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A Content Analysis of User-Shared Tv Comercials

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0041744/00001

Material Information

Title: A Content Analysis of User-Shared Tv Comercials
Physical Description: 1 online resource (70 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Lee, Kyongsub
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: shared, user, viral
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Advertising thesis, M.Adv.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The current study provides one of the first empirical investigations of user shared TV commercials. The kinds of advertising appeals and message strategies in TV commercials shared on video-sharing Web sites are examined as a function of how frequently the ads are viewed. The study analyzes the advertising appeals based on the Cheng and Schweitzer s (1996) study and Taylor s (1999) six-segment message strategy wheel to conduct a content analysis of TV commercials shared on video-sharing web sites. A content analysis of 231 user shared TV commercials revealed that enjoyment is the main appeal of user shared TV commercials and ego and sensory are the main strategies of user shared TV commercials.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Kyongsub Lee.
Thesis: Thesis (M.Adv.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Weigold, Michael F.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0041744:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0041744/00001

Material Information

Title: A Content Analysis of User-Shared Tv Comercials
Physical Description: 1 online resource (70 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Lee, Kyongsub
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: shared, user, viral
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Advertising thesis, M.Adv.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The current study provides one of the first empirical investigations of user shared TV commercials. The kinds of advertising appeals and message strategies in TV commercials shared on video-sharing Web sites are examined as a function of how frequently the ads are viewed. The study analyzes the advertising appeals based on the Cheng and Schweitzer s (1996) study and Taylor s (1999) six-segment message strategy wheel to conduct a content analysis of TV commercials shared on video-sharing web sites. A content analysis of 231 user shared TV commercials revealed that enjoyment is the main appeal of user shared TV commercials and ego and sensory are the main strategies of user shared TV commercials.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Kyongsub Lee.
Thesis: Thesis (M.Adv.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Weigold, Michael F.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0041744:00001


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1 A CONTENT ANALYSIS OF USER SHARED TV COMERCIALS By KYONGSUB LEE A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ADVERTISING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2010

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2 2010 Kyongsub Lee

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3 To my m om and d ad

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This thesis would not have been possible without the support of many people. I wish to express my gratitude to my advisor and chair Dr. Michael Weigold who was abundantly helpful and offered invaluable assistance, support and guidance. I am also thankful for the members of the committee Dr. Debbie Treise a nd Dr. Robyn Goodman for their advice and encouragement. I also would like to express my love and gratitude to my beloved my mother Hyesoo Rho and my Father Sangkyu Lee, who was my best teacher and supporter. Without their understanding & endless love, thr ough the duration of her studies this study would not have been successful

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS P age ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLE S ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 7 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 8 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ............................. 9 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 1 0 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 1 1 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 1 3 Advertising on Video Sharing Web Sites ................................ ................................ 13 History of Viral Marketing ................................ ................................ ........................ 1 4 Viral Marketing and Viral Advertising ................................ ................................ ...... 1 5 Electronic Word of Mouth ................................ ................................ ........................ 1 6 Social Networking Sites ................................ ................................ .......................... 1 7 YouTube ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 1 8 Research Questions ................................ ................................ ............................... 1 9 Viral A dvertising A ppeal ................................ ................................ ................... 1 9 Advertising M essage S trategy F ramework ................................ ....................... 2 0 Hypothes e s ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 2 2 Viral e ffect ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 2 2 Consuming TV C ommercials S hared on YouTube ................................ ........... 2 3 3 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 2 5 Content Analysis Design ................................ ................................ ......................... 2 5 Units of Analysis and Sample Frame ................................ ................................ ...... 2 5 Coding Procedure and Intercoder Reliabi lity ................................ ........................... 2 6 Coding Category and Operational Definition ................................ ........................... 2 7 Data Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 2 8 4 FINDING ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 3 6 Description of the Sample ................................ ................................ ....................... 3 6 Research Questions and Hypotheses ................................ ................................ ..... 3 7 Additional Findings ................................ ................................ ................................ 4 0 Product Categoy and View Count ................................ ................................ .... 4 0

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6 Other Advertising Appeals and View Count ................................ ...................... 4 1 Message Strategy and View Count ................................ ................................ .. 4 1 Top 20 Highly Viewed USTVCs ................................ ................................ ........ 4 1 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION ................................ ................................ ....... 5 2 Discussion and Conclusion ................................ ................................ ..................... 5 2 Industry Implication ................................ ................................ ................................ 5 5 Limitations ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 5 5 Suggetions for Future Study ................................ ................................ ................... 5 6 APPENDIX A THESIS CODING SHEET ................................ ................................ ....................... 5 8 B CODER GUIDE ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 6 1 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................... 6 6 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ............................ 7 0

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 Cheng and a dvertising a ppeals. ................................ ............... 2 9 3 2 s ix s egments w heel ................................ ................................ ............... 3 1 3 3 Intercoder r eliability 1 m ethod) ................................ ............................... 3 2 3 4 Intercoder r eliability 2 m ethod) ................................ ............................... 3 4 4 1 Upload date ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 4 3 4 2 View c ount ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 4 3 4 3 Color ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 4 4 4 4 Product c ategories ................................ ................................ .............................. 4 4 4 5 Advertising a ppeal ................................ ................................ .............................. 4 5 4 6 Message s trategy ................................ ................................ ............................... 4 6 4 7 Cross t abulation: v iew count & e njoyment a ppeal ................................ .............. 4 6 4 8 Frequency of a dvertising a ppeal in h igh v iew c ount ................................ ........... 4 7 4 9 Frequency of a dvertising m essage s trategy in h igh v iew c ount .......................... 4 8 4 10 Descriptive s tatistics of p roduct c ategory & v iew c ount ................................ ...... 4 8 4 1 1 ANOVA for the effect of p roduct c ategory & v iew c ount ................................ ..... 4 9 4 12 Cross Tabulation: v iew count & a dventure a ppeal ................................ .............. 4 9 4 13 Top 20 highly viewed USTVCs ................................ ................................ ........... 5 0

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 4 1 Distribut ion of v iew c ount ................................ ................................ ................... 5 1

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9 LIST OF ABBREVIATION S USTVCs User shared TV commercials

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10 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising A CONTENT ANALYSIS OF USER SHARED TV COMERCIALS By Kyongsub Lee May 2010 Chair: Michael F. Weigol d Major: Advertising The current study provides one of the first empirical investigations of user shared TV commercials The kinds of advertising appeals and message strategies in TV commercials shared on video sharing Web sites are examined as a function of how frequently the ads are viewed. The study analyzes th e advertising appeals based on the segment message strategy wheel to conduct a content analysis of TV commercials shared on video sharing web sites. A content analysis of 231 user shared TV commer cials revealed that enjoyment is the main appeal of user shared TV commercials and ego and sensory are the main strategies of user shared TV commercials.

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11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The media environment has developed rapidly, especially since the advent of the World Wide Web. Consequently, advertisers have been afforded a new arsenal of communication tools including banners, buttons, keywords, and pop u ps. Viral advertising one of the newest online advertising formats is advertising content shared from consumer to consumer via e mail and social media or through video sharing W eb sites such as YouTube. This technique, here in after referred to as user shared television commercials (USTVC s ) differs from others in that consumers receive advertisements not from the advertisers themselves, but from other consumers (Golan & Zaidner, 2008). In contrast to viral ads which are placed by advertisers who intend them to be shared, some TV commercials are shared o r disseminated through video sharing sites by consumers. In some cases these ads were never intended for viral distribution Even so, they may help advertisers accomplish objectives similar to those accomplished through intentional viral advertising Thi s study provides an examination of TV commercials shared on video sharing sites. It does so through a content analysis that hew s closely to the methods used in published studies of viral and word of mouth advertising The advertising appeals and message st rategies in TV comme rcials shared on video sharing W eb sites are examined as a function of how frequently the ads are viewed. In addition, the advertising appeals are analyzed segment mes sage strategy wheel to conduct a content analysis of TV commercials shared on video sharing W eb sites.

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12 Purpose and i mportance of the s tudy A number of leading Fortune 500 advertisers have demonstrated an interest in viral advertising as an effective meth od to reach audiences. Viral ads are considered potentially valuable because of a belief that consumers are annoyed with and have a negative feeling toward traditional online advertising formats, such as banner ads, interstitials, and pop ups (Golan & Zaid ner, 2008). Despite widespread attention in the popular press, few academic studies have examined the effectiveness of viral ads (Porter & Golan, 2006 ) and no studies have focused on USTVCs. The purpose of this study is to bridge the gap between t he current lack of knowledge in this area and the current realities. R esearching the sharing of TV commercials can yield further practical and empirical knowledge.

