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An Investigation of Benefits Sought and Realized among College Students Studying Abroad

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0041805/00001

Material Information

Title: An Investigation of Benefits Sought and Realized among College Students Studying Abroad
Physical Description: 1 online resource (188 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Welch, Sarah
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: abroad, benefits, education, international, realized, sought, study
Tourism, Recreation, and Sport Management -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Recreation, Parks, and Tourism thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: AN INVESTIGATION OF BENEFITS SOUGHT AND REALIZED AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS STUDYING ABROAD In recent years, participation among U.S. college students in study abroad programs has increased. While various aspects of studying abroad have been investigated, as yet no research has used the benefits sought and benefits realized approach. The benefits sought and realized perspective has been used widely in the tourism literature to identify tourist behaviors and preferences. This study investigates the benefits sought and benefits realized among college students studying abroad. Specifically, gender, ethnicity, previous international travel experience, study abroad program length, and study abroad location in relation to benefits sought and realized were examined. This study concludes with implications for using benefits sought and realized in planning, designing, and evaluating study abroad programs. Practitioners and researchers alike will be able to use this information to better understand the benefits experienced as a result of study abroad.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Sarah Welch.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Gibson, Heather J.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0041805:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0041805/00001

Material Information

Title: An Investigation of Benefits Sought and Realized among College Students Studying Abroad
Physical Description: 1 online resource (188 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Welch, Sarah
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: abroad, benefits, education, international, realized, sought, study
Tourism, Recreation, and Sport Management -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Recreation, Parks, and Tourism thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: AN INVESTIGATION OF BENEFITS SOUGHT AND REALIZED AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS STUDYING ABROAD In recent years, participation among U.S. college students in study abroad programs has increased. While various aspects of studying abroad have been investigated, as yet no research has used the benefits sought and benefits realized approach. The benefits sought and realized perspective has been used widely in the tourism literature to identify tourist behaviors and preferences. This study investigates the benefits sought and benefits realized among college students studying abroad. Specifically, gender, ethnicity, previous international travel experience, study abroad program length, and study abroad location in relation to benefits sought and realized were examined. This study concludes with implications for using benefits sought and realized in planning, designing, and evaluating study abroad programs. Practitioners and researchers alike will be able to use this information to better understand the benefits experienced as a result of study abroad.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Sarah Welch.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Gibson, Heather J.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0041805:00001


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1 AN INVESTIGATION OF BENEFITS SOUGHT AND REALIZED AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS STUDYING ABROAD By SARAH LYNNE WELCH A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2010

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2 2010 Sarah Lynne Welch

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3 I would like to dedicate this project in loving memory of my father, Randall Lee Welch, who has inspired me to continually strive to be the best person I can be and to enjoy life to the fullest.

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This study was accomplished with the help and support of many individuals. First and foremost it was conceived and accomplished with the endless help of my committee chair Dr. Heather Gibson, whose incalculable guidance, encouragement, support, and valuable feedback enabled me to complete it. Thanks go to Dr. Brijesh Thapa for his statistical assistance, constructive feedback, and making my experience as a masters student more val uable. I thank Dr. Rose Barnett, my external committee member whose youth development background, feedback and assistance helped me in completing this study. Thanks go to Kirsten Eller Laufer who provided me with the opportunity to survey the study abroad students during Summer 2009. Thanks go to the University of Florida International Center for allowing me to present my study at the predeparture information sessions. Thanks go to graduate students Yelyzaveta Liza Berdychevsky and Sung Jin Kang who have assisted me in various ways including providing me with valuable feedback, statistical assistance and support. Thanks go to the Kelly family and the Dugary family for their endless love and support. I thank my friends for their encouragement and for cheer ing me up. I thank my mother and sister, for believing in me, without whom I would not have been able to succeed in this endeavor.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES ...........................................................................................................................7 ABSTRACT .....................................................................................................................................9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................11 Statement of the Problem ........................................................................................................13 Gender, Prior International Travel Experience, and Program Length ....................................14 Conceptual Framework ...........................................................................................................16 Benefits Sought ...............................................................................................................17 Benefits Realized .............................................................................................................19 Combining Benefits Sought and Realized .......................................................................21 Purpose of the Study ...............................................................................................................23 Research Questions .................................................................................................................23 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE ........................................................................................25 Study Abroad ..........................................................................................................................25 Benefits Sought ...............................................................................................................26 Motivations to study abroad .....................................................................................26 Expe ctations of study abroad ...................................................................................30 Benefits Realized and Studying Abroad ..........................................................................33 Developmental Impacts from Studying Abroad ..............................................................33 Study Abroad Program Implications ......................................................................................43 3 METHODS .............................................................................................................................46 Data Collection .......................................................................................................................46 Sample ....................................................................................................................................49 Instrument ...............................................................................................................................52 Data Analysis ..........................................................................................................................56 4 RESULTS ...............................................................................................................................64 Benefits Sought and Realized of the Study Abroad Experience ............................................64 Reasons for Studying Abroad .................................................................................................74 Students Response to Why They Studied Abroad ...........................................................74 What Participants Learned about Themselves ................................................................75 The Impacts of Study Abroad ..........................................................................................76 Length of Study Abroad Program ...................................................................................77

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6 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION ..................................................................................106 Benefits Sought and Benefits Realized .................................................................................106 Gender ...........................................................................................................................110 Ethnicity ........................................................................................................................112 Prior International Travel Experience ...........................................................................115 Program Length .............................................................................................................117 Program Location ..........................................................................................................119 Likes and Dislikes .........................................................................................................120 Summary and Implications ...................................................................................................120 Theoretical Implications ................................................................................................121 Practical Implications ....................................................................................................122 Recommendations for Further Research ..............................................................................127 Limitations ............................................................................................................................129 Delimitations .........................................................................................................................130 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................130 APPENDIX A PRE TEST QUESTIONNAIRE ...........................................................................................132 B POST TEST QUESTIONNAIRE ........................................................................................137 C FIRST EMAIL CONTACT FOR STUDY ABROAD SURVEY ........................................141 D SECOND EMAIL CONTACT FOR STUDY ABROAD SURVEY ...................................142 E THIRD EMAIL CONTACT FOR STUDY ABROAD SURVEY ......................................143 F FOURTH EMAIL CONTACT FOR STUDY ABROAD SURVEY ...................................144 G PRE TRIP DEMOGRAPHICS N=175 ................................................................................145 H PRE AND POST TRIP DEMONGRAPHICS N=50 ..........................................................150 J PRE AND POST TRIP DEMONGRAPHICS N=50 ..........................................................150 K OPENENDED RESPONSES ..............................................................................................180 REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................180 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .......................................................................................................188

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 31 Pre test demographics: Gender, age, ethnicity, and class standing ...................................57 32 Pre and post test demographics: gender, age, ethnicity, and class standing. ...................58 34 Benefits sought and realized scale items ...........................................................................60 35 Reliability analysis results for the benefits sought scale. ..................................................62 41 B enefits sought and realized among college students studying abroad. ............................83 42 Paired T tests of benefits sought and realized before and after students studied abroad. ................................................................................................................................84 43 Independent T test of benefits sought/realized based on gender. ......................................85 44 Paired T test of benefits sought and realized from studying abroad based on gender. .....87 45 Independent T test of benefits sought based on Whites versus Ethnic Minorities. ...........89 46 Paired T test of benefits sought/realized based on ethnicity. ............................................90 47 ANOVA for previous international travel experience and benefits sought. ......................92 48 Paired T test of benefits sought/realized and previous international travel experience. ...94 49 ANOVA of benefits sought based on study abroad program length. ................................96 410 Tukeys post hoc results for benefit sought item, to be with my friends/siblings. ..........98 411 Paired T test of benefits sought/re alized based on program length. ..................................99 412 Independent T test of benefits sought based on program location. .................................101 413 Paired T test of benefits sought/realized based on study abroad location. ......................102 414 Content Analysis of open ended responses on pre and post trip surveys. .....................104 G 1 Pre trip study abroad program location by continent and country. .................................145 G 2 Pre trip students department and major ..........................................................................146 G 3 Pre trip length of study abroad programs ........................................................................148 G 4 Pre trip previous international travel experience .............................................................149

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8 H 1 Pre and post trip students study abroad location by Continent and by Country. ..........150 H 2 Pre and post trip students department and major. .........................................................151 H 3 Pre and post trip length of study abroad programs.........................................................152 H 4 Pre and post trip previous international travel experience. ............................................152 I 1 Matched prepost tests openended responses pre sample only. .....................................153 J 1 Participants response to post test question #6: Do you feel that your study abroad program length was adequate to meet your goals? ........................................................156 K 1 Content analysis of students response to openended questions Pre #10, 11; Post #1, 2........................................................................................................................................162 L 1 Content Analysis of open ended responses to Pre #50, Post #3, 4 ..................................171

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9 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science AN INVESTIGATION OF BENEFITS SOUGHT AND REALIZED AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS STUDYING ABROAD By Sarah Lynne Welch May 2010 Chair: Heather Gibson Major: Recreation, Parks, and Tourism In recent years, participation among U.S. college students in study abroad programs has increased. While various aspects of studying abroa d have been investigated, as yet no research has used the benefits sought and benefits realized approach. The benefits sought and realized perspective has been used widely in the tourism literature to identify tourist behaviors and preferences. Marketing s trategies have also employed benefit segmentation to define different populations of tourists based on a number of variables. The purpose of this study was to investigate the benefits sought and realized among college students studying abroad. This study e xamined gender, ethnicity, previous international travel experience, study abroad program length, and study abroad location in relation to benefits sought and realized. Three groups were evaluated, a pretrip group, a post trip group, and a pre and post t rip group. Benefits sought and realized were categorized into eleven areas: education/educational entertainment, personal, social, family togetherness, enrichment, environmental/natural surroundings, thrills/excitement, physical, rest/relaxation, safety, a nd economic. Frequencies, independent t tests, paired t tests, and one way ANOVA were the primary analysis tools; content analysis was used to identify themes in the open ended questions.

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10 Students sought benefits related to novelty, cultural enrichment, pe rsonal, and socializing. After their trip, students realized benefits related to novelty, travel, cultural enrichment, and personal. Significant differences in benefits sought and realized were found by gender with females preferring safety and independence. Differences were also found by study abroad program length with programs lasting 5 weeks or less preferring visiting friends/siblings. Differences in benefits sought and realized were not found by ethnicity or previous international travel experience. S ignificant differences in benefits sought and realized also existed among those students who studied in Europe compared to programs in rest of the world. Results from the openended questions revealed that language acquisition, travelling, meeting new people, and the cultural experience in general were the primary benefits sought for studying abroad. Based on participants responses, after their study abroad trip students felt the program length was adequate to meet their goals, while one fourth did not, and the rest had mixed emotions. Participants were least looking forward to language barriers and being homesick. Upon reflection, participants felt that cultural immersion in general was the best experience of studying abroad. Students reported that the bigg est impacts from the study abroad experience were related to personal changes, such as, self awareness, self confidence and a sense of newfound independence. This study may be the first to consider benefits sought and benefits realized approach in a study abroad context. Results are interpreted in line with the theoretical framework and previous research. Practical implications and recommendations for future research are discussed. Regarding the practical applications of this study, practitioners and resear chers alike will be able to use this information to better understand the benefits experienced as a result of study abroad.

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11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Students at colleges and universities across the U.S. are increasingly participating in various forms of educational travel and participation rates are at their highest ever (Open Doors, 2008). According to the World Youth Student and Travel Education Confederation (WYSE), between 2002 2007 the average amount spent on youth travel increased 40% to an average of $3,000 per main trip. The student travel industry generated an estimated $7.5 billion in 2005 and is expected to increase to nearly $12 billion by 2020 (WYSE, 2009). Educational youth travel encompasses many sectors of the educational travel industry, suc h as, foreign exchange, internship, voluntourism, and study abroad. This study focuses on the study abroad component. According to the National Association of State Facilities Administrators (NASFA): Association of International Educators (2009), study abr oad is narrowly defined as a program in which students attend school in a country outside the U.S. and receive academic credit toward their major. Over the years a body of academic literature has amassed on the topic of study abroad. The existing study ab road literature includes studies that have focused on specific skill enhancement (i.e. language skills, cross cultural skills) (Carlson & Widaman, 1988; Kitsantas, 2004; Opper, Teichler, & Carlson, 1990; Robalik, 2006), pre and post trip expectations (Carl son et al., 1991; Goldstein & Kim, 2005; Martin, Bradford, & Rohrlich, 1995), educational travel behavior ( Hofman & Zak, 1969; Klooster, Go, & Rekom, 2008), attitude change (Carsello & Greaser 1976; Nash, 1976; Pfnister, 1972), perceptions of study abroad (Morgan, Mwegelo, & Turner, 2002), and intrinsic motivations, or push factors, ( Llewellyn Smith & McCabe, 2008; Schroth & McCormack, 2000) of students studying abroad. However, as of y et none of the existing studies have used a benefits sought/benefits realized framework as conceptualized in the tourism

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12 literature. In the mainstream tourism literature a benefits framework has often been used and is generally used as an indicator of moti vation ( Gitelson & Kerstetter, 1990; Papadimitriou & Gibson, 2008; Pearce & Caltabiano, 1983; Shoemaker, 1994). Educational youth travel dates back to the second century B.C. and is referenced in the Bible during the reign of Asoka the Great of India, whic h mentioned traveling scholars and cross cultural education (Ward, Bochner, & Furnham, 2001). Many researchers believe that early youth travel began with the Grand Tour, a three to four year journey that cultivated intercultural understanding among young B ritish aristocratic men (Towner, 1985). The idea of the Grand Tour was to educate youth from England and other parts of Europe through foreign travel. Today one of the most popular forms of educational youth travel is study abroad. Studying abroad in the U .S. originated at the University of Delaware in 1923. Professor Raymond W. Kirkbride, a professor in the Modern Languages Department, accompanied eight students to Paris, France for what was then called a Foreign Study Plan. Between 1923 and 1948, 902 s tudents spent their junior year abroad with the University of Delaware. Since then, the Institute of International Education (2008) reported study abroad participation has increased 8% from the 20062007 academic year, with a total of 241,791 students studying abroad in 2008. In 2009, study abroad participation increased by 8.5% to 262,416, four times as many students than a decade ago (Institute of International Education, 2009). After World War II, an increased interest in international awareness develo ped. Consequently, U.S. citizens backed government programs that promoted cross cultural understanding, which inevitably forced the American government to take action by establishing scholarships and grants for students. More recently, the Commission on the Abraham Lincoln Study Abroad Fellowship Program (2009) stated how critical it is for Americas competitiveness

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13 and national security to provide more students with international experience. The Institute of International Education (2008) reported 60% of U .S. students abroad in 20042005 were in Europe, 14% in Latin America, 8% in Asia, and 7% Oceania regions. On the other hand, 3.5 % studied in Africa and only 1% in the Middle East. Typically, students choose popular destinations in Western Europe, includi ng the United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain, but recent trends have shown large increases in students going to China, India, Brazil, and other nontraditional destinations. The Institute of International Education (2009) reported that this growth is fueled par tly by new program opportunities, strategic partnerships between higher education institutions in the U.S. and abroad, and a multitude of fields and program durations that have expanded to accommodate the needs of an increasingly diverse study abroad popul ation. However, not every country is attracting students. Notably, there has been a decrease in students going to English speaking nations and nearly 70% of students choose countries where English is not the primary language (Institute of International Education, 2008). Recently, the Institute Statement of the Problem The increase in study abroad programs (Nyaupane, Teye, & Paris, 2008), has led to an abundance of opportunities for U.S. students. Yet, Chadee and Cutler (1996) state, international travel by students remains a neglected area of research(p. 75). Many students want to study abroad, but are often overwhelmed with the process and do not know where to begin. Often, a student will visit a study abroad advisor to better understand what program best suits them. However, programs are designed to meet specific goals (UFIC, 2009) and may not always fit the needs of the student. From a programmers perspective, programs are designed to meet specific learning outcomes. However, the question must be asked, What kind of experience is an individual seeking in a study abroad program? One size does not fit all in terms of matching a student with the appropriate program. It is important to understand what students need from an

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14 educational travel experience. This study will focus on benefits sought among students who study abroad and the benefits realized after their program. Benefit sought/realized research has existed in the tourism literature for approximately 30 years (Papadimitriou & Gibson, 2008), but t here have been few, if any empirical studies that have focused on benefits sought or realized by students studying abroad using this framework. Previous research regarding study abroad began in the mid 1950s that identified numerous benefits associated w ith the experience. Increased levels of student development, particularly among students with prior international travel experience ( Drexler, 2006; Dukes, Lockwood, Oliver, Pezalila, & Wilker 1994; Kuh & Kauffman, 1985; Robalik, 2006), increased foreign la nguage competency (Opper, Teichler, & Carlson, 1990), and enhanced cross cultural skills and global understanding (Kitsantas; McCabe, 1994) are just a few benefits of study abroad that have been identified. Some studies identified motivations to study abro ad, such as cross cultural skills and global understanding (Kitsantas), but there is a lack of research in the study abroad context identifying particular benefits students seek during a study abroad experience and the extent to which these benefits are realized at the conclusion of the program. Kim, Oh, and Jogaratnam (2007) examined college students motivation to travel, but did not differentiate between educational youth travel and general tourist travel. Further, travel related literature provides evid ence of why people travel, but to what extent does these general travel motives explain what motivates students to study abroad? The individual benefits students seek and understanding which benefits are realized may help us understand more about the motivational processes associated with study abroad. Gender, Prior International Travel Experience, and Program Length The existing literature using a benefits approach to travel has examined benefits sought and realized in relation to other factors. For example, benefits sought can differ by gender

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15 (PenningtonGray & Kerstetter, 2001), previous travel experience (Gitelson & Kerstetter, 1990; Pearce, 1988), geographical location and education (Gitelson & Kerstetter, 1990), program length (Osler, 1998), and ethnicity (Shoemaker, 1994; Woodside & Jacobs, 1985). Gender. Travel is a key component of study abroad. It is suggested that women have different expectations for travel, play active roles in decision making, and have different attitudes towards travel (Baraban, 1986; Deluca, 1986; Hawes, 1988; PenningtonGray & Kerstetter, 2001). Indeed, the majority of study abroad participants are Caucasian females (Carlson & Widaman, 1988; Drexler; Goldstein & Kim, 2006; Robalik, 2006). According to PenningtonGray a nd Kerstetter, in 2001 female travelers represented 50% of the pleasure travel market. PenningtonGray and Kerstetter examined benefits sought among women visiting North Carolina and identified three groups of tourists: rest and relaxation seekers, family and social seekers, and action seekers. Their findings revealed individual benefit items, such as, education, shopping, family, excitement, and natural surroundings. This study demonstrated that women identified safety and security as an important benefit of pleasure travel. However, the study only focused on pleasure travel as opposed to a business or educational trip where safety and security may be a more or less important benefit. Previous study abroadrelated research identified gender differences in terms of motivations and learning outcomes, but findings remain inconsistent (Carlson & Widaman, 1988; Drexler, 2006; Farrell & Suvedi, 2003; Martin et al., 1995). Drexler found that female students sought to increase or improve their intercultural relations with foreign cultures more than males. Females were also found to have higher goal achievement than males (Carlson & Widaman, 1988; Martin et al., 1995). In contrast, some studies suggest that gender does not appear to influence the outcomes for student s on study abroad (Farrell & Suvedi, 2003).

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16 Prior International Travel Experience. Prior research also remains inconsistent regarding the influence of previous international travel experience. Pearce (1988) stated that prior travel experiences impacts the choices and experiences individuals make when travelling. However, inconsistencies exist in the literature. Indeed, Farrell and Suvedi found that travel experiences do not appear to influence students experiences, but in general international study conte xts Sonmez and Graefe (1998) revealed that prior travel experience does impact future travel related decisions, as well as future experiences. Length of Program The length of a study abroad program may also be influential. Osler (1998) asserted that short term study abroad programs are not adequate to form accurate opinions of host countries or people. This leads to the question, How long does a study abroad program have to be to make positive contributions to a students development? In relation to bene fits sought, shorter study abroad programs may be unsatisfactory for some participants. Hence, duration of a study abroad program may have an influence on the study abroad experience and outcomes. Few studies have examined geographical location (e.g. Nyau pane, Teye, & Paris, 2008; Martin et. al, 1995) and ethnicity (e.g. Morgan, Mwegelo, & Turner, 2002) in relation to study abroad choice. Thus, the results of this study hold many potential implications for study abroad program design and enhancement of study abroad experiences. The results of this study not only add to the study abroadrelated literature, but to tourism benefits based literature as well. Generally, most studies support study abroad as an overall positive experience, and the results on the s tudy are discussed with the goal of enhancing students international experiences. Conceptual Framework This study focused on concepts that have been widely used in tourism literature, but neglected in the study abroad related literature, benefits sought and realized. Through a pre test

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17 and post test design, this study investigated what motivates a student to study abroad based on the benefits that they seek and to what extent the benefits were realized. Benefits Sought The benefits sought literature orig inated from marketing research pertaining to market segmentation (Hayley, 1968). There were at least three types of market segments used in the 1960s: geographic, demographic, and volume segmentation. Geographic segmentation allowed smaller companies to limit their investments by selling their products in certain regions to attain maximum profit. Demographic segmentation defined target audiences based on various demographics such as age, sex, income, occupation, and race. However, not all customers sought the same kinds of benefits from a product. Hayley (1968) therefore proposed the concept of benefits based market segmentation and suggested that this approach had the power to explain market segments rather than just describe them as the existing segmentat ion processes did. Hayley defined benefit segmentation as the benefits that people seek in consuming a given product and allows researchers to assess the values held by consumers, thus, the benefits consumers seek from a particular product provide insight into the primary or underlying reasons why they might purchase it. Benefits based segmentation was introduced enabling marketers to distinguish market segments by applying causal factors instead of descriptive factors. This approach enabled marketers to be tter predict future buying behaviors. Previous research revealed that most people want as many benefits as possible, but the relative importance they associate with each one differs (Hayley). In the 1970s tourism researchers adopted the benefits based fr amework to understand destination choice. Woodside and Pitts (1976) linked benefits sought to destination choice, Crompton (1977) and Crask (1981) examined benefits sought in relation to motivations for vacation travel, and Schul and Crompton (1983) studie d travel planning in relation to benefits sought.

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18 Woodside and Pitts (1976) examined the relationship between benefits sought and destination choice. Using twenty lifestyle and demographic variables they classified family vacationers into three groups: domestic travelers, foreign travelers, and non travelers. Based on lifestyle data, they suggested that travelrelated industries can differentiate marketing programs for different travel segments. Their results demonstrated that consumer lifestyle and demogr aphic data could be used to predict travel behavior. Taking a lead from Woodside and Pitts (1976), Crompton (1977) and Crask (1981) examined benefits sought in relation to motivations for vacation travel. Crask used five benefit sought factors: sightseein g opportunities, cost of vacation, opportunity for camping, existence of man made attractions, and existence of active sport facilities. Four groups emerged from the study: R&R Vacationer, Sightseer, Cost Conscious/Attraction oriented Vacationers, an d Sports Enthusiast. Each group exhibited similar demographics. For example, the R&R Vacationer had an overall higher socioeconomic status, took longer vacations, and viewed man made [sic] attractions and camping facilities as unimportant. They were also likely to be a middle aged couple with no children and higher income. A similar approach was used in the study to identify clusters of study abroad participants. Students who want to study abroad typically plan well in advanced to meet specific deadli nes established by their educational institution. Schul and Crompton (1983) investigated travel planning in relation to benefits sought. Notably, they explained that international vacationers could not observe what they are buying, and so, they were expect ed to seek information from a variety of sources during an extended period of time before deciding on a destination. They classified two groups of tourists: active and passive planners. The active planner showed preference for vacations with plenty of nightlife and a large variety of things to

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19 do and see. They also exhibited a stronger interest in cultural attractions and mixing with the local people. Their findings indicated that none of the sociodemographics used in the analysis were found to be signific antly correlated to planning behavior. Researchers have also identified dissimilarities among individuals with different levels of previous experience with a destination (Francken & van Raaij, 1981; Gitelson & Kerstetter, 1990; Pearce & Caltabiano, 1983; Pizam, Neumann, and Reichel, 1978; Shoemaker, 1994) Pearce (1988) suggested that prior travel experience impacts the choices and experiences individuals make when travelling. Gitelson and Kerstetter (1990) revealed that tourists who had previously visited a U.S. state in the Southeast stayed longer and rated higher social and relaxation benefits after visiting again. Gitelson and Kerstetter identified four benefits sought factors: relaxation, exploration, social and excitement. Benefits sought varied by ag e, activity, season, and geographical location. Additionally, there are consistencies in regards to gender and the benefits sought research conducted during the 1990s. Loker and Perdue (1992) identified benefits sought by tourists in North Carolina. Four benefits sought factors were identified: escape/relaxation, natural surroundings, excitement/variety, and time with family and friends. PenningtonGray and Kerstetter (2001) also studied benefits sought by women visiting North Carolina and identified thre e groups of tourists: rest and relaxation seekers, family and social seekers, and action seekers. Benefits Realized Benefits based research is motivation based. The extent to which researchers can actually measure tourist motivation is questionable (Dann, 1981). Dann argues that many individuals cannot identify what motivates them to make particular choices. Hence, during the 1980s and into the early 1990s, the concept of benefits realized was suggested as a better indicator of

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20 tourist needs and motivati ons as opposed to benefits sought (Pearce & Caltabiano, 1983; Shoemaker, 1994). Hence, benefits realized is the outcome based approach to the benefits sought conceptualization. Using the benefits realized concept, Pearce and Caltabiano revealed that touri sts actual experiences influences travel motivation. Their findings suggested that positive and negative tourist experiences pointed out different underlying need structures among tourists. In support of this supposition, Woodside and Jacobs (1985) survey ed Canadian, mainland American, and Japanese tourists visiting Hawaii to better understand their needs, values, and experiences in relation to benefits realized. Their data revealed significant differences between benefits realized by nationality. For exam ple, Canadian visitors viewed their Hawaiian vacation as rejuvenating and enjoyable. Whereas visitors from the U.S. perceived their vacation as culturally enriching and exciting. In contrast, Japanese visitors did not view Hawaii as exciting, but rather a place to spend time with family. Shoemaker (1994) operationalized benefits realized by exploring the relationship between destination attributes or the benefits individuals reported as influencing their selection of a vacation destination, and the attributes or benefits that characterized their previous vacation destination. For example, those who have taken or planned on taking two or more trips per year are more concerned with the price/value, crime rate and safety of an area, locations suitable for chi ldren, and the availability of amusement parks and guided tours. Comparably, more frequent travelers, those who took three or more trip or planned in a one year period, are more interested in nightlife and cultural activities such as theaters or museums. Interestingly, the study demonstrated differences between what respondents say is a concern and what they actually do. For example, low crime rate is said to be a major concern, but the last vacation destination

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21 visited was not perceived to be especially s afe for some tourists. Further, Shoemakers study revealed numerous discrepancies between the two benefit components as well as notable differences in benefits sought between participants from three nationalities. Johns and Gyimothy (2002) gave additional insight to the findings from Shoemakers (1994) study, by examining planned behavior and actual behavior during a vacation. They found that planned behavior is less important than actual activity participation in shaping actual behavior. Thus, using the benefits sought and benefits realized concepts in the same study may generate a more accurate depiction of student behavior and choices. Combining Benefits Sought and Realized According to Papadimitriou and Gibson (2008), since the 1990s much of the bene fits sought/realized literature focused on a motivational approach, looking at benefits sought in terms of amenities and activities (i.e. Tian, Crompton, & Witt 1996; Crompton, & Witt, 1996), or a blend of both. In the leisure related literature, a benefit is defined as improved or desired conditions of an individual, a group of individuals, or another entity, such as the physical environment (Driver, Brown, & Peterson 1991). Previous leisure related literature categorized benefits into four major categorie s: personal, social, economic, and environmental (Driver, et al). In addition, Driver et al. listed five categories of experiential benefits: psychological, sociological, psychophysiological, economic, and environmental. Tian et al. (1996) focused on the psychological and sociological components of benefits sought and identified five benefits: socializing/bonding, relaxation, social recognition, self esteem, education and entertainment among females visiting a museum. Today, many researchers conceptualize benefits as experiential and psychological outcomes of an experience (Samdahl, 1991). Tourism based research has consistently identified the following benefits: escape (Wahlers & Etzel, 1985), rest and relaxation (Crompton, 1979;

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22 Crask, 1981; Gitelson & K erstetter 1990; Shoemaker, 1989; Woodside & Jacobs, 1985), self esteem (Tian et al., 1996), status and prestige (Dann, 1981). Benefits may also encompass opportunities for excitement (Loker & Perdue, 1992) or education (Shoemaker; Tian et al.). Tourists ha ve also desired the benefit of experiencing historical attractions and climate (Loker & Perdue). In another study using benefits sought/realized conceptualizations, Papadimitriou and Gibson (2008) identified opportunities to relax, get away, commune with nature, experience exhilaration and excitement as benefits sought among active sport tourists. Prior to their trip in a post test analysis, relaxation, followed by excitement and sport experience were the most important benefits realized. While there is s ome research pertaining to benefits sought/realized in the tourism literature, no researchers have used a pre post trip design to measure benefits sought in relation to study abroad. In previous study abroadbased research, benefits sought include interact ing with the local people and immersion into the culture, (Martin, et al., 1995; Robalik, 2006); enhanced foreign language skills (Carlson & Widaman, 1988; Kitsantas, 2004; Opper, Teichler, & Carlson, 1990; Robalik); improve career prospects (Carlson, Burn, Useem, & Yachimowicz, 1991); travelling during the course of the program, the actual location itself, and exploring new places (Michael, Armstong, & King, 2003); and increased interest in arts, language, and history of countries outside of ones own (Car sello & Creaser, 1976). Benefits realized may include the development of competence and mature interpersonal relationships (Drexler, 2006), and attitude change in terms of ethnocentrism, prejudice, and foreign language interest (Goldstein & Kim, 2005).

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23 B enefits sought and realized have practical applications for students studying abroad. The concept of benefits seems to have been conceptualized and operationalized in many ways. The literature suggests that tourists seem to seek and realize a range of diff erent needs and amenities in a destination. Thus, understanding the benefits students seek in a study abroad program can help us understand and identify different student behaviors and preferences. Implications from this study are beneficial for the studen t travel industry and the tourism industry. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to examine the benefits sought and benefits realized by University of Florida students that studied abroad during summer 2009. Using a pre post test pre experimental design the influence of gender, ethnicity, previous travel experience, program destination and length on benefits sought/realized were examined. Research Questions The research questions for this study are as follows: 1a. What benefits do students seek when studying abroad? 1b. What benefits do students realize from studying abroad? 1c. What are the differences in benefits sought/realized by the students before and after their study abroad program? 2a. What are the differences in benefits sought based on gender? 2b. What are the differences in benefits realized based on gender? 2c. Are there differences between benefits sought/realized based on gender? 3a. Are there differences in benefits sought based on race/ethnicity? 3b. Are there differences in benefits realized based on race/ethnicity? 3c. Are there differences in benefits sought/realized based on race/ethnicity? 4a. Are there differences in benefits sought based on previous international travel ex perience?

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24 4b. Are there differences in benefits realized based on previous international travel experience? 4c. What are the differences between benefits sought/realized based on previous international travel experience? 5a. Are there differences in benefi ts sought based on the study abroad program length? 5b. Are there differences in benefits realized based on the study abroad program length? 5c. What are the differences in benefits sought/realized based on the study abroad program length? 6a. Are there di fferences in benefits sought based on study abroad location? 6b. Are there differences in benefits realized based on study abroad location? 6c. What are the differences between benefits sought/realized based on study abroad location? 7a. What are students looking forward to the most before they study abroad? 7b. To what extent were these expectations met? 8a. What were the students looking forward to the least before they study abroad? 8b. To what extent were these expectations met?

