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1 RESIDENTS PERCEPTIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF THE 2008 BEIJING GREEN OLYMPIC GAMES By LIYAN JIN A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN A PARTITIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2010
2 2010 Liyan Jin
3 To my family and friends
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to acknowledge the support I have gotten from my committee, especially Dr. James J. Zhang for his guidance and direction through the process As my advisor, Dr Zhang provided invaluable assistance in keeping me on track and working toward the goal In addition, other committee members Drs. Daniel Connaughton, Kyriaki Kaplanidou, Matthew Walker, Michael Sagas an d Xingdong Ma provided thoughtful guidance and advice to keep me moving through the process I am grateful for their help and patience. I also thank my parents and my friends for their loving encouragement and support.
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...............................................................................................................4 LIST OF TABLES ...........................................................................................................................7 LIST OF FIGURES .........................................................................................................................8 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ..........................................................................................................9 ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................................10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................11 Statement of Problem .............................................................................................................13 Purpose of the Study ...............................................................................................................14 Research Questions .................................................................................................................14 Theoretical Framework ...........................................................................................................14 The Yale Attitude Change Approach ..............................................................................15 Theory of Reasoned Action .............................................................................................16 Social Exchange Theory ..................................................................................................16 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE .................................................................................................19 History of the Olympic Games ...............................................................................................19 Origin of the Games ........................................................................................................19 Bidding Development ......................................................................................................20 Development of the Green Olympics .....................................................................................23 Organizations Involved ...................................................................................................23 The Third Dimension ......................................................................................................26 Olympic Games and Environmental Responsibility .......................................................28 Contributions of Previous Host Cities .............................................................................29 Tokyo and Seoul Olympic Games ...........................................................................29 Lillehammer, Sydney, and Torino Olympic Games ................................................30 2008 Beijing Green Olympics ................................................................................................32 Green Olympics in Beijing ..........................................................................................33 Beijings Preparations for Green Olympics .................................................................34 Air Quality .......................................................................................................................34 Energy ..............................................................................................................................35 Public Transportation ......................................................................................................37 Water Environment .........................................................................................................39 Ecological Conservation and Construction .....................................................................41 Industrial Pollution ..........................................................................................................42
6 Solid Waste Management ................................................................................................43 Awareness, Perception, and Attitude ......................................................................................44 Awareness of Green Olympics ........................................................................................44 Awareness and Attitude ...................................................................................................46 Residents Perceptions of Mega Events ............................................................................47 Residents Attitude toward Mega Event ..........................................................................51 Summary .................................................................................................................................52 3 METHOD ...............................................................................................................................56 Participants .............................................................................................................................56 Instrument ...............................................................................................................................58 Procedures ...............................................................................................................................60 Data Analyses .........................................................................................................................61 4 RESULTS ...............................................................................................................................65 Descriptive Statistics ..............................................................................................................65 Intercorrelations ......................................................................................................................67 Hierarchical Regression Analyses ..........................................................................................68 5 DISCUSSION .........................................................................................................................77 Implication ...............................................................................................................................81 Future Study .............................................................................................................................82 APPENDIX A SAMPLE OF QUESTIONNAIRE .........................................................................................84 B SAMPLE OF CONSENT FORM FOR PARTICIPANTS .....................................................90 LIST OF REFERENCES ...............................................................................................................91 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .......................................................................................................100
7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 31 Discriptive statistics for Sociodemographic Variables (N=298). ......................................63 41 Item Analysis for the Awareness Variable. .......................................................................71 42 Descriptive Statistics for the Perception Factors. ..............................................................72 43 Descriptive Statistics for the Attitude, Behavioral Intention, and Actual Behavior Factors. ...............................................................................................................................73 44 Zero order Correlation among Awareness, Perception, Attitude, Behavioral Intention, and Actual Behavior Factors. ............................................................................74 45 Hierarchical Regres sion Analyses Examining the Relationships of Awareness, Perception, Attitude, and Behavioral Intentions to Actual Behavior Associated with Green Olympics Movement. ..............................................................................................75 46 Hierarchical Regressi on Analyses Examining the Relationships of Awareness, Perception, Attitude, and Behavioral Intentions to Actual Behavior Supporting Mega Sport Events. ......................................................................................................................76
8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 21 Theoretical Model --Relationships among Awareness, Perception, Attitude, Behavior Intention, and Actual Behavior. .........................................................................................55
9 LIST OF ABBREVIATION S BOCOG Beijing Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games CFCs Chlorofluorocarbons CNG Compressed Natural Gas CO Carbon Monoxide EB Executive Board EPB Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau HCC Host City Contract HCFC 22 Hydrochloroluorocarbons 22 NO2 Nitrogen Dioxide NOC National Olympic Committee IOC International Olympic Committee IPC International Paralympic Committee PM10 Particulate Matter PV Polyvinyl PVC Polyvinyl Chloride UNEP the United Nations Environmental Program
10 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science RESIDENTS PERCEPTIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF THE 2008 BEIJING GREEN OLYMP IC GAMES By Liyan Jin May 2010 Chair: James J. Zhang Major: Sport Management The significance of environmental sustainability has been widely recognized throughout the world. The Olympic Games, which aim to serve the harmonious development of human digni ty, have integrated the environment as a third dimension along with sport and culture since 1996. The purpose of the study was to explore the level of awareness of Beijing Green Olympic Initiatives, perceived environmental impact, attitude toward the Olymp ic Games, behavioral intentions to support future hosting of mega sport events, and actual behavior among residents in Beijing as the host city of Olympic Games during the postgame management period. The Yale attitude change approach, the theory of reason ed action, and the social exchange theory served as the theoretical foundation for this study to examine the relationship among awareness, perception, attitude, behavior intention and actual behavior. As a result of the Zeroorder correlation analysis, sig nificant relationships were found among perception factors, attitudinal factors, behavioral intention factors, and actual behavior factors. The Hierarchical regression analyses for actual behaviors of supporting mega sport events showed that the behavioral intention and attitude factors presented mediating effects, while awareness was not found to be predictive of actual behaviors of mega sport events.
11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Today, the significance of the environment has been widely recognized throughout the world. The blemished environment should become an important concern for every country, organization, and citizen. This holds ture for all sport events, especially the Olympic Games, one of the greatest sport events in the world, which involve a large num ber of people from almost every country. According to Jagemann (2003), sport can be a considerable cause of damage to the environment due to the use of nonrenewable resources, the emission of detrimental substances during the construction process and oper ation of sport facilities, and the production and disposal of sport equipment. To reduce the negative impact from sport activities, it is important to integrate environmental concerns into the development of sport events. Hosting the Olympic Games may caus e severe environmental problems with numerous resources, activities, and constructions involved, such as waste accumulation, air pollution, and noise pollution. Early in 1989, Mathisen suggested that the Games would disturb the areas ambience and nature setting (1989: p.142). The 1992 Winter Olympic Games in the French Savoy Region led to widespread environmental damage and urged the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to respond and present a strategy for repelling the adverse impacts of the mega even t (Cantelon & Letters, 2000). In an attempt to avoid and eliminate the potential and existing conflicts, the environment was added to the Olympic movement as the third pillar along with sport and culture in 1996 (Beyer, 2006). Since then, environmental iss ues have become one of the key factors to choose a host city, and have been considered as the essential concerns during the host citys preparatory period. Sydney was the first city to win an Olympic bid with a comprehensive environmental protection plan. However, both Sydney, Australia (2000) and
12 Athens, Greece (2004) were widely regarded as failures in executing principles of environmental sustainability during the Olympic Games (Chan, Koenig, & Rajarethnam, 2006). Greenpeace originally considered the G reen Games as a global showcase of integrating environmental concerns into areas such as transportation, energy, waste disposal, refrigeration, and construction (Chan et al., 2006). The concept of the Green Games eventually evolved into a mandate from the International Olympic Committee (IOC), and has been a component of every Olympic Games since 2000 (Chan et al., 2006). For the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, Beijing worked closely with the IOC, the United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP), and Greenpeace to stage Green Games. New technologies and policies were widely used to improve air quality and energy efficiency in China. Green Programs were applied to beautify the appearance of the city, and educational projects were carried out to increase Chinese citizen awareness of environmental problems and stimulate proper behaviors toward a clean environment. Residents perceptions of the impacts from mega events have been studied by a number of researchers. Event planners and organizers must consider the view s of residents of the host city to obtain successful and sustainable investments (Williams & Lawson, 2001). Deccio and Baloglu (2002) stated that the cooperation of local residents acts as a vital element in the success of mega events such as the Olympic G ames. They also suggested that residents supportive attitude toward the events is likely to determine the longevity of their positive behaviors. A wide range of studies on residents perceptions of mega events have been conducted in western countries such as the United States, Canada, Australia, and several European countries. However, there are few such studies in developing countries, particularly rare in China, where studies about residents perceptions of the environment are scarce. As the third Summer Green Games and the
13 first Olympic Games in China, the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games were of great significance and special meaning to the world and the host country. Beijing spent billions of dollars on hosting the 29th Summer Olympic Games, especially on im proving the environment. To successfully host the Green Olympics, Beijing made impressive progress in environmental protection. Aiming to improve the air quality, Beijing greatly increased the use of clear and renewable energy, applied a variety of energy saving technologies, expanded public transportation system, and set very stringent emission standards. Wastewater treatment plants, along with sewage and water reuse systems, were improved to satisfy the water needs and increase the efficiency in the use of water. Regulations and laws were enforced to protect water sources and improve water quality in Beijing. A set of greening projects was carried out in Beijing to increase the green coverage and beautify the city. As for controlling the industry pollutio ns, Beijing closed and relocated a large number of polluting companies and set new industrial regulations. Solid waste management systems were improved in Beijing, and recycle projects were initiated to encourage residents to separate waste collection. Fur thermore, a series of environmental education programs were implemented not only in Beijing but also across the whole country to raise awareness of environmental problems and increase environmental knowledge within the public. Statement of Problem Previous researchers have investigated mega events from a variety of aspects and presented that they have social, economical, and environmental impacts on the host community. However, most of previous studies on large scale sport events have primarily focused on economic impacts of sport events (Barker, Page & Meyer, 2002; Fredline & Faulkner, 2000; Twynam & Johnston, 2004). After the 2008 Olympic Games were held, it is necessary to investigate the effectiveness
14 of Beijing in greening the Games, promoting the awar eness of environment among its residents, and influencing residents attitudes toward the Olympic Games. Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study was to explore the awareness of Green Olympics, perceived environmental impact, attitude toward the Olym pic Games, behavioral intentions to support future hosting of mega sport events, and actual behavior toward the Olympics among residents in the host city of Beijing Olympic Games. This study would further examine the relationship among awareness, perceptio n, attitude, and behavioral intentions. Research Questions The following were the research questions in this study: 1. What were the levels of awareness of Green Olympics, perceived environmental impact, attitude toward the Olympic Games, behavioral intention s to support future hosting of mega sport events, and actual behavior toward the Games among residents in Beijing as the host city after the 2008 Olympic Games? 2. What were the relationships among awareness of Green Olympics, perceived environmental impact, attitude toward the Olympic Games, behavioral intentions to support future hosting of mega sport events, and actual behavior toward the Games among residents in Beijing as the host city after the 2008 Olympic Games? Theoretical Framework In numerous academ ic disciplines ranging from psychology, sociology, marketing, to advertising, researchers have developed or adopted various theories to explain the concepts of awareness, perception, attitude, and behaviors, and how these components are interrelated. To gu ide the conduct of this study, three related theoretical approaches were reviewed and adopted. The theoretical framework for this study was primarily based on the Yale attitude change approach, Ajzen and Fishbeins (1980) theory of reasoned action, and Ap s (1992) social exchange theory.
15 The Yale Attitude Change Approach The Yale attitude change approach developed by Carl Hovland indicates that human attitudes (the affective component) are usually influenced or changed by altering the opinions or beliefs (the cognitive or knowledge component) that people have (Zimbardo, Ebbesen & Maslach, 1977). This approach presents a sequential process with four elements: attention, comprehension, acceptance, and retention. Together, these elements determine how effecti ve the persuasive communication can be. Specifically speaking, to change a persons attitude, the first step is to get the individuals attention to the communicated content. Second, the message used to change the individuals attitude must be understood b y the person. Third, the arguments and conclusions delivered via the message must be accepted by the receiver. Fourth, the major point of the message must be retained long enough to change the persons attitude. The effectiveness of the communication is in fluenced by the source of the message (i.e., the credibility, status, race, religion), the characteristics of the message (i.e., the structure, order, type of appeal), the characteristics of the audience (i.e., persuasiveability, intelligence, self esteem initial position), and audiences reactions to a persuasive message. Based on this approach, a persons opinion, perception, affect, and action can be changed following the processes (Zimbardo et al., 1977). The Yale attitude change approach explains that attitude can be changed by altering beliefs (knowledge) and other related factors may influence the process of attitude change. In this study, awareness and perception are a state of knowledge; therefore, awareness is likely to impact ones attitude. Cha nge of knowledge will lead to the change of attitude. After Beijing was selected as the host city of the 2008 Olympic Games, a large numberof messages about the Green Olympics were delivered to the Chinese citizens, especially residents in Beijing, through government announcements, media publicity, educational programs, and community campaigns.
16 Theory of Reasoned Action Ajzen and Fishbeins (1980) Theory of Reasoned Action is an approach to predict and understand an individuals behavior. To explain this t heory in reverse order of concepts, a persons behavior is determined by his/her behavioral intention which is a function of his/her attitude toward the behavior and subjective norms. Attitude toward the behavior is influenced by the individuals beliefs a bout the consequences of performing a behavior and his/her evaluation of the outcomes, either positive or negative. Subjective norms are impacted by ones beliefs that specific individuals or groups think he/she should or should not perform the behavior. E xposure to different information lead to the formation of different beliefs, which also reflect a persons past experience. Azjen and Fishbein stated that attitudes are a function of beliefs (p. 7) and that attitudes toward any object are determined by beliefs about that object (p. 62). In these contexts, beliefs refer to knowledge about the attitude object. According to Azjen and Fishbein, beliefs may be formed via direct observations, or accepting information from outside sources, or self generated th rough inference process. They also argued that there is a causal relationship between beliefs and behavior. To influence peoples behavior, it is suggested that they should be exposed to sufficient information and also able to alter their beliefs in a soci al environment. Because these beliefs will in turn determine attitudes and subjective norms, which then determine intention and the corresponding behavior. All in all, there is a strong relationship among beliefs (knowledge), attitude, and behavior. Socia l Exchange Theory Social exchange theory is regarded as the conceptual and theoretical basis in this study for understanding the perceived environmental impacts of the Beijing Green Olympics and residents attitude toward the Games. This theory has been uti lized as an appropriate and effective foundation to study residents perceptions (Ap1992; Bryant & Napier, 1981; Gursoy, Jurowski &
17 Uysal, 2002; Jurowski, 1994; Jurowski, Uysal, & Williams, 1997; Perdue, Long, & Allen, 1990; Perdue, Long, & Kang, 1999). It is supported that this theory may explain residents motivations for entering into an exchange or their lack of support for such an exchange (Deccio & Baloglu, 2002). Social exchange theory involves the trading and sharing of resources between individual s, role occupants, or groups acting as single units. Resources can be any item, concrete or symbolic, which may be of material, social, or psychological in nature. It is suggested that when exchange of resources is high or balanced, or high for the host pa rty in an unbalanced relationship, the impacts are viewed positively by residents. When resource exchange is low in either balanced or unbalanced exchange relations, impacts are viewed negatively by those involved. This theory suggests that the primary mot ivation for initiating exchange from the residents' perspective is to improve the community's wellbeing; residents evaluate events as either positive or negative in terms of the expected benefits or costs deriving from the services they supply; and reside nts' perceptions and attitudes are predictors of their behavior. Host residents are more likely to develop a positive evaluation of the exchange if the perceived returns are reasonably equitable according to their support for or participation in the exchan ge. Positive evaluations of the results arising from the social exchange may reinforce the desire for future participation in the relationship; therefore, if the perceived benefits from events outweigh the costs, residents in the local community are likely to support and participate in future exchange relations (Ap, 1992). Based on the social exchange theory, it is suggested that residents who are likely to obtain the greatest benefits from the event often favor and support hosting the event more than those who receive fewer benefits (Perdue et al., 1990; Ritchie, 1988). After hosting the event, the positive evaluation of its social impacts is likely to lead to supportive attitude
18 toward future events (Besculides, Lee, & McCormick, 2002; Brunt & Courtney, 1999; Madrigal, 1993). The perceived detrimental impacts to the environment is possible to cause negative attitudes toward hosting future mega events while the events regarded as catalysts in preserving the natural environment lead to positive attitude towar d the future events (Liu & Var, 1986). The social exchange theory implies that residents perception of impacts from the Beijing Olympic Games would influence their perception and attitude toward the event, which in turn affect their intentions of supporti ng the hosting future mega sport events. Based on the existing research, Olympic Games may generate both positive and negative influence on the environment. As environmental issues associated with the Olympic Games are becoming important concerns among re sidents in host cities who may influence the success of hosting the Games, it is critical to understand residents view of the environmental impact, awareness of the environmental programs, attitude, intention to support, and actual behavior relating to th e Games. Research findings from investigating residents perception of the 2008 Beijing Green Olympics were expected to have a great value on marketing mega sport events from the environmental aspects. It was anticipated that the research findings would fi ll the void in the literature by primarily focusing on environmental aspect of mega sport events and build linkages from awareness and perception to attitude, intention, and then to actual behavior. Gaining an indepth understanding of the relationships am ong these variables would also enable mega event organizers to identify specific variables that have the most impact on residents actual behaviors and thus to formulate and implement plans to adjust and improve event operations, and promotional strategie s.
