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Building Information Modeling in Support of Sustainable Design and Construction

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0041667/00001

Material Information

Title: Building Information Modeling in Support of Sustainable Design and Construction
Physical Description: 1 online resource (182 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Bynum, William
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: aec, aided, analysis, architecture, assessment, bim, building, computer, construction, design, engineering, green, information, modeling, performance, software, sustainability
Building Construction -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Building Construction thesis, M.S.B.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The use of building information modeling (BIM) has provided a means of increasing total project quality, providing accurate scheduling timetables, yielding quantity take-offs, and diminishing total project costs. However, there has not been significant analysis performed with regards to the impact BIM has on sustainable construction practices. This research is intended to evaluate the current trends in BIM usage within the architecture / engineering / construction (AEC) industry in its support for sustainable design and construction. An introduction of several BIM software and various green rating systems is provided exploring the relationships seen between each in support for sustainable design and construction. A survey was developed based on information gathered through a review of literature and analysis was performed on the participant's responses in order to gain insight on the AEC perspective of the use of BIM and sustainability within the AEC industry. Currently, the majority of the AEC industry is utilizing BIM in some form or another due to its ability to support collaborative and distributed work processes which facilitates project delivery. Although the majority of the AEC industry believes that sustainable design and construction practices are of importance within their company's structure, most still believe that it is not a primary application for BIM, that, project coordination and visualization instead are more important. Additionally, as owners become more aware of the potential benefits provided by BIM, the AEC industry will begin to utilize BIM regularly as a standard process. Due to the relative high costs of obtaining licenses for BIM software, many companies within the AEC industry view it as not cost-effective. While BIM is perceived as a multidisciplinary tool, problems with interoperability continue to persist among the various sectors of the industry. In terms of project delivery, the majority of the survey respondents believe that the move towards Design-Build and Integrated Project Delivery is the optimal method to provide for BIM as a sustainability tool. Although BIM is still a recent development, as more AEC professionals understand the potential benefits offered through its use, BIM will become a vital tool for sustainable design and construction within the industry.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by William Bynum.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.B.C.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Issa, R. Raymond.
Local: Co-adviser: Olbina, Svetlana.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2011-04-30

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0041667:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0041667/00001

Material Information

Title: Building Information Modeling in Support of Sustainable Design and Construction
Physical Description: 1 online resource (182 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Bynum, William
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: aec, aided, analysis, architecture, assessment, bim, building, computer, construction, design, engineering, green, information, modeling, performance, software, sustainability
Building Construction -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Building Construction thesis, M.S.B.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The use of building information modeling (BIM) has provided a means of increasing total project quality, providing accurate scheduling timetables, yielding quantity take-offs, and diminishing total project costs. However, there has not been significant analysis performed with regards to the impact BIM has on sustainable construction practices. This research is intended to evaluate the current trends in BIM usage within the architecture / engineering / construction (AEC) industry in its support for sustainable design and construction. An introduction of several BIM software and various green rating systems is provided exploring the relationships seen between each in support for sustainable design and construction. A survey was developed based on information gathered through a review of literature and analysis was performed on the participant's responses in order to gain insight on the AEC perspective of the use of BIM and sustainability within the AEC industry. Currently, the majority of the AEC industry is utilizing BIM in some form or another due to its ability to support collaborative and distributed work processes which facilitates project delivery. Although the majority of the AEC industry believes that sustainable design and construction practices are of importance within their company's structure, most still believe that it is not a primary application for BIM, that, project coordination and visualization instead are more important. Additionally, as owners become more aware of the potential benefits provided by BIM, the AEC industry will begin to utilize BIM regularly as a standard process. Due to the relative high costs of obtaining licenses for BIM software, many companies within the AEC industry view it as not cost-effective. While BIM is perceived as a multidisciplinary tool, problems with interoperability continue to persist among the various sectors of the industry. In terms of project delivery, the majority of the survey respondents believe that the move towards Design-Build and Integrated Project Delivery is the optimal method to provide for BIM as a sustainability tool. Although BIM is still a recent development, as more AEC professionals understand the potential benefits offered through its use, BIM will become a vital tool for sustainable design and construction within the industry.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by William Bynum.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.B.C.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Issa, R. Raymond.
Local: Co-adviser: Olbina, Svetlana.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2011-04-30

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0041667:00001


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1 BUILDING INFORMATION MODELING IN SUPPORT OF SUSTAINABLE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION By WILLIAM PATRICK BYNUM II A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FO R THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2010

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2 2010 William Patrick Bynum II

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3 To my family and friends Vigilando, agendo, bene consulendo, prospera omnia cedunt

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS First and foremost, I would like to thank my thesis committee members, Dr. Raymond Issa, Dr. Svetlana Olbina, and Dr. Ian Flood for their continual guidance through the process of this research. Their expertise in the field of building information modeling as well as sustai nability helped provide the framework for this investigation and for their advice and direction I am grateful. I would like to thank the University of Virginia School o f Architecture and its faculty fo r establishing the foundation of my education in both d igital modeling and sustainable design. Without my education at UVA I would not be the student or individual that I am today, and for that I am entirely grateful. Finally, I would like to thank my family and friends for their support in everything I have accomplished so far. Without you I would not be able to achieve the goals I set forth so early in my lifetime. Through your patience and eternal guidance I know that I will forever be able to depend on you for support.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS P age ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 9 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 11 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................ ................................ ........................... 15 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 16 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 18 1.1 Purpose of Study ................................ ................................ .............................. 18 1.2 Objective of the Study ................................ ................................ ....................... 19 1.3 Research Methodology ................................ ................................ ..................... 19 1.4 Structure of Research ................................ ................................ ....................... 20 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ .......................... 22 2.1 Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 22 2.2 Building Information Modeling ................................ ................................ ........... 23 2.2.1 Historical Outline ................................ ................................ ..................... 23 2.2.2 Potential Benefits to the AEC Industry ................................ ..................... 24 2.2.3 Problems with BIM ................................ ................................ ................... 27 2.2.4 BIM Software Platforms ................................ ................................ ........... 29 2.2.4.1 Autodesk Revit 2010 ................................ ................................ ...... 29 2.2.4.2 Bentley Architecture V8i ................................ ................................ 31 2.2.4.3 Graphisoft ArchiCAD 13 ................................ ................................ 33 2.2.4.4 Beck Technology DProfiler ................................ ............................ 34 2.2.4.5 Gehry Techn ologies Digital Project V1,R4 ................................ ..... 35 2.2.4.6 Nemetschek Vectorworks Architect 2010 ................................ ....... 37 2.2.4.7 Tekla Structures 14 ................................ ................................ ........ 38 2.2.4.8 Vico Software Constructor 2009 ................................ .................... 39 2.2.5 BIM Softw are Supplemental Applications ................................ ................ 40 2.2.5.1 NavisWorks Manage 2010 ................................ ............................. 40 2.2.5.2 Solibri Model Checker ................................ ................................ .... 41 2.2.5.3 Innovaya Visual Software ................................ ............................... 41 2.3 Sustainability ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 42 2.3.1 Green Building Assessment ................................ ................................ .... 43 2.3.1.1 LEED ................................ ................................ .............................. 44 2.3.1.2 Green Globes ................................ ................................ ................. 45 2.3.1.3 BREEAM ................................ ................................ ........................ 47 2.3.1.4 Other green building assessment s ................................ ................. 47

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6 2.3.2 Future Development of Green Building Assessments ............................. 49 2.4 The Interoperability between BIM and Sustainability ................................ ........ 49 2.4.1 Environmental Analysis Software ................................ ............................ 49 2.4.1.1 Autodes k Ecotect Analysis 2010 ................................ .................... 50 2.4.1.2 IES ................................ ............................. 51 2.4.1.3 Graphisoft EcoDesigner ................................ ................................ 53 2.4.1.4 eQUEST ................................ ................................ ......................... 53 2.5 Future Developments ................................ ................................ ........................ 53 3 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY ................................ ....................... 55 3.1 Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 55 3.2 Survey Questionnaire Design ................................ ................................ ........... 5 6 3.2.1 Personal Information ................................ ................................ ............... 56 3.2.2 Company/Organization Information ................................ ......................... 57 3.2.3 Building Information Modeling (BIM) ................................ ........................ 59 3.2.4 Sustainable Building Practices ................................ ................................ 62 3.2.5 Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Sustainable Building Practices ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 64 3.2.6 Optional Section ................................ ................................ ...................... 67 3.3 Sample Population ................................ ................................ ............................ 67 3.4 Method of Analysis ................................ ................................ ............................ 68 4 SURVEY RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ 71 4.1 Section 1 and 2 Results ................................ ................................ .................... 71 4.1.1 Question 1.1 ................................ ................................ ............................ 71 4.1.2 Question 1.2 ................................ ................................ ............................ 72 4.1.3 Question 1.3 ................................ ................................ ............................ 73 4.1.4 Question 2.1 ................................ ................................ ............................ 73 4.1.5 Question 2.2 ................................ ................................ ............................ 74 4.1.6 Question 2.3 ................................ ................................ ............................ 75 4.1.7 Question 2.4 ................................ ................................ ............................ 75 4.1.8 Question 2.5 ................................ ................................ ............................ 76 4.1.9 Question 2.6 ................................ ................................ ............................ 77 4.2 Section 3 Results ................................ ................................ .............................. 77 4.2.1 Question 3.1 ................................ ................................ ............................ 78 4.2.2 Question 3.2 ................................ ................................ ............................ 79 4.2.3 Question 3.3 3.4 ................................ ................................ ................... 79 4.2.4 Question 3.5 ................................ ................................ ............................ 80 4.2.5 Question 3.6 ................................ ................................ ............................ 81 4.2.6 Question 3.7 ................................ ................................ ............................ 83 4.3 Section 4 Results ................................ ................................ .............................. 86 4.3.1 Question 4.1 4.2 ................................ ................................ ................... 87 4.3.2 Question 4.3 ................................ ................................ ............................ 87 4.3.3 Question 4.4 ................................ ................................ ............................ 90

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7 4.4 Section 5 Results ................................ ................................ .............................. 93 4.4.1 Question 5.1 ................................ ................................ ............................ 93 4.4.2 Question 5.2 ................................ ................................ ............................ 94 4.4.3 Question 5.3 ................................ ................................ ............................ 95 4.4.4 Question 5.4 ................................ ................................ ............................ 96 4.4.5 Question 5.5 ................................ ................................ ............................ 96 4.4.6 Question 5.6 ................................ ................................ ............................ 98 4.4.7 Question 5.7 ................................ ................................ .......................... 101 5 STRATIFIED SAMPLING SURVEY RESULTS ................................ .................... 103 5.1 Section 3 Stratified Sampling Results ................................ ............................. 103 5.1.1 Question 3.1 ................................ ................................ .......................... 104 5.1.2 Question 3.2 ................................ ................................ .......................... 108 5.1.3 Question 3.3 3.4 ................................ ................................ ................. 111 5.1.4 Question 3.5 ................................ ................................ .......................... 113 5.1.5 Question 3.6 ................................ ................................ .......................... 116 5.1.6 Question 3.7 ................................ ................................ .......................... 120 5.2 Section 4 Stratified Sampling Results ................................ ............................. 125 5.2.1 Question 4.1 4.2 ................................ ................................ ................. 125 5.2.2 Question 4.3 ................................ ................................ .......................... 126 5.2.3 Q uestion 4.4 ................................ ................................ .......................... 130 5.3 Section 5 Stratified Sampling Results ................................ ............................. 134 5.3.1 Question 5.1 ................................ ................................ .......................... 135 5.3.2 Question 5.2 ................................ ................................ .......................... 138 5.3.3 Question 5.3 ................................ ................................ .......................... 141 5.3.4 Question 5.4 ................................ ................................ .......................... 145 5.3.5 Question 5.5 ................................ ................................ .......................... 149 5.3.6 Question 5.6 ................................ ................................ .......................... 153 6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................ ..................... 158 6.1 Conclusions ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 158 6.2 Results to Investigation Objectives ................................ ................................ 160 6.2.1 Objective 1 ................................ ................................ ............................ 160 6.2.2 Objective 2 ................................ ................................ ............................ 161 6.2.3 O bjective 3 ................................ ................................ ............................ 161 6.2.4 Objective 4 ................................ ................................ ............................ 161 6.2.5 Objective 5 ................................ ................................ ............................ 162 6.3 Improvements to the Survey ................................ ................................ ........... 162 6.4 Recommendations for Future Research ................................ ......................... 163 APPENDIX A IRB SURVEY PROPOSAL SUBMITTAL ................................ .............................. 164

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8 B IRB INFORMED CONSENT DOCUMENT ................................ ............................ 166 C SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE ................................ ................................ ................ 168 D QUESTION 5.7 FREE RESPONSE ANSWERS ................................ ................... 176 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 179 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 182

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9 LIST OF TABLES Table P age 2 1 LEED Rating System v3.0 New Construction ................................ ........................ 45 2 2 Points required for LEED certification (LEED NC v3.0) ................................ .......... 45 2 3 Green Globes Rating System v1 ................................ ................................ ............ 46 4 ................................ ...................... 72 4 2 Respondents with LEED AP affiliation (Q1.2) ................................ ........................ 73 4 3 Numbe r of years respondents have worked in the AEC industry as a professional (Q1.3). ................................ ................................ ............................ 73 4 .......................... 74 4 ................................ ................. 75 4 ................................ ....... 75 4 ........................ 76 4 ................................ ............... 76 4 (Q2.6). ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 77 4 10 BIM Software used by AEC industry members (Q3.1) ................................ ......... 78 4 ...................... 79 4 and Q3.4) ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 80 4 ............................ 80 4 14 Perceptions of BIM and its skepticism in the AEC i ndustry (Q3.6) ....................... 81 4 15 Importance of common features found in BIM software packages (Q3.7) ............ 84 4 16 Percentage of LEED projects on LEED projects (Q3.3 and Q3.4) ................................ ................................ ..... 87 4 .......... 88

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10 4 18 Importance of common sustainable features and their impact on construction (Q4.4) ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 91 4 enting BIM during a given project duration (Q5.1) ................................ ................................ ........... 94 4 .. 95 4 company (Q5.3) ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 95 4 environment for the utilization of BIM software as a mechanism for sustainable design and building practices (Q5.4) ................................ ............... 96 4 23 Importance of potential advancements in BIM in terms of its impact on sustainab le practices (Q5.5) ................................ ................................ ............... 97 4 24 Rating of BIM in terms of effectiveness in achieving sustainability (Q5.6) ........... 99 5 1 Breakdown of the additional included project types. ................................ ................................ ...... 107 5 2 Cross tabular comparison of company BIM use and owner requirements. .......... 112 5 3 Cross tabular comparison of company LEED projects and owner requirements. 125

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11 LIST OF FIGURES Figure P age 2 1 Integrated BIM model. ................................ ................................ ............................ 25 2 ................................ 26 2 3 Revit element h ierarchy within parametric modeling. ................................ ............. 30 2 4 Exte ackage solutions ............................ 33 2 5 Vico Office S uite functional diagram on project management and construction ..... 40 2 6 IES Virtual Environment integrated data model. ................................ .................... 52 3 1 Re search methodology process ................................ ................................ ............. 70 4 1 Perceptions of BIM and its skepticism in the AEC industry ................................ .... 83 4 2 Importance of common featur es found in BIM software packages ......................... 86 4 ....................... 90 4 4 Importance o f common sustainable features and their impact on construction ...... 93 4 5 Potential advancements in BIM in terms of its impact on sustainable practices ..... 98 4 6 Rating of BIM in terms of effectiveness in achieving sustainability ...................... 101 5 1 Comparison of BIM software and AEC position roles. ................................ .......... 104 5 2 Comparison of BIM software and project delivery methods. ................................ 105 5 3 Comparison of BIM software and annual revenue. ................................ .............. 106 5 4 Comparison of BIM software and project types. ................................ ................... 107 5 5 Comparison of number of years using BIM and AEC position roles. .................... 108 5 6 Comparison of number of years using BIM and project delivery methods. .......... 109 5 7 Comparison of number of years using BIM and annual revenue. ........................ 110 5 8 Comparison of number of years using BIM and project types. ............................. 111 5 9 di rect u se of BIM. ................................ ................................ .............................. 112

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12 5 10 Comparison of BIM functions and AEC position roles. ................................ ....... 113 5 11 Comparison of BIM functions and project delivery method. ............................... 114 5 12 Comparison of BIM functions and annual revenue. ................................ ............ 115 5 13 Comparison of BIM functions and project ty pes. ................................ ................ 116 5 14 Comparison of common perceptions of BIM and AEC position roles. ................ 117 5 15 Comparison of common perceptions of BIM and project delivery method. ........ 118 5 16 Comparison of common perceptions and annual revenue. ................................ 119 5 17 Comparison of common perc eptions and project types. ................................ .... 120 5 18 Comparison of importance of BIM features and AEC position roles. .................. 121 5 19 Comparison of im portance of BIM features and project delivery method. .......... 122 5 20 Comparison of importance of BIM features and annual revenue. ...................... 123 5 21 Comparison of importance of BIM features and project types. ........................... 124 5 construction of LEED buildings. ................................ ................................ ........ 126 5 23 Comparison of company perception and AEC position roles. ............................ 127 5 24 Comparison of company perceptions and project delivery method. ................... 128 5 25 Comparison of company perceptions and annual revenue. ............................... 129 5 26 Comparison of company perceptions and project types. ................................ .... 130 5 27 Comparison of common sustainable features and AEC position roles. .............. 131 5 28 Comparison of common sustainable features an d project delivery method. ...... 132 5 29 Comparison of common sustainable features and annual revenue. ................... 133 5 30 Comparison of commo n sustainable features and project types. ....................... 134 5 31 Comparison of optimal project phase for sustainable BIM use and AEC position roles. ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 135 5 32 Comparison of optimal project phase for sustainable BIM applications and project delivery method. ................................ ................................ ................... 136

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13 5 33 Comparison of optimal project phase for sustainable BIM applicatio ns and annual revenue. ................................ ................................ ................................ 137 5 34 Comparison of optimal project phase for sustainable BIM applications and project types. ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 138 5 3 5 Comparison of building performance analysis and AEC position roles. ............. 139 5 36 Comparison of type of building performance analysis and project delivery method. ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 139 5 37 Comparison of type of building performance analysis and annual revenue. ...... 140 5 38 Comparison of type of building performance analysis and project ty pes. ........... 141 5 39 Comparison of building performance analysis software and AEC position roles. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 142 5 40 Comparison of building per formance analysis software and project delivery methods. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 143 5 41 Comparison of building performance analysis software and annual revenue. ... 144 5 42 Comparison of building performance analysis software and project types. ........ 145 5 43 Comparison of optimal project delivery method for sustainable BIM applications and AEC p osition roles. ................................ ................................ 146 5 44 Comparison of optimal project phase for sustainable BIM applications and project delivery methods. ................................ ................................ .................. 147 5 45 Comparison of optimal project delivery method for sustainable BIM applications and annual revenue. ................................ ................................ ..... 148 5 46 Comparison of optimal project delivery method for sustainable BIM application s and project types. ................................ ................................ ......... 149 5 47 Comparison of potential improvements within BIM and AEC position roles. ...... 150 5 48 Comparison of p otential improvements within BIM and project delivery methods. ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 151 4 49 Comparison of potential improvements within BIM and annual revenue. ........... 152 5 50 Comparison of potential improvements within BIM and project types ................ 153 5 51 Comparison of BIM as a mechanism for sustainable practices and AEC position roles. ................................ ................................ ................................ ... 154

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14 5 52 Comparison of BIM as a mechanism for sustainable practices and project delivery methods. ................................ ................................ ............................. 155 5 53 Comparison of BIM as a mechan ism for sustainable practices and annual revenue ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 156 5 54 Comparison of BIM as a mechanism for sustainable practices and project types. ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 157

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15 LIST OF ABBREVIATI ONS AEC Architecture/Engineer/ Construction ARCH Architect BIM Building Information Modeling BREEAM Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method CAD Computer Aided Design CASBEE Comprehensive Assessment System for Building Environmental E fficiency CM Construction Management CM R Construction Management at Risk CNC Computer Numerically Controlled DB Design Build DBD Design Bid Build DBIA Design Build Institute of America DOE Department of Energy ENG Engineer GBI Green Building Initiative GC General Contractor IAI International Alliance for Interoperability IPD Integrated Project Delivery LEED AP Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Accredited Professional NURBS Non uniform B splines SUB Subcontractor USGBC United State Green Buildin g Council

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16 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Building Construction BUILDING INFORMATION MODELING IN SUPPORT O F SUSTAINABLE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION By William Patrick Bynum II May 2010 Chair: R. Raymond Issa Cochair: Svetlana Olbina Major: Building Construction The use of building information modeling (BIM) has provided a means of increasing total project quali ty, providing accurate scheduling timetables, yielding quantity take offs and diminishing total project costs. However, there has not been significant analysis performed with regards to the impact BIM has on sustainable construction practices. This resea rch is intended to evaluate the current trends in BIM usage within the architecture / engineering / construction (AEC) industry in its support for sustainable design and construction An introduction of several BIM software and various green rating system s is provided exploring the relationships seen between each in support for sustainable design and construction. A survey was developed based on information gathered through a review of literature and analysis was performed on the n order to gain insight on the AEC perspective of the use of BIM and sustainability within the AEC industry Currently, the majority of the AEC industry is utilizing BIM in some form or another due to its ability to support collaborative and distributed w ork processes which facilitates

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17 project delivery Although the majority of the AEC industry believes that sustainable most still believe that it is not a primary applica tion for BIM, that, project coordination and visualization instead are more important. Additionally, as owners become more aware of the potential benefits provided by BIM, the AEC industry will begin to utilize BIM regularly as a standard process. Due to the relative high costs of obtaining licenses for BIM software, many companies within the AEC industry view it as not cost effective. W hile BIM is perceived as a multidisciplinary tool, problems with interoperability continue to persist among the various sectors of the industry. In terms of project delivery, the majority of the survey respondents believe that the move towards Design Build and Integrated Project Delivery is the optimal method to provide for BIM as a sustainability tool. Although BIM is s till a recent development, as more AEC professionals understand the potential benefits offered through its use, BIM w ill become a vital tool for sustainable design and construction within the industry

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18 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Purpose of Study Building information modeling ( BIM ) has been a growing development within the past decade in the construction industry, paving the way towards a future in the virtually built environment. The use of BIM today has provided a means of increasing total project qualit y, providing accurate scheduling timetables, yielding quantity take offs, and diminishing total project costs. Although BIM is a recent development, an abundance of research has been conducted in order to further enhance the capabilities of BIM in design and construction. However, there has not been a significant amount of analysis performed on the impact BIM has on sustainable construction practices. This research is intended to identify the potential capabilities of BIM software in relation to sustaina ble construction practices The ability to utilize the virtual world in construction provides the necessary means to build three dimensionally within a computer simulation prior to construction of the actual building This allows for more efficient, bette r designed structures that limits waste of resources, optimizes energy usage, and promotes passive design strategies. A literature review discussing the potential capabilities of BIM and sustainable design is found in Chapter 2. Following the completion of the literature review it was determined that there was a lack of studies exploring the use of BIM in accomplishing sustainable design. The focus of this study therefore is to attempt to uncover the potential relationships between BIM and sustainable con struction practices as they relate to the built environment.

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19 1. 2 Objective of the Study The goal of this study is to investigate the current state in which BIM operates and functions with respect to sustainable design practices. The following statements l ist the objectives of the study: 1) t o analyze the current trends and future developments with BIM and sustainable practices within the AEC industry ; 2) t o assess how BIM is being used as a mech anism for sustainable practices ; 3) t o understand how BIM is b eing used today in order to analyze the building performance of a built project ; 4) t o determine what difficulties with interoperability are seen as potential problems with BIM software and; 5) t o determine at what stage in the design development process BIM is thought of as a useful tool in facilitating sustainable design and/ or construction practices. In order to obtain the necessary information an extensive survey questionnaire was distributed to numerous professionals in the AEC industry as a means to collect data regarding BIM systems and their impact on sustainable construction practices. Through the use of descriptive statistical analysis the data was used as a way of rating the various BIM systems and determin ing trends among various sectors of the AEC industry 1. 3 Research Methodology A survey was generated as a means of gathering information regarding BIM and sustainable construction practices. The survey was distributed to various companies in the AEC industry T he survey was divided in to fiv e major sections in order to generate data concerning use of BIM and their involvement in sustainable design and construction practices. The collected data resulted in the necessary quantitative data to analyze different BIM software an d find trends within the AEC

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20 industry Comparisons of the results to the literature review findings were made, and conclusions and recommendations were presented. 1. 4 Structure of Research Chapter 2 provides a literature review on BIM and its potential im pact on sustainable construction. The literature review directly defines sustainable design in terms of the applications of various techniques and strategies with design and construction. BIM is thoroughly defined by way of its potential abilities as wel l as its shortcomings. In order to discuss the various types of BIM software, the literature review examines examples of actual BIM software available that will be used in order to form comparisons among the most effective BIM software. Chapter 3 describe s the methodology followed in conducting this research. The survey consisted of twenty eight questions broken into five major sections, varying in type and complexity. The survey was distributed across the United States to firms in the AEC industry varyi ng in size type, and structure Chapter 4 provides the overall analysis of the results stemming from the invest igations seen within the survey of the population sampled Comparisons of the results to the findings in the literature review are made and s everal hypotheses were tested and discussed. Chapter 5 provides a detailed analysis based on results found from responses gather ed The results found within this evaluation proces s will provide an enhanced examination on specific survey questions in order to answer the objectives of the study.

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21 Chapter 6 produces the final chapter and explains the conclusions and recommendations derived from the analys e s co nducted. In addition, r ecommendations for future research studies are presented

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22 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Overview This literature review consists of four sections relating to the trends in both building information modeling ( BIM ) and sustainable design and construction practices. Each section addresses the current knowledge of both applications within the AEC industry by looking at : 1) BIM and its development over time ; 2) current trends for sustainable design and construction practices within t he AEC industry ; 3) recent developments to unite BIM and sustainability ; and 4) the future of BIM within the AEC industry as it concerns sustainable design and construction practices The first section of this literature review briefly follows a history o f the development of BIM as used in the AEC industry. A summary of current available BIM software and auxiliary BIM software is provided as well as description s of each in order to determine any variations found among the software The second section exa mines the concept of sustainability within the built environment understanding what means and methods are currently practiced in order to mitigate negative impacts on the environment An analysis of various green building assessment systems is presented t o determine the current sustainable strategies used within the design and construction industry The third section is used to determine what current trends are utilized in order to stitch together the use of BIM technology and sustainable design and build ing practices in order to facilitate the development of environmental ly The final section of the literature review concludes with a brief explanation of future developments with respect to BIM use in sustainable design and construction practices.