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25 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Study Abroad Students study abroad for a variety of reasons. The study abroad experience provides an opportunity for students to increase cross cultural awareness, attain better job placement, and earn college credit (Carlson et al., 1991; Kitsantas, 2004). Study abroa d is a form of educational travel (Dukes et al., 1994; Kuh & Kauffman, 1985). Carsello and Greaser (1976) stated that it is an opportunity to live in a new and challenging environment. Topics of interest have included: self awareness, worldview, attitudes towards others, international understanding, future career orientation, academic and cultural interests (Carsello & Greaser; Farrell & Suvedi, 2003; Kuh & Kauffman; Nash, 1976) to better understand why students study abroad. Travelling is an integral comp onent of study abroad. In a study of undergraduate students from a British university, Carr (2005) found that the students who were all under the age of 25 were likely to spend much of their money on travel. Carr asserts that university students have a hi gh propensity for travel as well as a passionate yearning to participate in tourism experiences. In essence, travel is deemed important among youth regardless of financial means or the subsequent need to work after the trip. Carr explained that many stude nts will find a way to travel. For U.S. students, it is not the act of studying abroad that results in self exploration and identity evaluation, but that travel in and of itself is an expression of self discovery and personal growth (Dolby, 2004). The ac t of travel is what prompts inner reflection and appraisal (Dolby), which is an important theme underlying personal development. Study abroad is not just an American phenomenon. The European education system also emphasizes the importance of being global c itizens (Osler, 1998). Osler suggested that the experience of living abroad and observing another culture is an opportunity for students to evaluate how well they know their

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26 own culture. Indeed, Robalik (2006) recommended that the American education system should consider the Europeans emphasis on international education and view the benefits of the experience to assist in the justification of programs. The majority of students, when asked why they study abroad, generally respond with the following stateme nts: experiencing a different culture, meeting new people, and self exploration (Robalik, 2006). Students who study abroad perceive participation as a vital component to their overall development, and especially important in the development of competence a nd mature interpersonal relationships (Drexler, 2006). Benefits Sought Motivations to study abroad Students take part in study abroad to achieve certain goals. Goals and needs can be positive or negative, and multiple and conflicting (Dann, 1981). Goals ha ve been defined as intentions to attain specific standard of proficiency, usually within a specified time limit (Locke, Shaw, Saari, & Latham, 1981). Specific educational goals, such as the attainment of foreign language skills, can be evaluated by grades or by a competency exam. However, a participants personal development and international understanding are more difficult to assess. Motivation is a critical factor of goal achievement. Motivation is driven by the notion that individuals must fulfill basic underlying needs in order to attain higher needs (Dann, 1981). Further, hierarchically organized needs (Maslow, 1954) provide a basis for understanding attitudes. According to Coelho (1962) there are four general goals of foreign study programs: internati onal understanding, technical and specialty training, personal growth, and general education development. Carlson, Burn, Useem, and Yachimowicz (1991) suggested that the most important reasons students report for going abroad in order of importance are: to improve their cultural understanding; to improve their career prospects; to study the subject matter not offered in their home institution; and to join

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27 friends also going. Students in Carlson et al.s study were motivated by the expectation that the exper ience would make them more competitive in an increasingly diverse and global employment market. Carlson and Widaman (1988) investigated the relationship between program goals and personal development objectives. Over 800 American college students were sur veyed (304 studied abroad at a European university during their junior year, while 519 remained on the campus) to find out if the goals and purpose for study abroad were being met. The students were asked about their views before their junior year as well as their current views. The study abroad group showed higher levels of international political concern, cross cultural interest, and cultural cosmopolitanism than those who stayed on campus. In support of their supposition, Opper, Teichler, and Carlson (1990) examined students reasons for studying abroad. They developed the study abroad goals scale (SAGS), which inquired into students reasons for participating in study abroad. A few sample questions included, Desire to develop my own perspective of the host country of the study abroad program and/or Desire to enhance my understanding of the host country of the study abroad program. The respondents replied that enhancing their language skills was a primary reason for studying abroad. They found that fo reign language competency did increase during study abroad. Lack of a comprehensive account in the study abroad literature for the process of cross cultural adaptation is of concern (Schroth & McCormack, 2000). Schroth and McCormack used two personality di mensions: sensation seeking (Zuckerman, Eysenck, & Eysenck, 1978) and the need for achievement (McClelland, Atkinson, Clark, & Cowell, 1953) personality traits to account for the process of cross cultural adaptation among alumni who studied abroad through the California State Universitys International Program. The Sensation Seeking Scale consisted

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28 of four subscales: thrill and adventure seeking, experience seeking, disinhibition, and boredom susceptibility (Zuckerman et al., 1978). The thrill and adventure seeking subscale measured the desire to engage in sports and activities involving danger or speed; Experience seeking measured the desire for unusual sensations or experiences associated with a nonconformist lifestyle; Disinhibition measured the desire fo r social and sexual experiences as expressed in social drinking, partying, and a variety of sexual experiences; And boredom susceptibility measured aversions to repetition, routine, and dull people (Schroth & McCormack, 2000). They found that men had signi ficantly higher scores on the experience seeking subscale but lower scores on the thrill and adventure seeking, disinhibition, and boredom susceptibility. In comparison, the women had significantly higher scores on the experience seeking, thrill and advent ure seeking, and disinhibition subscales. The findings suggest that the students sought experiences not available at home. Thus, the students high score on the experience seeking subscale suggest that their needs consist of seeking new experiences through the mind and sense by traveling abroad. In regards to the need for achievement scale, the study abroad participants exhibited significantly higher scores on the work, mastery, and competitiveness subscales than the control group. Michael, Armstrong, and King (2003) explored the relationship between studying abroad in Australia and student choice of tourist destinations. They found that the students motives for studying abroad included the quality of education (most important), recommendations from frien ds and relatives, course content, and cost of study. Of the 219 respondents, 141 (64.4%) travelled during their time abroad. The students were motivated by good beaches and other attractions, scenic beauty and historical significance, and word of mouth rec ommendations made by friends and relatives. Critically, the researchers learned that 67% of their sample stated they would return to the destinations they had visited during the course of their study and 55% stated

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29 that friends and relatives visited them d uring their time abroad. The students expressed that they would visit the same tourist destinations during future holidays as well as recommending those destinations to friends and relatives in their home country. Numerous implications were made from this study linking study abroad and the tourism industry. First, tourism operators could intentionally target educational travelers and offer tailored packages and/or products. Second, the tourism industry could collaborate with universities, as well as educat ional travel organizations, to portray their destination as an ideal destination and study abroad location. Kitsantas (2004) explored the relationship between college students goals for participating in study abroad programs and their development of crosscultural skills and global understanding. Participants were enrolled in study abroad programs offered in England, France, Greece, Italy, and Spain for three to six weeks. Kitsantas found 31 percent of the variance in students cross cultural skills was explained by their desire to study abroad. Further, 16 percent of the variance in global understanding was also explained by students goals to study abroad. Notably, those participants who wanted to study abroad for the purpose of enhancing their cross c ultural understanding were more likely to increase their cross cultural skills and global understanding than those who did not make it their goal. Llewellyn Smith and McCabe (2008) also explored student motivations and factors in their selection of a university exchange program using the pushpull typology framework. The study sample consisted of students who completed an international exchange program at an Australian university. They found that students desire to travel and the opportunity for fun and excitement were the primary motivators for studying abroad, along with the host countrys weather, natural environment and tourist attractions. Some push factors included the need for adventure, social interaction, excitement, learning, and escape. The m ore important pull factors included price,

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30 safety, culture, cultural attractions, climate, and natural environment. It is also important to note that students in this study placed more importance on travel, fun, and socializing. Indeed, Llewellyn Smith a nd McCabe suggested that students appear to view the exchange experience as an opportunity for leisure and social activities rather than for serious study or academic achievement (p. 601). The authors concluded that push factors provided the strongest m otivation to study abroad and the host destination was a bigger pull factor than the university itself. Expectations of study abroad Expectations play a critical role in the initial decision to study abroad (Goldstein & Kim, 2005). Previous research revea led that gender, prior travel, and location of impending trip related to the formation of expectations. Goldstein and Kim focused on expectations regarding social and personal attributes within a study abroad context. They examined variables that predicted participation in study abroad programs using the International Study Expectancies Scale (ISES). ISES is a ten item inventory used to assess students attitudes and concerns about studying abroad. Items contained in ISES included statements such as, Parti cipating in an international study program would build by self confidence, International study will be stressful, I will enjoy studying in a country other than my own, Experiences in my own country can teach me many things one learns through internat ional study, and Participating in an international study program would allow me to meet interesting people (p. 272). One hundred and seventy nine undergraduates were followed throughout their 4year college career. At year one, students completed a surv ey that included measures of study abroad expectations, ethnocentrism, prejudice, intercultural communication apprehension, language interest and competence, intolerance of ambiguity, and academic and demographic variables. They found that students with mo re positive expectations of international study were more likely to participate in study

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31 abroad programs. During the students senior year, follow up data were collected from the college registrars database regarding participation in study abroad, includi ng placement and duration. Students who studied abroad differed significantly from those who did not in terms of concern about completing their major, study abroad expectations, ethnocentrism, prejudice, and foreign language interest. Women scored signific antly lower than men on ethnocentrism, had more positive expectations of study abroad, and greater foreign language interest. Interestingly, prior travel experience and students fluent in a language other than English did not effect study abroad participat ion. They found that expectations and intercultural variables played a more critical role in determining who studied abroad more than academic or career factors. Martin et al. (1995) also investigated pre and post trip expectations among students studying abroad through the Division of International Programs Abroad at Syracuse University. Martin et al. used the expectancy value theory, which assumes that unmet expectations will always have negative consequences. They also used expectancy violation theory where unmet expectations are not predicted to produce only negative evaluations and outcomes. Rather, expectations may be violated (where things turn out better than expected), and the students experience is predicted to produce positive evaluations and out comes. The sample consisted of 47 males and 201 females, of those, 87 (35%) students went to England, 80 (32%) studied in Florence, Italy, 48 (19%) in Strasbourg, France, and 33 (13%) in Madrid, Spain. The students lived with host families and attended lan guage classes in all locations except England. The pre trip questionnaire asked respondents to rate the degree of difficulty anticipated in 13 aspects of their overseas sojourn: learning and using a foreign language, meeting people and making friends, adjusting to foreign customs, dealing with homesickness, extracurricular travel, housing and host family, adapting to local climate, adapting to local food, maintaining health, using local

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32 transportation, using local currency, having sufficient money, and cour sework. On the post test respondents were asked to report how much difficulty they encountered during their overseas experience using the same 13 aspects and overall satisfaction with the experience one month after returning from studying abroad. They found that the learning and use of a foreign language and unfamiliar currency differed amongst gender. Further, the goals individuals associate with study abroad are clearly different between males and females, consistent with previous findings related to high er goal achievement found among females (Carlson & Widaman, 1988; Drexler, 2006; Farrell & Suvedi, 2003; Martin et al., 1995; Robalik 2006). In addition, the location of the study abroad program contributed to predictions of expectancy violation related to coursework, climate, and language use. Females had more difficulty than males in many of the 13 areas. Females also held lower (more negative) expectations than males. Notably, those sojourners to England reported that their expectations were violated mor e negatively than those who studied in the other three countries; the students expected that England would be very similar to the U.S., when in fact the culture and language are very different. Morgan, Mwegelo, and Turner (2002) investigated African Ameri can womens perception of study abroad. According to Morgan et al., African Americans and other minorities are underrepresented in study abroad. This is a major concern because it limits their exposure to diversity, familiarity of other cultures, and exper iential learning outside the classroom. The main purpose of their study was to identify the perceptions of African American women toward a study abroad program in West Africa. They argued that African American women and other women of African ancestry in h igher education could use study abroad programs as a viable vehicle to visit the African continent and share their experiences with African women. They found that women who seek a common African heritage with African women would aid in the

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33 development of a n ideology of the shared values, cultural traditions, and racial/ethnic identities. Morgan et al. recommended that in order to increase awareness of the generalizations and stereotypes about African women and Black women of African descent, it is essential for college students and faculty to begin to travel more and view other countries as classrooms. Benefits Realized and Studying Abroad Benefits realized concerns outcomebased studies on study abroad. Studying abroad appears to have positive effects (Car sello & Greaser, 1976; Farrell & Suvedi, 2003; Kuh & Kauffman, 1985; Martin, 1989; Nash, 1976). Studying abroad provides diverse experiences that may change a students interests, outlook, values, and attitudes (Robalik, 2006). Students views on other countries as well as the U.S., their family, and views on life in general may change (Carlson & Widaman, 1988) Developmental Impacts from Studying Abroad Growth through travel is the outcome of experiencing significant connections with other people and cultures (Dukes et al., 1994). Hofman and Zak (1969) explored level of interaction between study abroad participants in Israel and Israelis. They organized students into two groups according to their degree of interaction. The students were either classified as high contact or low contact. Individuals that made more contact with Israelis were labeled high contact and those labeled low contact made less contact with the host country. The high contact group developed favorable views on all nine issues ex plored. Attitudes toward Jewishness interest, closeness, interdependence, solidarity, and centrality subscales and attitude toward Israel interdependence, immigration, and Hebrew issues were addressed. The low contact group became less favorable on three issues (interest, closeness, and centrality of Jewishness) and exhibited no change on the other six. This study supports previous findings reinforcing the

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34 benefits of cross cultural understanding through increased interaction with members of the host country. Pfnister (1972) also examined attitude change among a group of 120 students who participated in a 14 week study abroad program. Fifty nine students travelled to Nicaragua, Costa Rica, or Jamaica; Sixty one students went to Guadeloupe, West Germany, or South Korea. A 97 item before and after opinion and attitude inventory was given to the two study abroad groups and one control group who remained on campus. Students were asked before and after thei r foreign experience to indicate whether they felt they had made any progress on the four item sets that were measured: human relations, critical thinking, humanistic values, and vocational orientation. Pfnister found awareness of current philosophies, cul tures, and way of life, as the greatest changes that occurred among the students who studied abroad. Carsello and Greaser (1976) inquired into the positive and negative changes experienced during study abroad. Through a survey, 209 U.S. students in four We stern European countries were asked to specify whether they observed changes in their attitudes, interests, or skills relating to personal or academic concerns. Their findings indicated a negative correlation between positive and negative changes. For exam ple, they found that the more positive changes experienced by a student, the greater the decrease in negative changes experienced. They also found that the most positive changes surfaced during the novel experiences the students had in the foreign country. These consisted of improved interest in art, travel, history, foreign languages, meeting strangers, and architecture. Nearly 64% of the respondents felt they had experienced a positive change in their self concept, 42% experienced an improvement in their social life, more than 37% discovered greater peace of mind, and 34% felt their emotional health improved. Additionally, 61% of the students experienced a greater interest in the United States

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35 and 57% perceived a greater interest in their families. On th e other hand, the negative experiences were mostly related to health and academic concerns, which Carsello and Greaser argued was probably a consequence of the transitory situation the students faced. This is often produced by the distraction of new places sights, and experiences. They also found that health deterioration is typically temporary and largely due to ignoring normal health practices, and/or due to the change in water or diet. Nash (1976) assessed the impact of study abroad on self realization. Forty one students comprised the study abroad group and 31 students who remained on campus constituted the control group. The students were tested prior to and at the conclusion of their junior year. Nash observed increased interest in international affai rs, but surprisingly discovered significantly less favorable attitudes towards one of the host countries (France). In addition, multiple personal developments were noted, such as, personal growth, self understanding, increased tolerance, independence, grea ter openness, and a higher level of satisfaction. Nash also reported improved self perception and decreased alienation among study abroad participants. Significant changes in the participants feelings about their life purpose and direction were also repor ted. Interestingly, Nash found that those changes in personality did not persist through a follow up study administered several months after returning from the program. Challenges presented by a different culture can promote personal development in study a broad participants. Kuh and Kauffman (1985) explored changes in selected aspects of personal development related to study abroad. They hypothesized that studying abroad for an unlimited length of time may encourage personal development because numerous ele ments of foreign culture create unique and compelling challenges. They administered the Omnibus Personality Inventory (OPI) Form F and the Debriefing Interview Guide to 126 students prior to studying

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36 abroad, as well as 90 students who did not study abroad. They found that study abroad students experienced increased feelings of well being, self confidence, beliefs toward the welfare of others, and reflective thought. Additionally, significant increases were reported in impulse expression and the capacity to actively imagine and attend to sensual reactions, interest in aesthetics, and emotional sensitivity. Also reported were decreased nervousness, tension, and anxiety. Additionally, 37% of students felt their self reliance and individual decisionmaking skills were enhanced, and that the most significant component of personal development was improved intellectualism and tolerance for ambiguity. Further, the data showed that engagement in a different culture provides ample opportunities to challenge students to develop themselves into more culturally sensitive and mature individuals. Dukes, Lockwood, Oliver, Pezalila, and Wilker (1994) recognized that the impacts of travel on the growth of meaning had yet to be investigated. Employing a 10 year longitudinal stud y utilizing the Purpose in Life (PIL) test and openended questions asking participants to evaluate the degree to which educational travel was an influential factor in their development. The authors examined participants from the Semester at Sea program o ffered by the University of Pittsburg. Data were originally collected during the beginning, middle, and end of a spring voyage in 1982. After the course of the study, 80 respondents were contacted by telephone and through postal mail. After the voyage, par ticipants answered a follow up survey questioning life events since the voyage and the Purpose in Life test. The results indicated that personal growth extended beyond the completion of the Semester at Sea. The voyage enhanced participants ability to set their own goals and make their own decisions. Further, respondents felt a greater level of confidence, self assurance, and self sufficiency. Overall, respondents demonstrated that the Semester at Sea assisted them in realizing their full potential and more meaningful

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37 understanding of the world and its inhabitants. Contrary to Nashs (1976) findings, the data suggested that educational travel via Semester at Sea affects participants long after the duration of the voyage. Further, these findings corroborate w ith other study abroad findings in that educational travels produce changes in participants long after completion of their program. In the U.S., study abroad programs for college students vary from a few weeks up to a year or more (Nyaupane et al. 2008). T hey also vary from enclave programs were students stay in a hotel to cultural immersion programs with local host families (Nyaupane et al.). Contrary to Nash and Dukes et al. (1994) findings, Osler (1998) argued that short term study abroad programs ma y not foster accurate opinions of host countries or people. Baty and Dold (1977) investigated the effects of a cross cultural program located in Mexico upon students attitudes. Students were asked to complete the survey two to three days before the program began, and one week after it ended. Many differences were found between males and females in relation to their feelings about their study abroad experience. The findings suggested that the females held more optimistic views on studying abroad than the ma les on both the pre and post test, although the difference between them was reduced after the study abroad experience. Twenty two percent showed a decrease in optimism. The greatest decrease was associated with feelings of inadequacy; the greatest increa ses were associated with anger and anxiety. The females reported greater emotional problems at the time of the pretest than did the males; however, at the time of the post test the females reported fewer emotional problems than the males. The differences in scores suggest that females and males were affected differently by the cross cultural experience. The females exhibited greater stability, reflecting less depression regarding self and the environment. The males reported more depression and alienati on regarding themselves and the environment. Baty and Dold (1997) suggested that young adult

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38 men and women may exhibit different learning styles and this may possibly explain their findings. Indeed, Martin and Rohrlich (1991) found women had more pre departure concerns than men before leaving for a study abroad program. Overall, gender differences with regards to study abroad remain inconclusive. For example, the results of the previously mentioned Semester at Sea study revealed there to be no stat istically significant differences among male and female students (Dukes et al., 1994). Further, some of the literature suggests that gender does not appear to influence the outcomes for students during study abroad (Farrell & Suvedi, 2003). Pizam, Jafari, and Milman (1991) investigated whether the tourist experience affects the attitudes and opinions that students have of their hosts among 24 University of Wisconsin students who travelled to the USSR. Previous research on attitude changes from study abroad has identified many shifts in cross cultural understanding and awareness, but this is largely in part due to the travel component of study abroad. It was hypothesized that American students who visit the USSR would change their negative attitudes. The authors used the Social Psychology of Intergroup Conflict model, which proposed that intergroup contact will lead to a change in mutual attitudes and relations of the interacting members. Consequently, the model assumes that contact among individuals from dive rse groups creates an opportunity for mutual acquaintance, enhances understanding and acceptance among the group members, and reduces intergroup prejudice, conflict, and tension. Pizam et al. administered a pre and post trip questionnaire measuring attitud es towards Soviet People, their political beliefs and their institutions. Thirty eight students all taking an Introduction to Tourism course were used as a control group. Students who travelled to the USSR demonstrated more favorable attitudes than the c ontrol group. Pizam et al. suggested that these changes were due to the touristic experience and not to

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39 any other outside influence. However, the results of the study remain inconclusive because the hypothesis was not confirmed due to the lack of changes i n opinions and attitudes as a result of the touristic experience. Only two of the five items regarding opinion changes were positive. Overall, students acknowledged interest in visiting the USSR in the future, giving the assumption that the respondents we re satisfied with the trip. It can be assumed that if the benefits sought are realized, the likelihood of returning to that destination is probable. Hence, tourism can affect both positively and negatively the attitudes and opinions that tourists have about foreign countries. Study abroad attempts to induce change within the students. However, Stephenson (1999) questions the ability to remain authentic to ones own beliefs while simultaneously understanding and appreciating beliefs and values of other cultures. He examined the effects of study abroad on students values and cultural perceptions. Students were asked to complete a questionnaire upon arrival and departure at their five month long study abroad trip in Santiago, Chili. The purpose of the questionnaire was to determine if students original expectations diverged from their actual experiences and if the students perception of Chilean culture changed during their stay. Students were asked to specify the difficulty or ease they were expecting upon ar rival or what they had experienced upon departing in adjusting to or adapting to a multitude of value and situational orientations. Stephenson found that students anticipated language, academic environment, and making Chilean friends to be the greatest cha llenges. Interestingly, students perceived more stress after the experience more so than was reported upon arrival. Hence, the number of items that were considered challenging increased on the second questionnaire. Stephenson found that keeping a clear concept of ones personal beliefs, maintaining an open mind regarding the Chilean culture, and adjusting personal beliefs resulting from the study

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40 abroad experience proved to be more challenging than originally anticipated. Students felt the greatest differences were related to their lack of understanding of the Chilean university system, in particular, registering for courses, and adjusting to the Chilean teaching/learning styles. In an answer to an open ended question asking a students biggest challenge to Chilean culture, one said, I do not feel the same about being a woman in Chili because I really dont know what that means here. It is possible that this particular student was seeking personal self development but could not overcome the barriers that face Chilean women. Interestingly, the students realized more challenges after the program ended than previously anticipated. Robalik (2006) investigated study abroad participation and student development using Chickerings Theory on Student Development (C hickering, 1969). Fifty six students who participated in university sponsored study abroad programs were evaluated during the 2005 fall term. Student development was measured according to the fourth vector of Chickering and Reissers (1993) Student Development Theory: developing mature, interpersonal relationships. A questionnaire containing three parts was administered both prior to travel and after travel. In the pre travel group nearly half (48%) of the students reported the highest levels of agreement t hat studying abroad will contribute to my overall understanding of the country I will study in. The second most agreed upon statement was studying abroad will contribute to my understanding of other cultures. The last question the majority of students agreed upon was that studying abroad will increase my ability to cope with unfamiliar situations (p. 68). The respondents least agreed about the following statements: studying abroad will make me reconsider my career plans; will distract me from my ac ademic performance; and with a moderate agreement on studying abroad will lead to an improvement of my academic performance (p.62). When participants were asked, why are you studying abroad? the majority of students responded with language

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41 acquisitio n skills, self exploration, and for the cultural experience in general. The majority of post trip respondents agreed that studying abroad contributed to my overall understanding of the country I studied in; and enhanced my independence (p. 71). Cultural immersion in general was the overall response when the post travel group was asked what was/were you best experience(s)? one student replied: Being able to live in a kibbutz and meeting people around my age in the program I did. Having the liberty to do what I wanted when I wanted without having to answer to anyone or worry about my parents. Waking up everyday in my superficial bubble life and knowing there was an amazing beach a walking distance away, dogs running around freely, and being able to pick fruit off of trees (p. 8687). Other responses were related to visiting friends and relatives in a foreign country, learning about their heritage and culture, and immersion into the host country, as one student put it, by simply walking around, soaking in the people, sights, sounds, and cultural differences (p. 87). Responses related to participants worst experiences related to cultural differences and being accepted by the host population. In particular, one student felt, the program was too struc tured, I felt that I was compromising my personal interests for the program. I felt the program did not expect me to find my own way or act independently in the foreign culture. (p. 87). Also using Chickerings Theory on Student Development, Drexler (2006) investigated whether academic disciplines within an international context or study abroad program learning had a greater impact on student development during a students experience abroad. Drexler surveyed undergraduate students at community colleges a cross the U.S. The questionnaire was given before and after their academic study abroad program. During the pretest stage of the study students responded favorably that studying abroad could establish identity, develop purpose, and develop integrity. In re gards to changes in development of competence and mature interpersonal relationships, Drexler mentioned that students who studied abroad desired to develop and

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42 appreciate an understanding of other unique persons and cultures (p. 113). Further, students perceived that study abroad participation was a vital component in overall student development changes, but especially important in the development of competence and mature interpersonal relationships. The findings revealed that students had successfully formed friendships and lasting relationships in the study abroad program and abroad. But the term successfully can be interpreted differently depending on their perception of relationships and friendships. Drexler concluded that students had perceived a n increase in their knowledge of course material, countrys history, and foreign language, critical thinking and reasoning ability, athletic and recreational activity, communication skills with diverse populations, student contact, and technology skills. D rexler found that female students sought to increase or improve their own intercultural relations with foreign cultures more so than males. This goal was satisfied after completing the study abroad program. The most recent study on attitude change and study abroad revealed inconclusive findings. Nyaupane Teye, and Paris (2008) explored pre and post trip attitudes of American college students on a summer study abroad programs using expectancy theory and social distance theory. Their study examined the exp eriences of four 5 week study abroad programs to Australia, Fiji, Austria, and the Netherlands, and the role of tourism and nontourism related experiences in post trip attitude formation. Their findings revealed mixed results regarding attitude change. Th ey suggested that attitude change varies with the country visited depending on pre trip expectations. They explained that high expectations may help students to make their initial decision to visit a country, but unmet expectations could play a negative role in their overall satisfaction of the trip. Nyuapane et al. explained that based on students activities and interactions during the trip, students pre trip attitudes about their host country and its residents

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43 are affected and subject to change. These a ctivities could range from visits to local attractions, shopping, attending local events such as festivals where they are likely to meet and interact with local residents while experiencing local attractions and services. For example, results of the study indicated that non tourism related services have a very strong relationship on attitude change. For example, students who visited Australia were very dissatisfied with their experiences of nontourism related services. Study Abroad Program Implications A possible implication of investigating the benefits students seek in a program is to structure and provide programs tailored to specific students to avoid or decrease negative accounts of an individuals experience. Furthermore, literature supporting pre tr ip curricula or information sessions could be a plausible solution to ensure maximum benefits realized. Difficulties encountered regarding race, class, gender, and sexual orientation are integral components to students learning experiences abroad. Previous research has demonstrated that enhanced cross cultural competencies can be realized under specific conditions such as cross cultural training prior to the trip, guidance during the trip when encountered and exposed to the host population, and post trip r eflection and discussion (Pizam, 1996). Barnett (1991) examined international studies administrators perceptions of program effectiveness across the following nine domains: student educational satisfaction, student academic development, student career dev elopment, student personal development, faculty and administrator job satisfaction, professional development and quality of faculty, system openness and communication, ability to acquire resources, and organizational health. A study abroad program advisor was one of the five analysis of participants response. Barnett (1991) found that Steinberg (2002) mentioned that good study abroad programs foster learning in activities that are not, strictly speaking, for credit, but relate to the academic mission of the program. A notable example of adhering to the

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44 academic mission of the program, Steinberg explained an experience he had during study abroad in Beijing offered by the Institute for the International Education of Students (IES). The students visited a privately owned farm primarily used for planting trees which enabled the students to see first hand the state of Chinese agriculture. They also had the opportunity to interview the farmer on subjects pertaining to financing, employment of farm workers, mark eting and sales, and other aspects of the enterprise. This supplemental activity reinforced students knowledge of Chinese society, hence reinforcing the purpose of study abroad and the program. An important objective of educational travel programs is to teach students how to bridge cultural distance (Klooster, Go, & Rekom, 2008). Although the current study focuses on study abroad, findings from Klooster et al.s study on international internships provide insight into educational travel behavior. Klooster et al. examined the influence of cultural distance on the perceived learning effects of overseas internships, specifically cross cultural competencies and management skills. Since students studying abroad usually take part in pre packaged excursions, and a s Pizam (1996) pointed out that participants engage in escorted bus tours or familiar social networks during study abroad, they hardly escape from their cultural bubble and would not achieve cross cultural goals. Klooster et al. argued that the overseas internship is a form of educational travel that contains more potential for cultural learning. However, Klooster et al found that asymmetric cultural distance and psychic distance can have a negative relationship on the perceived learning of management ski lls and interaction with locals. U.S. Students traveling to low income countries in SubSaharan Africa and South Asia in particular tend to face difficulties as a consequence of higher power distance and lower degree of individualism. However, these diffic ulties can be alleviated through pre trip selection study abroad information

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45 sessions where students can match the benefits they seek with programs designed specifically to meet those needs. In summary, students seek and realize a variety of benefits from studying abroad. According to the literature, the main benefits include cross cultural awareness, the attainment of college credit, the opportunity to live in a new and challenging environment, meeting new people, making new friends, self exploration, for eign language skills, general education development, improved future career prospects, specialty training on subject matters not offered at their home institutions, the opportunity for fun and excitement, and the desire to travel. The main outcomes resulting from students study abroad experience include identity evaluation, personal growth, self reliance, enhanced individual decision making skills, increased knowledge of countrys history, and enhanced communication skills with diverse populations, However there remains inconsistencies and gaps in the study abroad literature. No research has addressed ethnicity and program length as it relates to study abroad motivations and outcomes. This study examined those inconsistencies in gender and prior travel experiences in terms of a benefits sought/realized framework. Furthermore, this study contributed to the existing study abroad literature and corroborates with existing literature using a benefits sought/realized rationale.

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46 CHAPTER 3 METHODS The purpose of t his study was to investigate the benefits sought and realized among study abroad participants using a sample of college students enrolled in study abroad programs through the University of Florida. This study adopted a one group pre test post test pre experimental des ign. The dependent variables were the benefits students seek from participating in a study abroad program and the benefits realized by students upon returning from their study abroad experience. The independent variables included study abroad p rogram length, ethnicity, gender, study abroad location, and previous international travel experience. This chapter explains the procedures used to collect data, instrumentation, sample characteristics, and the statistical analyses used to answer the research questions. Data Collection Prior to each students summer 2009 overseas departure, participants were required to attend one of two study abroad information sessions. The researcher attended both information sessions, each held in April 2009. At the information sessions, the researcher introduced the study and explained the purpose of the research. Instructions were given to the students as to how the researcher would contact them and how they would access the online survey. The researchers contact information was also provided in the event that students had particular questions or concerns. The researcher explained that participation in the study was voluntary and they were assured of confidentiality again at the beginning of the study. Contact with The University of Floridas International Center (UFIC) was made in January 2009. For this study, the primary liaison with the UFIC is a study abroad program advisor. During the spring 2009 semester the researcher occasionally met with the study abroad p rogram advisor and students to gain further insights about studying abroad.

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47 Contact with the study abroa d students was made through an e mail reminding them about the study and containing the URL linking them to the pre and post trip questionnaires. Due to the nature of the study an online survey was deemed to be the best approach since the respondents were geographically dispersed and the study population is familiar and comfortable with the online environment. By collaborating with the University of Flor idas International Center, the E mail addresses of the target audience provided easy access to the respondents. A study done by a large u niversity investigating student needs with a pre post test design approached online surveys with similar reasoning and produced information that helped administration and student services providers efficiently plan proper programs and services for their students ( New Directions 2007). From the perspective of design and administration of web surveys, it is suggested that communicating with the participants at different stages during data collection may enhance the response rate of Internet based surveys (Schonlau, Fricker, & Elliott, 2002). Three components or stages are suggested: contact mode, response mode, and follow up mode (Schonlau et al. 2002). The aim of the modes is to increase the percentage of potential participants completing the questionnaire, and is mostly focused on the contact and the follow up stages. For example, Dillman (2000) recommended multiple contac ts. Cook, Heath, and Thompson (2000) also suggested pre contacts and personalized contacts. The response mode mainly targets those respondents who have begun but not yet completed the survey. To enhance the response rate for this study, the E mails sent to the students followed the threestage mode of web surveys. The first E mail contained the URL for the pre trip questionnaire and was sent the week before the start of the Summer A semester in May 2009 to survey the students before they commenced their programs (APPENDIX C). A reminder/thank

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48 you E mail was sent one week after the initial email. The purpose of the second E mail was to thank those participants who had completed the questionnaire and to remind those individuals who had not done so (APPENDIX D). A third E mail was sent to those students who had different program lengths and departed later in the summer or after the start of the Summer A semester. These students programs varied in length (i.e. 16 weeks) therefore, the researcher staggered sen ding the third E mail and follow up email. The students E mail addresses provided by the UFIC were categorized by their study abroad program, allowing the researcher to send the third E mail to those groups of students based on the length of their program Another follow up reminder/thank you E mail was sent one week after the initial post test E mail request. The post trip questionnaire followed the same three stage mode as the pre trip questionnaire. The first E mail contained the post trip URL (APPENDIX E), the second E mail reminded students to answer the questionnaire or thanked those students who participated (APPENDIX F), and the third E mail was sent at various times throughout the semester depending on the leng th of the study abroad program. NoviS ystems was the Web survey host used for the questionnaires and features updated results in real time. Thus, the data summaries were automatically updated as each respon dent completed the survey. NoviS ystems data summar ies permitted compatibility with SPSS and Microsoft Excel. SPSS is an inclusive software program that has the capability for advanced statistical analysis, th us data were imported from NoviS ystems then transposed in Microsoft Excel, and finally analyzed us ing SPSS. Internet based surveys offer alternative characteristics than traditional survey methods, including increased efficiency in terms of time consumption and an inexpensive method since it eliminates postage, printing, and/or interviewer costs ( Huang 2007; Schaefer & Dillman, 1998). Schaefer and Dillman also found that E mail surveys with a

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49 mixed mode component actually reduced coverage error, thus i mproving data quality compared to traditional survey methods. However, an Internet based survey presen ts new challenges to the data collection process. Although Internet use is increasing steadily, many groups within the population do not have access to computers. However, this study focused on a closed population of students who are required to have some form of Internet access according to their study abroad requirements set by the University of Florida International Center. Further, the researchers ability to respond in a timely manner to issues, concerns, and technical proble ms may have encouraged the likelihood that the students would participate in the study. Sample The participant sample consisted of the population of students who participated in University of Florida sponsored study abroad programs enrolled through the University of Florida Interna tional Center (UFIC) during the Summer 2009 semester. Approximately 1000 students participated in summer 2009 UF study abroad programs during the Summer A, B, and C semesters and were asked to take part in the study. According to a study abroad program coo rdinator, it is nearly impossible to identify the number of students who studied abroad for Summer A, Summer B, or Summer C individually. Approximately 60% (n=600) were on Summer A programs, 20% (n=200) on Summer B, and 20% (n=200) on Summer C. E mail addr esses to contact the students were provided by UFIC. It is unrealistic to assume that everyone who is invited to participate in the survey will actually complete it. One drawback of Internet based surveys in the nonresponse error (Dillman, 2000). Other res earchers implied that web surveys have a lower response rate in comparison to traditional mail surveys (Cook et al. 2000; Crawford, Couper, & Lamias, 2001). Indeed, this study had a low response with 12.5% (n=125) completing the pretrip survey, an additional 12.5% (n=125) completing the post trip survey, and 5% (n=50) of students completing both the pre and post trip surveys. This study

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50 encountered many nonrespondents, or the people who were asked to participate and did not, and a few dropouts, or people who start to take the survey but did not complete it ( New Directions 2007). Couper (2000) discussed three explanations for low response rate in Internet surveys: Firstly, the motivational tools used in other surveys (i.e. mail or phone surveys) have not yet been developed for Internet based surveys. Second, technical difficulties may cause some respondents to abandon the survey, which indeed occurred. The survey host used, Novisystems, is best compatiable with browsers Internet Explorer and Mozilla FireFox. Those students with MAC operating systems with a Safari Browser may had trouble accessing the entire survey. Concerns regarding confidentiality of responses may also deter some from participating (as cited in New Directions 2007). Lastly, the e mail co ntaining the survey may have been sent to students SPAM mailbox, as opposed to their regularly used inbox. Sample characteristics. Not all respondents completed both the pre and post trip surveys. The study captured N=50 students that completed both pre and post trip. Two unique sets of students completed the pre test (n= 175; 125 unique and 50 pre and post), and a separate sample of students (n=175; 125 unique and 50 pre and post) completed the post test survey. The pre test survey was completed by N=175, 75% were females (n=132) and 19% were males (n=34) (Table 3 1). From the sample, 56% (n=98) were between the ages of 1821, 22.9% (n=40) were aged 2224, and 16% (n=28) were aged 2557 (Table 31). In terms of class standing, 2.2% (n=4) were freshman, 6.8% (n=12) sophomores, 36.5% (n=64) juniors, 31.4% (n=55) seniors, and 17.7% (n=31) were graduate students. In regards to study abroad location, 69.7% (n=122) of respondents went to Europe, 17.5% (n=10) studied in Africa, 13.7% (n=24) went to Central or South America, 8.6% (n=15) studied in Asia, and 2.3% (n=4) studied in North

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51 America or Australia (APPENDIX H). The continents were grouped according to similarities in language and culture. When asked to identify ethnicity, the majority of the pre test 65.1% (n=112) reported White, 17.4% (n=30) were Hispanic/Latino, 5.8% (n=10) were mixed race, 5.2% (n=9) of students labeled Other, 3.5% (n=6) were Asian, and 2.9% (n=5) were Black/African Am erican (Table 3 1). The study abroad programs ranged in length from six days to 120 days (M= 43.01 days, SD= 18.4 days) (APPENDIX H). One student who reported study abroad length as 312 days was removed from analysis because their response was not applicab le to the timeframe of the study. There were n=152 (86.9%) students who were not studying a language as a major. In addition, 80% (n=140) reported not having a heritage connection in the country they studied in. The overwhelming majority had also previousl y travelled abroad at least once. Specifically, 35.4% (n=62) travelled internationally five or more times before studying abroad (APPENDIX H). The number of students who completed both the pre and post trip questionnaires was N=50. In regards to gender, 74% (n=37) were female and 20% (n=10) were male (Table 3 2). The students varied in age, 62% (n=31) were between 1821 years old, 16% (n=8) were between 2224 years old, and the remaining 16% (n=8) were between the ages of 2557 (Table 36). The majority o f students were juniors, 44% (n=22), 4% (n=2) were freshmen, 6% (n=3) were sophomores, 26% (n=13) were seniors, and 14% (n=7) were graduate level. In regards to ethnicity, the majority were White, 66% (n=33), one was Black or African American, 6% (n=3) stu dents were Asian, 18% (n=9) were Hispanic or Latino, and 6% (n=3) responded as Other. Only 6% (n=3) had a major that was a language, and 14% (n=7) had a heritage connection with the country they studied in. In addition, 22% (n=11) had never previously tr avelled