19 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE This chapter is divided into four sections: the first section reviews the history of the Olympic Games; the second section reviews the literature regarding the development of Green Olympics; the third section reviews the literature on 2008 Beijing Green Olympics, and the fourth section reviews the literature on awareness, perception, and attitude relating to the environment and mega events. History of the Olympic Games Origin of the Games The Olympic Games were origin ated from a fiveday long event between 776 B.C. and 261 A.D. in ancient Greece which included running, wrestling, horse racing, chariot races, the pentathlon, and competitions for the best trumpeters and heralds (Chalkley & Essex, 1999). It was a French n obleman, Baron Pierre de Coubertin (18631937), who contributed to the revival of the modern Olympic Games in Athens in 1896. In 1914, the Olympic flag including the five interlaced rings was adopted. The flag symbolizes the union of the five continents and the meeting of athletes across the world at the Olympic Games. In 1924, the first Winter Olympic Games were staged in Chamonix, France (IOC, 2007). Pierre de Coubertin also established the principle that the Games should be held in different locations e very four years as a means of promoting and diffusing the Olympic spirit of freedom, progress, and equality throughout the world (Essex & Chalkley, 2004). De Coubertins original objectives and principles remain to be a guidinf force for the Games. These principles include supporting the objectives of competitive sport, providing a legacy of facilities to foster athletic development and reinforcing the function of the sports via giving more opportunities for training and competition (Essex & Chalkley, 1999)
20 Bidding Development The Olympic Games were not always as popular as they are now. For the first three Olympic Games, the host cities were assigned without any competition. Later, the situation got better but the total amount of bidding cities remained less than 12 candidates untill 1992. Between 1964 and 1984, there were even fewer bids received as a result of the complexity and costs involved in the preparation for the Rome Games in 1960. From 1968 to 1976, new threats were presented in hosting the Olym pic events, including civic opposition (Mexico, 1968), terrorism (Munich, 1972), long term indebtedness (Montreal, 1976), and international boycotts (Moscow, 1980 and Los Angeles, 1984). Therefore, the Games of 1984 were staged in Los Angeles as they were the only candidate. Due to the public fear over the financial burden, the Los Angeles Games were totally funded by private organizations and individuals, which turned out to be a commercial success and later on played a key role in increasing and motivating the interest of potential hosts in staging the Games. Consequently, 22 cities expressed their willingness to host the Games of 1992. Most recently, the Games of 2004 received 48 bids, and the Games of 2008 had more than 61 candidates. The increase in bidders since 1992 shows the popularity and support the Olympic Games has given in many counties and across the world. (Chalkley & Essex, 1999). A selection process is regularly applied to select the best host city for the Olympic Games, usually seven years before the Olympic Games are to be held. During this process, the IOC will investigate each potential citys capability to host the Games and assess the advantages and disadvantages of the citys proposed project. According to the by law of Rule 34 in the Olympic Chapter, before submitting an official proposal to the IOC, the city that wishes to stage the Olympics must get an official approbation from the National Olympic Committee (NOC) of its country to be considered as an applicant city. Each country can only have one applicant city
21 (IOC, 2007). In 1999, a new twophase host city selection was adopted by the IOC Executive Board (IOC, 2002a). The first phase of the new selection process refers to the Candidature Acceptance Procedure, during which all applicant cities are required to submit an applicant file based on the questionnaire prepared by the IOC administration. The questionnaire includes questions on motivation, general concept, public opinion, political support, finance, venues, accommodation, t ransportation, security, and general conditions and experience. Under the authority of the IOC Executive Board, IOC administration is instructed to develop a report assessing the ability of each applicant city, including its country, to host, organize, and stage high level international multisports events, especially the Olympic Games. To prepare the report, IOC administration appoints a number of experts and representatives, and establishes an IOC Candidature Acceptance Working Group. Also, outside expert s not commissioned to any applicant city are invited to conduct specific research and submit reports to the Working Group. Considering all the opinions from internal and external experts, representatives, and IOC Directors, the Working Group decides on a number of technical criteria to assess the applicant cities including government support, public opinion, general infrastructure, sports infrastructure, Olympic Village, environmental conditions and impact, accommodation, transportation, security, experience from past events, finance, and general concept. Following the submission of the report by the IOC administration, IOC EB will determine which cities will be accepted as candidate cities (IOC, 2002b). During the following phase, candidate cities are required to submit a Candidature File to the IOC which should be developed within a strict framework provided by the IOC. In this File, each candidate city needs to answer 149 questions on 18 themes, including national, regional,
22 and candidate city characteris tic, legal aspects, customs and immigration formalities, environmental protection and meteorology, finance, marketing, general sport concept, sport facilities, Paralympic Games, Olympic Village, medical and health services, security, accommodation, transportation, technology, communications and media services, Olympism and culture, and guarantees (IOC, 2002c). In the meantime, an Evaluation Commission, composed of inter alia, IOC members, members representing the International Federations (IFs), members rep resenting the National Olympic Committees (NOCs), representatives of the Athletes commission and the International Paralympic Committee (IPC), as well as other experts, will then examine the cities candidatures and inspect the sites. The Commission also needs to verify the information in each Citys Candidature File, analyze the challenges that each city may face, and submit a report on the 18 themes of all candidatures to the IOC members. The final list of candidate cities entering into the IOC Session f or election is determined by the IOC EB based on the report by the Evaluation Commission. After considering the report, the Session holds a ballot to select the host city in a country that does not have a candidate city running for hosting the Games (IOC, 2007). If three or more cities remain as candidates in the final ballot, the last placed city in each round of voting is eliminated until one of the cities obtains a majority of the votes (Japanese Olympic Committee, 2009). Following the IOCs announceme nt of the selected host city for the Olympic and Paralympic Games, a written agreement that is regarded as the Host City Contract (HCC) will be signed by the IOC, the host city, and the NOC of the host country. The HCC explains the legal, commercial, and f inancial rights and obligations of the three parts relating to the Olympic Games. The specific content of the HCC may vary from Games to Games due to the changes and modifications. The HCC shall have the priority if there is any conflict between the provis ion of
23 the HCC and the Olympic Chapter (IOC, 2009a). The HCC requires that the host city and the NOC acknowledge and support the environmental sustainable development as a significant concern in conducting their obligations and activities, as well as the post Olympic use of venues and other facilities and infrastructures. The city and NOC also need to take into account of environmental legislation, promote the concept of environmental protection, and leave a positive legacy in environmental practices and polices relating to the Olympic Games (IOC, 2009b). Development of the Green Olympics Organizations Involved There are three main organizations involved in guiding and supervising the Green Olympics movement: the IOC, the United Nations Environmental Progra m (UNEP), and the Greenpeace. The IOC was founded on June 23rd, 1894 by the French educator Baron Pierre de Coubertin who was inspired to revive the Olympic Games of Greek antiquity (IOC, 2008). The IOC is an international nongovernmental nonprofit organization. It exists as a central organization of the Olympic Movement; owns all rights to the Olympic symbols, flag, motto, anthem, and Olympic Games; and aims to fulfill the mission, role, and responsibilities established in the Olympic Charter. Its primar y responsibility is to select the host city for the Winter or Summer Olympic Games, and supervise the preparation and organization of the Games. It is also responsible for negotiating the television rights and sponsorship agreements, and distributing the r evenues to its partners and member countries. In 1996, environment protection was added to the Olympic Chapter as a new mission for the IOC, where the IOC is responsible for ensuring that the Olympic Games take place in harmonious with the environment, encouraging and supporting environmental concerned issues, and promoting sustainable development in sport .(IOC, 2007).
24 The UNEP, established in 1972, is the voice for the environment within the United Nations system. It is considered to be an important entit y to educate, advocate, and promote the proper use and sustainable development of the global environment. The UNEP is in cooperation with diverse partners, for instance, the United Nations entities, international organizations, national governments, nongo vernmental organizations, the private sector, and civil society. It has been working on sports and environmental issues since 1994. The program aims to promote the integration of environmental considerations in sports, raise environmental awareness of and respect for the environment among the public especially young people, and to encourage environmentally friendly sport facilities and sporting goods (UNEP, 2007). The UNEP has been working closely with the IOC as well as the organizing committees of potent ial host cities since 1994 when they signed an Agreement to incorporate environmental issues in Olympic Games. The UNEP is represented on the IOC Sport and Environment Commission to review environmental issues related to the Olympic Games, and gives sugges tions to the IOC Executive Board on environmental issues. Since 2003, UNEP has actively participated in the IOCs biennial World conference on Sport and Environment. Except for the Olympics, the UNEP also played an important role in the 2006 FIFA World Cup in Germany, the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa and the 2010 Commonwealth Games in New Delhi, India (UNEP, 2007). Greenpeace, founded in 1971, is an independent global campaigning organization that acts to change attitudes and behavior, protect and conserve the environment, and promote peace in the world. It has been campaigning against environmental degradation as its primary mission. Today, Greenpeace is present in 40 countries across Europe, the Americas, Asia, and the Pacific (Greenpeace, 2008). Gr eenpeaces active participation in the Olympics dates back to 1992, when
25 the organization assigned an architect to develop an ecodesign Athletes Village, and submitted to an anonymous design contest by the Sydney Bid Company for the 2000 Games. Greenpeace s design was one of the five winners of that competition. After that, the concept of Green Olympics reached every aspect of the Sydneys Olympic development. Greenpeace cooperated Sydney officials in establishing an environmental guidelines and making environment one of the vital advantages for the citys 2000 Olympic bid. After Sydneys successful bid, Greenpeace continued to be heavily involved in both monitoring and working with Sydney in varieties of environmental issues to ensure the best environmenta l outcomes. In the meantime, Greenpeace developed a relationship with the IOC and its Sport and Environment Committee to help ensure the environment continue to be one of the three dimensions in the Olympic development. To provide an independent, third par ty assessment on the host cities environmental achievements, Greenpeace carried out its first complete report on Sydneys efforts in 2000 (Zhang, 2008). After the Sydney Games, Greenpeace released the Greenpeace Olympic Environmental Guidelines: A guide to Sustainable Events, to independently assess the sustainability of all Olympic Games. The guidelines also serves as a set of benchmarks and challenges for sporting and nonsporting event organizers interested in a low impact environmental approach to hos ting large events. Since the Sydney Games, Greenpeace has continuously been involved in monitoring and commenting on the host cities environmental initiatives. To assess the effectiveness of the host cities in staging Green Olympics, Greenpeace released i ts measurement of Athens Games in 2004 and of Beijing Games in 2008 (Zhang, 2008) The ultimate objective of Greenpeace is to raise environmental awareness and leave a long term environmental legacy through the Olympics (UNEP, 2007)
26 The Third Dimension Th e 1998 Winter Olympic Games at Nagano in Japan was recorded as the first Games at which a clean environmental policy was released by IOC. The historical benchmarks for the environmental policy development of the Olympic Games were due to the extensive envi ronmental damages caused by the 1992 Winter Olympic Games in Albertville and Savoy Region, France and the following environmentally conscious Winter Olympic Games in 1994 in Lillehammer, Norway. The Games in Albertville caused significant environmental damages due to insensitivity to vulnerable alpine ecosystems in venue construction and the lack of any environmental policy and guidelines. The 1992 Albertville Olympics were the most regionalized Olympic Games with competition sites located in 13 Alpine communities spread over 1,657 square kilometers, and the only games that dramatically and irreparably marred the landscape. Because of the coincidence of the IOC decision to change the Winter and Summer Games sequence, Lillehammer was awarded as the host city of the 1994 Winter Games. The Norwegian people showed their longstanding and well developed respect for nature and proved that the environmental damage of staging the games might be avoided. These two games evoked global awareness of the environment and a ctivity within the IOC, and urged the IOC to respond and make effort to repel the adverse environmental impacts of the Olympic Games (Cantelon & Letters, 2000). In 1994, during the Centennial Olympic Congress in Paris, it was suggested that environment should be accommodated as the third dimension of the Games (Beyer, 2006). In 1995, at the World Conference on Sport and the Environment, the IOC President Samaranch expressed: "The International Olympic Committee is resolved to ensure that the environment becomes the third dimension of the organization of the Olympic Games, the first and second being sport and culture" (Jagemann, 2003). Subsequently, in 1996 the following paragraph was
27 included into Chapter 1 of the Olympic Charter: "... the mission and role of the International Olympic Commission is ... to encourage and support a reasonable concern for environmental issues, to promote sustainable development in sport and to require that the Olympic Games are held accordingly" (IOC, 2007, p15). Since 1996, orga nizing committees of the Olympic Games have progressively increased their focus on environmental and sustainable development issues in preparing for and staging Olympic Games. All cities bidding to host the Games are required to have a comprehensive environmental program that is executed during the preparatory phase of the Games. Also, the Word Conference on Sport and Environment is held every two years since 1995, where hundreds of representatives, from NOCs and IOC affiliated sports federations and associ ations, gather together to review the impacts of various mega sport events on the environment and organizational contributions to sustainability. In 1999, the IOC collaborated with the UNEP to develop the Agenda 21 for Sport and the Environment, which is a comprehensive plan of action to be taken by each organization, government, and country in the area where human causes negative impacts on the environment. It includes several measures to improve the environment affected by mega events. One of them is the improvement of socioeconomic conditions of the host city. The second is the conservation and management of resources in the host city environment. The agenda also includes strengthening the role of groups in order to explore the host citys maximum envir onmental potential. Finally, the agenda ensures that the policy of sustainable development is integrated into the Olympic movements actions. It is currently implemented by the Olympic membership countries and other sport organizations.