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13 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Advertising on Video sharing Web sites Video sharing is an emerging method for TV commercials to reach consumers via the Web. According to Garfield (2006), marketers wait for their commercials to make it onto YouTube, hoping they go viral. In addition, around 20% of word of mouth about brands and services is relat ed to paid commercials in the media (Keller & Fay, 2009 ) The distribution of user shared television commercials ( USTVCs ) is similar to viral advertising. Porter and Golan (2006) define d to peer communication of provocati ve content originating from an identified sponsor using the Internet to persuade or influence an audience to pass a 963). Although not all USTVCs are distributed by users or consumers, many TV commercials shared on video shar ing sites are distributed by users or consumers rather than advertisers; moreover, they involve unpaid peer to peer communication. However, they differ from viral advertising in purpose of production TV commercials shared on video sharing sites originate from an identified sponsor; however unlike viral advertising their purpose is not to persuade or influence an audience to pass along the content to others through creativity, humor, or curiosity. Therefore, TV commercials on video sharing sites may be simi lar to but not entirely the same as, viral advertising However, even if it is not the advertiser s intent many TV commercials end up as USTVCs. This is an example of viral effect s According to Macpherson (2006), viral gies [that] take advantage of rapid multiplication to p. 1). The fact that many TV commercials on video sharing sites have a high number of view counts and are very

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14 much in demand further supports the conclus ion that this is a clear case of viral effect s Therefore, given the dearth of academic effort in terms of looking at TV commercials shared on video sharing sites, this study based on previous research on word of mouth ( WOM ) marketing and viral advertising aims to discover components that comprise the viral effect by analyzing the viral effect on TV commercials shared on video sharing sites through a content analysis. History of Viral Marketing n their Hotmail campaign was quite simple. All outgoing e mail messages from Hotmail users included a postscript message that read ultimately generated 12 million new subscribers within 18 months with a mark eting budget of only $500,000. Other advertisers soon followed suit. For example, became available via other media (Kirby, 2006). Budweiser allowed users to share the digital video file on the Web, which resulted in viral WOM and the ubiquitous use of the catchphrase in the United Kingdom even before the campaign was launched there (Kirby, 2006). Since 2002, the use of viral marketing has expanded in diverse ways. Advertisers have invested more in the strategic planning of viral campaigns (Kirby, 2006). Toyota, for example, invested $10 million in viral marketing in 2004 (Cuneo, 2004). In addition, because of the growing clutter of viral campaigns, marketers have become increasingly Subservient Chicken campaign included an advergame to promote awareness of Burger King which attracted 286 million people to the game

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15 site (Marsden, 2006). According to Kirby (2006), through viral marketing, users share information about a brand or a product, thereby increasing sales and brand awareness. Viral Mark eting and Viral Advertising Rayport (1996) introduced the term viral marketing popularized the term through Hotmail. According to Golan and Port er (2006), the definition of viral marketing can be confusing because both professionals and scholars use the terms viral marketing, stealth marketing, buzz marketing, and viral advertising cation and distribution concept that relies on consumers to transmit digital products via electronic mail to other potential customers in their social sphere and to animate these contents to ed tha t viral marketing allows an easier, accelerated, and cost reduced transmission of messages by creating environments for a self replicating, exponentially increasing diffusion spiritualization, Porter and Golan (2006) fo und that viral advertising differs from viral marketing in that viral advertising is a specific online advertising technique whereas viral marketing is a comprehensive marketing strategy. They suggest that the key to effective viral advertising is WOM dist ribution Viewers of an ad use e mail messages or social networking sites to share the ad with others (Golan & Zaidner, 2008). The source of the message and its content influence users to distribute the content to others. Golan and Zaidner (2008) identifie d two major characteristics that distinguish viral advertising from traditional advertising: First, viral advertising does not require buying a media vehicle since an initial seeding of advertising content is the primary distribution

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16 method. An advertiser seeds an ad to a list of voluntary e mail receivers and, ideally, the recipients share the advertisement with their friends by passing along the e mail or elements. People te nd not to share advertisements that are not entertaining or are boring or annoying; thus, the advertisement must include such forwardable elements as sexuality, humor, violence, or nudity (Porter & Golan 2006). Both viral marketing and viral advertising b roadly rely on electronic WOM strategies that is online peer to peer communication about a brand, product, or service (Golan & Zaidner, 2008). Electronic Word of Mouth ( eWOM ) communicat or whom the receiver perceives as noncommercial, concerning a brand, a definition. First, WOM is interpersonal communication, separate from mass communication and other interpersonal communication channels available for products, product categories, brands, and even advertising (Dichter, 1966). Third, the communicators are not related to a com mercial entity, although the message of WOM is commercial in nature (Nyilasy, 2006). A new form of WOM electronic WOM (eWOM) has grown in importance as broadband high speed Internet connections have penetrated residential areas, providing an opportunity for consumers to share their thoughts and experiences about products, services, and brands with others (Schindler & Bickart, 2005). eWOM also w ord of m 2001) has the potential to be a n even more powerful communication platform than

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17 traditional WOM because eWOM is Web based communication. This implies that it can travel quickly from consumer to consumer and that it can reduce the cost of information acquisition (Fred, Kevin, Gianfranco & Dwayne, 2004). Indeed, eWOM has become a significant marketing tool (Liu, 2006) because it reaches target audiences with a level of speed and effectiveness not even dreamed of for traditional marketing methods (Smith, Coyle, Lishtfoot, & Scoott, 2007). eWOM communication platforms include chat rooms, instant messaging listservs, W eb page consumer forums, and social networks (Berkley, 2008). Social Network ing Sites Social networks are among the most important eWOM channels because they can reach users more effectively than other eWOM communication platforms (Berkley, 2008). The influence of friends, family, and communities is a more powerful form of communication in marketing than other types of communication (Berkley, 2008), and social networks provide an opportunity to strengthen the communication between users and their friends, family, and communities. As a result, marketers have a particular interest in identifying influential indiv iduals in social networks (Smith et al., 2007). Boyd and Ellison (2008, p. 211) defined social networking sites as Web based services that allow individuals to 1) construct a public or semi public profile within a bounded system, 2) articulate a list of o ther users with whom they share a connection, and 3) view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system. Most social networking sites offer users an individual Web site with which to maintain a preexisting social networ k; some sites also help users connect to strangers who share interests, political views, or activities (Boyd & Ellison, 2008). Social

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18 networking sites can also be extended to mobile connectivity, blogging, and photo/video sharing. The first social network site to meet Boyd and Ellison s definition was SixDegrees.com. Launched in 1997, the site offered users the opportunity to create user profiles, list friends, and find friends. In 2001, the Korean social network site Cyworld was launched (Kim & Yun, 2007) After the introduction of Friendster and Xanga, MySpace was launched in 2003 (Boyd & Ellison). In 2004, Facebook was started for Harvard University students (Cassidy, 2006). The development of social media and the increase in user generated content ultim ately led social networking sites to incorporate media sharing into their social network features (Boyd & Ellison, 2008), although none has had the impact of YouTube. YouTub e YouTube launched on February 15, 2005; a year later, almost 20 million users wer e visiting the site monthly, watching 100 million videos daily and uploading approximately 65,000 videos each day (USA Today, 2006). Currently, YouTube has a 43% market share among video sharing sites (USA Today, 2006). Seventy percent of visitors to YouTu be are under age 20 and American, while males account for 56% of users (USA Today, 2006). Less than two years after it was launched, the site was sold to Google for $1.65 billion. According to Cheng, Dale, and Liu (2007), two characteristics in particular made YouTube successful. First, users can easily pass along uploaded videos by mailing links to YouTube or placing them on their own Web pages or blogs. Second, users can rate and comment on uploaded videos easily, which results in the most popular videos being placed at the top of the page. Videos on YouTube fall into almost every conceivable

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19 category, but the most popular is music, followed by entertainment and comedy (Cheng et al., 2007). Other popular content includes user generated content and TV comme rcials (Cheng et al., 2007), making YouTube an interesting advertising medium for study. Research Questions Viral A dvertising A ppeal According to Golan and Zaidner (2008), the forwardable viral component is the that which makes it memorabl e. Most viral advertising includes one or more meme components (Porter & Golan, 2006). It seems reasonable to conclude that USTVCs will al so include more memes. However Porter and Golan (2006) suggested that sexuality, nudity, and violence appear more fre quently in viral advertising than in TV commercials because the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) does not regulate viral advertisements. Since USTVCs are, by definition, those that have appeared in broadcast media, it is unclear whether they will h ave similar characteristics. RQ 1: What advertising appeals are most frequently used in USTVCs? by Pollay (1983) and Mueller (1987), to analyze the appeal of TV commercials sha red on YouTube. To measure cultural value in advertising, Pollay (1983) developed 42 advertising appeals and Mueller (1987) developed 10. Cheng and Schweitzer (1996) developed 32 advertising appeals, including 20 from Pollay (1983) and 5 from Mueller (1987 ). This framework is well defined for reflecting TV commercial appeal and describes the diversity of appeals and motivations included in TV commercials (Moon & Chan, 2005). Moreover, this framework can be applied to advertising research about a

