude confidence (Lee, 2000).

Incongruent information requires mental activity to be comprehended more than

congruent information (Meyers-Levy & Tybout, 1989). Moreover, mental activity leads to

arousal and stronger affective evaluation (Mandler, 1982). This evaluation can be either positive

or negative, and the factors leading this evaluation depend on the consumers' ability and

motivation to resolve the incongruity. When the information is resolvable, consumers feel

frustration, and this leads to a negative evaluation (Mandler, 1982).









Empirical precedents suggest that a moderate amount of incongruity actually creates a

strong positive affect (Meyers-Levy et al., 1989). In a study conducted by Mandler (1982),

mildly incongruent stimuli produced a stronger positive affect than congruent or extremely

congruent stimuli. Lee and Thorson (2008) also suggest that a moderate incongruent ad had

superior purchase intention compared to congruent and extremely incongruent ads. Moreover,

the mildness of the positive affect that results from schema congruity, according to Peracchio and

Tybout (1996), owes to the fact that it is considered neither noteworthy nor interesting.

Mild incongruity may be considered noteworthy because such consumers can resolve

incongruity through association with their prior experiences (Peracchio et al., 1996). Moreover, a

moderate amount of incongruity can create a positive attitude toward advertisements of this type,

since their unexpectedness arouses interest (Mandler, 1982). In other words, under mild

incongruity condition, ad content incongruity generates emotional reactions such as surprise

(Alden et al., 2000), which results in higher message involvement (Lee, 2000). This reaction

increases memory and affective effect for an ad (Heckler & Childers, 1992; Muehling &

Lazcniak, 1988). When consumers encounter mild incongruent information, a need for resolving

the incongruent message is created and this produces a positive effect (Meyers-Levy et al., 1989).

Specifically, consumers consider the incongruent elements of the ad to be a puzzle; they cannot

have negative feelings against it because of their favorability toward puzzles (McQuarrie & Mick,

1999). This provokes a human basic need, a sense of accomplishment, which makes consumers'

evaluations of the ad and brand obsolete (Peracchio & Meyers-Levy, 1994). This process leads to

positive attitude toward the ad and brand eventually (Alden et al., 2000; Arias-Bolzmann et al.,

2000; Lee, 2000; Lee & Mason, 1999).









In contrast, just as an unsolvable puzzle produces irritation and annoyance, extreme

incongruity generates negative feelings, such as frustration and helpless, which leads to

unfavorable evaluations of objects since it cannot be resolved through reference to previous

experiences and expectations (Meyers-Levy, Louir, & Curren, 1994). This idea can be explained

by the terms, expectations and predictions (Mandler, 1982). Comprehending incongruent

information may be challenging to consumers; this information requires mental activity to solve

(Meyers-Levy & Tybout, 1989). Mandler (1982) suggests that incongruent information may lead

to either positive or negative evaluation, and factors that lead those evaluations are consumer's

ability and opportunity to resolve that information. However, when it is so incongruent that

consumers cannot solve the puzzle, consumers feel frustration which produces a negative

evaluation (Mandler, 1982).

Involvement

The term "involvement" has been one of the most popular research topics in social

psychology, and, more recently, in consumer behavior. Fundamentally, the concept of product

involvement means the degree to which people are interested in a certain brand, or product

(Traylor, 1981). There are several definitions of product involvement. Traylor (1981) defined

product involvement as a perception that a certain product category is considered important to

consumers in terms of life, attitude about themselves, and sense of identity. Krugman (1967)

defined product involvement as an individual's recognized importance of the object based on

innate needs, values, and interests. Zaichkowsky (1994) also defined product involvement as the

extent in which consumers consider that product important in their life.

Cars, for example, have been considered a high-involvement product for consumers

(Hupfer & Gardner, 1971). When consumers shop for cars, they usually actively search for

21









information and purchase a product carefully. On the other hand, when consumers are presented

with a buying situation involving toothpaste, they purchase without careful thinking,

consideration, or researching. Consistent with this example, it has been stated that "the low

involvement consumer not only thinks of the product class as trivial, but he further has little

bond to his brand choice (Lastovicka & Gardner, 1977)."

However, the standard to categorize high-involvement and low-involvement products is

quite subjective and indefinite. Strictly speaking, any product can be ego involving or

uninvolving. Only consumers can make a product meaningful and this is the reason for

subjective and imprecise criteria (Traylor, 1981).

Despite the subjective and imprecise criteria for involvement, there have been studies

to figure out which factors classify and lead to different level of product involvement. Houston

and Rothschild's (1978) found that there are three factors that lead the level of involvement.

a) Personal factor: inherent interests, values, or needs that motivate one toward the object.

b) Physical factor: characteristics of the object that cause differentiation and increase

interest

c) Situational factor: something that temporarily increases relevance or interest toward the

object

Mitchell (1981) created a fundamental model of involvement and information behavior,

stating that "involvement influences information search, information processing, and information

saving." Engel and Blackwell (1982) defined involvement as "the activation of extended

problem solving behavior." Furthermore, Bettman (1979) cited level of involvement as a

mediating variable in information search.









As mentioned earlier, a moderate incongruent ad is considered a puzzle, and this

provokes consumers' basic needs, solving this question. This process enhances involvement and

attitude toward the ad. However, unlike the previous research, Micael et al. (2005) found that

consumers view incongruent advertisement as disturbing due to lack of involvement, and this

produces low attitude toward the exposed ad. In their research, they used a low involvement

product (chocolate bar) as the stimulus. There is a possibility that people will have a different

attitude with a high involvement product category compared to with a low involvement product.

The previous researches above support the hypotheses of this research, that consumers will

consider a moderate incongruent ad an interesting puzzle, putting more effort into interpreting

the ad, viewing it not as an obstacle but as intriguing because the moderate incongruent ad is

different from consumers' schema. Specifically, as an exposed ad and brand are important to

consumers, this high level of involvement leads them to look for more data and spend more time

on decision making (Clarke & Belk, 1979). This processing makes subjects put more time and

effort into congruent, moderate incongruent, and extreme incongruent ads. As a result, people

will not think of a moderate incongruent ad as an obstacle or barrier, instead ad attitude will

show higher than with congruent ads. Moderate incongruent ads will be viewed with curiosity,

and not as disturbing. (Hans, Nicola & Christine, 2006)

This view stems from the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) (Petty & Cacioppo,

1981). The basic principle of this model is that persuasion occurs depending on how much

consumers think about the message and whether they can process the exposed message. When

they are highly motivated and have the ability to process the message, their likelihood of

thinking about it will be high. This type of consumer takes central route and requires more

specific information than other consumers. However, when consumers have the motivation but









lack the ability to process a message, they take peripheral route and prefer less information than

others.

One important implication of this model for advertising messages is that we need to

consider different ways for the best advertising effect according to the level of involvement.

For example, a person who is about to purchase a cell phone (high involvement) may

research information about cell phone brands for better decision making. If the information

found is reasonable and persuasive compared to other brands, favorable attitudes toward the

brand will be produced and it will strongly affect purchase intention (central route). On the other

hand, a person who is not thinking of purchasing a new cell phone (low involvement) will not

spend time and effort on searching information about cell phone brands and would rather focus

on the attractiveness, credibility, or prestige of the product's endorser (peripheral route).

It has been well accepted that when consumers are not highly motivated and involved,

peripheral aspects of the ad such as music, background, or endorser become leading influencers

of brand attitudes (Petty, Cacioppo, & Schumann, 1983) whereas central aspects of the ad such

as message of the ad become the main influencing factor under high involvement conditions of

brand attitudes (Petty et al., 1983),









CHAPTER 3
HYPOTHESES

Incongruent Effect on High Involvement Product

DeSarbo and Harshman suggested (1985) that incongruity depends to some extent on the

characteristics of the consumers' involvement. Schema incongruity occurs when the associated

brand image is so different from the execution of an ad that a link between them is not obviously

represented in the existing schema. Such an unexpected stimulus requires greater cognitive effort

to resolve the disconfirmation. This is the reason why consumers' involvement is a prerequisite

here; the boundary among extreme incongruity, moderate incongruity, and congruity will be

obscure if consumers are not motivated and willing to spend time on resolving the incongruity

(Peracchio et al., 1996). The major variable that determines consumers' motivation and

willingness to process information is their involvement (Andrew, Durvasula, & Akhter, 1990).

In a high involvement situation, as people spend more time and effort on understanding

a moderate incongruent ad, they will perceive an incongruent ad as more interesting than as

disturbing. Therefore, we can expect that consumers will have a more positive attitude toward

the moderate incongruent ad than either with a congruent ad or with an extreme incongruent ad.

This will lead to a higher brand attitude (Thorson & Page, 1989; Batra & Ray, 1986; Edell &

Burke, 1984; Messmer, 1979; Gresham & Shimp, 1985; Mitchell & Olson, 1981) and eventually

increase purchase intention. Since involvement is a key factor of consumer behavior (Muncy &

Hunt, 2001), it is worth including purchase intention in research.

In accordance with these assumptions, the following hypotheses were created:

o Hypothesis 1: a moderate brand-ad incongruent group will result in more favorable (a) attitude

toward the advertisement (Aad), (b) attitude toward the brand (Ab), and (c) higher purchase

intention (PI) than either a brand-ad congruent or extreme brand-ad incongruent group.
25









However, when the incongruent advertising conflicts with ad and brand schemas;

consumers will typically compare the information in the ad with the stored information in the

brand schema (Micael et al, 2005). To resolve this conflicting ad, consumers will degrade the

new information as less credible than the information stored in the brand schema. Therefore, we

expect that consumers will rate incongruent ads as less credible than congruent ads.

o Hypothesis 2: Ad credibility (Ac) is higher for brand-congruent ad group than either extreme

incongruent group, or moderate incongruent group.









CHAPTER 4
METHOD

Study Design

In terms of ad-brand incongruence, the design of this study used three levels: a brand-

congruent ad, a moderate brand-incongruent ad, and an extreme brand-incongruent ad. The

degree of congruence was a manipulated variable. The dependent variables were Aad, Ab, Ac

and PI.

Participants

Subjects were 91 college students (male 38%, female 62%) which made for cell sizes of

approximately 30 subjects. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the treatment

conditions (i.e., congruent, moderate incongruent, and extreme incongruent ad). The numbers are

presented in Table 4-1.

Pretest

Since the purpose of this study is to know the effect of ad-brand incongruency in real

established brands, the brand "iPhone" was chosen for its brand familiarity (established brand),

and popularity among subjects.

