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The Relationship Between School Counselors' Multicultural Knowledge And Awareness And Their Likelihood Of Recommending S...

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0041913/00001

Material Information

Title: The Relationship Between School Counselors' Multicultural Knowledge And Awareness And Their Likelihood Of Recommending Students For Advanced And Remedial Interventions Based Upon Students' Culturally-Bound Behavioral Styles
Physical Description: 1 online resource (182 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Shure, Lauren
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: african, american, competence, counseling, cultural, disproportionality, education, multicultural, school, special, students, underachievement
Human Development and Organizational Studies in Education -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Mental Health Counseling thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Chronic underachievement, as characterized by disproportionate placement of low-income African-American students in low-ability coursework, special education programs, and behavioral remediation persists despite various efforts to address these problems (Children?s Defense Fund, 2003; Harris, Brown, Ford & Richardson, 2004; Harry & Klingner, 2006; Lee, 2002; Lucas, 1999; Mickelson & Heath, 1999; National Alliance of Black School Educators NABSE, 2003; National Center for Education Statistics NCES, 2007; National Research Council, 2002, Oakes, 2005; Townsend, 2000, 2002). Cultural discontinuity between the home and school lives of low income, culturally diverse students has been proposed as a contributing factor to chronic underachievement and disproportionality (Cholewa & West-Olatunji, 2008; Gay, 2000; Hale, 2001; King, 2004; Nieto, 2004). In fact, there is concern among scholars that many school counselors lack sufficient cultural competence and contribute to the status quo of chronic underachievement and disproportionality of culturally diverse and low-income students (Bemak, 2000; Bemak & Chung, 2005; Lee, 1998). This is especially concerning since recent educational initiatives place school counselors at the center of the education reform movement to improve curriculum and instruction and advocacy for equal opportunity and access to a quality education for all students (Herring, 1997; House and Martin 1998; Keys, Bemak & Lockhart, 1998; Martin, 2002; Stone & Clark, 2001). There is a cognizance that as the number of culturally diverse students continues to increase, the need for school counselors to gain an awareness of their biases, broaden their cultural knowledge base, and develop new strategies that are responsive to the complex challenges culturally diverse students face will also increase (Constantine, 2002; Durodoye, 1998; Herring, 1997; Hobson & Kanitz, 1996; Holcomb-McCoy, 2007; Johnson, 1995; Lee, 1995). This study surveys a national sample of schools counselors using a correlational design to investigate the likelihood of school counselors to recommend students for advanced and remedial interventions based upon students? culturally-bound behavior styles. The results of this study suggest that school counselors? cultural bias may contribute to the overrepresentation of low-income African-American students in remedial special education. The implications for school counselor training and practice are discussed and areas for future research.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Lauren Shure.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: West-Olatunji, Cirecie.
Local: Co-adviser: Torres-Rivera, Edil.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0041913:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0041913/00001

Material Information

Title: The Relationship Between School Counselors' Multicultural Knowledge And Awareness And Their Likelihood Of Recommending Students For Advanced And Remedial Interventions Based Upon Students' Culturally-Bound Behavioral Styles
Physical Description: 1 online resource (182 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Shure, Lauren
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: african, american, competence, counseling, cultural, disproportionality, education, multicultural, school, special, students, underachievement
Human Development and Organizational Studies in Education -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Mental Health Counseling thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Chronic underachievement, as characterized by disproportionate placement of low-income African-American students in low-ability coursework, special education programs, and behavioral remediation persists despite various efforts to address these problems (Children?s Defense Fund, 2003; Harris, Brown, Ford & Richardson, 2004; Harry & Klingner, 2006; Lee, 2002; Lucas, 1999; Mickelson & Heath, 1999; National Alliance of Black School Educators NABSE, 2003; National Center for Education Statistics NCES, 2007; National Research Council, 2002, Oakes, 2005; Townsend, 2000, 2002). Cultural discontinuity between the home and school lives of low income, culturally diverse students has been proposed as a contributing factor to chronic underachievement and disproportionality (Cholewa & West-Olatunji, 2008; Gay, 2000; Hale, 2001; King, 2004; Nieto, 2004). In fact, there is concern among scholars that many school counselors lack sufficient cultural competence and contribute to the status quo of chronic underachievement and disproportionality of culturally diverse and low-income students (Bemak, 2000; Bemak & Chung, 2005; Lee, 1998). This is especially concerning since recent educational initiatives place school counselors at the center of the education reform movement to improve curriculum and instruction and advocacy for equal opportunity and access to a quality education for all students (Herring, 1997; House and Martin 1998; Keys, Bemak & Lockhart, 1998; Martin, 2002; Stone & Clark, 2001). There is a cognizance that as the number of culturally diverse students continues to increase, the need for school counselors to gain an awareness of their biases, broaden their cultural knowledge base, and develop new strategies that are responsive to the complex challenges culturally diverse students face will also increase (Constantine, 2002; Durodoye, 1998; Herring, 1997; Hobson & Kanitz, 1996; Holcomb-McCoy, 2007; Johnson, 1995; Lee, 1995). This study surveys a national sample of schools counselors using a correlational design to investigate the likelihood of school counselors to recommend students for advanced and remedial interventions based upon students? culturally-bound behavior styles. The results of this study suggest that school counselors? cultural bias may contribute to the overrepresentation of low-income African-American students in remedial special education. The implications for school counselor training and practice are discussed and areas for future research.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Lauren Shure.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: West-Olatunji, Cirecie.
Local: Co-adviser: Torres-Rivera, Edil.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0041913:00001


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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SCHOOL COUNSELORS' MULTICULTURAL
KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS AND THEIR LIKELIHOOD OF RECOMMENDING
STUDENTS FOR ADVANCED AND REMEDIAL INTERVENTIONS BASED UPON
STUDENTS' CULTURALLY-BOUND BEHAVIORAL STYLES
















By

LAUREN ANN SHURE


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2010

































2010 Lauren Ann Shure



























To my parents









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I thank my committee members, Drs. Cirecie West-Olatunji, Edil Torres Rivera,

William Conwill, and Thomasenia Adams for their expertise, guidance, and support

through this process. Special appreciation goes to my chair, Dr. Cirecie West-Olatunji,

who has mentored and guided me through many things. I also thank helpful and brilliant

statisticians, Drs. David Miller and James Algina. In addition, I thank the members of my

expert panel, Drs. Kent Butler, Andrea Dixon, Kimberly Frazier, Rose Pringle, and

Zarius Watson, the participants in my pilot study, Lisa Clemons, Ritzy Ettinger, Sue

Ireland, and Eric Thompson, and all of the middle school counselors across the country

who participated in this research. I could not have completed this project without each

and every one of them. Finally, I extend my appreciation to my friends and family for

their love, support, and encouragement.









TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

ACKNOW LEDGM ENTS .............. ............................ .. ......................................... 4

LIST O F TA BLES .......... ..... ..... ............................................................. ........ 7

A BST RA CT ............... ... ..... ......................................................... ...... 12

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION ........................ ... ............ ............ ........... 14

P purpose of this study ............ ............................................... .............. 20
R research Q questions ............ ................................................ ............. 20
H ypotheses .............. .. ........ .............. ....................... 2 1
D definition of T erm s............................................. ....... ........... 22
Significance of Study ................................... ...................... 25
L im ita tio n s ............................................................................................................... 2 6

2 LITERATURE REVIEW ........ .... ...... .......... .. .... ......................... 28

Chronic Underachievement of African American Students................................. 28
African American Children and Learning ............................................ .................. 33
Cultural Discontinuity, Chronic Underachievement, and the Role of the School
C o u n s e lo r ................................ .... ................. ......... ........ .. .................. ....... 4 1
Cultural Discontinuity and the Chronic Underachievement of African
Am erican Students .................... .......... ............ .... ... ............... 43
Educational Equity and the Role of the School Counselor ............................. 50
The History of Interventions for Chronic Underachievement ................................ 54
Cultural Deprivation Theory and Compensatory Education Programs ............. 55
Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Movement (CGCM) ..................... 58
Outcome Studies and Multicultural Emphasis.............. ..... ................. 59
Multicultural Counseling and Therapy (MCT) and School Counselors................. 62
S um m ary .............................................................................................. .............. 66

3 METHODS.............................................. ........ 68

Participants ................ .................................. 68
Subjectivity Statem ent ............... ................................ ............................. 69
Instruments ............... .... ..... ..... .................... 70
School Counselor Information Survey ......... ............... ......... .......... ..... 70
Student Vignette and School Counselor Recommendation Scale................. 72
Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness Scale (MCKAS) ............. 73
D ata C o election P procedures ...................... .... ............................... ........ 76
Development of Vignettes and Pilot Studies............. ................................... 76
S tu d y .......... .................... .......................... ........................................ 7 8









Data Analysis Procedures.............................. ............... 79
R research Q questions ............................. ......................... .............. 79
S u m m a ry .............. ..... ............ ................. ............................................... 8 1

4 R E S U LT S .......................... ................................ ............................ 82

Descriptive Data for the Major Variables...................................... 82
Hypothesis 1 ............. ......... ... ..... ..... .................. 85
Multicultural Knowledge and Awareness and Participant Factors.......................... 91
Hypothesis 2 .............. ............. ..... ... ...... ....... ..................... 96
School Counselor Recommendations Based Upon Culturally-Bound Behavior
S ty le .................................................................................. 9 9
Hypothesis 3 ........................ ....... ........ ................................ 103
The Relationship Between Multicultural Knowledge And Awareness And The
Likelihood Of Making Recommendations For Remedial And Advanced
Interventions .............. ............ .............. ........... ................ ......... 104
Lim itations..................... ..... ................................... .............. 105
Assessment Materials and Procedures........ ............ ...................... 105
Sampling ................ ......... .................. 106
Research Design ............... .. ........ .................. 106
S u m m a ry .............. ..... ............ ................. ............................................. 1 0 6

5 DISCUSSION ................ ......... .................. 121

Implications for Future Research ........................................................................ 132
S um m a ry ......... ........................... ......... .......................................... 13 4

APPENDIX

A PARTICIPANT CONSENT LETTER............................... ............... 135

B STUDENT VIGNETTE AND SCHOOL COUNSELOR PERCEPTION SCALE..... 136

C MULTICULTURAL COUNSELING KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS SCALE.. 141

D SCHOOL COUNSELOR INFORMATION SURVEY ....................... ........... 146

E INVITATION LETTER AND FORMS TO EXPERT PANEL............................... 148

F PILOT PARTICIPANT CONSENT LETTER....................................... ............... 162

LIST OF REFERENCES .......... ............ ......... ................ ............... 163

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .............. ........... ............................. 182









LIST OF TABLES


Table page

4-1 Counseling credentials obtained. ................ ............................. 107

4-2 Percentage of students by ethnicity. ................ ............... .............. 107

4-3 Results of t-tests analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge
and awareness and gender.................. ......... .. ..................... 107

4-4 Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between multicultural
knowledge and awareness and date of birth. ........................... ... ............... 107

4-5 Results of t-tests analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge
and awareness and completion of a multicultural counseling course .............. 107

4-6 Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between multicultural
knowledge and awareness and number of hours of multicultural training
com pleted ................. ......... .............................. ... ......... 108

4-7 Results of t-tests analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge
and awareness and completion of a CACREP-accredited counseling
program .................... .. .............. ......... ........................ 108

4-8 Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between multicultural
knowledge and awareness and number of hours completed in counselor
training program. ..................... ................. ................ ............... 108

4-9 Results of one-way ANOVA analyzing the relationship between multicultural
knowledge and most advanced educational degree .............. ....... ......... 108

4-10 Results of one-way ANOVA analyzing the relationship between multicultural
awareness and most advanced educational degree...................................... 109

4-11 Results of one-way ANOVA analyzing the relationship between multicultural
knowledge and earned counseling credentials............. ............................... 109

4-12 Results of follow-up independent t-tests analyzing the relationship between
multicultural knowledge and earned counseling credentials: none and LPC
&/or NCC .......................................................................................... 109

4-13 Results of follow-up independent t-tests analyzing the relationship between
multicultural knowledge and earned counseling credentials: none and SCSC
o n ly ................. ................................... ........................... 10 9









4-14 Results of follow-up independent t-tests analyzing the relationship between
multicultural knowledge and earned counseling credentials: none and SCSC
& LPC &/or NCC. ........ ...... ... ......... ................ ............... 109

4-15 Results of follow-up independent t-tests analyzing the relationship between
multicultural knowledge and earned counseling credentials: LPC &/or NCC
and SCSC only. ........ ..... ... ......... ................ .... ........... 109

4-16 Results of follow-up independent t-tests analyzing the relationship between
multicultural knowledge and earned counseling credentials: LPC &/or NCC
and SCSC & LPC &/or NCC .................. ......... ............... 110

4-17 Results of follow-up independent t-tests analyzing the relationship between
multicultural knowledge and earned counseling credentials: SCSC only and
SCSC & LPC &/or NCC........................................... ................ 110

4-18 Results of one-way ANOVA analyzing the relationship between multicultural
awareness and earned counseling credentials......... ................................ 110

4-19 Results of follow-up independent t-tests analyzing the relationship between
multicultural awareness and earned counseling credentials: none and
LPC&/or NCC. .. .......... ......... ......... .... .............................. 110

4-20 Results of follow-up independent t-tests analyzing the relationship between
multicultural awareness and earned counseling credentials: none and SCSC
o n ly ................. ................................... ........................... 1 10

4-21 Results of follow-up independent t-tests analyzing the relationship between
multicultural awareness and earned counseling credentials: none and SCSC
& LPC &/or N C C .......... ... ........ ......... ........... ................ .............. 110

4-22 Results of follow-up independent t-tests analyzing the relationship between
multicultural awareness and earned counseling credentials: LPC&/or NCC
and SCSC only. ........ ..... ... ......... ................ .... ........... 111

4-23 Results of follow-up independent t-tests analyzing the relationship between
multicultural awareness and earned counseling credentials: LPC&/or NCC
and SCSC & LPC&/or NCC ................. ....... ... ............... 111

4-24 Results of follow-up independent t-tests analyzing the relationship between
multicultural awareness and earned counseling credentials: SCSC only and
SCSC & LPC &/or NCC........................................... ................ 111

4-25 Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between multicultural
knowledge and awareness and year graduated from counseling program....... 111

4-26 Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between multicultural
knowledge and awareness and years of counseling experience...................... 111









4-27 Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between multicultural
knowledge and awareness and years of experience counseling at a middle
scho o l. ......... .... .............. ................................. ........................... 1 12

4-28 Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between multicultural
knowledge and awareness and experience counseling culturally diverse
students ..................... ...... ......... ......... ... ....................... 112

4-29 Results of simple regression analyzing the relationship between multicultural
knowledge and awareness and percentage of students receiving free or
reduced lunch .............. ............. ... .......... ... ............... .............. 112

4-30 Results of one-way ANOVA analyzing the relationship between multicultural
knowledge and location of school (suburban, urban, or rural).......................... 112

4-31 Results of one-way ANOVA analyzing the relationship between multicultural
awareness and location of school (suburban, urban, or rural).......................... 113

4-32 Results of one-way ANOVA analyzing the relationship between multicultural
knowledge and the size of the student population at the counselor's school
(180-500, 501-1,000, or 1,001-1500)................................... ............. .... 113

4-33 Results of one-way ANOVA analyzing the relationship between multicultural
awareness and the size of the student population at the counselor's school
(180-500, 501-1,000, or 1,001-1500)................................... ............. .... 113

4-34 Results of follow-up independent t-tests analyzing the relationship between
multicultural knowledge between small (180-500 students) and medium (501-
1,000 ) sized school ls ............................. ......................... ........... 113

4-35 Results of follow-up independent t-tests analyzing the relationship between
multicultural knowledge between medium (500-1,000 students) and large
(1,001-1,500) sized schools. ....... ............................ ................ 113

4-36 Results of follow-up independent t-tests analyzing the relationship between
multicultural knowledge between small (180-500 students) and large (1,001-
1,500) sized school ls ............................. ......................... ........... 114

4-37 Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between multicultural
knowledge and percentage of students by ethnicity. ................ .... ........... 114

4-38 Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between multicultural
awareness and percentage of students by ethnicity.............. ....... ......... 114

4-39 Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between multicultural
knowledge and awareness and number of counselors at school.................... 114









4-40 Summary of the means and standards deviations for the counselors'
recommendations for low-ability coursework based upon student culturally-
bound behavioral style.......................................... ................... 115

4-41 Summary of the means and standards deviations for the counselors'
recommendations for testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally
retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services based upon
student culturally-bound behavioral style................ ................... 115

4-42 Summary of the means and standards deviations for the counselors'
recommendations for behavioral remediation outside the classroom based
upon student culturally-bound behavioral style .......................... ............. 115

4-43 Summary of the means and standards deviations for the counselors'
recommendations for testing for gifted or talented programs based upon
student culturally-bound behavioral style..................................... ................ 115

4-44 Results of one-way repeated measures ANOVA analyzing the likelihood of
school counselors making recommendations for low-ability coursework
based upon student culturally-bound behavioral style.................. ............... 115

4-45 Results of one-way repeated measures ANOVA analyzing the likelihood of
school counselors making recommendations for testing for emotionally
disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD)
ESE services based upon student culturally-bound behavioral style ............... 116

4-46 Results of one-way repeated measures ANOVA analyzing the likelihood of
school counselors making recommendations for behavioral remediation
outside of the classroom based upon student culturally-bound behavioral
sty le ......... .... .............. .................................. ........................... 1 16

4-47 Results of one-way repeated measures ANOVA analyzing the likelihood of
school counselors making recommendations for testing for gifted, talented,
and advanced coursework based upon student culturally-bound behavioral
style. ................ ......... ............................. 116

4-48 Summary of follow-up dependent t-tests for school counselor
recommendations for testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally
retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services based upon
student culturally-bound behavioral style................ ................... 117

4-49 Summary of follow-up dependent t-tests for school counselor
recommendations for behavior remediation outside the classroom based
upon student culturally-bound behavioral style .......................... ............. 117

4-50 Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between counselor
recommendations for low-ability coursework and multicultural knowledge....... 117









4-51 Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between counselor
recommendations for low-ability coursework and multicultural awareness....... 118

4-52 Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between counselor
recommendations for testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally
retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services and multicultural
knowledge. .............................. ......... ................ 118

4-53 Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between counselor
recommendations for testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally
retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services and multicultural
aw areness. ............. ......... .... ............... ......................... ......... 118

4-54 Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between counselor
recommendations for behavior remediation outside the classroom and
m multicultural know ledge. .............................. ............................. 119

4-55 Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between counselor
recommendations for behavior remediation outside the classroom and
multicultural awareness. ................ .......................... ........... 119

4-56 Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between counselor
recommendations for testing for gifted, talented, and advanced coursework
and multicultural knowledge. ................................ 119

4-57 Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between counselor
recommendations for testing for gifted, talented, and advanced coursework
and multicultural awareness................. ............ .. ............... 120









Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SCHOOL COUNSELORS' MULTICULTURAL
KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS AND THEIR LIKELIHOOD OF RECOMMENDING
STUDENTS FOR ADVANCED AND REMEDIAL INTERVENTIONS BASED UPON
STUDENTS' CULTURALLY-BOUND BEHAVIORAL STYLES


By

Lauren Ann Shure

August 2010

Chair: Cirecie West-Olatunji
Cochair: Edil Torres Rivera
Major: Mental Health Counseling

Chronic underachievement, as characterized by disproportionate placement of

low-income African-American students in low-ability coursework, special education

programs, and behavioral remediation persists despite various efforts to address these

problems (Children's Defense Fund, 2003; Harris, Brown, Ford & Richardson, 2004;

Harry & Klingner, 2006; Lee, 2002; Lucas, 1999; Mickelson & Heath, 1999; National

Alliance of Black School Educators [NABSE], 2003; National Center for Education

Statistics [NCES], 2007; National Research Council, 2002, Oakes, 2005; Townsend,

2000, 2002). Cultural discontinuity between the home and school lives of low income,

culturally diverse students has been proposed as a contributing factor to chronic

underachievement and disproportionality (Cholewa & West-Olatunji, 2008; Gay, 2000;

Hale, 2001; King, 2004; Nieto, 2004). In fact, there is concern among scholars that

many school counselors lack sufficient cultural competence and contribute to the status

quo of chronic underachievement and disproportionality of culturally diverse and low-

income students (Bemak, 2000; Bemak & Chung, 2005; Lee, 1998). This is especially









concerning since recent educational initiatives place school counselors at the center of

the education reform movement to improve curriculum and instruction and advocacy for

equal opportunity and access to a quality education for all students (Herring, 1997;

House and Martin 1998; Keys, Bemak & Lockhart, 1998; Martin, 2002; Stone & Clark,

2001). There is a cognizance that as the number of culturally diverse students continues

to increase, the need for school counselors to gain an awareness of their biases,

broaden their cultural knowledge base, and develop new strategies that are responsive

to the complex challenges culturally diverse students face will also increase

(Constantine, 2002; Durodoye, 1998; Herring, 1997; Hobson & Kanitz, 1996; Holcomb-

McCoy, 2007; Johnson, 1995; Lee, 1995). This study surveys a national sample of

schools counselors using a correlational design to investigate the likelihood of school

counselors to recommend students for advanced and remedial interventions based

upon students' culturally-bound behavior styles. The results of this study suggest that

school counselors' cultural bias may contribute to the overrepresentation of low-income

African-American students in remedial special education. The implications for school

counselor training and practice are discussed and areas for future research.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

For decades, educators and policy makers have been investigating the chronic

underachievement and disproportionately of low-income, African-American students

(Ladson-Billings, 2006; Lee, 2002). Underachievement has been defined as a

discrepancy between ability and performance (Ford, 1996). Chronic underachievement

includes a gap in standardized test scores between African-American and White,

Latina/o and White, and recent immigrant and White students (Ladson-Billings). African-

American students represent about 16% of the public school population but 27% of all

students classified as trainable mentally retarded or seriously emotionally disturbed

(Children's Defense Fund, 2003). In 2004, six percent of African-American, as

compared to four percent of White and two percent of Asian/Pacific Islander 6- to 21-

year-olds were identified as having a specific learning disability. American

Indians/Alaska Natives also have a high rate of identification for specific learning

disabilities at eight percent (NCES, 2007) Statistics show that African-American

students are suspended, expelled, and subjected to corporal punishment at

disproportionately higher rates (NCES, 2007). Disproportionality also affects which

children are identified and placed in programs for the gifted and talented in U.S. public

schools, with African-American students being half as likely to be represented in such

programs as compared to their White peers, 3.04% and 7.47%, respectively (National

Research Council, 2002; The Civil Rights Project, 2002).

Many factors have been cited as potential contributors to chronic

underachievement and disproportionality for this population. Factors related to schools,

students, teachers, families and home environments, and resources have been









considered (Kozol, 1991). Further, compensatory education programs (Gordon &

Wilkerson, 1966; Vinovskis, 1999) and comprehensive counseling and guidance

programs by school counselors (Myrick, 1997; Paisley, 2001) have also been

implemented. Yet, chronic underachievement and disproportionality among low-income

African-American students has persisted (Keys, Bemak & Lockhart, 1998; MacDonald &

Sink, 1999). One reason for the lack of significant success from these efforts may lie in

the lack of consideration of the sociopolitical contexts surrounding students' education.

More recently, outcome studies and an emphasis on multicultural school

counseling have emerged as attempts to conceptualize and intervene more effectively

with diverse student populations (Lee, 1995; Pedersen & Carey, 2003; Whiston &

Sexton, 1998). Multicultural school counseling provides a culturally-competent lens and

approach to effectively work with low-income African-American students to affect

positive change in chronic underachievement and disproportionality (Lee; Pedersen &

Carey). It addresses the sociopolitical context of schooling for low-income, culturally

diverse students as it considers the systemic factors present within their home and

school lives, such as the effects of poverty and racism and cultural discontinuity

between their home and school environments (Hobson & Kanitz, 1996; Holcomb-

McCoy, 2007). This is important as these factors likely contribute to chronic

underachievement and disproportionality for many of these students (Cholewa & West-

Olatunji, 2008; Martin, 2002).

Cultural discontinuity is a school-based behavioral process wherein the cultural

value-based learning preferences and practices originating from home and/or parental

socialization activities are discontinued at school. Cultural discontinuity within the









educational system has been proposed as a contributing factor to chronic

underachievement and disproportionality for low-income, culturally diverse students

(Boykin, 2001; Gay, 2000; King, 2004; Nieto, 2004; Patton, 1998; Townsend, 2000).

Scholars examining African-American families and culture have found evidence of the

existence of the cultural practices of communalism and verve embedded within the

socialization and lives of low-income African-American families (Bailey & Boykin, 2001;

Boykin & Bailey, 2000; Tyler, Boykin, Boelter & Dillihunt, 2005; Tyler et al., 2008).

Communalism and verve have also been found as preferences and practices in the

classroom behaviors of low-income African-American students (Hale, 2001; Hale-

Benson, 1986; Tyler, Boykin, Miller & Hurley, 2006). In contrast, research has shown

that classroom practices, teacher expectations, and socialization practices in U.S. public

classrooms tend to favor the mainstream/Eurocentric values and practices of

individualism and competition (Boykin, Tyler & Miller, 2005, Gay; Nieto). This creates

cultural discontinuity and misunderstandings in the educational experiences of many

culturally diverse students (Cholewa & West-Olatunji, 2008; Gay; King; Nieto).

Studies examining teachers' perceptions of African-American students' culturally-

bound behaviors have yielded results supporting the presence of cultural discontinuity

and misunderstandings in these students' schooling experiences. Studies examining

teachers' perceptions of African-American learning styles, African-American English

(AAE), and movement styles reported that teachers viewed students exhibiting

behaviors characteristic of African-American culture as more aggressive, less able to

achieve, and/or more in need of remedial special education services (Delpit, 1995; Neal,

McCray, Webb-Johnson & Bridgest, 2003; Tyler, Boykin & Walton, 2006).









Scholars conclude that studies examining teachers' perceptions of culturally-

bound student behaviors warrant further investigation and replication, as teachers

influence students and contribute to the overrepresentation problem (Patton, 1998;

Townsend, 2000). While teachers' perceptions of students' culturally-bound behaviors

have been examined, no studies to date examine the ways in which school counselors

perceive culturally-bound student behaviors. However, it has been theorized that school

counselors may contribute to chronic underachievement and disproportionality by

inadvertently serving as gatekeepers for these students (Amatea & West-Olatunji, 2007;

Bemak & Chung, 2005). The Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and other

Related Educational Programs (CACREP) mandates multicultural counseling content in

professional counseling training programs. Yet, some scholars report concern that

counselors may leave training without sufficient multicultural competence (Constantine,

2001; Constantine, Hage, Kindaichi & Bryant, 2007; Constantine & Yeh, 2001).

Traditionally, the role of the school counselor has included assessment and

referral of individual students for special education programs and as a coordinator of

needed social, academic, developmental, vocational, and psychological services for

students and their families (Amatea &West-Olatunji, 2007; Carpenter, King-Sears, &

Keys, 1998; Keys, Bemak, Carpenter, & King-Sears, 1998). Today, the school

counselor's role is shifting from working with individual and small groups of students and

their families to working as agents of change within the school system (Amatea & West-

Olatunji; ASCA, 2003; Bemak & Chung, 2005; House & Martin, 1998; Martin, 2002).

Counselors working with teachers and culturally diverse students to achieve educational

equity and fulfill their role as social justice advocates for socially marginalized students









(Bemak, 2000; Bemak & Chung, 2005; Constantine, Hage, Kindaichi & Bryant, 2007;

Lewis, Lewis, Daniels & D'Andrea, 2003) must have sufficient multicultural competence.

This includes knowledge and awareness of culturally-bound student behaviors.

Scholars have suggested that school counselors can become advocates for

culturally diverse students and pedagogical partners for teachers (Amatea & West-

Olatunji, 2007). Their role would shift to helping teachers connect their curricula and

teaching practice more directly to students' lives, and to serve as a cultural bridge

between school and family to increase positive interactions and relations (Amatea &

West-Olatunji; Bemak & Chung). Additionally, the role of the 21st century school

counselor should be one of a leader throughout the school (ASCA, 2003; Stone & Clark,

2001), working to assist in building a climate of diversity appreciation in classrooms and

throughout the school and building and maintaining strong home-school collaborations

(Amatea & West-Olatunji; House & Martin; Martin).

Relational Cultural Theory (RCT) and Racial/Cultural Identity Development

(R/CID) theory have offered ecosystemic and sociopolitical contexts that are useful in

understanding the chronic underachievement and disproportionality facing many low-

income African-American students and the influence teachers and school counselors

have on these phenomena. As an alternative paradigm to traditional Western

psychological theories positing that normal development goes from dependence to

independence, Relational Cultural Theory (RCT) theorizes that development occurs in

connection with others and that growth-fostering relationships are created and

sustained through mutual empathy and empowerment (Miller, 1986). Racial and

Cultural Identity Development (R/CID) is another theory that provides a practical









framework for exploring the multicultural knowledge and awareness of school

counselors and their perceptions of culturally-bound student behaviors. R/CID defines

five stages of development that oppressed people experience as they struggle to

understand themselves in terms of their own culture, the dominant culture, and the

oppressive relationship between these two cultures (Sue, 1999; Sue & Sue, 2008).

RCT and R/CID provide lenses useful in conceptualizing dynamics between low-

income, culturally diverse students and their families and the school system in order to

intervene for systemic change. However, I am not using RCT theory as a basis for my

research because there is a lack of empirical data and assessment tools to support the

use of this theory in the investigation of school counselors' multicultural knowledge and

awareness and perceptions of culturally-bound student behaviors. Additionally, I am not

using R/CID theory as a basis for my research because while connections have been

made between counselors' multicultural knowledge and awareness and their racial

identity status, assessing school counselors' multicultural knowledge and awareness

with established multicultural counseling knowledge and awareness assessments, such

as the Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness Scale (MCKAS) (Ponterotto,

Gretchen, Utsey, Riger & Austin, 2002), is a more direct way to examine this

phenomenon. Thus, Multicultural Counseling and Therapy (MCT) provides a framework

with a more direct link to the assessment of school counselors' multicultural knowledge

and awareness and their perceptions of culturally-bound student behaviors.

MCT originates from the criticism that traditional psychology and counseling

practice is ethnocentric and does not consider clients in the context of their culture and

environment. Looking only at individuals and their internal psychology, traditional









psychology and counseling may marginalize non-White, middle-class clients by failing to

account for the sociopolitical and sociocultural contexts that shape their lives. MCT

utilizes an ecosystemic approach and an appreciation of culturally diverse clients and

their cultures (Sue, Ivey, & Pedersen, 1996). MCT assumes that counseling approaches

and goals should be consistent with the life experiences and cultural values of clients

(Sue et al.). Multicultural competencies (Sue et al., 1982), congruent with MCT theory,

have been outlined by scholars at the request of the American Counseling Association

(ACA) and are emphasized by the American School Counseling Association's (ASCA)

ethical standards. In order to be collaborative leaders and to positively influence

academic outcomes for all students, school counselors must have the awareness,

knowledge, and skills outlined by MCT and the multicultural competencies to effectively

work with low-income, culturally diverse students and their families (ASCA, 2004; Sue et

al.).

Purpose of this study

Using an online survey, this study will examine the relationship between school

counselors' multicultural knowledge and awareness and their likelihood of

recommending students for remedial and advanced interventions based upon students'

culturally-bound classroom behaviors.

Research Questions

1. What is the relationship between school counselors' multicultural knowledge and
awareness and the following demographic factors:

(a) gender, (b) age, (c) completion of a multicultural counseling course during
training, (d) number of hours of multicultural training completed, (e) completion of
a CACREP-accredited program, (f) number of training hours completed in degree
program, (g) most advanced educational degree, (h) type of counseling
credentials) obtained, (i) year of graduation from counseling program, (j) years of
counseling experience, (k) years of middle school counseling experience, (I)









amount of experience counseling culturally diverse students, (m) percentage of
students at counselor's school receiving free or reduced lunch, (n) employment at
suburban, urban, or rural school, (o) size of the student population, (p) amount of
diversity at counselor's school (ratios of student ethnicities), and (q) number of
school counselors working at the counselor's school?

2. How likely are school counselors to recommend students for advanced and
remedial interventions based on students' culturally-bound behavioral styles?

3. What is the relationship between school counselors' multicultural knowledge and
awareness and their likelihood to recommend students for advanced and remedial
interventions based on students' culturally bound behavioral styles?

Hypotheses

1. There will be no relationship between school counselors' multicultural knowledge
and awareness and their:

(a) gender, (b) age, (c) completion of a multicultural counseling course during
training, (d) number of hours of multicultural training completed, (e) completion of
a CACREP-accredited program, (f) number of training hours completed in degree
program, (g) most advanced educational degree, (h) type of counseling
credentials) obtained, (i) year of graduation from counseling program, (j) years of
counseling experience, (k) years of middle school counseling experience, (I)
amount of experience counseling culturally diverse students, (m) percentage of
students at counselor's school receiving free or reduced lunch, (n) employment at
suburban, urban, or rural school, (o) size of the student population, (p) amount of
diversity at counselor's school (ratios of student ethnicities), and (q) number of
school counselors working at the counselor's school.

2. School counselors will be significantly more likely to recommend students
displaying the Afrocultural behavior styles of communalism and verve for

(a) low-ability coursework, (b) testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly
mentally retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services, and (c)
behavioral remediation than students displaying the Eurocentric behavioral styles
of individualism and competition.

Additionally, counselors will be less likely to recommend students displaying the
Afrocultural behavior styles of communalism and verve to be tested for gifted,
talented, or advanced coursework than students displaying the Eurocentric
behavioral styles of individualism and competition.

3. There will be no relationship between school counselors' multicultural knowledge
and awareness and their likelihood to recommend students for advanced and
remedial interventions based on students' culturally-bound behavioral styles.









Definition of Terms


ADVANCED COURSEWORK

Coursework considered to be more rigorous and/or challenging
than what is considered "on grade level" or average for a student's
developmental course level. Advanced coursework includes, but is
not limited to: advanced or honors courses, International
Baccalaureate (IB) placement, and advanced placement (AP)
courses.

AFRICAN AMERICAN

Citizen or resident of the United States who has origins from any of
the black populations of Africa.

EUROPEAN AMERICAN

Citizen or resident of the United States who has origins from
Europe or is the descendant of European immigrants or colonists

BEHAVIORAL REMEDIATION

Consequences employed in response to behaviors deemed
inappropriate in attempt to extinguish them. Common behavioral
remediations used in schools include: detentions, suspensions, and
expulsions.

CULTURE

Values, traditions, and beliefs mediating the behaviors of a
particular social group (American Psychological Association, 2003).

COMMUNALISM

The perceived fundamental interdependence of people (Moemeka,
1998). Under communalism, a person acts in accordance with the
notion that duty to his or her social group is more important than
individual rights and privileges. (Boykin, 1986).

COMPETITION

One's preoccupation with doing better than others (Boykin, 1983).

CHRONIC UNDERACHIEVEMENT

Also coined the "achievement gap". This term refers to the
phenomenon that over the past several decades African American
students, overall, tend to experience a lower educational attainment









in terms of standardized tests, grades, and graduation rates, when
compared to European American and Asian American students.
This underachievement has persisted for decades.

CULTURAL DISCONTINUITY

A school-based behavioral process where the cultural value-based
learning preferences and practices originating from home and/or
parental socialization activities are discontinued at school. The term
is primarily used by scholars when talking about culturally diverse
students in U. S. public schools (Cholewa & West-Olatunji, 2008;
Tyler et al., 2008).

CULTURALLY-BOUND BEHAVIOR

A behavior which is learned through home and community
socialization practices and manifested as a patterned/normative
behavior.

DISPROPORTIONALITY

Referring to the phenomenon that certain groups of culturally
diverse students are identified for special education programs and
behavioral remediation at higher or lower rates than expected.

EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE (ED)

A condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics
over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely
affects a child's educational performance: (a) an inability to learn
that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors,
(b) an inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal
relationships with peers and teachers, (c) inappropriate types of
behavior or feelings under normal circumstances, (d) a general
pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression, or (e) a tendency to
develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or
school problems.

EXCEPTIONAL STUDENT EDUCATION (ESE)/SPECIAL EDUCATION

Refers to a range of educational and social services provided by
the public school system and other educational institutions to
individuals with disabilities who are between three and 21 years of
age.









GIFTED/TALENTED PROGRAMS


An academic program that caters to students who excel. Classes
may either be in the form of more challenging, advanced courses or
in the form of a regularly scheduled seminar that covers
extracurricular material.

INDIVIDUALISM

Individualism refers to one's disposition toward fundamental
autonomy, independence, individual recognition, solitude, and the
exclusion of others (Moemeka, 1998; Spence, 1985).

LEARNING DISABILITIES (LD)/SPECIFIC LEARNING DISABILITIES

Refer to a group of disorders that affect a broad range of academic
and functional skills including the ability to speak, listen, read, write,
spell, reason and organize information.

MILD MENTAL RETARDATION (MMR)

A developmental disability that first appears in children under the
age of 18. It is defined as an intellectual functioning level (as
measured by standard tests for intelligence quotient) that is well
below average, between 50-75, and significant limitations in daily
living skills (adaptive functioning).

MULTICULTURAL AWARENESS

Being actively in process of becoming aware of assumptions about
human behavior, values, biases, personal limitations, and
preconceived notions

MULTICULTURAL COUNSELING COMPETENCE

Conceptual model developed originally from Sue et al.'s (1982)
multicultural counseling competency report. Theoretically, this
model outlines the competencies a counselor should have in order
to work effectively with diverse populations. These competencies
consist of three distinct, yet interrelated components: awareness of
one's own cultural socialization and accompanying biases,
knowledge of the worldviews and value patterns of culturally
diverse populations, and specific skills for intervention with these
populations.









MULTICULTURAL KNOWLEDGE


Actively attempting to understand the worldview of culturally
different clients

RACIAL/CULTURAL IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT THEORY (R/CID)

Theory based on the idea that a sense of group identity based upon
one's perceptions of a shared racial or cultural heritage exists in
different statuses or developmental stages.

RELATIONAL CULTURAL THEORY (RCT)

Developmental theory, credited to Jean Baker Miller (1976), based
on the ideas that: (1) human growth and development occurs in
connection with others, (2) that all people yearn for connection, and
that (3) growth-fostering relationships are created through mutual
empathy and mutual empowerment.

REMEDIAL COURSEWORK

Coursework considered to be below grade level and less rigorous
and/or challenging than expected for a student's developmental
course level.

VERVE

Boykin (1983) defined verve as the propensity for high levels of
physical or sensate stimulation. This physical stimulation has been
coined in terms of qualities of intensity or liveliness, variability, and
density of stimulation.

Significance of Study

There is a lack of research exploring school counselors' multicultural knowledge

and awareness (Constantine, 2001, 2002; Constantine & Yeh, 2001). In particular, there

is a need to explore multicultural knowledge and awareness and its relationship to

school counselors' likelihood to recommend students for advanced and remedial

interventions based on students' culturally-bound behaviors. This information may

contribute to the understanding of the disproportionality of African-American students in

special education programs. To meet the expectations of the role of the 21st century









counselor as a social justice advocate for socially marginalized students, counselors

must demonstrate multicultural competence (Bemak, 2000; Bemak & Chung, 2005; Lee,

1995; Pedersen & Carey, 2003). Training for multicultural awareness, knowledge, and

skills can enhance counselors' ability to meet the challenges in today's schools. It is

imperative that school counselors acquire the skills to provide consultation, leadership,

and mediation within the school community (Amatea & West-Olatunji, 2007; Holcomb-

McCoy, 2007; Martin, 2002; Stone & Clark, 2001). These skills provide them with tools

enabling them to move from their gatekeeping role to becoming dreamkeepers for

socially marginalized students.

Limitations

This study has several limitations based upon assessment materials and

procedures, sampling, and research design. This study will be conducted using an

online survey consisting of a demographic questionnaire, the Multicultural Counseling

Knowledge and Awareness Scale (to assess multicultural counseling knowledge and

awareness), and the Student Vignette and Counselor Perception Scale (used to

measure the likelihood that counselors will recommend students for advanced and

remedial interventions based on the students' culturally-bound behaviors). As with other

measures of multicultural counseling competencies, the MCKAS is conducted through

self-report and is, therefore, self-perceived knowledge and awareness rather than

knowledge and awareness measured by clients receiving services or a third-party

observer or expert. This is a limitation because it is not known how accurately this self-

report reflects actual multicultural knowledge and awareness. Studies exploring self-

reported multicultural knowledge and awareness and its relationship to how clients

evaluate the multicultural knowledge and awareness of counselors, as well as studies









evaluating the multicultural knowledge and awareness of counselors by a third-party

and comparing it to self-reports of multicultural knowledge and awareness would serve

to further validate self-report measures of multicultural competencies. The Student

Vignette and Counselor Perception Scale will be created by the researcher for this

study. This is a limitation as little is known about the reliability and validity of this

measure beyond the pilot study that will be conducted.

A limitation in sampling exists because American School Counseling Association

(ASCA) members will be solicited for voluntary participation. This could bias the sample

because participants who volunteer may have particular interest in the topic, need

access to the internet, and must be technologically savvy enough to respond to online

questionnaires. Additionally, participants could have been cued to the purpose of the

study and, thus, biased their answers to appear more socially desirable.

Lastly, there are limitations associated with the research design. This study uses a

correlational research design and captures data at only one point in time. The inability of

correlational designs to determine causality between related variables is a limitation.

Additionally, there are possible history threats to validity associated with collecting data

at only one point in time.









CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

The purpose of this chapter is to present an overview of the scholarly literature

and research relevant to my study. A review of literature pertaining to the following

topics will be presented: (a) chronic underachievement of African-American students,

(b) African-American children and learning, (c) cultural discontinuity, chronic

underachievement, and the role of the school counselor (d) the history of interventions

for chronic underachievement, and (e) Multicultural Counseling and Therapy (MCT) and

school counselors. This chapter will conclude with a summary.

Chronic Underachievement of African-American Students

Chronic underachievement, as characterized by disproportionate placement of

low-income African-American students in low-ability coursework (Harris, Brown, Ford &

Richardson, 2004; Haycock, 2001; Lee, 2002; Lucas, 1999; Mickelson & Heath, 1999;

Oakes, 1990, 1993, 1994, 2005), special education programs (National Alliance of

Black School Educators [NABSE], 2003; National Research Council, 2002; Office of

Civil Rights, 1994), and behavioral remediation (Children's Defense Fund, 2003; Harry

& Klingner, 2006; National Center for Education Statistics [NCES], 2007; Townsend,

2000, 2002) persists despite various efforts to address these problems. In addition,

African-American students are underrepresented in gifted and talented programs and

advanced coursework (Ford, 1996, 1998; Ford & Harris, 1999; Ford & Webb, 1994;

National Research Council, 2002; Patton, 1992; Perry, Steele & Hilliard, 2003; U. S.

Department of Education [USDE], 1999). Although different factors have been

investigated, some scholars cite low expectations and the subsequent low ability

tracking of low-income, culturally diverse students as significant contributors to chronic









underachievement for this student population (Bemak & Chung, 2005; Ford, Harris,

Tyson & Trotman, 2002; Harris, Brown, Ford & Richardson; Haycock; Lee; Mickelson &

Heath; Oakes, 1990).

U.S. public schools have a history of ability tracking that dates back to the turn of

the twentieth century and compulsory education laws (Oakes, 2005). Tracking

increased greatly in the 1920's and 1930's correlating with an influx of immigrants to the

United States (Harris, Brown, Ford & Richardson, 2004; Oakes & Guiton, 1995).

Believed to be a means of preparing a diversifying population of immigrant, rural, and

urban children for participation in the workforce, tracking separated students by their

abilities and likely future occupations (Oakes, 1993). While formal tracking programs

have disappeared, in many schools students are still sorted into different class levels

based on their perceived abilities. Some existing tracking practices include: (a) ability-

grouping elementary students within and across subjects or in self-contained ability-

homogenous classrooms, (b) scheduling junior high school students class by class

based upon perceived ability or in blocks of classes based upon a general measure of

ability, and (c) enrolling senior high school students in courses that follow a curricular

trajectory towards various postsecondary destinations, such as entering the workforce

(high school as a terminal degree), vocational school, and university (Epple, Newlon &

Romano, 2002; Mickelson & Heath, 1999; Oakes, 2005).

These practices disadvantage those students placed in low-ability classes

because they have diminished access to high-status knowledge, fewer opportunities to

engage in stimulating learning opportunities, and are more likely to feel alienated by the

educational process (Mickelson & Heath, 1999; Oakes, 2005). Additionally, once a









student has been placed in low-ability classes or a vocational track it becomes

increasingly difficult to change this trajectory and advance to college bound courses or

an academic track (Harris, Brown, Ford & Richardson, 2004). While high-ability tracking

may benefit some learners, several studies reveal that tracking often greatly hinders

those perceived as mid- and low-ability students from opportunities to learn and excel,

particularly low-income, African-American, and Latino students (Mickelson & Heath;

Oakes). Tracking practices in education are detrimental to culturally diverse and low-

income students because they are often done across racial/ethnic and social class lines

with these students disproportionately placed in low-ability classes (Mickelson & Heath;

Oakes). This disproportionality is also present in remedial special education programs,

where low-income, culturally diverse students are overrepresented.

There is a long history of the overrepresentation of culturally diverse students in

special education programs, such as: severe emotional disturbance (SED), mild mental

retardation (MMR), and specific learning disabilities (LD), that can be traced back to

educational segregation and discrimination (Artiles, Harry, Reschly & Chinn, 2002;

Artiles & Trent, 1994; Artiles, Trent, & Palmer, 2004; Donovan & Cross, 2002; Harry &

Klingner, 2006; Hilliard, 1992; Patton, 1992, 1998; Russo & Talbert-Johnson, 1997;

Skiba et al., 2006; Skiba et al., 2008). African-American students represent about 16%

of the public school population but 27% of all students classified as trainable mentally

retarded or seriously emotionally disturbed (Children's Defense Fund, 2003). As a

group, African-American students constituted roughly 14.8% of public school enrollment

in 1998. Yet, compared to their White counterparts, they were disproportionately

identified and placed in categories such as mental retardation, specific learning









disability, and emotional disturbance at rates of 18.9%, 45.2%, and 10.7%, respectively

(NCES, 2002). In 2004, six percent of African-American, as compared to four percent of

White and two percent of Asian/Pacific Islander 6- to 21-year-olds were identified as

having a specific learning disability. American Indians/Alaska Natives also have a high

rate of identification for specific learning disabilities at eight percent (NCES, 2007).

This disproportionality sets students onto a trajectory of low achievement by

removing them from core curriculum and academically rigorous coursework (Markowitz,

Garcia & Eichelberger, 1997; Townsend, 2000). Such discouraging schooling

experiences can fuel disengagement from the academic process and even lead to drop

out (Townsend; West-Olatunji, Baker & Brooks, 2006). This is especially discouraging

for students who are misplaced due to inadequacies in the referral process and/or a

lack of cultural understanding by educators (Patton, 1998). Along with the issue of

disproportionality in special education for African-American students is the

disproportionality with which they are subjected to behavioral remediation, such as

suspensions and expulsions.

In 2003, African-American students constituted 17.2% of public school enrollment.

Collectively, they were expelled, suspended, and were subjects of corporal punishment

at rates of 23%, 21%, and 27% respectively (NCES, 2007). The Children's Defense

Fund (2003) found that African-American students constituted 30% of all students

expelled and 31% of those who have received corporal punishment. Studies show that

African-American students receive more severe punishments and are more often

suspended and for longer durations than their White counterparts (Cartledge, Tillman &

Talbert-Johnson, 2001; Harry & Klingner, 2006; Skiba, Peterson & Williams, 1997).









These kinds of exclusionary practices cause students to be excluded from school

settings and curriculum, creating vicious cycles of lowered expectations by educators,

resulting in chronic underachievement (Harry & Klingner; Townsend, 2000, 2002).

Acting out behaviors can be the result of gifted students seeking attention or a lack of

intellectual stimulation that is missing from their classrooms (Ford 1994, 1996; Gay,

2000).

Unfortunately, gifted African-American students often fail to be appropriately

identified and properly placed (Elhoweris, Mutua, Alsheikh & Holloway, 2005; Ford,

1994, 1998; Ford & Harris, 1999; Ford, Harris, Tyson & Trotman, 2002; Patton 1992,

1995; Patton, Prillaman, & VanTasselBaska, 1990). African-American students are

about half as likely to be placed in gifted, talented, and advanced courses as their

middle-class White counterparts (Children's Defense Fund, 2003; National Research

Council, 2002). While African-American students comprised 17% of the U.S. school

population in 1998, they comprised only 7.4% of the students in gifted education

programs (NCES, 2001). More recent statistics approximate that 7.5% and 10% of

White and Asian students, respectively, were identified for placement in gifted

programs. Yet, only about 3% and 3.5% of African-American and Hispanic students

were identified as gifted (Information Center on Disabilities and Gifted Education, 2003).

Various explanations have been offered to explain gifted underrepresentation for

African-American students. One such explanation points to the failure of educators to

appropriately identify and refer gifted African-American children who differ culturally

from their middle-class White counterparts (Ford, Harris, Tyson & Trotman, 2002;

Patton 1992, 1995; Patton, Prillaman, & VanTasselBaska, 1990). School counselors are









often involved in the referral process for special education programs, including gifted

and talented programs (Amatea & West-Olatunji, 2007; Carpenter, King-Sears & Keys,

1998; Keys, Bemak, Carpenter & King-Sears, 1998). Thus, they have been viewed as

gatekeepers and contributors to the disproportionality issue (Bemak, 2000; Bemak &

Chung, 2005; Lee, 1998).

The cultural expectations and behaviors surrounding the learning that low-income

African-American students bring to classrooms often create cultural mismatches within

schools (Gay, 2000; Ladson-Billings, 2005; Murrell, 2002; Nieto, 1999, 2004). This

mismatch has been cited as an explanation for much of the chronic underachievement

experienced by low-income African-American students, exemplified in their

disproportional placement in low-ability coursework, special education programs,

behavioral remediation, and gifted education. Learning expectations typical of many

African-American children are discussed in the following section.

African-American Children and Learning

Congruent with their home socialization, many African-American children bring a

host of culturally-bound expectations about learning into the classroom. In particular,

these preferences and behaviors are believed to exist within a set of cultural values and

traditions consistent with an African-American cultural worldview (Boykin, 1986). This

includes a preference for stimulating learning environments that involve collaboration,

variability, movement, affective learning, and creativity (Hale, 2001; Hale-Benson, 1986;

Gay, 2000; Tyler, Boykin, Miller & Hurley, 2006; Tyler et al., 2008).

Wade Boykin, professor of psychology at Howard University, and Kenneth Tyler,

associate professor of educational psychology at University of Kentucky, along with

various colleagues have spent over three decades investigating the link between culture









and academic achievement for African-American children. This research has advanced

the argument that cultural values influence the behavioral, thought, and interactional

patterns of many African Americans. Evidence has been found for the presence of three

specific cultural values in the home socialization of many low-income African-American

families: communalism, verve, and movement (Tyler et al., 2008). This is in contrast to

the cultural values embedded in U.S. schools that reflect individualism, competition, and

other Eurocentric orientations (Boykin, Tyler & Miller, 2005; Gay, 2000; Nieto, 2004).

This cultural discontinuity has been cited as a contributing factor to the low expectations

some educators have for the academic aptitude and achievement of low-income

African-American students. These low expectations have been linked to the chronic

underachievement of low-income, culturally diverse students (Bemak & Chung, 2005;

Ford, Harris, Tyson & Trotman, 2002; Harris, Brown, Ford & Richardson, 2004;

Haycock, 2001; Lee, 2002; Mickelson & Heath, 1999; Oakes, 1990).

Low-income African-American children tend to prefer collaborative, active, and

engaging learning environments (Hale, 2001; Hale-Benson, 1986; Tyler, Boykin, Miller

& Hurley, 2006), typifying the Afrocultural learning styles of communalism and verve

(Gay, 2000; Tyler et al., 2008). This is likely because low-income African-American

children tend to be socialized at home with communalism and verve as embedded

values and practices (Bailey & Boykin, 2001; Bell, 2001; Boykin, 1982; Boykin & Bailey,

2000; Franklin, 1992; Hale-Benson, 1986; Miller, 1997; Morgan, 1980; Tyler, 2002,

1999; Tyler, Boykin, Boelter & Dillihunt, 2005). Communalism has been defined as the

perceived fundamental interdependence of people. It is a cultural value and social

orientation which counters individualism, as it focuses on the welfare of the group, as









opposed to the pursuits and goals of individual group members (Moemeka, 1998). For

the purposes of this study, communalism is operationalized as behaviors in accordance

with the valuing of duty to one's social group as more important than individual rights

and privileges.