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20 recent phen omenon, although it was developed for measuring cross cultural differences in advertising (Moon & Chan, 2005). humor appeal, their enjoyment appeal may incorporate humor appeal, as the components of enjoyment appeal include having fun, laughing, and being happy. Therefore, in this study, humor appeal is considered to be synonymous with enjoyment appeal. Advertising M essage S trategy F ramework The two fundamental categories of adve ied by Aaker and Norris (1982). ned informational advertisements as data in a clear and logical manner such that they have greater confidence in their ability to assess the merits of buying the brand after having se using (consuming) the advertised brand with a unique set of psychological characteristics which would not typically be as sociated with the brand experience to the starts by classifying the transmission view and ritual view (Carey, 19 75) for use with g rid, ELM, and the Rossiter Percy g is valuable because it considers the message strategy in terms of how consumers make buying decisions and how advertising works and because the model c lassifies sub

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21 segments in some detail and offers the same attention to both transformational and informational advertisements (Kim, McMillan & Hwang 2005). Taylor first defined three sub segments of the ritual view: ego, social, and sensory. In the ego segment, consumers have emotional needs that ego related products fulfill. For these consumers, the purchase of a particular product is emotionally important 99, p. 12). In this segment, appropriate advertising appeals are ego related while effective strategies are those that give the consumer a user image or use occasion. Golan and Zaidner (2006) found that appeals to ego are predominant in viral advertisemen ts. The social segment is that in which consumer purchase decision s are motivated by the pursuit of prestige. Here, consumers use products to make a statement to others, not themselves. Appropriate advertising appeals will be directed to being noticed, gaining social approval, engaging in socially correct behavior, or recalling and reliving social experiences through product consumption (Taylor, 1999, p. 13). In the social segment, the most important role of advertising is to create the proper social situation. In the final segment, the sensory segment, the focus is on attracting consumers moments of pleasure based on five senses: taste, sight, (Taylor, 1999, p. 13). The advertising role is to change use of the product in Taylor (1999) also categorized transmission into three sub segments: rat ional,

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22 rational and conscious economic motivations. In this segment, consumers can be rational, conscious, calculating, and deliberative; thus, effective ads address the ir high desire for product information. For this segment, the role of advertising is to send information to consumers and persuade them (Taylor, 1999). In the acute need segment, consumers need product information, but they do not have the time to search f or it; thus, building familiarity and recognition is key. Finally, in the routine segment, consumers make decisions and buy products habitually, but do not spend much time searching for information. For this segment, the role of advertising is to send the consumer a cue through a message that appeals to convenience, ease of use, and takes into account the message strategy in terms of how consumers make buying decisions and how advertising works. In th e current study, TV commercials shared on YouTube were analyzed by segment message strategy wheel are used most frequently. RQ 2: rational, acute need, routine, ego, social, and sensory, are most frequently used in USTVCs? RQ 3 : acute need, routine, ego, social, and sensory, are most frequently included in th e most viewed USTVCs? Hypothes e s Viral E ffect Although viral advertising differs from TV commercials shared on YouTube, both types of advertising have the potential for and may incorporate the viral effect and its components, as defined in existing litera ture. The main advertising appeal in viral

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23 advertising is humor (Porter & Golan, 2006; Golan & Zaidner, 2008) and the main advertising message strategy in vi r al advertising is ego (Golan & Zaidner, 2008). In study, humor appeals and ego strategies are regarded as major components of the viral effect. Thus, research questions 1 and 2 are converted into the following hypotheses : H1: Enjoyment appeal is used more frequently in USTVCs than other appeals. H2: Ego strategy is used more frequently in USTVCs than other message strateg ies. C onsuming TV commercials shared on YouTube According to the uses and g ratification theory, media use is defined in relation to gratification or cognitive need of the person (Blumler & Katz, 1974). This theory further supposes that audiences choose media to satisfy needs Gratifications, in turn, are crucial mediators of media effects (Blumler & Katz, 1974). The primary purposes of uses and gratification is to define individua explain motives for media attitude, and to recognize sequels that proceed from needs, motives, and attitudes (Blumler & Katz, 1974). Thus, the uses and gratification theory media usage o f user generated media such as YouTube. People interact with user generated sites such as YouTube in three ways: consuming, participating, and producing (Shao, 2008). Consuming refers to people watching, reading, and viewing, but not uploadin g videos. Participating refers to people sharing or uploading existing content and posting comments. Producing refers to people creating their own content, such as texts, images, and videos, and subsequently sharing or uploading this content on user genera ted sites.

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24 People use media for different reasons (Shao, 2008). According to McQuail (2005), two common motives to consume both traditional media and new media are information seeking and entertainment. People often visit user generated sites to seek info rmation to fulfill their desire s for awareness and knowledge (Shao, 2008). Wikipedia is a good example of this People visit Wikipedia to obtain information in which they are interested. However entertainment may be a more significant factor in usage of m edia (Rafaeli, 1986) as most people think that entertainment and mass media are nearly the same (Ruggiero, 2000). Indeed, entertainment related categories such as sports, music, comedy, and film and animation are the most popular channels on YouTube (Shao, 2008). Therefore, TV commercials shared on YouTube that have a high view count may also include an entertainment advertising appeal. Enjoyment appeal and entertainment appeal appear to be similar. According to Pollay (1983), enjoyment appeals include havi ng fun, laughing, being happy, enjoying games, parties, feasts, and festivities and participating. Therefore, enjoyment appeal is considered to be entertainment related appeal in this study. This leads to the following hypotheses: H3: High view count US TVCs include more enjoym ent appeals than low view count USTVCs. H4: Enjoyment appeal is included more frequently in high view count USTVCs than in other appeals.

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25 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY Content Analysis Design To investigate advertising appeal and m essage strategy in user shared television commercials ( USTVCs ) the current study used systematic, objective, and quantitative analysis of advertising conducted to infer a pattern of advertising practice or the elements of b conducting a content analysis, researchers can design a coding scheme or adopt an existing coding scheme designed by other researcher s. The current study adopt ed a coding scheme from other researchers. To measure advertising appeals, this study use d 1). In addition, Kim et was used for the coding framework to analyze the data. Finally, to measure message strategy, this study use d 3 2). Units of Analysis and Sample Frame The unit of analysis in this study was a TV commercial shared on a specific video sharing W eb site. Only TV commercials shared on YouTube were chosen as YouTube has the highest view ratings per day among video sharing W eb sites (Mintel, 2009). In this study, because the intercoder reliability of the two most important variables, enjoyment and ego, in th e first sample group was very low, two groups of samples were coded. The first sample was retrieved from YouTube ( www.YouTube.com ) on August 5, 2009, using advanced search options specifically the keywords TV and comm ercial

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26 with duration of less than four minutes, in the English language, and uploaded in this month (July 6, 2009 to August 5, 2009). The results were sorted by relevance. This only the first 1,000 video clips in search results. Every third video clip from the results was chosen for inclusion in the sample; if other video clips or duplicate commercials were included, they were omitted from the sample This systematic sampling te chnique resulted in 262 video clips for analysis. The second sample was retrieved from YouTube ( www.YouTube.com ) on December 2, 2009, using advanced search options that is the keywords TV and commercial with duration of less than four minutes, in the English language, and uploaded in this month (November 3, 2009 to December 2, 2009). The results were sorted by relevance. This procedure produced nearly 9,000 video clips, although 1,000 video clips in search results. Every third video clip from the results was chosen for inclusion in the sample; if other video clips or duplicate commercials were included, they were omitted from the sample This systematic sampling technique resulted in 231 video clips for analysis. All of the samples were TV commercials that were or are being aired on American TV. In addition, more than 80% of samples (189 of 231) were uploaded by users. Coding Procedure and Intercoder Reliability Coding was conduct ed by two trained graduate students who are fluent in English. The coders were trained via instruction of the coder guide provided by the researcher. as all variables could be categorized.

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27 Reliability = 2A/N1+N2 A = the number of agreements between coders N = the number of units coded by each coder To check intercoder reliability of the first sample group, the first coder conducted coding from sample 1 through sample 1 46 ; the second coder conducted coding starting with sample 117 and continuing through sample 262. Thus, both coders coded samples intercoder reliability of this study was determined to range from 0.58 to 1.00; overall intercoder reliability was 0.91 (see Table 3 1). To check intercoder reliability of the second sample group, both coders coded 30 determined to range from 0.733 to 1.00; overall intercoder reliability was 0.899 (see Table 3 2). After the pretest, the overall intercoder reliability was strong, and the coding was advanced. The first coder conducted coding from sample 1 through sample 1 16 ; the second coder conducted coding starting with sample 117 and continuing through sample 231. Coding Categories and Operational Definition Forty five variables were used in this study, categorized as advertising appeal or message strategy. Coding varia bles included brand, posting date, view count, color, and product category. The variables used in measuring the TV commercials shared on YouTube were based on the studies of Cheng and Schweitzer (1996) and Taylor (1999). The following operational definitio ns of the variables were used: Advertising appeal : The 32 variables in this section included a dventure beauty, collectivism, competition, convenience, courtesy, economy, effectiveness, enjoyment, family, health, individualism, leisure, magic, modernity, n atural, neatness, nurturance,

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28 patriotism, popularity, quality, respect for elderly, safety, sex, social status, technology, tradition, uniqueness, wealth, wisdom, work, and youth. Message strategy : The 6 variables in this section determined which message s trategy was used: rational, acute need, routine, ego, social, or sensory. Data Analysis Data analysis was conducted using Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) version 15.0 and Microsoft Excel. Chi square and frequencies were used to examine th e research questions and to investigate hypotheses.