Focus group interviews were employed to generate feedback on associated images with

iPhone. Subjects were asked to answer questions regarding associations that describe the iPhone

and those that don't. The questions were as follows: (a) How would you describe the iPhone? (b)

What would you say is the opposite image of the iPhone? The most commonly mentioned

congruent images were fashionable, representative, modem, young, and multi tasking; the one's

that don't are old-fashioned, boring, not smart, non-technological, and unpopular. Each type of

association that was most commonly mentioned was quantified with 7-point Likert scales and

27









rated by 29 new subjects with regard to (a) and (b) above. The 5 congruent associations

(representative, modern, young, fashionable and multi tasking) received high scores (M= 6.43)

and were chosen to make the brand-congruent stimulus. The 5 incongruent associations

(unsophisticated, old, simple, cheap, and non-technology) that subjects did not hold with the

iPhone received high scores (M= 1.68) by all the subjects and were chosen for creating the

brand-incongruent stimulus. Mean scores of each five associated image are presented in Table 4-

2.

Based on these associated brand images with which the iPhone held and did not hold, 4

incongruent and 4 congruent print ads were created; all information in the 8 ads was identical.

Congruent ads were designed based on iPhone's previous print ads since consumers had been

exposed to the same kinds of ads and are familiar with those ads. We can assume that

consumers have previous expectations about iPhone ads and those kinds of ads are what they

expect (congruent ad). Therefore, congruent ads were created focusing on functional (central)

aspects (see Appendix C). However, incongruent ads were designed to look unfamiliar to

consumers based on the results above (see Table 4-2). As a result, congruent ads were created

focusing on peripheral aspects by using endorsers which were not familiar to consumers.

In a pretest, 30 subjects were given the 8 ads and a questionnaire for rating the level of

congruency. Thirty subjects rated the fit between the picture and the brands on a 10-point scale.

("How well do the picture and the brand fit together?"). The results verified that most ads were

created according to the intention of this study. Mean scores of perceived fit between a picture

and a brand are presented in Table 4-3.

At the end of questionnaire, two additional questions were asked to support the right

decision in regard to choosing the ads. The questions were as follows: (a) Please pick an ad









wherein the picture and brand are most matched; and (b) Please pick an ad wherein the picture

and brand are worst matched. According to the rating results (see Table 4-4), congruent ad 3

and incongruent ad 8 were chosen out of 8 ads.

To choose a moderately incongruent ad, a series of paired-sample t-test were conducted.

As a result, ads 3, 7 and 8 were selected to represent the three levels of brand-ad congruence.

As shown in Table 4-5, the mean differences among the three congruence conditions for each ad

were statistically significant.

Confound and Manipulation Checks

To prevent the results from being confounded by the executions of the ads, this study

measured ad attitude for the advertisements in a pretest. Subjects were instructed to rate the

chosen ads with a fake brand, SkyCo. No significant difference in Aad was observed between the

two pictures (p > .05).

Brand awareness and brand usage were also measured as a manipulation check of brand

familiarity. One hundred percent of the students were familiar with the iPhone brand, and 30% of

students responded that they had bought the brand.

Measures

Subjects were asked to verify their level of involvement in this product category.

Mcquarrie and Munson's (1992) seven-point semantic differential scale was used in this research

since it was the most effective and generalized type of scale, and also easy to administer and

score. Those items were as follows: important / unimportant, relevant / irrelevant, means nothing

to me / means a lot to me, exciting / unexciting, matters to me / doesn't matter to me, boring /

interesting, appealing / unappealing, of no concern to me / of concern to me, dull / neat, and fun /

not fun (Cronbach's alpha=.91).









Attitude toward the advertisement was assessed with four bipolar items based on a

seven-point scale including bad / good, pleasant / Unpleasant, favorable / unfavorable

(Cronbach's alpha=.86). This measure was adapted from MacKenzie and Lutz (1989).

Credibility of the advertisement was assessed with a three-item semantic differential

scale adapted from MacKenzie and Lutz (1989). The items include convincing / unconvincing,

believable / unbelievable, and biased / unbiased (Cronbach's alpha=.83).

Attitude toward the brand was measured with three items on a seven-point semantic

differential. They include good / bad, negative / positive, satisfactory / unsatisfactory

(Cronbach's alpha=.92). This measure was adapted from Loken and Ward (1990) and Simonin

and Ruth (1998).

Brand purchase intention was gauged using three bipolar items adapted from

MacKenzie, Lutz, and Belch (1986). They include unlikely to / likely to, willing to / unwilling to,

and don't plan to / plan to (Cronbach's alpha=.88).









Table 4-1. Study Design
Brand-Ad congruent level
Congruence Moderate Incongruence Extreme Incongruence
n=32 n=29 n=30


Table 4-2. Mean Scores of Associated images
Statistic Representative Modem Young Fashionable Multi-tasking
Mean 6.17 6.63 6.27 6.33 6.73
Standard
tanda 1.21 0.67 0.94 0.96 0.64
Deviation
Statistic unsophisticated Old Simple Cheap non-technology
Mean 1.57 1.47 2.57 1.53 1.27
Standard
n 0.82 0.57 1.69 0.63 0.52
Deviation


Table 4-3. Mean Scores of Perceived Fit
Congruent Ads Incongruent Ads
Statistic (Ad #) # 1 #2 #3 #4 # 5 # 6 #7 # 8
Mean 8.71 8.61 8.33 8.04 5.46 3.82 7.46 2.81
Variance 1.99 2.40 4.62 4.92 7.07 7.71 6.41 7.85

Standard
n1.41 1.55 2.15 2.22 2.66 2.78 2.53 2.80
Deviation









Table 4-4. Percentage of Perceived Fit
Ad # Response (Most) % (Most) Response (Worst) % (Worst)

1 8 28% 0 0%
2 2 7% 0 0%
3 17 59% 0 0%
4 0 0% 5 17%
5 6 21% 1 3%
6 3 10% 1 3%
7 0 0% 12 40%
8 0 0% 21 70%








Table 4-5. The Results of Paired t-test
Pair Mean Difference df t-Value p-Value
A-B 0.78 27 2.197 0.037
B-C 4.46 27 7.147 0.000
A-C 5.33 26 7.048 0.000
A = very congruent (#3); B = moderately incongruent (#7); C = extreme incongruent (#8)









CHAPTER 5
RESULTS

Scale Reliability

Scale reliability was tested for the three ads before testing the hypotheses. Each

Cronbach's alpha value was rated higher than 0.8. These results show that the scales of this study

are highly reliable. The reliability scores are presented in Table 5-1.

Product Involvement

Before the main experiment, all participants were given questions about product

involvement. Product involvement showed an overall mean of 5.9 and a median of 6.0, which

indicates that most respondents were highly involved in this product category. Mean and median

score of product involvement are presented in Table 5-2.

Results of ANOVA analysis

The dependent variables in hypotheses H1 and H2 were tested in an ANOVA. The

results of ANOVAs showed that Ad-brand incongruency had a significant effect on all dependent

variables; Ac, F(2, 85) = 23.7, p < .001., Aad, F(2, 86) = 8.7, p < .001., Ab, F(2, 86) =4.1, p

< .03., and PI, F (2, 86) =3.8,p < .03. Those results are shown in Table 5-3, 4, 5, and 6.

Tests of Hypothesis l(a): the role of a moderate incongruent ad

After checking for significance, the hypotheses were tested with post-hoc tests (Tukey).

With regard to Aad, post-hoc tests revealed that both congruent and moderate incongruent ads

performed better than extreme incongruent ads. The congruent ad received a mean of 5.71; the

moderate incongruent ad received a mean of 5.10; and the extreme incongruent ad received a

mean of 4.21. Mean scores of each variable is presented in Table 5-7.

The difference between a congruent ad and an extreme incongruent ad is significant atp

< .001 (see Table 5-8). Also, the difference between a moderate incongruent and an extreme
33









incongruent ad is statistically significant atp < .05. However, the difference between a congruent

and a moderate incongruent ad is not statistically significant (p = .20). Thus, this partially

supports H1(a): Aad is higher for a moderate incongruent ad than for either a congruent or an

extreme incongruent ad.

Tests of Hypothesis l(b): the role of a moderate incongruent ad

Post-hoc data revealed that a congruent ad performed better than an extreme incongruent

ad in terms of Ab. The congruent ad received a mean of 6.06 compared to the value of 5.16 of the

extreme incongruent ad (see Table 5-7). The difference is statistically significant atp < .02.

However, no statistically significant effect was observed between a congruent and a moderate

incongruent ad (p = .43), or between a moderate incongruent and extreme incongruent ad (p

= .24). This does not support Hl(b): Ab is higher for a moderate incongruent ad than for either a

congruent or an extreme incongruent ad (see Table 5-9).

Tests of Hypothesis l(c): the role of a moderate incongruent ad

When PI was a criterion variable, as shown in Table 12, the mean score for congruent ad

(M = 5.26) was significantly higher than the mean for extreme incongruent ad (M= 4.15, p

< .05). However, no statistical significance was found between a moderate incongruent and an

extreme incongruent ad (p = .98), or between a congruent and a moderate incongruent ad (p

= .06). This therefore does not support Hl(c): PI is higher for a moderate incongruent ad than for

either a congruent ad or an extreme incongruent ad. The results are presented in Table 5-10.

Tests of Hypothesis 2: the role of a congruent ad

H2 was tested with a mean comparison of Ac among the ads. The results revealed that

both congruent and moderate incongruent ads performed better than extreme incongruent ads

(see Table 5-11). As shown in Table 5-7, the mean of extreme congruent ad (M= 4.00) was









statistically lower than that of congruent (M= 5.88, p < .001) or moderate incongruent ad (M=

5.38, p < .001). However, no statistically significant difference was found between a congruent

ad and a moderate incongruent ad (p = .18). This partially supports H2: Ac is higher for brand-

congruent ads than for either extreme or moderate incongruent ads.









Table 5-1. Scale Reliability of each group (Cronbach's Alpha)
Ac Aad Ab

Congruent 0.872 0.915 0.910

Moderate Incongruent 0.948 0.963 0.954

Extreme Incongruent 0.838 0.964 0.977


PI

0.846

0.938

0.899


Table 5-2. Mean and Median Score of Product involvement
Congruence Moderate Incongruence Extreme Incongruence

Mean 5.98 5.88 5.88

Median 6.0 6.1 6.05









Table 5-3. Analysis of Variance: Ad-Brand Incongruence Effects on Ac
Factor SS Df MS F p


Between Groups
Within Groups
Total


55.76
100.169
155.929


27.88
1.178


23.658


.000









Table 5-4. Analysis of Variance: Ad-Brand Incongmence Effects on Aad
Factor SS Df MS F p
Between Groups 33.141 2 16.570 8.733 .000
Within Groups 163.183 86 1.897
Total 196.324 88











Table 5-5. Analysis of Variance: Ad-Brand Incongmence Effects on Ab
Factor SS Df MS F P
Between Groups 11.845 2 5.923 4.113 .020
Within Groups 123.834 86 1.440
Total 135.679 88










Table 5-6. Analysis of Variance: Ad-Brand Incongmence Effects on PI
Factor SS Df MS F p


Between Groups
Within Groups
Total


22.586
257.579
280.165


11.293
2.995


3.771


.027









Table 5-7. Aad, Ab, PI, and Ac Distribution, Means, and Standard Deviations

Aad Ab PI AC

n mean s.d. mean s.d. mean s.d. mean s.d.