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52 internationally, 36% (n=18) of students had been abroad one or two times, 18% (n=9) have been abroad three to four times, and 24% (n=12) had travelled internationally five or more times prior to studying abroad (Table H 4). The average study abroad program for this group lasted as short as s ix days to 88 days (M=42.56 days, SD 18.40 days). Fifteen students studied abroad for five weeks or less (30%), and 35 students studied abroad for six 15 weeks (70%) (APPENDIX H). Furthermore, the majority of stu dents studied abroad in Europe 58 % (n=29), 2% (n=10) went to Asia, 18 % (n=9) went to Central or South America, one went to South Africa, and one went to Australia. The majority of students were also categorized as Liberal Arts and Sciences majors 36% (n= 18) (APPENDIX H). For the post test, N=175 students completed the survey. The only questions asked during the post test survey pertained to gender and age, 70.3% were females (n=123) and 29.7% were males (n=52) (Table 3 3). Furthermore, 62.3% (n=109) were between the ages of 18 21, 20.6% (n=36) were between the ages of 22 24, and 15.4% (n=27) were between the ages of 2557. Instrument The instruments used in this study consisted of two questionnaires: a pre test and post test questionnaire. The pre test q uestionnaire contained two sections (APPENDIX A). The first section consisted of questions that pertained to students study abroad program, such as Which country or countries is your study abroad program located in?, How long is your study abroad progr am and a series of open ended questions, which include What are you looking forward to regarding your study abroad experience? and What are you least looking forward to regarding your study abroad experience?. The second section comprised of 34 benefi ts sought items using a five point Likert type scale (1= Strongly disagree; 5= Strongly agree). Benefits sought were measured by adapting a 27 item scale that had been previously used in the tourism related literature ( Papadimitriou & Gibson, 2008; PenningtonGray & Kerstetter, 2001; Williams &

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53 Gibson, 2004). The items in this section included statements such as to relax, to get away from it all, and to meet new people (Table 3 4). Benefits sought and realized items were either modified or eliminated based on the statements relevance to the study. For example, 16 benefit statements omitted included: to take it easy, to seek intellectual enrichment, to get away from commercial areas, to experience natural surroundings, to vacation with my fami ly, to spend more time with my family, to meet people and socialize, to visit shopping malls, to visit outlets, to go shopping, to engage in sports activities, to engage in activities that require skills, to get away from crowds, to be ab le to go out alone, to do as many things as possible, and to do exciting things. Those statements were replaced with 23 relevant study abroad benefits sought and realized items based from the previous literature (Driver et al. 1991; Loker & Purdue, 1992; Tian et al, 1996). This analysis was exploratory, as previous research had suggested six dimensions. The third section consisted of demographic questions, such as gender, age, ethnicity, and class standing, as well as an opportunity for the respondent to elaborate on why they chose to study abroad. The post test contained two sections (APPENDIX B). The first section was comprised of a series of open ended questions, such as What was/were your best experience(s)? and Do you feel that your study abro ad program length was adequate to meet your goals? The second section consisted of the same 34 benefits realized question items used on the pre test that measured benefits sought. To ensure face and content validity of the instrument, both questionnaires were pilot tested with a small sample of students and a study abroad program coordinator from the UFIC. Feedback from these pilot test respon dents gave additional insight on the clarity of questions,

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54 technical performance of the questionnaire, and the len gth of time to complete it. Changes in wording and general usability (i.e. question order and length of the questionnaire) were made. Reliability analysis was used to test for internal consistency of the benefits sought and benefits realized scale. The ben efits sought scale yielded a high Cronbachs alpha of the benefits realized scale yielded a The ten benefits sought/realized dimensions were identified in the scales using theoretical grouping as suggesting by previous research (Carlson & Widaaman, 1988, Carlson, burn, Useem, & Yachimowicz, 1991; Kitsantas, 2004; Martin et al., 1995; Papadimitriou & Gibson, 2008; and PenningtonGray & Kersetter, 2001). B enefits sought scale yielded the following Cronbach's Alphas (econom ic dimension was realized scale yielded the following Cronbach's Alphas (economic dimension was not calculated due to only one item): Education/Educational Enterta Due to the low alphas for four of the ten benefits sought and realized dimensions they were eliminated from further analysis. Factor analysis was used in this study to further explore the dimensionality of the benefits sought and benefits realized scales. Previous benefits sought/realized research in tourism has identified six dimensions. In this study ten dimensions were proposed. Use of factor analysis on both of these scales was exploratory as the small sub samples (N=175) and scales of 3 4 items

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55 meant that the subject to ite m ratio was unacceptable and so the resulting factor solutions should be treated with caution Nonetheless the initial factor analysis for the benefits sought scale resulted in a KMO of .947 with 72.95% variance explained and produced six factors. For fur ther examination, benefits sought item, to g et the most value for my money was removed because the communalities were less than .5, leaving 33 total items The analysis yielded a KMO=.95 and six factors with 73.89% explained variance (Table 3 5). The six extracted factors were labeled according to their content and their relevance to study abroad, these were: Education/educational entertainment (M=4.03, environment/natural surroundings (M=3.09, enrichment (M=3.59, family togetherne ss (M=2.34, personal (M=3.34, and social (M=2.77, Factor analysis was also employed for further refinement of benefits realized and yielded six domains accounting for 61.31% of the total variance The six extracted factors were lab eled according to their content and their relevance to study abroad, these were: novelty (M=4.48, = .83), travel (M=2.98, = .73), cultural enrichment (M=4.43, = .58), escape (M=3.41, = .49), environment (M=3.57, = .70), and social (M=4.43, = 781). The degree of common variance among the factors generated a KMO=.824. Based on the factor means for the benefits realized, students ranked benefits related to novelty, cultural enrichment and social benefits higher than escape, environment, and tra vel benefits. In this study, it appears that the benefits sought scale yielded more accurate results than the realized scale. The findings of this study contradicts previous benefits based literature that demonstrates benefits realized as a more reliable measurement (Pearce & Caltabiano, 1983; Shoemaker, 1994) However, the benefits sought and realized scales proved more reliable when the benefit items were grouped according to previous benefits based literature in tourism (e.g.

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56 Crompton, 1979; Crask, 1981; Driver et al., 1991; Gitelson & Kerstetter, 1990; Loker & Perdue, 1992; Papadimitriou & Gibson, 2008; Shoemaker, 1989; and Tian et al., 1996) as opposed to benefits indicated in previous study abroad literature (e.g. Carlson & Widaman, 1988; Drexler, 2006; Robalik, 2006) Data Analysis Data were analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 13.0). Descriptive statistics were used to generate means, percentage frequencies, and standard deviations to examine the demographics of the sample and frequencies for each of the questionnaire items. For research questions 1a and 1b means and standard deviations were generated for the benefits sought and realized. For research questions 2a, 2b, 3a, and 3b independent t tests were used that examined differences in benefits sought based on gender and ethnicity. Research questions 4a,4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine differences in benefits sought and benefits realized by each of the independent va riables (i.e. previous travel experience, program length, and program location). For research questions part c, paired t test were used to analyze differences amongst the preand post trip group. Content analysis was used to code research questions 7a 8b and the openended questions to identify themes (i.e. similarities and differences across the responses).

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57 Table 3 1. Pre test demographics: Gender, age, ethnicity, and class standing Demographic Frequency Valid Percent Gender Male 34 19.0 Female 132 75.0 Age 18 21 98 56.0 22 24 40 22.9 24 57 28 16.0 Ethnicity White 112 65.1 Hispanic/Latino 10 5.8 Asian 6 3.5 Black/African American 5 2.9 Native Pacific Islander/Hawaiian 3 1.71 Mixed Race 10 5.8 Other 9 5.2 Class Standing Freshman 4 2.2 Sophomore 12 6.8 Junior 64 36.5 Senior 55 31.4 Graduate 31 17.1 N=175

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58 Table 3 2. Pre and post test demographics: gender, age, ethnicity, and class standing. Demographic Frequency Valid Percent Gender Male 10 20.00 Female 37 74.00 Age 18 21 31 62.00 22 24 8 16.00 24 57 8 16.00 Ethnicity White 33 66.00 Hispanic/Latino 9 18.00 Asian 3 6.00 Black/African American 1 2.00 Native Pacific Islander/Hawaiian 0 0.00 Mixed Race 0 0.00 Other 3 6.00 Class Standing Freshman 2 5.00 Sophomore 3 6.00 Junior 22 44.00 Senior 13 26.00 Graduate 7 14.00 n=50

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59 Table 3 3. Post trip Demographics Gender and Age. Demographic Frequency Valid Percent Gender Male 52 29.70 Female 123 70.30 Age 18 21 109 62.30 22 24 36 20.60 24 57 27 15.40 N=175

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60 Table 3 4. Benefits sought and realized scale items Benefit Category a Question Item Pre Post Benefit Category b Question Item Final Education/ Educational Entertainment To enhance my language skills To learn a new language To visit famous tourist attractions To travel To earn college credit To study abroad To better understand the country I will study in To study a subject or take a course not offered at the UF To live abroad To see something new To increase my understanding of my own culture To increase my knowledge of different places/cultures .93 .57 Education/ Educational Entertainment To travel To have thrills/excitement To increase my knowledge of different places and cultures To see something new To meet new people To study abroad To socialize with others To be independent To experience new challenges To try the local food To achieve personal growth To learn more about myself To increase cross cultural awareness To visit famous tourist attractions To live abroad To better understand the country I will study in To rest and relax To get away from it all .97 Personal To improve my career prospects To achieve personal growth To be independent To learn more about myself .89 .68 Environmental/ Natural Surroundings To engage in physical activities To be physically active To be close to nature To travel where I feel safe To feel safe and secure .87 Social To socialize with others To be with my friends/siblings To meet new people .78 .45 Enrichment To enhance my language skills To learn a new language .89

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61 Table 3 4. Continued. Benefit Category a Question Item Pre Post Benefit Category b Question Item Final Family Togetherness To visit relatives To fulfil my responsibilities to my family .66 .61 Family Togetherness To visit relatives To fulfill my responsibilities to my family To rest and relax .70 Enrichment To try the local food To increase my crosscultural awareness .47 .47 Personal To study a subject or course not offered at UF To improve my career prospects .61 Environmental/ Natural Surroundings To be close to nature To experience a different climate .67 .26 Social To be with friends/siblings To earn college credit .58 Thrills and Excitement To have thrills and excitement To experience new challenges .85 .61 Physical To engage in physical activities To be physically active .90 .84 Rest and Relaxation To rest and relax To get away from it all .68 .49 Safety To travel where I feel safe To feel safe and secure .82 .75 Economic c The value for money Note. a Benefit items grouped based on previous study abroad related literature. b Benefit items grouped based on benefits sought/realized literature c Benefit category deleted for final solution.

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62 Table 3 5. Final factor analysis results for benefits sought items and factor means Items F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 Factor 1: Education/Educational Entertainment To travel .839 To have thrills/excitement .812 To increase my knowledge of different places and cultures .805 To see something new .780 To meet new people .774 To study abroad .757 To socialize with others .755 To be independent .744 To experience new challenges .738 To try the local food .727 To achieve personal growth .722 To learn more about myself .700 To increase cross cultural awareness .698 To visit famous tourist attractions .686 To live abroad .679 To better understand the country I will study in .631 To rest and relax .521 To get away from it all .514 Factor 2: Environment/Natural Surroundings To engage in physical activities .717 To be physically active .653 To be close to nature .645 To travel where I feel safe .518 To feel safe and secure .507 Factor 3: Enrichment To enhance my language skills .785 To learn a new language .779 Factor 4: Family Togetherness To visit relatives .789 To fulfill my responsibilities to my family .568 To rest and relax .540 Factor 5: Personal To study a subject or course not offered at UF .803 To improve my career prospects .520 Factor 6: Social To be with friends/siblings .622 To earn college credit .561 Eigenvalues 18.13 1.89 1.26 1.14 1.04 .917 % of Variance 54.95 5.74 3.18 3.46 3.14 2.78 Factor Means 4.03 3.09 3.59 2.34 3.23 2.97 Total Variance Explained 73.89 % Cronbachs Alpha .97 .87 .89 .70 .61 .58 N of Items 18 5 2 3 2 2 a N=175 Pre trip group only.

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64 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Benefits Sought and Realized of the Study Abroad Experience The study captured N=50 students that completed both pre and post trip. Two unique sets of students completed the pre trip (n= 175; 125 unique and 50 pre and post trip), and a separate sample of students (n=175; 125 unique and 50 pre and post trip) compl eted the post trip survey. Research questions 1a6a were analyzed with the students who completed the pre t rip survey (n= 175). Questions 1b6b were analyzed with those students who completed the post trip (n= 175). Research questions 1c6c were answered b y those students who completed both the pre and post trip surveys (N=50); research questions 7a 8b were answered by students in all three groups. 1a.What benefits do students seek when studying abroad? 1b.What benefits do students realize from studying a broad? Prior to the trip, the benefits students sought by studying abroad (N=175) included: to see something new (M=4.44), to increase my knowledge of different places/cultures (M= 4.43), to travel (M= 4.43), to achieve personal growth (M= 4.41), to study abroad (M= 4.32), to increase cross cultural awareness (M= 4.25), to experience new challenges (M= 4.23), and to meet new people (M= 4.20) the highest (Table 4 1). The benefits they rated lowest included to visit relatives (M= 1.93), to fulfill my responsibilities to my family (M= 2.09), to feel safe and secure (M= 2.49), to study a subject or take a course not offered at UF (M= 2.61), to experience a different climate (M= 2.89), to travel where I feel safe (M= 2.96), to rest and relax (M= 3.01), and to get away from it all (M= 3.01). Following their study abroad trip, students reported that the most important benefits realized were to increase my knowledge of diff. places/cultures (M= 4.76), to travel (M=

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65 4.74), to see so mething new (M= 4.72), to study abroad (M= 4.59), to achieve personal growth (M= 4.57), to increase cross cultural awareness (M= 4.54), to experience new challenges (M= 4.50), and to have thrills/excitement (M=4.48) (Table 4 1). The benefits least realized by studying abroad were: to visit relatives (M= 1.99), to learn a new language (M= 2.09), to fulfill my responsibilities to my family (M= 2.48), to be with my friends/siblings (M= 2.61), to feel safe and secure (M= 2.88), to rest and relax (M= 3.18), to study a subject or take a course not offered at UF (M= 3.19), and to travel where I feel safe (M= 3.27). 1c.What are the differences in benefits sought/realized by the students before and after their study abroad program? Paired sample t test were used to identify differences in benefits sought and realized by students before and after their study abroad experience (N=50) (Table 4 2). Significant differences were found among 12 benefits sought and realized items. The following it ems students rated higher after completing their trip: to get away from it all ( pre trip M=3.02; post M= 3.76), to fulfill my responsibilities to my family (pre t rip M=2.1; post M= 2.62) to visit relatives (pre trip M=1.84; post M= 2.14), to feel s afe and secure ( pre trip M=2.52; post M= 3.00), to visit famous tourist attractions (pre t rip M=3.52; post M= 3.96), to earn college credit (pre t rip M=3.78; post M= 4.18), to be with my friends/siblings (pre t rip M=2.20; post M= 2.56), to learn more about myself (pre t rip M=4.24 ; post M= 4.58), to experience new challenges (pret rip M=4.28; post M= 4.62), to enhance my language skills ( pre trip M=3.68; post M= 3.90), and to be independent ( pre trip M=4.02; post trip M=4.62). The following benefit items students rated lower after studying abroad: to study a subject or course not offered at UF ( pre trip M=3.42; post M= 2.10), to learn a new language ( pre trip M=3.42; post M= 2.10) (Table 42).

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66 2a. What are the differences in benefits sought based on gender? 2b. What are the differences in benefits realized based on gender? Independent T tests were used to test for differences in benefits sought and realized among male and female participants (Table 4 3). Generally, females rated benefits sought and realized higher than males. Significant differences found in benefits sought based on gender were: to live abroad (females M=4.33; males M= 3.85), to be independent (females M=4.26; males M= 3.85), and to l earn more about myself (females M=4.36; males M= 3.94). Significant differences were found between males and females for the following benefits realized: to travel where I feel safe (females M=3.41; males M= 2.8) and to be independent (females M=4.26; males M= 2.85) (Table 4 3). 2c. Are there differences between benefits sought/realized based on gender? Paired t tests were used to identify differences in benefits sought and realized based on gender (N=50), females accounted for n=37, and males n=10. Tw o benefits sought/realized were statistically different for males pre and post study abroad: to meet new people (pre M=3.9, post M=4.30), and to experience new challenges (pre M=4.20, post M=4.60) (Table 4 4). For females statistical differences were found in the following six benefits: to live abroad (pre M=4.32, post M=4.62), to get away from it all (pre M=3.14, post M=3.87), to be independent (pre M=4.30, post M=4.73), to fulfill my responsibilities to my family (pre M=2.27, post M=2.65), to visit famous tourist attractions (pre M=3.62, post M=4.00), to be with my friends/siblings (pre M=2.22, post M=2.62) (Table 44). Females decreased in the benefit, to better understand the country I will study in (pre M=4.49, post M=4.00) as much as they anticipated. 3a. Are there differences in benefits sought based on ethnicity? 3b. Are there differences in benefits realized based on ethnicity? Ethnicity was coded according to categories used by the 2009 U.S. Census Bureau: White (n=112), Black/Afri can American (n=5),

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67 Asian (n=6), Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander (n=3), Hispanic/Latino (n=10), Mixed Race (n=10), or Other (with optional placement for ethnicity specification) (n=9). Due to the small subsample sizes for the minority categories, e thnicity was recoded into two groups, white (n=112) and ethnic minority (n=60). Significant differences in benefits sought were found among 26 items (Table 4 5). Students categorized as white rated the following benefits higher than ethnic minorities: to increase cross cultural awareness (White M=4.45; Ethnic minorities M=3.87), to live abroad (White M=4.28; Ethnic minorities M=3.65), to have thrills/excitement (White M=4.39; Ethnic minorities M=3.92), to be physically active (White M=3.71; Ethnic minorities M=3.05), to achieve personal growth (White M=4.61; Ethnic minorities M=4.00), to be close to nature (White M=4.04; Ethnic minorities M=2.68), to improve my career prospects (White M=4.04; Ethnic minorities M=3.53), to increase my knowledge of difference places/cultures (White M=4.63; Ethnic minorities M=4.08), to travel (White M=4.66; Ethnic minorities M=4.02), to be independent (White M=4.22; Ethnic minorities M=3.55), to try the local food (White M=4.05; Ethnic minorities M=3.48), to experience a different climate (White M=3.04; Ethnic minorities M=2.63, to visit famous tourist attractions (White M=3.62; Ethnic minorities M=3.13), to earn college credit (White M=3.84; Ethnic minorities M=3.23), to be with my friends/siblings (White M=2.52; Ethnic minorities M=1.92), to study abroad (White M=4.58; Ethnic minorities M=3.88), to learn more about myself (White M=4.30; Ethnic minorities M=3.65), to see something new (White M=4.71; Ethnic minorities M=3.93), to better under stand the country I will study in (White M=4.35; Ethnic minorities M=3.65), to learn a new language (White M=3.59; Ethnic minorities M=3.07), to increase my understanding of my own culture (White M=3.59; Ethnic minorities M=3.07), to travel where I f eel safe (White M=3.17; Ethnic minorities M=2.60), to

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68 meet new people (White M=4.45; Ethnic minorities M=3.77), to engage in physical activities(White M=3.66; Ethnic minorities M=2.92, to socialize with others (White M=4.30; Ethnic minorities M=3.72), and to experience new challenges (White M=4.47; Ethnic minorities M=3.80). Ethnicity was not asked on the post trip thus, differences could not be calculated for benefits realized items. 3c. Are there differences in benefits sought/realized based o n ethnicity? Paired t tests were used to analyze differences before and after studying abroad amongst students that were white and students of an ethnic minority. Significant differences were found amongst white students in the pre and post trip group (Ta ble 4 6). White students realized three benefit items: to get away from it all (pre M=3.12, post M=3.67), to be independent (pre M=4.21, post M=4.64), and to earn college credit (pre M=3.82, post M=4.15). Significant differences were also found among 12 benefit items for ethnic minority students (Table 46): to be close to nature (pre M=2.88, post M=3.15), to get away from it all (pre M=2.94, post M=4.06), to be independent (pre M=3.75, post M=4.63), to fulfill my responsibilities to my family (pre M=1.94, post M=3.06), to experience a different climate (pre M=2.63, post M=3.63), to visit relatives (pre M=2.00, post M=2.88), to feel safe and secure (pre M=2.38, post M=3.19), to be with my friends/siblings (pre M=2.13, post M=2.75), to meet new people (pre M=3.69, post M=4.44), to socialize with others (pre M=3.63, post M=4.44), and to experience new challenges (pre M=3.75, post M=4.56). 4a. Are there differences in benefits sought based on previous international travel experience? 4b. Are there differences in benefits realized based on previous international travel experience? Benefits sought and realized were analyzed based on the number of previous international trips (never n=27;1 to 2 times n=55; 3 to 4 n=30; and 5 or more times n=62) (Table

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69 47). ANOVA was used to investigate differences in benefits sought and realized based on previous travel experience. Significant differences were not found among benefits sought items based on previous international travel experience. Signifi cant differences could not be determined among benefits realized items since the previous international travel question was not asked on the post trip survey 4c. What are the differences between benefits sought/realized based on previous international travel experience? Statistically significant differences were not found among students with different levels of previous international travel experience for the preand post trip group (N=50; Never n=11, 1 to 2 times n=18, 3 to 4 times n=9, 5 or more time s n=12). Due to the small sub sample size, previous international travel was collapsed in to three groups: never (n=11), 1 to 4 times (n=27), 5 or more times (n=12). S tudents with no prior travel experience realized three benefits: to achieve personal grow th (pre m=4.18, post m=4.82), to get away from it all (pre M=3.27, post M=4.00), and to try the local food (pre M=4.00, post M=4.82) (Table 4 8). Students who had previously travelled abroad one to four times realized four benefit items: to get away from it all (pre M=2.93, post M=3.56), to be independent (pre M=4.04, post M=4.59), to fullfil my responsibilities to my family (pre M=2.11, post M=2.48), to feel safe and secure (pre M=2.52, post M=3.15), and to be with my friends/siblings (pre M =2.04, post M=2.56) (Table 4 8). Lastly, students who have the most previous international travel experience ( 5 or more times ) realized three benefit items: to get away from it all (pre m=3.00, post m=4.00), to fulfill my responsibilities to my family (pre trip M=2.00; post M=2.83), and to visit relatives (pre trip M=1.58; post M=2.17) (Table 48). 5a. Are there differences in benefits sought based on the study abroad program length? 5b. Are there differences in benefits realized based on the study a broad program

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70 length? ANOVA was used to explore differences in benefits sought and realized based on study abroad length. Program length was reported in number of days on the pre trip thus, the number of days were grouped into the following increments: 5 weeks or less (n=59), 6 to 8 weeks (n=85), 9 to 15 weeks (n=31). Significant differences were found for one benefit sought item, to be with my friends/siblings (5 weeks or less M= 2.60, 68 weeks M=2.22, 915 weeks M= 1.89) (Table 4 9). Post hoc results indicated that students who studied abroad for five weeks or less sought to be with friends or siblings more than students who studied abroad the longest (Table 410). Previous travel experience was not asked on the post trip thus, analysis was not conduc ted for differences in benefits realized based on program length. 5c. What are the differences in benefits sought/realized based on the study abroad program length? Paired t tests were used to identify significant differences among benefits sought and re alized based on study abroad program length amongst the pre and post trip group (N=50). Due to the subsample sizes, students were grouped into short programs (5 weeks or less n=15) or long programs (6 to 15 weeks n=35) according to the UF summer semester lengths. Statistically significant results were found among four benefit items for students who studied abroad in short term programs: to be independent (pre M=3.93, post M=4.60), to try the local food (pre M=4.13, post M=4.47), to fulfill my respons ibilities to my family (pre M=1.87, post M=2.47), and to experience new challenges (pre M=4.40, post M=4.67) (Table 411). Further, significant differences were found for seven benefit items amongst students who studied abroad in long term prog rams: to be independent (pre M=4.06, post M =4.63), to fulfill my responsibilities to my family (pre M=2.20, post M=2.69), to visit famous tourist attractions (pre M=3.54, post M=4.09), to earn college credit (pre M=3.71, post M=4.17), to be with my

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71 friends /siblings (pre M=1.94, post M=2.49), to learn more about myself (pre M=4.17, post M=4.63), and to travel where I feel safe (pre M=2.94, post M=3.46) (Table 411). 6a. Are there differences in benefits sought based on study abroad location? 6b. Are the re differences in benefits realized based on study abroad location? Students studied abroad in the following locations: Europe ( pre trip N=122; post trip N=29), Africa (pre trip N=10; post trip N=1), Central/South America ( pre trip N=24; post trip N=8), Asia ( pre trip n=15; post trip N=11), and Australia/North America ( pre trip N=4; post trip N=1). Due to the low subsample sizes, location was coded into two groups: Europe and Rest of the world and used to analyze benefits sought and realized (Tabl e 4 12). Independent t tests identified significant differences among the following four benefits sought: to get the most value for my money (Europe M=2.99; Rest of the world M=3.43), to be close to nature (Europe M=2.96; Rest of the world M=3.43), to visit famous tourist attractions (Europe M=3.64; Rest of the world M=3.04), and to learn a new language (Europe M=3.54; Rest of the world M=3.08). Significant differences in benefits realized were not identified because study abroad location was not as ked on the post trip questionnaire. 6c. What are the differences between benefits sought/realized based on study abroad location? Location among the pre and post trip group was coded into two groups: Europe (n=29) and nonEurope (n=21). Paired T tests were used to test differences between the locations of study abroad programs and benefits sought and realized (Table 413). Significant differences were found for two benefits for students who studied abroad in Europe: to get away from it all (pre M=3.24, post M=3.76), and to be independent (pre M=4.17, post M=4.66). Significant differences were also found for students who studied abroad in non European destinations: to live abroad (pre M=3.71, post M=4.33), to enhance my language skills (pre M=3.48, post

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72 M=4.10), to study a subject or course not offered at UF (pre M=2.52, post M=3.52), and to get away from it all (pre M=2.71, post M=3.76) (Table 413). 7a. What are students looking forward to the most before they study abroad? 7b. To what extent we re these expectations met? Content analysis was used to identify themes among students openended responses (Table 4 14). When participants were asked, What are you looking forward to regarding your study abroad experience? the majority of students responded with language acquisition, travelling, meeting new people, and for the cultural experience in general (APPENDIX I). A 19 year old male sophomore studying Biology with a heritage connection to the country he was studying in responded, Learning the culture and practicing the language, followed by, Learning the polish language better. Realizing at the end I knew enough to hold a conversation when asked his best experience abroad. Similarly, a 22 year old female junior majoring in Anthropology responded, Personal growth, language proficiency, cultural exposure and after the trip stated her best experience was Meeting new people, befriending the other students in my program, being extremely independent, being immersed in a new culture, experiencing a new location and practicing the language (APPENDIX I). Likewise, a 23 year old male law student who has travelled internationally five or more times, studied abroad in a country already previously travelled to, France, responded, Immersion experience, new academic challenges, interesting and stimulating environment. Among the post trip only responses, where only gender and age were asked, a 22 year old female stated, My best experience in the study abroad program was the fact that I was in another cou ntry doing what I love to do, studying, meeting people, and traveling. I went everywhere that I was able to. I made lots of friends, which made my experience comfortable and fun. The best part of my trip was traveling, especially because I

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73 was on a budget, I became a lot more responsible managing my budget and making sure I stayed within my limits. Another 19 year old female responded, One of my favorite experiences was just sitting and talking with my host mother. She had some interesting insights on the European Union and the United States. I also enjoyed our weekend excursion to Venice, Italy. I had the time of my life during my time abroad. Additionally, one 20 year old female stated, I loved meeting students from the host country, and learning about t heir lives and experiences first hand, and a 26 year old female stated the following about her Australian experience: Oh I could write pages about my best experiences. I have 3 that are most notable. First was my time spent aboard the Kalinda for 3 nights on the Great Barrier Reef. I was rendered speechless many times; as a 26 year old who retained a fear of water until a few weeks ago, I'd have to say that it was one of the most freeing experiences I've ever had. I can't believe that in one day, I overcam e my fear of deep water and subsequently snorkeled on the Great Barrier Reef, of all places. Plus, I feel that the time aboard the boat drew the whole group closer together since we were almost forced to get to know each other. Secondly, I was so incredibl y happy to spend time at the Mt. Mulligan cattle station in Tyrconnell. We got to meet lots of wonderful Australians on the overall trip, but the interaction with the family living on the cattle station was by far the most personal and insightful view into Australian life that I had during my time in the country. I felt so amazingly at home due to their unending hospitality and kindness. I am a babysitter, so my time with their children gave me a welcome feeling of familiarity and comfort. At night, I drift ed to sleep on a swag while taking in the biggest piece of sky I'd ever seen, sprinkled with endless stars. It was really a spiritual experience for me. And thirdly, I THOROUGHLY enjoyed the ecological/forestry perspective of the trip in the rainforest, wh ere we had Jack and Paul O'Dowd as our guides. What we talked about was directly applicable to my line of study (Natural Resource Conservation), so I was beyond excited to learn about how the natural forest systems worked and were managed in a different co untry than my own. I think the nightwalk in the Daintree Rainforest was probably one of the most intriguing and spiritual moments of the whole trip for me. What an incredibly humbling and eye opening feeling to stand in the world's most ancient bit of rainforest. Furthermore, a post trip only 22 year old male responded, The entire experience was amazing but living in an international dorm and interacting with people from all over the world was really incredible. Another 21 year old male stated, The amoun t of learning I did concerning myself

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74 and the topics reflected in lecture and hands on concerning the work of various grassroots development groups. Reasons for Studying Abroad Students Response to Why They Studied Abroad Students studied abroad for many reasons, such as, to enhance their language skills, edu cation, personal growth, immersion in the culture, meet new people, and to travel (Table 4 14). Many believed that study abroad is a once in a lifetime experience, for example, one female who went to France wrote, It's a once in a lifetime experience that I will not get to do any other year. I'm seizing the moment this summer (APPENDIX L). Another female who went to Italy responded, I am fulfilling some credit requirements for my minor. I wanted to do something productive with my summer. This is the last 'free' summer I have before applying to professional schools my next year and wanted to enjoy it as much as I could. Some students factored safet y into their destination choice. A female studying bu siness administration responded, I have heard great things about Chile and it is also the safest country in Latin America. Chile is very diverse geographically as well and this was very appealing to me. For some students, study abroad was mandatory: It was mandatory for my Executive MBA program, This trip is a requirement for my degree program (Executive MBA). It is not my first trip to Europe, as I have been there 810 times before for business, and Comparative law classes regarding civil law, which isn't available in US. For many students, study abroad was seen as an opportunity to travel. A 26 year old male studying law and studied abroad in South Africa stated, This will be the last time in my life to travel anywhere for six whole weeks. You can 't beat that. The same student also looked forward to, Being by the beach in a foreign country for over a month. Also, looking forward to going on a safari, wine tour, caged shark dive and exploring generally. Like many other students, this participant planned on engaging in

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75 tourist behavior during study abroad. Another male participant in the South Africa program wrote, Having been to Europe on numerous occasions, a large part of my decision to go to South Africa was to go to some place I have never be en, and otherwise might never go. Some students also reported heritage as a reason for studying abroad, even though fulfilling family responsibilities was a highly rated benefit sought. A Hispanic female who studied abroad in Spain wrote, The two main re asons I chose to study abroad were to 1) improve my Spanish (speaking and writing) and to 2) explore the country from which my ancestors came. Another female public relations major stated, I'll be studying Irish history and Irish dance for four weeks in Galway, Ireland. After classes end my parents and boyfriend will meet me in Galway and we will spend two weeks traveling through Ireland. One male student wrote, I was born in Germany but grew up in America. I still am a German citizen, so this trip is p artially to determine whether I will aim to one day return to my homeland to live there, and another male wrote, I always wanted to learn German after hearing my dad speak it (he took it in high school and college) and knowing I have a German background. I took classes at UF and found this study abroad program. I thought it was the perfect opportunity to learn the language. Other themes that emerged from this question include cultural immersion, new language acquisition, travel, and being in a new environment. What Participants Learned about Themselves When participants were asked what did you learn about yourself? self actualization, new found confidence, adaptability to new situations were the most common themes (Table 414). For example, one female w ho studied abroad in Spain stated, I finally let myself understand what I really want to do with my life. I have a lot of fresh focus and determination to work towards my goals now, which I was lacking completely before I studied abroad. I also gained an i ncredible amount of self esteem and general pride and belief in myself! I accomplished so many things by myself I explored a new culture, spoke another language, met so, so many new

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76 people... I can pretty much tackle anything now. Studying abroad has ins pired a lot of new self confidence! A 22 year old black female who studied abroad in Salzburg, Austria wrote: I learned that I am not as shy as I thought I was. I was the only african american [sic] student in my group but I did not let that affect my experience. Although, I did feel excluded at times because some people made racial jokes that I did not find funny She also traveled to Switzerland, Germany, Italy, and Czech Republic after her 30day program. A 21 year old Chinese male studying architecture stated, As a Chinese American, it is my desire to retrace my roots and learn about my culture. He also wen t to Taiwan during his 42day program. A 21 year old Hispanic female who studied in Germany for the second half of the summer wrote: I came more in contact with my artistic side. I gained a lot of confidence and discovered that I prefer living in Europe. T hrough personal relationships I made, I gained a deeper appreciation for my own heritage and perspectives and learned that although I do get along with most people, there are certain types of people I prefer to be around, who actually bring out a better pa rt of me. The Impacts of Study Abroad When participants were asked In what ways do you feel the program impacted your life self awareness, cross cultural awareness and appreciation, and overall it was a lifechanging experience for many (Table 4 14). A 20 year old female who studied Animal Biology in Belize wrote: I have a new found sense of direction. I know without a shadow of a doubt that I am meant to be a veterinarian one day. I gained so much experience and was really able to prove to myself that I can handle the work involved with being responsible for the health and treatment of animals. This program did more to solidify my future career plans than any other experience I ever had. A 21 year old Tiawanese female dual majoring in Chinese and Botony responded, It gave me a better appreciation for different lifestyles. While I was there, we also talked about the styles of living, and different beliefs between not only American and Taiwanese culture, but also Middle Eastern or European cultures. I have

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77 experienced culture shock, and how Taiwan had disillusioned me from some thoughts I had of it before. A 19 year old Arab Egyptian male majoring in English who studied abroad in Austria, Germany, and England for a month wrote: I learned and lived in a dif ferent culture. I experienced how other people in other countries live and I enjoyed it. They are very sustainable and Im going to try to recycle and walk more. One female who studied abroad in Spain stated, I finally let myself understand what I really want to do with my life. I have a lot of fresh focus and determination to work towards my goals now, which I was lacking completely before I studied abroad. I also gained an incredible amount of self esteem and general pride and belief in myself! I accompl ished so many things by myself I explored a new culture, spoke another language, met so, so many new people... I can pretty much tackle anything now. Studying abroad has inspired a lot of new self confidence! Length of Study Abroad Program When participa nts were asked do you feel that your study abroad program length was adequate to meet your goals? from the pre post group, three individuals whose programs lasted two weeks or less all agreed the program adequately met their needs (APPENDIX J). For examp le, a female studying Industrial and Systems Engineering responded, Yes. I wanted a program that didn't take place during a fall or spring semester as I would not be able to complete the courses necessary to graduate. This 15day program was perfect for my summer schedule. The length of the program was one of the initial aspects of the program that attracted me. The participants who studied abroad for 35 weeks mostly stated that the program length was not long enough. Only a few respondents agreed that the program was enough time and all had statements related to homesickness. For example, one female who went to Brazil and is studying Psychology and English responded, I think the trip should have been longer. In order to truly bring about social change in a community, one needs a bit more time than 3.5 weeks. After interviewing community members and professors many of our groups realized that we needed to change our projects, and therefore it would have felt less rushed if we had an extra week or two.