28 Olympic Games and Environmental Responsibility According to Olympic Chapter (IOC, 2007), Olympism is a philosophy of life exalting and combining in a balanced whole the qualities of body, will and mind. This philosophy seeks to create a way of life based on the joy of effort, the educational value of good example and respect for universal fundamental ethical principles, and aims to place sport at the service of the harmonious development of man, with a view to promoting a peaceful society concerned with the preservati on of human dignity (p.11). It also presents that one of the IOCs missions is to encourage environmental concern, promote sustainable development in sport, and stimulate the development of Green Olympics (IOC, 2007). According to the United Nations defi nition, sustainable development refers to a balanced development between peoples economic and social needs with the ability of the earths resources and ecosystems to satisfy present and future needs (Beyer, 2006). During the Centennial Olympic Congress i n 1994, the relationship between Olympic Games and the environment was the main discussion topic. It was suggested that the IOC could and should be an agent for focusing attention on environmental issues, and sensitizing the world to environmental responsi bilities in general. The environmental policies and action programs needed the support of every informed and concerned citizen. It was also discussed that the Olympic Games should play a powerful role in modifying the attitudes and behavior of the populati on though they might cause tremendous environmental challenges. Another important aspect of the Congress was that sport was viewed as a valuable asset for promoting awareness of environment protection because it could be practiced effectively by all sector s of society and was fully accepted by the public. Other topics such as sporting goods industry, waste management, energy saving and recycling, sports infrastructure, and construction materials were also
29 important topics during the conference that helped t o develop more practical solutions on environmental aspect (Mascagni, 2008). Green Olympics has been developed with an aim to carry out the environmental responsibilities of the Games in developing sustainable Olympics, encouraging respect for the nature and environment, and raising environmental concern among all the athletes, spectators, and even every citizen to create a harmonious world. The Sport and Environment Commission created in 1995 has been working on the promotion of sustainable development and environmental responsibility. Its objectives are set to reduce the negative impact on the environment, utilize the Games as a vehicle to develop and improve the environment in and around the host city, leave a green legacy in the host city, and promote a wareness on the importance of a healthy environment (IOC, 2007). Contributions of Previous Host Cities Tokyo and Seoul Olympic Games The Olympic Games has been considered as a major opportunity for urban planners and policy makers to improve the infrastructure and environment of the city even before the environment was added as the third element to the Olympic Movement. Both Tokyo and Seoul made outstanding environmental improvements compared to other games before 1994. They used the Olympic Games as a s timulus to diminish pollution, advance sanitation standards, modernize waste disposal systems, and raise environmental standards. In the Tokyo Games of 1964, the city made a number of environmental improvements. For instance, the water supply system of the city that pipe water from Kanagawa and other adjacent districts was improved. Its waste management system was ameliorated as a result of three newly constructed sewage disposal plants. Standards of public health within the city were also improved through regulating refuse and garbage collections, renovating public toilet facilities, controlling food hygiene, and
30 cleaning streets and rivers. In the Seoul Games of 1988, various programs were applied to encourage public transportation so as to reduce air poll utions from personal car emissions. An environmental beautification program was carried out to ensure health and hygiene standards throughout the city. The local residents were encouraged to involve in these projects via conservation awareness campaigns an d the formation of local committees for environmental beautification. Also, new programs were introduced to deal with air pollutions, garbage control, and water quality preservation (Chalkley & Essex, 1999). Lillehammer, Sydney, and Torino Olympic Games Ac cording to the UNEPs environmental review, the Lillehammer Games of 1994, the Sydney Games of 2000, and the Torino Games of 2006 all set new benchmarks for environmental awareness and sensitivity (UNEP, 2007). Lillehammer was the host city for 1994 Winter Olympic Games. It was the first city to add the sustainable environmental policy to the existing elements of the Olympic movement. The Games were referred to as the Olympic environmental showcase due to the collective effort of government, environmental a gencies, and groups in the planning process and the introduction of the environment as the third dimension of the Olympic movement. About 20 environmentally concerned projects were initiated and a four point plan for the environment was drawn up. These projects focused on the harmonious integration of facilities into the landscape, the use of natural and local materials, and measures addressing energy conservation and recycling. Lillehammer provided an example to diminish the conflict between the Games and the environment, and led to the creation of mature environmental policies and specific regulations for the organization of future Olympic Games (Cantelon & Letters, 2000). The 2000 Sydney Olympics was the first attempt to green the Games and also the first city to win an Olympic bid with a series of environmental protection measures attached to its
31 application. The Sydney Olympic Committee made great efforts in executing environmental principles. It introduced sustainable technological solutions into the de sign, construction, and implementation of the Games, and achieved a number of notable successes. For example, Sydney cleaned up a toxic site, increased renewable energy use, reduced PVC use, established sustainable water management system, improved public transportation, and used solar and electric vehicles (Chan et al., 2006). Sydney chose the Homebush Bay area as the site for the Games Village. This was a toxic site that had nine million cubic meters of waste filling more than 160 hectares of natural wetl ands. This toxic area had a detrimental impact on the wider environment and water resources. It was replaced with sustainable and environmentally sound infrastructure for preparing and hosting the Olympic Games. Another important success of Sydney was the switch from conventional fossil fuels to clean and renewable energy. For instance, the grid connected solar photovoltaic and rooftop solar power were widely used at the Olympic Park and the Olympic Village to satisfy the huge energy demands of the Games. T he Sydney Olympics diminished Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) use especially in water and waste pipes at most of the Olympic venues. PVC produces harmful chemicals and dioxins which are likely to cause birth defects, cancer, and hormone disruption. An Australianmade PVC free cable was developed especially for use at the Village and other venues, and is now available to the Australian general market. Sydney also introduced sustainable water management systems at the Olympic Park whose design was to maximize collection of storm water and minimize on site demand for water. One of the most critical successes of the Games was the high degree of public transportation use by building public transit into each event ticket. The use of electric and solar powered vehicles in the Olympic Park was another step toward complete environmental awareness (Greenpeace, 2001).
32 Torino Winter Olympic Games in 2006 were characterized by a structured sustainability strategy, taking into account not only the environmental aspect of sustaina bility, but also its social and economic dimensions. The sustainability reporting was one of the most important contributions of the Torino Games. The reporting could be used to measure, evaluate, communicate, and improve the social and environmental performance of the Olympic Committee. Generally, it may be explained as the process for the public to assess an organizations economic, environmental, and social performance. Torino 2006 Olympics were the first Games to draw the attention of IOC on the sustain ability reporting. It was suggested by IOC that sustainability reporting should become a systematic activity of Olympic Organizing Committees starting from Vancouver 2010 XXI Winter Olympics. The Torino Games also represented the first case in Italy to app ly the Strategic Environmental Assessment. A considerable number of environmental activities were implemented in Torino regarding different issues like water cycle, soil use, energy consumption, waste production, ecosystem, landscape, and urban environment For example, through the Green Procurement Project, sponsors were selected based on the ecological quality of products. The Torinos Education Program covered all the primary and secondary schools in the national territory, involving more than 6,000 schools and 600,000 students on the whole (Frey, Iraldo, & Melis, 2007) 2008 Beijing Green Olympics Competition to host the Olympic Games has been intense since the 1984 Los Angeles Olympic Games. After an unsuccessful bid for the 2000 Summer Olympics, Beijing doubled its efforts and was eventually elected as the host city for the Games of the XXIX Olympiad on July 13, 2001 (UNEP, 2007). The Beijing Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games (BOCOG) stated that lasting goal for the XXIX Olympic Games would be to promote the environment as
33 the third pillar of Olympism and that sport could be a powerful force in raising awareness about sustainable development at local and global levels. Green Olympics in Beijing The Green Olympics concept was initiated in 2000 by BOCOG and Beijing Municipal Government to promote the environmental sustainability of the Games (UNEP, 2007). It emphasizes the BOCOGs commitment to Olympic values and sustainable development. BOCOG set three guiding principles for the Games: Gree n Olympics, High tech Olympics, and Peoples Olympics. In the UNEPs environmental review of Beijing Olympic Games, it explains Green Olympics as follow: The city of Beijing identifies environmental protection and strict environmental standards as a key requisite for the design and construction of the Olympic Games facilities. BOCOG is charged with ensuring that environmentally friendly technologies and measures are applied in the construction of infrastructure and venues, and that urban and rural foresta tion and environmental protection area carried out. The committee is also responsible for promoting environmental awareness among the general public, and encouraging the citizens of Beijing to make green consumption choices (p. 32). The Green Olympics c oncept was also reflected in the five Olympic mascots that were designed to promote environmental awareness. Beibei was a flying fish, meaning clear water; Jingjing was a panda, representing environmental protection and Green Hills; Yingying was a Tibe tan endemic protected antelope delivering Grass covered Ground message; Nini was a flying swallow, referring to the message of Blue Sky; and Huanhuan represented the Olympic Flame (UNEP, 2007). In addition, the Green Olympics concept was also delivered through the Green Olympic logo that was composed of people and green trees and used for Green Olympics communication and education (UNEP, 2007).
34 Beijings Preparations for Green Olympics The environment was prominent in Beijings original bid, planning, and preparation for the 2008 Olympic Games. In the Green Olympics Program that was formed during Beijings bid for the Games, Beijing set aside a total investment of U.S. $12.2 billion for green initiatives: $ 5.6 billion for the period of 19982002 and $ 6.6 billion for the period of 20032007 (UNEP, 2007). From 19982007, Beijing spent a total of billion (i.e., $15.7 billion) on environmental initiatives (BOCOG, 2007a). According to a report released by UNEP after the Beijing Olympics, Beijing inves ted over $ 17 billion on environmental projects. China took a bold step in cooperating with the Greenpeace, the IOC, and the UNEP to participate in the Green Olympics. Beijing made notable efforts during the preparatory period for the Games in the follow ing environmental areas: Air quality, energy, transportation, water environment, ecological conversation and construction, industrial pollution, and solid waste management (UNEP, 2007, 2008; Zhang, 2008) Air Quality Preparation for staging the Games prov ided the Beijing Municipal Government with a great impetus for addressing air quality problems. From 1998 to 2008, the government applied more than 200 environmental measures to reduce air pollution, such as controlling vehicle emission standards, investing in public transportation, increasing energy efficiency, constantly monitoring air quality, and reforming energy structure by increasing the use of other green energy resources. These projects all represented viable long term solutions for reforming air quality and also represented great policy achievements for Beijing. Beijing applied the Standard II National Ambient Air Quality Standards (GB 30951996) to monitor its daily air quality, which mainly reflected levels of four major air pollutants: Sulphur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and particulate matter
35 (PM10) (UNEP, 2007). According to data released by the Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau (EPB) from measurements conducted by 27 monitoring stations in the municipal a rea, the number of days with air quality equal to or above the National Standard increased from 100 days in 1998 to 241 days in 2006 (UNEP, 2007), to 274 days in 2008 (UNEP, 2008) From 2000 to 2006, annual means of SO2, NO2, and CO concentrations in Beij ing were respectively reduced from 71u g/m3 to 53 u g/m3, 71ug/m3 to 66 ug/m3, and 2.7mg/m3 to 2.1mg/m3. However, the concentration of PM10 in 2006 was almost the same as that in the year of 2000 (UNEP, 2007). The UNEP analyzed daily (24 hour) pollution le vel in Beijing from July to October 2008 to examine the effects of the temporary measures on air quality. The data revealed that the SO2 and NO2 levels were significant below the air quality standard for the entire period, and that the average PM10 and CO levels fell below the air quality standard most of the time (UNEP, 2008). UNEP (2008) reported that, compared to the same time in previous years, diverse air pollutants in Beijing decrease dramatically during the Games period. After removing the influence of weather condition, it was found that from 119 July 2008, various reactive gas concentrations highly relative to vehicle emission, such as NO2, decreased by about 40%, PM10 concentrations decrease by 10% 25 %, and that traffic related particulate black carbon concentrations decreased by 25% 30%. In addition, SO2 concentrations also dropped to a lesser extent compared to those pollutants relating to the traffic. Additional control measures were applied to improve the air quality from 20 July until the end of the Games. During this period, NO2 was reduced by an additional 15%, black carbon dropped by 10% 20%, PM10 concentrations remained the same level. Energy According to the National Bureau of Statistics, in 2007 China consumed 2.65 billion tons of c oal equivalents (TCE). Beijing, one of the highest energy consumption cities in China, relies
36 heavily on coal that contributes to large quantities of dioxides and particular matter air pollution. A variety of methods were applied by Beijing to reform its e nergy structure, such as increasing the use of natural gas, wind energy, solar energy, and other forms of renewable energy. Also, several projects were developed by Beijing Municipal Government to increase energy efficiency and reduce energy consumption. C hinas 11th Five Year Plan (20062010) on energy development states that the country aims to increase the share of natural gas in the primary energy mix from 2.0% to 5.3% by 2010 and up to 10% by 2020 (Jiang, 2007). The purchase of natural gas in Beijing i ncreased from 320 million m3 in 1998 to 3, 520 million m3 in 2006 (UNEP, 2007). Beijings ratio of natural gas consumption to total energy consumption increased from 0.5 % in 1997 to 7.0% in 2007 (Beijing Daily, 2008).Between 2003 and 2006, more than 6, 000 restaurant and 11, 0000.household heating systems were converted from coal to electricity, and about 90,000 households in Old Hutong were switched to electric heating by 2008 (UNEP, 2008). Currently, China is already ranked as the worlds third largest wind turbine producer. Domestically, the installed capacity of wind power has heavily increased in the past few years. China is now also one of the worlds top three solar photovoltaic (PV) producers. The use of solar heaters in Beijing equaled to 3.4 million m2 in 2006, 17.6% more than that in 2005. Over 120, 000 solar powered street lamps, one of the highest numbers in the world, were installed in Beijing. To increase energy efficiency, China has set a goal of a 20% reduction in energy consumption per uni t of GDP by 2010 (Zhang, 2008). According to the Beijing Reform and Development Commission, during the 10th Five Year Plan (2001 2005), Beijings economy grew by 12.0% annually, while its yearly energy consumption only increased by 5.9%. Energy consumption per 10, 000 RMB of GDP decreased by 45.5%, from 1.14 TCE in 2001 (UNEP,
37 2007) to 0.714 TCE in 2007, about 38.0% lower than the national average (The Central Peoples Government of the Peoples Republic of China, 2008). Energy saving design and new technol ogies were widely incorporated in Olympic venues. Six thousand square meters of direct current tube rooftop solar collectors were installed in the residential units of the Olympic Village, which was capable of providing hot water for all of the residential and supporting buildings. In Peking University, 300m2 solar heating water system was installed to heat all the swimming pool facilities. Solar collectors for bathing facilities were installed in Beijings shooting range hall and Beijing Olympic Tower. Solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems were applied in the National Stadium, Wukesong Stadium, Fengtai Softball Stadium, Chaoyang Park Beach Volleyball venue, and Olympic Forest Park. Geothermal (ground source) heat pump air conditioning and heating systems were used in Shunyi Olympic Rowing and Canoeing Park, Olympic Forest Park, and Peking University Gymnasium. In addition, renewable energy and energy efficient lighting were widely adopted in the Olympic Green, National Aquatics Centre, and all con tract hotels. New techniques and products are currently being encouraged to be adopted in new buildings other than Olympic venues, such as heating preservation/ insulation techniques for outer walls and new types of energy saving windows and doors (Zhang, 2008). Public Transportation Beijing had taken some significant steps toward improving and expanding public transportation, increasing low emission buses and taxis, and adopting high fuel emission standards for new vehicles. To improve its public transpor tation system, Beijing started the construction of 77 roads and bridges in the years prior to the opening of the Games (UNEP, 2007). A 16 km long southmiddle Bus Rapid Transit line, with a capacity of 100,000 passengers per day, was finished in 2006 (UNEP 2007). Beijing also built four additional subway lines and