Congruent 30 5.71a .88 6.06a .95 5.26a 1.39 5.88a .86
Moderate
incongruent 30 5.10a 1.36 5.67ab 1.13 4.23ab 1.85 5.38a 1.13
Extreme
Incongruent 29 4.21b 1.77 5.16b 1.47 4.15b 1.91 4.00b 1.24
Means that do not share a superscript differ at p<.05 level according to Tukey.


Table 5-8. Analysis of Multiple Comparisons (Tukey HSD): Aad

Congruent Level Congruent Level Mean
(I) (J) Difference (I-J) Std. Error Sig
1 2 .61 .36 .20
3 1.49 .36 .00
2 1 -.61 .36 .20
3 .88 .36 .04
3 1 -1.49* .36 .00
2 -.88 .36 .04


Moderate Incongruent, 3 = Extreme Incongruent


1 = Congruent, 2 =









Table 5-9. Analysis of Multiple Comparisons (Tukey HSD): Ab

Congruent Level Congruent Level Mean Difference
(I) (J) (I-J) Std. Error Sig
1 2 .39 .31 .43
3 .89 .31 .01
2 1 -.39 .31 .43
3 .50 .31 .24

3 1 -.89 .31 .01
2 -.50 .31 .24
1 = Congruent, 2 = Moderate Incongruent, 3 = Extreme Incongruent











Table 5-10. Analysis of Multiple Comparisons (Tukey HSD): PI

Congruent Level Congruent Level Mean
(I) (J) Difference (I-J) Std. Error Sig
1 2 1.02 .45 .06
S2
3 1.11 .45 .04
2 1 -1.02 .45 .06
3 .08 .45 .98

3 1 -1.11 .45 .04
2 -.08 .45 .98
-.08 .45 .98
2


Moderate Incongruent, 3 = Extreme Incongruent


1 = Congruent, 2









Table 5-11. Analysis of Variance (Tukey HSD): Ac

Congruent Level Congruent Level Mean
(I) (J) Difference (I-J) Std. Error Sig
1 2 .50 .28 .18
3 1.88 .28 .00
2 1 -.50 .28 .18
3 1.38 .28 .00
3 1 -1.88 .28 .00
2 -1.38 .28 .00
1 = Congruent, 2 = Moderate Incongruent, 3 = Extreme Incongruent









CHAPTER 6
DISCUSSION

The results of this study add to the current understanding of information incongruency in

advertising. Previous research has shown that familiar brands have a fragile relationship between

Aad and Ab in comparison to unfamiliar brands (Machleit & Wilson, 1988). Moreover, prior

research has shown that established brand advertising has less of an effect on Ab (Machleit &

Wilson, 1988), and wears out fast (Dahlen, 2001; Tellis, 1997); as a result, consumers lose

interest easily in those ads (Machleit et al., 1993). However, this research contradicts those

findings. A congruent ad performed better than an extreme incongruent ad in terms ofAad, Ab,

PI, and Ac. This difference might have resulted from the brand images of iPhone. Since brands

can express consumers' self-image, and this brand has attractive images such as leader, modem,

and fashionable, consumers might want to be labeled as such by using an iPhone (McEnally et al.,

1999). In this situation, the congruent ad evokes consumers' needs to be viewed with these

positive images and this might eventually affect Aad, Ab, PI, and Ac.

In a previous research, Micael et al. (2005) found that Aad and Ac were affected

inversely in low involvement product category. However, the results of this study differ from

Micael's. A congruent ad and a moderate incongruent ad performed well in terms of Ac and Aad.

These results verified that Aad and Ac are affected in the same directions. It is hard to compare

this study with Micael's findings, since this study includes one more independent variable, a

moderate incongruent factor, and tested under a different product condition. However, it is worth

noting that Aad and Ac are affected in the same direction under high involvement product

conditions. To understand this difference, we need to focus on the brand schema and involvement.

This study used not only a highly involved brand, but also a strongly established brand. These

two impacts are so strong that consumers might think of a moderate incongruent ad not only as
41









believable, but also likable to a certain level. On a practical level, to a certain degree these results

can lead advertisers to make their ads different from previous concepts.

The moderate impact of moderate incongruency also differs from the findings of

previous studies. Lee et al. (2008) found that moderate incongruent ads increase PI more

favorably than either congruent or extreme incongruent ads. However, in this research, there was

no statistical significance with regard to PI of moderate incongruent condition. To understand

these differences, we need to consider several factors that differ from Micael's previous study.

First of all, we need to focus on the fact that they used a celebrity factor as an independent

variable. Marketers have used celebrities in advertising as a strong communication strategy

(Kamin & Gupta, 1994) since the effectiveness of using celebrities has been proved in several

studies (Erdogan, 1999). However, this study did not use a celebrity factor. For that reason, there

is a possibility that the results were different from prior researches, which were conducted under

different variable conditions. Without endorsement, it seems likely that the process of evaluating

the moderate incongruent ads in this research was sometimes not enough to cause physical

arousal or a true effect compared to congruent ad (p = .63). However, the benefit of resolving

moderate incongruency might be perceived as being more rewarding and worthwhile than

extreme incongruency because a moderate level of expectancy disconfirmation could be

addressed by assimilation or accommodation to prior knowledge structure (Peracchio et al.,

1996). It seems likely that such resolution does not happen when the level of the mismatch is

extreme, which, in this study, led to the most negative evaluations of the stimuli. Second, the

difference from this prior research might have resulted from the mean score and level of in-

congruency. In Lee's (2008) research, the mean of perceived fit was 3.33 in a moderate

incongruent ad, whereas that of this study was 7.46. In addition, they did not test the level of









involvement. Sometimes using a high involvement product does not mean subjects are highly

involved in that product category. Someone may not care about the product whereas the other

one is involved the product category. Therefore, we can assume that these different conditions

might lead to different results.

Considering the mean scores of the three ads in this study, a congruent ad is the one that

shows the highest scores in every dimension (see Figure 6-1,2,3, and 4). In this study, we proved

prior theories that high Aad leads to high Ab and PI (Thorson & Page, 1989; Batra & Ray, 1986;

Edell & Burke, 1984; Messmer, 1979; Gresham & Shimp, 1985; Mitchell & Olson, 1981). One

factor that can explain this result is that we used an established brand, iPhone, whereas most

studies in the area have used fictitious brands.

In sum, the implications of this study are twofold. First, this study is related to the

discovery of boundary conditions. We have found that even though the best effect occurs when

established brands are consistent with their advertising image, we also found that a moderate

incongruent ad can also increase Aad. This represents that a moderate level of incongruency is

capable of reducing the advertising wear-out effect by challenging consumers' expectations

unless it is extremely incongruent; the brands can be less consistent in their advertising in order

to create interest for Aad. This can be useful for advertisers. For example, advertisers can make

ads that differ from either their previous advertising concept or their competing ads in the same

product category to enhance their ad attitude, and to catch consumers' attention; by challenging

consumers' expectation, advertising can become more interesting.

Second, we proved that less mismatch between an ad and the brand image can affect Ac

in a positive way. Therefore, advertisers need not worry about mismatching the brand image with

inconsistent advertising unless it is extremely incongruent. As mentioned above, a mild









incongruent ad can lead to positive effect unless it is too extreme. However, incongruent

information requires consumers' needs for resolution to generate positive effect (Meyers-Levy et

al., 1989). To be an enjoyable puzzle, incongruent information needs to be resolvable otherwise,

it will produce frustration instead of a sense of accomplishment.

In this study, we used a dependent variable, Ac, because incongruent ads should be in

contrast to associations of well-known and established brands (Micael et al., 2005). However, the

noteworthy thing is that Ac can be increased by both congruent and moderate incongruent ads.

This is an interesting result because it contradicts Micael's (2005) findings; Ac worked in

opposite directions on ad attitude under the incongruent condition. This study proved that Ac can

be increased when the incongruent level is moderate in the high involvement condition.






















5.50-












4.50-





4.00-


Congruent Ad






Figure 6-1. Aad by Congruent Level










6.20-



6.00-



5.80-



5.60-



5.40-



5.20-



5.00-


I I
ibderate hcongruentAd Etreme hcongruentAd

congruent level


Congruent Ad Moderate hcongruent Ad Extreme Incongruent Ad

congruent level


Figure 6-2. Ab by Congruent Level























a!

1 4.75-


C,
0 4.50-



4.25-



4.00-

Congruent Ad Moderate congruent Ad Extreme Icongruent Ad
congruent level




Figure 6-3. PI by Congruent Level


Congruent Ad Moderate congruent Ad Extrerr hncongruent Ad
Congruent Level


Figure 6-4. Ac by Congruent Level









CHAPTER 7
LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH

There are some important limitations in this research that need to be discussed and used

as directions for further research on information incongruency between ads and brands. One

limitation is that we used only one established brand as a stimulus, which differs from many

studies of advertising. Even though the iPhone is representative of a high-involvement product,

the level of brand schema can be more or less developed from different brand. Let us take

another cell phone brand, LG for example consumers may have different levels of expectation

and involvement in regard to LG In other words, in spite of the fact that LG belongs to the high-

involvement product category, like iPhone, it is difficult to say that consumers have the same

knowledge and expectations as they do iPhone. This can be a leading factor in making the results

different. Keller (1993) supports this assumption; consumers feel a greater motivation to process

ad information for strongly established brands because of their accessibility and salience. If those

conditions are different, apparently, the result will be changed under different conditions.

Furthermore, as with all studies, there is a sampling limitation. The first concern is the ecological

validity of the viewing situation. Subjects viewed the ads individually under different conditions;

in addition, the number of individuals in each group was as large as 30. Subjects knew they

would be asked questions after viewing the ads. Obviously, this unrealistic environment may

have changed the way in which the subjects processed the ads; this setting may force a deeper

processing of ads than normal conditions. Moreover, with regard to demographics, almost all the

participants were undergraduate students aged 18 to 30. Thus, it is hard to apply the study results

to consumers over 30 years old. Moreover, the percentage of male participants was different

from that of females (male: 38%; female: 62%). There is a gender difference with regard to every

respect. Females rated higher on Aad, Ab, and product involvement than male did; whereas
47









males rated higher on PI than females did (see Table 7-1). Although no statistically significant

difference was observed between males and females, there is a likelihood that the element of

gender affects the results if the number of individuals of each gender is the same. In other words,

if the study group was larger and more diversified, then the results could be different. Moreover,

if we had more subjects who rated low on the product involvement scale, then we could re-

design the level of involvement as the second independent variable and observe 2 x 3 interaction

results (Involvement level x Congruent level). It is therefore suggested that future research use a

more natural viewing environment and realistic sample size.

Another limitation of the present study is that we measured the response to one single ad

exposure. It is hard to say that consumers' attitude is affected by only one exposure. In real life,

consumers are not only exposed to many different kinds of ads, but also disclosed to the same ad

more than once. For those reasons, it is difficult for advertisers to drive consumers' action

through these continuous ad exposures. This can be an explanation for PI results in this research.

