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Forgiveness, Perfectionism, and the Role of Self-Compassion

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0041448/00001

Material Information

Title: Forgiveness, Perfectionism, and the Role of Self-Compassion
Physical Description: 1 online resource (112 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Mistler, Brooke
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: almost, aps, being, bootstrap, bootstrapping, compassion, discrepancy, forgiveness, health, heartland, hfs, life, mediator, mental, partial, perfect, perfectionism, revised, satisfaction, scale, scs, self, swls, well
Psychology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Counseling Psychology thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: FORGIVENESS, PERFECTIONISM, AND THE ROLE OF SELF-COMPASSION By Brooke Mistler 2010 Chair: Kenneth G. Rice, Ph.D. Major: Counseling Psychology Research supports psychological, emotional, and physical benefits of forgiveness for well-being. Research also reveals the destructive impact of perfectionism on individuals, particularly when there is a high perceived discrepancy between one's performance and one's expectations. Self-compassion, though recently gaining prominence in the current psychological literature, has held promise for improving mental health and well-being for many years. The current study expands recent research by investigating forgiveness and perfectionism, and the role of self-compassion in mediating the forgiveness-perfectionism relationship. Based on a normative adult sample (N =309) in which participants completed measures online, findings indicated a significant inverse relationship between forgiveness and perfectionism, in that adults most likely to express forgiveness-related attitudes or beliefs were also those least likely to be perfectionistic. Self-compassion was found to be a partial mediator of that association. Contributions to future research on the development of perfectionism, relationship to identity, and use of self-compassion or forgiveness in therapeutic practice are also discussed. Common themes amongst experiences of forgiveness and perfectionism are also discussed using qualitative response data.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Brooke Mistler.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Rice, Kenneth G.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0041448:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0041448/00001

Material Information

Title: Forgiveness, Perfectionism, and the Role of Self-Compassion
Physical Description: 1 online resource (112 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Mistler, Brooke
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: almost, aps, being, bootstrap, bootstrapping, compassion, discrepancy, forgiveness, health, heartland, hfs, life, mediator, mental, partial, perfect, perfectionism, revised, satisfaction, scale, scs, self, swls, well
Psychology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Counseling Psychology thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: FORGIVENESS, PERFECTIONISM, AND THE ROLE OF SELF-COMPASSION By Brooke Mistler 2010 Chair: Kenneth G. Rice, Ph.D. Major: Counseling Psychology Research supports psychological, emotional, and physical benefits of forgiveness for well-being. Research also reveals the destructive impact of perfectionism on individuals, particularly when there is a high perceived discrepancy between one's performance and one's expectations. Self-compassion, though recently gaining prominence in the current psychological literature, has held promise for improving mental health and well-being for many years. The current study expands recent research by investigating forgiveness and perfectionism, and the role of self-compassion in mediating the forgiveness-perfectionism relationship. Based on a normative adult sample (N =309) in which participants completed measures online, findings indicated a significant inverse relationship between forgiveness and perfectionism, in that adults most likely to express forgiveness-related attitudes or beliefs were also those least likely to be perfectionistic. Self-compassion was found to be a partial mediator of that association. Contributions to future research on the development of perfectionism, relationship to identity, and use of self-compassion or forgiveness in therapeutic practice are also discussed. Common themes amongst experiences of forgiveness and perfectionism are also discussed using qualitative response data.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Brooke Mistler.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Rice, Kenneth G.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0041448:00001


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FORGIVENESS, PERFECTIONISM, AND THE ROLE
OF SELF-COMPASSION
















By

BROOKE A. MISTLER


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2010




























2010 Brooke A. Mistier






























To the balance of process and outcome









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I am grateful to everyone who helped me to complete this project, as well as offered me

support and guidance during graduate school. Thanks go out to my parents, for their unending

encouragement and understanding throughout my journey, and for always believing in me. I

appreciate your being such a great example for success in both professional and personal

capacities. I am tremendously thankful for my wonderful husband, Brian, for bringing laughter,

smiles, and warmth to my life and for being there for me throughout this process.

Many thanks go out to my adviser and chair, Dr. Ken Rice, for your keen research

knowledge and guidance, without which this project could not have been completed. I am

grateful to my entire doctoral committee for their time and input. Many thanks to Dr. Keith Berg

for encouragement and trust, beginning with the mentorship and research experience he offered

me as an undergraduate student. I enjoyed working with and learning from him and admire his

example. Thanks to Joe McNamara, for his support as a wonderful friend and confidant over the

years. Finally, I am grateful to Dave Suchman, for his valuable clinical supervision, emphasis on

qualitative process, and humanity. I could not have become who I am, nor gotten to where I am,

today without all of you.









TABLE OF CONTENTS page

A CK N O W LED G M EN T S ................................................................. ..................... 4

LIST OF TABLES .............. ............. ........... ........................... .7

LIST OF FIGURES ............................... ... ...... ... ................. .8

A B STR A C T ................................................. ..................................... .. 9

INTRODUCTION ...................................................... ..........10

CHAPTER

1 LITERATURE REVIEW ........................................................................... 17

F o rg iv e n e ss ......................................................................................................1 7
P erfectionism ................................................................... 25
Self-Compassion................ ........ .. ... .... ..................35
S satisfaction w ith L ife ......................................................................... ...................4 3
Purpose of the Study ....................................................... .................... 44
H ypotheses ....................................................................................................... .....48

2 M E T H O D S ........................................................................................................... 4 9

P a rtic ip a n ts ........................................................................................................... 4 9
In stru m e n ts ........................................................................................................... 5 0
P ro c e d u re s ............................................................................................................. 5 4
A nalytic Strategies............................................. 55

3 R E S U L T S .............................................................................5 8

P relim in ary A n aly ses ............................................................................................ 5 8
Analysis of H ypotheses ............................................. .. ................ ..... ....59
Exploratory A nalyses............. .......................................................... ................. 63

4 D ISC U S SIO N ............... .......................... ....................... .... .............................72

APPENDIX

A Heartland Forgiveness Scale (HFS; Thompson, et al., 2005)...................................80

B The Almost Perfect Scale Revised (APS-R; Slaney, et al., 2001) ...........................82

C Self-Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003b)......................................................84

D Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, et al., 1985) ............... .....................86

E D em ographic/Other Inform ation ........................................ .......................... 87









F Inform ed C consent ............................................ .. .. ........... ......... 90

G Selected W rite-in R esponses............................................................ .....................9 1

L IST O F R E FE R EN C E S ................................................ ........................... ........... 99

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .................................. ................................ 12
















































6










LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

4-1 Means, standard deviations, and Cronbach alphas.............................. ...............69

4-2 Scale and subscale partial correlations ............................................ ...............70









LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Page

4-1 The partial m edition m odel .............. ............................................... .............. 71









Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

FORGIVENESS, PERFECTIONISM, AND THE ROLE OF SELF-COMPASSION

By

Brooke Mistler

August 2010

Chair: Kenneth G. Rice
Major: Counseling Psychology

Research supports psychological, emotional, and physical benefits of forgiveness

for well-being. Research also reveals the destructive impact of perfectionism on

individuals, particularly when there is a high perceived discrepancy between one's

performance and one's expectations. Self-compassion, though recently gaining

prominence in the current psychological literature, has held promise for improving

mental health and well-being for many years. The current study expands recent research

by investigating forgiveness and perfectionism, and the role of self-compassion in

mediating the forgiveness-perfectionism relationship. Based on a general adult sample

(N =309) in which participants completed measures online, findings indicated a

significant inverse relationship between forgiveness and perfectionism, in that adults

most likely to express forgiveness-related attitudes or beliefs were also those least likely

to be perfectionistic. Self-compassion was found to be a partial mediator of that

association. Contributions to future research on the development of perfectionism,

relationship to identity, and use of self-compassion or forgiveness in therapeutic practice

are also discussed. Common themes amongst experiences of forgiveness and

perfectionism are also discussed using qualitative response data.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Is it really better to forgive? Recent research has supported the psychological,

emotional, and physical benefits of forgiveness for well-being (e.g., Lawler, Younger,

Piferi, Billington, Jobe, Edmonson, et al., 2003; Witvliet, 2001, 2005; Worthington,

2005; Worthington & McCullough, 2004). At the same time, the field of psychology has

gained much knowledge regarding perfectionism and its potentially destructive impact on

individuals (see Blatt, 1995). Though both forgiveness and perfectionism have been

researched independently thus far, significant evidence exists to support a relationship

between these two constructs that may prove an important contribution to both future

research and therapeutic practice. As psychology has advanced, research has begun to

shift from investigating the pathological to examining both the positive, healthy, and

adaptive characteristics of well-being as well as the more destructive aspects. In this vein,

the current study provides an in-depth investigation of the relationship between two well-

known constructs, perfectionism and forgiveness, and explores the role of self-

compassion in their relationship.

Research on perfectionism has developed extensively over time. It was originally

considered as a construct having only one definition and entirely negative consequences,

but further insights support the idea that perfectionism contains both positive and

negative dimensions. Though discussion continues regarding the adaptive and

maladaptive dimensions of perfectionism (e.g., Bieling, Israeli, & Antony, 2004;

Suddarth & Slaney, 2001), research has focused predominantly on clarifying and

solidifying the essential aspects of the maladaptive dimension of perfectionism. Since the

first research began on perfectionism, its characteristics have been linked to a variety of









psychological distresses and disturbances (Hamachek, 1978). These include personality

disorders (Hewitt, Flett, & Tumbull, 1992), obsessive-compulsive disorders (Hewitt &

Flett, 1991a; Rice & Pence, 2006; Ye, Rice, & Storch, 2008), eating disorders (e.g. Axtell

& Newlon, 1994; Hewitt, Flett, & Ediger, 1995; Shafran, Cooper, & Fairburn, 2002),

high shame (Ashby, Rice, & Martin, 2006), and low self-esteem (e.g Ashby & Rice,

2002; Mobley, Slaney, & Rice, 2005; Rice, Ashby, & Slaney, 2007). Perfectionists have

also been found to have high levels of anxiety (e.g., Rice & Slaney, 2002) and depression

(e.g., Blatt & Zuroff, 1992; Enns & Cox, 2005; Hewitt & Flett, 1990, 1991b). Nothing

ever seems to be quite good enough for perfectionists, they judge their work to be of

lower quality than non-perfectionists (Frost & Henderson, 1990; Frost & Marten, 1991),

have been reported to make lower salaries than those not suffering from perfectionism

(Burns, 1980), have lower quality intimate partnerships and premarital adjustment (Aldea

& Rice, 2006; Ashby, Rice, & Kutchins, 2008; Shea, et al., 2006) and exhibit lower

levels of academic adjustment and integration (e.g., Rice, Leever, Christopher, & Porter,

2006). Perfectionism has also been linked to increased brooding, rumination, and

negative affect (Hewitt, Flett, Besser, Sherry, & McGee, 2003), hopelessness (e.g.,

O'Connor, O'Connor, & Marshall, 2007), and a greater potentiality for suicide (e.g., Blatt,

1995; Callahan, 1993).

Important parallels exist within the forgiveness literature. Lower levels of

forgiveness have been found to relate to higher levels of hostile thoughts and rumination

(Thompson et al., 2005), vengeance (Stuckless & Goranson, 1992), negative affect

(Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988), and greater levels of depression (Thompson, &

Snyder, 2003). There exists much debate as to the conceptualization of forgiveness, and









most have considered forgiveness of transgressions interpersonally to be the

quintessential definition of forgiveness. However, strong trends in measuring forgiveness

have now advanced the notion of assessing forgiveness using multiple aspects in a more

comprehensive and dispositional manner. Forgiveness of self, forgiveness of others, and

forgiveness of situations beyond one's control now help to flesh out the theory and

measurement of forgiveness for more accurate future research. Thompson and colleagues

(2003) have introduced and provided strong evidence for considering forgiveness under

this new framework, in which it is defined as "...the framing of a perceived transgression

such that one's attachment to the transgressor, transgression, and sequelae of the

transgression is transformed from negative to neutral or positive" (p. 302).

Under this current approach, forgiveness is considered as a primarily

intrapersonal phenomenon, having to do with a person's internal process of transforming

the valence of their attachment to an event or outcome. Perfectionism conceptualization

has been parted along similar lines, with the introduction of self-oriented, other-oriented,

and socially prescribed perfectionism dimensions (Hewitt & Flett, 1989; Hewitt, Flett,

Turnbull-Donovan, & Mikail, 1991). Self-oriented and other-oriented perfectionism are

both described as originating from within an individual, while socially prescribed

perfectionism has gathered some controversy due to its focus on the expectations of

others. According to Shafran, Cooper, & Fairburn (2003), interpersonal processes are not

necessary, perfectionism may occur predominantly by the imposition of self-imposed and

personally demanding standards. This means that, similar to forgiveness, the construct of

perfectionism has been described using both interpersonal and intrapersonal terms,

though trends support the notion that the intrapersonal aspect may be most salient, in









particular when it comes to psychologically destructive consequences. The negative

effects of perfectionism have occurred most strongly for self-oriented perfectionists,

providing further support for emphasizing an intrapersonal focus in research. Continued

perfectionism research has given us a measure that more closely approximates the

essence of maladaptive perfectionism the distress resulting from a negatively perceived

difference between one's standards and one's evaluation of one's performance, termed

Discrepancy (Slaney, Rice, Mobley, Trippi, & Ashby, 2001). Discrepancy appears to be

an intrapersonally evaluative phenomenon in which maladaptive perfectionists engage in

harsh self-criticism and judgment of their performance, continually finding themselves

lacking when compared with their self-imposed and impossibly high standards.

The similarities between forgiveness and perfectionism highlight the possibility of

an important relationship between the two, which has not previously been investigated in

research on either phenomenon. It is possible that a destructive element at play here may

be an inability for perfectionistic individuals to forgive themselves. Low propensity for

forgiveness in an individual could foster the kind of mental landscape that supports an

"all-or-nothing" critical mentality. The current study investigated the primary hypothesis

of a strong inverse relationship between forgiveness and perfectionism, in order to

expand the window into the particularly destructive internal processes occurring within

individuals with maladaptive perfectionism. Once a perceived failure or inadequacy

occurs, these individuals become incredibly vulnerable to future perceived failures,

engaging in evaluative and critical condemnation of themselves or others, potentially

demonstrating a low level of dispositional forgiveness. Those with higher levels of

forgiveness would refrain from engaging in this condemning, judgmental evaluation,









instead transforming their negative affect into neutral or positive affect, and thus

successfully avoiding the pitfalls of maladaptive perfectionism. Given the parallels

between the processes of perfectionism and forgiveness, and the respective ramifications

or benefits found with regard to well-being, this conspicuous gap in the literature merits

further investigation.

Understanding perfectionistic and forgiving individuals may unearth new personal

qualities useful for encouraging forgiveness and reducing maladaptive consequences of

perfectionism. Self-compassion, though recently introduced into the current

psychological literature (Neff, 2003a), has held promise for improving mental health and

well-being for many years. This has been particularly prevalent within eastern

philosophical perspectives. More recently, self-compassion has made its way into the

psychological arena, with strong empirical support for its benefits. Self-compassion has

been found to have a significant inverse relationship with perfectionism (Neff, 2003b), in

that the more self-compassion the lower the maladaptive perfectionism. Self-compassion

has not previously been related to forgiveness, making the current study the first to do so.

Self-compassion, containing components of mindfulness, the ability to see one's

experiences and feelings as part of a common human experience, and kindness toward

oneself, offers a potential link between the processes of forgiveness and perfectionism.

Self-compassionate individuals look with understanding upon their experiences rather

than criticize them, take a balanced perspective toward negative feelings, see

commonalities between their experience and those of others, accept inadequacies as

implicitly part of the human condition, and create a mental space in which to be mindful

of their feelings and internal processes (Neff, 2003a). With maladaptive perfectionism









enacting a harsh judgment on inadequacies or negative experiences, it makes sense that a

mindful, understanding, and kind perspective toward oneself may help save an individual

from becoming entrenched in a perfectionistic mindset. The common humanity aspect of

self-compassion, the ability to see oneself as similar to others, with implicit failures,

mistakes, and inadequacies, increases a sense of interconnectedness (Neff, 2003b). This

sense of belonging is often absent in maladaptive perfectionists, who exhibit low levels of

social connection (Rice, et al., 2006). The current study hypothesized that self-

compassion will relate to higher levels of forgiveness and lower levels of perfectionism.

Higher forgiveness levels may activate self-compassion, thus leading to lower

maladaptive perfectionistic tendencies. Forgiveness is considered to be the intrapersonal

transformation of the valence of an event from negative to neutral or positive. Releasing

oneself from the negative valence of an event may help to create the mental space needed

to experience feelings of commonness with humanity and a kindness toward self, all of

which are present in self-compassion. The current study examines the potential

mechanism employed by individuals who are more forgiving to encourage self-

compassion and avoid the potential destructive elements of perfectionism, providing new

insight into the forgiveness-perfectionism relationship.

Though self-compassion has been related to perfectionism, and the ability to see

oneself as similar to others has been found to be correlated with forgiveness (Exline,

Baumeister, Zell, Kraft, & Witvliet, 2008), the possibility of a link between forgiveness

and perfectionism, particularly one mediated by self-compassion has never been

investigated. In addressing this question, the current study helps link two popular bodies

of literature, that of forgiveness and that of perfectionism. The current study provides









necessary theoretical and empirical foundation for future research in perfectionism and

forgiveness, as well as a foundation for development of psychologically therapeutic

interventions that address forgiveness and self-compassion when working with

perfectionistic individuals in a clinical setting.









CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

In order to explore the relationship of forgiveness to perfectionistic tendencies it

is important to flesh out the recent literature in both areas. The review will pay particular

attention to similarities and differences between the concepts of interest on a descriptive

level, as well as the measures of well-being that have been found to have significant

relationships with both forgiveness and perfectionism. Attention will also be paid to how

self-compassion may influence or help explain forgiveness and perfectionism, given the

theoretical and empirical support presented.