Boykin (1983) defined verve as the preference for high levels of physical or

sensate stimulation. This physical stimulation has been conceptualized in terms of three

qualities: intensity or liveliness, variability, and density of stimulation. Intensity or

liveliness refers to the level of stimulation, variability refers to the amount of

changeability or alternation between activities or stimuli in the environment, and density

refers to the number of stimulus elements or activities that are occurring in the

environment, as well as the number of stimulus elements or activities being engaged in

simultaneously. High levels of these three qualities are descriptive of verve.

Several studies have been conducted to assess the presence of cultural themes in

the lives of low-income African Americans. Much of the scholarship on the home

socialization of African-American children and their families indicate the presence of

communalism and verve (Bell, 2001; Boykin, 1983; Boykin & Bailey, 2000; Hale-

Benson, 1986; Morgan, 1980; Tyler, 1999, 2002; Tyler, Boykin, Boelter & Dillihunt,

2005; Tyler, Boykin, Miller & Hurley, 2006). Bell's (2001) qualitative work with low-

income African-American mothers uncovered communal practices in their daily

household activities. Similar results were found in two studies conducted by Tyler (1999,

2002) exploring the home socialization of African-American elementary and college

students. Through qualitative analysis he found these students' home socialization

consisted of more experiences related to communalism than individualism. Boykin and









Bailey (2000) indicated the presence of verve in the home environments of low-income

African-American children. This was depicted in the children's description of regular

family participation in lively and high stimulation activities, frequent alternation between

activities, and engagement or observation of multiple activities simultaneously.

Following the establishment of precedence for the presence of communalism and

verve within low-income African-American families, quantitative studies utilizing surveys

depicting various cultural themes have been used to investigate the home behaviors of

low-income African-American parents (Tyler, Boykin, Boelter & Dillihunt, 2005). In Tyler,

Boykin, Boelter, and Dillihunt's study surveys were administered to a sample of 71

parents with scenarios depicting four distinct cultural themes: communalism, verve,

individualism, and competition. Communalism and verve contrasted the Eurocentric

mainstream behaviors of individualism and competition. Home behaviors

conceptualized as communal included: acts of sharing, helping with household chores,

and children doing homework together. Home behaviors such as: performing routine

activities in different ways, having background noise like a television or music playing in

the house, and engaging in multiple activities or having different things going on at the

same time were identified as vervistic. Individualistic behaviors included performing

tasks and finding solutions to problems independently and encouraging or praising an

individual for his/her independent work. Attempting to do things better than others,

playing games to see who gets the best or right solution to a problem, and rewarding

children for doing the best or fastest work were viewed as competitive behaviors. This

sample of parents reported endorsing and practicing the Afrocultural behaviors of

communalism and verve significantly more than individualistic or competitive behaviors.









Similar findings were the result of a study by Tyler, Boykin, Miller, and Hurley

(2006) investigating the cultural preferences and socialization of low-income African-

American fourth graders. Among a sample of 81 students, a preference and

socialization toward communal and vervistic practices were significantly higher than

individualistic and competitive practices. These preferences in behavior were

investigated utilizing surveys featuring hypothetical vignettes of behaviors typical of

each of the referenced Eurocentric and Afrocultural behaviors. The vignettes were

developed by Boykin, Tyler, and Miller (2005), as a result of their investigation of

cultural themes in classrooms serving low-income African-American students.

Student preferences at school and at home reflected a favoring of Afrocultural

behaviors. Additionally, students reported getting into more trouble at home for

employing individualistic and competitive behaviors, as compared to communal and

vervistic behaviors. This was consistent with students' perception that their parents

preferred communal and vervistic behaviors. On the contrary, students reported getting

into more trouble at school for employing communal and vervistic behaviors over

individualistic and competitive behaviors and perceived their teachers' preference for

individualistic behaviors over communal and vervistic behaviors. They also perceived

their teachers' preference for competitive behaviors over vervistic behaviors but not

communal behaviors. Despite the students' perception that teachers prefer Eurocentric

behaviors in the classroom, this study emphasizes the preference low-income African-

American students often have for communal and vervistic activity at both home and

school.









Studies consistently conclude that many African-American children display higher

motivation and achievement when communalism and verve are embedded in the

learning context (Albury, 1993; Allen & Butler, 1996; Allen & Boykin, 1992; Bailey &

Boykin, 2001; Bailey & Walton, 1994; Boykin, 1979, 1982; Boykin & Allen, 2000; Boykin,

Allen, Davis & Senior, 1997; Boykin, Lilja & Tyler, 2004; Dill & Boykin, 2000; Tharp &

Gallimore, 1989; Tuck & Boykin, 1989). In Albury's (1993) study, 96 low-income

African-American and European-American students from an inner city school district in

Baltimore were asked to complete a vocabulary learning task in communal and

individualistic conditions. The African-American students performed significantly better

in the communal learning context while the European-American students performed

better in the individualistic context. Further investigations have presented similar

findings. For instance, Dill and Boykin (2000) found that both the encoding and

inferencing reading comprehension of fifth grade low-income African-American students

was higher when students were involved in peer tutoring in a communal, unscripted

manner as compared to when they studied individually or in pairs following scripted

directions. A more recent study's findings reveal that fourth and fifth grade African-

American students performed better on a geography test when studying in groups than

when studying alone (Boykin, Lilja & Tyler, 2004).

As further exploration of the connection between student achievement and cultural

context, several studies demonstrate the enhanced motivation and achievement of

African-American students under vervistic learning conditions. For example, Bailey and

Boykin's (2001) replication of a past study by Tuck and Boykin (1989), utilizing the

academically relevant learning tasks of spelling, vocabulary, mathematics, and picture-









sequencing, produced similar results to the original study. Motivation and academic

performance were significantly higher for all four learning tasks in the high-variability

context, as compared to the low-variability context. It also revealed a positive correlation

between a high-variability of activity (i.e. the presence of verve) in the home and a

greater preference for and increased motivation in learning tasks with high-variability.

This suggests these students prefer and are more motivated when cultural congruence

exists between their home and school contexts. A similar study by Boykin and Bailey

(2000) found that a sample of 192 low-income African-American third and sixth grade

students performed best on four experimental problem-solving tasks: color matching,

listening, schema reproduction, and visual scanning in a high-variability context with

background music playing and performed worst in a low-variability context without

background music.

Results of a study by Allen and Butler (1996) are congruent with the results of the

aforementioned studies. In this study low-income African-American and middle-income

White students were read stories under two conditions that differed in the degree to

which movement and music were integrated with the presentation of the stories. One

condition allowed for children to coordinate movement with a musical accompaniment

while listening to the stories, while the other condition allowed for little movement

opportunity and no music was played. Performance was measured via a multiple-choice

test designed to assess the amount of information the children processed about the

stories. African-American students performed best in the condition with coordinated

movements to music and White students performed best in the condition with little

movement and no music.









In addition to studying the cultural values present in the home socialization of

African-American families, Boykin and colleagues have examined the effects of

incorporating aspects of these cultural values and experiences in formal and

experimental learning settings. A consistent finding in these studies is that low-income

African-American students perform at optimal achievement levels when classroom

assignments build on the cultural values already imbedded in their home and family

lives (Bailey & Boykin, 2001; Boykin, 1983, 1986; Boykin & Cunningham, 2001; Boykin,

Lilja, & Tyler, 2004). Such achievement outcomes have been found among various

tasks across a range of subjects, including: language arts, reading, mathematics, and

social sciences.

These studies provide a breadth of evidence for the preference, increased

motivation, and increased academic performance of low-income African-American

students in learning contexts where communalism, verve, and movement are

embedded values and practices (Allen & Butler, 1996; Bell & Clark, 1998; Boykin et al.,

2005; Hale, 2001; Marryshow, 1995; Sankofa et al, 2005). In Boykin and Bailey's (2000)

meta-analysis of cultural learning studies, they conclude that while European-American

students outperformed African-American students in contexts where Afrocultural themes

were not emphasized, African-American children outperformed European-American

students when Afrocultural themes and practices were embedded in the learning

contexts. Scholarship suggests this enhanced performance is because these

Afrocultural contexts are familiar and linked to regularly occurring events and activities

within culturally structured home environments for these students (Boykin & Bailey,

2000; Bailey & Boykin; Boykin, Lilja & Tyler; Hale, 2001; Hale-Benson, 1986). This









provides rationale for the increased motivation and achievement of these students in

Afrocultural learning contexts, as these experiences are salient and culturally

appropriate for many African-American children.

While many studies on student learning preferences and achievement confound

class and culture by examining and comparing low-income African-American and

middle-class European-American students, studies that control for class differences by

comparing low-income African-American and low-income European-American students

provide further support for the existence of distinct cultural learning preferences (Albury,

1993; Boykin et al., 2005; Tuck & Boykin, 1989). While the present study focuses on an

intersection of the class and culture of low-income African-American students, emerging

scholarship and research suggest that similarly disproportionate educational outcomes

exist for African-American students across class/socioeconomic statuses (Perry, Steele,

Hilliard, 2003). For school counselors and other educators to work effectively with

African-American students of any class background, they must have knowledge of

African-American culture, including an awareness of the historical and sociopolitical

contexts of culture and skills to utilize culture in their conceptualizations and

interventions (Lee, 1995; Pedersen & Carey, 2003).

Cultural Discontinuity, Chronic Underachievement, and the Role of the School
Counselor

Cultural discontinuity within the educational system has been proposed as a

contributing factor to chronic underachievement and disproportionality between low

income, culturally diverse students and their more privileged White peers (Cholewa &

West-Olatunji, 2008; Gay, 2000; Hale, 2001; King, 2004; Nieto, 2004). Cultural

discontinuity is poor conceptualization of culturally diverse students' behaviors,









attitudes, and expectations of learning by educators using a Eurocentric lens to assess

and intervene for remediation or advancement. Cultural misunderstandings and

hegemony present in the imposition of mainstream/Eurocentric values embedded in the

U.S. educational system have been proposed as contributing factors in the

overrepresentation of African-American students in low-ability coursework (Harris,

Brown, Ford & Richardson, 2004; Mickelson & Heath, 1999; Nieto, 2004; Oakes, 1990,

1993, 1994, 2005), special education programs such as: specific learning disabilities

(LD), severe emotional disturbance (SED), and mild mental retardation (MMR)

(Blanchett, 2006; Harris, Brown, Ford & Richardson, 2004; Harry & Klingner, 2006;

Losen & Orfield, 2002; Patton, 1998; Russo & Talbert-Johnson, 1997; Zhang &

Katsiyannis, 2002), and behavioral remediation (Cartledge, Tillman & Talbert-Johnson,

2001; Neal, McCray, Webb-Johnson & Bridgest, 2003; Perry, Steele & Hilliard, 2003;

Skiba et al., 2002; Townsend, 2000, 2002), as well as their underrepresentation in

gifted/talented programs and advanced coursework (Ford, 1996, 1998; Ford & Harris,

1999; Ford, Harris, Tyson & Trotman; Ford & Webb, 1994; Harris, Brown, Ford &

Richardson, 2004; Patton, 1992, 1995; Perry, Steele & Hilliard).

Scholars propose that cultural discontinuity exists between many low-income,

culturally diverse students' home experiences and their classroom-based learning and

social experiences (Deyhle, 1995; Foster & Peele, 1999; Gay, 2000; Ladson-Billings,

2005; Murrell, 2002; Ndura, 2004; Nieto, 1999; Parsons, 2001, 2003; Parsons, Travis, &

Simpson, 2005; Solano-Flores & Nelson-Barber, 2001; Webb-Johnson, 2003). Recent

efforts in the form of standards-based educational reforms claim to focus on

establishing educational equity for all students, particularly efforts to reduce the chronic









underachievement of low-income, culturally diverse students (Daniels, 1998; Perry,

Steele & Hilliard, 1993). This is congruent with the vision of the role of 21st century

counselors as leaders and collaborative partners for educational equity within their

schools (Amatea & West-Olatunji, 2007; Bemak, 2000; Bemak & Chung, 2005; House &

Hayes, 2002; Paisley & McMahon, 2001).

Cultural Discontinuity and the Chronic Underachievement of African American
Students

Studies of student achievement and ethnicity indicate that African-American,

Latino-American, and Native American students generally have lower achievement than

White and Asian students (Haycock, 2001; Lee, 2002; NCES, 2007). Negative or low

teacher expectations of culturally diverse students are thought to be contributing factors

to this phenomenon, as well as the imposition of Eurocentric/mainstream culture.

Research suggests teachers' expectations for student achievement are positively

correlated with their perceptions of whether students adhere to mainstream cultural

value-based behaviors while at school (Boykin, Tyler, Watkins-Lewis, & Kizzie, 2006;

Delpit, 1995; Hollins & Spencer, 1990; Tyler, Boykin & Walton, 2006). Negative and low

expectations of African-American students are considered in relation to several factors

including differences in: learning styles and behaviors (Hale, 2001; Nieto, 2004; Tyler,

Boykin & Walton, language forms (Craig & Washington, 2006; Foster & Peele, 1999;

Perry & Delpit, 1998), and behavioral and movement styles (Neal, McCray, Webb-

Johnson & Bridgest, 2003; Shade & New, 1993). For these students, the incongruence

between their school and home cultures creates misunderstandings that can lead to

their misplacement in lower tracks and remedial special education (Brown, 2004;

Cummins, 1996; Delpit, 1995; Ford et al., 2002; Gay).









Studies by Tyler, Boykin, and Walton (2006) and Irvine (1990) illustrate the

potential impact of culture on teacher expectations. Tyler, Boykin, and Walton examined

if there was a link between teachers' perceptions of students' adherence to certain

cultural bound learning behaviors and teachers' expectations for student achievement

and motivation. Teachers read scenarios of hypothetical students who depicted

behaviors typical of Eurocentric/mainstream culture, competition and individualism, or

behaviors congruent with an Afrocultural ethos, verve and communalism. Teachers

were then asked to rate the motivation and achievement of the hypothetical students as

if they were students in their own classroom. Results concluded that teachers in the

study perceived students displaying competitive and individualistic behaviors as

significantly more capable of achieving and more motivated than students displaying

vervistic and communal behaviors. Irvine observed that when African-American

students behaved in ways consistent with their culture, as opposed to

Eurocentric/mainstream culture, teachers tended to perceive these students as

aggressive, low achieving, and potential candidates for special education programs.

In contrast to the cultural styles typifying African-American culture, U.S. public

schools are places that have Eurocentric values embedded in the environment (Boykin,

Tyler & Miller, 2005; Gay, 2000; Nieto, 2004). These values include: individual praise

(Lerman, 2000), competition (Boykin, Tyler & Miller; Gay), individualism (Boykin, Tyler &

Miller), and linear thinking and communication patterns (Hale-Benson, 1986; Swartz,

2004). Individual praise is closely linked to the values of individualism and competition,

as an individual is recognized for her/his work independent of the group. Individualism

refers to one's disposition toward fundamental autonomy, independence, individual









recognition, solitude, and the exclusion of others (Moemeka, 1998; Spence, 1985).

Competition refers to one's preoccupation with doing better than others (Boykin, 1983).

Linear thinking and communication is conceptualized as rationale, analytical thought

and speech in patterns that are predictable and known (Hale-Benson, 1986).

Teachers often use learning styles in the classroom that are typical of a

Eurocentric/mainstream cultural ethos (Boykin, Tyler & Miller, 2005; Boykin, Tyler,

Walkins-Lewis & Kizzie, 2006; & Walton, 2006; Webb-Johnson, 2002). For example, in

a study by Boykin, Tyler, Watkins-Lewis, and Kizzie 81 teachers from two public schools

serving low-income communities were asked to complete a questionnaire with

questions exploring the cultural context under which they perform and ask students to

perform various traditional classroom behaviors and activities. The Cultural Classroom

Practices Questionnaire assessed how often teachers endorsed culture-based

classroom practices under four cultural orientations: individualistic, competitive,

communal, and vervistic. Results show that teachers reported significantly higher

deployment of classroom practices reflecting the Eurocentric orientations of

individualism and competition than the Afrocultural orientations of communalism and

verve.

A qualitative study by Boykin, Tyler, and Miller (2005) also found a predominance

of classroom activity occurring under a Eurocentric cultural ethos, when compared to an

Afrocultural ethos. This study explored the existence of cultural themes in classrooms

serving low-income African-American students. Four hundred sixty observations of

behaviors in the classroom were specified under either a mainstream or Afrocultural

ethos. Three hundred eighty one of these observations were in reference to the three









Eurocentric/mainstream themes: individualism, competition, and bureaucracy

orientation. Only 48 of the remaining observations were in reference to the three

Afrocultural themes: movement, verve, and communalism. The researchers conclude

this study provides evidence of the cultural misalignment between home and school for

this population of students.

Providing further evidence of this mismatch, another qualitative study by Webb-

Johnson (2002) describes the culturally-sanctioned behaviors of African-American

students in a small urban elementary school and teachers' practices in the classroom.

Students in the study displayed all nine dimensions of African-American life: spirituality,

harmony, movement, verve, affect, communalism, expressive individualism, oral

tradition, and social time perspective (Boykin, 1983). Field notes from the study reveal

that students were most often engaged in academic work that was done quietly and

independently, more typical of a mainstream cultural ethos. The researcher also

concluded that teacher responses to students' Afrocultural behaviors were often

negative, with African-American students receiving more negative attention than White

students as a result of these behaviors.

In addition to findings that teachers favor Eurocentric classroom learning styles,

research and theory suggest classroom infrastructures and practices in public schools

often reinforce the mainstream cultural themes of competition and individualism (Boykin

& Miller, 1997; Johnson, 1982; Johnson, 1994). Johnson (1982) found in his analysis of

U.S. public classrooms that as students progress through lower to middle and upper

grade levels, the conditioning of students to sociocultural norms of independence,

autonomy, and competition increases. This is evident in the organization of the desks









and other spatial arrangements that dictate the predominant types of interactions and

activities done in these settings. Although he found spatial arrangements more

predictive of group and communal learning in lower grade levels, by sixth grade and

through high school a significant difference in classroom and desk organization was

found that facilitated an increase in competitive and independent work.

As a result of the imposition of mainstream cultural values in the classroom,

research has shown that many students are placed in situations where adherence to

mainstream cultural value-based behaviors are directly related to teachers' high

expectations of student academic aptitude and motivation (Boykin, Tyler & Miller, 2005;

Tyler, Boykin & Walton, 2006; Tyler, Boykin, Miller, & Hurley, 2006). In Tyler and his

colleague's study, 62 elementary teachers read scenarios of hypothetical students who

displayed behaviors congruent with a Eurocentric/mainstream cultural ethos

(individualism and competition) or an Afrocultural ethos communalismm and verve).

Teachers then rated students' motivation and achievement as if they were students in

their classroom. Motivation and achievement ratings were significantly higher for

students displaying individualism and competition, as compared to students displaying

communal or vervistic behaviors.

Results from these studies and related scholarship provide evidence of teachers'

preference for Eurocentric/mainstream behaviors in the classroom, as well as the

presence of culturally-bound expectations and biases that likely contribute to the chronic

underachievement of African-American and other culturally diverse students. Other

scholars and researchers conclude that students using African-American English (AAE),

a language form typical of African-American culture, were viewed as less educationally









capable by educators (Craig & Washington, 2006; Delpit, 1995; Perry & Delpit, 1998).

This kind of cultural bias can result in the misplacement of African-American students in

remedial and special education programs and in the failure to identify gifted and

academically talented African-American students for gifted/talented programs or

challenging, advanced coursework.

In her book, Other People's Children, Delpit (1995) concludes that not only does

the failure of many teachers to identify AAE as a valid dialect and language form likely

cause students to be misplaced in remedial programs but it also impacts students'

motivation for learning to read. A study by Cunningham (1976) illustrates what Delpit

calls "teachers confusing the teaching of reading with the teaching of a new dialect

form" (p. 58). He explains how many teachers will consistently correct students

speaking in AAE and prompt them to read in standard English. In his study with

teachers from across the U.S., teachers corrected dialect-related reading miscues 78%

of the time and nondialect-related reading miscues only 27% of the time. This supports

Delpit's assertion that teachers often correct the dialect-influenced pronunciation and

grammar while ignoring the comprehension the student must have in order to translate

the standard English text into her/his own dialect. For many students this sends the

message that their dialect and culture is not valid or valued.

In addition to the cultural misunderstandings educators often have in regards to

learning styles and language forms typical of African-American culture, studies show

behavioral and movement styles typical of African-American culture may also create

misunderstandings and contribute to underachievement and disproportionality issues.

Neal, McCray, Webb-Johnson, and Bridgest (2003) investigated teachers' perceptions









of students displaying movement styles typical of African-American culture and students

displaying movement styles typical of mainstream culture. Movement and individual

expression are dimensions of African-American culture (Boykin, 1983). Thus, movement

styles typical of African-American culture are evident in a nonstandard walking style,

characterized as a deliberately swaggered or bent posture, with the head held slightly

tilted to the side, one foot dragging, and an exaggerated knee bend (dip). A standard

walking style, used primarily among European-American students, was defined as an

erect posture with leg and arm swing synchronized with posture and pace, a steady

stride, and a straight head (Neal, 1997).

Participating teachers watched video of four students walking: an African-

American student walking in the nonstandard style, an African-American student

walking in the standard style, a White student walking in the nonstandard style, and a

White student walking in the standard style. Teachers were then asked to complete a

survey detailing their perceptions of each student's achievement level, aggression level,

and need for special education services. Results of the study indicated that teachers

perceived students with the nonstandard walking style as lower achieving, higher in

aggression, and more likely to need special education services than students displaying

the standard walking style. This further illustrates the potential link between cultural

discontinuity, expectations of educators, and chronic underachievement and

disproportionality in special education for African-American students.

This disproportionality includes an underrepresentation in gifted and talented

programs, as well. Talent sorting of students is often done along race, class, and

cultural lines. Those students not schooled in the mainstream cultural mores often fail to









be identified as gifted, advanced, or talented (Boykin, 2000). Student ethnicity has been

found to be a significant predictor of teacher recommendation for gifted/talented

placement testing. Two hundred seven elementary teachers from a large Midwestern

city participated in a study by Elhoweris, Mutua, Alsheikh and Holloway (2005). All

participants were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions and provided

with a short case vignette describing a gifted child. One third of the teachers read a

vignette describing a European-American student, one third read a vignette describing

an African-American student, and one third served as a control group and received no

information about the student's ethnicity. After reading the vignette, all participants were

asked how likely they would be to recommend the hypothetical student for

gifted/talented testing and services. The results of this study indicated that the student's

ethnicity did make a difference in the teachers' referral decisions. These teachers were

significantly less likely to recommend an African-American student be tested for

gifted/talented placement than a student of which the ethnicity was unknown. This

phenomenon likely contributes to the underrepresentation of African-American students

in gifted/talented programs, as many student placements into these programs originate

from teacher recommendations.

Educational Equity and the Role of the School Counselor

As a response to the persistent chronic underachievement and overrepresentation

of African-American and other culturally diverse students in U.S. public educational

settings, several education reform initiatives have sought to investigate and intervene.

Subsequently, educators are charged with the great responsibility of striving for

educational equity and facilitating the academic achievement of all students. Chronic

underachievement and disproportionality issues present challenges for educators. While









research has explored teachers' perceptions of students' culturally-bound classroom

behaviors, there remains a dearth of research and knowledge regarding school

counselors' perceptions of students' culturally-bound classroom behaviors and

counselors' competence in working with culturally diverse students (Constantine, 2001).

This is concerning since scholars have suggested that many school counselors act as

gatekeepers and contribute to the status quo of chronic underachievement and

disproportionality of culturally diverse and low-income students (Bemak, 2000; Bemak &

Chung, 2005; Lee, 1998).

Beginning with the national Transforming School Counseling Initiative (TSCI),

there have been systematic attempts to examine and redefine the role of the school

counselor as a means of contributing to educational equity for all students. American

School Counseling Association (ASCA) National Model (2003) calls for school

counseling programs to be an integral part of students' daily educational environment

and for school counselors to be collaborative partners in student achievement. ASCA

has worked to create standards placing school counselors at the center of the education

reform movement. This role includes leadership within the school to improve curriculum

and instruction and advocacy for equal opportunity and access to a quality education for

all students (Herring, 1997; House and Martin 1998; Keys, Bemak & Lockhart, 1998;

Martin, 2002; Stone & Clark, 2001).

School counselors are well-positioned to tackle issues of equity, access, and

supporting conditions for student success through advocacy of traditionally underserved

students (Martin, 2002; Oakes, 2005). They receive data about student achievement,

community conditions, and reports of school failure and receive relevant training in









counseling, education, group dynamics, human development, and systems theory

(Holcomb-McCoy, 2007). Thus, they are in a unique position to assume leadership roles

in schools to reduce academic inequality (Bemak, Chung & Siroskey-Sabdo, 2005;

Martin, 2002). Unfortunately, some scholars theorize that many school counselors are

not prepared to provide such leadership (Constantine, 2001; Martin) when they remain

silent and maintain the status quo of inequity (Holcomb-McCoy). Although there is little

research examining the multicultural competence of school counselors, there is concern

that in working with culturally diverse students, some school counselors may be

providing services that extend beyond their current level of expertise (Constantine,

2002; Hobson & Kanitz, 1996).

Emerging scholarship on the role of the 21st century counselor may impact and

extend expectations for school counselors' involvement in reform to increase

educational equity for all students. Regardless, traditional roles of school counselors

include making referrals for special education (Amatea &West-Olatunji, 2007;

Carpenter, King-Sears, & Keys, 1998; Keys, Bemak, Carpenter, & King-Sears, 1998)

and academic advising (Paisley & McMahon, 2001; Stone & Clark, 2001). Traditionally,

in these roles, school counselors may have contributed to the status quo of educational

inequities by inadvertently maintaining educational and social disparities, such as

disproportionality and chronic underachievement. Some scholars suggest that chronic

underachievement of low-income, culturally diverse students is partially a result of

negligence, low expectations, and job goals and outcomes adopted as important by

school counselors (Bemak & Chung, 2005). A failure to address and challenge power

structures and systemic factors, such as poverty, discrimination, racism, sexism, and









violence that marginalize low-income, culturally diverse students can perpetuate the

cycle of oppression (Bemak & Chung; Bronfenbrenner, 1979).

The academic advising role of school counselors includes helping students:

register for appropriate courses, understand the relationship between curriculum

choices and future economic success, and gain an awareness of higher education

financing possibilities (Stone & Clark, 2001). In a study of 25 U.S. schools, Oakes

(2005) found the locus of control regarding ability tracking and advising of students

resided with the counselors alone or the teachers and counselors together. These

results imply that school counselors play an important role in the tracking of students

and providing them with knowledge needed to access institutions of higher education

and future career paths.

Similarly, in Corwin, Venegas, Oliverez, and Colyar's (2004) qualitative

investigation of school counseling and college guidance as a means of assessing

educational equity in overcrowded urban high schools, barriers to successful college

counseling and academic advising were found. At each high school, counselors' abilities

to provide adequate services were affected by large caseloads, a plethora of counseling

duties, and limited resources. Both counselors and students expressed frustration at

these limitations. Since culturally diverse and low-income students are more likely to

attend overcrowded high schools, they are more likely to be affected by these barriers.

Many culturally diverse students in the study expressed a lack of confidence in receiving

college information and materials from their school counselor. Some also expressed

that their counselors were barriers to college access as they were too busy to change

the students' schedule in order to fill college requirements or favored certain students.









Advising and scheduling are important school counseling roles that can affect the

educational experiences and access to higher education and career endeavors of all

students. Barriers to appropriate provision of these services can also contribute to the

chronic underachievement and disproportionality facing low-income, culturally diverse

students.

The problem of chronic underachievement and disproportionality for low-income,

culturally diverse students are longstanding and pervasive (Artiles, Harry, Reschly &

Chinn, 2002; Artiles, Trent, & Palmer, 2004; Donovan & Cross, 2002; Harry & Klingner,

2006; Hilliard, 1992; Hunter & Bartee, 2003; Patton, 1998). While 21st century school

counselors, along with other educators, are charged with the responsibility of being

collaborative leaders to affect positive change on the academic achievement of all

students, problems of chronic underachievement and disproportionality commenced

before the establishment of the school counseling profession. These phenomena have

been viewed through multiple lenses and various attempts have been made to

ameliorate this problem, ranging from the early cultural deprivation theories and related

early education programs to the more contemporary focus on culturally-appropriate

conceptualizations and interventions.

The History of Interventions for Chronic Underachievement

The chronic underachievement of low-income, culturally diverse students received

national attention beginning in the 1960s, following the release of the Coleman Report

(Coleman et al., 1966). The Coleman Report highlighted racial inequities in educational

outcomes and prompted federal funding and initiatives attempting to affect change and

move towards educational equity for all students. Early attempts in the form of

compensatory education programs, originally based upon the premise of cultural









deprivation theory, have garnered limited sustained progress. The 1970s transitioned

away from the hegemonic cultural deprivation theory, as the Comprehensive Guidance

and Counseling Movement (CGCM) focused upon delivering school counseling and

guidance services aimed at facilitating the academic and future life success of all

students (Borders & Drury, 1992; Myrick, 1997; Paisley, 2001). Later, the CGCM was

criticized for not addressing the needs of low-income, culturally diverse students. The

1990s response and emphasis on outcome-based research and multicultural counseling

was indicative of another shift in the field of school counseling (Lee, 1995; Pedersen &

Carey, 2003). Although there is evidence of initiative in the profession to provide

culturally-competent services, there is concern that many school counselors lack the

cultural competence to effectively work with the diverse student populations, as the

chronic underachievement of low-income, culturally diverse students remains a grave

concern (Bemak & Chung, 2005; Constantine, 2002; Holcomb-McCoy, 2007).

Cultural Deprivation Theory and Compensatory Education Programs

Cultural deprivation theory, originally emerging from the works of Oscar Lewis

(1950, 1959), is based on the idea that people living in low-income families and

communities are disadvantaged due to their socialization in a culture of poverty. That is,

the culture of low-income families and communities was deemed inferior when viewed

through a framework of idealized White middle-class culture. In the 1960s, cultural

deprivation theory was used to explain the underachievement of low-income and

culturally diverse students (Bloom, Davis & Hess, 1965; Lewis, 1950; Valencia, 1997).

By the 1970s, scholars disagreeing with this theory were publishing works countering

these ideas claiming that children were often classified as culturally deprived simply

because their families and communities did not instill values and provide experiences









typical of White, middle-class families and communities (Foster, Lewis, & Onafowora,

2003; Leacock, 1971).

As a response to cultural deprivation theory and an attempt to buffer the effects of

poverty, compensatory education programs like Title I and Head Start were established

(Gordon & Wilkerson, 1966; Vinovskis, 1999). Beginning with the Elementary and

Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965, federal Title I funds were dispersed to

address the issue of inequitable educational resources in schools serving low-income

communities and to positively affect the chronic underachievement of "disadvantaged"

children (i.e. low income) (Gordon & Wilkerson; Vinovskis). Title I funds were distributed

to schools serving a significant number of children living at or below the poverty line.

While these funds did not eliminate the gaps in funding between wealthy and poor

communities, they did provide funding outside of local property tax revenues to

mandated schools in order to shrink these gaps. However, questions arose surrounding

the efficacy of Title I funds and the programs they supported to achieve the goals of

educational equity. Studies reported that Title I funding failed to significantly close the

achievement gap, as intended (Carter, 1984; Cuban, 1998). Despite more recent

restructuring of the four-decade long Title I program, it remains unclear whether it will

lead to significant improvements in the academic achievement of culturally diverse and

low-income students (Vinovskis).

Head Start began in 1965 as a federal program to help economically

disadvantaged children to overcome the perceived deficiencies of their families and

communities and to boost achievement in their entrance to elementary school

(Vinovskis, 1999; Zigler and Anderson, 1979). Head Start involved the establishment of









early education programs designed to improve the learning skills, social skills, and

health status of children from low-income backgrounds so that, in theory, they may

begin schooling on equal footing with their more advantaged peers (Currie & Thomas,

1995). Some criticized Head Start as an imposition of White middle-class values and

socialization practices on low-income and culturally diverse families, while failing to

address the role of discrimination in the larger society and its effects on the lives of

socially marginalized families (Zigler & Muenchow, 1992). Concurrently, there was a

criticism of the failure to acknowledge or nurture families' existing resiliency and cultural

strengths (Ladson-Billings, 1994). Scholars, such as Ladson-Billings (1994), criticize

compensatory education programs for operating within a deficit-oriented framework of

socially marginalized children. Ladson-Billings contends that without considering their

unique and rich cultural and life experiences, these programs impose Eurocentric

assumptions on Africa- American children, conceptualizing them as deficient White

children.

While the results of a vast number of investigations into the effects of Head Start

did vary, the program was widely criticized for its ineffectiveness as scholars questioned

and examined its positive long-term effects (Currie & Thomas, 1995; Vinovskis, 1999;

Zigler and Muenchow, 1992). Some noncognitive positive effects, such as greater

access to nutritional and other preventative health services, were found for participating

children. However, a formal evaluation of the program found that gains in IQ were small

and faded quickly (Cicirelli, 1969). Moreover, while gains in test scores and a decrease

in grade retention were found for White children involved in the program, gains in test

scores faded quickly and a decrease in grade retention was not significant for African-









American children (Currie & Thomas). Despite these findings and criticism,

compensatory education programs continue to operate with limited success as

federally-funded attempts to decrease the chronic underachievement of low-income

students.

Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Movement (CGCM)

In 1958 the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) provided funding for various

educational programs, including school counseling and guidance programs. Following

the Soviet Union's launch of Sputnik, and concerned that other countries were

outperforming the United States in science and related fields, the primary focus of

school counseling was encouraging students to enter science and technology tracks of

higher education and career paths.

Over time as the profession of school counseling evolved, training criteria and

standards were developed and there began a push towards the use of evidence-based

best practices. The profession also experienced a transition from a focus on working

with students identified as at-risk of school failure and/or having personal-social

difficulties to programs utilizing developmental and career education theories to serve

all children (Johnson & Johnson, 2003; Johnson & Whitfield, 1991; Lapan, 2001; Sink,

2002). In the late 1970s and early 1980s, developmental guidance programs emerged

from the Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Movement (CGCM). Developmental

guidance has been described as an attempt to identify skills and experiences required

for students to have in order for them to be successful in school and life and providing

proactive and preventive programming to assist students in acquiring the knowledge,

skills, self-awareness, and attitudes necessary for successful mastery of normal

developmental tasks. Typically, once academic and life skills are identified and clarified









for students, a guidance curriculum is planned in conjunction with students' academic

curriculum (Borders & Drury, 1992; Myrick, 1997; Paisley, 2001). Although this

developmental approach remains popular as a framework for planning and delivering

school counseling services, some scholars suggest Comprehensive Guidance and

Counseling Programs (CGCPs) are insufficient to effectively address the developmental

needs of low-income, culturally diverse students and address the issue of chronic

underachievement for these populations (Keys, Bemak & Lockhart, 1998; MacDonald &

Sink, 1999).

Outcome Studies and Multicultural Emphasis

In the 1990s the focus of the profession increasingly prompted school counselors

to use results-based programs supported by outcome research and counseling

interventions proven to be effective in order to increase accountability (Whiston &

Sexton, 1998). Concurrently, scholarship on multicultural school counseling emerged

concurrent with a call for school counselors to utilize culturally-appropriate case

conceptualizations and interventions with culturally diverse students (Lee, 1995;

Pedersen & Carey, 2003). These two progressions in the school counseling profession

were fueled by the Transforming School Counseling Initiative (TSCI), funded by the

DeWitt Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund and directed by the Education Trust (1996), a

Washington, DC-based nonprofit organization, in 1996.

Launched as a five-year, multi-staged national initiative for transforming school

counseling, the goal of the TSCI was to encourage the creation of pre-service training

programs for school counselors to serve as student advocates and academic advisors

who demonstrate the belief that all students can achieve at high levels on challenging

academic coursework (Martin, 2002; Romano & Kachgal, 2004). The Trust pointed to









incongruence between the theory being taught and the skills needed to help students,

especially low-income, culturally diverse youth, improve academically in schools

(Education Trust, 1996; Martin, 2002; Paisley, 2001).

The issue of accountability in school counseling emerged as part of the

educational reform movement. Accountability for school counselors involves collecting

data and information that support any accomplishments that are claimed (Myrick, 2003).

Outcome studies are a form of accountability as they require school counselors to

evaluate the effectiveness of implemented programs and activities against intended

goals and standards. Thus, they provide useful information regarding which programs

and activities produce positive changes for students. The use of outcome research can

help school counselors in utilizing programs that are proven to be effective (Whiston &

Sexton, 1998). Outcome studies can also enable school counselors to respond

effectively to the individual needs of the school as well as national and international

trends, such as the national trend of chronic underachievement and disproportionality

(Lapan, 2001).

While in the past school counselors have mainly worked with students and their

families, there is a movement currently for them to take on collaborative leadership and

consultant roles within their schools. This movement is congruent with the academic

mission and systemic change necessitated by the educational reform movement and

dictated by ASCA's National Model (ASCA, 2003). The National Model calls for school

counselors to be actively involved in promoting the academic achievement of all

students. Several calls for the evaluation of school counselor practice and preparation in

terms of actively responding to increase equity for all students and meeting the needs of









culturally diverse and low-income students have been made (Education Trust, 1996;

Paisley & McMahon, 2001). ASCA's Ethical Standards for School Counselors

articulates the professional school counselor's responsibility to acquire "educational,

consultation and training experiences to improve awareness, knowledge, skills and

effectiveness in working with diverse populations" (ASCA, 2004, p. 4).

There is a cognizance that as the number of culturally diverse students continues

to increase, the need for school counselors to gain an awareness of their biases,

broaden their cultural knowledge base, and develop new strategies that are responsive

to the complex challenges culturally diverse students face will also increase

(Constantine, 2002; Durodoye, 1998; Herring, 1997; Hobson & Kanitz, 1996; Holcomb-

McCoy, 2007; Johnson, 1995; Lee, 1995). This includes collaborative leadership with

other educators as: (a) a cultural bridge between teachers and students, (b) a

pedagogical partner with teachers to assist them in connecting curriculum to students'

lives, and (c) a partner in creating a family-centric school climate to promote reciprocal

family-school collaboration (Amatea & West-Olatunji, 2007). For school counselors to

successfully fulfill these roles and affect change within their schools they need sufficient

multicultural competence. School counselors working in schools with students from

culturally diverse backgrounds who lack multicultural counseling training may find

themselves in an ethical dilemma of being responsible for providing services outside

their area of expertise (Constantine & Yeh, 2001).

Research indicates there is a positive correlation between previous multicultural

counseling training and perceived multicultural competence for school counselors

(Constantine, 2001, 2002; Constantine & Yeh, 2001). Constantine also found that an









eclectic or integrative approach to counseling and a self-perception of being able to

emotionally respond to others were predictive of self-perceived multicultural

competence. Although these studies provide some information on predictors of

multicultural competence for school counselors, little research and knowledge exist on

school counselors' efficacy in working with low-income, culturally diverse students

(Constantine; Constantine & Yeh).

Multicultural Counseling and Therapy (MCT) and School Counselors

Multicultural counseling and therapy (MCT) emerged as a response to the

oppressive practice of Western psychology imposing its White middle-class values upon

culturally diverse people (Sue, Ivey & Pedersen, 1996). There is recognition that:

psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioral, and humanistic theories, the first three forces

used as counseling perspectives and ways to explain human behavior, are embedded

in Eurocentric values and assumptions. This cultural encapsulation often results in the

improper conceptualization and treatment of culturally diverse clients and has been

blamed for the early termination and an aggravation of psychological distress for

culturally diverse clients (Pedersen & Ivey, 1993; West-Olatunji, 2009). Responsively,

MCT utilizes culture as a context and lens for establishing normalcy and conceptualizing

client attitudes, behaviors, and worldviews, as well as in the creation and

implementation of interventions. It has been viewed as the fourth force, complementary

to the first three forces, and a generic approach to counseling (Pedersen, 1991).

Multicultural counseling and therapy (MCT) assumes that: (1) culture frames our

attitudes, beliefs, and worldview, (2) a consideration of cultural context is necessary in

client conceptualization, and (3) a definition of wellness congruent with an individual's

culture and subsequent values, experiences, and worldview should be utilized in









conceptualization and treatment (Sue, Ivey & Pedersen, 1996; Sue & Sue, 2008). Much

has been written since the 1960's regarding the importance and theory of MCT

(Arredondo et al., 1996; Sue & Sue, 2008). MCT posits that culture frames one's

attitudes, beliefs, and worldview. Thus, MCT includes helping roles and processes that

define wellness in congruence with an individual's culture and subsequent values, utilize

cultural-centered client conceptualization and treatment modalities, and include an

ecosystemic conceptualization of clients (Lewis, Lewis, Daniels & D'Andrea, 2003; Sue,

Ivey & Pedersen; Sue & Sue).

In 1982, the Education and Training Committee of Division 17 of the American

Psychological Association, Counseling Psychology, outlined core multicultural

counseling competencies (Sue et al., 1982). These competencies outline awareness,

knowledge, and skills that counselors must possess in order to be multiculturally

competent. Multicultural training texts by Pedersen (1999) and Sue & Sue (2008) share

an emphasis on three aspects of multicultural counseling training: awareness,

knowledge, and skills. Awareness is defined as being actively in process of becoming

aware of assumptions about human behavior, values, biases, personal limitations, and

preconceived notions. Knowledge is defined as actively attempting to understand the

worldview of culturally different clients. Skills are defined as actively developing and

practicing appropriate, relevant, and sensitive intervention strategies and skills in

working with culturally different clients. Apparent in the core multicultural counseling

competencies and established assessment tools to measure multicultural counseling

competence (i.e. Multicultural Awareness/Knowledge/Skills Survey, Multicultural

Counseling Inventory, and Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness Scale),









MCT has precedence for use as a theoretical framework to investigate the cultural

competence of school counselors. Therefore, it will be used as the basis for my

research examining the relationship between school counselors' multicultural

knowledge and awareness and their likelihood to recommend students for remedial or

advanced interventions based on students' culturally-bound behavioral styles.

As an alternative paradigm to traditional Western psychological theories positing

that normal development goes from dependence to independence, Relational Cultural

Theory (RCT) theorizes that development occurs in connection with others and that

growth-fostering relationships are created and sustained through mutual empathy and

empowerment (Miller, 1986). Jean Baker Miller describes five good things: zest,

empowerment, clarity, sense of worth, and a desire for more connection, which are

experienced through the establishment and maintenance of growth-fostering

relationships. RCT provides a potential theoretical framework useful in investigating the

systemic context of school counselors' relationships with culturally diverse and low-

income students and their role in addressing issues of chronic underachievement and

disproportionality. However, it lacks empirical data and assessment tools to support the

use of this theory in the investigation of school counselors' multicultural competence

and perceptions of culturally-bound student behaviors.

Racial and Cultural Identity Development (RCID) is another theory that provides a

practical framework for exploring the multicultural competence of school counselors and

their perceptions of culturally-bound student behaviors. RCID defines five stages of

development that oppressed people experience as they struggle to understand

themselves in terms of their own culture, the dominant culture, and the oppressive









relationship between these two cultures (Sue, 1999; Sue & Sue, 2008). Racial and

Cultural Identity Development (RCID) theories are based on the idea that a sense of

group identity based upon one's perceptions of a shared racial or cultural heritage exists

in different statuses or developmental stages. These theories have been developed for

African Americans (Cross, 1991), Asian Americans (Kim, 1981), Latino Americans

(Ruiz, 1990), and White Americans (Helms, 1990), as well as a Racial/Cultural Identity

Development model (Sue), intended to explain the cultural/racial identity development of

any persons from non-dominant populations who are socialized alongside a dominant

population. In the U. S. this includes all non-White populations. These theories involve

descriptions of the psychological and behavioral implications of perceived racial or

cultural group membership in relation to how one thinks about and interacts with their

own racial/cultural group and members of other racial/cultural groups (Helms). While

connections have been made between counselors' multicultural competence and their

racial identity status, assessing school counselors' multicultural competence with

established multicultural counseling competency assessments, such as the Multicultural

Counseling Knowledge and Awareness Scale (MCKAS) (Ponterotto, Gretchen, Utsey,

Rieger & Austin, 2002) is a more direct way to examine this phenomenon than R/CID.

Cultural encapsulation represents a lack of multicultural competence and results in

poor conceptualization and inappropriate interventions with culturally diverse clients

(Pedersen, 1991) and contributes to the chronic underachievement of low-income

African-American students in the form of tracking into low-ability coursework (Irvine,

1990; Martin, 2002), disproportional placement in special education services (Martin,

2002; Patton, 1998), disproportionate behavioral remediation (Cartledge, Tillman &









Talbert-Johnson, 2001; Irvine, 1990) and underrepresentation in gifted and talented

programs and advanced coursework (Ford, Harris, Tyson & Trotman, 2002; Harris,

Brown, Ford & Richardson, 2004). While many studies have examined the multicultural

competence of counselors (Constantine, 2002; Constantine & Ladany, 2000; Fuertes &

Brobst, 2002; Holcomb-McCoy & Myers, 1999; Ladany, Inman, Constantine & Hofheinz,

1997; Ottavi, Pope-Davis & Dings, 1994; Ponterotto, Gretchen, Utsey, Rieger & Austin,

2002), there are few studies investigating the multicultural competence of school

counselors (Constantine, 2001). Furthermore, some scholars are concerned there is a

dearth of multicultural counseling training in many school counseling programs

(Constantine; Durodoye, 1998; Hobson & Kanitz, 1996; Johnson, 1995). The

importance of school counselors' ability to successfully focus upon and intervene with

issues related to the chronic underachievement of culturally diverse and low-income

students is illustrated in their unique and critical position within the schools and current

demands that they have sufficient cultural competence in order to affect change in

patterns of chronic underachievement and disproportionality (Holcomb-McCoy, 2007;

Martin, 2002; Oakes, 2005).

Summary

Chronic underachievement and the disproportional placement in special education

programs of low-income, culturally diverse students, generally, and low-income African-

American students, specifically, are longstanding issues within the U.S. public education

system. Many perspectives have been considered and interventions implemented in

attempts to affect change and create greater educational equity. With increasing vigor,

scholars point to cultural discontinuity as a contributing factor to this chronic

underachievement and disproportionality. The learning expectations and styles of many









low-income African-American children have been investigated and provide knowledge

useful in creating culturally responsive interventions and lessons. School counselors

have an integral role within schools and have been charged with the responsibility of

being intimately involved in the educational experiences of all students they serve.

Thus, sufficient multicultural counseling competence is imperative for school counselors

to answer the call and be collaborative educational leaders within their schools and

affect positive change in regards to chronic underachievement and the disproportionality

of low-income, culturally diverse students.









CHAPTER 3
METHODS

This study is designed to examine school counselors' multicultural knowledge and

awareness and their likelihood of recommending students for: (a) low-ability

coursework, (b) testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR),

and learning disability (LD) ESE services, (c) behavioral remediation, and (d) testing for

gifted, talented, or advanced coursework based upon students' culturally-bound

behavioral styles. The purpose of this chapter is to provide information regarding the

participants, researcher's subjectivity, instruments, data collection procedures, and data

analysis procedures of my study.

Participants

The participants in my study will be 123 White school counselors working at public

middle schools who are members of the American School Counseling Association

(ASCA). White school counselors are being sampled because literature and research

suggest that White counselors tend to have resistance to multicultural training

(Constantine, 2002; Constantine, Juby & Liang, 2001). School counselors at public

schools will be sampled because empirical investigations concluding that Eurocentric

classroom instructional practices and values are embedded in schools have been

conducted in public school environments. Additionally, the majority of low-income

African-American students attend public schools. Sampling school counselors working

at stand-alone middle schools will allow for the isolation of this particular developmental

stage, when an increase in special education referrals and placements for specific

learning disabilities (LD) and emotional disturbances (ED) occur (U.S. Department of

Education [USDOE], Office of Special Education Programs [OSEP], 2002). ASCA









members will be sampled because this large national school counseling organization

has an email member directory. This provides a practical way to sample a national

population of school counselors. Upon acquiring: (a) all appropriate permissions from

the university institutional review board and ASCA, (b) initial construct validation of the

vignettes by the expert panel, and (c) further construct validation and test content

validation via pilot studies, an online survey will be sent to the email addresses

provided. Detailed information regarding the participants' demographic and professional

backgrounds will be described in Chapter 4.

Subjectivity Statement

My ethnic identity and life experiences as a White, middle-class Jewish female

contribute to my interest and researcher bias in investigating professional counselors'

cultural competence when working with culturally diverse students. Specifically, I seek

to explore: (a) the multicultural competence of school counselors, (b) school counselors'

likelihood to recommend students for advanced and remedial interventions based on

students' culturally bound behavioral styles, and (c) the educational experiences of

culturally diverse students. For most of my life, I have been situated as privileged. Yet,

my experiences as a member of a marginalized religious group, growing up in the

South, have contributed to some confusion in my identity development. I believe it is the

self-examination of those experiences that has attracted me to culture-centered

research and the investigation of non-dominant experiences, ways of being, and

worldviews within mainstream society. While I will never fully know the experience of

being a culturally diverse person, I am sensitive to the cultural discontinuity that

challenges many culturally diverse youth in U.S. public schools. Some of this sensitivity

comes from my own struggles as an adolescent trying to reconcile my intersected









identities as a White, middle-class, non-Christian woman. I believe this self-discovery

informs me when investigating the challenges that culturally diverse individuals

encounter in a Eurocentric society. While I have experienced interpersonal prejudice

and a degree of social marginalization as a Jewish woman, it has been the salience of

my White middle-class privilege that has buffered me from the harsh awarenesses

about Eurocentrism and the associated institutionalized oppression experienced by

persons from non-dominant cultural groups and classes. I now conceptualize my work

as a multicultural counseling researcher/practitioner to: (a) develop a non-racist cultural

identity and (b) constructively use my undue privilege. I also believe that my privileged

identity provides insight into working with White middle-class professional counselors to

facilitate their journey toward a non-racist cultural identity.

Instruments

School Counselor Information Survey

Participating counselors will be asked to complete the School Counselor

Information Survey (see Appendix D). The purpose of this instrument is to obtain

demographic and background information about the participants. School counselors will

provide information about their professional and educational background and their

counseling environment. This twenty item survey uses three questions as selection

criteria:

* ethnic background,
* if they are employment at a public or private school, and
* if they are employed at a stand-alone middle schools.


The other seventeen items will be used to answer the first research question by

investigating if there is a relationship between these demographic factors and the









counselors' multicultural knowledge and awareness. These demographic factors

include:

a) gender,
b) age,
c) completion of a multicultural counseling course during training,
d) number of hours of multicultural training completed,
e) completion of a CACREP-accredited program,
f) number of training hours completed in degree program,
g) most advanced educational degree,
h) type of counseling credentials) obtained,
i) year of graduation from counseling program,
j) years of counseling experience,
k) years of middle school counseling experience,
I) amount of experience counseling culturally diverse students,
m) percentage of students at counselor's school receiving free or reduced lunch,
n) employment at suburban, urban, or rural school,
o) size of the student population,
p) amount of diversity at counselors' school (ratios of student ethnicities), and
q) number of school counselors working at the counselor's school.

There is little known about any correlation between counselors' (a) gender or (b)

age and their multicultural knowledge and awareness. There is research suggesting that

(c) completion of a multicultural counseling course during training and (d) the number of

hours of multicultural training a counselor has participated in are positively related to

self-perceived multicultural knowledge and awareness (Constantine & Yeh, 2001).

It is of interest to investigate if there is a correlation between: (e) whether a counselor

graduated from a CACREP-accredited program, (f) the number of training hours

completed in degree program, (g) most advanced educational degree obtained, and (h)

type of counseling credentials) earned and multicultural knowledge and awareness, as

it could have implications for counselor training.

Examining the (i) year of graduation from counseling program and multicultural

knowledge and awareness is of interest as there is some research that suggests a large









number of supervisors may have less multicultural competence than their supervisees.

This may be due to the fact that many practicing counselors graduated from their

training programs at a time before the present emphasis and mandates of multicultural

training (Constantine, 1997). There is some evidence suggesting that amount of

counseling experience, and specifically the amount of experience counseling culturally

diverse clients, may be positively related to multicultural knowledge and awareness

(Ottavi, Pope-Davis & Dings, 1994). Thus, the following survey items are included: (j)

years of counseling experience, (k) years of middle school counseling experience, and

(I) amount of experience counseling culturally diverse students. To investigate how

school factors may be related to school counselors' multicultural knowledge and

awareness, the following demographic items are included: (m) percentage of students

at counselor's school receiving free or reduced lunch, (n) employment at suburban,

urban, or rural school, (o) size of the student population, (p) amount of diversity at

counselors' school (ratios of student ethnicities), and (q) number of school counselors

working at the counselor's school.

Student Vignette and School Counselor Recommendation Scale

Information on the likelihood of school counselors recommending students for: (a)

low-ability coursework, (b) testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally

retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services, (c) behavioral remediation,

and (d) testing for gifted, talented, or advanced coursework based upon students'

culturally-bound behavioral styles will be obtained by their ratings of 16 single-item

indicators in response to hypothetical student vignettes (see Appendix B). The

questionnaire consists of four vignettes, each with a hypothetical middle school student,









followed by a series of statements asking participants on a 4-point Likert-type scale how

likely they are to recommend each student for:

* low-ability coursework,

* testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and
learning disability (LD) ESE services,

* behavioral remediation, and

* testing for gifted, talented, or advanced coursework.