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78 One f emale student who studied abroad in Italy stated, I think the trip should have been longer. In order to truly bring about social change in a community, one needs a bit more time than 3.5 weeks. After interviewing community members and professors many of our groups realized that we needed to change our projects, and therefore it would have felt less rushed if we had an extra week or two. On the other hand, a few students responded with statements that included homesickness. One female student who studied abroad in Belize for twenty days responded, Yes and no. I feel that one month was enough to get my feet wet in two completely different areas of animal health. We spent the first two weeks learning about domesticated animals and the second two weeks learning about wildlife. However, I feel that I could have gained MUCH more experience and insight had the program run a couple weeks longer. For the 68 week group, 13 respondents agreed that the program should be longer and 11 respondents stated it was adequate time to meet their goals. One female student who studied abroad in India said, No. In order to fit in six credits worth of class, the schedule allowed little to no room for the students to explore the town or to have free time. During the six week program we only had five days without class. Additionally, one female finance student who went to Spain for 42 days responded, I truly wish that the program was longer. One of my main goals going into the program was to master the Spanish language. I have been a student of Spanish for over 6 years now and I felt that all I needed was the push of language immersion to become fully comfortable speaking in whatever context. However, I quickly learned there that I had a lot more to learn than I realized and the 7 we eks that I was in Spain for were just not going to cut it. I was frustrated that just as I was warming up to the challenge, it was time to pack up and leave. Another male student studying finance and political science went to South Korea stated, No. 6 weeks was not enough to fully experience the country. I really wish I could have been there for a longer period of time. Another male biology major wrote, No Needed more time to explore London, and one female who went to Spain to study Psychology responde d, yes, all my goals

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79 were met, but I would have loved to stay in Europe longer, for at least another month or two, even without my program. Lastly, the participants who studied abroad the longest for 914 weeks overwhelming agreed that the program length was ample time. For example, one female law student whose program was in France stated, The program itself was long enough to teach us the fundamentals about the European Union and the CISG. However, I would have loved more time to visit more countries. Another female who studied abroad in the UK wrote, Yes I had time to travel and collect lots of data in my lab. Although, I would like to return to just travel throughout Europe at some point. One male student who studied business administration and Spa nish in Spain responded, The program length was by far perfect. I stayed a little beyong the program's official end date and I've enjoyed it thoroughly because it allowed me to live as a native. I already knew the city and I had no influence from Americans or from people that I knew. I was alone and I LOVED it!!! 8a. What were the students looking forward to the least before they study abroad? 8b. To what extent were these expectations met? When participants were asked, What are you least looking forward to regarding your study abroad experience? the majority of students responded with running out of money, homesickness, long flights, general comfort level, various cultural and language ba rriers (Table 4 14). A 22 year old female junior studying Family, Youth, and Community Sciences and only travelled once internationally prior to studying abroad was least looking forward to negative people, and My worst experience was when I got a lot of stares because I was black (APPENDIX L). Another 23 year old female law student also had concerns regarding ethnicity: Language barriers, possible discrimination toward me as an American, staying in hostels, and travelling in too large of a group (it m ay become unmanageable). A 21 year old Caucasian female majoring in Womens Studies and studying

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80 abroad in India said she was least looking forward to, weather, getting sick, followed by Getting sick and fighting with other students as her least favor ite experience after the trip. In addition, students voiced their cultural frustrations as some of their least favorite experiences. One female wrote, I got frustrated with Italian people who were rude to Americans. They would run in to you, cut you in l ine, etc. Another female responded, being ignored when trying to speak a foreign language, while another wrote, dealing with arrogant people. I never felt welcomed in Paris. Lastly, additional comments were made by the participants on the post trip (A PPENDIX K). One participant stated, I left Taiwan learning a lot of things and satisfied. But some students in my program weren't. Because they were never able to overcome culture shock, or put down their own Western beliefs, they were not able to have a g ood time there. I want all the students who plan to study abroad to keep in mind, that the whole point of going to another country is not to point out the differences in cultures and criticize it, but to see what they see, and do what they do. An Hispanic female wrote: Going abroad was probably one of the best decisions I made. I felt so at home that I hardly missed anything. I fell so in love with the place and the situation, I can't wait to go back and do it again. Another Hispanic female who traveled t o England and France studying journalism stated: I really liked the UF professors who came with us on the trip. I was able to interact with them on a personal level and also seek advice from them as if they were parental figures since mine were 4,000 miles away. From a graduate student perspective, one individual wrote: I think that every student, undergrad or grad, should study abroad. I think that Tokyo is a fantastic place for art students to travel to see. As a grad student, it was a unique experience for me to be amongst undergrads. At times it was difficult. I wish there was a study abroad program for grad students only. That would be so interesting! I think it would build more of a community between students and also really help everyone think about their thesis work in new and unique ways. I know that traveling abroad as a graduate student was a very different experience than it was for me when I did it as an undergrad. My priorities were different. I found

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81 myself intently focused on why I was there I think that what I got out of the program will have lasting effects within my research and work. A female studying economics wrote: I loved living in an apartment surrounded by Italian people instead of in a dorm with American students! I felt like I g ot a better idea of Italian culture. I also liked eating at restaurants instead of in a cafeteria. An Hispanic male dual majoring in Business Administration and Spanish stated: My experience was amazing! I probably wouldn't recommend my program to others but I would definitely recommend the region. Spain is a beautiful country full of wonders and I hope to one day move here. Overall, the responses were generally positive, one student shared, It was absolutely worth every second and penny of preparation. I would not trade the experience of living and learning in a new country for anything in the world. Overall, students were positively impacted by their program one way or another. Many students revealed that study abroad changed their life in one form or another. One theme from the openended questions was awareness of American culture. For example, a male who studied abroad in Germany stated the following regarding the impact study abroad had on him, I am looking into a more global incorporated career. The program also convinced me to slow down my life and enjoy things a little more. I have many years later to be a grown up. A female who went to Belize wrote, I have a new found sense of direction. I know without a shadow of a doubt that I am meant to b e a veterinarian one day. I gained so much experience and was really able to prove to myself that I can handle the work involved with being responsible for the health and treatment of animals. This program did more to solidify my future career plans than a ny other experience I ever had. Another female who studied abroad in the Netherlands responded, I feel it has made me "slow down" on this fast track I was going on prior to the program. To quote some locals, I am departing from the "Yankee" mentality.

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82 In summary, students sought and realized many benefits from the study abroad experience. Students looked forward to enhancing their language skills, learning about foreign culture, gaining independence, meeting new people, achieving personal growth, travel ling, immersion in the local environment and wildlife, and general cultural immersion with the study abroad host country. Indeed, students realized many of the benefits they sought as the following were the themes surrounding students best experiences: language acquisition, education, personal growth, independence, social, travel, and cultural immersion. Students were motivated to study abroad because they believed it was a once in a lifetime opportunity to travel and live abroad, as well as earning colleg e credit and furthering their educational and career goals. Many students discovered hidden passions, like art and history, while others realized their individual adaptability to a new situation or challenge. Overall, students reported that study abroad ga ve them a newfound self awareness and confidence.

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83 Table 4 1. B enefits sought and realized among college students studying abroad. Pre a Post Benefits M SD M SD To increase cross cultural awareness To rest and relax To get the most value for my money To live abroad To enhance my language skills To have thrills/excitement To be physically active To achieve personal growth To be close to nature To study a subject or take a course not offered at UF To get away from it all To improve my career prospects To increase my knowledge of diff. places/cultures To travel To be independent To try the local food To fulfill my responsibilities to my family To experience a diff. climate To visit relatives To feel safe and secure To visit famous tourist attractions To earn college credit To be with my friends/siblings To study abroad To learn more about myself To see something new To better understand the country I will study in To learn a new language To increase my understanding of my own culture To travel where I feel safe To meet new people To engage in physical activities To socialize with others To experience new challenges 4.25 3.01 3.13 4.04 3.78 4.22 3.47 4.41 3.10 2.61 3.01 3.85 4.43 4.43 3.99 3.85 2.09 2.89 1.93 2.49 3.46 3.63 2.31 4.32 4.09 4.44 4.10 3.40 3.39 2.96 4.20 3.40 4.09 4.23 1.19 1.18 1.26 1.25 1.38 1.17 1.16 1.11 1.23 1.36 1.34 1.23 1.15 1.17 1.22 1.25 1.05 1.23 1.15 1.04 1.21 1.29 1.18 1.18 1.17 1.10 1.19 1.37 1.34 1.19 1.12 1.19 1.15 1.08 4.54 3.18 3.55 4.33 3.74 4.48 3.75 4.57 3.39 3.19 3.68 3.95 4.76 4.74 4.41 4.32 2.48 3.31 1.99 2.88 3.99 4.06 2.61 4.59 4.42 4.72 4.14 2.09 3.74 3.27 4.43 3.50 4.43 4.50 0.69 1.16 1.11 0.89 1.19 0.69 1.06 0.59 1.10 1.13 1.15 0.94 0.48 0.49 0.83 0.76 0.96 1.10 1.07 1.01 0.96 0.99 1.22 0.55 0.72 0.56 0.98 1.06 1.02 1.03 0.76 1.03 0.71 0.60 aN=175 (n=125 unique pre and post trip groups plus n=50 pre and post trip group). Note. The p values were calculated for a two tailed test. *p < .05. ** p < .001. Measured on a Likert type scale where 1= Strongly Disagree, 5=Strongly Agree.

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84 Table 4 2. Paired T tests of benefits sought and realized before and after students studied abroad. Pre trip Post trip Benefit Item M SD M SD Gap Score t p To increase cross cultural awareness 4.32 1.19 4.46 0.84 0.14 0.72 .473 To rest and relax 3.00 1.18 3.06 1.24 0.06 0.34 .733 To get the most value for my money 3.36 1.29 3.58 1.16 0.22 1.10 .278 To live abroad 4.02 1.25 4.30 1.09 0.28 1.41 .164 To enhance my language skills 3.68 1.25 3.90 1.18 0.22 1.14 .258 To have thrills/excitement 4.26 1.16 4.44 0.73 0.18 1.01 .316 To be physically active 3.40 1.12 3.62 1.03 0.22 1.30 .201 To achieve personal growth 4.46 1.07 4.68 0.47 0.22 1.36 .182 To be close to nature 3.22 1.25 3.42 1.01 0.20 1.28 .207 To study a subject or take a course not offered at UF 2.74 1.27 3.18 1.17 0.44 2.05 .045* To get away from it all 3.02 1.30 3.76 1.15 0.74 4.05 .000** To improve my career prospects 3.68 1.25 3.98 1.00 0.30 1.72 .092 To increase my knowledge of diff. places/cultures 4.52 1.07 4.78 0.42 0.26 1.59 .119 To travel 4.40 1.18 4.70 0.46 0.30 1.72 .092 To be independent 4.02 1.25 4.62 0.64 0.60 3.55 .001** To try the local food 4.12 1.15 4.44 0.67 0.32 1.88 .066 To fulfill my responsibilities to my family 2.10 0.95 2.62 0.92 0.52 3.86 .000** To experience a diff. climate 3.02 1.30 3.28 1.07 0.26 1.18 .245 To visit relatives 1.84 1.09 2.14 1.23 0.30 2.39 .021* To feel safe and secure 2.52 0.97 3.00 1.05 0.48 2.75 .008* To visit famous tourist attractions 3.52 1.13 3.96 0.75 0.44 2.85 .006* To earn college credit 3.78 1.18 4.18 0.96 0.40 2.65 .011* To be with my friends/siblings 2.20 1.12 2.56 1.20 0.36 2.44 .019* To study abroad 4.38 1.18 4.60 0.53 0.22 1.21 .231 To learn more about myself 4.24 1.13 4.58 0.57 0.34 2.22 .031* To see something new 4.50 1.05 4.80 0.40 0.30 1.88 .066 To better understand the country I will study in 4.24 1.10 4.04 1.07 0.20 0.99 .327 To learn a new language 3.42 1.36 2.10 0.95 1.32 6.51 .000** To increase my understanding of my own culture 3.50 1.31 3.80 0.93 0.30 1.63 .108 To travel where I feel safe 3.04 1.12 3.34 1.08 0.30 1.53 .133 To meet new people 4.18 1.10 4.36 0.66 0.18 1.18 .245 To engage in physical activities 3.30 1.18 3.32 1.10 0.22 0.11 .911 To socialize with others 4.10 1.15 4.32 0.65 0.02 1.28 .207 To experience new challenges 4.28 1.05 4.62 0.49 0.03 2.50 .016* a N=50, df=49 Note. The p values were calculated for a two tailed test. *p < .05. ** p < .001. Measured on a Likert type scale where 1= Strongly Disagree, 5=Strongly Agree.

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85 Table 4 3. Independent T test of benefits sought/realized based on gender. Male Female Benefit Item Test M SD M SD t p To increase cross cultural awareness Pre Post 4.24 4.56 1.10 0.83 4.51 4.53 0.64 0.63 1.88 0.25 .062 .799 To rest and relax Pre 3.24 1.07 3.13 0.98 0.55 .582 Post 3.29 1.18 3.14 1.15 0.78 .435 To get the most value for my money Pre Post 3.06 3.60 1.28 1.12 3.33 3.54 1.03 1.10 1.28 0.32 .202 .746 To live abroad Pre 3.85 1.08 4.33 0.83 2.77 .006* Post 4.19 1.12 4.38 0.76 1.30 .196 To enhance my language skills Pre 3.91 1.11 3.97 1.14 0.27 .791 Post 3.50 1.38 3.85 1.09 1.76 .080 To have thrills/excitement Pre 4.21 0.73 4.48 0.74 1.92 .059 Post 4.48 0.70 4.48 0.69 0.01 .992 To be physically active Pre 3.65 0.88 3.64 0.90 0.06 .951 Post 3.79 1.04 3.73 1.08 0.32 .748 To achieve personal growth Pre 4.62 0.60 4.61 0.55 0.04 .970 Post 4.56 0.50 4.58 0.63 0.20 .842 To be close to nature Pre 3.21 1.04 3.27 1.06 0.29 .771 Post 3.50 1.00 3.35 1.14 0.83 .409 To study a subject or take a course not offered at UF Pre Post 2.79 2.94 1.25 1.16 2.73 3.29 1.27 1.10 0.24 1.89 .807 .060 To get away from it all Pre 3.24 1.05 3.14 1.22 0.40 .690 Post 3.42 1.13 3.79 1.15 1.94 .054 To improve my career prospects Pre 4.24 0.74 3.98 0.96 1.46 .147 Post 4.04 0.79 3.91 1.00 0.82 .414 To increase my knowledge of different places/cultures Pre Post 4.59 4.77 0.56 0.47 4.65 4.76 0.64 0.48 0.53 0.17 .600 .869 To travel Pre 4.53 0.56 4.67 0.68 1.08 .282 Post 4.65 0.56 4.77 0.46 1.46 .145 To be independent Pre 3.85 1.02 4.26 0.82 2.44 .016* Post 4.15 1.00 4.52 0.73 2.71 .007* To try the local food Pre 3.88 1.01 4.06 0.93 0.98 .329 Post 4.21 0.78 4.37 0.75 1.23 .220 To fulfill my responsibilities to my family Pre Post 2.47 2.46 0.99 0.98 2.12 2.49 0.97 0.95 1.87 0.17 .063 .869 To experience a diff. climate Pre 2.97 1.09 3.03 1.07 0.29 .773 Post 3.33 1.02 3.30 1.14 0.14 .887 To visit relatives Pre 2.09 1.31 2.01 1.04 0.38 .704 Post 2.02 1.21 1.98 1.01 0.20 .842 To feel safe and secure Pre 2.44 1.05 2.65 0.86 1.21 .229 Post 2.81 0.99 2.91 1.02 0.61 .541 To visit famous tourist attractions Pre Post 3.47 3.79 0.86 1.00 3.65 4.08 0.98 0.93 0.98 1.87 .327 .064 To earn college credit Pre 3.50 1.11 3.87 1.01 1.88 .062 Post 3.85 1.18 4.15 0.89 1.90 .059 To be with my friends/siblings Pre 2.74 1.05 2.35 1.08 1.87 .064 Post 2.71 1.32 2.56 1.17 0.75 .456 To study abroad Pre 4.35 0.88 4.57 0.66 1.58 .116 Post 4.50 0.61 4.63 0.52 1.39 .166 To learn more about myself Pre 3.94 1.07 4.36 0.66 2.89 .004* Post 4.42 0.57 4.42 0.78 0.00 .998 To see something new Pre 4.59 0.66 4.67 0.49 0.77 .440 Post 4.73 0.49 4.72 0.59 0.16 .870

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86 Table 4 3. Continued. Male Female Benefit Item Test M SD M SD t p To better understand the country I will study in Pre Post 4.06 4.12 0.92 0.98 4.35 4.15 0.75 0.99 1.91 0.19 .058 .850 To learn a new language Pre 3.38 1.28 3.61 1.14 0.99 .323 Post 1.90 0.74 2.15 1.00 0.74 .464 To increase my understanding of my own culture Pre Post 3.50 3.62 1.24 1.05 3.57 3.79 1.12 1.00 0.31 1.03 .757 .304 To travel where I feel safe Pre 2.88 1.12 3.16 0.99 1.41 .161 Post 2.94 1.16 3.41 0.94 2.78 .006* To meet new people Pre 4.21 0.77 4.45 0.62 1.98 .005* Post 4.35 0.86 4.46 0.72 0.93 .353 To engage in physical activities Pre 3.47 0.93 3.60 0.95 0.70 .482 Post 3.50 1.13 3.50 0.99 0.02 .981 To socialize with others Pre 4.24 0.78 4.30 0.73 0.48 .635 Post 4.44 0.78 4.42 0.68 0.17 .868 To experience new challenges Pre 4.38 0.60 4.45 0.56 0.59 .554 Post 3.46 0.58 4.52 0.61 0.60 .552 a N=175 (Pre trip Male n=34, Female n=132; Post trip Male n=52, Female n=123). Pre df=164; Post df=173. The p values were calculated for a two tailed test. *p < .05. ** p < .001. Measured on a Likert type scale where 1= Strongly Disagree, 5=Strongly Agree.

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87 Table 4 4. Paired T test of benefits sought and realized from studying abroad based on gender. Pre Post Benefit Item Item Descriptor M SD M SD t Gap Score p To increase cross cultural awareness Male Female 4.10 4.59 1.29 0.56 4.10 4.59 1.52 0.60 0.00 0.47 0.00 0.00 1.00 .644 To rest and relax Male Female 3.20 3.11 1.14 1.24 3.00 3.11 1.41 1.02 0.61 0.00 0.20 0.00 .555 1.00 To get the most value for my money Male Female 3.30 3.54 1.34 1.08 3.00 3.54 1.41 1.07 1.15 0.77 0.30 0.00 .279 .446 To live abroad Male Female 3.60 4.32 1.17 0.49 3.10 4.32 1.85 0.85 0.76 2.23 0.50 0.0 0 .464 .032* To enhance my language skills Male Female 3.60 3.86 1.07 1.01 3.20 3.86 1.62 1.00 0.84 1.10 0.40 0.00 .423 .279 To have thrills/excitement Male Female 4.10 4.51 0.74 0.65 3.90 4.51 0.88 0.77 0.61 0.23 0.20 0.00 .555 .822 To be physically active Male Female 3.50 3.57 0.85 1.04 3.90 3.57 1.10 0.93 1.50 0.00 0.40 0.00 .168 1.00 To achieve personal growth Male Female 4.50 4.68 0.71 0.46 4.60 4.68 0.52 0.53 0.32 0.24 0.10 0.0 0 .758 .812 To be close to nature Male Female 3.10 3.43 0.99 1.04 3.60 3.43 1.07 1.12 1.86 0.17 0.50 0.00 .096 .868 To study a subject or take a course not offered at UF Male Female 2.60 2.97 1.17 1.15 2.70 2.97 1.34 1.14 0.17 1.55 0.10 0. 00 .868 .129 To get away from it all Male Female 3.40 3.14 0.97 1.11 3.30 3.14 1.42 1.18 0.32 4.25 0.10 0.00 .758 .000** To improve my career prospects Male Female 4.20 3.73 0.42 0.99 3.90 3.73 1.20 1.12 0.90 1.78 0.30 0.00 .394 .083 To increase my knowledge of diff. places/cultures Male Female 4.60 4.73 0.52 0.42 4.70 4.73 0.48 0.56 0.43 0.53 0.10 0.00 .678 .600 To travel Male Female 4.50 4.59 0.71 0.42 4.30 4.59 0.48 0.80 0.80 1.48 0.20 0.00 .443 .147 To be independent Male Female 3.70 4.30 1.06 0.45 4.20 4.30 1.03 0.91 1.46 3.03 0.50 0.00 .177 .004* To try the local food Male Female 4.10 4.32 0.88 0.69 4.40 4.32 0.70 0.78 1.41 0.73 0.30 0.00 .193 .473 To fulfill my responsibilities to my family Male Female 1.90 2.27 0.74 0.95 2.40 2.27 0.97 0.90 1.46 3.04 0.50 0.00 .177 .004* To experience a diff. climate Male Female 2.80 3.19 1.03 1.06 3.50 3.19 0.97 1.17 1.91 0.23 0.70 0. 00 .089 .817 To visit relatives Male Female 2.00 1.92 1.05 1.27 2.20 1.92 1.32 1.06 0.80 1.54 0.20 0.00 .443 .132 To feel safe and secure Male Female 2.60 2.62 0.97 1.07 3.00 2.62 1.15 0.83 1.18 1.92 0.40 0.00 .269 .062 To visit famous tourist attractions Male Female 3.70 3.62 0.48 0.78 3.70 3.62 0.67 0.95 2.24 2.78 0.00 0.00 1.00 .009* To be with my friends/siblings Male Female 2.70 2.22 1.16 1.16 2.60 2.22 1.26 1.00 .36 2.37 0.10 0.00 .726 .023* To study abroad Male Female 4.30 4.62 0.95 0.55 4.40 4.62 0.52 0.72 .28 0.00 0.10 0.00 .780 1.00

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88 Table 4 4. Continued Pre Post Benefit Item Item Descriptor M SD M SD t Gap Score p To learn more about myself Male Female 4.20 4.46 0.79 0.46 4.20 4.46 0.36 .00 0.00 0 .00 0.00 0.00 0.24 0 .071 To increase my understanding of my own culture Male Female 3.70 3.51 0.95 1.01 3.60 3.51 1.17 1.04 3.70 0.84 0.10 0.0 0 0 .798 0 .133 To travel where I feel safe Male Female 3.10 3.19 1.29 0.89 3.10 3.41 1.29 1.67 3.10 0.33 0.00 0.22 1.00 0 0 .264 To meet new people Male Female 3.90 4.49 0.88 0.61 4.30 4.41 0.67 0.69 3.90 1.30 0.6 0 0.08 .037* 0 .539 To engage in physical activities Male Female 3.51 3.51 1.44 1.04 3.10 3.78 1.52 1.01 3.30 1.30 0.41 0.14 0 .642 0 .405 To socialize with others Male Female 4.10 4.49 0.99 1.05 4.50 4.49 0.53 0.61 4.10 2.64 0.40 0.00 0 .104 0 .744 To experience new challenges Male Female 4.20 4.59 0.63 0.56 4.60 4.59 0.52 0.60 4.20 0.47 0.40 0.00 .037* 0 .201 To see something new Male Female 4.70 4.67 0.48 0.53 4.70 4.81 0.48 0.40 4.70 1.30 0.00 0.14 1.000 0 .201 To better understand the country I will study in Male Female 4.10 3.19 0.88 1.07 4.10 3.19 1.29 0.88 4.10 1.14 0.00 0.00 1.000 .012* To learn a new language Male Female 4.10 4.49 0.67 0.69 4.10 4.49 1.29 0.61 0.36 0.62 0.0 0 0.00 0 .726 0 .539 a N=50. (Male n=10, Female n=37). The p values were calculated for a two tailed test. *p < .05. ** p < .001. Measured on a Likert type scale where 1= Strongly Disagree, 5=Strongly Agree.

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89 Table 4 5. Independent T test of benefits sought based on Whites versus Ethnic Minorities. White a Ethnic Minorities b Benefit Item M SD M SD t p To increase cross cultural awareness 4.45 0.80 3.87 1.65 3.10 .002* To rest and relax 3.11 1.01 2.82 1.44 1.54 .125 To get the most value for my money 3.27 1.09 2.87 1.52 1.99 .048* To live abroad 4.28 0.87 3.65 1.67 3.24 .001** To enhance my language skills 3.95 1.15 3.52 1.72 1.96 .052 To have thrills/excitement 4.39 0.79 3.92 1.66 2.55 .012* To be physically active 3.71 0.90 3.05 1.42 3.74 .000** To achieve personal growth 4.61 0.59 4.00 1.65 3.51 .001** To be close to nature 3.31 1.07 2.68 1.42 3.28 .001** To study a subject or take a course not offered at UF 2.73 1.29 2.38 1.45 1.62 .107 To get away from it all 3.13 1.15 2.82 1.63 1.48 .140 To improve my career prospects 4.04 0.92 3.53 1.60 2.62 .010* To increase my knowledge of diff. places/cultures 4.62 0.63 4.08 1.70 2.96 .004* To travel 4.66 0.61 4.02 1.71 3.59 .000** To be independent 4.22 0.80 3.55 1.67 3.57 .000** To try the local food 4.05 0.96 3.48 1.63 2.89 .004* To fulfill my responsibilities to my family 2.18 0.98 1.97 1.19 1.25 .212 To experience a diff. climate 3.04 1.08 2.63 1.46 2.05 .042* To visit relatives 1.88 1.03 2.02 1.37 0.76 .447 To feel safe and secure 2.62 0.95 2.28 1.17 2.02 .045* To visit famous tourist attractions 3.62 0.95 3.13 1.56 2.52 .013* To earn college credit 3.84 1.02 3.23 1.62 3.01 .003* To be with my friends/siblings 2.52 1.15 1.92 1.14 3.28 .001** To study abroad 4.58 0.62 3.88 1.71 3.87 .000** To learn more about myself 4.30 0.73 3.65 1.66 3.58 .000** To see something new 4.71 0.47 3.93 1.66 4.66 .000** To better understand the country I will study in 4.35 0.73 3.65 1.66 3.83 .000** To learn a new language 3.59 1.21 3.07 1.58 2.42 .017* To increase my understanding of my own culture 3.59 1.12 3.07 1.65 2.46 .015* To travel where I feel safe 3.17 1.01 2.60 1.42 3.05 .003** To meet new people 4.45 0.68 3.77 1.59 3.91 .000** To engage in physical activities 3.66 0.94 2.92 1.46 4.05 .000** To socialize with others 4.30 0.79 3.72 1.57 3.26 .001** To experience new challenges 4.47 0.58 3.80 1.57 4.05 .000** N=175. (Whites n=112, Ethnic Minorities n=60, df=170). The p values were calculated for a two tailed test. *p < .05. ** p < .001. Measured on a Likert type scale where 1= Strongly Disagree, 5=Strongly Agree.

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90 Table 4 6. Paired T test of benefits sought/realized based on ethnicity. Pre Post Benefit item Item M SD M SD Gap Score t p To increase cross cultural awareness White Ethnic Minority 4.42 4.06 0.90 1.65 4.42 4.50 0.97 0.52 0.00 0.44 0.00 1.02 1.00 .323 To rest and relax White 3.00 1.06 2.88 1.29 0.12 0.55 .587 Ethnic Minority 2.89 1.04 2.45 1.16 0.44 1.23 .354 To get the most value for my money White Ethnic Minority 3.45 3.19 1.06 1.72 3.48 3.94 1.12 1.06 0.03 0.75 0.15 1.69 .879 .111 To live abroad White 4.15 1.00 4.24 1.28 0.09 0.40 .692 Ethnic Minority 3.75 1.69 4.44 0.63 0.69 1.74 .102 To enhance my language skills White 3.70 0.98 3.73 1.35 0.03 0.15 .879 Ethnic Minority 3.63 1.75 4.25 0.68 0.63 1.43 .173 To have thrills/excitement White 4.39 0.83 4.33 0.78 0.06 0.44 .662 Ethnic Minority 4.00 1.67 4.69 0.60 0.69 1.49 .158 To be physically active White 3.58 0.97 3.55 1.09 0.03 0.17 .869 Ethnic Minority 3.00 1.37 3.81 0.91 0.81 2.45 .027* To achieve personal growth White 4.64 0.60 4.73 0.45 0.09 0.68 .500 Ethnic Minority 4.06 1.65 4.63 0.50 0.56 1.35 .198 To be close to nature White 3.33 1.11 3.36 1.08 0.03 0.17 .869 Ethnic Minority 2.88 1.45 3.50 0.89 0.63 2.18 .046* To study a subject or take a course not offered at UF White Ethnic Minority 2.91 2.50 1.16 1.46 3.15 3.19 1.25 1.05 0.24 0.69 0.93 1.90 .360 .077 To get away from it all White 3.12 1.08 3.67 1.27 0.55 2.73 .010* Ethnic Minority 2.94 1.65 4.06 0.77 1.13 2.91 .011* To improve my career prospects White Ethnic Minority 3.88 3.44 1.02 1.50 4.00 4.06 1.00 0.93 0.12 0.63 0.75 1.46 .458 .164 To increase my knowledge of diff. places/cultures White Ethnic Minority 4.70 4.13 0.53 1.71 4.73 4.88 0.45 0.34 0.03 0.75 0.30 1.66 .768 .118 To travel White 4.61 0.61 4.70 0.47 0.09 0.72 .475 Ethnic Minority 4.13 1.78 4.75 0.45 0.63 1.35 .198 To be independent White 4.21 0.96 4.64 0.70 0.42 2.70 .011* Ethnic Minority 3.75 1.65 4.63 0.50 0.88 2.15 .048* To try the local food White 4.27 0.88 4.42 0.71 0.15 0.96 .344 Ethnic Minority 3.81 1.60 4.50 0.63 0.69 1.65 .119 To fulfill my responsibilities to my family White Ethnic Minority 2.21 1.94 0.93 1.00 2.45 3.06 0.97 0.57 0.24 1.13 1.68 4.70 .103 .000** To experience a diff. climate White 3.21 1.22 3.09 1.04 0.12 0.48 .635 Ethnic Minority 2.63 1.45 3.63 1.09 1.00 2.51 .024* To visit relatives White 1.76 0.83 1.79 1.02 0.03 0.24 .813 Ethnic Minority 2.00 1.55 2.88 1.36 0.88 3.66 .002* To feel safe and secure White 2.61 0.90 2.88 1.11 0.27 1.51 .141 Ethnic Minority 2.38 1.15 3.19 0.91 0.81 2.14 .049* To visit famous tourist attractions White Ethnic Minority 3.64 3.25 0.86 1.57 3.94 4.00 0.83 0.63 0.30 0.75 1.97 2.09 .057 .054 To earn college credit White 3.82 0.98 4.15 1.06 0.33 2.77 .009* Ethnic Minority 3.69 1.58 4.25 0.77 0.56 1.38 .188 To be with my friends/siblings White 2.24 1.12 2.48 1.25 0.24 1.24 .222 Ethnic Minority 2.13 1.20 2.75 1.13 0.63 2.82 .013* To study abroad White 4.61 0.70 4.61 0.50 0.00 0.00 1.000 Ethnic Minority 4.06 1.69 4.63 0.62 0.56 1.23 .236 To learn more about myself White 4.42 0.66 4.61 0.61 0.18 1.29 .206 Ethnic Minority 3.81 1.72 4.56 0.51 0.75 2.09 .054

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91 Table 4 6. Continued. Pre Post Benefit item Item M SD M SD Gap Score t p To see something new White 4.76 0.50 4.85 0.36 0.09 .90 .344 Ethnic Minority 4.00 1.63 4.75 0.45 0.75 1.69 .111 To better understand the country I will study in White Ethnic Minority 4.39 3.88 0.70 1.63 4.24 3.56 1.00 1.09 0.15 0.31 0.93 0.57 .790 .575 To learn a new language White 3.55 1.25 2.21 0.16 1.33 4.80 .813 Ethnic Minority 3.13 1.59 1.94 0.25 1.19 4.54 0.00** To increase my understanding of my own culture White Ethnic Minority 3.64 3.31 1.08 1.70 3.85 3.69 0.94 0.95 0.21 0.38 0.96 1.78 .256 .054 To travel where I feel safe White 3.21 1.05 3.27 1.15 0.61 0.27 .744 Ethnic Minority 2.75 1.24 3.38 0.89 0.63 2.16 .287 To meet new people White 4.42 0.75 4.39 0.61 0.03 0.24 .292 Ethnic Minority 3.69 1.54 4.44 0.51 0.75 2.16 .048* To engage in physical activities White Ethnic Minority 3.55 2.75 1.03 1.34 3.33 3.38 1.19 0.89 0.21 0.63 1.16 2.36 .374 .048* To socialize with others White 4.33 0.85 4.27 0.67 0.06 0.33 .361 Ethnic Minority 3.63 1.54 4.44 0.63 0.81 2.36 .032* To experience new challenges White 4.55 0.62 4.67 0.48 0.12 1.07 .222 Ethnic Minority 3.75 1.53 4.56 0.51 0.81 2.45 .027* N=50. (Whites n=33, df=34; Ethnic Minorities n=13, df=32. The p values were calculated for a two tailed test. *p < .05. ** p < .001. Measured on a Likert type scale where 1= Strongly Disagree, 5=Strongly Agree.