As mentioned above, one exposure may not enough to lead a physical action. For example,

although a moderate incongruent ad was not statistically significant in this research (p>.05),

there is a possibility that the results would be different under several exposures.

Finally, several measurement issues must be addressed. Aad was measured right before

Ab. Edell and Burke (1986) speculated that taking similar attitude measures can overstate their

actual correlation. Moreover, researchers have found that both brand beliefs and Aad are

mediators ofAb (Mitchell & Olson, 1981). Even though this study did not test brand beliefs, it

was found that the exclusion of brand beliefs may lead to the overvaluing of the size of the Aad-

Ab relationship (Mittal, 1990). Brand beliefs should, for this reason, be included in future

research.









Table 7-1. Mean of Gender Distributions

Product
Aad Ab PI Ac Involvement


Male

Female


4.95

5.07


5.56

5.69


4.72

4.44


4.97

5.16


5.57

6.14









APPENDIX A
SAMPLE OF PRETEST QUESTIONNAIRE


For the statements below, please check the circle corresponding to your agreement.

Neither
Strongly Somewhat Somewhat Strongly
Disagree Agree nor Agree
Disagree Disagree Agree Agree
Disagree
Leader o o o o o o o

Modem o o o o o o o

Young o o o o o o o

Fashionable o o o o o o o

Multi-tasking o o o o o o o







For the statements below, please check the circle corresponding to your agreement.

Neither
Strongly Somewhat Somewhat Strongly
Disagree Agree nor Agree
Dagree DiDisagree Agree Agree
Disagree
Old o o o o o o o

Simple o o o o o o o

Unsophisticated o o o o o o o

Cheap o o o o o o o

Non-tech o o o o o o o









Please review the following ad. Take as much time as you need.


(See Advertisements in Appendix C)



Considering your reaction to the ad you just saw, please check the circle corresponding to your
agreement.


Picture and Brand
Fit together


Very


Very
Unlikely


Likely


2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10


Considering your reaction to the ad you just saw, for each pair of words below, please select the
corresponding button that accurately describes your evaluation of the ad.
Bad 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Good

Unfavorable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Favorable

Unpleasant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Pleasant









APPENDIX B
SAMPLE OF MAIN TEST QUESTIONNAIRES


Please answer the following questions by checking the circle that you feel best represents your
feelings on the issue presented in the question.



Using each of the following adjectives, please indicate how you feel about cell phone? Please

click the button that reflects your opinion.


Unimportant

Irrelevant

Means nothing to me

Unexciting

Doesn't matter to me

Boring

Unappealing

Of no concern to me

Dull

Not fun


Important

Relevant

Means a lot to me

Exciting

Matters to me

Interesting

Appealing

Of concern to me

Neat

Fun


Please review the following ad. Take as much time as you need.

(See Advertisements in Appendix C)











Considering your reaction to the ad you just saw, please identify your feeling about the ad.
Unconvincing 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Convincing

Unbelievable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Believable

Biased 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Unbiased


Considering your reaction to the ad you just saw, for each pair of words below, please select the
corresponding button that accurately describes your evaluation of the ad.
Bad 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Good

Unfavorable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Favorable

Unpleasant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Pleasant


Considering your reaction to the brand in an ad you just saw, for each pair of words below,
please select the corresponding button that accurately describes your evaluation of the brand.
Bad 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Good

Negative 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Positive

Unsatisfactory 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Satisfactory









After seeing the ad, how likely would you purchase the iPhone in the future?
Please click the button that reflects your opinion.
Unlikely to 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Likely to

Unwilling to 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Willing to

Don't plan to 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Plan to











APPENDIX C

CONGRUENT AND INCONGRUENT ADS


Congruent ad #1


r

9 .t.
0@ -.






L


Congruent ad #2





























Congruent ad #3


Your future is here.
3G technology gives iPhone fast access to the Internet
and e-mail over cellular networks around the world.
iPhone 3G also makes it possible to do more in more
places: Play a game, check the weather, and listen to
music even while you're on a call.







liat
Your games. Your weather. Your Music. Your Call.


m


SiPhone 3G


Congruent ad #4































:-4 iPhone 3G .

t iPhone3G


Incongruent ad #5


Your future is her.


iPhone3G


Incongruent ad #6





















Incongruent ad #7


I








4 Phone 3G

Incongruent ad #8









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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Seoungchul Lee was born in South Korea. He grew up mostly in Seoul, graduating from

Sangmoon High School in 2000. He earned his B.S. in advertising from Kookmin University. He

also earned his M.A. in advertising from University of Florida in 2010. He served in the military

between 2005 and 2007 in the Republic of Korea Army as a public affairs officer and cyber

journalist.





PAGE 1

1 B RAND AD INCONGRUENCY IN HIGH PR O DUCT INVOLVEMENT BY SEOUNGCHUL LEE A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ADVERTISING UNIVERSITY OF FLOR IDA 2010

PAGE 2

2 2010 Seoungchul Lee

PAGE 3

3 To my family

PAGE 4

4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am heartily thankful to my supervisor Dr. Michael Weigold and members of my supervisory committee, Dr. Debbie Treise and Dr. Troy Elias for their men toring and guidance I also would like to make a special reference to my family for their encouragement and financial support which motivated me to complete my study. Lastly, I offer my regards and blessings to all of those who supported me in any respect during the completion of the thesis.

PAGE 5

5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 4 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 8 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 9 A BSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 11 2 LITERATURE REVIEWS ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 14 Brand and Brand p ersonality ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 14 Schema Incongruency ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 1 7 Involvement ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 21 3 HYPOTHESE S ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 25 4 METHOD ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 27 Study Design ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 27 Participants ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 27 Pretest ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 27 Confound and Manipulation Checks ................................ ................................ ........................ 29 Measures ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 29 5 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 33 Scale Reliability ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 33 Product Involvement ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 33 Results of ANOVA analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 33 Tests of Hypothesis 1(a) ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 33 Tests of Hypothesis 1(b) ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 34 Tests of Hypothesis 1(c) ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 34 Tests of H ypothesis 2 ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 34 6 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 41 7 LIMITATIONS AND FUTURE RESEARCH ................................ ................................ ........ 47

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6 APPENDIX A SAMPLE OF PRETEST QUESTIONNAIRE ................................ ................................ ....... 50 B SAMPLE OF MAIN TEST QUESTIONNAIRES ................................ ................................ 52 C CONGRUENT AND INCONGRUENT ADS ................................ ................................ ....... 55 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 59 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 65

PAGE 7

7 LIST OF TABLES Table P a ge 4 1 Study Design ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 31 4 2 Mean Scores of Associated images ................................ ................................ ................... 31 4 3 Mean Scores of Perceived Fit ................................ ................................ ............................ 31 4 4 Percentage of Perceived Fit ................................ ................................ ............................... 32 4 5 The Results of Paired t test ................................ ................................ ................................ 32 5 1 ................................ ......................... 36 5 2 Mean and Median Score of Product involvement ................................ ............................. 36 5 3 Analysis of Variance: Ad Brand Incongruence Effects on Ac ................................ ........... 36 5 4 Analysis of Variance: Ad Brand Incongruence Effects on Aad ................................ ......... 37 5 5 Analysis of Variance: Ad Brand Incongruence Effects on Ab ................................ .......... 37 5 6 Analysis of Variance: Ad Brand Incongruence Eff ects on PI ................................ ........... 37 5 7 Aad, Ab, PI, and Ac Distribution, Means, and Standard Deviations ................................ 38 5 8 Analysis of Multiple Comparisons ( Tukey HSD): Aad ................................ ..................... 38 5 9 Analysis of Multiple Comparisons (Tukey HSD): Ab ................................ ...................... 39 5 10 Analysis of Multiple Comparisons (Tukey HSD): PI ................................ ........................ 39 5 11 Analysis of Variance (Tukey HSD): Ac ................................ ................................ ............. 40 7 1 Mean of Gender Distributions ................................ ................................ ........................... 49

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure P age 6 1 A ttitude Toward the A d by Congruent Level ................................ ................................ .. 45 6 2 A ttitude Toward the Brand by Congruent Level ................................ ............................. 45 6 3 Purchase Intention by Congruent Level ................................ ................................ .......... 46 6 4 A d Credibility by Congruent Level ................................ ................................ ................. 46

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9 LIST OF ABB REVIATIONS Ac Ad Credibility Aad Attitude toward the Ad Ab Attitude toward the Brand PI Purchase Intention

PAGE 10

10 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising BRAND AD INCONGRUENCY IN HIGH PR O DUCT IN VOLVEMENT By Seoungchul Lee August 2010 Chair: Michael F. Weigold Major: Advertising This study explores how effective ad brand incongruency is in high involvement product category. Using a 1 x 3 experiment, a congruent level is manipulated according to a pretest result. Traditional advertising measures of attitude toward the ad, brand, ad credibility, and purchase intention are examined as dependent variables. According to the results, although a congruent ad generates higher Aad, Ab, Ac, and PI than an extreme incongruent ad, a moderate incongruent ad also produces positive Aad and Ac than an extreme incongruent ad. The discussion provides implications for advertisers as well as suggestions for future study.

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11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Every brand has its image and brand image serves as a driving force for consumers to buy a product (Mitchell, 1986) This brand image is called brand personality and is defined as ( Aaker 1997). B rand p ersona lity is important because c onsumers tend to buy brands that match their self image ( Sirgy, 1982, 1986) P revious research show s that brand personality can be created by sport ing event sponsorship s celebrity endorsement s and other promotions ( Lee & Thors on 2008; Lee & Cho 2009 ). A dvertising may be the most powerful tool in making and represent ing brand personality (B iehal, Stephens & Curlo 1992) However, there are many competing ads; this creates a problem for companies that wish to use advertising to create a brand personality This so called ad clutter makes it difficult to capture attention. To make matters worse c onsumers tend to process the information in which they are interested (Tellis, 2004) ; rather than perceiving the world as it really is, consumers view a product and process associated information as they expect (Macrae & Bodenhausen, 2001). To re solve ad clutter problems and catch researchers have conducted many studies on ad in congruence Ad incongr uence is defined as the extent to which and memory based on previous experience (Mandler, 1982). Many researc hers question this idea For instance what happens when the ad is incongruent with the brand and the assoc iations that consumers hold, or which advertisement is more effect ive in the instance of extreme incongruence moderate incongruent and congruent ads?