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23 2.2 Building Information Modeling 2.2.1 Historical Outline Building information modeling (BIM) has seen a dramatic increase in use in the design and construction industry over the last few years due to its ability to foster collaborations among many disciplines. BIM can be used to accelerate the extraction of knowledge accumulated in a number of simulations that can be used to define product development standards and recommendations. Essentially, this means that throughout the modeling of a pro ject the model itself can demonstrate a number of effective solutions and can offer a range of potential applications in nearly every phase of development. The BIM process has grown to become a completely different system than Computer Aided Design (CAD) as operations now have developed into an almost internalized system of integrated information whereas CAD obtains information through external source s As Krygiel and Nies (2008) not e d lies rather than a two dimensional representation of the building that is commonly found in CAD based drawings BIM provides a number of advantages over CAD by being able to manage information, not just graphics, and supporting a controlled environment w hich eliminates data redundancy seen most commonly in miscommunication. Popov et al. (2008) describe s t he main concepts of BIM as the capability : T o d evelop the strategy of building project design, construct ion, and maintenance management; To e nsure integ ration management of graphical and informational data flows, combining the graphical interface with the information flows and process descriptions;

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24 To t ransform individual executors into teams and decentralized tools into complex solutions, this leading to individual tasks being i mplemented as complex processes, and; To p erforming life cycle operations of a construction project faster, more effective, and with lower costs. As BIM provides the capability to perform rigorous functions simultaneously, it allow s for a number of potential benefits with its use in the AEC industry. 2.2.2 Potential Benefits to the AEC Industry The cap abilities of BIM allow for a far better transition from design to construction, where information and decision making becomes a bigg er task than docu mentation and processing of materials. BIM allows for the work, processes, and information to be collected from multiple disciplines, multiple companies, and multiple project phases. The result of all this becomes evident with the saving s in time and resources, improved quality, and overall more efficient buildings. Khemlani (2007) lists the following as features of BIM used by AEC professionals: The a bility to support distributed work processes, with multiple team members working on the same project; The a bility to support preliminary conceptual design modeling; The a bility to work on large projects; Automated setup, management, and coordination, reducing traditional CAD management tasks; The a vailability of object libraries; Built in ab ility to generate highly photorealistic renderings and animations; Direct integration with cost estimating applications; Direct integration with energy analysis applications; Direct integration with project management applications;

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25 Direct integration with structural analysis applications; Full support for producing construction documents so that another drafting application need not be used; Multidisciplinary capability that serves architecture, structural engineering, and MEP ; Support for construction rela ted tasks such as quantity take off, estimating, and 4D scheduling As shown in Figure 2 1 BIM has the ability to integrate and incorporate many of the facets of the AEC industry typica lly regarded as individual building task s Figure 2 1 displays an example of the integration seen within BIM in relation to the multiple functions necessary to complete a built project. For AEC professionals, this ultimately allows for a combin ation of functionalities which as a result provide endless possibilities with its use Figure 2 1 Integrated BIM m odel ( source: Krygiel 2008). From the perspective of the owners, the utilization of BIM on a project can provide the potential benefits of: Increased building value; Shorten ing project sc hedule;

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26 Obtain ing reliable and accurate cost estimates; A ssuring program compliance; Produce market ready facilities, and; Optimiz ing facility management and maintenance (Eastman, Teicholz, Sack, and Liston 2008). As a result of these benefits, the owner e xperiences high return on investments. Figure 2 2 shows that the more involved the use of BIM is within the initial phases of the project (i.e. conceptual and programming phases) the more influence it can have on costs. Beca use BIM facilitates the ability to communicate through collaborative efforts, the construction process is streamlined, reducing the amount of time it takes to process information externally. Therefore, the owner is provided with a project that is complete d and fully operational on a shortened schedule. Additionally, as the BIM is made through the virtual modeling of assemblies, the owner is provided with a database for rooms, spaces, and equipment used in order to catalog information regarding facility op erations and maintenance (Eastman et al 2008) Figure 2 2 BIM ( source: Eastman et al. 2008)

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27 2.2.3 Problems with BIM Although the utilization of BIM provides a number of benefits to all partie s of a project team, there are drawbacks to implementing its use in the AEC industry. Until recently, contractual agreements provided by professional organizations such as the American Institute of Architects ( AIA ) and the Association of General Contracto rs ( AGC ) were based on traditional paper based methods, there fore providing little if any legal guidelines on the use of BIM in the AEC industry. As BIM is intended to be used as a collaborative effort among multiple disciplines legal concerns are present ed in the form of liability over the model. Who is at fault for complications arising over errors found in the modeling of the project? Who claims ownership of the information within the model? These questions are continually being addressed by BIM users In 2008, the AIA released the 2008 document concerning the management of BIM across the entire project The application of BIM into a multidisciplinary network results in a higher demand for collaboration and transfer of information. As the move to implement BIM into the AEC ind ustry is seen as a recent endeavor the transformation of work processes in the industry requires significant amounts of time and education. However, as professionals in dustry will increase. Additionally, through the efforts of software organizations, extensive learning modules are provided on basic and advanced functions of BIM increasing the knowledge and know how of its use within the AEC industry (Eastman et al. 2008 ).

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28 The greatest issue concerning the u se of BIM in the industry is the interoperability of information between various software platforms. Because BIM is intended to act as the sole database of information regarding a project, information must translate f rom software to software seamlessly. Currently, software providers have not established an ideal file exchange format to achieve seamless translations of data; however, significant strides have been made in order to prevent data loss. Org anizations such as building SMART and the International Alliance for Interoperability (IAI) lead these critical efforts. In one such effort, the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) was developed to create a large set of consistent data representations of building informati on for file exchange between AEC software applications (Eastman et al. 2008). Curren tly, the IFC is the most optimal file exchange format available to provide seamless translation of data and many BIM s oftware platforms have offer ed it as a file extension The future of interoperability within BIM fares well as software companies continually enhance and improve previous versions. Hardin (2009) remarked about the future of interoperability: Although it's difficult to speculate as technology moves so fast in 10 years we should see a reduction in the relative number of software tools available as they will be integrated into existing software or available on an as needed basis via the Internet. Additionally, the disparity between how systems work together will be significantly reduced, as well as the costs associated with the purchase of multiple pieces of software to accomplish some of the tasks associated with construction management. Therefore, as software platforms become integrated the standardization of file exchange format s will result in the prevention of translation errors. Until then current file exchange formats must be utilized carefully so that data loss is at a minimum.

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29 2.2.4 BIM Software Platforms Currently in the market there is a wide var iety of BIM software platforms utilized by AEC firms each with their own take on how to rep resent the virtual environment. In order to understand the differences between BIM software this section offers a description of the various aspects of ea ch softwa re platform. In order to provide a fair comparison of each, the capabilities of individual BIM software will be discussed based on the specifications of its user interface; 2D CAD and drawing generations; interoperabili ty and extensibility; multiuser/ mult idisciplinary environment; and its capability of handling robust and complicated geometry. Through this assessment of current BIM software platforms an understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of each individual product as well as an evaluation of the BIM industry as a whole will be presented. 2.2.4 .1 Autodesk Revit 2010 Currently, the market leader in BIM is Revit provided by Autodesk. Revit originated through the smaller Massachusetts based company Revit Technology Corporations, before being purchased by Autodesk 2002, the same year it was introduced under their franchise name. Autodesk Revit contains a series of integrated programs consisting of Revit Architecture, Revit Structure, and Revit MEP, all of which run independent of one an other but are however linked through a common RVT file ex tension The version reviewed here is the 2010 edition released in April of 2009. Revit by definition is a design and documentation system that delivers information about project design, scope, quantiti es, and phases whenever needed Revit provides a central database for storing information on a project. As Revit is defined by

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30 parametric modeling, all information is interrelated through the database where relationships are created among each element This allows for any change made within the project to be coordinated throughout the entire project. The database is accessible to any user with access to the server ; therefore as a project is updated any team member is able to view the change (Autodesk 2 009c) Because of its ability to provide quick access to information it allows for better communication among members in the AEC industry. The software utilizes a structured hierarchy in order to define the elements within its program. Each element is further broken down into categories, then families, and finally types as a way to differentiate between components ( Figure 2 3 ) The nature of the hierarchy is designed to be flexible such that the user has the ability to mod ify and create elements. Additionally, elements are designed to be contingent on their context within the project as defined by the constraints established with other components by which the user controls. Figure 2 3 Revit element hierarchy within p arametric modeling ( source: Autodesk 2010 c )

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31 In order to make Revit more interoperable among various software suppliers Autodesk provided the software with multiple file exchange interfaces. In order to import files from commonly used CAD systems, Revit supports DGN, DWG, DWF, DXF SAT and SKP file extensions. Any renderings, image, and video views generated through Revit can be exported through common file types such as JPG, TIF, BMP, PNG, TGA, or AVI. Additionally, in order to facilitate interoperabi lity in the building industry, Revit offers the building SMART object oriented file format IFC as it is in the process of becoming an international standard. Finally, in order to execute building performance analysis Revit offers support for both RISA a nd ROBOT to perform structural analysis and gbXML to provide energy simulation and load calculations (Eastman et al. 2008 ) Although Revit is the leading BIM provider for the AEC industry there are limitations and drawbacks that can be seen as a disadvanta ge within its software platform. Because the program is highly dependent on the performance capabilities of the computer it is operating on, this can cause the systems to run at a substantially slower speed. Additionally, although recent developments wit h Revit 2010 have increased its capabilities, the software does not fluidly support complex curved surfaces, such as non uniform rational B learn interface, broad object libraries, and support for multi user opera tion it allows the software to remain ahead of the others in terms of its performance. 2.2. 4 .2 Bentley Architecture V8i Bentley Systems introduced its BIM based software, Bentley Architecture, in 2004 as part of a package th at included: Bentley Structural; Bentley Building Mechanical

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32 Systems ; Bentley Building Electrical Systems ; Bentley Facilities ; Bentley PowerCivil ; and Bentley Generative Components. The current version, Bentley Architecture V8i, includes ProjectWise Navigator as part of its package to e nhance collaboration among multiple parties. Bentley Architecture V8i was designed as an evolutionary descendant from Microstation and TriForma ( i.e. range of sophisticated solid and surface modeling to ols allowing it to create complex geometry more fluidly than other software platforms. Additionally, Bentley Architecture V8i uses a file based system to store information therefore the software is able to run robust files without substantially slowing do wn the operating system (Khemlani 2009b) Similar to Revit, Bentley Architecture V8i utilizes a structured hierarchy in its parametric modeling scheme, using families as a method of creating or modifying components. Bentley Architecture V8i was designed to integrate its capabilities with other Bentley related programs in order to provide seamless integration between design, engineering, analysis, construction, and operations through the life cycle of the project as illustrated in Figure 2 4 Included within this method to provide the most effective means of interoperability are a number of available file extensions supported by the software. Bentley Architecture V8i supports DGN, DWG, and DXF file extensions for its interfa ce with common CAD software. Any graphical data is available to be exported through the following file extensions JPG, BMP, TIF, PNG, STP, IGES, STL, and PDF. Similar to Revit, Bentley Architecture V8i offers the building SMART object oriented file forma t, IFC. Additionally the software offers STAAD and RAM file extensions for structural analysis as well as support for gbXML in order to perform energy analysis. However, Bentley offers its own energy application tools, Hevacomp Simulator and Tas

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33 Simulat or, in efforts to maintain a seamless integration of programs (Eastman et al. 2008) Although Bentley Architecture V8i offers a number of products as a package suite, unless the user is familiar with the software platform it is quite difficult to learn. A dditionally, the object library is less extensive than other BIM product available. However, because many of the software packages are seamlessly integrated Bentley Architecture V8i does offer a competitive advantage over its competitors. Figure 2 4 E s building p ackage solutions (source: Bentley Systems, Inc. 2009 ) 2.2. 4 .3 Graphisoft ArchiCAD 13 Founded in Hungary in 1982, Graphisoft claims to be the first software platform able to be used on personal computers to create both 2D and 3D drawings. Its newest BIM software ArchiCAD 13, is a data enhanced parametric object modeling system u tilizing the ability to create smart objects in order to define modeling inputs. The introduction of ArchiCAD 13 in September of 2009 in cluded the first ever client based BIM utility created to enhance collaboration among multiple users. Similar to other BIM platforms, ArchiCAD 13 offers an extensive object library to which users are able to

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34 create or modify elements as necessary for indi vidual projects. Its ability to perform with a 64 bit processor allows for faster operation and the capability to work on larger projects, which is a major improvement on the software from previous versions. More importantly, ArchiCAD 13 provides the add ons Virtual Building Explorer, MEP Modeler, and EcoDesigner which streamline s building performance analysis as well as through clash detection (Khemlani 2009a) In order to provide for better interoperability ArchiCAD 13 includes a larger database of struc tural elements as a means to facilitating recognition of elements in structural analysis software. Additionally, ArchiCAD like other BIM software maintains the ability to import CAD files in the DWG and DXF file extensions. Similar to Revit, with built i n rendering and animation programs ArchiCAD 13 has the ability to export to JPG, TIF, BMP, PNG, PDF, TGA, or AVI file extensions (Eastman et al. 2008) However, ArchiCAD 13 still remains a single disciplinary software instead of a multi disciplinary BIM platform. Compared to its competitors, the software has limitations on its parametric modeling capabilities which make it difficult to guarantee integrity of a model as well as provide accurate downstream analysis with other applications. Though with the innovation of the first client based BIM server ArchiCAD stand as one of the giants in the BIM industry. 2.2.4 .4 Beck Technology D Profiler BIM software parametric modeling platform that is used for conceptual desig n of certain building types in order to provide feedback on construction costs and scheduling. DProfiler integrates Sage Timberline estimating applications and RSMeans costing within the software as a way of providing

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35 an interactive cost estimate as a pro ject is modeled. This software differentiates from other BIM platforms in that it is used to assess the feasibility of a project early on during conceptual stages, whereas other software platforms are used for their capabilities with design development an d generation of construction documents throughout the duration of a project. through a massing of solids, however, the software lacks many of the intuitive operations oth er BIM software platforms utilize In terms of operability DProfiler is limited to only DWG and DXF file extension for imports, and IGES, DWG, DXF, and STL for export file extensions. Generated BIM models are capable to be exported to a n IFC format, thus models built in DProfiler are able to be imported in other BIM software platforms. Additionally, DProfiler is directly integrated with eQuest, a DOE 2 based energy simulation tool, which provides for quick energy calculations of conceptual design strate gies (Khemlani 2008b) DProfiler is primarily used as a quick modeling service to determine the economic feasibility of a project before design begins. It is not considered a general purpose BIM tool; however, its ability to generate on the fly cost estim ates as well as energy assessments makes it a useful tool during the early conceptual phases of a project. 2.2. 4 .5 Gehry Technologies Digital Project V1,R4 Developed by Gehry Technologies through the evolutionary descendent of tform, Digital Project V1,R4 is another form of parametric object modeling to which it is capable of model ing any type of complex geometry The software itself is an integration of Gehry Technologies Architecture and Structure s

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36 programs combined into a BI M Workbench enabling better connections between modeled components The following add on products are available as a means to enhance the capabilities within Digital Project: Digital Project Viewer provides quick access to visualization and navigation o f robust models as well as a means for collaboration and management; Digital Project Primavera Integration provides scheduling simulation by linking construction scheduling information with the model data; Digital Project MEP/Systems Routing provides a n interface for designers to optimize MEP virtually to avoid conflicts; Digital Project Imagine & Shape provides a mechanism to create complex forms of geometry; Digital Project Knowledgeware provides an extensive object library to select, create, or m odify different forms of geometry; Digital Project Specialized Translators provides for an additional file extension in STL and STEP formats, and; Digital Project Photo Studio provides for an advanced rendering output system (Gehry Technologies 2010) As part of its efforts to provide better interoperable features, Digital Project offers the following exchange formats: CIS/2, SDNF, STEP AP203 and AP214, DWG, DXF, VRML, STL, H S F SAT, 3DXML, IGES, and HCG. This version of Digital Project also offers en hanced IFC interoperability especially within the Architecture and Structures Workbench. Both Uniformat and Masterformat are embedded within the software platform in order to provide direct integration with cost estimating applications. The interface all ows analytical studies through the use of Ecotect, a type of building analysis software (Eastman et al. 2008) Digital Project is a powerful BIM software able to model large assemblies, however, its learning curve is steep and the upfront cost of the soft ware is high making

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37 it a tough product to implement into practice. The object library of the software is not as extensive as other BIM software platforms and it must rely on external 2D programs for drafting purposes. 2.2.4 .6 Nemetschek Vectorworks Archit ect 2010 Nemetschek Vectorworks Architect 2010 is a parametric 2D/3D CAD and BIM software program utilizing its unique core modeling engine, developed from Siemens Parasolid geometric modeling kernel, which allows for better functionality when modeling com plex components. Vectorworks Architect 2010 provides the capability to generate NURBS and other complicated geometry. Similar to most BIM software platforms, construction drawings are linked so that changes update automatically throughout the model. Int egrated within Vectorworks 2010 are automated schedules and material takeoffs. Vectorworks Architect 2010 offers a number of exchange file types within its platform, primarily due to the inclusion of the Para s olid modeling kernel. The following import/e xport file extensions are available within the program: DXF, DWG, EPSF, WMF, PICT, PDF, SHP, 3DS, IGES, SAT, SKP, X_T, JPG, GIF, TIFF, PICT, PNGT, and PNG. Vectorworks Architect 2010 offers the IFC file extension as well in order to perform analysis on ex ternal program s involved with building performance assessment (Vectorworks Inc. 2009) Though the Parasolid modeling kernel gives Vectorworks Architect 2010 an advantage in terms of its ability to handle complex geometry, its inability to provide multidisc iplinary BIM tools (i.e. structural and MEP) forces the program to become one dimensional instead of encompassing all facets of the AEC industry as many

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38 comparable BIM programs offer. However, as a strictly architectural design program Vectorworks Archite ct 2010 offers a high level product at an affordable cost. 2.2.4 .7 Tekla Structures 14 Tekla Structures 14 is a BIM application for structural engineers that use comprehensive tools for fabricators, manufacturers, and constructors. Similar to Revit Struct ures, Tekla Structures 14 offers the ability to create a complete digital model that simulates a real life structure in order to evaluate the system through several structural analyses. The software operates on a central database therefore all drawings an d reports are linked within the model. However, by placing the files in separate folders as opposed to within the model itself, Tekla Structures 14 is able to run large complex projects without significantly slowing down the processor speed. The program contains an extensive library of parametric components that is capable of automating the tasks of creating details and connection drawings thus, reducing the amount of drafting necessary. Its ability for fluid viewing and model navigation allows for enha nced clash detection and its transaction based model sharing concept provides support for multiple users. The integration of the Construction Management module as part of the platform provides a means to perform scheduling tasks and quantity takeoffs (Khe mlani 2009e) Tekla Structures 14 allows for various options in its ability to support different interfaces such as : SDNF, CIS/2, DGN, DWG, DXF, XML, 3DD, IGES, STEP, VRML, and STL. The primary format for Tekla Structures however is the IFC file exchange format since it relies on interoperability with other BIM applications. Additionally, export capabilities to CNC fabrication equipment is provided as a means to foster the construction of building systems (Eastman et al. 2008)

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39 As a structural engineering software, Tekla Structures 14 is a powerful tool ; however it is quite complex to learn. It is not fully integrated with architectural and MEP programs, which makes it one dimensional compared to other BIM platforms. 2.2.4 .8 Vico Software Constructor 2 00 9 Vico Constructor 2009 is a BIM modeling platform as part of an entire suite devoted to building construction planning and management. Within its framework, the BIM software contains integrated architecture, structural, and MEP modeling capabilities us ing parametric object modeling Additionally, the software is fully integrated with the following Vico programs found within the suite in order to provide for all aspe cts of building construction: Vico Estimator 200 9 a program to perform model based est imating; Vico Control 200 9 a program for location based scheduling and linking time and space in new views; Vico 5D Presenter 200 9 a program to see the model (3D), schedule (4D), and cost (5D) in one view; Vico Cost Explorer 200 9 a program to monitor and control changes to a project's cost and; Vico Change Manager 200 9 a program to track revisions for consist ency across all representations (Vico Construction Services 2009) Vico Constructor 2009 of its underlying data and representation; however, it differentiates in that it includes the integration of the six separate software packages in order to enhance total project mana gement (see Figure 2 5 ). Vico Constructor 200 9 is highly compatible with IFC file extensions which allows for users to create or modify data from BIM models made through other software. Additionally, Vico Constructor 200 9 allows the BIM to be built

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40 virtually as if it were constructed in the physi cal sense. However, because of this the user must have an extensive knowledge of construction in order to effectively utilize all the BIM capabilities. Figure 2 5 Vico Office Suite functional diagram on project management and construction (source: Vic o Software, Inc. 2009) 2.2.5 BIM Software Supplemental Applications Though the majority of BIM software platforms attempt to provide most functionalities within the framework of their interface, multiple subsidiary software applications are available to en hance the capabilities and performance of BIM Similar to major BIM platforms, each auxiliary BIM application adheres to its own style and performance abilities, therefore, there are discriminating characteristics among ea ch that allows for comparison. 2. 2.5 1 NavisW orks Manage 2010 Another Autodesk product, NavisWorks Manage 2010 is designed to facilitate collaboration and project visualization during or just before the construction phase of a project. The software offers a method of networking multiple parties together in order to implement an integrated workflow. NavisWorks Manage 2010 provides optimal viewing

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41 programs to de liver smooth real time walk through visualizations as well as clash detection software to improve the integrity of a BIM model. A dditionally, NavisWorks Manage 2010 provides scheduling simulation in association with Primavera Project Planner via links within the 3D model data and the project schedules. NavisWorks Manage 2010 operates on a NWD file extension however it has the abil ity to support DWG, DXF, DGN, 3DS, and IGES formats. In order to provide alternative interoperability functions NavisWorks Manage 2010 provides file exporters so that selective BIM software is able to support the NWD file format (Autodesk 2009b) 2.2.5 2 Solibri Model Checker The Solibri Model Checker is a relatively new application used to analyze potential problems, conflicts, or design code violations. Integrated within the software are visualization tools, walkthrough capabilities, interference detect ion, model comparison, allowing the user relative ease to learn the software. Similar to Autodesk Navisworks Manage 2010 Solibri Model Checker is viewed as primarily a qua lity inspection utility for BIM model integrity, along with its other capabilities. The software runs entirely through the IFC file extension which limits its ability to work in a seamless environment with major BIM applications; however, as IFC is becomi ng the international standard Solibri Model Checker is on par in terms of its interoperability capabilities (Khemlani 2009d) 2.2.5.3 Innovaya Visual Software Innovaya provides a number of software options for the AEC industry with the intent on maximizi ng the potential of computer tools in design and construction

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42 processes. Innovaya offers five products that primarily target the construction aspect of the building process with integrated software involved in visualization, quantity takeoffs, estimating via Sage Timberline, and simulation through Primavera Project Planner: Innovaya Visual BIM ; Innovaya Visual Quantity Takeoff; Innovaya Visual Estimating; Innovaya Design Estimating, and; Innovaya Visual Sim ulation. Currently, Innovaya products work directly with only Autodesk Revit, Autodesk Architectural Desktop (ADT), and Autodesk Building Systems (ABS) through an add on INV file extension; therefore, it is not interoperable with different BIM software. H owever, due to its ability to offer numerous construction related programs it is a viable product in the market for BIM users to invest in (Khemlani 2006) 2.3 Sustainability With the growing threats of global warming many industrial sectors are beginning to address the need for energy efficiency in residential and commercial buildings. Consuming approximately 70 percent of the electricity in the United States as of 2005, s (Torcellini 2006). Although there have been attempts in reducing the demands of energy use and carbon emissions within residential buildings, previous developments have yet to meet their fullest potential in creating new generations of high performance green buildings.

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43 On a global scale, with nearly 72 percent of all greenhouse gases related to household consumption there is a definite necessity to invest in developments to reduce the global warming potential (GWP) within the built environment (Hertwich and Peters 2009). Through the proper application of innovative strategies in design, construction and facility operations development of sustainable communities will continue to increase By applying sustainable techniques and methods over a period of t ime there should be a considerable amount o f change resulting in reduced environmental impacts not only within the built environment but on a grander ecological scale. 2.3 .1 Green Building Assessment As a means to mitigating the substantial stress bui ldin gs place on the environment numerous green building assessment organizations have been established with the goal of analyzing and evaluating the current construction projects and their building performance. The main function of these building assessment organizations is to promote high performance buildings through responsible design, construction, and operations maintenance practices. As defined by Cam and Ong (2005), the main roles of green building assessment organizations are : 1) acting as an institu tional setting to raise awareness of building environmental issues to different players in the design and construction sectors and encourage them in delivering environmental ly friendly housing; 2) setting benchmarks for building environmental practice to s afeguard the minimum performances standards, and in evaluating architectural design against these benchmarks; and, 3) providing a platform for inspiring new designs, ideas and technical solutions.

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44 The following sections examine the evaluation means and m ethods behind the LEED, Green Globes, BREEAM, and other rating systems in terms of their ability to promote, assess, and provide innovation for high performance green buildings. 2.3.1.1 LEED Developed by the United States Green Building Council (USGBC) in 1998, the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating systems provide a system of standards for sustainable design and construction operations. Within the overarching framework of its ratings suite are included the following sub rating sys tems: LEED for New Construction LEED for Existing Buildings: Operations and Maintenance LEED for Core and Shell Development LEED for Schools LEED for Commercial Interiors LEED for Neighborhood Development LEED for Homes LEED for Healthcare LEED for Retail New Construction (pilot) LEED for Retail Interiors (pilot) The intention behind of the development of LEED was to promote the construction of environmentally friendly, high performance green buildings. According to LEED NC v3.0, in order to achieve certi fication, projects must undergo a third party evaluation based on a 110 point scale. Table 2 1 lists the breakdown of the points into their respective categories. As indicated in Table 2 1 the five major categories that make up the composition of its rating s ystem include sustainable sites; water efficiency; energy

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45 and atmosphere; materials and resources; and indoor environmental quality. Additionally, LEED provides the opportunity to earn points for achievements in innovat ions and, most recently with the current changes to version 3.0, the ability to e arn points for regional priorities Table 2 1. LEED Rating System v3.0 New Construction LEED Category Points Percent A Sustainable Sites 26 24% B Water Efficiency 10 9% C Energy + Atmosphere 35 32% D Materials + Resource 14 13% E Indoor Environmental Quality 15 14% F Innovation and Design 6 5% G Regional Priority 4 4% Column Totals 110 100% Evaluations of the criteria are made via web based documentation by t he project team showing how points were attempted to be earned. Upon completion of the project the building undergoes a cursory review process by which time the building is awarded certification. The four levels of certification and requi red points are s hown in Table 2 2 Table 2 2. Points required for LEED c ertification (LEED NC v3.0) LEED Certification Level Required Points A LEED Certified 40 49 B LEED Silver 50 59 C LEED Gold 60 79 D LEED Platinum 80 and above 2.3.1.2 Green Globes The Green Globes environmental assessment and rating systems is evolutionary Initiative (GBI) in 2004, Green Globes provides an effective and practical wa y to advance the overall environmental performance and sustainability of commercial

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46 buildings. The framework of the Green Globes system is composed of the following elements: Comprehensive environmental assessment protocol; Software tools that speed and s implify online assessment; Best practices guidance for green construction and operations; Qualified assessors with green building expertise, and; Rating/certification system. Table 2 3 provides the structure for the Green Globe s assessment protocol. Though similar to the LEED NC v3.0 structure, Green Globes addresses additional is sues such as project management ; emergency response planning ; durability ; adaptability ; deconstruction ; life cycle assessment ; and noise control (Kib ert 2008) In order for project to become certified the project team must complete a web based questionnaire during various stages of the project duration and attain at least 35 percent of the possible points (i.e. 350 points). Following completion of th e project a third party verifier with expertise in green building design, engineering, construction, and facility operations is responsible for personal assessment of the project team and the project, at which point their recommendation is sent to the GBI concerning the appropriate certification level. Table 2 3 Green Globes Rating System v1 Green Globes Rating Category Points Percent A Project Management 50 5% B Site 115 12% C Energy 360 36% D Water 100 10% E Resources, Building Materials, + Solid Waste 100 10% F Emissions + Other Impacts 75 8% G Indoor Environment 200 20% Column Totals 1000 100%

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47 2.3.1.3 BREEAM BRE Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) is an environment assessment method for buildings began in the United Kingdom in 1988, now adopted by many European and Asian countries as well as Canada. BREEAM assesses building under guidelines of the following en vironmental impacts: management; health and well being; energy; transport; water; material and waste; land use and ecology; an d pollution. Assessments are carried out by independent assessors who are trained and licensed by BRE Global. Credits are awarded in each of the criteria listed according to performance based on a rated scale of Pass, Good, Very Good, Excellent, or Outs tanding with a certificate awarded to the development. BREEAM currently assesses a num ber of building types including: offices ; retail ; education; prisons; courts; healthcare; industrial and EcoHomes (Kibert 2008) 2.3.1.4 Other green building a ssessme nts There are several additional building assessment systems available worth mentioning such as the CASBEE (Japan) system, the Green Star (Australia) system, and the SBTool. CASBEE is a Japanese green building rating system developed in 2001. Its disting uishing characteristic is that it is founded on the principle of Building Environment Efficiency (BEE) as the major indicator, which is based on the following formula: where Q defines indoor environment, quality of service and outdoor environment on site issues; and, L defines energy, resources and materials, and off site environment issues. Each area within the category is scored on a scale from 1 to 5. Once calcu lated, points