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29 Table 3 1 Cheng and Schweitzer s 32 a dvertising a ppeals (1996, pp 29 30) Appeal D escription A dventure T his value suggests boldness, daring, bravery, courage, or thrill. Sky diving is a typica l example. B eauty T his value suggests that the use of a product will enhance the loveliness, attractiveness, elegance, or handsomeness or an individual. Collectivism T he emphasis here is on the individual in reaction to others typically in the reference group. I ndividuals are depicted as integral parts of the group. C ompetition T he emphasis here is on distinguishing a product from its counterparts by aggressive comparisons. W hile explicit comparisons may mention the competitor s name, implicit comparisons may use such words as number one or leader. C onvenience A product is su ggested to be handy and easy to use. C ourtesy Politeness and friendship toward the consumer are shown through the use of polished and affable language in the commercial. E conomy T he inexpensive, affordable, and cost saving nature of a product is emphasized in the commercial. Effectiveness A product is suggested to be powerful and capable of achieving certain ends. Enjoyment T his value suggests that a product will make its user wild with joy. Family The emphasis here is on the family life and family members. T he commercial stresses family scenes: getting married, companionship of siblings, kinship, being at home, and suggests that a certain product is good for the whole family. Health T his value rec ommends that the use of a product will enhance or improve the vitality, soundness, strength and robust of the body. Individualism T he emphasis here is on the self sufficiency and self reliance of an individual or on the individual as being distinct and unlike others Leisure T his value suggests that the use of product will bring one comfort or relaxation Magic T he emphasis here is on the miraculous effect and nature of a product, e.g., Bewitch your man ; Heals like magic. M odernity T he notion of being new, contemporary, up to date, and ahead of time is emphasized in a commercial. Natural T his value suggests spiritual harmony between man and nature by making references to the elements, animals, vegetables, or minerals. N eatness T he notion of being clean and tidy is stressed in a commercial. Nurturance T his value stresses giving charity, help, protection, support, or sympathy to the weak, disabled, young, or elderly.

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30 Table 3 1 Continued Patriotism T he love of and the loyalty to one s own nation inherent in the nature or in the use of a product are suggested here. Popularity T he focus here is on the universal recognition and acceptance of a certain product by consumers, e.g., Best seller ; Well known nationwide or worldwide. Quality T he emphasis here is on the excellence and durability of a product, which is usually claimed to be a winner of medals or certificates awarded by a government department for its high grade or is demonstrated by the product s excellent performance. Respect for elderly T he commercial displays a respect for older people by using a model of old age or asking for the opinions, recommendations, and advice of the elders. Safety T he reliable and secure nature of a product is emphasized. Sex T he commercial uses glamorous and sensual models or has a background of lovers holding hands, embracing, or kissing to promote a product. Social status T he use of a product is claimed to be able to elevate the position or rank of the user in the eyes of others. T he feeling of prestige, trendsetting, and pride in the use of a product is conveyed. T he promotion of a company manager s status or fame by quoting his words or showing his picture in the commercial is also included Technology H ere, the advanced and sophisticated technical skills to engineer and manufacture a particular product are emphasized. T radition T he experience of the past, customs, and conventions are respected. T he qualities of being historical, time honored, and legendary are venerated. Uniqueness T he unrivaled, incomparable, and unparalleled nature of a product is emphasized, e.g., We re the only one that offers you the product. Wealth This value conveys the idea that being affluent, prosperous, and rich should be encouraged and suggests that a certain product or service will make the user well off Wisdom This value shows respect for knowledge, education, intelligence, expertise, or experience Work This value shows respect for diligence and dedication of one's labor and skills. A typical example is that a medication has regained a desperate patient his or her ability to work. Youth The worship of the younger generation is shown through the depiction of younger models. The rejuvenating benefits of the product are

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31 Table 3 2. wheel (Kim, McMillan, and Hwang, 2005,pp77) Message Strateg y D escription E go Appeal to vanity, self actualization (Not corporate image but consumer image) Emotional needs relating to self are fulfilled Image based executions (visual dominance) with little or no factual information Unstructured and ambiguous enough so each person can fit him/herself into ad Social Valuing on others (thoughts, opinions, evaluations, etc.) Stating to others, not to self S howing social situation motivating consumers (Group identification) Showing target market member as socially important to others Sensory F ive senses emphasized S ensory gratification P leasurable moments Routine Habitual purchase/ Don t need deliberation Serving a cue or a reminder (brand name and package emphasized) Appeal to convenience and trivial interests Acute Need L imited time to make decision (timely decision) S erving a cue or a reminder in an urgent situation Requiring immediate action Ration Rational consumers assumed Needs a large amount of deliberation (lots of corporate information) Problem solving offered Emphasizing the differences or competitive advantages

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32 Table 3 3 Intercoder r eliability 1 m ethod) Variable Intercoder reliability Color 1 Category 0.867 Adventure 1 Beauty 0.967 Collectivism 0.933 Competition 0.9 Convenience 0.767 Courtesy 1 Economy 0.9 Effectiveness 0.9 Enjoyment 0.633 Family 0.833 Health 0.967 Individualism 0.933 Leisure 0.933 Magic 1 Modernity 0.867 Natural 0.967 Neatness 0.967 Nurturance 0.967 Patriotism 1 Popularity 0.933 Quality 0.767 Respect 1 Safety 0.933 Sex 0.933 Social Status 0.933 Technology 0.9 Tradition 1 Uniqueness 0.867 Wealth 1 Wisdom 1 Work 1 Youth 1 Ration 0.867 Acute Need 0.833 Routine 0.9

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33 Table 3 3 Continued Ego 0.567 Social 0.933 Sensory 0.8 Overall 0.912

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34 Table 3 4 Intercoder r eliability 2 m ethod) Variable Intercoder reliability Color 0.933 Category 0.933 Adventure 0.933 Beauty 0.933 Collectivism 0.9 Competition 0.967 Convenience 0.833 Courtesy 1 Economy 0.9 Effectiveness 0.933 Enjoyment 0.9 Family 0.867 Health 0.967 Individualism 0.933 Leisure 0.967 Magic 0.967 Modernity 0.767 Natural 1 Neatness 0.967 Nurturance 0.967 Patriotism 1 Popularity 0.9 Quality 0.833 Respect for elderly 1 Safety 1 Sex 0.967 Social Status 0.867 Technology 0.8 Tradition 0.967 Uniqueness 0.6 67 Wealth 1 Wisdom 1 Work 1 Youth 0. 7 33 Ration 0.867 Acute Need 0.733 Routine 0. 733

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35 Table 3 4 Continued Ego 0.733 Social 0.867 Sensory 0.733 Overall 0. 899

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36 CHAPTER 4 F INDINGS In this study, the second sample group was selected and analyzed because the first sample group had an intercoder reliability deficiency. Through a process of selecting every third commercial (excluding duplicates) from the fi rst 1,000 reported on YouTube, 231 TV commercials were coded for content analysis, with 45 variables measured in two categories. The findings indicate d the advertising appeal and message strategy of TV commercials shared on YouTube. The descriptive statistics of the sample are reported in this chapter. The view count variable was recoded for statistical tests involving comparisons of high versus low view commercials. Description of the Sample Table 4 1 provides a summary of the upload dates of the TV commercials: 16.5% were up loaded November 27, 2009, 7.4% were uploaded November 5, 2009, and 6.9% were uploaded November 20, 2009. Table 4 classified into four categories: 16.5% had more than 10,000 view counts, 8.7% had 1,000 to 9,999, 23 .4% had 100 to 999, and 51.5% had 1 to 99. Full color TV commercials accounted for the majority (93.1%) of the sample, while black and white TV commercials made up 2.6% (Table 4 3). Table 4 4 provides a summary of the product categories represented in the sample. Food and beverage were most frequently uploaded (15.6%), followed by entertainment and media (13.0%), automotive (12.6%), communication and electronics (11.7%), and fashion and cosmetics (10.0%).

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37 Research Questions and Hypotheses H ypothesis 1 : Enj oyment appeal is used more frequently in USTVCs than other appeals. To measure advertising appeal, 32 variables were examined. Table 4 5 is a summary of advertising appeal as represented in the sample. Enjoyment appeal (61.9%) was most frequently used in TV commercials shared on YouTube Quality appeal (23.4%), collectivism appeal (19.9%), and uniqueness appeal (19.9%) were also frequently used. Meanwhile, economy appeal (15.6%), youth appeal (12.1%), technology appeal (11.7%), effectiveness appeal (11.3%) and individualism appeal (10.8%) were represented less often Social status appeal (7.8%), adventure appeal (7.4%), beauty appeal (7.4%), and modernity appeal (7.4%) were infrequently used in TV commercials shared on YouTube. Convenience appeal and fami ly appeal were absent in 93.9% and 93.9%, respectively, of the sample. Also, 93.5% of the TV commercials shared on YouTube did not use sex appeal. Moreover, popularity appeal (4.8%), health appeal (3.9%), leisure appeal (3.9%), and nurturance (3.9%) rarely appeared in the sample. The 10 appeals least frequently used in user shared television commercials (USTVCs) were natural appeal (3.5%), magic appeal (3.0%), competition appeal (2.6%), wisdom appeal (2.2%), safety appeal (1.7%), wealth appeal (1.7%), neatn ess appeal (0.9%), work appeal (0.9%), patriotism appeal (0.4%), and tradition appeal (0.4%). Finally, courtesy appeal and respect for elderly appeal were not used in TV commercials shared on YouTube.