PAGE 12

12 I n these situations Lee and Thorson (2008) established a theory that moderate ly mis match ed ad s show higher purchase intention than either complete ly match ed or extreme ly mismatch ed ads in product celebrity endorsement s Micael, Fr e drik L, Henrik and Fredrik T (2005) found that incongruent ad s produced a lower ad attitude and ad credibili ty, but higher brand attitude and more sophis ti cated processing of brand related information. However, as they mentioned in their research, their focus was only on a low involvement product a chocolate bar, as a stimulus This is the starting point for th is thesis How do consumers perceive incongruent ad s compared to congruent ad s in high in volvement product categories ? Extending the research of Micael et al. (2005), it is worth y stating their findings first : a) Ad attitude is lower for brand incongruent a ds than for brand congruent ads. b) Ad credibility is lower for brand incongruent ads than for brand congruent ads. c) Brand attitude is higher for brand incongruent ads than for brand congruent ads. Most noticeably, in their research the main factor leading t o the above results is disturbance. It suggests consumers tend to process new information as disturbing when it is different from their brand schema especially under a low involvement condition. In other words, an incongruent ad is perceived as disturbing and therefore leads to low a d attitude (Micael et al, 2005). If true let us ey put mo re effort and time into understanding an incongruent ad attitudes toward a high involvement product ad will be enhanced.

PAGE 13

13 If this assumption is correct, this research will play an important role in the relationship between ad and brand. Furthermo re, these results will give us a c l ue to better understand the relationship between product involvement and ad brand incongruency; h elp ing us to overcome ad clutter and lead ing us to make more effective advertisements This study chose the real cell phone brand, iPhone, as a high involvement product stimulus since cons umers value cell phones as important accessory in life (Zaichkowsky, 1994), and also put special value into a cell phone as a tool for identifying themselves (Krugman, 1967).

PAGE 14

14 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEWS Brand and B rand personality The definiti on of a translation, an abstraction of that object or service. It exists solely as a mental construct, a typifi cation, an idea in the minds of those who behold it (K im, 1990 ) Despite the fact that the brand is not a real object, consumers perceive it as genuine; it does not belon g to the owners, but to the eye of consumers. The eye of the beholder assimilates pie ces of experiences, thoughts, feelings, associations, and images (Kim, 1990 ) brand In contrast to product related attributes which tend to functional ly a ppeal to consumers, brand personality tend s to be symbolic or serve as a function of sel f exp ression (Keller, 1993). Foumier (1994) found that the symbolic use of brands is possibl e because consumers often relate brand images to human characteristics For example, Absolute vodka is described as a cool, hip, contemporary 25 year old, whereas Stoli is described as an intellectual, conservative, and traditional. The main reason for this resulting phenomenon is advertising. A dvertisers often use celebrity endo rs ers in their ads This is not only for utilizing credibility and attractiveness of celebrities; but this also allows advertisers to channel celebrity personalities into a brand. (Tellis, 2004; Aaker, 1997). Through this process, consumers can easily comp are brands to famous celebrities or famous figures. In addition to personality characteristics, Levy ( 1959) suggest s that brand personality also includes demographic characteristics such as gender, age, and class. Similar to personality characteristics, th ese demographic characteristics are stemmed direct ly from the image of the

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15 brand user or endorsers and indirectly from other associated brand images For example, Apple is considered young, whereas IBM is considered older. Also, based on different pricing strategies, Saks Fifth Avenue is perceived as upper class, whereas Kmart is perceived as blue collar. B rand personality has two dimensions; enduring, and distinct. For example, the personality traits associated with Coca Cola are cool, all American, and r eal; these traits are relatively enduring (Pendergrast 1993 ) and differ from its competitors (e.g., Pepsi being young, exciting, and hip; Dr Pepper being nonconforming, unique, and fun ( Plummer 1985). For a brand to be successful, its images and symbols must be not only related to the needs, values, and life styles of consumers, but also different from other brands (Broadbent & Cooper, 1987). With regard to brand personality, brands can be described by consumers; moreover consumers often prefer brands an d stores with images consistent with their own self image (Sirgy, 1982) and they tend to be attracted to a brand image which matches their self image (Sirgy, 1986) Why are consumers more attracted to those brand s with which they share characteristics? P erhaps b rand image is a way consumers can express their self image (McEnally & Chernatony, 1999). Consumers express themselves as they want to be viewed by using the associated images of brands; Cadillac DeVille good Cons umers can be viewed the same as a campaign promotes (e.g., upper class and/or important person ) by using this brand. In other words, consumers often purchase products to maintain and enhance t heir self image; consumers make purchase can be used to create and enhance their self image (Levy, 1959; Solomon & Douglas, 1987).

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16 Motivated by this logic, Sirgy (1982) found that consume rs have greater preference for the brand that has unique and ideal personalities. The idea that consumers have more favorable attitude toward brands with images similar to their own self image can be explained by image congruence hypothesis (Belk, Bahn & Mayer, 1982; Hong & Zinkhan, 1995; Onkvisit & Shaw, 1987). Specifically, integration of certain images into the brand makes it more attractive to consumers who possess the same personality or their desire to enhance their existing self i mage through the us e of a brand (McEnally & Chernatony, 1999). This is the reason why a strong and consistent brand image is critical to the long term success of the brand (Gardner & Levy, 1955; Par k, Jaworski, & MacInnis, 1986; Ries & Trout, 1986). E ven though consumers th ink brand s have similar characteristics that correlate with human personality traits, the formation process is different from that of a human personality. While human personality traits are inferred from characteristics ( i.e attractiveness), attitudes, beliefs, and even demo graphic attributes, brand personality traits can be created and influence d by a s direct or indirect contact with a brand (Plummer, 1985). While companies market brand concept s to their targ ets consumer s formulate a brand image in their memories from a stimulus such as media exposure or consumption (McEnally & Chernatony, 1999). E stablishing a unique brand image cannot be completed in a day ; i t is an evolutionary process (Goodyear, 1996) and establishing unique brand image is the final stage of this process. C onsumers form brand schema s by storing their experience s and associations with a brand (Keller, 1993; Kent & Allen, 1994; Low & Lamb, 2000). Once consumers store brand schema, they can r etrieve brand related information from their schema; they can control and discriminate new brand information as well (Alba & Hutchinson, 1987; Pechmann & Stewart,

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17 1990). This seems to explain the ineffectiveness related to the ad brand attitude for familia r brands and brand schema (Machleit & Wilson, 1988); in other words, if a familiar brand does not incorporate new information in advertising, consumers will not find it as interesting (Dahln, 2001; Tellis, 1997). Brand schema s serve to interpret the inpu t when brand related information is encountered (Braun, 1999) since schemas present previous experience that direct s behavior, perception, and thought (Mandler, 1982) s using brand schema s are similar to the encou ntered information, it promotes consumers to process the information because consumers consider familiar information interesting (Kent & Allen, 1994; Machleit & Wilson, 1988 ). This seems to explain why advertisers focus on making their brands noticeable o r familiar Advertisers try to make their brands more strongly established than other brands s ince, strongly established brands not only promote consumers to process the information, but also make t he information more persuasive (Kent & Allen, 1994). Sch ema Incongruency There are not only too many brands, but also too many competing ads in the market. To overcome this ad clutter and make their brand noticeable advertisers try to differentiate their ads from competing ad s by making them humorous or catchi ng; therefore, they need a powerful tool to capture For example advertisers make their ads funny to make them more appealing and catching by ; and this strategy make s their ads different from other competing ads Related to this situation, theoretical researches have been conducted under the term (Lee & Mason, 1999). According to Mandler (1982), in congruency is does not conform t o consumer expectations based on a previously defined category of schemas

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18 in the Previous research also suggested that incongruity occurs at the individual level and the level of incongruity can be different from expected beliefs, att itudes, and behaviors (Meyer, 1986). For example brand has a strong product image of safety and co nsumers have been exposed to the image, based on their expectancy, consumers might be surprised whe ad. In contrast if consumers did not have any information about Volvo before exposure they would not be surprised since they did not have any expectation about the ad. There are two dimensions that lead to congruency an d incongruency; expectancy and relevancy. Related to this terms, Lee and Mason (1999) defined expectancy as the extent to which an element of information falls into a previous pattern or example, and suggested that unexpected information leads to more favo rable attitude compared to the expected. Relevancy refers to the extent to which an element of information contributes to identifying the primary message (Heckler & Childers, 1992). Unlike previous researches where expectancy and relevancy were the two dim ensions that lead to level of incongruency, Heckler and Childers suggest that humor may be another exceptional factor that leads to the information incongruency beyond those two dimensions. With regard to humor and its relationship with incongruency, humor can only be unexpected information (either relevant or irrelevant), whereas unexpected information can be either humorous or not; the humor itself is based on, by nature, unexpectedness (Heckler & Childers, 1992). Meyers Levy and Tybout (1989) suggested p roduct evaluations on three different levels of schema (in)congruity; congruity, moderate incongruity, and extreme incongruity. They found that congruent information is easy to comprehend but does not produce arousal whereas extreme incongruent information is hard to comprehend but produces intense arousal. However, moderate

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19 incongruent information is more comprehensible but does not produce as intense arousal as extreme incongruent information does. The author found that moderate incongruent information le ads to higher evaluations than congruent and extreme incongruent information. There have been m any researches studying the terms, congruent and incongruent N o vel information that is congruen established schema can have a n effect on their judgment of the information in category based processing (Sujan, Bettman, & Sujan, 1986; Wansink & Ray, 1996) Traditionally, congruent stimuli have been perceived as being more positive than incongruent s t imuli (Fisk & Pavelchak, 1986). Consumers perceive advertisements which are schema congruent more favorably than schema incongruent advertisements (Meyers Levy & Tybout, 1989). Furthermore, consumers think of congruent information as relevant (Kamins & Gupta, 1994). However, Heckler and Childers (1992) found that recall differs from the level of congruency; incongruent information showed higher memorability than congruent information whereas congruent information produced higher recall than incongruent information. In addition Lee and M ason (1999) found that incongruent information can enhance ad and brand attitudes, as well as, ad attitude confidence (Lee, 2000). Incongruent information requires mental activity to be comp rehended more than congruent information (Meyers Levy & Tybout, 19 89). Moreover, mental activity leads to arousal and stronger affective evaluation (Mandler, 1982). This evaluation can be either positive or negative, and the factors lead ing motivation to resolve the in congruity. When the information is resolvable, consumers feel frustration, and this leads to a negative evaluation (Mandler, 1982).

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20 E mpirical precedents suggest that a moderate amount of incongruity actually creates a strong positive affect (Meyers Levy e t al. 1989). In a study conducted by Mandler (1982), mild ly incongruent stimuli produced a stronger positive affect than congruent or extremely congruent stimuli Lee and Thorson (2008) also suggest that a moderate incongruent ad had superior purchase int ention compared to congruent and extremely incongruent ads. Moreover, t he mildness of the positive affect that results from schema congruity, according to Peracchio and Tybout (1996), owes to the fact that it is considered neither noteworthy nor interestin g. Mild incongruity may be considered noteworthy because such consumers can resolve incongruity through association with their prior experiences (Peracchio et al. 1996). Moreover, a moderate amount of incongruity can create a positive attitude toward adve rtisements of this type, since their unexpectedness arouses interest (Mandler, 1982). In other words, u nder mild incongruity condition, a d content incongruity generates emotional reaction s such as surprise (Alden et al., 2000), which results in high er mess age involvement (Lee, 2000). This reaction increases memory and affective effect for an ad (Heckler & Childers, 1992; Muehling & Lazcniak, 1988 ). W hen consumers encounter mild incongruent information, a need for resolving the incongruent message is created and this produces a positive effect (Meyers Levy et al. 1989). Specifically c onsumers consider the incongruent elements of the ad to be a puzzle ; they can not have negative feelings against it because of their favorability toward puzzle s (McQuarrie & Mic k, 1999 ). This provokes a human basic need, a sense of accomplishment evaluations of the ad and brand obsolete (Peracchio & Meyers Levy, 1994 ). This process leads to positive attitude toward the ad and brand eventually (Alden et al. 2000; Arias Bolzmann et al., 2000; Lee, 2000; L ee & Mason, 1999 ).