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48 are plotted on a designed performance chart where an overall score is generated. The scores are graded from C (poor) through B B+, A, and S (excellent) ( Kibert 2008; Krygiel 2008) Green Star is an Australian based environmental rating syst em launched in 2003. Within the structure of its rating system, nine categories are asse ssed with its tools: management; indoor environmental quality; energy; transportation; water; materials; land use and ecology; emissions; and innovation. Certificati on is earned through evaluation of each of these categories based on a point system. Awarded to buildings that achieve high standards of environmental awareness are various levels of stars indicative of the level of performance the building has attained. Green Star has developed its toolkit to include analysis over facilities within the education; healthcare; multiunit residential; office; and retail sectors, and currently is under pilot programs for f acilities within the industrial; mixed use; and conv ention center sectors (Kibert 2008) The SBTool is a framework designed for the assessment of buildings based on environmental performance. The structure to its evaluation criteria involves 116 parameters found within seven main categories. The main ca tegories include: Site selection, project planning, and development Energy and resource consumption Environmental loadings Indoor environmental quality Service quality Social and economic aspects Cultural and perceptual aspects

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49 The tool is b roken down into three parts: 1) tool for weighting the app ropriate standards for a region; 2) tool for the project team to descr ibe all the project information; and 3) tool for assessment. Because of its ability to be adaptable to certain local conditions, building per formance is related to nationally established baselines or benchmarks (Krygiel 2008) 2.3.2 Future Development of Green Building Assessments In terms of its ability to promote high performance green buildings, the majority of green building assessment prog rams have significantly impacted the perceptions of sustainability within the design and construction industry. Within the United States, 22 states and 75 municipalities have instituted or encouraged buildings to become LEED certified. Therefore, as the trend towards sustainability continues to grow the use of LEED and other green building assessment programs will be a primary factor in its development. However, as the future of sustainability continues to see improvements and innovation there must be th e same within green building assessment programs continually raising the bar to achieve greater goals Additionally, the AEC industry itself must mandate its practices to abide by the goals set within the rating systems in order to fully compliment the t argeting aspirations desired collectively. The future of green building assessments remains to be seen, however, current initiatives are making steps into the right direction. 2.4 The Interoperability between BIM and Sustainability 2.4.1 Environmental An alysis Software In order to provide tools for environmental analysis, software companies offer different packages of applications as a means of evaluating design and construction

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50 practices and their environmental impact. These environmental analysis softw are applications are intended to be joined with BIM in order to assess the performance of proposed projects. Until recently, these applications were seen as separate elements from BIM, based on different platforms and interfaces. Today, in order to maint ain interoperability, building performance analysis software and BIM are connected through a common exchange file extension, gbXML. The green building extensible markup language (gbXML) is an open, non proprietary schema that was developed to facilitate i ntelligent information exchange, enabling integrated interoperability between building design models and a wide variety of engineering analysis tools available today (Eastman et al 2008) Additionally, with more advanced integrated software, IFC file ext ensions are used so that projects may be created or modified within the analytical software. The following section describes various building performance and environmental analysis software in terms of the types of analysis, interface, and interoperabilit y with BIM. 2.4.1 .1 Autodesk Ecotect Analysis 2010 A new member of the Autodesk family since summer 2008, Ecotect is a green building software designed to provide information regarding projects throughout the design and preconstruction phases of developmen t. Its comprehensive 3D platform allows for multiple sustainable design tools to provide for simulations and analysis to gain insight into building performance beginning with the conceptualization of a project. It provides functions for whole building an alysis based on the solar energy, daylighting, acoustical, and thermal, among others. Ecotect provides the ability to build a massing of a structure within its interface in order to determine specific criteria such as optimal

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51 location, shape, and building orientation to create more sustainable constructs. Simulations and analysis are carried through the use of Green Building Studio web based technology using the gbXML schema. In addition to whole building analysis, Ecotect provide s tool s for the followin g analyses (Autodesk 2009a) : Carbon emissions estimates Water use and cost estimates ENERGY STAR scoring LEED daylighting credit potential Natural ventilation Wind energy Photovoltaic collection Thermal performance Solar radiation Visual impact Daylighting Shading design Acoustic analysis T he use of gbXML and IFC file extensions provide the ability for information to be translated seamlessly. With its enhanced capability to apply sustainable design criteria within its platform, Ecotect is a major product in terms of its service towards BIM and sustainable design and construction. 2.4.1 .2 IES < Virtual Environment > Virtual Environment (VE) is software offered by Integrated Environmental Solutions (IES) that virtualizes the entire process of designing buildi ngs specifically for

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52 environmental purposes The software provides a full building modeler, similar to BIM, where a user may import extensible files or start from the beginning within the interface. VE contains a number of modules within its program in o rder to provide for analytical assessments. The following is the list of the available tools in the analytical toolkit: VE/Mechanical VE/Electrical VE/Lighting VE/Thermal VE/Solar VE/CFD VE/Costs VE/Value These tools include options for analyzing energy c onsumption ; carbon emissions ; LEED daylighting ; solar shading ; and artificial lighting. In order to enhance its capabilities within interoperability, VE is organized around a central 3D model that is able to directly connect with SketchUp, Autodesk Revit Graphisoft ArchiCAD, or any other 3D modeler through the gbXML/DXF import file extensions (see Figure 2 6 ) Figure 2 6 IES Virtual Env ironment integrated data model (source: Khemlani 2009 )

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53 2.4. 1 .3 Graphisoft EcoDesigner A plug in p rovided by Graphisoft, Eco Designer is a program that allows for modeling and analysis of the energy efficiency performance of a building early on during the design phase of a project. Because it is a plug in for the Graphisoft ArchiCAD softwar e platforms, it runs seamlessly enhancing its interoperability. Though not regarded as a complete detailed analysis tool, it does provide a number of features to quickly analyze and assess various aspects of a project (Thoo 2010) 2.4.1.4 eQUEST An acrony simulation tool provided by the US Department of Energy as part of the DOE 2 software packages. It is a tool that is free online offered for whole building energy analysis. eQUEST is desig ned so that it may be used during the early schematic phases of design, with modeling capabilities built within its software platform. Using the Energy Efficiency Measures (EEM) Wizard provides design alternatives through base building descriptions. eQUE annual energy use and gas consumption so that comparison may be made among different design alternatives. Although the software is seen as completely internalized, eQUEST offers the ability t o import DWG files into its interface (Energy Design Resources 2009). 2.5 Future Developments As relatively new concepts within the AEC industry the relationship between BIM and sustainability is only beginning to touch the surface of its potential. How ever, as the demand of each subject is increasing annually the development of more sophisticated

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54 robust platforms is necessary to maintain the level of achievement reached so far. Sustainable measures must be enhanced in order to improve upon established goals set forth through green building assessments. BIM must increase its capacity to integrate environmental analysis and improve interoperability. The advancement of technology will assist both in establishing standards of excellence in the future, how ever, and most importantly, the AEC industry and owners must be willing to implement these tools of performance into their standards of practice. Additionally, each party must be willing to cooperate with one another so that an optimal collaborative effor t will be provided for sustainably built projects.

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55 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 3.1 Overview This investigatory report looks at the available possibilities for BIM usage in the design and construction industry. The primary focus of this thes is concerns the ability to incorporate BIM into the concepts of sustainable design and construction practices throughout the development of a built project (i.e. from conceptual design through project closeout). In order to obtain the necessary data to ca rry on this research a survey was developed and distributed in the AEC industry The purpose of the survey was to understand how professionals consider BIM as a tool in the field s of design and construction in terms of its application towards enhancing su stainably built projects Accordingly t he objectives of the survey were established as : 1) t o analyze the current trends and future developments in BIM and sustainable practices within the AEC industry ; 2) t o assess how BIM is being used as a mech anism t o foster sustainable practices; 3) t o understand how BIM is being used today in order to analyze the building performance of a built project; 4) t o determine what difficulties with interoperability are seen as potential problems with BIM software, and; 5) t o find out at what stage in the development of a BIM project is thought of as a useful tool in providing sustainable des ign and/ or construction practices. The second phase of this research was to distribute the survey to a sample population of the AEC ind ustry. T he third phase involved collect ing the survey data in order to conduct an analysis of the results using descriptive statistics Upon analysis of the data, the fourth and final phase of the research w as to determine trends within the AEC industry and provide a summary of the collected results (see Figure 3 1 ).

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56 3.2 Survey Questionnaire Design The survey questionnaire can be found in its entirety in Appendix C The survey questionnaire co nsisted of five major sections, specifically: 1) personal information ; 2) company information ; 3) BIM and its relationship to design and building practices ; 4) sustainability and its relationship to design and building practices ; and 5) BIM and its use to support sustainable design and building practices. In compliance with the University of Florida I nstitutional Review Board (UFIRB 02) the survey contained a confidentiality statement indicating that all responses to the survey questionnaire would be held in complete confidentiality An optional section was included at the end detailing instruction on how the participant would be able to acquire the final results of the survey upon completi on of the study. The following section provides a more comprehens ive description of each section in the questionnaire as it relates to the overall objectiv es of this study 3.2.1 Personal Information Section 1 of the survey questionnaire was designed for the purpose of individually classifying the responses of the parti cipants individually Since the AEC industry is comprised of many different entities it is important to identify where the responses to the survey originate Therefore the questions within this section concern ed the participant as an individual distingu ishing certain relevant characteristics which were later on used to determine relevance when analyzing S ections 3 through 5 Question 1 .1 : Occupational r ole The purpose of this question was to define the position role (e.g. architect, engineer, general c ontractor) of the individual participant in order to identify which employment category within the AEC industry the respondent

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57 belong ed to The use of this question during analysis of the data as a whole provided relevance within S ections 3 through 5 in t erms of their categorical response (i.e. analysis of results through a stratification of the data). Question 1. 2: Are you a LEED AP? The responses to this question provided another means of distinguishing participants from one another. Determining the r elationship between the LEED AP status of the respondent and their opinion on sustainability was deemed valuable and provided insight into the other participant responses. Question 1. 3: Number of years working as a professional? This question was posed i n order to determine if there was any relevance between the numbers of years a professional has worked in the industry compared to other survey responses in respect to their opinions f ound within S ections 3 through 5 3.2.2 Company /Organization Information Similar to S ection 1 of the survey questionnaire, S ection 2 was designed to classify the responses of the participant in terms of the characteristics of their corresponding company. Again, due to the nature of the AEC industry and the heterogeneous compo sition of companies in terms of size, annual revenue, locality, and methods of business, it is important to identify those characteristics in order to assess the results against other survey responses, specifically in S ections 3 through 5 Question 2. 1: Co mpany project types The responses to this question provided relevance when compared to other survey responses. The relationship between a industrial ) and their

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58 involvement with BIM and sustainabi lity is quite significant. Respondents had the option to select as many categories as applied to their company. Question 2. 2: Annual company revenue Th is question provided a means for annu al revenue The annual revenue and their involvement in BIM and sustainability. Question 2. 3: Number of company employees Similar to Q uestion 2.2, the responses to this qu estion was their involvement in BIM and sustainable design and construction practices. Question 2. 4: Number of compa ny LEED AP employees Similar to Q uestion 1.2, this question was provided to determine the number of employees within a company affiliated with the LEED AP accreditation. The responses to this question were used to analyze any relevance of volvement in sustainable design and construction practices against other participant responses. Question 2.5: Regional location of company The responses to this question were e. region within the United States) and their involvement with BIM and sustainable design and building practices. The regions identified in this question were defined as the designated areas provided by the United States Census Bureau. Question 2. 6: Prima ry company project delivery method This question was company practices. The responses to this question were used to determine any

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59 significant relevance between the their involvement with BIM and sustainable design and construction practices. 3.2.3 Building Information Modeling ( BIM ) Section 3 of the survey questionnaire was designed to understand the com pany use of BIM as part of its current practices. The primary goal of this section was to answer the investigation objectives through a series of different styles of questions. The questions in this section specifically targeted what types of BIM softwar e platforms had been used as well as to what extent the software was utilized were asked questions based on their opinion on the use of BIM within the AEC industry as a whole in order to provide feedback concerning specific aspects of BIM Question 3. 1: Which of the following BIM software packages does you company utilize? This question was used as a means to understand what types of BIM software were being used by c ompanies in the AEC industry both collectively and categorically The list of platforms provided in the question stemmed from a product list of the most frequently used platforms currently available on the market The respondents were given the option to select multiple software platforms as utilized through their company practices. Question 3. 2: How long has your company implemented BIM into its practice? The responses to this question were used in order to develop an understanding of how recent compan ies have implemented BIM into their business practices. The information collected regarding this question allows for further analysis in combination with the other questions found in Section 3.

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60 Question 3. 3: Approximately what percentage of projects compl eted by this company has utilized some form of software within the past 5 years? This question allows for an understanding of how frequently BIM is being used on projects within a Similar to Question 3.2, the information collected reg arding this question allows for further analysis in combination with the other questions found in Section 3. Question 3. 4: Approximately what percentage of projects completed by this company has been required by owners/stakeholders to utilize some form of software within the past 5 years? Similar to Question 3.3, this question provides a means of understanding how often owners/stakeholders are involved in the decision making process in terms of BIM usage. Question 3. 5: What role does BIM have within your company? The intent of this question was to form an understanding as to what extent BIM is being used within a BIM provides multiple operations concerning all aspects of the AEC industry, it is important to understand how the di fferent occupational roles utilize BIM The functional roles of BIM listed in the question were provided through a 2009 study concerning paradigm trajectories of BIM practice in project networks (Taylor et al. 2009) The respondents were given the option to select multiple BIM functions as utilized through company practices. Question 3. 6: Rate the following statements according to your perception of BIM and the skepti cism of its use in the industry A series of statements were provided regarding this que stion and respondents were required to rank their answers on a 5 point Likert Scale ranging from Strongly D isagree to Strongly A gree The series was

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61 based on the following five statements concerning frequent skepticism about the use of BIM in the AEC industry: BIM is currently too complicated to use; BIM is currently not a cost effective measure for the industry; BIM is currently not designed to be used specifically for my profession; BIM is currently not a necessity within the industry, therefore, the re is no need to implement it, and; BIM currently does not operate in an optimal standardized format making it difficult to translate data seamlessly. The responses were used to develop an understanding of what the potential drawbacks of BIM which are keep ing it from being used within the AEC industry. Question 3. 7: Rate the importance of the following features found within BIM software packages S imilar to Question 3.6, a series of potential product features was provided and the respondents were required to rank their answers on a 7 point Likert Scale ranging Very Very High This series of questions was based on the following eight features typically associated with BIM software packages: Direct integration with energy analysis software a pplications; Direct integration with project management software; Direct integration for construction related tasks; Support for production of construction documents with the need for another application; Standardization of software platforms to facilitate interoperability in the building industry; Multidisciplinary capabilities; Ability to support collaborative and distributed work processes, and;

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62 Relative ease of software use adjoined with helpful tutorials, supporting documentation, and other learning re sources. BIM features collectively within the AEC industry as well as categorically through the responses found in Sections 1 and 2 3.2.4 Sustainable Building Practices Si milar to Section 3 of the survey questionnaire, Section 4 was designed to as part of its current practices in order to provide data to answer the survey objectives. The aspects of sustainable design and construction as utilized in order to achieve green building certifications. Question 4. 1: Approximately what percentage of projects completed by this company has received either a LEED or green building equivalent certification within the past 5 years? This question offered insight into how devoted companies are to pursuing green bui ldings. Although this question does not entirely explain how involved a company is in terms of sustainability it does provide enough of a perspective to perform an analysis Question 4. 2: Approximately what percentage of projects completed by this company has been required by the owners/stakeholders to receive eith er a LEED or green building equivalent certification within the past 5 years? Similar to Question 4.1, this question provide d an understanding of how often owners/stakeholders are involved with the decision making in terms of implementing sustainable pra ctices within the completion of a built project.

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63 Question 4. 3: Rate the following statements according to your perception of your company and sustainability The intent of this question was to provide a way to assess ainable business practices. A series of statements were given and the respondents had to use a 5 point Li kert Scale ranging Strongly D Strongly A gree The series was based on the following five erception of their company and sustainability: My company finds the role of sustainability important; My company has been proactive in educating employees on recent sustainable practice developments; My company utilizes the latest innovations in technology to enhance our sustainability mechanisms; My company actively advises owners/stakeholders to pursue sustainable methods and practices during projects, and; My company provides incentives to encourage sustainable practices during projects. The responses we re used to determine to what degree sustainability is being pursued by the participants and their corresponding companies as well as what methods are being used most frequent ly to promote achieving sustainable practices. Question 4. 4: Rate the priority of the following in terms of its potential impact on sustainable construction Similar to Questions 4.3, the intent of this question was to provide a means of understanding how the participant viewed the importance of commonly used design and construction pr actices to enhance sustainable measures. The question was asked with a series of common sustainable categories on a 7 point Likert Scale ranging Very Very High The series was based on the following eight categories:

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64 Sustainable site deve lopment Water efficiency Energy efficiency Sustainable materials Indoor air quality Project management Building commissioning Post construction facility operations The responses were used to determine the importance of each sustainable category according t o the respective participant particularly in combination with Question 5.6 3.2.5 Building Information Modeling ( BIM ) and Sustainable Building Practices Section 5 of the survey questionnaire was designed to understand the correlation between BIM in supp ort for sustainable design and construction practices. The primary goal of this section was to target any definitive relationship between the two topics discussed in Section 3 and 4. The questions in this section were used in determining what BIM methods and strategies are used in order to facilitate sustainable design and construction practices. Additionally, the respondents were provided a n open ended question in order to ascertain any other information that the survey may have not included or unintent ionally omitted. Question 5. 1: At what phase would implementing BIM contribute most to providing sustainable design or construction practices throughout the duration of a project? The responses to this question were used to determine at what phase during a built project the use of BIM was a valuable asset in terms of sustainability. This question provides

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65 for assessment based on a combination of results from other sections of the survey, allowing analysis through stratified measures. Question 5. 2: Which of the following types of computer aided analysis has been utilized by your company in one form or another? The intent of this question was to understand what sustainable environmental analysis tools were used in order to assess building performance. Th is question allowed for a comparison between types of BIM software used (i.e. Question 3.1) and the various types of environmental analysis used to enhance sustainable design and construction practices. Question 5. 3: Which of the following building perform ance analysis software has been utilized by your company in one form or another? Similar to Question 5.2, this question was included in order to determine what specific types of environmental software were utilized to perform environmental analysis. As most building performance analysis software packages are designed to work directly with BIM software packages, this question was used to assess the interdependence of both types of virtual analysis and evaluate the advantages and drawbacks of each Questio n 5. 4: Which of the following project delivery methods provides the best environment for the utilization of BIM software as a mechanism for sustainable design and building practices? The responses from this question were intended to provide information r as to at what stage BIM should be question allowed for analysis to determine relevance in comparison with the s with respect to the replies in Sections 1 and 2.

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66 Question 5. 5: Rate the importance of the suggested improvements in terms of its impact within BIM and sustainable design and practices The intent of this question was to determine what additional measure s would best be implemented to current BIM software packages that would further enhance sustainable practices. The question was asked with a series of suggested items on a 7 point Likert Scale based ranging from Very Very High The series cons isted of the following three suggestions: Improvements within interoperability between software packages Integration of a carbon accounting tracker Interactivity of live weather data The responses were used to determine the relevance of each item based on the respective participant and as a collective group. Question 5. 6: Rate the current BIM software packages in terms of its effectiveness in achieving the following sustainability categories during a project Simila r to Question 4.4, the intent of this que stion was to analyze the effectiveness of BIM as a means to asked with a series of common sustainable categories on a 7 point Likert Scale ranging from effective t The series was based on the following eight categories: Sustainable site development Water efficiency Energy efficiency Sustainable materials Indoor air quality Project management

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67 Building commissioning Post construction facility ope rations The responses to this question were compared with Question 4.4 in order to determine any direct relationships. Question 5. 7: How do you feel current BIM software is being used to facilitate sustainable design and construction practices? What chan ges, if any, need to be made to enhance its ability to support sustainable practices? This question allowed the participant to provide any additional information regarding BIM and sustainable business practices that the survey might have not included or unintentionally omitted. The responses were primarily used to gain perspective from the firms regarding the use of BIM and sustainability in current practices 3.2.6 Optional Section The final section of the survey questionnaire concluded with an optional response rewarding the respondent for taking part in the survey and to share information which may be of some value to the company. Again, the respondents were i nstructed prior to beginning the survey that their responses would be held in complete confidentiality and that none of the responses would be released or reported on individually. 3.3 Sample Population The second phase of this investigation consisted of s electing a list of potential survey participants in order to distribute the proposed survey questionnaire among the AEC industry. The selected target audience was intended to be from companies from various sectors within the AEC industry (e.g. architects, engineers, general contractors,

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68 and subcontractors) who were primarily interested in vertical construction. Additionally, this investigation by design was to include participants from different project types, localit ies and size s Although the project delivery method was identified as an important characteristic within the scope of this study, the primary target audience for this research was selected as practitioners of the design build and integrated project delivery methods as they are specifically d esigned for extensive collaborative effort s through contractual agreements. Because the ideology behind the Design Build Institute of America (DBIA) encompassed all the necessary traits desired with this study, members found within the organization were c onsidered to be ideal candidates for this investigation Therefore, the potential survey p articipants contacted were generated through a registration attendance list given to the attendees of the DBIA National Conference in W ashington DC in November 2009. A total of 657 companies were acquired from the generated list of potential survey participants all from within the AEC industry. Based on a 95% confidence level, w ith a confidence interval of 5 %, the preferred s ample size was calculated at 243 responses Therefore, a response rate of nearly 37 % was desired to claim this study to be significantly relevant within the population sample. The participants were emailed an electronic survey through the web based survey generator Zoomerang TM (http://www.zoomer ang.com). The survey was launched on January 26, 2010 and closed 16 days later on February 11, 2010 3.4 Method of Analysis The third phase of the research design involved receiving answers, upon which a detailed analysis ensued in order ascertain any correlations

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69 found between BIM and sustainable design and construction practices In order to fully analyze the results of the survey, the responses to each question were studied through the use of descriptive statistics. Each section of th e survey was assessed through an analysis based upon comparisons against one another in order to find whether or not there were differences among the sampled population. All questions in the survey were analyzed collectively to determine the viewpoints as a whole concerning the intended subject matter. Using the method of stratified sampling, so as to eliminate bias among the results, relationships were ge nerated in Sections 3 through 5 based on responses obtained through the responses to Sections 1 and 2 The intent of the analysis was to establish a means to compare the BIM and sustainability within the AEC industry to determine current trends and possible future developments.

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70 Figure 3 1 Research methodology p rocess Develop an Extensive Survey Questionnaire To what capacity is BIM being used as a mechanism for sustainable practices. How is BIM being used today in order to analyze the efficiency of a built project. What difficulties with interoperability are seen as potential problems with BIM software. At what stage in development is BIM thought of as a useful tool in providing sustainable design or construction practices. Distribute Survey to Targeted Audience Determine the sample population to be studied. Develop a list serve of potential participants meeting the intended audience for the study to disburse to. Calculate the number of necessary responses needed for significant relevance. Release survey questionnaire to the list of potential participants through the web based survey generator, Zoomerang. Analysis of Survey Responses Determine trends found throughout AEC industry collectively. Determine trends found throughout AEC industry through discriminating category. Develop Conclusions + Recommendations Analyze + consolidate data. Establish interpretations based on literature review and survey analysis

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71 CHAP TER 4 SURVEY RESULTS Upon the date of closing the survey, 259 respondents had visited the survey website and 123 completed surveys in addition to 56 partial responses were received. In order to maintain consistency with the results all partial responses were excluded from the reported results. The survey response rate was calculated at 18.7% which is under the minimum response rate of 37 % desired in order to provide meaningful support for the entire sample population Therefore, although the results sho uld not be considered significantly relevant for the entire population sampled, the results still provide insight on current development in BIM the trends in sustainable practices, and the overall potential for the future of BIM guidelines in sustainabili ty. The results of the survey questionnaire are provided in the following section with a brief analysis on each section. The results in the chapter are described through the use of descriptive statistics using the population sample as a whole. Chapter 5 will provide with more in depth analysis regarding specific details of the data using the method of sample stratification. 4.1 Section 1 and 2 Results Section 1 and Section 2 of the survey questionnaire were given as a means to analyze the sample populat ion through various categories in order to determine trends between specific characteristics found within the AEC industry and Sections 3 through 5 4.1.1 Question 1.1 In order to determine what percentage of the population belonged within certain sector s in the AEC industry, Question 1.1 was developed as a way to evaluate the

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72 composition of the respondents. The results found in Table 4 1 indicated that the highest percentage in the sample were general contractors at 27.6% (3 4 participants), followed by architects at 20.3% (25 participants), then engineers and subcontractors at 14.6% (18 participants) each Another ca ther was created in the case that additional disciplines were not provided as an option. This categ ory included but was not limited to management positions, commissioning agents, and energy modelers, therefore, although undefined this category broadly influenced the samples as it includes nearly 22.8% (28 participants) of the total sample. The informat ion gathered in this question will be vital in terms of performing analysis through sample stra tification Table 4 1 Respondent s role in the AEC industry (Q1.1). AEC Company Role Number of Participants % of Total General Contractor 34 27.6% Other 28 22.8% Architect 25 20.3% Engineer 18 14.6% Subcontractor 18 14.6% Column Totals 123 100 % 4.1.2 Question 1.2 The responses to Question 1.2 provide d information regarding the status of the individual as LEED AP. According to the res ponses from the survey approximately 48% (59 participants) of the sample population had earned their LEED AP accreditation, while 25.2% (31 participants) had stated they had yet to earn the status but plan ned to do so in the future. The remaining particip ants, 26.8% (33 participants) had not earned the recognition and did not plan to in the future. The results are shown in Table 4 2

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73 Table 4 2 Respondent s with LEED AP affiliation (Q1.2) 4.1.3 Question 1.3 The f inal question of Section 1 was posed in order to find re levance between number of years a professional had worked in comparison with the results found throughout the survey. The responses from the survey indicate d that the majority of the sample population ranged from 11 to 30 years of experience with nearly 54% (66 participants) of respondents being from within that time frame. Conversely, the least populated category in regards to this question was the range 0 to 5 years at a total of only 13% (15 participants). The rest of the results are shown in Table 4 3 which breaks down the popu lation into more specific age groups. Table 4 3 Number of years resp ondents have worked in the AEC i ndustry as a professional (Q1.3). Number of Years Number of Participants % of Total 0 2 years 8 7% 3 5 years 7 6% 6 10 years 22 18% 11 20 years 26 21% 21 30 years 40 33% More than 30 years 20 16% Column Totals 123 100% 4.1.4 Question 2.1 Section 2 of the survey questionnaire was aimed at finding out about the company the participant worked at. T herefore Question 2.1 was posed to examine what project as shown in Table 4 4 indicate that the majority of the population performed work within the commercial Number of Years Number of Participan ts % of Total Yes 59 48 % No 33 26.8% Not currently, but I plan to be. 31 25.2% Column Totals 123 100%

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74 sector, at 87% (107 par ticipants). Additionally, 40% (49 participants) performed work in the Industrial sector and 33% (40 participants) worked within the residential sector. that pursued ot her project types. T his group included a number of respondents who performed work within the health government and Institutional sectors of the AEC industry. Table 4 4 company perform work on (Q2.1). Project Type Number of Participants % of Total Commercial 107 87% Industrial 49 40% Residential 40 33% Other 34 28% Transportation 26 21% Heavy Civil 8 7% 4.1.5 Question 2.2 Question 2.2 was designed to analyze responses based on the size of a company in terms of its revenue. Generally, the more revenue a company accu mulated annually the larger the company. T he results within this category varied substantially ranging from the $1M to $5B. However, it was determined that the majority of companies res ponding to this survey earned annual revenue of $100 Million to $1 Billion at 29% (36 participants) of the population. Annual revenue in the range of $1 Million to $10 Million was considered the next highest selected subcategory with nearly 19% (23 partic ipants) of the population sample. The remaining options were spread evenly with each choice ranging between 11 to 15%. The results are shown in Table 4 5 which breaks down the population into more specific revenue categories.