Forgiveness

There exists much debate as to the conceptualization of forgiveness. Most

consider forgiveness interpersonally as the defining feature of forgiveness. However,

approaches to measuring forgiveness range from presenting events of specific

transgressions hypothetically committed towards a respondent and asking their

propensity to forgive such an event, to more broad statements intended to gauge one's

disposition to forgive events beyond one's control. The most recent and comprehensive

approach has been to consider forgiveness as an intrapersonal phenomenon, and having

to do with a person's transforming the valence of their attachment to an event or

occurrence. The spectrum of forgiveness conceptualizations and measurement, and the

evolution of the construct as both a vital aspect of well-being and ultimately as a

dispositional, intrapersonal experience will be discussed in this section.

Many researchers agree upon the benefits of forgiveness and the drawbacks or

consequences of not forgiving (see Neto & Mullet, 2004 table for review). Narcissism,

neuroticism, anger, anxiety, depression, hostility, and resentment have all been associated









with low levels of forgiveness (Ashton, Paunonena, Helmesa, & Jacksona, 1998; Enright

et al., 1992; Worthington, 1998). An inability to forgive has also been found to

correspond with higher levels of hostile thoughts and rumination (Berry, Worthington,

Parrott, O'Connor, & Wade, 2001; McCullough et al., 2001; Thompson et al., 2005),

vengeance (Berry, Worthington, O'Connor, Parrott, Wade, 2005; Stuckless & Goranson,

1992), negative affect (Watson, et. al, 1988), a neurotic defense style (Macaskill, Maltby,

& Day, 2002; Maltby & Day, 2004), the personality dimension of Neuroticism (Neto &

Mullet, 2004), anger and fear (Berry et al., 2005), physiological stress and coronary heart

disease (Witvliet, 2001), greater anxiety, and higher levels of depression (Seybold, Hill,

Neuman, & Chi, 2001; Thompson, & Snyder, 2003; Subkoviak, Enright, Wu, Gassin,

Freedman, Olson, et al., 1995). Conversely, high levels of forgiveness have been

associated with many factors of psychological, emotional, and physical well-being (e.g.,

Denton & Martin, 1998; Lawler, Younger, Piferi, Jobe, Edmondson, & Jones, 2005),

such as happiness (Maltby, Day, & Barber, 2005), better sleep quality, less fatigue, and

fewer somatic complaints (Lawler, et al., 2005), greater life satisfaction, less anxiety and

reduced depression (e.g., Al-Mabuk, Enright, & Cardis, 1995; Coyle and Enright, 1997;

Freedman and Enright, 1996; Hebl and Enright, 1993), greater altruism (Ashton, et al.,

1998), empathy (Berry et al., 2005), and gratitude (McCullough et al., 2002; Neto &

Mullet, 2004). Forgiveness has also been associated with the personality dimensions of

Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Religiousness, and

Responsibility (Ashton, et al., 1998; Berry et al., 2001), a secure adult attachment style

(Lawler-Row, Youger, Piferi, & Jones, 2006; Webb, Call, Chickering, Colbum, &









Heisler, 2006), increased hope, and spiritual well-being (Maltby, Day, & Barber, 2004;

Saucier & Goldberg, 1998).

However, researchers do not agree upon a clear definition of forgiveness, and a

consensus has not yet been reached regarding whether forgiveness truly occurs inter- or

intra- personally. As such, debate continues as to whether it ought to be measured using a

situation-specific or dispositional approach. Mauger and colleagues (1992) were among

the first to differentiate between types of forgiveness, created the Forgiveness of Self

(FS) and Forgiveness of Others (FO) scales, which fall under the greater umbrella of the

construct of forgiveness. These measures generally take the approach of measuring

forgiveness from the negative standpoint, in that they appear to be using endorsement of

unforgiveness as an indication of one's lack of forgiveness of self or others. This implies

that unforgiveness and forgiveness would exist on a continuum in which one is said to

have more or less forgiveness overall, regardless of the negative or positive standpoint of

the measure. The FO items revolve particularly around taking revenge, justifying

retaliation, holding grudges, and seeing other people as apt to cause one hurt, while the

FS items tapped feelings of guilt, seeing oneself as sinful, and having a variety of

negative self-attitudes (Mauger et al., 1992).

Enright and others (Subkoviak et al., 1995; Hebl & Enright, 1993) preferred to

assess forgiveness using transgression-specific means, subscribing to the mindset that

forgiveness is something that occurs between two people, or solely interpersonally. They

define forgiveness as "a willingness to abandon one's right to resentment, negative

judgment, and indifferent behavior toward one who unjustly hurt us, while fostering the

undeserved qualities of compassion, generosity, and even love toward him or her"









(Enright et al., 1998, pp. 46-47). This definition clearly exhibits the necessity for

benevolence in order for forgiveness to occur. Enright and Zell (1989) also assert that,

"the fruition of forgiveness is entering into loving community with others" (p.99),

suggesting that reconciliation may be a required part of forgiveness as well. Though

respondents are asked to respond to hypothetical as well as one real situation, the narrow

focus of a transgression-specific approach constricts the external validity and limits the

applicability of forgiveness to other more trait-based psychological constructs.

Berry and colleagues (2001) also endorse a transgression-specific definition of

forgiveness. Similarly, McCullough (2000) and colleagues conceptualize forgiveness as a

construct emphasizing prosocial changes in motivations. Under their definition one

specifically experiences decreased motivation to avoid personal and psychological

contact with the offender, to seek revenge or to see harm come to the offender, and

increased benevolence motivation toward the offender, implying that forgiveness of

others is the basic component. Under this framework, again, forgiveness is defined in

terms of interpersonal process rather than an experience that may occur intrapersonally.

The two components of their definition are motivations to avoid contact, and motivations

to seek revenge or see harm come to the transgressor (McCullough et al., 1998),

emphasizing mostly the negative aspects as representative of one's lack of forgiveness.

Hargrave and Sells (2007) offer a definition of forgiveness that includes the component

of love: "effort in restoring love and trustworthiness to relationships so that victims and

victimizers can put an end to destructive entitlement" (p.43). They assert two broader

levels of forgiveness, exonerating (involving insight and understanding) and forgiving

(involving the overt act of forgiving as well as giving the opportunity for compensation,









meaning the ability for interactions with the transgressor in a way perceived by that

person as non-threatening and encouraging of emotional bonding. Hargrave and Sells

(1997) see forgiveness as having two components, forgiveness and pain, and have

developed a measure with four interesting subscales: insight, understanding, giving the

opportunity for compensation, and the overt act of forgiving. Here we see a

conceptualization of forgiveness that approaches intrapersonal emphasis, but still falls

short. Examination of the construct of forgiveness using specific descriptions of events

does not allow for a broader generalizability of forgiveness as attributed to the respondent

as well as to be related to other psychological constructs.

Kamat and colleagues (2006) found evidence for forgiveness as a more stable

dimension of personality, and current trends in the forgiveness literature support the idea

that forgiveness is more accurately and appropriately characterized as dispositional in

nature (Thompson et al., 2003). The current study argues that the superior approach to

measurement of forgiveness is both through a non transgression-specific framework, and

is incorporative of the self, others, and situational components of the forgiveness

construct, in line with the definition of forgiveness put forth by Thompson and Snyder

(2003):

We define forgiveness as the framing of a perceived transgression such that one's

attachment to the transgressor, transgression, and sequelae of the transgression is

transformed from negative to neutral or positive. The source of a transgression, and

therefore the object of forgiveness, may be oneself, another person or persons, or a

situation that one views as being beyond anyone's control (e.g., an illness, "fate," or a

natural disaster). (p. 302)









This definition is arguably the broadest and most encompassing definition yet

available, in that it includes the possibility of feeling transgressed upon in an impersonal

manner, and thus allows for the forgiveness of situations to exist as a distinct and

important aspect of dispositional forgiveness. The authors' most compelling argument for

the understanding of forgiveness as dispositional rather than transgression-specific is the

assertion that forgiveness itself occurs only intrapersonally. In other words, the target of

forgiveness does not matter; it is the motivation and behavior of the forgiver that

exemplify forgiveness as a disposition. This measure created by Thompson and

colleagues, the Heartland Forgiveness scale (HFS; Thompson et al., 2005), measures

forgiveness of self, others, and situations. This is the measure chosen for the current

study and will be discussed in detail later.

In the realm of clinical practice, models have begun to be established for

forgiveness. Denton and Martin (1998) found that experienced clinicians identified

forgiveness as an inner process that was central to psychotherapy. Clinicians corroborated

the idea that forgiveness is a predominantly intrapersonal process, in which an individual

releases those negative feelings and no longer seeks to return hurt within (Denton &

Martin, 1998). Worthington and Wade (1999) have set forth a model incorporating

forgiveness and its related areas, in which the personal attributes of the participants and

of the relationship at hand before a transgression factor into the propensity and likelihood

of an individual to forgive. First, the person's perceptions of the events take place, and

their initial emotional reaction to the events occurs. Then interpersonally active

responses, such as revenge/retaliation, pro-relationship behavior, and perception of the

offender's response occur, as well as the intrapersonally passive response of rumination.









Within this model, an emotionally dissonant event occurs that changes one's initial

reaction to the event, leading to emotional dissonance. This aspect is considered crucial.

"Underlying forgiveness is an emotional dissonant event. Thus, a victim's ability to

forgive will be influenced partially by his or her ability to comprehend and successfully

resolve incompatible emotions, which is the core of the hypothesized construct of

emotional intelligence" (Worthington & Wade, 1999, p. 395). At this point, self-

compassion may play its part in the forgiveness process. The more one is able to take a

compassionate standpoint toward one's own actions or feelings that may provoke an

initially negative response, the more likely one may be to be open to and familiar with the

choice of extending this understanding and compassion to events involving others (or

situations). In kind, the more one considers oneself to have a kinship or similarity with

others, who also have broadly imperfect human experiences, the more forgiving and the

less self-critical or perfectionistic the person may be.

Another model of forgiveness has been proposed within the psychotherapeutic

context that highlights intrapersonal process, and the role of attending to the similarities

and humanity of another person. Rosenak and Harnden (1992) describe a model in which,

after an offensive event, victims experience hurt that leads to anger. After the realization

and expression of hurt and anger comes, a therapeutic information-gathering stage occurs

within a client, in which the client needs to glean more knowledge about the transgressor.

This information is thought to then promote a better understanding from the other

person's perspective, leading to a true forgiveness.

Current trends in forgiveness research support the idea that forgiveness occurs as

an intrapersonal process. In a meta-analysis of forgiveness interventions, Baskin and









Enright (2004) found that, when compared with control groups on forgiveness and other

emotional health measures, process-based individual interventions showed large effects

and process-based group interventions showed significant effects, while decision-based

interventions had no effect. These findings highlight the effectiveness of focusing on the

process of forgiveness occurring within a person. The Heartland Forgiveness Scale (HFS;

Thompson, Snyder, Hoffman, Michael, Rasmussen, et al, 2005) has been developed

based upon this very conceptualization, and serves as the most encompassing defining of

the construct of forgiveness to date. Under this framework, someone can be relieved of

the negative attachment through transforming the negative cognitions, emotions, and/or

behaviors to either neutral or positive, as well as through weakening the attachment by

releasing the perception of a strong connection between oneself and the transgressor or

transgression (Thompson & Snyder, 2003). This does not necessitate a forgetting of the

event, nor preclude the person from taking any actions, legal or otherwise. The emphasis

is on the valence of the attachment, and forgiveness is said to occur as long as the

motivation does not involve negative attachment (e.g., vengefulness). Instead,

forgiveness is understood as process "through which people synthesize their prior

assumptions and the reality of the transgression into a new understanding of the

transgression, transgressor, transgression sequelae, and potentially, of themselves, other

people, or the world" (Thompson et al., 2005, p. 318). The authors are groundbreaking

and unique in their perspective that only the shift from a negative to a neutral attachment

is necessary and sufficient to constitute forgiveness, rather than needing empathy or

compassion to be demonstrated.









Perfectionism

Over the years and through a variety of research avenues, perfectionism has

evolved from a simple to a multidimensional construct. Researchers have increasingly

become interested in perfectionism in relation to psychological well-being, and there is

currently a growing debate with regard to what conception and aspects of perfectionism

may or may not be detrimental, or maladaptive. Burns (1980) continued this work with

more detailed descriptions of a perfectionist's self-defeating thoughts and attitudes that

can lead to higher anxiety, depression, and mood swings. Blatt (1995) later elaborated on

the self-destructiveness of perfectionism, linking it to a self-critical depression and

general psychopathology. However, Hamachek (1978) and others advanced the notion

very early on that perfectionism may be more complex than it seems at first glance, and

may contain adaptive as well as maladaptive functions, which he described as "normal"

perfectionism and "neurotic" perfectionism.

The adaptive functions of perfectionism serve to motivate an individual to achieve

and strive to meet high standards, while the more maladaptive perfectionistic

characteristics may lead individuals to experience a variety of psychological distress and

disturbance, such as personality disorders (e.g., Flett, Endler, Tassone, & Hewitt, 1994;

Rice, et al., 2007), obsessive-compulsive disorders (e.g., Hewitt & Flett, 1991a; Rice &

Pence, 2006; Ye, et al., 2008), low self-esteem (Ashby & Rice, 2002; Gzregorek et al.,

2004; Mobley, Slaney, & Rice, 2005) and high shame (Ashby, Rice, & Martin, 2006),

high levels of anxiety (e.g., Flett, Hewitt, & Dyck, 1989; Mobley et al., 2005), eating

disorders (e.g., Axtell & Newlon, 1994; Hewitt, Flett, & Ediger, 1995), and Type A

behaviors (e.g., Flett, Hewitt, & Blankenstein, 1994). Those with high levels of

perfectionism have an extreme vulnerability to failure, experiencing each fault as









catastrophic. Across cultures, they very often exhibit higher levels of depression (e.g.,

Shahar, Blatt & Zuroff, 2003; Enns, Cox, & Clara, 2002; Wang et al., 2007).

Perfectionists judge their work to be of lower quality than non-perfectionists (Frost &

Henderson, 1991; Frost & Marten, 1991), have been reported to make lower salaries than

even those not suffering from perfectionism (Bums, 1980), have lower quality intimate

partnerships and premarital adjustment (Aldea & Rice, 2006; Ashby, Rice, & Kutchins,

2008; Shea, Slaney, & Rice, 2006), and exhibit lower levels of academic adjustment and

integration (Rice & Dellwo, 2001, 2002; Rice & Mirzadeh, 2000; Rice, Vergara, &

Aldea, 2006). Perfectionism has also been linked to increased brooding and rumination

(Hewitt, Flett, Besser, Sherry, & McGee, 2002; O'Connor, O'Connor, & Marshall, 2007),

hopelessness (Rice, et al., 2006; O'Connor et al., 2007), and a greater potentiality for

suicide (e.g., Blatt, 1995; Hewitt, et al., 1992; Hewitt, Flett, & Weber, 1994).

Carver and Ganellen (1983) support the idea that this self-punitiveness reflects an

inability to tolerate failure in meeting one's high standards and a tendency to generalize a

single failure to all aspects of the self. Carver and Scheier's (1986) model of self-

regulatory processes also focuses on whether standards are attained and supports the idea

that these individuals will continue to pursue unattained goals even when abandoning

such goals may be highly adaptive. If they do meet their standards, the standards are then

considered insufficiently demanding (Shafran, Cooper, Fairbum, 2002). Perfectionistic

individuals have actually been reported to make lower salaries than individuals not

suffering from perfectionism (Bums, 1980). Nothing ever seems to be quite good enough

for the maladaptive perfectionist. They judge their work to be of lower quality than non-

perfectionists (Frost & Henderson, 1990; Frost & Marten, 1991). Perfectionism is also









associated with procrastination problems (e.g., Flett, Blankenstein, & Hewitt, 1992), and

debilitating performance anxiety (Mor, Day, Flett, & Hewitt, 1995).

Earlier measurement development yielded two main scales that consider

perfectionism to be a multidimensional construct, though they are based upon slightly

different conceptualizations. Hewitt and Flett (1990, 1991) developed their

Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS) based upon three types of perfectionism:

self-oriented, other-oriented, and socially prescribed perfectionism, and furthered

research from within this same theoretical conceptualization. The inclusion of self-

oriented, other-oriented, and socially prescribed perfectionism dimensions means that the

construct of perfectionism is now described using both intra-personal and inter-personal

terms. Self-oriented perfectionism is described as the presence of unrelentingly high, self-

imposed standards for self, as well as an inability to accept flaws, faults, or failures of

any kind across multiple domains of life. Other-oriented perfectionism demands that

others meet exceedingly high and unrealistic standards. Though self-oriented

perfectionism was found to contribute to a person's resourcefulness and constructive

striving, it also acts destructively during negative life circumstances to produce higher

levels of depression (Flett, Hewitt, Blankenstein, & Mosher, 1995; Flett, Hewitt,

Blankenstein, & O'Brien, 1991). Hewitt & Flett (1990) found self-oriented perfectionism

to be significantly correlated with both the Efficacy and the Self-Criticism components of

the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ; Blatt, D'Affiti, & Quinlan, 1976), a

finding that also occurred with the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale of Frost and

colleagues (1990). Socially prescribed perfectionism means a belief that others hold

unrealistically high standards and expectations, and that acceptance and approval are









contingent upon meeting these impossible standards (Frost et al., 1990). Socially

prescribed perfectionism, self-oriented perfectionism, and perceiving events as falling

unbearably short of expectations or standards have all been linked to suicidal ideation

(Baumeister, 1990; Delisle, 1990; Hewitt & Flett, 1991a), particularly for perfectionistic

individuals who have recently had an experience of failure (Flett, Hewitt, Blankenstein,

& Mosher, 1991, 1995; Hewitt & Flett, 1993).

The Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS) of Frost, Marten, Lahart, and

Rosenblatt (1990) assesses perfectionism using multiple aspects of their definition, which

includes subscales for concern over making mistakes, high standards, perceptions of high

parental expectations and parental criticism, and preferences for order and organization.

Though a few of these subscales, such as high standards, have been related to positive

striving and achievement, many have been related to a range of psychological or clinical

disorders, especially depression. Factor analysis on both multidimensional perfectionism

scales has revealed that they contained two factors, the first reflecting maladaptive and

critical evaluative concerns, and the second, positive achievement striving. Frost and

colleagues (1993) found that the overall perfectionism scores on their scale correlated

primarily with self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism on the Hewitt and Flett

scale.