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38 H ypothesis 2: The e go strategy is used more frequently in USTVCs than other message strateg ies According to Taylor (1999), the transmission view can be classified into the ration al acute need, and routine segments while the ritual view can be classified into the ego, social, and sensory segments. Table 4 6 provides the results of the content analysis using this scheme. Ego (64.9 %) is the most frequent message strategy in TV commercials shared on YouTube. Sensory strategy is the second most frequent m essage strategy, occurring in 49.8 % of TV commercials shar ed on YouTube. Rational strategy (26.0%), routine strategy (19.9 %) and acute need (17.7%) are also frequently used in TV commercials shared on YouTube. Social strategy ( 13.0 %) was infrequently represented in USTVCs. H ypothesis 3 : High view count USTVCs in clude more enjoyment appeals than low view count USTVC s. To examine hypothesis 3, the view count variable was recoded into two categories: high and low. The split point was s et as the view count median (90 ). The distribution of view count is very right tailed (see Figure 4 1), but because no appropriate standard for divided view count existed, the median value was selected as the dividing point in this study. Table 4 7 summarizes the cross tabulation betw een view count and enjoyment app eal. According to the data, 31.3 % of high view count subjects (36 of 115) and 44.8% of low view count subjects (52 of 116 ) did not use e njoyment appeal. Meanwhile, 68.7 % of high view count subjects (79 of 115) and 55.2% of l ow view count subjects (64 of 116 ) 4.478 p < .05) ; they indicate a significant relationship between view count and enjoyment appeal. That

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39 is, the high view count USTVCs include more enjoyment appeal than low view count USTVCs. H ypothesis 4: Enjoyment appeal is included more frequently in high view count USTVCs than in other appeals. Table 4 8 summarizes the frequency of advertising appeal in high view count USTVCs. Enjoyment appeal (6 8.77%) was most frequently used in high view count TV commercials shared on YouTube. Quality appeal (22.6%) and uniqueness appeal (19.1%) were also frequently used in high view count TV commercials shared on YouTube. Meanwhile, adventure appeal (11.3%), be auty appeal (10.4%), collectivism appeal (16.5%), economy appeal (14.8%), effectiveness appeal (9.6%), modernity appeal (10.4%), sex appeal (11.3%), social status appeal (9.6%), technology appeal (15.7%), and youth appeal (11.3%) were moderately used in hi gh view count TV commercials shared on YouTube. Family appeal and individualism appeal were absent in 91.3% and 92.2%, respectively, of the sample. In addition, convenience appeal and popularity appeal were rarely evident in the sample; 93.9% of the high v iew count USTVCs did not use these appeals. The 12 appeals infrequently used in USTVCs were competition (3.5%), health (1.7%), leisure (2.6%), magic (1.7%), natural (4.3%), neatness (1.7%), nurturance (3.5 %), safety (1.7 %), wealth (0.9%), wisdom (1.7%), a nd work (0.9 %). Finally, courtesy, patriotism, respect for elderly and tradition appeal were not used in high view count TV commercials shared on YouTube.

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40 Research question 3 : segments of rational, acut e need, routine, ego, social, and sensory, are most frequently included in the most viewed USTVCs? Table 4 9 summarizes the frequency of high view count TV commercials shared on YouTube. Ego (67.0%) was the most frequent message strategy used, while senso ry strategy (60.9%) was the second most frequently used message strategy. Routine strategy (22.6%) and rational strategy (21.7) were also frequently used in high view count TV commercials shared on YouTube. Acute need (15.7%) strategy was moderately used i n high view count TV commercials shared on YouTube, while social strategy (10.4 %) was infrequently used. Additional Findings Product category and view count To measure the relationship between product category and view count, the means of the view count of each product category were compared to one another. Tables 4 10 and 4 11 indicate the results of ANOVA, showing means, standard deviations, and ANOVA results. E ntertainment and media were the highest view count ( 71,317.40 ), while travel was the lowest (0 ). A lcohol and tobacco were the second highest view count ( 63,157.75 ), and c ommunication and electronics were the third highest view count ( 42,688.63 ). Fashion and cosmetics ( 20,768.43 ) and retail ( 10,785.92 ) were also very highly viewed. In contrast, f ood and beverage ( 110.31 ), p harmaceuticals ( 13.00 ), b anking, insurance or finance ( 279.10 ), and toy (42.78) had very low view counts. N ot for profit organization ( 2,538.50 ), h ousehold product ( 9,558.00 ), s ervice ( 1,156.31 ), a utomotive ( 3,788.66 ), and I nternet service ( 4,328.25 ) showed a moderate

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41 view count. However, no statistically significant effect existed between product category and view count ( p = 534 ). Other advertising appeals and view count Only three appeals other than enjoyment demonstrated a relationship with view count adventure appeal, sex appeal, and technology appeal. However, the relationship between view count and all these appeals was negative. Message strategy and view count Only one appeal had a positive relationship with view count sensory strategy. Table 4 12 summarizes the cross tabulation between view count and sensory strategy. The results indicate that 39.1% of high view count subjects (45 of 115) and 61.2% of low view coun t subjects (72 of 116) did not use sensory strategy. Moreover, 60.9% of high view count subjects (70 of 115) and 38.8% of low view count subjects (45 of 116) used sensory strategy. These results are statistically significant ( 2 = 11.258 p < .05) and indi cate that a significant relationship exists between view count and sensory strategy. Top 20 highly viewed USTVCs Table 4 13 summarizes the top 20 highly viewed USTVCs. The highest view count n the game category. This USTVC mainly included enjoyment and modernity appeals and used ego and (510,558 view counts). This USTVC is included in the communication category and m ainly used for enjoyment, competition, and modernity appeals with a sensory counts), which is in the communication category. Enjoyment and adventure appeals

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42 were the main adv message strategies were the main message strategies. The fourth highest USTVC was 378 087 view counts). This USTVC is included in the game category and was mainly used for enjoyment a nd uniqueness appeals with ego and sensory message strategies. The USTVC of Gap, which is included in the fashion category, was the fifth highest ( 373 063 view counts). Enjoyment appeal was the main appeal with ego and sensory message strategies as its mai n message strategies. The top 20 highly viewed USTVCs were divided into 7 product categories: the game category (7 of 20), communication category (5 of 20), fashion category (4 of 20), alcohol category (1 of 20), household product category (1 of 20), retai l shop category (1 of 20), and automobile category (1 of 20). In addition, the top 20 highly viewed USTVCs mainly contained enjoyment appeal (16 of 20), ego strategy (14 of 20), and sensory strategy (16 of 20).

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43 Table 4 1. Upload date Count % 01 Nov 2009 2 0.9 02 Nov 2009 4 1.7 03 Nov 2009 3 1.3 04 Nov 2009 4 1.7 05 Nov 2009 4 1.7 06 Nov 2009 4 1.7 08 Nov 2009 1 0.4 09 Nov 2009 4 1.7 10 Nov 2009 2 0.9 11 Nov 2009 4 1.7 12 Nov 2009 1 0.4 13 Nov 2009 4 1.7 14 Nov 2009 2 0.9 15 Nov 2009 2 0.9 16 Nov 2009 6 2.6 17 Nov 2009 5 2.2 18 Nov 2009 5 2.2 19 Nov 2009 2 0.9 20 Nov 2009 16 6.9 21 Nov 2009 9 3.9 22 Nov 2009 7 3.0 23 Nov 2009 5 2.2 24 Nov 2009 11 4.8 25 Nov 2009 17 7.4 26 Nov 2009 9 3.9 27 Nov 2009 38 16.5 28 Nov 2009 10 4.3 29 Nov 2009 10 4.3 30 Nov 2009 12 5.2 01 Dec 2009 14 6.1 02 Dec 2009 14 6.1 Total 231 100.0 Table 4 2. View c ount Count % >= 10000 38 16.5 9999 1000 20 8.7 999 10 0 54 23.4 99 1 119 51.5 Total 231 100.0

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44 Table 4 3. Color C ount % All Color 215 93.1 Black and White 6 2.6 Mixed 10 4.3 Total 231 100.0 Table 4 4 Product c ategories. C ount % a not for profit organization 12 5.2 fashion and cosmetic 23 10.0 food and beverage 36 15.6 travel 0 0.0 communication and electronics 27 11.7 household products 7 3.0 pharmaceuticals 2 0.9 service 13 5.6 alcohol and tobacco 4 1.7 entertainment and media 30 13.0 banking, insurance or finance 10 4.3 automotive 29 12.6 retail 12 5.2 internet service 4 1.7 toy 9 3.9 other 13 5.6 Total 231 100.0