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75 Table 4 5 Annual reven company (Q2.2 ). 4.1.6 Question 2.3 Similar to Question 2.2, this question concerns the size o f the respondent companies in terms of number of employees. As shown in Table 4 6 the highest percentage of the responses was held within companies with greater than 500 employees at nearly 31% (38 participants); therefore th e most of the responses were within large organizations. With the exception of only a couple of choices, the remainder of the survey sample was spread out quite evenly ranging from 12 to 16% for each of the other categories Table 4 6 Number of employe e company (Q2.3 ). Number of Employees Number of Participants % of Total Less than 10 people 15 12% 10 49 people 20 16% 50 99 people 11 9% 100 149 people 4 3% 150 249 people 18 15% 250 500 people 17 14% More than 500 people 38 31% Column Totals 123 100% 4.1.7 Question 2.4 Similar to Question1.2, Question 2.4 was designed to determine the number of LEED accredited professional s within a company. This information is necessary to substantiate claims tow ards company attitudes concerning susta inability. Table 4 7 Annual Revenue Number of Participants % of Total Less than $500,000 9 7% $500,000 $999,999 6 5% $1,000,000 $9,999,999 23 19% $10,000,000 $49,999,999 19 15% $50,000,000 $99,999,999 13 11% $100,000,000 $1 Billion 36 29% $1 Billion $5 Billion 15 12% $5 Billion $10 Billion 2 2% Over $10 Billion 0 0% Column Totals 123 100%

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76 shows that companies with fewer than 50 employees (87 participants) had a large proportion of LEED AP employees at nearly 70% The remaining categories had evenly spr ead proportions of LEED AP employees ranging from 6 to 11% of the ir employees Table 4 7. Number of L company (Q2. 4 ) Number of Employees Number of Participants % of Total Less than 10 people 52 42% 10 49 people 3 5 28% 50 99 people 13 11% 100 149 people 8 7% 150 249 people 7 6% More than 250 people 8 7% Column Totals 123 100% 4.1.8 Question 2.5 Because the sample population was taken throughout the United States AEC industry, it was import ant to determine what region the respondents were taken from. The results found in Table 4 8 indicate that the highest percentage of the sample population came from the Mid Atlantic region with 34% (42 participants). Followin g the Mid Atlantic, the South region provided roughly 28% (35) of the responses. The reasoning behind such a bias towards the east coast may be due to the fact the survey population was taken from a National Conference located in the Washington DC metropo litan region Table 4 8 Regional location of company (Q2.5 ). Regional Location of Company Number of Participants % of Total Northeast (New England) 5 4% Northeast (Mid Atlantic) 42 34% Midwest 18 15% South 35 28% West (Mou ntain) 12 10% West (Pacific) 11 9% Column Totals 123 100%

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77 4.1.9 Question 2.6 Very important to the basis of this investigation was determining what type of project delivery methods were used by the respondents which was the intent of Question 2 .6 As shown in Table 4 9 the two delivery methods with the highest percentage among the respondents were the tradition al Design Bid Build method at 37% (46 participants) and the Design Build method at 28% (35 participants) The remaining delivery methods were spread out evenly ranging from 6 to 11% of the entire sample population. Again, the addition of the option was provided to the survey participants in case the given list did not include the ir s. Approximately 11% (13 participants) selected responded with this option primarily because they had stated that their operations were not based solely on one delivery method but dealt with projects on a case by case basis. Table 4 9 Primary proje ct del company uses in its practice (Q2.6). Project Delivery Method Number of Participants % of Total Design Bid Build (DBB) 46 37% Construction Management 7 6% Construction Management at Risk 11 9% Design Build 35 28% Integrated Project Delivery 11 9% Other 13 11% Column Totals 123 100% 4.2 Section 3 Results Section 3 of the survey questionnaire was intended as a means to analyze the sample population in their response towards their use of BIM. This include s but is not application within business practices. The results of this section allow ed for further analysis based on the responses to Sections 1 and 2.

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78 4.2.1 Question 3.1 was designed to offer insight on what current BIM softwa re is being utilized. According to the results shown in Table 4 10 89 % (110 participants) had some form of BIM use within their company practices A utodesk Revit was the predominant BIM software used within the sample population at 78% (96 participants) Graphisoft ArchiCAD and Bentley Architecture provided the second and third highest selected companies at 11.4% (14 participants) and 10.6% (13 participants), respectively. It should be noted that Autodesk NavisWorks was not provided a s an option in the survey due the definition of BIM by which the investigation took; however, was listed as an alternative choice with roughly 7.3% (9 participants) of the survey respondents stating that they utilize Autodesk NavisWorks as part of their company practices. Table 4 10 BIM Software used by AEC industry members (Q3.1) Type of BIM Software Number of Participants % of Total Autodesk Revit 96 78% Beck Technology dProfiler 7 6% Bentley Systems Architecture 13 11% Gehry Tec hnologies Digital Project 3 2% Graphisoft ArchiCAD 14 11% Nemetschek Vectorworks 0 0% Tekla Structures 12 10% VICO Constructor 8 7% Other, please specify 20 16% None 13 11%

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79 4.2.2 Question 3.2 S imilar to Question 3.1, this question was designed to provide information companies. Based on the data from Table 4 11 the majority of the survey participants have used BIM roughly between 1 to 5 years (65%, or 81 participants). Conversely, about 12% (14 participants) of the survey population had used BIM for more than 6 years; therefore, it is clear that BIM has only been recently been implemented into the AEC industry as an operational tool Table 4 11 Number of years respondent s company have utilized BIM (Q3.2) Number of Years Number of Participants % of Total We have yet to implement it 14 11% 0 1 year 14 11% 1 2 years 30 24% 3 5 years 51 41% 6 9 years 6 5% 10 15 years 7 6% More than 15 years 1 1% Column Totals 123 100% 4.2.3 Question 3.3 3.4 Questions 3.3 and 3.4 of the survey questionnaire were intended to briefly owner requirements. The intent of this comparison was to understand how influential the owner was on the company in terms of utilizing BIM on a project. A ccording to the data in Table 4 12 the sample population holds that 30.5% of projects were completed with the use of BIM within the past five years and only 12.5% of projects were required by owners to utilize BIM. The ratio of company BIM practices to owner requirements from the data collected is roughly 0.41; therefore, there is little correlation between the

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80 about the use of BIM and its benefit. Table 4 12 (Q3.3 and Q3.4) Question % of Total Q3.3 Company performs BIM practices 30.5% Q3.4 Owners require company to perform BIM practices 12.5% 4.2.4 Question 3.5 According to Taylor et al. (2009) f our emergent BIM model categories are fully applied in c urrent practices: visualization; coordination; analysis; and supply/chain integration. Question 3.5 is designed in order to fully understand the sample use of BIM as a vital tool in its operatio ns As shown in Tab le 4 13 the majority of the survey respondents use BIM as a project visualization tool as well as for project coordination (70% and 72%, respectively). Additionally, 59% of participants used BIM as a tool for analysis Lastly, 28% (34 participants) utilized BIM as a product for supply/vendor integration. Table 4 13 Roles of BIM (Q3.5) BIM Roles Number of Participants % of Total Project c oordination 8 9 72% Project v isualization 86 70% Project a nalysis 73 59% Project supply/vendor i ntegration 34 28% None 10 8% Other, please specify 6 5%

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81 4.2.5 Question 3.6 The skepticism surrounding BIM has caused a dissuasive attitude within the AEC industry that has caused many companies and organizations to not invest time and/or money in implementing BIM within the company practices. Question 3.6 is utilized as a n within curr ent BIM software. Table 4 14 shows the data generated from the survey questionnaire. In addition to understanding the viewpoints, a weighted scale using the following equation: was included, where each statement was rated a ccording to the number of the responses within each ranking against the to tal number of participants The equation was used as a means to rank the respondents views on the given statements. Figure 4 1 shows a graphical representation of the results. Table 4 14 Perceptions of BIM and its skepticism in the AEC industry (Q3.6) Top number is the count of respo ndents selecting the option. Bottom % is percent of the total respondents selecting the option. 1 Strongly Disagree 2 Somewhat Disagree 3 Neutral 4 Somewhat Agree 5 Strongly Agree A.) BIM is currently too complicated to use. 38 29 34 19 3 31% 24% 28% 15 % 2% B.) BIM is currently not a cost effective measure for the industry. 38 33 23 27 2 31% 27% 19% 22% 2% C.) BIM is currently not designed to be used specifically for my profession. 53 34 9 20 7 43% 28% 7% 16% 6% D.) BIM is currently not a necessit y within the industry; therefore there is no need to implement it. 64 28 16 12 3 52% 23% 13% 10% 2% E.) BIM currently does not operate in an optimal standardized format making it difficult to translate data seamlessly. 14 17 24 47 21 11% 14% 20% 38% 1 7%

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82 Upon analysis of the data the following results were obta ined : Of the survey respondents 31% stated they strongly disagree d and 28% stated they were neutral that BIM is too complicated to use Having applied a weight ed score to each of the selection options, an average rating score of 2.35 was attained Of the survey respondents 31% stated that they strongly disagree d and 27% stated they somewhat disagree d that BIM is not cost effective Having applied a weight ed score to each of the selection option s, an average rating score of 2.37 was attained Of the survey respondents, 43% stated they strongly disagree d and 28%stated they somewhat disagree d that BIM is currently not designed for their particular profession Having applied a weight ed score to each of the selection options, an average rating score of 2.14 was attained Of the survey respondents, 52% stated they strongly disagree d and 23% stated they somewhat disagree d that BIM is currently not a necessity in the industry Having applied a weighted s core to each of the selection options, an average rating score of 1.88 was attained. Of the survey respondents, 38% stated that they somewhat agree d and 20% stated that they were neutral that BIM currently does not operate in an optimal standardized format Having applied a weight ed score to each of the selection options, an average rating score of 3.36 was attained Therefore, according to the results most of the respondents viewed BIM as an acceptable tool to be applied within their company practices, ho wever, they also believed there were issues with BIM in terms of interoperability. The following are the rankings of the results from highest to lowest average rating score : 1) BIM currently does not operate in an optimal standardized format (3.36) 2) BIM is n ot cost effective (2.37) 3) BIM is too complicated to use (2.35) 4) BIM is currently not designed for their particular profession (2.14) 5) BIM is currently not a necessity in the industry (1.88)

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83 Figure 4 1 Perceptions of BIM and its skepticism in the AEC i ndustry 4.2.6 Question 3.7 Similar to Question 3.6, this question was designed in order to provide feedback concerning features found within the BIM software platforms using a Likert scale q uestionnaire device. Table 4 15 pr ovides the data generated from the responses of the survey participants. In addition to understanding the viewpoints, a weighted scale using the following equation: was included, where each feature was rated according to the number of the responses within each ranking against the total number of participants. The equation was used as 38 38 53 64 14 29 33 34 28 17 34 23 9 16 24 19 27 20 12 47 3 2 7 3 21 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% BIM is currently too complicated to use. BIM is currently not a cost effective measure for the industry. BIM is currently not designed to be used specifically for my profession. BIM is currently not a necessity within the industry. BIM currently does not operate in an optimal standardized format. Number of Participants as a Percentage Common Skepticisms of BIM Perceptions of BIM and Its Skepticism in the AEC Industry Strongly Agree Somewhat Agree Neutral Somewhat Disagree Strongly Disagree

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84 a means to rank the respondents views on the given B IM features Figure 4 2 provides a graphical representation of the results. Table 4 15 Importance of common features found in BIM software packages (Q3.7) Top number is the count of respondents selecting the option. Bottom % is percent of the total respondents selecting the option. 1 Very Low 2 Low 3 Med. Low 4 Neutral 5 Med. High 6 High 7 Very High A.) Direct integration with energy analysis software applications (e.g. Ecotect, IES Virtual Environment). 3 10 3 35 30 18 24 2% 8% 2% 28% 24% 15% 20% B.) Direct integration with project management software (e.g. Primavera Suretrak, Microsoft Project Planner). 2 9 9 39 26 19 19 2% 7% 7% 32% 21% 15% 15% C.) Direct integration for construction related tasks (e.g. estimating c osts, scheduling, quantity take offs). 0 5 6 22 27 27 36 0% 4% 5% 18% 22% 22% 29% D.) Support to produce construction documents without the need for another application. 1 2 4 28 20 27 41 1% 2% 3% 23% 16% 22% 33% E.) Standardization of software platf orms to facilitate inter operability in the building industry (i.e. IFC compatible). 1 2 1 30 27 24 38 1% 2% 1% 24% 22% 20% 31% F.) Multidisciplinary capability (e.g. provides service for architects, engineers, MEP, contractors). 0 2 2 20 16 35 48 0% 2% 2% 16% 13% 28% 39% G.) Ability to support collaborative and distributed work processes (e.g. multiple team members working on the same project). 1 0 3 17 22 29 51 1% 0% 2% 14% 18% 24% 41% H.) Relative ease of software adjoined with helpful tutorials supporting documentation, and other learning resources. 2 2 5 29 27 31 27 2% 2% 4% 24% 22% 25% 22%

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85 The following details the analysis of the results: Of the survey respondents 52% believed that direct integration with energy analysis is of neutral t o medium high importance. Having applied a weight ed score to each of the selection options, an average rating score of 4.86 was attained Of the survey respondents 53% believed that direct integration with project management software is of neutral to med ium high importance. Having applied a weighted score to each of the selection options, an average rating score of 4.72 was attained Of the survey respondents 44% believed that direct integration for construction related tasks is of medium high to high im portance. Having applied a weighted score to each of the selection options, an average rating score of 5.41 was attained Of the survey respondents 55% believed that support to produce construction documents is of medium high to high importance. Having applied a weighted score to each of the selection options, an average rating score of 5.51 was attained Of the survey respondents 51% believed that standardization of software platforms is of high to very high importance. Having applied a weighted score to each of the selection options, an average rating score of 5.47 was attained Of the survey respondents 67% believed that multidisciplinary capabilities are of medium high to high importance. Having applied a weighted score to each of the selection op tions, an average rating score of 5.82 was attained Of the survey respondents 65% believed that the ability to support collaborative and distributed work processes is of high to very high importance. Having applied a weighted score to each of the select ion options, an average rating score of 5.85 was attained Of the survey respondents 47% believed that relative ease of the software is of medium high to high importance. Having applied a weighted score to each of the selection options, an average rating score of 5.26 was attained Therefore, according to the results the respondents found each of the features to is a listing of the rankings of the results in descending order from highest to lo west average rating score : 1) Ability to support collaborative and distributed work processes (5.85) 2) Multidisciplinary capabilities (5.82)

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86 3) Support to produce construction documents (5.51) 4) Standardization of software platforms (5.47) 5) Direct integration for construction related tasks (5.41) 6) Relative ease of the software (5.26) 7) Direct integration with energy analysis (4.86) 8) Direct integration with project management software (4.72) Figure 4 2 Importance of common features found in BIM software packag es 4.3 Section 4 Results Section 4 of the survey questionnaire was intended as a means to analyze the sample population in terms of its viewpoint of sustainable design and construction towards 3 2 0 1 1 0 1 2 10 9 5 2 2 2 0 2 3 9 6 4 1 2 3 5 35 39 22 28 30 20 17 29 30 26 27 20 27 16 22 27 18 19 27 27 24 35 29 31 24 19 36 41 38 48 51 27 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Direct integration with energy analysis software applications Direct integration with project management software Direct integration for construction related tasks Support to produce construction documents Standardization of software platforms Multidisciplinary capability Ability to support collaborative and distributed work processes Relative ease of software Number of Participants as a Percentage BIM Features Importance of Common Features Found in BIM Software Packages Very Low Low Medium Low Neutral Medium High High Very High

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87 sustainability ; importance of common sustainable categories ; and percentage of work performed on sustainable projects The results of this section allowed for further analysis based on the responses from Sections 1 and 2. 4.3.1 Question 4.1 4.2 Similar to Questions 3.3 and 3.4, both of these questions were intend ed on providing information regarding their company involvement with green building certification as well as data on owner involvement in company decisions in terms of sustainable prac tices. Table 4 16 breaks down the percentage of green building of projects required by owners to achieve green building certification. Acco rding to the data 25 % of the sample population works towards green building certifications, while 22 % of the sample were required by owners to attain green building certification. Table 4 16 Percentage of LEED projects s influence on LEED projects (Q3.3 and Q3.4) Question % of Total Q3.3 25 % Q3.4 22 % 4.3.2 Question 4.3 With the growing intere st in sustainable design and construction practices becoming prevalent within the majority of the AEC industry, it is important to understand pose d a series of statements regar and its measures to enf orce sustainability. Table 4 17 contains the results from the

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88 survey respondents. In addition to understanding the viewpoints, a weighted scale using t he equation: was included, where each statement was rated according to the number of the responses within each ranking against the tota l number of participants The equation was used as a means to rank the respondents views on the given statements Figure 4 3 shows a graphical representation of the results. Table 4 17 its view on sustainability (Q4.3) Top number is the count of respondents selecting the option. Bottom % is percent of the total respondents selecting the option. 1 Strongly Disagree 2 Somewhat Disagree 3 Neutral 4 Somewhat Agree 5 Strongly Agree A.) My c ompany finds the role of sustainability to be important. 0 1 4 40 78 0% 1% 3% 33% 63% B.) My company has been proactive in educating employees on recent sustainable practice developments. 2 5 15 45 56 2% 4% 12% 37% 46% C.) My company utilizes the lat est innovations in technology to enhance our sustainability mechanisms. 1 11 29 52 30 1% 9% 24% 42% 24% D.) My company actively advises owners/stakeholders to pursue sustainable methods and practices during projects. 0 6 19 55 43 0% 5% 15% 45% 35% E. ) My company provides incentives to encourage sustainable practices during projects. 13 16 48 36 10 11% 13% 39% 29% 8%

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89 The following details the analysis of the results: Of the survey respondents 63% stated they strongly agree d and 33% stated they som ewhat agree d that their company finds the role of sustainability important Having applied a weighted score to each of the selection options, an average rating score of 4.59 was attained Of the survey respondents 46% stated they strongly agree d and 37% stated they somewhat agree d that their company is proactive in providing sustainability education among employees Having applied a weighted score to each of the selection options, an average rating score of 4.20 was attained Of the survey respondents 4 2% stated they somewhat agree d w hile 48% of the survey population stated that they either strongly agree d (24%) or are neutral (24%) that their company utilizes the latest innovations in sustainability Having applied a weighted score to each of the sele ction options, an average rating score of 3.80 was attained Of the survey respondents 35% stated they strongly ag ree d and 45% stated they somewhat agree d that their company actively advises owners to pursue sustainable methods and practices during projec ts Having applied a weighted score to each of the selection options, an average rating score of 4.10 was attained Of the survey respondents 39% stated they are neutral and 29% stated they somewhat agree d that t heir company provides incentives to encour age sustainable practices during a project Having applied a weighted score to each of the selection options, an average rating score of 3.11 was attained Therefore, according to the results the respondents agreed on all statements that their company had an active role in sustainability. However, most respondents answered neutral to providing incentives to encourage sustainable practices therefore there is room for improvement within companies to further enhance their capabilities with promoting sustaina bility. The following lists the rankings of the results in descending order from highest to lowest average rating score : 1) My company finds the role of sustainability important (4.59) 2) My company is proactive in providing sustainability education among empl oyees (4.20) 3) My company actively advises owners to pursue sustainable methods and practices during projects (4.10)

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90 4) My company utilizes the latest innovations in sustainability (3.80) 5) My company provides incentives to encourage sustainable practices duri ng a project (3.11) Figure 4 3 4.3.3 Question 4.4 Though many available green building assessment organizations already have developed a list of important sustainable practices ( e g. U SGBC LEED, Green Globes) it is important to understand how the respondents view ed certain features within sustainable practices. Question 4.4 therefore utilizes a series of common sustainable categories in order to rank their importance to the respondent Table 4 18 contains the results generated from the survey questionnaire In addition to understanding the viewpoints, a weighted scale using the following equation: 0 2 1 0 13 1 5 11 6 16 4 15 29 19 48 40 45 52 55 36 78 56 30 43 10 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% A.) My company finds the role of sustainability to be important. B.) My company has been proactive in educating employees on recent sustainable practice developments. C.) My company utilizes the latest innovations in technology to enhance our sustainability mechanisms. D.) My company actively advises owners/stakeholders to pursue sustainable methods and practices during projects. E.) My company provides incentives to encourage sustainable practices during projects. Number of Participants as a Percentage Company Initiatives Perception of Respondent's Company and Its View on Sustainability Strongly Agree Somewhat Agree Neutral Somewhat Disagree Strongly Disagree

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91 was included, where each category was rated according to the number of the responses within each ranking against the total number of participants. The equation was used as a means to rank the respondents views on the given sustainable features Figure 4 4 provides a graphical representation of the results. Table 4 18 Importance of common sustainable features and their impact on construction (Q4.4) Top number is the count of respondents selecting the option. Bottom % is percent of the total respondents selecting the option. 1 Very Low 2 Low 3 Med. Low 4 Neutral 5 Med. High 6 High 7 Very High A.) Sustainable Site Development (e.g. heat island effect, storm water r unoff) 1 0 1 16 38 44 23 1% 0% 1% 13% 31% 36% 19% B.) Water Efficiency (e.g. reduction of potable water usage, limiting irrigation) 1 1 0 12 31 43 35 1% 1% 0% 10% 25% 35% 28% C.) Energy Efficiency (e.g. reduction of energy consumption, use of renewab le energy resources) 0 0 1 8 17 30 67 0% 0% 1% 7% 14% 24% 54% D.) Sustainable Materials (e.g. use of recycled materials, reduction of waste) 0 1 2 21 28 42 29 0% 1% 2% 17% 23% 34% 24% E.) Indoor Air Quality (e.g. use of no VOC's, maximize natural ven tilation, thermal comfort) 1 0 2 19 28 39 34 1% 0% 2% 15% 23% 32% 28% F.) Project Management (e.g. elimination of rework) 3 1 9 25 25 34 26 2% 1% 7% 20% 20% 28% 21% G.) Building Commissioning (e.g. testing the performance of building systems) 1 0 3 21 23 36 39 1% 0% 2% 17% 19% 29% 32% H.) Post Construction Facility Operations (e.g. maintain healthy HVAC systems) 1 1 6 17 19 34 45 1% 1% 5% 14% 15% 28% 37% The following details the analysis of the results: Of the survey respondents 67% believed that sustainable site development is of medium high to high importance. Having applied a weight ed score to each of the selection options, an average rating score of 5.55 was attained

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92 Of the survey respondents 63% believed that water efficiency is of hi gh to very high importance. Having applied a weighted score to each of the selection options, a total rating score of 5.76 was attained Of the survey respondents 78% believed that energy efficiency is of high to very high importance. Having applied a we ighted score to each of the selection options, an average rating score of 6.25 was attained Of the survey respondents 58% believed that use of sustainable materials is of high to very high importance. Having applied a weighted score to each of the selec tion options, an average rating score of 5.59 was attained Of the survey respondents 60% believed that indoor air quality is of high to very high importance. Having applied a weighted score to each of the selection options, an average rating score of 5. 65 was attained Of the survey respondents 49% believed that incorporated project management is of high to very high importance. Having applied a weighted score to each of the selection options, an average rating score of 5.23 was attained Of the survey respondents 61% believed that building commissioning is of high to very high importance. Having applied a weighted score to each of the selection options, an average rating score of 5.67 was attained Of the survey respondents 65% believed that post co nstruction facility operations are of high to very high importance. Having applied a weighted score to each of the selection options, an average rating score of 5.72 was attained Therefore, according to the results the respondents found each of the categ ories to be high in importance in terms of sustainable construction. The following lists the rankings of the results in descending order from highest to lowest average rating score : 1) Energy efficiency (6.25) 2) Water efficiency (5.76) 3) Post construction faci lity operations (5.72) 4) Building commissioning (5.67) 5) Indoor air quality (5.65) 6) Use of sustainable materials (5.59) 7) Sustainable site development (5.55) 8) Incorporated project management (5.23)

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93 Figure 4 4 Importance of common sustainable features an d their impact on construction 4.4 Section 5 Results 4.4.1 Question 5.1 As Section 5 of the survey questionnaire was intended to tie together both BIM and sustainability the questions are posed in order to determine direct correlations between the two topi cs Question 5.1 is aimed at assess ing BIM implementation during various stages of project development, in regards to enhancing sustainability. As shown in Table 4 19 the highest percentage of the respondents suggested that BIM is optimally implemented in the schematic phase at 40% (49 participants) Additionally, the pre design and design development phases were selected by 31% (38 participants) and 20% (25 participants) respectively Therefore, nearly 91% of the respons es 1 1 0 0 1 3 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 2 2 9 3 6 16 12 8 21 19 25 21 17 38 31 17 28 28 25 23 19 44 43 30 42 39 34 36 34 23 35 67 29 34 26 39 45 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Sustainable Site Development Water Efficiency Energy Efficiency Sustainable Materials Indoor Air Quality Project Management Building Commissioning Post Construction Facility Operations Number of Responses as a Percentage Sustainability Features Importance of Common Sustainable Features and Their Impact on Construction Very High High Medium High Neutral Medium Low Low Very Low

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94 indicate d that BIM is best utilized to support sustainable design and construction design stage Table 4 19 Respondent s viewpoint on optimal project phase to implement ing BIM during a given project duration (Q5.1) Pr oject Phase Number of Participants % of Total Schematic Design Phase 49 40% Pre design or Program Phase 38 31% Design Development Phase 25 20% Construction Documents Phase 4 3% Preconstruction Phase 3 2% Other 3 2% Post construction Operat ions Phase 1 1% Construction Administration Phase 0 0% Column Totals 123 100% 4.4.2 Question 5.2 There is currently a large number of 2D/3D CAD and BIM analytical software available; therefore, it is necessary to determine what types of analyses ar e being implemented into normal company practices. Table 4 20 shows information generated based on the responses to Question 5.2 broken down into the various types of computer aided analysis. The highest percentage of the po pulation sample used some form of energy analysis at 59% (72 participants) of the entire sample. Additionally, MEP analysis structural analysis and lighting analysis were selected by a large number of participants responses at 50% (62 participants), 44% (54 participants), and 47% (58 participants) respectively This result is due to the fact that multiple BIM software platforms are trying to integrate different forms of analysis, most typically found are the analysis programs for energy, MEP, and struc tures.