PAGE 92

92 Table 47. ANOVA for previous international travel experience and benefits sought. Benefit SS df MS F p To increase cross cultural awareness Between Groups Within Groups 5.76 241.18 4.00 170.00 1.44 1.42 1.01 .406 To rest and relax Between Groups 4.53 4.00 1.13 0.81 .528 Within Groups 236.47 170.00 1.39 To get the most value for my money Between Groups Within Groups 10.99 266.24 4.00 170.00 2.75 1.57 1.75 .140 To live abroad Between Groups 2.05 4.00 0.51 0.32 .869 Within Groups 270.67 170.00 1.59 To enhance my language skills Between Groups 5.52 4.00 1.38 0.72 .581 Within Groups 326.23 170.00 1.92 To have thrills/excitement Between Groups 3.66 4.00 0.92 0.66 .629 Within Groups 236.65 170.00 1.39 to be physically active Between Groups 3.18 4.00 0.79 0.59 .676 Within Groups 230.40 170.00 1.36 to achieve personal growth Between Groups 3.00 4.00 0.75 0.60 .667 Within Groups 211.19 170.00 1.24 to be close to nature Between Groups 2.89 4.00 0.72 0.47 .767 Within Groups 261.26 170.00 1.54 to study a subject or take a course not offered at UF Between Groups Within Groups 7.53 314.05 4.00 170.00 1.88 1.85 1.02 .406 to get away from it all Between Groups 5.92 4.00 1.48 0.82 .510 Within Groups 307.07 170.00 1.81 to improve my career prospects Between Groups 4.84 4.00 1.21 0.79 .535 Within Groups 260.00 170.00 1.53 to increase my knowledge of different places/cultures Between Groups Within Groups 4.24 224.62 4.00 170.00 1.06 1.32 0.80 .535 to travel Between Groups 4.95 4.00 1.24 0.91 .460 Within Groups 231.91 170.00 1.36 to be independent Between Groups 11.62 4.00 2.91 1.99 .109 Within Groups 248.35 170.00 1.46 to try the local food Between Groups 4.73 4.00 1.18 0.75 .560 Within Groups 268.11 170.00 1.58 to fulfill my responsibilities to my family Between Groups Within Groups 6.14 188.40 4.00 170.00 1.53 1.11 1.38 .246 to experience a diff. climate Between Groups 4.96 4.00 1.24 0.82 .528 Within Groups 257.98 170.00 1.52 to visit relatives Between Groups 0.86 4.00 0.22 0.16 .964 Within Groups 231.17 170.00 1.36 to feel safe and secure Between Groups 3.32 4.00 0.83 0.76 .555 Within Groups 184.42 170.00 1.08 to visit famous tourist attractions Between Groups Within Groups 7.90 245.53 4.00 170.00 1.97 1.44 1.37 .253 to earn college credit Between Groups 10.37 4.00 2.59 1.58 .187 Within Groups 278.49 170.00 1.64 to be with my friends/siblings Between Groups 1.81 4.00 0.45 0.32 .866 Within Groups 239.53 170.00 1.41 to study abroad Between Groups 5.73 4.00 1.43 1.04 .395 Within Groups 234.35 170.00 1.38 to learn more about myself Between Groups 7.51 4.00 1.88 1.37 .249 Within Groups 232.20 170.00 1.37 to see something new Between Groups 3.35 4.00 0.84 0.69 .600 Within Groups 207.77 170.00 1.22 to better understand the country I will study in Between Groups Within Groups 2.27 243.08 4.00 170.00 0.57 1.43 0.40 .813

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93 Table 4 7. Continued. Benefit SS df MS F p to learn a new language Between Groups 1.35 4.00 0.34 0.18 .956 Within Groups 322.65 170.00 1.90 to increase my understanding of my own culture Between Groups Within Groups 11.34 300.45 4.00 170.00 2.84 1.77 1.60 .183 to travel where I feel safe Between Groups 8.27 4.00 2.07 1.47 .211 Within Groups 238.45 170.00 1.40 to meet new people Between Groups 5.21 4.00 1.30 1.03 .387 Within Groups 214.79 170.00 1.26 to engage in physical activities Between Groups 3.24 4.00 0.81 0.57 .687 Within Groups 242.76 170.00 1.43 to socialize with others Between Groups 2.75 4.00 0.69 0.51 .734 Within Groups 227.79 170.00 1.34 To learn a new language Between Groups Within Groups 1.35 322.65 4.00 .34 .18 .954 170.00 1.90 to experience new challenges Between Groups 3.55 4.00 0.89 0.76 .565 Within Groups 199.84 170.00 1.18 N=175 (Never previously travelled n=27, previously travelled 1 2 times n=55, 3 4 times n=30, 5 or more times n=62. Missing n=1).

PAGE 94

94 Table 4 8. Paired T test of benefits sought/realized and previous international travel experience. Pre Post Benefit Item M SD M SD t p To increase cross cultural awareness Never 1 4 5 + times 4.55 4.30 4.17 0.69 1.23 1.47 4.55 4.37 4.58 0.52 1.04 0.51 0.00 0.26 0.92 1.000 .795 .376 To rest and relax Never 3.27 1.01 3.45 0.93 0.56 .588 1 4 2.96 1.19 3.04 1.32 0.30 .764 5 + times 2.83 1.34 2.75 1.29 0.21 .838 To get the most value for my money Never 1 4 5 + times 3.55 3.37 2.83 1.13 1.21 1.34 3.55 3.74 2.75 0.82 1.20 1.29 0.00 1.44 0.21 1.000 .161 .838 To live abroad Never 3.82 0.98 4.27 0.79 1.10 .296 1 4 4.11 1.22 4.15 1.35 0.13 .898 5 + times 4.00 1.60 4.67 0.49 1.88 .087 To enhance my language skills Never 4.18 0.87 4.18 0.98 0.00 1.000 1 4 3.70 1.20 3.93 1.24 0.88 .386 5 + times 3.17 1.53 3.58 1.24 0.77 .459 To have thrills/excitement Never 4.27 0.90 4.73 0.47 1.24 .242 1 4 4.26 1.16 4.37 0.79 0.52 .611 5 + times 4.25 1.42 4.33 0.78 0.18 .862 To be physically active Never 3.18 0.87 3.64 1.03 1.61 .138 1 4 3.44 1.09 3.52 1.09 0.29 .774 5 + times 3.50 1.45 3.83 0.94 1.00 .339 To achieve personal growth Never 4.18 0.75 4.82 0.40 2.28 .046* 1 4 4.56 1.01 4.63 0.49 0.33 .746 5 + times 4.50 1.45 4.67 0.49 0.46 .658 To be close to nature Never 3.00 1.18 3.36 1.21 0.89 .397 1 4 3.26 1.23 3.41 1.01 0.85 .404 5 + times 3.33 1.44 3.50 0.90 0.43 .674 To study a subject or take a course not offered at UF Never 1 4 5 + times 2.73 2.59 3.08 0.79 1.34 1.51 3.18 3.04 3.50 1.08 1.26 1.09 1.61 1.38 0.86 .138 .179 .408 To get away from it all Never 3.27 0.90 4.00 0.89 2.67 .024* 1 4 2.93 1.33 3.56 1.19 2.45 .021* 5 + times 3.00 1.60 4.00 1.28 2.25 .046* To improve my career prospects Never 1 4 5 + times 3.73 3.78 3.42 0.79 1.25 1.62 4.09 3.85 4.17 0.83 1.06 1.03 1.49 0.32 1.68 .167 .752 .121 To travel Never 4.27 0.79 4.64 0.50 1.17 .267 1 4 Times 4.56 1.12 4.74 0.45 0.84 .408 5 + times 4.17 1.59 4.67 0.49 1.07 .309 To be independent Never 4.09 0.94 4.73 0.47 1.88 .089 1 4 Times 4.04 1.26 4.59 0.69 2.66 .013* 5 + times 3.92 1.56 4.58 0.67 1.48 .166 To try the local food Never 4.00 0.89 4.82 0.40 3.61 .005* 1 4 Times 4.15 1.13 4.37 0.69 1.14 .265 5 + times 4.17 1.47 4.25 0.75 0.16 .874 To fulfill my responsibilities to my family Never 1 4 Times 5 + times 2.18 2.11 2.00 0.87 1.05 0.85 2.73 2.48 2.83 1.19 0.89 0.72 1.94 2.18 2.59 .082 .039* .025* To experience a diff. climate Never 3.09 1.22 3.18 1.33 0.15 .882 1 4 Times 3.11 1.22 3.19 0.96 0.33 .746 5 + times 2.75 1.60 3.58 1.08 1.52 .157

PAGE 95

95 To visit relatives Never 2.18 1.17 2.64 1.75 2.19 .053 1 4 Times 1.81 1.08 1.93 1.04 0.62 .542 5 + times 1.58 1.08 2.17 1.03 2.24 .046* To feel safe and secure Never 1 4 Times 5 + times 2.64 2.52 2.42 1.03 0.94 1.08 3.00 3.15 2.67 1.10 1.06 0.98 1.00 2.63 0.67 .341 .014* .515 To visit famous tourist attractions Never 1 4 Times 5 + times 3.64 3.70 3.00 0.67 1.17 1.2 3.91 4.11 3.67 0.83 0.70 0.78 1.00 2.09 2.09 .341 .070 .087 To earn college credit Never 4.00 0.63 4.55 0.52 2.21 .052 1 4 Times 3.78 1.19 4.07 1.04 1.38 .118 5 + times 3.58 1.56 4.08 1.08 1.38 .275 To be with my friends/siblings Never 2.64 1.12 2.64 1.29 0.00 1.000 1 4 Times 2.04 1.09 2.56 1.15 2.82 .010* 5 + times 2.17 1.19 2.50 1.31 2.82 .166 To study abroad Never 4.55 0.69 4.55 0.69 0.00 1.000 1 4 Times 4.37 1.21 4.59 0.50 1.23 .397 5 + times 4.25 1.48 4.67 0.49 1.23 .358 To learn more about myself Never 4.18 0.75 4.73 0.47 1.94 0.082 1 4 Times 4.37 1.04 4.56 0.51 2.09 .363 5 + times 4.00 1.60 4.50 0.80 2.09 .214 To see something new Never 4.55 0.69 4.82 0.40 1.00 .341 1 4 4.56 1.01 4.78 0.42 1.00 .297 5 + times 4.33 1.44 4.83 0.39 1.05 .256 To better understand the country I will study in Never 1 4 Times 5 + times 4.55 4.19 4.08 0.69 1.08 1.44 4.45 3.93 3.92 1.04 1.07 1.08 0.23 1.43 2.00 .821 .283 .777 To learn a new language Never 3.36 1.29 2.18 .87 2.08 .067 1 4 3.67 1.24 2.11 1.05 6.63 .000* 5 + times 2.92 1.62 2.00 ,85 2.20 .045* To increase my understanding of my own culture Never 1 4 Times 5 + times 3.91 3.33 3.50 1.38 1.30 1.31 4.36 3.67 3.58 0.50 0.96 1.00 1.10 0.86 1.88 .296 .232 .777 To travel where I feel safe Never 2.91 1.04 3.27 1.01 1.08 .307 1 4 Times 3.11 1.12 3.52 1.01 0.93 .133 5 + times 3.00 1.28 3.00 1.28 1.15 1.00 To meet new people Never 4.18 0.75 4.36 0.67 0.69 .506 1 4 Times 4.22 1.09 4.22 0.70 1.22 1.00 5 + times 4.08 1.44 4.67 0.49 1.48 .131 To engage in physical activities Never 1 4 Times 5 + times 3.36 3.33 3.17 1.03 1.14 1.47 3.00 3.30 3.67 1.34 0.99 1.07 0.84 1.55 0.96 .420 .876 .139 To socialize with others Never 4.27 0.79 4.27 1.01 0.00 1.00 1 4 Times 4.04 1.16 4.26 0.53 0.00 .327 5 + times 4.08 1.44 4.50 0.52 1.32 .318 To experience new challenges Never 4.45 0.69 4.64 0.50 0.80 .441 1 4 Times 4.26 1.02 4.52 0.51 0.16 .166 5 + times 4.17 1.40 4.83 0.39 0.29 .071 a N=50. (No previous international travel experience n=11, df=10; 1 4 times n=27, df=26; 5+times n= 12, df=11). The p values were calculated for a two tailed test. *p < .05. ** p < .001. Measured on a Likert type scale where 1= Strongly Disagree, 5=Strongly Agree.

PAGE 96

96 Table 4 9. ANOVA of benefits sought based on study abroad program length. Benefit SS df MS F p To increase cross cultural awareness Between Groups Within Groups 1.34 245.03 2.00 171.00 0.67 1.43 0.47 .635 To rest and relax Between Groups 1.12 2.00 0.56 0.40 .637 Within Groups 238.88 171.00 1.40 To get the most value for my money Between Groups Within Groups 2.26 274.20 2.00 171.00 1.13 1.60 0.71 .500 To live abroad Between Groups 6.95 2.00 3.47 2.27 .111 Within Groups 261.59 171.00 1.53 To enhance my language skills Between Groups 0.16 2.00 0.08 0.04 .962 Within Groups 331.54 171.00 1.94 To have thrills/excit e ment Between Groups 1.70 2.00 0.85 0.61 .542 Within Groups 238.00 171.00 1.39 to be physically active Between Groups 2.21 2.00 1.10 0.82 .448 Within Groups 231.09 171.00 1.35 to achieve personal growth Between Groups 4.30 2.00 2.15 1.75 .180 Within Groups 209.54 171.00 1.23 to be close to nature Between Groups 3.38 2.00 1.69 1.11 .339 Within Groups 259.96 171.00 1.52 to study a subject or take a course not offered at UF Between Groups Within Groups 1.40 320.03 2.00 171.00 0.70 1.87 0.37 .690 to get away from it all Between Groups 2.59 2.00 1.30 0.72 .497 Within Groups 309.41 171.00 1.81 to improve my career prospects Between Groups 3.15 2.00 1.58 1.04 .365 Within Groups 260.34 171.00 1.52 to increase my knowledge of different places/cultures Between Groups Within Groups 0.39 228.13 2.00 171.00 0.20 1.33 0.15 .865 to travel Between Groups 0.20 2.00 0.10 0.07 .933 Within Groups 236.33 171.00 1.38 to be independent Between Groups 2.25 2.00 1.13 0.75 .473 Within Groups 257.72 171.00 1.51 to try the local food Between Groups 0.32 2.00 0.16 0.10 .914 Within Groups 272.50 171.00 1.59 to fulfill my responsibilities to my family Between Groups Within Groups 0.57 193.96 2.00 171.00 0.28 1.13 0.25 .782 to experience a diff. climate Between Groups 0.51 2.00 0.25 0.17 .855 Within Groups 257.96 171.00 1.51 to visit relatives Between Groups 2.00 2.00 1.00 0.74 .478 Within Groups 230.03 171.00 1.35 to feel safe and secure Between Groups 1.35 2.00 0.68 0.62 .547 Within Groups 186.13 171.00 1.09 to visit famous tourist attractions Between Groups 4.76 2.00 2.38 1.64 .202 Within Groups 248.37 171.00 1.45 to earn college credit Between Groups 2.71 2.00 1.36 0.81 .453 Within Groups 285.75 171.00 1.67 to be with my friends/siblings Between Groups 10.20 2.00 5.10 3.78 .020* Within Groups 230.65 171.00 1.35 to study abroad Between Groups 0.21 2.00 0.11 0.08 .931 Within Groups 239.40 171.00 1.40 to learn more about myself Between Groups 1.85 2.00 0.92 0.67 .516 Within Groups 237.02 171.00 1.39 to see something new Between Groups 0.64 2.00 0.32 0.26 .774 Within Groups 210.17 171.00 1.23

PAGE 97

97 Table 4 9. Continued. Benefit SS df MS F p to better understand the country I will study in Between Groups Within Groups 1.93 242.20 2.00 171.00 0.97 1.42 0.68 .514 to learn a new language Between Groups 0.19 2.00 0.09 0.05 .946 Within Groups 323.45 171.00 1.89 to increase my understanding of my own culture Between Groups Within Groups 0.82 310.61 2.00 171.00 0.41 1.82 0.23 .834 to travel where I feel safe Between Groups 1.53 2.00 0.76 0.53 .596 Within Groups 244.10 171.00 1.43 to meet new people Between Groups 0.50 2.00 0.25 0.19 .827 Within Groups 218.86 171.00 1.28 to engage in physical activities Between Groups 6.04 2.00 3.02 2.16 .123 Within Groups 239.59 171.00 1.40 to socialize with others Between Groups 1.82 2.00 0.91 0.68 .514 Within Groups 228.71 171.00 1.34 to experience new challenges Between Groups 2.63 2.00 1.31 1.12 .333 Within Groups 200.71 171.00 1.17 1 N=175 (5 weeks or less n=59, 68 weeks n=85, 915 weeks n=30). The p values were calculated for a two tailed test. *p < .05. ** p < .001.

PAGE 98

98 Table 4 10. Tukeys post hoc results for benefit sought item, to be with my friends/siblings. Program Length (I) Program Length (J) Mean diff. (I J) Std. error Sig 5 weeks or less 6 8 weeks .38 .20 .143 9 15 weeks .71 .27 .020 6 8 weeks 5 weeks or less .38 .20 .143 9 15 weeks .33 .26 .406 9 15 weeks 5 weeks or less .71 .27 .020 6 8 weeks .33 .26 .406

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99 Table 4 11. Paired T test of benefits sought/realized based on program length. Pre Post Benefit Item Length M SD M SD Gap Score t p To increase cross cultural awareness Short Long 4.27 4.34 1.10 1.24 4.73 4.34 0.46 0.94 0.46 0.00 1.52 0.00 0 .150 1.000 To rest and relax Short 2.93 1.16 3.13 1.06 0.20 0.64 0 .531 Long 3.03 1.20 3.03 1.32 0.00 0.00 1.00 0 To get the most value for my money Short Long 3.00 3.51 1.07 1.36 3.60 3.57 1.12 1.20 0.60 0.06 2.07 0.22 0 .057 0 .825 To live abroad Short 3.80 1.15 3.93 1.33 0.13 0.52 0 .610 Long 4.11 1.30 4.46 0.95 0.34 1.31 0 .200 To enhance my language skills Short 3.33 0.90 3.80 1.15 0.47 1.82 0 .089 Long 3.83 1.36 3.94 1.21 0.11 0.45 0 .653 To have thrills/excitement Short 4.40 0.63 4.40 0.91 0.00 0.00 1.00 0 Long 4.20 1.32 4.46 0.66 0.26 1.04 0 .305 To be physically active Short 3.60 0.99 3.60 1.12 0.00 0.00 1.00 0 Long 3.31 1.18 3.63 1.00 0.31 1.38 0 .176 To achieve personal growth Short 4.73 0.46 4.67 0.49 0.07 0.37 0 .719 Long 4.34 1.24 4.69 0.47 0.34 1.58 0 .123 To be close to nature Short 3.73 1.28 3.67 0.90 0.07 0.22 0 .827 Long 3.00 1.19 3.31 1.05 0.31 1.72 0 .094 To study a subject or take a course not offered at UF Short Long 3.00 2.63 1.41 1.21 3.40 3.09 1.35 1.09 0.40 0.46 1.10 1.71 0 .288 0 .096 To get away from it all Short Long 3.13 2.97 1.36 1.29 3.40 3.91 1.24 1.09 0.27 0.94 0.84 4.35 0 .413 0.0 0** To improve my career prospects Short 3.93 1.10 4.00 1.20 0.07 0.25 0 .806 Long 3.57 1.31 3.97 0.92 0.40 1.81 0 .080 To increase my knowledge of diff. places/cultures Short Long 4.73 4.43 0.59 1.22 4.93 4.71 0.26 0.46 0.20 0.29 1.38 1.26 0 .189 0 .216 To travel Short 4.40 1.06 4.67 0.49 0.27 1.29 0 .217 Long 4.40 1.24 4.71 0.46 0.31 1.34 0 .189 To be independent Short 3.93 1.16 4.60 0.83 0.67 3.16 0 .007* Long 4.06 1.30 4.63 0.55 0.57 2.53 0 .016* To try the local food Short 4.13 0.83 4.47 0.64 0.33 2.65 0 .019* Long 4.11 1.28 4.43 0.70 0.31 1.32 0 .196 To fulfill my responsibilities to my family Short Long 1.87 2.20 0.64 1.05 2.47 2.69 1.13 0.83 0.60 0.49 3.15 2.76 0 .007* 0 .009* To experience a diff. climate Short 3.33 1.05 3.47 1.30 0.13 0.31 0 .764 Long 2.89 1.39 3.20 0.96 0.31 1.22 0 .233 To visit relatives Short 1.87 0.64 2.07 1.10 0.20 0.90 0 .384 Long 1.83 1.25 2.17 1.29 0.34 2.24 0 .032* To feel safe and secure Short 2.40 0.63 2.93 1.03 0.53 2.09 0 .056 Long 2.57 1.09 3.03 1.07 0.46 2.02 0 .051 To visit famous tourist attractions Short Long 3.47 3.54 0.92 1.22 3.67 4.09 0.90 0.66 0.20 0.54 0.82 2.80 0 .424 0 .008* To earn college credit Short Long 3.93 3.71 0.80 1.32 4.20 4.17 1.15 0.89 0.27 0.46 1.74 2.22 0 .104 0 .034* To be with my friends/siblings Short 2.80 1.01 2.73 1.33 0.0 7 0.23 0 .818 Long 3.71 1.32 4.17 0.89 0.54 2.22 0 .034* To study abroad Short 4.33 0.90 4.47 0.52 0.13 0.62 0 .546 Long 4.40 1.29 4.66 0.54 0.26 1.06 0 .299 To see something new Short 4.67 0.49 4.73 0.46 0.07 1.00 1.00 0 Long 4.43 1.22 4.83 0.38 0.40 1.78 0 .085

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100 Table 4 11. Continued. Pre Post Benefit Item Length M SD M SD Gap Score t p To better understand the country I will study in Short Long 4.20 4.26 0.86 1.20 3.80 4.14 1.26 0.97 0.40 0.11 1.70 0.42 0 .582 0 .676 To learn a new language Short 3.27 1.03 1.97 0.64 1.40 4.58 0.00** Long 3.49 1.48 2.20 1.05 1.29 4.92 0.00** To increase my understanding of my own culture Short Long 3.73 3.40 0.96 1.44 3.73 3.83 1.03 0.89 0.00 0.43 0.00 1.87 1.00 0 0 .070 To travel where I feel safe Short 3.27 0.96 3.07 1.16 0.20 0.56 0 .582 Long 2.94 1.19 3.46 1.04 0.51 2.24 0 .032* To meet new people Short 4.13 0.92 4.20 0.94 0.07 0.27 0 .792 Long 4.20 1.18 4.43 0.50 0.23 1.19 0 .244 To engage in physical activities Short 3.60 0.99 3.13 1.41 0.46 1.61 0 .131 Long 3.17 1.25 3.40 0.95 0.23 1.07 0 .292 To socialize with others Short 4.13 1.06 4.20 0.77 0.07 0.19 0 .334 Long 4.09 1.20 4.37 0.60 0.29 1.44 0 .160 To learn more about myself Short 4.40 0.91 4.47 0.64 0.07 0.32 0 .751 Long 4.17 1.22 4.62 0.55 0.46 2.38 0 .027* To experience new challenges Short Long 4.40 4.23 0.63 1.19 4.67 4.60 0.49 0.50 0.27 0.37 2.26 1.9 0 .041* 0 .057 N=50 (Short term programs n=15, df=14; Long term programs n=35, df=34). The p values were calculated for a two tailed test. *p < .05. ** p < .001. Measured on a Likert type scale where 1= Strongly Disagree, 5=Strongly Agree.

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101 Table 4 12. Independent T test of benefits sought based on program location. Europe Non Europe Benefit Item M SD M SD t p To increase cross cultural awareness 4.26 1.23 4.23 1.10 0.18 .855 To rest and relax 3.05 1.21 2.91 1.11 0.74 .460 To get the most value for my money 2.99 1.28 3.43 1.17 2.15 .033* To live abroad 4.16 1.23 3.77 1.27 1.87 .063 To enhance my language skills 3.89 1.39 3.53 1.34 1.61 .108 To have thrills/excitement 4.29 1.19 4.08 1.14 1.09 .275 To be physically active 3.40 1.21 3.62 1.02 1.16 .247 To achieve personal growth 4.42 1.14 4.38 1.04 0.22 .824 To be close to nature 2.96 1.19 3.43 1.28 0.36 .019* To study a subject or take a course not offered at UF 2.57 1.37 2.72 1.34 0.68 .500 To get away from it all 3.08 1.38 2.83 1.24 1.14 .255 To improve my career prospects 3.81 1.24 3.92 1.24 0.56 .579 To increase my knowledge of diff. places/cultures 4.47 1.13 4.34 1.19 0.68 .500 To travel 4.48 1.17 4.30 1.17 0.95 .345 To be independent 4.03 1.23 3.89 1.20 0.73 .469 To try the local food 3.84 1.28 3.87 1.21 0.15 .878 To fulfill my responsibilities to my family 2.07 1.07 2.15 1.03 0.49 .625 To experience a diff. climate 2.89 1.26 2.89 1.15 0.03 .974 To visit relatives 1.92 1.17 1.94 1.13 0.13 .894 To feel safe and secure 2.50 1.07 2.47 0.97 0.17 .869 To visit famous tourist attractions 3.64 1.22 3.04 1.07 3.10 .002* To earn college credit 3.59 1.32 3.72 1.23 0.60 .551 To be with my friends/siblings 2.29 1.20 2.36 1.15 0.37 .713 To study abroad 4.39 1.22 4.17 1.07 1.12 .286 To learn more about myself 4.14 1.18 3.96 1.16 0.92 .361 To see something new 4.45 1.14 4.42 1.03 0.20 .405 To better understand the country I will study in 4.15 1.22 3.98 1.12 0.85 .830 To learn a new language 3.54 1.40 3.08 1.22 2.09 .038* To increase my understanding of my own culture 3.34 1.36 3.53 1.28 0.87 .384 To travel where I feel safe 2.97 1.23 2.94 1.10 0.12 .904 To meet new people 4.27 1.16 4.04 1.02 1.26 .209 To engage in physical activities 3.34 1.20 3.55 1.15 1.08 .282 To socialize with others 4.14 1.19 3.98 1.07 0.83 .405 To experience new challenges 4.25 1.11 4.21 1.03 0.22 .830 1 N=175 (Europe n=122, Non European destinations n=53). The p values were calculated for a two tailed test. *p < .05. ** p < .001. df=173. Measured on a Likert type scale where 1= Strongly Disagree, 5=Strongly Agree.

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102 Table 4 13. Paired T test of benefits sought/realized based on study abroad location. Pre Post Benefit Item Location M SD M SD Gap Score t p To increase cross cultural awareness Europe Non Europe 4.34 4.29 1.20 1.19 4.41 4.52 0.98 0.60 0.0 9 0.24 0.24 0.96 .810 .348 To rest and relax Europe 3.07 1.16 3.03 1.30 0.03 0.16 .873 Non Europe 2.90 1.22 3.10 1.18 0.19 0.64 .530 To get the most value for my money Europe Non Europe 3.07 3.76 1.31 1.18 3.28 4.00 1.28 0.84 0.21 0.24 0.86 0.68 .396 .506 To live abroad Europe 4.24 1.06 4.28 1.16 0.03 0.13 .897 Non Europe 3.71 1.45 4.33 1.02 0.62 2.15 .044* To enhance my language skills Europe 3.83 1.20 3.76 1.24 0.07 0.27 .791 Non Europe 3.48 1.33 4.10 1.09 0.62 2.28 .034* To have thrills/excitement Europe 4.28 1.16 4.38 0.78 0.10 0.47 .639 Non Europe 4.24 1.18 4.52 0.68 0.29 0.95 .355 To be physically active Europe 3.34 1.11 3.41 1.12 0.07 0.30 .769 Non Europe 3.48 1.17 3.90 0.83 0.43 1.75 .095 To achieve personal growth Europe 4.59 1.02 4.76 0.44 0.17 0.93 .362 Non Europe 4.29 1.15 4.57 0.51 0.29 0.97 .343 To be close to nature Europe 3.17 1.14 3.21 0.98 0.03 0.16 .873 Non Europe 3.29 1.42 3.71 1.01 0.43 1.91 .071 To study a subject or take a course not offered at UF Europe Non Europe 2.90 2.52 1.29 1.25 2.93 3.52 1.19 1.08 0.3 0 1.00 0.11 4.02 .910 .001* To get away from it all Europe 3.24 1.30 3.76 1.21 0.52 2.24 .033* Non Europe 2.71 1.27 3.76 1.09 1.05 3.63 .002* To improve my career prospects Europe Non Europe 3.66 3.71 1.23 1.31 3.79 4.24 1.05 0.89 0.14 0.52 0.60 1.99 .556 .061 To increase my knowledge of diff. places/cultures Europe Non Europe 4.59 4.43 0.98 1.21 4.86 4.67 0.35 0.48 0.28 0.24 1.44 0.82 .161 .424 To travel Europe 4.48 1.12 4.72 0.45 0.24 1.16 .257 Non Europe 4.29 1.27 4.67 0.48 0.38 1.25 .225 To be independent Europe 4.17 1.23 4.66 0.67 0.48 2.09 .046* Non Europe 3.81 1.29 4.57 0.60 0.76 3.07 .006* To try the local food Europe 4.17 1.07 4.31 0.76 0.14 0.58 .565 Non Europe 4.05 1.28 4.62 0.50 0.57 2.43 .024* To fulfill my responsibilities to my family Europe Non Europe 2.14 2.05 1.03 0.86 2.34 3.00 0.94 0.77 0.21 0.95 1.14 5.90 .264 .000** To experience a diff. climate Europe 3.14 1.36 3.10 1.18 0.03 0.11 .913 Non Europe 2.86 1.24 3.52 0.87 0.67 2.32 .031* To visit relatives Europe 1.79 1.11 1.93 1.13 0.14 0.85 .403 Non Europe 1.90 1.09 2.43 1.33 0.52 2.75 .012* To feel safe and secure Europe 2.52 0.99 2.93 1.10 0.42 1.99 .056 Non Europe 2.52 0.98 3.10 1.00 0.57 1.87 .076 To visit famous tourist attractions Europe Non Europe 3.72 3.24 1.13 1.09 3.97 3.95 0.73 0.80 0.24 0.71 1.27 2.86 .214 .010* To earn college credit Europe 3.62 1.21 4.00 1.13 0.38 1.78 .086 Non Europe 4.00 1.14 4.43 0.60 0.43 2.01 .058 To be with my friends/siblings Europe 2.24 1.12 2.41 1.18 0.17 0.82 .421 Non Europe 2.14 1.15 2.76 1.22 0.62 3.28 .004* To study abroad Europe 4.48 1.18 4.66 0.48 0.17 0.74 .466 Non Europe 4.24 1.18 4.52 0.60 0.29 0.97 .343 To learn more about myself Europe 4.41 1.05 4.72 0.45 0.31 1.67 .107 Non Europe 4.00 1.22 4.38 0.67 0.38 1.45 .162 To see something new Europe 4.55 0.99 4.79 0.41 0.24 1.23 .086 Non Europe 4.43 1.16 4.81 0.40 0.38 1.40 .176

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103 Table 4 13. Continued. Pre Post Benefit Item Location M SD M SD Gap t p To better understand the country I will study in Europe Non Europe 4.34 4.10 1.08 1.14 4.14 3.90 1.13 1.00 0.21 0.19 0.83 0.56 .421 .584 To learn a new language Europe 3.66 1.42 2.14 1.03 1.52 5.44 0.00** Non Europe 3.10 1.22 2.05 0.86 1.05 3.63 0.00* To increase my understanding of my own culture Europe Non Europe 3.45 3.57 1.30 1.36 3.66 4.00 1.04 0.71 0.21 0.43 0.88 1.44 .386 .165 To travel where I feel safe Europe 3.07 1.13 3.31 1.17 0.24 1.02 .316 Non Europe 3.00 1.14 3.38 0.97 0.38 1.12 .278 To meet new people Europe 4.38 1.08 4.34 0.77 0.0 4 0.18 .861 Non Europe 3.90 1.09 4.38 0.50 0.48 2.02 .056 To engage in physical activities Europe Non Europe 3.34 3.24 1.11 1.30 3.31 3.33 1.11 1.11 0.0 4 0.09 0.16 0.32 .876 .754 To socialize with others Europe 4.21 1.08 4.28 0.70 0.07 0.31 .758 Non Europe 3.95 1.24 4.38 0.59 0.43 1.57 .131 To experience new challenges Europe 4.41 1.02 4.59 0.50 0.17 1.00 .326 Non Europe 4.10 1.09 4.67 0.48 0.57 2.68 .015* N=50 (Europe n=29, Non Europe n=21). The p values were calculated for a two tailed test. *p < .05. ** p < .001. Measured on a Likert type scale where 1= Strongly Disagree, 5=Strongly Agree.

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104 Table 4 14. Content Analysis of open ended responses on pre and post trip surveys. Students looked forward to regarding study abroad (Theme: Sub themes) Students best experiences from studying abroad (Theme: Sub themes) Students least looked forward to from studying abroad (Theme: Sub themes) Students worst experiences from studying abroad (Theme: Sub themes) Students reasons for studying abroad (Theme: Sub themes) Students learned about themselves from studying abroad (Theme: Sub themes) Study abroad impact (Theme: Sub themes) Language Language Language Barriers General Cultural Differences: cigarette smoke; negative attitudes toward Americans Language: Enhancing language skills Confidence Knowledge acquisition Education: Learning new culture; Learning the country; Reputable study abroad program Education: Learning the culture; educational advancement Studying Education Education: Studying Education: Earn credit towards major; Reputable Program Reputation; Conduct research; learn about history/culture Acquisition of skill/acti vity: Outdoor recreation; language skills; travel; heritage tourism Life changing Experience: Slower pace of life; Career advancement; Adopting sustainability practices Personal Growth and Independence Personal Growth and Independence Safety ad Security: Being alone; Crime Health: Homesick ness; Loneliness; Illnesses Personal Growth and Independence: Career advance ment; Graduate/Law School Application Personal Growth and Independence Self awareness: American culture; Newfound Confidence Social Social: Meeting new people; Being with friends; Meeting family members Cultural Immersion: bad food; adjustment period Social: coping with other students in program; leaving friends made during the trip; Social: Visiting family and friends; Meet new people Adaptability Cultural Awareness And Appreciation: New world view perspective

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105 Table 4 14. Continued. What students looked forward to regarding study abroad (Theme: Sub themes) Students best experiences from studying abroad (Theme: Sub themes) What students least looked forward to from studying abroad (Theme: Sub themes) Students worst experiences from studying abroad (Theme: Sub themes) Students reasons for studying abroad (Theme: Sub themes) What students learned about themselve s from studying abroad (Theme: Sub themes) How study abroad impacted students lives (Theme: Sub themes) Cultural Immersion: Living abroad Cultural Immersion: Living abroad Transpor tation and Accommo dations: Roommate issues; Facility issues; Long flight or delays Accomoda tions: Hostel; bus/train issues; lack of gym; Expensive programs Cultural Immersion: Living abroad Cultural Awareness Travelling: Trying local food; Shopping; visiting famous tourist attractions and historical sites. Travelling: Visiting famous tourist attractions and historical sites; Food; Exploring the city Natural/ Environ mental: Natural Habitat; Weather Travel: Experience New things; Once in a lifetime experience Passion for Travel Environment/Nat ural Surroundings: Working with native wildlife; Scenery Environment/Natu ral surroundings Economic: Running out of money Self awareness: Open mindedness N=50.