Further scales have been developed by perfectionism researchers that highlight

the importance of measuring both adaptive and maladaptive aspects of perfectionism. The

Adaptive/Maladaptive Perfectionism Scale (AMPS; Rice & Preusser, 2002) was

developed for children, expanding the availability for research across a broader age

range. This scale assesses domains such as sensitivity to mistakes, contingent self-esteem,









compulsiveness, and need for admiration. However, research in the field of perfectionism

has predominantly utilized a college student population. This has been understandable

considering some two thirds of college samples may be classified as perfectionistic

(Grzegorek, Slaney, Franze, & Rice, 2004). College honors or gifted samples may

typically consist of more perfectionistic individuals than non-honors samples (Leever,

Rice, Christopher, & Porter, 2006), and interest in the study of perfectionism with this

population has gained some ground. Adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism has been

found to relate in the expected directions with hopelessness, social connectedness,

perceived academic adjustment, depression, and perceived stress in high-achieving

honors students and effects were found to be moderated or partially mediated by level of

perceived stress and social connection (Rice et al., 2006).

Some have focused mainly on the cognitive aspects of perfectionism. Rumination

over one's mistakes and inadequacies has been noted often in the perfectionism literature

(e.g., Frost & Henderson, 1991; Frost, Trepanier, Brown, Heimberg, Juster, Markis, &

Leung, 1997). Some assert that perfectionistic individuals have an ideal self-schema at

work (Hewitt & Genest, 1990) and that perfectionists have more automatic thoughts that

reflect perfectionistic themes, such as failure to attain perfection in the past or future

(Ferrari, 1995). A brooding ruminative response style has been found to be a mechanism

that may help explain, in part, the perfectionism-distress relationship (O'Connor,

O'Connor, & Marshall, 2007).

However, it is well argued that some aspects of previous scales may in fact

measure consequences of being a perfectionist, rather than the essential elements of

perfectionism itself (Slaney, et al., 2001), and that existing measures do not reflect the









original concept of perfectionism (Shafran & Mansell, 2001). In other words, "the

subscales composing the Maladaptive factor seem to be based on assumed causes,

concomitants, or the resulting effects of being perfectionistic rather than a definition of

perfectionism itself' (Slaney et al., 2001, p.132). The Almost Perfect Scale (APS;

Johnson & Slaney, 1996; APS-R; Slaney et al., 2001) was developed to emphasize both

the positive and negative dimensions of perfectionism itself. Based upon two qualitative

studies (Slaney & Ashby, 1996; Slaney, Chadha, Mobley, & Kennedy, 2000) these

researchers developed a scale that emphasized the apparent importance the distress

associated with the difference, or discrepancy, between an individual's high standards for

performance and their perceptions of success in meeting those high standards. This

Discrepancy subscale was thought to best capture a more definitive quality of the

maladaptive perfectionist, and became one of the most important contributions of this

scale (APS-R; Slaney et al., 2001) to the growing body of perfectionism literature. The

APS-R uses the following premises:

...an adequate and useful definition of perfectionism would

seemingly need to meet at least four criteria: (a) It should clearly specify

the variables that define perfectionism as discriminated from variables that

are seen as causal, correlational, or the effect of being perfectionistic; (b) it

should pay close attention to the empirically supported negative and

positive aspects of perfectionism; (c) it should be closely related to

commonly held ideas about perfectionism as exemplified in the dictionary

definitions, and (d) it should be empirically sound (Slaney et al., 2001,

p.132).









The APS-R (see Appendix B) includes three subscales supported by factor

analysis: Discrepancy, High Standards, and Order. Having high standards for oneself

reflects perfectionism in general, and high Discrepancy scores then distinguish the

negative or maladaptive dimension. This scale was found in a factor analysis study to

have two factors (one positive, one negative) consistent with the findings of Frost and

colleagues (Slaney, Ashby, & Trippi, 1995). Subsequently, a confirmatory factor analysis

was performed on the scales, which similarly supported an adaptive and a maladaptive

perfectionism (Rice, Ashby, & Slaney, 1998). High Standards and Order are subscales

included in the original APS as well as the APS-R, and are said to measure these domains

without any negative preconceptions, which is reflected in their combined high

correlation to positive striving and their weak negative correlation to the original

maladaptive evaluation concerns factor of the APS (Slaney et al., 1995). Frost and

colleagues (1990) considered organization to be irrelevant to perfectionism, and Johnson

and Slaney (1996) found a very minimal correlation of High Standards and Order with

anxiety and depression. It has been advanced that setting and striving for high standards

is not in and of itself pathological (Frost, et al., 1990). The Discrepancy subscale has

been shown to strongly tap the maladaptive dimension of perfectionism. Discrepancy,

introduced in the APS-R, measures the perception that one's high personal standards are

consistently not being met (Slaney et al., 2001), and is associated with high psychological

distress and many of the destructive elements that accompany perfectionism. The High

Standards and Discrepancy subscales are considered virtually independent, highlighting

the complexity of the construct (Slaney et al., 2001). The Order subscale has not been

found to be essential for maladaptive or adaptive perfectionism (Stoeber & Otto, 2006).









Since the development of the APS-R much research investigating the positive and

negative dimensions of perfectionism has occurred. The Discrepancy subscale has

become particularly useful as a tool for tapping maladaptive perfectionism using its

defining quality, rather than other characteristics that may merely be consequences of

already being perfectionistic. Based upon APS-R scores, some researchers have begun to

develop ways to cluster perfectionists into groups: maladaptive perfectionists, adaptive

perfectionists, and nonperfectionists (Rice & Slaney, 2002; Rice & Ashby, 2007).

Previous cluster analytic studies have been performed using the Frost et al. (1990) scale

(e.g., Rice & Mirzadeh, 2000; Rice & Lapsley, 2001) and have also found support for

some healthy advantages to adaptive perfectionism and strong disadvantages to

maladaptive perfectionism. Using the APS-R, perfectionists were distinguished from

nonperfectionists using their high scores on High Standards and Order, while the

maladaptive perfectionists were distinguished from the adaptive perfectionists by their

high Discrepancy scores (Rice & Slaney 2002; Rice & Ashby, 2007). Discrepancy scores

for adaptive perfectionists actually tended to be lower than those for nonperfectionists,

with maladaptive perfectionists having the highest relative Discrepancy scores (Rice &

Slaney, 2002). Further validation of efficient methods for classifying nonperfectionists,

maladaptive perfectionists, and adaptive perfectionists benefits both further research and

clinical use.

Maladaptive perfectionism, measured using the Discrepancy subscale of the APS-

R, has been found to possess substantial stability over time, even when controlling for

other dimensions of perfectionism and depression (Aldea & Rice, 2006). Maladaptive

perfectionism, assessed using the APS-R Discrepancy subscale has been found to be









significantly related to depression in particular (e.g., Rice & Slaney, 2002; Rice & Aldea,

2006; Rice & Ashby, 2007), along with shame (Ashby, et al., 2006), lower self-esteem

(e.g., Rice & Slaney, 2002), lower satisfaction with life (e.g., Rice & Ashby, 2007),

higher trait anxiety (Mobley, Slaney, & Rice, 2005), lower satisfaction with GPA (e.g.,

Grzegorek, et al., 2004; Mobley, et al., 2005), and Neuroticism, as measured using the

NEO-Five factor personality inventory (Rice, Ashby, & Slaney, 2007). Adaptive

perfectionism has been associated with higher satisfaction with GPA (Grzegorek et al.,

2004), the NEO-Five factor personality inventory dimension of Conscientiousness (Rice,

Ashby, & Slaney, 2007), higher self-esteem (Ashby & Rice, 2002), and coping and

achievement (Parker, 1997; Rice & Lapsley, 2001). Adaptive perfectionism has been

associated with more healthy adult attachment styles, while maladaptive perfectionism

has been related to less healthy adult attachment styles (Rice, Lopez, & Vergara, 2005).

Discrepancy is arguably the most quintessential aspect of the maladaptive form of

perfectionism. Discrepancy has recently been found to be a strong underlying indicator of

Evaluative Concerns perfectionism (Blankstein, Dunkley, & Wilson, 2008), as compared

with Personal Standards perfectionism. Evaluative Concerns perfectionists "perceive that

excessively high, rigid standards are imposed on them by others, perceive a discrepancy

between the standards and the motivation, abilities, and skills required to reach the level

of performance or success required by the imposed standards, are concerned about

making mistakes and doubt their actions, engage in relentless self criticism, and perceive

consistent failure to meet the high standards set for them by others" (Blankstein, et al.,

2008, p.32). The high factor loading of Discrepancy on Evaluative Concerns

perfectionism reflects this construct as an underlying and unifying factor in the









conceptualization of maladaptive perfectionism, while also distinguishing that having

high personal standards is not necessarily maladaptive. This finding is consistent with the

views of previous researchers (e.g Slaney, Rice, & Ashby, 2002; Suddarth & Slaney,

2001) who proposed that Discrepancy as central to maladaptive perfectionism.

With the advancement of such a useful measurement tool for Discrepancy,

research in a wide variety of domains has become possible. High Standards appears

within both the adaptive and maladaptive dimensions of perfectionism, so the

introduction of the APS-R Discrepancy subscale, which teases apart the maladaptive

quality of the construct itself, has been extremely beneficial to both future research as

well as theoretical conceptualization of perfectionism. Higher distress over the perceived

discrepancy between one's high personal standards and one's meeting such standards

seems to be at the heart of the maladaptive and destructive element of perfectionism.

"High standards combined with excessive concerns about mistakes seem to be especially

maladaptive, whereas high standards but low concerns about mistakes may be adaptive"

(Rice & Lopez, 2004, p. 118). In examining this description, it appears that previous

descriptions of a 'concern over mistakes' have helped further the understanding of what is

a perceived discrepancy between standards and performance. Discrepancy is not the same

as a concern over mistakes, however. Though perfectionism scales and

conceptualizations are evolving based upon a fairly similar understanding of the

construct, the addition of the Discrepancy subscale now allows for an arguably more

accurate theoretical and empirical measure of the maladaptive dimension.

Discrepancy is essentially an intense dissatisfaction and experienced distress over

a perceived discrepancy between one's standards and one's ability to meet these high









standards. Evidence has been found that both perfectionism and forgiveness tend to be

dispositional, fairly stable constructs related to personality (see Rice, Ashby, & Slaney,

2007 and Rice & Aldea, 2006 for perfectionism; see Thompson et al., 2005 and Kamat,

Jones, & Row, 2006 for forgiveness). The current study hypothesizes that forgiveness

will be significantly related to perfectionism in the expected directions, in that higher

levels of forgiveness will predict lower levels of maladaptive, or self-critical,

perfectionism. An ability to forgive oneself, others, and situations beyond one's control

may prevent the possibility of intense psychological distress regarding not meeting one's

high standards. It is expected that those scoring high on Discrepancy, individuals who

have very negative self-evaluation of their performance, will subsequently exhibit a lower

propensity for forgiveness. In other words, in the instances where standards may not be

met, this inability to forgive leads such individuals to perceive their performance as a

failure and would report a larger discrepancy between their standard and their

performance. The relationship between forgiveness and perfectionism has not yet been

explored and represents an important theoretical and empirical gap in the literature.

Detailed hypotheses and the potential roles of self-compassion in the relationship of

forgiveness and perfectionism will be discussed in a later section. In order to accurately

conceptualize the model of forgiveness, perfectionism, and self-compassion put forth for

examination in this study, a grasp of the literature and scales for measuring self-

compassion is needed.

Self-Compassion

Throughout the history of mental health and well-being research, the predominant

focus of study has been pathological in nature. In other words, researchers and the mental

health field in general have often studied the negative or self-destructive constructs









related to disorders or distress in individuals. However, a trend toward the study of

positive well-being attributes has taken hold in the field of mental health as well, often

termed positive psychology. Self-compassion springs from the tenets of positive

psychology, and the confluence of eastern and western influences.

A mix of western psychology and eastern philosophy has brought the mental

health field many useful concepts for the study of well-being, particularly for

understanding processes of self. One such concept, self-compassion, has been understood

to contribute to well-being in for many years and has been extensively discussed in books

on mindfulness, loving kindness, and finding loving balance in one's life (e.g., Bennett-

Golemen, 2001; Brown, 1999; Hahn, 1976, 1997; Kabat-Zinn, 1994; Komfield, 1993;

Salzberg, 1997). Neff (2003a, 2003b) has brought this concept into the psychological

literature and research field through her extensive theoretical contribution to the literature

as well as her development of a viable and reliable measure of self-compassion. Self-

compassion is directly related to feelings of compassion and concern for others -

patience, kindness, and a nonjudgmental understanding, along with an ability to

acknowledge that all humans are imperfect and make mistakes (Neff, 2003b). Self-

compassion expands compassion toward oneself in acknowledgement of one's

membership as part of the human race, with its implicit imperfection.

Self-compassion involves being open to and moved by one's own

suffering, experiencing feelings of caring and kindness toward one's

inadequacies and failures, and recognizing that one's own experience is

part of the common human experience. Because self-compassion is

directly related to feelings of compassion and concern for others, being









self-compassionate does not entail being selfish or self-centered, nor does

it mean that one priorities personal needs over those of others. Instead,

self-compassion entails acknowledging that suffering, failure, and

inadequacies are part of the human condition, and that all people oneself

included are worthy of compassion (Neff, 2003b, p. 224).

Since self-compassion requires that one be aware of feelings of inadequacy, while

adopting a compassionate, nonjudgmental understanding, the mindset of the self-

compassionate individual would leave no room for the unforgiveness or destructive self-

criticism that may lead to high levels of psychological distress, unforgiving attitudes, and

maladaptive perfectionism. Neff (2003b) describes self-compassion as having three

crucial components:

1) extending kindness and understanding to oneself rather than harsh self-

criticism and judgment, 2) seeing one's experiences as part of the larger

human experience rather than as separating and isolating; and 3) holding

one's painful thoughts and feelings in balanced awareness rather than

over-identifying with them. These aspects of self-compassion are

experienced differently and are conceptually distinct, but they also tend to

engender one another (p.224).

It is because the process of self-compassion involves an understanding of self and other

as related, and involves the emphasis of universal human commonalities, that self-

compassion is often related with increased feelings of interconnectedness and decreased

feelings of separation (Neff, 2003b). People have also been found to be more forgiving if

they see themselves as similar to offenders, or capable of committing similar offenses









(Exline et al., 2008). Previous research on perfectionism has found that maladaptive

perfectionism is associated with much lower levels of social connectedness than

nonperfectionism or adaptive perfectionism high Discrepancy scores have been

associated with low feelings of social connectedness, while high standards (adaptive

perfectionists) have been associated with higher levels of social connection (Rice et al.,

2006). Using the same Social Connectedness Scale (SCS; Lee & Robbins, 1995), Neff

(2003b) found that self-compassion is also significantly positively related to feelings of

social connectedness. Given the similarities between the well-being effects of forgiveness

and self-compassion, as well as the detrimental effects of maladaptive perfectionism, the

current study will include self-compassion as a potentially crucial factor in the

relationship between perfectionism and forgiveness.

Supporting her argument that self-compassion transforms negative affect, Neff

(2003b) has found that self-compassion is strongly associated with lower levels of

depression and anxiety, as well as higher satisfaction with life. Though self-compassion

has been found to positively relate to self-esteem and to encompass similar construct

characteristics, evidence of self-esteem and self-compassion as distinct constructs has

been established. Although self-compassion has been found to have a significant

moderate correlation with self-esteem, a significant relationship with Narcissism was not

found (Neff, 2003b), as had been found with measures of self-esteem. Self-compassion

also had a significant negative correlation with rumination, and a positive correlation

with emotional coping (Neff, 2003b). This supports the idea that self-compassion is not

based upon self-pity for one's feelings as unique and distinct from others, or on the

overemphasis on liking oneself, but instead involves nonjudgmental understanding and a









balanced emotional perspective that one's experiences of inadequacy are common to

humanity. Self-compassion allows individuals to experience feelings of kindness and

understanding "without having to protect or bolster ones self-concept" (Neff, 2003b, p.

225). This is because self-compassion does not engage the evaluative process that can

lead to destructive criticism or narcissistic esteem for self. In fact self-compassion is said

to enhance compassion and concern for others (Neff, 2003a), which is theoretically

consistent with the idea that self-compassion may be the mechanism that promotes an

ability to forgive oneself, and may explain how self-compassion could extend to a

forgiveness of others and of situations beyond our control. This potential role of self-

compassion for promoting forgiveness is a key component of the current study's

investigation.

Neff's (2003b) Self-Compassion Scale (see Appendix C) consists of three

subscales, tapping the three faces of Self-Compassion: Self-Kindness versus Self-

Judgment, Common Humanity versus Isolation, and Mindfulness versus Over-

Identification. These three components interact and enhance each other. For instance, the

detached, nonjudgmental stance provided by a mindful frame of mind allows for a degree

of mental distance from a negative event, giving space for feelings of a commonality

amongst humanity, as well as kindness or understanding toward self to arise (Jopling,

2000). This ability to take a balanced and broader perspective allows for the reduction of

overidentification with a particular negative event, countering the egocentrism that can

cause feelings of being isolated and separate. This increases the feeling of

interconnectedness (Elkind, 1967). Experiences of self-compassion and

interconnectedness then serve to further increase mindfulness (Neff, 2003a) essentially









each one promotes more of the others. In self-compassion, one would not run away from

or away with one's thoughts or emotions (Goldstein & Kornfield, 1987).

Self-Compassion resonates well with many psychological approaches, offering an

especially useful therapeutic tool for helping clients with self-acceptance, harsh criticism,

and the ability to use suffering or negative feelings as opportunities for personal growth.

Neff (2003a) reviews many ways in which self-compassion fits well into established

frameworks, such as those of humanistic psychologists like Abraham Maslow, Jordan's

(1997) self-in-relation model of women's psychological development, and emotional

regulation literature, in which paying attention to the processes involved in emotional

arousal, intensity, and duration can transform the nature of these states and promote

psychological well-being when faced with particularly distressing or powerful emotions

(Thompson, 1994). Neff (2003b) also found a strong link between self-compassion and

emotional intelligence, the ability to experience one's feelings with greater clarity and

regulate negative moods. Self-compassion has been positively associated with a healthier

emotion-focused coping strategies (seeking emotional social support, positive

reinterpretation and growth, acceptance, and focus on and venting of emotions), and was

negatively associated with avoidance-oriented strategies, such as denial, and mental and

behavioral disengagement (Neff, Ya-Ping, & Kullaya, 2005).