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45 Table 4 5 Advertising a ppeal Count % Adventure 17 7.4 Beauty 17 7.4 Collectivism 46 19.9 Competition 6 2.6 Convenience 14 6.1 Courtesy 0 0.0 Economy 36 15.6 Effectiveness 26 11.3 Enjoyment 143 61.9 Family 14 6.1 Health 9 3.9 Individualism 25 10.8 Leisure 9 3.9 Magic 7 3.0 Modernity 17 7.4 Natural 8 3.5 Neatness 2 0.9 Nurturance 9 3.9 Patriotism 1 0.4 Popularity 11 4.8 Quality 54 23.4 Respect for elderly 0 0 Safety 4 1.7 Sex 15 6.5 Social Status 18 7.8 Technology 27 11.7 Tradition 1 0.4 Uniqueness 46 19.9 Wealth 4 1.7 Wisdom 5 2.2 Work 2 0.9 Youth 28 12.1

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46 Table 4 6 Message s trategy Count % Ration 60 26.0 Acute Need 41 17.7 Routine 46 19.9 Ego 150 64.9 Social 30 13.0 Sensory 115 49.8 Table 4 7 Cross t abulation: v iew count & e njoyment a ppeal Enjoyment Total Not Use Use V iew Count High Count 36 79 115 % 31.3% 68.7% 100.0% Low Count 52 64 116 % 44.8% 55.2% 100.0% Total Count 88 143 231 % 38.1% 61.9% 100.0% 2 (1, N=231 ) = 4.478 (p < .05)

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47 Table 4 8 Frequency of a dvertising a ppeal in h igh v iew c ount count % Adventure 13 11.3 Beauty 12 10.4 Collectivism 19 16.5 Competition 4 3.5 Convenience 7 6.1 Courtesy 0 0.0 Economy 17 14.8 Effectiveness 11 9.6 Enjoyment 79 68.7 Family 10 8.7 Health 2 1.7 Individualism 9 7.8 Leisure 3 2.6 Magic 2 1.7 Modernity 12 10.4 Natural 5 4.3 Neatness 2 1.7 Nurturance 4 3.5 Patriotism 0 0.0 Popularity 7 6.1 Quality 26 22.6 Respect for E lderly 0 0.0 Safety 2 1.7 Sex 13 11.3 Social Status 11 9.6 Technology 18 15.7 Tradition 0 0.0 Uniqueness 22 19.1 Wealth 1 0.9 Wisdom 2 1.7 Work 1 0.9 Youth 13 11.3

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48 Table 4 9 Frequency of a dvertising m essage s trategy in h igh v iew c ount count % Ration 25 21.7 Acute Need 18 15.7 Routine 26 22.6 Ego 77 67.0 Social 12 10.4 Sensory 70 60.9 Table 4 10 Descriptive s tatistics of p roduct c ategory & v iew c ount Mean Std. Deviation N A not for profit organization 2,538.50 5,521.628 12 F ashion and cosmetic 20,768.43 79,019.933 23 F ood and beverage 110.31 162.341 36 Trave l 0.00 0.000 0 C ommunication and electronics 42,688.63 125,516.219 27 H ousehold product 9,558.00 21,149.558 7 P harmaceuticals 13.00 9.899 2 S ervice 1,156.31 3,337.887 13 A lcohol and tobacco 63,157.75 119,280.071 4 E ntertainment and media 71,317.40 245,742.663 30 B anking, insurance or finance 279.10 662.663 10 A utomotive 3,788.66 7,863.083 29 R etail 10,785.92 20,040.117 12 I nternet service 4,328.25 7,543.400 4 T oy 42.78 47.563 9 O ther 12,823.31 45,132.572 13 Total 19,763.25 104,612.758 231

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49 Table 4 11 ANOVA for the effect of p roduct c ategory & v iew c ount Sum of Squares d. f Mean Square F Between Groups 142,198,866,186.687 14 10,157,061,870.478 0.924 Within Groups 2,374,881,825,152.750 216 10,994,823,264.596 Total 2,517,080,691,339.440 230 Table 4 12 Cross t abulation: v iew count & a dventure a ppeal Sensory Total Not Use Use V iew Count High Count 45 70 115 % 39.1% 60.9% 100.0% Low Count 71 45 116 % 61.2% 38.8% 100.0% Total Count 116 115 231 % 50.2% 49.8% 100.0% 2 (1, N=231 ) = 11.258 (p < .05)

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50 Table 4 13. Top 20 highly viewed USTVCs Brand View count s Product category Advertising appeal Message strategy World of Warcraft 1 310 810 Game Enjoyment, Modernity Ego, sensory Verizon 510 558 Communication Enjoyment, competition, modernity Sensory Motorola 437 098 Communication Enjoyment, adventure Ego, sensory Band Hero 378 087 Game Enjoyment, Uniqueness Ego, sensory Gap 373 063 Fashion Enjoyment Ego, sensory Guinness 241 923 Alcohol Enjoyment, adventure Sensory AQWorlds 171 390 Game Enjoyment, adventure Ego, sensory Reebok 163 010 Fashion Effectiveness, beauty, sex Ego, sensory The Sims 3 93 282 Game Enjoyment Ego Gap 89 747 Fashion Enjoyment Sensory Verizon 58 837 Communication Enjoyment, Uniqueness, sex Ego, sensory Kleenex 56 855 Household Product Enjoyment Ego, sensory Walmart 55 670 Retail Enjoyment, Economy Ego, sensory M& S 47 380 Fashion Enjoyment, Beauty, Uniqueness, Sex Sensory Verizon 40 871 Communication Quality Sensory The Legend of Zelda 35 774 G ame Enjoyment, adventure Ego, sensory Assassin's Creed 2 33 454 Game Individualism Ego Volkswagen 31 682 Automobile Enjoyment Ego, sensory Dragon age 29 866 Game Enjoyment, modernity, uniqueness, sex Ego Verizon 27 796 Communication Uniqueness Routine

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51 Frequency View Count 1250000 1000000 750000 500000 250000 0 250 200 150 100 50 0 Figure 4 1 Distribution of v iew c ount

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52 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCL USION Discussion and Conclusion The development of high speed Internet brought about significant changes in the advertising environment. Therefore, a dvertisers and agencies are interested in creating new advertising formats. Based on media development and the efforts of advert isers and agencies, electronic word of mouth marketing and viral advertising have become extremely popular advertising methods. In addition, many TV commercials are shared or disseminated through video sharing sites using viral advertising. The phenomenon of viral advertising or TV commercials shared on video sharing sites can be considered to have a viral effect. However, despite development of the media environment and the emergence of new advertising phenomen a few studies have focused on this area. The current study attempted to bridge the gap between the current lack of knowledge in this field and the current realities by providing one of the first empirical explorations of the viral effect of TV commercials shared on YouTube. This study evaluated user shared television commercials ( USTVCs ) posted from November 1 2009 through December 2, 2009. A total of 231 TV commercials were subjected to content analysis to examine advertising appeals and message strategies. The study adapted the coding framework of Cheng segment message strategy wheel. Several keys were identified through the study. The results supported all of the four hypotheses. It was found that enjoyment appeal is used more freq uently in

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53 appeals (Hypothesis 1). However, this finding differs results, which indicated that humor and sexuality were the main advertising app eals used in viral advertising. USTVCs use a different advertising format than viral advertising, which explains the difference s between these findings. Therefore, it is important to note that TV commercials are regulated by the Federal Communications Comm ission whereas viral advertisements are not (Porter & Golan, 2006). Thus, enjoyment appeal is the main component of the viral effect that makes TV commercials which makes them want to take part in or upload them to YouTube. segment message strategy wheel as a framework for the content analysis of TV commercials shared on YouTube. The results proved that most USTVCs (more than 60 .0%) include the ego strategy (Hypothesis 2) The current study further proved that the ego strategy is most frequently used in high view count TV commercials shared on YouTube, indicating that TV commercials that use the ego strategy have a greater chance of becoming viral than commercials using other message strategies In addition, the results indicated that USTVCs include a significant amount of sensory strategy (more than 40.0%); this result differs from viral advertising and indicates that TV commercials that use the sensory strategy also have a greater opportunity to become viral than other message strategies. Hypothesis 3 and Hypothesis 4 were also supported by the findings. According to the u ses and g ratification theory, the reasons for consuming user g enerated media are information seeking and entertainment (McQuail, 2005). In particular, entertainment related categories are the most popular channels on YouTube (Shao, 2008). In the