The students in the vignettes were given gender-neutral names: Jesse, Alex,

Jordan, and Jamie. Students' racial/cultural background and socioeconomic status were

not mentioned in the vignettes. Additionally, four variables were held constant across all

four vignettes: grade level, passing scores on the FCAT in previous years, physical

health, and living with two parents. All four students were described as currently in the

seventh grade, among the middle or upper 50% of academic level in their class,

physically healthy, and living with both parents. Counselors will be asked to rate the

likelihood that they would recommend each student for: low-ability coursework, testing

for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and learning disability

(LD) ESE services, behavioral remediation, and testing for gifted, talented, or advanced

coursework on a 4-point Likert-type scale. The purpose of this instrument is to examine

school counselors' consideration of the cultural nature of various classroom behaviors

when making decisions about student referrals for advanced and remedial interventions.

Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness Scale (MCKAS)

Information on counselors' level of multicultural knowledge and awareness will be

obtained via the Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness Scale (MCKAS-

see Appendix C). This 32-item scale was developed by Ponterotto, Gretchen, Utsey,









Rieger & Austin (2002) to measure counselors' level of multicultural competence on two

sub-scales: awareness and knowledge. A conceptual base for the MCKAS and the

original version, the Multicultural Counseling Awareness Scale (MCAS), is Sue and

Sue's (1982) multicultural counseling competency report. Multicultural counseling

competence, as defined by Sue and Sue and Multicultural Counseling and Therapy

(MCT), consists of three components: awareness of one's own cultural socialization and

accompanying biases, knowledge of the worldviews and value patterns of culturally

diverse populations, and specific skills for intervention with these groups.

The original MCAS was a 45-item measure developed through initial item and

development selection, independent card sorts, a focus group discussion of items, and

a content validity assessment. A sample of 126 counseling students and professionals

were recruited for the content validity assessment. The authors began with 135 items

which were reduced to 70 items through this process along with item analysis and

sequenced factor analytic procedures.

Internal consistency coefficient alpha for the Knowledge/Skills subscale across

seven studies ranged from .78 to .93, with a median alpha of .76 (Kocarek et al., 2001;

Manese et al., 2001; Ponterotto & Alexander, 1996). Alpha for the Awareness subscale

ranged from .67 to .83, with a median alpha of .76. Supporting construct validity, levels

of multicultural Awareness and, particularly, Knowledge/Skills on the MCAS were

related to levels of racial identity development in theoretically expected directions

(Vinson and Neimeyer, 2000). Moderate to strong criterion-related validity has been

found through positive correlations with training variables (Kocarek et al., 2001; Pope-

Davis, Dings & Ottavi, 1995; Pope-Davis, Reynolds & Dings, 1994), gain scores in









multicultural classes (Ponterotto et al., 1996), and internship training programs (Manese

et al., 2001). In regards to convergent validity, the Knowledge/Skills subscale was found

to be significantly correlated with the self-report version of the CCCI-R (LaFromboise et

al., 1991), a measure of general multicultural knowledge. The Awareness subscale was

significantly correlated with the New Racism Scale, a popular measure of racial bias

(Jacobson, 1985).

Despite establishment of reliability and validity, a number of concerns were raised

regarding the use of MCAS. These concerns focused upon four areas: (a) definitional

clarity of the names subscales, (b) inclusion of items that query knowledge of specific

scholars in the field, (c) some psychometrically weaker items, and (d) the utility of three

social desirability items. Subsequently, exploratory factor analysis was conducted with a

sample of 525 students and professionals. As a result, (a) the Knowledge/Skills

subscale was renamed the Knowledge subscale to better reflect its content, (b) three

items querying knowledge of specific scholars in the field were eliminated, (c) thirteen

weak items were removed, and (d) the three social desirability items were removed. The

resultant measure is the MCKAS that will be used in this study. It contains 20

Knowledge items and 12 Awareness items. To establish reliability and initial validity of

MCKAS, a sample of 199 counselors-in-training were used as participants. Alphas for

the MCKAS Knowledge and Awareness subscale scores were .85 and .85, respectively.

The factor analysis supports the two-factor model of the Knowledge and Awareness

subscales.









Data Collection Procedures

Development of Vignettes and Pilot Studies

The four vignettes were adapted from Tyler, Boykin, Boelter, and Dillihunt's (2005)

Cultural Socialization Scenarios and modified through consultation with my doctoral

committee and a panel of multicultural experts, as defined by having experience

researching and teaching graduate level courses in a content area of multicultural

counseling and education. The committee and expert panel will reach at least 80%

agreement about the content of the vignettes to begin establishing construct validity.

The Cultural Socialization Scenarios are the product of extensive research and

consist of four descriptions of the manifestation of common behaviors that represent the

four cultural behavioral styles of: individualism, communalism, competition, and verve.

Individualism refers to one's disposition towards fundamental autonomy, independence,

individual recognition, solitude, and the exclusion of others (Moemeka, 1998; Spence,

1985). Communalism is defined as the perceived fundamental interdependence of

people (Moemeka, 1998). Competition is defined as one's preoccupation with doing

better than others (Boykin, 1983). Verve is defined as the propensity for high levels of

physical or sensate stimulation (Boykin, 1983).

Next, a pilot study will be conducted with practicing school counselors in order to

complete the process of establishing construct validity of the Student Vignette and

School Counselor Recommendation Scale instrument for the purposes of this study.

The pilot study will also be used to establish test content validity of the instrument. This

phase of the study will be conducted in two parts. Participants for the first part of the

pilot study will be four school counselors from a public school in Florida. Upon getting

IRB approval, a K-12 public school will be identified and appropriate entry permission









obtained from the school director. The researcher will communicate with the school

counselors directly to obtain the consents (see Appendix E) and necessary phone calls

and emails will be made to schedule a time and day for the meeting.

During the meeting, the researcher will meet with the participants to discuss the

study and distribute materials. The participants will be asked to read each of the four

vignettes and respond to the questions. The vignettes will be presented in random

order. After the participants complete the vignette questionnaire, the researcher will

conduct a focus group. The purpose of the focus group is to obtain participants'

feedback on the Student Vignette and School Counselor Recommendation Scale items.

For example, the researcher will ask whether or not any of the statements are confusing

and whether or not enough information is provided in the vignettes. The researcher will

also ask the participants whether they think each of the vignettes is descriptive of the

behavioral styles intended. Participants will be read definitions of each behavioral style

and then asked to provide feedback on the corresponding vignette. The feedback will be

used in conjunction with the committee members' and expert panels' feedback to

prepare the final draft of the Student Vignette and School Counselor Recommendation

Scale items to be used in the study.

The second part of the pilot study will be conducted with a sample of school

counselors from Orange County, Florida. The school counselors will be emailed a link to

the online survey and asked for their consent to participate. The survey link will contain

all three of the surveys that the participants in the study will be asked to complete. This

part of the pilot study will provide initial data for collection and analysis, therefore,

providing indication of any potential problems with these procedures in the study. It will









also provide some indication of expected response rate for the study. At the end of the

survey participants will be asked to express in writing any thoughts, concerns, or

comments regarding the survey. Thus, it will contribute to establishing test content

validity, as well.

Study

Data for the study will be collected from three instruments: (a) School Counselor

Information Survey, (b) Student Vignette and School Counselor Recommendation

Scale, and (c) Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness Scale (MCKAS).

Permission to conduct the study will be received from the University of Florida

Institutional Review Board prior to data collection. All school counselors will be treated

fairly regardless of their participation as prescribed by the 'ACA Code of Ethics'

(American Counseling Association, 2005).

Upon acquiring all appropriate permissions, all survey materials will be posted

online and invitation emails will be sent using the ASCA member directory. These

survey materials include consents (Appendix A) and the three research instruments.

Participating school counselors will be asked to read the four vignettes and respond to

each series of questions following each vignette. The order of the pairs of Afrocultural

and Eurocentric vignettes, communalism and verve and individualism and competition,

respectively, will be randomly assigned to solicited participants via two forms of the

survey. Participants will be solicited by being randomly assigned a link to one of these

forms. The first form presents the Afrocultural vignettes first and the second form begins

with the Eurocentric vignettes. School counselors will also be asked to complete the

Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness Scale and Counselor Information

Survey.









Data Analysis Procedures


All the quantitative data will be entered in an Excel document and exported to

SPSS Statistics 18.0 to obtain the descriptive and inferential statistics, such as t-tests,

analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedures, simple linear regressions (SLR), and

stepwise linear regressions. Descriptive statistics will be calculated to measure the

participants' demographic characteristics.

Research Questions

1. What is the relationship between school counselors' multicultural knowledge and
awareness and the following demographic factors:

(a) gender, (b) age, (c) completion of a multicultural counseling course during
training, (d) number of hours of multicultural training completed, (e) completion of
a CACREP-accredited program, (f) number of training hours completed in degree
program, (g) most advanced educational degree, (h) type of counseling
credentials) obtained, (i) year of graduation from counseling program, (j) years of
counseling experience, (k) years of middle school counseling experience, (I)
amount of experience counseling culturally diverse students, (m) percentage of
students at counselor's school receiving free or reduced lunch, (n) employment at
suburban, urban, or rural school, (o) size of the student population, (p) amount of
diversity at counselor's school (ratios of student ethnicities), and (q) number of
school counselors working at the counselor's school?

2. How likely are school counselors to recommend students for advanced and
remedial interventions based on students' culturally-bound behavioral styles?

3. What is the relationship between school counselors' multicultural knowledge and
awareness and their likelihood to recommend students for advanced and remedial
interventions based on students' culturally bound behavioral styles?

Independent t-tests will be conducted to explore any relationships between school

counselors' multicultural knowledge and awareness and their: (a) gender, (b)

completion of a multicultural counseling course during training, and (c) completion of a

CACREP-accredited program. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedures will

be conducted to explore any relationships between school counselors' multicultural

knowledge and awareness and their: (a) most advanced educational degree, (b) type of









counseling credentials) obtained, (c) employment at a suburban, urban, or rural school,

and (d) size of the student population. Simple linear regressions (SLRs) will be

conducted to explore any relationships between school counselors' multicultural

knowledge and awareness and their: (a) age, (b) number of hours of multicultural

training completed, (c) number of training hours completed in degree program, (d) year

of graduation from counseling program, (e) years of counseling experience, (f) years of

middle school counseling experience, (g) amount of experience counseling culturally

diverse students, (h) percentage of students at counselor's school receiving free or

reduced lunch, (i) amount of diversity at counselor's school (ratios of student

ethnicities), and (j) number of school counselors working at the counselor's school.

To address the research question, "How likely are school counselors to

recommend students for advanced or remedial interventions based on students'

culturally-bound behavioral styles?" four one-way repeated measures analysis of

variance (ANOVA) procedures with follow-up post-hoc dependent t-tests using the

Bonferroni adjustment, as needed, will be conducted to explore any significant

differences in the school counselors' likelihood to recommend students for each of the

investigated interventions: (a) low-ability coursework, (b) testing for emotionally

disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD), (c)

behavioral remediation, and (d) testing for gifted, talented, or advanced coursework

based upon their culturally-bound behavioral style. Each of the students displayed in the

vignettes exhibit one of the four culturally-bound behavior styles: communalism, verve,

individualism, or competition.









To answer the research question, "What is the relationship between school

counselors' multicultural knowledge and awareness and their likelihood to recommend

students for advanced or remedial interventions based on students' culturally-bound

behavioral styles?," stepwise linear regression procedures will be conducted.

Summary

This chapter outlines the methods that will be used to conduct the study. While

additional information regarding the demographics of the participants will be provided in

chapter 4, White school counselors working at public, stand-alone middle schools will

be sampled using the ASCA member directory. Following validation of the vignettes by

an expert panel and continued validation established through the pilot study, the (a)

School Counselor Information Survey, (b) Student Vignette and School Counselor

Recommendation Scale, and (c) Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness

Scale (MCKAS) will be administered to participants via online survey. T-tests, various

analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedures, simple linear regressions (SLR), and

stepwise linear regressions will be utilized using SPSS software to answer the three

established research questions. This chapter also provides explanation of the

researcher's subjectivity.









CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

This study examined the relationship between White/European-American middle

school counselors' multicultural knowledge and awareness and their likelihood of

recommending students for: (a) low-ability coursework, (b) testing for emotionally

disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE

services, (c) behavioral remediation outside the classroom, and (d) testing for gifted,

talented, or advanced coursework based upon students' culturally-bound behavioral

styles. The purpose of this chapter is to present the findings of my study in relation to

the three research questions. The chapter begins with a presentation of the descriptive

data for the participant variables, follows with a review of the hypotheses and results for

each of the research questions, and ends with a discussion of the limitations of the

study.

Descriptive Data for the Major Variables

The participants of my study included a total of 123 White/European-American

middle school counselors working in U.S. public schools. Participants were solicited via

email through the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) member directory.

Of these participants, 121 reported their gender. One hundred five of the participants

identified as females and 16 identified as males. Participant's age ranged from a

minimum of 26 years old to a maximum of 70 years old at the administration of the

survey. Age was determined through date of birth. Date of birth for the participants

ranged from 1940 to 1984 (X=1966, SD= 11.24).

Educational background and training of the participants was reported as follows:

The majority of participants have completed a multicultural counseling course. One









hundred five have completed a course as compared to 16 who reported never taking

such a course. Number of hours engaged in multicultural training ranged from a

minimum of zero to a maximum of 120 hours (X=16.81, SD= 23.82). Ninety-one

participants reported that they graduated from a Council of Accreditation of Counseling

and Related Educational Programs (CACREP)-accredited counseling program, while 32

participants did not. The number of hours completed in a counseling training program

ranged from a minimum of 36 hours to a maximum of 132 hours (X=53.91, SD= 14.10).

The most advanced educational degree obtained by the participants was reported

as follows: 110 completed a master's degree, nine completed a specialist degree, and

four have completed a doctorate. When asked about counseling credentials, 12

participants identified as having earned no counseling credentials and six identified as

having no state-certification in school counseling (SCSC) but being either a licensed

professional counselor (LPC) (N=1) or a nationally certified counselor (NCC) (N=4) or

both (N=1). 89 identified as holding a SCSC but no other counseling credentials, while

five participants hold a SCSC and are LPCs and seven hold a SCSC and are NCCs.

Four participants reported being a SCSC, LPC, and NCC. Table 4-1 displays

information regarding the participants' counseling credentials.

Participant's year of graduation from a counseling program ranged from 1973 to

2010 (X=1999, SD=9.04). Years of counseling experience ranged from zero to 35 years

(X=10.60, SD=8.01). Years of experience counseling at a middle school ranged from

zero to twenty-five years (X=8.07, SD=6.57). On a Likert-type scale of 1 to 5, 1 being

"very little" experience ranging up to 5, which was "very much" experience, participants

reported their level of experience with culturally diverse students (X=3.28, SD=1.25).









In terms of school characteristics, participants reported that at their schools of

employment the percentage of students on free or reduced lunch ranged from 0% to

100% (X=41.12, SD=28.58). The location of the school was classified as either:

suburban, urban, or rural. Fifty-five participants reported working at a suburban school,

27 at an urban school, and 41 reported working in a rural school. The size of the student

population at the school that employs the participants ranged from 180 to 1500 (X=

660.53, SD=322.55). The schools were classified into three categories based upon the

size of the student population. Fifty-two participants reported working at a small-sized

school with the student population between 180 and 500 students, 48 participants at a

medium-sized school with the student population between 501 and 1,000 students, and

18 participants at a large-sized school with the student population between 1,001 and

1,500 students.

The percentage of White/European American students attending the participants'

schools ranged from 5% to 99% (X= 61.55, SD= 30.82). The percentage of

Black/African-American students ranged from 0% to 90% (X= 11.34, SD= 16.49). The

percentage of Hispanic/Latino-American students ranged from 0% to 91% (X= 17.89,

SD= 24.35). The percentage of Asian/Pacific Islander students ranged from 0% to 74%

(X= 4.49, SD= 9.98). The percentage of Native American Indian students ranged from

0% to 65% (X= 3.93, SD= 9.73). The percentage of Multiracial students ranged from 0%

to 20% (X= 3.07, SD= 3.17). Table 4-2 displays the means and standard deviations for

the percentages of student ethnicities at the counselors' schools. The number of

counselors employed at the participants' schools (including the participant) ranged from

one to eight (X= 1.99, SD= 1.17).









Participants' multicultural knowledge and awareness were measured by the two

subscales of the Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness Scale (MCKAS),

the knowledge and awareness scales. As supported by established reliability testing,

there was a slightly positive correlation between the two subscales. A Pearson

correlation of 0.341 was found. The score range for the Knowledge subscale was 40 to

134 (X= 99.40, SD= 18.81). The score range for the Awareness subscale was 40 to 84

(X= 67.57, SD= 8.96). Cronbach's Alpha for the Knowledge subscale was 0.914. The

Cronbach's Alpha for the Awareness subscale was 0.768. These were slightly lower

than were originally established in reliability testing for this measure, which were found

to be 0.92 and 0.78, respectively. This could be due to the electronic administration of

the assessment. Reliability was established for this instrument through paper

administrations.

Hypothesis 1

The first hypothesis was as follows: There will be no relationship between school

counselors' multicultural knowledge and awareness and their: (a) gender, (b) age, (c)

completion of a multicultural counseling course during training, (d) number of hours of

multicultural training completed, (e) completion of a CACREP-accredited program, (f)

number of training hours completed in degree program, (g) most advanced educational

degree, (h) type of counseling credentials) obtained, (i) year of graduation from

counseling program, (j) years of counseling experience, (k) years of middle school

counseling experience, (I) amount of experience counseling culturally diverse students,

(m) percentage of students at counselor's school receiving free or reduced lunch, (n)

employment at suburban, urban, or rural school, (o) size of the student population, (p)









amount of diversity at counselor's school (ratios of student ethnicities), and (q) number

of school counselors working at the counselor's school.

The first research question explored any relationships between participants'

multicultural knowledge and awareness and the following demographic factors:

* gender,
* age,
* completion of a multicultural counseling course during training,
* number of hours of multicultural training completed,
* completion of a CACREP-accredited program,
* number of training hours completed in degree program,
* most advanced educational degree,
* type of counseling credentials) obtained,
* year of graduation from counseling program,
* years of counseling experience,
* years of middle school counseling experience,
* amount of experience counseling culturally diverse students,
* percentage of students at counselor's school receiving free or reduced lunch,
* employment at suburban, urban, or rural school,
* size of the student population at the counselor's school,
* amount of diversity at the counselor's school (ratios of student ethnicities), and
* number of school counselors working at the counselor's school.


To test the first hypothesis, relationships between participants' multicultural

knowledge and awareness and the seventeen demographic factors were examined

through their responses to the Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness

Scale (MCKAS) knowledge and awareness subscales and the demographic

questionnaire. Independent t-tests were conducted to explore any relationships between

participants' multicultural knowledge and awareness and:

* gender,
* completion of a multicultural counseling course during training, and
* completion of a CACREP-accredited program.









Independent t-tests were conducted because multicultural knowledge and

awareness are continuous dependent variables, while the aforementioned independent

variables are categorical with two categories each. All assumptions that we are not

robust to are met.

One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedures were utilized to examine any

relationships between school counselors' multicultural knowledge and awareness and:

* most advanced educational degree,
* type of counseling credentials) obtained,
* employment at suburban, urban, or rural school, and
* size of the student population at the counselor's school.

ANOVA procedures were utilized because multicultural knowledge and awareness

are continuous dependent variables while the independent variables are categorical

with more than two categories each. Thus, follow-up independent t-tests using the

Bonferroni adjustment were implemented, as appropriate. All assumptions that we are

not robust to are met.

Simple linear regressions (SLRs) were used to explore any relationships between

school counselors' multicultural knowledge and awareness and:

* age,
* number of hours of multicultural training completed,
* number of training hours completed in degree program,
* year of graduation from counseling program,
* years of counseling experience,
* years of middle school counseling experience,
* amount of experience counseling culturally diverse students,
* percentage of students at counselor's school receiving free or reduced lunch,
* amount of diversity at the counselor's school (ratios of student ethnicities), and
* number of school counselors working at the counselor's school.

SLRs were conducted because both the dependent and independent variables are

continuous variables. All assumptions that we are not robust to are met.









A summary of the results from the independent t-tests, ANOVAs and follow-up t-

tests, and SLRs are presented in Tables 4-3 to 4-39.

Determined through independent t-tests, no significant relationships were found

between participants' multicultural knowledge or multicultural awareness and gender.

Similarly, age, as determined by the participants' date of birth, was not significantly

related to multicultural knowledge or multicultural awareness as established by SLRs.

However, a significant positive relationship was found between the participants'

multicultural knowledge and completion of a multicultural counseling course during

training (t=3.78, p=.000). Nonetheless, multicultural awareness was not significantly

related to completion of a multicultural counseling course. Both multicultural knowledge

and awareness were positively related to the number of hours of multicultural training

completed (R=.306, F=11.471, p=.001 and R=.203, F=4.757, p=.031, respectively).

There was no significant relationship found between the participants' multicultural

knowledge or awareness and completion of a CACREP-accredited counseling program.

While the participants' range of training hours completed in counseling degree programs

was 36 to 132 hours over a normal distribution, no significant relationships were found

between the participants' multicultural knowledge or awareness and the number of

training hours they completed in their counseling degree programs. The most advanced

counseling degree obtained by the participants, be it a Master's, Specialist, or

Doctorate, did not have a significant relationship with their multicultural knowledge or

awareness, either.

On the other hand, when examining the relationship between the participants'

counseling credentials and their multicultural knowledge and awareness, testing









through a one-way ANOVA found significant differences for both (F=3.501, p=.018 and

F=3.617, p=.015, respectively). However, follow-up t-tests using the Bonferroni

adjustment found no significant differences between counseling credentials obtained by

participants and multicultural knowledge. These six tests included comparing:

a) no credentials and LPC and/or NCC,
b) no credentials and SCSC only,
c) no credentials and SCSC with LPC and/or NCC,
d) LPC and/or NCC and SCSC only,
e) LPC and/or NCC and SCSC with LPC and/or NCC, and
f) SCSC only and SCSC with LPC and/or NCC.

Similarly, no significant differences were found between participants' counseling

credentials and their multicultural awareness. The same set of follow-up t-tests was

conducted:

a) no credentials and LPC and/or NCC,
b) no credentials and SCSC only,
c) no credentials and SCSC with LPC and/or NCC,
d) LPC and/or NCC and SCSC only,
e) LPC and/or NCC and SCSC with LPC and/or NCC, and
f) SCSC only and SCSC with LPC and/or NCC.

The year that participants graduated from their counseling program was not

significantly related to their multicultural knowledge or awareness. Similarly,

participants' total years of counseling experience nor their years of middle school

counseling experience were related to either their multicultural knowledge or

awareness. While other aspects of counseling experience were not related to

multicultural knowledge or awareness, experience counseling culturally diverse students

was positively related to multicultural knowledge (R=.332, F=3.649, p=.008), but not to

awareness.









In terms of school characteristics, the percentage of students at the participants'

schools receiving free or reduced lunch was not related to the participants' multicultural

knowledge or awareness. The location of the school that employs the participants,

categorized as suburban, urban, or rural, was not found to be significantly related to the

participants' multicultural knowledge or awareness either.

Utilizing ANOVA testing, no significant relationships were found between the size

of the student population at the counselor's school and participants' multicultural

knowledge. However, significant differences were found between the size of the student

population and participants' multicultural awareness (F=4.590, p=.012). Follow-up

independent t-tests adjusted with Bonferroni found that school counselors working at

small-sized schools (180-500 total students) and medium-sized schools (501-1,000 total

students) had significantly higher multicultural awareness than those working at a large-

sized school (1,001-1500 total students) (t=2.580, p=.012 and t=2.898, p=.005,

respectively).

Additionally, the amount of diversity at the counselor's school (ratios of student

ethnicities) was related to the participants' multicultural knowledge. The percentage of

White students was not related to the participants' multicultural knowledge or

awareness. The percentage of African-American students was not significantly related,

either. The percentage of Latino students at the participants' school of employment was

positively related to their multicultural knowledge (R=.212, F=5.09, p=.026). The

percentage of Latino students was not significantly related to the participants'

multicultural awareness. The participants' multicultural knowledge nor awareness were









significantly related to the percentage of: Asian/Pacific Islander, Native American, or

Multiracial students.

Lastly, the number of school counselors working at the participants' school was

not found to be significantly related to the participants' multicultural knowledge or

awareness.

Multicultural Knowledge and Awareness and Participant Factors

School counselors' multicultural knowledge, assessed through the knowledge

subscale of the MCKAS, was found to have a significant positive relationship to four

participant factors: (a) completion of a multicultural counseling course, (b) number of

hours of multicultural training completed, (c) amount of experience with culturally

diverse clients, and (d) percentage of Latino students at the participant's school of

employment.

As with multicultural knowledge, a significant positive relationship was found

between the school counselors' multicultural awareness and the number of hours of

multicultural training they completed. The other significant finding in regards to

multicultural awareness was that school counselors working at small-sized schools

(180-500 total students) and medium-sized schools (501-1,000 total students) had

significantly higher multicultural awareness than those working at a large-sized school

(1,001-1500 total students). No other significant relationships were found between the

participant factors (demographic variables) and multicultural knowledge or awareness.

There is no evidence suggesting there should be a relationship between

multicultural knowledge or awareness and gender or age. Considering the moderately

strong positive relationship (r=0.324) between multicultural knowledge and competition

of a multicultural course, the lack of a significant relationship between participants'









multicultural awareness and completion of a multicultural counseling course may be

surprising. This could suggest that these kinds of courses facilitate an increase in

knowledge of the worldviews and value patterns of culturally diverse populations but

may fail to facilitate a change in awareness of one's own cultural socialization and

accompanying biases. The short duration of a multicultural counseling course may not

provide enough time or sustained challenge to one's embedded beliefs to effectively

alter awareness. While knowledge can be gained over a shorter period of time, racial

and cultural identity development informs us that awareness is a deeply-embedded

aspect of one's identity and may involve a step-wise developmental process to change.

Both multicultural awareness and multicultural knowledge were found to have

significant positive relationships with the number of hours of multicultural training

completed by school counselors. Participants qualified their multicultural training by

reporting engagement in various experiences including: "workshops, courses, outreach,

and seminars." Some participants also reported their multicultural training by listing the

populations addressed in their training. There was a wide range of topics covered in

these training. Some examples were: "Hmong culture, poverty, LGBT, Cambodian

culture, ESL learning, social justice, and Alaskan Native/American Indian."

It is possible that ongoing professional development focused upon increasing

multicultural competence and sustained durations of training provided opportunities to

increase awareness, in addition to knowledge, by challenging and altering inherent

biases of their cultural socialization. Participants' multicultural training experiences

varied greatly. Thus, it is not possible from the results of this study to decipher which









types and what aspects of multicultural training experiences have the greatest potential

to facilitate multicultural knowledge and awareness for school counselors.

Aspects of the participants' educational experiences that were not related to their

multicultural knowledge or awareness include: graduating from a CACREP-accredited

program, the number of training hours completed in degree program, and the most

advanced educational degree obtained. While the number of hours completed in their

training programs and most advanced educational degree obtained did not seem to be

reaching significance, the mean MCKAS multicultural knowledge subscale score of

participants' graduating from CACREP-accredited programs was 101.27, while the

mean for participants' graduating from non-CACREP-accredited programs was 94.06,

for a p-value of .062. While not significant, the differences between these scores of

multicultural knowledge may have reached significance with a greater number of

participants and/or more equal sample sizes. It is likely that the small number of

participants graduating from non-CACREP-accredited programs skewed these results

(CACREP: n=92 and non-CACREP: n=31).

ANOVAs found significant differences between school counselors' credentials and

multicultural knowledge and awareness. However, follow-up t-tests found no significant

differences. This was likely impacted by the small number of participants with LPC and

NCC licenses. It is of interest to conduct this study with a greater number of participants

and more equal sample sizes across counseling credential types. Differential levels of

multicultural knowledge and awareness could be the result of differences in training

programs, and/or preparation for licensure examinations.









Clear information regarding the type of counseling program participants attended

was not obtained. Some participants provided this information and some did not. Thus,

it is unknown whether participants who were SCSCs and LPCs and/or NCCs attended

mental health counseling, rehabilitation counseling, marriage and family counseling, or

dual track programs and what kinds of experiences they engaged in to obtain these

credentials. This information would be beneficial in discussing this finding, since

scholarship exists suggesting there is a dearth of multicultural counseling training in

many school counseling programs (Constantine, 1997; Durodoye, 1998; Hobson &

Kanitz, 1996; Johnson, 1995).

Year of graduation from counseling program, years of counseling experience, nor

years of middle school counseling experience were related to the participants'

multicultural knowledge or awareness. While some literature suggests that counseling

experience may be related to multicultural competence, it is also suggested that this

may be more strongly correlated with experience with culturally diverse clients

(Constantine, 2001, 2002; Constantine & Yeh, 2001; Ottavi, Pope-Davis & Dings, 1994).

This idea supports the finding that experience with culturally diverse students and

working at a school with a high percentage of Latino students was significantly positively

related to participants' multicultural knowledge. However, these factors were not related

to school counselors' multicultural awareness. These experiences may provide

opportunities for gaining multicultural knowledge but, without supplementary supervision

to process experiences and reflect on one's own socialization and biases, may not

facilitate an increase in awareness. In fact, some scholars express concern that

practicing school counselors frequently do not participate in regular supervision (Paisley









& McMahon, 2001). This could inhibit their development of multicultural awareness, in

addition to contributing to inaccurate case conceptualizations and interventions with

culturally diverse students. Alternatively, this finding could be a result of the vulnerability

of the MCKAS awareness scale. When compared to the knowledge scale, the

awareness scale has lower reliability, as is typical of self-report multicultural awareness

scales.

The percentage of students receiving free or reduced lunch was not related to

participants' multicultural knowledge or awareness. The location of participants'

employment at a suburban, urban, or rural school was not significantly related to the

participants' multicultural knowledge or awareness, either A significant finding based

upon participants' school characteristics was that school counselors working at schools

with more than 1,000 students had lower multicultural awareness than counselors

working at schools with 180-1,000 students. One possible explanation for this finding is

that the smaller number of students allows for more experience working directly with

students in a counseling capacity. So, while the number of years of counseling

experience was not related to participants' multicultural knowledge or awareness,

perhaps having a smaller caseload of students allows for an increase in individual and

small group counseling practice in which counselors have the opportunity to become

more aware of the cultures and life experiences of their students. Existing research

suggests that a counselor's amount of counseling experience is related to multicultural

competence (Constantine, 2001, 2002; Constantine & Yeh, 2001; Ottavi, Pope-Davis &

Dings, 1994). Since size of the student population was not related to multicultural

knowledge there is also the consideration of the vulnerability of the awareness scale.









The percentages of White/European-American, African-American, Asian/Pacific

Islander, Native American Indian, and Multiracial students were not significantly related

to participants' multicultural knowledge or awareness. Yet, working at a school with a

high percentage of Latino students was significantly positively related to the participants'

multicultural knowledge. The mean percentage of Latino students was highest among

the non-White ethnic groups. This likely contributed to the fact that it was the only

student ethnic group that had a significant relationship to the counselors' multicultural

knowledge. As noted earlier, experience with culturally diverse students may provide

opportunities for gaining multicultural knowledge but, without supplementary supervision

to process experiences and reflect on one's own socialization and biases, may not

facilitate an increase in awareness. Lastly, the number of school counselors working at

the participants' school was not related to their multicultural knowledge or awareness.

Hypothesis 2

The second hypothesis was as follows: School counselors will be significantly

more likely to recommend students displaying the Afrocultural behavior styles of

communalism and verve for (a) low-ability coursework, (b) testing for emotionally

disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE

services, and (c) behavioral remediation than students displaying the Eurocentric

behavioral styles of individualism and competition. Additionally, school counselors will

be less likely to recommend students displaying the Afrocultural behavior styles of

communalism and verve to be tested for gifted, talented, or advanced coursework than

students displaying the Eurocentric behavioral styles of individualism and competition.









The second research question examined the likelihood of school counselors to

recommend students for advanced and remedial interventions based on students'

culturally-bound behavioral styles?

To examine the second hypothesis, four one-way repeated measures ANOVAs

were conducted for each of the following recommendations:

* low-ability coursework,

* testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and
learning disability (LD) ESE services,

* behavioral remediation outside the classroom, and

* testing for gifted or talented programs.

All assumptions that we are not robust to are met. The results of the ANOVAs are

reported in Tables 4-44 to 4-47. In cases that the ANOVAs found significant differences,

post-hoc dependent t-tests using a Bonferroni adjustment were conducted to explore

further any significant differences in school counselors' recommendations for these

interventions based upon Afrocultural and Eurocentric behavioral styles. Based upon

the hypotheses that school counselors will be significantly more likely to recommend

students displaying the Afrocultural behavior styles of communalism and verve for (a)

low-ability coursework, (b) testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally

retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services and (c) behavioral

remediation outside the classroom than students displaying the Eurocentric behavioral

styles of individualism and competition, four dependent t-tests would be conducted as

post-hoc testing for any ANOVAs resulting in significant differences. These four paired

tests are: Competition and Communalism, Competition and Verve, Individualism and

Communalism, and Individualism and Verve.









For research question two, participants' likelihood to recommend students for (a)

low-ability coursework, (b) testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally

retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services, (c) behavioral remediation

outside the classroom, and (d) testing for gifted or talented programs based upon

students' culturally-bound behavior styles was measured by their responses to the

Student Vignette and Counselor Perception Scale. This scale asked participants to rate

on a Likert scale of one to four, one being "strongly disagree" and four being "strongly

agree", how likely they were to recommend a hypothetical student presented in a

vignette for the aforementioned remedial and advanced interventions. The four

vignettes in this instrument represented two Afrocultural behavioral styles,

communalism and verve, and two Eurocentric behavioral styles, competition and

individualism. The means and standard deviations of the recommendations for remedial

and advanced interventions that participants made for each of the four behavioral styles

are reported in Tables 4-40 through 4-43.

When examining the likelihood of participants to recommend low-ability

coursework based upon students' culturally-bound behavioral styles, no significant

differences were found. Significant differences were found for the participants'

recommendations for testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded

(MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services (F=3.626, p=.015). Due to the

significance found through the ANOVA, four dependent t-tests were conducted to

examine differences between the recommendations for testing for emotionally disturbed

(ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services

between the following pairs of students: Competition and Communalism, Competition









and Verve, Individualism and Communalism, and Individualism and Verve. Table 4-48

reports the results of the post-hoc tests. Significant differences were found between

recommendations for testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded

(MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services for the vignette of the student

displaying verve and the student displaying competition. The school counselors were

more likely to recommend the vervistic student for this remedial intervention than the

competitive student (p<.009). This supports the second hypothesis.

Significant differences were also found between recommendations for behavioral

remediation outside of the classroom for the vignette of the student displaying

individualism and the student displaying communalism. Table 4-49 reports the results of

this post-hoc testing. The school counselors were more likely to recommend the

individualistic student for this remedial intervention than the communal student (p<.007).

This does not support the second hypothesis. No significant differences were found in

the recommendations participants made for testing for gifted, talented, or advanced

coursework based upon Afrocultural and Eurocentric behavioral styles.

School Counselor Recommendations Based Upon Culturally-Bound Behavior
Style

No significant differences were found in school counselors' recommendations for

low-ability coursework. This lack of significant differences in the counselors'

recommendations for low-ability coursework based upon students' culturally-bound

behavioral styles could reflect a belief by school counselors that teachers are the

education professionals primarily responsible for making academic placement decisions

for students. The least variability in school counselors' recommendations existed in their

recommendations for low-ability coursework.









One significant finding was supported by the second hypothesis. School

counselors were significantly more likely to recommend the vervistic student for testing

for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and learning disability

(LD) ESE services than the competitive student. Existing empirical research supports

the presence of verve in the home socialization of many low-income African-American

families (Tyler et al., 2008). This is in contrast to the cultural values embedded in U.S.

schools that often reflect individualism, competition, and other Eurocentric orientations

(Boykin, Tyler & Miller, 2005; Gay, 2000; Nieto, 2004). This contrast was present in

some of the participants' responses regarding the vignette of the student displaying

verve. A few statements made by participants regarding their perceptions of

recommending testing for remedial ESE services for this student displaying verve,

Jordan, included:

"Jordan may need accommodations to be successful in the regular
classroom."

"My first thought on this student was "ADHD", though this is not necessarily
true. Jordan might have a hard time succeeding in a traditional classroom,
where many of his behaviors would be viewed as inappropriate."

"It sounds like Jordan is a product of her home environment. She must
learn to adapt to doing things in different ways."

"Jordan is a student who may struggle in classrooms or with teachers who
do not allow for so much movement or variety. S/he may not maintain
current levels of academic success if his/her need for variety and
movement is not met. Jordan may need some support in learning to find
ways to meet his/her need for stimulation that will not be distracting to the
teacher or other students."

This cultural discontinuity has been cited as a contributing factor to the low

expectations some educators have for the academic aptitude and achievement of low-

income African-American students. These low expectations have been linked to the


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chronic underachievement of low-income, culturally diverse students (Bemak & Chung,

2005; Ford, Harris, Tyson & Trotman, 2002; Harris, Brown, Ford & Richardson, 2004;

Haycock, 2001; Lee, 2002; Mickelson & Heath, 1999; Oakes, 1990). It is also of note

that these statements reflect a hegemonic attitude that the student should adapt to the

learning environment, as opposed to the classroom adapting to the diverse learning

styles students bring with them into the classroom. This is especially relevant since

studies consistently conclude that many African-American children display higher

motivation and achievement when communalism and verve are embedded in the

learning context (Albury, 1993; Allen & Butler, 1996; Allen & Boykin, 1992; Bailey &

Boykin, 2001; Bailey & Walton, 1994; Boykin, 1979, 1982; Boykin & Allen, 2000; Boykin,

Allen, Davis & Senior, 1997; Boykin, Lilja & Tyler, 2004; Dill & Boykin, 2000; Tharp &

Gallimore, 1989; Tuck & Boykin, 1989). Cultural misunderstandings and hegemony

present in the imposition of mainstream/Eurocentric values embedded in the U.S.

educational system have been proposed as contributing factors in the

overrepresentation of African-American students in special education programs such

as: specific learning disabilities (LD), severe emotional disturbance (SED), and mild

mental retardation (MMR) (Blanchett, 2006; Harris, Brown, Ford & Richardson, 2004;

Harry & Klingner, 2006; Losen & Orfield, 2002; Patton, 1998; Russo & Talbert-Johnson,

1997; Zhang & Katsiyannis, 2002)

There were also several suggestions from counselors in the study that the vervistic

student be tested for attention deficit disorder (ADD). This suggests that some school

counselors liken the Afrocultural behavioral style of verve to ADD. It logically follows that


101









they would, consequentially, be more likely to recommend a student displaying

characteristics of verve for testing for remedial services on this basis.

The other significant finding when considering the second research question was

that participants were more likely to recommend the individualistic student for behavioral

remediation outside of the classroom than the communal student. This was not

supported by the hypotheses. A possible explanation for this finding is that

communalism is a valued behavior in the classroom. Counselors like the idea of

communal students in terms of behavior management. They are collaborative and work

well with others. For example, one participant stated about the hypothetical student,

Jesse, who displayed communalism:

Jesse sounds like a great kid to have in class because he/she is so
cooperative and empathic.

However, evident in other participant responses is a lack of understanding for this

student's learning style:

He needs to be taught life skills about not always being able to rely on
others and that in life, not everyone helps one another.

I would double check to see if she is capable of work (and not hiding behind
the guise of sharing in order to complete work).

Thus, it is not clear that school counselors understood this learning style and had

sufficient cultural competence to utilize this student's funds of knowledge and effectively

teach students displaying this learning style.

No significant differences were found in school counselors' recommendations for

testing for gifted, talented, or advanced coursework. Participants' were generally more

likely to recommend any of the four students for this intervention, when compared to the

remedial interventions. This could be the result of social desirability. It is more socially


102









acceptable to recommend a student for an advanced intervention than for a remedial

placement or testing. Participants' conceptualizations of each of the students and their

potential giftedness varied greatly.

The following was said of the communal student, Jesse:

Gifted and Talented programs would allow Jesse some of the in depth,
collaborative projects he gravitates towards.

This was said of the individualistic student, Alex:

Alex could fall somewhere on the autism scale and need psychological
support or he could be gifted and prefer to work alone.

One participant stated this about the vervistic student:

If he has low scores, he could have ADHD and might need a 504 Plan. If
he has high scores, he might be gifted and multi-tasking because he is so
good at many things.

Another participant viewed the competitive student this way:

It would be good for her to be challenged by being in a gifted class. Also,
by being with more gifted kids, she will see that she may not always be the
one with the best grades.

Apparently, many variables were considered when participants made

recommendations for testing for gifted, talented, or advanced coursework. This

variability along with the increased social acceptance of recommending testing for

gifted, talented, or advanced coursework for a student, as compared to a remedial

intervention, likely contribute to a lack of significant differences in the recommendations

participants made for this intervention based upon the students' culturally-bound

behavioral styles.

Hypothesis 3

The third hypothesis was as follows: There will be no relationship between school

counselors' multicultural knowledge and awareness and their likelihood to recommend


103









students for: (a) low-ability coursework, (b) testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly

mentally retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services, (c) behavioral

remediation outside the classroom, and (d) testing for gifted, talented, or advanced

coursework based upon students' culturally-bound behavioral styles.

The third research question examines the presence of any relationship between

school counselors' multicultural knowledge and awareness and their likelihood to

recommend students for advanced or remedial interventions based on students'

culturally-bound behavioral styles. This was explored through simple linear regressions

and a stepwise linear regression.

All assumptions that we are not robust to are met. As shown in Table 4-50 through

Table 4-57, no significant relationships were found between the school counselors'

recommendations for: (a) low-ability coursework, (b) testing for emotionally disturbed

(ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services, (c)

behavioral remediation outside the classroom, or (d) testing for gifted, talented, or

advanced coursework and their scores on the MCKAS knowledge and awareness

scales.

The Relationship Between Multicultural Knowledge And Awareness And The
Likelihood Of Making Recommendations For Remedial And Advanced
Interventions

No significant relationships were found between school counselors' multicultural

knowledge and recommendations for remedial and advanced interventions based upon

students' culturally-bound behavioral styles. Additionally, no significant relationships

were found between school counselors' multicultural awareness and recommendations

for remedial and advanced interventions based upon students' culturally-bound

behavioral styles. One explanation for these findings is the possibility that there are no


104









significant relationships between school counselors' multicultural knowledge or

awareness and their likelihood of recommending students for advanced and remedial

interventions based upon students' culturally-bound behavioral styles. Another possible

explanation is the great amount of error created by the many variables related to the

constructs of multicultural knowledge, multicultural awareness, and school counselors'

recommendations for remedial and advanced interventions for students. Other possible

contributing factors are the effects of participants responding in a socially desirable

manner and the limitations regarding error that exist with self-report multicultural

competency measures.

Limitations

This study has several limitations based upon assessment materials and

procedures, sampling, and research design.

Assessment Materials and Procedures

This study will be conducted using an online survey consisting of a demographic

questionnaire, the Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness Scale (to assess

multicultural counseling competence), and the Student Vignette and Counselor

Perception Scale (used to measure the likelihood that counselors will recommend

students for advanced and remedial interventions based on the students' culturally-

bound behaviors). As with other measures of multicultural counseling competence, the

MCKAS is conducted through self-report and is, therefore, self-perceived competence

rather than competence measured by clients receiving services or a third-party expert

observer. This is a limitation because it is not known how accurately this self-report

reflects actual multicultural competence. Studies exploring self-reported multicultural

competence and its relationship to how clients evaluate the cultural competence of


105









counselors, as well as studies evaluating the multicultural competence of counselors by

a third-party and comparing it to self-reports of multicultural competence would serve to

further validate self-report measures of multicultural competence. The Student Vignette

and Counselor Perception Scale will be created by the researcher for this study. This is

a limitation as little is known about the reliability and validity of this measure beyond the

pilot study that will be conducted.

Sampling

A limitation in sampling exists because American School Counseling Association

(ASCA) members will be solicited for voluntary participation. This could bias the sample

because participants who volunteer may have particular interest in the topic, need

access to the internet, and must be technologically savvy enough to respond to online

questionnaires. Additionally, participants could have been cued to the purpose of the

study and, thus, biased their answers to appear more socially desirable.

Research Design

This study uses a correlational research design. Thus, an inability to determine

causality between related variables is an additional limitation. Lastly, collecting data at

only one point in time is a limitation of this study as history threats to validity are

possible.

Summary

This purpose of this chapter was to summarize the results of the study. It began by

presenting the descriptive data for the participant variables. This was followed by a

review of the hypotheses and reporting of the results. Lastly, a discussion of the

limitations of the study was provided.


106









Table 4-1. Counseling credentials obtained.
Participants (n=123) F


requency (N)


None 12
LPC &/or NCC 6
SCSC only 89
SCSC & LPC &/or NCC 16

Table 4-2. Percentage of students by ethnicity.
Student Ethnicity M SD
White/European-American 61.55% 30.82
Black/African American 11.34% 16.49
Hispanic/Latino-American 17.89% 24.35
Asian/Pacific Islander 4.49% 9.98
Native American 3.93% 9.73
Multiracial 3.07% 3.17

Table 4-3. Results of t-tests analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge
and awareness and gender.
Male Female T-statistic p > t
Knowledge 98.19 99.85 0.328 0.743
Awareness 66.31 67.61 0.537 0.592


Table 4-4.


Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between
multicultural knowledge and awareness and date of birth.


R R Square Adjusted R Std. Error of
Square the
Estimate
Knowledge .005 .000 -.008 18.573
Awareness .049 .002 -.006 8.928


Predictor: (Constant),
Dependent Variables:


DOB
Knowledge, Awareness


Table 4-5. Results of t-tests analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge
and awareness and completion of a multicultural counseling course.
Course Completed Course Not Taken T-statistic p > t
Knowledge 101.91 84.72 3.773 0.000***
Awareness 67.77 66.39 0.603 0.547
***p<.001


107









Table 4-6.


Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between
multicultural knowledge and awareness and number of hours of multicultural
training completed.


R R Square Adjusted R Std. Error of
Square the
Estimate


Knowledge .306*** .094 .086 17.741
Awareness .203* .041 .032 8.698
Predictor: (Constant), Number of hours of multicultural training completed
Dependent Variables: Knowledge, Awareness
***p<.001
*p<.05

Table 4-7. Results of t-tests analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge
and awareness and completion of a CACREP-accredited counseling
program.
CACREP Non-CACREP T-statistic p > t
Knowledge 101.27 94.06 1.885 0.062
Awareness 68.08 66.13 1.061 0.291


Table 4-8. Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between
multicultural knowledge and awareness and number of hours completed in
counselor training program.
R R Square Adjusted R Std. Error of


Square


the


Estimate
Knowledge .126 .016 .006 17.003
Awareness .004 .000 -.010 9.280
Predictor: (Constant), Number of hours completed in counselor training
Dependent Variables: Knowledge, Awareness


Table 4-9.


Results of one-way ANOVA analyzing the relationship between multicultural
knowledge and most advanced educational degree.


Source df Sum of Mean of F Sig
squares squares
Between 2 1346.703 673.351 1.933 .149
Within 120 41800.777 348.340
Total 122 43147.480


108









Table 4-10. Results of one-way ANOVA analyzing the relationship between
multicultural awareness and most advanced educational degree.
Source df Sum of Mean of F Sig
squares squares
Between 2 83.093 41.547 0.513 .600
Within 120 9711.069 80.926
Total 122 9794.162


Table 4-11. Results of one-way ANOVA analyzing the relationship between
multicultural knowledge and earned counseling credentials.
Source Df Sum of Mean of F Sig
squares squares
Between 3 3499.320 1166.440 3.501 .018*
Within 119 39648.159 333.178
Total 122 43147.480
*p<.05

Table 4-12. Results of follow-up independent t-tests analyzing the relationship between
multicultural knowledge and earned counseling credentials: none and LPC
&/or NCC.
None LPC &/or NCC T-statistic p > t
Knowledge 107.42 112.17 -2.067 .041


Table 4-13.


Results of follow-up independent t-tests analyzing the relationship between
multicultural knowledge and earned counseling credentials: none and
SCSC only.


None SCSC only T-statistic p > t
Knowledge 107.42 96.17 2.011 .047


Table 4-14. Results of follow-up independent t-tests analyzing the relationship between
multicultural knowledge and earned counseling credentials: none and
SCSC & LPC &/or NCC.
None SCSC & LPC &/or NCC T-statistic p > t
Knowledge 107.42 106.56 0.125 .902


Table 4-15.



Knowledge


Results of follow-up independent t-tests analyzing the relationship between
multicultural knowledge and earned counseling credentials: LPC &/or NCC
and SCSC only.
LPC &/or NCC SCSC only T-statistic p > t
112.17 96.17 -2.067 .041


109









Table 4-16. Results of follow-up independent t-tests analyzing the relationship between
multicultural knowledge and earned counseling credentials: LPC &/or NCC
and SCSC & LPC &/or NCC.
LPC&/or NCC SCSC & LPC &/or NCC T-statistic p > t
Knowledge 112.17 106.56 -0.631 .535

Table 4-17. Results of follow-up independent t-tests analyzing the relationship between
multicultural knowledge and earned counseling credentials: SCSC only and
SCSC & LPC &/or NCC.
SCSC only SCSC & LPC&/or NCC T-statistic p > t
Knowledge 96.17 106.56 2.015 .046

Table 4-18. Results of one-way ANOVA analyzing the relationship between
multicultural awareness and earned counseling credentials.
Source Df Sum of Mean of F Sig
squares squares
Between 3 818.380 272.793 3.617 .015*
Within 119 8975.783 75.427
Total 122 9794.163


*p<.05

Table 4-19.



Awareness


Results of follow-up independent t-tests analyzing the relationship between
multicultural awareness and earned counseling credentials: none and
LPC&/or NCC.
None LPC&/or NCC T-statistic p > t
69.42 73.83 -0.978 .343


Table 4-20. Results of follow-up independent t-tests analyzing the relationship between
multicultural awareness and earned counseling credentials: none and
SCSC only.
None SCSC only T-statistic p > t
Awareness 69.42 66.07 1.206 .231

Table 4-21. Results of follow-up independent t-tests analyzing the relationship between
multicultural awareness and earned counseling credentials: none and
SCSC & LPC&/or NCC.
None SCSC & LPC &/or NCC T-statistic p > t
Awareness 69.42 72.19 -0.843 .407


110









Table 4-22. Results of follow-up independent t-tests analyzing the relationship between
multicultural awareness and earned counseling credentials: LPC&/or NCC
and SCSC only.
LPC &/or NCC SCSC only T-statistic p > t
Awareness 73.83 66.07 2.115 .037

Table 4-23. Results of follow-up independent t-tests analyzing the relationship between
multicultural awareness and earned counseling credentials: LPC&/or NCC
and SCSC & LPC&/or NCC.
LPC&/or NCC SCSC & LPC &/or NCC T-statistic p > t
Awareness 73.83 72.19 0.513 .613

Table 4-24. Results of follow-up independent t-tests analyzing the relationship between
multicultural awareness and earned counseling credentials: SCSC only and
SCSC & LPC &/or NCC.
SCSC only SCSC & LPC&/or NCC T-statistic p > t
Awareness 66.07 72.19 2.612 .010

Table 4-25. Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between
multicultural knowledge and awareness and year graduated from
counseling program.
R R Square Adjusted R Std. Error of
Square the
Estimate
Knowledge .153 .023 .015 18.662
Awareness .116 .014 .005 8.936
Predictor: (Constant), Year graduated from counseling program
Dependent Variables: Knowledge, Awareness

Table 4-26. Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between
multicultural knowledge and awareness and years of counseling
experience.
R R Square Adjusted R Std. Error of
Square the
Estimate
Knowledge .119 .014 .006 18.750
Awareness .096 .009 .001 8.955
Predictor: (Constant), Years of counseling experience
Dependent Variables: Knowledge, Awareness


111









Table 4-27. Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between
multicultural knowledge and awareness and years of experience
counseling at a middle school.
R R Square Adjusted R Std. Error of
Square the


Estimate


Knowledge .130 .017 .009 18.748
Awareness .088 .008 -.001 8.974
Predictor: (Constant), Years of counseling experience at a middle school
Dependent Variables: Knowledge, Awareness

Table 4-28. Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between
multicultural knowledge and awareness and experience counseling
culturally diverse students.
R R Square Adjusted R Std. Error of
Square the
Estimate
Knowledge .322** .103 .096 17.880
Awareness .140 .019 .011 8.909
Predictor: (Constant), Experience counseling culturally diverse students
Dependent Variables: Knowledge, Awareness
**p<.01

Table 4-29. Results of simple regression analyzing the relationship between
multicultural knowledge and awareness and percentage of students
receiving free or reduced lunch.
R R Square Adjusted R Std. Error of
Square the
Estimate
Knowledge .078 .006 -.002 18.879
Awareness .060 .004 -.005 8.931
Predictor: (Constant), Percentage of students receiving free or reduced lunch
Dependent Variables: Knowledge, Awareness

Table 4-30. Results of one-way ANOVA analyzing the relationship between
multicultural knowledge and location of school (suburban, urban, or rural).
Source Df Sum of Mean of F Sig
squares squares
Between 2 540.701 270.351 0.761 .469
Within 120 42606.778 355.056
Total 122 43147.480


112









Table 4-31. Results of one-way ANOVA analyzing the relationship between
multicultural awareness and location of school (suburban, urban, or rural).
Source Df Sum of Mean of F Sig
squares squares
Between 2 196.082 98.041 1.226 .297
Within 120 9598.081 79.984
Total 122 9794.163


Table 4-32. Results of one-way ANOVA analyzing the relationship between
multicultural knowledge and the size of the student population at the
counselor's school (180-500, 501-1,000, or 1,001-1500).
Source Df Sum of Mean of F Sig
squares squares
Between 2 81.337 40.669 .118 .889
Within 115 39797.917 346.069
Total 117 39879.254


Table 4-33.