The relationship of self-compassion with perfectionism has recently been

investigated as well, along with achievement goals and the ability to cope with academic

failure two areas in which perfectionism research has thrived. Neff (2003b) provides

evidence supporting the relationship between self-compassion and maladaptive

perfectionism (using Discrepancy scores on the APS-R), finding that the two constructs









have a significant and negative relationship, r = -.57. Self-compassion has been positively

associated with mastery goals, and negatively associated with performance goals; this

relationship was mediated by a lesser fear of failure and greater perceived competence of

self-compassionate persons (Neff, et al., 2005). In other words, self-compassion may help

an individual be less hard on him or herself when it comes to performing a task or

reaching a personal standard. If so, it would make theoretically consistent sense that self-

compassionate individuals would have lower Discrepancy when it comes to

perfectionism. High Discrepancy basically defines the maladaptive dimension of

perfectionism, as was discussed previously, so it is possible that self-compassion may be

a key component through which individuals prevent engaging in the detrimental and

destructive self-critical backlash of maladaptive perfectionism.

As discussed previously, self-compassion is composed of three distinct facets -

common humanity, mindfulness, and self-kindness. All three are said to influence and

promote one another. It is said that being mindful and kind to oneself may provide the

mental space for a more balanced perspective to arise, in which recognition of one's

feelings as part of the greater human experience results in greater feelings of

interconnectedness (Neff, 2003a). Also, seeing commonalities in the human experience

may promote the ability to be kinder to oneself, and to encourage a more mindful

approach to one's potentially negative feelings or experiences in the future. If all aspects

of self-compassion are distinct but also encourage and influence each other, it is unclear

whether cultivating one of these aspects could be sufficient to help promote the other

aspects and result in the well-being benefits of self-compassion. In teasing apart the role

of self-compassion in the relationship between forgiveness and perfectionism, the current









study will also look at which aspect of self-compassion relate more significantly with

both forgiveness and perfectionism. Forgiveness may activate and amplify this common

humanity element, increasing feelings of connection and decreased feelings of isolation

and judgment associated with perfectionistic thinking.

The ability to see similarities between one's own experience and the experience of

others has been discussed as beneficial for the mind and heart, and is associated with

being more loving, compassionate, and kind (Hahn, 1997). This would mean seeing the

whole of one's experiences (the positive as well as the seemingly negative) as beneficial,

providing opportunities to practice lovingkindness, mindfulness, and humility. In a

similar psychological domain, universal orientation, or the ability to attend to similarities

between self and others, has been related to higher acceptance and lower discrimination

based on ethnicity, a concern about or valuing of human equality, a responsivity to

others, greater empathy, and a preference for nonhierarchy (Phillips & Ziller, 1997).

Choosing to emphasize differentiation between self and others decreases the chance of

finding common ground, or seeing oneself as capable of the actions and feelings of

others. Individuals that perceive themselves as capable of another's actions report having

higher levels of forgiveness (Exline et al., 2008). Within the mindset of an individual able

to perceive common humanity, the self-criticism and judgmental or evaluative aspect

would be greatly reduced, leading to a higher propensity for forgiving, and a lower

incidence of harsh criticism for one's mistakes, failures, or inadequacies in living up to

one's high standards (as is present in maladaptive perfectionism). Essentially, the idea is

that when one allows oneself to be human, to experience all the intrinsic imperfections









associated with being a member of the human race, better mental health and interpersonal

relationships will follow in kind.

Many have purported that this differentiation between self and others is the first

problematic step in relationships, leading to interpersonal and potentially intrapersonal

conflict, negative comparison of self and others (Phillips & Ziller, 1997, p. 430), and

problem-solving approaches that preference self-over-others rather than creating

solutions that work for all (Abdullah, 1999). Similar thinking and justification appears to

occur in individuals low in forgiveness and high in Discrepancy they are unable to see

commonality between their feelings and others' feelings, their imperfections and the

similar imperfections of others, and are therefore unable to extend kindness or

compassion toward themselves. It is in this manner that seeing a common humanity

would be expected to encourage kindness toward self. The conflict resulting from an

overemphasis on differences may occur within the self, in regards to a distressing

perception of the difference between one's standards and one's performance (high in

Discrepancy and low in forgiveness of self), between self and others (low forgiveness of

others or high other-oriented perfectionism), or conflict regarding one's current life

circumstance (low forgiveness of situations).

Satisfaction with Life

Positive psychological research continues to foster a better understanding of

preventing and combating the pathological, while encouraging the beneficial, within our

daily lives. The foundation of the current study asserts that perfectionism, as measured by

Discrepancy, negatively impacts well-being, while the ability to forgive and to have

compassion for oneself has a positive impact on general well-being and mental health.

This ultimately allows for a happier, more satisfying life. To address this, a way to tap









global life satisfaction from a subjective standpoint was necessary. Shin and Johnson

(1978) define life satisfaction as "a global assessment of a person's quality of life

according to his chosen criteria" (p.478). The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS;

Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985) was developed from this standpoint. The

primary advantage of this scale is that criteria for evaluating satisfaction are not

externally imposed or defined by the researcher (Diener, 1984). The SWLS is a measure

of subjective well-being designed to tap global life satisfaction, meaning satisfaction of

life as a whole rather than specific aspects of life. The SWLS has many benefits that

other related measures lack, such as positive affect and happiness, making it most

suitable for the current study. For example, the SWLS addresses life satisfaction directly

rather than by including related aspects such as a zest for life, or apathy, and retains

higher validity in using a multiple item format, while others rely on a single item. Due to

its measurement of life satisfaction as a cognitive-judgmental process, this scale

complements the theme of the current study in tapping evaluative processes, as also

found in the constructs of Discrepancy and the ability to forgive or not forgive.



Purpose of the Study

This study served to address a fundamental gap in the literature between two

constructs of well-being, perfectionism and forgiveness. In particular, this study intended

to provide support for an inverse relationship between forgiveness and maladaptive

perfectionism. Specifically, higher levels of forgiveness were expected to be related to

lower levels of perfectionism. Given the plethora of psychological distress and disorders

associated with maladaptive perfectionism, the relationship of this dimension of

perfectionism with forgiveness is of particular interest.









In the current study, perfectionistic tendency is based upon scores on the

Discrepancy subscale, a measure that taps the difference between one's expected

performance and one's perceived performance. Previous literature has revealed that the

most detrimental aspects of perfectionism overwhelmingly appeared in those individuals

with high Discrepancy, making this factor the focus of the current study.

Above all it is expected that higher scores on the Discrepancy subscale of the

APS-R will relate to lower levels of forgiveness across the board. In other words, a strong

inverse relationship between Discrepancy (representing the maladaptive aspect of

perfectionism) and Forgiveness is expected to be confirmed. It was also expected that

forgiveness and self-compassion will be positively related with well-being, namely

Satisfaction with Life, while high Discrepancy will be inversely related to Satisfaction

with Life. Maladaptive perfectionism would be expected to relate with low forgiveness

levels because an inability to forgive would fuel a perception of an unacceptable

discrepancy between expected and perceived performance. The most detrimental impact

on well-being tends to occur for maladaptive perfectionists, making the focus of the

current study Discrepancy, which is the quintessential maladaptive aspect of

perfectionism.

Another aim of the current study was to examine the potential role of self-

compassion as a mediator in this relationship. Mediators are said to account for or explain

the relationship between the predictor and the criterion, while moderators affect the

strength/direction of the relationship (Baron & Kenny, 1986). A mediator should at least

meet the following conditions:









(a) variations in levels of the independent variable significantly account

for variations in the presumed mediator (i.e., Path a), (b) variations in the

mediator significantly account for variations in the dependent variable

(i.e., Path b), and (c) when Paths a and b are controlled, a previously

significant relation between the independent and dependent variables is no

longer significant... (Baron & Kenny, 1986, p. 1176).

Thus, all paths in the current model will be examined. Baron and Kenny's (1986) model

for testing mediation has begun to face criticism and trends in testing mediation now

encourage different procedures. MacKinnon and colleagues (2002) argued against the use

of the normal distribution model for assessing significance. The distribution of the

indirect effect in mediation models is often skewed rather than normal, so a symmetric

confidence interval based on the assumption of normality will typically yield

underpowered tests of mediation (Preacher & Hayes, 2004, 2008). Currently, many argue

that the stronger approach is to use a bootstrapping methodology, a nonparametric

approach that makes no assumptions about the shape of the distributions (Preacher &

Hayes, 2004; Shrout & Bolger, 2002; see Rice, et al., 2006 for an example). The

approach is to bootstrap the sampling distribution of ab and derive a confidence interval

with the empirically derived bootstrapped sampling distribution, which alleviates the

power problem found in asymmetries (Preacher & Hayes, 2004). A bootstrapping

approach takes a large number of samples (typically 1,000) with size n (n = current study

sample), sampling with replacement, and determines the indirect effect (ab) for each

sample (Preacher & Hayes, 2004). Given that research does not support the automatic









assumption of normality and symmetry in the case of the concepts examined, the

bootstrap approach was preferable for the current study.

Another important contribution of the current study to the literature is the

expected replication of previous relationships between constructs using an unrestricted,

adult population. The population will not be limited to college students, and will thus

provide another window into perfectionism as it operates outside of the college realm,

further validating the use of the chosen measures on a nonclinical, adult population.

Some research with non-college student populations has been conducted using the APS-R

(Ashby, et al., 2008; Rice, Tucker, & Desmond, 2008), providing a basis for comparison

with the current study's population that serves to validate the use of this measure with a

broad, adult population. The current study is also expected to provide further evidence for

the negative relationship of maladaptive perfectionism with factors of well-being

(forgiveness, self-compassion, life satisfaction), and support forgiveness and Self-

Compassion as related to a higher degree of positive subjective evaluation of global

Satisfaction with Life. Broadly, this study will also support the notion that maladaptive

perfectionism holds detrimental effects on well-being, and that Self-compassion holds

promise for positive mental health.

In summary, the current study is designed to a) test the association between

forgiveness and perfectionism, and b) test self-compassion as a potential mediator of the

proposed forgiveness-perfectionism relationship. Thus, the current study will help unify

two large bodies of literature, that of forgiveness and that of perfectionism, using the lens

of self-compassion, and will provide needed direction on both fronts for future research

and therapeutic practice.









Hypotheses


Primary Hypotheses

1) Forgiveness will be negatively correlated with Discrepancy. Forgiveness of Self,

Forgiveness of Others, and Forgiveness of Situations subscale scores will also each

inversely relate with Discrepancy scores.

2) Forgiveness will positively relate with Self-Compassion Scale. Forgiveness of Self,

Forgiveness of Others, and Forgiveness of Situations will also each positively relate

with Self-Compassion.

3) Forgiveness will show a positive relationship with general well-being, as measured by

Satisfaction with Life. Forgiveness of Self, Others, and Situations subscales will also

each show a positive relationship with Satisfaction with Life.

4) Discrepancy will be negatively related with Self-Compassion.

5) Discrepancy will be negatively related with Satisfaction with Life.

6) Self-Compassion will have a significant positive relationship with Satisfaction with

Life.

Secondary Hypothesis

7) Self-Compassion will significantly mediate the relationship between Forgiveness and

Discrepancy. Specifically, a significant indirect effect will be found, with a 95%

confidence interval.









CHAPTER 3
METHODS

Participants

A number of tools were used to estimate sufficient sample size for the current

study design and proposed statistical analyses. First, Tabachnick and Fidell's (2001)

formula for sample size with multiple regressions was employed: n > 104 + m, where "m"

equals the number of independent variables. With measured predictor variables (Forgiveness,

Discrepancy, Self-Compassion, Satisfaction with Life) and demographic information all

being possible independent variables, "m" in the equation is equal to 18 (104 + 18 = 122),

suggesting that the number of participants required for this study was 122. This is the most

conservative estimate, as all independent variables would be used simultaneously only for the

purposes of non-hypothesized exploratory analysis. Secondly, given the hypothesis of a

mediation component for the current study, samples size suggestions for adequate mediation

testing were strongly considered. It is argued that only samples of 200 participants or higher

have been found to have sufficient power (>.80) when using tests of mediation (Hoyle &

Kenny, 1999). To be conservative, a sample size of 200 was used as the required minimum

for the current study at the beginning of data collection. The final sample for the current

study consisted of 309 adult participants.

Participant ages ranged from 18 to 76 years, with M = 40.58. There were

71 men and 237 women. Approximately 78.3% of participants self-identified as

White/European American, 5.5% as Hispanic/Latino, 4.2% as Asian/Asian American,

3.6% as Biracial/Multiracial, 3% as Black/African American, 1.9% as American

Indian/Alaska Native, 0.3% as Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and 2.9% as

other. Approximately 0.3% of participants indicated having an education level of High

School or Equivalent, 3.9% Some College/University (no degree), 1.9% Associate's









Degree(s), 6.8% Bachelor's Degree(s), 15.5% completed some Graduate Study (no

graduate degree), 29.1% Master's Degree(s), and 42.4% Doctorate and/or Postgraduate

Degree(s). Approximately 54.4% of participants reported living in suburban, 40.1%

urban, and 5.5% in rural settings.

Instruments

The Heartland Forgiveness Scale (HFS, Thompson et al., 2005). The HFS was

developed with adults to assess the dispositional tendency to forgive. The HFS includes

18 items (see Appendix A), endorsed on a 7-point Likert Scale ranging from almost

always false of me to almost always true of me. Higher total scores indicate a high

propensity for forgiving.

Subscales included in the HFS are Forgiveness of Self, Forgiveness of Others, and

Forgiveness of Situations. This measure of forgiveness was chosen because of its ability

to tap interpersonal as well as intrapersonal forgiveness on a dispositional level across

different contexts; the HFS is the only existing forgiveness scale which taps forgiveness

of situations, now considered to be an important aspect of dispositional forgiveness.

Adequate internal consistency reliability of HFS scores has been supported, with

alphas on the total scale ranging from .84 to .87, and alphas on the subscales ranging

from .71 to .83. Test-retest reliability of the HFS, on the basis of a 3- week follow-up

period, was .83 for the total score and ranged from .72 to .77 (Thompson & Snyder,

2003) for the subscales. The psychometric properties of the HFS have been adequately

demonstrated with both student and nonstudent samples, and it has been found to

correlate in the expected directions with other dispositional measures of forgiveness.

The HFS has been found to correlate in the expected directions with other

dispositional measures of forgiveness as well as measures of related psychological









constructs. The HFS shows positive correlations with established forgiveness measures

(Thompson & Snyder, 2003). The HFS has demonstrated much higher correlations with

dispositional measures of forgiveness, rather than the transgression-specific measures,

although positive correlations were found with all measures of forgiveness examined

(Thompson, et al., 2005). The HFS was also found to negatively correlate as expected

with scores on measures of related constructs. Thompson and colleagues (2005) also

found moderately large negative correlations of the HFS with the Hostile Automatic

Thoughts scale, the rumination subscale of the Response Style Questionnaire (Thompson

et al., 2005), and the Beck Depression Inventory (Thompson & Snyder, 2003) as well as

the Vengeance Scale (VS; Stuckless & Goranson, 1992), and the negative affect of the

Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (NAS; Watson, et al., 1988). Forgiveness involves

transforming mental energy away from negative behaviors and thoughts.

The HFS was also evaluated to determine its predictive power of forgiveness in

romantic relationships using a non college-age, adult population. Participants were given

the HFS as well as measures of hostility, trust, relationship satisfaction, and relationship

duration once and again nine months later. Forgiveness was revealed as a stronger

predictor of relationship satisfaction than hostility, and satisfaction was also significantly

predicted by how trusting the person was of their partner and their perception of how

trusting their partner was of them (Thompson & Snyder, 2003, Thompson et al., 2005).

All of these studies support the premise that the HFS is a reliable, valid, and useful

measure for evaluating the dispositional tendency for forgiveness of self, others, and

situations. The HFS demonstrated strong reliability in the current study, with a = .91 for









HFS, a = .85 for Forgiveness of Self, a = .79 for Forgiveness of Others, and a = .86 for

Forgiveness of Situations.

The Almost Perfect Scale Revised (APS-R; Slaney, et al.,2001). The APS-R

consists of 23 items (see Appendix B) that measure the multidimensional construct of

perfectionism. The APS-R makes the important distinction between neurotic, or

maladaptive, perfectionism and adaptive perfectionism. The subscales include Standards

(7 items), Order (4 items), and Discrepancy (12 items), and uses a 7-point Likert scale

ranging from "strongly disagree" to "strongly agree". The subscales of focus for the

current study will be the Standards and Discrepancy subscales, the former tapping more

adaptive aspects of perfectionism and the latter capturing maladaptive perfectionism well

(Ashby & Rice, 2002). The 7-item Standards subscale measures level of personal

standards (i.e., adaptive perfectionism), and includes items such as "I have high

standards for my performance at work or at school." The 12-item Discrepancy subscale

measures distress resulting from a perceived discrepancy between performance and

standards (i.e., maladaptive perfectionism) and includes items such as, "My best just

never seems to be good enough for me." The validity and reliability of scores derived

from the APS-R have been demonstrated in a multitude of previous research, with alphas

of .92 and .81 for Discrepancy and High Standards, respectively, for comparative non-

college populations (Ashby, Rice, & Kutchins 2008). The APS-R demonstrated similarly

high reliability in the current study, with a = .92 for APS-R, a = .97 for Discrepancy, a =

.89 for High Standards, and a = .94 for Order.