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21 In contrast, just as an unsolvable puzzle produces irritation and annoyance extreme incongruity generates negative feelings, such as frustration and helpless, which leads to unfavorable evaluations of objects since it cannot be resolved through reference to previous experiences and expectations (Meyers Levy, Louir & Curren, 1994). This idea can be explained by the terms, expectations and predictions (Mandler, 1982). Compreh ending incong ruent information m ay be challenging to consumers; this informatio n requires mental activity to solve (Meyers Levy & Tybout, 1989). Mandler (1982) suggests that incongruent information may lead to either posit ive or negative evaluation, and factors that le ad those evaluations are consu ability and opportunity to resolve that information. However, w hen it is so incongruent that consumers cannot solve the puzzle consumers feel frustration which produces a negative evaluation (Mandler, 1982). Involveme nt psychology, and, more recently, in consumer behavior. Fundamentally, the concept of product involvement means the degree to which people are interested in a certain brand or product (Traylor, 1981). There are several definitions of product involvement. Traylor (1981) defined product involvement as a perception that a certain product category is considered important to consumers in terms of life, at titude about themselves, and sense of identit y Krugman (1967) innate needs, values, and interests. Zaichkowsky (1994) also defined produc t involvement as the extent in which consumers con sider that product important in their life. Cars, for example, have been considered a high involvement product for consumers (Hupfer & G ardner, 1971) W hen consumers shop for cars, they usu ally actively search for

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22 information a nd purchase a product caref ully. O n the other hand, when consumers are presented with a buying situation involving toothpaste, they purchase without careful thinking, consideration, or researching Consistent with this example involvement consumer n ot only thinks of the product class as trivial, but he further has little bond to his brand choice (Lastovicka & Gardner, 1977) However the standard to categorize high involvement and low involvement product s is quite subjective and indefinite Strict ly speaking, any product can be ego involving or uninvolving. Only consumers can make a product meaningful and this is the reason for subjective and imprecise criteria (Traylor, 1981). Despite the subjective and imprecise criteria for involvement there have been studies to figure out which factors classify and lead to different level of product involvement Houston and Rothschild's (1978) found that there are three factors that lead the level of involvement. a) Personal factor : inherent interests, values, or needs that motivate one toward the object. b) Physical factor : characteristics of the object that cause differentiation and increase interest c) Situational factor : something that temporarily increases relevance or interest toward the object Mitchell (1981) created a fundamental model of involvement and information behavior, pro Furthermore Bettman (1979) cited level of involvement as a mediating variable in information search.

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23 As mention ed earlier a moderate incongruent ad is considered a puzzle, and this solving this q uestion. This process enhances involvement and attitud e toward the ad However, unlik e the previous research, Micael et al. (2005) found that consumers view incong ruent advertisement as disturbing due to lack of involvement, and this produces low attitude toward the exposed ad. In their research, they used a low involvement product (chocolate bar) as the stimulus. T here is a possibility that people will have a different attitude with a high involvement product category compared to with a low involvement pro duct. The previous researches above support the hypotheses of this research that consumers will consider a moderate incongruent ad an interesting puzzle putting more effort into interpreting the ad, viewing it not as an ob stacle but as intriguing because the moderate incongruent ad is Specifically, as an expos ed ad and brand are important to consumers, this high level of involvement leads them to look for more da ta and spend more time on decision making (Clarke & Belk 19 79 ). This processing makes subjects put more time and effort into congruent moderate incongruent, and extreme incongruent ads. As a result, people will not think of a moderate incongruent ad as an obstacle or barrier, instead ad attitude will show higher than with congruent ad s. M oderate i ncongruent ad s will be viewed with curiosity and not as disturbing (Hans Nicola & Christine, 2006) This view stems from the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) (Petty & Cacioppo, 1981). The basic principle of this model is that persuasion occurs depending on how much consumers think about the message and whether they can process the exposed message When they are highly motivated and have the ability to process the message, their likelihood of thinking about it will be h igh. This type of consumer takes central route and requires more specific information than other consumers. However, when consumers have the motivation but

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24 lack the ability to process a message, they take peripheral route and prefer less information than o thers. One important implication of this model for advertising messages is that we need to consider different ways for the best advertising effect according to the level of involvement For example, a person who is about to purchase a cell phone (high invo lvement) may re search information about cell phone brands for better decision making. If the information found is reasonable and persuasive compared to other brands favorable attitudes toward the brand will be produced and it will strongly affect purchase intention (central route). On the other hand, a person who is not thinking of purchasing a new cell phone (low involvement) will not spend time and effort on searching information about cell phone brands and would rather focus on the attractiveness, credi bility, or prestige of the product's endorser (peripheral route). It has been well accepted that when consumers are not highly motivated and involved, peripheral aspects of the ad such as music, background, or endorser become leading influencers of bran d attitudes (Petty, Cacioppo & Schumann 1983) whereas central aspects of the ad such as messa ge of the ad become the main influencing factor under high involvement conditions of bran d attitudes (Petty et al. 1983),

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25 CHAPTER 3 HYPOTHESES Incongruent Effect on High Involvement Product DeSarbo and Harshman suggested (1985) that incongruity depends to some extent on the brand image is so different from the execut ion of an ad that a link between them is not obviously represented in the existing schema. Such an unexpected stimulus requires greater cognitive effort here; t he boundary among extreme incongruity, moderate incongruity, and congruity will be obscure if consumers are not motivated and willing to spend time on resolving the incongruity (Peracchio et al. ion and willingness to process information is their involvement (Andrew, Durvasula & Akhter, 1990). In a high involvement situation, as people spend more time and effort on understand ing a moderate incongruent ad, they will perceive an incongruent ad as m ore interes ting than as disturbing. Therefore, we can expect that consumers will have a more positive attitude toward the moderate incongruent ad than either with a congruent ad or with an extreme incongruent ad T his will lead to a higher brand attitude ( Thorson & Page, 1989; Batra & Ray, 1986; Edell & Burke, 1984; Messmer, 1979; Gresham & Shimp, 1985; Mi tchell & Olson, 1981) and eventually increase pu rchase intention S ince involvement is a key factor of consumer behavior ( Muncy & Hunt 2001), it is worth including purchase intention in research In accordance with these assumptions, the following hypotheses were created: : a moderate brand ad incongruent group will result in more favorable (a) attitude toward the advertisement (Aad) (b) attitude toward the brand (Ab) and (c) higher purchase intention (PI) than either a brand ad congruent or extreme brand ad incongruent group

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26 However, when the incongruent advertising conflicts with ad and brand schemas; consumers will typically compare the information in the ad with the stored information in the brand schema (Micael et al, 2005). To resolve this conflicting ad, consumers will degrade the new information as less credible than the information stored in the brand schema. Therefore, we expect that consumers will rate incongruent ads as less credible than congruent ads. : Ad credibility ( Ac ) is higher for brand congruent ad group than either extreme incongruent group, or moderate incongruent group

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27 CHAPTER 4 METHOD Study Design In terms of ad brand incongruence, t he design of this study used three levels: a brand congruent ad, a moderate brand incongruent ad, and an extreme brand incongruent ad. The degree of congruence was a manipulated variable. The dependent variables were Aad, Ab, Ac and PI. Par ticipants Subjects were 91 college students (male 38%, female 62%) which made for cell size s of approximately 30 subjects. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the treatment conditions (i.e., congruent, moderate incongruent, and extreme incongruent ad). The number s are presented in Table 4 1. Pretest Since the purpose of this study is to know the effect of ad brand incongruency in real es tablished brands, the for its brand familiar ity (established brand), and popular ity among subjects. Focus group interview s were employed to generate feedback on associated images with iPhone Subjects were asked to answer questions regarding associations that describe the iPhone and those that T h e questions were as follows : ( a) H ow would you describe the iPhone ? ( b ) What wou ld you say is the opposite image of the iPhone ? The most commonly mentioned congruent images were fashionable, representative, modern, young, and multi tasking; the old fashioned, boring, not smart, non technological and unpopular. Ea ch type of association that was most commonly mentioned was quantified with 7 point Likert scales and

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28 rated by 29 new subjects with regard to (a) and (b) above. The 5 congruent associations (representative, modern, young, fashionable and multi tasking) rec eived high scores ( M = 6.43 ) and were chosen to make the brand congruent stimulus. The 5 incongruent associations (unsophisticated, old, simple, cheap, and non technology) that subjects did not hold with the iPhone received high scores ( M = 1 .6 8 ) by all th e subjects and were chosen for creating the brand incongruent stimulus. Mean scores of each five associated image are presented in Table 4 2 Based on these associated brand images with which the iPhone held and did not hold, 4 incongruent and 4 congruent print ads were created; all information in the 8 ads was identical. print ads since consumers had been exposed to the same kinds of ads and are familiar with those ads. We can assume that consumers hav e previous expectation s about iPhone ad s and those kinds of ads are what they expect (congruent ad). T herefore, congruent ads were created focusing on functional (central) aspects (see A ppendix C ). However, incongruent ads were designed to look unfamiliar to consumers based on the results above (see T able 4 2) As a result, congruent ads were created focusing on peripheral aspects by using endorsers which were not familiar to consumers. In a pretest, 30 subjects were given the 8 ads and a questionnaire f or rating the level of congruency. Thirty subjects rated the fit between the picture and the brands on a 10 point scale. The results verified that most ads were created according to the intention of this study. Mean scores of perceived fit between a picture and a brand are presented in Table 4 3. At the end of questionnaire, two additional questions were asked to support the right decision in regard to choosing the ads. The questions were as follows: (a) Please pick an ad

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29 wherein the picture and brand are most matched; and (b) Please pick an ad wherein the picture and brand are worst matched. According to the rating results (see Table 4 4) congruent ad 3 and incongruent ad 8 were chosen out of 8 ads. To choose a moderately incongruent ad, a series of paired sample t test were conducted. As a result, ads 3, 7 and 8 were selected to represent the three levels of brand ad congruence. As shown in Table 4 5, the mean differences among the three congruence conditions for each ad were statistically significant. Confound and Manipulation Checks To prevent the results from being confounded by the executions of the ads, this study measured ad attitude for the advertisements in a pretest. Subjects were instructe d to rate the chosen ads with a fake brand, SkyCo. No significant difference in Aad was observed between the two pictures ( p > .05). Brand awareness and brand usage were also measured as a manipulation check of brand familiarity. One hundred percent of th e students were familiar with the iPhone brand, and 30% of students responded that they had bought the brand. Measures Subjects were asked to verify their level of involvement in this product category s (1992 ) seven point semantic dif ferential scale was used in this research since it was the most effective and generalized type of scale, and also easy to administer and score. Those items were as follows: important / unimportant, relevant / irrelevant, means nothing to me / means a lot t interesting, appealing / unappealing, of no concern to me / of concern to me, dull / neat, and fun /

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30 Attitude toward the advertisement was assessed with four bipolar items based on a seven point scale including bad / good, pleasant / U nple a sant favorable / unfavorable s alpha=.86 ). This measure was adapted from MacKenzie and Lutz (1989). Credibility of the advertisement was assessed with a three item semantic differential scale adapted from MacKenzie and Lutz (1989). The items include convincing / unconvincing, believable / unbelievable, and biased / s alpha=.83 ). A ttit ude toward the brand was measured with three items o n a seven point semantic differential. They include good / bad, negative / positive, satisfactory / unsatisfactory s alpha=.92 ). This measure was adapted from Loken and Ward (1990) and S imonin and Ruth (1998). Brand purchase intention was gauged using three bipolar items adapted from MacKenzie, Lutz, and Belch (1986). They include unlikely to / likely to, willing to / unwilling to, / plan to s alpha=.88 ).