Results of one-way ANOVA analyzing the relationship between
multicultural awareness and the size of the student population at the
counselor's school (180-500, 501-1,000, or 1,001-1500).


Source Df Sum of Mean of F Sig
squares squares
Between 2 708.536 354.268 4.590 .012*
Within 115 8876.964 77.191
Total 117 9585.500
*p<.05


Table 4-34. Results of follow-up independent t-tests analyzing the relationship between
multicultural knowledge between small (180-500 students) and medium
(501-1,000) sized schools
Small Medium T-statistic p > t
Awareness 67.90 69.17 -0.720 .473


Table 4-35. Results of follow-up independent t-tests analyzing the relationship between
multicultural knowledge between medium (500-1,000 students) and large
(1,001-1,500) sized schools
Medium Large T-statistic p > t
Awareness 69.17 61.89 2.898 .005*
*p<.05/3=.0167


113









Table 4-36. Results of follow-up independent t-tests analyzing the relationship between
multicultural knowledge between small (180-500 students) and large
(1,001-1,500) sized schools
Small Large T-statistic p > t
Awareness 67.90 61.89 2.580 .012*
*p<.05/3=.0167

Table 4-37. Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between
multicultural knowledge and percentage of students by ethnicity.
Student Ethnicity R R Square Adjusted R Std. Error of
Square the
Estimate
White/EuropeanAmerican .168 .028 .020 18.691
Black/African-American .074 .005 -.004 18.320
Hispanic/Latino-American .212* .045 .036 18.576
Asian/Pacific Islander .098 .010 -.002 18.815
Native American .147 .021 .005 15.631
Multiracial .221 .049 .034 16.229


Predictor: (Constant),
Dependent Variables:
*p<.05


Percentage of students
Knowledge


by ethnicity


Table 4-38. Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between
multicultural awareness and percentage of students by ethnicity.
Student Ethnicity R R Square Adjusted R Std. Error of
Square the
Estimate
White/EuropeanAmerican .046 .002 -.006 8.992
Black/African-American .021 .000 -.009 9.189
Hispanic/Latino-American .018 .000 -.009 9.060
Asian/Pacific Islander .119 .014 .003 8.969
Native American .176 .031 .015 9.017
Multiracial .032 .001 -.015 9.815
Predictor: (Constant), Percentage of students by ethnicity
Dependent Variables: Awareness

Table 4-39. Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between
multicultural knowledge and awareness and number of counselors at
school.


R R Square Adjusted R Std. Error of
Square the
Estimate
Knowledge .058 .003 -.005 18.863
Awareness .054 .003 -.005 9.001
Predictor: (Constant), Number of counselors at school
Dependent Variables: Knowledge, Awareness


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Table 4-40. Summary of the means and standards deviations for the counselors'
recommendations for low-ability coursework based upon student culturally-
bound behavioral style.
Behavioral Style M SD
Communalism 1.31 .464
Verve 1.32 .467
Competition 1.34 .509
Individualism 1.31 .464

Table 4-41. Summary of the means and standards deviations for the counselors'
recommendations for testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally
retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services based upon
student culturally-bound behavioral style.
Behavioral Style M SD
Communalism 1.26 .442
Verve 1.35 .497
Competition 1.27 .464
Individualism 1.32 .486


Table 4-42.


Summary of the means and standards deviations for the counselors'
recommendations for behavioral remediation outside the classroom based
upon student culturally-bound behavioral style.


M SD
Communalism 1.66 .799
Verve 1.90 .817
Competition 1.79 .774
Individualism 1.81 .806


Table 4-43. Summary of the means and standards deviations for the counselors'
recommendations for testing for gifted or talented programs based upon
student culturally-bound behavioral style.
Behavioral Style M SD
Communalism 2.25 .742
Verve 2.31 .770
Competition 2.54 .804
Individualism 2.37 .693


Table 4-44.


Results of one-way repeated measures ANOVA analyzing the likelihood of
school counselors making recommendations for low-ability coursework
based upon student culturally-bound behavioral style.


Source df Sum of Mean of F Sig
Within 2.810 .446 .159 1.980 .121
Error 337.241 27.054 .080
Total 340.051 27.500


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Table 4-45. Results of one-way repeated measures ANOVA analyzing the likelihood of
school counselors making recommendations for testing for emotionally
disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD)
ESE services based upon student culturally-bound behavioral style.
Source df Sum of Mean of F Sig
squares squares
Between 2.849 .667 .234 3.626 .015*
Within 341.878 22.083 .065
Total 344.727 22.750
*p<.05


Table 4-46.


Results of one-way repeated measures ANOVA analyzing the likelihood of
school counselors making recommendations for behavioral remediation
outside of the classroom based upon student culturally-bound behavioral
style.


Source df Sum of Mean of F Sig
squares squares
Between 2.870 3.545 1.235 5.529 .001***
Within 344.400 76.955 .223
Total 347.270 80.500
***p=.001


Table 4-47.


Results of one-way repeated measures ANOVA analyzing the likelihood of
school counselors making recommendations for testing for gifted, talented,
and advanced coursework based upon student culturally-bound behavioral
style.


Source df Sum of Mean of F Sig
squares squares
Between 2.798 1.033 .369 1.785 .154
Within 335.816 69.467 .207
Total 338.614 70.500


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Table 4-48. Summary of follow-up dependent t-tests for school counselor
recommendations for testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally
retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services based upon
student culturally-bound behavioral style.
Paired Differences
M SD df Sig.
Competition/Communalism .008 .375 121 0.810
CompetitionNerve -.082 .377 121 0.018*
Individualism/Communalism .057 .347 121 0.071
IndividualismNerve -.033 .313 121 0.250
*p<. 10/4=.025

Table 4-49. Summary of follow-up dependent t-tests for school counselor
recommendations for behavior remediation outside the classroom based
upon student culturally-bound behavioral style.
Paired Differences
M SD df Sig.
Competition/Communalism .123 .675 121 0.047
CompetitionNerve -.115 .706 121 0.075
Individualism/Communalism .148 .599 121 0.007*
IndividualismNerve -.090 .643 121 0.124
*p<. 10/4=.025

Table 4-50. Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between counselor
recommendations for low-ability coursework and multicultural knowledge.
Behavioral R R Square Adjusted R Std. Error of
Style Square the


Communalism .036
Verve .051
Competition .055
Individualism .032
Predictor: (Constant),
Dependent Variables:


Estimate


.001 -.007 .487
.003 -.006 .478
.003 -.005 .487
.001 -.007 .443
Multicultural knowledge
Counselor recommendations for low-ability coursework


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Table 4-51. Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between counselor
recommendations for low-ability coursework and multicultural awareness.


Behavioral R R Square Adjusted R Std. Error of
Style Square the
Estimate
Communalism .065 .004 -.004 .487
Verve .039 .002 -.007 .479
Competition .141 .020 .012 .483
Individualism .125 .016 .007 .440


Predictor: (Constant), Multicultural awareness
Dependent Variables: Counselor recommendations for low-ability coursework


Table 4-52.


Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between counselor
recommendations for testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally
retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services and multicultural
knowledge.


Behavioral R R Square Adjusted R Std. Error of
Style Square the
Estimate


Communalism .035 .001 -.007 .443
Verve .049 .002 -.006 .498
Competition .008 .000 -.008 .466
Individualism .007 .000 -.008 .488
Predictor: (Constant), Multicultural knowledge
Dependent Variables: Counselor recommendations for testing for emotionally disturbed
(ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services


Table 4-53.


Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between counselor
recommendations for testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally
retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services and multicultural
awareness.


Behavioral R R Square Adjusted R Std. Error of
Style Square the
Estimate


Communalism .015 .000 -.008 .443
Verve .052 .003 -.006 .498
Competition .138 .019 .011 .462
Individualism .048 .002 -.006 .487
Predictor: (Constant), Multicultural awareness
Dependent Variables: Counselor recommendations for testing for emotionally disturbed
(ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services


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Table 4-54.


Behavioral


Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between counselor
recommendations for behavior remediation outside the classroom and
multicultural knowledge.
R R Square Adjusted R Std. Error of


Style Square the
Estimate


Communalism .005
Verve .004
Competition .065
Individualism .018
Predictor: (Constant),
Dependent Variables:


Table 4-55.


.000 -.008 .802
.000 -.008 .821
.004 -.004 .775
.000 -.008 .810
Multicultural knowledge
Counselor recommendations for behavior remediation


Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between counselor
recommendations for behavior remediation outside the classroom and
multicultural awareness.


Behavioral R R Square Adjusted R Std. Error of
Style Square the
Estimate
Communalism .078 .006 -.002 .800
Verve .042 .002 -.007 .820
Competition .053 .003 -.005 .776
Individualism .027 .001 -.008 .809
Predictor: (Constant), Multicultural awareness
Dependent Variables: Counselor recommendations for behavior remediation

Table 4-56. Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between counselor
recommendations for testing for gifted, talented, and advanced coursework
and multicultural knowledge.
Behavioral R R Square Adjusted R Std. Error of
Style Square the
Estimate
Communalism .028 .001 -.008 .824
Verve .024 .001 -.008 .688
Competition .045 .002 -.006 .762
Individualism .036 .001 -.007 .792
Predictor: (Constant), Multicultural knowledge
Dependent Variables: Counselor recommendations for gifted, talented, and advanced
coursework


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Table 4-57. Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between counselor
recommendations for testing for gifted, talented, and advanced coursework
and multicultural awareness.
Behavioral R R Square Adjusted R Std. Error of


Style Square the
Estimate


Communalism .075
Verve .010
Competition .006
Individualism .012
Predictor: (Constant),
Dependent Variables:
coursework


.006 -.003 .822
.000 -.008 .689
.000 -.008 .762
.000 -.008 .792
Multicultural awareness
Counselor recommendations for gifted, talented, and advanced


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CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION

The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the findings regarding White middle

school counselors' multicultural knowledge and awareness and their likelihood of

making recommendations for advanced and remedial interventions based upon

students' culturally-bound behavioral styles. Implications for practice and future

research will also be discussed.

Findings from this study included a significantly higher likelihood that school

counselors' would recommend a student displaying vervistic behaviors for testing for

remedial ESE services than a student displaying competitive behaviors. Along with

existing literature, this finding suggests that the disproportionality of low-income,

culturally diverse students in special education is impacted by the biases and low

expectations of school counselors (Bemak & Chung, 2005). This is problematic given

recent educational reform initiatives aimed at addressing the persistent chronic

underachievement and overrepresentation of African-American and other culturally

diverse students in U.S. public educational settings. Although there is little research

examining the multicultural competence of school counselors, there is concern that in

working with culturally diverse students, some school counselors may be providing

services that extend beyond their current level of expertise (Constantine, 2002; Hobson

& Kanitz, 1996). As such, the results of this study provide a few implications for school

counseling practice and training, including: the embodiment of the role of the 21st

century school counselor, a mandated multicultural counseling course in training

programs, ongoing multicultural training for professionals, and smaller student-to-

counselor ratios.


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Beginning with the national Transforming School Counseling Initiative (TSCI),

there have been systematic attempts to examine and redefine the role of the school

counselor as a means of contributing to educational equity for all students. Accordingly,

American School Counseling Association (ASCA) has worked to create standards

placing school counselors at the center of the education reform movement. This role of

the 21st century school counselor includes leadership within the school to improve

curriculum and instruction and advocacy for equal opportunity and access to a quality

education for all students (Herring, 1997; House and Martin 1998; Keys, Bemak &

Lockhart, 1998; Martin, 2002; Stone & Clark, 2001).

School counselors are well-trained and positioned within the school to tackle

issues of equity, access, and supporting conditions for student success through

advocacy of traditionally underserved students (Martin, 2002; Oakes, 2005). They

receive data about student achievement, community conditions, and reports of school

failure and receive relevant training in counseling, education, group dynamics, human

development, and systems theory (Holcomb-McCoy, 2007). Thus, they are in a unique

position to assume leadership roles in schools to reduce academic inequality (Bemak,

Chung, Siroskey-Sabdo, 2005). While traditional roles of making referrals for special

education (Amatea & West-Olatunji, 2007; Carpenter, King-Sears & Keys, 1998; Keys,

Bemak, Carpenter & King-Sears, 1998) and academic advising (Paisley & McMahon,

2001; Stone & Clark, 2001) are important, the role of the 21st century school counselor

also includes: (a) serving as a cultural bridge between teacher and students to assist

teachers in viewing students holistically and in the context of their culture and

community, (b) assisting teachers in creating curriculum and instruction that is more


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directly connected to students' lives and utilizes the funds of knowledge they bring into

school, (c) working with teachers to create a more welcoming family-centered school

environment and increase home/school collaboration, and (d) conducting multicultural

training for school staff to address issues of bias and help create an environment of

diversity appreciation within the school (Amatea & West-Olatunji, 2007; Bemak &

Chung, 2005).

School counselors can begin to assist teachers in viewing students holistically and

in the context of their culture and community by modeling how to locate and utilize

strengths in students and families that are culturally different from themselves. School

counselors can facilitate collaborative meetings with teachers and families to locate

student and family strengths and develop comprehensive plans of action to promote

student engagement and achievement. School counselors can also promote initiatives

and organize teams of teachers to learn more about their students' lives. This can be

achieved through various activities, such as: visiting students' neighborhoods and

places of business and play, riding student school bus routes to explore the

neighborhoods they live in, and conducting home visits to increase understanding of

students' life contexts and communities. By understanding their students' culture and

locating community strengths and assets, teachers are more likely to view low-income

and culturally diverse students through a strength-based lens as opposed to a deficit-

based lens.

Additionally, school counselors can counter deficit views of students and their

families and mediate between the cultural discontinuity that often exists between home

and school for culturally diverse students. This cultural discontinuity has been cited as a


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contributing factor to the low expectations some educators have for the academic

aptitude and achievement of low-income African-American students. By encouraging

teachers to increase their understanding of the home lives of their students and

increase their awareness of cultural disconnects between home and school, teachers

can develop a cultural context to utilize in the creation of effective educational

interventions to reduce cultural discontinuity and avoid inappropriate special education

referrals.

By utilizing their multicultural awareness, knowledge, and skills, school

counselors can assist teachers in creating curriculum and instruction that is more

directly connected to students' lives and employs the funds of knowledge they bring into

school. Extensive research documents that low-income African-American students tend

to prefer the learning styles that emphasize: verve, communalism, and movement (Tyler

et al., 2008). These studies and other research also document the tendency for U.S.

public education to privilege learners exhibiting a competitive and individualistic learning

style while disadvantaging students exhibiting other learning preferences (Boykin, Tyler

& Miller, 2005; Gay, 2000; Nieto, 2004). This cultural bias tends to privilege White

middle-class students and disadvantage low-income, culturally diverse students. Armed

with this knowledge, school counselors can consult with teachers to augment lesson

plans and instructional practices to more effectively honor and utilize student funds of

knowledge. This allows for the creation of classrooms that are culturally-responsive to

all students. For instance, by teaching students to articulate the knowledge they have

at home in relation to what the school wants them to learn, they are able to develop a


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sense of self-awareness and tools to better understand and meet expectations at school

(Diaz-Greenburg, 2001).

McCaleb (1994) presents another example of creating classroom experiences

that are culturally-responsive. Students and their families were asked to co-author

books depicting their lives and values. Through invitation to share these stories with the

class, they receive the message that they are valued as cultural beings and individuals

in the classroom. Additionally, the teacher and students are educated about one

another's unique life experiences and worldviews. Asking students and families to bring

their knowledge and values into the classroom is an effective way to begin developing

partnerships with families and communities where power and responsibility are shared

(Henderson & Mapp, 2002). Encouraging families to share their knowledge and

experiences in the classroom is a culturally-responsive strategy to invite families to be

more directly involved at school and create an environment of diversity appreciation.

Many low-income and culturally diverse parents would like to be more involved at

the school but lack the time and/or are intimidated because they may have experienced

the school as unwelcoming, have only been contacted with bad news about their child,

and/or have not had positive schooling experiences themselves (Finders & Lewis, 1998;

Ramirez, 2003). School counselors can assist teachers in understanding that, although

families may not be physically present at the school, they are often involved in their

children's' education at home. By working with teachers to create a more welcoming

family-centered school environment, these families are more likely to be directly

involved at the school. This is important because family involvement in children's

schooling is a strong indicator of academic success (Israel, Beaulieu, & Hartless, 2001).


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In order to effectively embody the role of the 21st century school counselor as a:

collaborative leader within the school, consultant to school staff, and advocate for low-

income and culturally diverse students, school counselors must have sufficient

multicultural competence. This leadership role includes redirecting efforts and

challenging biases of school staff that lead to chronic underachievement and

disproportionality for low-income and culturally diverse students. Ideally, school

counselors will be involved in the development and implementation of multicultural

training for school staff to address issues of bias and help create an environment of

diversity appreciation within the school. As mentioned earlier, school counselors can

team with administration to facilitate diversity initiatives at the school, conduct

multicultural training, and attend teacher team meetings to redirect inappropriate

referrals and interventions and advocate for students.

Several calls for the evaluation of school counselor practice and preparation in

terms of actively responding to increase equity for all students and meeting the needs of

culturally diverse and low-income students have been made (Education Trust, 1996;

Paisley & McMahon, 2001). ASCA's Ethical Standards for School Counselors

articulates the professional school counselor's responsibility to acquire "educational,

consultation and training experiences to improve awareness, knowledge, skills and

effectiveness in working with diverse populations" (ASCA, 2004, p. 4). Fueled by the

Transforming School Counseling Initiative (TSCI), multicultural school counseling has

emerged as a response to the goal that school counselors serve as student advocates

that believe all students can achieve at high levels on challenging coursework (Martin,

2002; Romano & Kachgal, 2004). Multicultural school counseling includes utilization of


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culturally-appropriate case conceptualization and interventions with culturally diverse

students (Lee, 1995; Pedersen & Carey, 2003). This is imperative as cultural

discontinuity, defined as the discontinuation at school of the cultural learning

preferences and practices originating from home and/or parental socialization,

contributes to the chronic underachievement and disproportionality of low-income and

culturally diverse students. Multicultural school counseling provides for

conceptualization and intervention that is culturally-relevant and responsive to the lives

of low-income and culturally diverse students. Multicultural competence is necessary

for school counselors to conduct multicultural school counseling, embody the role of the

21st century school counselor, and assist other school staff in creating culture-centered

conceptualizations and interventions with students. Section E.2 of the ASCA 's Ethical

Standards for School Counselors, the multicultural competency, states that the

professional school counselor:

"(a) affirms the diversity of students, staff, and families,

(b) expands and develops awareness of his/her own attitudes and beliefs
affecting cultural values and biases and strives to attain cultural
competence,

(c) possesses knowledge and understanding about how oppression,
racism, discrimination, and stereotyping affects her/him personally and
professionally, and

(d) acquires educational, consultation, and training experiences to improve
awareness, knowledge, skills, and effectiveness in working with diverse
populations: ethnic/racial status, age, economic status, special needs, ESL
or ELL, immigration status, sexual orientation, gender, gender
identity/expression, family type, religious/spiritual identity and appearance."

Affirming diversity involves regarding ethnicity and culture as important aspects

of identity for self and others. Developing school counseling programs centered around

reducing chronic underachievement and disproportionality through use of culture-


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centered conceptualizations and interventions and partnering with families are other

ways to help create an environment of diversity appreciation at school. Striving to attain

cultural competence involves actively pursuing the development of cultural awareness,

knowledge, and skills (Sue et al., 1982).

Cultural awareness is one of the three elements in the tripartite model

multicultural competence outlined by Sue and colleagues (1982). Cultural awareness

involves exploring and familiarizing oneself with one's own culture and biases and then

seeking to understand the culture of students, staff, and families. Appreciating and

understanding cultural similarities and differences provide a context for culturally-

competent counseling and culture-centered conceptualization and intervention. This

also includes developing knowledge and understanding about how oppression, racism,

discrimination, and stereotyping affect oneself and others.

Multicultural education, consultation, and training are essential aspects of

improving awareness, knowledge, and skills to enable effectiveness in working with

diverse populations. Thus, it is the professional responsibility of school counselors to

seek experiences directed at increasing their multicultural competence. Cultural

competence is essential to fulfill the role of the 21st century school counselor and act as

collaborative leader, consultant, and advocate for students.

This study found that completion of a multicultural counseling course, multicultural

training, and experience with culturally diverse students were positively related to

multicultural knowledge and/or awareness. Therefore, in addition to mandating a

multicultural counseling course, ongoing professional development focused upon

increasing multicultural competence and embracing the role of the 21st century school


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counselor are recommended. This mandated training should be required for practicing

school counselors to renew their state-certification and other counseling credentials.

For school counselors and other educators to work effectively with African

American students of any class background, they must have knowledge of African

American culture, including an awareness of the historical and sociopolitical contexts of

culture and skills to utilize culture in their conceptualizations and interventions (Lee,

1995; Pedersen & Carey, 2003). Accordingly, this training should be specifically geared

towards gaining cultural awareness of own and others' culturally-bound behaviors,

knowledge of culturally diverse peoples and their cultures, and skills to effectively

engage with culture in the classroom.

Ideally, multicultural training includes sustained, immersion experiences which

challenge inherent beliefs and biases and force counselors to experience a culture

outside of their own. To assist school counselor-trainees in gaining multicultural

knowledge and skills, training programs could require trainees to complete supervised

cross-cultural counseling experiences as part of their practicum and internship

experiences. Another way of implementing advanced training and consultation for

multicultural competence is to organize and attend regularly scheduled supervision

sessions focused on multicultural issues and implementation of the role of the 21st

century school counselor in their practice.

Immersion experiences such as outreach trips (Goodman & West-Olatunji, 2009)

and English as Second Language (ESL) mentoring (Roysircar, Gard, Hubbell & Ortega,

2005) have shown evidence of increasing multicultural competence in counselor

trainees. Prolonged engagement in service learning that is empowering and


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collaborative is ideal. Critical reflection and dialogue during immersion experiences are

essential components of training for multicultural competence (Goodman & West-

Olatunji; Roysircar, Gard, Hubbell, & Ortega). This group processing of feelings,

thoughts, and experiences surrounding the immersion experience is a crucial piece of

the learning process as it provides opportunity to critically reflect on the personal and

professional meaning of the experience and give and receive feedback.

Educational reform and ethical mandates dictate that school counselors be

equipped to work effectively with the diversity of students in U.S. public schools and

affect change in the chronic underachievement of low-income, culturally diverse

students. Since some scholars express concern that currently many school counselor

trainees leave training programs without sufficient cultural competence to achieve these

goals (Bemak & Chung, 2005; Constantine, 2002; Holcomb-McCoy, 2007), it is

important that counselor trainees receive strong training for multicultural competence in

their training programs. The requirement of supervised cross-cultural counseling

experiences during practicum and internship experiences is supported by research

findings that counseling experience with culturally diverse clients is positively correlated

with multicultural competence (Constantine, 2001; Ottavi, Pope-Davis & Dings, 1994).

Cross-cultural and multicultural supervision has been described as supervision in

which culture is discussed in terms of: (a) supervisee's perceptions of clients,

assumptions of client perceptions of them as counselors, interpretations of client

responses, and the rationale for supervisee responses client-counselor and counselor-

supervisor relationships (Garrett et al., 2001), (b) one's own culture and how this

impacts beliefs and worldview (Bernard & Goodyear, 1998), and racial and ethnic


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identity development (Cook, 1994; Cook & Helms, 1988; Peterson, 1991). Counselor

trainees' engagement in multicultural supervision while conducting their cross-cultural

clinical training experiences helps ensure cultural issues are explored and processed

throughout the training experience. Various models of multicultural supervision exist,

including: developmental-interpersonal (Bruss, Brack, Glickhauf-Hughes & O'Leary,

1997; Constantine, 1997; Porter, 1994), descriptive (Ancis & Ladany, 2001; Helms &

Cook, 1999; Brown & Landrum-Brown, 1995), empowerment models (House &

Holloway, 1992), and Garrett and colleagues' (2001) SuperVISION model.

Peer supervision has been recommended by scholars as a practical way for

school counselors to increase their cultural competence and engage in ongoing

professional development in order to embody the role of the 21st century school

counselor (Paisley & McMahon, 2001). Too often, practicing school counselors do not

participate in consistent supervision (Paisley & McMahon; Roberts & Borders, 1994).

School counselors can facilitate peer supervision with other counseling professionals.

Alternatively, counselor educators can serve as supervisors for school counselors and

advocate for multicultural training and supervision.

Based on the finding that participants working at schools with smaller numbers of

students had greater multicultural awareness, school counselors and counselor

educators should lobby for smaller student to counselor ratios. The American

Counseling Association (1999) estimated that the average counselor-to-student ratio in

the United States ranges from 1 to 313 in Vermont to 1 to 1,182 in California. A study by

Corwin, Venegas, Oliverez, and Colvar (2004) found that school counselors' abilities to

provide adequate services were affected by large caseloads. Since culturally diverse


131









and low-income students are more likely to attend overcrowded high schools, they are

more likely to be affected by these barriers. Smaller student caseloads may provide

counselors time to shift from their traditional role of scheduler and testing coordinator to

embody the role of the 21st century school counselor as leader and educational

consultant with other school staff to positively affect the educational outcomes of all

students.

In summary, current initiatives place school counselors at the center of the

educational movement to reduce the chronic underachievement and disproportionality

of culturally diverse students. However, the results of this study suggest that school

counselors may contribute to the disproportionality of low-income African-American

students in remedial special education through their gatekeeping role. Thus,

implications of this study suggest that ongoing multicultural training and professional

development to increase cultural competence are crucial elements in the formula for

school counselors to embody the role of the 21st century school counselor and work

towards educational equity.

Implications for Future Research

Results from this study suggest a few areas to pursue for future areas of study.

Firstly, a qualitative study exploring school counselors' conceptualizations of students'

culturally-bound behavioral styles and how these behavioral styles impact their

recommendations for remedial and advanced interventions would provide further insight

into how school counselors' make academic decisions for students. Secondly, case

study research examining White school counselors who have been successful in

positioning students for academic success and work at schools with a large proportion

of academically successful culturally diverse students may provide information


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regarding how school counselors can embody the role of the 21st century counselor and

effectively work towards educational equity.

Investigations utilizing a pre-post test design exploring the effects of cross-cultural

clinical training experiences coupled with multicultural supervision on counselor

trainees' multicultural competence would provide important information regarding the

effectiveness of these training experiences aimed at increasing multicultural

competence. Additionally, exploring the effects of various ongoing multicultural training

and professional development experiences on practicing counselors' multicultural

competence may help identify elements of multicultural training that have the greatest

potential to facilitate multicultural competence for school counselors. Another important

area to investigate is the impact of multicultural training on the effectiveness of

counselor practice with culturally diverse clients. These investigations may utilize

instruments measuring client symptoms and counseling outcomes in order to measure

the effectiveness of counseling services provided by counseling professionals who have

engaged in various types and amounts of multicultural training.

As mentioned in chapter 4, a replication study investigating the multicultural

knowledge and awareness of school counselors with equal numbers of participants from

non-CACREP-accredited and CACREP-accredited programs is warranted. Additionally,

a national comparative study of the required coursework in various counseling

programs, as well as aspects of examination criteria may shed light on the results of this

study that suggest there may be differences in the levels of multicultural knowledge and

awareness facilitated by licensed professional counselor (LPC), nationally certified

counselor (NCC), and state-certified school counselor (SCSC) training. Lastly, given the


133









vulnerability of self-report multicultural competence measures, a study comparing

scores on self-report multicultural competence measures (e.g. MCKAS) with a measure

of multicultural competence scored by a third-party expert (e.g. CCC-I) may assist in

identifying the vulnerabilities of these measures. This could help in the development of

stronger tools for measuring multicultural competence.

Summary

Results of this study suggest that school counselors may contribute to the

disproportionality of low-income African-American students in remedial special

education due to a lack of multicultural competence. Current educational initiatives call

for school counselors to be at the center of the educational equity movement. School

counselors must have sufficient multicultural competence in order to affect change in

the chronic underachievement of low-income, culturally diverse students. Given the

findings that participants' multicultural knowledge and awareness were positively related

to completion of a multicultural counseling course and multicultural knowledge was

related to: (a) number of hours of multicultural training completed, (b) amount of

experience with culturally diverse clients, and (c) percentage of Latino students at the

participant's school of employment, a mandated multicultural counseling course in

training programs and ongoing multicultural training professional development is

recommended. Additionally, smaller student-to-counselor ratios are recommended.

Additionally, areas of future research were discussed.


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APPENDIX A
PARTICIPANT CONSENT LETTER

School of Human Development and
Organizational Studies in Education
P.O. Box 117048
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611-7048

Dear Counselor:
My name is Lauren Shure, and I am a doctoral candidate in the School of Human Development and
Organizational Studies in Education at the University of Florida. I would like to invite you to participate in
a doctoral study that will explore the relationship between school counselors' perceptions of student
behaviors and their understanding of working with students from diverse backgrounds.

You will be asked to complete three questionnaires. First, you will be asked to read four scenarios
about hypothetical students, and after each scenario you will be asked to respond to a series of questions
about the student presented. Second, you will be asked to complete a questionnaire that will provide
information about your multicultural competence. Finally, you will be asked to respond to a questionnaire
asking about your personal information (i.e., age, educational level, counseling experience). These three
questionnaires should take no more than 30minutes to complete.

You have been selected to participate based on your status as a member of the American School
Counseling Association (ASCA). There will be no risk to you, and your refusal to give consent will not in
any way affect your status as a school counselor. You are free to withdraw your permission to participate
at any time without consequence. You will be assigned a confidential number, and all of your personal
information will be kept completely confidential. I will also share a copy of the research results with you
when the study is completed upon request.

Please indicate your consent to participate in my study below. If you choose to participate, please
complete the online questionnaires and click submit when prompted at the end. If you have any questions
please do not hesitate to contact me at laurshur@ufl.edu or my advisor, Dr. Cirecie West-Olatunji, at
cwestolatunji@coe.ufl.edu. Questions or concerns about research participant's right may be
directed to the UFIRB at (352) 392-0433 or P. O. Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611-2250.
Thank you very much in advance for your support.

Sincerely,

Lauren Shure, Ed.S., M.Ed.
School of Human Development and
Organizational Studies in Education
College of Education
University of Florida


Please read the above description.
Click "yes" to consent and participate in the study or click "no" if you do not wish to participate in the
study.



THANK YOU FOR YOUR PARTICIPATION


135









APPENDIX B
STUDENT VIGNETTE AND SCHOOL COUNSELOR PERCEPTION SCALE

The following descriptions are about hypothetical students. Each student has certain
characteristics in common. They are all in the seventh grade, obtained passing scores on the
FCAT in previous years, physically healthy, and live with two parents. Academically, they are
among the middle or upper 50% of the class. As you read each vignette, assume that the child is
a middle school student in your school.

Please read each vignette and respond to the statements based on the information presented.
There are no right or wrong answers, so please respond based on your first reaction.

THANK YOU FOR YOUR PARTICIPA TION!


136









Jesse (Communalism)
When school assignments are given, Jesse tries to share ideas and materials with other
students when it will help them. Jesse's parents teach that it is more important to share
than to keep things to oneself. Jesse enjoys sharing and helping out in class. Jesse
enjoys doing class work collaboratively with other children in the class because of the
belief that everyone can learn better this way. Jesse's parents teach that people can
learn a lot of good things from each other. Jesse's parents feel that everyone should
pull their weight because what one person does affects the group. Jesse thinks that
people can get more things done when they are done in a group rather than doing
things alone. Therefore, Jesse believes people are supposed to help each other
because it makes the group stronger. Jesse thinks that helping each other also helps
individuals do things better. Jesse does things that will benefit the entire class and not
just one person.

1. How much do you agree or disagree with each of the following statements about Jesse?
Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
1 2 3 4

a. I feel this student should be recommended for low ability 1 2 3 4
coursework.

b. I feel this student should be tested for emotionally disturbed 1 2 3 4
(ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), or learning disability
(LD) ESE services

c. I feel this student should be recommended for behavioral 1 2 3 4
remediation when disrupting the class.

d. I feel this student should be tested for gifted, talented, or 1 2 3 4
advanced coursework



2. Please describe your conceptualization of Jesse as a school counselor and your reasons
for recommending any kind of intervention or testing.


137









Alex (Individualism)
Alex thinks a person can do a better job by working alone. Alex's parents like to do
things this way, too. When working on an assignment, Alex feels it can be done better
alone. Alex prefers to use personal class materials and complete work alone. Alex and
Alex's parents think that what a person owns should belong to that person only and no
one else. If Alex and Alex's brothers or sisters were to play with toys or wear clothes
that do not belong to them, they would get in trouble with their parents. Teachers have
notes that Alex likes to find answers to any problems alone. Alex reports being taught at
home that doing things this way makes a person better at working through challenges
they will face in life. Alex is encouraged by praise when doing something without any
help. Alex prefers to do things alone rather than in a group. Alex enjoys receiving
recognition for doing something well as a single person as opposed to the whole class.
Alex's parents have taught Alex that it is better to be self-sufficient than be part of a
group.

1. How much do you agree or disagree with each of the following statements about Alex?
Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongl Agree
1 2 3 4

a. I feel this student should be recommended for low ability 1 2 3 4
coursework.

b. I feel this student should be tested for emotionally disturbed 1 2 3 4
(ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), or learning disability
(LD) ESE services

c. I feel this student should be recommended for behavioral 1 2 3 4
remediation when disrupting the class.

d. I feel this student should be tested for gifted, talented, or 1 2 3 4
advanced coursework


2. Please describe your conceptualization of Alex as a school counselor and your reasons
for recommending any kind of intervention or testing.


138









Jordan (Verve)
Jordan likes doing different activities at the same time. Jordan likes doing things this
way because Jordan's parents do things this way, too. Jordan's teachers say they are
not always sure whether Jordan is listening to them. This is because Jordan may be
doodling or writing or looking out the window or around the room while they are talking.
However, when asked a question, Jordan can usually answer and appears to be on
task. Jordan says, "I can do multiple things at once." At home, Jordan's parents often
talk to Jordan about schoolwork or read the newspaper while they are cooking or
cleaning or talking on the phone. Jordan's teachers have noticed that when asked to do
something on a daily basis, Jordan prefers to do it in different ways. Jordan says, "I
think I do a better job when I can do things in different ways." Jordan likes to work in
different spaces, too. Jordan enjoys going outside to do work, lying down on the floor, or
moving a seat to other parts of the room. Teachers report that Jordan is most engaged
when various activities are going on within the classroom. Jordan might be talking with
classmates, while working on an art project, and working on a math assignment. Jordan
prefers to have different activities going on at the same time in the classroom and doing
the same thing in different ways.

1. How much do you agree or disagree with each of the following statements about Jordan?
Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
1 2 3 4

a. I feel this student should be recommended for low ability 1 2 3 4
coursework.

b. I feel this student should be tested for emotionally disturbed 1 2 3 4
(ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), or learning disability
(LD) ESE services

c. I feel this student should be recommended for behavioral 1 2 3 4
remediation when disrupting the class.

d. I feel this student should be tested for gifted, talented, or 1 2 3 4
advanced coursework


2. Please describe your conceptualization of Jordan as a school counselor and your reasons
for recommending any kind of intervention or testing.


139









Jamie (Competition)
Jamie likes to do things better than everyone else. When Jamie has a question about
homework, Jamie's parents enjoy competing to see who will get the right answer. In
class, Jamie likes to compete with classmates to see who gets the highest grade on
assignments and tests. Jamie's parents say people should try to do things better than
others because this is what life is all about. Jamie's parents give prizes or money to the
child that gets the highest grades on their report card. Jamie has told teachers, "I
believe when you compete against others, you do a better job at something than would
otherwise be the case." Jamie also thinks that being first or the best makes you feel
good about yourself. At home, Jamie's parents teach that it is important to compete
against other people because this is the best way to get the things you want out of life.
This is why Jamie's parents push their children to do better than others at school,
sports, and getting things done. Jamie is sometimes disappointed when not the best at
something or not getting the highest grade. Jamie thinks that competing with others
brings out the best in people.

1. How much do you agree or disagree with each of the following statements about Jamie?
Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree
1 2 3 4

a. I feel this student should be recommended for low ability 1 2 3 4
coursework.

b. I feel this student should be tested for emotionally disturbed 1 2 3 4
(ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), or learning disability
(LD) ESE services

c. I feel this student should be recommended for behavioral 1 2 3 4
remediation when disrupting the class.

d. I feel this student should be tested for gifted, talented, or 1 2 3 4
advanced coursework


2. Please describe your conceptualization of Jamie as a school counselor and your reasons
for recommending any kind of intervention or testing.


140









APPENDIX C
MULTICULTURAL COUNSELING KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS SCALE

Using the following scale, rate the truth of each item as it applies to you.


1
Not at
All True


Somewhat
True


Totally
True


1. I believe all clients should maintain direct eye contact during counseling.


2. I check up on my minority/cultural counseling skills by monitoring my functioning -
via consultation, supervision, and continuing education.


3. I am aware some research indicates that minority clients receive "less preferred"
forms of counseling treatment than majority clients.


4. I think that clients who do not discuss intimate aspects of their lives are being
resistant and defensive.


5. I am aware of certain counseling skills, techniques, or approaches that are more
likely to transcend culture and be effective with any clients.


6. I am familiar with the "culturally deficient" and "culturally deprived" depictions of
minority mental health and understand how these labels serve to foster and perpetuate
discrimination.


141


------------------------------------------- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -









Using the following scale, rate the truth of each item as it applies to you.


1
Not at
All True


Somewhat
True


Totally
True


7. I feel all the recent attention directed toward multicultural issues in counseling is
overdone and not really warranted.


8. I am aware of individual differences that exist among members within a particular
ethnic group based on values, beliefs, and level of acculturation.


9. I am aware some research indicates that minority clients are more likely to be
diagnosed with mental illnesses than are majority clients.


10. I think that clients should perceive the nuclear family as the ideal social unit.


11. I think that being highly competitive and achievement oriented are traits that all
clients should work towards.


12. I am aware of the differential interpretations of nonverbal communication (e.g.,
personal space, eye contact, handshakes) within various racial/ethnic groups.


13. I understand the impact and operations of oppression and the racist concepts that
have permeated the mental health professions.


14. I realize that counselor-client incongruities in problem conceptualization and
counseling goals may reduce counselor credibility.


142











Using the following scale, rate the truth of each item as it applies to you.

1 2 3 4 5 6
Not at Somewhat Totally
All True True True



15. I am aware that some racial/ethnic minorities see the profession of psychology
functioning to maintain and promote the status and power of the White Establishment.


16. I am knowledgeable of acculturation models for various ethnic minority groups.


17. I have an understanding of the role culture and racism play in the development of
identity and worldviews among minority groups.


18. I believe that it is important to emphasize objective and rational thinking in minority
clients.


19. I am aware of culture-specific,that is culturally indigenous, models of counseling for
various racial/ethnic groups.


20. I believe that my clients should view a patriarchal structure as the ideal.


21. I am aware of both the initial barriers and benefits related to the cross-cultural
counseling relationship.


22. I am comfortable with differences that exist between me and my clients in terms of
race and beliefs.


143












Using the following scale, rate the truth of each item as it applies to you.

1 2 3 4 5 6
Not at Somewhat Totally
All True True True



23. I am aware of institutional barriers which may inhibit minorities from using mental
health services.


24. I think that my clients should exhibit some degree of psychological mindedness and
sophistication.


25. I believe that minority clients will benefit most from counseling with a majority who
endorses White middle-class values and norms.


26. I am aware that being born a White person in this society carries with it certain
advantages.


27. I am aware of the value assumptions inherent in major schools of counseling and
understand how these assumptions may conflict with values of culturally diverse clients.


28. I am aware that some minorities see the counseling process as contrary to their
own life experiences and inappropriate or insufficient to their needs.


29. I am aware that being born a minority in this society brings with it certain challenges
that White people do not have to face.


30. I believe that all clients must view themselves as their number one responsibility.



144














Using the following scale, rate the truth of each item as it applies to you.

1 2 3 4 5 6
Not at Somewhat Totally
All True True True



31. I am sensitive to circumstances (personal biases, language dominance, stage of
ethnic identity development) which may dictate referral of the minority client to a
member of his/her own racial/ethnic group.


32. I am aware that some minorities believe counselors lead minority students into non-
academic programs regardless of student potential, preferences, or ambitions.


Thank you for completing this instrument. Please feel free to express in writing below
any thoughts, concerns, or comments you have regarding this instrument:


145









APPENDIX D
SCHOOL COUNSELOR INFORMATION SURVEY

1. What is your gender? female male

2. What is your date of birth?

3. What is your ethnic background?
SWhite/European-American
Black/African-American
SHispanic/Latino-American
Asian/Pacific Islander
Native American Indian
Multiracial
SOther (please specify)

4. Did you take a multicultural counseling course in your counselor training
program?
Yes
No

5. What other types of multicultural training have you engaged in?



6. Did you graduate from a CACREP-accredited counseling program?
Yes
No

7. How many hours did you complete in your school counseling program?
36
48
60
other, please specify:

8. What is your most advanced educational degree? (Please check one and
specify.)
Master's in
__ Specialist in
Doctorate in

9. What type of counseling credentials) have you obtained? (Please check all that
apply.)
LMFT
LMHC
LPC
NCC


146









SState school counseling certification
SOther (please specify)

10. What year did you graduate from your counseling program?

11. How many years of counseling experience do you have in total?

12. How many years of experience counseling in a middle school do you have?


13. Generally speaking, how would you rate your counseling experience with
culturally diverse students?

1 2 3 4 5
Very Little Some Moderate High Very High

14. Do you work at a public or private school?
Public
Private
SOther, please specify:

15. What percentage of students at your school receives free or reduced lunch?
%

16. Do you work at a suburban, rural, or urban school?
Suburban
Urban
Rural
Other, please specify:

17. What grade levels are taught at your school?
6th-8th grades only
SOther, please specify:

18. How many students attend your school?

19. What is the ratio of students by ethnicity at your school?
% White/European-American
% Black/African-American
% Hispanic/Latino-American
% Asian/Pacific Islander
% Native American Indian
% Multiracial
% Other (please specify)

20. How many school counselors are employed at your school (including you)?


147









APPENDIX E
INVITATION LETTER AND FORMS TO EXPERT PANEL

School of Human Development and
Organizational Studies in Education
P.O. Box 117048
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611-7048

Dear (name):
My name is Lauren Shure, and I am a doctoral candidate in the School of Human
Development and Organizational Studies in Education at the University of Florida. I am hoping
you will accept my invitation to be a member of an expert panel to validate vignettes I
am using as a part of my doctoral dissertation research study. My study is entitled: The
relationship between school counselors' multicultural competence and their likelihood of
recommending students for advanced and remedial interventions based upon culturally-
bound behavioral styles.

I have adapted four hypothetical student vignettes based upon Tyler, Boykin, Boelter,
and Dillihunt's (2005) Cultural Socialization Scenarios. If you agree to participate I will
be asking you to read excerpts from each of the four vignettes and judge whether each
excerpt is descriptive of the cultural behaviors of communalism, verve, individualism, or
competiveness. There is space under each excerpt to explain your rationale.

You have been invited to serve as a member of this expert panel because you are a
multicultural educator with experience researching and teaching graduate level courses
in a content area of multicultural counseling and/or education. Participating in this
capacity should take no longer than 20-30 minutes. By agreeing to participate you are
helping to advance knowledge regarding the relationship between school counselors'
multicultural competence and their likelihood of recommending students displaying
culturally diverse learning behaviors for advanced or remedial educational interventions.

If you choose to participate, please complete the enclosed packet and mail it back in the
enclosed self-addressed stamped envelope. If you have any questions please do not
hesitate to contact me at laurshur@ufl.edu or my advisor, Dr. Cirecie West-Olatunji, at
cwestolatunji@coe.ufl.edu.
Thank you very much in advance for your support.

Sincerely,


Lauren Shure, Ed.S., M.Ed.
School of Human Development and
Organizational Studies in Education
College of Education
University of Florida


148











STUDENT VIGNETTE AND SCHOOL COUNSELOR PERCEPTION SCALE


The following descriptions are about hypothetical students. Each student has certain
characteristics in common. They are all in the seventh grade, obtained passing scores on the
FCAT in previous years, physically healthy, and live with both parents. Academically, they are
among the middle or upper 50% of the class. As you read each vignette, assume that the child is
a middle school student in your school.

Please read each vignette and answer the questions based on the information presented. There
are no right or wrong answers, so please respond based on your first reaction.

THANK YOU FOR YOUR PARTICIPA TION!


149









The purpose of the study for which these vignettes are being developed is to
investigate the relationship between school counselors' multicultural
competence and their perception of culturally-bound student behaviors. These
vignettes represent four culturally-bound behavior styles. After reading each
vignette, school counselors will be asked to rate on a 4-point Likert type scale the
likelihood with which they would recommend the student for various remedial
and advanced interventions, such as low-ability coursework, remedial special
education services, gifted and talented programs, and behavioral remediation.

Communalism
Please indicate whether or not each numbered item is a reasonable indicator of
communalism. If you feel an item does not indicate the presence of communalism,
please state your reasoning.

For the purpose of this study communalism is defined as the perceived fundamental
interdependence of people (Moemeka, 1998). Under communalism, a person acts in
accordance with the notion that duty to his or her social group is more important than
individual rights and privileges. It represents a social orientation as opposed to an object
orientation (Boykin, 1986).


1. When school assignments are given, Jesse tries to share ideas and materials with
other students when it will help them.

Is this a reasonable indicator of communalism?
Yes No

If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of
communalism:




2. Jesse's parents teach that it is more important to share than to keep things to
oneself.

Is this a reasonable indicator of communalism?
Yes No

If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of
communalism:


150









3. Jesse enjoys sharing and helping out in class.


Is this a reasonable indicator of communalism?
Yes No

If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of
communalism:



4. Jesse enjoys doing class work collaboratively with other children in the class because
of the belief that everyone can learn better this way.

Is this a reasonable indicator of communalism?
Yes No

If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of
communalism:




5. Jesse's parents teach that people can learn a lot of good things from each other.

Is this a reasonable indicator of communalism?
Yes No

If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of
communalism:




6. Jesse's parents feel that everyone should pull their weight because what one person
does affects the group.

Is this a reasonable indicator of communalism?
Yes No

If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of
communalism:


151









7. Jesse thinks that people can get more things done when they are done in a group
rather than doing things alone.

Is this a reasonable indicator of communalism?
Yes No

If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of
communalism:



8. Therefore, Jesse believes people are supposed to help each other because it makes
the group stronger.

Is this a reasonable indicator of communalism?
Yes No

If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of
communalism:




9. Jesse thinks that helping each other also helps people do things better.

Is this a reasonable indicator of communalism?
Yes No

If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of
communalism:




10. Jesse does things that will benefit the entire class and not just one person.

Is this a reasonable indicator of communalism?
Yes No

If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of
communalism:


152









Individualism
Please indicate whether or not each numbered item is a reasonable indicator of
individualism. If you feel an item does not indicate the presence of individualism, please
state your reasoning.

For the purposes of this study individualism refers to one's disposition toward
fundamental autonomy, independence, individual recognition, solitude, and the
exclusion of others (Moemeka, 1998; Spence, 1985).

1. Alex thinks a person can do a better job by working alone. Alex's parents like to do
things this way, too.

Is this a reasonable indicator of individualism?
Yes No

If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of
individualism:




2. When working on an assignment, Alex feels it can be done better alone.

Is this a reasonable indicator of individualism?
Yes No

If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of
individualism:




3. Alex prefers to use personal class materials and complete work alone.

Is this a reasonable indicator of individualism?
Yes No

If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of
individualism:


153









4. Alex and Alex's parents think that what a person owns should belong to that person
only and no one else.

Is this a reasonable indicator of individualism?
Yes No

If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of
individualism:




5. If Alex and Alex's brothers or sisters were to play with toys or wear clothes that do not
belong to them, they would get in trouble with their parents.

Is this a reasonable indicator of individualism?
Yes No

If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of
individualism:




6. Teachers have notes that Alex likes to find answers to any problems alone. Alex
reports being taught at home that doing things this way makes a person better at
working through challenges they will face in life.

Is this a reasonable indicator of individualism?
Yes No

If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of
individualism:




7. Alex is encouraged by praise when doing something without any help.

Is this a reasonable indicator of individualism?
Yes No

If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of
individualism:


154









8. Alex prefers to do things alone rather than in a group.


Is this a reasonable indicator of individualism?
Yes No

If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of
individualism:




9. Alex enjoys receiving recognition for doing something well as a single person as
opposed to the whole class.

Is this a reasonable indicator of individualism?
Yes No

If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of
individualism:




10. Alex's parents have taught Alex that it is better to be self-sufficient than an important
part of a group.


Is this a reasonable indicator of individualism?
Yes No

If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of
individualism:


155









Verve
Please indicate whether or not each numbered item is a reasonable indicator of verve. If
you feel an item does not indicate the presence of verve, please state your reasoning.

For the purposes of this study verve is defined as the propensity for high levels of
physical or sensate stimulation (Boykin, 1983). This physical stimulation has been
coined in terms of qualities of intensity or liveliness, variability, and density of
stimulation.

1. Jordan likes doing different activities at the same time. Jordan likes doing things this
way because Jordan's parents do things this way, too.

Is this a reasonable indicator of verve?
Yes No

If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of
verve:




2. Jordan's teachers say they are not always sure whether Jordan is listening to them.
This is because Jordan may be doodling or writing or looking out the window or around
the room while they are talking. However, when asked a question, Jordan can usually
answer and appears to be on task.

Is this a reasonable indicator of verve?
Yes No

If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of
verve:




3. Jordan says, "I can do multiple things at once." At home, Jordan's parents often talk
to Jordan about schoolwork or read the newspaper while they are cooking or cleaning
or talking on the phone.

Is this a reasonable indicator of verve?
Yes No

If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of
verve:


156









4. Jordan's teachers have noticed that when asked to do something on a daily basis,
Jordan prefers to do it in different ways. Jordan says, "I think I do a better job when I
can do things in different ways."

Is this a reasonable indicator of verve?
Yes No

If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of
verve:




5. Jordan likes to work in different spaces, too. Jordan enjoys going outside to do work,
lying down on the floor, or moving a seat to other parts of the room.

Is this a reasonable indicator of verve?
Yes No

If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of
verve:




6. Teachers report that Jordan is most engaged when various activities are going on
within the classroom. Jordan might be talking with classmates, while working on an art
project, and working on a math assignment.

Is this a reasonable indicator of verve?
Yes No

If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of
verve:


157









7. Jordan prefers to have different activities going on at the same time in the classroom
and doing the same thing in different ways.


Is this a reasonable indicator of verve?
Yes No

If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of
verve:


158









Competition
Please indicate whether or not each numbered item is a reasonable indicator of
competition. If you feel an item does not indicate the presence of competition, please
state your reasoning.


For the purposes of this study competition refers to one's preoccupation with doing
better than others (Boykin, 1983). Competition manifests itself as individual competition,
where an individual is trying to be the best among others

1. Jamie likes to do things better than everyone else.

Is this a reasonable indicator of competition?
Yes No

If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of
competition:




2. When Jamie has a question about homework, Jamie's parents enjoy competing to
see who will get the right answer.

Is this a reasonable indicator of competition?
Yes No

If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of
competition:




3. In class, Jamie likes to compete with classmates to see who gets the highest grade
on assignments and tests.

Is this a reasonable indicator of competition?
Yes No

If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of
competition:


159









4. Jamie's parents say people should try to do things better than others because this is
what life is all about.

Is this a reasonable indicator of competition?
Yes No

If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of
competition:




5. Jamie's parents give prizes or money to the child that gets the highest grades on their
report card.

Is this a reasonable indicator of competition?
Yes No

If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of
competition:




6. Jamie has told teachers, "I believe when you compete against others, you do a better
job at something than would otherwise be the case."