Self-Compassion Scale (SCS, Neff 2003b). The Self-Compassion scale includes

26 items (see Appendix C) tapping the tendency to be compassionate. Self-Compassion is









measured across three dimensions using six factors, Self-Kindness vs. Self-Judgment,

Common Humanity vs. Isolation, and Mindfulness vs. Over-Identification. Self-Kindness

includes items such as "I try to be understanding and patient towards those aspects of my

personality I don't like" while Self-Judgment includes items like "When I see aspects of

myself that I don't like, I get down on myself'). Internal consistency reliability for the

Self-Kindness and Self-Judgment subscales were .78 and .77, respectively. The Common

Humanity subscale includes items such as "I try to see my failings as part of the human

condition", while the Isolation subscale includes items like "When I fail at something

that's important to me, I tend to feel alone in my failure". Internal reliabilities for these

subscales are .80 and .79, respectively. Lastly, the Mindfulness subscale includes items

like "When something upsets me, I try to keep my emotions in balance", while the Over-

Identification subscale includes items such as "When something painful happens, I tend

to blow the incident out of proportion". Internal reliabilities are .75 for the Mindfulness

subscale and .80 for the Over-Identification subscale (Neff, 2003b). Test-retest reliability

for the SCS has been strong: SCS = .93, Self-Kindness = .88, Self-Judgment = .88,

Common Humanity = .80, Isolation = .85, Mindfulness = .85, and Over-Identification =

.88. The SCS has been previously established with college-age students as well as

subsamples of non-college adults (Neff, 2003b), and internal consistency for the

complete 26-item SCS is .92. The SCS also demonstrated high reliability in the current

study, a = .94 for SCS, a = .90 for Self- Kindness, a = .87 for Self-Judgment, a = .85 for

Common Humanity, a = .82 for Isolation, a = .79 for Mindfulness, and a = .84 for Over-

Identification.









The Satisfaction i i/h Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, et al., 1985). The Satisfaction

with Life scale is a measure of subjective well-being designed to tap global life

satisfaction, meaning satisfaction of life as a whole rather than specific aspects of life. It

consists of 5 items (see appendix D), in which respondents choose their agreement or

disagreement with each statement using a 7-point Likert scale with higher numbers

indicating more agreement. The SWLS has been found to have favorable psychometric

properties, including high internal consistency (a = .87) and temporal reliability (a = .82)

(Diener, et al., 1985). It has also demonstrated positive correlations with other subjective

measures of well-being as well as relationships in the expected directions with

personality domains (ex: negative correlation with neuroticism and positive with self-

esteem). This scale has been found useful and reliable with college-age and geriatric

populations, and demonstrated high reliability in the current study, a = .88.



Procedures

Data collection occurred exclusively online and lasted approximately three

months. Participants were recruited using online list serves, email lists, discussion boards,

Yahoo groups, and other online resources. In an effort to obtain a sufficiently random

sample that spans a broad demographic range, invitations to participate were posted via

emails and list serves, and participants were allowed to freely forward the invitation to

participate onto others at their own discretion. This study attempted to reduce bias

through use of a wide variety oflistservs with high traffic (Kaye & Johnson, 1999),

aiming for a large sample with no systematic selection for or against a particular

characteristic. To identify appropriate Listservs, any Google group lists with over 1000+

members, high traffic, and messages in English were initially selected, excluding those









whose primary purpose was indicated as "Adult-only erotic-content". Only groups that

allowed research solicitation were used for recruitment. Examples include those with

specified topics of religion, philosophy, literature, science, politics, sports, computers,

and fine arts, for example, Alt.Arts.Ballet, Indian movies, Computer Games Interest

Group, alt.3d.studio (3d graphics art list), and alt.sport.racquetball. Given the topic of the

current study, the e-mail was also sent to "CESNET-L", a listserv concerning counselor

education & supervision, "GSTALT-L", an ICORS sponsored listserv for therapists with

an interest in Gestalt and related approaches, and "AUCCD-L", a listserv for the

Association for University and College Counseling Center Directors. Invitations were

also distributed to a list of public school system personnel with potential interest in the

subject matter. Given that there was no expectation of age differences within an adult age

range, the only age stipulation for eligibility was that a participant be at least 18 years

old. Prior to completing the survey, participants read about the purpose and the methods

of the study and electronically endorsed a consent form. They were then presented with

the battery of measures and provided all responses in one sitting.



Analytic Strategies

Primary hypotheses were examined using Pearson's product-moment correlation

analyses. In cases where a significant correlation was found between a measure and a

descriptive variable, such as age or High Standards, correlation analyses were conducted

to investigate whether the significant relationship held when accounting for the relevant

descriptor.

Mediation. Analyses were then performed to examine self-compassion as a

mediator of the established forgiveness-perfectionism relationship. Many researchers









have differing opinions regarding how mediation analyses ought to proceed, and debate

continues in the literature. According to Baron and Kenny (1986) and Judd and Kenny

(1981) who established well-known seminal knowledge of mediation, four foundation

steps must occur to provide support for a meditational model. They define mediation as a

reduction of the effect of the initial predictor variable, X (in this case forgiveness), on the

outcome or dependent variable, Y (in the current study, Discrepancy scores). Using these

four steps, a relationship would first be established between forgiveness and

perfectionism by performing a regression equation with forgiveness as the predictor and

perfectionism as the outcome variable, in order to show there is an effect to be mediated.

Then, forgiveness would be correlated with the mediator, M, self-compassion, with

forgiveness entered as the predictor and self-compassion as the outcome variable. Next,

the self-compassion must be shown to affect the outcome variable, perfectionism, using

perfectionism as the criterion variable and forgiveness and self-compassion as the

predictors (controlling the initial variable to establish the effect of the mediator on the

outcome). For complete mediation the effect of forgiveness on perfectionism controlling

for self-compassion would be zero. The significant extent to which the relationship is

reduced would indicate partial mediation. However, recent research has established more

powerful procedures for testing mediation, including bootstrap methods, which have

advantages over conventional methods in that no assumptions are made about the

sampling distribution. The current study established that Baron and Kenny (1986) criteria

were met and proceeded using bootstrapping methods to test the indirect effects (see

Preacher & Hayes, 2004).









Given the strong theoretical rationale for a relationship between forgiveness and

perfectionism, and forgiveness and self-compassion, as well as the preliminary empirical

evidence of self-compassion's relationship with perfectionism, the mediation model best

fits the current study's premise. According to Frazier and colleagues (2004), the

correlation between X and M should be comparable in strength to the r between M and Y,

or ideally the latter should be stronger. A previous relationship has been found between

self-compassion (M) and perfectionism (Y, Discrepancy scores), r = -.57 (Neff, 2003b).

Therefore, given the theoretical rationale for a significant relationship between

forgiveness and perfectionism, it was expected that these relationships will be

comparable in strength. Furthermore, the issue of mediator reliability has been introduced

as a common problem found in the studies using meditational models and the use of a

measure with strong reliability, ideally .90 or higher, is recommended to address this

concern (e.g. Frazier, Tix, Barron, 2004). The Self-compassion scale has been found to

have a Cronbach's coefficient alpha of .92 (Neff, 2003b), which reduced this particular

concern in the current study.

Previous research has not examined perfectionism and forgiveness together, nor

explored self-compassion as a mediator. Given the preliminary empirical evidence for a

relationship between perfectionism and self-compassion, and the theoretical rationale for

a model of forgiveness, self-compassion, and perfectionism, the current study provides a

strong foundation for further research. Knowledge of self-compassion's role in the

forgiveness-perfectionism relationship will help guide future intervention approaches for

improving self-compassion and forgiveness, in order to increase the positive impact on

perfectionistic individuals' lives and general well-being.









CHAPTER 4
RESULTS

Preliminary Analyses

At the end of data collection, the total number of participants who began the study

and either dropped out or completed it was 439. Most participants not completing the

study dropped out after answering only a few items and before providing demographic

information, leaving the majority of their response set incomplete, and therefore were not

retained in final analysis. To address the possibility of random responding, the survey

included three checkpoint items requiring compliance with specific instructions, such as

"Please choose the number '1' for this item". Any respondents not answering all checkpoint

items correctly were excluded (amounting to only 3 people). Only data from participants

completing the entire study and correctly answering checkpoint items was retained,

yielding N = 309 complete response sets.

Participants were presented with one of four differently ordered versions of the

questionnaires, to address possible order effects. MANOVAs were conducted for the

primary constructs of interest, including Forgiveness (using the HFS), Discrepancy (using

the APS-R), Self-Compassion (using the SCS), and Satisfaction with Life (using the

SWL scale), in order to determine whether any significant differences existed between

groups on the primary constructs of interest based upon survey order. No significant

differences between groups were found. On basis of these preliminary analyses, complete

combined data were used for all main analyses.

Descriptive statistics for all scales and subscales appear in Table 4-1. Cronbach's

alpha results ranged from.79 to .97 for all subscales, which fell well within acceptable









ranges for internal consistency and were comparable with results obtained in previous

research.

Analysis of Hypotheses

Data were first examined for significant relationships between constructs of

interest and descriptive factors. It is noteworthy that some significant relationships were

revealed with age, in that greater ages were associated with higher levels of Forgiveness,

Self-Compassion, Mindfulness, and Self-Kindness, while younger ages were associated

with higher perfectionistic tendencies, Self-Judgment, Isolation, and Over-Identification.

Small but significant differences appeared for gender, with men scoring higher on

Mindfulness and females scoring higher on High Standards. A significant relationship of

Discrepancy with High Standards occurred, which slightly exceeds that expected. As a

precaution, relationships of interest were examined using partial correlations for all

primary and secondary hypotheses to account for age, gender (coded 0, 1), and High

Standards. All relationships held in expected directions withps < .001. Results reported

control for these factors (see Table 4-2).

Primary 1yp)lthI\c Hypothesis 1 predicted that scores on the HFS, and all

forgiveness subscales, would reflect a significant inverse relationship with Discrepancy,

in that high levels of forgiveness would be associated with lower levels of this

maladaptive perfectionism. Strong relationships were supported between Discrepancy

and Forgiveness components in expected directions. Effect sizes considered to be large

(Cohen, 1988, 1992) were found for Forgiveness, Forgiveness of Self, and Forgiveness of

Situations (r = -.60, -.60, and -.53, respectively), with a medium effect size for

Forgiveness of Others (r = -.34).









Hypothesis 2 predicted a significant relationship between Self-Compassion and

Forgiveness, and among the relevant subscales, in that greater levels of forgiveness

would be associated with greater levels of Self-Compassion. This hypothesis was

supported, with large effect sizes found for Forgiveness, Forgiveness of Self, and

Forgiveness of Situations (r = .71, .72, and .64, respectively), and a medium effect size

for Forgiveness of Others (r = .40). All Self-Compassion subscales demonstrated medium

to large effect sizes for Forgiveness, Forgiveness of Self, and Forgiveness of Situations,

with r ranging from .38 to .72, and medium effect sizes for Forgiveness of Others, with r

ranging from .25 to .40.

Hypothesis 3 predicted a significant relationship between Forgiveness and

Satisfaction with Life, with more forgiveness being associated with greater satisfaction

with life. This hypothesis was supported, with medium effect sizes demonstrated for

Forgiveness, Forgiveness of Self, Forgiveness of Others, and Forgiveness of Situations (r

=.48, .44, .27, and .47, respectively).

Hypothesis 4 predicted a significant relationship between Self-Compassion and

Discrepancy, in that low Self-compassion would relate to high levels of perceived

discrepancy between one's expectations and one's performance. This hypothesis was

supported in expected directions, with a large effect size detected for Discrepancy and

SCS scores (r = -.64). Medium to large effect sizes were found for all subscales of Self-

Compassion, with r ranging from -.40 to -.55.

Hypothesis 5 predicted a strong relationship between Discrepancy and

Satisfaction with Life, in that those individuals high on Discrepancy would report lower

satisfaction with their lives due to the anticipated detrimental effects on well-being. A









significant inverse relationship was supported between SWL scores and Discrepancy,

with a medium effect size (r = -.48) found.

Hypothesis 6 predicted a strong positive relationship between Self-Compassion

and Satisfaction with Life, with more self-compassion relating to higher satisfaction with

one's life in general. Data support this hypothesis, with a large effect size detected for

SCS and SWL scores (r = .50). All subscales of Self-Compassion revealed significant

relationships in expected directions, and medium effect sizes, with r ranging from .30 to

.46.

Secondary hypothesis. This study advanced a secondary hypothesis of a mediation

role for Self-compassion in helping to explain the strong negative relationship between

Forgiveness and Perfectionism, as measured by HFS scores and Discrepancy. Total HFS

scores were used to represent forgiveness in the mediational model, due to their

established reliability and validity as a collective measure of dispositional forgiveness.

The strong intercorrelations amongst the subscales and the fact that the significant

relationships found occurred with the same level of significance, in the same expected

directions, when related with the other constructs of well-being also support the use of

comprehensive scores on the HFS. Though the effect sizes found for Forgiveness of

Others tended to be less than those found for Forgiveness of Self or Forgiveness of

Situations across the board, all were of medium to large size and behaved as expected in

relation to each other construct of interest.

Mediation is essentially concerned with whether a significant effect can be fully

or partially explained by a third variable, providing a mechanism through which the

predictor is hypothesized to act upon the outcome. Mediation is said to occur if the









mediator (Self-Compassion) is significantly associated with the outcome (Discrepancy),

and if the effect on an outcome is significantly reduced when the mediator is included in

the model. By convention, it was first confirmed that the Baron and Kenny (1986) criteria

were met for testing mediation in the current study.

As asserted by Hayes (2009), bootstrapping procedures offer advantages over

other traditional approaches to testing mediation, such as the Sobel (1982, 1986, 1990)

test, often used to supplement the Baron and Kenny approach. The main advantages of

bootstrapping are that it makes no assumptions of normality regarding the shape of the

sampling distribution and it has the best Type I error control (Hayes, 2009). The sampling

distribution of the indirect effect tends to be asymmetric, with nonzero skewness and

kurtosis (Bollen & Stine, 1990; Stone & Sobel, 1990). As Hayes (2009) asserts, "We

should not be using tests that assume normality of the sampling distribution when

competing tests are available that do not make this assumption and that are known to be

more powerful than the Sobel test" (p.441).

The current study implemented bootstrapping methodology to estimate the size of

the indirect effects and further test mediation results with routines available for

bootstrapping indirect effects utilizing SPSS (see Preacher & Hayes, 2004; Shrout &

Bolger, 2002). Research has supported bootstrapping as one of the more valid and

powerful methods for testing mediation (MacKinnon, 2008; MacKinnon, Lockwood, &

Williams, 2004; MacKinnon, et al., 2007; Williams & MacKinnon, 2008). The estimates

were based upon 1,000 random samples, sampling with replacement, from the original

data set. The approach is to bootstrap the sampling distribution of ab and derive a

confidence interval with the empirically derived bootstrapped sampling distribution,









which alleviates the power problem found in asymmetries (Preacher & Hayes, 2004).

Tests were based on a 95% confidence interval (CI) for the size of the indirect effect,

with confidence intervals that include zero indicating a non-significant indirect effect and

those that do not include zero supporting a significant indirect effect. Conceptually, this

is the same as rejecting the null hypothesis that the true indirect effect is zero (Hayes,

2009).

With Self-compassion in the model, the initial effect of HFS scores on

Discrepancy was reduced from 0 = -.61 to P = -.27. The 95% CI (-.46 to -.26) did not

include zero and therefore supported a significant indirect effect, providing evidence for a

partial mediating role for Self-compassion in explaining the forgiveness-perfectionism

relationship (see Figure 4-1 for model).

Exploratory Analyses

Due to the interest of the current study in examining forgiveness, and the general

significance of this construct within religion or spirituality, participants were asked to

provide further information in this domain. Approximately 11.7% of participants self-

identified as Agnostic, 5.2% Atheist, 3.6% Buddhist, 12.0% Catholic, 22.7% Christian

(non-Catholic), 12.0% Christian (Non-denominational), 1.0% Hindu, 4.9% Jewish,

19.1% Spiritual with no specific religion, 5.5% Other, and 1.6% Unsure. When asked the

degree to which their religion or spirituality influenced their daily life, 8.1% of

respondents indicated it was "always or extremely influential", 15.9% "influential only

regarding big decisions", 33.7% "somewhat influential", 3.2% "rarely influential", and

39.2% "never influential". When asked whether forgiveness was considered something to

strive toward in their religion or spirituality, approximately 11.7% of respondents who

self-identified as religious or spiritual answered "Yes, very much so", 6.5% "Yes, it is









considered a good idea", 1.3% "Yes, but it is optional or not emphasized", 4.9% "No, it is

not considered important", 22.7% "No, it is actually discouraged", and 53.1% "It is not a

part of my religion/spirituality".

To further explore attitudes toward forgiveness and perfectionist tendencies in a

more qualitative manner, respondents were asked follow-up descriptive questions. When

asked whether they consider themselves a compassionate person, only three participants

responded "Yes, compassion for self and others is very important", three answered "Yes,

mainly toward others", 101 responded "Yes, mainly toward myself", 202 responded "No,

but I am working on it", and zero participants answered "No, I don't think compassion is

important". When asked whether they consider themselves to be perfectionistic, 22

answered "Yes, very much so, in personal and work domains", 90 answered "Yes, in

work or school only, 7 answered "Yes, in my personal life only", 75 chose "Yes, but

infrequently", and 115 responded "No, not at all or never". For those who considered

themselves perfectionistic, 7.1% considered their perfectionistic tendencies in their life to

be "Very beneficial, I would be lost without them", 1.3% "Somewhat beneficial, they

help me strive to be better", 7.1% "Slightly beneficial, from time to time I see the

benefit", 10.0% "Slightly detrimental, they probably do me more harm than good",

25.9% "Detrimental, they have a fair amount of negative impact on me", and 45.6%

"Very detrimental, I am often negatively impacted in a variety of ways", and 2.9% "Not

applicable (I am not at all perfectionistic). When given the forced choice question, "If

you could choose to wake up tomorrow and be rid of your perfectionistic tendencies,

would you do so?" only 22.3% chose Yes, while 70.2% chose No (7.5% chose not

applicable). Additionally, when given a similar forced-choice question, "If you could









choose to wake up tomorrow and have forgiven yourself, others, situations, or

anything/anyone else, would you do so?", 87.7% answered Yes and 12.3% answered No.

Space was then provided for respondents to elaborate on their answers to the above two

forced-choice questions. Settings on the survey were set to require all respondents to

enter something into the space provided, which yielded 266 usable responses (excluding

those who entered irrelevant statements, only spaces, or wrote that they decline to

respond). An overview of participant responses to how or why they decided to answer

Yes or No to the two forced-choice questions revealed some common underlying themes.