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95 Table 4 20 (Q5.2) Type of Analysis Number of Participants % of Total Energy Analysis 72 59% MEP Analysis 62 50% Lighting Analysis/Simulation 58 47% Structural Analysis 54 44% Thermal/Air Control Analysis 41 33% Building Function Analysis 25 20% Acoustic Analysis 24 20% None 19 15% Other, please specify 4 3% 4.4.3 Question 5.3 The availability of building performance analysis software directly connected with BI M provides a means to analyze projects in order to create sustainable buildings. Question 5.3 is intended to determine what specific types of building performance analysis software are being utilized in the AEC industry. As shown in Table 4 21 nearly 56% (69 participants) of the respondents at the time do not use any form of building performance analysis software. Of the listed products, Ecotect and eQUEST held the highest responses at 14% (17 participants) and 15% (19 part icipants), respectively. It should be noted that was included for respondents to add any additional building performance analysis software they had used T he following software were noted by the responden ts : EnergyPlus, Trane Trace 700, EcoDesigner, TRNSYS, and Energy Pro. Table 4 21 company (Q5.3) Type of Analysis Number of Participants % of Total None 69 56% Other, please specif y 24 20% eQUEST 19 15% Ecotect 17 14% IES Virtual Environment 15 12% Green Building Studio 12 10%

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96 4.4.4 Question 5.4 of project delivery methods as it relates to BIM and susta inable design and construction practices. The intent of the question is to determine which delivery method provides the best environment for BIM to act as a mechani sm for sustainability. Table 4 22 shows the responses to the q uestionnaire in relation with the total survey sample. The data in Table 4 22 shows that both the Design Build a nd Integrated Project Delivery m ethods are regarded by the respondents as the most effective methods at 40% (49 participants) and 37% (46 par ticipants) to bridge together both BIM and sustainable practices within a company in the AEC industry. Design Bid Build was selected by 11% (14 participants) of the responses while the other options were selected by few Table 4 22 t of what project delivery method provides the best environment for the utilization of BIM software as a mechanism for sustainable design and building practices (Q5.4) Type of Analysis Number of Participants % of Total Design Build 49 40% Integrated P roject Delivery 46 37% Design Bid Build (DBB) 14 11% Other, please specify 9 7% Construction Management 4 3% Construction Management at Risk 1 1% Total 123 100% 4.4.5 Question 5.5 Question 5.5 is intended to determine the respondents viewpoin ts on potential improvements and innovations with BIM. The list accompanying this question came from Krygiel et al. (2008) as suggested innovations within BIM to provide for the next steps in enhancing its capabilitie s with sustainability. Table 4 23 shows the results of

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97 this question. In addition to understanding the viewpoints, a weighted scale using the following equation: was included, where each category was rated according to the number of the responses within each ranking against the total number of participants. The equation was used as a means to rank the respondents views on the given sustainable features Figure 4 5 provides a graphical representation of the results. Table 4 23 I mportance of potential advancements in BIM in terms of its impact on sustainable practices (Q5.5) Top number is the count of respondents selecting the option. Bottom % is percent of the total respondents selecting the option. 1 Very Low 2 Low 3 Med. Low 4 Neutral 5 Med. High 6 High 7 Very High A.) Improvements within interoperability between software packages (e.g. importing/exporting dat a from BIM software into building performance analysis software). 1 0 3 16 20 34 49 1% 0% 2% 13% 16% 28% 40% B.) Integration of a carbon accounting tracker (e.g. tracking the carbon emissions of a building from construction to post construction). 6 3 6 50 37 16 5 5% 2% 5% 41% 30% 13% 4% C.) Interactivity of weather data (i.e. connecting a BIM model directly to weather databases available online). 3 7 9 45 34 14 11 2% 6% 7% 37% 28% 11% 9% The following details the analysis of the results: Of the su rvey respondents 68% believed that improvements within interoperability between software packages are of high to very high importance. Having applied a weighted score to each of the selection options, an average rating score of 5.86 was attained Of the survey respondents 71% believed that the integration of a carbon accounting tracker is of neutral to medium high importance. Having applied a weighted score to each of the selection options, an average rating score of 4.44 was attained Of the survey res pondents 65% believed that interactivity of weather data is of neutral to medium high importance. Having applied a weighted score to each of the selection options, an average rating score of 5.65 was attained

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98 Therefore, according to the results the resp ondents found the majority of the categories to be high in importance in terms of their impact on sustainable practices, however, the sample population was neutral to the integration of a carbon tracking measuring device. The following lists the rankings of the results in descending order from highest to lowest average rating score : 1) I mprovements within interoperability between software packages (5.86). 2) I nteractivity of weather data (5.65). 3) I ntegration of a carbon accounting tracker (4.44). Figure 4 5 Potential advancements in BIM in terms of its impact on sustainable practices 4.4.6 Question 5.6 Similar to Question 4.4, this question targets the effectiveness of BIM in terms of common sustainable practices within the AEC industry. As this study is pri marily interested in understanding th e capabilities of BIM as a catalyst for sustainable 1 6 3 0 3 7 3 6 9 16 50 45 20 37 34 34 16 14 49 5 11 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Improvements within interoperability between software packages Integration of a carbon accounting tracker Interactivity of weather data Participants Rating as a Percentage Potential BIM Add ins Potential Advancements in BIM in Terms of Its Impact on Sustainable Practices Very High High Moderately High Neutral Moderately Low Low Very Low

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99 practices in the AEC industry, this question is imperative in understanding how the respondents view BIM as an effective tool in doing so Tab le 4 24 shows the survey responses for Question 5.6 In addition to understanding the viewpoints, a weighted scale using the following equation: was included, where each category was rated according to the number of the responses within each ranking against the total number of participants. The equation was used as a means to rank the respondents views on the given sustainable feat ures Figure 4 6 shows a graphical representation of the results. Table 4 24 Rating of BIM in terms of effectiveness in achieving sustainability (Q5.6) Top number is the count of respondents selecting the option. Bottom % i s percent of the total respondents selecting the option. 1 Highly Ineffective 2 Ineffective 3 Neutral 4 Effective 5 Highly Effective A.) Sustainable Site Development (e.g. heat island effect, storm water runoff) 8 15 77 21 2 7% 12% 63% 17% 2% B.) Water Efficiency (e.g. reduction of potable water usage, limiting irrigation) 7 17 80 18 1 6% 14% 65% 15% 1% C.) Energy Efficiency (e.g. reduction of energy consumption, use of renewable energy resources) 1 8 63 40 11 1% 7% 51% 33% 9% D.) Sustainable Mate rials (e.g. use of recycled materials, reduction of waste) 8 15 76 20 4 7% 12% 62% 16% 3% E.) Indoor Air Quality (e.g. use of no VOC's, maximize natural ventilation, thermal comfort) 8 15 88 10 2 7% 12% 72% 8% 2% F.) Project Management (e.g. eliminat ion of rework) 4 13 53 29 24 3% 11% 43% 24% 20% G.) Building Commissioning (e.g. testing the performance of building systems) 4 18 69 29 3 3% 15% 56% 24% 2% H.) Post Construction Facility Operations (e.g. maintain healthy HVAC systems) 8 17 58 33 7 7% 14% 47% 27% 6%

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100 The following details the analysis of the results (see Figure 4 6 ) : Of the survey respondents 80% believed that sustainable site development is neutral to effective Having applied a weighted scor e to each of the selection options, an average rating score of 2.95 was attained Of the survey respondents 80% believed that water efficiency is neutral to effective Having applied a weighted score to each of the sel ection options, an average rating score of 2.91 was attained. Of the survey respondents 84% believed that energy efficiency is neutral to effective Having applied a weighted score to each of the selection options, an average rating score of 3.42 was attained Of the survey respondents 78% believed that use of sustainable materials is neutral to effective Having applied a weighted score to each of the selection options, an average rating score of 2.98 was attained Of the survey respondents 84% believed that indoor air quality is neutral to ineffective Having applied a weighted score to each of the selection options, an average rating score of 2.86 was attained Of the survey respondents 67% believed that incorporated project management is neutral to effective while 20% of the respondents considered the feature to be highly effective Having applied a weight ed score to each of the selection options, an average rating score of 3.46 was attained Of the survey respondents 80% believed that building commissioning is neutral to effective Having applied a weighted score to ea ch of the selection options, an average rating score of 3.07 was attained Of the survey respondents 74% believed that post construction facility operations is neutral to effective Having applied a weighted score to e ach of the selection options, an average rating score of 3.11 was attained Therefore, according to the results the respondents were found to be neutral on their viewpoint of BIM and its effectiveness on sustainable practices. This was typical of all cate gories, however, energy efficiency and incorporating project management were

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101 found to have the highest weighted score s The following lists the rankings of the results in descending order from highest to lowest average rating scores : 1) Incorporated project management (3.46) 2) Energy efficiency (3.42) 3) Post construction facility operations (3.11) 4) Building commissioning (3.07) 5) Use of sustainable materials (2.98) 6) Sustainable site development (2.95) 7) Water efficiency (2.91) 8) Indoor air quality (2.86) Figur e 4 6 Rating of BIM in terms of effectiveness in achieving sustainability 4.4.7 Question 5.7 Question 5.7 was the only open ended question offered in the survey questionnaire. The intent of the question was to obtain feedback from the respondents 8 7 1 8 8 4 4 8 15 17 8 15 15 13 18 17 77 80 63 76 88 53 69 58 21 18 40 20 10 29 29 33 2 1 11 4 2 24 3 7 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Sustainable Site Development Water Efficiency Energy Efficiency Sustainable Materials Indoor Air Quality Project Management Building Commissioning Post Construction Facility Operations Percentage of Participant Rating Sustainable Design and Construction Practices Categories Rating of BIM in terms of effectiveness in achieving sustainability Highly Effective Effective Neutral Ineffective Highly Ineffective

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102 that m ay not have been given through the survey. The responses are found in their entirety in Appendix D Selected responses due their insight are listed as the following: Currently BIM and sustainable design are independent prac tices; however the use of BIM directly affects sustainable design practices by providing more opportunities to limit waste, build facilities, and test for efficiency prior to even breaking ground. The only limitations are those which the software inherentl y posses. Standards need to be set so that the software can build the requirements of the standards into their programs so that no matter which program is utilized, the designers, owners, and future maintenance individuals can utilize the BIM model not jus t for sustainable practices now, but also into the future. BIM within the AEC community is currently in fashion as design tool. Emphasize the word tool, because it is a means, not an end. Sustainability is an end and can sustainable design can be attaine d without use of BIM. Once BIM becomes more useful among owners and building managers (years from now), BIM will be useful in analyzing performance maintaining sustainably designed facilities. BIM can be used to advance sustainable design. Sustainable desi gn can be accomplished without BIM. BIM is a tool, and can be a means towards improving sustainable design. Site design modeling can be hugely helpful toward analyzing stormwater quality and de conflicting underground utilities. BIM software's limitations as a detailing tool, lack of interoperability, and high cost of staff retraining/migration currently impede its widespread use. Very little actual construction is 'manufactured' and BIM continues to be of little, if any, use on most construction projects Few clients can afford customized, engineered, manufactured building components that require BIM modeling most opt for standardized, unitized building components in wide production that are accepted among and trade installers (and are warrantable). A p remise that BIM and sustainable design are interdependent is somewhat thin and difficult to defend. But unquestionably, BIM, as an emerging and continually improving design tool, can facilitate sustainable design. Currently, BIM software is more focused on aspects relating to Project Management and trade integration rather than sustainability. However, because BIM models are typically developed in the pre design phase, the foundation for further integration of sustainable design and building practices shoul d be easily incorporated and likely effective. In my opinion, the areas of building design and construction that are currently able to be effectively integrated with BIM software include: energy efficiency, project management, building commissioning, and p ost construction facility operations. Conversely, the areas of building and design that are not currently able to be effectively integrated with BIM software include: sustainable site development, water efficiency, sustainable materials, and indoor environ mental quality.

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103 CHAPTER 5 STRATIFIED SAMPLING SURVEY RESULTS As indicated in Chapter 4 of this report, Chapter 5 is intended to analyze the results based on characteristics provided through the responses from Sections 1 and 2 of the survey questionnaire. Upon review of the overall results in Chapter 4 it was determined that the following four aspect s should be further investigated as a means to understand the sample population in greater detail: AEC position role (Question 1.1; Table 4 1 ) ; project types (Question 2.1; Table 4 4 ); annual revenue (Question 2.2; Table 4 5 ) ; and project delivery method (Question 2.6; Table 4 9 ) Although this is an additional form of analysis the objectives remain the same as Chapter 4 in that the results will be used to determine information regarding current development in BIM, the trends in sustainable practices, and the overall potential for the future app lications of BIM with in sustainability. Each category of the study was filtered through the web based survey generator Zoomerang TM as a means of collecting the data. The results of the filtered survey questionnaire are provided in the following section wi th a brief analysis on each assessment The results in the chapter are analyzing through the use of descriptive statistics using the method of stratified sampling. 5.1 Section 3 Stratified Sampling Results This section presents information regarding the v arious aspects of BIM and its use within the AEC industry. The intent of this investigation is to analyze the trends within certain categories of the sample population. The results are assessed against other participant responses as well as the total pop ulation.

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104 5.1.1 Question 3.1 From the results found in Section 4.2.1, it was determined that Autodesk Revit was the industry leader within the AEC community with nearly 78% of the total responses indicating that they use the program at some point during a p roject s duration Figure s 5 1 to 5 4 show a breakdown of the overall results into the selected categories in order to perform a stratified sampling of the total sample population As shown in Figure 5 1 the AEC position ro le with the highest percentage rate utilizing Autodesk Revit was the general contractors (GC) at nearly 91.2% of its total sample size (34 participants). Additionally, the GC category was found to have a higher percentage rate among the other provided sof tware platforms, thus, indicating its prevalence within the BIM market. Engineers (ENG) held the second highest percentage at 88.3% of its respondents (18 participants) and t he architecture (ARCH) sector was found to have 76% of its sample size (25 partic ipants) using Autodesk Revit with an additional 16% using Graphisoft ArchiCAD Figure 5 1 Comparison of BIM software and AEC position roles. Architect (25) Engineer (18) General Contractor (34) Subcontractors (18) Others (28) Autodesk Revit 76.0 83.3 91.2 44.4 82.1 Dprofiler 0.0 0.0 17.6 0.0 3.6 Bentley Architecture 8.0 5.6 11.8 5.6 17.9 Graphisoft ArchiCAD 16.0 11.1 17.6 5.6 3.6 Nemetschek Vectorworks 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Tekla Structures 4.0 5.6 11.8 11.1 14.3 Vico Constructor 0.0 5.6 17.6 0.0 3.6 Others 4.0 16.7 23.5 27.8 10.7 None 12.0 16.7 5.9 22.2 3.6 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 Percentage of Total Responses in Sample Size (%) Comparison of BIM Software and AEC Position Role

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105 In terms of project delivery method as shown in Figure 5 2 the companies that use the Design Build (DB) and Construction Management at Risk (CM R) methods had the highest percentage of Autodesk Revit use at 91.4% and 100%, respectively Of the companies that use d Design Bid Build (DBD) and Construction Management (CM) methods 19.6 % and 28.6% of their respective sample size did not utilize any form of BIM software platform. Figure 5 2 Comparison of BIM software and project delivery methods. Analysis based on t he annual revenue of a company provided another method to view the app lication of BIM that is, whether the size of the company impacted the rate of BIM use within the AEC industry. As shown in Figure 5 3 the highest percentage of BIM use within almost every individual softwar e platforms was seen in the companies with revenue of Additionally, the data shows that as company revenue increased the use of Autodesk Design Bid Build (46) Design Build (35) Construction Management (7) Construction Management @ Risk (11) Integrated Project Design (11) Other (13) Total Participants (123) Autodesk Revit 71.7 91.4 57.1 100.0 54.5 76.9 78.0 Dprofiler 2.2 2.9 0.0 18.2 0.0 23.1 5.7 Bentley Architecture 8.7 14.3 0.0 9.1 27.3 0.0 10.6 Gehry Technologies Digital Project 4.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 9.1 0.0 2.4 Graphisoft ArchiCAD 6.5 8.6 0.0 36.4 27.3 7.7 11.4 Nemetschek Vectorworks 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Tekla Structures 4.3 14.3 14.3 0.0 27.3 7.7 9.8 Vico Constructor 2.2 11.4 0.0 27.3 0.0 0.0 6.5 Others 4.3 17.1 14.3 45.5 27.3 23.1 16.3 None 19.6 0.0 28.6 0.0 0.0 15.4 10.6 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 Percentage of Total Responses in Sample Size (%) Comparison of BIM Software and Project Delivery Method

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106 increased, therefore, establishing a direct connection between the size of the company and its use of Autodesk Revit. The remaining software programs underwent similar trends as the highest percentage of BIM use was found in the largest annual revenue category available with a few exceptions (i.e. Graphisoft ArchiCAD and DP rofiler) Figure 5 3 Comparison of BIM software and annual revenue. Because Question 2.1 concerning the project type s was posed as a multi answer response, each project type had the opportunity to incorporate others within its filter Theref ore, Table 5 1 is provided to b reak down the percentages of each project type contained within the filter taken from the total population Figure 5 4 provides information regarding the project type category in connection with BIM software. According to the data, the Industrial project type at 83.7 % (49 participants) and the Heavy/Civil project type at 100% (34 participants) of their sample size worked primarily with Autodesk Revit. Additionally, t hey were the largest supporters of the Less than $1M (15) $1M to $100M (55) $100M to $1B (36) More than $1B (17) Total Participants (123) Autodesk Revit 46.7 78.2 86.1 88.2 78.0 Dprofiler 13.3 0.0 11.1 5.9 5.7 Bentley Architecture 6.7 9.1 8.3 23.5 10.6 Gehry Technologies Digital Project 0.0 5.5 0.0 0.0 2.4 Graphisoft ArchiCAD 26.7 5.5 8.3 23.5 11.4 Nemetschek Vectorworks 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Tekla Structures 6.7 7.3 8.3 23.5 9.8 Vico Constructor 0.0 1.8 8.3 23.5 6.5 Others 6.7 14.5 25.0 11.8 16.3 None 26.7 10.9 5.6 5.9 10.6 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 Percentage of Total Responses in Sample Size (%) Comparison of BIM Software and Annual Revenue

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107 Bentley Architecture at 16.3% and 28.6%, respectively. The Commercial project type, as the largest of the category (107 participants), had diversity with in the use of various BIM platforms. The BIM platforms with th e highest percentage use in the Commercial sector were: Autodesk Revit (77.6%), Graphisoft ArchiCAD (12.1%), and Bentley Architecture (10.3%). Table 5 1 additional included project ty pes. Percentage of Additional Project Types Respondent Project Type Commercial (107) Residential (40) Industrial (49) Heavy Civil (7) Other (34) Commercial 40% 46% 7% 22% Residential 37% 25% 3% 8% Industrial 43% 62% 6% 11% Heavy Civil 29% 33% 2 3% 10% Other 21% 20% 11% 2% Figure 5 4 Comparison of BIM software and project types. Commercial (107) Residential (40) Industrial (49) Heavy/Civil (7) Other (34) Autodesk Revit 77.6 75.0 83.7 100.0 82.4 Dprofiler 5.6 5.0 6.1 14.3 5.9 Bentley Architecture 10.3 7.5 16.3 28.6 14.7 Gehry Technologies Digital Project 2.8 0.0 2.0 0.0 5.9 Graphisoft ArchiCAD 12.1 17.5 10.2 14.3 5.9 Nemetschek Vectorworks 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Tekla Structures 9.3 7.5 12.2 14.3 11.8 Vico Constructor 7.5 7.5 8.2 14.3 2.9 Others 16.8 15.0 16.3 14.3 11.8 None 11.2 15.0 12.2 0.0 5.9 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 Percentage of Total Responses in Sample Size (%) Comparison of BIM Software and Project Types

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108 5.1.2 Question 3.2 From the results in Section 4.2.2, it was determined that the 65% of the survey participants have used BIM roughly between 1 to 5 years with only 12% of the population having used BIM fo r more than 6 years. Figures 5 5 to 5 8 provide a breakdown of the data into the discriminating cat egories. According to Figure 5 5 as indicative of the overall average, the high est percentage of the AEC position roles are found within the time frame of 1 5 years. The subcontractor (SUB) and ENG sectors were found to be in the sectors newest to implementing BIM into their practices with nearly 16.7 % of each having implemented BIM into their practices from 0 to 1 year Additionally, the SUB and ENG sectors held the highest percentage of the AEC position roles at 16.7% to have yet to implement BIM within their company practices. Figure 5 5 Comparison of number of years using BI M and AEC position roles. Architect (25) Engineer (18) General Contractor (34) Subcontractors (18) Others (28) Total Participants We have yet to implement it. 12.0 16.7 11.8 16.7 3.6 11.4 0 1 Years 12.0 16.7 2.9 16.7 14.3 11.4 1 2 Years 44.0 22.2 23.5 11.1 17.9 24.4 3 5 Years 16.0 44.4 58.8 33.3 46.4 41.5 6 9 Years 4.0 0.0 2.9 11.1 7.1 4.9 10 15 Years 8.0 0.0 0.0 11.1 10.7 5.7 More than 15 Years 4.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 Percentage of Total Responses (%) Comparison of Number of Years Using BIM and AEC Position Role

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109 Figure 5 6 shows a comparison between project delivery method and the number of years of having used BIM. In reference to the average percentage rate of the total sample population, there was little variation found with the results, however, it is worth mentioning that the DB and Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) methods held the highest percentage rate among the others with BIM use of greater than 5 years at 17.2% and 36.4%, respectively. Figure 5 6 Comparison of number of years using BIM and project delivery methods. Similar to the responses from the question in Section 5.1.1, the number of years of having used BIM increased as the amount of revenue increased as seen in Figu re 5 7 Additionally, companies with revenue were found to have the largest Design Bid Build (46) Design Build (35) Construction Management (7) Construction Management @ Risk (11) Integrated Project Design (11) Other (13) Total Participants (123) We have yet to implement it. 19.6 2.9 28.6 0.0 0.0 15.4 11.4 0 1 Years 15.2 11.4 0.0 0.0 18.2 7.7 11.4 1 2 Years 30.4 20.0 14.3 18.2 18.2 30.8 24.4 3 5 Years 28.3 48.6 57.1 81.8 27.3 38.5 41.5 6 9 Years 4.3 8.6 0.0 0.0 9.1 0.0 4.9 10 15 Years 0.0 8.6 0.0 0.0 27.3 7.7 5.7 More than 15 Years 2.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 Percentage of Total Responses (%) Comparison of Number Years Using BIM and Project Delivery Method

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110 percentage of respondents having yet to implement BIM within their practices at 33% of its sample size (15 participants). Therefore, it can be said that the amount of revenue a company produces annually has a direct impact on the number of years BIM has been used by that company Figure 5 7 Comparison of number of years using BIM and annual revenue. Figure 5 8 shows the re sults from the comparison between project type and the number of years BIM has been used. According to the results, it was found that the highest percentage of all project types had used BIM Additionally, nearly 12 % of the sample populations in the Commercial, Residential, there was little variation between the project type and number of years of using BIM. Less than $1M (15) $1M to $100M (55) $100M to $1B (36) More than $1B (17) Total Participants (123) We have yet to implement it. 33.3 9.1 5.6 11.8 11.4 0 1 Years 13.3 20.0 2.8 0.0 11.4 1 2 Years 6.7 36.4 22.2 5.9 24.4 3 5 Years 20.0 25.5 58.3 76.5 41.5 6 9 Years 6.7 5.5 2.8 5.9 4.9 10 15 Years 13.3 3.6 8.3 0.0 5.7 More than 15 Years 6.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 Percentage of Total Responses (%) Comparison of Number of Years Using BIM and Annual Revenue

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111 Figure 5 8 Comparison of number of years using BIM and project types. 5.1. 3 Question 3.3 3.4 Table 5 2 shows a breakdown of the percentage of companies that use BIM as well as the percentage of that require companies to use BIM practices on a projec t, both through analysis of the sample population as a whole and individually by AEC positi on roles. Individually, the ARCH sector attained the highest rate of BIM application in their projects at 41.6% of their sample size ; however, i t also held the lo west rate (6 %) of owner requirements. The SUB sector had the next highest rate of BIM use at 35.6% of its respondents with 10 % of its respondents being required by owners to use BIM The remaining sectors were similar in both categories. Commercial (107) Residential (40) Industrial (49) Heavy/Civil (7) Other (34) We have yet to implement it. 11.2 15.0 12.2 0.0 11.8 0 1 Years 11.2 15.0 12.2 0.0 17.6 1 2 Years 26.2 30.0 22.4 57.1 14.7 3 5 Years 40.2 27.5 40.8 42.9 44.1 6 9 Years 5.6 2.5 8.2 0.0 5.9 10 15 Years 4.7 7.5 4.1 0.0 5.9 More than 15 Years 0.9 2.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 Percentage of Total Responses (%) Comparison of Number of Years Using BIM and Project Types

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112 Table 5 2 Cro ss tabular comparison of company BIM use and owner requirements. Position Roles (# of Participants in the Study) A Percentage of Companies that Performs BIM Practices (%) B Percentage of Owners That Require Companies to Perform BIM Practices (%) Ratio of Results (A/B) Others (28) 27.3 18.9 0.692 Engineer (18) 22.8 14.4 0.632 General Contractor (34) 26.3 12.2 0.464 Architect (25) 41.6 6.0 0.144 Subcontractors (18) 35.6 10 0.281 Total Participants (123) 30.5 12.5 0.410 In order to provide a fair comparison among the individual sectors, this investigation used a simple ratio of the results in order to determine a direct correlation between the impacts an owner has on the utilization of BIM in their company practices. Figure 5 9 graphically displays the relationship between the individual sectors against the average As shown, both the ARCH and SUB sectors were found to be below the average while ENG GC O were located above the average T his indicates that the industry were more affected by the ARCH and SUB sectors Figure 5 9 direct u se of BIM. 0.144 0.632 0.464 0.281 0.692 0.410 0.000 0.200 0.400 0.600 0.800 1.000 Architect (25) Engineer (18) General Contractor (34) Subcontractors (18) Other (28) Total Respondents (123) Ratio of Owner's Requirement of BIM to Company's Use of BIM AEC Position Roles Comparison of Owner's Requirement of BIM Use to Company's BIM Use

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113 5.1. 4 Question 3.5 The results found in Section 4.2.4 indicated that the survey respondents utilized BIM primarily for project visualization, project coordination, and building performance analysis. Figures 5 10 to 5 13 provide further analysis of the results b reaking the data down into the respective categories established for the scope of this study. As shown in Figure 5 10 of the AEC position roles the highest percentage of the participants in terms of BIM project visualizatio n were the ARCH and the GC sectors at 84% and 85.3%, respectively. This is primarily due to the fact that the two sectors must be able to communicate with owners concerning project details and any other relevant information. Additionally, the GC sector h ad the highest percentage response within BIM project coordination at 88.2% of its sample size. In regards to project supply /vendor integration both the GC and SUB sectors had the highest percentages at 38.2% and 38.9%, respectively for BIM project coord ination Figure 5 10 Comparison of BIM functions and AEC position roles. Architect (25) Engineer (18) General Contractor (34) Subcontractors (18) Others (28) Total Participants (123) Project Visualization 84.0 61.1 85.3 55.6 53.6 69.9 Project Coordination 76.0 66.7 88.2 55.6 64.3 72.4 Project Analysis 56.0 55.6 73.5 33.3 64.3 59.3 Project Supply/Vendor Integration 24.0 16.7 38.2 38.9 17.9 27.6 Other 0.0 11.1 0.0 0.0 14.3 4.9 None 16.0 5.6 2.9 16.7 3.6 8.1 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 Percentage of Total Responses (%) Comparison of BIM Functions and AEC Position Roles

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114 When comparing project delivery methods and BIM functionality Figure 5 11 indicates that the DB, CM R, and IPD methods had the highest percentage o f its respondents in terms of project visualization and project coordination, each with over 80% of its sample size utilizing BIM for that specific functionality. This can be attributed to the nature of their contract agreements and efforts with multidisc iplinary collaboration. Also with the exception of CM, more than 50% of all the project delivery method survey groups used BIM to perform project analysis. Additionally, IPD at 54.5% of its sample size was seen as having the highest percentage of all ca tegories in terms of project supply/vendor integration Therefore, in terms of BIM functionality, the project delivery method that requires internal collaboration utilizes the various functions of BIM more frequently than others. Figure 5 11 Compariso n of BIM functions and project delivery method. Design Bid Build (46) Design Build (35) Construction Management (7) Construction Management @ Risk (11) Integrated Project Design (11) Other (13) Total Participants (123) Project Visualization 58.7 80.0 42.9 90.9 81.8 69.2 69.9 Project Coordination 65.2 82.9 57.1 100.0 90.9 38.5 72.4 Project Analysis 58.7 57.1 42.9 81.8 63.6 53.8 59.3 Project Supply/Vendor Integration 21.7 22.9 28.6 36.4 54.5 30.8 27.6 Other 4.3 0.0 0.0 9.1 0.0 23.1 4.9 None 15.2 0.0 28.6 0.0 0.0 7.7 8.1 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 Percentage of Total Responses (%) Comparison of BIM Function and Project Delivery Methods

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115 Figure 5 12 shows the results based on the annual revenue of the survey respondents in relation to the utilization of BIM functionality. According to the data, although there was little change seen with the percentage of each category in terms of project visualization, as companies increased their revenue the percentage of respondents within the project coordination and project analysis responses increased. In regards to proje ct analysis the companies with revenue at 82.4% of its sample size was seen as greater than the average percentage of the total sample population ( 59.3% ) It should be noted that nearly 20 % of the respondents with revenue of therefore, as the revenue of a company increases, the more likely a company is to utilize BIM to its fullest capacity. Figure 5 12 Comparison of BIM functions and annual revenue. Less than $1M (15) $1M to $100M (55) $100M to $1B (36) More than $1B (17) Total Participants (123) Project Visualization 66.7 70.9 69.4 70.6 69.9 Project Coordination 60.0 69.1 77.8 82.4 72.4 Project Analysis 60.0 54.5 55.6 82.4 59.3 Project Supply/Vendor Integration 33.3 20.0 33.3 35.3 27.6 Other 6.7 5.5 5.6 0.0 4.9 None 20.0 7.3 5.6 5.9 8.1 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 Percentage pf Total Responses (%) Comparison of BIM Functions and Annual Revenue