Is this a reasonable indicator of competition?
Yes No

If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of
competition:




7. Jamie also thinks that being first or the best makes you feel good about yourself.

Is this a reasonable indicator of competition?
Yes No

If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of
competition:


160









8. At home, Jamie's parents teach that it is important to compete against other people
because this is the best way to get the things you want out of life. This is why Jamie's
parents push their children to do better than others at school, sports, and getting things
done.

Is this a reasonable indicator of competition?
Yes No

If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of
competition:




9. Jamie is sometimes disappointed when not the best at something or not getting the
highest grade.

Is this a reasonable indicator of competition?
Yes No

If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of
competition:




10. Jamie thinks that competing with others brings out the best in people.

Is this a reasonable indicator of competition?
Yes No

If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of
competition:


161










APPENDIX F
PILOT PARTICIPANT CONSENT LETTER

School of Human Development and
Organizational Studies in Education
P.O. Box 117048
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611-7048

Dear Counselor:
My name is Lauren Shure, and I am a doctoral candidate in the School of Human Development and
Organizational Studies in Education at the University of Florida. I would like to invite you to participate in
the preliminary portion of my doctoral study that will explore the relationship between school counselors'
perceptions of student behaviors and their understanding of working with students from diverse
backgrounds.

You will be asked to read four vignettes about hypothetical students. After each scenario you will
be asked to respond to a series of statements about the student presented and participate in a focus group
when you have finished. Reading the vignettes, answering the questions, and participating in the focus
group should take no longer than 1 hour to complete.

You have been selected to participate based on your status as a school counselor. There are no anticipated
risks of participation. You are free to withdraw your permission to participate at any time without
consequence. Your participation will be very appreciated. I will also be happy to provide you with a
summary of the research results when the study is completed upon request.

Please indicate your consent to participate in my study below. If you have any questions please do not
hesitate to contact me at laurshur@ufl.edu or my advisor, Dr. Cirecie West-Olatunji, at
cwestolatunji@coe.ufl.edu. Questions or concerns about research participant's right may be
directed to the UFIRB at (352) 392-0433 or P. 0. Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611-2250. Thank you very
much in advance for your support.

Sincerely


Lauren Shure, Ed.S., M.Ed.
School of Human Development and
Organizational Studies in Education
College of Education
University of Florida

Please read the above description, sign below, and return.

I, have read the procedures described above and voluntarily agree to participate in
this study. I acknowledge that I have received a copy of the above description.



Signature Date



THANK YOU FOR YOUR PARTICIPATION!


162









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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Lauren Ann Shure was born in Highland Park, Illinois. She earned her master's

and specialist degrees in marriage and family therapy and worked as a mental health

counselor until deciding to pursue her doctoral degree in 2006. She then pursued her

doctoral degree in mental health counseling at the University of Florida. Her research

focuses on the relationship between counselor positionality, cultural competence, and

academic achievement among culturally diverse student populations.


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1 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SCHOOL COUNSELORS MULTICULTURAL KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS AND THEIR LIKELIHOOD OF RECOMMENDING STUDENTS FOR ADVANCED AND REMEDIAL INTERVENTIONS BASED UPON STUDENTS CULTURALLY BOUND BEHAVIORAL STYLES By LAUREN ANN S HURE A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2010

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2 2010 Lauren Ann Shure

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3 To my parent s

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank my committee members, Drs. Cirecie West Olatunji, Edil Torres Rivera, William Conwill, and Thomasenia Adams for their expertise, guidance, and support through this process Special appreciation goes to my chair, Dr. Cirecie West Olatunji, who has mentored and guided me through many things. I also thank helpful and brilliant statisticians, Drs. David Miller and James Algina. In addition, I thank the members of my expert panel, Drs. Kent Butler, Andrea Dixon, Kimberly Frazier, Rose Pringle, and Zarius Watson, the participants in my pilot study, Lisa Clemons, Ritzy Ettinger, Sue Ireland, and Eric Thompson, and all of the middle school counselors across the country who participated in this research. I could not have completed this project without each and every one of them. Finally, I extend my appreciation to my friends and family for their love, support, and encouragement.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................................................................. 4 page LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................................ 7 ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................... 12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................... 14 Purpose of this study .............................................................................................. 20 Research Questions ............................................................................................... 20 Hypotheses ............................................................................................................. 21 Definition of Terms .................................................................................................. 22 Significance of Study .............................................................................................. 25 Limitations ............................................................................................................... 26 2 LITERATURE REVIEW .......................................................................................... 28 Chronic Underachievement of African American Students ..................................... 28 African American Children an d Learning ................................................................ 33 Cultural Discontinuity, Chronic Underachievement, and the Role of the School Counselor ............................................................................................................ 41 Cultural Discontinuity a nd the Chronic Underachievement of African American Students ........................................................................................ 43 Educational Equity and the Role of the School Counselor ............................... 50 The H istory of Interventions for Chronic Underachievement ................................... 54 Cultural Deprivation Theory and Compensatory Education Programs ............. 55 Compr ehensive Guidance and Counseling Movement (CGCM) ...................... 58 Outcome Studies and Multicultural Emphasis .................................................. 59 Multicultural Counseling and T herapy (MCT) and School Counselors .................... 62 Summary ................................................................................................................ 66 3 METHODS .............................................................................................................. 68 Pa rticipants ............................................................................................................. 68 Subjectivity Statement ............................................................................................ 69 Instruments ............................................................................................................. 70 School Counselor Information Survey .............................................................. 70 Student Vignette and School Counselor Recommendation Scale .................... 72 Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness Scale (MCKAS) ............. 73 Data Collection Procedures .................................................................................... 76 Development of Vignettes and Pilot Studies ..................................................... 76 Study ................................................................................................................ 78

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6 Data Analysis Procedures ....................................................................................... 79 Research Questions ......................................................................................... 79 Summary ................................................................................................................ 81 4 RESULTS ............................................................................................................... 82 Descriptive Data for the Major Variables ................................................................. 82 Hypothesis 1 ........................................................................................................... 85 Multicultural Knowledge and Awareness and Participant Factors ........................... 91 Hypothesis 2 ........................................................................................................... 96 School Counselor Recommendations Based Upon Culturally Bound Behavior Style ..................................................................................................................... 99 Hypothesis 3 ......................................................................................................... 103 The Relationship Between Multicultural Knowledge And Awareness And The Likelihood Of Making Recommendations For Remedial And Advanced Interventions ...................................................................................................... 104 Limitations ............................................................................................................. 105 Assessment Materials and Procedures .......................................................... 105 Sampling ........................................................................................................ 106 Research Design ............................................................................................ 106 Summary .............................................................................................................. 106 5 DISCUSSION ....................................................................................................... 121 Implicat ions for Future Research .......................................................................... 132 Summary .............................................................................................................. 134 APPENDIX A PARTICIPANT CONSENT LETTER ..................................................................... 135 B STUDENT VIGNETTE AND SCHOOL COUNSELOR PERCEPTION SCALE ..... 136 C MULTICULTURAL COUNSELING KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS SCALE .. 141 D SCHOOL COUNSELOR INFORMATION SURVEY ............................................. 146 E INVITATION LETTER AND FORMS TO EXPERT PANEL ................................... 148 F PILOT PARTICIPANT CON SENT LETTER .......................................................... 162 LIST OF REFERENCES ............................................................................................. 163 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .......................................................................................... 182

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4 1 Counseling credentials obtained. ......................................................................... 107 4 2 Percentage of students by ethnicity. .................................................................... 107 4 3 Results of t tests analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and awareness and gender. ............................................................................. 107 4 4 Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and awareness and date of birth. ................................................... 107 4 5 Results of t tests analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and awareness and completion of a multicultural counseling course. .............. 107 4 6 Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and awareness and number of hours of multicultural training completed. ........................................................................................................ 108 4 7 Results of t tests analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and awareness and completion of a CACREP accredited counseling program. ........................................................................................................... 108 4 8 Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and awareness and number of hours completed in counselor training program. .............................................................................................. 108 4 9 Results of oneway ANOVA analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and most advanced educational degree. ........................................ 108 4 10 Results of oneway ANOVA analyzing the relationship between multicultural awareness and most advanced educational degree. ........................................ 109 4 11 Results of oneway ANOVA analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and earned counseling credentials. ................................................ 109 4 12 Results of follow up independent t tests analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and earned counseling credentials: none and LPC &/or NCC. ......................................................................................................... 109 4 13 Results of follow up independent t tests analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and earned counseling credentials: none and SCSC only. .................................................................................................................. 109

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8 4 14 Results of follow up independent t tests analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and earned counseling credentials: none and SCSC & LPC &/or NCC. .............................................................................................. 109 4 15 Results of follow up independent t tests analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and earned counseling credentials: LPC &/or NCC and SCSC only. ................................................................................................ 109 4 16 Results of follow up independent t tests analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and earned counseling credentials: LPC &/or NCC and SCSC & LPC &/or NCC. ............................................................................ 110 4 17 Results of follow up independent t tests analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and earned counseling credentials: SCSC only and SCSC & LPC &/or NCC. ................................................................................... 110 4 18 Results of oneway ANOVA analyzing the relationship between multicultural awareness and earned counseling credentials. ................................................ 110 4 19 Results of follow up independent t tests analyzing the relatio nship between multicultural awareness and earned counseling credentials: none and LPC&/or NCC. .................................................................................................. 110 4 20 Results of follow up independent t tests analyzing the relationship between multicultur al awareness and earned counseling credentials: none and SCSC only. .................................................................................................................. 110 4 21 Results of follow up independent t tests analyzing the relationship between multicultural awareness and earned cou nseling credentials: none and SCSC & LPC&/or NCC. ............................................................................................... 110 4 22 Results of follow up independent t tests analyzing the relationship between multicultural awareness and earned counseling credential s: LPC&/or NCC and SCSC only. ................................................................................................ 111 4 23 Results of follow up independent t tests analyzing the relationship between multicultural awareness and earned counseling credentials: LPC&/or NCC and S CSC & LPC&/or NCC. ............................................................................. 111 4 24 Results of follow up independent t tests analyzing the relationship between multicultural awareness and earned counseling credentials: SCSC only and SCSC & LPC &/o r NCC. ................................................................................... 111 4 25 Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and awareness and year graduated from counseling program. ...... 111 4 26 Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and awareness and years of counseling experience. ..................... 111

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9 4 2 7 Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and awareness and years of experience counseling at a middle school. .............................................................................................................. 112 4 28 Results of simple reg ressions analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and awareness and experience counseling culturally diverse students. ........................................................................................................... 112 4 29 Results of simple regression analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and awareness and percentage of students receiving free or reduced lunch. .................................................................................................. 112 4 30 Results of oneway ANOVA analyzing the relationship between multi cultural knowledge and location of school (suburban, urban, or rural). ......................... 112 4 31 Results of oneway ANOVA analyzing the relationship between multicultural awareness and location of school (suburban, urban, or rural). ......................... 113 4 32 Results of oneway ANOVA analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and the size of the student population at the counselors school (180500 501 1,000, or 1,001 1500). ............................................................... 113 4 33 Results of oneway ANOVA analyzing the relationship between multicultural awareness and the size of the student population at the counselors school (180500, 5011,000, or 1,001 1500). ............................................................... 113 4 34 Results of follow up independent t tests analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge between small (180500 students) and medium (5011,000) sized schools ......................................................................................... 113 4 35 Results of follow up independent t tests analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge between medium (5001,000 students) and large (1,0011,500) s ized schools .............................................................................. 113 4 36 Results of follow up independent t tests analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge between small (180500 students) and large (1,0011,500) sized school s ......................................................................................... 114 4 37 Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and percentage of students by ethnicity. ........................................ 114 4 38 Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between multicultural awareness and percentage of students by ethnicity. ........................................ 114 4 39 Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and awareness and number of counselors at school. ..................... 114

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10 4 40 Summary of the means and standards deviations for the counselors recom mendations for low ability coursework based upon student culturally bound behavioral style. ..................................................................................... 115 4 41 Summary of the means and standards deviations for the counselors recommendations for test ing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services based upon student culturally bound behavioral style. ......................................................... 115 4 42 Summary of the mea ns and standards deviations for the counselors recommendations for behavioral remediation outside the classroom based upon student culturally bound behavioral style. ................................................ 115 4 43 Summary of the means and standards deviations for the counselors recommendations for testing for gifted or talented programs based upon student culturally bound behavioral style. ......................................................... 115 4 44 Results of onewa y repeated measures ANOVA analyzing the likelihood of school counselors making recommendations for low ability coursework based upon student culturally bound behavioral style. ..................................... 115 4 45 Result s of one way repeated measures ANOVA analyzing the likelihood of school counselors making recommendations for testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services based upon student culturally bound behavioral style. ............... 116 4 46 Results of oneway repeated measures ANOVA analyzing the likelihood of school counselors making recommendations for behavioral remediation outside of the classr oom based upon student culturally bound behavioral style. ................................................................................................................. 116 4 47 Results of oneway repeated measures ANOVA analyzing the likelihood of school counselors making recommendations for testing for gifted, talented, and advanced coursework based upon student culturally bound behavioral style. ................................................................................................................. 116 4 48 Summary of follow up dependent t tests for school counselor recommendations for testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services based upon student culturally bound behavioral style. ......................................................... 117 4 49 Summary of follo w up dependent t tests for school counselor recommendations for behavior remediation outside the classroom based upon student culturally bound behavioral style. ................................................ 117 4 50 Results of simple reg ressions analyzing the relationship between counselor recommendations for low ability coursework and multicultural knowledge. ...... 117

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11 4 51 Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between counselor recommendations for low ability coursework and multicultural awareness. ...... 118 4 52 Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between counselor recommendations for testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services and multicultural knowledge. ....................................................................................................... 118 4 53 Results of simple regressions analy zing the relationship between counselor recommendations for testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services and multicultural awareness. ....................................................................................................... 118 4 54 Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between counselor recommendations for behavior remediation outside the classroom and multicultural knowledge. ................................................................................... 119 4 55 Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between counselor recommendations for behavior remediation outside the classroom and multicultural awareness. ................................................................................... 119 4 56 Results o f simple regressions analyzing the relationship between counselor recommendations for testing for gifted, talented, and advanced coursework and multicultural knowledge. ............................................................................ 119 4 57 Results of si mple regressions analyzing the relationship between counselor recommendations for testing for gifted, talented, and advanced coursework and multicultural awareness. ............................................................................ 120

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12 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate S chool of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SCHOOL COUNSELORS MULTICULTURAL KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS AND THEIR LIKELIHOOD OF RECOMMENDING STU DENTS FOR ADVANCED AND REMEDIAL INTERVENTIONS BASED UPON STUDENTS CULTURALLY BOUND BEHAVIORAL STYLES By Lauren Ann Shure August 2010 Chair: Cirecie West Olatunji Cochair: Edil Torres Rivera Major: Mental Health Counseling Chronic underachievement, as characterized by disproportionate placement of low income AfricanAmerican stud ents in low ability coursework s pecial education programs, and behavioral remediation persist s despite various efforts to address these problems (Childrens Defense Fund, 2003; Harris, Brown, Ford & Richardson, 2004; Harry & Klingner, 2006; Lee, 2002 ; Lucas, 1999; Mickelson & Heath, 1999; National Alliance of Black School Educators [NABSE], 2003; National Center for Education Statistics [NCES], 2007 ; National Research Council, 2 002 Oakes 2005; Townsend, 200 0 200 2) Cultural discontinuity between the home and school lives of low income, culturally diverse students h as been proposed as a contributing factor to chronic underachievement and disproportionality ( Cholewa & West Olatu nji, 2008; Gay, 2000; Hale, 2001; King, 2004; Nieto, 2004). In fact, there is concern among scholars that many school counselors lack sufficient cultural competence and contribute to the status quo of chronic underachievement and disproportionality of cult urally diverse and low income students (Bemak, 2000; Bemak & Chung, 2005; Lee, 1998 ) This is especially

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13 concerning since recent educational initiatives place school counselors at the center o f the education reform movement to improve curriculum and instruction and advocacy for equal opportunity and access to a quality education for all students (Herring, 1997; House and Martin 1998; Keys, Bemak & Lockhart, 1998; Martin, 2002; Stone & Clark, 2001). There i s a cognizance that as the number of culturally diverse students continues to increase, the need for school counselors to gain an awareness of their biases, broaden their cultural knowledge base, and develop new strategies that are responsive to the complex challenges culturally diverse students face will a lso increase (Constantine, 2002; Durodoye, 1998; Herring 1997; Hobson & Kanitz, 1996; HolcombMcCoy, 2007; Johnson, 1995; Lee, 1995) This study surveys a national sample of schools counselors using a correlational design to investigate the likelihood of school counselors to recommend students for advanced and remedial interventions based upon students culturally bound behavior styles. The results of this study suggest that school counselors cultural bias may contribute to the overrepresentation of low i ncome African American students in remedial special education. The implications for school counselor training and practice are discussed and areas for future research.

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14 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION For decades, educators and policy makers have been investigating the chronic underachievement and disproport ionately of low income, AfricanAmerican students (LadsonBillings, 2006; Lee, 2002). Underachievement has been defined as a discrepancy between ability and performance (Ford, 1996). Chronic underachievement inc ludes a gap in standardized test scores between African American and White, Latina/o and White, and recent immigrant and White students (Ladson Billings) African American students represent about 16% of the public school population but 27% of all students classified as trainable mentally retarded or seriously emotionally disturbed (Childrens Defense Fund, 2003). In 2004, six percent of AfricanAmerican, as compared to four percent of White and two percent of Asian/Pacific Islander 6to 21 year olds were identified as having a specific learning disability. American Indians/Alaska Natives also have a high rate of identification for specific learning disabilities at eight percent (NCES, 2007) Statistics sh ow that AfricanAmerican students are suspended, expelled, and subjected to corporal punishment at disproportionately higher rates (NCES, 2007). Disproportionality also affects which children are identified and placed in programs for the gifted and talented in U.S. public schools, with AfricanAmerican students being half as likely to be represented in such programs as compared to their White peers, 3.04% and 7.47%, respectively (National Research Council, 2002; The Civil Rights Project, 2002). Many factors have been cited as potential contributors to chroni c underachievement and disproportionality for this population. Factors related to schools, students, teachers, families and home environments, and resources have been

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15 considered ( Kozol, 1991). Further, compensatory education programs (Gordon & Wilkerson, 1966; Vinovskis, 1999) and comprehensive counseling and guidance programs by school counselors ( Myrick, 1997; Paisley, 2001) have also been implemented. Yet, chronic underachievement and disproportionality among low income African American students has pers isted (Keys, Bemak & Lockhart, 1998; MacDonald & Sink, 1999). One reason for t he lack of significant success from these efforts may lie in the lack of consideration of the sociopolitical contexts surrounding students education. More recently, outcome stu dies and an emphasis on multicultural school counseling have emerged as attempts to conceptualize and intervene more effectively with diverse student populations (Lee, 1995; Pedersen & Carey, 2003; Whiston & Sexton, 1998). Multicultural school counseling provides a culturally competent lens and approach to effectively work with lowincome AfricanAmerican students to affect positive change in chronic underachievement and disproportionality (Lee; Pedersen & Carey). It addresses the sociopolitical context of schooling for low income, culturally diverse students as it considers the systemic factors present within their home and sch ool lives, such as the effects of poverty and racism and cultural discontinuity between their home and school environments ( Hobson & Kanitz, 1996; HolcombMcCoy, 2007). This is important as these factors likely contribute to chronic underachievement and disproportionality for many of these students (Cholewa & West Olatunji, 2008; Martin, 2002 ). Cultural discontinuity is a school based behavioral process wherein the cultural valuebased learning preferences and practices originating from home and/or parental socialization activities are discontinued at school. Cultural discontinuity within the

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16 educational system has been proposed as a c ontributi ng factor to chronic underachievement and disproportionality for low income, culturally diverse students (Boykin, 2001; Gay, 2000; King, 2004; Nieto, 2004; Patton, 1998; Townsend, 2000). Scholars examining AfricanAmerican families and culture hav e found evidence of the existence of the cultural practices of communalism and verve embedded within the socialization and lives of low income AfricanAmerican families (Bailey & Boykin, 2001; Boykin & Bailey, 2000; Tyler, Boykin, Boelter & Dillihunt, 2005; Tyler et al., 2008). Communalism and verve have also been found as preferences and practices in the classroom behaviors of low income AfricanAmerican students (Hale, 2001; HaleBenson, 1986; Tyler, Boykin, Miller & Hurley, 2006). In contrast, research h as shown that classroom practices, teacher expectations, and socialization practices in U. S. public classrooms tend to favor the mainstream/Eurocentric values and practices of individualism and competition (Boykin, Tyler & Miller, 2005, Gay; Nieto). This c reates cultural discontinuity and misunderstandings in the educational experiences of many culturally diverse students (Cholewa & West Olatunji, 2008; Gay; King; Nieto). Studies examining teachers perceptions of AfricanAmerican students culturally bound behaviors have yielded results supporting the presence of cultural discontinuity and misunderstandings in these students schooling experiences. Studies examining t eachers perceptions of AfricanAme rican learning styles, AfricanAmerican English (AAE), and movement styles reported that teachers viewed students exhibiting behaviors characteristic of African American culture as more aggressive, less able to achieve, and/or more in need of remedial special education services (Delpit, 1995; Neal, McCray, Web b Johnson & Bridgest, 2003; Tyler, Boykin & Walton, 2006).

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17 Scholars conclude that s tudies examining teachers perceptions of culturally bound student behaviors warrant further investigation and replication, as t eachers influence students and contribute to the overrepresentation problem ( Patton, 1998; Townsend, 2000) While teachers perceptions of students culturally bound behaviors have been examined, no studies to date examine the ways in which school counselors perceive culturally bound student behaviors. However, it has been theorized that school counselors may contribute to chronic underachievement and disproportionality by inadvertently serving as gatekeepers for these students ( Amatea & West Olatunji, 2007; Bemak & Chung, 2005). The Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and other Related Educational Programs (CACREP) mandates multicultural counseling content in professional counseling training programs. Yet, some scholars report concern that counselors may leave training without sufficient mult icultural competenc e ( Constantine, 2001; Constantine, Hage, Kindaichi & Bry ant, 2007; Constantine & Yeh, 2001). Traditionally, the role of the school counselor has i ncluded assessment and referral of individual students for special education programs and a s a coordinator of needed social, academic, developmental, vocational, and psychological services for students and their families (Amatea &West Olatunji, 2007; Carpenter, King Sears, & Keys, 1998; Keys, Bemak, Carpenter, & King Sears, 1998) Today, the s ch ool counselors role is shifting from working with individual and small groups of students and their families to working as agents of change within the school syst em (Amatea & West Olatunji ; ASCA, 2003; Bemak & Chung, 2005 ; House & Martin, 1998; Martin, 2002 ) C ounselors work ing with teachers and culturally diverse students to achieve educational equity and fulfill their role as social justice advocates for socially marginalized students

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18 (Bemak, 2000; Bemak & Chung, 2005; Constantine, Hage, Kindaichi & Bryant, 2007; Lewis, Lewis, Daniels & DAndrea, 2003) must have sufficient multicultural competence. This includes knowledge and awareness of culturally bound student behaviors. Scholars have suggested that school counselors can become advocates for culturall y diverse students and pedagogical partners for teachers (Amatea & West Olatunji, 2007). Their role would shift to helping teachers connect their curricula and teaching practice more directly to students lives, and to serve as a cultural bridge between sc hool and family to increase positive interactions and relations (Amatea & West Olatunji; Bemak & Chung). Additionally, the role of the 21st century school counselor should be one of a leader throughout the school (ASCA, 2003; Stone & Clark, 2001), working to assist in building a climate of diversity appreciation in classrooms and throughout the school and building and maintain ing strong homeschool collaborations (Amatea & West Olatunji; House & Martin; Martin). Relational C ultural T heory (RCT) and Racial/ C ultural I dentity D evelopment (R/CID) theory have offered ecosystemic and sociopolitical contexts that are useful in understanding the chronic underachievement and disproportionality facing many low in come African American students and the influence teachers and school counselors have on these phenomena. As an alternative paradigm to traditional Western psychological theories positing that normal development goes from dependence to independence, Relational Cultural Theory (RCT) theorizes that development occurs in connection with others and that growthfostering relationships are created and sustained through m utual empathy and empowerment (Miller, 1986). Racial and Cultural Identity Development (R / CID) is another theory that provides a practical

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19 framework for expl oring the multicultural knowledge and awareness of school counselors and their perceptions of culturally bound student behaviors. R/CID defi n es five stages of development that oppressed people experience as they struggle to understand themselves in terms of their own culture, the dominant culture, and the oppressive relationship between these two cultures (Sue, 1999; Sue & Sue, 2008). RCT and R/CID provide lenses useful in conceptualizing dynamics between low income, culturally diverse students and their families and the school system in order to intervene for systemic change. However, I am not using RCT theory as a basis for my research because there is a lack of empiric al data and assessment tools to support the use of this theory in the investig ation of school counselors multicultural knowledge and awareness and perceptions of culturally bound student behaviors. Additionally, I am not using R/CID theory as a basis for my research because while connections have been made between counselors multi cultural knowledge and awareness and their racial identity status, assessing school counselors multicultural knowledge and awareness with established mul ticultural counseling knowledge and awareness assessments, such as the Multicultural Counseling Knowle dge and Awareness Scale (MCKAS ) (Ponterotto, Gretchen, Utsey, Riger & Austin, 2002) is a more di rect way to examine this phenomenon. Thus, Multicultural Counseling and Therapy (MCT) provides a framework with a more direct link to the assessment of school counselors multicultural knowledge and awareness and their perceptions of culturally bound student behaviors. MCT originates from the criticism that traditional psychology and counseling practice is ethnocentric and does not consider clients in the context of their culture and environment. Looking only at individuals and their internal psychology, traditional

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20 psychology and counseling may marginalize nonWhite, middle class clients by failing to account for the sociopolitical and sociocultural contexts that shape their lives. MCT utilizes an ecosystemic approach and an appreciation of culturally diverse clients and their cultures (Sue, Ivey, & Pedersen, 1996). MCT assumes that counseling approaches and goals should be consistent with the life experiences and cultural values of clients (Sue et al.). Multicultural competencies (Sue et al., 1982), congruent with MCT theory, have been outlined by scholars at the request of the American Counseling Association (ACA) and are emphasized by the American School Couns eling Associations (ASCA) ethical standards. In order to be collaborative leaders and to positively influence academic outcomes for all students, school counselors must have the awareness, knowledge, and skills outlined by MCT and the multicultural compet encies to effectively work with lowincome, culturally diverse students and their families (ASCA, 2004; Sue et al.). Purpose of this study Using an online survey, this study will examine the relationship between school counselors multicultural knowledge and awareness and their likelihood of recommending students for remedial and advanced interventions based upon students culturally bound classroom behaviors. Research Questions 1 What is the relationship between school counselors multicultural knowledge and awareness and the following demographic factors: (a) gender, (b) age, (c) completion of a multicultural counseling course during training, (d) number of hours of multicultural training completed, (e) completion of a CACREP accredited program, (f) number of training hours completed in degree program, (g) most advanced educational degree, (h) type of counseling credential(s) obtained, (i) year of graduation from counseling program, (j) years of counseling experience, (k) years of middle school counseling ex perience, (l)

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21 amount of experience counseling culturally diverse students, (m) percentage of students at counselors school receiving free or reduced lunch, (n) employment at suburban, urban, or rural school, (o) size of the student population, (p) amount of diversity at counselor s school (ratios of student ethnicities), and (q) number of school counselors working at the counselors school? 2 How likely are school counselors to recommend students for advanced and remedial interventions based on students culturally bound behavioral styles? 3 What is the relationship between school counselors multicultural knowledge and awareness and their likelihood to r ecommend students for advanced and remedial interventions based on students culturally bound behavioral st yles? Hypotheses 1 There will be no relationship between school counselors multicultural knowledge and awareness and their: (a) gender, (b) age, (c) completion of a multicultural counseling course during training, (d) number of hours of multicultural training completed, (e) completion of a CACREP accredited program, (f) number of training hours completed in degree program, (g) most advanced educational degree, (h) type of counseling credential(s) obtained, (i) year of graduation from counseling program, (j) years of counseling experience, (k) years of middle school counseling experience, (l) amount of experience counseling culturally diverse students, (m) percentage of students at counselors school receiving free or reduced lunch, (n) employment at suburban, urban, or rural school, (o) size of the student population, (p) amount of diversity at counselors school (ratios of student ethnicities), and (q) number of school counselors working at the counselors school. 2 School counselors will be significantly mor e likely to recommend students displaying the Afrocultural behavior styles of communalism and verve for (a) low ability coursework, (b) testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services, and (c) behavioral remediation than students displaying the Eurocentric behavioral styles of individualism and competition. Additionally, counselors will be less likely to recommend students displaying the Afrocultural behavior styles of communalism and verve to be tested for gifted, talented, or advanced coursework than students displaying the Eurocentric behavioral styles of individualism and competition. 3 There will be no relationship between school counselors multicultural knowledge and awareness and their likelihood to recommend students for advanced and remedial interventions based on students culturally bound behavioral styles

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22 Definition of Terms ADVANCED COURSEWORK Coursework considered to be more rigorous and/or challenging than what is considered on grade level or average for a students developmental course level. Advanced coursework includes, but is not limited to: advanced or honors courses, International Baccalaureate (IB) placement, and advanced placement (AP) courses. AFRICAN AMERICAN C itizen or resident of the United States who has origins from any of the black populations of Africa. EUROPEAN AMERICAN Citizen or resident of the United States who has origins from Europe or is the descendant of European immigrants or colonists BEH AVIORAL REMEDIATION Consequences employed in response to behaviors deemed inappropriate in attempt to extinguish them. Common behavioral remediations used in schools include: detentions, suspensions, and expulsions. CULTURE Values, traditions, and beliefs mediating the behaviors of a particular social group (American Psychological Association, 2003). COMMUNALISM The perceived fundamental interdependence of people (Moemeka, 1998). Under communalism, a person acts in accordance with the notion that duty to his or her social group is more important than individual rights and privileges. (Boykin, 1986). COMPETITION Ones preoccupation with doing better than others (Boykin, 1983). CHRONIC UNDERACHIEVEM ENT Also coined the achievement gap. This term refers to the phenomenon that over the past several decades African American students, overall, tend to experience a lower educational attainment

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23 in terms of standardized tests, grades, and graduation rates, when compared to European American and Asian American students. This underachievement has persisted for decades. CULTURAL DISCONTINUIT Y A school based behavioral process where the cultural valuebased learning preferences and practices originating from home and/or parental socialization activiti es are discontinued at school. The term is primarily used by scholars when talking about culturally diverse students in U. S. public schools (Cholewa & West Olatunji, 2008; Tyler et al., 2008). CULTURALLY-BOUND BEHAVIOR A behavior which is learned throug h home and community socialization practices and manifested as a patterned/normative behavior. DISPROPORTIONALITY Referring to the phenomenon that certain groups of culturally diverse students are identified for special education programs and behavioral remediation at higher or lower rates than expected. EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE (ED ) A condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a childs educational performance: (a) an inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors, (b) an inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers, (c) inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances, (d) a general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression, or (e) a tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems. EXCEPTIONAL STUDENT E DUCATION (ESE)/SPECIAL EDUCATION Refers to a range of educational and social services provided by the public school system and other educational institutions to individuals with disabilities who are between three and 21 years of age.

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24 GIFTED/TALENTED PROGRAMS An academic program that caters to students who excel. Classes may either be in the form of more challenging, advanced courses or in the form of a regularly scheduled seminar that covers extracurricular material. INDIVIDUALISM Individualism refers to ones disposition toward fundamental auto nomy, independence, individual recognition, solitude, and the exclusion of others (Moemeka, 1998; Spence, 1985). LEARNING DISABILITIES (LD)/SPECIFIC LEARNING DI SABILITIES Refer to a group of disorders that affect a broad range of academic and functional skills including the ability to speak, listen, read, write, spell, reason and organize information. MILD MENTAL RETARDATI ON (MMR) A developmental disability that first appears in children under the age of 18. It is defined as an intellectual functioning level (as measured by standard tests for intelligence quotient) that is well below average, between 5075, and significant limitations in daily living skills (adaptive functioning). MULTICULTURAL AWARENES S B eing actively in process of becoming aware of assumptions about human behavior, values, biases, personal limitations, and preconceived notions MULTICULTURAL COUNSELING COMPETENC E Conceptual model developed originally from Sue et al.s (1982) multicultural counseling competency report. Theoretically, this model outlines the competencies a counselor should have in order to work effectively with diverse populations. These competencies consist of three distinct, yet interrelated components: awareness of ones own cultural socialization and accompanying bi ases, knowledge of the worldviews and value patterns of culturally diverse populations, and specific skills for intervention with these populations.

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25 MULTICULTURAL KNOWLE DGE A ctively attempting to understand the worldview of culturally different clients RACIAL/CULTURAL IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT THEORY (R/CID) Theory based on the idea that a sense of group identity based upon ones perceptions of a shared racial or cultural heritage exists in different statuses or developmental stages. RELATIONAL CULTURAL TH EORY (RCT) Developmental theory, credited to Jean Baker Miller (1976), based on the ideas that: (1) human growth and development occurs in connection with others, (2) that all people yearn for connection, and that (3) growthfostering relationships are c reated through mutual empathy and mutual empowerment. REMEDIAL COURSEWORK Coursework considered to be below grade level and less rigorous and/or challenging than expected for a students developmental course level. VERVE Boykin (1983) defined verve as the propensity for high levels of physical or sensate stimulation. This physical stimulation has been coined in terms of qualities of intensity or liveliness, variability, and density of stimulation. Significance of Study There is a lack of research exploring school counselors m ulticultural knowledge and awareness (Constantine, 2001, 2002; Constantine & Yeh, 2001). In particular, there is a need to explore multicultural knowledge and awareness and its relationship to school counselors likelihood to recom mend students for advanced and remedial interventions based on students culturally bound behaviors. This information may contribute to the understanding of the disproportionality of AfricanAmerican students in special education programs. To meet the expectations of the role of the 21st century

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26 counselor as a social justice advocate for socially marginalized students, counselors must demonstrate multicultural competence (Bemak, 2000; Bemak & Chung, 2005; Lee, 1995; Pedersen & Carey, 2003). T raining for mul ticultural awareness, knowledge, and skills can enhance counselor s ability to meet the challenges in todays schools. It is imperative that school counselors acquire the skills to provide consultation, leadership, and mediation within the school community (Amatea & West Olatunji, 2007; HolcombMcCoy, 2007; Martin, 2002; Stone & Clark, 2001). These skills provide them with tools enabling them to move from their gatekeeping role to becoming dreamkeepers for socially marginalized students. Limitations This st udy has several limitations based upon assessment materials and procedures, sampling, and research design. This study will be conducted using an online survey consisting of a demographic questionnaire, the Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness S cale (to assess multicultural counseling knowledge and awareness ), and the Student Vignette and Counselor Perception Scale (used to measure the likelihood that counselors will rec ommend students for advanced and remedial interventions based on the students culturally bound behaviors ). As with other measures of multicultural counseling competencies the MCKAS is conducted through self report and is therefore, self perceived knowledge and awareness rather than knowledge and awareness measured by clients rec eiving services or a thirdparty observer or expert. This is a limitation because it is not known how accurately this self report reflects actual multicultural knowledge and awareness Studies exploring self reported multicultural knowledge and awareness a nd its relations hip to how clients eval uate the multicultural knowledge and awareness of counselor s, as well as studies

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27 evaluating the multicultural knowledge and awareness of counselors by a thirdparty and comparing it to self reports of multicultural kn owledge and awareness would serve to further validate self report measures of multicultural compe tencies The Student Vignette and Counselor Perception Scale will be created by the researcher for this study. This is a limitation as little is known about the reliability and validity of this measure beyond the pilot study that will be conducted. A limitation in sampling exists because American School Counseling Association (ASCA) members will be solicited for voluntary participation. This could bias the sample because participants who volunteer may have particular interest in the topic, need access to the internet and must be technologically savvy enough to respond to online questionnaires. Additionally, p articipants could have been cued to the purpose of the study and, thus, biased their answers to appear more socially desirable. Lastly, there are limitations associated with the research design. T his study uses a correlational research design and captur es data at only one point in time. The inability of cor relational designs to determine causality between related variables is a limitation Additionally, there are possible history threats to validity associated with collecting data at only one point in time.

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28 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW The purpose of this ch apter is to present an overview of the scholarly literature and research relevant to my study. A review of literature pertaining to the following topics will be presented: (a) chro nic underachievement of AfricanAmerican students (b) African American chil dren and learning, (c) cultural discontinuity, chronic underachievement, and the role of the school counselor (d) the history of interventions for chronic underachievement and (e) Multicultural Counseling and Therapy (MCT) and school counselors. This chap ter will conclude with a summary. Chronic Underachievement of African American Students Chronic underachievement, as characterized by disproportionate placement of low income AfricanAmerican students in low ability coursework (Harris, Brown, Ford & Richar dson, 2004; Haycock, 2001; Lee, 2002; Lucas, 1999; Mickelson & Heath, 1999; Oakes, 1990, 1993, 1994, 2005), special education programs ( National Alliance of Black School Educators [NABSE], 2003; National Research Council, 2002; Office of Civil Rights, 1994 ), and behavioral remediation (Childrens Defense Fund, 2003; Harry & Klingner, 2006; National Center for Education Statistics [NCES], 2007; Townsend, 200 0 200 2 ) persist s despite various efforts to address these problems. In addition, African American students are underrepresented in gifted and talented programs and advanced coursework (Ford, 1996 199 8 ; Ford & Harris, 1999; Ford & Webb, 1994; National Research Council, 2002; Patton, 1992; Perry, Steele & Hilliard, 2003; U. S. Department of Education [USDE ], 199 9 ). Although different factors have been investigated, some scholars cite low expectations and the subsequent low ability tracking of low income, culturally diverse students as significant contributors to chronic

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29 underachievement for this student population (Bemak & Chung, 2005; Ford, Harris, Tyson & Trotman, 200 2 ; Harris, Brown, Ford & Richardson; Haycock; Lee; Mickelson & Heath; Oakes, 1990). U. S. public schools have a history of ability tracking that dates back to the turn of the twentieth century and compulsory education laws (Oakes, 2005). Tracking increased greatly in the 1920s and 1930s correlating with an influx of immigrants to the United States ( Harris, Brown, Ford & Richardson, 2004; O akes & Guiton, 1995). Believed to be a means of prepar ing a diversifying population of immigrant, rural, and urban children for participation in the workforce, tracking separated students by their abilities and likely future occupations (Oakes, 1993). While formal tracking programs have disappeared, in many s chools students are still sorted into different class levels base d on their perceived abilities Some existing tracking practices include: (a) ability grouping elementary students within and across subjects or in self contained ability homogenous classroom s, (b) scheduling junior high school students class by class based upon perceived ability or in blocks of classes based upon a general measure of ability, and (c) enrolling senior high school students in courses that follow a curricular trajectory towards various postsecondary destinations, such as entering the workforce (high school as a terminal degree), vocational school, and university (Epple, Newlon & Romano, 2002; Mickelson & Heath, 1999; Oakes, 2005). These practices disadvantage those students plac ed in low abilit y classes because they have diminished access to highstatus knowledge, fewer opportunities to engage in stimulating learning opportunities, and are more likely to feel alienated by the educational process ( Mickelson & Heath, 1999; Oakes 2 005 ) Additionally, once a

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30 student has been placed in low ability classes or a vocational track it becomes increasingly difficult to change this trajectory and advance to college bound courses or an academic track ( Harris, Brown, Ford & Richardson, 2004 ). While highability tracking may benefit some learners, several s t udies reveal that tracking often greatly hinders those perceived as midand low ability students from opportunities to learn and excel p articularly lowincome, AfricanAmerican, and Latino students ( Mickelson & Heath; Oakes). Tracking practices in education are detrimental to culturally diverse and low income students because they are often done across racial/ethnic and social class lines with these students disproportionately placed in low ability classes (Mickelson & Heath; Oakes ). This disproportionality is also present in remedial special education programs, where lowincome, culturally diverse students are overrepresented. There is a long history of the overrepresentation of culturally diverse students in special education programs such as: severe emotional disturbance (SED), mild mental retardation (MMR), and specific learning disabilities (LD), that can be traced back to educational segregation and discrimination (Artiles, Harry, Reschly & Chinn, 2002; Artiles & Trent, 1994; Artiles, Trent, & Palmer, 2004; Donovan & Cross, 2002; Harry & Klingner, 2006; Hilliard, 1992; Patton, 1992 199 8 ; Russo & Talbert Johnson, 1997; Skiba et al., 2006; Skiba et al., 2008). African American students re present about 16% of the public school population but 27% of all students classified as trainable mentally retarded or seriously emotionally disturbed (Childrens Defense Fund, 2003). As a group, AfricanAmerican students constituted roughly 14.8% of publi c school enrollment in 1998. Yet, compared to their White counterparts, they were disproportionately identified and placed in categories such as mental retardation, specific learning

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3 1 disability, and emotional disturbance at rates of 18.9%, 45.2%, and 10.7% respectively (NCES, 2002). In 2004, six percent of AfricanAmerican, as compared to four percent of White and two percent of Asian/Pacific Islander 6to 21year olds were identified as having a specific learning disability. American Indians/Alaska Nativ es also have a high rate of identification for specific learning disabilities at eight percent (NCES, 2007). This disproportionality sets students onto a trajectory of low achievement by removing them from core curriculum and academically rigorous coursework (Markowitz, Garcia & Eichelberger, 1997; Townsend, 2000). S uch discouraging schooling experiences can fuel disengagement from the academic process and even lead to drop out ( Townsend; West Olatunji, Baker & Brooks, 2006) This is especially discouraging for students who are misplaced due to inadequacies in the referral process and/or a lack of cultural understanding by educators (Patton, 1998). Along with the issue of disproportionality i n special education for AfricanAmerican students i s the disproport ionality with which they are subjected to behavioral remediation, such as suspensions and expulsions. In 2003, African American students constituted 17.2% of public school enrollment. Collectively, they were expelled, suspended, and were subjects of corpor al punishment at rates of 23%, 21%, and 27% respectively (NCES, 2007). The Childrens Defense Fund (2003) found that African American students constituted 30% of all students expelled and 31% of those who have received corporal punishment. Studies show tha t A frican American students receive more severe punishments and are more often suspended and for longer durations than their White counterparts ( Cartledge, Tillman & Talbert Johnson, 2001; Harry & Klingner, 2006; Skiba Peterson & Williams, 1997).

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32 These ki nds of exclusionary practices cause students to be excluded from school setti ngs and curriculum, creating vicious cycles of lowered expectations by educators resulting in chronic underachievement (Harry & Klingner ; Townsend, 2000 200 2 ). Acting out behavi ors can be the result of gifted students seeking attention or a lack of intellectual stimulation th at is missing from their classrooms (Ford 1994, 1996; Gay, 2000). Unfortunately, gifted AfricanAmerican students often fail to be appropriately identified a nd properly placed ( Elhoweris, Mutua, Alsheikh & Holloway, 2005; Ford, 1994, 1998; Ford & Harris, 1999; Ford, Harris, Tyson & Trotman, 2002; Patton 1992, 1995; Patton, Prillaman, & VanTasselBaska, 1990). African American students are about half as likely t o be placed in gifted, talented, and advanced courses as their middle class White counterparts (Childrens Defense Fund, 2003; National Research Council, 2002). While African American students comprised 17% of the U.S. school population in 1998, they compr ised only 7.4% of the students in gifte d education programs (NCES, 2001). More recent statistics a pproximate that 7.5% and 10% of White and Asian students, respectively, were identified for placement in gifted programs. Yet, only about 3% and 3.5% of Afric anAmerican and Hispanic students we re identified as gifted (Information Center on Disabilities and Gifted Education, 2003). Various explanations have been offered to explain gifted und errepresentation for African American students One such explanation points to the failure of educators to appropriately identify and refer gifted AfricanAmerican children who differ culturally from their middle class White counterparts (Ford, Harris, Tyson & Trotman, 2002; Patton 1992, 1995; Patton, Pri llaman, & VanTasselB aska, 1990). School counselors are

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33 often involved in the referral process for special education programs, including gifted and talented programs (Amatea & West Olatunji, 2007; Carpenter, King Sears & Keys, 1998; Keys, Bemak, Carpenter & King Sears, 1998). Thus, they have been viewed as gatekeepers and contributors to the disproportionality issue (Bemak, 2000; Bemak & Chung, 2005; Lee, 1998). The cultural expectations and behaviors surrounding the learning that low income African American students bring to classrooms often create cultural mismatches within schools (Gay, 2000; LadsonBillings, 2005; Murrell, 2002; Nieto, 1999, 2004). This mismatch has been cited as an explanation for much of the chronic underachievement ex perienced by low income AfricanAmeri can students, exemplified in their disproportional placement in low ability coursework special education programs behavioral remediation, and gifted education. L earning expectations typical of many African American children are discussed in the following section. African American Children and Learning Congruent with their h ome socialization, many AfricanAmerican chil dren bring a host of culturally bound expectations about learning into the classroom. In particular, these preferences and behaviors are bel ieved to exist within a set of cultural values and traditions consistent with an AfricanAmerican cultural worldview (Boykin, 1986). This includes a preference for stimulating learning environments that involve collaboration, variability, movement, affecti ve learning, and creativity (Hale, 2001; HaleBenson, 1986; Gay, 2000; Tyler, Boykin, Miller & Hurley, 2006; Tyler et al., 2008). Wade Boykin, professor of psychology at Howard University, and Kenneth Tyler, associate professor of educational psychology at University of Kentucky, along with various colleagues have spent over three decades investigating the link between culture

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34 and academic achievement for AfricanAmerican children. This research has advanced the argument that cultural values influence the behavioral, thought, and interactional patterns of many African Americans E vidence has been found for the presence of three specific cultural values in the home socialization of many low income AfricanAmerican families : communalism, verve, and movement ( Tyler et al., 2008). This is in contrast to the cultural values embedded in U.S. school s that reflect individualism, competition, and other Eurocentric orientations ( Boykin, Tyler & Miller, 2005; Gay, 2000; Nieto, 2004). This cultural discontinuity has bee n cit ed as a contributing factor to the low expectations some educators have for the academic aptitude and achievement of low income African American students. These low expectations have been linked to the chronic underachievement of low income, culturall y diverse students (Bemak & Chung, 2005; For d, Harris, Tyson & Trotman, 2002; Harris, Brown, Ford & Richardson, 2004; Haycock, 2001; Lee, 2002; Mickelson & Heath, 1999; Oakes, 1990). Low income AfricanAmerican children tend to prefer collaborative, active, and engaging learning environments (Hale, 2001; HaleBenson, 1986; Tyler, Boykin, Miller & Hurley, 2006) typifying the Afrocultural learning styles of communalism and verve (Gay, 2000; Tyler et al., 2008). This is likely because low income African Ameri can children tend to be socialized at home with communalism and verve as embedded values and practices ( Bailey & Boykin, 2001; Bell, 2001; Boykin, 1982; Boykin & Bailey, 2000; Franklin, 1992; HaleBenson, 1986; Miller, 1997; Morgan, 1980; Tyler, 2002, 1999; Tyler, Boykin, Boelter & Dillihunt, 2005 ). Communalism has been defined as the perceived fundamental interdependence of people. It is a cultural value and social orientation which counters individualism, as it focuses on the welfare of the group, as

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35 opposed to the pursuits and goals of individual group members (Moemeka, 1998). For the purposes of this study, communalism is operationalized as behaviors in accordance with the valuing of duty to ones social group as more important than individual rights and privileges. Boykin (1983) defined verve as the preference for high levels of physical or sensate stimulation. This physical stimulation has been conceptualized in terms of three qualities : intensity or liveliness, variability, and density of stimulation. Intensity or liveliness refers to the level of stimulation, variability refers to the amount of changeability or alternation between activities or stimuli in the environment and density refers to the number of stimulus elements or activities that are occurring in the environment, as well as the number of stimulus elements or activities being engaged in simultaneously. High levels of these three qualities are descriptive of verve. Several studies have been conducted to assess the presence of cultural themes in the lives of low income African Americans. Much of the scholarship on the home socialization of African American children and their families indicate the presence of communalism and verve (Bell, 2001; Boykin, 1983; Boykin & Bailey, 2000; HaleBenson, 1986; Morgan, 1980; Tyler, 1999, 2002; Tyler, Boykin, Boelter & Dillihunt, 2005; Tyler, Boykin, Miller & Hurley, 2006). Bells ( 2001) qualitati ve work with low income AfricanAmerican mothers uncovered communal practices in their daily household activities. Similar results were found in two studies conducted by Tyler (1999, 2002) exploring the home socialization of AfricanAmerican elementary and college students. Through qualitative analysis he found these students home socialization consisted of more ex periences related to communalism than individualism. Boykin and

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36 Bailey (2000) indicated the presence of verve in the home env ironments of low income African American children. This was depicted in the childrens description of regular family participation in lively and high stimulation activities, frequent alternation between activities, and engagement or observation of multiple activities simultaneously. Following the establishment of precedence for the presence of communalism and verve within low income African American families, quantitative studies utilizing surveys depicting various cultural themes have been used to investigate the home behaviors of low income AfricanAmerican parents (Tyler, Boykin, Boelter & Dillihunt, 2005). In Tyler, Boykin, Boelter, and Dillihunts study surveys were administered to a sample of 71 parents with scenarios depicting four distinct cultural themes: communalism, verve, individualism, and competition. Communalism and verve contrasted the Eurocentric mainstream behaviors o f individualism and competition. Home behaviors conceptualized as communal included: acts of sharing, helping with household chores, and children doing homework together. Home behaviors such as: performing routine activities in different ways, having backg round noise like a television or music playing in the house, and engaging in multiple activities or having different things going on at the same time were identified as vervistic. Individualistic behaviors included performing tasks and finding solutions to problems independently and encouraging or praising an individual for his/her independent work. Attempting to do things better than others, playing games to see who gets the best or right solution to a problem, and rewarding children for doing the best or fastest work were viewed as competitive behaviors. This sample of parents reported endorsing and practicing the Afrocultural behaviors of communalism and verve significantly more than individualistic or competitive behaviors.

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37 Similar findings were the res ult of a study by Tyler, Boykin, Miller, and Hurley (2006) investigating the cultural preferences and soci alization of lowincome AfricanAmerican fourth graders. Among a sample of 81 students, a preference and socialization toward communal and vervistic p ractices were significantly higher than individualistic and competitive practices. These preferences in behavior were investigated utilizing surveys featuring hypothetical vignettes of behaviors typical of each of the referenced Eurocentric and Afrocultural behaviors. The vignettes were developed by Boykin, Tyler, and Miller (2005) as a result of their investigation of cultural themes in classr ooms serving low income AfricanAmerican students. Student preferences at school and at home reflected a favoring of Afrocultural behaviors Additionally, students reported getting into more trouble at home for employing individualistic and competitive behaviors, as compared to communal and vervistic behaviors. This was consistent with s tudents perception that their parents preferred communal and vervistic behaviors. On the contrary, students reported getting into more trouble at school for employing communal and vervistic behaviors over individualistic and competitive behaviors and perceived their teachers preference for individualistic behaviors over communal and vervistic behaviors. They also perceived their teachers preference for competitive behaviors over vervistic behaviors but not communal behaviors. Despite the students perception that teachers prefer Eurocentric behaviors in the classroom, this study emphasizes the preference low income AfricanAmerican students often have for communal and vervistic activity at both home and school.

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38 Studies consistently conclude that many AfricanAmerican children display higher motivation and achievement when communalism and verve are embedded in the learning context ( Albury, 1993; Allen & Butler, 1996; Allen & Boykin, 1992; Bailey & Boykin, 2001; Bailey & Walton, 1994; Boykin, 1979, 1982; Boykin & Allen, 2000; Boykin, Allen, Davis & Senior, 1997; Boykin, Lilja & Tyler, 2004; Dill & Boykin, 2000; Tharp & Gallimore, 1989; Tuck & Boykin, 1989). In Alburys (1993) study, 96 low income African American and EuropeanAmerican students from an inner city school district in Baltim ore were asked to complete a vocabulary learning task in communal and individu alistic conditions. The AfricanAmerican students performed significantly better in the communal lear ning context while the EuropeanAmerican students performed better in the individualistic context. Further investigations have presented similar findings. For instance, Dill and Boykin (2000) found that both the encoding and inferencing reading comprehension of fifth grade low income AfricanAmerican students was higher when students were involved in peer tutoring in a communal, unscripted manner as compared to when they studied individually or in pairs following scripted directions. A more recent studys findings reveal that fourth and fifth grade AfricanAmerican students perform ed better on a geography test when studying in groups than when studying alone (Boykin, Lilja & Tyler, 2004). As further exploration of the connection between student achievement and cultural context, several studies demonstrate the enhanced motivation and achievement of African American students under vervistic learning conditions. For example, Bailey and Boykins (2001) replication of a past study by Tuck and Boykin (1989), utilizing the academically relevant learning tasks of spelling, vocabulary, mathem atics, and picture-

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39 sequencing produced similar results to the original study. Motivation and academic performance were significantly higher for all four learning tasks in the highvariability context, as compared to the low variability context. It also revealed a positive correlation between a highvariability of activity (i.e. the presence of verve) in the home and a greater preference for and increased motivation in learning tasks with highvariability. This suggests these students prefer and are more mo tivated when cultural congruence exists between their home and school contexts. A similar study by Boykin and Bailey (2000) found that a s ample of 192 low income AfricanAmerican third and sixth grade students performed best on four experimental problem so lving tasks: color matching, listening, schema reproduction, and visual scanning in a highvariability context with background music playing and performed worst in a low variability context without background music. Results of a study by Allen and Butler (1996) are congruent with the results of the aforementioned studies. I n this study low income AfricanAmerican and middleincome White students were read stories under two conditions that differed in the degree to which movement and music were integrated w ith the presentation of the stories. One condition allowed for children to coordinate movement with a musical accompaniment while listening to the stories, while the other condition allowed for little movement opportunity and no music was played. Performance was measured via a multiplechoice test designed to assess the amount of information the children processed about the stories. African American students performed best in the condition with coordinated movements to music and White students performed bes t in the condition with little movement and no music.