These included the impact of perfectionism on relationships, forgiveness as a process

rather than simply an outcome, the burdens and potential benefits of perfectionism, the

freedom that comes from forgiveness, and the struggles with both forgiveness and

perfectionism. It is apparent from the responses that both forgiveness and perfectionism

are subjects that most individuals have strong opinions about and that many recognize

affect their life and emotional well-being. Discussion of significant qualitative statements

in the context of current study findings appears in the discussion section (see Appendix G

for selected responses).

In the vein of therapeutic approaches, the write-in question of this study allowed

participants to address forgiveness and perfectionism on a more personal level that

provided insight into the emotions, thoughts, and experiences with regard to

perfectionism and forgiveness. An overview of responses revealed common themes.

These included: 1) struggling with forgiveness, 2) the emotional benefits of forgiveness

and the drawbacks of a lack of forgiveness, 3) the negative consequences of being

perfectionistic and the benefits of being less perfectionistic, 4) seeing forgiveness of self









as especially challenging as well as highly desired, 5) seeing perfectionism as part of

one's identity, 6) potential benefits of perfectionism, 7) mindfulness and ability to be

present as positive experiences or goals, and 8) acknowledging forgiveness as an

intrapersonal process.

Many describe forgiveness as offering a positive feeling or sensation and freeing

up energy. For example, "I hold grudges and I realize that at the end of the day, the only

person the grudge is taking energy out of is me", "Holding grudges is exhausting",

"Forgiveness removes a heavy feeling and provides relief', being able to forgive is

"... worth it in the long run in that it will ultimately set you free", "...not forgiving is

painful to me", "When I forgive myself it feels like a fresh start", "Being upset with

myself, others or situations is energy consuming and forgiving always seems like a sigh

of relief it's much healthier", and "Forgiveness allows for acceptance and good

relationships". One participant effectively highlights the intrapersonal experience of

forgiveness, stating "Forgiveness is not a service to the person who is forgiven but rather

to the self... The past will always be the past. Forgiveness simply makes room for the

future". Additionally, many people described forgiveness of self as the most challenging

but desired kind of forgiveness. For instance, "I usually give others the benefit of the

doubt and can forgive them, but it is almost impossible to forgive myself', "I forgive

everyone but myself', and "I can forgive others, but experience a lot of self guilt". Other

participants agreed forgiveness was a beneficial goal, but stated they would not choose to

wake up having forgiven due to a desire to experience the forgiveness process and learn

from it. For example, "I am able to forgive after I have learned from the situation",

"Forgiveness is key to growth and learning that life has a flow and it is a process", "...I









need to go through the process of forgiving, of letting go, not just magically forgive...",

"You really learn how to look at the person and not their actions", and "There is so much

learning about yourself and through the process of forgiving... I would not want that

taken away!" Only a few participants voiced opposition to forgiveness, stating "Some

people/situations do not deserve forgiveness" or "While I believe that forgiveness is good

I do not fundamentally believe that everything should be forgiven".

Regarding perfectionism, many described detrimental aspects, such as "...I put all

that added stress onto myself to be perfect and to be the best", "Perfectionism is like a

burden", "Holding myself to unrealistically high standards has caused me stress", ...my

perfectionism is tied in with my procrastination", "I associate my perfectionism with self-

criticism/self-consciousness...", "My perfectionistic tendencies are a burden and leave

me feeling inadequate and upset at myself', "It hinders my performance and abilities, and

it limits me to doing things within my comfort zones", "I cannot be kind to myself and it

makes me unhappy", they ..."cause me to be callous and cruel to myself at times", and

"...I don't always let others in, or give myself the break I deserve". However, many

participants described some benefits they perceive from perfectionism, in particular with

regard to work or school endeavors. For instance, "Perfectionism helps me strive to do

better", perfectionistic tendencies "...help me do well in school...", "... stay organized

and on top of obligations...", "...helps my work be of very good quality...", and "It helps

me to accomplish things professionally at a high level". Finally, a strong attachment to

perfectionism and the association of perfectionism with identity was revealed as a

prominent theme. This is evident in the statements, "...I feel it is [an] important

contribution to who I am...", "It is part of who I am my identity", "It's basically what









defines me and keeps me focused", "Perfectionism is part of my personality without it I

would not be 'me'", and "I don't know any other way of being aside from being a

perfectionist, so I would be uncomfortable without being that way".









Table 4-1. Means, standard deviations, and Cronbach alphas
Min. Max. M SD a
1. HFS 37 125 91.63 16.49 .91
2. Forgiveness of Self 12 42 30.33 6.75 .85
3. Forgiveness of Others 12 42 30.50 6.10 .79
4. Forgiveness of Situations 7 42 30.80 6.83 .86
5. Discrepancy 12 84 34.81 17.96 .97
6. SCS 37 128 84.91 17.75 .94
7. Self-Kindness 5 25 17.07 4.29 .90
8. Self-Judgment 5 25 14.25 4.38 .87
9. Common Humanity 4 20 13.55 3.71 .85
10. Isolation 4 20 11.83 3.82 .82
11. Mindfulness 4 20 14.04 3.01 .79
12. Over-Identification 4 20 11.68 3.76 .84
13. SWL 5 35 25.08 6.25 .88


Note: N= 309.














Table 4-2. Scale and subscale partial correlations

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

1. HFS


2. Frgv. of Self



3. Frgv. of Others



4. Frgv. of Sit.



5. Discrepancy



6. SCS


Self-Kindness

Self-Judgment

Cmn. Humanity

Isolation

Mindfulness

Over-Ident.

SWL


.84

(.85)

.77

(.77)

.88

(.89)

-.60

(-.61)

.71

(.72)

.59

-.56

.47

-.46

.55

-.62

.48


.65 .53


-.60

(-.61)

.72

(.73)

.64

-.61

.49

-.45

.53

-.55

.44


-.34

(-.35)

.40

(.41)

.31

-.27

.29

-.25

.32

-.38

.27


-.53

(-.54)

.70

(.66)

.50

-.49

.38

-.45

.51

-.60

.47


-.64

(-.66)

-.53

.50

-.41

.55

-.40

.50

-.48


(.47) (.43) (.28) (.46) (-.45) (.46) (.43) (-.32) (.30) (-.37) (.37) (-.34)
Note: N=309. All partial correlations significant at the 0.01 level (1-tailed). All results control for High Standards, Gender, and Age.
(For comparison, full correlations for primary constructs of interest are reported in parentheses).


















-s Discrepancy scores


SCS scores

.71 64

a b

-.27
______________------------k


HFS scores


Discrepancy


Figure 4-1. The partial mediation model. A: The direct effect of forgiveness (HFS) on
perfectionism (Discrepancy). B: The mediation model with self-compassion (SCS) as a mediator
between forgiveness and perfectionism. Path coefficients are shown, with c' representing the
inclusion of self-compassion in the model.


HFS scores









CHAPTER 5
DISCUSSION

Results of the current study offer significant support for the primary hypotheses. A

significant relationship was found between the two primary constructs of well-being

examined, Forgiveness and Perfectionism, which have not previously been examined in

concert. The relationships revealed in this study further an understanding of both forgiveness

and perfectionism, while also lending credence to a role for Self-compassion in helping to

explain this relationship. As hypothesized, a strong inverse relationship was detected

between Discrepancy and Forgiveness, as well as between Discrepancy and other positive

aspects of well-being, in particular Satisfaction with Life, Self-Compassion, Forgiveness of

Self, Others, and Situations, Self-Kindness, Common Humanity, and Mindfulness. A strong

positive relationship was established between Forgiveness and Self-compassion, as well as

between all subscales of forgiveness and the positive subscales of Self-Compassion. These

results continue support for the idea of Discrepancy as maladaptive and detrimental to well-

being, while supporting forgiveness and self-compassion as beneficial for mental health and

well-being.

Given the study of Self-Compassion is relatively new within psychological literature,

the current study adds to the growing support of Self-Compassion as a reliable, valid, and

noteworthy construct in the study of mental health and psychological well-being. Though

Forgiveness is a well-studied construct within the realm of positive psychology, there exists

much debate measures and conceptualizations of Forgiveness. This study provides further

evidence for the effective use of the SCS and the APS-R with an adult population, as well as

the HFS, a relatively new measure of dispositional forgiveness and the only measure to

include Forgiveness of Situations as a key component. Though most previous research has









focused on college-age students, the high reliability and validity findings in the current study

support the use of these measures with a diverse adult population. The reliability estimates in

the current study were comparable, in fact often higher than, those generated from in-person

data collection or data collection limited to college campuses in previous studies employing

the same measures. This provides significant support for online research as a tool for

reaching diverse audiences without compromising reliability. The strong relationship found

between HFS scores and the maladaptive aspect of perfectionism, Discrepancy, offers a new

window into the study of perfectionism as aided by the large body of forgiveness and self-

compassion literature available.

The current finding of self-compassion as a partial mediator in the relationship of

forgiveness and perfectionism lends empirical support to the theory that higher forgiveness

levels may activate self-compassion, which may reduce maladaptive perfectionistic

tendencies. Forgiveness is considered to be the intrapersonal transformation of the valence of

an event from negative to neutral or positive. Releasing oneself from the negative valence of

an event may help to create the mental space needed to experience feelings of common

humanity, kindness toward self, and mindfulness, all of which are present in the having

overall self-compassion. Low ability to forgive may then activate Self-Judgment, Isolation,

and Over-Identification, all of which are components of a lack of self-compassion, fueling

higher levels of Discrepancy.

Given the consistency with which Discrepancy is associated with psychological

problems, such as higher levels of depression, shame, anxiety, and suicidal ideation, this

finding provides solid support for future theoretical and clinical research avenues for

forgiveness and self-compassion in effecting therapeutic change with perfectionistic









individuals. With empirical evidence and theoretical rationale for a link between forgiveness,

perfectionism, and self-compassion, future research may begin extrapolating from the

theoretical to the clinical. For instance, a longitudinal study with perfectionistic individuals,

using an intervention designed to increase forgiveness or self-compassion in a clinical setting

may reveal a decrease in Discrepancy, manifesting in lower depression, anxiety, shame, or

suicidal ideation. It may also prove fruitful to explore which component of Self-compassion -

Self-Kindness, Common Humanity, or Mindfulness may offer the most promise for

improving well-being and decreasing Discrepancy when cultivated. Similarly, understanding

which component contributes most to a lack of Self-Compassion, Self-Judgment, Isolation,

or Over-Identification, thus fueling higher levels of Discrepancy. In a short-term longitudinal

study with college students, social connection emerged as a significant moderator in

lessening the effects of maladaptive perfectionism on concurrent hopelessness (Rice et al,

2006), with higher levels of self-critical and discrepant perceptions between expectations and

performance being associated with high social disconnection. This is consistent with general

psychological and sociological perspectives on suicide and suicidal ideation (Baumeister,

1990; Durkheim, 1897/1951; Trout, 1980), wherein a social network and feelings of

connection with others may influence individuals toward or away from considering suicide as

a "solution" (Institute of Medicine, 2002, p. 194). Perhaps social connection offers a means

of reinforcing self-compassion and forgiveness, in community with others. Investigating the

relationship between Social Connectedness and Self-Compassion, in particular the subscales

of Isolation, Common Humanity, and Over-Identification, may offer further evidence for

interventions targeted to increase social connection as a means of improving self-compassion

in perfectionistic individuals.









Further study of age differences may also be warranted. The significant relationship

found between Forgiveness, Discrepancy, and age in the current sample, in that the older

ages were associated with higher levels of forgiveness, and lower levels of Discrepancy,

across the board is noteworthy. Though all significant relationships held when controlling for

age, this trend remains an interesting prospect for further investigation from a developmental

perspective. Perfectionism has been studied with younger ages in conjunction with

depression (e.g., Rice et al, 2007), but most forgiveness and self-compassion research has

focused on adults and college ages. Examining the progression of Forgiveness, Self-

Compassion, and Discrepancy with age in a longitudinal study may help shed light onto how

or when Self-compassion develops, as well as provide further clues into the dispositional or

situation-specific nature of forgiveness as a construct, which is a highly debated topic within

the field.

Although the current study provides strong empirical and theoretical support for a

relationship between perfectionism and forgiveness, and a role for self-compassion in

mediating the effect of low forgiveness on Discrepancy, the findings must be tempered by

the limitations of the study. Due to the correlational nature of the study design, a causal

relationship between the constructs cannot be determined. A longitudinal design employing

an intervention for Forgiveness based upon Self-Compassion, which investigates the ability

of this intervention to predict Discrepancy scores at a later time would help provide further

evidence for the mediator role of Self-compassion in the Forgiveness-Perfectionism

relationship as well as support Self-compassion and Forgiveness as effective means of

decreasing Discrepancy and reducing its detrimental effects on well-being. Furthermore, this

study does provide more support for the use of the SCS, HFS, and APS-R scales with an









adult population beyond college students. However, the use of these scales or their

equivalents with younger child and adolescent populations is limited and would be a

beneficial direction for future research, along with investigation into whether the partial

mediation role of self-compassion holds with a younger population. Also, despite efforts to

gain an unrestricted normative population, the current sample demographics reflected higher

education levels, and greater numbers of females and Caucasian-Americans than the general

population. This may reflect some bias regarding interest in participating in the study or the

study's topics, or the high numbers of females in education or psychology and counseling

fields. As well, those in the academic and social science fields may have more general

interest in participating in such research.

The additional investigative information gathered in the current study did provide

interesting foundations for further research. Nearly 81% of those in the current study reported

that forgiveness was "not important", "discouraged", or "not a part of' their religion or

spirituality, though the majority of them self-identified as religious or spiritual. Given the

common interplay between religion or spirituality with forgiveness in societal perceptions, as

well as previous forgiveness literature, this finding may seem surprising. Furthermore, when

asked "If you could choose to wake up tomorrow and have forgiven yourself, others,

situations, or anything/anyone else, would you do so" an overwhelming 88% said they would

choose to do so. Additionally, when asked whether they consider themselves to be a

compassionate person 303 out of 309 respondents answered either "Yes, mainly toward

myself' or "No, but I am working on it", and not one respondent answered "No, I do not

think compassion is important". It is evident in this finding that compassion is valued and

considered a quality to strive for amongst most participants and one with which they also









struggle. This may indicate a common internal struggle with forgiving, and a general striving

toward compassion. Most participant responses indicated a recognition of the negative effects

of not forgiving, implying forgiveness is an important and common question for most

individuals regardless of belief system, rather than a specifically spiritual or religious

question.

The current study also highlights the strong attachment many perfectionistic

individuals have to their perfectionistic tendencies regardless of the detrimental impact or

psychological problems that may arise as a result. Despite the ability of 82% of respondents

to admit that their perfectionistic tendencies "probably do more harm than good", "have a

fair amount of negative impact", and often negatively impact them "in a variety of ways",

when asked if they could wake up and be rid of their perfectionistic tendencies, 70 % said

they would not choose to do so. Herein exemplifies the difficulty present for clinicians in

effecting therapeutic change with perfectionistic individuals. Relational factors have

increasingly become a focus of perfectionism research, including difficulty developing

therapeutic alliances (Blatt, Zuroff, Bondi, Sanislow, & Pilkonis, 1998; Zuroff, Blatt, Sotsky,

Krupnick, Martin, & Sanislow, 2000) and intimate relationships, such as attachment bonds

with parents and romantic partners (Habke, Hewitt, & Flett, 1999; Hill, Zrull, & Turlington,

1997; Rice, Lopez, & Vergara, 2005; Rice & Mirzadeh, 2000; Shea, et al., 2006). It has been

asserted that perfectionism may be a personality characteristic centered on personal adequacy

(Rice et al, 2006), with negative or positive views toward self contributing to varying degrees

of comfort and engagement in relationships (e.g., Bowlby, 1988). Given this propensity,

studies exploring therapeutic change in perfectionists within group therapy settings aimed at









improving self-compassion in a community where social connection is also encouraged may

be worthwhile.

It may also be that the idea of perfection, seen as an attainable target, and the

intermittent positive rewards that striving to be perfect sometimes offers may seem too

alluring to give up despite the costs. In the mind of an individual with high discrepancy,

wherein their perceived performance constantly falls short of their expectation, perhaps even

entertaining the idea life without perfectionistic tendencies would be seen as a failure. It is

also possible that these individuals would not want to give up the potentially positive benefit

of having high standards. Previous research has supported the theory that those with High

Standards but low Discrepancy manifest adaptive perfectionism that can often bypass the

detrimental psychological problems found in those with high Discrepancy (Ashby, Kottman,

& Shoen, 1998; Rice & Slaney, 2002; Rice et al. 2007; Slaney et al., 1995; Suddarth &

Slaney, 2001). Future research could be well served to distinguish adaptive from maladaptive

perfectionists, perhaps using a method similar to that outlined by Rice and Ashby (2007),

when studying therapeutic interventions using the findings from this study. Examining self-

compassion and forgiveness in both adaptive and maladaptive perfectionists, and using an

intervention targeted to increase self-compassion or forgiveness in exploring the impact on

Discrepancy, would provide helpful information for developing therapeutic approaches

tailored for both groups of individuals.

In sum, the present study provides evidence for strong relationship between

perfectionism and forgiveness and highlights the need to continue investigating Self-

Compassion with regard to perfectionistic individuals. This study contributes to the growing

literature on perfectionism through the finding of a strong inverse relationship with









forgiveness and a partial mediating role for self-compassion, along with supporting the

reliability and validity of the perfectionism, self-compassion, and forgiveness measures

employed with an adult population and using an online medium. On the basis of this and

previous research, it has been established that maladaptive perfectionism adversely affects

almost every aspect of psychological well-being assessed. This study also supports

forgiveness and self-compassion as positive components of well-being, and advanced them

as important for an individual's satisfaction with life as a whole. The additional investigative

questions provide important personal insights into the commonality of struggles with

forgiveness despite acknowledged benefits, the difficulty of giving up perfectionistic

tendencies despite the acknowledged costs, and forgiveness as an intrapersonal process. This

study helps unify two large bodies of literature, and introduces promising new components,

forgiveness and self-compassion, for inclusion in future studies with perfectionistic

individuals both in therapeutic and theoretical capacities.