38 an Olympic Branch Line which runs from Line 10 to Olympic venues. According to the official data, the total subway capacity in Beijing was increased from 1.3 million to 3.9 million between 2000 a nd 2008 (Zhang, 2008). The number of buses reached 20,000 in 2007, twice the number in 1991(UNEP, 2008).With the new transportation system, Beijings public ground transportation reached a total of 19 million passengers per day (UNEP, 2007). Beijing also implemented several effective measures to encourage the use of public transportations. On September 16, 2007, China launched a one week nationwide campaign Green Transport and Health to encourage the use of public transportations. It covered Beijing, Shan ghai, and 106 other cities in China (UNEP, 2007). In Beijing, subway and public bus fares were cut in an effort to encourage the use of public transportations. During the Olympic Games period, cars with even or odd numbered plates were forbidden to drive on alternative days in Beijing. Also, BOCOG offered people with tickets to the Olympic Games free public transportations for 51 days throughout the city (UNEP, 2007). Beijing made great efforts to reduce traffic related emission. By the end of 2006, Beijing had replaced more than 47,000 old taxis out of 60,000 and refitted about 7,000 old diesel buses out of 19,000 old diesel buses. During this time, Beijing introduced 3,759 Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) public buses, one of the worlds largest CNG bus fleets (UNEP, 2007). For visitors during the Games, 200300 bicycles were available in the Olympic Park and Olympic Village (UNEP, 2007). In 2001, Beijing implemented an environmental labeling system for vehicles. Vehicles satisfying the requirements were marked with yellow or green labels, which were allowed to circulate in Beijing. Older vehicles with sub standard emission systems were slowly phased out as well as limited from entering the city center (UNEP, 2007). From March 1, 2008, Beijing initiated a new EU RO IV standard, two years ahead of schedule specifically set for the
39 Olympic Games. Beijings move from EURO III in 2005 to EURO IV in 2008 was estimated to deliver an overall 50% reduction in emissions (Li, 2008).Temporary transport measures were applied from 1 July to 20 September 2008 to get more vehicles off the roads. For instance, amount of 400, 000 yellow labeled vehicles were forbidden to use in Beijing; about half of the 3.4million registered vehicles were not allowed to run on alternative days; Up to 70% of the government office vehicle fleet was restricted to use in the city. In total, about 2 million vehicles daily were reduced to operate during this period (UNEP, 2008). Beijing also extended some of the temporary measures until April 2009, which include a ban on vehicles with yellow labels beyond 5th Ring Road, time limitation of heavy duty vehicles exceeding the Euro III emission standard, and one day off road per week for vehicles in Beijing (UNEP, 2008). Water Environment Beijing, located on a dry plateau in the northern China, struggles with severe water shortages. The water availability per capita of Beijing is just 1/32 of the international average level (Li, 2004). In 2007, Beijings annual water consumption reached 3.4 billion m3 (Beijin g Water Authority, 2007). Motivated by Green Olympics, a number of new Olympic venues and refurbished venues, such as the National Stadium (Birds Nest), Olympic Green, and Olympic Forest Park, applied water saving designs including rainwater collection, w ater efficiency, water re use, and water recycling features to reduce water demand during and after the Games. The main water sources of Beijing are the Miyun Reservoir, from which most of Beijings drinking water comes, and the Huairou Reservoir which provides water for the agriculture. The Olympic Games provided a great opportunity to develop the citys water saving techniques and sewage treatment structures. According to the UNEPs (2007) Environmental Review, the central government closed down heavily polluting enterprises in the area close to the reservoir to guarantee the quality of water supply to the city. To ensure that the quality of water from Miyun
40 and Huairou Reservoirs continue to meet potable water standards, government authorities banned ille gal construction and fish farming, closed down small mines on the upper stream, and developed rural sanitation facilities in the protection zones for ground water resources (Zhang, 2008). It was reported in the Beijing Daily that Beijing would benefit from 480 million m3 of recycled water in 2007, which accounted for about 14% of total water consumed in Beijing that year; meanwhile, a number of 600 million m3 was expected in 2008 throughout the city (BOCOG, 2007b). According to government statistics, 15 projects including the National Stadium (Birds Nest), Olympic Green, and Wukesong Baseball Field were installed rainwater collection systems, which were capable of utilizing about one million tons of rainwater. The advanced enclosed water circulation system was installed in the Olympic Forest Park, which meant about 95% of rainwater inside the park could be reused for irrigations (Beijing Evening News, 2007). The Olympic Green has a systematic rain gathering water reuse technology that has a collection cover age area of 97 hectares. It can provide 320,000 m3 of ground water, and also add about 90,000 m3 to the water system. As a result, 80% of the water in the Olympic Green can be reused which can provide up to 50,000 m3 of water for irrigation. All wastewate r from the Olympic Green can be recycled for landscape irrigations and toilets in the Olympic Green. In addition, the rainwater recycling system installed in the National Stadium is able to process up to 100 tons of rainwater per hour, of which 80 tons can be reused for landscaping, fire fighting, and stadium cleaning (Zhang, 2008). The Games also provided Beijing with an opportunity to develop its wastewater treatment system. From 2000 to 2006, Beijing built 600 km of new sewage pipes, with a total networ k length of 2,500 km, of which 700 km are also used to collect rain water. Also, 17 new
41 wastewater treatments plants were built in Beijing before 2007, increasing the total treatment capacity by 2 million tons. The rate of wastewater treatment in Beijing c ity (not including the Beijing suburb areas) increased dramatically from 22% in 1998 to 90% in 2006 (UNEP, 2007). Wastewater treatment systems were also equipped in some of the Olympic venues including the National Aquatics Center (Water Cube), Shunyi Water Park, Olympic Tennis Center, Olympic Forest Park, and Olympic Center, contributing to a treatment capacity of one million tons in total. Ecological Conservation and Construction BOCOG and Beijing Municipal Government carried out a series of greening pr ojects for both Olympic venues and the city of Beijing. For instance, they increased the forest coverage in mountain areas, established an Olympic Forest Park, and greened five major waterways as well as highways. The necessity of forest protection has bee n recognized by all governments in the world. As the worlds largest log importer, China has a great responsibility to work with international organizations and other governments to protect the worlds endangered forests. In the last 50 years Beijing has w orked on reforestation projects aimed at protecting water resources and conservation soil and water in the mountains, preventing dissertation in the plains, and improving green landscapes through a green belt system in the urban area (UNEP, 2007). The fore st coverage has increased in Beijing, especially during the 10th five Year Plan (20012005) period. Forest coverage in the mountain region reached a rate of 57.23% in 2000, 67.84% in 2004, 68.25% in 2005, 69.52% in 2006, and 70.5% by 2008 (UNEP, 2008). Aim ing to support the principles of the Green Olympics, on May 30, 2006, BOCOG made an official announcement that timber source from the tropical forests of Indonesia would not be used for Olympic venues, and construction materials with minimal environmental impact would be used instead. Besides,
42 in the Environmental Protection Guidelines for Beijing 2008 Catering Services, BOCOG presented that disposable chopsticks should not be used in the catering industry (Zhang, 2008). To improve the ecosystem and the la ndscape in Beijing, a system of green belt areas were established in its central area. By the end of 2006, more than 100 green belt sectors had been established in the city, which increased its landscape area by nearly 700 ha. Green coverage was added to t he borders of the main roads in Beijing, including the Second, Third, and Fourth Ring Roads. An additional 13, 300 ha were developed to green the Forth Ring Road, which is directly linked with the main stadium of the 2008 Olympic Games (UNEP, 2007). Beside s, the Olympic Forest Park was built on the Olympic Green, with an area of 680 hectares that is about 1.5 times the size of Central Park in New York City, with 475 hectares of green space (Zhang, 2008). Green coverage in the urban districts in Beijing incr eased from 36% in 2000 to 43% by the end of 2008, which exceeded the Olympic bid goal of 40% (UNEP, 2008). Industrial Pollution Industrial production is economically important for Beijing. Industrial gross product accounts for more than one third of the citys total GDP. However, it also causes serious environmental problems, such as sulphur dioxide (SO2) and soot pollution. To reduce and control industrial pollution, Beijing was committed to closing highly polluting companies, relocating factories outsid e the urban perimeter, adjusting industrial regulations, and developing new industrial zones. From 1998 to 2006, a dramatic increase in company relocations occurred, and 197 out of 209 companies moved between 2000 and 2006. In the last few years before the Games, 17 major industrial companies were closed or relocated, including the Beijing Second Pharmaceutical Factory, Beijing Dye Factory, and Beijing Coke Plant. The closure of the Beijing Coke Plant resulted in a reduction of 3 million tons of coal consum ption a year. SO2 and soot emissions were also reduced by 7,500 and 7,300 tons respectively (UNEP, 2007). UNEP (2007)
43 also reported that the Municipal Bureau for Industrial Development required companies in the industrial development zones to follow 3R a pproach (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle). New, sustainable, and advanced industrial projects and factories that were equipped with low consumption of natural resources and eco friendly technologies were strongly supported. To control for pollution emissions, the B eijing Municipal Government launched the Beijing Municipal Plan for Control of Main Pollutant Emissions During the 11th 5Year Plan which set stringent environmental regulations for Beijing. In relation to refrigerants, China has become the leading manuf acturer of airconditioners that use the refrigerant hydrochloroluorocarbons 22 (HCFC 22), which is both ozone depleting and a potent greenhouse gas (Bradsher, 2007). As a developing country, China has already phased out chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as of July 2007, which was 2.5 years ahead of the 2010 deadline for developing countries. China has planned to phase out HCFCs, with fewer ozone layer damaging effects, by the end of 2030 (UNEP, 2007). Solid Waste Management Beijing conducted several projects to improve its solid waste management system. In December 2003, Beijing released a White Paper on Domestic Garbage Disposal that revised its domestic waste management system. New facilities for domestic waste processing were then developed. At the end of 2006, Beijing had 23 domestic waste disposal facilities with a capacity for processing 16,210 tons of waste a day. In 2008, the number of waste treatment facilities increased to 32. In accordance with the principles of waste reduction, reuse, and recycling, the government introduced new standards for waste policy and new regulations to separate compostable and recyclable waste from garbage that could not be recycled or composted. To increase residents awareness of separate garbage collection, the municipal gov ernment trained employees in more than 140 district offices and over 1,000 real estate management companies
44 throughout the entire city. Trainers distributed approximately 300,000 copies of brochures, 100,000 posters, and more than one million copies of var ious publicity materials. About 18,000 residential communities with three million people assisted with implementing separate waste collection. According to UNEP (2008), waste classification and recycling services covered 27% of the population in Beijing by 2007, which exceeded its Olympic bid goals for waste classification and recycling. On site composting facilities were encouraged by the Beijing Municipality to improve composting rates. In 2006, 270 thousand tons of waste was composted, 1.43 million tons were recycled, and the rate of resource reutilization was increased to 30.6 %. In 2004 and 2005, two medical waste processing plants were built in Beijing with a total daily processing capacity of 60 tons, meeting the actual needs of the city (UNEP, 2007) On June 1, 2008, the Chinese central government released a policy to forbid the free use of plastic bags and make bags more environmentally friendly (Jinghua News, 2008). Awareness, Perception, and Attitude Awareness of Green Olympics The term awareness is often used synonymously with consciousness, in the sense of being awake or aware of incoming perceptual stimuli, or possessing certain knowledge, thoughts, or intentions (Zeman, 1997). In this study, awareness is defined as a state of knowledge about the Green Olympics concept, ranging from simply recalling of the name to a highly developed cognitive structure based on detailed information. Green Olympics is a relatively new concept to Chinese before Beijing was selected as the host city for 2008. To publicize this concept and raise environmental awareness, a number of education and communication projects were employed before and during the Games. BOCOG mainly utilized education programs to raise awareness of the environment in primary and secondary schools in Beijing and around the country. The Beijing 2008 Primary and
45 Secondary School Olympic Education Program was implemented in 2006 throughout the country, involving 400 million students, to promote the Olympic values and encourage environmentally frie ndly lifestyle. The Green School Project in October 2006, including 728 schools in Beijing, aimed to encourage schools to consider environmental measures in their day to day activities and teach environmental values. In addition, the Reserve a Barrel of W ater this Summer Initiative project, implemented in the primary schools in Beijing 18 districts and counties, was used to develop water saving initiatives and communicating the importance of water saving. In 2005 and 2006, a painting contest, with the the me Green Dream, Colorful Olympics, was organized for the primary and secondary students in over 20 provinces, and more than 8,000 pictures were received (UNEP, 2007). BOCOG also developed several projects to spread the message of Green Olympics among the general public. The Green Olympics Green Action Team was established in 2004 by BOCOG and the Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau. It was used to promote Olympic environmental values, principles, and practices about sustainable development. BOCOG produced several publications on the Green Olympic theme, including the IOC Agenda 21, the BOCOG environmental reports for the years 2003 2006, and the environmental guidelines for construction of Olympic venues. In 886 communities in Beijing, the Green Comm unity and Green Home Campaign was launched to raise environmental awareness among Beijing family and communities, encourage water and energy saving, and promote waste sorting and green consumption. Another major project was the One Day, No Engine Sounds Campaign in October 2006, including 504 institutions and 407 car clubs, which was used to encourage the adoption of alternative transportation ways other than cars and to raise the awareness of air and noise pollutions. In addition, the Beijing Green Map I nitiative was employed to encourage
46 Beijing citizens to label the environmental and cultural facilities around the city. A travel exhibition, the Close to the Nature Hand in Hand with Fuwa Exhibition, was developed to raise awareness about the living envir onment and habitat of the four animal like Fuwa (UNEP, 2007). Greenpeace believes that it is vital that the theme of Green Olympics is promoted among the Chinese public, with the objective of increasing the Chinese publics level of environmental awareness. Through a set of projects on delivering the message about Green Olympics, it was expected that the Chinese public would have a higher level of awareness about the Green Olympics and have more knowledge about environment. Awareness and Attitude The Yale attitude change approach, developed by Carl Hovland, suggests that varying opinions or beliefs (the knowledge component) that people have contribute to the change of their attitudes. Many researchers have conducted studies about the relationship between a ttitudes and knowledge, which is considered as a complicated one without being fully understood (Zimmerman, 1996). In Petrzelka and Korschings (1996) study of sustainable agriculture, they found that farmers knowledge change about sustainable agriculture lead to the change of their attitudes toward it. Mangas and Martinezs (1997) suggested that after finishing an environmental education course, there was an increase in both students environmental knowledge and their environmental attitudes. Floria, Wolf ing, and Fuhrer (1999) indicated that factual knowledge about the environment is a precondition of ones environmental attitude. A relationship was found between knowledge and attitude in the Kuhlemeier Bergh, and Lagerweijs (1999) study of environmenta l literacy. Similarly, Bradley, Waliczek and ZaJicek (1999) studied the relationship between knowledge and environmental attitude among high school students, and found that in both the pre and post test, students with higher knowledge scores also had high er attitude scores.