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40 In addition to studying the cultural values present in th e home socialization of African American families, Boykin and colleagues have examined the effects of incorporating aspects of these cultural values and experiences in formal and experimental learning settings. A consistent finding in these studies is that low in come African American students perform at optimal achievement levels when classroom assignments build on the cultural values already imbe dded in their home and family lives (Bailey & Boykin, 2001; Boykin, 1983, 1986; Boykin & Cunningham, 2001; Boykin, Lilja, & Tyler, 2004). Such achievement outcomes have been found among various tasks across a range of subjects, including: language arts, re ading, mathematics, and social sciences. These studies provide a breadth of evidence for the preference, increased motivation, and increased academic performance of low income AfricanAmerican students in learning contexts where communalism, verve, and movement are embedded values and practices ( Allen & Butler, 1996; Bell & Clark, 1998; Boykin et al., 2005; Hale, 2001; Marryshow, 1995; Sankofa et al, 2005) In Boykin and Baileys (2000) meta analysis of cultural learning studies, they conclude that while E uropeanAmerica n students outperformed AfricanAmerican students in contexts where Afrocultural them es were not emphasized, AfricanAmerican children outperformed EuropeanAmerican students when Afrocultural themes and practices were embedded in the learni ng contexts. Scholarship suggests this enhanced performance is because these Afrocultural contexts are familiar and linked to regularly occurring events and activities within culturally structured home environments for these students (Boykin & Bailey, 2000; Bailey & Boykin; Boykin, Lilja & Tyler; Hale, 2001; HaleBenson, 1986). This

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41 provides rationale for the increased motivation and achievement of these students in Afrocultural learning contexts, as these experiences are salient and cultural ly appropriate for many AfricanAmerican children. While many studies on student learning preferences and achievement confound class and culture by examining a nd comparing low income AfricanAme rican and middle class European American students, studies that control for c lass differences by comparing low income AfricanAmerican and low income EuropeanAmerican students provide further support for the existence of distinct cultural learning preferences (Albury, 1993; Boykin et al., 2005; Tuck & Boykin, 1989). While the pres ent study focuses on an intersection of the class and culture of low income AfricanAmerican students, emerging scholarship and research suggest that similarly disproportionate educati onal outcomes exist for African American students across class/socioecon omic statuses (Perry, Steele, Hilliard, 2003). For school counselors and other educators t o work effectively with African American students of any class background, they must have knowledge of African American culture, including an awareness of the histori cal and sociopolitical contexts of culture and skills to utilize culture in their conceptualizations and interventions (Lee, 1995; Pedersen & Carey, 2003). Cultural Discontinuity, Chronic Underachievement, and the Role of the School Counselor Cultural dis continuity within the educational system has been proposed as a contributing factor to chronic underachievement and disproportionality between low income, culturally diverse students and their more privileged White peers ( Cholewa & West Olatunji, 2008; Gay 2000; Hale, 2001; King, 2004; Nieto, 2004). Cultural discontinuity is poor conceptualization of culturally diverse students behaviors,

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42 attitudes, and expectations of learning by educators using a Eurocentric lens to assess and intervene for remediation or advancement. Cultural misunderstandings and hegemony present in the imposition of mainstream/Euroce ntric values embedded in the U. S. ed ucational system have been proposed as contributing factor s in the overrepresentation of Afri can American students in low ability coursework ( Harris, Br own, Ford & Richardson, 2004; Mickelson & Heath, 1999; Nieto, 2004; Oakes 1990, 1993, 1994, 2005), special education programs such as: specific learning disabilities (LD), severe emotional disturbance (SED) and mild ment al retardation (MMR) ( Blanchett, 2006; Harris, Brown, Ford & Richardson, 2004; Harry & Klingner, 2006; Losen & Orfield, 2002; Patton, 1998; Russo & Talbert Johnson, 1997; Zhang & Katsiyannis, 2002) and behavioral remediation ( Cartledge, Tillman & Talbert Johnson, 2001; Neal, McCray, Webb Johnson & Bridgest, 2003; Perry, Steele & Hilliard, 2003; Skiba et al., 2002; Townsend, 2000, 2002), as well as their underrepresentation in gifted/talented programs and advanced coursework (Ford, 1996, 1998; Ford & Harris 1999; Ford, Harris, Tyson & Trotman; Ford & Webb, 1994; Harris, Brown, Ford & Richardson, 2004; Patton, 1992, 1995; Perry, Steele & Hilliard) Scholars propose that cultural di scontinuity exists between many low income, culturally diverse students home experiences and their classroom based learning and social experiences (Deyhle, 1995; Foster & Peele, 1999; Gay, 2000; LadsonBillings, 2005; Murrell, 2002; Ndura, 2004; Nieto, 1999; Parsons, 2001, 2003; Parsons, Travis, & Simpson, 2005; SolanoFlores & Ne lson Barber, 2001; WebbJohnson, 2003). Recent efforts in the form of standards based educational reforms claim to focus on establishing educational equity for all students, particularly efforts to reduce the chronic

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43 underachievement of lowincome, culturally diverse students ( Daniels, 1998; Perry, Steele & Hilliard, 1993). This is congruent with the vision of the role of 21st century counselors as leaders and collaborative partners for educational equity within their schools (Amatea & West Olatunji, 2007; Bemak, 2000; Bemak & Chung, 2005; House & Hayes, 2002; Paisley & McMahon, 2001). Cultural Discontinuity and the Chronic Underachievement of African American Students Studies of student achievement and ethnicity indicate that African American, LatinoAmeric an, and Native American students generally have lower achievement than White and Asian students ( Haycock, 2001; Lee, 2002 ; NCES, 2007). Negative or low teacher expectations of culturally diverse students are thought to be contributing factors to this pheno menon as well as the imposition of Eurocentric/mainstream culture. R esearch suggests teachers expectations for student achievement are positively correlated with their perceptions of whether students adhere to mainstream cultural value based behaviors while at school (Boykin, Tyler, Watkins Lewis, & Kizzie, 2006; Delpit, 1995; Hollins & Spencer, 1990; Tyler, Boykin & Walton, 2006 ). N egative and low expectations of African American students are considered in relation to several factors including differences in: l earning styles and behaviors ( Hale, 2001; Nieto, 2004; Tyler, Boykin & Walton, language forms (Craig & Washington, 2006; Foster & Peele, 1999; Perry & Delpit, 1998), and behavioral and movement styles ( Neal, McCray, WebbJohnson & Bridgest, 2003; Sh ade & New, 1993). For these students, the incongruence between their school and home cultures creates misunderstandings that can lead to their misplacement in lower tracks and remedial special education (Brown, 2004; Cummins, 1996; Delpit, 1995; Ford et al ., 2002; Gay).

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44 Studies by Tyler, Boykin, and Walton (2006) and Irvine (1990) illustrate the potential impact of culture on teacher expectations. Tyler, Boykin, and Walton examined if there was a link between teachers perceptions of students adherence to certain cultural bound learning behaviors and teachers expectations for student achievement and motivation. Teachers read scenarios of hypothetical students who depicted behaviors typical of Eurocentric/mainstream culture, competition and individualism, or behaviors congruent with an Afrocultural ethos, verve and communalism. Teachers were then asked to rate the motivation and achievement of the hypothetical students as if they were students in their own classroom. Results concluded that teachers in the st udy perceived students displaying competitive and individualistic behaviors as significantly more capable of achieving and more motivated than students displaying vervistic and communal behaviors. Irvine observed that when African American students behaved in ways consistent with their culture, as opposed to Eurocentric/mainstream culture, teachers tended to perceive these students as aggressive, low achieving and potential candidates for special education programs. In contrast to the cultural styles typif yi ng AfricanAmerican culture, U. S. public schools are places that have Eurocentric values embedded in the env ironment (Boykin, Tyler & Miller, 2005; Gay, 2000; Nieto, 2004). These values include: individual praise (Lerman, 2000), competition (Boykin, Tyler & Miller; Gay), individuali sm (Boykin, Tyler & Miller ) and linear thinking and communication patterns (H ale Benson, 1986; Swartz, 2004) Individual praise is closely linked to the values of individualism and competition, as an individual is recognized f or her/his work independent of the group. Individualism refers to ones disposition toward fundamental autonomy, independence, individual

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45 recognition, solitude, and the exclusion of others (Moemeka, 1998; Spence, 1985). Competition refers to ones preoccup ation with doing better than others (Boykin, 1983). Linear thinking and communication is conceptualized as rationale, analytical thought and speech in patterns that are predictable and known (HaleBenson, 1986). Teachers often use learning styles in the cl assroom that are typical of a Eurocentric/mainstream cultural ethos (Boykin, Tyler & Miller, 2005 ; Boykin, Tyler, Walkins Lewis & Kizzie, 2006 ; & Walton, 2006 ; Webb Johnson, 2002). For example, i n a study by Boykin, Tyler, Watkins Lewis, and Kizzie 81 teac hers from two public schools serving lowincome communities were asked to complete a questionnaire with questions exploring the cultural context under which they perform and ask students to perform various traditional classroom behaviors and activities. The Cultural Classroom Practices Questionnaire assessed how often teachers endorsed culturebased classroom practices under four cultural orientations: individualistic, competitive, communal, and vervistic. Results show that teachers reported significantly higher deployment of classroom practices reflecting the Eurocentric orientations of individualism and competition than the Afrocultural orientations of communalism and verve. A qualitative study by Boykin, Tyler, and Miller (2005) also found a predominance of classroom activity occurring under a Eurocentric cultural ethos, when compared to an Afrocultural ethos. This study explored the existence of cultural themes in classr ooms serving lowincome AfricanAmerican students. Four hundred sixty observations of behaviors in the classroom were specified under either a mainstream or Afrocultural ethos. Three hundred eighty one of these observations were in reference to the three

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46 Eurocentric/mainstream themes: individualism, competition, and bureaucracy orientation. Only 48 of the remaining observations were in reference to the three Afrocultural themes: movement, verve, and communalism. The researchers conclude this study provides evidence of the cultural misalignment between home and school for this population of s tudents. Providing further evidence of this mismatch, another qualitative study by Webb Johnson (2002) describes the culturally sanctioned behaviors of AfricanAmerican students in a small urban elementary school and teachers practices in the classroom. S tudents in the study displayed all nine dimensions of Af rican American life: spirituality, harmony, movement, verve, affect, communalism, expressive individualism, oral tradition, and social time perspective ( Boykin, 1983). Field notes from the study reveal that students were most often engaged in academic work that was done quietly and independently more typical of a mainstream cultural ethos The researcher also concluded that teacher responses to students Afrocultural behaviors w ere often negative, wit h AfricanAmerican students receiving more negative attention than White students as a result of these behaviors. In addition to findings that teachers favor Eurocentric classroom learning styles, research and theory suggest classroom infrastructures and practices in public schools often reinforce the mainstream cultural themes of competition and individualism (Boykin & Miller, 1997; Johnson, 1982; Johnson, 1994). Johnson (1982) found in his analysis of U. S. public classrooms that as students progress through lower to middle and upper grade levels, the conditioning of students to sociocultural norms of independence, autonomy, and competition increases. This is evident in the organization of the desks

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47 and other spatial arrangements that dictate the predominan t types of interactions and activities done in these settings. Although he found spatial arrangements more predictive of group and communal learning in lower grade levels, by sixth grade and through high school a significant difference in classroom and des k organization was found that facilitated an increase in competitive and independent work. As a result of the imposition of mainstream cultural values in the classroom, research has shown that many students are placed in situations where adherence to mains tream cultural value based behaviors are directly related to teachers high expectations of student academic aptitude and motivation (Boykin, Tyler & Miller, 2005; Tyler, Boykin & Walton, 2006; Tyler, Boykin, Miller, & Hurley, 2006). In Tyler and his colle agues study 62 elementary teachers read scenarios of hypothetical students who displayed behaviors congruent with a Eurocentric /mainstream cultural ethos ( individualism and competition) or an Afrocultural ethos ( communalism and verve) Teachers then rated students motivation and achievement as if they were students in their classroom. Motivation and achievement ratings were significantly higher for students displaying individualism and competition, as compared to students displaying communal or vervistic behaviors. Results from these studies and related scholarship provide evidence of teachers preference for Eurocentric /mainstream behaviors in the classroom, as well as the presence of culturally bound expectations and biases that likely contribute to the chronic underachievement of AfricanAmerican and other culturally diverse students. Other scholars and researchers concl ude that students using AfricanAmerican English (AAE), a l anguage form typical of AfricanAmerican culture, were viewed as less educationally

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48 capable by educators (Craig & Washi ngton, 2006; Delpit, 1995; Perry & Delpit, 1998). T his kind of cultural bias can result in the misplacement of AfricanAmerican students in remedial and special education programs and in the failure to identify gifted an d academically talented AfricanAmerican students for gifted/talented programs or challenging, advanced coursework. In her book, Other Peoples C hildren, Delpit (1995) concludes that not only does the failure of many teachers to identify AAE as a valid dialect and language form likely cause students to be mis placed in remedial programs but it also impacts students motivation for learning to read. A study by Cunningham (1976) illustrates what Delpit calls teachers confusing the teaching of reading with the teaching of a new dialect form (p. 58). He explains how many teachers will consistently correct students speaking in AAE and prompt them to read in standard English. In his study w ith teachers from across the U. S., teachers corrected dialect rel ated reading miscues 78% of the time and nondialect related reading miscues only 27% of the time. This supports Delpits assertion that teachers often correct the dialect influenced pronunciation and grammar while ignoring the comprehension the student mus t have in order to translate the standard English text into her/his own dialect. For many students this sends the message that their dialect and culture is not valid or valued. In addition to the cultural misunderstandings educators often have in regards to learning styles and language forms typical of Afric anAmerican culture, studies show behavioral and mov ement styles typical of AfricanAmerican culture may also create misunderstandings and contribute to underachievement and disproportionality issues. N eal, McCray, WebbJohnson, and Bridgest (2003) investigated teachers perceptions

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49 of students displaying mov ement styles typical of AfricanAmerican culture and students displaying movement styles typical of mainstream culture. Mov ement and individual expr ession are dimensions of AfricanAmerican culture (Boykin, 1983). Thus movement styles typical of African American culture are evident in a nonstandard walking style, characterized as a deliberately swaggered or bent posture, with the head held slightly t ilted to the side, one foot dragging, and an exaggerated knee bend (dip). A standard walking style used primarily among EuropeanAmerican students, was defined as an erect posture with leg and arm swing synchronized with posture and pace, a steady stride, and a straight head (Neal, 1997). Participating teachers watched video of fo ur students walking: an AfricanAmerican student walking in the nonstandard style, an AfricanAmerican student walking in the standard style, a White student walking in the nonst andard style, and a White student walking in the standard style. Teachers were then asked to complete a survey detailing their perceptions of each students achievement level, aggression level, and need for special education services. R esults of the study indicated th at teachers perceived students w ith the nonstandard walking style as lower achieving higher in aggression, and more likely to need special education services than students displaying the standard walking style. This further illustrates the pot ential link between cultural discontinuity expectations of educators and chronic underachievement and disproportionality i n special education for AfricanAmerican students. T his disproportionality includes an underrepresentation in gifted and talented p rograms, as well. T alent sorting of students is often done along race, class, and cultural lines. Those students not schooled in the mainstream cultural mores often fail to

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50 be identified as gifted, advanced, or talented (Boykin, 2000). Student ethnicity has been found to be a significant predictor of teacher recommendation for gifted/talented placement testing. Two hundred seven elementary teachers from a large Midwestern city participated in a study by Elhoweris, Mutua, Alsheikh and Holloway (2005). All participants were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions and provided with a short case vignette describing a gifted child. One third of the teachers read a vignette describing a EuropeanAmerican student, one third read a vignette describing an AfricanAmerican student, and one third served as a control group and received no information about the students ethnicity. After reading the vignette, all participants were asked how likely they would be to recommend the hypothetical student for gift ed/talented testing and services. The results of this study indicated that the students ethnicity did make a difference in the teachers referral decisions. T hese teachers were significantly less likely to recommend an AfricanAmerican student be tested f or gifted/talented placement than a student of which the ethnicity was unknown. This phenomenon likely contributes to the underrepresentation of African American students in gifted/talented program s, as many student placements into these programs originate from teacher recommendations. Educational Equity and the Role of the School Counselor As a res ponse to the persistent chronic underachievement and overrepresentation of African American and other culturally diverse students in U. S. public educational sett ings, several education reform initiatives have sought to investigate and intervene. Subsequently, educators are charged with the great responsibility of striving for educational equity and facilitating the academic achievement of all students. C hronic und erachievement and disproportionality issues present challenges for educators While

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51 research has explored teachers perceptions of students culturally bound classroom behaviors, there remains a dearth of research and knowledge regarding school counselors perceptions of students culturally bound classroom behaviors and counselors competence in working with culturally diverse students (Constantine, 2001) This is concerning since scholars have suggested that many school counselors act as gatekeepers and c ontribute to the status quo of chronic underachievement and disproportionality of cult urally diverse and low income students (Bemak, 2000; Bemak & Chung, 2005; Lee, 1998) Beginning with the national Transforming School C ounseling Initiative (TSCI) there have been systematic attempts to examine and redefine the role of the school counselor as a means of contributing to educational equity for all students. American School Counseling Association (ASCA) National Model ( 2003) calls for school counseling progr ams to be an integral part of students daily educational environment and for school counselors to be collaborative partners in student achievement. ASCA has worked to create standards placing school counselors at the center of the education reform movement. This role includes leadership within the school to improve curriculum and instruction and advocacy for equal opportunity and access to a quality education for all students (Herring, 1997; House and Martin 1998; Keys, Bemak & Lockhart, 1998; Martin, 2002; Stone & Clark, 2001). S chool counselors are well positioned to tackle issues of equity, access, and supporting conditions for student success through advocacy of traditionally underserved students (Martin, 2002; Oakes, 2005) T hey receive data about stud ent achievement, community conditions, and reports of school failure and receive relevant training in

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52 counseling, education, group dynamics, human development, and systems theory (Holcomb McCoy, 2007). Thus, they are in a unique position to assume leadership roles in schools to reduc e academic inequality (Bemak, Chung & Siroskey Sabdo, 2005; Martin, 2002) Unfortunately, some scholars theorize that many school counselors are not prepared to provide such leadership ( Constantine, 2001; Martin ) when they remai n silent and maintain the status quo of inequity (HolcombMcCoy ). Although there is little research examining the multicultural competence of school counselors, there is concern that in working with culturally diverse students, some school counselors may be providing services that extend beyond their current level of expertise (Constantine, 2002; Hobson & Kanitz, 1996). E merging scholarship on the role of the 21st century counselor may impact and extend expectati ons for school counselors involvement in ref orm to increase educational equity for all students. Regardless, traditional roles of school counselors i nclude making referrals for special education ( Amatea &West Olatunji, 2007; Carpenter, King Sears, & Keys, 1998; Keys, Bemak, Carpenter, & King Sears, 1998) and academic advising (Paisley & McMahon, 2001; Stone & Clark, 2001). Traditionally, in these role s, school counselor s may have contributed to the status quo of educational inequities by inadvertently maintaining educational and social disparities, s uch as disproportionality and chronic underachievement. Some scholars suggest that chronic underachievement of low income, culturally diverse students is partially a result of negligence, low expectations, and job goals and outcomes adopted as important by school counselors (Bemak & Chung, 2005). A failure to address and challenge power structures and systemic factors such as poverty, discrimination, racism, sexism, and

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53 violence that marginalize lowincome, culturally diverse students can perpetuate the cy cle of oppression (Bemak & Chung; Bronfenbrenner 1979 ). The academic advising role of school counsel ors includes helping students: register for appropriate courses, understand the relationship between curriculum choices and future economic success, and ga in an awareness of higher education financing possibilities (Stone & Clark, 2001). In a study of 25 U. S. schools, Oakes (2005) found the locus of control regarding ability tracking and advising of students resided with the counselors alone or the teac hers and counselors together These results imply that school counselors play an important role in the tracking of students and providing them with knowledge needed to access institutions of higher education and future career paths. Similarly, in Corwin, Veneg as, Oliverez, and Colyars (2004) qualitative investigation of school counseling and college guidance as a means of assessing educational equity in overcrowded urban high schools, barriers to successful college counseling and academic advising were found. At each high school, counselors abilities to provide adequate services were affected by large caseloads, a plethora of counseling duties, and limited resources. Both counselors and student s expressed frustration at these limitations. Since culturally diverse and low income students are more likely to attend overcrowded high schools, they are more likely to be affected by these barriers. Many culturally diverse students in the study expressed a lack of confidence in receiving college information and materials from their school counselor. Some also expressed that their counselors were barriers to college access as they were too busy to change the students schedule in order to fill college requirements or favored certain students.

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54 Advising and scheduling are important school counseling roles that can affect the educational experiences and access to higher education and career endeavors of all students. Barriers to appropriate provision of these services can also contribute to the chronic underachievement and disproportionali ty facing low income culturally diverse students. The problem of chronic underachievement and disproportionality for low income, culturally diverse students are longstanding and pervasive (Artiles Harry, Reschly & Chinn, 2002; Artiles, Tre nt, & Palmer, 2004; Donovan & Cross, 2002; Harry & Klingner, 2006; Hilliard, 1992; Hunter & Bartee, 2003; Patton, 199 8). While 21st century school counselors along with other educators are charged with the responsibility of being collaborative leaders to affect positive change on the academic achievement of all students problems of chronic underachievement and disproportionality commenced before the establishment of the sc hool counseling profession. These phenomena have been viewed through multiple lense s and various attempts have been made to ameliorate this problem ranging from the early cultural deprivation theories and related early education programs to the more contemporary focus on culturally appropriate conceptualizations and interventions. T he History of Interventions for Chronic Underachievement The chroni c underachievement of lowincome, culturally diverse students received national attention beginning in the 1960s, following the release of the Coleman Report (Coleman et al., 1966). The Colema n Report highlighted racial inequities in educational outcomes and prompted federal funding and initiatives attempting to affect change and move towards educational equity for all students. Early attempts in the form of compensatory education programs, ori ginally based upon the premise of cultural

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55 deprivation theory, have garnered limited sustained progress. The 1970s transitioned away from the hegemonic cultural deprivation theory, as the Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Movement (CGCM) focused upon d elivering school counseling and guidance services aimed at facilitating the academic and future life success of all students (Borders & Drury, 1992; Myrick, 1997; Paisley, 2001). Later, the CGCM was criticized for not addressing the needs of low income, cu lturally diverse students. T he 1990s response and emphasis on outcomebased research and multicultural counseling was indicative of another shift in the field of school counseling (Lee, 1995; Pedersen & Carey, 2003). Although there is evidence of initiativ e in the profession to provide culturally competent services, there is concern that many school counselors lack the cultural competence to effectively work with the diverse student populations, as the chronic underachievement of low income, culturally diverse students remains a grave concern (Bemak & Chung, 2005; Constantine, 2002; HolcombMcCoy, 2007). Cultural Deprivation Theory and Compensatory Education Programs Cultural deprivation theory, originally emerging from the works of Oscar Lewis (1950, 1959), is based on the idea that people living in low income families and communities are disadvantaged due to their socialization in a culture of poverty. That is, the culture of low income families and communities was deemed inferior when viewed through a fram ework of idealized White middleclass culture. In the 1960s, cultural deprivation theory was used to explain the underachievement of low income and culturally diverse students ( Bloom, Davis & Hess, 1965; Lewis, 1950; Valencia, 1997). B y the 1970s, scholars disagreeing with this theory were publishing works countering these ideas claiming that children were often classified as culturally deprived simply because their families and communities did not instill values and provide experiences

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56 typical of White, mi ddle class families and communities (Foster, Lewis, & Onafowora, 2003; Leacock, 1971) As a response to cultural deprivation theory and an attempt to buffer the effects of poverty, compensatory education programs like Title I and Head Start were established (Gordon & Wilkerson, 1966; Vinovskis, 1999). Beginning with the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA ) of 1965, federal Title I funds were dispersed to address the issue of inequitable educational resources in schools serving low income communiti es and to positively affect the chronic underachievement of disadvantaged children (i.e. low income) ( Gordon & Wilkerson; Vinovskis ). Title I funds were distributed to schools serving a significant number of children living at or below the poverty line. While these funds did not eliminate the gaps in funding between wealthy and poor communities, they did provide funding outside of local property tax revenues to mandated schools in order to shrink these gaps. However, questions arose surrounding the effica cy of Title I funds and the programs they supported to achieve the goals of educational equity. S tudies reported that Title I funding failed to significantly close the achievement gap, as i ntended (Carter, 1984; Cuban, 1998). Despite more recent restructur ing of the four decade long Title I program, it remains unclear whether it will lead to significant improvements in the academic achievemen t of culturally diverse and low income students (Vinovskis ). Head Start began in 1965 as a federal program to help ec onomically disadvantaged children to overcome the perceived deficiencies of their families and communities and to boost achievement in their entrance to elementary school (Vinovskis, 1999; Zigler and Anderson, 1979). Head Start involved the establishment o f

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57 early education programs designed to improve the learning skills, social s kills, and health status of children from low income backgrounds so that, in theory, they may begin schooling on equal footing with their more advantaged peers (Currie & Thomas, 1995) So me criticized Head Start as an imposition of White middleclass values and socialization practices on low income and culturally diverse families, while failing to address the role of discrimination in the larger society and its effects on the lives of socially marginalized families ( Zigler & Muenchow, 1992). Concurrently, there was a criticism of the failure to acknowledge or nurture families existing resiliency and cultural strengths (LadsonBilling s, 1994). Scholars, such as LadsonBillings (1994) criticize compensatory education programs for operating within a deficit oriented framework of social ly marginalized children. LadsonBillings contends that without considering their unique and rich cultural and life experiences these programs impose Eurocentric assumptions on AfricaAmerican children, conceptualizing them as d eficient White children. While the results of a vast number of investigations into the effects of Head Start did vary, the program was widely criticized for its ineffectiveness as scholars questioned and examined its positive long term effects ( Currie & Thomas, 1995 ; Vinovskis, 1999; Zigl er and Muenchow, 1992). Some noncognitive positive effects, such as greater access to nutritional and other preventative health services were fou nd for participating children. However, a formal evaluation of the program found that gains in IQ were small and faded quickly (Cicirelli 1969). Moreover, while gains in test scores and a decrease in grade retention were found for White children involved in the program, gains in test scores faded quickly and a decrease in grade retention was not significant for African-

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58 American children (Currie & Thomas). Despite these findings and criticism, compensatory education programs continue to operate with limited success as federally funded attempts to decrease the chronic underachievement of low income students. Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Movement (CGCM) In 1958 the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) provided funding for various educational program s, including school counseling and guidance programs. Following the Soviet Unions launch of Sputnik and concerned that other countries were outperforming the United States in science and related fields, the primary focus of school counseling was encourag ing students to enter science and technology tracks of higher education and career paths. Over time as the profession of school counseling evolved, training criteria and standards were developed and there began a push towards the use of evidencebased bes t practices. The profession also experienced a tran sition from a focus on working with students identified as at risk of school failure and/or having personal social difficulties to programs utilizing developmental and career education theories to serve al l children (Johnson & Johnson, 2003; Johnson & Whitfield, 1991; Lapan, 2001 ; Sink, 2002). In the late 1970s and early 1980s, developmental guidance programs emerged from the Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Movement (CGCM). Developmental guidance has been described as an attempt to identify skills and experiences required for students to have in order for them to be successful in school and life and providing proactive and preventive programming to assist students in acquiring the knowledge, skills, se lf awareness, and attitudes necessary for successful mastery of normal developmental tasks. Typically, once academic and life skills are identified and clarified

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59 for students, a guidance curriculum is planned in conjunction with students academic curricul um ( Borders & Drury, 1992; Myrick, 1997; Paisley, 2001) Although this developmental approach remains popular as a framework for planning and delivering school counseling services, s ome scholars suggest Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Programs ( CGCPs ) are insufficient to effectively address the developmental needs of low income, culturally diverse students and address the issue of chronic underachievement for these populations (Keys, Bemak & Lockhart, 1998; MacDonald & Sink, 1999). Outcome Studies an d Multicultural Emphasis In the 1990s the focus of the profession increasingly prompted school counselors to use results based programs supported by outcome research and counseling interventions proven to be effective in order to increase accountability (W histon & Sexton, 1998). Concurrently, scholarship on multicultural school counseling emerged concurrent with a call for school counselors to utilize culturally appropriate case conceptualizations an d interventions with culturally diverse students (Lee, 199 5; Pedersen & Carey, 2003). These two progressions in the school counseling profession were fueled by the Transforming School Counseling Initiative (TSCI), funded by the DeWitt Wallace Reader's Digest Fund and directed by the Education Trust (1996), a Wash ington, DC based nonprofit organization, in 1996. L aunched as a five year, multi staged national initiative for transforming school counseling, the goal of the TSC I was to encourage the creation of preservice training programs for school counselors to ser ve as student advocates and academic advisors who demonstrate the belief that all students can achieve at high levels on challenging academic coursework (Martin, 2002; Romano & Kachgal, 2004). The Trust pointed to

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60 incongruence between the theory being taug ht and the skills needed to help students, especially low income, cu lturally diverse youth, improve academi cally in schools ( Education Trust 1996; Martin, 2002; Paisley 2001). The issue of accountability in school counseling emerged as part of the educational reform movement. Accountability for school counselors involves collecting data and information that support any accomplishments that are claimed (Myrick, 2003). Outcome studies are a form of accountability as they require school counselors to evaluate the effectiveness of implemented programs and activities against intended goals and standards. Thus, they provide useful information regarding which programs and activities produce positive changes for students. The use of outcome research can help school counselors in utilizing programs that are proven to be effective (Whiston & Sexton, 1998) Outcome studies can also enable school counselors to respond effectively to the individual needs of the school as well as national and international trends, such as the national trend of chronic underachievement and disproportionality (Lapan, 2001). While in the past school counselors have mainly worked with students and their families, there is a movement currently for them to take on collaborative leadership and consultant roles within their schools. This movement is congruent with the academic mission and systemic change necessitated by the educational reform movement and dictated by ASCAs National Model (ASCA, 2003) The National Model calls for school counsel ors to be actively involved in promoting the academic achievement of all students Several calls for the evaluation of school counselor practice and preparation in terms of actively responding to increase equity for all students and meeting the needs of

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61 cu lturally diverse and low income students have been made (Education Trust, 1996; Paisley & McMahon, 2001). ASCAs Ethical Standards for School Counselors articulates the professional school counselors responsibility to acquire educational, consultation an d training experiences to improve awareness, knowledge, skills and effectiveness in working with diverse populations (ASCA, 2004, p. 4). There i s a cognizance that as the number of culturally diverse students continues to increase, the need for school counselors to gain an awareness of their biases, broaden their cultural knowledge base, and develop new strategies that are responsive to the complex challenges culturally diverse students face will also increase (Constantine, 2002; Durodoye, 1998; Herring 1997; Hobson & Kanitz, 1996; HolcombMcCoy, 2007; Johnson, 1995; Lee, 1995) This includes collaborative leadership with other educators as: (a) a cultural bridge between teachers and students, (b) a pedagogical partner with teachers to assist them in connecting curriculum to students lives, and (c) a partner in creating a family centric school climate to promote reciprocal family school collaboration (Amatea & West Olatunji, 2007). For school counselors to successfully fulfill these roles and affect chang e within their schools they need sufficient multicultural competence. School counselors working in schools with students from culturally diverse backgrounds who lack multicultural counseling training may find themselves in an ethical dilemma of being responsible for providing services outside their area of expertise (Constantine & Yeh, 2001). Research indicates there is a positive correlation between previous multicultural counseling training and perceived multicultural competence for school counselors (Con stantine, 2001, 2002; Constantine & Yeh, 2001). Constantine also found that an

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62 eclectic or integrative approach to counseling and a self perception of being able to emotionally respond to others were predictive of self perceived multicultural competence. A lthough these studies provide some information on predictors of multicultural competence for school counselors, little research and knowledge exist on school counselors efficacy in working with lowincome, culturally diverse students (Constantine; Constantine & Yeh). Multicultural Counseling and Therapy (MCT) and School Counselor s Multicultural counseling and therapy (MCT) emerged as a response to the oppressive practice of Western psychology imposing its White middle class values upon culturally diverse people (Sue, Ivey & Pedersen, 1996) There is recognition that: psychodynamic, cognitivebehavioral, and humanistic theories, the first three forces used as counseling perspectives and ways to explain human behavior, are embedded in Eurocentric values and assumptions. This cultural encapsulation often results in the improper conceptualization and treatment of culturally diverse clients and has been blamed for the early termination and an aggravation of psychological distress for culturally diverse clients (P edersen & Ivey, 1993; West Olatunji, 2009). Responsively, MCT utilizes culture as a context and lens for establishing normalcy and conceptualizing client attitudes, behaviors, and worldviews, as well as in the creati on and implementation of interventions. It has been viewed as the fourth force, complementary to the first three forces, and a generic approach to counseling (Pedersen, 1991). Multicultural counseling and therapy (MCT) assumes that : (1) culture frames our attitudes, beliefs, and worldview, (2) a consideration of cultural context is necessary in client conceptualization, and (3) a definition of wellness congruent with an individuals culture and subsequent values, experiences, and worldview should be utilized in

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63 conceptualization and treatment (S ue, Ivey & Pedersen, 1996; Sue & Sue, 2008). Much has been written since the 1960s regarding the importance and theory of MCT (Arredondo et al., 1996; Sue & Sue, 2008). MCT posits that culture frames ones attitudes, beliefs, and worldview. Thus, MCT incl udes helping roles and processes that define wellness in congruence with an individuals culture and subsequent values, utilize cultural centered client conceptualization and treatment modalities, and include an ecosystemic conceptualization of clients ( Le wis, Lewis, Daniels & DAndrea 2003; Sue, Ivey & Pedersen; Sue & Sue). In 1982, the Education and Training Committee of Division 17 of the American Psychological Association, Counseling Psychology, outlined core multicultural counseling competencies (Sue et al., 1982) These competencies outline awareness, knowledge, and skills that counselors must possess in order to be multiculturally competent. Multicultural training texts by Ped ersen (1999) and Sue & Sue (2008) share an emphasis on three aspects of multicultural counseling training: awareness, knowledge, and skills. Awareness is defined as being actively in process of becoming aware of assumptions about human behavior, values, biases, personal limitations, and preconceived notions. Knowledge is defined as actively attempting to understand the worldview of culturally different clients. Skills are defined as actively developing and practicing appropriate, relevant, and sensitive intervention strategies and skills in working with culturally different cli ents. Apparent in the core multicultural counseling competencies and established assessment tools to measure multicultural counseling competence (i.e. Multicultural Awareness/Knowledge/Skills Survey, Multicultural Counseling Inventory, and Multicultural Co unseling Knowledge and Awareness Scale)

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64 MCT has precedence for use as a theoretical framework to investigate the cultural competence of school counselors. Therefore, it will be used as the basis for my research examining the relationship between school counselors multicultural knowledge and awareness and their likelihood to recommend students for remedial or advanced interventions based on students culturally bound behavioral styles. As an alternative paradigm to traditional Western psychological theories positing that normal development goes from dependence to independence, Relational Cultural Theory (RCT) theorizes that development occurs in connection with others and that growth fostering relationships are created and sustained through m utual empathy and empowerment (Miller, 1986). Jean Baker Miller describes fi ve good things: zest, empowerment, clarity, sense of worth, and a desire for more connection, which are experienced through the establishment and maintenance of growthfostering relationships RCT provides a potential theoretical framework useful in investigating the systemic context of school counselors relationships with culturally diverse and low income students and their role in addressing issues of chronic underachievement and disproportionality. However, it lacks empiric al data and assessment tools to support the use of this theory in the investigation of school counselors multicultural competence and perceptions of culturally bound student behaviors. Racial and Cultural Identity Developmen t (RCID) is another theory that provides a practical framework for exploring the multicultural competence of school counselors and their perceptions of culturally bound student behaviors. RCID defi n es five stages of development that oppressed people experi ence as they struggle to understand themselves in terms of their own culture, the dominant culture, and the oppressive

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65 relationship between these two cultures (Sue, 1999; Sue & Sue, 2008). Racial and Cultural Identity Development (RCID) theories are based on the idea that a sense of group identity based upon ones perceptions of a shared racial or cultural heritage exists in different statuses or developmental stages. These theories have been developed for African Americans (Cross, 1991), Asian Americans (K im, 1981), Latino Americans (Ruiz, 1990), and White Americans (Helms, 1990), as well as a Racial/Cultural Identity Development model (Sue), intended to explain the cultural/racial identity development of any persons from nondominant populations who are socialized alongside a dominant population. In the U. S. this includes all nonWhite populations. These theories involve descriptions of the psychological and behavioral implications of perceived racial or cultural group membership in relation to how one thi nks about and interacts with their own racial/cultural group and members of other racial/cultural groups (Helms). While connections have been made between counselors multicultural competence and their racial identity status, assessing school counselors m ulticultural competence with established multicultural counseling competency assessments, such as the Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness Scale (MCKAS) (Ponterotto, Gretchen, Utsey, Rieger & Austin, 2002) is a more di rect way to examine this phenomenon than R/CID Cultural encapsulation represents a lack of multicultural competence and results in poor conceptualization and inappropriate interventions with culturally diverse clients (Pedersen, 1991) and contributes to the chronic underachievemen t of low income African American students in the for m of tracking into low ability coursework (Irvine, 1990; Martin, 2002), disproportional placement in special education services (Martin, 2002; Patton, 1998), disproportionate behavioral remediation (Cartl edge, Tillman &

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66 Talbert Johnson, 2001; Irvine, 1990) and underrepresentation in gifted and talented programs and advanced coursework (Ford, Harris, Tyson & Trotman, 2002; Harris, Brown, Ford & Richardson, 2004). While many studies have examined the multicultura l competence of counselors (Constantine, 2002; Constantine & Ladany, 2000; Fuertes & Brobst, 2002; Holcomb McCoy & Myers, 1999; Ladany, Inman, Constantine & Hofheinz, 1997; Ottavi, PopeDavis & Dings, 1994; Ponterotto, Gretchen, Utsey, Rieger & Austin 2002), there are few studies investigating the multicultural competence of school counselors (Constantine, 2001). Furthermore, some scholars are concerned there is a dearth of multicultural counseling training in many school counseling programs (Constant ine ; Durodoye, 1998; Hobson & Kanitz, 1996 ; Johnson, 1995). The importance of school counselors ability to successfully focus upon and intervene with issues related to the chronic underachievement of culturally diverse and low income students is illustrat ed in their unique and critical position within the schools and current demands that they have sufficient cultural competence in order to affect change in patterns of chronic underachievement and disproportionality (Holcomb McCoy, 2007; Martin, 2002; Oakes 2005). Summary Chronic underachievement and the disproportional placement in special education programs of low income, culturally diverse students, generally, and low income AfricanAmerican students, specifically, are longstanding issues within the U. S. public education system. Many perspectives have been considered and interventions implemented in attempts to affect change and create greater educational equity. With increasing vigor, scholars point to cultural discontinuity as a contributing factor to t his chronic underachievement and disproportionality. The learning expectations and styles of many

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67 low income AfricanAmerican children have been investigated and provide knowledge useful in creating culturally responsive interventions and lessons. School c ounselors have an integral role within schools and have been charged with the responsibility of being intimately involved in the educational experiences of all students they serve. Thus, sufficient multicultural counseling competence is imperative for school counselors to answer the call and be collaborative educational leaders within their schools and affect positive change in regards to chronic underachievement and the disproportionality of low income, culturally diverse students.

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68 CHAPTER 3 METHODS Thi s study i s designed to examine school counselors multicultural knowledge and awareness and their likelihood of recommending students for: (a) low ability coursework, (b) testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services, (c) behavioral remediat ion, and (d) testing for gifted, talented, or advanced coursework based upon students culturally bound behavioral styles. The purpose of this chapter is to provide information regarding the participants researchers subjectivity, instruments, data collection procedures, and data analysis procedures of my study. Participants The participants in my study will be 123 W hite school counselors working at public middle schools who are members of the American S chool Counseling Association (ASCA). White school counselors are being sampled because literature and research suggest that White counselors tend to have resistance to multicultural training (Constantine, 2002; Constantine, Juby & Liang, 2001). S chool counselors at public schools will be sampled because e mpirical investigations concluding that Eurocentric classroom instructional practices and values are embedded in schools have been conducted in public school environments Additionally, the majority of low income African American students attend public schools. S ampling school counselors working at stand alone middle schools will allow for the isolation of this particular developmental stage, when an increase in special education referrals and placements for specific learning disabilities (LD) and emotional disturbances (ED) occur ( U.S. Department of Education [USDOE], Office of Special Education Programs [OSEP], 2002). ASCA

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69 members will be sampled because this large national school counseling organization has a n email member directory. This provides a practical way to sample a national population of school counselors. Upon acquiring: (a) all appropriate permissions from the university institutional review board and ASCA, (b) initial construct validation of the vignettes by the expert panel, and (c) further construct validation and test content validation via pilot stud ies an online survey will be sent to the email addresses provided. Detailed information regarding the participants demographic and professional backgrounds will be described in Chapter 4. Subjectivity Statement My ethnic identity and life experiences as a White, middleclass Jewish female contribute to my interest and researcher bias in investigating professional counselors cultural competence when working with culturally diverse students. Specifically, I seek to explore: (a) the multicultural competence of school counselors, (b) school counselors likelihood to recommend students for advanced and remedial interventions based on students cul tur ally bound behavioral styles and (c) the educational experiences of culturally diverse students For most of my life, I have been situated as privileged. Yet, my experiences as a member of a marginalized religious group, growing up in the South, have cont ributed to some confusion in my identity development. I believe it is the self examination of those experiences that has attracted me to culturecentered research and the investigation of nondominant experiences, ways of being, and worldviews within mains tream society. While I will never fully know the experience of being a culturally diverse person, I am sensitive to the cultural discontinuity that challenges many culturally diverse youth in U.S. public schools. Some of this sensitivity comes from my own struggles as an adolescent trying to reconcile my intersected

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70 identities as a White, middleclass, non Christian woman. I believe this self discovery informs me when investigating the challenges that culturally diverse individuals encounter in a Eurocentri c society. While I have experienced interpersonal prejudice and a degree of social marginalization as a Jewish woman, it has been the salience of my White middle class privilege that has buffered me from the harsh awarenesses about Eurocentrism and the ass ociated institutionalized oppression experienced by persons from nondominant cultural groups and classes. I now conceptualize my work as a multicultural counseling researcher/practitioner to: (a) develop a nonracist cultural identity and (b) constructively use my undue privilege. I also believe that my privileged identity provides insight into working with White middleclass professional counselors to facilitate their journey toward a nonracist cultural identity. Instruments School Counselor Information Survey Participating counselors will be asked to complete the School Counselor Information Survey (see Appendix D). The purpose of this instrument is to obtain demographic and background information about the participants. School c ounselors will provide i nformation about their professional and educational background and their counseling environment. This twenty item survey uses three questions as selection criteria: ethnic background, if they are employment at a public or private school, and if they are employed at a standalone middle school s. The other seventeen items will be used to answer the first research question by investigating if there is a relationship between these demographic factors and the

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71 counselors multicultural knowledge and awarenes s. These demographic factors include: a ) gender, b ) age, c) completion of a multicultural counseling course during training, d ) number of hours of multicultural training completed, e ) completion of a CACREP accredited program, f ) number of training hours completed in d egree program, g ) most advanced educational degree, h ) type of counseling credential(s) obtained, i ) year of graduation from counseling program, j ) years of counseling experience, k) years of middle school counseling experience, l ) amount of experience counseling cult urally diverse students, m ) percentage of students at counselors school receiving free or reduced lunch, n ) employment at suburban, urban, or rural school, o ) size of the student population p ) amount of diversity at counselors school (ratios of student ethnicit ies), and q ) number of school counselors working at the counselors school. There is little known about any correlation between counselors (a) gender or (b) age and their multicultural knowledge and awareness There is research suggesting that (c) complet ion of a multicultural counsel ing course during training and (d) the number of hours of multicu ltural training a counselor has participated in are positively related to self pe rceived multicultural knowledge and awareness (Constantine & Yeh, 2001). It is of interest to investigate if there is a correlation between: (e) whether a counselor graduated from a CACREP accredited program, (f) the number of training hours completed in degree program, (g) most advanced educational degree obtained, and (h) type of c ounseling credential(s) earned and multicultural knowledge and awareness as it could have implications for counselor training. Examining the (i) year of graduation from counseling program and multicultural knowledge and awareness is of interest as there is some research that suggests a large

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72 number of supervisors may have less multicultural competence than their supervisees. This may be due to the fact that many practicing counselors graduated from their training programs at a time before the present emph asis and mandates of multicultural training (Constantine, 1997). There is some evidence suggesting that amount of counseling experience, and specifically the amount of experience counseling culturally diverse clients, may be positively related to multicult ural knowledge and awareness (Ottavi, Pope Davis & Dings, 1994). Thus, the following survey items are included: (j) year s of counseling experience, (k) years of middle sc hool counseling experience, and (l) amount of experience counseling culturally diverse students. To investigate how school factors may be related to school counselors multicultural knowledge and awareness the following demographic items are included: (m) percentage of students at counselors school receiving free or reduced lunch, (n) emp loyment at suburban, urban, or rural school, (o) size of the student population, (p) amount of diversity at counselors school (ratios o f student ethnicities), and (q) number of school counselors working at the counselors school. Student Vignette and School Counselor Recommendation Scale Information on the likelihood of school counselors recommending students for: (a) low ability coursework, (b) testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE servic es, (c) behavioral remediation, and (d) test ing for gifted, talented, or advanced coursework based upon students culturally bound behavioral styles w ill be obtained by their ratings of 16 single item indicators in response to hypothetical student vignettes (see Appendix B ). The questionnaire consists of f our vignettes each with a hypothetical middle school student

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73 followed by a ser ies of statements asking participants on a 4 point Likert type scale how likely they are to recommend each student for: low ability coursework, testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services, behavioral remediation, and testing for gifted, talented, or advanced coursework. The students in the vignettes were given gender neutral names: Jesse, Alex, Jordan, and Jamie. Students racial/cultural background and socioeconomic status were not mentioned in the vignettes. Additionally, four variables were held constant across all four vignettes: grade level, passing s cores on the FCAT in previous years, physical health, and living with two parents. All four students were des cribed as currently in the seventh grade, among the middle or upper 50% of academic level in their class, physically healthy, and living with both parents. Counselors will be asked to rate the likelihood that they would recommend each student for : low ability coursework, testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services, behavioral remediation, and test ing for gifted, talented, or advanced coursework on a 4 point Likert type scale. The purpose of this instrument is to examine school counselors consider ation of the cultural nature of various classroom behaviors when making decisions about student referrals for advanced and remedial interventions. Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness Scale (MCKAS) Information on counselors level of multicultural knowledge and awareness w ill be obtained via the Multicultural Counseling Knowledg e and Awareness Scale (MCKAS see Appendix C). This 32item scale was developed by Ponterotto, Gretchen, Utsey,

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74 Rieger & Austin (2002) to measure counselors level of multicultural competence on two sub scales: awareness and knowledge. A conceptual base for the MCKAS and the original version, the Multicultural Counseling Awareness Scale (MCAS), is Sue and Sues (1982) multicultural counseling competency report. Multicultural counseling competence, as defined by Sue and Sue and Multicultural Counseling and T herapy (MCT), consists of three components: awareness of ones own cultural socialization and accompanying biases, knowledge of the worldviews and value patterns of culturally diverse populations, and specific skills for intervention with these groups. The original MCAS was a 45item measure developed through initial item and development selection, independent card sorts, a focus group discussion of items, and a content validity assessment. A sample of 126 counseling students and professionals were recruited for the content validity assessment. The authors began with 135 items which were reduced to 70 items through this process along with item analysis and sequenced factor analytic procedures. Internal consistency coefficient alpha for the Knowledge/Skills subscale across seven studies ranged from .78 to .93, with a median alpha of .76 (Kocarek et al., 2001; Manese et al., 2001; Ponterotto & Alexander, 1996). Alpha for the Awareness subscale ranged from .67 to .83, with a median alpha of .76. Supporting cons truct validity, levels of multicultural Awareness and, particularly, Knowledge/Skills on the MCAS were related to levels of racial identity development in theoretically expected directions (Vinson and Neimeyer, 2000). Moderate to strong criterionrelated v alidity has been found through positive correlations with training variables (Kocarek et al., 2001; PopeDavis, Dings & Ottavi, 1995; PopeDavis, Reynolds & Dings, 1994), gain scores in

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75 multicultural classes (Ponterotto et al., 1996), and internship traini ng programs (Manese et al., 2001). In regards to convergent validity, the Knowledge/Skills subscale was found to be significantly correlated with the self report version of the CCCI R (LaFromboise et al., 1991), a measure of general multicultural knowledge. The Awareness subscale was significantly correlated with the New Racism Scale, a popular measure of racial bias (Jacobson, 1985). Despite establishment of reliability and validity, a number of concerns were raised regarding the use of MCAS. These concer ns focused upon four areas: (a) definitional clarity of the names subscales, (b) inclusion of items that query knowledge of specific scholars in the field, (c) some psychometrically weaker items, and (d) the utility of three social desirability items. Subs equently, exploratory factor analysis was conducted with a sample of 525 students and professionals. As a result, (a) the Knowledge/Skills subscale was renamed the Knowledge subscale to better reflect its content, (b) three items querying knowledge of spec ific scholars in the field were eliminated, (c) thirteen weak items were removed, and (d) the three social desirability items were removed. The resultant measure is the MCKAS that will be used in this study. It contains 20 Knowledge items and 12 Awareness items. To establish reliability and initial validity of MCKAS, a sample of 199 counselors in training were used as participants. Alphas for the MCKAS Knowledge and Awareness subscale scores were .85 and .85, respectively. The factor analysis supports the t wo factor model of the Knowledge and Awareness subscales.