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31 Table 4 1 Study Design Brand Ad congruent level Congruence Moderate Incongruence Extreme Incongruence n=32 n=29 n=30 Table 4 2 Mean Scores of Associated images Statistic Representative Modern Young Fashionable Multi tasking Mean 6.17 6.63 6.27 6.33 6.73 Standard Deviation 1.21 0.67 0.94 0.96 0.64 Statistic unsophisticated Old Simple Cheap non technology Mean 1.57 1.47 2.57 1.53 1.27 Standard Deviation 0.82 0.57 1.69 0.63 0.52 Table 4 3 Mean Scores of Perceived Fit Congruent Ads Incongruent Ads Statistic (Ad # ) # 1 # 2 # 3 # 4 # 5 # 6 # 7 # 8 Mean 8.71 8.61 8.33 8.04 5.46 3.82 7.46 2.81 Variance 1.99 2.40 4.62 4.92 7.07 7.71 6.41 7.85 Standard Deviation 1.41 1.55 2.15 2.22 2.66 2.78 2.53 2.80

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32 Table 4 4 Percentage of Perceived Fit Ad # Response (Most) % (Most) Response (Worst) % (Worst) 1 8 28 % 0 0 % 2 2 7 % 0 0 % 3 17 59 % 0 0 % 4 0 0 % 5 17 % 5 6 21 % 1 3 % 6 3 10 % 1 3 % 7 0 0 % 12 40 % 8 0 0 % 21 70 % Table 4 5 The Results of Paired t test Pair Mean Difference df t Value p Value A B 0.78 27 2.197 0.037 B C 4.46 27 7.147 0.000 A C 5.33 26 7.048 0.000 A = very congruent (#3); B = moderately incongruent (#7); C = extreme incongruent (#8)

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33 CHAPTER 5 RESULTS Scale Reliability Scale reliability was tested for the three ads before testing the hypotheses. Each is study are highly reliable. The reliability scores are presented in Table 5 1 Product Involvement Before the main experiment, all participants were given questions about product involvement. Product involvement showed an overall mean of 5.9 and a median of 6.0, which indicates that most respondents were highly involved in this product category. Mean and median score of product invo lvement are presented in Table 5 2 Results of ANOVA analysis The depende nt variables in hypotheses H1 and H2 were tested in a n ANOVA The results of ANOVAs showed that Ad brand incongruency had a significant effect on all d ependent variables; Ac F (2, 85) = 23.7, p < .001., A ad, F (2, 86) = 8.7, p < .001., A b, F (2, 86) = 4.1, p < .03., and PI F (2, 86) = 3.8, p < .03. Those results are shown in Table 5 3, 4, 5, and 6 Tes ts of Hypothesis 1 (a) : the role of a moderate incongruent ad After checking for significance, the hypotheses were tested with post hoc tests ( T ukey) With regard to Aad, post hoc tests revealed that both cong ruent and mode rate incongruent ads performed better than extreme incongruent ads. The congruent ad received a mean of 5.71; the mode rate incongruent ad received a mean of 5.10; and the extreme incongruent ad received a mean of 4.21. Mean scores of each var iable is presented in Table 5 7 The difference between a congruent ad and an extreme incongruent ad is significant at p < .001 (see Table 5 8 ) Also, the difference between a mode rate incongruent and an extreme

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34 incongruent ad is statistically significant at p < .05. However, the difference between a congruent and a mode rate incongruent ad is not statistically significant ( p = .20). Thus, this partially supports H1(a): Aad is higher for a moderate incongruent ad than for either a congruent or an extreme inc ongruent ad. Tests of Hypothesis 1(b): the role of a moderate incongruent ad Post hoc data revealed that a congruent ad performed better than an extreme incongruent ad in terms of Ab. The congruent ad received a mean of 6.06 compared to the value of 5.16 of the extreme incongruent ad (see Table 5 7 ) The difference is statistically significant at p < .02. However, no statistically significant effect was observed between a congruent and a mode rate incongruent ad ( p = .43 ), or between a mode rate incongruent and extreme incongruent ad ( p = .24 ). This does not support H1(b): Ab is higher for a moderate incongruent ad than for either a congruent or an extreme incongruent ad (see Table 5 9 ). Tests of Hypothesis 1(c): the role of a moderate incongruent ad When PI was a criterion variable, as shown in Table 12, the mean score for congruent ad (M = 5.26) was significantly higher than the mean for extreme incongruent ad ( M = 4.15, p < .05). However, no statistical significance was found between a mode rate incongruent and an extreme incongruent ad ( p = .98), or between a congruent and a mode rate incongruent ad ( p = .06). This therefore does not support H1(c): PI is higher for a moderate incongruent ad than for either a congruent ad or an extreme incongruent ad. The r esu lts are presented in Table 5 10 T ests of H ypothesis 2 : the role of a congruent ad H2 was tested with a mean comparison of Ac among the ads. The results revea led that both congruent and moderate incongruent ads performed better than extreme incongruent ads (see Table 5 11 ) As shown in Table 5 7 t he mean of extreme congruent ad ( M = 4.00) was

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35 statistically lower than that of congruent ( M = 5.88 p < .001) or mode rate incongruent ad ( M = 5.38, p < .001). However, no statistically significant difference was found between a congruent ad and a m ode rate incongruent ad ( p = .18 ). This partially supports H2: Ac is higher for brand congruent ads than for either extreme or moderate incongruent ads.

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36 Table 5 1 Scale Rel Ac Aad Ab PI Congruent 0.872 0.915 0.910 0.846 Moderate Incongruent 0.948 0.963 0.954 0.938 Extreme Incongruent 0.838 0.964 0.977 0.899 Table 5 2 Mean a nd Median Score of Product involvement Congruence Moderate Incongruence Extreme Incongruence Mean 5.98 5.88 5.88 Median 6.0 6.1 6.05 Table 5 3 Analysis of Variance: Ad Brand Incongruence Effects on Ac Factor SS Df MS F p Between Groups 55.76 2 27.88 23.658 .000 Within Groups 100.169 85 1.178 Total 155.929 87

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37 Table 5 4 Analysis of Variance: Ad Brand Incongruence Effects on Aad Factor SS Df MS F p Between Groups 33.141 2 16.570 8. 733 .000 Within Groups 163.183 86 1.897 Total 196.324 88 Table 5 5 Analysis of Variance: Ad Brand Incongruence Effects on Ab Factor SS Df MS F P Between Groups 11.845 2 5.923 4.113 .020 Within Groups 123.834 86 1. 440 Total 135.679 88 Table 5 6 Analysis of Variance: Ad Brand Incongruence Effects on PI Factor SS Df MS F p Between Groups 22.586 2 11.293 3.771 .027 Within Groups 257.579 86 2.995 Total 280.165 88

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38 Tabl e 5 7 Aad, Ab, PI, and Ac Distribution, Means, and Standard Deviations Aad Ab PI AC n mean s.d. mean s.d. mean s.d. mean s.d. Congruent 30 5.71 a .88 6.06 a .95 5.26 a 1.39 5.88 a .86 Moderate incongruent 30 5.10 a 1.36 5.67 ab 1.13 4.23 ab 1.85 5.38 a 1.13 Extreme Incongruent 29 4.21 b 1.77 5.16 b 1.47 4.15 b 1.91 4.00 b 1.24 Means that do not share a superscript differ at p<.05 level according to Tukey. Table 5 8 Analysis of Multiple Comparisons (T ukey HSD): Aad Congruent Level (I) Congruent Level (J) Mean Difference (I J) Std. Error Sig 1 2 .61 .36 .20 3 1.49 .36 .00 2 1 .61 .36 .20 3 .88 .36 .04 3 1 1.49 .36 .00 2 .88 .36 .04 1 = Congruent, 2 = Moderate Incongruent, 3 = Extreme I ncongruent

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39 Table 5 9 Analysis of Multiple Comparisons (Tukey HSD): Ab Congruent Level (I) Congruent Level (J) Mean Difference (I J) Std. Error Sig 1 2 .39 .31 .43 3 .89 .31 .01 2 1 .39 .31 .43 3 .50 .31 .24 3 1 89 .31 .01 2 .50 .31 .24 1 = Congruent, 2 = Moderate Incongruent, 3 = Extreme Incongruent Table 5 10 Analysis of Multiple Comparisons (Tukey HSD): PI Congruent Level (I) Congruent Level (J) Mean Difference (I J) Std. Error Sig 1 2 1.02 .45 .06 3 1.11 .45 .04 2 1 1.02 .45 .06 3 .08 .45 .98 3 1 1.11 .45 .04 2 .08 .45 .98 1 = Congruent, 2 = Moderate Incongruent, 3 = Extreme Incongruent

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40 Table 5 11 Analysis of Variance (Tukey HSD): Ac Congruent Level (I) Congruent Level (J) Mean Difference (I J) Std. Error Sig 1 2 .50 .28 .18 3 1.88 .28 .00 2 1 .50 .28 .18 3 1.38 .28 .00 3 1 1.88 .28 .00 2 1.38 .28 .00 1 = Congruent, 2 = Mode rate Incongruent, 3 = Extreme Incong ruent