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54 current study, high view count USTVCs included more enjoyment appeal tha n low view count TV commercials shared on YouTube. This result is statistically significant, finding that there is a strong relationship between view count and enjoyment appeal. The meaning of the relationship is that the more highly viewed USTVCs include more enjoyment appeal than less frequently viewed USTVCs. Enjoyment appeal is also more frequently used in high view count USTVCs than in any other appeals, indicating that TV commercials incorporating enjoyment appeal have a greater opportunity to become viral than those incorporating other appeals. Furthermore, the results found that the ego strategy and sensory strategy are included more frequently in high view count USTVCs than in other message strategies from Taylor (1999) six se gment wheel (Research Question 3). The study further reviewed th e reasons behind the success of the top 20 highly viewed USTVCs. Highly viewed USTVCs contain enjoyment appeal (17 of 20), ego message strategy (14 of 20), and sensory message strategy (16 of 20). In addition, the top 20 highly viewed USTVCs are mainly arranged into three product categories: game, communication, and fashion. These results suggested that enjoyment appeal, ego strategy, and sensory strategy can form the components of the viral effect. The highest vi ew count was 1 310 810 highly viewed USTVCs became viral, and all of them included enjoyment appeal, ego strategy, and sensory strat egy. In conclusion, USTVCs, which have viral components, had a high number of view counts and were very much in demand. This appears to be a clear case of the viral

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55 effect. Furthermore, the current study found that viral components of USTVCs were enjoymen t appeal, ego strategy, and sensory strategy. That is, USTVCs that include enjoyment appeal, ego strategy, and sensory strategy have more opportunities to be shared on video sharing sites, and highly viewed TV commercials on video sharing sites have the op portunity to include enjoyment appeal, ego strategy, and sensory strategy. Therefore, to enhance the viral effect, TV commercials should include not only enjoyment appeal, but also ego message strategy and sensory message strategy. Industry Implication Th e viral effect is increasingly important to TV commercials. A TV commercial has a direct effect on those in its target audience who are watching TV when it is aired. However, if the TV commercial is shared on Web sites by its target audience members with t heir friends, or even by untargeted audiences, it creates both a direct effect and an indirect effect, such as the word of mouth effect or viral effect. That is, USTVCs can exponentially explode the advertising effect of actual media purchases. According to the results, TV commercials can have a viral effect if they contain enjoyment appeal and ego and sensory strategies. Therefore, marketers and agencies should consider using enjoyment appeal, ego strategy, and sensory strategy in commercials to achieve e xploded indirect advertising effects. Limitations The current study has several limitations, including the sample itself. Although the sample used was a systematic random sample, the upload date of the sample was narrowly limited to July 6, 2009, through August 5, 2009. In addition, the total population clips in search results and the longest duration of upload date is one month; thus,

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56 restricted video clips were used f or the total population of the study. Moreover, this study analyzed only TV commercials shared on YouTube. Consequently, the results of this study can only represent YouTube USTVCs and cannot be generalized to all TV commercia ls shared on all video sharing W eb sites. Another limitation of the study was the methodology used. Content analysis was conducted to investigate advertising appeal and message strategy in TV commercials shared on video sharing W eb sites. However, content analysis involves explorator y and descriptive study. A high level analysis such as a cause and effect test was not possible in the current study. The final limitation was appeal, which was based on a study conducted approximately 15 years ago. This advertising appeal was developed to analyze TV commercials, not TV commercials shared on video sharing sites. This appeal was also developed to measure cultural values in commercials. Suggestion s for Future Study Future studies should examine advertising appeal and message strategy using a more sophisticated sample. The sample should include all USTVCs through a well understood YouTube search algorithm. In addition, it could include TV commercia ls shared on other video sharing sites. Moreover, it could expand the examination of the difference s between TV commercials shared on video sharing site s and viral advertising. A high level analysis such as cause and result testing is also suggested. A s urvey and experiment should be designed t o understand the users of video sharing sites. The questions to re solve in future research include why people share or upload

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57 TV commercials on video sharing sites and why people consume TV commercials shared on vid eo sharing sites.

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58 APPENDIX A THESIS CODING SHEET V1 Coder _________ V2 Commercial ID number _________ V3 Brand _________ V4 Posting Date _________ V5 View Count _________ V6 Color 1. All color 2. Black or white 3. Mixed V7 Product Category 1. a not for profit organization 2. fashion and cosmetic 3. food and beverage 4. travel 5. communication and electronics 6. household products 7. pharmaceuticals 8. service 9. alcohol and tobacco 10. entertainment and media 11. banking, insurance or finance 12. automotive 13. retail 14. internet service 15. toy 16. other Advertising Appeal V8. Adventure 1. Use 2. Not use V9. Beauty 1. Use 2. Not use V10. Collectivism 1. Use 2. Not use V11. Competition 1. Use 2. Not use V12. Convenience 1. Use 2. Not use V13. Courtesy 1. Use 2. Not use V14. Economy 1. Use 2. Not use V15. Effectiveness 1. Use 2. Not use V16. Enjoyment 1. Use 2. Not use V17. Family 1. Use 2. Not use

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59 V18. Health 1. Use 2. Not use V19. Individualism 1. Use 2. Not use V20. Leisure 1. Use 2. Not use V21. Magic 1. Use 2. Not use V22. Modernity 1. Use 2. Not use V23. Natural 1. Use 2. Not use V24. Neatness 1. Use 2. Not use V25. Nurturance 1. Use 2. Not use V26. Patriotism 1. Use 2. Not use V27. Popularity 1. Use 2. Not use V28. Quality 1. Use 2. Not use V29. Respect for the Elderly 1. Use 2. Not use V30. Safety 1. Use 2. Not use V31. Sex 1. Use 2. Not use V32. Social Status 1. Use 2. Not use V33. Technology 1. Use 2. Not use V34. Tradition 1. Use 2. Not use V35. Uniqueness 1. Use 2. Not use V36. Wealth 1. Use 2. Not use V37. Wisdom 1. Use 2. Not use V38. Work 1. Use 2. Not use V39. Youth 1. Use 2. Not use

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60 Message Strategy (Check All That Apply At Least One) V40. Ration 1. Use 2. Not use V41. Acute Need 1. Use 2. Not use V42. Routine 1. Use 2. Not use V43. Ego 1. Use 2. Not use V44. Social 1. Use 2. Not use V45. Sensory 1. Use 2. Not use

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61 APPENDIX B CODER GUIDE General direction: Mainly examine the main visual and texts of advertising. To get consistence, code the advertising appeal and message strategy. When advertisement uses each advertising appeal or message strategy, it will be coded 1 (use). However, when advertisement does not use each advertising appeal or message strategy, it will be coded 2 (not use). 1. Advertising Appeal Adventure This value suggests boldness, daring, bravery, courage, or thrill. Sky diving is a typical example. Beauty This value suggests that the use of a product will enhance the loveliness, attractiveness, elegance, or handsomeness or an individual. Collectivism The emphasis here is on the individual in reaction to others typically in the reference group. Individuals are depicted as integral parts of the group. Competition The emphasis here is on distinguishing a product from its counterparts by aggressive comparisons. While expl icit comparisons may mention the Convenience A product is suggested to be handy and easy to use. Courtesy Politeness and friendship toward the consumer are shown thro ugh the use of polished and affable language in the commercial. Economy The inexpensive, affordable, and cost saving nature of a product is emphasized in the commercial. Effectiveness A product is suggested to be powerful and capable of achieving certain ends. Enjoyment This value suggests that a product will make its user wild with joy.

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62 Family The emphasis here is on the family life and family members. The commercial stresses family scenes: getting married, companionship of siblings, kinship, being at home, and suggests that a certain product is good for the whole family. Health This value reco mmends that the use of a product will enhance or improve the vitality, soundness, strength, and robust of the body. Individualism The emphasis here is on the self sufficiency and self reliance of an individual or on the individual as being distinct and un like others Leisure This value suggests that the use of product will bring one comfort or relaxation. Magic The emphasis here is on the miraculous effect and nature of a product, e.g., Modernity The notion of be ing new, contemporary, up to date, and ahead of time is emphasized in a commercial. Natural This value suggests spiritual harmony between man and nature by making references to the elements, animals, vegetables, or minerals. Neatness The notion of being clean and tidy is stressed in a commercial. Nurturance This value stresses giving charity, help, protection, support, or sympathy to the weak, disabled, young, or elderly. Patriotism ot in the use of a product are suggested here. Popularity The focus here is on the universal recognition and acceptance of a certain Quality The emphasis here is on the excellence and durability of a product, which is usually claimed to be a winner of medals or certificates awarded by a government performance.

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63 Respect for elderly The commercial di splays a respect for older people by using a model of old age or asking for the opinions, recommendations, and advice of the elders. Safety The reliable and secure nature of a product is emphasized. Sex The commercial uses glamorous and sensual models or has a background of lovers holding hands, embracing, or kissing to promote a product. Social status The use of a product is claimed to be able to elevate the position or rank of the user in the eyes of others. The feeling of prestige, trendsetting, and p ride in the fame by quoting his words or showing his picture in the commercial is also included. Technology Here, the advanced and sophisticated technical skills to engineer and manufacture a particular product are emphasized. Tradition The experience of the past, customs, and conventions are respected. The qualities of being historical, time honored, and legendary are venerated. Uniqueness The unrivaled, incomparable, and unpar alleled nature of a product is emphasized, Wealth This value conveys the idea that being affluent, prosperous, and rich should be encouraged and suggests that a certain product or service will make the user well off. Wisdom This value shows respect for knowledge, education, intelligence, expertise, or experience. Work This value shows respect for diligence and dedication of one's labor and skills. A typical example is that a medication has regaine d a desperate patient his or her ability to work.