APPENDIX A
HEARTLAND FORGIVENESS SCALE (HFS; THOMPSON, ET AL., 2005)


Directions: For each of the following items, choose the number (from the scale) that best
describes how you typically respond to the type of situation described. There are no right or
wrong answers. Please be as honest as possible.


1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Almost Always More Often More Often Almost Always
False of Me False of Me True of Me True of Me



(1) Although I feel bad at first when I mess up, over time I can give myself some slack.

(2) I hold grudges against myself for negative things I've done.*

(3) Learning from bad things I've done helps me get over them.

(4) It is really hard for me to accept myself once I've messed up.*

(5) With time I am understanding of myself for mistakes I've made.

(6) I don't stop criticizing myself for negative things I've felt, thought, said, or done.*

(7) I continue to punish a person who has done something that I think is wrong.*

(8) With time I am understanding of others for the mistakes they've made.

(9) I continue to be hard on others who have hurt me.*

(10) Although others have hurt me in the past, I have eventually been able to see them as good

people.

(11) If others mistreat me, I continue to think badly of them.*

(12) When someone disappoints me, I can eventually move past it.

(13) When things go wrong for reasons that can't be controlled, I get stuck in negative thoughts

about it.*

(14) With time I can be understanding of bad circumstances in my life.









(15) If I am disappointed by uncontrollable circumstances in my life, I continue to think

negatively about them.*

(16) I eventually make peace with bad situations in my life.

(17) It's really hard for me to accept negative situations that aren't anybody's fault.*

(18) Eventually I let go of negative thoughts about bad circumstances that are beyond anyone's

control.

























Forgiveness of Self Subscale: Items 1-6

Forgiveness of Others Subscale: Items 7-12

Forgiveness of Situations Subscale: Items 13-18



* These items are reverse scored.









APPENDIX B
THE ALMOST PERFECT SCALE REVISED (APS-R; SLANEY, ET AL., 2001)


Directions: Please choose the degree to which you agree or disagree with the following
statements, on a scale from strongly disagree to 7=strongly agree.


(1) I often feel frustrated because I can't meet my goals.

(2) My best just never seems to be good enough for me.

(3) I rarely live up to my high standards.

(4) Doing my best never seems to be enough.

(5) I am never satisfied with my accomplishments.

(6) I often worry about not measuring up to my own expectations.

(7) My performance rarely measures up to my standards.

(8) I am not satisfied even when I know I have done my best.

(9) I am seldom able to meet my own high standards for performance.

(10) I am hardly ever satisfied with my performance.

(11) I hardly ever feel that what I've done is good enough.

(12) I often feel disappointment after completing a task because I know I could have done better.

(13) I have high standards for my performance at work or at school.

(14) If you don't expect much out of yourself you will never succeed.

(15) I have high expectations for myself.

(16) I set very high standards for myself.

(17) I expect the best from myself.

(18) I try to do my best at everything I do.

(19) I have a strong need to strive for excellence.











(20) I am an orderly person.

(21) Neatness is important to me.

(22) I think things should be put away in their place.

(23) I like to always be organized and disciplined.
































Discrepancy subscale: Items 1-12

High Standards subscale: Items 13-19

Order subscale: Items 20-23









APPENDIX C
SELF-COMPASSION SCALE (SCS; NEFF, 2003B)


Directions: Please indicate how often you typically act in the manner stated in each of the
following statements, on a scale from 1=almost never to 5=almost always.



(1) I try to be understanding and patient towards those aspects of my personality I don't like.

(2) I'm kind to myself when I'm experiencing suffering.

(3) When I'm going through a very hard time, I give myself the caring and tenderness I need.

(4) I'm tolerant of my own flaws and inadequacies.

(5) I try to be loving towards myself when I'm feeling emotional pain.

(6) When I see aspects of myself that I don't like, I get down on myself.

(7) When times are really difficult, I tend to be tough on myself.

(8) I can be a bit cold-hearted towards myself when I'm experiencing suffering.

(9) I'm disapproving and judgmental about my own flaws and inadequacies.

(10) I'm intolerant and impatient towards those aspects of my personality I don't like.

(11) When I feel inadequate in some way, I try to remind myself that feelings of inadequacy

are shared by most people.

(12) I try to see my failings as part of the human condition.

(13) When I'm down and out, I remind myself that there are lots of other people in the world

feeling like I am.

(14) When things are going badly for me, I see the difficulties as part of life that everyone

goes through.

(15) When I fail at something that's important to me I tend to feel alone in my failure.









(16) When I think about my inadequacies it tends to make me feel more separate and cut off

from the rest of the world.

(17) When I'm feeling down I tend to feel like most other people are probably happier than I

am.

(18) When I'm really struggling I tend to feel like other people must be having an easier time

of it.

(19) When something upsets me I try to keep my emotions in balance.

(20) When I'm feeling down I try to approach my feelings with curiosity and openness.

(21) When something painful happens I try to take a balanced view of the situation.

(22) When I fail at something important to me I try to keep things in perspective.

(23) When something upsets me I get carried away with my feelings.

(24) When I'm feeling down I tend to obsess and fixate on everything that's wrong.

(25) When something painful happens I tend to blow the incident out of proportion.

(26) When I fail at something important to me I become consumed by feelings of inadequacy.





Self-Kindness subscale: Items 1-5

Self-Judgment subscale: Items 6-10

Common Humanity subscale: Items 11-14

Isolation subscale: Items 15-18

Mindfulness subscale: Items 19-22

Over-Identification Subscale: 23-26









APPENDIX D
SATISFACTION WITH LIFE SCALE (SWLS; DIENER, ET AL., 1985)

Directions: Please indicate your agreement with each item by choosing the number along the
scale provided. Please be open and honest in your responding.


1= Strongly Disagree
2= Disagree
3=Slightly Disagree
4=Neither Agree Nor Disagree
5=Slightly Agree
6=Agree
7=Strongly Agree


(1) In most ways my life is close to my ideal.

(2) The conditions of my life are excellent.

(3) I am satisfied with my life.

(4) So far I have gotten the important things I want in life.

(5) If I could live my life over I would change almost nothing.









APPENDIX E
DEMOGRAPHIC/OTHER INFORMATION



1. What is your current age? (pick from drop down menu)

2. What is your race/ethnicity?
American Indian/Alaska Native
Asian/Asian American
Black/African American
Hispanic/Latino
Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander
White/European American
Biracial/Multiracial
Other (Please specify):

3. What is your gender?
male
female
other (please specify)

4. What is your highest level of education?
Some High School
High School Graduate/Equivalent
Vocational Training and/or Certificate
Some College/University (no degree)
Associate's Degree(s)
Bachelor's Degree(s)
Some Graduate Study (no graduate degree)
Master's Degree(s)_
Doctorate and/or Postgraduate Degree(s)
Other (please specify):

5. In what type of town or city do you primarily live?
Urban
Suburban
Rural (population of less than 2500)

6. What is your religious or spiritual affiliation?
Agnostic
Atheist
Buddhist
Catholic
Christian (non-Catholic)
Christian (Non-denominational)
Hindi
Jewish











Spiritual, no specific religion
Other (please specify)
Unsure

7. How influential is your religion or spirituality in the way you live your everyday life?

always or extremely influential
influential only regarding big decisions
somewhat influential
rarely influential
never influential

8. Do you consider yourself someone who regularly practices religion or spirituality?

Yes, all the time, everyday
Yes, very frequently
Yes, more often than on major holidays only
Yes, on major holidays only
No, very rarely
No, almost never or never

9. In your religion or spirituality, is forgiveness considered something to strive toward?

Yes, very much so
Yes, it is considered a good idea
Yes, but it is optional or not emphasized
No, it is not considered important
No, it is actually discouraged
It is not a part of my religion/spirituality
Not applicable (I am not at all religious/spiritual)

10. Do you consider yourself to be a compassionate person?

Yes, compassion for self and others is very important
Yes, mainly toward others
Yes, mainly toward myself
No, but I am working on it
No, I don't think compassion is important


11. Do you consider yourself to be perfectionistic?

Yes, very much so, in personal and work domains
Yes, in work or school only
Yes, in my personal life only
Yes, but infrequently
No, not at all or never










12. How beneficial do you consider your perfectionistic tendencies to be in your life?

Very beneficial, I would be lost without them
Somewhat beneficial, they help me strive to be better
Slightly beneficial, from time to time I see the benefit
Slightly detrimental, they probably do me more harm than good
Detrimental, they have a fair amount of negative impact on me
Very detrimental, I am often negatively impacted in a variety of ways

13. If you could choose to wake up tomorrow and be rid of your perfectionistic tendencies,
would you do so?
yes
no

14. If you could choose to wake up tomorrow and have forgiven yourself, others, situations, or
anything/anyone else, would you do so?
yes
no

Write-in question: Please briefly state how/why you decided the way you did on each of the previous
two questions:









APPENDIX F
INFORMED CONSENT

Purpose of the research study:
The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of perfectionism and well-being.
What you will be asked to do in the study:
You will be asked to complete an online questionnaire having to do with your attitudes, beliefs,
opinions, and personality.

Time required:
Questionnaires will take approximately 20-30 minutes to complete.

Risks and Benefits:
There are no known risks associated with participation in this study. Potential benefits include
self-insight and reflection on self, personality, values, and relationships.

Confidentiality:
Your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law. No names, email or IP
addresses, or other information that could link respondents to their survey responses will be
collected or maintained, and as a result your responses will be anonymous. Online data will be
collected and maintained through SurveyMonkey, accessible via password protection only to the
principal investigator, and deleted as soon as the data have been analyzed.

Voluntary participation:
Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating.
There is no compensation to you for participating in the study.

Right to withdraw from the study:
You have the right to withdraw from the study at anytime without consequence.

Whom to contact if you have questions about the study:
Brooke Mistler, M.S., Graduate Student, Department of Psychology, PO Box 112250,
Gainesville, FL, 32611, email: study@onlinepsy.com.
Kenneth G. Rice, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Psychology, PO Box 112250, Gainesville, FL,
32611, email: kgrl@ufl.edu, phone: (352) 273-2119.

Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study:
IRB02 Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2250; phone (352)
392-0433.

By clicking here I consent to voluntary participation in the study described above, and agree that
I am over 18 years of age.










APPENDIX G
SELECTED WRITE-IN RESPONSES


My perfectionistic tendencies are only a problem when I get carried away. Most of the time, those
tendencies help me to do well in school and at work. Forgiving others is hard in and of itself, but I tend to
do pretty well with that. I cannot forgive myself because I feel as though I'm allowing myself to get away
with actions/habits that are not beneficial to me in the long run.

I think my perfectionist tendencies help me to be successful and work hard to become better and to
always improve. I would choose to forgive people if I had to ability to forgive them for any wrong doings
because it is good to forgive but not forget.

Perfectionism helps me strive to do better. Some people/situations do not deserve forgiveness.

I would not get rid of my perfectionistic tendencies because I attribute much of my success as a student
and leader to my drive toward perfection. It helps me to stay organized and on top of obligations and
motivates me to work for success. I would choose to forgive others or situations because I consider
myself a very forgiving person (sometimes to my detriment).

My personality is who I am. My flaws make my personality and I wouldn't feel like the same person
otherwise.

I am not a complete perfectionist but I am when it comes to school and work. My perfectionist tendencies
in these settings have allowed me to succeed. I would choose to forgive because it would free me from the
guilt and hatred I sometimes feel towards myself and others.

I think that being perfectionist can help you do thinks better. And I would love to not worry about what
others have done in the past.

I feel like my perfectionistic tendencies help my work be of very good quality and it makes me feel proud
of the things I have accomplished. On the other hand, I have something that I regret in my life and I
would love to wake up tomorrow and forgive myself for that mistake and move on from it.

I feel my perfectionist tendencies help me do well in school, and that they constantly push me to do
better. Sometimes that can be very stressful though because I put all that added stress onto myself to be
perfect and to be the best. I don't like holding grudges it wastes too much energy. So yes, if I could
wake up tomorrow and forgive myself/others/etc, I would do so.

Perfectionism is like a burden. It would be much more relaxing to not have it on my mind all the time.

Holding grudges is exhausting. I have been taught in my religion the importance of forgiveness, and it is
something that I struggle with. Therefore, I think it would be great to be rid of all hard feelings toward
myself and others.

I am always happier when I am able to accept myself and my flaws and holding myself to unrealistically
high standards has caused me stress.










My perfectionistic tendencies have certainly created rewards, but they have also created stress, ridicule,
and taken some valuable time away from me. I am slow at forgiving myself which I know is detrimental
to my own future success and would love to wake up and leave all guilt behind

I think having perfectionistic qualities have benefits for myself most of the time and helped me become
the person I am today, I also would like to forgive others easily, I do not think it is helpful or healthy to
hold grudges, although I have difficulty letting go of things.

I see my perfectionistic tendencies as being related only to my school/professional life and as sources on
motivation that encourage me to give my best effort in all I do in these areas. As for the second, I
honestly feel life is too short to always be angry at someone (including yourself), so waking up and being
able to forgive everything is worth it in the long run in that it will ultimately set you free.

I think my perfectionism is helpful, because it helps me give all I can to others, to projects, etc. God plays
a huge role in why I consider forgiveness so important; Jesus is the ultimate example of forgiveness, so I
try to live by that. Additionally, I believe being unforgiving is detrimental to your emotional well-being. I
sometimes have a difficult time forgiving myself for things I do...I second guess myself a lot!

I like my perfectionistic behaviors in school and believe they help me succeed. However, it is very hard
for me to forgive myself for being imperfect in my personal life, which is why I'd like to learn how to
forgive myself. I usually give others the benefit of the doubt and can forgive them, but it is almost
impossible to forgive myself.

A little bit of anxiety is a good thing. I find more enjoyment in life when I can live in the present, instead
of focusing on the past.

I put undue pressure on myself to succeed, and I would like to reduce the anxiety that this causes me. It
hinders my performance and abilities, and it limits me to doing things within my comfort zones. I can't
imagine answering no. It would be silly to continue wanting to blame myself for past actions I want to
forgive myself for things I have done in the past, but I have not made full repairs to others or myself.

Having these tendencies have kept me disciplined, determined and dedicated.

Although my perfectionistic tendencies can be negative at times, I attribute them to my success thus far in
school, which is very rewarding to myself. Being upset with myself, others, or situations, is energy
consuming and forgiving always seems like a sigh of relief- it's much healthier.

I am in recovery for an eating disorder so my perfectionist tendencies have ruined many aspects of my
life. I cannot be kind to myself and it makes me unhappy. Perfectionism has helped me in my work ethic
as I am in grad school, but I think I could be successful without perfectionism. I forgive everyone, but
myself. I would be so thankful to be able to wake up and accept myself as I am. I think if I could forgive
my shortcomings, like I do for everyone else, I would be much more happy and present in daily life
situations.

I know that holding grudges/irrational expectations against myself and others does not help anyone, but I
have a tendency to hold onto negative feelings that then fester. These impact me both emotional and
physically, so if I could be rid of them completely I would to it.










I'm known by colleagues and peers as perfectionist and goal-oriented. It's basically what defines me and
keeps me focused. I have made mistakes in the past and feel that being a perfectionist helps me to
accomplish my goals, keeps me motivated and feeling productive and fulfilled in life. I guess it holds me
accountable to myself.

I believe that having a perfectionistic tendency makes me work harder and makes me strive to be the best.
I have many strengths and it is my strive to always want to do the best that I can that pushes me to
continue working hard even when I'd rather take the easy way out. I am proud of my perfectionistic
tendencies and feel it has significantly more benefits than weaknesses. Regarding my idea to forgive
others, I don't see a reason why not to forgive. I believe that forgiveness is important and that it frees the
person of holding hate or negative thoughts toward others. The more you are able to forgive the more you
can move on from whatever has wronged you so it doesn't take hold of your life.

I would feel more comfortable and at peace with myself and the world if I was less perfectionistic and
was able to forgive, especially forgive myself.

Perfectionistic tendencies help me be the best "me" I can be. I will always want to be the best me. I feel
when you forgive someone or yourself, you are taking a great weight off of your soul and will live a
longer, healthier life by doing so.

If I wasn't so hard on myself I probably wouldn't experience anxiety like I do. This is a struggle for me. I
can forgive others but experience a lot of self guilt.

My perfectionistic tendencies have their pros and cons but overall they are a part of who I am. I don't
really feel that there is anything that I need to forgive of myself or anyone that I have not already
forgiven. While I believe that forgiveness is good I do not fundamentally believe that everything should
be forgiven.

My perfectionistic tendencies are necessary to help me excel in graduate school. Without them I wouldn't
have the determination to complete my requirements so I wouldn't want them to go away. I believe in
forgiveness because it takes less energy than holding a grudge.

I believe that my perfectionism is tied in with my procrastination I think about doing something right
but it's either too big of ajob or I don't think I can do it right and then Ijust don't do anything. I think the
combination of the two keep me from trying things because I'm afraid to fail or be rejected. 20. I try to
forgive people and think I have forgiven them but sometimes the pain still sneaks up. I need to forgive
myself more.

I like the control striving for perfection brings to my life. I find meaning in doing things well and I feel
like I can compromise on what needs to be perfect. However, my expectations can be too high for people,
which leaves me angry with their behavior. With my own behavior I am flexible about things being
perfect or not, except with certain core beliefs like trust, commitment, and personal responsibility. I have
never failed myself in these, but if I did, it would be hard to forgive myself.

The idea of waking up and magically having changed does not appeal to me. I see my life as a process of
learning and growing, of working towards forgiveness and love of self and others. I have learned to let go
of some of my perfectionism, however, society highly values these tendencies and so I know that I will










probably always have some piece of that in me. And I can accept that and appreciate what is good and not
so helpful about it.

I would not rid the perfectionism, because it is only slight and helps me to do a thorough job sometimes.
And I would choose to forgive because not forgiving is painful to me. But it is hard to forgive myself
sometimes, so I would want to free myself of that pain.

I don't know who I would be without the perfectionistic tendencies that I have and I do feel that they
benefit me at times, so I wouldn't want to not have them. However, if I could have total forgiveness for
myself and others I feel that I would live a much happier life.