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41 CHAPTER 6 DISCUSSION The results of this study add to the current understanding of information incongruency in advertising. Previous research has shown that familiar brands have a fragile relationship between Aad and Ab in compariso n to unfamiliar brands (Machleit & Wilson, 1988) Moreover, prior research has shown that established brand advertising has less of an effect on Ab (Machleit & Wilson, 1988) and wears out fast (Dahlen, 2001; Tellis, 1997) ; as a result, consumers lose inte rest easily in those ads (Machleit et al., 1993) However, this research contradicts those findings. A congruent ad performed better than an extreme incongruent ad in terms of Aad, Ab, PI, and Ac. T his difference might have resul ted from the brand images o f iPhone. Since brands self image and this brand has attractive images such as leader, modern, and fashionable, co nsumers might want to be labeled as such by using an iPhone (McEnally et al., 1999). In this si tuation, the congruent ad evoke s with these positive images and this might eventually affect Aad, Ab, PI, and Ac In a previous research M icael et a l. (2005) found that Aad and Ac were affected inversely in low involvement product category. Howev er, the results of this study differ from These results verified that Aad and Ac are affected in the same directions. I t is hard to compare this study with Micael since t his study includes one more independent variable, a moderate incongruent factor and tested under a different product condition. However, it is worth noting that Aad and Ac are affected in the same direction under high involvement produ ct conditions To understand this difference, we need to focus on the brand schema and involvement. T his study used not only a highly involved brand but also a strongly established brand. These two impacts are so strong that consumers might think of a mod erate incongruent ad not only as

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42 believable but also likable to a certain level. On a practical level, to a certain degree these results can lead advertisers to make their ads different from previous concepts The mod erate impact of moderate incongruency also differs from the findings of previous studies. Lee et al. (2008) found that moderate incongruent ads increase PI more favorably than either congruent or extreme incongruent ads. However, in this research, there was no statistical significance with reg ard to PI of moderate incongruent condition. To understand these differences, we need to conside r several factors that differ from previous study. First of all, we need to focus on the fact that they used a celebrity factor as an independent varia ble. Marketer s have used celebrities in advertising as a strong communication strategy (Kamin & Gupta, 1994) since the effectiveness of using celebri ti es has been proved in several studies (Erdogan, 1999). However, this study did not use a celebrity factor For that reason, there is a possibility that the results were different from prior researches, which were conducted under different variable conditions. Without endorsement, i t seems likely that the process of evaluating the moderate incongruent ads in t his research was sometimes not enough to cause physical arousal or a true effect compared to congruent ad (p = .63). However, the benefit of resolving moderate incongruency might be perceived as being more rewarding and worthwhile than extreme incongruency because a moderate level of expectancy disconfirmation could be addressed by assimilation or accommodation to prior knowledge structure (Peracchio et al., 1996). It seems likely that such resolution does not happen when the level of the mismatch is extrem e, which, in this study, led to the most negative evaluations of the stimuli. Second, the difference from this prior research might have resulted from the mea n score and level of in congruency i n a moderate incongruent ad whereas that of this study was 7.46 In addition, they did not test the level of

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43 involvement. Sometimes using a high involvement product does not mean subject s are highly involved in that product category. Someone may not care about the product whereas the other one is involved the product category. Therefore, we can assume that t hese different condition s might le a d to different results. Considering the mean scores of the three ads in this study, a congruent ad is the one t hat shows the highest scores in every dimension (see Figure 6 1,2,3, and 4). In this study, we proved prior theories that high Aad leads to high Ab and PI (Thorson & Page, 1989; Batra & Ray, 1986; Edell & Burke, 1984; Messmer, 1979; Gresham & Shimp, 1985; Mitchell & Olson, 1981). One factor that can explain this result is that we used an established brand, iPhone, whereas most studies in the area have used fictitious brands. In sum t he implications of this study are twofold. First, this study is related to the discovery of boundary conditions. We have found that even though the best effect occurs when established brands are consistent with their advertising image, we also found that a moderate incongruent ad can also increase Aad. This represents that a m oderate level of incongruency is capable of reducing the advertising wear unless it is extremely incongruent; the brands can be less consistent in their advertising in order to create interest for Aad. This can be useful for advertisers. For example, advertisers can make ads that differ from either their previous advertising concept or their competing ads in the same product category ging Second, we proved that less mismatch between an ad and the brand image can affect A c in a positive way. Therefore, advertisers need not worry about mismatching the brand image with inco ns istent advertising unless it is extremely incongruent. As mentioned above, a mild

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44 incongruent ad can lead to positive effect unless it is too extreme. However, incongruent Meyers Levy et al. 1989). To be an enjoyable puzzle, incongruent information needs to be resolvable otherwise, it will produce frustration instead of a sense of accomplishment In this study, we used a dependent variable, Ac, because incongruent ads sho uld be in contrast to associations of well known and established brands (Micael et al., 2005). However, the noteworthy thing is that Ac can be increased by both congruent and moderate incongruent ads. This is an interesting result because it contradicts Mi opposite directions on ad attitude under the incongruent condition. This study proved that Ac can be increased when the incongruent level is moderate in the high involvement condition.

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45 Figure 6 1 Aad by Congruent Level Figure 6 2 Ab by Congruent Level

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46 Figure 6 3 PI by Congruent Level Figure 6 4 Ac by Congruent Level

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47 CHATER 7 LIMITATIO NS AND FUTURE RESEARCH There are some important limitations in this research that need to be discussed and used as directions for further research on information incongruency between ads and brands. One limitation is that we used only one established brand as a stimulus, which differs from many studies of advertising. Even though the iPhone is representative of a high involvement product, the level of brand schema can be more or less developed from different brand. Let us take another cell phone brand, LG, for example consumers may have different levels of expectation and involvement in regard to LG. In other words, in spite of the fact that LG belongs to the high involvement product category, like iPhone, it is difficult to say that consumers have the sam e knowledge and expectations as they do iPhone. This can be a leading factor in making the resu lts different. Keller (1993) support s this assumption; consumers feel a greater motivation to process ad information for strongly established brands because of t heir accessibility and salience. If those conditions are different, apparently, the result will be changed under different conditions. Furthermore, as with all studies, there is a sampling limitation. The first concern is the ecological validity of the vie wing situation. Subjects viewed the ads individually under different conditions; in addition, the number of individuals in each group was as large as 30. Subjects knew they would be asked questions after viewing the ads. Obviously, this unrealistic environ ment may have changed the way in which the subjects processed the ads; this setting may force a deeper processing of ads than normal conditions. Moreover, with regard to demographics, almost all the participants were undergraduate students aged 18 to 30. T hus, it is hard to apply the study results to consumers over 30 years old. Moreover, the percentage of male participants was different from that of females (male: 38%; female: 62%) There is a gender difference with regard to every respect. Females rated h igher on Aad, Ab, and product involvement than male did; whereas

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48 males rated higher on PI than females did (see Table 7 1) Although no statistically significant difference was observed between males and females, there is a likelihood that the element of g ender affects the results if the number of individuals of each gender is the same. In other words, if the study group was larger and more diversified, then the results could be different. Moreover, if we had more subjects who rated low on the product invol vement scale, then we could re design the level of involvement as the second independent variable and observe 2 x 3 interaction results (I nvolvement level x C ongruent level) It is therefore suggested that future research use a more natural viewing environ ment and realistic sample size. Another limitation of the present study is that we measured the response to one single ad consumers are not only exposed t o many different kinds of ads, but also disclosed to the same ad through these continuous ad exposures. This can be an explanation for PI results in this research As mentioned above, one exposure may not enough to lead a physical action. For example, although a moderate incongruent ad was not statistically significant in this research (p>.05), there is a possibility that the results would be different under severa l exposures. Finally, several measurement issues must be addressed. Aad was measured right before Ab. Edell and Burke (1986) speculated that taking similar attitude measures can overstate their actual correlation. Moreover, researchers have found that both brand beliefs and Aad are mediators of Ab (Mitchell & Olson, 1981) Even though this study did not test brand beliefs, it was found that the exclusion of brand beliefs may lead to the overvaluing of the size of the Aad Ab relationship (Mittal, 1990) Brand beliefs should, for this reason, be included in future research

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49 Table 7 1 Mean of Gender Distributions Aad Ab PI Ac Product Involvement Male 4.95 5.56 4.72 4.97 5.57 Female 5.07 5.69 4.44 5.16 6.14

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50 APPENDIX A SAMPLE OF PRETEST QUESTIONNAIRE For the statements below, please check the circle corresponding to your agreement. Strongly Disagree Disagree Somewhat Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Somewhat Agree Agree Strongly Agree Leader Modern Young Fashionable Multi tasking For the statements below, please check the circle corresponding to your agreement. Strongly Disagree Disagree Somewhat Disagree Neither Ag ree nor Disagree Somewhat Agree Agree Strongly Agree Old Simple Unsophisticated Cheap Non tech

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51 Please review the following ad. Take as much time as you need. (See Advertisemen ts in Appendix C ) Considering your reaction to the ad yo u just saw, please check the circle corresponding to your agreement. Very Unlikely Very Likely Picture and Brand Fit together 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Considering your reaction to the ad you just saw, for each pair of words below, please select the corresponding button that accurately describes your evaluation of the ad. Bad 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Good Unfavorable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Favorable Unpleasant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Pleasant

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52 APPENDI X B SAMPLE OF MAIN TEST QUESTIONNAIRES Please answer the following questions by checking the circle that you feel best represents your feelings on the issue presented in the question. Using each of the following adjectives, please indicate how you fee l about cell phone ? Please click the button that reflects your opinion. Unimportant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Important Irrelevant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Relevant Means nothing to me 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Means a lot to me Unexciting 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Exciting 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Matters to me Boring 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Interesting Unappealing 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Appealing Of no concern to me 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Of concern to me Dull 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Neat Not fun 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Fun Please review the following ad. Take as much time as you need. (See Adv ertisements in Appendix C )

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53 Considering your reaction to the ad you just saw, please identify your feeling about the ad. Unconvincing 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Convincing Unbelievable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Believable Biased 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Unbiased Considering your reaction to the ad you just saw, for each pair of words below, please select the corresponding button that accurately describes your evaluation of the ad. Bad 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Good Unfavorable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Favorable Unpleasant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Pleasant Considering your reaction to the brand in an ad you just saw, for each pair of words below, please select the corresponding button that accurately describes your evaluation of the brand. Bad 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Good Negative 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Positiv e Unsatisfactory 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Satisfactory

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54 After seeing the ad, how likely would you purchase the iPhone in the future? Please click the button that reflects your opinion. Unlikely to 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Likely to Unwilling to 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Willing to D 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Plan to

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55 APPENDIX C CONGRUENT AND INCONGRUENT ADS Congruent ad #1 Congruent ad #2

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56 Congruent ad #3 Congruent ad #4

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57 Incongruent ad #5 Incongruent ad # 6

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58 Incongruent ad #7 Incongruent ad # 8

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65 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Seoungchul Lee was born in South Korea. He grew up mostly in Seoul graduating from Sangmoon High School in 2000 H e earned his B.S. in a dvertising from Kookmin University He also earned his M.A. in a dvertising from University of Florida in 2010. He serve d in the military between 2005 and 2007 in the Republic of Korea Army as a public affairs officer and cyber journalist