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106 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCL USION This study explored the benefits sought and realized by U.S. college students studying abroad. Gender, ethnicity, prior international travel experience, study abroad program length and location were examined in relation to benefits sought and realized. Whi le the initial design for this study was a one group pre experimental design comparing the responses of the same students prior to and after their study abroad experience, due to the poor response rate the group before the trip and the group after the trip were evaluated independently of each other in addition to the 50 respondents who completed both the pre and post trip questionnaires when applicable. This chapter draws upon the literature review and theoretical framework to explain the results of the st udy and draw conclusions. Implications of the results and future directions are also discussed. Benefits Sought and Benefits Realized Students sought benefits that relate to novelty (i.e. to see something new, to travel), cultural enrichment (i.e. to incr ease cross cultural awareness, to increase my knowledge of different places and culture, to study abroad), personal (i.e. to experience new challenges, to achieve personal growth), and socializing (i.e. to meet new people) the highest. Students tended to r ate benefits related to destination climate, visiting relatives, responsibility to family, relaxation, safety and security as less important. Climate may have not been a factor during the summer semester since the majority of study abroad programs were located in warmer to moderate climates. Students rated benefits realized associated with travel (i.e. to travel), novelty (i.e. to see something new; to study abroad), personal (i.e. to achieve personal growth; to experience new challenges), and cultural enr ichment (i.e. to increase cross cultural awareness; to increase my

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107 knowledge of different places and cultures) the highest. This supports previous benefits based tourism related literature in that researchers (e.g Shoemaker, 1989; Young, Ott, & Feigin, 1978.) identified similar benefits realized among different types of tourists In these studies, tourist categorized as educational tourists tend ed to rate benefits realized in terms of different cultures, learn new things, attain personal enrichment, partic ipate in cultural activities (i.e. museums, galleries). Indeed, Shoemaker found that to attain their desired benefits these tourists were concerned with getting guided tours, visiting famous cities/places, and participating in a number of activities/things to do. Thus, the findings in relation to study corroborate these earlier notions of educational travelers in that students tend to seek and realize many of the same benefits. In contrast to benefits based tourism related literature (Crompton, 1979; Crask, 1981; Gitelson & Kerstetter 1990; Shoemaker, 1989; Woodside & Jacobs, 1985), most students did not rest and relax, visit relatives, friends or siblings. This pattern is probably explained by the nature of study abroad as group based travel which is usual ly comprised of individuals who are not family members These programs also tend to be quite intensive and so the prospects of relaxing may not be something that the students are seeking nor something they actually experience. One student who had a heritag e connection with their respective country did mention visiting relatives. Although the majority of students in this study did not have a heritage connection with their respective study abroad locations. Thus, heritage connection did not appear to be an important consideration when they chose their study abroad program location. In contrast to this, previous tourism related studies (e.g. Ivanko, 1996; McCain & Ray, 2003) found that there are tourists who travel for the sole purpose of tracing their heritage and this pattern has increased in recent years possibly due to better genealogy access. However, for young students studying

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108 abroad, a personal heritage connection does not seem to be an important benefit sought or realized. The benefits realized by the pre and post trip students after studying abroad relate to escape, safety and security, personal, and travel. Specifically, significant differences were found for the benefits: to get away from it all, to feel safe and secure, to visit famous tourist attractions, to earn college credit, to learn more about myself, to experience new challenges, to enhance my language skills, to study a subject or course not offered at UF, and to be independent. Further, the benefits students least realize d pertained to family responsibility, visiting relatives, and being with their friends or siblings. Interestingly, students also tended not to learn a new language, however, they did report enhancing their language skills. A possible explanation may be tha t the students studied abroad to further enhance a language as opposed to learning a completely new language. Notably, the vast majority of students did not have a foreign language as a major. Students were also given the opportunity to elaborate on their reason s for studying abroad. The themes that emerged included, career or educational advancement, being in a foreign environment, and many believed that study abroad is a once in a lifetime experience. Interestingly, all of the increase in the magnitude o f the means for benefits realized compared to benefits sought indicates that the study abroad experience met the expectations of the students in terms of what they were seeking except for the benefit, to learn a new language. It is becoming increasingly important to understand why students study abroad and to what extent those expectations and perceptions were met as student participation continues to grow each year in record numbers (Gardner & Witherell, 2004; Robalik, 2006; Stephenson, 1999). For this r eason, the Presidents Commission on Foreign Languages and International Studies was

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109 created in 1979 in response to the need to develop resources on the impacts of study abroad. The Commission discerned the importance of research about study abroad, specif ically, programs that stimulate globalization among U.S. college students (Herman, 1996). More and more universities and organizations are increasing their study abroad opportunities by expanding their location inventory as lesser developed countries becom e increasingly modernized, an increase in their course and program offerings, and an increase in their related study abroad financial aid. For example, a female junior who went to Australia and Fiji studied abroad because it was part of her scholarship. U p until recently, empirically based literature on study abroad was scarce. Robalik (2006) found that students hypothesized studying abroad would contribute to their overall understanding of the country they would study in and that studying abroad would contribute to their understanding of other cultures. Following the trip, students believed that studying abroad did indeed contribute to their overall understanding of the country they studied in. Additionally, they believed personal development attributes increased after studying abroad, such as, the feeling that studying abroad enhanced their independence, increased their open mindedness, and improved their self reliance. Previous leisure related literature categorized benefits into four major categories: personal, social, economic, and environmental (Driver et al., 1991). The findings of this study revealed students sought and realized benefits related to novelty and travel. Previous research found that people want as many benefits as possible (Hayley, 196 8), and in addition to novelty and travel related benefits, students s ought and realized study abroad benefits related to cultural enrichment, escape, environment, and social. Similarly, previous benefits based tourism research indicated escape (Papadimitr iou & Gibson, 2008; PenningtonGray & Kerstetter, 2001; Wahlers

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110 & Etzel 1985), personal (Tian et al., 1996) as realized benefits among tourists. Overall, students sought and realized benefits that relate to novelty, travel, cultural enrichment, escape, env ironment, and socializ ing Students in this study also communicated an increase in confidence, cultural awareness, independence, and the ability to overcome challenges. Similarly, Robalik (2006) reported that after students studied abroad they appeared pro ud of the realization that they could manage in a foreign country without much help. She also reported that the students learned to be comfortable with people of diverse backgrounds. In addition, participants discovered increased confidence levels and coul d cope in unique and challenging situations. Certainly, t he findings of this study seem to support the learning outcomes found in previous study abroad studies ( Drexler, 2006; Dukes et al., 1994; Kitsantas, 2004; Kuh & Kauffman, 1985; McCabe, 1994; Opper e t al., 1990). Gender The influence of gender on benefits sought and realized w as explored because prior tourism and student development research (i.e. Chickerings Theory on Student Development, 1969) suggests that there may be motivational differences between male and female students Further, it is suggested that males and females a re affected differently by cross cultural experiences (Baty & Dold, 1977). It is important to note that the male to female ratio was not equal in this study which is, consistent with previous study abroadrelated research and general study abroad participa tion statistics in the U.S. whereby females study abroad in larger numbers than males ( Carlson & Widaman, 1988; Drexler; Farrell & Suvedi, 2003; Goldstein & Kim, 2006; Martin et al., 1995; Robalik, 2006). In this study, females accounted for three quarters of the pre trip group, and almost as many in the post trip group. This study contradicts previous f indings in that gender did not influence study abroad learning outcomes (Dukes et al., 1994; Farrell & Suvedi; 2003). Namely, females sought benefits

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111 relat ed to personal goals, such as, to be independent and to learn more about myself, significantly higher than males. Females also wanted to live abroad more so than males. This reinforces the idea that female students seek to increase or improve their int ercultural relations with foreign cultures more than males (Drexler, 2006). It may be that female students have less independence than males prior to studying abroad due to social norms and values, which inhibit them from taking part in male oriented behav ior that allows them to establish more independence from their parents at an earlier age. Indeed, when Hood and Jackson (1997) correlated the Emotional Independence Parents scale with gender they found that males felt more emotionally independent from thei r parents than did females. Upon returning, females reported they had traveled where they felt safe and expressed more independence than males. This notion supports PenningtonGray and Kerstetters (2001) findings that women sought safety and security as a n important benefit of pleasure travel and is a consistent finding through the tourism literature in that women are more influenced by what Valentine (1989) called the geography of fear. Further, in contrast to previous study abroad literature, when vali dating the Developing Competency Inventory, Hood and Jackson found that male students tended to report greater self confidence scores than females, whereas, in this study it appears that female students developed more self confidence. For the pre and pos t trip group, females realized benefits related to travel (e.g. to visit famous tourist attractions), family responsibilities (e.g. to fulfill my responsibilities to my family; to be with my friends/siblings), personal (e.g. to be independent), and escape (e.g. to get away from it all). On the other hand, females least realized the benefit, to better understand the country I will study in, thus implying that female students returned knowing less or wanted to learn more about the country they had studied i n. In fact, Stephenson (1998) found students who

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112 studied abroad in Chili returned from the experience with more questions about the culture than answers which seems to indicate that study abroad program planners should incorporate more cultural immersion into their programs. On the other hand, males experienced new challenges and met new people. This contrasts with earlier findings by Baty and Dold (1977) where males reported more alienation regarding themselves and the environment. Overall, females realized more benefits from studying abroad than males, preferring travel, escape, and personal related benefits. Certainly, Chickering and Reisser (1993) suggest that there may be differences in the rate of development between male and female students. Indeed, r esearchers have found that females exhibit higher goal achievement in relation to study abroad and s eek to improve or increase their intercultural relations more than males ( Carlson & Widaman; D rexler; Martin et al.; Robalik, 2006). Furthermore, Baty and D old (1977) stated that young men and women may display different learning styles. In support of this supposition, in this study, females generally rated benefits sought and realized higher than males, showing that there maybe indeed gender differences that should be thought about when planning study abroad programs. Ethnicity Over the past sixteen years, there has been a need for U.S. college administrators to conduct research, document student participation in study abroad programs, and to determine the i mpact of such programs on students fr om different ethnic backgrounds (Morgan, Mwegelo, & Turner, 2002). The Council on International Educational Exchange (CIEE) (1991) discussed the importance of recruiting underrepresented students in international excha nge programs. Previous studies have not thoroughly explored ethnicity differences among study abroad participants (Farland & Cepeda, 1989; Hembroff & Rusz, 1993; Washington, 1998; Morgan et al. 2002). For example, Farland and Cepeda found that the enrollme nt of ethnic groups, such as Asian,

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113 Hispanic, and Blacks, was less than 12%. Likewise, differences among students from different ethnic backgrounds were not identified in this study among all represented groups. This may indicate that benefits sought and r ealized among U.S. college students are similar irrespective of ethnicity. Certainly, due to the unequal representation of ethnic minorities in this study caution needs to be exercised regarding this finding and future research is recommended. It is import ant to note that the majority of students who studied abroad were white, thus, findings in this study were narrowed to two groups, whites and ethnic minorities thereby masking any differences among students with different ethnic backgrounds A lack of ethnic representation is consistent throughout study abroad literature, hence is why the CIEE also addressed the need for effect ively tracking and documenting black student participation and increasing the research with underrepresented student groups in study abroad programs. Furthermore, Washington (1998) asserted that the underrepresentation of ethnic minority students participation in study abroad programs signifies limited access to the full range of education and career opportunities and is a major conce rn, even if it occurs unintentionally. Overall, both groups generally rated benefits sought and realized similarly, however, white students generally rated benefits sought higher than ethnic minorities. A possible explanation of this may be that ethnic min orities may have had different attitudes and perceptions about study abroad. In a study by Washington (1998) on the attitudes and perceptions of African American students toward study abroad programs found that their participation in study abroad is influe nced by finance and awareness factors. Thus, it is possible that these students perceive study abroad to be not for them. Indeed, one African American student said she feared negative attitudes from studying abroad; hence, racism and discrimination mig ht be a social constraint for students of an ethnic background to study abroad. Up until the past few decades, study abroad was not a common undertaking among U.S. college

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114 students. It may be that as study abroad participation continues to increase, partic ipant diversity will continue to expand. Furthermore, differences among benefits realized could not be analyzed, as ethnicity was not asked on the post trip questionnaire. When the pre and post trip responses were analyzed, differences between white students and ethnic minority students were found. Students that were white realized the following benefits: to get away from it all, to be independent, and to earn college credit. Furthermore, in addition to the previously mentioned benefits realized, et hnic minorities students realized more benefits from studying abroad than their white peers and relate to socializing, personal, and the environment Specifically, ethnic minority students realized to be close to nature, to fulfill my responsibilities to my family, to experience a different climate, to feel safe and secure, to meet new people, to socialize with others, and to experience new challenges. However, ethnic minority students least realized benefit items, to visit relatives and to be with my friends/siblings. In contrast, white students cited the benefit of earning college credit more than ethnic minority students. This may be attributed to the awareness factor mentioned earlier from Washingtons (1998) study. Furthermore, Hembrof f and Rusz (1993) identified differences among ethnic minorities and white students, which included, economic issues, fear of travel to unknown areas, fear of discrimination and anxieties about language barriers. Indeed, one African American female who stu died abroad in France felt discriminated against during her trip. In essence, Morg an et al. (2002) asserted that black students absence in study abroad is a problem because it limits their exposure to diversity and impacts their ability to understand other cultures and experience enriched educational opportunities outside the classroom. This notion also holds true for students from all ethnic groups.

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115 Prior International Travel Experience Pearce and Caltabiano (1983) found that tourists actual experiences i nfluences motivation to travel. This study supports the notion that previous international travel experience does affect the attitudes of students who study abroad. Previous studies on travel, vacation lifestyles, and study abroad have shown that frequent travelers have different attitudes and opinions than nontravelers or infrequent travelers (Woodside & Pitts, 1976). The overwhelming majority of students had previously travelled internationally before studying abroad. Statistical differences were not fo und based on prior experience with international travel, although, students with prior travel experience rated benefits sought from study abroad higher than those with little or no travel experience. For example, students who had never travelled internatio nally sought the benefit of earning college credit higher than students with previous international travel experience. Pearce (1988) hypothesized that less experienced travelers may be more concerned with their lower order physiological needs based on Masl ows (1943) hierarchy of needs, such as safety and security and relaxation. Perhaps those students who only studied abroad in order to fulfill a requirement held by their department, hence why they had never travelled internationally prior to studying abroad. Another possible explanation is the amounts of financial aid students have the opportunity to gain in todays university system. International travel can be extremely expensive and scholarships fund many students who may not have had the opportunity to travel prior to enrolling in college. In addition, students who had previously traveled international ly three to four times rated personal related benefits sought and wanted to try to the local food the highest. Furthermore, students with no prior international travel realized the benefit to learn more about myself higher than those with more travellin g experience. This supports Robaliks (2006) study where she investigated student level of development and previous overseas experience and found that

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116 students with no international travel experience reported higher levels of development as measured by Chi ckerings (1969) Tolerance and Quality of Relationships subscales. Furthermore, students with previous international travel experience rated benefits realized items, to socialize with others and to experience a new challenge the highest. Pearces (19 88) travel career model, a concept based upon Maslows hierarchy of needs and consumer experience modeling (Ryan, 1998), may provide an explanation for the impact of previous travel behavior (Loker Murphy, 1996; Ryan, 1998). Pearce (2003) hypothesized that five specific hierarchical levels, which coincide with Maslows hierarchy of needs, affect travel behavior. The travel career ladder highlights each tourists motives or patterns, as opposed to one specific reason for traveling. The five levels beginning with the lowest include: 1. Physiological 2. Safety/security needs, 3. Relationship needs, 4. Self esteem/development needs, and 5. Fulfillment. As lower order needs become fulfilled a person may move towards fulfillment at the highest level, self actualiz ation. Thus, Pearce suggests that more experienced travelers concentrate more on the higher order needs, such as self esteem development and personal fulfillment. Indeed, students in this study with previous international experience realized relationship, self esteem/development, and fulfillment needs. However, according to gap analysis, students with no international travel experience realized self esteem/development and fulfillment needs more than their travel experienced peers This may be because it has been demonstrated that students grow from study abroad experiences (Robalik, 2006). In regards to the pre and post trip group, all students realized the benefit of getting away from it all despite the number of times they had previously travelled abroad. Additionally, students with no prior international travel experience realized personal growth and tried the local food. Indeed, growth is the outcome of experiencing significant connections with other people

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117 and cultures (Dukes et al., 1994). Further, students with more international travel experience prior to studying abroad realized independence, fulfilled responsibilities to their family, felt safe and secure, and were with their friends/siblings. Students with the most prior international travel experi ence also fulfilled family responsibilities in addition to visiting relatives. Program Length The Institute of International Education (2009) reported about 40% of U.S. college students study abroad through midlength programs (one semester, one or two quarters), while 56% study abroad for short term programs (including summer, January term, and any program of two to eight weeks), and 4% of students study abroad a full academic year. Approximately half of the students in this study studied abroad between t hree to eight weeks (short term programs), or about one to two months. Inglis et al. (1998) reported that the length of the program abroad impacts the long term benefits experienced by students. Similarly, Herman (1996) gave support for the notion that the longer a student is immersed in another culture the greater development. Indeed, Kuh and Kauffman (1985) stated that living and studying abroad for an unlimited length of time may encourage personal development as a result of the unique and compelling cha llenges that stem from a foreign culture. This gives support to Kuh and Kauffmans notion that study abroad presents a unique learning environment that a student would not gain from a semester in their home country. Interestingly, students in this study who studied abroad for different lengths of time throughout the summer did not differ in terms of benefits sought and realized. Iso Ahola (1983) suggests that motivation can be conceptualized in two ways: seeking and escaping. Unlike previous tourism related studies (Papadimitriou & Gibson, 2008), where tourists sought benefits related to escape from a two to three day vacation, such as rest and relaxation, students who studied abroad for two weeks or less sought novelty. For the pre and post trip group, st udents in both short and long programs both realized independence and

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118 fulfilled responsibilities to their family. However, students in short term programs experienced new challenges. In contract, students in long term programs visited famous tourist attrac tions, earned college credit, learned more about themselves, and traveled where they felt safe. This can be expected since students in longer programs have more time to realize the benefits of study abroad, for example, they had more time to visit famous t ourist attractions. Further, students in longer programs may have had more time to travel independently during their sojourn, thus safety and security were more of an issue. Additionally, students were asked if their study abroad program length was adequa te to meet their goals and most were satisfied. However, the majority of students who studied abroad for three to five weeks wished the program lasted longer. The students who studied abroad for one or two weeks felt the programs were adequate to meet thei r goals. One student who went to Chili for Industrial and Systems Engineering specifically wanted a program during the spring and summer interim so that she could complete her courses on schedule. Students who studied abroad for three to five weeks felt th e programs were long enough to meet their goals, however, some students wanted to stay longer. The six to eight week group was split, half thought the program was long enough and half did not. Some students wanted to stay longer and generally responded wit h travel and tourist related statements. On the other hand, some students felt there was not enough time in the program to learn the content or gain fluency in a language. The nine to 14 week group generally felt the program was adequate to meet their goa ls; some students reported homesickness and generally missed American culture, while other students wanted to travel more after their program. Students who had a family or a spouse in the U.S. all reported missing home and thought the program length was enough time overseas.

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119 Program Location Woodside and Pitts (1976) linked benefits sought to destination choice. Based on lifestyle data, they suggested that travel related industries could differentiate marketing programs for different travel segments. How ever, different study abroad segments could not be identified from this study based on program location due to the small sample size. Notably, the majority of students studied abroad in Europe. A possible explanation may be that study abroad originated in Western Europe via the Grand Tour. Students who studied abroad in Europe sought to visit famous tourist attractions and learn a new language higher than students who studied elsewhere. In contrast, students who did not travel to Europe sought to get the most value for their money and to be close to nature higher. This makes sense because the U.S. dollar tends to be worth more in lesser developed countries during the study period (U.S. Department of the Treasury, 2009). Further, programs that required outdoor exposure (e.g. sustainability topics, such as, ecotourism) or field research (e.g. zoology) for experiential learning purposes, the study abroad programs mainly went to countries outside of Europe, such as, Central and South America or Africa. Differences existed among the pre and post test group among students who went to Europe versus non European destinations. Students who studied abroad at destinations other than Europe realized the benefit of escape, enhanced their language skills, and studied a subject or course not offered at their home institution. Many programs that included onsite field research or nature components involving outdoor/environmental education were not located in Europe, but rather in Australia and Mexico. Further, students who we nt to Europe gained more independence after their experience more than students who went elsewhere. Study abroad originated from Western European society as a means for young aristocratic men to gain independence by travelling throughout Europe. It may be that students who went abroad to

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120 Europe gained more independence than those who went to nonEuropean destinations because the U.S. and Europe, for the most part, are developed and modernized countries and the students were able to grow independently becaus e they were not surrounded by their friends and family. Likes and Dislikes Carlson and Widaman (1988) found that study abroad could be an important contributor to international awareness and potentially contribute to attitudes and behaviors that help foste r international understanding. Tim and Miller (1986) also reported that study abroad developed positive attitudes toward other countries. Indeed, when students were queried about their best experiences abroad, many responded with positive cultural related statements, such as, living and working with new people and overall cultural immersion (e.g. staying with a host family, meeting locals). However, many responses from the post test open ended question, what was your worst experience(s)? contradict that n otion. Some of the students worst experiences were associated with poor housing accommodations, lack of sufficient travel funds, personal relationship issues (i.e. roommate issues or problems with their program cohort), general travel frustrations (i.e. de layed flights and lost luggage) and course content. Using the benefits realized concept, Pearce and Caltabiano (1983) revealed that tourists actual experiences influences travel motivation. Indeed, upon completing their study abroad trip despite these neg ative experiences many students had the desire to travel more. Summary and Implications Since students are studying abroad in record numbers (Gardner & Witherell, 2004), the need to empirically assess benefits students seek and realize from the study abro ad experience has become increasingly vital (Chadee & Cutler, 1996). This study provides information on the motivations to study abroad and to what extent their perceptions were met from studying abroad at a large southeastern university.

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121 The benefits students rated the highest prior to studying abroad were the same benefits students realized. In addition, the responses to the openended questions provided insight about the experiences of study abroad participants. These findings are consistent with the cur rent literature, but add to the tourism and study abroad body of knowledge in that the results are framed within benefit segmentation previously used in tourism marketing research (e.g. Crask, 1981; Crompton, 1977; Crompton & Witt, 1996; Dann, 1981; Driver et al., 1991; Loker & Perdue, 1992; Papadimitriou & Gibson, 2008; PenningtonGray & Kerstetter, 2001; Schul & Crompton, 1983; Shoemaker, 1994; Tian et al, 1996; Wahlers & Etzel, 1985; Woodside & Jacobs, 1985; Woodside & Pitts, 1976). Indeed, this study ha s shown that the framework can be applied to an educational context, study abroad, which has not previously been investigated. The openended responses provided meaningful insight into specific programs, and may provide more substantive support for the not ion that study abroad is beneficial and encourages professional and personal development among students, which is ultimately the purpose of study abroad (Chickering, 1969; Chickering & Reisser, 1993; King, 1990; Robalik, 2006). Furthermore, the theoretical framework is essentially used for the first time to guide research in the area of study abroad. This information may be useful for programs or organizations that require in depth substantive evidence as to why students study abroad, their reasons for choosing a particular program in terms of location and length, as well as the impact the program had on them. Theoretical Implications This study provides further insight about the benefits sought and benefits realized concept and sets the foundation for future research in the area of study abroad. In terms of the conceptual contribution of this study, while the concepts of benefits sought and benefits realized have been used ex tensively in the tourism literature, it has not been applied to study of international

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122 education, specifically, study abroad. The findings of this study have utility in that they identify the different categories of benefits sought and realized among U.S. college students studying abroad. Indeed, benefits sought and benefits realized from students studying abroad are different and combining the two does provide further insight into the underlying reasons for engaging in a particular behavior. Thus, as this concept is introduced into study abroad research and higher education in general, it is hoped that the benefits sought and realized scales can be used as a point of reference for future studies using a benefits approach not only for study abroad but for ge neral global studies. For example, students do not study abroad to fulfill family responsibility, hence, it is suggested to omit the item in future study abroad benefits based research. Furthermore, knowing the benefits realized by students studying abroad may be helpful for planning marketing strategies of each program to appeal to different segments of students. For example, a student with no previous international travel experience may be best suited for short term programs with reasonably course content difficulty. Further, students who are more interested in environmental benefits may be more suitable for programs located in Central or South America. These questions can be asked on a simple survey given to students who are interested in studying abroad. Further, promoting a tool that identifies students study abroad needs may entice more to participate in the experience. Practical Implications A commitment to international education can best be achieved by effective educational programs, which train cit izens for adequate understanding, participation, and communication with other nations (Florida House, 1989). Barnett (1991) asserted that administrators of higher education are always concerned with the effectiveness of their organizations. Barnett also st ated that the area of international studies and programs in institutions of higher education is generally new and without structural precedent. Judith A. McHale, under Secretary of State for Public

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123 Diplomacy and Public Affairs, stated that study abroad can help students to understand our interconnected world and to participate productively in the global economy. The findings from this study provide useful implications for study abroad programs and international education in general. International studies an d programs can encompass a wide variety of components, to position study abroad as a n integral portion of student development. For example, it is suggested that all the necessary services are provided, which may include: area study centers (originally designed to represent a geographic area in order to create specialists in the field and centers of information for the government to access in time of need), international student services (which perform basic student affairs and admissions functions such as immigration paperwork, counseling, orientation, housing referrals, and other nonteaching functions), outreach programs (which seek to inform the general public, especially K 12 public and private students, about international studies), research and student exchange agreements (e.g. contract negotiations coordinated through a council and administered by a dean), and appropriate academic departments (performing the traditional teach functions within the university) (Barnett, 1991). Barnett (1991) found that administrators at the program level are less congruent, have different goals or agendas, and may consider different immediate and long term priorities. Study abroad programs are managed by an advisor, w ho may be a faculty member that teaches in an area relating to the study abroad program they sponsor, and who may also coordinate, or direct the actual academic portion of the program. A study abroad program coordinator may also act as an advisor with si milar responsibilities, which may include, academic advisement, admissions decisions, development of program content, travelling abroad, and instruction Many study abroad advisors compete for the same students to go on their trip and there is much overlap of responsibilities, thus, Barnett suggested that there is a need for greater internal cohesiveness

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124 among colleagues to strive for the highest effectiveness levels, maximum efficiency and more effective communication. She found that one university noted for their success in removing institutional barriers to international study and broadening the base of participation in the international elements of teaching and learning on campus held informational training for prospective study abroad advisors that encom passed risk management training, staff support in the application process, program logistics (e.g. collection of required materials and program deposits), and international education opportunities. Thus, it is imperative that faculty and administration, su ch as study abroad and academic advisers alike, correspond regularly to meet the needs of the student as well as the educational institution. Many students study abroad for career advancement. U.S. university systems often provide students with career res ources and services, such as, resume building, mock interviews, and job placement. It may prove useful to develop programs focused on certain goals, such as career advancement to increase students career opportunities in an increasingly globalized society In supposition, Dr. Goodman, President and CEO of the Institute of International Education (2008) stated, More students are eager to study in newly popular study abroad destinations such as China, India, and the Middle East. The language and cultural skills they acquire along with their academic experience will have a profound effect on their lives and careers. Study abroad participation is not as high as it could be. To increase participation among students, Barnett (1991) found one university implemented various support activities, which facilitate the process for students and faculty to study abroad. Such activities included establishing a passport acceptance agency and risk management faculty programs. Certainly, risk management is a vital component of study abroad. The findings from this study indicated that females are highly concerned with safety and security needs. Although the already established

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125 pre departure meetings address such safety and security concerns, perhaps it may be useful to provide a more in depth informative session solely focused on safety and security needs with their respective study abroad advisor. Students, particularly female students, can then establish a relationship with their advisor and feel more comfortable going abroad. According to Dr. Goodman, it is important for universities to make it possible for students from diverse backgrounds and in diverse fields to take advantage of study abroad opportunities (Open Doors, 2009). The findings of this study generally indicate t hat students of ethnic background may gain mor e from study abroad than their w hite cohorts. Indeed, less affluent students are often the ones who can benefit most from the international experience. It has been shown that financial issues are major barriers for African American students to study abroad. In response, study abroad practitioners have developed various scholarships to increase participation among students of ethnic background. The State Department strongly supports study abroad through such programs as the Fulbright Program, which is sending its largest number ever of U.S. students abroad this year, and the Benjamin A. Gilman International Scholarship Program, which in two years has doubled the number of U.S. undergraduates with financial need wh om we support for study abroad (Open Doors, 2009). Since students come from very diverse socio economic backgrounds, it is also important to provide an equal opportunity experience. Thus, providing more scholarships with different criterion may help foster participation rates. Most importantly, outcome assessment of study abroad is a critical tool to evaluate study abroad programs and learning outcomes. One university known for their best practices in internationalization asked students to compose a compre hensive portfolio in which they state their academic and non academic goals (Open Doors, 2009). Upon returning the students wrote

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126 an evaluation on their goal achievement. Students also evaluated the program components and learning experiences in a separate survey at the end of the study abroad program. Notably, the universitys study abroad programs are successful in removing institutional barriers to international study and broadening the base of participation in the international elements of teaching and learning on campus. In 2008, the institution aggressively promoted study abroad at K 12 schools by speaking with teachers and counselors. Many students from that years incoming freshmen class chose that university because of the study abroad opportunities Thus, student feedback has proven to be a useful tool when developing future programs. The findings from this study support the notion that student feedback is critical for study abroad program enhancement. In this study, some students mentioned the cour se content was too difficult, particularly language courses. Other students felt there was too much content to cover over the course of the trip or they were stuck in a lab all week instead of soaking in the culture, thus, inhibiting students from achievin g certain learning outcomes associated with cultural competency skills and foreign language acquisition. One university known for their department of global studies affords students the opportunity to develop their own customized study abroad program based on their individual needs (Study Abroad Arcadia University, 2010) Thus, it may prove useful for a student to meet with their academic advisor and a study abroad coordinator to develop a program that best fit their needs. In summary, implications from this study suggest that study abroad practitioners: Focus on risk management, specifically addressing safety and security needs among female participants Implement marketing strategies aimed at freshmen and K 12 students Clearly demarcate the pros and con s of shorter programs versus longer programs and group travel versus independent travel

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127 Offer travel packages before or after a program to maximize students overall satisfaction with the experience Implement intentional evaluation and outcome assessment of programs, specifically language courses Increase financial aid, specifically for those students of an ethnic background Develop an assessment tool when selecting a program for students during the decision phase Include all of the necessary study abroad services (e.g. passport authorization, area study centers). Recommendations for Further Research One of the goals of this study was to create study abroad profiles based on benefit segmentation. The idea behind the benefits sought and realized concept is t o create market segments, or clusters. However, due to the small sam ple size student profiles were i ndistinguishable and the need to better assess student needs from the experience would be better suited for a sample size of 300 or more. Hence, factor anal ysis was employed as an additional segmentation tool to identify the underlying dimensions in the benefits sought/realized scales. Rather than identifying study abroad market segments, factor analysis identified the underlying constructs that explain corre lations among the study abroad variables. This study was the first to test the structure of the variables in a study abroad context. Indeed, small sample size was also an issue when conducting factor analysis. Costello and Osborne (2005) empirically tested the effect of sample size on the results of factor analysis and reported that larger samples tend to produce more accurate solutions. Another problem associated with small samples in factor analysis is the sp lintering of factors into smaller groupings of items that really constitute a larger factor. A future study could also measure intent to study abroad among a control and experiment group. Research designs such as longitudinal studies, which detect change s in attitudes and behavior, are also recommended. For example, if the participants of this study were interviewed

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128 in five or ten years from now, would any of them rank benefits realized the same or six months later? Future research may also include variab les such as level of involvement in selecting a program among others and study abroad program housing offerings (i.e. student dormitory versus family home stay). According to benefits based tourism related literature, images shape expectations ( Bigne, S anchez, & Sanchez, 2001) and tourists choose between different destinations based on the extent to which their images of a destination are expected to meet the benefits they seek in a vacation (Fakeye & Crompton, 1991). There are numerous print publications and informational pamphlets that contain information on various study abroad programs, such as, program costs, length, courses offered, housing accommodations, etc. Study abroad marketing materials that contain images can be assessed on students motivat ions and intent to study abroad. Different theoretical frameworks can also be employed, such as, expectancy theory and other tourism related theories to measure the extent of students expectations of study abroad. Researchers have shown that when a destination does not live up to its expectations this has a negative effect on the overall evaluation of the vacation and the destination (Bigne et al. 2001; Chen & Tsai, 2007; Chi & Qu, 2007). Even further, the traditional student did not account for all the participants in this study. There were non traditional students in age groups thirty years old and above.) Researchers have f ound that benefits sought vary by age (Gibson & Yiannakis, 2002; Gitelson & Kerstetter, 1990) Perhaps a study investigating study a broad differences in age with a large sample is called for. Lastly, the services of the UFIC, including pre trip country information sessions and study abroad peer advisor consultations, could also be explored in terms of students perception about study a broad.

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129 Limitations The limitations of the study include survey question wording and possible participant fatigue. University of Florida students and UFIC staff reviewed the survey before it was administered to the participants of the study to establish content and face validity. To alleviate participant fatigue, the preand post test questionnaires were limited to 44 closeended questions and three to four openended questions. Further, the college sample used for this study was largely a homogeneous group, thus generalizati ons from the findings should be exercised with caution and limited to similar U.S. universities and colleges. A limitation of the posttest questionnaire was that age and gender were the only questions asked as opposed to all of the demographic and sociodemographic questions that were asked on the pre trip questionnaire. The initial thought was that this information would be collected using the pre test instrument. In actuality only 50 students who had completed pre test completed the post test. This inhib ited further analysis of those respondents who only answered the post trip questionnaire. The pre test questionnaire was administered prior to overseas travel and a post test was administered immediately upon return in order to examine the benefits realize d from studying abroad. Because the study abroad programs started and ended at different times throughout the summer, data collection was staggered accordingly until the last program finished. However, as a result of start and end dates varying so greatly, some students may have been emailed the preand/or post test link several weeks prior to their departure and upon return. Thus, students may have influenced their benefits sought and realized prior to and upon returning from studying abroad. Notably, the ethnic minority sub sample was not a homogenous group, thus, findings should be generalized with caution.

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130 Furthermore, in the present study the issue of maturation simply as a result of lapsed time and life stage of each participant was not accounted for; therefore, it is a challenge to full determine if the benefits sought and realized were due to the study abroad experience, the college experience, or time itself. Carlson and Widaman (1988) also noted that study abroad participants were self selected and potentially ready to shift in the observed directions regardless of the study abroad experience. Delimitations The primary delimitation in this study was the small sample size. There was a potential for approximately 1000 responses for the pre and post t est each. However, only 175 questionnaires were completed for the preand post test. Furthermore, only 50 respondents completed both the pre and the posts tests, thus two groups are essentially independent. The study was also delimitated to University o f Florida students enrolled in Summer 2009 University of Florida sponsored programs. Generalizations made from the findings may be applicable to those universities with similar demographics and study abroad programs. This also limits generalizability of th e results to those studying abroad for no more than four months and may preclude those who for example spend an entire academic year abroad. Another issue related to sampling is that random selection was not used thus any generalizations of the results should be made with care. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that participants in a study abroad program may realize benefits related to education and educational entertainment, personal, social, enrichment, environmental and natural surroundings, thrills and excitement, physical, rest and relaxation, safety, and economic. Benefits sought and realized items that related to family togetherness were not a motivational aspect of the study abroad experience. Consistent themes emerged among the

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131 openende d responses from the students in this study that include independence, cultural awareness, and a newfound sense of confidence (Robalik, 2006). While this study can only draw inferences about study abroad for programs that last for one academic semester or less (according to the University of Florida Registrar approximately four months or less), it has provided a more indepth look at study abroad benefits students seek and benefits they realize. In closing, the benefits experienced as a result of studying abroad are not limited to the benefits sought and realized items, but can also be explained by the general responses from the openended questions. Many students realized more about themselves through the study abroad experience, specifically, students gained more independence after their trip. One female student whose program went to Australia and Fiji best explained her post trip perspective when she explained that, I learned that I can do anything that I set my mind to because I hiked when I wanted to sit down and was really out of breathe, I swam in open water, did research experiments, etc. I also learned that I really love my family and friends that accept me for who they are and that I am a very open person that doesn't judge people as much as others d o. This statement concurs with Kuh and Kaufmans (1985) earlier notion that one of the many benefits of study abroad is that it forces the student to overcome challenges they would not necessarily face in their home environment.

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132 APPENDIX A PRE TEST QUESTIONNAIRE The entire questionnaire was posted on the worldwide web only and appears here in accordance with the University of Florida Graduate School Thesis Guidelines. UF IRB Informed Consent Thank you for agreeing to take part in this st udy. Please read carefully before participating in this study. This study is to investigate benefits sought and realized among college students studying abroad. The study involves answering a short online questionnaire that will take about 1015 minutes to complete. The survey is voluntary, but your input is extremely important. There are no "correct" or "incorrect" answers in the survey, so please express your true feelings. Benefits from this study include understanding what outcomes you seek in a study abroad program, and to what extent those benefits are realized. Your responses will contribute to a Masters thesis investigating various aspects of study abroad. Also, the findings of this study may provide UFIC with information about your experiences and behaviors that can be used in the future programming and marketing of their programs. There is no compensation for completing the survey, but your responses are extremely important. The survey is confidential. Your confidentiality will be protected to the extent provided by law. You are asked to provide your UF ID number on the survey. Your UF ID number will be used to match your pre trip questionnaire with your post trip questionnaire. Once you have completed the post trip questionnaire your ID number will be deleted from the database. Your participation in this study is voluntary and you have the right not to answer any questions. There is no penalty for not participating and you are free to withdraw at anytime without penalty. There are no ri sks associated with participation in this study. PLEASE CLICK ON THE LINK BELOW TO ACCESS THE SURVEY If you have any questions concerning this study, please contact: Sarah Welch gatorska@ufl.edu or by telephone (407) 8082239. You can also contact my university supervisor Dr Heather Gibson, Associate Professor, Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management, 304 Florida Gym, P.O. Box 118208, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 326118208, Email: hgibson@hhp.ufl.edu Phone: (352) 3924042 ext. 1249. Questions concerning your rights as a participant in this study should be directed to the UFIRB office at (352) 3920433, or write to Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 326112250. Pre test study abroad survey

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133 Section 1: Study Abroad Programs 1. Which country or countries is your study abroad program located in? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 2a. What is your Study Abroad Departure Date ________ (mm/dd/year) 2b. What is your Study Abroad Return Date_____ __________ (mm/dd/year) 3a. What is your major? ____________________________ 3b. What is your department?________________________ 4. If your major is a foreign language, is it the primary language of the country you will be studying in? Yes...1 No....2 My major is not a foreign language.3 5a. Do you have a heritage connection with the country you will study in? Yes No.2 Dont know 5b. If yes, what is it? __________________________________________ 6. How many times have you traveled internationally prior to your study abroad trip? Never...1 1 to 2 times..2 3 to 4 times.. 5 or more times What is your UFID number? __________________________ We need this information to match your pre and post surveys. Once you have completed the post survey your number will be deleted from the database Here are some questions about your study abroad program.