47 Residents Perceptions of Mega Events Based on Gibsons study about perception, Schwartz (2004) concluded and stated that perceiving is the picking up of information about the world made available to the perceiver by various sorts of physical stimulation (p. 93), which results in ones perception. In this context, information, as a feature of a mode of stimulation, exists in the world rather than in the perceiver. It may be picked up, overlooked, or ignored. Mega events are likely to stimulate both positive and negative impacts in several spheres: economic, tourism, commercial, physical, sociocultural, phychological, and political (Delamere 2001; Fredline, Jago & Deery, 2003; Ritchie 1984). There are many researches who have investigat ed perceived positive impacts of mega events. These studies have highlighted the economic benefits in the form of tax revenues, employments, and additional sources of income (Deccio & Baloglu, 2002; Getz, 1997; Hall, 1989; Kang & Perdue, 1994; Murphy & Car michael, 1991; Travis & Croize, 1987; Uysal & Gitelson, 1994). It is suggested that mega events are likely to improve community pride and international recognition of the host community (Hall, 1992; Jeong & Faulkner, 1996; Kim & Petrick, 2005; Mihalik & Cummings, 1995; Mihalik & Simonette, 1998; Ritchie & Aitken, 1984, 1985; Ritchie & Yangzhou, 1987). Many residents consider the lasting facilities created for the event as one of the great benefits (Allen, Hafer, Long, & Perdue, 1993; Chalkley & Essex,1999; Kendall & Var, 1984; Lankford & Howard ,1994b; Mihalik & Cummings, 1995; Mihalik & Simonette, 1998; Ritchie & Aitken, 1984; Ritchie & Lyons, 1990). Another critical impact of megaevents involves the improvement of residents life quality (Deccio & Baloglu, 2002; Goeldner & Long, 1987; Hall 2004). It is believed that mega events are able to improve cultural and shopping opportunities for the local residents ( Fredline 2005; Jeong & Faulkner, 1996), strengthen regional values and traditions, and even lead to a better understanding about other
48 cultures (Hall, 1989). In addition, hosting mega events can also improve city beautification and enhance its safety system (Kim & Petrick, 2005). Mega events are likely to bring benefits to the host communities, but they are also possible to cause problems to the local residents. In terms of the perceived negative impacts, mega events are regarded to cause price inflation and an increase in local tax to construct the facilities required to host the event, which burdens the locals financially (Deccio & Baloglu, 2002). If mega events require tremendous government assistance and compete for local manpower, the events may receive negative reactions from existing enterprises (Ritchie, 1984). Megaevents are also likely to creat e some societal problems such as traffic congestion, law enforcement strain, and increased crime (Mihalik & Cummings, 1995). Other societal and cultural problems include the negative influence on traditional family values (Kousis 1989), cultural commercial ization (Cohen, 1988), and conflicts between the host community and visitors because of different standards of living, economic welfare, and purchasing power gaps (Tosun, 2002). Mega events may also damage the image of the host community or make it acquire a poor reputation as a result of inadequate facilities or improper practices (Ritchie, 1984). Higham (1999) and Fredline (2005) identif ied the displacement of residents as negative effect of hosting mega events. Hall (2001) indicated that after Sydney bei ng selected as the host city for the 2000 Olympic Games, house and rental prices increased substantially in Sydney, which caused relocations of low income earners. Studies of residents perceptions of the impact on the environment in the tourism literatur e imply that residents may view hosting a mega event as either a positive (Allen, Long, Perdue & Kieselbach, 1988; Murphy 1983; Ritchie 1988) or a negative (Liu, Sheldon & Var 1987; Pizam 1978) impact. Ritchie (1984), one of the earliest researchers who investigated
49 environmental impact of mega events, suggested a conflict between benefits from the development of facilities and infrastructure for mega events and the potential for environmental degradation caused by facility constructions and their future us e. Mega events may be perceived to have negative impacts on the physical and natural environment, including pollution and the destruction or deterioration of natural, cultural, or historical resources. But they also can act as a positive factor for environmental protection. Deccio and Baloglu (2002) indicated that mega events were likely to serve as catalysts for bringing attention to the natural environment and thus help in preserving elements of the physical landscape and local heritage that would have ot herwise been ignored. Based on previous studies, residents ecocentric attitude, community attachment, and community concern are key factors that influence their perceptions of impacts from mega events (Deccio & Baloglu, 2002; Gursoy et al., 2002; Gursoy & Kendall, 2006). Thompson and Barton (1994) defined ecocentric or environmentalist as people who value the preservation of the natural environment for its own sake, and explained anthropocentric as people who support environmental protection because of materials or physical benefits it can provide for humans. Jurowski (1994) found that rural residents who held higher ecocentric values were more likely to perceive attraction based or nature based tourism negatively. Jurowski et al. (1997) reported tha t there was a significant relationship between the level of ecocentric attitude and host perceptions of impacts. Gursoy et al. (2002) also found that residents environmental attitude was related to how they perceived the costs and benefits from tourism de velopment. However, Deccio and Baloglu (2002) found that ecocentric attitudes did not have any significant influence on perceived impacts. Residents attitude about the relationship between human and the environment may influence their values and preferenc es for preservation and use of resources. It
50 is shared by researchers that residents with ecocentric values tend to support utilization of resources to protect and preserve environment, and residents with anthropocentric lean to agree sacrifice of environm ent to satisfy human needs and desires (Jurowski, Uysal, Williams, & Noe, 1993). These research findings indicate that attitudes toward the environment may affect the way residents perceive the impacts of tourism (Jones, Jurowski, & Uysal, 2000). The level of concern residents have about their community may influence their perception of mega events. Concerns about local issues such as the air quality, water quality, transportation, recreational opportunities, and so forth, may affect how they view the cost s and benefits of mega events. Previous research has found mixed conclusions about residents community concern in relation to their perceptions of events impacts, especially the perceived impact on environment (Allen et al., 1988; Ritchie 1988) and recrea tion opportunities (Keogh 1990; OLeary 1976; Perdue et al 1990). Despite some divergent findings, it is usually agreed that residents concerns about the community influence their perceptions of the potential costs and benefits (Perdue et al., 1990) and t heir support for venue development (Gursoy et al., 2002). Attachment to the community, defined as the level of social bonds such as friendships, sentiment, and social participation (Goudy, 1982; Jurowski 1994), considered being another factor that impacts residents perceptions of mega events. McCool and Martin (1994) reported a greater sense of belonging to a community as closely correlated to higher ratings of both positive and negative impacts. Gursoy and Kendall (2006) studied the relationship between c ommunity attachment and attitudes toward mega events, and found that residents highly attached to their community trended to view mega events beneficial for the local community which was consistent with the study by Deccio and Balogu (2002). Jurowski et al (1997) argued that attached residents were prone to evaluate the economic and social impacts from tourism
51 positively, while tend to perceive its environmental impacts negatively which was shared in Jurowski et al. (1993)s study about environmental attit udes. Um and Crompton (1987) found that community attachment was negatively related to the perceived impacts related to the tourism. Lankford and Howard (1994) and Gursoy et al. (2002) did not find a clear connection between attachment and impact perceptio ns, while Deccio and Baloglu (2002) found that host community attachment had no significant impact on perceived opportunities and support. However, they did find community attachment had a significant influence on perceived concerns. Residents Attitude toward Mega Event Eagly and Chaiken (1993) defined attitude as a psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degrees of favor or disfavor (1993:1). Responses that express evaluation and reveal peoples attitudes should be composed of three aspects: cognition, affect, and behavior (Rosenberg & Hovland, 1960). The cognitive aspect refers to peoples thoughts about the attitude object; the affective aspect means peoples feelings or emotions with respect to the attitude object; the behavioral aspect explains peoples action relating to the attitude object. In this study, the entity, the attitude object, is the 2008 Beijing Green Olympics. Based on social exchange theory, if residents perceive that the benefits from h osting the Green Olympics exceed the costs, they will have positive attitude toward them. There is a direct relationship between resident support and the perceived economic benefits and long term awareness derived from the events (Ritchie & Lyons, 1990; Mi halik & Simonetta, 1998). It is suggested that residents who are likely to obtain the greatest benefits from the event often favor and support hosting the event more than those who receive fewer benefits (Perdue et al.,, 1990; Ritchie, 1988). Ritchie and S mith (1991) conducted a longitudinal study of the1988 Winter Olympic Games in Calgary and found that residents consistently supported the event because of
52 perceived short and longterm rewards. Turco (1998), on the other hand, found that a majority of res idents received social benefits from a hallmark event and were thus more willing to support public funding of facility development and event promotion. After successfully hosting an event, the positive evaluation of its social impacts is likely to lead to residents supportive attitude toward future events (Besculides, Lee, & McCormick, 2002; Brunt & Courtney, 1999; Lankford & Howard, 1994; Madrigal, 1993). The perceived detrimental impacts to the environment is possible to cause negative attitude toward hosting future mega events while the events which are regarded as catalysts in preserving the natural environment lean to positive attitude toward the future events (Liu & Var, 1986). Summary The relationship between sport and environment is significant for the sustainable development. Sport activities can cause environmental degrading (Ritchie, 1984) or lead to the increase of environmental concern (Deccio & Baloglu, 2002). Olympic Games, considering the large number of people, activities, and materials involved, are more likely to have great influence on the environment. According to Olympic Movements Agenda 21, the concept of sustainable development was adopted as the central theme that must govern the implementation of development plans for the 21st centu ry (IOC,2009c), which is also in conformity with the goal of Olympism to place sport at the service of the harmonious development of humankind. In the Candidature File, it is stated that from the beginning of the candidature to the post Olympic period, a ll measures should be taken to minimize or eliminate environmental impact and to benefit the harmonious interrogation of the Olympic Games into the natural surrounding (IOC, 2002). However, environment was not always considered as an importance factor for the Olympic Games until it was added as the third dimension to the Olympic Movement in 1996. The Games had gone from virtually no consideration of environmental issues to some
53 comprehensive efforts to minimizing adverse effects (Balderstone, 2001). Sustainable development has been a popular concept in all the areas including economic, social, and environment. Today, the world faces a number of major environmental problems that directly influence the health of human beings as well as plants and animals, such as global warming, deforestation, loss of biodiversity, ozone depletion, pollution, and over consumption of natural resources. During the United Nations Conference of the Environment in 1972, it was declared that environmental protection and improvement s hould be an urgent desire of the whole world and the duty of all governments. Overtime, the economic development is directly tied to the health of the environment (UNEP, 2009). Therefore, environmental sustainability should become one of the most important considerations for every country and organization aiming to achieve long term benefits, so are the Olympic Games. The IOC in cooperation with the UNEP has conducted various activities to raise awareness and educate people on environmental matters in sport since 1994. In 1995, the Sport and Environment Commission was created to promote the environmental responsibility and sustainable development. The biennial Word Conference on Sport and Environment was started in 1995 to bring together experts to contribut e to the awareness of the relationship between sport and the environment. After adding the environment to the Olympic Movement in 1996, the Olympic Games that serve to develop a harmonious world have been trying to establish a sustainable relationship with the environment. In 1999, an Agenda 21 was developed by the IOC and the UNEP to give guidance on sport and environment development. The IOC also requires that the host cities pay special attention to the environmental aspect during the preparation, operat ion, and particularly post Olympic periods. The Sydney Games in 2000, Salt Lake City Games in 2002, Athens Games in 2004, Turin
54 Games in 2006, and Beijing Games in 2008 all made efforts to green the Olympics and left some environmental contributions to the host communities. Obviously, the Olympic Games place great concern on the sustainable development. To realize the essential role of the environment in sport development and ensure that the Olympic Games entail their environmental responsibility, it is ne cessary to study the Green Olympics development, and investigate the environmental changes over the course of the Olympics preparation, operation, and post Olympic periods. However, few studies have examined the effectiveness of environment protection pl ans as the third aspect in the Olympic Movement, and even fewer focused on the environmental changes during the whole process of the Games. Overall, it is necessary to examine the awareness, perception, attitude, behavioral intentions, and actual behavior of residents of the host community of Olympic Games, and how they function together and lead to continued reinforcement of environmental protections and improvements. Studying the relationships among awareness, perception, attitude, behavioral intentions, and actual behavior for this study can be illustrated as Figure 2 1.
55 Figure 2 1. Theoretical Model --Relationships among Awareness, Perception, Attitude, Behavior Intention, and Actual Behavior. Attitude Actual Behavior Awarenes s Perception Behavior Intention
56 CHAPTER 3 METHOD The method of this study is presented in the following four sections: (a) participants, (b) measurement, (c) procedures, and (d) data analyses. A survey design was conducted in this study to evaluate the residents awareness, perception, atti tude, behavior intention, and actual behavior associated with the 2008 Beijing Green Olympics. Participants This study was conducted from June to August in 2009 in Beijing, China, the host city of the 2008 Olympic Games, A convenient sampling procedure wa s adopted and participation in this study was completely voluntary. In an attempt to obtain a diversified sample of the residential population, respondents (N = 298) were recruited in 16 districts of Beijing, which were of various distances from the National Stadium (i.e., the Birds Nest). In order to effectively examine the residents awareness, perceptions, attitude, behavior intention, and actual behavior toward the Beijing Green Olympics, participants in this study needed to have primarily lived in Bei jing as their main residential location from 2001 to June, 2009. The year of 2001 was critical as it was when Beijing was granted to host the 2008 Olympic Games by the IOC. In an effort to ensure adult level memory and assessment accuracy, an individual wa s required to have been at least 18 years old in 2001, the legal adult age in China. Therefore, each participant was at least 26 years old at the time of test administration. To enhance sampling representation of Beijing residents, people with diverse demo graphic background, such as gender, age, education, and profession, were invited to participate in the study. Data collection was conducted via e mail, online survey, and face to face surveys. Assistance for data collection was obtained from trained resear ch assistants who resided in Beijing.