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64 Youth The worship of the younger generation is shown through the depiction of younger 2. Message Strategy Ego Ap peal to vanity, self actualization (Not corporate image but consumer image) Emotional needs relating to self are fulfilled Image based executions (visual dominance) with little or no factual information Unstructured and ambiguous enough so each person can fit him/herself into ad Usual Strategy: User image, brand image Example: For the computer mania Social Stating to others, not to self Showing social situation motivating consumers (Group identification) Showing target market member as socially important to others Usual Strategy: User image (in social situation). User occasion Example: Share it with a friend/ Sept. 11 Tragedy. Our hearts and minds are burdened Sensory Five senses emphasize d Sensory gratification Pleasurable moments Usual Strategy: Moment of pleasure Example: Yum!/ Feel the speed Routine Serving a cue or a reminder (brand name and package emphasized) Appeal to convenience and trivi al interests Usual Strategy: Hyperbole, Preemptive, Brand Familiarity Example: Future of memory/ Welcome to mass electronics Acute Need Limited time to make decision (timely decision) Serving a cue or a reminder in an urgent situation Requiring immediate action Usual Strategy: Brand familiarity Example: Fall/ 2001 fashion/ Call now to process the claim

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65 Ration Rational consumers assumed Needs a large amount of deliberation (lots of corporate information) Problem solving offered Emphasizing the differences or competitive advantages Usual Strategy: Comparative, USP, Generic Example: Get the wider picture/ Faster Pentium 4 with 256MB memory under $1,500

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66 LIST OF REFERENCES Aaker, D. & Norris, D. (1982). Characteristics of television commercials perceived as informative. Journal of Advertising Research 22(2), 61 70. Arndt, Johan (1967). Word of mouth advertising: A review of the literature New York: Advertising Research Foundation. Be rkley, Michael (2008, August 29). Social advertising: A plan for viral success. iMediaconnection Retrieved from http://www.imediaconnection.com/content/20302.asp Blumer, J.G. & Katz, F. (1974 ). The uses of mass communication Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Boyd, D. M. & Ellison, N. B. (2008). Social network site: Definition, history, and scholarship. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication 13, 210 230. Carey, James W. (2007). A cultural approach to communication. In Craig, R. T., & Muller, H. L. (Eds.), Theorizing communication: Readings across traditions (pp. 37 49) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Cassidy, John. (2006, May 15). Me Media: How hanging out on the internet became big business. The New York er Retrieved from http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2006/05/15/060515fa_fact_cassidy Cheng, H. & Schweitzer, J. C. (1996). Cultural values reflected in Chinese and U.S. televis ion commercials. Journal of Advertising Research 36(3), 27 45. Cheng, X., Dale, C., and Liu, J. (2007). Understanding the characteristics of internet short video sharing: YouTube as a case study. arXiv Retrieved from http://arxiv.org/PS_cache/arxiv/pdf/0707/0707.3670v1.pdf Cuneo, Alice Z. (2004). Toyota names ground zero for viral marketing: $10 million campaign to lure young consumers. Advertising Ag e Retrieved from http://adage.com/news.cms?newsId=40423 Davis, Joel, J (1997). Advertising Research: Theory and Practice New Jersey: Prentice Hall Dichter, Ernest (1966). How Word of Mouth Advertising Works. Harvard Business Review 44(6), 147 166. Fred, T.H., Kevin, P. G., Gianfranco, W., & Dwayne, D. G. (2004). Electronic word of mouth via consumer opinion platforms: What m otivates consumers to articulate themselves on the Internet? Journal of Interactive Marketing 18(1), 38 52.

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67 Golan, G.J. & Zaidner, L (2008), Creative strategies in viral advertising: An segment message strategy wheel. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication 13, 959 972. Garfield, B. (2006, Dece mber). YouTube vs. BoobTube. Wired Magazine Retrieved from http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/14.12/youtube.html Helm, Sabrina (2000), Viral marketing establishing customer relationships by Electronic Markets 10 (July), 158 161. Holsti, Ole R. (1969). Content Analysis for the social sciences and humanities. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley. Jurvetson, S., & Draper T. (1997, January 1). Viral Marketing. DFJ Retrieved from http://www.dfj.com/news/article_26.shtml Keller, Ed (2007). Unleashing the power of word of mouth: Creating brand advocacy to drive growth. Journal of Advertising Research 47 (4), 448 452. Keller, E. & Fa y, B. (2009). The role of advertising in word of mouth. Journal of Advertising Research 49(2), 154 158. Kim, J., McMillan, S. J. & Hwang, J. (2005). Strategies for the Super Bowl of advertising: An analysis of how the web is integrated into campaigns. Jou rnal of Interactive Advertising 6(1), 59 78. Kim, K. & Yun, H. (2007). Cying for Me, Cying for Us: Relational dialectics in a Korean social network site. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication 13 (1), 298 318. Kirby, Justin (2006). Viral marketing. I n Kirby, J., & Marsden, P. (Eds.), Connected Marketing (pp. 87 106), Oxford, UK: BH. Liu, Yang (2006). Word of Mouth for Movies: Its Dynamics and Impact on Box Office revenue. Journal of Marketing 70(3), 74 89. Macpherson, Penny (2006, October 23). The vi ral effect. Employmint Retrieved from http://employmint.wordpress.com/2006/10/23/the viral effect/ Marsden, Paul (2006). Introduction and summary. In Kirby, J., & Marsden, P. (Eds. ), Connected Marketing (pp. 15 35), Oxford, UK: BH. McQuail, Denis (2005). (4th ed.). London: Sage.

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68 Mintel (2008) .Unique views of social networking sites in the U.S. per day Retrieved from http://academic.mintel.com.lp.hscl.ufl.edu/sinatra/oxygen_academic/searc h_results/show&/display/id=305806/displaytables/id=305806 Moon, Y. and Chan, K. (2005). Advertising appeals and cultural values in television commercials: A comparison of Hong Kong and Korea. International Marketing Review 22(1), 48 66. Mueller, Barbara (1987). Reflections of culture: An analysis of Japanese and American ad vertising appeals. Journal of Advertising Research 27(3), 51 59. Nyilasy, Greg (2006). Word of mouth: What we really know Kirby, J., Marsden, P. (Eds.), Connected Marketing (pp. 161 184), Oxford, UK: BH. Pollay, Richard W. (1983). M easuring the cultural values manifest in advertising. Current Issues and Research in Advertising 6(1), 71 92. Porter, L. & Golan, G. J. (2006). From subservient chickens to brawny men: A comparison of viral advertising to television advertising. Journal o f Interactive Advertising 6(2), 30 38. Puto, C. P. & Wells, W. D. (1984). Informational and Transformational advertising: The Differential Effects of Time. Advance in Consumer Research 11 (1), 638 643. Rafaeli, Sheizaf (1986). The electronic bulletin bo ard: A computer driven mass medium. Computers and the Social Sciences 2(3), 123 136. Rayport, Jaffery (2007, December 18). The virus of marketing. Fast Company Retrieved from http ://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/06/virus.html?page=0%2C1 Ruggiero, Thomas E. (2000). Uses and gratifications theory in the 21st century. Mass Communication and Society 3(1), 3 37. Schindler, R. M., & Bickart, B. (2005). Published word of mouth: Referable, consumer generated information on the Internet. In Haugtvedt, C. P., Machleit, K. A., & Yalch, R. (Eds.), Online consumer psychology: Understanding and influencing consumer behavior in the virtual wo rld (pp. 35 61), Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers. Shao, Guosong (2009). Understanding the appeal of user generated media: A uses and gratification perspective. Internet Research 19(1), 7 25.

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69 Smith, T., Coyle, J. R., Lightfoot, E., & Scott, A. (2007). Reconsidering models of influence: The relationship between consumer social networks and word of mouth effectiveness. Journal of Advertising Research 47(4), 387 397. Sterlin, Greg (2006, August 31). YouTube video and usage facts. Search Engine Journal, Retrieved from http://www.searchenginejournal.com/youtube video usage facts/3754/ Taylor, Ronald E. (1999). A six segment message strategy wheel. Journal of A dvertising Research 39 (6), 7 17. Tibbetts, Peggy (2001). How to Spread the Word of Mouse, Retrieved from http://www.rumorsofwar.net/downloads/WordofMouse2004.pdf USA Today (2006, July 16). YouTube serves up 100 million video a day online. Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/2006 07 16 youtube views_x.htm Welker, Carl B. (2002). The Paradigm of V iral Communication, Information Services and Use 22 (January), 3 8. Wilson Ralph F. (2005, February 1). The six simple principles of viral marketing. Web Marketing Today Retrieved from http ://www.wilsonweb.com/wmt5/viral principles.htm

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70 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Kyongsub Lee was born and grew up in Seoul, Korea. He graduated from Dankook University, where he got B.A. of Art in Journalism and Communication. H e decided to study at Univers ity of Florida because he needed more academic career H e received the Master of Advertising degree in May 20 10