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134 7. If you have traveled internationally, where have you traveled to in the past? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 8. What other countries are you planning to visit during your stud y abroad experience in addition to your program study country(s)? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 9. How long is your study abroad program? Days ______ (time spent studying in the host country) 10. What are you looking forward to regarding your study abroad experience? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 11. What are you least looking forward to regarding your study abroad experience? ___________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ Section 2: Benefits Sought Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Disagree Agree 12. To increase my cross cultural 1 2 3 4 5 awareness 13. To rest and relax 1 2 3 4 5 14. To get the most value for my money 1 2 3 4 5 15. To live abroad 1 2 3 4 5 16. To enhance my language skills 1 2 3 4 5 17. To have thrills and excitement 1 2 3 4 5 18. To be physically active 1 2 3 4 5 19. To achieve personal growth 1 2 3 4 5 20. To be close to nature 1 2 3 4 5 21. To study a subject or take a course 1 2 3 4 5 not offered at UF 22. To get away from it all 1 2 3 4 5 Below is a list of reasons you may have for studying abroad. Please rate the degree to which you agree or disagree that each reason was important to you in your decision to study abroad, where 1= strongly disagree and 5= strongly agree.

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135 23. To improve my career prospects 1 2 3 4 5 24. To increase my knowledge of 1 2 3 4 5 different places/cultures 25. To travel 1 2 3 4 5 26. To be independent 1 2 3 4 5 27. To try the local food 1 2 3 4 5 28. To fulfil my responsibilit ies to my 1 2 3 4 5 family 29. To experience a different climate 1 2 3 4 5 30. To visit relatives 1 2 3 4 5 31. To feel safe and secure 1 2 3 4 5 32. To visit famous tourist attractions 1 2 3 4 5 33. To earn college credit 1 2 3 4 5 34. To be with my friends/siblings 1 2 3 4 5 35. To study abroad 1 2 3 4 5 36. To learn more about myself 1 2 3 4 5 37. To see something new 1 2 3 4 5 38. To better understand the country I 1 2 3 4 5 will study in 39. To learn a new language 1 2 3 4 5 40. To increase my understanding of 1 2 3 4 5 my own culture 41. To travel where I feel safe 1 2 3 4 5 42. To meet new people 1 2 3 4 5 43. To engage in physical activities 1 2 3 4 5 44. To socialize with others 1 2 3 4 5 45. To experience new challenges 1 2 3 4 5 Section 3: Demographics 46. Are you? Male.1 Female.2 47. In what year were you born? _________Year 48.What is your current educational level or class standing? (Please circle one) Freshman 1 Sophomore 2 Junior 3 Senior. 4 Graduate 5 Now a few questions about you

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136 49. What is your race/ethnicity? (Please circle one) White alone 1 Black or African American 2 Asian alone 4 Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander alone 5 Hispanic or Latino 6 M ixed race 7 Other (Please specify)_______________________ 50. Here is your chance to provide some more details about your choice to study abroad. ___________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ Thank you for taking the time to help us. Should you have any questions about t his questionnaire, please contact Sarah Welch at gatorska@ufl.edu or Dr. Heather Gibson at hgibson@hhp.ufl.edu

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137 APPENDIX B POST TEST QUESTIONNAIRE The entire questionnaire was posted on the worldwide web only and appears here in accordance with the University of Florida Graduate School Thesis Guidelines. UF IRB Informed Consent Thank you for agreeing to take part in this study. Please read carefully before participating in this study. This study is to investigate benefits sought and realized among college students studying abroad. The study involves answering a short online questionnaire that will take about 1015 minutes to complete. The survey is voluntary, but your inpu t is extremely important. There are no "correct" or "incorrect" answers in the survey, so please express your true feelings. Benefits from this study include understanding what outcomes you seek in a study abroad program, and to what extent those benefit s are realized. Your responses will contribute to a Masters thesis investigating various aspects of study abroad. Also, the findings of this study may provide UFIC with information about your experiences and behaviors that can be used in the future programming and marketing of their programs. There is no compensation for completing the survey, but your responses are extremely important. The survey is confidential. Your confidentiality will be protected to the extent provided by law. You are asked to provide your UF ID number on the survey. Your UF ID number will be used to match your pre trip questionnaire with your post trip questionnaire. Once you have completed the post trip questionnaire your ID number will be deleted from the database. Your par ticipation in this study is voluntary and you have the right not to answer any questions. There is no penalty for not participating and you are free to withdraw at anytime without penalty. There are no risks associated with participation in this study. P LEASE CLICK ON THE LINK BELOW TO ACCESS THE SURVEY If you have any questions concerning this study, please contact: Sarah Welch gatorska@ufl.edu or by telephone (407) 8082239. You can also contact my university supe rvisor Dr Heather Gibson, Associate Professor, Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management, 304 Florida Gym, P.O. Box 118208, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 326118208, Email: hgibson@hhp.ufl.edu Phone: (352) 3924042 ext. 1249. Questions concerning your rights as a participant in this study should be directed to the UFIRB office at (352) 3920433, or write to Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 326112250.

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138 Post test Study abro ad survey Section 1: Study Abroad Experiences 1. What was/were your best experience(s)? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 2. What was/were your worst experience(s)? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 3. What did you learn about yourself? Please explain. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 4. In what ways do you feel the program impacted your life? Please explain. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 5. Which country or countries did you travel to during your study abroad trip? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________6. Do you feel that your study abroad program length was adequate to meet your goals? Please explain. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 7. Is there a nything else that you would like to share about your study abroad experience? What is your UFID number? __________________________ We need this information to match your pre and post surveys. Once you have completed the post survey your number will be deleted from the database Now that you are back from your study abroad experience, please share some of your experiences and thoughts about studying abroad.

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139 ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ Section 2: Benefits Realized Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Disagree Agree 8. To increase my cross cultural 1 2 3 4 5 awareness 9. To rest and relax 1 2 3 4 5 10. To get the most value for my money 1 2 3 4 5 11. To live abroad 1 2 3 4 5 12. To enhance my language skills 1 2 3 4 5 13. To have thrills and excitement 1 2 3 4 5 14. To be physically active 1 2 3 4 5 15. To achieve personal growth 1 2 3 4 5 16. o be close to nature 1 2 3 4 5 17. To study a subject or take a course 1 2 3 4 5 not offered at the UF 18. To get away from it all 1 2 3 4 5 19. To improve my career prospects 1 2 3 4 5 20. To increase my knowledge of different places/cultures 1 2 3 4 5 21. To travel 1 2 3 4 5 22. To try new challenges 1 2 3 4 5 23. To try the local food 1 2 3 4 5 24. To fulfil my responsibilities to my family 1 2 3 4 5 25. To experience a different climate 1 2 3 4 5 26. To visit relatives 1 2 3 4 5 27. To feel safe and secure 1 2 3 4 5 28. To visit fa mous tourist attractions 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Disagree Agree 29. To earn college credit 1 2 3 4 5 Now that you have returned from studying abroad, please take some time to reflect on whether the following reasons you had for studying abroad were met for you on your program. Below are a list of benefits you may have met while studying abroad. Please rate the degree to which you agree or disagree that each reason was important to you in your decision to study abroad, where 1= strongly disagree and 5= strongly agree.

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140 30. To be with my friends/siblings 1 2 3 4 5 31. To study abroad 1 2 3 4 5 32. To learn more about myself 1 2 3 4 5 33. To see something new 1 2 3 4 5 34. To better understand the country I 1 2 3 4 5 will study in 35. To learn a new language 1 2 3 4 5 36. To increase my understanding of 1 2 3 4 5 my own culture 37. To travel where I feel safe 1 2 3 4 5 38. To meet new people 1 2 3 4 5 39. To engage in physical activities 1 2 3 4 5 40. To socialize with others 1 2 3 4 5 41. To experience new challenges 1 2 3 4 5 Section 3: Demographics 42. Are you? Male.1 Female.2 43. In what year were you born? _________Year Your time is greatly appreciated in completing this questionnaire! Thank you for taking the time to help us. Should you have any questions about this questionnaire, please contact Sarah Welch at gatorska@ufl.edu or Dr. Heather Gibson at hgibso n@hhp.ufl.edu Now a few questions about you.

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141 APPENDIX C FIRST EMAIL CONTACT FOR STUDY ABROAD SUR VEY E mail Contact for Pre Trip Survey Dear UF Study Abroad Students As you may remember, at the UFIC pre departure orientation you were told that you would be receiving a request to take part in a Masters thesis study looking at study abroad. I am writing to you now to ask you to participate in my study about your choice to study abroad this summer. Filling out the online questionnaire will only take about 10 to 15 minutes of your time. By clicking on the link listed below you will see the informed consent form for this study. Please read it and keep a copy of the con tact information. The questionnaire is posted online and the link for the survey can be found at the end of the informed consent form. Please fill out the questionnaire by typing in the responses, and then click done at the end of the questionnaire. P lease only click done once otherwise you will submit your questionnaire multiple times. If you have any questions please feel free to contact me Sarah Welch at gatorska@ufl.edu As always your help is very much appreciated. Thanks Sarah Welch, Masters student, Department of Tourism, Recreation and Management PLEASE CLICK ON THE LINK BELOW TO ACCESS THE SURVEY https://novisurvey.novisystems.com:443//n/PreStudyAbroadSurvey.aspx

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142 APPENDIX D SECOND EMAIL CONTACT FOR STUDY AB ROAD SURVEY This is for students who have not yet completed the pre return study abroad survey. Please email Sarah Welch at gatorska@ufl.edu with any questions you may have regarding it! Dear UF Study Abroad Students, I hope that you had a great time on your study abroad program. As you may remember, you filled out a survey for my Master's thesis research before your departure. I am writing to you now to ask you to fill out the post trip surve y telling me about your experiences with your study abroad program. Filling out the online questionnaire will only take about 10 to 15 minutes of your time. Please use Internet Explorer or Mozilla Foxfire when completing the survey. By clicking on the link listed below you will see the informed consent form for this study. Please read it and keep a copy of the contact information. The questionnaire is posted online and the link for the survey can be found at the end of the informed consent form. Please f ill out the questionnaire by typing in the responses, and then click "done" at the end of the questionnaire. If you have any questions please feel free to contact me Sarah Welch at gatorska@ufl.edu As always your help is very much appreciated. Thanks, Sarah Welch, Master's student, Department of Tourism, Recreation and Management PLEASE CLICK ON THE LINK BELOW TO ACCESS THE SURVEY https://novisurvey.novisystems.com:443//n/PreStudyAbroadSurvey.aspx

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143 APPENDIX E THIRD EMAIL CONTACT FOR STUDY ABROAD SUR VEY E mail Contact for Post Trip Survey Dear UF Study Abroad Students I hope that you had a great time on your study abroad program. As you may remember, you filled out a survey for my Masters thesis research before your departure. I am writing to you now to ask you to fill out the post trip survey telling me about your experiences with your study abroad program. Filling out the online questionnaire will only take about 10 to 15 minutes of your time. By cli cking on the link listed below you will see the informed consent form for this study. Please read it and keep a copy of the contact information. The questionnaire is posted online and the link for the survey can be found at the end of the informed consent form. Please fill out the questionnaire by typing in the responses, and then click done at the end of the questionnaire. Please only click done once otherwise you will submit your questionnaire multiple times. If you have any questions please fee l free to contact me Sarah Welch at gatorska@ufl.edu As always your help is very much appreciated. Thanks Sarah Welch, Masters student, Department of Tourism, Recreation and Management PLEASE CLICK ON THE LINK BELOW TO ACCESS THE SURVEY https://www.novisystems.com/NoviSurvey/n/PosttestStudyAbroadSurvey.aspx

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144 APPENDIX F FOURTH EMAIL CONTACT FOR STUDY ABROAD SUR VEY This is for students who have not yet completed the post return study abroad survey. Please email Sarah Welch at gatorska@ufl.edu with any questions you may have regarding it! Dear UF Study Abroad Students, I hope that you had a great time on your study abroad program. As you may remember, you filled out a survey for my Master's thesis research before your departure. I am writing to you now to ask you to fill out the post trip survey telling me about your experiences with your study abroad program. Filling out the online questionnaire will only take about 10 to 15 minutes of your time. Please use Internet Explorer or Mozilla Foxfire when completing the survey. By clicking on the link listed below you will see th e informed consent form for this study. Please read it and keep a copy of the contact information. The questionnaire is posted online and the link for the survey can be found at the end of the informed consent form. Please fill out the questionnaire by ty ping in the responses, and then click "done" at the end of the questionnaire. If you have any questions please feel free to contact me Sarah Welch at gatorska@ufl.edu As always your help is very much appreciated. Thanks, Sarah Welch, Master's student, Department of Tourism, Recreation and Management PLEASE CLICK ON THE LINK BELOW TO ACCESS THE SURVEY https://www.novisystems.com/NoviSurvey/n/PosttestStudyAbroadSurvey.aspx

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145 APPENDIX G PRE TRIP DEMOGRAPHICS N=175 Table G 1. Pre trip study abroad program location by continent and country. Study Abroad Location (Continent) Frequency Valid Percent Study Abroad Location (Country) Frequency Valid Percent Europe Africa Central/South America Asia Australia/North America 122 10 24 15 4 69.70 17.50 13.70 8.60 2.30 Austria Belgium Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark England France Germany Ireland Italy Netherlands Poland Russia Spain Morocco South Africa Belize Brazil Costa Rica Chile Mexico Peru China India Japan South Korea Taiwan Thailand Australia Bahamas 2 1 1 2 1 10 26 21 2 22 5 2 1 25 2 7 1 3 6 6 8 1 7 1 6 1 1 1 3 1 1.14 0.57 0.57 1.14 0.57 5.71 14.86 12.00 1.14 12.57 2.86 1.14 0.57 14.29 1.14 4.00 0.57 1.71 3.43 3.43 4.57 0.57 4.00 0.57 3.43 0.57 0.57 0.57 1.71 0.57 a N=175

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146 Table G 2. Pre trip students department and major Department(s) Frequency Valid Percent Major(s) Frequency Valid Percent Agricultural and Life Sciences Veterinary Medicine Agricultural and Life Sciences 17 9.70 Animal Biology Animal Science Family, Youth, and Community Science Botany Ecology Environmental Science Food and Resource Economics Food Science and Human Nutrition Plant Medicine 1 1 5 1 2 1 1 5 1 0.57 0.57 2.90 0.57 1.10 0.57 0.57 2.90 0.57 Law 15 8.00 Law 15 8.60 Health and Human Performance Public Health and Health Professions 8 4.60 Communication Sciences and Disorders Health Science Occupational Therapy Recreation, Parks, and Tourism 3 2 1 2 1.70 1.10 0.57 1.10 Medicine Nursing Pharmacy Dentistry 3 1.70 Nursing Pre Med Pre Dental 3 1 2 1.70 0.57 1.10 Engineering Design, Construction and Planning 20 11.40 Architecture Civil Engineering Digital Arts and Sciences Industrial and Systems Engineering Interior Design Material Sciences and Engineering Mechanical Engineering Urban and Regional Planning 5 1 2 5 2 1 1 1 2.90 0.57 1.10 2.90 1.10 0.57 0.57 0.57

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147 Table G 2. Continued. Department (s) Frequency Valid percent Major (s) Frequency Valid percent Business Administration 33 18.90 Accounting Business Business Administration Economics Finance Information Systems International Management MBA Marketing 6 2 3 5 3 1 2 5 6 3.40 1.10 1.70 2.90 1.70 0.57 1.10 2.90 3.40 Fine Arts Journalism and Communications Liberal Arts and Sciences 80 45.70 Advertising Anthropology Arabic Art Biochemistry Biology Chemistry Chinese Chinese History English Film and Media Studies French Geography Geology German Graphic Design3 History Interdisciplinary Studies Journalism Linguistics Literature Physical Anthropology Physics Psychology Political Science 4 6 1 1 1 7 2 2 3 9 1 2 2 1 2 3 3 1 6 2 1 1 2 11 7 2.30 3.40 0.57 0.57 0.57 4.00 1.10 1.10 1.70 5.10 0.57 1.10 1.10 0.57 1.10 1.70 1.70 0.57 3.40 1.10 0.57 0.57 1.10 6.30 4.00 a N=175. Note. Pre trip data only. Percentages may not equal 100 due to missing data. Some reported more than one major N=175 representing number of responses.

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148 Table G 3. Pre trip length of study abroad programs Length of Program Frequency Valid Percent 2 Weeks 13 4.3 3 5 Weeks 46 15.3 6 8 Weeks 85 28.3 9 14 Weeks 28 9.3 1a N=175. Note. Pre trip data only. Percentages may not equal 100 due to missing data.

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149 Table G 4. Pre trip previous international travel experience Prior International Travel Frequency Valid Percent Never 27 15.40 1 2 Times 55 31.40 3 4 Times 30 17.10 5+ times Total 62 174 35.40 99.30 a N=175. Note. Pre trip data only. Percentages may not equal 100 due to missing data.

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150 APPENDIX H PRE AND POST TRIP DEMONGRAPHICS N=50 Table H 1. Pre and post trip students study abroad location by Continent and by Country. Study Abroad Location (Continent) Frequency Valid Percent Study Abroad Location (Country) Frequency Valid Percent Europe Africa Central/South America Asia Australia/North America 29 1 9 10 1 58.00 2.00 18.00 2.00 2.00 Austria England France Germany Italy Netherlands Poland Spain South Africa Belize Brazil Costa Rica Chile Mexico China India Japan South Korea Taiwan Australia 2 1 4 5 7 2 1 6 1 1 2 1 2 3 3 1 4 1 1 1 4.00 2.00 8.00 10.00 14.00 4.00 2.00 12.00 2.00 2.00 4.00 2.00 4.00 6.00 6.00 1.00 8.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 n=50

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151 Table H 2. Pre and post trip students department and major. Department(s) Frequency Valid Percent Major(s) Frequency Valid Percent Agricultural and Life Sciences Veterinary Medicine 6 12.00 Animal Biology Botany Ecology Economics Zoology 2 1 1 2 1 4.00 2.00 2.00 4.00 2.00 Law 2 4.00 Law 2 4.00 Health and Human Performance Public Health and Health Professions 2 4.00 Communication Sciences and Disorders Family Youth and Community sciences Health Science Occupational Therapy 1 1 1 2.00 2.00 2.00 Engineering Design, Construction and Planning 7 14.00 Architecture Digital Arts and Sciences Industrial and Systems Engineering Information Systems Urban and Regional Planning 2 1 2 1 1 4.00 4.00 2.00 2.00 Business Administration 9 18.00 Accounting Business Finance MBA Marketing 1 4 2 1 1 2.00 8.00 4.00 2.00 2.00 Fine Arts Journalism and Communications Liberal Arts and Sciences Table. H 2 Continued. 23 64.00 Anthropology Art Biology Chinese English Film and Media Graphic Design Journalism Linguistics Major Physical Anthropology Physics Psychology Political Science Spanish Womens Studies 2 1 3 1 2 1 1 3 1 Frequency 1 1 2 2 1 2 4.00 2.00 6.00 2.00 4.00 2.00 2.00 6.00 2.00 Valid Percent 2.00 2.00 4.00 4.00 2.00 4.00 a N=50. Note. Pre trip data only. Percentages may not equal 100 due to missing data. Some reported more than one major N=175 representing number of responses.

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152 Table H 3. Pre and post trip length of study abroad programs. Length of Program Frequency Valid Percent 5 weeks or less 15 30.00 6 15 weeks 35 70.00 a n=50. Note. Pre trip data only. Percentages may not equal 100 due to missing data. Table H 4. Pre and post trip previous international travel experience. Prior International Travel Frequency Valid Percent Never 22 11.00 1 2 Times 18 36.00 3 4 Times 30 18.00 5+ times 12 24.00 a n=50. Note. Pre trip data only. Percentages may not equal 100 due to missing data.

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153 APPENDIX I OPENENDED RESPONSES Table I 1. Matched pre post tests openended responses pre sample only. Demographics Gender, Age, Ethnicity, Class Standing, Major, & Country Pre Test Question #10: What are you looking forward to regarding your study abroad experience? Post Test Question #1: What was/were your best experience(s)? Female, 20, White, Junior Animal Biology, Belize I am looking to learn about a different culture and the livestock industry in Central America. I am also looking forward to working with some of the native wildlife including jaguars. Castrating bulls, pigs, horses. Spaying dogs, learning about parasitology. Learning about Belizean wildlife: feeding/enriching jaguars, bottle feeding tapirs, treating scarlett macaws, boa constricters, pacas, kinkajous, coatimundis. Learning how to blow dart. Seeing the o nly manatee rehabilitation center in northern Central America. Female, 22, Black/African American, Junior, Family, Youth, & Community Sciences, Austria Self growth Visiting many different countries in Europe was the best because I got to see cultural differences. Female, 21, White, Junior, Biology, UK Meeting new people, living in a different country Meeting new people! Female, 20, White, Junior, Linguistics, China Becoming more fluent in the language, making new friends, and learning about a different culture. Making new friends that I will have for the rest of my life. Male, 22, White, Senior, Political Science/Business Administration, Germany Mastering the German language and meeting many new interesting people Travelling with new friends throughout Europe. Female, 25, Hispanic/Latino, Graduate, Law, France Traveling before and after the trip. As well as living in France for the summer. Travelling with my friends before and after classes. Male, 22, White, Physics, France Seeing Europe, learning about a new culture, learning about new research topics. research. Business, China (other fields not specified) Soaking in the culture: everything and anything from the food, to the people, the history, the shopping experie nces. Climbing the Great Wall and seeing the Olympic buildings. Seeing Shanghai. I loved living in the dorms with all the other students at Tsinghua University. I also loved traveling within Beijing on the subways and bikes but also outside of Beijing on the trains. Male, 21, White, Senior, Political Science, Germany Learning the language, learning a new culture, and meeting new people. Traveling. Female, 21, White, Senior, EnglishFilm & Media Track, Italy I'm excited about living in a new place and meeting new people. I'm really excited about what I'm studying. I'm excited about having an adventure. The best experience of studying abroad was really meeting so many amazing people. I made some really great friends and we had so many incredi ble adventures together!

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154 Table I 1. Continued. Demographics Gender, Age, Ethnicity, Class Standing, Major, & Country Pre Test Question #10: What are you looking forward to regarding your study abroad experience? Post Test Question #1: What was/were your best experience(s)? Male, 21, White, Senior, Architecture, Mexico New experiences, big cities, different cultures, new ways of life and habits and characteristics, observing. The food. The ripest fruits. Inexpensive meals. Getting to se e and experience great architecture. Female, 21, Asian, Senior, Architecture, China glimpse of my culture finally, eating authentic food, meeting and interacting with the people here, interacting with architecture students here, experiencing buildings i n a highly urban setting. Working with the Chinese students in Xian. Female, 23, Hispanic/Latino, Graduate, Law, France Seeing a new country and culture: monuments, history, museums, food, and the overall experience. Traveling and getting to know different countries. Female, 20, White, Junior Economics, Italy/England No air conditioning in my apartment, long flight, getting lost and unable to comprehend Italian, having Italian men pinch my butt, getting robbed or stolen from. I got frusterated with Italian people who were rude to Americans. They would run in to you, cut you in line, etc. Male, 22, White, Senior, Political Science/Business Administration, Germany Spending a lot of money. I am also afraid of getting embarassed with my German language skills. Having such a rigorous course load in such a short amount of time. It made it difficult to relax and enjoy travelling. Female, 57, White, Senior, Womens Studies, Netherlands I am making a stretch in relation to my own comfort and independence. Although I feel this is important to make, I hope that I can prove myself adequate and competent in the challenge that I am undertaking. I did not find the first two weeks section of the summer course manageable. The text and reading were almost inaccessible, and the speakers too technical for our backgrounds. With a massive amount of complex material, the final was impossible. Female, 20, Hispanic/Latino, Junior, Anthropology, Italy The expenses. Sharing a room with another person. Being in an artificial school where I was only with other American students. Female, 21, White, Junior, Biology, UK Going alone with no other students. Having to work in the lab during weekdays preventing me from being around town on beautiful days. I loved working in the lab and learning new things, but sometimes it prevented me from social things (understandable). And not having a gym! Female, 21, White, Junior, Zoology, Australia Being so far away from friends and family for a long period of time. With some of the other students in the group that were loud and disrespectful.

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155 Table I 1. Continued Female, 21, White, Junior, Economics, Italy The language barrier. I am afraid that I might get ripped off since I am an America. A couple of my roommates were not the nicest to me. There were some instances that made me more excited to come home than I probably should have been but all in all, it was still a nice experience. Demographics Gender, Age, Ethnicity, Class Standing, Major, & Country Pre Test Question #10: What are you looking forward to regarding your study abroad experience? Post Test Question #1: What was/were your best experience(s)? Female, 20, White, Junior, Finance, Spain I honestly can say that I view everything as an opportunity to learn abroad, and therefore I am looking forward to most everything. Feeling lost in a foreign country! A lot of us were spread out in our homestays and communication was much more difficult. Especially at night, there was no worse feeling than feeling like you couldn't find the right way home. Female, 20, White, Junior, Journalism, UK Getting acclimated to all of the differences of a country other than America. It will take some time to get used to little differences. Dealing with money was very difficult, and travel was expensive! I had some problems on different weekend trips with train travel. Also, the building I lived in during my study abroad program was noisy and the people on my trip were often disagreeable. n =50

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15 6 APPENDIX J PROGRAM LENGTH RESPONSES Table J 1. Participants response to post test question #6: Do you feel that your study abroad program length was adequate to meet your goals? Demographics Gender, Age, Ethnicity, Class Standing, Major, & Country Number of Days in Program Statement Program Duration: 1 2 weeks (N=3) Male, 37, White, Graduate, Executive MBA, Gernany 7 Yes. I believe we could have viewed another city in addition to Munich and just visited key businesses. Female, 29, Hispanic/Latino, Graduate, Industrial Engineering, Chile 15 Yes. It is the best experience to interact and know how people work Female, 23, White, Senior, Industrial & Systems Engineering, Chile 15 Yes. I wanted a program that didn't take place during a fall or spring semester as I would not be able to complete the courses necessary to graduate. This 15 day program was perfect for my summer schedule. The length of the program was one of the initial aspects of the program th at attracted me. Program Duration: 3 5 weeks (N=11) Female, 20, White, Junior, Animal Biology, Belize 20 Yes and no. I feel that one month was enough to get my feet wet in two completely different areas of animal health. We spent the first two weeks learning about domesticated animals and the second two weeks learning about wildlife. However, I feel that I could have gained MUCH more experience and insight had the program run a couple weeks longer. Female, 22, Black/African American, Junior, Family, Youth, & Community Sciences, Austria 21 Yes, but I do wish that I studied abroad for the whole summer!!!! Female, 57, White, Senior, Womens Studies, Netherlands 26 I liked the six weeks format. It was time enough to get comfortable and familiar, but the time it was over, coming home was a nice respit. Male, 23, Senior, Animal Biology, Costa Rica 28 It was perfect. I thought I would be okay leaving for longer than 3 weeks but at the end of that third week I was ready to get to my house in Gainesville Male, 28, White, Graduate, Ecology, South Africa 28 I would have liked to be there longer. I would have been able to do better research.

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157 Table J 1. Continued. Demographics Gender, Age, Ethnicity, Class Standing, Major, & Country Number of Days in Program Statement Female, 20, Hispanic/Latino, Journalism, Sophomore, England & France 28 Yes. I have never really traveled abroad before for such a lengthy amount of time. I've been to Mexico before but that was only for a week. Being out of the country and on a different continent for a whole month was just what I needed. It assured me that I am strong enough and independent enough to travel for a long period of time withou t seeing close friends and family and that I was able to adapt to new surroundings quickly and successfully. Conversely, the monthlong excursion kept me wanting more, which shows me that I can visit a foreign place for longer than a month and be just fine with it. Female, 21, Hispanic/Latino, Senior, Psychology & English, Brazil 30 I think the trip should have been longer. In order to truly bring about social change in a community, one needs a bit more time than 3.5 weeks. After interviewing community members and professors many of our groups realized that we needed to change our projects, and therefore it would have felt less rushed if we had an extra week or two. Male, 21, Senior, Architecture, Mexico 30 Yes. I didn't really know what to expect from the program but I believe I gained more from it in the amount of time given than I could have ever imagined. Female, 21, White, Senior, EnglishFilm & Media Track, Italy 31 I definitely wish I had signe d up for a longer program, because I absolutely loved the country, the school, the subjects I was studying, and especially the people I met abroad. It was really hard to leave all of my new friends and come back to the US. I also miss going to the studio e very morning to work on my next piece! Female, 20, White, Junior Economics, Italy/England 31 I studied abroad for one month and I felt it was the perfect length. I tend to get very homesick. It was bitter sweet when I left. Female, 19, Arab Egypitian, English, Austra/Germany/England 32 One month was ok. Program Duration: 6 8 weeks (N=26) Male, 22, White, Senior, Political Science/Business Administration, Germany 33 It was adequate, but I feel it should be longer for the amount of class/workload that was required. Female, 51, White, Senior, Physical Anthropology, Netherlands 35 Yes. Not too short or too long.

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158 Table J 1 Continued. Demographics Gender, Age, Ethnicity, Class Standing, Major, & Country Number of Days in Program Statement Female, 23, White, Senior, Journalism, Mexico 35 Yes, but I would have loved to stay longer Female, 20, White, Senior, English, Japan 35 Yes, but I wish it would have been a bit longer. Female, 19, White, Sophomore, Marketing, Spain 35 Yes, because when I left I felt like I was ready to see my family and be home again. I would have liked to stay longer and lived there for a lot longer, but the time I had was enough to reach my goals. Female, 21, White, Junior, Communication Sciences & Disorders, Spain 40 Yes and no. I am more fluent in Spanish but I think I would have liked to have staid a little bit longer in Spain, maybe twice as long as the original trip (6 weeks). Female, 21, White, Junior, Psychology, Spain 40 yes, all my goals were met, but I would have loved to stay in Europe longer, for at least another month or two, even without my program Male, 21, Junior, Biology, UK 40 No Needed more time to explore London. Female, 21, White, Junior, Zoology, Australia 42 Yes. Any longer I would've have missed people way too much and any shorter it would've cut out valuable experiences. Female, 21, Asian, Senior, Architecture, China 42 Yes, we were in each city for a length efficient enough to understand the basic fabric and components of each city. Also, staying in Hong Kong was a good introduction to the program as it was easier to adjust. Business Administration, Japan (other information not specified) 42 Yes, it was the perfect amount of time. Female, 19, Black/African American, Sophomore, Biology, Poland 42 Yes, 6 weeks felt a good amount of time to be abroad. Female, 21, White, Junior, Economics, Italy 42 Yes. Information Systems, Italy (other information not specified) 42 No I wish I could have stayed longer to master the language.

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159 Table J 1. Continued. Demographics Gender, Age, Ethnicity, Class Standing, Major, & Country Number of Days in Program Statement Male, 46, White, Graduate, Urban & Regional Planning, Brazil 42 Yes. My academic goals were met 100%. Having traveled abroad many times, my expectations were met and exceeded culturally. Female, 21, Hispanic/Latino, Junior, Anthropology, Germany 42 I went abroad to earn my Zertifikat Deutsch (a proficiency certificate) and I believe I did pass the exam, so technically, yes it was enough time. However, if the program were a little longer, I don't think it would've been as stressful. Plus more time in Europe would just be better in general. Female, 21, White, Senior, Occupational Therapy, Italy 42 I wish it could have lasted longer. Female, 21, White, Senior, Political Science, Germany 42 No I needed much more time to learn the content. I feel like the whole summer would have been much m ore successful. Female, 20, White, Junior, Womens Studies, India 42 No. In order to fit in six credits worth of class, the schedule allowed little to no room for the students to explore the town or to have free time. During the six week program we only had five days without class. Female, 18, Hispanic/Latino, Freshman, Graphic Design, Mexico 42 I wish it were longer, I was just beginning to familiarize myself with the city when we left Merida. Female, 20, White, Junior, Finance, Spain 42 I truly wish that the program was longer. One of my main goals going into the program was to master the Spanish language. I have been a student of Spanish for over 6 years now and I felt that all I needed was the push of language immersion to become fully co mfortable speaking in whatever context. However, I quickly learned there that I had a lot more to learn than I realized and the 7 weeks that I was in Spain for were just not going to cut it. I was frustrated that just as I was warming up to the challenge, it was time to pack up and leave. Female, 21, Junior, White, Digital Arts & Sciences, Japan 42 Yes, I think any longer and I would have started disliking the country. It's too difficult to stay very long, it's very foreign. Female, 29, White, Graduate, Art, Japan 43 yes. For sure. I created a body of writing and artwork that was really amazing and I felt that I had a chance to see a lot. Tokyo is very overwhelming and a longer program would have been difficult to deal with. I think we were all ready to go home. Plus it was by far the most expensive five weeks of my life.

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160 Table J 1. Continued. Demographics Gender, Age, Ethnicity, Class Standing, Major, & Country Number of Days in Program Statement Female, 23, Hispanic/Latino, Graduate, Law, France 44 Definitely. I wanted to study law and get a cultural experience over the summer, and I got to do both via UF's program. I learned about EU law, got to meet people from many different countries, got decent grades, and learned about myself. I'm very happy with the experience. Male, 21, Asian, Junior, Finance/Political Science, South Korea 45 No. 6 weeks was not enough to fully experience the country. I really wish I could have been there for a longer period of time. Female, 22, White, Junior, Family, Youth, & Community Sciences, Italy 46 Yes it was. It was just long enough! I spent Summer B so it was a 6 week program and it was long enough to study and travel. Would I have stayed longer...YES!! But it was just the right amount o f time for a study abroad program. Program Duration: 9 14 weeks (N=10) Female, 20, Hispanic/Latino, Junior, Athropology, Italy 50 Yes and No. It met my expectations of allowing ample time to travel to many places. However, I wish I would have attended a local insitution instead of an American school abroad. Female, 21, White, Junior, Biology, UK 60 Yes I had time to travel and co llect lots of data in may lab. Although, I would like to return to just travel throughout Europe at some point. Female, 20, White, Junior, Linguistics, China 60 It was perfect. Three months gave me enough time to study and have fun. My class was able to cover an insane amount of material, but I was still able to go out and explore and become familiar with the city. Female, 25, Hispanic/Latino, Graduate, Law, France 65 The program itself was long enough to teach us the fundamentals about the European Union and the CISG. However, I would have loved more time to visit more countries. Female, 20, Asian, Junior, Botany & Chinese, Taiwan 70 Yes, and no. Two months is definitely not enough time to learn about a country's cultures and languages. But after a while, being away from home also made me realize how attached I was to food and lifestyle in America also. Male, 22, White, Junior, Physics, France 72 Yes, got a l ot done, but was very ready to go home at the end Female, 21, White, Junior, Accounting, Spain 86 Yes, it was just enough time. Business, China (Other information was not specified) 88 Yes, we were in Beijing for three months and I thought that the length was perfect. I had enough time to adjust to Beijing and experience a lot that Beijing has to offer. I went to very many famous places in Beijing and explored it very well in three months.