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76 Data Collection Procedures Development of Vignettes and Pilot Studies The four vignettes were adapted from Tyler, Boykin, Boelter, and Dillihunts (2005) Cultural Socialization Scenarios and modifie d through consultation with my doctoral committee and a panel of multicultural experts, as defined by having experience researching and teaching graduate level courses in a content area of multicultural counseling and education. The committee and expert pa nel will reach at least 80% agreement about the content of the vignettes to begin establishing construct validity The Cultural Socialization Scenarios are the product of extensive research and consist of four descriptions of the manifestation of common behaviors that represent the four cultural behavioral styles of: individualism, communalism, competition, and verve. Individualism refers to ones disposition towards fundamental autonomy, independence, individual recognition, solitude, and the exclusion of others (Moemeka, 1998; Spence, 1985). Communalism is defined as the perceived fundamental interdependence of people (Moemeka, 1998). Competition is defined as ones preoccupation with doing better than others (Boykin, 1983). Verve is defined as the propens ity for high levels of physical or sens ate stimulation (Boykin, 1983). Next, a pilot study will be conducted with practicing school counselors in order to complete the process of establishing construct validity of the Student Vignette and School Counselor Recommendation Scale in strument for the purposes of this study. The pilot study w ill als o be used to establish test content validity of the instrument. This phase of the study will be conducted in two parts. P articipants for the first part of the pilot stu dy will be f our school counselors from a public school in Florida. Upon getting IRB approval, a K 12 public school will be identified and appropriate entry permission

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77 obtained from the school director. The researcher will communicate with the school counselors directly to obt ain the consents (see Appendix E) and neces sary phone calls and emails will be made to schedule a time and day for the meeting. During the meeting, the researcher will m e et with the participants to discuss the study and distribute materials. The participants w ill b e asked to read each of the four vignettes and respond to the questions. The vignettes will be presented in random order. After the participants complete the vignette questionnaire, the researcher will conduc t a focus group. T he purpose of the focus group i s to obtain participants feedback on the Student Vignette and School Counselor Recommendation Scale items. For example, the researcher will ask whether or not any of the statements are confusing and whether or not enough inf ormation i s provided in the vignettes. The researcher will also ask the participants whether they think each of the vignettes is descriptive of the behavioral styles i ntended. Participants will be read definitions of each behavioral style and then asked to provide feedback on the corresponding vignette. The feedback will be used in conjunction with the committee members and expert panels feedback to prepare the final draft of the Student Vignette and School Counselor Recommendation Scale items to be used in the study. The second part of the pilot study will be conducted with a sample of school counselors from Orange County, Florida. The school counselors will be emailed a link to the online survey and asked for their consent to participate. The survey li nk will contain all three of the surveys that the participants in the study will be asked to complete. This part of the pilot study will provide initial data for collection and analysis, therefore, providing indication of any potential problems with these procedures in the study. It will

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78 also provide some indication of expected response rate for the study. At the end of the survey participants will be asked to express in writing any thoughts, concerns, or comments regarding the survey. Thus, it will contribute to establishing test content validity, as well. Study Data for the study will be collected from three instruments: (a) School Counselor Information Survey (b) Student Vignette and School Counselor Recommendation Scale, and (c) Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness Scale (MCKAS) Permission to conduct the study will be received from the University of Florida Institutional Review Board prior to data collection. All school counselors will be treated fairly regardless of their participation as prescribed by the ACA Code of Ethics (American Counseling Association, 2005). Upon acquiring all appropriate permissions all survey materials will be posted online and invitation emails will be sent using the ASCA member directory. These survey materials include consents (Appendix A) and the three research instruments. Participating school counselors will be asked to read the four vignettes and respond to each series of questions following each vignette. The order of the pairs of Afrocultural and Eurocent ric vignettes, communalism and verve and individualism and competition, respectively, will be randomly assigned to solicited participants via two forms of the survey. Participants will be solicited by being randomly assigned a link to one of these forms. T he first form presents the Afrocultural vignettes first and the second form begins with the Eurocentric vignettes. School counselors will also be asked to complete the Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness Scale and Counselor Information Survey.

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79 Data Analysis Procedures All the quantitative data will be entered in an E xcel document and exported to SPSS Statistics 18.0 to obtain the descriptive and inferential statistics such as t tests, analys i s of variance (ANOVA) procedures simple linear regr essions (SLR) and stepwise linear regressions Descriptive statistics will be calculated to measure the participants demographic characteristics. Research Questions 1 What is the relationship between school counselors multicultural knowledge and awarenes s and the following demographic factors: (a) gender, (b) age, (c) completion of a multicultural counseling course during training, (d) number of hours of multicultural training completed, (e) completion of a CACREP accredited program, (f) number of traini ng hours completed in degree program, (g) most advanced educational degree, (h) type of counseling credential(s) obtained, (i) year of graduation from counseling program, (j) years of counseling experience, (k) years of middle school counseling experience, (l) amount of experience counseling culturally diverse students, (m) percentage of students at counselors school receiving free or reduced lunch, (n) employment at suburban, urban, or rural school, (o) size of the student population, (p) amount of divers ity at counselor s school (ratios of student ethnicities), and (q) number of school counselors working at the counselors school ? 2 How likely are school counselors to recommend students for advanced and remedial interventions based on students culturally b ound behavioral styles? 3 What is the relationship between school counselors multicultural knowledge and awareness and their likelihood to r ecommend students for advanced and remedial interventions based on students culturally bound behavioral styles? Inde pendent t tests will be conducted to explore any relationships between school counselors multicultural knowledge and awareness and their : (a) gender, ( b ) completion of a multicultural counseling course during training and ( c) completion of a CACREP accre dited program. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedures will be conducted to explore any relationships between school counselors multicultural knowledge and awareness and their : (a) most advanced educational degree, (b) type of

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80 counseling credential(s) obtained, (c) employment at a suburban, urban, or rural school, and (d) size of the student population. Simple linear regressions (SLRs) will be conducted to explore any relationships between school counselors multicultural knowledge and awareness an d their: (a) age, (b) number of hours of multicultural traning completed, (c) number of training hours completed in degree program (d) year of graduation from counseling program, (e ) years of counseling experience, (f ) years of middle school counseling ex perience, (g ) amount of experience counseling culturally diverse students (h ) percentage of students at counselors school receiving free or reduced lunch, (i ) am ount of diversity at counselors school (ratios of student ethnicities), and (j ) number of sc hool counselors working at the counselors school. To address the research question, How likely are school counselors to recommend students for advanced or remedial interventions based on students culturally bound behavioral styles? four one way repeate d measures analysis of variance (ANOVA ) procedures with follow up post hoc de pendent t tests using the Bonferroni adjustment, as needed, will be conducted to explore any significant differences in the school counselors likelihood to recommend students fo r each of the investigated interventions: ( a ) low ability coursework, ( b ) testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD), ( c) behavioral remediation, and ( d ) testing for gifted, talented, or advanced co ursework based upon their culturally bound behavioral style. Each of the students displayed in the vignettes exhibit one of the four cultural ly bound behavior styles : communalism, verve, individualism, or competition.

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81 To answer the research question, Wha t is the relationship between school counselors multicultural knowledge and awareness and their likelihood to recommend students for advanced or remedial interventions based on students culturally bound behavioral styles?, stepwise linear regression procedures will be conducted. Summary This chapter outlines the methods that will be used to conduct the study. While additional information regarding the demographics of the participants will be provided in chapter 4, White school counselors working at publ ic, stand alone middle schools will be sampled using the ASCA member directory. Following validation of the vignettes by an expert panel and continued validation established through the pilot study, the (a) School Counselor Information Survey (b) Student Vignette and School Counselor Recommendation Scale, and ( c) Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness Scale (MCKAS) will be administered to participants via online survey. T tests, various analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedures, simple linear regressions (SLR), and stepwise linear regressions will be utilized using SPSS software to answer the three established research questions. This chapter also provides explanation of the researchers subjectivity.

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82 CHAPTER 4 R ESULTS This study examine d the relat ionship between White/EuropeanAmerican middle school counselors multicultural knowledge and awareness and their likelihood of recommending students for: (a) low ability coursework, (b) testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR ), and learning disability (LD) ESE services, (c) behavioral remediation outside the classroom, and (d) testing for gifted, talented, or advanced coursework based upon students culturally bound behavioral styles. The purpose of this chapter is to present the findings of my study in relation to the three research questions. The chapter begins with a presentation of the descriptive data for the participant variables, follows with a review of the hypotheses and results for each of the research questions, and ends with a discussion of the limitations of the study. Descriptive Data for the Major Variables The participants of my study included a total of 123 White/EuropeanAmerican middle school counselors working in U.S. public schools. Participants were solicit ed via email through the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) member directory. Of these participants, 121 reported their gender. One hundred five of the partic ipants identified as females and 16 identified as males Participants age ranged from a minimum of 26 years old to a maximum of 70 years old at the administration of the survey. Age was determined through date of birth. Date of birth for the participants ranged from 1940 to 1984 (X=1966, SD= 11.24). Educational background and training of the participants was reported as follows: The majority of participants have completed a multicultural counseling course. One

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83 hundred five have completed a course as compared to 16 who reported never taking such a course. Number of hours engaged in multicultural training ranged from a minimum of zero to a maximum of 120 hours (X=16.81, SD= 23.82). Ninety one participants reported that they graduated from a Council of Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) accredited counseling pr ogram, while 32 participants did not. The number of hours completed in a counseling training program ranged from a minimum of 36 hours to a maximum of 132 hours (X=53.91, SD= 14.10). The most advanced educational degree obtained by the participants was reported as follows: 110 completed a masters degree, nine completed a specialist degree, and four have completed a doctorate. When asked about counseling credentials, 12 participants identified as having earned no counseling credentials and six identified as having no statecertification in school counseling (SCSC) but being either a licensed professional counselor (LPC) (N=1) or a nationally certified counselor (NCC) (N=4) or both (N=1). 89 identified as holding a SCSC but no other counseling credentials, while five participants hold a SCSC and are LPCs and seven hold a SCSC and are NCCs. Four participants reported being a SCSC, LPC, and NCC. Table 41 displays information regarding the partici pants counseling credentials. Participants year of graduation fr om a c ounseling program ranged from 1973 to 2010 (X=1999, SD=9.04). Years of counseling experience ranged from zero to 35 years (X=10.60, SD=8.01). Years of experience counseling at a middle school ranged from zero to twenty five years (X=8.07, SD=6.57). O n a Likert type scale of 1 to 5, 1 being very little experience ranging up to 5, which was very much experience, participants reported their level of experience with culturally diver se students (X=3.28, SD=1.25).

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84 In terms of school characteristics, par ticipants reported that at their schools of employment the percentage of students on free or reduced lunch ranged from 0% to 100% (X=41.12, SD=28.58). The location of the school was classified as either: suburban, urban, or rural. Fifty five participants r eported working at a suburban school, 27 at an urban school, and 41 reported working in a rural school. The size of the student population at the school that employs the participants ranged from 180 to 1500 (X= 660.53, SD=322.55). The schools were classifi ed into three categories based upon the size of the student population. Fifty two participants reported working at a small sized school with the student population between 180 and 500 students, 48 participants at a medium sized school with the student population between 501 and 1,000 students, and 18 participants at a largesized school with the student population between 1,001 and 1,500 students. The percentage of White/European American students attending the participants schools ranged from 5% to 99% ( X= 61.55, SD= 30.82). The percentage of Black/African American students ranged from 0% to 90% (X= 11.34, SD= 16.49). The percentage of Hispanic/LatinoAmerican students ranged from 0% to 91% (X= 17.89, SD= 24.35). The percentage of Asian/Pacific Islander s tudents ranged from 0% to 74% (X= 4.49, SD= 9.98). The percentage of Native American Indian students ranged from 0% to 65% (X= 3.93, SD= 9.73). The percentage of Multiracial students ranged from 0% to 20% (X= 3.07, SD= 3.17). Table 42 displays the means and standard deviations for the percentages of student ethnicities at the counselors schools. The number of counselors employed at the participants schools (including the participant) ranged from one to eight (X= 1.99, SD= 1.17).

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85 Participants multicultur al knowledge and awareness were measured by the two subscales of the Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness Scale (MCKAS), the knowledge and awareness scales. As supported by established reliability testing, there was a slightly positive correlat ion between the two subscales. A Pearson correlation of 0.341 was found. The score range for the Knowledge subscale was 40 to 134 (X= 99.40, SD= 18.81). The score range for the Awareness subscale was 40 to 84 (X= 67.57, SD= 8.96). Cronbachs Alpha for the Knowledge subscale was 0.914. The Cronbachs Alpha for the Awareness subscale was 0.768. These were slightly lower than were originally established in reliability testing for this measure, which were found to be 0.92 and 0.78, respectively. This could be d ue to the electronic administration of the assessment. R eliability was established for this instrument through paper administrations Hypothesis 1 The first hypothesis was as follows: There will be no relationship between school cou nselors multicultural k nowledge and awareness and their: (a) gender, (b) age, (c) completion of a multicultural counseling course during training, (d) number of hours of multicultural training completed, (e) completion of a CACREP accredited program, (f) number of training hours completed in degree program, (g) most advanced educational degree, (h) type of counseling credential(s) obtained, (i) year of graduation from counseling program, (j) years of counseling experience, (k) years of middle school counseling experience, (l) amount of experience counseling culturally diverse students, (m) percentage of students at counselors school receiving free or reduced lunch, (n) employment at suburban, urban, or rural school, (o) size of the student population, (p)

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86 amount of diversity at counselor s school (ratios of student ethnicities), and (q) number of school counselors working at the counselors school. The first research question explored any relationships between participants multicultural knowledge and awareness and the following demographic factors: gender, age, completion of a multicultural counseling c ourse during training, number of hours of multicultural training completed completion of a CACREP accredited program, number of training hours completed in degree program, most advanced educational degree, type of counseling credential(s) obtained, year of graduation from counseling program, years of counseling experience, years of middle school counseli ng experience, amount of experience counseling culturally diverse s tudents, percentage of students at counselors school receiving free or reduced lunch, employment at suburban, urban, or rural school, size of the student population at the counselors school a mount of diversity at the counselor s school (ratios of st udent ethnicities), and number of school counselors working at the counselors school. To test the first hypothesis, relationships between participant s multicultural knowledge and awareness and the seventeen demographic factors were examined through their responses to the Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness Scale (MCKAS) knowledge and awareness subscales and the demographic questionnaire. Independent t tests were conducted to explore any r elationships between participants multicultural know ledge and awareness and: gender, completion of a multicultural counseling course during training and completion of a CACREP accredited program.

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87 Independent t tests were conducted because multicultural knowledge and awareness are continuous dependent variables, while the aforementioned independent variables are categorical with two categories each. All assumptions that we are not robust to are met. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedures were utilized to examine any relationships between school c ounselors multicultural knowledge and awareness and: most advanced educational degree, type of cou nseling credential(s) obtained, employment at suburban, urban, or rural school and size of the student population at the counselors school. ANOVA pro cedures were utilized because multicultural knowledge and awareness are continuous dependent variables while the independent variables are categorical with more than two categories each. Thus, follow up independent t tests using the Bonferroni adjustment w ere implemented, as appropriate. All assumptions that we are not robust to are met. Simple linear regressions (SLRs) were used to explore any relationships between school counselors multicultural knowledge and awareness and : age, number of hours of mult icultural training completed, number of training hours completed in degree program year of graduation from counseling program, years of counseling experience years of middle school counseling experience, amount of experience counseling culturally diverse students, percentage of students at counselors school receiving free or reduced lunch, amount of diversit y at the counselors school (ratios of student ethnicities), and number of school counselors working at the counselors school. SLRs were conducted because both the dependent and independent variables are continuous variables. All assumptions that we are not robust to are met.

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88 A summary of the results from the independent t tests, ANOVAs and follow up t tes ts, and SLR s are presented in Tables 4 3 to 439 Determined through independent t tests, no significant relationships were found between participants multicultural knowledge or multicultural awareness and gender. Similarly, a ge, as determined by the participants date of birth, was not sig nificantly related to multicultural knowledge or multicultural a wareness as established by SLRs. However, a s ignificant positive relationship was found between the participants multicultural knowledge and completion of a multicultural counseling course during training (t=3.78, p=.000). Nonetheless, multicultural awareness was not significantly related to completion of a multicultural counseling course Both multicultural knowledge and awareness were positively related to the number of hours of multicultural training completed ( R=.306, F=11.471, p=. 001 and R=.203, F=4.757, p=.031, respectively). There was no significant relationship found between the participants multicultural knowledge or awareness and completion of a CACREP accredited counseling program While the participants range of training hours completed in counseling degree programs was 36 to 132 hours over a normal distribution, no significant relationships were found between the participa nts multicultural knowledge or awareness and the number of training hours they completed in their counseling degree programs The most advanced counseling degree obtained by the participants, be it a Masters, Specialist, or Doctorate, did not have a significant relationship with their multicultural knowledge or awareness, either On the other hand, when examining the relationship between the participants counseling credentials and their multicultural knowledge and awareness, t esting

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89 through a oneway ANOVA found significant differences for both (F=3.501, p=.018 and F=3.617, p=.015, respectively). However, f ollow up t tests using the Bonferroni adjustment found no significant differences between counseling credentials obtained by participants and multicultural knowledge. These six tests included comparing: a ) no credentials and L PC and/or NCC b ) no credentials and SCSC only c) no credentials and SCSC with LPC and/or NCC, d ) LPC and/or NCC an d SCSC only, e ) LPC and/or NCC and SCSC with L PC and/or NCC, and f ) SCSC only and SCSC with LPC and/or NCC S imilarly, no s ignificant diffe rences were found between participants counseling credentials and their multicultural awareness. The same set of follow up t tests was conducted: a ) no credentials and L PC and/or NCC b ) no credentials and SCSC only c) no credentials and SCSC with LPC and/or NCC, d ) L PC and/or NCC and SCSC only e ) LPC and/or NCC and SCSC with LPC and/or NCC, and f ) SCSC only and SCSC with LPC and/or NCC The year that participants graduated from their counseling program was not significantly related to their multicultural knowledge or awareness Similarly, participants total years of counseling experience nor their years of middle school counseli ng experience were related to either their multicultural knowledge or awareness While other aspects of counseling experience were not related to multicultural knowledge or awareness, experience counseling culturally diverse students was positively related to multicultural knowledge (R=.332, F=3.649, p=.008), but not to awa reness

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90 In terms of school characteristics, the percentage of students at the participants school s r eceiving free or reduced lunch was not related to the participants multicultural knowledge or awareness The location of the school that employs the participants, categorized as suburban, urban, or rural, was not found to be sig nificantly related to the participants multicultural knowledge or awareness either Utilizing ANOVA testing, no significant relationships were found between the size of the student population at the counselors school and participants multicul tural knowl edge. However, significant differences were found between the size of the student population and participants multicultural awareness (F=4.590, p=.012). Follow up independent t tests adjusted with Bonferroni found that school counselors working at smallsized schools (180500 total students) and medium sized schools ( 501 1,000 total students) had significantly higher multicultural awareness than those working at a largesized school (1,0011500 total students) (t=2.580, p=.012 and t=2.898, p=.005, respecti vely). Additionally, the a mount of diversity at the counselor s school (ratios of student ethnicities) was related to the participants multicultural knowledge. The percentage of White students was not related to the participants multicultural knowledge or a wareness The percentage of AfricanAmerican students was not s ignificantly related, either The percen tage of Latino students at the participants school of employment was positively related to their multicultural knowledge (R=.212, F=5.09, p=.026) Th e percentage of Latino students was not significantly related to the participants multicultural awareness The participants multicultural knowledge nor awareness were

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91 significantly related to the percentage of: Asian/Pac ific Islander, Native American, or Multiracial students Lastly, the number of school counselors working at the participants school was not found to be significantly related to the participants multicul tural knowledge or awareness Multicultural Knowledge and Awareness and Participant Factors School counselors multicultural knowledge, assessed through the knowledge subscale of the MCKAS, was found to have a significant positive relationship to four participant factors: (a) completion of a multicultural counseling course, (b) number of hours of multicultural training completed, (c) amount of experience with culturally diverse clients, and (d) percentage of Latino students at the participants school of employment. A s with multicultural knowledge, a significant positive relationship was fo und between the school counselors multicultural awareness and the number of hours of multicultural training they completed. The other significant finding in regards to multicultural awareness was that school counselors working at small sized schools (180500 total students) and medium sized schools ( 501 1,000 total students) had significantly higher multicultural awareness than those working at a largesized school (1,0011500 total students) No other significant relationships were found between the parti cipant factors (demographic variables) and multicultural knowledge or awareness. There is no evidence suggesting there should be a relationship between multicultural knowledge or awareness and gender or age. Considering the moderately strong positive relat ionship ( r= 0.324) between multicultural knowledge and competition of a multicultural course, the lack of a significant relationship between participants

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92 multicultural awareness and completion of a multicultural counseling course may be surprising. This could suggest that these kinds of courses facilitate an increase in knowledge of the worldviews and value patterns of culturally diverse populations but may fail to facilitate a change in awareness of ones own cultural socialization and accompanying biases. The short duration of a multicultural counseling course may not provide enough time or sustained challenge to ones embedded beliefs to effectively alter awareness. While knowledge can be gained over a shorter period of time, racial and cultural identity development informs us that awareness is a deeply embedded aspect of ones identity and may involve a stepwise developmental process to change. Both multicultural awareness and multicultural knowledge were found to have significant positive relationships with the number of hours of multicultural training completed by school counselors. Participants qualified their multicultural training by reporting engagement in various experiences including: workshops, courses, outreach, and seminars. Some participant s also reported their multicultural training by listing the populations addressed in their training. There was a wide range of topics covered in these trainings. Some examples were: Hmong culture, poverty, LGBT, Cambodian culture, ESL learning, social jus tice, and Alaskan Native/American Indian ." It is possible that ongoing professional development focused upon increasing multicultural competence and sustained durations of training provided opportunities to increase awareness, in addition to knowledge, by challenging and altering inherent biases of their cultural socialization. Participants multicultural training experiences varied greatly. Thus, it is not possible from the results of this study to decipher which

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93 types and what aspects of multicultural training experiences have the greatest potential to facilitate multicultural knowledge and awareness for school counselors. Aspects of the participants educational experiences that were not related to their multicultural knowledge or awareness include: graduating from a CACREP accredited program, the number of training hours completed in degree program, and the most advanced educational degree obtained. While the number of hours completed in their training programs and most advanced educational degree obtained did not seem to be reaching significance, the mean MCKAS multicultural knowledge subscale score of participants graduating from CACREP accredited programs was 101.27, while the mean for participants graduating from nonCACREP accredited programs was 94.06, for a pvalue of .062. While not significant, the differences between these scores of multicultural knowledge may have reached significance with a greater number of participants and/or more equal sample sizes. It is likely that the small number of par ticipants graduating from nonCACREP accredited programs skewed these results (CACREP: n=92 and nonCACREP: n=31). ANOVAs found significant differences between school counselors credentials and multicultural knowledge and awareness. However, follow up t t ests found no significant differences. This was likely impacted by the small number of participants with LPC and NCC licenses. It is of interest to conduct this study with a greater number of participants and more equal sample sizes across counseling credential types. Differential levels of multicultural knowledge and awareness could be the result of differences in training programs, and/or preparation for licensure examinations

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94 Clear information regarding the type of counseling program participants attended was not obtained. Some participants provided this information and some did not. Thus, it is unknown whether participants who were SCSCs and LPCs and/or NCCs attended mental health counseling, rehabilitation counseling, marriage and family counseling, or dual track programs and what kinds of experiences they engaged in to obtain these credentials. This information would be beneficial in discussing this finding, since scholarship exists suggesting there is a dearth of multicultural counseling training in m any school counseling programs (Constantine, 1997; Durodoye, 1998; Hobson & Kanitz, 1996; Johnson, 1995). Year of graduation from counseling program, years of counseling experience, nor years of middle school counseling experience were related to the parti cipants multicultural knowledge or awareness. While some literature suggests that counseling experience may be related to multicultural competence, it is also suggested that this may be more strongly correlated with experience with culturally diverse clie nts (Constantine, 2001, 2002; Constantine & Yeh, 2001; Ottavi, Pope Davis & Dings, 1994). This idea supports the finding that experience with culturally diverse students and working at a school with a high percentage of Latino students was significantly positively related to participants multicultural knowledge. However, these factors were not related to school counselors multicultural awareness. These experiences may provide opportunities for gaining multicultural knowledge but, without supplementary supervision to process experiences and reflect on ones own socialization and biases, may not facilitate an increase in awareness. In fact, some scholars express concern that practicing school counselors frequently do not participate in regular supervision (P aisley

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95 & McMaho n, 2001 ). This could inhibit their development of multicultural awareness, in addition to contributing to inaccurate case conceptualizations and interventions with culturally diverse students. Alternatively, this finding could be a result of the vulnerability of the MCKAS awareness scale. When compared to the knowledge scale, the awareness scale has lower reliability, as is typical of self report multicultural awareness scales. The percentage of students receiving free or reduced lunch was not related to participants multicultural knowledge or awareness. The location of participants employment at a suburban, urban, or rural school was not significantly related to the participants multicultural knowledge or awareness, either A significant finding based upon participants school characteristics was that school counselors working at schools with more than 1,000 students had lower multicultural awareness than counselors working at schools with 1801,000 students. One possible explanation for thi s finding is that the smaller number of students allows for more experience working directly with students in a counseling capacity. So, while the number of years of counseling experience was not related to participants multicultural knowledge or awarenes s, perhaps having a smaller caseload of students allows for an increase in individual and small group counseling practice in which counselors have the opportunity to become more aware of the cultures and life experiences of their students. Existing researc h suggests that a counselors amount of counseling experience is related to multicultural competence (Constantine, 2001, 2002; Constantine & Yeh, 2001; Ottavi, PopeDavis & Dings, 1994). Since size of the student population was not related to multicultural knowledge there is also the consideration of the vulner ability of the awareness scale.

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96 The percentages of W hite/EuropeanAmerican, African American, Asian/Pacific Islander, Native American Indian, and Multiracial students were not significantly related to participants multicultural knowledge or awareness. Yet, working at a school with a high percentage of Latino students was significantly positively related to the participants multicultural knowledge. The mean percentage of Latino students was highest am ong the nonWhite ethnic groups. This likely contributed to the fact that it was the only student ethnic group that had a significant relationship to the counselors multicultural knowledge. As noted earl ier, experience with culturally diverse students may provide opportunities for gaining multicultural knowledge but, without supplementary supervision to process experiences and reflect on ones own socialization and biases, may not facilitate an increase in awareness Lastly, the number of school counselors working at the participants school was not related to their multicultural knowledge or awareness. Hypothesis 2 The second hypothesis was as follows: School counselors will be significantly more likely to recommend students displaying the Afrocultural beh avior styles of communalism and verve for (a) low ability coursework, (b) testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services, and (c) behavioral remediation than students displaying the Eurocentric behavioral styles of individualism and competition. Additionally, school counselors will be less likely to recommend students displaying the Afrocultural behavior styles of communalism and verve to be tested for gifted, talented, or advanced coursewor k than students displaying the Eurocentric behavioral styles of individualism and competition.

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97 The second research question examined the likelihood of school counselors to re commend students for advanced and remedial interventions based on students cultur ally bound behavioral styles? To examine the second hypothesis, four oneway repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted for each of the following recommendations: low ability coursework, testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR ), and learning disability (LD) ESE services, behavioral remediation outside the classroom, and testing for gifted or talented programs. All assumptions that we are not robust to are met. The results of the ANO VAs are reported in Tables 444 to 4 47. In cases that the ANOVAs found significant differences, post hoc dependent t tests using a Bonferroni adjustment were conducted to explore further any significant differences in school counselors recommendations for these interventions based upon Afrocultur al and Eurocentric behavioral styles. Based upon the hypotheses that school counselors will be significantly more likely to recommend students displaying the Afrocultural behavior styles of communalism and verve for (a) low ability coursework, (b) testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and learning dis ability (LD) ESE services and (c ) behavioral remediation outside the classroom than students displaying the Eurocentric behavioral styles of individualism and competition, four dependent t tests w ould be conducted as post hoc testing for any ANOVAs resulting in significant differences. These four paired tests are: Competition and Communalism, Competition and Verve, Individualism and Communalis m, and Individualism and Verve.

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98 For research question two, participants likelihood to recommend students for (a) low ability coursework, (b) testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services, (c) behavioral remediation outside the classroom, and (d) testing for gifted or talented programs based upon students culturally bound behavior styles was measured by their responses to the Student Vignette and Counselor Perception Scale. This scale asked participants to rate on a Likert s cale of one to four, one being strongly disagree and four being strongly agree, how likely they were to recommend a hypothetical student presented in a vignette for the aforementioned remedial and advanced interventions. The four vignettes in this inst rument represented two Afrocultural behavioral styles, communalism and verve, and two Eurocentric behavioral styles, competition and individualism. The means and standard deviations of the recommendations for remedial and advanced interventions that partic ipants made for each of the four behavioral styles are reported in Tables 440 through 443. When examining the likelihood of participants to recommend low ability coursework based upon students culturally bound behavioral styles, no significant differenc es were found Significant differences were found for the participants recommendations for testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services (F=3.626, p=.015). Due to the significance found through the ANOVA, four dependent t tests were conducted to examine differences between the recommendations for testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services between the following pairs of students: Competition and Communalism, Competition

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99 and Verve, Individualism and Communalism, and Individualism and Verve. Table 448 reports the results of the post hoc tests. Significant differences were found between recommendations for testing for emot ionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services for the vignette of the student displaying verve and the student displaying competition. The school counselors were more likely to recommend the vervistic student for this remedial intervention than the competitive student (p<.009). This supports the second hypothesis. Significant differences were also found between recommendations for behavioral remediation outside of the classroom for the vignette of the student displaying individualism and the student di splaying communalism. Table 449 reports the results of this post hoc testing. The school counselors were more likely to recommend the individualistic student for this remedial intervention than the communal s tudent (p<.007). This does not support the second hypothesis. No significant differences were found in the recommendations participants made for testing for gifted, talented, or advanced coursework based upon Afrocultural and Eurocentric behavioral styles School Counselor Recommendations Based Upon Culturally Bound Behavior Style No significant differences were found in school counselors recommendations for low ability co ursework. This lack of significant differences in the counselors recommendations for lowability coursework based upon students culturally bound behavioral styles could reflect a belief by school counselors that teachers are the education professionals primarily responsible for making academic placement decisions for students. The least variability in school counselors recommendations existed in their recommendations for low ability coursework.

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100 One significant finding was supported by the second hypothesis. School counselors were significantly more likely to recommend the vervistic student for testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services than the competitive student. Existing empirical research supports the presence of verve in the home socialization of many low income African American families (Tyler et al., 2008). This is in contrast to the cultural values embedded in U.S. school s that often reflect individualism, competition, and other Eurocentric orientations ( Boykin, Tyler & Miller, 2005; Gay, 2000; Nieto, 2004). Th is contrast was present in some of the participants responses regarding the vignette of the student displaying verve. A few statements made by participants regarding their perceptions of recommending testing for remedial ESE services for this student disp laying verve, Jordan, included: Jordan may need accommodations to be successful in the regular classroom. My first thought on this student was "ADHD", though this is not necessarily true. Jordan might have a hard time succeeding in a traditional classr oom, where many of his behaviors would be viewed as inappropriate. It sounds like Jordan is a product of her home environment. She must learn to adapt to doing things in different ways. Jordan is a student who may struggle in classrooms or with teacher s who do not allow for so much movement or variety. S/he may not maintain current levels of academic success if his/her need for variety and movement is not met. Jordan may need some support in learning to find ways to meet his/her need for stimulation that will not be distracting to the teacher or other students. This cultural discontinuity has been cited as a contributing factor to the low expectations some educators have for the academic aptitude and ac hievement of low income AfricanAmerican students. These low expectations have been linked to the

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101 chronic underachievement of low income, culturally diverse students (Bemak & Chung, 2005; Ford, Harris, Tyson & Trotman, 2002; Harris, Brown, Ford & Richardson, 2004; Haycock, 2001; Lee, 2002; Mickelson & Heath, 1999; Oakes, 1990). It is also of note that these statements reflect a hegemonic attitude that the student should adapt to the learning environment, as opposed to the classroom adapting to the diverse learning styles students bring with them into the c lassroom. This is especially relevant since studies consistently conclude that many AfricanAmerican children display higher motivation and achievement when communalism and verve are embedded in the learning context (Albury, 1993; Allen & Butler, 1996; All en & Boykin, 1992; Bailey & Boykin, 2001; Bailey & Walton, 1994; Boykin, 1979, 1982; Boykin & Allen, 2000; Boykin, Allen, Davis & Senior, 1997; Boykin, Lilja & Tyler, 2004; Dill & Boykin, 2000; Tharp & Gallimore, 1989; Tuck & Boykin, 1989). Cultural misunderstandings and hegemony present in the imposition of mainstream/Eurocentric values embedded in the U. S. educational system have been proposed as contributing factors in th e overrepresentation of AfricanAmerican students in special education programs such as: specific learning disabilities (LD), severe emotional disturbance (SED), and mild mental retardation (MMR) (Blanchett, 2006; Harris, Brown, Ford & Richardson, 2004; Harry & Klingner, 2006; Losen & Orfield, 2002; Patton, 1998; Russo & Talbert Johnson, 1997; Zhang & Katsiyannis, 2002) There were also several suggestions from counselors in the study that the vervistic student be tested for attention deficit disorder (ADD). This suggests that some school counselors liken the Afrocultural behavioral style of verve to ADD. It logically follows that

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102 they would, consequentially, be more likely to recommend a student displaying characteristics of verve for testing for remedial services on this basis. The other significant finding when considering the second r esearch question was that participants were more likely to recommend the individualistic student for behavioral remediation outside of the classroom than the communal student. This was not supported by the hypotheses. A possible explanation for this finding is that communalism is a valued behavior in the classroom. Counselors like the idea of communal students in terms of behavior management. They are collaborative and work well with others. For example, one participant stated about the hypothetical student Jesse who displayed communalism : Jesse sounds like a great kid to have in class because he/she is so cooperative and empathic However, evident in other participant responses is a lack of understanding for this students learning style: H e needs to be t aught life skills about not always being able to rely on others and that in life, not everyone helps one another I would double check to see if she is capable of work (and not hiding behind the guise of sharing in order to complete work) Thus, it is not clear that school counselors understood this learning style and had sufficient cultural competence to utilize this students funds of knowledge and effectively teach students displaying this learning style. No significant differences were found in school c ounselors recommendations for testing for gifted, talented, or advanced coursework Participants were generally more likely to recommend any of the four students for this intervention, when compared to the remedial interventions. This could be the result of social desirability. It is more socially

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103 acceptable to recommend a student for an advanced intervention than for a remedial placement or testing. Participants conceptualizations of each of the students and their potential giftedness varied greatly. Th e following was said of the communal student Jesse : Gifted and Talented programs would allow Jesse some of the in depth, collaborative projects he gravitates towards. This was said of the individualistic student Alex : Alex could fall somewhere on the aut ism scale and need psychological support or he could be gi fted and prefer to work alone. One participant stated this about the vervistic student: If he has low scores, he could have ADHD and might need a 504 Plan. If he has high scores, he might be gifted and multi tasking becaus e he is so good at many things. A nother participant viewed the competitive student this way: It would be good for her to be challenged by being in a gifted class. Also, by being with more gifted kids, she will see that she may not always be the one with the best grades. Apparently, many variables were considered when participants made recommendations for testing for gifted, talented, or advanced coursework. This variability along with the increased social acceptance of recommending testing for gifted, talented, or advanced coursework for a student, as compared to a remedial intervention, likely contribute to a lack of significant differences in the recommendations participants made for this intervention based upon the students cult urally bound behavioral styles. Hypothesis 3 The third hypothesis was as follows: There will be no relationship between school counselors multicultural knowledge and awareness and their likelihood to recommend

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104 students for: (a) low ability coursework, (b) testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services, (c) behavioral remediation outside the classroom, and (d) testing for gifted, talented, or advanced coursework based upon students cul tura lly bound behavioral styles The third research question examines the presence of any relationship between school counselors multicultural knowledge and awareness and their likelihood to recommend students for advanced or remedial interventions based on s tudents culturally bound behavioral styles This was explored through simple linear regressions and a stepwise linear regression. All assumptions that we are not robust to are met. As shown in Table 450 through Table 457, no significant relationships w ere found between the school counselors recommendations for: (a) low ability coursework, (b) testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services, (c) behavioral remediation outside the classroom, or (d) testing for gifted, talented, or advanced coursework and their scores on the MCKAS knowledge and awareness scales. The Relationship Between Multicultural Knowledge And Awareness And The Likelihood Of Making Recommendations For Remedial And Advanced Interventions No significant relationships were found between school counselors multicultural knowledge and recommendations for remedial and advanced interventions based upon students culturally bound behavioral styles. Additionally, no significant r elationships were found between school counselors multicultural awareness and recommendations for remedial and advanced interventions based upon students culturally bound behavioral styles. One explanation f or these findings is the possibility that there are no

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105 significant relationships between school counselors multicultural knowledge or awareness and their likelihood of recommending students for advanced and remedial interventions based upon students culturally bound behavioral styles. Another possibl e explanation is the great amount of error created by the many variables related to the constructs of multicultural knowledge, multicultural awareness, and school counselors recommendations for remedial and advanced interventions for students. Other possi ble contributing factors are the effects of participants responding in a socially desirable manner and the limitations regarding error that exist with self report multicultural competency measures. Limitations This study has several limitations based upon assessment materials and procedures, sampling, and rese arch design. Assessment Materials and Procedures This study will be conducted using an online survey consisting of a demographic questionnaire, the Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness Sc ale (to assess multicultural counseling competence), and the Student Vignette and Counselor Perception Scale (used to measure the likelihood that counselors will rec ommend students for advanced and remedial interventions based on the students culturally b ound behaviors ). As with other measures of multicultural counseling competence, the MCKAS is conducted through self report and is, therefore, self perceived comp etence rather than competence measured by clients receiving services or a thirdparty expert observer This is a limitation because it is not known how accurately this self report reflects actual multicultural competence. Studies exploring self reported multicultural competence and its relations hip to how clients eval uate the cultural competence of

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106 counselor s, as well as studies evaluating the multicultural competence of counselors by a thirdparty and comparing it to self reports of multicultural competence would serve to further validate self report measures of multicultural competence. The Student Vignette and Counselor Perception Scale will be created by the researcher for this study. This is a limitation as little is known about the reliability and validity of this measure beyond the pilot study that will be conducted. Sampling A limitation in sa mpling exists because American School Counseling Association (ASCA) members will be solicited for voluntary participation. This could bias the sample because participants who volunteer may have particular interest in the topic, need access to the internet and must be technologically savvy enough to respond to online questionnaires. Additionally, p articipants could have been cued to the purpose of the study and, thus, biased their answers to appear more socially desirable. Research Design T his study uses a correlational research design Thus, an inability to determine causality between related variables is an additional limitation. Lastly, collecting data at only one point in time is a limitation of this study as history threats to validity are possible. Su mmary This purpose of this chapter was to summarize the results of the study. It began by presenting the descriptive data for the participant variables. This was followed by a review of the hypotheses and reporting of the results Lastly, a discussion of t he limitations of the study was provided.

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107 Table 41. Counseling credentials obtained. Participants (n=123) Frequency (N) None 12 LPC &/or NCC 6 SCSC only 89 SCSC & LPC &/or NCC 16 Table 42. Percentage of students by ethnicity. Student Ethnicity M SD White/European American 61.55% 30.82 Black/African American 11.34% 16.49 Hispanic/Latino American 17.89% 24.35 Asian/Pacific Islander 4.49% 9.98 Native American 3.93% 9.73 Multiracial 3.07% 3.17 Table 43. Results of t tests analyzing the relat ionship between multicultural knowledge and awareness and gender. Male Female T statistic p > t Knowledge 98.19 99.85 0.328 0.743 Awareness 66.31 67.61 0.537 0.592 Table 44. Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between mul ticultural knowledge and awareness and date of birth. R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Knowledge .005 .000 .008 18.573 Awareness .049 .002 .006 8.928 Predictor: (Constant), DOB Dependent Variables: Knowledge, Awareness Table 45. Results of t tests analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and awareness and completion of a multicultural counseling course. Course Completed Course Not Taken T statistic p > t Knowledge 101.91 84.72 3.773 0.000*** Awarenes s 67.77 66.39 0.603 0.547 ***p<.001

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108 Table 46. Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and awareness and number of hours of multicultural training completed. R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Knowledge .306*** .094 .086 17.741 Awareness .203* .041 .032 8.698 Predictor: (Constant), Number of hours of multicultural training completed Dependent Variables: Knowledge, Awareness ***p<.001 *p<.05 Table 47. Results of t tests analyz ing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and awareness and completion of a CACREP accredited counseling program. CACREP Non CACREP T statistic p > t Knowledge 101.27 94.06 1.885 0.062 Awareness 68.08 66.13 1.061 0.291 Table 48. Re sults of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and awareness and number of hours completed in counselor training program. R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Knowledge .126 .016 .006 17.003 Awa reness .004 .000 .010 9.280 Predictor: (Constant), Number of hours completed in counselor training Dependent Variables: Knowledge, Awareness Table 49. Results of oneway ANOVA analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and most advanced educational degree. Source df Sum of squares Mean of squares F Sig Between 2 1346.703 673.351 1.933 .149 Within 120 41800.777 348.340 Total 122 43147.480

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109 Table 410. Results of oneway ANOVA analyzing the relationship between multicultural aw areness and most advanced educational degree. Source df Sum of squares Mean of squares F Sig Between 2 83.093 41.547 0.513 .600 Within 120 9711.069 80.926 Total 122 9794.162 Table 411. Results of oneway ANOVA analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and earned counseling credentials. Source Df Sum of squares Mean of squares F Sig Between 3 3499.320 1166.440 3.501 .018* Within 119 39648.159 333.178 Total 122 43147.480 *p<.05 Table 412. Results of follow up independent t tests analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and earned counseling credentials : none and LPC &/or NCC. None LPC &/or NCC T statistic p > t Knowledge 107.42 112.17 2.067 .041 Table 413. Results of follow up independent t tests analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and earned counseling credentials: none and SCSC only. None SCSC only T statistic p > t Knowledge 107.42 96.17 2.011 .047 Table 414. Results of follow up independent t tests analyz ing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and earned counseling credentials: none and SCSC & LPC &/or NCC. None SCSC & LPC &/or NCC T statistic p > t Knowledge 107.42 106.56 0.125 .902 Table 415. Results of follow up independent t tes ts analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and earned counseling credentials: LPC &/or NCC and SCSC only. LPC &/or NCC SCSC only T statistic p > t Knowledge 112.17 96.17 2.067 .041

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110 Table 416. Results of follow up independent t tests analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and earned counseling credentials: LPC &/or NCC and SCSC & LPC &/or NCC. LPC&/or NCC SCSC & LPC &/or NCC T statistic p > t Knowledge 112.17 106.56 0.631 .535 Table 417. Results o f follow up independent t tests analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and earned counseling credentials: SCSC only and SCSC & LPC &/or NCC. SCSC only SCSC & LPC&/or NCC T statistic p > t Knowledge 96.17 106.56 2.015 .046 Table 4 18. Results of oneway ANOVA analyzing the relationship between multicultural awareness and earned counseling credentials. Source Df Sum of squares Mean of squares F Sig Between 3 818.380 272.793 3.617 .015* Within 119 8975.783 75.427 Total 122 97 94.163 *p<.05 Table 419. Results of follow up independent t tests analyzing the relationship between multicultural awareness and earned counseling credentials : none and LPC&/or NCC. None LPC&/or NCC T statistic p > t Awareness 69.42 73.83 0.9 78 .343 Table 420. Results of follow up independent t tests analyzing the relationship between multicultural awareness and earned counseling credentials: none and SCSC only. None SCSC only T statistic p > t Awareness 69.42 66.07 1.206 .231 Ta ble 421. Results of follow up independent t tests analyzing the relationship between multicultural awareness and earned counseling credentials: none and SCSC & LPC&/or NCC. None SCSC & LPC &/or NCC T statistic p > t Awareness 69.42 72.19 0.843 .40 7

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111 Table 422. Results of follow up independent t tests analyzing the relationship between multicultural awareness and earned counseling credentials: LPC&/or NCC and SCSC only. LPC &/or NCC SCSC only T statistic p > t Awareness 73.83 66.07 2.115 .037 Table 423. Results of follow up independent t tests analyzing the relationship between multicultural awareness and earned counseling credentials: LPC&/or NCC and SCSC & LPC&/or NCC. LPC&/or NCC SCSC & LPC &/or NCC T statistic p > t Awareness 73.83 72.19 0.513 .613 Table 424. Results of follow up independent t tests analyzing the relationship between multicultural awareness and earned counseling credentials: SCSC only and SCSC & LPC &/or NCC. SCSC only SCSC & LPC&/or NCC T statistic p > t Awareness 66.07 72.19 2.612 .010 Table 42 5. Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and awareness and year graduated from counseling program. R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Est imate Knowledge .153 .023 .015 18.662 Awareness .116 .014 .005 8.936 Predictor: (Constant), Year graduated from counseling program Dependent Variables: Knowledge, Awareness Table 42 6. Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between m ulticultural knowledge and awareness and years of counseling experience. R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Knowledge .119 .014 .006 18.750 Awareness .096 .009 .001 8.955 Predictor: (Constant), Years of counseling experience Dependent Variables: Knowledge, Awareness

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112 Table 42 7. Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and awareness and years of experience counseling at a middle school. R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Knowledge .130 .017 .009 18.748 Awareness .088 .008 .001 8.974 Predictor: (Constant), Years of counseling experience at a middle school Dependent Variables: Knowledge, Awareness Table 42 8. Results of simple regressions analyzing the relati onship between multicultural knowledge and awareness and experience counseling culturally diverse students. R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Knowledge .322** .103 .096 17.880 Awareness .140 .019 .011 8.909 Predictor: (Constant), E xperience counseling culturally diverse students Dependent Variables: Knowledge, Awareness **p<.01 Table 42 9. Results of simple regression analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and awareness and percentage of students receiving free or reduced lunch. R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Knowledge .078 .006 .002 18.879 Awareness .060 .004 .005 8.931 Predictor: (Constant), Percentage of students receiving free or reduced lunch Dependent Variables: Knowledge, A wareness Table 43 0. Results of oneway ANOVA analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and location of school (suburban, urban, or rural). Source Df Sum of squares Mean of squares F Sig Between 2 540.701 270.351 0.761 .469 Within 120 42606.778 355.056 Total 122 43147.480

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113 Table 43 1. Results of oneway ANOVA analyzing the relationship between multicultural awareness and location of school (suburban, urban, or rural). Source Df Sum of squares Mean of squares F Sig Between 2 196 .082 98.041 1.226 .297 Within 120 9598.081 79.984 Total 122 9794.163 Table 43 2. Results of oneway ANOVA analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and the size of the student population at the counselors school (180500, 5011, 000, or 1,0011500). Source Df Sum of squares Mean of squares F Sig Between 2 81.337 40.669 .118 .889 Within 115 39797.917 346.069 Total 117 39879.254 Table 43 3. Results of oneway ANOVA analyzing the relationship between multicultural awarenes s and the size of the student population at the counselors school (180500, 5011,000, or 1,0011500). Source Df Sum of squares Mean of squares F Sig Between 2 708.536 354.268 4.590 .012* Within 115 8876.964 77.191 Total 117 9585.500 *p<.05 Tabl e 43 4. Results of follow up independent t tests analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge between small (180500 students) and medium (5011,000) sized schools Small Medium T statistic p > t Awareness 67.90 69.17 0.720 .473 Tab le 4 35. Results of follow up independent t tests analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge between medium (5001,000 students) and large (1,0011,500) sized schools Medium Large T statistic p > t Awareness 69.17 61.89 2.898 .005* *p<.05/3=.0167

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114 Table 436. Results of follow up independent t tests analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge between small (180500 students) and large (1,0011,500) sized schools Small Large T statistic p > t Awareness 67.90 61. 89 2.580 .012* *p<.05/3=.0167 Table 437. Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and percentage of students by ethnicity. Student Ethnicity R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate White /EuropeanAmerican .168 .028 .020 18.691 Black/African American .074 .005 .004 18.320 Hispanic/Latino American .212* .045 .036 18.576 Asian/Pacific Islander .098 .010 .002 18.815 Native American .147 .021 .005 15.631 Multiracial .221 .049 .034 16.229 Predictor: (Constant), Percentage of students by ethnicity Dependent Variables: Knowledge *p<.05 Table 438. Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between multicultural awareness and percentage of students by ethnicity. Student Ethni city R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate White/EuropeanAmerican .046 .002 .006 8.992 Black/African American .021 .000 .009 9.189 Hispanic/Latino American .018 .000 .009 9.060 Asian/Pacific Islander .119 .014 .003 8.969 Native Am erican .176 .031 .015 9.017 Multiracial .032 .001 .015 9.815 Predictor: (Constant), Percentage of students by ethnicity Dependent Variables: Awareness Table 439. Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between multicultural knowledge and awareness and number of counselors at school. R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Knowledge .058 .003 .005 18.863 Awareness .054 .003 .005 9.001 Predictor: (Constant), Number of counselors at school Dependent Variables: Knowl edge, Awareness

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115 Table 440. Summary of the means and standards deviations for the counselors recommendations for low ability coursework based upon student culturally bound behavioral style. Behavioral Style M SD Communalism 1.31 .464 Verve 1.32 .467 Competition 1.34 .509 Individualism 1.31 .464 Table 441. Summary of the means and standards deviations for the counselors recommendations for testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE ser vices based upon student culturally bound behavioral style. Behavioral Style M SD Communalism 1.26 .442 Verve 1.35 .497 Competition 1.27 .464 Individualism 1.32 .486 Table 442. Summary of the means and standards deviations for the counselors recom mendations for behavioral remediation outside the classroom based upon student culturally bound behavioral style. M SD Communalism 1.66 .799 Verve 1.90 .817 Competition 1.79 .774 Individualism 1.81 .806 Table 443. Summary of the means and standards deviations for the counselors recommendations for testing for gifted or talented programs based upon student culturally bound behavioral style. Behavioral Style M SD Communalism 2.25 .742 Verve 2.31 .770 Competition 2.54 .804 Individualism 2.37 .693 Table 444. Results of oneway repeated measures ANOVA analyzing the likelihood of school counselors making recommendations for low ability coursework based upon student culturally bound behavioral style. Source df Sum of squares Mean of squares F Sig Within 2.810 .446 .159 1.980 .121 Error 337.241 27.054 .080 Total 340.051 27.500

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116 Table 445. Results of oneway repeated measures ANOVA analyzing the likelihood of school counselors making recommendations for testing for emotionally disturbed (E D), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services based upon student culturally bound behavioral style. Source df Sum of squares Mean of squares F Sig Between 2.849 .667 .234 3.626 .015* Within 341.878 22.083 .065 Total 344 .727 22.750 *p<.05 Table 446. Results of oneway repeated measures ANOVA analyzing the likelihood of school counselors making recommendations for behavioral remediation outside of the classroom based upon student culturally bound behavioral style. S ource df Sum of squares Mean of squares F Sig Between 2.870 3.545 1.235 5.529 .001*** Within 344.400 76.955 .223 Total 347.270 80.500 ***p=.001 Table 447. Results of oneway repeated measures ANOVA analyzing the likelihood of school counselors making recommendations for testing for gifted, talented, and advanced coursework based upon student culturally bound behavioral style. Source df Sum of squares Mean of squares F Sig Between 2.798 1.033 .369 1.785 .154 Within 335.816 69.467 .207 Total 338.614 70.500

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117 Table 448. Summary of follow up dependent t tests for school counselor recommendations for testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services based upon student cultur ally bound behavioral style. Paired Differences M SD df Sig. Competition/Communalism .008 .375 121 0.810 Competition/Verve .082 .377 121 0.018* Individualism/Communalism .057 .347 121 0.071 Individualism/Verve .033 .313 121 0.250 *p<.10/4=.025 Table 449. Summary of follow up dependent t tests for school counselor recommendations for behavior remediation outside the classroom based upon student culturally bound behavioral style. Paired Differences M SD df Sig. Competition/Comm unalis m .123 .675 121 0.047 Competition/Verve .115 .706 121 0.075 Individualism/Communalism .148 .599 121 0.007* Individualism/Verve .090 .643 121 0.124 *p<.10/4=.025 Table 450. Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between counselor recommendations for low ability coursework and multicultural knowledge. Behavioral Style R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Communalism .036 .001 .007 .487 Verve .051 .003 .006 .478 Competition .055 .003 .005 .487 Ind ividualism .032 .001 .007 .443 Predictor: (Constant), Multicultural knowledge Dependent Variables: Counselor recommendations for low ability coursework

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118 Tab le 4 51. Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between counselor recommendations for low ability coursework and multicultural awareness. Behavioral Style R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Communalism .065 .004 .004 .487 Verve .039 .002 .007 .479 Competition .141 .020 .012 .483 Individualism .125 .016 .007 .440 Predictor: (Constant), Multicultural awareness Dependent Variables: Counselor recommendations for low ability coursework Table 452. Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between counselor recommendations for testing for em otionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services and multicultural knowledge. Behavioral Style R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Communalism .035 .001 .007 .443 Verve .049 .002 006 .498 Competition .008 .000 .008 .466 Individualism .007 .000 .008 .488 Predictor: (Constant), Multicultural knowledge Dependent Variables: Counselor recommendations for testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and le arning disability (LD) ESE services Table 453. Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between counselor recommendations for testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE servic es and multicultural awareness. Behavioral Style R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Communalism .015 .000 .008 .443 Verve .052 .003 .006 .498 Competition .138 .019 .011 .462 Individualism .048 .002 .006 .487 Predictor: (Constant), Multicultural awareness Dependent Variables: Counselor recommendations for testing for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), and learning disability (LD) ESE services

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119 Table 454. Results of simple regressions analyzing the rel ationship between counselor recommendations for behavior remediation outside the classroom and multicultural knowledge. Behavioral Style R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Communalism .005 .000 .008 .802 Verve .004 .000 .008 .821 Competition .065 .004 .004 .775 Individualism .018 .000 .008 .810 Predictor: (Constant), Multicultural knowledge Dependent Variables: Counselor recommendations for behavior remediation Table 455. Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between counselor recommendations for behavior remediation outside the classroom and multicultural awareness. Behavioral Style R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Communalism .078 .006 .002 .800 Verve .042 .002 .007 .820 Comp etition .053 .003 .005 .776 Individualism .027 .001 .008 .809 Predictor: (Constant), Multicultural awareness Dependent Variables: Counselor recommendations for behavior remediation Table 456. Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between counselor recommendations for testing for gifted, talented, and advanced coursework and multicultural knowledge. Behavioral Style R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Communalism .028 .001 .008 .824 Verve .024 .001 .008 .688 Competition .045 .002 .006 .762 Individualism .036 .001 .007 .792 Predictor: (Constant), Multicultural knowledge Dependent Variables: Counselor recommendations for gifted, talented, and advanced coursework

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120 Table 457. Results of simple regressions analyzing the relationship between counselor recommendations for testing for gifted, talented, and advanced coursework and multicultural awareness. Behavioral Style R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate Communalism .075 .006 .003 .822 Verve .010 .000 .008 .689 Competition .006 .000 .008 .762 Individualism .012 .000 .008 .792 Predictor: (Constant), Multicultural awareness Dependent Variables: Counselor recommendations for gifted, talented, and advanced coursework

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121 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the findings regarding White middle school counselors multicultural knowledge and awareness and their likelihood of making recommendations for advanced and remedial interventions based upon students cu lturally bound behavioral styles I mplications for practice and future research will also be discussed. F indings from this study included a significantly higher likelihood that school counselors would recommend a student displaying vervistic behaviors for testing for remedial ESE services than a student displaying competitive behaviors A long with existing literature, this finding suggest s that the disproportionality of low income, culturally diverse students in special education is impacted by the biases and low expectations of school counselors (Bemak & Chung, 2005). This is problematic given recent educational reform initiatives aimed at addressing the persistent chronic underachievement an d overrepresentation of AfricanAmerican and other culturally div erse students in U. S. public educational settings Although there is little research examining the multicultural competence of school counselors, there is concern that in working with culturally diverse students, some school counselors may be providing ser vices that extend beyond their current level of expertise (Constantine, 2002; Hobson & Kanitz, 1996). As such, the results of this study provide a few implications for school counseling practice and training including: the embodiment of the role of the 21st century school counselor, a mandated multicultural counseling course in training programs, ongoing multicultural training for professionals, and smaller student to counselor ratios.