57 According to the Beijing Statistical Yearbook 2007 (n.d., 2007) of the sampled residents in Beijing with at least 25 years old, about 42.4% were male and 57.6% were female. Close to 13.5% with 25 to 30years old, 24.0% with age from 30 to 39, 23.6% aged from 4049, 18.5% with 50 to 59years old, and about 20.5% aged 60 or older. In terms of family size, about 35.0% of the sample came from families with three people ; 30.5% with two people, 18.0% with four or more peopl e, and 16.5% with only one person. Of the sample in this study, 56.4% were male and 43.6% were female. The sample contained participants of various age groups, including younger than 30 (40.1%), between 30 and 39 (31.6%), between 4049 (17.5%), between 50 and 59 (8.8%), and 60 or older (2.05%). A majority of them were married (65.4%). Residence length was widely distributed, including 34.8% respondents with 21 to 40 years of residence, 25.0% with 6 to 10 years, 19.6% with 41 to 60 years, 15.2% with 11 to 20 years, and close to 4.7% with 5 or less years. A majority of the respondents (58.1%) possessed an undergraduate or an advanced degree ; however, about 16.8% of the sample had lower than a high school educational background. With respect to family size, 48.3% respondents came from families with three people ; 27.2% with four or more people, and 24.3% with one or two persons. Of them, 51.3% respondents were from households with less than 6,000 monthly income and on the other hand, 10.7% were of 15,000 or more monthly household income. In terms of residential locations, 47.7% of the respondents resided in districts within 15km of the Birds Nest, 22.3% resided in districts between 31km and 45km away from the Birds Nest, and close to 15.5% resided in the same district with the Birds Nest. In terms of community fee, about 50.7% of the residents had no such fee, close to 20.7% paid less than 100 or less per month, and 26.5% paid more than 100 monthly. Occupational categories were
58 widely distributed, mainly including education, clerical, student, skilled worker, management, farmer, professional, and sales (Table 3 1). Instrument A questionnaire was formulated based on a comprehensive review of literature and a test of content validity. This preliminary questionnaire included the following six sections: awareness, perception, attitude, behavior intention, actual behavior, and de mographic background (Table 31). The first section assessed a r esidents awareness, basic knowledge, and understanding of the Beijing Green Olympics initiative, which included nine questions in a multiple choice format and eight questions in a true or false format. These questions were of the focus on BOCOG plans for environment improvement and the implementation process of the plans. Identification and formulations of preliminary items were based on key literature containing plans and process of improving the environment of a host city for Olympic Games (e.g., IOC, 20 07; UNEP, 2007, 2008; Zhang, 2008). The second section assessed perceived impact of the Green Olympic initiative. This section contained 21 questions in a 7point Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree), which were derived from a nu mber of previous studies, including Ap and Crompton (1998), Ko and Stewart (2002), Liu and Var (1986), Liu, Sheldon, and Var (1987), and Ritchie and Inkari (2006). The questions generally focused on rating the effectiveness of improving air quality (2 items), use of renewable energy source (2 items), public transportation (3 items), water environment (4 items), ecological construction (4 items), industrial pollution (2 items), solid waste (2 items), and environmental education (2 items). The third section contained 12 questions measuring individual attitude toward both the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games and the Green Olympics, adopting a 7 point Likert scale (1 =
59 strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree). A number of the questions were adopted from Lindberg and Johnsons (1997) study on resident attitudes toward event visitors. Respondents were asked whether they perceived that their personal and community benefits of the 2008 Beijing Olympics outweighed the costs of preparing for the Olympics Games. Responde nts were also asked whether they agreed, felt pleasant, and favored hosting Olympic Games and seeing changes planned and/or made in the city of Beijing. T he 12 items were divided into two conceptual areas: attitude toward the Olympics (6 items) and attitud e toward the Green Olympics (6 items). Section four included 11 items related to intentions to support hosting the 2008 Beijing Green Olympics and bidding for other mega events. The items were phrased in a 7point Likert scale (1=strongly disagree to 7= strongly agree), assessing the residents intention to support the host of the Green Olympic Games in Beijing, development of Olympic facilities and services, promotion of Beijing as a host city of Olympic Games, and bidding and preparing for other large scale events. These were adopted and modified from Gursoy and Kendalls (2006) questionnaire assessing residents support toward city development for attracting and hosting events and visitors, along with Sderlund (2006) and Zeithaml et al.s (1996) scal es on behavioral intention. T he 11 items were conceptualized into two factors: behavior intention toward the mega events (6 items) and behavior intention toward the Green Olympics (5 items). Section five contained 18 items related to the actual consumption behavior toward the Green Olympics and mega sport events, which were measured on a 7point ordinal scale. Respondents were asked about the extent to which they followed the Green Olympics initiatives in areas such as reducing the water waste, energy savi ng, increasing environmental knowledge, and promoting positive community engagement in the Green Olympics. Adopting a similar
60 ordinal scale, respondents were also asked to rate on how often they followed mega sport events via media outlets, how often they attended mega sport events, and volunteered for mega sport events. Section six consisted of 10 questions measuring demographic background information, including age, gender, marital status, occupation, education level, family size, household income, length of residency in Beijing, region of residence in Beijing, and community fee. Inclusion of these demographic variables was merely for the purpose of sample description. Multiple choice or openended format of response was adopted for these demographic varia bles. Procedures Following the development of the preliminary questionnaire, it was submitted to a panel of experts including five university professors in sport management for content validity testing. The panel members were asked to examine the relevance, representativeness, and clarity of items within each conceptual area. According to the feedback of the panel members, the preliminary questionnaire was modified, revised, and improved, mainly in the areas of item adequacy, factor relevance, and wording c larity. With the assistance of two linguist experts in Chinese and English, the modified questionnaire was double translated from English to Chinese and then from Chinese to English to ensure translation accuracy. Data collection was conducted via email, online survey, and face to face survey administration. Assistance for data collection was obtained from two trained research assistants who resided in Beijing. Their primary responsibilities were to help identify residents located in different districts of Beijing, make the initial contact, obtain e mail address, and administer the questionnaire. Upon verbally agreeing to participate in the study, an individual was first screened by the following two questions: (a) he/she was 18 years or older in 2001; and (b) Beijing had been his/her primary residential location between 2001 and 2009. After confirming an
61 individuals suitability for involving in the study, he/she was e mailed or presented a survey packet that included an Informed Consent Form explaining the purpose and procedures of the study, followed by the questionnaire. Only respondents finishing questions in all six sections of the questionnaire were included in the data analyses. Completing a questionnaire, on average, took approximately 25 minutes. A total of 298 copies of the questionnaire were collected and included in subsequent data analyses and hypothesis testing. Missing values were rarely spotted within the sample of 298 respondents. Among those occasional missing data point, no Not Missing At Random (NMAR) data (Rubin, 1987; Schafer & Graham, 2002) were found. Only few Missing At Random (MAR) w ere detected. For those MAR data, mean substitutions were applied. Data Analyses Procedures in the SPSS computer program (SPSS, 2008) were utilized to conduct statistical analyses. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the socialdemographic, awareness, perception, attitude, behavior intention, and actual behavior variables. Skewness and kurtosis of the items were examined. For both skewness and kurtos is cut off criteria, an absolute value of 3.0 would be considered extreme (Chou & Bentler, 1995). Item analyses that included calculations of item difficulty and item discrimination were conducted for each of the awareness variables. Following the procedur e outlining by Bangartner, Jackson, Mahar, and Rowe (2007), top and bottom 27% of the participants were selected based on their total awareness scores derived from the original 17 items. Kuder Richardson formula was used to calculate the internal consisten cy of awareness items. Cronbachs alpha reliability coefficients were calculated for the perception items under eight factors, attitude items under two factors, behavior intention items under two factors, and actual behavior items under two factors. Zeroo rder correlation coefficients among the awareness, perception attitude, behavior intention, and actual behavior
62 factors were calculated and tested. Following the ordinary least square (OLS) procedures (Baron & Kenny, 1986), hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine the sequential relationship of awareness and perception to attitude, behavior intention, and actual behavior factors.
63 Table 3 1. Discriptive statistics for Sociodemographic Variables (N=298). Variables Category N % Gender Mal e 168 56.4 Female 130 43.6 Age Younger than 30 119 40.1 30 39 94 31.6 (m=35.05; SD=9.65) 40 4 9 52 17.5 50 5 9 26 8.8 60 or older 6 2.0 Marriage Single 99 33.2 Married 195 65.4 Divorced 3 1.0 Widowed 1 0.3 Residence Le ngth 5 or Less 14 4.7 6 10 74 25.0 (m=24.93; SD=15.53) 11 20 45 15.2 21 40 103 34.8 41 60 58 19.6 61 or Longer 2 0.3 Education Advanced Degree 97 32.6 Bachelor Degree 76 25.5 High School Graduate 75 25.2 Middle School Gradua te 34 11.4 Elementary Graduate 14 4.7 Household Income ( ) 2,000 3,999 79 26.5 4,0005,999 74 24.8 6,000 7,999 36 12.1 8,0009,999 31 10.4 10,000 14,999 34 11.4 15,000 19,999 11 3.7 20,00029,999 12 4.0 30,000 or m ore 12 4.0
64 Table 3 1. Continued. Variables Category N % Occupation Manage ment 26 8.7 Technical 18 6.0 Student 34 11.4 Professional 24 8.1 Sales 24 8.1 Farmer 25 8.4 Clerical 37 12.4 Education 38 12.8 Skilled Worker 31 10.4 Non Skilled Worker 14 4.7 Other 6 2.0 Family Size 1 28 9.4 2 44 14.9 (M=3.06; SD=1.11) 3 143 48.3 4 50 16.8 5 24 8.1 6 7 2.3 Distance between your district and Bird Nest (km) In the same district 115km 1630km 3145km More than 45km 46 142 34 63 12 15.5 47.7 11.5 22.3 3.0 Community Fee ( ) 0 151 50.7 1 50 22 7.7 (M=89.50; SD=157.33) 51100 38 13.2 101 200 36 12.6 201500 35 12.2 501 or higher 5 1.7
65 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Descriptive Statistics Findings of item analyses, including item difficulty (D coefficient) and item discrimination (R coefficient), for awareness variables are presented in Table 41. According Baumgartner et al. (2007), a D coefficient ranging from .30 to .70 would be accept able and an R coefficient above .20 would meet minimum criterion. Accordingly, eight questions in either multiple choice or true false format (i.e., Which of the following is one of the fundamental IOCs requirements for selecting a host city for the Olymp ic Games? Which of the following is a long term goal for environmental improvement for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games ? Which of the following was a temporary measure in Beijings environmental plan that was only implemented during the Olympic Games ? Which of the following items about reforming Beijings energy structure was included in the Beijing Olympic environmental plan? Green Olympics was one of the key principals that guided the planning and implementation of the 2008. New cars in Beijing are requir ed to meet the Euro III emission standard. Green coverage in the urban districts of Beijing met the Olympic bid goal by the starting time for hosting the Olympic Games The city of Beijing has exceeded its Olympic bid goal for waste classification and recy cling. ) in this section were removed. The remaining eight questions met the D and R criteria and were hence included for subsequent internal consistency analysis adopting the Kuder Richardson formulae (Baumgartner et al., 2007), which resulted in .736 and was above the .70 criterion. Descriptive statistics for the awareness factor were calculated. Individual total scores ranged from 1 to 8 (M = 4.94; SD=1.554). Both skewness ( .230) and kurtosis ( .197) values for the awareness variable were well within the acceptable threshold of +3.0 (Chou & Bentler, 1995)
66 Descriptive statistics for the perception variables are presented in Table 42. According to the measurement conceptualization and design of these variables, t he 21 perception items were categorized i nto the following eight factors: air quality (2items), energy (2 items), public transportation (3 items), water environment (4items), ecological construction (4 items), industrial pollution (2 items), solid waste (2 items), and environmental education (2 i tems). Besides mean and standard deviation were calculated for each factor, a weighted mean score was calculated for each factor, with an intention to cross compare the perceived impact among factors. Accordingly, the Green Olympics had strongest impact on environmental education and least impact on water quality. C ronbachs a lpha coefficients for the factors were .923, .813, .796, .854, .818, .775, .741 and .796, respectively, indicating that the eight factors were all internally consistent and reliable (C ronbach, 1951). Both skewness and kurtosis values for the perception factors were well within the acceptable threshold of + 3.0 (Chou & Bentler, 1995) Descriptive statistics for the attitude, behavioral intention, and actual behavior variables are presen ted in Table 43. Following the measurement conceptualization, t he 12 attitude items were categorized into two factors: Attitude toward the Olympics (6 items) and Attitude toward the Green Olympics (6 items). Both of the Attitude toward the Green Olympics factor ( M = 38.09.16; SD = 4.187) and the Attitude toward the Olympics factor (M = 36.02; SD = 5.301) showed that residents had highly positive attitude toward both the Olympics and the Green Olympics, with weighted mean scores above 6.0 on a Likert 7point scale. Cronbachs a lpha coefficients for the factors were 844 and .871, respectively, indicating that both factors were internally consistent and reliable. According to the measurement conceptualizations, t he 11 items for behavioral intentions were categorized into two factors: behavior intention toward the mega events (6 items) and
67 behavior intention toward the Green Olympics (5 items). Mean scores for the behavior intention toward the mega events factor ( M = 34.44; SD =5.664) and the behavior inte ntion toward the Green Olympics factor ( M = 29.46; SD =4.581) indicated that residents in Beijing had high behavior intentions toward both mega events and the Green Olympics. Cronbachs a lpha coefficients for the factors were 848 and .866, respectively, indicating that the factors were internally consistent and reliable. Similarly, the 18 items on actual behaviors were grouped into two factors according to the measurement conceptualization: actual behavior toward the Green Olympics (10 items) and actual behavior toward the mega events (8 items). Mean scores for the actual behavior toward the Green Olympics factor ( M = 58.94; SD =5.285) and the actual behavior toward the mega events factor ( M = 34.37; SD =8.818) revealed that residents were strong in behavioral participation in the Green Olympics activities; however, they were only slightly higher than the neutral point in the Likert 7point scale in behavioral support toward hosting mega events in Beijing. Cronbachs a lpha coefficients for the factors were 888 and .751, respectively, indicating that they were internally consistent and reliable. Additionally, all skewness and kurtosis values for the attitude, behavior intention, and actual behavior variables were well within the acceptable threshold (Chou & Bentl er, 1995). Intercorrelations Correlations among awareness, eight perception factors ( air quality energy, public transportation, water quality, ecological construction, industrial pollution, solid waste, and environment education), attitude toward the Oly mpics, attitude toward the Green Olympics, intention toward the mega events, intention toward the Green Olympics, actual behavior toward the Green Olympics, and actual behavior toward mega events are presented in Table 44. Awareness of Beijing Green Olymp ic Initiatives was significantly (p < .05) related to the perception of air quality, perception of water quality, and perceptions of industrial pollution; yet,
68 it was not found to be significantly (p > .05) related to other perception factors, the two attitudinal factors, the two behavioral intention factors, nor the two actual behavior factors. Conversely, all of the perception factors were significantly (p < .05) related to the two attitudinal factors, two behavioral intention factors, and two actual beha vior factors, respectively. The two attitudinal factors were significantly (p < .05) related to the two behavioral intention factors and two actual behavior factors, respectively; in turn, the two behavioral intention factors were significantly (p < .05) r elated to the two actual behavior factors. Hierarchical Regression Analyses Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted by adopting the OLS procedures to examine the sequential relationships among awareness, perception, attitude, intention, and actual behavior factors associated with Green Olympic movement and mega sport events (Tables 45 & 46). According to Baron and Kenny (1986), in order to establish a sequential/mediating effect that a variable has on the relationship between a predicting variable and a criterion variable, four elements are required: (a) the predicting variable is correlated with the criterion variable; (b) the predicting variable is correlated with the mediating variable; (c) the mediating variable is correlated with the criterion variables after controlling for the effect of the predicting variable; and (d) correlation between the predicting and the criterion variables is equal to zero after controlling for the effect of the mediating. In the analyses of this study, the following three three models of a hierarchical order were tested for each of the two actual behavior factors (i.e., support of Green Olympics initiatives and support of mega sport events) respectively as the criterion: (a) intention factors, (b) attitude factors, an d (c) perception and awareness factors. For Green Olympics Initiatives, intention toward supporting Green Olympics and intention toward supporting mega sport events were significantly (p < .05) predictive of actual behaviors, explaining a total of 45.8% va riance. These were consistent with the zero order correlation
69 coefficients. However, after partialling out the effects of behavioral intention factors, the two attitude factors (attitude toward Green Olympics initiatives and attitude toward Olympic Games) were no long significantly (p > .05) predictive of actual behaviors of supporting Green Olympics initiatives when compared to zeroorder correlation coefficients, indicating the presence of mediating effects of the behavioral intention factors. Less than 3.0% additional variance was explained of the actual behaviors in this second step model. Likewise, after partialling out the effects of both behavioral intention and attitude factors, the eight perception factors were no long significantly (p > .05) predic tive of actual behaviors of supporting Green Olympics initiatives when compared to zeroorder correlation coefficients, indicating the presence of mediating effects of the behavioral intention and attitude factors. Only 9.1% variance were added to the tota l variance explained in Model 3. It appears that for solid waste, air quality, energy, and water quality, mediating effects were partial; whereas, for environmental education, industrial pollution, ecological construction, and public transportation factors there were full mediating effects. Same as the zero order correlation coefficient, awareness was not found to be directly (p > .05) predictive of actual behaviors of supporting Green Olympics initiatives, nor indirectly. For support of mega sport events, intention toward supporting mega sport events was significantly (p < .05) predictive of actual behaviors, but not intention toward supporting Green Olympics explaining a total of 14.8% variance. These were not consistent with the zero order correlation coefficients, where both intention toward supporting mega sport events and intention toward supporting Green Olympics initiatives were related to actual behaviors, suggesting the existence of covariance between intention toward supporting mega sport events and intention toward supporting Green Olympics initiatives With the presence of intention toward supporting mega sport events, intention toward supporting Green Olympics initiatives became less relevant.