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1 16 In terms of BIM functi onality and project type Figure 5 13 shows the results generated using the filtered data. Upon analyzing the assessments, there was little variation found in regards to the individual categories as each was seen to be relat ively close to one another in terms of their percentages. Therefore, project type was seen as a non Figure 5 13 Comparison of BIM functions and project types. 5.1.5 Question 3.6 From the resu lts found in Section 4.2.5, the calculated data provided a means of understanding com mon difficulties seen with BIM as a tool to be used in the AEC industry. The following ranking of statements was generated from the total sample population in descending order from strongly agree ( rating of 5) to strongly disagree ( rating of 1): 1) BIM currently does not operate in an optimal standardized format (3.36). 2) BIM is not cost effective (2.37). Commercial (107) Residential (40) Industrial (49) Heavy/Civil (7) Other (34) Project Visualization 69.2 65.0 73.5 57.1 67.6 Project Coordination 72.9 70.0 77.6 85.7 67.6 Project Analysis 59.8 57.5 59.2 57.1 52.9 Project Supply/Vendor Integration 29.0 27.5 30.6 28.6 23.5 Other 4.7 2.5 6.1 14.3 8.8 None 8.4 10.0 8.2 0.0 8.8 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 Percentage of Total Responses (%) Comparison of BIM Functions and Project Types

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117 3) BIM is too complicated to use (2.35). 4) BIM is currently not designed for t heir particular profession (2.14). 5) BIM is currently not a necessity in the industry (1.88). Figures 5 14 through 5 17 were created as a means to measure the four discriminating characteristics to the average rating scores of the total results Figure 5 14 shows the comparison between the individual AEC sectors and common perceptions of BIM. According to the data, in unanimous agreement all the AEC sectors believed that BIM does not operate in an optimal standardized format. Similarly, most of the sectors disagreed with the statement that BIM is not a necessity within the industry. In regards to the other statements, the ARCH and GC sectors assigned lower ratings (i.e. a higher level of disagreement) that BIM was too complic ated, not cost effective, and not designed for their particular profession than the other categories. Overall, the ENG and SUB sectors assigned higher ratings (i.e. a higher level of agreement) of the statements than the others sectors in the AEC industry in regards to their perceptions of BIM Figure 5 14 Comparison of common perceptions of BIM and AEC position roles. Architect ( 25 ) Engineer ( 18 ) General Contractor ( 34 ) Subcontrac tors ( 18 ) Others ( 28 ) Total Participant s BIM is currently too complicated to use 2 2 2 9 2 2 2 4 2 2 2 3 BIM is currently not a cost effective measure for the industry 1 3 3 2 2 1 2 2 2 5 2 2 BIM is currently not designed to be used specifically for my profession 1 8 2 6 1 6 3 1 2 2 2 1 BIM is currently not a necessity within the industry 1 9 2 5 1 7 1 8 1 8 1 9 BIM currently does not operate in an optimal standardized format 3 0 3 4 3 4 3 2 3 6 3 4 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 Rating of Criteria Strongly Agree = 5 Somewhat Agree = 4 Neutral = 3 Somewhat Disagree = 2 Stronglly Disagree = 1 Comparison of Common Perceptions of BIM and AEC Position Roles

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118 In relation to project delivery methods with the exception of IPD, all respondents agreed that BIM does not operate in an optimal stan dardized format (see Figure 5 15 ). Additionally, all respondents disagreed that BIM is not a necessity within the AEC industry. In comparison to the average ratings of the entire sample population, DBD and CM assigned highe r ratings in reference to the remaining statements, while DB, CM R, and IPD were lower. It should be noted that CM R assigned the lowest ratings thus higher level of disagreement, in each statement, with the exception to the statement regarding interoper ability (IPD). Figure 5 15 Comparison of common perceptions of BIM and project delivery method. Figure 5 16 shows the averaged ratings taken from the viewpoint of the survey annual revenue According to the data, all respondents agreed that BIM did not support an optimal standardized format with the exception of the respondents with revenue of respondents somewhat Design Bid Build ( 46 ) Design Build ( 35 ) Construct ion Manage ment ( 7 ) Construct ion Manage ment @ Risk ( 11 ) Integrate d Project Design ( 11 ) Other ( 13 ) Total Participa nts ( 123 ) BIM is currently too complicated to use 2 6 2 2 2 7 1 7 2 0 2 5 2 3 BIM is currently not a cost effective measure for the industry 2 5 2 3 3 0 1 7 2 1 2 5 2 4 BIM is currently not designed to be used specifically for my profession 2 3 1 9 2 6 1 3 2 5 2 5 2 1 BIM is currently not a necessity within the industry 2 1 1 7 2 6 1 3 1 5 1 8 1 9 BIM currently does not operate in an optimal standardized format 3 4 3 6 3 6 3 1 2 8 3 2 3 4 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 Rating of Criteria Strongly Agree = 5 Somewhat Agree = 4 Neutral = 3 Somewhat Disagree = 2 Stronglly Disagree = 1 Comparison of Common Perceptions of BIM and Project Delivery Method

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119 disagreed that BIM was not a necessity with in the industry. The remaining statements identified that companies with revenue of against the average score while the other categories received equivalent or lower ratings than the average score Figure 5 16 Comparison of common perceptions and annual revenue. Similar to the previous comparisons, all respondents agreed that BIM did not support an optimal standardized file format in relation to project type (see Figure 5 17 ) Ad ditionally, all respondents disagreed that BIM was not a necessity within the industry. In regard to the remaining statements the Industrial category assigned a lower level of agreement when compared to the average rating score of the total sample popul ation with the exception of one (BIM is currently not designed for my particular profession). Conversely, Heavy/Civil attained higher levels of agreement compared to the average in Less than $ 1 M ( 15 ) $ 1 M to $ 100 M ( 55 ) $ 100 M to $ 1 B ( 36 ) More than $ 1 B ( 17 ) Total Participants ( 123 ) BIM is currently too complicated to use 2 3 2 5 2 1 2 5 2 3 BIM is currently not a cost effective measure for the industry 2 3 2 5 2 1 2 4 2 4 BIM is currently not designed to be used specifically for my profession 1 9 2 3 2 2 1 8 2 1 BIM is currently not a necessity within the industry 2 2 1 9 1 8 1 7 1 9 BIM currently does not operate in an optimal standardized format 2 9 3 3 3 4 3 6 3 4 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 Rating of Criteria Strongly Agree = 5 Somewhat Agree = 4 Neutral = 3 Somewhat Disagree = 2 Stronglly Disagree = 1 Comparison of Common Perceptions and Annual Revenue

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120 every statement. The other categories were nearly equal to the average i n each of the statements. Figure 5 17 Comparison of common perceptions and project types. 5.1. 6 Question 3.7 The results presented in Section 4.2.6 provided a measure for understanding AEC industry viewpoints on BIM features. From the information pro vided a ranking system was generated from the total sample population in descending order from very high importance (rating of 7 ) to very low importance ( rating of 1). The rankings are as follows: 1) Ability to support collaborative and distributed work proc esses (5.85) 2) Multidisciplinary capabilities (5.82) 3) Support to produce construction documents (5.51) 4) Standardization of software platforms (5.47) Commercial ( 107 ) Residential ( 40 ) Industrial ( 49 ) Heavy/Civil ( 7 ) Other ( 34 ) BIM is currently too complicated to use 2 4 2 5 2 2 2 6 2 4 BIM is currently not a cost effective measure for the industry 2 4 2 3 2 1 2 7 2 4 BIM is currently not designed to be used specifically for my profession 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 3 1 9 BIM is currently not a necessity within the industry 1 9 1 9 1 9 2 0 1 9 BIM currently does not operate in an optimal standardized format 3 4 3 3 3 1 3 6 3 5 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 Rating of Criteria Strongly Agree = 5 Somewhat Agree = 4 Neutral = 3 Somewhat Disagree = 2 Stronglly Disagree = 1 Comparison of Common Perceptions and Project Types

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121 5) Direct integration for construction related tasks (5.41) 6) Relative ease of the software (5.26) 7) Direct inte gration with energy analysis (4.86) 8) Direct integration with project management software (4.72) Figure 5 18 displays the results from a stratified sampling of the total population through position role filters. In relation to the average rating score of the total population, it was found that the ARCH and GC categories attained higher ratings than average (i.e. a higher level of importance) for nearly every BIM feature listed. Conversely, the ENG and Other categories had lower ratings (i.e. lower level of importance) than the average on nearly every BIM feature listed. Of noted importance was the BIM feature sectors all assigned high importance, while the S UB and Other categories thought of it as less high importance to the GC category; however, the remaining categories placed lower importance to this BIM feature. Figur e 5 18 Comparison of importance of BIM features and AEC position roles. Architect ( 25 ) Engineer ( 18 ) General Contractor ( 34 ) Subcontract ors ( 18 ) Other ( 28 ) Total Participants Direct integration with energy analysis software applications 5 3 5 4 5 0 4 2 4 3 4 9 Direct integration with project management software 4 4 4 6 5 3 4 4 4 6 4 7 Direct integration for construction related tasks 5 5 5 5 5 6 5 3 5 1 5 4 Support to produce construction documents 6 0 5 3 5 4 5 8 5 1 5 5 Standardization of software platforms 5 9 5 2 5 9 5 6 4 6 5 5 Multidisciplinary capability 6 2 5 7 6 0 5 6 5 5 5 8 Ability to support collaborative and distributed work processes 6 1 5 6 6 1 5 8 5 6 5 8 Relative ease of software 5 5 5 2 5 4 5 5 4 7 5 3 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 Rating of Criteria Very High = 7 High = 6 Medium High= 5 Neutral = 4 Medium Low = 3 Low= 2 Very Low = 1 Comparison of Importance of BIM Features and AEC Position Roles

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122 In comparison with the and the importance of the listed BIM features, Figure 5 19 shows the ratings for the indi vidual BIM features in terms of the responses from Question 2.6. According to the results it was found that the companies that use both the DB and CM R project delivery methods assigned higher ratings than the average ratings in regards to all listed BIM feature s therefore, these methods found the listed BIM features more important than average Conversely, average and thus, of lower importance. Additionally, the DBD de livery method held higher ratings than average in regards to integration of energy analysis, multidisciplinary capabilities, and relative ease of software. Figure 5 19 Comparison of importance of BIM features and project delivery method. Design Bid Build ( 46 ) Design Build ( 35 ) Constructi on Managem ent ( 7 ) Constructi on Managem ent @ Risk ( 11 ) Integrated Project Design ( 11 ) Other ( 13 ) Total Participant s ( 123 ) Direct integration with energy analysis software applications 5 0 5 0 3 7 4 9 4 5 4 8 4 9 Direct integration with project management software 4 5 5 2 3 6 5 4 4 2 4 7 4 7 Direct integration for construction related tasks 5 3 5 9 4 6 5 7 4 4 5 6 5 4 Support to produce construction documents 5 4 5 7 4 9 5 2 6 2 5 5 5 5 Standardization of software platforms 5 5 5 7 4 7 5 9 5 3 5 1 5 5 Multidisciplinary capability 5 9 6 0 4 9 6 2 5 5 5 7 5 8 Ability to support collaborative and distributed work processes 5 8 6 2 5 1 6 3 5 9 5 2 5 8 Relative ease of software 5 4 5 3 4 9 5 8 4 8 4 8 5 3 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 Rating of Criteria Very High = 7 High = 6 Medium High= 5 Neutral = 4 Medium Low = 3 Low= 2 Very Low = 1 Comparison of Importance of BIM Features and Project Delivery Method

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123 According to Figure 5 20 the comparison between annual revenue and the importance of BIM features showed that c ompanies with revenue of gave higher ratings thus higher level of importance, than average on each of the BIM features, with the exception of multidisciplinary capabilities and relative ease. Additionally, companies with revenue of assigned a lower rating than the average on software thus they considered it of lower importance Similarly with the exception of relative ease companies with revenue of assigned lower ratings than average ; therefore, they believed the features to be of lower importance. Compani es with revenue of were found to have most of their ratings to be lower than average, however, they attained higher ratings than average within the BIM features buted work Figure 5 20 Comparison of importance of BIM features and annual revenue. Less than $ 1 M ( 15 ) $ 1 M to $ 100 M ( 55 ) $ 100 M to $ 1 B ( 36 ) More than $ 1 B ( 17 ) Total Participants ( 123 ) Direct integration with energy analysis software applications 5 5 4 9 4 8 4 4 4 9 Direct integration with project management software 4 7 4 5 4 6 5 6 4 7 Direct integration for construction related tasks 5 5 5 3 5 4 5 6 5 4 Support to produce construction documents 6 3 5 3 5 5 5 6 5 5 Standardization of software platforms 5 8 5 4 5 4 5 7 5 5 Multidisciplinary capability 5 7 5 8 6 1 5 4 5 8 Ability to support collaborative and distributed work processes 6 1 5 6 6 1 5 9 5 8 Relative ease of software 5 1 5 4 5 3 5 0 5 3 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 Rating of Criteria Very High = 7 High = 6 Medium High= 5 Neutral = 4 Medium Low = 3 Low= 2 Very Low = 1 Comparison of Importance of BIM Features and Annual Revenue

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124 Figure 5 21 shows the results comparing project type and the given BIM features. According to the data, the companies that p erform Heavy/Civil project types attained lower ratings than average ; therefore, they considered the given BIM features of low importance The largest constituent, the Commercial project type was found to be equivalent to the average ratings for all stat ements ; therefore the respondents maintained similar results for the total population The Residential project type was found to have ratings lower than the average on most of the BIM features listed, type was found to be equivalent to the average in its rating of all BIM features ; however, it a ssigned Figure 5 21 Comparison of importance of BIM features and project types. Commercial ( 107 ) Residential ( 40 ) Industrial ( 49 ) Heavy/Civil ( 7 ) Other ( 34 ) Direct integration with energy analysis software applications 4 9 5 1 4 8 4 4 5 0 Direct integration with project management software 4 7 4 6 4 7 5 0 4 7 Direct integration for construction related tasks 5 4 5 3 5 5 5 3 5 7 Support to produce construction documents 5 5 5 3 5 3 4 0 5 7 Standardization of software platforms 5 4 5 4 5 5 5 0 5 5 Multidisciplinary capability 5 8 5 8 5 9 4 9 6 0 Ability to support collaborative and distributed work processes 5 8 5 9 5 9 5 0 6 1 Relative ease of software 5 2 5 3 5 3 5 0 1 0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 Rating of Criteria Very High = 7 High = 6 Medium High= 5 Neutral = 4 Medium Low = 3 Low= 2 Very Low = 1 Comparison of Importance of BIM Features and Project Types

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125 5.2 Section 4 Stratified Sampling Results This section collected information regard ing the various aspects of sustainability and its application within the AEC industry. The intent of this investigation was to analyze the trends within certain categories of the sample population. The results were assessed against other participant resp onses as well as the total population. 5.2.1 Question 4.1 4.2 Each targeted questions was analyzed through assessments based on the entire sample population as well as the individual AEC position roles. As shown in Table 5 3 the GC sector held the highest percentage of green building certification projects as well as green building certification owner requirement s at 33.4 % and 31.3% respectively. Conversely, the lowest sector was determined to be the SUB sector with only 11.9 % of the companies having performed green building certified projects and only 10.8 % of its responses having owner requirement s towards performing green building certification The remaining sectors are well within the boundaries set by the two extre mes. Table 5 3 Cross tabular comparison of company LEED projects and owner requirements. Position Roles (# of Participants in the Study) A Company Performs LEED Certified Bldgs. (%) B Owners Require Company to Build Certified Bldgs. (%) Ratio of Result s (A/B) Architect (25) 17.40 14.20 0.816 Engineer (18) 20.28 19.17 0.945 General Contractor (34) 33.38 31.32 0.938 Subcontractors (18) 11.94 10.83 0.907 Others (28) 32.50 28.57 0.879 Total Respondents (123) 24.88 22.44 0.902 In order to provide a fair comparison among the individual sectors, this investigation used a simple ratio of the results in order to determine relationship s between the impacts an owner has on the amount of work performed to achieve green

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126 bui lding certification. Figure 5 22 shows the relationships between the individual sectors and the average Although the the average, because the ratios were all above 0.80 there is evidence to support the conclusion can impact Figure 5 22 construction of LEED buildings. 5.2. 2 Question 4.3 From results found in Section 4.3.2, the data generated through analysis of the company and its perceptions of sustainability. From t he data coll ected a ranking system was generated from the total sample population in descending order from strongly agree (rating of 5) to strongly disagree (rating of 1). The rankings are as follows: 0.816 0.945 0.938 0.907 0.879 0.902 0.750 0.800 0.850 0.900 0.950 1.000 Architect (25) Engineer (18) General Contractor (34) Subcontractors (18) Other (28) Total Respondents (123) Ratio of Owner's Requirement of LEED to Company's Construction of LEED Bldgs AEC Position Roles Comparison of Owner's Requirement of LEED Bldgs to the Company's Construction of LEED Bldgs

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127 1) My company finds the role of sustainability important (4.59). 2) My c ompany is proactive in providing sustainability education among employees (4.20). 3) My company actively advises owners to pursue sustainable methods and practices during projects 4.10). 4) My company utilizes the latest innovations in sustainability 3.80). 5) My c ompany provides incentives to encourage sustainable practices during a project (3.11). Ac cording to the data in Figure 5 23 in relation to the average rating score s the GC and ENG a ssigned higher ratings (i.e. a higher level of agreement) than the average ; therefore, they had a greater support for sustainability in company practices sectors were found to have lower ratings (i.e. a higher level of disagreement) than average. The ARCH category re mained equivalent to the average ratings of the total population. It is worth noting that although there were sustainability to be relevant criteria within their company practi ces. Figure 5 23 Comparison of company perception and AEC position roles. In terms of project delivery method Figure 5 24 shows that the DB, CM, CM R, and IPD methods were assigned higher ratings within their own sectors than the Architect ( 25 ) Engineer ( 18 ) General Contractor ( 34 ) Subcontrac tors ( 18 ) Other ( 28 ) Total Participant s My company finds the role of sustainability to be important 4 6 4 7 4 7 4 5 4 5 4 6 My company has been proactive in educating employees on recent sustainable practice developments 4 1 4 2 4 5 4 1 4 0 4 2 My company utilizes the latest innovations in technology to enhance our sustainability mechanisms 3 8 3 9 3 8 3 8 3 7 3 8 My company actively advises owners/stakeholders to pursue sustainable methods and practices during projects 4 2 4 1 4 2 3 9 4 0 4 1 My company provides incentives to encourage sustainable practices during projects 3 0 2 9 3 2 3 1 3 2 3 1 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 Rating of Criteria Strongly Agree = 5 Somewhat Agree = 4 Neutral = 3 Somewhat Disagree = 2. Stronglly Disagree = 1 Comparison of Company Perception and AEC Position Role

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128 average of the entire population on all statements in the question, thus, showing a On the other hand methods suffered lower ratings than the average Similar to position roles, although there were differences found within each delivery method, all sectors were found to agree that sustainability was important to their Figure 5 24 Comparison of company perceptions and pr oject delivery method. In regards to annual revenue Figure 5 25 shows that the companies with revenue of assigned a higher rating in all statements than the average of the total population thus, indicating g reater agreement on the importance of sustainability within company practices The companies with revenue of assigned lower ratings than the average rating, in respect to all Design Bid Build ( 46 ) Design Build ( 35 ) Construct ion Manage ment ( 7 ) Construct ion Manage ment @ Risk ( 11 ) Integrate d Project Design ( 11 ) Other ( 13 ) Total Participa nts ( 123 ) My company finds the role of sustainability to be important 4 5 4 7 4 9 4 7 4 6 4 2 4 6 My company has been proactive in educating employees on recent sustainable practice developments 4 0 4 4 4 6 4 5 4 2 3 7 4 2 My company utilizes the latest innovations in technology to enhance our sustainability mechanisms 3 7 3 9 4 1 3 9 4 3 3 1 3 8 My company actively advises owners/stakeholders to pursue sustainable methods and practices during projects 4 1 4 2 4 0 4 4 4 4 3 5 4 1 My company provides incentives to encourage sustainable practices during projects 3 2 3 1 3 6 3 1 3 4 2 6 3 1 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 Rating of Criteria Strongly Agree = 5 Somewhat Agree = 4 Neutral = 3 Somewhat Disagree = 2. Stronglly Disagree = 1 Comparison of Company Perceptions and Project Delivery Method

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129 statements However, even though there were differences found between each category, all revenues were found to agree on the importance of sustainability within company practices. Figure 5 25 Comparison of company perceptions and annual revenue. In terms of the project type Figure 5 26 shows that both the Residential and Industrial categories were found to have higher ratings than the average rating in respect to all statements therefore, there was a greater agreement on the importance of sustainability with in company practices was found to have lower ratings than the average of the total population within all statements Overall, all projects types agreed that sustainability was important within company practices. Less than $ 1 M ( 15 ) $ 1 M to $ 100 M ( 55 ) $ 100 M to $ 1 B ( 36 ) More than $ 1 B ( 17 ) Total Participants ( 123 ) My company finds the role of sustainability to be important 4 3 4 6 4 6 4 8 4 6 My company has been proactive in educating employees on recent sustainable practice developments 4 1 4 0 4 3 4 6 4 2 My company utilizes the latest innovations in technology to enhance our sustainability mechanisms 3 5 3 8 3 9 3 9 3 8 My company actively advises owners/stakeholders to pursue sustainable methods and practices during projects 4 1 4 0 4 1 4 2 4 1 My company provides incentives to encourage sustainable practices during projects 3 1 3 1 3 0 3 3 3 1 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 Rating of Criteria Strongly Agree = 5 Somewhat Agree = 4 Neutral = 3 Somewhat Disagree = 2. Stronglly Disagree = 1 Comparison of Company Perceptions and Annual Revenue

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130 F igure 5 26 Comparison of company perceptions and project types. 5.2. 3 Question 4.4 From the results found in Section 4.3.3, the calculated responses provided a measure for understanding AEC industry viewpoints on common sustainable practices and their im pact on construction. From c ollected data a ranking system was generated from the total sample population in descending order from very high (rating of 7) to very low (rating of 1). The rankings of the sustainable features listed in the survey are as follows: 1) Energy efficiency (6.25). 2) Water efficiency (5.76). 3) Post construction facility operations (5.72). 4) Building commissioning (5.67). 5) Indoor air quality (5.65). 6) Use of sustainable materials (5.59). 7) Sustainable site development (5.55). 8) Incorporated p roject management (5.23). Commercial (107) Residential (40) Industrial (49) Heavy/Civil (7) Other (34) My company finds the role of sustainability to be important. 4.6 4.6 4.7 4.6 4.6 My company has been proactive in educating employees on recent sustainable practice developments. 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.1 4.2 My company utilizes the latest innovations in technology to enhance our sustainability mechanisms. 3.9 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.6 My company actively advises owners/stakeholders to pursue sustainable methods and practices during projects. 4.1 4.3 4.2 3.7 4.0 My company provides incentives to encourage sustainable practices during projects. 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 Rating of Criteria Strongly Agree = 5 Somewhat Agree = 4 Neutral = 3 Somewhat Disagree = 2. Stronglly Disagree = 1 Comparison of Company Perceptions and Project Types

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131 Figure 5 27 provides a tabulated view of the data gathered through filtering the results though position roles In relation to average ratings of the total population, it was found that ARCH categor y a ssigned higher ratings (i.e. a higher level of importance) in regards to sustainable site development, energy efficiency, sustainable materials, and indoor air quality. The ENG sector a ssigne d higher ratings within every sustainable practice listed with the exception of sustainable site development and project management. The SUB sector was found to be lower with its ratings (i.e. a lower level of importance) in regards to its viewpoint on the importance of sustainable practices with the excep construction facilities operations Additionally, the GC category was found to be equivalent with respect to most of the sustainable practices listed in the survey question. Figure 5 27 Comparison of common su stainable features and AEC position roles. Through a comparison between the selected project delivery method and the sustainable features listed, it was found that respondents from the companies that use Architect (25) Engineer (18) General Contractor (34) Subcontractors (18) Other (28) Total Participants Sustainable Site Development 6.1 5.4 5.5 5.2 5.5 5.6 Water Efficiency 5.6 6.1 5.8 5.2 6.0 5.8 Energy Efficiency 6.4 6.4 6.3 5.9 6.2 6.3 Sustainable Materials 6.1 5.7 5.5 5.1 5.5 5.6 Indoor Air Quality 5.9 5.8 5.5 5.0 5.9 5.7 Project Management 5.1 4.7 5.2 5.8 5.3 5.2 Building Commissioning 5.4 6.1 5.6 5.6 5.8 5.7 Post Construction Facility Operations 5.3 6.0 5.8 5.5 5.9 5.7 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 Rating of Criteria Very High = 7 High = 6 Medium High= 5 Neutral = 4 Medium Low = 3 Low= 2 Very Low = 1 Comparison of Common Sustainable Features and AEC Position Roles

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132 the CM R delivery method assigned higher ratings tha n the average of the total population and therefore found the sustainable features to be of greater importance than average Additionally, IPD assigned higher ratings in almost all the sustainable features listed with the exceptions of energy efficiency and sustainable materials. DB, DBD, and CM each attained high ratings in some of the features and lower ratings in the remaining as displayed in Figure 5 28 received significantl y lower ratings than the average ratings. Figure 5 28 Comparison of common sustainable features and project delivery method. Figure 5 29 provides an opportunity to evaluate the relationships between annual revenue and su stainable features. According to the data generated the companies with revenue of were found to attain lower ratings of importance than the average of the total respondents in regards to the listed sustainable features, with the Design Bid Build (46) Design Build (35) Construction Management (7) Construction Management @ Risk (11) Integrated Project Design (11) Other (13) Total Participants (123) Sustainable Site Development 5.7 5.5 5.9 5.8 5.7 4.8 5.6 Water Efficiency 5.7 6.0 6.0 6.0 5.9 5.0 5.8 Energy Efficiency 6.4 6.5 6.3 6.2 6.2 5.4 6.3 Sustainable Materials 5.9 5.3 5.7 6.1 5.5 4.9 5.6 Indoor Air Quality 5.7 5.6 5.6 6.0 5.9 5.2 5.7 Project Management 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.8 6.2 4.7 5.2 Building Commissioning 5.8 5.6 5.3 6.5 5.7 4.9 5.7 Post Construction Facility Operations 5.7 5.9 5.7 6.3 5.5 4.9 5.7 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 Rating of Criteria Very High = 7 High = 6 Medium High= 5 Neutral = 4 Medium Low = 3 Low= 2 Very Low = 1 Comparison of Common Sustainable Features and Project Delivery Method

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133 exception found that the companies with revenue assigned higher ratings to the following features: sustainable site development ; sustainable materials ; and project manag ement. C ompanies with revenue also assigned lower levels of importance than average for the following features: water efficiency; energy efficiency; building commissioning; and post construction facility operations. Figure 5 29 Compar ison of common sustainable features and annual revenue. When comparing the categories of project type to the sustainable features listed (see Figure 5 30 ) it was found that the companies that build Industrial projects assign ed lower ratings than the average of the total population therefore they placed a lower level of importance on the sustainable features with the exception of project management, building commissioning, and post construction facility operations. Less than $1M (15) $1M to $100M (55) $100M to $1B (36) More than $1B (17) Total Participants (123) Sustainable Site Development 5.8 5.7 5.3 5.5 5.6 Water Efficiency 5.7 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8 Energy Efficiency 6.0 6.3 6.3 6.2 6.3 Sustainable Materials 5.7 5.7 5.3 5.5 5.6 Indoor Air Quality 5.7 5.7 5.5 5.6 5.7 Project Management 5.3 5.1 5.4 5.2 5.2 Building Commissioning 5.3 5.9 5.7 5.4 5.7 Post Construction Facility Operations 5.3 5.9 5.6 5.8 5.7 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 Rating of Criteria Very High = 7 High = 6 Medium High= 5 Neutral = 4 Medium Low = 3 Low= 2 Very Low = 1 Comparison of Common Sustainable Features and Annual Revenue