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161 Table J 1. Continued. Demographics Gender, Age, Ethnicity, Class Standing, Major, & Country Number of Days in Program Statement Female, 20, White, Junior, Journalism, UK 88 Yes, I did the entire summer semester, which gave me plenty of time. I was happy to come home at the end because I missed everyone. But I still wish it didn't have to end. Male, 21, Hispanic/Latino, Junior, Business Administration & Spanish, Spain 88 The program length was by far perfect. I stayed a little beyong the program's official end date and I've enjoyed it thoroughly because it allowed me to live as a native. I already knew the city and I had no influence from Americans or from people that I kn ew. I was alone and I LOVED it!!! n=50.

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162 APPENDIX K STUDENTS RESPONSES TO OPENENDED QUESTIONS PRE #10, 11; POST #1, 2 Table K 1. Students responses to openended questions Pre #10, 11; Post #1, 2 Gender, Country(s), Maor(s) What students looked forward to Students best experiences What students least looked forward to Students worst experiences Male, Germany, Political Science and Business Administration Mastering the German language and meeting many new interesting people. Travelling with new friends throughout Europe. Spending a lot of money. I am also afraid of getting embarassed with my German language skills. Having such a rigorous course load in such a short amount of time. It made it difficult to relax and enjoy trav elling. Female, Belize, Animal Biology I am looking to learn about a different culture and the livestock industry in Central America. I am also looking forward to working with some of the native wildlife including jaguars. Castrating bulls, pigs, horses. Spaying dogs, learning about parasitology. Learning about Belizean wildlife: feeding/enriching jaguars, bottle feeding tapirs, treating scarlett macaws, boa constricters, pacas, kinkajous, coatimundis. Learning how to blow dart. Seeing the only manatee reh abilitation center in northern Central America. The mosquitos. Contracting parasitic amoebas. Female, Netherlands, Physical Anthropology Cultural immersion Riding my bike to school everyday. Learning & LIVING the culture I was learning about. Missing my family The textbook used for the European Cultures course. Dry, dull and uninteresting. Female, Italy, Athropology Being immersed in a culture I do not understand completely. Living in a city and country where I do not speak the language. Connecting with people from all over the world. Meeting locals and making friends with people abroad. The expenses. Sharing a room with another person. Being in an artificial school where I was only with other American students. Female, Mexico, Journalism learning sp anish meeting Mexican people, learning spanish, making good friends with other students the smokers coming home, readjusting to the U.S. I didn't really have bad experiences in Mexico

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163 Table K 1. Continued. Gender, Country(s), Major(s) What students looked forward to Students best experiences What students least looked forward to Students worst experiences Female, Japan, English I am already in my study abroad experience, and it all has been great. My favorite part of my experience was the time that I spent working on the art show that we held. The airplane flight home. Being homesick. Female, Salzburg, Family, Youth, and Community Sciences Self growth Visiting many different countries in Europe wa s the best because I got to see cultural differences. negative people My worse experience was when I got lot of stares because I was black. Female, Netherlands, Womens Studies I look forward to learning more about different cultural systems and social behaviors and beliefs. I very much enjoyed my visit to a multi cultural neighborhood named Lombok. I liked that there was an effort being made for people to actually place themselves in the environment of those unlike oneself to promote understanding. I am making a stretch in relation to my own comfort and independence. Although I feel this is important to make, I hope that I can prove myself adequate and competent in the challenge that I am undertaking. I did not find the first two weeks section of the sum mer course manageable. The text and reading were almost inaccessible, and the speakers too technical for our backgrounds. With a massive amount of complex material, the final was impossible. Female, Spain, Marketing Living in a different type of culture. My best experience was staying with a host family. Not knowing the language My worst experience was almost missing my flight or train. Female, Spain, Communication Sciences and disorders Masterin Spanish Being able to visit some historical sites in the ho st country that I may not have been able to do so if I were vacationing in that host country. It was interesting on seeing how other cultures live out their daily lives. Bad roommate problems My roommate. She used ageism against me and didn't treat me well at all. Female, UK, Biology Meeting new people, living in a different country Meeting new people! Going alone with no other students Having to work in the lab during weekdays preventing me from being around town on beautiful days. I loved working in th e lab and learning new things, but sometimes it prevented me from social things (understandable). And not having a gym!

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164 Table K 1. Continued. Gender, Country(s), Maor(s) What students looked forward to Students best experiences What students least looked forward to Students worst experiences Male, Germany, MBA Understanding of culture, business practices. The tour of the BMW Production Plant, visit to EADS, and the visit to King Ludwig's Castle. Being away from family and lon g flight time. The 10 hour trip to Munich and back. Also, some of the speakers we heard were less than charismatic. Female, China, Linguistics Becoming more fluent in the language, making new friends, and learning about a different culture. Making new friends that I will have for the rest of my life. The difficulties surrounding learning a new language. All the problems that came out of new friendships. Female, France, Law Traveling before and after the trip. As well as living in France for the summer. Travelling with my friends before and after classes. Jet lag. Finding out that SNCF (train company in France) cannot find your ticket purchase/reservation by your name you NEED the reservation code and there is no wifi available in the actual train st ation, and that your ticket cannot be reprinted. Female, Spain, Psychology I cannot wait to soak in the beautiful sights, gorge myself on the delicious food, and perhaps be able to get the feel for what it's like to be a local. I think what I'm looking forward to the most is being able to live and interact in a completely new an Some of the best times I had while abroad were bonding with my fellow students in the program during the first couple of days while were doing some excursions. Just discovering t he new cities together, going out at night and drinking cheap wine and getting to know different people from all over America with different perspectives I will never forget those days. I'm a little apprehensive about trying to communicate to others who only speak Spanish, considering I don't speak any Spanish at all. Also, I'm a little nervous about doing my own independent travel. I can't really say I had any "bad" experiences, but there were times I was homesick and the uniquenes of being abroad wore off a little. However, these moments passed by very quickly and did not detract from my experience in the slightest. Also, I had some "difficulties" missing trains and planes after the program was over, but they weren't too bad, just stressful, and forced me to be more self sufficient. Male, England, Biology A culture shock. Exploring the City alone and spending time with my Flatmates. Bad food. Traveling Expenses. Male, Costa Rica, Animal Biology Experiencing a new culture and a way of life. I hope to br oaden my views of the world outside the US. Climbing the Volcano in Costa Rica I tend to get homesick, I will miss my friends and family The 4 hour lectures in hot and humid classrooms

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165 Table K 1. Continued. Gender, Country(s), Major(s) What students looked forward to Students best experiences What students least looked forward to Students worst experiences Female, Australia, Zoology Seeing and learning about the unique wildlife. I loved the field experiences like scuba diving, snorkeling and hiking. Being so far away from friends and family for a long period of time With some of the other students in the group that were loud and disrespectful. Female, China, Architecture glimpse of my culture finally, eating authentic food, meeting and interacting with the people here, interacting with architecture students here, experiencing buildings in a highly urban setting Working with the Chinese students in Xian. spending money Being unabl e to fully comprehend and translate due to limited vocabulary. Male, Japan, Business Administration Learning about the culture to see if it was what I had always imagined it would be based on my perceptions from back home. Hiroshima Jet Lag N/A Male, South Africa, Ecology Conducting research, seeing wildlife Seeing and working with wildlife. The long flight, the danger of crime None Female, Poland, Biology Learning the culture and practicing the language. Learning the polish language better. Realizing at the end I knew enough to hold a conversation. Getting back into the U.S. only a week before school starts Running into a few unfriendly people and not understanding certain things because of the language barriers (although most people I came across were very nice). Female, Chile, Industrial Engineering Make a comparative analysis of Chile and my country in terms of Economics, Development and Industrialization. Meet a new culture Waste my time. The cold weather

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166 Table K 1. Continued. Gender, Country(s), Major(s) What students looked forward to Students best experiences What students least looked forward to Students worst experiences Male, France, Physics Seeing Europe, learning about a new culture, learning about new research topics research Missing my friends and family and my home. The language barrier. Not making friends here. administrative screw ups Female, Spain, Accounting learning a new language, experiencing a new culture Visiting all the amazing sites in Spain and in other countries as well. It was also wonderful to be immersed into a language that I was unfamiliar with. It forced me to learn to understand and I feel that my language skills grew so much! living in a strange place No air conditioning :) Male, Italy, Information Systems Language Living in Florence. Idk Dealing with the African immigrants. Male, Brazil, Urban and Regional Planning The studio class program and the opportunity to visit Sao Paulo, Ilha de Santa Catarina, Mathinos, Brasilia, R io de Janero and Maringa 1. Sitting on the beach in Ipanema drinking caipharinas 2. Dancing in a club in Rio's Lapa neighborhood at 4 am with some girls from Atlanta 3. Working with the students at Universidade Positivo on our project 4. One word: Churrasc aria missing time with my dogs (which is to say, very little) 1. Twisting my ankle on those crappy Portuguese sidewalks 2. Horrible bus rides. I shall NEVER again take a bus anywhere more than an hour away. 3. A lack of a suitable 'buddy' with a similar be nt for exploration and dining adventures. Female, Germany, Anthropology Personal growth, language proficiency, cultural exposure Meeting new people, befriending the other students in my program, being extremely independent, being immersed in a new culture, experiencing a new location and practicing the language adjustment period Grocery shopping, adjusting to the food in general, and dealing with 1820 hours of daylight.

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167 Table K 1. Continued. Gender, Country(s), Major(s) What students looked forward to Students best experiences What students least looked forward to Students worst experiences Female, Italy, Occupational Therapy Foreign culture The friends I made and the places I traveled to. Language barriers Getting lost when trying to meet up for the on site Roman monuments course. Female, Germany, Political Science Learning the language, learning a new culture, and meeting new people. Traveling Comming home Dealing with one bad apple in the program Female, France and England, Journalism learning about France and its people. Seeing historical monuments up close that I usually just read about in books or hear about in class. Nightlife was a great way to witness cultural differences and meet people fro m all around the world. The scenic views in different cities were breathtaking and unforgettable. expensive food, overeating. Freezing my butt off because I didn't bring appropriate clothing. I didn't think it was going to be that cold in London! Also, it was kind of pricy, but I guess that's how all study abroad programs are. Female, India, Womens Studies living on an organic farm, speaking with citizens of the host country Bathing in the Ganges river. weather, getting sick Getting sick and fighting with other students. Female, Brazil, Psychology and English Seeing different parts of Brazil and meeting new people My best experience was visiting two underresourced communities called Saramandaia, and Matarandiba, getting the opportunity to meet the people of the community and to find out their needs and dreams. Perhaps not having enough time to travel around My wors t experience was saying goodbye to the friends I made over the course of one month. Female, Mexico, Graphic Design learning more spanish traveling to the ruins sites, exploring the downtown section of merida getting sick the heat and getting stung by th e many mosquitos, and getting diarrhea a lot. Female, Spain, Finance I am most looking forward to language immersion and the ability to see globalization first hand. Meeting the people in the program. We were all from a mix of schools and backgrounds and it was so interesting to see how globalization brings you all together. I honestly can say that I view everything as an opportunity to learn abroad, and therefore I am looking forward to most everything. Feeling lost in a foreign country! A lot of us were spread out in our homestays and communication was much more difficult. Especially at night, there was no worse feeling than feeling like you couldn't find the right way home.

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168 Table K 1. Continued. Gender, Country(s), Maor(s) What students looked forward to Students best experiences What students least looked forward to Students worst experiences Female, Japan, Digital Arts and Sciences Learning about the culture, practicing the language, the food, the music, pop culture, the people, being in a city Going to the Studio Ghibli Museum not knowing the language fluently, being away from my friends and family Our first night's dinner Female, Japan, Finance Art culture, class work, food, meeting new people exploring the city alone, seeing something new everyday the flight feeling lonely, feeling homesick Female, UK, Journalism Visiting all the cultural and historical sites of London, traveling Europe, living on my own in a new country I loved getting to know the city I was in and experiencing daily life in a new place. I also enjoyed traveling on my free time and getting to know people from all different countries and cultures. Getting acclimated to all of the differences of a country other than America. It will take some time to g et used to little differences. Dealing with money was very difficult, and travel was expensive! I had some problems on different weekend trips with train travel. Also, the building I lived in during my study abroad program was noisy and the people on my tr ip were often disagreeable. Female, France, Law Seeing a new country and culture: monuments, history, museums, food, and the overall experience. Traveling and getting to know different countries. Language barriers, possible discrimination toward me as an American, staying in hostels, and travelling in too large of a group (it may become unmanageable). Language barriers and cultural differences. Male, Mexico, Architecture New experiences, big cities, different cultures, new ways of life and habits and cha racteristics, observing The food. The ripest fruits. Inexpensive meals. Getting to see and experience great architecture. NA Getting sick. It was probably the worst and the best at the same time. I believe we all got the stomach virus at some point during the trip so it made for some pretty funny memories.

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169 Table K 1. Continued. Gender, Country(s), Maor(s) What students looked forward to Students best experiences What students least looked forward to Students worst experiences Female, Italy, English, Film and Media Track I'm excited about living in a new place and meeting new people. I'm really excited about what I'm studying. I'm excited about having an adventure. The best experience of studying abroad was really meeting so many amazin g people. I made some really great friends and we had so many incredible adventures together! I'm nervous about catching a taxi. The worst experience was with travel in Europe. Most of the time, traveling was really fun, but sometimes it turned into a huge ordeal with strikes, late trains, horrible airport experiences, etc. Also, we did at times have trouble with a bit of sexual harassment towards me and my roommate because both of us are blonde, so we stuck out to aggressive Italian men! Male, South Korea, Finance and Political Science The culture I liked meeting my family members the best Studying Having to stay in and studying while other people were going out and having fun Female, Italy and England, Economics Being independent, exploring museums, riding a train, seeing all of the sights!! I was in Italy, so the food!! Also, many of the things I heard hype about: the Colloseum, riding a gondola in Venice, riding in a boat and swimming in the grotto in Capri. But of all, I loved Venice, Ital y!! No air conditioning in my apartment, long flight, getting lost and unable to comprehend Italian, having Italian men pinch my butt, getting robbed or stolen from. I got frusterated with Italian people who were rude to Americans. They would run in to you, cut you in line, etc. Female, Chile, Industrial and Systems Engineering Learning and understanding the culture more. I really enjoyed just walking around the city we were in and seeing its sights. I really liked being on the coast next to the Pacific! T o gain actual field experience in Energy Management Consulting. I guess staying at the Hostal. This was because it was very cold outside and there was no heat system in the building. It was not horrible, but could have been a little better.

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170 N=50. Table K 1. Continued. Gender, Country(s), Maor(s) What students looked forward to Students best experiences What students least looked forward to Students worst experiences Male, Spain, Business Administration and Spanish I am looking forward to experiencing a new culture and learning about it's rich history, it's art and it's food. I want to experience what it feels like to live in a European country and see if the skills I learned in the classroom in regards to intercult My best experiences were meeting new people and having them teach me the hidden secrets of the cities I visited. I really enjoyed making friends from around the world and learning so much about all the places I was able to go see. I am a little scared of the plane ride becaus e it feels like it'll be a long time. I'm dreading the jet lag and I'm nervous about running out of money. My worst experiences were actually with the students in my UF program. They came with closed minds and were solely interested in playing beer pong an d in sticking to what they new. They didn't explore or want to learn anything about the city we were living in Madrid. I also had a horrible experience with one of the who lived in our apartment. He had sexual relations with a series of girls with the wi ndows open, his room being right next to mine. In an apartment where there is no AC and where people are trying to sleep, I felt it was very rude and yet he continued to do this behavior regardless Female, Italy, Family, Youth and Community Sciences Learning about a new culture. The best experience was meeting people that were very different from me. I would have never had the opportunity to befriend the people I did if I hadn't gone on the trip. I love traveling around the country on the weekends to o. Not knowing anyone prior to leaving for the program. The worst experiences were dealing with difficult personalities on the trip. I wouldn't say it was the worst thing ever but it was probably the hardest thing to deal with overseas. Female, Austra, Germany, and England, English I am looking forward to the scenery and experiencing/learnin g about a whole new culture. Walking everywhere, meeting different people and having fun with the group on my trip Im nervous about my roomate. I hope she is outgoi ng and fun. Cigarette smoke in Europe

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171 APPENDIX L CONTENT ANALYSIS OF OPENENDED RESPONSES TO P RE #50, POST #3, 4 Table L 1. Content Analysis of open ended responses to Pre #50, Post #3, 4 Gender, Country(s), Major(s) Students reasons for studying abroad What students learned about themselves from studying abroad How study abroad impacted students lives Male, Germany, Political Science and Business Administration I want to master the German language. I also believe that this experience will make my law school application seem more "cultured" in the fall. Finally, I want to get out of America for a while to gain new experiences. I learned that I need to be more open to the views and oppinions of the rest of the world. I also learned that i could survive and live in a foreign country if I had to. I am looking into a more global incorporated career. The program also convinced me to slow down my life and enjoy things a little more. I have many years later to be a grown up. Female, Belize, Animal Biology No further details. I learned that I can be self sufficient in an unfamiliar place. One of the ways I realized this was by using public transportation to get all around the country. It was overwhelming at first, but I really enjoyed the sens e of independence and freedom that came with having to figure out where I was going and how I was going to get there. I have a new found sense of direction. I know without a shadow of a doubt that I am meant to be a veterinarian one day. I gained so much e xperience and was really able to prove to myself that I can handle the work involved with being responsible for the health and treatment of animals. This program did more to solidify my future career plans than any other experience I ever had. Female, Net herlands, Physical Anthropology no answer My adaptability to new situations. The about on knowledge I now have about European and Netherlands history and culture. Female, Italy, Athropology I am fulfilling some credit requirements for my minor. I wanted to do something productive with my summer. This is the last 'free' summer I have before applying to professional schools my next year and wanted to enjoy it as much as I could. I learned that although I am mostly an open minded individual, sometimes I am not tolerant of some things. I feel it has made me "slow down" on this fast track I was going on prior to the program. To quote some locals, I am departing from the "Yankee" mentality. Fema le, Mexico, Journalism to learn spanish Learned how much I love to travel and that I want to go abroad again Made me aware that US impressions of Mexico are false so I would like to see other places the US views negatively Female, Japan, English UF in Tok yo is an excellent program. I learned that I need to be more patient with others. It made me more aware of global problems.

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172 Table L 1. Continued. Gender, Country(s), Major(s) Students reasons for studying abroad What students learned about themselves from studying abroad How study abroad impacted students lives Female, Salzburg, Family, Youth, and Community Sciences I just wanted to expose myself into a new environment. I learned that I am not as shy as I thought I was. I was the only afr ican american student in my group but I did not let that affect my experience. Although, I did feel excluded at times because some people made racial jokes that I did not find funny. I feel like it impacted my life in many ways. I learned to live a different lifestyle. I realized that the world is such a remarkable place. There is so much to learn and it seems like there is so little time. Female, Netherlands, Womens Studies I look forward to the program in the NL as my previous experience there was as a mother/spouse. My husband ran the summer program and I saw Europe through the eyes of my toddler. We concentrated on childrens' parks, garadens and museums. I especially like I learned that I could take on more challenges and succeed, and I found lots of e ncouragement in many places throughout each day's efforts. I think that I gained some confidence in my academic ability. I had to stretch to accomplish many of the assignments, and in the end I was evaluated surprisingly high. Female, Spain, Marketing I j ust wanted to travel and experience new things. I learned that I am very adaptive to different situations, and that I am capable of organizing a trip andmy own travel plans. The program opened my eyes to a different clture and let e experience it fully, even though I was only there for two months. Female, Spain, Communication Sciences and disorders I want to rapidly improve my Spanish and do once in a lifetime opportunities. I can put up with rude people (my roommate) and I am more moderate than people t hink in the U.S. I view my material possessions differently now. I want to be able to use public transit or be in walking/biking distance of my job when I graduate from grad school. Female, UK, Biology I am working in a lab where I will hopefully continu e to collaborate with after I return to UF I can adapt to new situations quickly. I also have to make sure to stay openminded about others habits that aren't like American's. Changed the way I view the cultures of America versus England and other European countries. It did show me that there is a distinct American culture and each place I visited has their own culture. Also I have made some close friends and learned new techniques in lab. Male, Germany, MBA Requirement for EMBA program. Since this was my first trip to Europe, it definitely expanded my understanding of different cultures. Better understanding of the German people, particularly in the State of Bavaria.

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173 Table L 1. Continued. Gender, Country(s), Major(s) Students reasons for studying abroad What students learned about themselves from studying abroad How study abroad impacted students lives Female, China, Linguistics I really needed this for language. I learned that I am capable of taking on tasks that I never thought that I could. There were so many limits that I thought I had that were broken. I learned so much new Chinese and felt so comfortable in China. I can totally see myself living or working in China in the future. It gave me so much more confidence going outside my comfort zone. Female, France, Law I am studying abroad because it offer s me the opportunity to live in and experience a new culture, to visit my family and friends that live in Europe, and to earn credits this summer while having fun. I enjoy the outdoors and hiking a lot more than I imagined I would. And, I learned that I a m good at learning new languages. It really hasn't. It almost feels as though the entire experience was some dream...a wonderful dream, but a dream nonetheless. Female, Spain, Psychology I wanted to study abroad to experience a new way of life, to get away from the American way of doing things, and to take a chance to travel that I may never get again. I learned how much I'm capable of doing entirely on my own, in countries were I can't speak the language at all. I actually learned a lot of Spanish without any formal training and was able to take planes and trains and metros all by myself and carrying all my own luggage. At times I was honestly surprised that I even survived, but I did, and it was amazing and fun and I feel so much more confident as a young adult living on my own now that I'm back in America. I also learned how capable I am of carrying on conversation with people from not only all over the country, but all over the world, sometimes with people who barely spoke the same language. As st ated above, I have become so much more capable of doing these on my own and have also have met some of the best people in the world. I will never forget the friendships I've made or the ridiculously beautiful sights I have seen and will be forever grateful to my parents for providing me with this experience. Male, England, Biology England is not such a culture shock but it is still different. London is a city and I have never lived in one so I have a lot to learn. How I would react to situations. How I wou ld plan and decide where to go, taking initiative. It opened me up to the world and I want to travel everywhere now. Male, Costa Rica, Animal Biology I feel this Study Abroad will help with Graduate school I learned that in a situation where people are n ot generally responible for themselves, I seemed to step in and make sure everyone was packed and woke up ontime I now have a new view of how people live. It was an increible expeiernce me and anyone else that would have attended

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174 Table L 1. Continued Gender, Country(s), Major(s) Students reasons for studying abroad What students learned about themselves from studying abroad How study abroad impacted students lives Female, Taiwan, Botony and Chinese Taiwan is a unique country in which not many students take notice of, because of being overshadowed by studying abroad in China. My worldview has changed immensely. Through interactions with people, I have learned even more about myself, and my identity as a Chinese American. For me, it just seems re ally awkward to be Asian and American at the same time. It gave me a better appreciation for different lifestyles. While I was there, we also talked about the styles of living, and different beliefs between not only American and Taiwanese culture, but also Middle Eastern or European cultures. I have experienced culture shock, and how Taiwan had disillusioned me from some thoughts I had of it before. Female, Australia, Zoology na That I enjoy doing outdoor/adventerous things more than I thought I did. I've definitely gotten into a lazy rut. I am more clear on what I want to do for a job when I graduate and I am very inclined to move to Australia now! Female, China, Architecture It is great to experience both the cultural and architectural side of hong kong. As a Chinese American, it is my desire to retrace my roots and learn about my culture. The program impacted my life in many ways. I have always known the difference of the American and Chinese culture but until this program did I truly understand the magnitude. Also how important it is to understand that I live a culturally mixed life as an American born Chinese. Male, Japan, Business Administration NA That I am capable of producing artwork, and making a connection with people of a different culture i n their community. It was one of the best experiences of my life Male, South Africa, Ecology This is an NSF sponsored progam to give us international research experience. That I am able to adapt to new systems and generate interesting research questions. I will now be able to do future work in Africa Female, Poland, Biology I want to learn more about where my father was born. How little I know about everything in the world, and how much I want to explore more places and learn more languages. It gave me new perspectives and made me more humble to see so many interesting other people and to learn their stories. Female, Chile, Industrial Engineering I want to go beyond in my research field. I can survive to different situation, even extreme Working with people completely different

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175 Table L 1. Continued. Gender, Country(s), Major(s) Students reasons for studying abroad What students learned about themselves from studying abroad How study abroad impacted students lives Female, Italy, Economics I was originally supposed to travel to Russia this summer but the trip got canceled since not enough people signed up. My friend who was going to Florence through UF invited me to go with her so I talked to my parents about it who have both been to Floren Si nce I was in Italy, everyone knows that things just happen more idly than compared in America. I am such a logistics person and I am always prompt to everything but when I was in Italy, I learned that I should just go with the flow because I can't change w hat happens around me. I've always known that I'm an independent person but I realized that even in some instances, I do need someone around me to help me get through the easiest things in life since I wasn't used to the most simple things in a different c ountry. Male, France, Physics I am doing research in southern france. the importance of my friends exposure to new culture, introduce me to great new field of research Female, Spain, Accounting want to learn spanish That I love to travel. Traveling will always be a passion of mine, exploring different cultures, and learning about a different people and lifestyle. I LOVE IT! The program definitely made me less afraid to step out of my comfort zone and really experience the world. Male, Italy, Information Systems NA That I am very independent. It opened me up to a new side of the world. Male, Brazil, Urban and Regional Planning Great program, wonderful chance to experience a place I probably would not go on my own. My patience with large groups with no di rection is quite limited Continued my exploration of other cultures and places one that I shall endeavour to never end. Female, Germany, Anthropology I want to work with international relations and hope to move around a lot and even join Peace Corps. I think this will be a great experience to prepare for that. I came more in contact with my artistic side. I gained a lot of confidence and discovered that I prefer living in Europe. Through personal relationships I made, I gained a deeper appreciation for my own heritage and perspectives and learned that although I do get along with most people, there are certain types of people I prefer to be around, who actually bring out a better part of me. I've decided to study abroad again, but for a longer term. Also, I think I want to continue my studies in German, perhaps minoring or double majoring in it and hope that it will be an integral part of my life in the future. The new friends I made have made me want to change some personal relationships at home and have inspired and encouraged me to explore new ventures (ex: ph otography, dancing). Female, China, Business Administration NA I learned that I could easily adapt to a new culture and life. It wasn't very hard for me to adapt to the new lifestyle and I was proud of myself for being able to live without things I would normally This program impacted my life because it taught me about a beautiful culture on the other side of the world. I learned so much about Beijing. Now I love

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176 Table L 1. Continued. Gender, Country(s), Major(s) Students reasons for studying abroad What students learned about themselves from studying abroad How study abroad impacted students lives Female, Italy, Occupational Therapy I would like to learn more about other cultures and be independent. How independent I can be and how I can live with no air conditioning. It has opened up my eyes to a world greater that that in the US. I was adventurous in trying new things and I saw the most breathtaking sites. Female, Germany, Political Science In high school I had a exchange student from Germany live with me. So I always wanted to study abroad too. It seems to take me more effort than others to be successful at learning another language More independence Female, France and England, Journalism I love hearing stories from people I've never met before. They tell me about where they've been, where they're going and where I should go. I learned that I'm not someone who dotes on shopping the entire time I'm traveling in a foreign place. I like to spend a lot of time outdoors, exploring and meet ing people who I normally would never get the chance to meet. I'm also very brave and daring compared to a lot of people. I have a burning desire to travel all over the world now. Before, it was just a dreamlike yearning but now that I know that it's not o nly possible to travel the world but also quite easy, I feel much more empowered to explore lands that are foreign to me. Female, India, Womens Studies I wanted to study in a country where i would probably not be able to visit later in life. I learned th at I love to experience other cultures and learn languages and that I can handle it fairly well. Also, I learned that I do not live well in large groups. This program has made me see that I want to live in a foreign country for an extended period. It also helped me tailor my career goals. I think I want to be a translator for an NGO in the developing world. Female, Brazil, Psychology and English I wanted to go abroad with a program that offered service learning or something closer to my goals in non profit work. This program is all about community development. Brazil is a bit easier to travel to than say Thailand, since I am already familiar with I learned that I have acquired leadership skills in my previous experiences, and that I can achieve a lot of thi ngs when I challenge myself. I also learned that I am a person who can get along with many different types of people. It definitely gave me a sense of what career path I would like to choose. It also gave me the chance to meet very open minded peers and pr ofessors who are very motivated and successful. Female, Mexico, Graphic Design I chose to study abroad because I wanted to keep up with my Spanish and learn more about the culture and history of our neighbouring country, Mexico. I learned I really like spanish. It made me less dependent on my parents and air conditioning.

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177 Table L 1. Continued. Gender, Country(s), Major(s) Students reasons for studying abroad What students learned about themselves from studying abroad How study abroad impacted students lives Female, Spain, Finance I chose to study abroad with this particular program because it combined two elements of my studies perfectly. The Madrid Summer Internship Program allows me to study abroad and perfect my language skills while simul taneously allowing me to complete an Fi I learned a lot about group dynamics and where my place was among them. Between work and school, we had a lot of team oriented tasks and I was definitely able to channel my skillset toward the benefit of the group. I feel like the program opened my eyes to the intensity of the world around us. It is easy to get caught up in how great our own domestic situation is, but before I went abroad my biggest concern was what US city I wanted to establish my life in. However, that is so much more limiting than I realized. The global opportunities are there and I feel so fortunate to be able to witness them first hand. Female, Japan, Digital Arts and Sciences I wanted to go to Japan. Tokyo's awesome. I definitely don't regret t his decision. That I'm capable of being independent in a foreign country See #3 Female, Japan, Finance Art It is a great experience for me and I am very lucky! I am a strong woman and I can take care of myself in many situations. I can read people well and this comes in handy while traveling. It really impacted my art. I realized that the main focus of my artwork is a critique of modern society and consumerism. Female, UK, Journalism I have wanted to travel to London since I was a little girl; the chan ce to actually live in the place I wanted to visit, even just for a summer, was a chance I jumped at. I learned how much I want to have a job that allows me enough of a salary and enough time off to travel. I've never done much travel before and now that I 've started I've caught the bug! There is so much of the world I want to see. It put me on my own to deal with problems. I met people with completely different backgrounds and world views; it made me look at America differently. I hope to take the best par ts of both my home country and the countries I've visited and incorporate them into my own life. Female, France, Law It's a once in a lifetime experience that I will not get to do any other year. I'm seizing the moment this summer. I was very afraid of t ravelling alone, but I learned that I could and that I could be independent. It broadened my views on the world and different cultures. It's made me a more secure person. It's made me want to travel more.

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178 Table L 1. Continued. Gender, Country(s), Major(s) Students reasons for studying abroad What students learned about themselves from studying abroad How study abroad impacted students lives Male, Mexico, Architecture I chose to study abroad in part because I needed summer credits before I graduate and also because I was very interested in this particular program within my college and high quality of work that is produced from this program. Also a couple of my close fr I learned to not take things for granted and that I really need/ want to travel much more now. It really opened up my eyes to another culture and another way of living. This was my first time traveling abroad. Female, Italy, English, Film and Media Track I'm studying a subject completely unrelated to my major. It is so mething I love much more than any subject I've studied in college, though, so I am really excited. And what better place to learn about it than Italy? I finally let myself understand what I really want to do with my life. I have a lot of fresh focus and d etermination to work towards my goals now, which I was lacking completely before I studied abroad. I also gained an incredible amount of selfesteem and general pride and belief in myself! I accomplished so many things by myself I explored a new culture, spoke another language, met so, so many new people... I can pretty much tackle anything now. Studying abroad has inspired a lot of new self confidence! I had been really unsure about what I'm going to do in a year when I graduate, but I was studying an art subject which I've always been really interested in and which I've thought about pursuing. Now I realize that that is the only thing I want to do. Rather than researching graduate schools, I'm hunting for good art academies and jobs in the design marke t. Studying abroad has let me pursue my true interests, which is incredibly exciting! Male, South Korea, Finance and Political Science I've always wanted to go to Korea I am not willing to put anything before my studies. I definitely saw how other people got to live. I've never traveled abroad before. Female, Italy and England, Economics I have never been abroad, and I just wanted to get out, feel independent, and explore new things, while doing something proactive for college (taking classes). I learned that maps confuse me! I prefer to try new things with people, and this experience required for me to be independent which was great. I was surprised how culturally shocked I was. It made me realize that I (and America) am not the only person in the world. There are other people with completely different histories and values. It made me less selfish and self centered. I learned to appreciate American kindness and smiles, GELATO, air conditioning, hot water, and American hotels!

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179 Table L 1. Continued. Gender, Country(s), Major(s) Students reasons for studying abroad What students learned about themselves from studying abroad How study abroad impacted students lives Female, Chile, Industrial and Systems Engineering This will allow me to gain experi ence in a cultural setting as well as gain experience for my major. I learned that I am capable of learning and applying a foreign language in such a short time. I also love to experience new things. I have made some great friends that I would not have had the opportunity to meet if it wasn't for these circumstances. It feels great to see them on campus and reminisce about our trip. I also got to study abroad while in college, which has been a goal since being in college. Male, Spain, Business Administration and Spanish I wanted to study abroad in Spain for a while now. At first, I had thought of going to Japan way before I ever came to college but the accessibility of Spain and the fact that I can easily travel around Eu rope convinced me that Spain was a better choice f I learned that I am not as independent as I claim to be. I am not as comfortable with my body. Yet, I am very passionate about travelling and meeting new people. I learned that I am more social than I thought but that I also don't make deep relationships as easily as I thought. I learned that I can feel alone and not be worried and that I am able to survive in unknown environments with ease. I adjust to situations easily and I toleraqte more things than I s hould have to. The program impacted my life because it changed the way I see my life. It showed me that the American way of living is not the only way and taught me that there are many more valuable things in life thatn just working to reach the top. I feel like I have a greater appreciation for my family, my friends and for literature and the fine arts. The program has shown me that I want to lead a more meaningful life and that some of the stereotypes that exist about Americans abroad are fairly accurate (because it's through the perspective of others who judge against their own standards). I feel that the greatest impact that the program has made on me, however, has been making me want to live abroad for the rest of my life. Female, Italy, Family, Youth and Community Sciences UF didn't offer a summer b term in Florence so I am going through the University of South Florida I learned that I enjoy traveling and learning about other cultures. I learned that I am much more independent than I thought. Again, I got to befriend people that are totally different from me. I did things that were out of my normal character. It was a great experience!!! Female, Austra, Germany, and England, English I want to learn more about myself on this trip and more so e xperience a whole different way of life basically broaden my horizons... Im openminded and can handle traveling alone I learned and lived in a different culture. I experienced how other people in ohter countries live and I enjoyed it. They are very sustain able

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188 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Sarah Lynn e Welch was born on May 1 in Brandon, Florida. She attended the University of Florida in Gainesville Florida where she graduated cum laude in 2008 with a bachelor of s cience in recreation, parks, and tourism and minored in business a dministration. After a semester abroad in Vienna, Austria, and an internship at the United Nations International Atomic Energy Age ncy (IAEA), she realized how transformative the experiences were and consequently decided to attend the University of Florida to study tourism. Aft er graduation with a master of s cience degree in r e creation, parks, and t ourism she plans to work in the tour ism industry.