70 After partialling out the effects of behavioral intention factors, the two attitude factors (attitude toward Green Olympics initiatives and attitude toward Olympic Games) were no long significantly (p > .05) predictive of actual behaviors of supporting Green Olympics initiatives when compared to zeroorder correlation coefficients, indicating the presence of mediating effects of the behavioral intention factors. Less than 1.0% additional variance was explained of the actual behaviors in this second step model. Likewise, after partialling out the effects of both behavioral intention and attitude factors, the eight perception factors were no longer significantly (p > .05) predictive of actual behaviors of supporting mega sport events when compared to zeroorder correlation coefficients, indicating the presence of mediating effects of the behavioral intention and attitude factors. Only 2.0% variance were added to the total variance explained in Model 3. Same as the zero order correlation coefficient, awareness was not found to be directly (p > .05) predictive of actual behaviors of supporting mega sport events, nor indirectly.
71 Table 4 1. Item Analysis for the Awareness Variable. Item Statement Decision D R 1 Which of the following is one of the fundamental IOCs requirements for selecting a host city for the Olym pic Games? NO .907 .341 2 Which of the following aspects is NOT a part of the Green Olympics Program? YES .696 .516 3 Which of the following implementation was required by the Beijing Green Olympics program? YES .438 .538 4 Which of the following is a long te rm goal for environmental improvement for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games? NO .809 .451 5 Which of the following was NOT a part of Beijings Green Olympic bid commitment? YES .525 .648 6 Which of the following was used in Beijings Olympic venues to host the Green Olympics Program? YES .623 .692 7 Which of the following was a temporary measure in Beijings environmental plan that was only implemented during the Olympic Games? NO .784 .516 8 Which of the following program was included in the education plan for th e Green Olympics? YES .710 .604 9 Which of the following items about reforming Beijings energy structure was included in the Beijing Olympic environmental plan? NO .852 .484 10 Green Olympics was one of the key principals that guided the planning and imple mentation of the 2008. NO 981 .209 11 The five Olympic mascots were designed to promote environmental awareness. YES .698 .538 12 Beijing reduced the price for subway and public buses during the 2008 Olympic Games. YES .716 .462 13 New cars in Beijing are requir ed to meet the Euro III emission standard. NO .136 .044 14 The city of Beijing used trees from the tropical forests of Indonesia for its Olympic venues. YES .691 .220 15 Green coverage in the urban districts of Beijing met the Olympic bid goal by the starting time for hosting the Olympic Games. NO .099 .044 16 The city of Beijing has exceeded its Olympic bid goal for waste classification and recycling. NO .796 .198
72 Table 4 2. Descriptive Statistics for the Perception Factors. Factor No. of items M Weighted M SD Skewness Kurtosis Air Quality 2 10.65 5.33 2.921 .814 .026 .923 Energy 2 10.69 5.35 2.366 .890 .944 .813 Public Transportation 3 15.25 5.08 3.624 .706 .361 .796 Water Quality 4 18.78 4.69 4.974 .072 .390 .854 Ecological Construction 4 22. 44 5.61 3.559 .458 .029 .818 Industrial Pollution 2 9.94 4.97 2.551 .447 .011 .775 Solid Waste 2 9.83 4.92 2.525 .527 .177 741 Environmental Education 2 11.14 5.52 2.067 .998 1.977 .796
73 Table 4 3. Descriptive Statistics for the Attitude, Behavio ral Intention, and Actual Behavior Factors. Factor No.of items M Weighted M SD Skewness Kurtosis Attitude toward the Olympics 6 36.02 6.00 5.301 .910 .470 .844 Attitude toward the Green Olympics 6 38.09 6.35 4.187 1.303 1.173 .871 Intention toward M ega Events 6 34.44 5.74 5.664 .771 1.000 .848 Intention toward Green Olympics 5 29.46 5.89 4.581 1.689 .215 .866 Actual behavior toward Green Olympics 10 58.94 5.89 8.285 .889 .907 .888 Actual behavior toward Mega Events 8 34.37 4.30 8.818 .158 .221 .751
74 Table 4 4. Zeroorder Correlation among Awareness, Perception, Attitude, Behavioral Intention, and Actual Behavior Factors. Factor A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Know_8_ items(A) .1 42 .06 1 .10 0 .24 3** .00 6 .17 4** .11 3 .08 4 .02 8 .09 3 .00 1 .10 2 .05 1 .05 5 P AQ (B) .67 7** .57 6** .58 8** .46 2** .49 9** .43 1** .19 5** .49 4** .30 8** .52 9** .41 8** .29 3** .12 8** P EN (C) .72 2** .56 4** .50 2** .58 0** .59 2** .28 3** .45 5** .31 0** .49 8** .32 8** .43 3** .17 0** P PT (D) .57 7** .55 7 ** .63 1** .60 1** .34 0** .45 0** .30 2** .41 2** .32 9** .40 2** .14 5** P WQ (E) .56 6** .58 8** .59 3** .39 5** .51 3** .26 7** .52 0** .41 1** .31 2** .23 2** P EC (F) .58 5** .58 5** .61 9** .56 0** .45 6** .38 1** .44 3** .41 2** .17 1** P IP (G) .80 8** .5 1 0** .45 1** .28 2** .46 0** .40 7** .45 5** .17 3** P SW(H) .55 0** .37 3** .28 4** .40 7** .41 6** .48 1** .20 1** P ED (I) .40 8** .34 4** .32 2** .40 9** .43 2** .19 9** ATT OG (J) .71 9** .65 8** .63 9** .59 2** .22 5** ATT GO (K) .5 1 7** .64 0** .52 7** .19 3** INT_ME (L) .72 4** .58 4** .37 1** INT_GO (M) .66 0** .33 9** BEH_GO (N) .35 3** BEH_ME (O) Correlation is significant at the .05 level (2 tailed). ** Correlation is signific ant at the .01 level (2 tailed).
75 Table 4 5. Hierarchical Regression Analyses Examining the Relationships of Awareness, Perception, Attitude, and Behavioral Intentions to Actual Behavior Associated with Green Olympics Movement. Variable Partial R B SE. B t p Model 1 Intention toward Green Olympics .421 .903 .114 .500 7.924 .000 Intention toward mega sport events .200 .320 .092 .219 3.480 .001 Model 2 Intention toward Green Olympics .316 .709 .125 .392 5.668 .000 Intention toward mega sport events .115 .191 .097 .131 1.978 .049 Attitude toward Green Olympic Games .049 .107 .128 .054 0.839 .402 Attitude toward Olympic Games .175 .328 .108 .210 3.028 .003 Model 3 Intention toward Green Olympics .302 .637 .120 .352 5.302 .000 In tention toward mega sport events .139 .226 .096 .155 2.344 .020 Attitude toward Green Olympic Games .007 .014 .123 .007 .115 .908 Attitude toward Olympic Games .210 .401 .111 .257 3.605 .000 Perception Environmental Education .106 .393 .221 .098 1.781 .076 Perception Solid Waste .156 .653 .247 .199 2.647 .009 Perception Industrial Pollution .013 .050 .238 .016 0.212 .832 Perception Ecological Construction .052 .128 .146 .055 0.876 .382 Perception Water Quality .205 .358 .102 .216 3. 519 .001 Perception Public Transportation .071 .177 .148 .077 1.199 .231 Perception Energy Use .146 .576 .234 .165 2.467 .014 Perception Air Quality .186 .536 .169 .189 3.167 .002 Awareness .035 .135 .228 .025 0.590 .555 Note: R2 = 0.458 2 2 = 0.091 for Model 3, p < 0.001.
76 Table 4 6. Hierarchical Regression Analyses Examining the Relationships of Awareness, Perception, Attitude, and Behavioral Intentions to Actual Behavior Supporting Mega Sport Events. Variable Partial R B SE. B t p Model 1 Intention toward Green Olympics .107 .281 .152 .146 1.847 .066 Intention toward mega sport events .192 .410 .123 .264 3.341 .001 Model 2 Intention toward Green Olympics .124 .364 .171 .189 2.125 .034 Intention toward mega sport events .199 .457 .132 .295 3.465 .001 Attitude toward Green Olympic Games .022 .065 .175 .031 0.374 .709 Attitude toward Olympic Games .046 .116 .149 .070 .0783 .434 Model 3 Int ention toward Green Olympics .100 .303 .179 .158 1.691 .092 Intention toward mega sport events .199 .489 .144 .315 3.401 .001 Attitude toward Green Olympic Games .022 .067 .183 .032 .365 .716 Attitude toward Olympic Games .042 .117 .166 .070 .70 4 .482 Perception Environmental Education .039 .214 .329 .050 0.650 .516 Perception Solid Waste .032 .195 .368 .056 0.530 .597 Perception Industrial Pollution .041 .242 .355 .070 0.682 .496 Perception Ecological Construction .000 .000 .219 .000 0.000 .999 Perception Water Quality .081 .208 .153 .118 1.365 .173 Perception Public Transportation .006 .021 .221 .008 0.094 .925 Perception Energy Use .011 .062 .349 .017 0.178 .859 Perception Air Quality .092 .391 .251 .130 1.55 5 .121 Awareness .039 .222 .341 .039 0.651 .515 Note: R2 2 2 = 0.020 for Model 3, p < 0.001.
77 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION The environment has grown to be an important concern for many sport organizations. Evidence demonstrates that sport activities can cause serious damages to the environmental degrading (Ritchie, 1984; Jagemann, 2003) and lead to an inc rease of environmental concern (Deccio & Baloglu, 2002). The IOC, has considered environmental issues as one of the critical factors to choose the host city of Olympic Games since the environment was added to the Olympic Chapter as the third dimension in 1996. As the negative environmental impacts of the Olympic Games are becoming more recognized among residents in the host city, it is imperative for both researchers and practitioners to examine how effective the environmental plans of the Olympic Games hav e been implemented and how they affect residents perception, attitude, intention, and behavior associated with the Games. Overall cooperation level of local residents plays a key role in the success of hosting mega events such as the Olympic Games, and r esidents supportive attitude toward the events may influence the longevity of their supporting behaviors (Deccio & Baloglu, 2002). A great number of studies on residents perceptions of mega events have been conducted; however, a majority of these studies focused on the economic impact of mega sport events (e.g., Barker et al., 2002; Fredline & Faulkner, 2000; Twynam & Johnston, 2004). Few studies have examined residents perception of the environmental impact. Since the inception of the Green Olympic Game s, no study has been conducted to primarily examine local residents environmental perception, or their attitude, intention, and behavior toward the environmental initiatives. Additionally, most of the existing studies on mega sport events have focused on the events hosted in western countries; few studies were conducted in developing countries such as China. Therefore, studying residents environmental perceptions of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games is critical to gain a
78 more comprehensive understanding of w hat influence residents support toward mega sport events. The current study was designed to fill this void by exploring the awareness of Green Olympics, perceived environmental impact, attitude toward the Olympic Games, behavioral intentions to support future hosting of mega sport events, and actual behavior toward the Olympics among residents of the host city after the Beijing Olympics; in the meantime this study also examined the relationship among awareness, perception, attitude, and behavioral intentions following the Yale attitude change approach, the theory of reasoned action, and the social exchange theory as a general theoretical framework. The current study examined residents perceived environmental impact of the Beijing Olympic Games, and reveal ed that respondents generally perceived positive outcome arising from the hosting of the Olympic Games. By comparing the environmental situation in 2001 when Beijing was selected as the host city of the 2008 Olympic Games, respondents were most likely to a gree that hosting the Olympic Games contributed to improved air quality and water quality, better use of energy, more convenient public transportation, higher rate of green coverage, enhanced management of industrial pollution and solid waste, and better e nvironmental education. These findings confirmed and supported that mega events could act as a positive factor for environmental protection (Deccio & Baloglu, 2002) to explore the host citys environmental potential (IOC, 2009c), promote the conservation a nd management of resources in the host city environment (IOC, 2009c), and benefit the harmonious development of human society (IOC, 2007). This finding was expected as both the IOC and the UNEP encourages and supports integrating environment into sport act ivities. The IOC also requires that the host cities pay special attention to the environmental aspect during the preparation, operation, and particularly post game periods. To a great extent, these positive findings directly resulted
79 from Beijings commitment to eliminate and reduce the negative environmental impact of the Olympic Games as the city government invested over $27 billion in environmental projects in major urban infrastructural areas, such as air quality, energy, transportation, green coverage, industrial pollution, water quality, solid waste management, and environmental education (UNEP, 2007). With respect to residents attitude toward the Olympic Games and Green Olympics, the findings of this study revealed that respondents had strong positi ve attitude toward both of them. It was also revealed that the perceived environmental impact of the 2008 Olympic Games exerted an important impact on attitude toward the Olympic Games and the Green initiatives. These findings were consistent with the Yale attitude change approach, which claimed that human attitudes are usually influenced by altering peoples opinion or beliefs, i.e.,the cognitive or knowledge component (Zimbardo et al., 1977). As stated by Achwartz (2004), perception is the outcome of people picking up of information that the world makes available to the perceiver by physical stimulation and Perception as the cognitive component is expected to influence an individuals attitude. In this study, the findings that respondents who perceived pos itive environmental impact trend had positive attitude toward the Olympic Games and Green Olympics can also be interpreted within the framework of the social exchange theory. According to the theory, if the involved individuals or groups perceive that the benefits outweigh the costs from the social exchange, they are more likely to have positive attitude toward the exchange relationship (Ap, 1992). These findings also supported prior study by Liu and Var (1993), which suggested that events may lead to posit ive impact on preserving the natural environment, which may in turn contribute to positive attitude toward the events. Similarly, existing research on residents perceived economic and social impact of mega events also supported the notion that
80 residents w ith positive attitude toward the events were usually resulted from short and longterm perceived benefits of hosting the events (Besculides et al., 2002; Brunt & Courtney, 1999; Lankford & Howard, 1994; Madrigal, 1993; Perdue et. al., 1990; Ritchie, 1988; Ritchie & Lyons, 1990; Ritchie & Smith, 1991; Mihalik & Simonetta, 1998). The current study also revealed that respondents generally showed positive intention to support future mega events and the Green Olympics, and this intention was found to be significantly influenced by the perceived environmental impact and attitude toward the Olympic Games and the Green Olympics. These findings are consistent with the social exchange theory, which indicated that positive evaluations of the results from the social ex change may reinforce individuals desire for future participation in the relationship (Ap, 1992). It can also be explained by the theory of Reasoned Action, which suggested that intention is influenced by ones attitude (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980). The resul ts in this study showed that a majority of the respondents behaved positively toward the Green Olympics; however, their actual behaviors toward mega event were about somewhat neutral, namely, neither positively nor negatively. Actual behavior in this study was found to be related to perceived environmental impact, attitude toward the Olympic Games and Green Olympics, and intention to support mega events and the Green Olympics. These findings can be interpreted by the theoretical realm of Reason Action (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980). Based on this theory, a persons behavior is determined by his/her behavior intentions, which is a function of his/her attitude toward the behavior and in turn this attitude is influenced by the individuals beliefs about outcome of pe rforming the behavior. This finding, to some extent, was confirmed by the notion that residents supportive attitude toward the events might influence their positive behaviors (Deccio & Baloglu, 2002).