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134 Th e Commercial category again remained equivalent to the average ratings with the exception of the sustainable materials and indoor air quality features which was considered less important The Residential and Heavy/Civil project types were found to ha ve received both higher and lower ratings in comparison to the average ratings, yet each remained in near equivalence with the average of the total population Figure 5 30 Comparison of common sustainable features and project types. 5.3 Section 5 Strat ified Sampling Results This section presents information regarding the various aspects of BIM and its application in sustainability within the AEC industry. The intent of this section is to analyze the trends within certain categories of the sample popula tion. The results are assessed against other participant responses as well as the total population. Commercial (107) Residential (40) Industrial (49) Heavy/Civil (7) Other (34) Sustainable Site Development 5.5 5.7 5.4 5.7 5.5 Water Efficiency 5.8 5.9 5.8 6.0 5.6 Energy Efficiency 6.3 6.3 6.2 6.1 6.1 Sustainable Materials 5.5 5.8 3.6 6.4 5.8 Indoor Air Quality 5.6 5.7 5.4 5.4 5.9 Project Management 5.2 5.0 5.3 5.1 5.3 Building Commissioning 5.7 5.6 5.8 5.7 5.6 Post Construction Facility Operations 5.7 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.4 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 Rating of Criteria Very High = 7 High = 6 Medium High= 5 Neutral = 4 Medium Low = 3 Low= 2 Very Low = 1 Comparison of Commons Sustainable Features and Project Types

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135 5.3.1 Question 5.1 From the results found in Section 4.4.1, 71 % of the respondents suggested that the optimal phase for BIM application s to be utilized wit hin sustainable practices was within the pre design or program phase (31 % ) and the schematic design phase (40 % ) Figures 5 31 to 5 34 show further analysis of the results from the survey through a stratification of the survey samples. Figure 5 31 shows that the ARCH and GC sectors stated that the schematic design phase was the optimal phase to implement BIM within their practice to ensure sustainable guidelines as selected by 60% and 41% of their sector respondents The rem aining sectors stated that the pre design or program phase was the most optimal phase to use BIM towards sustainable practices. Figure 5 31 Comparison of optimal project phase for sustainable BIM use and AEC position roles. Architect (25) Engineer (18) General Contractor (34) Subcontractors (18) Other (28) Total Participants Predesign or Program Phase 16% 39% 29% 39% 36% 31% Schematic Design Phase 60% 33% 41% 22% 36% 40% Design Development Phase 20% 11% 18% 33% 21% 20% Construction Documents Phase 4% 6% 0% 6% 4% 3% Preconstruction Phase 0% 11% 3% 0% 0% 2% Construction Administration Phase 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% Postconstruction Operations Phase 0% 0% 0% 0% 4% 1% Other 0% 0% 9% 0% 0% 2% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Percentage of Total Responses (%) Comparison of Optimal Project Phase For Sustainable BIM Application and AEC Position Roles

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136 Figure 5 32 was developed from an analysis using the Project Delivery Methods as the filter and varies slightly from the results found when using with the position roles as a filter Fifty four percent ( 54 % ) of the companies that use the DB method and 55 % of the companies that use the CM R method indicated that the schematic design phase was the optimal time to implement BIM. The companies that use the DBD, IPD, and the project s duration The companies that use the CM method had a greater number of responses stating the optimal period to use BIM towards sustainability was from the schematic phase to the preconstruction phase at 28% of their sectors response Figure 5 32 Comparison of optimal project phase for sustainable BIM applications and project delivery method. In terms of annual revenue Figure 5 33 shows that the majority of respondents in each of the categories believe that the schematic design phase was the optimal time to implement BIM into their practices to enhance sustainable measures, with the exception Design Bid Build (46) Design Build (35) Construction Management (7) Construction Management @ Risk (11) Integrated Project Design (11) Other (13) Total Participants (123) Predesign or Program Phase 35% 26% 0% 18% 36% 54% 31% Schematic Design Phase 37% 54% 29% 55% 27% 15% 40% Design Development Phase 22% 17% 29% 18% 18% 23% 20% Construction Documents Phase 4% 3% 14% 0% 0% 0% 3% Preconstruction Phase 2% 0% 14% 0% 9% 0% 2% Construction Administration Phase 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% Postconstruction Operations Phase 0% 0% 0% 0% 9% 0% 1% Other 0% 0% 14% 9% 0% 8% 2% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Percentage of Total Responses (%) Comparison of Optimal Project Phase for Sustainable BIM Application and Projec t Delivery Method

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137 of the companies with revenue of the companies with revenue of at 40 % of the sample size believed that the pre design phase w as the most optimal time to implement BIM. Figure 5 33 Comparison of optimal project phase for sustainable BIM applications and annual revenue. According to Figure 5 3 4 similar to the other filters the schematic design phase was viewed as the most optimal project phase to implement BIM. The Commercial, Residential, and Industrial categories had 20% of their respective sample sizes state that the design dev elopment phase was viewed as the optimal setting for BIM to be implemented. Additionally, t he Heavy/Civil strongly believed that the schematic phase was the most optimal phase as nearly 86% of its sector respondents viewed it as the best phase to use BIM to enhance sustainable practices Less than $1M (15) $1M to $100M (55) $100M to $1B (36) More than $1B (17) Total Participants (123) Predesign or Program Phase 40% 35% 25% 24% 31% Schematic Design Phase 20% 44% 36% 53% 40% Design Development Phase 27% 15% 28% 18% 20% Construction Documents Phase 7% 2% 6% 0% 3% Preconstruction Phase 7% 4% 0% 0% 2% Construction Administration Phase 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% Postconstruction Operations Phase 0% 0% 3% 0% 1% Other 0% 2% 3% 6% 2% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Percentage of Total Responses (%) Comparison of Optimal Project Phase for Sustainable BIM Applications and Annual Revenue

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138 Figure 5 34 Comparison of optimal project phase for sustainable BIM applications and project types. 5.3.2 Question 5.2 From the results found in Section 4.4.2, it was determined that of all the listed computer aided an alysis energy analysis (59%) ; MEP analysis (50%) ; and Lighting Analysis (47%) were the highest percentage utilized analyses. Figures 5 35 through 5 38 provide the information regarding the filtered results of the total population sampled. As shown in Figure 5 35 it was found that of the respondents that used Energy Analysis the majority came from the ARCH (60% of its sector respondents ), ENG (94% of its sector respondents ), GC (53% of its sector respondents 61% of its sector respondents ). Additionally, Lighting Analysis was performed by 56% of the more options in terms of its application of computer aided analysis than the remaini ng categories. Commercial (107) Residential (40) Industrial (49) Heavy/Civil (7) Other (34) Predesign or Program Phase 30% 30% 31% 14% 38% Schematic Design Phase 40% 40% 43% 86% 50% Design Development Phase 20% 20% 20% 0% 6% Construction Documents Phase 4% 5% 2% 0% 6% Construction Administration Phase 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% Postconstruction Operations Phase 1% 3% 2% 0% 0% Other 3% 0% 2% 0% 0% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Percentage of Total Responses (%) Comparison of Optimal Project Phase for Sustainable BIM Applications and Project Types

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139 Figure 5 35 Comparison of building performance analysis and AEC position roles. Through a comparison between project delivery method and forms of analysis, it was determined that DB and IPD were both the most effective delivery methods o f i ncluding the majority of analyses in th eir practices (see Figure 5 36 ). Figure 5 36 Comparison of type of building performance analysis and project delivery method. Architect (25) Engineer (18) General Contractor (34) Subcontractors (18) Other (28) Total Participants Structural Analysis 52% 33% 56% 39% 32% 44% Energy Analysis 60% 94% 53% 28% 61% 59% MEP Analysis 36% 67% 53% 39% 57% 50% Building Function Analysis 12% 33% 26% 17% 14% 20% Lighting Analysis/Simulation 56% 78% 44% 22% 39% 47% Acoustic Analysis 24% 22% 21% 11% 18% 20% Thermal/Air Control Analysis 20% 50% 32% 22% 43% 33% Other, please specify 0% 11% 3% 0% 4% 3% None 20% 0% 24% 6% 18% 15% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Percentage of Total Responses (%) Comparison of Type of Building Performance Analysis and AEC Position Roles Design Bid Build (46) Design Build (35) Construction Management (7) Construction Management @ Risk (11) Integrated Project Design (11) Other (13) Total Participants (123) Structural Analysis 39% 60% 43% 18% 55% 31% 44% Energy Analysis 59% 71% 14% 45% 55% 62% 59% MEP Analysis 48% 66% 29% 18% 73% 38% 50% Building Function Analysis 17% 29% 0% 18% 27% 15% 20% Lighting Analysis/Simulation 50% 60% 29% 27% 45% 31% 47% Acoustic Analysis 17% 29% 14% 9% 27% 8% 20% Thermal/Air Control Analysis 17% 57% 0% 18% 55% 38% 33% Other, please specify 2% 3% 0% 9% 0% 8% 3% None 15% 9% 29% 36% 0% 23% 15% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Percentage of Total Responses (%) Comparison of Type of Building Performance Analysis and Project Delivery Method

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140 In terms of annual revenue Figure 5 37 shows the relationship between the amount of annual revenue and the types of computer analysis listed in the survey. According to the results, the highest percentage of analysis performed was found within Again, the most commonly found analyses were Energy, MEP, and Light Simulations. Figure 5 37 Comparison of typ e of building performance analysis and annual revenue. Figure 5 38 shows the relationship between project type and the types of computer aided analysis. Similar to the previous results, Energy, MEP, and Lighting Simulation a nalysis were found as the most used within each project type In addition Less than $1M (15) $1M to $100M (55) $100M to $1B (36) More than $1B (17) Total Participants (123) Structural Analysis 40% 38% 47% 59% 44% Energy Analysis 67% 62% 61% 35% 59% MEP Analysis 40% 51% 53% 53% 50% Building Function Analysis 20% 18% 22% 24% 20% Lighting Analysis/Simulation 60% 47% 50% 29% 47% Acoustic Analysis 0.0 20% 20% 19% 18% Thermal/Air Control Analysis 33% 35% 36% 24% 33% Other, please specify 0% 4% 3% 6% 3% None 7% 15% 17% 24% 15% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Percentage of Total Responses (%) Comparison of Type pf Building Performance Analysis and Annual Revenue

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141 Structural analysis was seen as another major form of analysis within each category, with the exception of Heavy/Civil. Heavy/Civil performed the least amount of analysis among al l sectors mainly due to its involvement in horizontal construction. Figure 5 38 Comparison of type of building performance analysis and project types. 5.3.3 Question 5.3 From the results in Section 4.4.3 56 % of the respondents claimed that they did n ot utilize a ny form of software. Figures 5 39 through 5 42 detail the filtered results of the total population with the intent of understand ing any trends found in the use of building performance analysis software. Figure 5 39 shows a comparison of position role s with the use of building performance analysis software which according to the Commercial (107) Residential (40) Industrial (49) Heavy/Civil (7) Other (34) Structural Analysis 41% 50% 59% 43% 53% Energy Analysis 56% 65% 59% 14% 68% MEP Analysis 50% 43% 49% 14% 50% Building Function Analysis 19% 18% 22% 14% 21% Lighting Analysis/Simulation 44% 48% 47% 14% 59% Acoustic Analysis 19% 18% 22% 14% 29% Thermal/Air Control Analysis 33% 28% 33% 0% 38% Other, please specify 3% 3% 2% 0% 3% None 16% 13% 12% 43% 18% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Percentage of Total Responses (%) Comparison of Type of Building Performance Analysis and Project Types

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142 results indicates that 52 % of the ARCH respondents 59% of the GC respondents 67% of the SUB respondents and 68% of the respon dents did not use any form of building performance analysis software. The ENG sector wit h 72 % of its respondents having stated that they use building performance analysis software is seen as the sector that utilizes analysis software the most i n their bus iness practices. Additionally, the data indicated that of the building performance analysis software used by the ENG sector eQUEST is the most used at 39% of its respondents Figure 5 39 Comparison of building performance analysis software and AEC p osition roles. In terms of project delivery method as shown in Figure 5 40 over 50% of all project delivery methods do not support any form of building performance analysis Architect (25) Engineer (18) General Contractor (34) Subcontractors (18) Other (28) Total Participants Ecotect 20% 22% 15% 11% 4% 14% eQUEST 12% 39% 15% 6% 11% 15% IES Virtual Environment 12% 17% 12% 6% 14% 12% Green Building Studio 8% 11% 3% 11% 18% 10% Other, please specify 16% 50% 18% 6% 14% 20% None 52% 28% 59% 67% 68% 56% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Percentage of Total Responses (%) Comparison of Building Performance Analsysis Software and AEC Position Roles

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143 software. It was determined that 18 % of companies t hat use the IPD method utilized the companies that use the DB method indicated that 23 % used eQUEST and 14 % use d Ecotect. The companies that use CM and the CM R methods h ad the highest percentage in terms of not using analysis software at 86% and 64 %, respectively. Figure 5 40 Comparison of building performance analysis software and project delivery methods. Figure 5 41 shows the results from the comparison of annual revenue and types of building performance analysis software. From the data it was determined that all but one category had over 50% of its respondents indicate that they did not utilize building Design Bid Build (46) Design Build (35) Construction Management (7) Construction Management @ Risk (11) Integrated Project Design (11) Other (13) Total Participants (123) Ecotect 15% 14% 0% 9% 18% 15% 14% eQUEST 13% 23% 0% 9% 18% 15% 15% IES Virtual Environment 9% 17% 0% 18% 9% 15% 12% Green Building Studio 11% 11% 0% 0% 9% 15% 10% Other, please specify 24% 17% 14% 9% 18% 23% 20% None 54% 51% 86% 64% 55% 54% 56% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Percentage of Total Responses (%) Comparison of Building Performance Analysis Software and Project Delivery Method

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144 performance analysis software within their practices ( ) The companies with revenue stated that 20% of its sample size used Ecotect and an additional 20% applied eQUEST within their practices. Figure 5 41 Comparison of building performance analysis s oftware and annual revenue. Figure 5 42 shows the result of the comparison between project type and building performance analysis software and indicates all but one project type had over 50% of its sample size state that they did not use any form of analytical software as part of their practices (Residential) The companies that perform Resident ial project types indicated that 23 % of its sector respondents used eQUEST and 30 analysis software. Less than $1M (15) $1M to $100M (55) $100M to $1B (36) More than $1B (17) Total Participants (123) Ecotect 20% 16% 8% 12% 14% eQUEST 20% 18% 8% 18% 15% IES Virtual Environment 13% 11% 8% 24% 12% Green Building Studio 13% 9% 11% 6% 10% Other 33% 22% 14% 12% 20% None 47% 53% 61% 65% 56% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Percentage of Total Responses (%) Comparison of Building Performance Analysis Software and Annual Revenue

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145 Figur e 5 42 Comparison of building performance analysis software and project types. 5.3.4 Question 5.4 T he results found in Section 4.4.5 indicated that the project delivery method s which provide the most optimal environment for the utilization of BIM softwar e as a mechanism for sustainable design and construction practices was the DB (40%) or the IPD methods (37%). Figures 5 43 through 5 46 show the results of the filtered population sample in order to provide further analysis on BIM applications toward sust ainable design and/or construction practices Figure 5 43 provides a comparison between the optimal project delivery methods for sustainable BIM applications versus AEC industry roles According to the results, all of the A EC sectors indicated that the companies that use the DB and IPD methods were the most likely to provide for sustainable BIM applications. Additionally, the data showed that 56% of the ARCH Commercial (107) Residential (40) Industrial (49) Heavy/Civil (7) Other (34) Ecotect 13% 13% 12% 14% 15% eQUEST 13% 23% 12% 0% 18% IES Virtual Environment 9% 13% 12% 0% 21% Green Building Studio 9% 10% 8% 0% 12% Other 21% 30% 16% 0% 9% None 57% 48% 57% 86% 62% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Percentage of Total Responses (%) Comparison of Building Performance Analysis Software and Project Types

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146 sample population claimed that IDP was the optimal project deliver y method, with DB second at 24%. The remaini ng sectors within this category indicated that either the DB or IPD were the best suited for BIM and sustainability. Figure 5 43 Comparison of optimal project delivery method for sustainable BIM applications and AEC position roles. Figure 5 44 shows method and the most optimal project delivery method for sustainable BIM applications. The results show that of all the c ompanies those that use the DB and IPD project delivery methods were the most likely to use sustainable BIM applications. The project delivery methods DBD (43 % ), CM (57 % indicated that Architect (25) Engineer (18) General Contractor (34) Subcontractors (18) Other (28) Total Participants Design Bid Build (DBB) 16% 17% 9% 17% 4% 11% Construction Management (CM) 4% 11% 3% 0% 0% 3% Construction Management at Risk 0% 0% 0% 0% 4% 1% Design Build (DB) 24% 33% 50% 44% 43% 40% Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) 56% 33% 26% 33% 39% 37% Other 0% 6% 12% 6% 11% 7% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Percentage of Total Responses (%) Comparison of Optimal Project Delivery Method for Sustainable BIM Applications and AEC Position Roles

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147 the IPD method was the optimal method t o incorporate BIM with sustainability, while DB (74 % ) and CM R (45%) indicated that DB was the best method. Figure 5 44 Comparison of optimal project phase for sustainable BIM applications and project delivery methods. Fig ure 5 45 shows the comparison between annual revenue and project delivery methods. According to the results, DB and IPD were found to be the optimal choices for BIM use among all categories. About 47 % that IPD was the optimal method to implement BIM to enhance sustainable practices, while nearly 47 % DB was the optimal project delivery method. Design Bid Build (46) Design Build (35) Construction Management (7) Construction Management @ Risk (11) Integrated Project Design (11) Other (13) Total Participants (123) Design Bid Build (DBB) 22% 6% 14% 9% 0% 0% 11% Construction Management (CM) 2% 0% 0% 0% 9% 15% 3% Construction Management at Risk 2% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% Design Build (DB) 26% 74% 14% 45% 27% 15% 40% Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) 43% 17% 57% 36% 64% 38% 37% Other 4% 3% 14% 9% 0% 31% 7% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Percentage of Total Responses (%) Comparison of Optimal Project Delivery Method for Sustainable BIM Applications and Project Delivery Method

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148 Figure 5 45 Comparison of optimal project delivery method for sustainable BIM applications and annual revenue. Figure 5 46 is based on an analysis of project types and the optimal project del ivery method s utilized and shows that within every category DB and IPD was selected a s the most optimal method used in order to provide for sustainable BIM applications. Nearly 40 % of the companies that perform Residential projects stated that IPD was most optimal while 39% of the companies that perform Commercial projects and 47% of the companies that perform Industrial projects indicated that DB was the best suited for BIM and sustainability. Less than $1M (15) $1M to $100M (55) $100M to $1B (36) More than $1B (17) Total Participants (123) Design Bid Build (DBB) 7% 15% 11% 6% 11% Construction Management (CM) 7% 4% 3% 0% 3% Construction Management at Risk 0% 2% 0% 0% 1% Design Build (DB) 33% 33% 50% 47% 40% Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) 47% 44% 28% 29% 37% Other 7% 4% 8% 18% 7% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Percentage of Total Responses (%) Comparison of Optimal Project Delivery Method for Sustainable BIM Applications and Annual Revenue

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149 Figure 5 46 Comparison of optimal project delivery method for sustainable BIM applications and project types. 5.3.5 Question 5.5 From the resu lts found in Section 4.4.5, the calculated responses provided a measure for understanding the AEC industry viewpoints on potential improvements and innovations with BIM features. From the information provided a ranking system was generated from the total respondents in descending order from very high importance (rating of 7) to very low importance (rating of 1). The rankings are as follows: 1) Improvements within interoperability between software packages (5.86). 2) Interactivity of weather data (5.65), 3) Integra tion of a carbon accounting tracker (4.44). Fi gures 5 47 through 5 50 were created as a means to analyze the filtered data to AEC viewpoints on potential improvements within BIM features Figure 5 47 shows the Commercial (107) Residential (40) Industrial (49) Heavy/Civil (7) Other (34) Design Bid Build (DBB) 12% 13% 10% 14% 6% Construction Management (CM) 4% 5% 0% 0% 0% Construction Management at Risk 1% 3% 2% 14% 0% Design Build (DB) 39% 35% 47% 29% 29% Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) 37% 40% 35% 29% 53% Other 7% 0% 6% 14% 12% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Percentage of Total Percentage (%) Comparison of Optimal Project Delivery Method for Sustainable BIM Applications and Project Types

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150 comparison bet ween the individual AEC sectors and proposed improvements or innovations with BIM features. Based on the data, the ARCH, GC, and SUB sectors assigned lower rating s (i.e. a lower level of importance) than the median rating series of the entire population f or the majority of the listed items therefore the improvements within BIM were viewed as less important than average The ENG sector assigned higher ratings in comparison with the average rating and were thus of greater importance ector remained equivalent to the total sample population. However, it is worth mentioning that although the ratings within each sector varied slightly, every sector agreed with each of the statement s on the importance of improving BIM within the given cri Figure 5 47 Comparison of potential improvements within BIM and AEC position roles. Architect ( 25 ) Engineer ( 18 ) General Contractor ( 34 ) Subcontract ors ( 18 ) Other ( 28 ) Total Participants Improvements within interoperability between software packages 5 6 6 1 5 8 5 7 6 1 5 9 Integration of a carbon accounting tracker 4 2 4 8 4 5 4 3 4 4 4 4 Interactivity of weather data 4 8 4 8 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 5 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 Rating of Criteria Very High = 7 High = 6 Medium High= 5 Neutral = 4 Medium Low = 3 Low= 2 Very Low = 1 Comparison of Potential Improvements within BIM and AEC Position Roles

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151 Figure 5 48 shows the relationship between the proposed improvements within BIM and the various delivery methods. According to the results, the DB and IPD methods assigned higher ratings than the average rating series across the board therefore the improvements within BIM were viewed as more importa nt for these sectors than the average Conversely, the DBD method assigned lower ratings than the average rating and thus the proposed improvements w ere seen as of lower importance Figure 5 48 Comparison of potential improvements within BIM and project delivery methods. Figure 5 49 shows the relationships between the targeted subjects based on annual revenue According to the responses companies with revenue assigned higher ratings than the average of the total sample populati on and thus viewed the improvements with BIM more important than average The companies with revenue assigned higher ratings than the average Design Bid Build ( 46 ) Design Build ( 35 ) Constructi on Managem ent ( 7 ) Constructi on Managem ent @ Risk ( 11 ) Integrated Project Design ( 11 ) Other ( 13 ) Total Participan ts ( 123 ) Improvements within interoperability between software packages 5 48 6 11 5 71 6 36 6 36 5 77 5 86 Integration of a carbon accounting tracker 4 26 4 31 4 86 5 00 5 00 4 23 4 44 Interactivity of weather data 4 48 4 77 4 14 4 00 4 27 4 77 4 51 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 PRating of Criteria Very High = 7 High = 6 Medium High= 5 Neutral = 4 Medium Low = 3 Low= 2 Very Low = 1 Comparison of Potential Improvements and Project Delivery Method

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152 category assigned lower ratings than the average, therefore viewed the features as less important Figure 5 49 Comparison of potential improvements within BIM and annual reve nue. Figure 5 50 displays the data resulting from a filter of the total respondents in comparison with project types According to the results, both the Commercial and Residential categories assigned higher ratings than th e average of the total population, assigned lower ratings than the median, with respect to all statements. Heavy/Civil underwent a similar trend however, it attained a higher rating in regards to the statement, Less than $ 1 M ( 15 ) $ 1 M to $ 100 M ( 55 ) $ 100 M to $ 1 B ( 36 ) More than $ 1 B ( 17 ) Total Participants ( 123 ) Improvements within interoperability between software packages 6 20 5 71 6 03 5 71 5 86 Integration of a carbon accounting tracker 4 60 4 45 4 22 4 71 4 44 Interactivity of weather data 4 80 4 55 4 31 4 59 4 51 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 Rating of Criteria Very High = 7 High = 6 Medium High= 5 Neutral = 4 Medium Low = 3 Low= 2 Very Low = 1 Comparison of Potential Improvements Within BIM and Annual Revenue

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153 Figure 5 50 Comparison of potential improvements within BIM and project types 5.3.6 Question 5.6 T he results in Section 4.4.5 provided a measure for understanding AEC indus try viewpoints on the effectiveness of BIM in its application to provide sustainable guidelines From the given information a ranking system was generated from the total sample population in descending order from highly effective (rating of 5) to highly i neffective (rating of 1). The rankings are as follows: 1) Incorporated project management (3.46) 2) Energy efficiency (3.42) 3) Post construction facility operations (3.11) 4) Building commissioning (3.07) 5) Use of sustainable materials (2.98) 6) Sustainable site dev elopment (2.95) 7) Water efficiency (2.91) 8) Indoor air quality (2.86) Figures 5 51 through 5 54 were generated as a mean s to understand the correlations between BIM and its impact on sustainability through analysis of the four characteristics Commercial ( 107 ) Residential ( 40 ) Industrial ( 49 ) Heavy/Civil ( 7 ) Other ( 34 ) Improvements within interoperability between software packages 5 9 5 9 5 8 5 3 5 8 Integration of a carbon accounting tracker 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 0 4 3 Interactivity of weather data 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 3 4 8 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 Rating of Criteria Very High = 7 High = 6 Medium High= 5 Neutral = 4 Medium Low = 3 Low= 2 Very Low = 1 Comparison of Potential Improvements Within BIM and Project Types

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154 defined by the scope o f this investigation. Figure 5 51 compares the use of BIM as a mechanism for sustainable practices and AEC position roles According to the data, the ARCH sector assigned lower ratings with respect to all features l isted (i.e. lower level of effectiveness) than the average of the total population, efficiency guidelines. The SUB sector attained higher ratings when compared to the average within all features listed and viewed BIM as more effective than average in enhancing the sustainable guidelines ratings overall than the average Additionally, the ENG sector was found to have either equivalent or high er ratings in comparison with the average with the exception of Figure 5 51 Comparison of BIM as a mechanism for sustainable practices and AEC position roles. In comparison with project d elivery methods Figure 5 52 indicates that DBD attained lower ratings within all features listed in relation to the average rating, with the Architect (25) Engineer (18) General Contractor (34) Subcontractors (18) Other (28) Total Participants Sustainable Site Development 2.7 3.1 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 Water Efficiency 2.7 2.9 2.9 3.1 3.0 2.9 Energy Efficiency 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.6 3.3 3.4 Sustainable Materials 3.0 3.2 2.8 3.2 2.9 3.0 Indoor Air Quality 2.8 2.9 2.8 3.1 2.9 2.9 Project Management 3.3 2.9 3.7 3.9 3.4 3.5 Building Commissioning 2.9 3.1 3.1 3.4 3.1 3.1 Post Construction Facility Operations 3.0 3.1 3.0 3.4 3.1 3.1 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 Rating of Criteria Highly Effective = 5 Effective = 4 Neutral = 3 Ineffective= 2 Highly Ineffective= 1 Comparison of BIM as a Mechanism for Sustainable Practices and AEC Position Roles

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155 ing sustainable guidelines. CM R was found to have assigned higher ratings than the average rating DB, CM, and IPD each assigned higher and lower ratings than the median of the tot al population surveyed. Figure 5 52 Comparison of BIM as a mechanism for sustainable practices and project delivery methods. Through analysis of annual revenue was found that the companies with revenue of assigned lower ratings than the average rating by all respondents with respect to al l the features listed (see Figure 5 53 ). Conversely, the companies with revenue of higher rati ngs in all features than the average Design Bid Build (46) Design Build (35) Construction Management (7) Construction Management @ Risk (11) Integrated Project Design (11) Other (13) Total Participants (123) Sustainable Site Development 2.85 2.97 3.14 3.18 2.73 3.15 2.95 Water Efficiency 2.80 2.97 3.14 3.00 2.73 3.08 2.91 Energy Efficiency 3.46 3.37 3.29 3.73 3.27 3.38 3.42 Sustainable Materials 2.98 2.86 3.14 2.73 3.45 3.00 2.98 Indoor Air Quality 2.76 2.91 3.00 2.73 2.91 3.08 2.86 Project Management 3.39 3.66 3.00 3.55 3.45 3.31 3.46 Building Commissioning 2.96 3.03 3.00 3.18 3.27 3.38 3.07 Post Construction Facility Operations 2.89 2.97 3.43 3.36 3.55 3.54 3.11 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 Rating of Criteria Highly Effective = 5 Effective = 4 Neutral = 3 Ineffective= 2 Highly Ineffective= 1 Comparison of BIM as a Mechanism for Sustainable Practices and Project Delivery Methods