I do believe my perfectionistic tendencies make me who I am and make me work hard to do the best I can
at everything. I would choose to forgive because I think it would make me a better, happier person to not
have hard feelings against anyone.

Perfectionism is part of my personality- without it, I would not be "me". I think forgiveness should be
part of everyone's life. It frees a person from the past and opens them to future possibilities.

I find myself to be perfectionistic about cleanliness, tidiness, and orderliness. I don't think I would give up
my striving to keep things neat or clean. I would love to be able to forgive myself for ways that I have
acted in the past, things that I have done that I am not proud of, and mistakes that I have made in my
relationships with others.

My perfectionism can sometimes drive myself and others crazy. I would prefer to not carry any burden of
not forgiving if I could do so.

The perfectionistic tendencies help contribute to who I am as a person. Forgiveness removes a "heavy"
feeling and provides relief.

Perfectionism has become a hindrance to my healthy development and wellness. I wish I could accept my
inadequacies and not be bothered by them, but I haven't been able to figure out how. It can be very
painful.

I feel like my strive to be perfect and my lack of forgiveness for myself and others causes me great
internal pain.

My perfectionistic tendencies cause me to be callous and cruel to myself at times. I would like to no
longer do this.

My perfectionistic tendencies are a burden and often leave me feeling inadequate and upset at myself. So
being rid of these tendencies would be very freeing I think. If I could forgive myself, others, and
situations I think it would be very liberating and a weight would be lifted. I would be able to function
better overall and enjoy life more fully. That is why I answered as I did. Thanks very interesting study.

I don't know any other way of being aside from being a perfectionist, so I would be uncomfortable
without being that way. I always strive to be more forgiving, so if I could wake up and be that way, I
would.










I feel my perfectionism has helped me to attain what I have in my life, especially my continued education.
While I am a perfectionist, I do understand that I cannot reach the goal of being perfect and I'm ok with
falling short. I also strive to forgive others if I'm wronged. I do sometimes have trouble doing this.

While being a perfectionist adds excess stress to my life I don't know any other way of being and do not
want to lack accomplishments in my life. I would choose to forgiveness because it would reduce my
stress and make me a happier person.

I associate my perfectionism with self-criticism/self-consciousness and holding grudges longer than might
be appropriate, so if it were as easy as "choosing" to be rid of it and forgive myself/others, I would see
great benefit in doing so.

I realize that striving for true perfectionism will drive a person crazy and I would rather spend the time
enjoying life than trying to make every detail "perfect". Life is just too short to obsess.

I believe the hint of my perfectionism that is seen in school/work pushes me to strive. I'm also a P on the
Meyers Briggs...so, I think the perfectionism is balanced out. I also think that having more perfectionism
attributes in my 20's helped me to get where I am now...and luckily, now I see hints of my perfectionism,
but I'm not really controlled by it (whereas I was in my 20's). RE: Q-22, There is so much learning about
yourself and others through the process of forgiving...I would not want that taken away!

Perfectionistic tendencies help me strive to work harder and be better I believe I would fall behind if I
did not have a drive to finish well. For the second question, I believe that the ability to forgive is very
important and necessary in life a constant harboring of anger, resentment, etc. is, in my opinion, a poor
way to live.

I have achieved a lot in my life because I do not settle for mediocrity. Striving for excellence has led me t
where I am. I agree with forgiveness and think it is something to always strive towards.

I think my perfectionism has driven me to succeed in my career. I feel like I have forgiven myself and
others for most things, but would welcome the opportunity to wake up totally free of all anger.

I think perfectionism has gotten me this far with my life, which I don't regret. Yet it is time for me to let it
go and live a life with more freedom, for others and myself. Hatred is painful; it hurts both parties

I think perfectionism has gotten me this far with my life, which I don't regret. Yet it is time for me to let it
go and live a life with more freedom, for others and myself. Hatred is painful; I'd rather be free of it.

I find that perfectionism breeds shame and anxiety in my life, and keeps me out of the present moment.
When I am focusing on perfection, I am not mindful or present, and I find that to be very detrimental to
my life and my work. Perfectionism also keeps me from connecting with others in more authentic ways.

I would not be rid of perfectionistic tendencies because it helps me not be complacent in what I do; ever
striving to be and do better. Forgiveness is key to growth and learning that life has a flow and it is a
process. Relational conscientiousness compels me to forgive so that I can live.

I feel frustrated when I cannot meet my expectations and often find that my expectations were
unnecessary for achievement. I also think creating expectations of myself leads me to create expectations










of others. Setting conditions in relationships seems to lead to me to judge. When this happens I find it
important to forgive and accept. My ability to forgive is dependent on my disappointment. It would be
nice if the grief process could happened in one night's sleep.

I believe my perfectionism is adaptive and it has never caused distress. It is part of who I am- my identity.
Although there are times when forgiveness feels impossible and not doing so protects me from further
hurt, I would rather be able to forgive.

My perfectionism has encouraged me to reach the level of success I have. However, I'd like to not be so
self-critical.

My perfectionism is beneficial to me, as it helps me to accomplish things professionally at a high level.
However, it also causes problems in my life because other people are often annoyed by it and it prevents
me from being "free and easy" as I would ideally like to be in a lot of situations.

It hurts to beat myself up about what I cannot change. When I forgive myself, it feels like a fresh start.

The negativity that I tend to hold onto stays in my mind, and I keep worrying about something I did in the
past that I can't change, or something in my future that I can't control. I have received help for my
perfectionistic tendencies and they have improved over the years. I am less forgiving of myself than
when I was younger.

The anxiety from perfectionism can be counterproductive. Expecting perfectionism from others can lead
to resentment, which requires forgiveness and acceptance.

I feel my perfectionistic attitude has helped me achieve the things in life I have accomplished- and I
wouldn't trade that in- as for forgiving myself in situations, I wish I could do that as I feel in certain
instances, my inability to do so causes me more harm than good

I am often frustrated and paralyzed in in-action due to my perfectionism and fears of failure in my own
eyes. I would like to feel less anxiety and be happier with myself and my life.

There would be a lot less to stress and worry about if I weren't so perfectionistic. I feel I could relax and
enjoy the present much more effectively!

I don't see perfectionism as something positive. Being human and making mistakes is an important part of
a full life. I wish I was a little less comfortable with this idea though...There are several things in my life I
have yet to truly forgiven myself/others for, but I'm working on it in order to carry less anger in my life.

My perfectionism has been a big part of my success; however, I have also seen it have a negative impact
on some relationships. I tend to rely on myself too much, so I don't always let others in, or give myself
the break I deserve.

I think striving for perfection can be a good thing when striving to do your best but that it can be
detrimental as well. There are times where I cannot let things go or beat myself up for scoring lower than
I expected or "should have". My life has a lot of "supposed to" and "should" in it. Perfectionism brings
stress and I can do without that stress and pressure. I think forgiveness is important and that it is hardest










to forgive oneself. To have that released and be free of the bond of not being good enough would be
fabulous.

I always feel I could do better, so if given the chance for a do-over of course I'd take it. What
perfectionist wouldn't?

I believe in striving for perfection when attaining goals or completing tasks, my sight becomes so focused
or narrowed that I lose the opportunity of experiencing the wonder or the joy the journey was offering. To
be rid of the narrowed focus would take the pressure off and leave my heart open to the greater benefits of
the task at hand. In waking up to thoughts of being forgiven or granting forgiveness brings thoughts of
peace and discovering new potentials... what a wonderful, powerful feeling!

Forgiveness is important both to self and others. Being able to recognize our own deficiencies and faults
make us all more humble.

Perfectionism leads to procrastination and less achievement. I think I've already forgiven others, but that
wasn't an option so I chose yes.

There are things about my personality that are inflexible and intense because of my perfectionism. This
causes me problems getting along with others and accepting things I cannot change. I am trying to let go,
but it is so damn hard. Almost beyond me...

I don't see my tendencies toward perfectionism to influence my ability/capacity for forgiveness of myself
or others. They are separate aspects of my personality. I would not give up my perfectionism because it
is a core part of my personality and I am not sure in what ways it may influence many aspects of who I
am, and I like who I am.

I would not respect myself if I did not give things my best shot. Forgiveness is a relief and release from
a burden.

I regard myself as striving to continuously improve, which goes towards perfectionism occasionally. The
"forgive" questions doesn't make any sense to me, but I don't harbor many grudges for long.

Being less perfectionistic would allow me to be more flexible in all situations. Forgiveness releases me
from any strong holds.

Perfectionism helps me be the best that I can be. Forgiveness would help me achieve so much more in life
and I would not be so hard on myself.

Sometimes perfectionism is a punishment.

An ongoing problem for me is release; letting go of many things in my life. Answering yes would go a
long ways toward achieving a sense of release.

There are times and jobs when perfection is a quality, and I try to fulfill that quality. This is very
infrequent. As to the second question, everyone is subject to human faults. If you can forgive yourself,
you can forgive others their humanness. If you can't forgive yourself, then you live with all the ghosts of
failure, and that would be intolerable.










Attempting to live up to expectations of perfection only creates frustration and rarely leads to a better
outcome. Forgiveness is a complex topic essentially, I believe that there is nothing that truly requires
forgiveness since all experiences are our teachers and ultimately benefit us.

Perfectionism inhibits my ability to have compassion for myself and others and compassion is very
important to me as a spiritual practice and a way of life.

I am harder on myself than I am on others. I think my perfectionistic tendencies keep me on my toes.
However, I would enjoy not fretting so much about what I do.

I like doing things well--gives a feeling of satisfaction. Forgiveness allows for acceptance and good
relationships.









LIST OF REFERENCES


Abdullah, S. (1999). Creating a world that works for all. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.

Al-Mubak, R. H., Enright, R. D., & Cardis, P.A. (1995). Forgiveness education with parentally
love-deprived late adolescents. Journal of Moral Education, 24(4), 427-444.

Aldea, M. A., & Rice, K. G. (2006). The role of emotional dysregulation in perfectionism and
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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Brooke was born in Tampa, Florida, to a father who is a pilot and a mother who is a

school psychologist. She received her Bachelor's of Science, Summa Cum Laude, in Psychology

from The University of Florida in 2003. Brooke then joined The University of Florida's APA-

approved Counseling Psychology doctoral program, where she received her Master's of Science

degree, and also met her husband.

Brooke completed her pre-doctoral internship at Cumberland Hospital for Children and

Adolescents in New Kent, Virginia, an inpatient facility where she provided psychological

assessments, group, individual, and family therapy for those with chronic illness. She also

received advanced training in sand tray therapy. Brooke enjoys working with young adults on

self-exploration, development, and achievement in both personal and academic domains. She has

many outside interests, including movies, dance, plants, and animals. She is an avid cat lover.





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inter intra inter intra

PAGE 17

Forgiveness inter intra

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intra

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process

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Perfectionism

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intra inter

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Self -Compassion

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r

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Satisfaction with Life

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Purpose of the Study

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ab ab

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Hypotheses

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Participants n >

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Instruments The Heartland Forgiveness Scale (HFS; Thompson et al., 2005).

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The A lmost Perfect Scale Revised (APS -R; Slaney, et al.,2001). Self -Compassion Scale (SCS; Neff, 2003b).

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The Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, et al., 1985). Procedures

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Analytic Strategies Mediation.

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r

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Preliminary Analyses

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Analysis of Hypotheses ps Primary hypotheses. r r

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r r r r r r r

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r r Secondary hypothesis.

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ab

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Exploratory Analyses

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Min. Max. M SD N

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 1. HFS 2. Frgv. of Self .84 3. Frgv. of Others .77 .42 4. Frgv. of Sit. .88 .65 .53 5. Discrepancy -.60 -.60 -.34 -.53 6. SCS .71 .72 .40 .70 -.64 7. Self Kindness .59 .64 .31 .50 -.53 .82 8. Self Judgment -.56 -.61 -.27 -.49 .50 -.80 -.63 9. Cmn. Humanity .47 .49 .29 .3 8 -.41 .70 .52 -.40 10. Isolation -.46 -.45 -.25 -.45 .55 -.76 -.48 .55 -.42 11. Mindfulness .55 .53 .32 .51 -.40 .74 .57 -.46 .49 -.46 12. OverIdent. -.62 -.55 -.38 -.60 .50 -.74 -.47 .51 -.35 .56 -.50 13. SWL .48 .44 .27 .47 -.48 .50 .46 -.34 .31 -.40 (-. .39 -.37

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Figure 4-1. c' c' b a c

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Forgiveness of Self Subscale: Items 1-6 Forgiveness of Others Subscale: Items 7 -12 Forgiveness of Situations Subscale: Items 13-18 These i tems are reverse scored

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Discrepancy subscale : Items 1 -12 High Standards subscale : Items 13 -19 Order subscale : Items 20-23

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Self -Kindness subscale : Items 1 -5 Self -Judgment subscale : Items 6 -10 Common Humanity subscale : Items 11 -14 Isolation subscale : Items 15 -18 Mindfulness subscale : Items 19 -22 Over -Identification Subscale : 23 -26

PAGE 89

on each of the previous two

PAGE 99

Creating a world that works for all. Journal of Moral Education, 24(4), Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53, Journal of Mental H ealth Counseling, 20, Journal of Counseling and Development, 80(2), Journal of Counseling Psychology, Journal of Counseling and Development, 84(2), Evolution and Human Behavior, 19(4), Individual Psychology, 49(1), Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), Journal of Counseling and Development, 82(1), Psychological Review, 97(1), Emotional alchemy: How the mind can heal the heart. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(10),

PAGE 100

Journal of Personality, 73(1), Personality and Individual Differences, 36(6), Current Psychology, 27(1), American Psychologist, 50 (12), Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85(4), Clinical Psychology Review, 12, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, Sociological Methodology, 20 A secure base: Parent-child attachments and healthy human development. Soul without shame: A guide to liberating yourself from the judge within. Psychology Today, Psychiatric Annals, 23, Journal of Abnormal psychology, 92(3),

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Perception of self in emotional disorder and psychotherapy ( Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences Psychological Bulletin, 112(1), Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65(6), Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 13(3), The American Journal of Family Therapy, 26(4), Psychological Bulletin, 95, The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), Suicide: A study in sociology Child Development, 38, Cognitive Therapy and Research, 29(5), Personality and Individual Differences, 33(6), Journal of Psycholo gy and Christianity, 8, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94 (3), Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 10(1),

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Social Behavior and Personality, 20(2), Current Psychology, 13(4), Personality and Individual Differences, 10(7), Personality and Individual Differences, 16(3), Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 6(5), Current Psychology, 14(2), Personality and Individual Differences, 12(1), Journal of Counseling Psychology, 51(1), Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 9, Perso nality and Individual Differences, 14(1), Journal of Sport Exercise Psychology, 13, Cognitive Therapy and Research, 14, Cognitive Therapy & Research, 14(5),

PAGE 103

Cognitive Therapy and Research, 21(2), Seeking th e heart of wisdom: The path of insight meditation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 51(2), Psychology, 15, Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 21, The miracle of mindfulness. Teachings on love. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 23(1), Communication Monographs 76, Psychotherapy,30, Canadian Psychology, 30, Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 5, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100,

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Journal of Abnormal Psychology 102(1), Behaviour Research and Therapy, 10, 1221 International Journal of Eating Disorders, 15(4), Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 14, British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 31, Psychological Assessment, 3, Cognitive Therapy and Research, 18(5), Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59(4), Journal of Personality Assessment, 69(1), Statistical Strategies for Small Sample Research Reducing suicide: A national imperative. Journal of College Student Development, 37(1), Self-knowledge and the self.

PAGE 105

Womens growth in diversity: More writings from the Stone Center. Evaluation Review, 5 (5), Wherever you go there you are. Individual Differe nces Research Social Science Computer Review, 17(3), A path with heart. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 26, Journal of Counseling and Development, 84(4), Journal of Counseling Psychology, 42, Perfectionism and social connectedness: A longitudinal study of academic and emotional adjustment in honors and non-honors students. The Journal of Social Psychology, 142(5), Multivariate Behavioral Research, 39 Introduction to Statistical Mediation Analysis Annual Review of Psychology, 58

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Psychoogical Methods, The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 165(1), Personality and Individual Differences, 37(8), Journal of Happiness Studies, 6(1), Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 11, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, Forgiveness: Theory, research, and practice Handbook of Positive Psychology Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(4), Cognitive Therapy and Research, 19(2), Self and Identity, 2,

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Self and Identity, 2, Self and Identity, 4, European Journal of Personality, 18(1), European Journal of Personality, 21, American Educational Research Journal, 34(3), Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72(2), Behavior Resea rch Methods, Instruments and Computers, 36 Behavior Research Methods, 40 Journal of Clinical Psychology, 55(10), Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53(2), Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54(1), Journal of Counseling Psychology, 45(3), Assessment, 14(4),

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Journal of Counseling and Development, 80, Journal of College Student Development, 42(2), Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53(4), Psychology in the Schools, 44 Journal of College Counseling, 7(2), Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24(4), Journal of Counseling Psychology, 47(2), Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 28(2), Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 34, Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 35(1), Journal of Clinical Psychology in medical Settings, 15(3), Personality and Individual Differences, 40, Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 11(2),

PAGE 109

Lovingkindness: The revolutionary art of happiness. Journal of Personality, 66(4), Journal of Psychology and Christianity 20 Behavior Research and Therapy, 40, Clinical Psychology Review, 21(6), Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(3), Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 39, Social Indicators Research, 5, Psychological Methods, 7, Journal of Counseling and Development, 74, Journal of Career Assessment, 3(3), Counseling Psychologist, 28(1), P erfectionism: Theory, res earch, and treatment Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 34,

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Sociological Methodology 13, Sociological methodology Psychometrika, 55 Pers onality and Social Psychology Review, 10(4), Psychometrika, 55 Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 7, Journal of Adolescence, 18(6), Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 34, Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59, Positive psychological assessment: A handbook of models and measures Journal of Personality, 73(2), Suicide and Life -Threatening Behavior, 10,

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Personality and Individual Differences, 42, Cognitive Therapy and Research, 11(4), Journal of Personality and Social Psychology The Journal of Social Psychology, 146(4), Structural Equation Modeling, 15 Journal of Psychology and Theology, 29, Handbook of forgiveness Dimensions of forgiveness: Psychological research and theological perspectives. Handbook of forgiveness. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 39(4), Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68,