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122 Beginning with the national Transforming School C ounseling Initiative ( TSCI) there have been systematic attempts to examine and redefine the role of the school counselor as a means of contributing to educational equity for all students. Accordingly, American School Counseling Association ( ASCA ) has worked to create standards placing school counselors at the center of the education reform movement. This role of the 21st century school counselor includes leadership within the school to improve curriculum and instruction and advocacy for equal opportunity and access to a quality education for all students (Herring 1997; House and Martin 1998; Keys, Bemak & Lockhart, 1998; Martin, 2002; Stone & Clark, 2001). School counselors are well trained and positioned within the school to tackle issues of equity, access, and supporting conditions for student success through advocacy of traditionally underserved students (Martin, 2002; Oakes, 2005). They receive data about student achievement, community conditions, and reports of school failure and receive relevant training in counseling, education, group dynamics, human development, and systems theory (HolcombMcCoy, 2007). Thus, they are in a unique position to assume leadership roles in schools to reduce academic inequality (Bemak, Chung, Siroskey Sabdo, 2005). While traditional roles of m aking referrals for special education (Amatea & West Olatunji, 2007; Carpenter, King Sears & Keys, 1998; Keys, Bemak, Carpenter & King Sears, 1998) and academic advising (Paisley & McMahon, 2001; Stone & Clark, 2001) are important, the role of the 21st cen tury school counselor also includes: (a) serving as a cultural bridge between teacher and students to assist teachers in viewing students holistically and in the context of their culture and community, (b) assisting teachers in creating curriculum and inst ruction that is more

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123 directly connected to students lives and utilizes the funds of knowledge they bring into school, (c) working with teachers to create a more welcoming family centered school environment and increase home/school collaboration, and (d) c onducting multicultural trainings for school staff to address issues of bias and help create an environment of diversity appreciation within the school (Amatea & West Olatunji, 2007; Bemak & Chung, 2005). School counselors can begin to assist teachers in viewing students holistically and in the context of their culture and community by modeling how to locate and utilize strengths in students and families that are culturally different from themselves. School counselors can facilitate collaborative meetings with teachers and families to locate student and family strengths and develop comprehensive plans of action to promote student engagement and achievement. School counselors can also promote initiatives and organize teams of teachers to learn more about their students lives. This can be achieved through various activities, such as: visiting students neighborhoods and places of business and play, riding student school bus routes to explore the neighborhoods they live in, and conducting home visits to increase understanding of students life contexts and communities. By understanding their students culture and locating community strengths and assets, teachers are more likely to view low income and culturally diverse students through a strengthbased lens as opposed to a deficit based lens. Additionally, school counselors can counter deficit views of students and their families and mediate between the cultural discontinuity that often exists between home and school for culturally diverse students. This cultural discontinuity has been cited as a

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124 contributing factor to the low expectations some educators have for the academic aptitude and achievement of low income AfricanAmerican students. By encouraging teachers to increase their understanding of the home liv es of their students and increase their awareness of cultural disconnects between home and school, teachers can develop a cultural context to utilize in the creation of effective educational interventions to reduce cultural discontinuity and avoid inappropriate special education referrals. By utilizing their multicultural awareness, knowledge, and skills, school counselors can assist teachers in creating curriculum and instruction that is more directly connected to students lives and employs the funds of knowledge they bring into school. Extensive research documents that low income AfricanAmerican students tend to prefer the learning styles that emphasize: verve, communalism, and movement (Tyler et al., 2008). These studies and other research also document the tendency for U.S. public education to privilege learners exhibiting a competitive and individualistic learning style while disadvantaging students exhibiting other learning preferences (Boykin, Tyler & Miller, 2005; Gay, 2000; Nieto, 2004). This cult ural bias tends to privilege White middle class students and disadvantage low income, culturally diverse students. Armed with this knowledge, school counselors can consult with teachers to augment lesson plans and instructional practices to more effectivel y honor and utilize student funds of knowledge. This allows for the creation of classrooms that are culturally responsive to all students. For instance, by teaching students to articulate the knowledge they have at home in relation to what the school want s them to learn they are able to develop a

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125 sen se of self awareness and tools to better understand and meet expectations at school (Diaz Greenburg, 2001). McCaleb (1994) presents another example of creating classroom experiences that are culturally responsive. Students and their families were asked to coauthor books depi cting their lives and values. Through invitation to share these stories with the class, they receive the message that they are valued as cultural beings and individual s in the classroom Additionally, the teacher and students are educated about one anothers unique life experiences and worldviews. Asking students and families to bring their knowledge and values into the classroom is an effective way to begin developing partnerships with fa milies and communities where power and responsibility are shared (Henderson & Mapp, 2002). Encouraging families to share their knowledge and experiences in the classroom is a culturally responsive strategy to invite families to be more directly involved at school and create an environment of diversity appreciation. Many low income and culturally diverse parents would like to be more involved at the school but lack the time and/or are intimidated because they may have experienced the school as unwelcoming, have only been contacted with bad news about their child, and/or have not had positive schooling experiences themselves (Finders & Lewis, 1998; Ramirez, 2003). School counselors can assist teachers in understanding that, although families may not be physically present at the school, they are often involved in their childrens education at home. By working with teachers to create a more welcoming family centered school environment, these families are more likely to be directly involved at the school. This is important because family involvement in childrens schooling is a strong indicator of academic success ( Israel, Beaulieu, & Hartless, 2001).

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126 In order to effectively embody the role of the 21st century school counselor as a: collaborative leader within the school, consultant to school staff, and advocate for low income and culturally diverse students, school counselors must have sufficient multicultural competence. This leadership role includes redirecting efforts and challenging biases of school staff that lead to chronic underachievement and disproportionality for low income and culturally diverse students. Ideally, school counselors will be involved in the development and implementation of multicultural trainings for school staff to address issues of bias and help create an environment of diversity appreciation within the school. As mentioned earlier, school counselors can team with administration to facilitate diversity initiatives at the school, conduct multicultural trainings, and attend teacher team meetings to redirect inappropriate referrals and interventions and advocate for students. Several calls for the evaluation of school counselor practice and preparation in terms of actively responding to increase equity for all students and meeting the needs of culturally diverse and low income students have been made (Education Trust, 1996; Paisley & McMahon, 2001). ASCAs Ethical Standards for School Counselors articulates the professional school counselors responsibility to acquire educational, consultat ion and training experiences to improve awareness, knowledge, skills and effectiveness in working with diverse populations (ASCA, 2004, p. 4). Fueled by the Transforming School Counseling Initiative (TSCI), multicultural school counseling has emerged as a response to the goal that school counselors serve as student advocates that believe all students can achieve at high levels on challenging coursework (Martin, 2002; Romano & Kachgal, 2004). Multicultural school counseling includes utilization of

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127 culturall y appropriate case conceptualization and interventions with culturally diverse students (Lee, 1995; Pedersen & Carey, 2003). This is imperative as cultural discontinuity, defined as the discontinuation at school of the cultural learning preferences and practices originating from home and/or p arental socialization, contributes to the chronic underachievement and disproportionality of low income and culturally diverse students. Multicultural school counseling provides for conceptualization and intervention that is culturally relevant and responsive to the lives o f low income and culturally diverse students. Multicultural competence is necessary for school counselors to conduct multicultural school counseling, embody the role of the 21st century school counsel or, and assist other school staff in creating culturecentered conceptualizations and interventions with students. Section E.2 of the ASCA s Ethical Standards for School Counselors, the multicultural competency, states that the professional school counsel or: (a) affirms the diversity of students, staff, and families, (b) expands and develops awareness of his/her own attitudes and beliefs affecting cultural values and biases and strives to attain cultural competence, (c) possesses knowledge and understa nding about how oppression, racism, discrimination, and stereotyping affects her/him personally and professionally, and (d) acquires educational, consultation, and training experiences to improve awareness, knowledge, skills, and effectiveness in working with diverse populations: ethnic/racial status, age, economic status, special needs, ESL or ELL, immigration status, sexual orientation, gender, gender identity/expression, family type, religious/spiritual identity and appearance. Affirming diversity inv olves regarding ethnicity and culture as important aspects of identity for self and others. Developing school counseling programs centered around reducing chronic underachievement and disproportionality through use of culture-

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128 centered conceptualizations and interventions and partnering with families are other ways to help create an environment of diversity appreciation at school. Striving to attain cultural competence involves actively pursuing the development of cultural awareness, knowledge, and skills (S ue et al., 1982). Cultural awareness is one of the three elements in the tripartite model multicultural competence outlined by Sue and colleagues (1982). Cultural awareness involves exploring and familiarizing oneself with ones own culture and biases and then seeking to understand the culture of students, staff, and families. Appreciating and understanding cultural similarities and differences provide a context for culturally competent counseling and culturecentered conceptualization and intervention. T his also includes developing knowledge and understanding about how oppression, racism, discrimination, and stereotyping affect oneself and others. Multicultural education, consultation, and training are essential aspect s of improving awareness, knowledge, and skills to enable effectiveness in working with diverse populations. Thus, it is the professional responsibility of school counselors to seek experiences directed at increasing their multicultural competence. Cultural competence is essential to fulfill the role of the 21st century school counselor and act as collaborative leader, consultant, and advocate for students. This study found that completion of a multicultural counseling course, multicultural training, and experience with culturally diverse stu dents were positively related to multicultural knowledge and/or awareness. Therefore, in addition to mandating a multicultural counseling course, ongoing professional development focused upon increasing multicultural competence and embracing the role of th e 21st century school

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129 counselor are recommended. This mandated training should be required for practicing school counselors to renew their statecertification and other counseling credentials. For school counselors and other educators to work effectively with African American students of any class background, they must have knowledge of African American culture, including an awareness of the historical and sociopolitical contexts of culture and skills to utilize culture in their conceptualizations and inte rventions (Lee, 1995; Pedersen & Carey, 2003). Accordingly, this training should be specifically geared towards gaining cultural awareness of own and others culturally bound behaviors, knowledge of culturally diverse peoples and their cultures and skills to effectively engage with culture in the classroom. Ideally, multicultural training includes sustained, immersion experiences which challenge inherent beliefs and biases and force counselors to experience a culture outside of their own. To assist school counselor trainees in gaining multicultural knowledge and skills, training programs could require trainees to complete supervised crosscultural counseling experiences as part of their practicum and internship experiences. Another way of implementing advanced training and consultation for multicultural competence is to organize and attend regularly scheduled supervision sessions focused on multicultural issues and implementation of the role of the 21st century school counselor in their practice. Immersion experiences such as outreach trips (Goodman & West Olatunji, 2009) and English as Second Language (ESL) mentoring ( Roysircar, Gard, Hubbell & Ortega, 2005) have shown evidence of increasing multic ultural competence in counselor trainees Prolonged engageme nt in service learning that is empowering and

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130 collaborative is ideal. Critical reflection and dialogue during immersion experiences are essential components of training for multicultural competence (Goodman & West Ola tunji ; Roy sircar, Gard, Hubbell, & Orte ga ). This group processing of feelings, thoughts, and experiences surrounding the immersion experience is a crucia l piece of the learning process as it provides opportunity to critically reflect on the personal and professional meaning of the experience and give and receive feedback. Educational reform and ethical mandates dictate that school counselors be equipped to work effectively with the diversity of students in U.S. public schools and affect change in the chronic underachievement of low income, cultu rally diverse students. Since some scholars express concern that currently many school counselor trainees l eave training programs without sufficient cultural competence to achieve these goals (Bemak & Chung, 2005; Constantine, 2002; HolcombMcCoy, 2007), i t is important that counselor trainees receive strong training for multicultural competence in their training programs. The requirement of supervised cross cultural counseling experiences during practicum and internship experiences is supported by research findings that counseling experience with culturally diverse clients is positively correlated with multicultural competence (Constantine, 2001; Ottavi, Pope Davis & Dings, 1994) Cross cultural and multicultural supervision has been described as supervisi on in which culture is discussed in terms of: (a) supervisees perceptions of clients, assumptions of client perceptions of them as counselors, interpretations of client responses, and the rationale for supervisee responses client counselor and counselor supervisor relationships (Garrett et al., 2001), (b) ones own culture and how this impacts beliefs and worldview (Bernard & Goodyear, 1998), and racial and ethnic

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131 identity development (Cook, 1994; Cook & Helms, 1988; Peterson, 1991). Counselor trainees engagement in multicultural supervision while conducting their cross cultural clinical training experiences helps ensure cultural issues are explored and processed throughout the training experience. Various models of multicultural supervision exist, includi ng: developmental interpersonal (Bruss, Brack, Glickhauf Hughes & OLeary, 1997; Constantine, 1997; Porter, 1994), descriptive (Ancis & Ladany, 2001; Helms & Cook, 1999; B rown & Landrum Brown, 1995), empowerment models (House & Holloway, 1992) and Garrett and colleagues (2001) SuperVISION model Peer supervision has been recommended by scholars as a practical way for school counselors to increase their cultural competence and engage in ongoing professional development in order to embody the role of the 21st century school counselor (Paisley & McMahon, 2001). Too often, practicing school counselors do not participate in consistent supervision (Paisley & McMahon; Roberts & Borders, 1994). School counselors can facilitate peer supervision with other counseling professionals. Alternatively, counselor educators can serve as supervisors for school counselors and advocate for multicultural training and supervision. Based on the finding that participants working at schools with smaller numbers of students had great er multicultural awareness, school counselors and counselor educators should lobby for smaller student to counselor ratios. The American Counseling Association (1999) estimated that the average counselor to student ratio in the United States ranges from 1 to 313 in Vermont to 1 to 1,182 in California. A study by Corwin, Venegas, Oliverez, and Colvar (2004) found that school counselors abilities to provide adequate services were affected by large caseloads. S ince culturally diverse

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132 and low income students are more likely to attend overcrowded high schools, they are more likely to be affected by these barriers. Smaller student caseloads may provide counselors time to shift from their traditional role of scheduler and testing coordinator to embody the role of the 21st century school counselor as leader and educational consultant with other school staff to positively affect the educational outcomes of all students. In summary, current initiatives place school counselors at the center of the educational movement to reduce the chronic underachievement and disproportionality of culturally diverse students. However, the results of this study suggest that school counselors may contribute to the dispropor tionality of low income AfricanAmerican students in remedial special education through their gatekeeping role. Thus, implications of this study suggest that ongoing multicultural training and professional development to increase cultural competence are crucial elements in the formula for school counselors to embody the role of the 21st century school counselor and work towards educational equity. Implications for Future Research Results from this study suggest a few areas to pursue for future areas of study. Firstly, a qualitative study exploring school counselors c onceptualizations of students culturally bound behavioral styles and how these behavioral styles impact their recommendations for remedial and advanced interventions would provide further insight into how school counselors make academic decisions for stu dents. Secondly, case study research examining White school counselors who have been successful in positioning students for academic success and work at schools with a large proportion of aca demically successful culturally diverse students may provide information

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133 regarding how school counselors can embody the role of the 21st century counselor and effectively work towards educational equity. Investigations utilizing a prepost test d esign exploring the effects of crosscultural clinical training experiences coupled with multicultural supervision on counselor trai nees multicultural competence would provide important information regarding the effectiveness of these training experiences aimed at increasing multicultural competence. Additionally, exploring the effects of various ongoing multicultural training and professional development experiences on practicing counselors multicultural competence may help identify elements of multicultural training that have the greatest potential to facilitate multicultural competence for school counselors Another important area to investigat e is the impact of multicultural training on the effectiveness of counselor practice with culturally diverse clients T hese investigations may utilize instruments measuring client symptoms and counseling outcomes in order to measure the effectiveness of counseling services provided by counseling professionals who have engaged in various types and amounts of multicultural training As mentioned in chapter 4, a replication study investigati ng the multicultural knowledge and awareness of school counselors with equal numbers of participants from nonCACREP accredited and CACREP accredited programs is warranted. Additionally, a national comparative study of the required coursework in various counseling programs, as well as aspects of examination criteria may shed light on the results of this study that suggest there may be differences in the levels of multicultural knowledge and awareness facilitated by licensed professional counselor (LPC) nat ionally certified counselor (NCC) and s tate certified school counselor (SCSC) training Lastly given the

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134 vulnerability of self report multicultural competence measures, a study comparing scores on self report multicultural competence measures (e.g. MCKAS ) with a measure of multicultural competenc e scored by a thirdparty expert (e.g. CCCI) may assist in identifying the vulnerabilities of these measures. This could help in the development of stronger tools for measuring multicultural competence. Summary R esults of this study suggest that school counselors may contribute to the dispropor tionality of lowincome AfricanAmerican students in remedial special education due to a lack of multicultural competence. Current educational initiatives call for school co unselors to be at the center of the educational equity movement. School counselors must have sufficient multicultural competence in order to affect change in the chronic underachievement of low income, culturally diverse students. Given the findings that participants multicultural knowledge and awareness were positively related to completion of a multicultural counseling course and multicultural knowledge was related to: (a) number of hours of multicultural training completed, (b) amount of experience with culturally diverse clients, and (c) percentage of Latino students at the participants school of employment, a mandated multicultural counseling course in training programs and ongoing multicultural training professional development is recommended. Additi onally, smaller student to counselor ratios are recommended. Additionally, areas of future research were discussed.

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135 APPENDIX A PARTICIPANT CONSENT LETTER School of Human Development and Organizational Studies in Education P.O. Box 117048 University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611 7048 Dear Counselor: My name is Lauren Shure, and I am a doctoral candidate in the School of Human Development and Organizational Studies in Education at the University of Florida. I would like to invite you to participate in a doctoral study that will explore the relationship between school counselors perceptions of student behaviors and their understanding of working with students from diverse backgrounds. You will be asked to complete three questionnaires. First, you will be asked to read four scenarios about hypothetical students, and after each scenario you will be asked to respond to a series of questions about the student presented. Second, you will be asked to complete a questionnaire that will provide information ab out your multicultural competence. Finally, you will be asked to respond to a questionnaire asking about your personal information (i.e., age, educational level, counseling experience). These three questionnaires should take no more than 30minutes to complete. You have been selected to participate based on your status as a member of the American School Counseling Association (ASCA). There will be no risk to you, and your refusal to give consent will not in any way affect your status as a school counselor. You are free to withdraw your permission to participate at any time without consequence. You will be assigned a confidential number, and all of your personal information will be kept completely confidential. I will also share a copy of the research results with you when the study is completed upon request. Please indicate your consent to participate in my study below. If you choose to participate, please complete the online questionnaires and click submit when prompted at the end. If you have any questions please do not hesitate to contact me at laurshur@ufl.edu or my advisor, Dr. Cirecie West Olatunji, at cwestolatunji@coe.ufl.edu. Questions or concerns about research participants right may be directed to the UFIRB at (352) 392 0433 or P. O. Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611 2250. Thank you very much in advance for your support. Sincerely, Lauren Shure, Ed.S., M.Ed. School of Human Development and Organizational Studies in Education College of Education Universi ty of Florida Please read the above description. Click yes to consent and participate in the study or click no if you do not wish to participate in the study. THANK YOU FOR YOUR PARTICIPATION

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136 APPENDIX B STUDENT VIGNETTE AND SCHOOL COUNSELOR PERC EPTION SCALE The following descriptions are about hypothetical students. Each student has certain characteristics in common. They are all in the seventh grade, obtained passing scores on the FCAT in previous years, physic ally healthy, and live with two par ents. Academically, they are among the middle or upper 50% of the class. As you read each vignette, assume that the child is a middle school student in your school. Please read each vignette and respond to the statements based on the information presente d. There are no right or wrong answers, so please respond based on your first reaction. THANK YOU FOR YOUR PARTICIPATION!

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137 Jesse ( Communalism ) When school assignments are given, Jesse tries to share ideas and materials with other students when it will h elp them. Jesses parents t each that it is more important to share than to keep things to oneself Jesse enjoys sharing and helping out in class. Jesse enjoys doing class work collaboratively with other children in the class because of the belief that ever yone can learn better this way. Jesses parents teach that people can learn a lot of go od things from each other. Jess es parents feel that everyone should pull their weight because what one person does affects the group. Jesse think s that people can get m ore things done when they are done in a group rather than doing things alone. Therefore, Jesse believes people are supposed to help each other because it makes the group stronger. Jesse think s that helping each other also helps individuals do things better Jesse do es things that will benefit the entire class and not just one person. 1. How much do you agree or disagree with each of the following statements about Jesse? Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 a. I feel this student sh ould be recommended for low ability coursework. 1 2 3 4 b. I feel this student should be tested for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), or learning disability (LD) ESE services 1 2 3 4 c. I feel this student should be recommended for behavioral remediat ion when disrupting the class 1 2 3 4 d. I feel this student should be tested for gifted, talented, or advanced coursework 1 2 3 4 2. Please describe your conceptualization of Jesse as a school counselor and your reasons for recommending any kind of intervention or testing.

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138 Alex ( Individualism ) Alex thinks a person can do a better jo b by working alone. Alexs parents like to do things this way, too. When working on an assignment, Alex feels it can be done better alone. Alex prefers to use personal class materials and complete work alone. Alex and Alexs parents think that what a perso n owns should belong to that person only and no one else. If Alex and Alexs brothers or sisters were to play with toys or wear clothes that do not belong to them, they would get in trouble with their parents. Teachers have notes that Alex likes to find answers to any problems alone. Alex reports being taught at home that doing things this way makes a person better at wor king through challenges they will face in life. Alex is encouraged by praise when do ing something without any help. Alex prefers to do thi ngs alone rather than in a group. Alex enjoys receiving recognition for doing something well as a single person as opposed to the whole class. Alexs parents have taught Alex that it is better to be self sufficient than be part of a group. 1. How much do you agree or disagree with each of the following statements about Alex? Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 a. I feel this student should be recommended for low ability coursework. 1 2 3 4 b. I f eel this student should be tested for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR), or learning disability (LD) ESE services 1 2 3 4 c. I feel this student should be recommended for behavioral remediat ion w hen disrupting the class 1 2 3 4 d. I feel this student should be tested for gifted, talented, or advanced coursework 1 2 3 4 2. Please describe your conceptualization of Alex as a s chool counselor and your reasons for recommending any kind of intervention or testing.

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139 Jordan ( Verve ) Jordan likes doing different activities at the same time. Jordan likes doing things t his way because Jordans parents do things this way, too. Jordans teachers say they are not always sure whether Jordan is listening to them. This is because Jordan may be doodling or writing or looking out the window or around the room while they are talking. However, when asked a question, Jordan can usually answer and appears to be on task. Jordan says, I can do multiple things at once. At home, Jordans parents often talk to Jordan about schoolwork or read the newspaper while they are cooking or cleaning or talking on the phone. Jordans teachers have noticed that when asked to do something on a daily basis, Jordan prefer s to do it in different ways. Jordan says, I think I do a better job when I can do things in different ways Jordan likes to work in different spaces, too. Jordan enjoys going outside to do work, ly ing down on the floor or moving a seat to other parts of the room Teachers report that Jo rdan is most engaged when various activities are going on within the classroom. Jordan might be talking with classmates, while working on an art project, and working on a math assignment. Jordan prefers to have different activities going on at the same time in the classroom and do ing the same thing in different ways. 1. How much do you agree or disagree with each of the following statements about Jordan? Strongly Di sagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 a. I feel this student should be recommended for low ability coursework. 1 2 3 4 b. I feel this student should be tested for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally re tarded (MMR), or learning disability (LD) ESE services 1 2 3 4 c. I feel this student should be recommended for behavioral remediat ion when disrupting the class 1 2 3 4 d. I feel this student should be tested for gifted, talented, or advanced coursework 1 2 3 4 2. Please describe your conceptualization of Jordan as a school counselor and your reasons for recommending any kind of intervention or test ing.

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140 Jamie ( Competition) Jamie likes to do things better than everyone else. When Jamie has a question about homework, Jamies parents enjoy competing to see who will get the right answer. In class, Jamie likes to compete with classmates to see who gets t he highest grade on assignments and tests. Jamies parents say people should try to do things better than others because this is what life is all about. Jamies parents give prizes or money to the child that gets the highest grades on their report card. Jamie has told teachers, I believe when you compete against others, you do a better job at something than would otherwise be the case. Jamie also think s that being first or the best makes you feel good about yourself. At home, Jamies parents teach that it is important to compete against other people because this is the best way to get the things you want out of life. This is why Jamie s parents push their children to do better than others at school, sports, and getting things done. Jamie is sometimes disap pointed when not the best at something or not getting the highest grade. Jamie think s that competing with others brings out the best in people. 1. How much do you agree or disagree with each of the following statements about Jamie? Strongly Disagree Disa gree Agree Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 a. I feel this student should be recommended for low ability coursework. 1 2 3 4 b. I feel this student should be tested for emotionally disturbed (ED), mildly mentally retarded (MMR ), or learning disability (LD) ESE services 1 2 3 4 c. I feel this student should be recommended for behavioral remediat ion when disrupting the class 1 2 3 4 d. I feel this student sh ould be tested for gifted, talented, or advanced coursework 1 2 3 4 2. Please describe your conceptualization of Jamie as a school counselor and your reasons for recommending any kind of intervention or testing.

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141 APPENDIX C MULTICULTURAL COUNSE LING KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS SCALE Using the following scale, rate the truth of each item as it applies to you. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Not at Somewhat Totally All True True True --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1. I believe all clients should maintain direct eye contact during counseling. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2. I check up on my minority/cultural counseling skills by monitori ng my functioning via consultation, supervision, and continuing education. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3. I am aware some research indicates that minority clients receive less preferred forms of counseling treatment than majority clients. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4. I think that clients who do not discuss intimate aspects of their lives are being resistant and defensive. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5. I am aware of certain counsel ing skills, techniques, or approaches that are more likely to transcend culture and be effective with any clients. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6. I am familiar with the culturally deficient and culturally deprived depictions of minority mental health and understand how these labels serve to foster and perpetuate discrimination. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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142 Using the following scale, rate the truth of each ite m as it applies to you. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Not at Somewhat Totally All True True True --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7. I feel all the recent attention directed toward multicultural issues in counseling is overdone and not really warranted. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8. I am aware of individual differences that exist among members within a particular ethnic group based on values, beliefs, and level of acculturation. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9. I am aware some research indicates that minority clients are more likely to be diagnosed with mental i llnesses than are majority clients. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10. I think that clients should perceive the nuclear family as the ideal social uni t. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 11. I think that being highly competitive and achievement oriented are traits that all clients should work towards. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 12. I am aware of the differential interpretations of nonverbal communication (e.g., personal space, eye contact, hands hakes) within various racial/ethnic groups. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 13. I understand the impact and operations of oppression and the racist concepts that have permeated the mental health professions. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14. I realize that counselor client incongruities in problem c onceptualization and counseling goals may reduce counselor credibility. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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143 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Using the following scale, rate the truth of each item as it applies to you. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Not at Somewhat Totally All True True True --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------15. I am aware that some racial/ethnic minorities see the profession of psychology functioning to maintain and promote the status and power of the White Establishment. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 16. I am knowledgeable of acculturation models for various ethnic minority groups. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 17. I have an understanding of the role culture and racism play in the development of identity and worldviews among minority groups. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 18. I believe that it is important to emphasize objective and rational thinking in minority clients. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 19. I am aware of culturespecific,that is culturally indigenous, models of counseling for various racial/ethnic groups. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 20. I believe that my clients should view a patriarchal structure as the ideal. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 21. I am aware of both the init ial barriers and benefits related to the cross cultural counseling relationship. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 22. I am comfortable with differences that exist between me and my clients in terms of race and beliefs. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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144 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Using the following scale, rate the truth of each item as it applies to you. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Not at Somewhat Totally All True True True --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------23. I am aware of institutional barriers which may inhibit minorities from using mental health services. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 24. I think that my client s should exhibit some degree of psychological mindedness and sophistication. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 25. I believe that minority clients will benefit most from counseling with a majority who endorses White middle class values and norms. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 26. I am aware that being born a White person in this society carries with it certain advantages. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 27. I am aware of the value assumptions inherent in major schools of counseling and understand how these assumptions may conflict with values of culturally diverse clients. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 28. I am aware that some minorities see the counseling process as contrary to their own life experiences and inappropriate or insufficient to their needs. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 29. I am aware that being born a minority in this society brings with it certain challenges that White people do not have to face. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 30. I believe that all clients must view themselves as their number one responsibility.

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145 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Using the following scale, rate the truth of each item as it applies to you. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Not at Somewhat Totally All True True True --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------31. I am sensitive to circumstances (personal biases, language dominance, stage of ethnic identity development) which may dictate referral of the minority client to a member of his/her own racial/ethnic group. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 32. I am aware that some minorities believe counselors lead minority students into nonacademic prog rams regardless of student potential, preferences, or ambitions. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Thank you for completing this instrument. Please feel free to express in writing below any thoughts, concerns, or comments you have regarding this instrument:

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146 APPENDIX D SCHOOL COUNSELOR INF ORMATION SURVEY 1. What is your gender? _____ female _____ male 2. What is your date of birth ? _____ 3. What is y our ethnic background? _____ White /European American _____ Black/AfricanAmerican _____ Hispanic/LatinoAmerican _____ Asian/Pacific Islander _____ Native American Indian _____ Multiracial _____ Other (please specify) ____________________ 4. Did you take a multicultural counseling course in your counselor training program? _____ Yes _____ No 5. What other types of multicultural training have you engaged in? ______________________________________________________________________ 6. Did you graduate from a CACREP accredited counseling program? _____ Yes _____ No 7. How many hours did you complete in your school counseling program ? _____ 36 _____ 48 _____60 _____other, please specify: ____________________ 8. What is your most advanced educational degree? (Please check one and specify ) _____ Masters in _____________________ _____ Specialist in ____________________ _____ Doctorate in ____________________ 9. What type of counseling credential(s) have you obtained? (Please check all that apply ) _____ LMFT _____ LMHC _____ LPC _____ NCC

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147 _____ State school counseling certification _____ Other (please specify) ____________________ 10. What year did you graduate from your counseling program? _____ 11. How many years of counseling experience do you have in t otal? _____ 1 2 How many years of experience counseling in a middle school do you have? _____ 1 3 Generally speaking, how would you rate your counseling experience with culturally diverse students? 1 2 3 4 5 Very L ittle Some Moderate High Very High 1 4 Do you work at a p ublic or private school ? _____ Public _____ Private _____ Other, please specify: __________________________________________ 1 5 What percentage of students at your school receives free or reduced lunch? _______% 1 6 Do you work at a suburban, rural, or urban school? _____Suburban _____Urban _____Rural _____Other, please specify: ___________________________________________ 1 7 What grade levels are taught at your school? _____6th8th grades only _____ Other, please specify: ____________________________ 1 8 How many students attend your school? ______________________________ 1 9 What is the ratio of students by ethnicity at your school? _____% White /EuropeanAmerican _____% Black/African American _____% Hispanic/Latino American _____% Asian/Pacific Islander _____% Native American Indian _____% Multiracial _____% Other (please specify) ____________________ 20. How many school counselors are employed at your school (including you)? _____

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148 APPENDIX E INVITATION LETTER AN D FORMS TO EXPER T PANEL School of Human Development and Organizational Studies in Education P.O. Box 117048 University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611 7048 Dear (name): My name is Lauren Shure, and I am a doctoral candidate in the School of Human Development and Organizational Studies in Education at the University of Florida. I am hoping you will accept my invitation to be a member of an expert panel to validate vignettes I am using as a part of my doctoral dissertation research study. My study is entitled: The relati onship between school counselors multicultural competence and their likelihood of recommending students for advanced and remedial interventions based upon culturally bound behavioral styles. I have adapted four hypothetical student vignettes based upon T yler, Boykin, Boelter, and Dillihunts (2005) Cultural Socialization Scenarios If you agree to participate I will be asking you to read excerpts from each of the four vignettes and judge whether each excerpt is descriptive of the cultural behaviors of com munalism, verve, individualism, or competiveness. There is space under each excerpt to explain your rationale. You have been invited to serve as a member of this expert panel because you are a multicultural educator with experience researching and teachi ng graduate level courses in a content area of multicultural counseling and/or education. Participating in this capac ity should take no longer than 20 30 minutes. By agreeing to participate you are helping to advance knowledge regarding the relationship between school counselors multicultural competence and their likelihood of recommending students displaying culturally diverse learning behaviors for advanced or remedial educational interventions. If you choose to participate, please complete the enclosed packet and mail it back in the enclosed self addressed stamped envelope. If you have any questions please do not hesitate to contact me at laurshur@ufl.edu or my advisor, Dr. Cirecie West Olatunji, at cwestolatunji@ coe.ufl.edu. Thank you very much in advance for your support. Sincerely, Lauren Shure, Ed.S., M.Ed. School of Human Development and Organizational Studies in Education College of Education University of Florida

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149 STUDENT VIGNETTE AND SCHOOL COUNSELO R PERCEPTION SCALE The following descriptions are about hypothetical students. Each student has certain characteristics in common. They are all in the seventh grade, obtained passing scores on the FCAT in previous years, physically healthy, and live with both parents. Academically, they are among the middle or upper 50% of the class. As you read each vignette, assume that the child is a middle school student in your school. Please read each vignette and answer the questions based on the information prese nted. There are no right or wrong answers, so please respond based on your first reaction. THANK YOU FOR YOUR PARTICIPATION!

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150 The purpose of the study for which these vignettes are being developed is to investigate the relationship between school counselors multicultural competence and their perception of culturally bound student behaviors. These vignettes represent four culturally bound behavior styles. After reading each vignette, school counselors will be asked to rate on a 4point Likert type scale the likelihood with which they would recommend the student for various remedial and advanced interventions, such as low ability coursework, remedial special education services, gifted and talented programs, and behavioral remediation. Communalism Please indicate whether or not each numbered item is a reasonable indicator of communalism. If you feel an item does not indicate the presence of communalism, please state your reasoning. For the purpose of this study communalism is defined as the perceived fundamental interdependence of people (Moemeka, 1998). Under communalism, a person acts in accordance with the notion that duty to his or her social group is more important than individual rights and privileges. It represents a social orientation as opposed t o an object orientation (Boykin, 1986). 1. When school assignments are given, Jesse tries to share ideas and materials with other students when it will help them. Is this a reasonable indicator of communalism? Yes No If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of communalism: 2. Jesse s parents t each that it is more important to share than to keep things to oneself. Is this a reasonable indicator of communalism? Yes No If not, please indicate why you feel t he above item does not indicate the presence of communalism:

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151 3. Jesse enjoys sharing and helping out in class Is this a reasonable indicator of communalism? Yes No If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of communalism: 4. Jesse enjoys doing class work collaboratively with other children in the class because of the belief that everyone can learn better this way. Is this a reasonable indicator of communalism? Yes No If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of communalism: 5. Jesses parents teach that people can learn a lot of go od things from each other. Is this a reasonable indicator of communalism? Yes No If not, please indicate why you feel the abov e item does not indicate the presence of communalism: 6. Jess es parents feel that everyone should pull their weight because what one person does affects the group. Is this a reasonable indicator of communalism? Yes No If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of communalism:

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152 7. Jesse think s that people can get more things done when they are done in a group rather than doing things alone. Is this a reasonable indicator of communalism? Yes No If not, ple ase indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of communalism: 8. Therefore, Jesse believes people are supposed to help each other because it makes the group stronger. Is this a reasonable indicator of communalism? Yes No If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of communalism: 9. Jesse think s that helping each other also helps people do things better. Is this a reasonable indicator of communalism? Yes No If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of communalism: 10. Jesse does things that will benefit the entire class and not just one person. Is this a reasonable indicator of communalism? Yes No If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of communalism:

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153 Individualism Please indicate whether or not each numbered item is a reasonable indicator of individualism. If you feel an item does not indicate the presence of individualism, please state your reasoning. For the purposes of this study individualism refers to ones disposition toward fundamental autonomy, independence, individual recognition, solitude, and the exclusion of others (Moemeka, 1998; Spence, 1985). 1. Alex thinks a person can do a better job by working alone. Alexs parents like to do things this way, too. Is this a reasonable indicator of individualism? Yes No If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of individualism: 2. When w orking on an assignment, Alex feels it can be done better alone. Is this a reasonable indicator of individualism? Yes No If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of individualism: 3. Alex prefers to use pers onal class materials and complete work alone. Is this a reasonable indicator of individualism? Yes No If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of individualism:

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154 4. Alex and Alexs parents think that what a p erson owns should belong to that person only and no one else. Is this a reasonable indicator of individualism? Yes No If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of individualism: 5. If Alex and Alexs brothers or sisters were to play with toys or wear clothes that do not belong to them, they would get in trouble with their parents. Is this a reasonable indicator of individualism? Yes No If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of individualism: 6. Teachers have notes that Alex likes to find answers to any problems alone. Alex reports being taught at home that doing things this way makes a person better at wor king through challenges they will face in life. Is t his a reasonable indicator of individualism? Yes No If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of individualism: 7. Alex is encouraged by praise when doing s omething without any help. Is this a reasonable indi cator of individualism? Yes No If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of individualism:

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155 8. Alex prefers to do things alone rather than in a group. Is this a reasonable indicator of individualism? Yes No If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of individualism: 9. Alex enjoys receiving recognition for doing something well as a single person as opposed to the whole class. Is this a reasonable indicator of indivi dualism? Yes No If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of individualism: 10. Alexs parents have taught Alex that it is better to be self sufficient than an important part of a group. Is this a reasonable indicator of individualism? Yes No If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of individualism:

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156 Verve Please indicate whether or not each numbered item is a reasonable indicator of verve. If you feel an item does not indicate the presence of verve, please state your reasoning. For the purposes of this study verve is defined as the propensity for high levels of physical or sensate stimulation (Boykin, 1983) This physical stimulation has been coined in terms of qualities of intensity or liveliness, v ariability, and density of stimulation. 1. Jordan likes doing different activities at the same time. Jordan likes doing things t his way because Jordans parents do things this way, too. Is this a reasonable indicator of verve? Yes No If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of verve: 2. Jordans teachers say they are not always sure whether Jordan is listening to them. This is because Jordan may be doodling or writing or looking out the window or around the room while they are talking. However, when asked a question, Jordan can usually answer and appears to be on task. Is this a reasonable indicator of verve? Yes No If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of verve: 3. Jordan says, I can do multiple things at once. At home, Jordans parents often talk to Jordan about schoolwork or read the newspaper while they are cooking or cleaning or talking on the phone. Is this a reasonable indicator of verve? Yes No If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of verve:

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157 4. Jordans teachers have noticed that when asked to do something on a daily basis, Jordan prefer s to do it in different ways. Jordan says, I think I do a better job when I can do things in different ways Is this a reasonable indicator of verve? Yes No If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of verve: 5. Jordan likes to wo rk in different spaces, too. Jordan enjoys going outside to do work, lying down on the floor or moving a seat to other parts of the room Is this a reasonable indicator of verve? Yes No If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indic ate the presence of verve: 6. Teachers report that Jo rdan is most engaged when various activities are going on within the classroom. Jordan might be talking with classmates, while working on an art project, and working on a math assignment. Is this a reasonable indicator of verve? Yes No If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of verve:

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158 7. Jordan prefers to have different activities going on at the same time in the classroom and doing the same thi ng in different ways. Is this a reasonable indicator of verve? Yes No If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of verve:

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159 Competition Please indicate whether or not each numbered item is a reasonable indicat or of competition. If you feel an item does not indicate the presence of competition, please state your reasoning. For the purposes of this study competition refers to ones preoccupation with doing better than others (Boykin, 1983). Competition manifes ts itself as individual competition, where an individual is trying to be the best among others 1. Jamie likes to do things better than everyone else. Is this a reasonable indicator of competition? Yes No If not, please indicate why you feel the above i tem does not indicate the presence of competition: 2. When Jamie has a question about homework, Jamies parents enjoy competing to see who will get the right answer. Is this a reasonable indicator of competition? Yes No If not, please indicate why y ou feel the above item does not indicate the presence of competition: 3. In class, Jamie likes to compete with classmates to see who gets the highest grade on assignments and tests. Is this a reasonable indicator of competition? Yes No If not, pleas e indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of competition:

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160 4. Jamies parents say people should try to do things better than others because this is what life is all about. Is this a reasonable indicator of competition? Yes No If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of competition: 5. Jamie s parents give prizes or money to the child that gets the highest grades on their report card. Is this a reasonable indicator of competiti on? Yes No If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of competition: 6. Jamie has told teachers, I believe when you compete against others, you do a better job at something than would otherwise be the case. Is this a reasonable indicator of competition? Yes No If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of competition: 7. Jamie also think s that being first or the best makes you feel good about yourself. Is this a reasonable indicator of competition? Yes No If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of competition:

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161 8. At home, Jamies parents teach that it is important to compete against other people because this is the best way to get the things you want out of life. This is why Jamie s parents push their children to do better than others at school, sports, and getting things done. Is this a reasonable indicator of competition? Yes No If not, please indicate why you f eel the above item does not indicate the presence of competition: 9. Jamie is sometimes disappointed when not the best at something or not getting the highest grade. Is this a reasonable indicator of competition? Yes No If not, please indicate why y ou feel the above item does not indicate the presence of competition: 10. Jamie think s that competing with others brings out the best in people. Is this a reasonable indicator of competition? Yes No If not, please indicate why you feel the above item does not indicate the presence of competition:

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162 APPENDIX F PILOT PARTICIPANT CO NSENT LETTER School of Human Development and Organizational Studies in Education P.O. Box 117048 University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611 7048 Dear Counselor: My nam e is Lauren Shure, and I am a doctoral candidate in the School of Human Development and Organizational Studies in Education at the University of Florida. I would like to invite you to participate in the preliminary portion of my doctoral study that will ex plore the relationship between school counselors perceptions of student behaviors and their understanding of working with students from diverse backgrounds. You will be asked to read four vignettes about hypothetical students. After each scenario you will be asked to respond to a series of statements about the student presented and participate in a focus group when you have finished. Reading the vignettes, answering the questions, and participating in the focus group should take no longer than 1 hour to c omplete. You have been selected to participate based on your status as a school counselor There are no anticipated risks of participation. You are free to withdraw your permission to participate at any time without consequence. Your participation will be very appreciated. I will also be happy to provide you with a summary of the research results when the study is completed upon request. Please indicate your consent to participate in my study below. If you have any questions please do not hesitate to contact me at laurshur@ufl.edu or my advisor, Dr. Cirecie West Olatunji, at cwestolatunji@coe.ufl.edu. Questions or concerns about research participants right may be directed to the UFIRB at (352) 392 0433 or P. O. Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611 2250. Thank you very much in advance for your support. Sincerely Lauren Shure, Ed.S., M.Ed. School of Human Development and Organizational Studies in Education College of Education University of Florida Please read the a bove description, sign below, and return. I, _______________, have read the procedures described above and voluntarily agree to participate in this study. I acknowledge that I have received a copy of the above description. ____________________ ________ _______ Signature Date THANK YOU FOR YOUR PARTICIPATION!

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163 LIST OF REFERENCES Albury, A. (1993). Social orientations, learning conditions, and learning outcomes among low income Black and White grade school children. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Howard University, Washington, DC. Allen, B. A., & Boykin, A. W. (1992). AfricanAmerican children and the educa tional process: Alleviating cultural discontinuity through prescriptive peda gogy. School Psychology Review, 21, 586 596. Allen, B. A., & Butl er, L. (1996). The effects of music and movement opportunity on the analogical reasoning performance of African American and White school children. Journal of Black Psychology, 22, 316 328. Amatea, E., & West Olatunji, C. (2007). Joining the conversation about educating our poorest children: New leadership roles for school counselors in high poverty schools. Professional School Counseling, 11, 8189. American Counseling Association (2005). Code of ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author. American School Counselor As sociation. (2003). The ASCA national model: A framework for school counseling programs Alexandria, VA: Author. American School Counseling Association. (2005). ASCA ethical standards for school counselors Alexandria, VA: Author. Ancis, J. R., & Ladany, N. (2001). A multicultural framework for counselor supervision. In L. J. Bradley & N. Ladany (Eds.), Counselor supervision: Principles, process, and practice (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Brunner Routledge. Arredondo, P., Toporek, R., Brown, S., Jones, J., Locke, D. Sanchez, J., & Stadler, H. (1996). Operationalization of multicultural counseling competencies. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 24, 42 78. Artiles, A. J., Harry, B., Reschly, D. J., & Chinn, P. C. (2002). Over identification of stu dents of color in special education: A critical overview. Multicultural Perspectives, 4 3 10 Artiles, A. J., & Trent, S. (1994). Overrepresentation of minority students in special education: A continuing debate. Journal of Special Education, 27 410 437. Artiles, A. J., Trent, S. C., & Palmer, J. (2004). Culturally diverse students in special education: Legacies and prospects. In J. A. Banks & C. M. Banks (Eds.), Handbook of research on multicultural education (2nd ed.; pp. 716735). San Francisco, CA: Jo ssey Bass.

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164 Bailey, C. T., & Boykin, A. W. (2001). The role of task variability and home con textual factors in the academic performance and task motivation of African American elementary school children. Journal of Negro Education, 70 84 95. Bailey, C., & Walton, S. (1994). Proactive Afrocultural influences on the task perfor mance of African American school children: The progression of the verve paradigm. Paper presented at the 26th Annual Convention of the Association of Black Psychologists, Philadelphi a, PA. Bell, S. R. (2001). Learning experiences within the home environment of African American children: An Afrographic analysis Unpublished masters thesis, Howard University, Washington, DC. Bell, Y. R., & Clark, T. R. (1998). Culturally relevant reading material as related to a comprehension and recall in AfricanAmerican children. Journal of Black Psychology, 24, 455 476. Bemak, F. (2000). Transforming the role of the counselor to provide leadership in educational reform through collaboration. Profes sional School Counseling, 3 323331. Bemak, F., & Chung, R. C. (2005). Advocacy as a critical role for urban school counselors: Working toward equity and social justice. Professional School Counseling, 8, 196 202. Bemak, F., Chung, R. C.Y., & Sirosky Sab ado, L. A. (2005). Empowerment Groups for Academic Success (EGAS): An innovative approach to prevent high school failure for at risk urban African American girls. Professional School Counseling, 8, 377 389. Bernard, J. M. & Goodyear R. (1998). Fundamentals of clinical supervision (2nd ed.). Carmelle, IN: Allyn & Bacon. Blanchett, W. J. (2006). Disproportionate representation of African American students in special education: Acknowledging the role of White privilege and racism. Educational Researcher, 35, 24 28. Bloom, B. S., Davis, A., & Hess, R. (1965). Compensatory education for cultural deprivation. New York: Holt. Borders, L. D., & Drury, S. M. (1992). Comprehensive school counseling programs: A review for policymakers and practitioners. Journal of Counseling and Development, 70, 487 498. Boykin, A. W. (1979). Psychological/behavioral verve: Some theoretical explorations and empirical manifestations. In A. W. Boykin, A. J. Franklin, & J. F. Yates (Eds.), Research directions of black psychologists. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

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165 Boykin, A. W. (1982). Task variability and the performance of Black and White schoolchildren: Vervistic explorations. Journal of Black Studies, 12 469 485. Boykin, A. W. (1983). The academic performance of AfroAmerican children. In J. Spence (Ed.), Achievement and achievement motives. San Francisco: Freeman. Boykin, A. W. (1986). The triple quandary and the schooling of Afro American children. In U. Neisser (Ed.), The school achievement of minority children: New perspect ives. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Boykin, A. W. (2000). The Talent Development model of schooling: Placing students at promise for academic success. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 5 3 25. Boykin, A. W. (2001). The challenges of cultural soc ialization in the schooling of African American elementary school children: Exposing the hidden curriculum. In W. Watkins, J. Lewis, & V. Chou (Eds.), Race and education: The roles of history and society in educating African American students Newton, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Boykin, A. W., Albury, A., Tyler, K. M., Hurely, E. A., Bailey, C. T., & Miller, O. A. (2005). Culture based perceptions of academic achievement among low income elementary students. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 11, 3 39350. Boykin, A. W., & Allen, B. A. (2000). Beyond deficit and difference: Psychological integrity in developmental research. In C. C. Yeakey & E. W. Gordon (Eds.), Producing knowledge, pursuing understanding. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Boykin, A. W.Allen B., Davis, L., & Senior, A. (1997). Task Performance of Black and White children Across Levels of Presentation Variability. The Journal of Psychology, 131 427 437. Boykin, A. W., & Bailey, C. T. (2000). The role of cultural factors in school relevant co gnitive functioning: Synthesis of findings on cultural contexts, cultural orientations, and individual differences. Washington, DC: Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed At Risk. Boykin, A. W., & Cunningham, R. (2001). The effects of movement expressiveness in story content and learning context on the analogical reasoning per formance of African American children. Journal of Negro Education, 70 72 83. Boykin, A. W., Lilja, A. J., & Tyler, K. M. (2004). The influence of communal vs. indiv idual learning context on the academic performance in social studies of grade 4 5 AfricanAmericans. Learning Environments Research 7 227 244. Boykin, A. W., & Miller, O. A. (1997, March). In search of cultural themes and their expression in the dynamics of classroom life. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. Chicago.

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166 Boykin, A. W., Tyler, K. M., & Miller O. (2005). In search of cultural themes and their expressions in the dynamics of classroom life. Ur ban Education, 40, 521 549. Boykin, A. W., Tyler, K. M., Watkins Lewis, K. M., & Kizzie, K. (2006). Culture in the sanctioned classroom practices of elementary school teachers serving low income African American students. Journal of Education of Student s Placed At Risk, 11, 161 173. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Brown, B. (2004). Discursive Identity: Assimilation into the culture of science and its implic a tions for minority stude nt s. Journal of Research in Science Teac h ing 8 810834. Brown, M. T., & Landrum Brown, J. (1995). Counselor supervision: Cross cultural perspectives. In J. G. Ponterotto, J. M. Casas, L. A. Suzuki, & C. M. Alexander (Eds.), Handbook of multicultural counseling (pp. 263286). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Bruss, K.V., Brack, C.J., Brack, G., Glickauf Hughes, C., & O Leary, M. (1997). A developmental model for supervising therapists treating gay, les bian, and bisexual clients. The Clinical Supervisor, 15 61 73. Carpenter, S. L., King Sears, M. E., & Keys, S. G. (1998). Counselors + educators + families as interdisciplinary team = more effective inclusion for students with disabilities. Professional School Counseling, 2, 1 9. Carter, L.F. (1984). The sustaining ef fects study of compensatory and elementary education. Educational Researcher 13 4 13. Cartledge, G., Tillman, L. C., & Johnson, C. T. (2001). Professional ethics within the context of student discipline and diversity. Teacher Education and Special Educat ion, 24, 25 37. Childrens Defense Fund. (2003). Leave no child behind: The state of Americas youth. Washington, DC: Author. Cholewa, B., & West Olatunji, C. (2008). Exploring the relationship among cultural discontinuity, psychological distress, and academic outcomes with low income, culturally diverse students. Professional School Counseling, 12, 5461. Cicirelli, V. G. (1969). The impact of Head Start: An evaluation of the effects of Head Start on children's cognitive and affective development. Athens, OH: Westinghouse Learning Corp.

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182 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Lauren Ann Shur e was born in Highland Park, Illinois. She earned her masters and specialist degrees in marriage and family therapy and worked as a mental health counselor until deciding to pursue her doctoral degree in 2006. She then pursued her doctor al degree in mental health counseling at the University of Florida. Her research focuses on the relationship between counselor positionality, cultural competence, and academic achievement among culturally diverse student populations.