81 In this study, awareness (knowledge) of the Green Olym pics did not seem to influence attitude toward the Olympic Games. This finding is contrary to the Yale attitude change approach (Zimbardo et al., 1977), which stated that altering the knowledge component that people would have influence on their attitudes. This might be explained by a lack of effectiveness during the communication process. Citizens in Beijing might not have a good understanding of the Green Olympic initiatives. According to the Yale attitude change approach, the message used to change a per sons attitude must be noticed, understood, accepted, and retained long enough to become effective, and the source of the message (i.e., the credibility, status, race, and religion), the characteristics of the message (i.e., the structure, order, and type of appeal), and audience (i.e., persuasive ability, intelligence, self esteem, initial position) would influence the effectiveness of the communication. Therefore, it was possible that messages relating to the Beijing Olympics environmental plans, impleme ntations, regulations, and rules might not have been effectively delivered to local residents due to weaknesses and problems occurring in one or more of the four communication elements of event promotions initiated by the city of Beijing and BOCOG. Apparently, the intended effectiveness level in promoting the awareness of Green Olympic movement was not fully achieved by the host city, indicating a need of improvement by future Olympic Games host cities. Implication 1. Findings of this study have provided a good overview of residents reaction to the integration of environmental plans as a potential marketing strategy into the preparations and operations of mega sport events. 2. This study may assist mega sport event planners and organizers to better promote the en vironmental initiatives to the residents in the host city and even live event spectators and television audience throughout the world. 3. This study may also assist Beijing government in making more successful allocation of public resources and to gain more s upport from local residents by identifying the effectiveness of the Green Olympic projects from the residents perspective.
82 4. Findings from this study support that effective environmental management and performance before, during, and after mega sport events may stimulate positive attitude, behavior intention, and behavior, implying the importance for event planners and organizers to take on their environmental responsibility for the success and sustainability of their investments. 5. This study may also assist marketers of mega events to recognize the value of the environmental initiatives and formulate effective strategies in future marketing campaigns to increase market share. 6. This study also revealed that, in order to improve the perception of the Green Olym pic initiatives among residents of the host city, it is necessary for the IOC and the host city to develop various environmental educational programs relating to the Olympic Games. It is important to make those programs understandable and attractive to people with diverse ages and backgrounds, and make messages accessible to the residents on a daily base via media, TV, radio, Internet, newspaper, and magazine. 7. This study suggested that residents should be fully informed with both positive and negative impacts related to the Green Olympic Games, which allows residents to evaluate and compare the benefits and costs by themselves. Future Study Over a period of seven years of preparation for hosting the Olympic Games, various construction projects and operational activities took place in the city of Beijing, along with an increased volume of visitors. During that lengthy time, it was hard for residents to identify whether the Olympics would be beneficial or detrimental to the communitys environment. This study was conducted between June to August, 2009 when local residents had finally experienced the city without massive constructions for at least 10 months. Ten months after the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games was a good time frame to conduct this study because resid ents had fully experienced the city with all the advantages and disadvantages resulting from hosting the Games and had a good amount of time to assess the environmental benefits and costs of the Games. However, to comprehensively understand the effectivene ss of the Beijing Green Olympics, residents environmental perception toward the Games and how it affects their attitude, intention and behavior, continued evaluations through longitudinal future studies are recommended. Better
83 understanding of environment al plans and their implementation effectiveness for the Olympic Games would help accumulate knowledge and experience for hosting future sport events. For instance, after the Beijing Olympic Games, several major cities in China have strived to host various mega sport events, such as Shanghai (F1), Guangdong (2010 Asian Games), and Shenzhen (2011 Universiade). The Olympic Games have their own special characteristics in terms of the length of the event, amount of resources (i.e., human, time, finance, materia ls) involved, status, power, and impact. It is suggested that future studies be conducted on other mega events carrying environmental responsibilities, which may benefits the sustainable development of the whole sport industry, and even attract other indus tries to embrace and follow the trend. Where possible, various mega events can be jointly studied and compared in order to elevate the generalizabilty of research findings. Additionally, this study was conducted in the city of Beijing, which may have diffe rent characteristics (i.e., air quality, pollution, transportation, green coverage) when compared to other host cities of the Olympic Games. It would help benefit the sustainable development of the Olympic Games to research residents in other host cities o f the Green Olympics, who are likely of a more diverse cultural background in order to further understand the effectiveness of the Green initiatives and the relationships among residents environmental perception, attitude, intention, and behavior associat ed with the Olympic Games.
84 APPENDIX A SAMPLE OF QUESTIONNAIRE 2008 Beijing Green Olympics Survey May 9 2009 Dear Participants: I am conducting a study about the impacts of 2008 Beijing Green Olympics I am interested in how residents in Beijing perceive and respond to the Green Olympics movement and its programs Your participation in this study is entirely voluntary. It would be greatly appreciated if you would be willing to take part in this study by completing the enclosed questionnaire. Please do not include your name or identification number on the survey instrument. It will take approximately 10 to 15 minutes to complete. There are no physical and psychological risks associated with participating in completing this questionnaire. Upon complet ion, please return the questionnaire to the survey administrator. Please feel free to contact me if you have any questions about this study. Thank you! Sincerely yours, Liyan Jin Sport Management Masters Student College of Health and Human Performa nce University of Florida 1001 SW 16 Ave Apt 57 Gainesville, Florida 32601 Phone: 352.871.4256 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
85 BEIJING GREEN OLYMPICS QUESTIONNAIRE DIRECTION: Please answer the followi ng multiple choice questions according to your awareness level. Only one best answer should be circled for each question. 1. Which of the following is one of the fundamental IOCs requirements for selecting a host city for the Olympic Games? A The city has a well developed plan for environmental protection and sustainability. B The city has a professional baseball leagues. C The city has many golf courses. D The officials of the city are sports fans. E I dont know. 2. Which of the following aspects is NOT a part o f the Green Olympics Program? A Forestation B Transportation C Hotel Price D Education E I dont know 3. Which of the following implementation was required by the Beijing Green Olympics program? A Producing artificial rain B Controlling weather conditions C Conducti ng waste classification and recycling D Purchasing and driving personal automobiles to boost the automobile industry E I dont know 4. Which of the following is a longterm goal for environmental improvement for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games? A Promote the e nvironment as the third pillar of Olympism B Replace wood with coal resources C Increase community fees for environmental protection D Improve shopping convenience for Beijing residents E I dont know 5. Which of the following was NOT a part of Beijings Gre en Olympic bid commitment? A Improve transport infrastructure and construct key roads B Encourage residents to decorate houses with green plants C Improve the water quality of Miyun and Huairou reservoirs D Reduction and control of industrial pollution E I dont k now 6. Which of the following was used in Beijings Olympic venues to host the Green Olympics Program? A Plastic wooden composite B Energy efficiency lighting Purpose: This purpose of the survey is to gain an understanding of the issues related to environmental impacts of 2008 Beijing Green Olympic Games. The collected information will be solely used for research, and your name will not be identified. Your si ncere and honest response is greatly appreciated.
86 C Advanced enclosed water circulation system D All of the above E I dont know 7. Which of the follow ing was a temporary measure in Beijings environmental plan that was only implemented during the Olympic Games? A Application of stricter emission standards B Use of compressed natural gas public buses C Ban on alternative days the use of cars with even or odd number plates D Promotion of environment awareness E I dont know 8. Which of the following program was included in the education plan for the Green Olympics? A The One Day, No Engine Sound campaign B The Green Community and Green Home campaign C A and B D The Impact of Politics on Economy campaign E I dont know 9. Which of the following items about reforming Beijings energy structure was included in the Beijing Olympic environmental plan? A Increase the use of coal for heating B Increase the use of personal aut omobiles C Increase the use of wood to generate electricity D Increase the use of natural gas, wind energy, and solar energy E I dont know DIRECTION: Please circle True or False for the following statements. Statement Answer 1 Green Olympics was one o f the key principals that guided the planning and implementation of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. T F 2 The five Olympic mascots were designed to promote environmental awareness. T F 3 Beijing reduced the price for subway and public buses during the 2008 O lympic Games. T F 4 New cars in Beijing are required to meet the Euro III emission standard. T F 5 SO 2 CO, NO 2 PM 10 are four major air pollutants that Beijing measures for its daily air quality. T F 6 The city of Beijing used trees from the tropical forests of Indonesia for its Olympic venues. T F 7 Green coverage in the urban districts of Beijing met the Olympic bid goal by the starting time for hosting the Olympic Games. T F 8 The city of Beijing has exceeded its Olympic bid goal for waste classification and recycling. T F
87 DIRECTIONS: You are asked to assess the following statements on a 7 point Likert scale ( 1 = Strongly Disagree to 7 = Strongly Agree ). There is no right or wrong answer. Your sincere response is most important. Your Perception of Environmental Impacts Strongly strongly Disagree Agree In 2001, Beijing was first selected as the host city of the Olympic Games. When compared to 2001, please indicate how hosting the 2008 Olympic Games has impacted Beijing in the following areas: 1 Beijing s air quality is now more satisfying. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2 Beijing regularly has a clearer sky. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3 Beijing is more efficient in the use of clean and renewable energy. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4 Beijing has made good progress toward applying energy saving design s and technologies. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5 Beijing has more convenient public transportation. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6 Beijing has better control of emissions caused by automobiles. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 Beijing has less traffic and parking problems. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Beijing has en ough water to better meet local residents need. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 Beijing has higher water quality. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10 Water sources of Beijing are now better protected. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 11 Water saving technology is more widely applied in Beijing. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 12 Bei jing has a higher level of forest coverage. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 13 Beijing has a higher level of grass coverage. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 Beijing has more park and recreation areas for local residents. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 15 Overall, Beijing has a more beautiful appearance. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 16 Beijing has better control of noise pollution. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 17 Beijing has better control of litter pollution. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 18 Industrial companies in Beijing now more closely follow the 3R approach (Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle). 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 19 Wast e classification and recycling are more routinely adopted by Beijing citizens. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 20 Beijing has adopted more rules and laws for environmental protection than 8 years ago. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 21 More environmental education information and programs are no w available in Beijing. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
88 Your Attitude toward the Olympic Games Strongly Strongly Disagree Agree Green Olympic initiatives mainly refer to the improvement of air quality, energy, green coverage, public transportation, indus trial pollution, solid waste management, and environmental education. As a result of Green Olympic programs implemented for the Beijing Olympic Games, 1 I feel pleased that Beijing hosted 2008 Olympic Games. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2 I feel good about the changes planned, initiated and materialized in the city of Beijing for the 2008 Olympic Games. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3 I feel sure that the 2008 Olympic Games have benefited both local residents and the city of Beijing in terms of environmental quality. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4 I am gla d that Beijing was the host city of Olympic Games instead of another city in China. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5 I feel happier to live in Beijing now compared to 8 years ago. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6 I am in favor of the Green Olympics initiatives 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 I think Green O lympic programs should be implemented in all future Olympic Games. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 I think Green Olympic programs are as important as the sport culture of Olympism. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 I am in favor of using Green Olympic programs to promote environmental protec tion awareness among residents in Beijing. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10. Green Olympic programs have been beneficial for the living environment of Beijing. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 11 I feel satisfied with the environmental changes resulting from the Green Olympics programs. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 12. The 2008 Olympic Games were held in an environmental friendly way. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Your Intention to Support Future Hosting of Mega Sport Event Strongly Strongly Disagree Agree 1 I plan to support the development of sport facilities and services in Beijing. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2 I have become an advocate for Beijing as a host city of large scale sport events. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3 I am willing to support bidding and preparing for other mega sport events in Beijing after hosting the 2008 Olympic Games. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4 I plan to attend other mega sport events in Beijing. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5 I will save money with the goal to spend at large scale sport events in Beijing. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6 I plan to recommend others (friends, family members, and co workers) to support mega sport events in Beijing. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 I plan to continuously support the city to invest in the Green Olympic movement. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 I plan to support other host cities to follow the Green Olympic movement. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 I will try to pay higher price for products that are environment friendly. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10 I plan to encourage other people to take part in Green Olympic programs. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 11. I plan to support other mega sport events to follow the environment movement. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
89 Your Actual C onsumption Behavior Strongly Strongly Disagree Agree 1 I now make effort to reduce water waste. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2 I now use energy efficiency products. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3 It is now routine for me to recycle paper, plastic, and glass materials. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4 I am mow more than ever a supporter of the use of public transportation instead of private car. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5 I now take initiative to positively influence others to gain environmental knowledge. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6 I now check to see if the merchandise i s environment friendly when shopping. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 Now, I actively seek information about environmental protection. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 I now support the adoption of Green Olympic programs by other mega sport events. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 I strongly support Beijing to apply for other mega sport events. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10. I consume healthy and nutritious food. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 How often do you engage in the following in a regular year of your life (1 Not at all; 2 Once a year; 3 A few times a year; 4 Once a month; 5 Two or three times a month; 6 Once a week; 7 A few times a week)? 11 I take part in sport and exercise programs. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 12 I attend mega sport events. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 13 I watch mega sport events on TV. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14. I follow mega sport events through printed media. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 15 I follow mega sport events through online programs. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 16 I purchase and use sport merchandise and/or equipment. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 17. I volunteer at mega sport events. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 18. I make effort to encourage others to lead a healthy life style. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 DEMOGRAPHICS. Please provide the following information by filling out a blank or circling an answer. 1. Gender: Female Male 2. A ge _________________ 3. Marital status: Single Married Divorced W idowed other 4. O ccupation ______________________ ________ 5. How many years have you lived in the city of Beijing? __________ 6. Where is your locat ion in Beijing? Northeast Northwest Southeast Southwest Near the Olympic Park 7. What is your highest education level? Primary school Middle school High school /Technical school College Advanced 8. What is the total income of your family every month? ,0003,999 ,0005,999 ,0007,999 0 9,999 0,00014,999 ,00019,999 ,00029,999 ,000 or more 9. How many people in your family? __________ 10. What is the monthly community management fee for your residence? __________
90 APPENDIX B SAMPLE OF CONSENT FORM FOR PARTICIPANTS Dear Participants: I am a graduate student majoring in Sport Management at the University of Florida. I am currently conducting a study titled Residents perceptions of environmental impacts of 2008 Beijing Green Olympic Games. I would respectively invite you to be a part of this study by completing the attached questionnaire. This survey measures an individuals knowledge, perception, attitude, behavior intentions, and actual behaviors related to the Green Olympics movement and its programs. It is ant icipated that the collected information will help increase understanding of the effectiveness of 2008 Beijing Green Olympics, residents feelings and attitude, and behaviors, thus enabling the Beijing government to make better decisions to help improve liv ing environment of Beijing. Your participation in this study is voluntary. It will take approximately 10 to 15 minutes to complete. There are no physical and psychological risks associated with participating in completing this questionnaire. However, you may refuse to answer certain questions or discontinue your participation at any time without penalty. Participants will not receive any benefits by participating in this survey. There is no compensation for participating in this study. Your return of the survey will indicate your consent to participate in this study. Your responses will be anonymous and there will be no identifying markers that will link you to the questionnaire you complete. The data will be reported as statistical information. I am grat eful for your time and deeply appreciated your assistance with this study. If you have any questions about this research protocol, please contact me at (352) 8714256 (e mail: email@example.com) or my faculty supervisor, Dr. James J. Zhang (3523920584 x1274; e mail: firstname.lastname@example.org) Questions or concerns about your rights as a research participant may be directed to the UFIRB office, University of Florida, Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611 (Tel 3523920433). I have read the procedure described above for the study. I voluntarily agree to participate in the study and I have received a copy of this description. Participants: ________________________________ Date: _______________________ Princ ipal Investigator: ___ Liyan Jin _______ Date: _____May 9, 2009______
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100 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Liyan Jin was born and grew up in Zhejiang, China. She completed her undergraduate study in golf and leisure management at the Jinan University, which is one of the top higher educational institutions in China. After four years in Jinan University Liyan Jin came to the U niversity of Florida to study sport management i n the fall of 2007. As an outstanding graduate student in the Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management, Liyan Jin maintain ed a superior level of academic performance with 3.90 GPA. S he received her m aster s degree from the U niversity of Flori da in the Spring of 2010, and s he will continue her doctoral program focusing on sport management in the Department of Tourism, Recreation, and Sport Managem ent at the University of Flori d.