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156 average, however the ratings scores remained near the average, therefore little deviation was foun d from the norm. Figure 5 53 Comparison of BIM as a mechanism for sustainable practices and annual revenue Figure 5 54 provides a comparison between project types and sustainable practices. According to the tabulated data, the Industrial sector assigned higher ratings than the average rating of all the respondents with respect to all the the average rating, with t In addition the Commercial and Residential sectors each received higher ratings than Less than $1M (15) $1M to $100M (55) $100M to $1B (36) More than $1B (17) Total Participants (123) Sustainable Site Development 3.00 2.93 2.97 2.94 2.95 Water Efficiency 3.00 2.85 3.03 2.76 2.91 Energy Efficiency 3.40 3.49 3.36 3.35 3.42 Sustainable Materials 3.00 3.07 2.86 2.88 2.98 Indoor Air Quality 3.00 2.89 2.86 2.65 2.86 Project Management 3.67 3.25 3.69 3.41 3.46 Building Commissioning 3.40 2.95 3.17 3.00 3.07 Post Construction Facility Operations 3.53 2.95 3.25 3.00 3.11 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 Rating of Criteria Highly Effective = 5 Effective = 4 Neutral = 3 Ineffective= 2 Highly Ineffective= 1 Comparison of BIM as a Mechanism for Sustainable Practices and Annual Revenue

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157 vil attained both higher and lower ratings compared to the average with regard to the features listed. Figure 5 54 Comparison of BIM as a mechanism for sustainable practices and project types Commercial (107) Residential (40) Industrial (49) Heavy/Civil (7) Other (34) Sustainable Site Development 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.1 2.8 Water Efficiency 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.3 2.8 Energy Efficiency 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.3 3.3 Sustainable Materials 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.1 2.9 Indoor Air Quality 2.9 2.9 3.0 2.7 2.9 Project Management 3.5 3.4 3.6 3.4 3.5 Building Commissioning 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.0 3.0 Post Construction Facility Operations 3.1 3.3 3.2 3.3 3.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 Rating of Criteria Highly Effective = 5 Effective = 4 Neutral = 3 Ineffective= 2 Highly Ineffective= 1 Comparison of BIM as a Mechanism for Sustainable Practices and Project Types

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158 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS AND RECO MMENDATIONS The following se ctions presents the conclusions of this investigation derived from the literature review and survey analysis found in Chapters 2 through 5. 6.1 Conclusions The utilization of BIM as a catalyst for sustainable design and construction practices is a new dev elopment within the AEC industry. Currently, the majority of the AEC industry is utilizing BIM in some form or another due to its ability to support collaborative and distributed work processes as it facilitates project delivery. Although most of the AEC industry seems to believe that BIM is a necessity within project delivery, there are remaining characteristics that determine whether BIM is a viable solution to all project processes, in particular sustainable design. Although the majority of the AEC in dustry believes that sustainable design and construction practices are of application for BIM, that instead project coordination and visualization are most important. As the AEC industry has just recently started to implement BIM into their practices (i.e. between 1 to 5 years) it seems that owners are not aware of the capabilities BIM provides to a project, despite the owners having a great deal of influence on the p ractices of a company, as seen with their influence on demanding green building certification for their project Therefore, as owners become more aware of the potential benefits provided from BIM, the AEC industry will begin to utilize BIM regularly as a standard process. Just as many municipalities have started requiring green building

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159 certification for projects as standard protocol, the requirement of using BIM on all built projects seems to be a reality in the near future As new emergent technologies infiltrate the AEC industry, the application of BIM and auxiliary programs will gradually increase within company practices. This includes the application of environmental analysis software, which currently is not utilized to its fullest capacity. Addit ionally, due to the relative high costs of obtaining licenses for BIM software many companies within the AEC industry view it as not cost effective. Therefore, larger companies are found to use BIM more effectively in their business practices compared to smaller ones However, as software developers continue to market products at lower costs BIM and supporting software will see increased usage. With BIM seen as a multidisciplinary tool, problems with interoperability continue to persist among the various sectors of the industry. This includes improving interoperability between BIM platforms and other auxiliary analysis applications like building performance analytical programs. Yet, similar in nature to BIM becoming cost effective, attempts are being mad e by software providers to integrate applications within BIM gradual pace. This includes utilizing BIM as a mechanism for sustainable design and construction practices. In terms of project delivery, the majority believe that the move towards Design Build and Integrated Project Delivery is the optimal method to provide for BIM as a sustainability tool. Because of the internal structure behind the two delivery methods, the t ransition towards the application of BIM within company practices seems more readily available, whereas, other delivery methods are more segregated and primarily

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160 demand external forms of communication. Thus, as the industry becomes more united and emphasi zes the need for collaborative work processes, the use of BIM as a facilitator among sectors will prevail as an essential element. 6.2 Results to Investigation Objectives As indicated throughout the research the targeted purpose for this analysis was to u nderstand trends within BIM and sustainability, both as dependent and in dependent entities within design and construction The following objectives were used to evaluate any meaningful data derived through the literature review and survey (Chapters 2 thro ugh 5): 1) t o analyze the current trends and future developments with BIM and sustainable practices within the AEC industry ; 2) t o assess how BIM is being used as a mechanism for sustainable practices; 3) t o understand how BIM is being used today in order to analy ze the building performance of a built project; 4) t o determine what difficulties with interoperability are seen as potential problems with BIM software, and; 5) t o determine what stage in development is BIM thought of as a useful tool in providing sustainable d esign and/ or construction practices. 6.2.1 Objective 1 In identifying certain elements within the AEC industry, understanding the importance of BIM and sustainability were vital in comprehending the nature of the industry as a whole. Though BIM is current ly on its way towards becoming a standard within the AEC industry, it is still not utilized to its fullest capacity. A t the same time sustainability is continuing its progression towards standardization in the industry, yet it is not being pursued at optimal levels. As the advancements of technologies continue

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161 to enter the industry, BIM will be an essential element in driving the design and construction practices with respect to sustainability. 6.2.2 Objective 2 Currently, BIM is sought after primarily for i ts project coordination and visualization capabilities. Although certain available BIM software provides access to allow the user to perform environmental analysis, because it is not specifically internalized within BIM software platforms the majority of the industry does not utilize its capabilities. Thus, auxiliary building performance applications are not seen as tools to drive sustainable practices. Additionally, although not utilized optimally the industry does view that BIM provides sufficient cap abilities for energy, structur al and lighting analysis 6.2.3 Objective 3 Currently, environmental software is available for users to analyze building efficiencies in the AEC industry however it is not used to its fullest capacity. Platforms such as Ecot ect and IES Virtual Environment provide extensive tools to analyze BIM models; however, due to issues with interoperability and the relative cost of the software companies are not implementing the use of environmental software as part of the ir ractices 6.2.4 Objective 4 The main difficulties seen with interoperability are found with its inability to prevent data loss in translation from software to software. Though recent versions of current BIM software market their products as interoperable through the use of IFC, XML, or similar universal file extensions, the industry indicates that it remains an impediment to the work process. Future BIM software platforms will allow for better interoperability

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162 with the elimination of multiple file formats from single vendors; however, the current status indicates that it does allow for seamless transfer of data. 6.2.5 Objective 5 As viewed by the AEC industry the optimal phase to implement the use of BIM as a tool for providing sustainable measures was det ermined to be the early schematic or influence on project planning and coordination allows for greater control than if implemented at later stages during the duration of the p roject. This i n turn allows for direct correlation to sustainable design strategies (e.g. building orientation, solar studies, passive design). 6.3 Improvements to the Survey The following are improvements that need to be made to further enhance the quali ty of the survey as well as provide more accurate analysis of the results: As this research was intended to assess the AEC industry as a whole, narrowing the targeted audience would have provided more accurate results. Conducting the survey based solely o n a particular company role (e.g. architect, engineer, contractor) with in the AEC industry would have provided better results. When assessing the project type (Q2.1) to the survey questionnaire as part of the sample stratifying method, the results heavily favored the category Commercial due to th e nature of the question being multiple answer. Instead of having the question phrased as a multi answer response, the question could have been phrased such that the participants select its primary and secondary project type. Although the questions as par t of the sustainability section of the survey were intended to return information regarding sustainable practices, there should have been more questions regarding LEED or other green building assessment rating systems in order to ascertain relevant data re green building rating systems. In response to the results of the Likert Scale questions, a forced opinion (i.e. even numbered scale) should have been used instead, as the majority of the

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163 responses hovered around the neutral category, not providing relevant information to evaluate results from. 6.4 Recommendations for Future Research Future researchers interested in this topic of study should attempt to analyze the owner/proprietor sector of the building industry. As the to pic of research is relatively new to the field of design and construction, it would be worth investing time to analyze how often the owner is involved with BIM in relation to sustainable construction, as the nable design and construction practices. A lthough this research analyzed various green building assessment systems to understand the sustainable measures used within the industry, further analysis based might pr ovide intriguing results. As the industry has begun to implement BIM and sustainable techniques simultaneously research investigating academic institutions in regard s to software applications used in education and interests in sustainability would provide feedback regarding the future of BIM within the industry. Additionally, education within the industry itself provides for an additional topic of study worth approaching.

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164 APPENDIX A IRB SURVEY PROPOSAL SUBMITTAL UFIRB 02 Social & Behavioral Research Protocol Submission Form This form must be typed. Send this form and the supporting documents to IRB02, PO Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611. Should you have questions about completing this form, call 352 392 0433. Title of Protocol: Building Inform ation Modeling ( BIM ) and Its Use to Support Sustainable Design and Building Practices Principal Investigator: William Patrick Bynum II UFID #: Degree / Title: Bachelor of Science in Architecture (University of Virginia) Mailing Address: ( If on campu s include PO Box address ): Email: Department: Building Construction Telephone #: Co Investigator(s): None UFID#: N/A Email: N/A Supervisor (If PI is student) : Dr. Raymond Issa UFID#: Degree / Title: Professor Mailing Address: ( If on campus i nclude PO Box address ): Email : Department: Building Construction Telephone #: Date of Proposed Research: 02/15/2010 05/01/2010 Source of Funding (A copy of the grant proposal must be submitted with this protocol if funding is involved): No ne Scientific Purpose of the Study: The objective of this study is to investigate the current state in which BIM operates and functions towards sustainable design and building practices. The following statements list the three primary goals of the stud y: To investigate the interoperability of BIM among general contractors, architects, and engineers as

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165 to way of understanding sustainable developments through the use of virtual prototypes. To evaluate and compare various BIM and building performance sof tware platforms. To develop a potential scoring matrix for evaluating BIM software in terms of its ability to provide sustainable guidelines. Describe the Research Methodology in Non Technical Language: ( Explain what will be done with or to the resea rch participant. ) In order to obtain the necessary information for this research an extensive survey will be provided to numerous firms in the architecture engineering construction (AEC) industry as a means to collect data regarding BIM systems and their relationship to sustainable design and building practices. The survey participants will be asked to answer a questionnaire consisting of multiple choice, Likert scale matrices, and free response questions. Through the use of statistical analysis the data will be used as a way of rating the various BIM systems as well as developing an evaluative scoring matrix to indicate the positives and negatives of the BIM software being studied. Describe Potential Benefits: Based on the results of the survey and if the participant would like to obtain the results, the potential benefits may include understanding how building information modeling ( BIM ) may be used to support sustainable design and building practices. Therefore, firms in the AEC industry will have th e understanding of which software platforms to purchase as well as what building performance analytical software to utilize when considering sustainable design and construction practices. Describe Potential Risks: ( If risk of physical, psychological or ec onomic harm may be involved, describe the steps taken to protect participant.) There are no potential risks involved with this survey. Describe How Participant(s) Will Be Recruited: Participants are to be recruited from a registration list generated for the attendees of the Design Build Institute of America (DBIA) National Conference in Washington DC on November 2009. The participants will be emailed an electronic survey through a survey generator (Zoomerang TM ). Maximum Number of Participants (to be ap proached with consent) 1500 Age Range of Participants: 20 80 Amount of Compensation/ course credit: None Describe the Informed Consent Process. (Attach a Copy of the Informed Consent Document. See http://irb.ufl.edu/irb02/samples.html for examples of co nsent.) (SIGNATURE SECTION) Principal Investigator(s) Signature: Date: Date: Department Chair Signature: Date:

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166 APPENDIX B IRB INFORMED CONSENT DOCUMENT Informed Consent Protocol Title: Building Inform ation Modeling ( BIM ) and Its Use to Support Sustainable Design and Building Practices Please read this consent document carefully before you decide to participate in this study. Purpose of the research study: The purpose of this study is to investigate th e current state in which building information modeling ( BIM ) operates and functions towards sustainable design and building practices. The following statements list the three primary goals of the study: To investigate the interoperability of BIM among gen eral contractors, architects, and engineers as to way of understanding sustainable developments through the use of virtual prototypes. To evaluate and compare various BIM and building performance software platforms. To develop a potential scoring matrix for evaluating BIM software in terms of its ability to provide sustainable guidelines. What you will be asked to do in the study: As a participant, you will asked to answer a short questionnaire on various topics concerning you and/or eptions on building information modeling ( BIM ) and sustainable design and construction practices. Time required: 10 20 minutes self administered Risks and Benefits: Your involvement with the survey can be potentially beneficial for you and/or your compa ny. If you wish to review the final results of the survey please indicate this by replying to the corresponding question found on the survey form. There are no potential risks involved in participation with this survey. Compensation: There is no compens ation available other than the ability to obtain an electronic copy of the final results upon request found within the survey form. Confidentiality: Your responses will be held in complete confidentiality. Voluntary participation: Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating.

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167 Right to withdraw from the study: You have the right to withdraw from the study at anytime without consequence. Whom to contact if you have questions about the study: W. Pa trick Bynum, Principal Investigator, University of Florida School of Building Construction Phone: ( xxx ) xxx xxxx Email: xxxxxxxx@ufl.edu Dr. R. Raymond Issa, Professor, University of Florida School of Building Construction Phone: ( xxx ) xxx xxxx Em ail: xxxxxxxx @ufl.edu Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study: IRB02 Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 2250 Phone: (352) 392 0433 Email: irb2@ufl.edu

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168 APPENDIX C SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE

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176 APPENDIX D QUESTION 5.7 FREE RE SPONSE ANSWERS Question 5.7: In your own words, how do you feel current BIM software is being used to facilitate sustainable design and building practices? What changes, if any, need to be made to enhance i ts ability to support sustainable practices? # Response 1 We are pretty new to BIM so it is hard to say but I think the integration of MEP systems and architectural systems should lead to more efficient environments 2 Needs work. During schematics and p re design, the tools need to be fast and work with a simple model, nothing too complex. Complexity comes with project development 3 Not familiar with it enough to comment 4 Interoperability and better user interface might help 5 I believe BIM will have a profound impact on the design and construction industries in the next 5 years. Design professions will look to more skilled personnel who can make technical design decisions, thereby impacting the junior / intermediate techs. BIM through IPD and DB will enable and demand conceptual estimating for early feedback on sustainable design, and budget. Contractors and trades will expect the BIM models to be made available to the industry for downstream costing and manufacture. 6 I don't get involved with this a rea. 7 BIM will eventually become the standard media for design delivery, replacing CAD. The problem currently is twofold : interoperability with estimating, project management, cost tracking software AND availability of software that auto populates requir ed material submittals based on families (that drag and drop into the design) provided by material suppliers. 8 BIM needs to be integrated with all aspects of construction to eliminate communication and to provide real time updates. The only company that is making this and doing it right is ************ in providence, RI with their iBuild platform. The key to success is know WHAT INFO you need to drive the process not let the process drive the information you get! 9 Better integration with other tools 10 No, BIM should be used more frequently, but unfortunately it's not... Bring more awareness to potential clients on the advantages/capabilities of the BIM tool and what it can do in terms of saving energy/water, LCC calculations, etc. 11 It's not. The arc hitects need to take the initiative rather than trying to pass it on to the contractor as their responsibility. It will grow with time to replace Revit/CAD. 12 I am an electrical contractor, which right now BIM software is not as friendly to as some other trades. I use it extensively and see a huge benefit is design and planning. I hope to see more buy in from others in the construction business. 13 I think BIM needs to be easier to use and interoperable with other programs. My company has tried BIM on a couple of projects, but so far it seems to be more of a hassle than a benefit. 14 Currently BIM and sustainable design are independent practices; however the use of BIM directly affects sustainable design practices by providing more opportunities to limit waste, build facilities, and test for efficiency prior to even breaking ground. The only limitations are those which the software inherently posses. Standards need to be set so that the software can build the requirements of the standards into their progr ams so that no matter which program is utilized, the designers, owners, and future maintenance individuals can utilize the BIM model not just for sustainable practices now, but also into the future. 15 Mostly user of UrbaWind to calculate wind induced nat ural ventilation, I'd like the software to be directly linked to a weather database for more interactivity and user friendliness 16 BIM has a lot of potential but only 10% of firms that have some BIM Software are actually using it to its full potential. L ots of teams use it for its graphics and 3d models but really don't use conflict

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177 software, 4d or 5d. 17 Too many to list here. 18 Revit MEP is lacking many capabilities to make it effective. The marketing team for Autodesk is selling a product to owners and architects without understanding the limited capabilities. Additionally, Much of what the architect creates in Revit must be done properly (roofs on buildings, ceilings, correct construction characteristics, etc) in order to make Revit MEP information more useful. Additionally, large scale projects slow Revit significantly. Owners/architects are requiring Revit/BIM without understanding why they want it. Just to say it was completed in Revit does not accomplish much. Additional owners are requesting BIM and allow less of an MEP fee. At this time, it is more time consuming to complete a project in Revit and fewer fees is received. 19 My company is a specialty subcontractor (electrical), so we are rarely, if ever, driving the bus with regard to either sus tainability or BIM. That said, my perception is that the software we use barely speaks at all to matters relating to sustainability. Furthermore, my perception of the state of BIM software for the industry as a whole is that we're in the very earliest stag es of software development for that functionality. 20 Don't know because I don't use BIM. Therefore, to me, BIM does not facilitate sustainable design in any way. In order to be made effective, it needs to become a mainstream tool. That is terribly diffic ult during trying economic times. The cost of software and hardware is frustratingly high in an industry (architecture) with a notoriously low return on investment. 21 I t doesn't 22 I don't have BIM in my office. How can I rate their use? You ask leading questions that will give predicted results. I don't know what kind of a learning curve is required to be efficient with BIM and if you constantly need to use it to be proficient with the program. What does the program cost and can a small company afford t he costs and still survive? 23 It isn't. Firms are too busy trying to learn how to use the BIM software cost effectively, let alone utilize it for sustainability goals. 24 BIM within the AEC community is currently in fashion as design tool. Emphasize the word tool, because it is a means, not an end. Sustainability is an end and can sustainable design can be attained without use of BIM. Once BIM becomes more useful among owners and building managers (years from now), BIM will be useful in analyzing perfo rmance maintaining sustainably designed facilities. BIM can be used to advance sustainable design. Sustainable design can be accomplished without BIM. BIM is a tool, and can be a means towards improving sustainable design. Site design modeling can be hugel y helpful toward analyzing stormwater quality and de conflicting underground utilities. BIM software's limitations as a detailing tool, lack of interoperability, and high cost of staff retraining/migration currently impede its widespread use. Very little a ctual construction is 'manufactured' and BIM continues to be of little, if any, use on most construction projects. Few clients can afford customized, engineered, manufactured building components that require BIM modeling most opt for standardized, unit ized building components in wide production that are accepted among and trade installers (and are warrantable). A premise that BIM and sustainable design are interdependent is somewhat thin and difficult to defend. But unquestionably, BIM, as an emerging a nd continually improving design tool, can facilitate sustainable design. 25 Someone needs to develop workflows and processes to follow that fit into our current practices as easily as possible. If special modeling techniques are required, what are they? 26 The integration of the LEED data into the BIM platform has quite a ways to go. Software like NavisW orks that can synergize multiple programs is the next plateau. We would like to request the results of this survey or at least the executive summary. Than k you. 27 We utilize at schematic design phase to analyze options to achieve our projects sustainability goals. Better support for IFC (not single vendor solution) would be the best solution. 28 Better utilization of IFC files across all leading software companies. Users should be able to select what platform works best for them and not be forced to go with particular software.

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178 29 Improve ease of use; increase ability of Owners and non technical team members to view and understand models; Improve ability to link USEFUL information to model elements. 30 BIM still cannot meet our needs in converting scheduled specified items or take off from the BIM documents, all the vendors still have a long way to go to make the systems seamless and "smart" 31 HARDWARE NEEDS TO CATCH UP WITH SOFTWARE THAT'S THE BIGGEST OBSTACLE WE ARE SEEING. 32 Currently, BIM software is more focused on aspects relating to Project Management and trade integration rather than sustainability. However, because BIM models are typically d eveloped in the pre design phase, the foundation for further integration of sustainable design and building practices should be easily incorporated and likely effective. In my opinion, the areas of building design and construction that are currently able t o be effectively integrated with BIM software include: energy efficiency, project management, building commissioning, and post construction facility operations. Conversely, the areas of building and design that are not currently able to be effectively inte grated with BIM software include: sustainable site development, water efficiency, sustainable materials, and indoor environmental quality. 33 Currently, BIM is having an impacted on overall sustainability of a building mainly in the design & constructio n phases. We will see a greater impact when BIM is used more on owner/operator side. 34 T rust between AEC team members; legal clarification of each risk and responsibilities to the owner 35 We are currently focused on building performance using e Q uest. We are in the process of developing our competency in BIM and are looking for the best product in this discipline. 36 Unfortunately, our company has not fully embraced the BIM technology enough to utilize towards sustainable practices. It is a cost /training curve issue. 37 Really little relationship. BIM is still being implemented and needs so much more development to be really integrated That's the real current focus. Once data ca n be passed seamlessly maybe sustainability will receive some atte ntion. LEED checklists being linked is still a manual deal. 38 Don't know. 39 In the construction industry, we have found that the review/approval process vs. BIM drawing submittals is highly problematic. in other words, as a manufacturer we can detail a project in BIM, but to submit the detailing this way does not give the design consultants (Eng of Record, Architect) a way to 'mark up' or approve shop drawings. This is especially difficult if multiple types of BIM software are used on a single job. Our business (precast concrete manufacturer) does not have the benefit of a BIM software that a structural steel manufacturer or designer (eng) might have. It has its uses, but integrating wholly into BIM is years away. 40 Needs work. Within Revit, templates can be set up that will assist in documentation. This is done by individual firms. would be helpful if this could be provided as an add in.

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179 LIST OF REFERENCES Autodesk, Inc. (2009 a ). Autodesk Ecotect Analysis 2010 Questions and Answers URL:http://images.autodesk.com/adsk/files/ecotectanalysis10_faq_customer_3.1 7.09.pdf (Accessed 28 Feb 2010). Autodesk, Inc. (2009 b ). Autodesk NavisWorks Manage 2010 Q uestions and Answers URL:http://www.rand.com/imaginit/1/pdfs/technology/software/navisworksm10_fa qanda_reseller_document final.pdf (Accessed 28 Feb 2010). Autodesk, Inc. (2009 c ). Autodesk Revit Architecture 2010 Getting Started with Revit Architecture URL:http://revit.down loads.autodesk.com/download/RAC2009/Documents/ENU/ GSGArchitectureENU.pdf (Accessed 28 Feb 2010). International Journal of Construction Education and Research 5: 276 292. Cam C., Ong Proceedings of the 2005 world sustainable building conference Tokyo, Japan, 1738 45. Eastman, C., Teicholz, P., Sacks, R., and Listo n, K. (2008). BIM Handbook: A Guide to Building Information Modeling for Owner, Managers, Designers, Engineers, and Contractors 1 st ed., Wiley, New York. Energy Design Resources (2009). eQUEST The Quick Energy Simulation Tool URL: http://www.doe2.com/download/equest/eQUESTv3 Overview.pdf Gehry Technologies (2010). Digital Project Designer URL: http://www.gehrytechnologies.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id =50&Itemid=102 (Accessed 26 Feb 2010) Glavinich, T.E. (2008). Management, Project Delivery, Documentation, and Risk Reduction 1 st ed., Wiley, New York. Hardin, B (2009). BIM and Construction Management: Proven Tools, Methods, and Workflows 1 st ed., Sybex, New York. Trade li Environmental Science and Technology, 43 (16), 6414 6420. ASHRAE Journal, .6:28 40.

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180 Khemlani, L. (2006). Visual Estimating: Extending BIM into Construction 21 March 2006. URL:http://www.aecbytes.com/buildingthefuture/2006/VisualEstimating.html (Accessed 26 Feb 2010). Khemlani, L. (2007). Top Criteria for BIM Solutions: AECBytes Survey Results 10 Oct 2007. URL: http://www.aecbytes.com/feature/2007/BIMSurveyReport.html (Accessed 26 Feb 2010). Khemlani, L. (2008 a ). Autodesk NavisWork 2009 23 Oct 2008. URL:http://www.aecbytes.com/review/2008/NavisWorks2009.html (Accessed 26 Feb 2010). Khemlani, L. (2008 b ). 22 July 2008. URL:http://www.aecbytes.com/review/2008/DProfiler.html (Accessed 26 Feb 2010). Khemlani, L. (2008 c ). Technology for Construction at World of Concrete 2008 31 Jan 2008. URL: http://www.aecbytes.com/newsletter/2008/issue_33.html (Accessed 26 Feb 2010). Khemlani, L. (2009 a ). ArchiCAD 13 30 Sept 2009. URL:http://www.aecbytes.com/review/2009/ArchiCAD13.html (Accessed 26 Feb 2010). Khemlani, L. (2009 b ). Bentley Architecture V8i 19 Nov 2009. URL:http://www.aecbytes.com/review/2009/BentleyArchV8i.html (Accessed 26 Feb 2010). Khemlani, L. (2009 c ). Revit Architecture 2010 9 July 2009. URL:http://www.aecbytes.com/review/2009/RevitArch2010.html (Accessed 26 Feb 2010). Khemlani, L. (2009 d ). Solibri Model Checker 3 1 March 2009. URL:http://www.aecbytes.com/review/2009/SolibriModelChecker.html (Accessed 26 Feb 2010). Khemlani, L. (2009 e ). Tekla Structures 14 19 Dec 2009. URL:http://www.aecbytes.com/review/2008/TeklaStructures14.html (Accessed 26 Feb 2010). Kibert, C.J. (2008). Sustainable Construction: Green Building Design and Delivery. 2 nd ed., Wiley: New Yo rk.

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181 Krygiel, E. and Nies, B. (2008). Green BIM: Successful Sustainable Design with Building Information Modeling 1 st ed., Wiley, New York. Environmental Building News 16(5). Popov, Usage of 4D Information Modeling Concept for Building Design, Estimation, Thoo, S. (2010). Graphisoft EcoDesigner 11 Feb 201 0. URL:http://www.aecbytes.com/review/2010/EcoDesigner.html (Accessed 26 Feb 2010). Torcellini, P. (2006). Zero energy buildings: A critical look at the definition. Conference Paper of the 2006 ACEEE Summer Study, American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy Washington DC Vectorworks, Inc. (2009). URL:http://dow nload2.nemetschek.net/www_misc/2010/VW2010_whats_new.pdf (Accessed 26 Feb 2010). Vico Construction Services (2009). Vico Office Suite, URL: http://www.vicosoftware.com/Default.aspx?app=LeadgenDownload&shortpath=d ocs%2fVico+Office+Suite+view.pdf (Accessed 26 Feb 2010).

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182 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH W. Patrick Bynum II of Building Cons truction at the University of Florida. While at the University of Florida he worked for the M.E. Rinker, Sr. School of Building Construction as a graduate teaching assistant for the BCN 2405 Construction Mechanics course. Prior to earning his MSBC degree he earned his bachelor of science in architecture from the University of Virginia School of Architecture. During his studies there he gained experience in the use of digital technology as well as a background on sustainable design techniques and methodol ogies. between the architectural and construction professions through the use of digital technology. He is also interested in the use of technology to perform or enhance sustainable practi ces within the design and construction processes. He plans to work within the design build profession with the intent of designing and constructing sustainably built projects.