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Reconstructing Tropical Nature

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0041412/00001

Material Information

Title: Reconstructing Tropical Nature Prehistoric and Modern Anthrosols (Terra Preta) in the Amazon Rainforest, Upper Xingu River, Brazil
Physical Description: 1 online resource (1594 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Schmidt, Morgan
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: amazon, amerindians, anthrosols, brazil, ecology, ethnoarchaeology, grosso, historical, kuikuro, mato, pedoarchaeology, preta, rainforest, terra, upper, xingu
Geography -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Geography thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This project investigates the formation of prehistoric anthrosols known as terra preta in Brazil. Large and small patches of terra preta are found in diverse environments throughout the Amazon Basin. They are highly sought after by farmers for cultivating a diverse range of crops and have attracted considerable attention by scientists and the media because of their phenomenal fertility in a region dominated by highly weathered, infertile tropical soils. Terra preta soils were formed by human activities and mark the locations of ancient settlements. Some scientists espouse terra preta research as key to increasing sustainability and improving the fertility of tropical soils. However, there is considerable speculation and a paucity of empirical data on the formation processes of these soils. The state of the knowledge on terra preta is expressed in four recent edited volumes dedicated to the topic (Glaser and Woods 2004; Lehmann et al. 2003; Teixeira et al. 2009; Woods et al. 2009). Two complementary hypotheses are advocated to explain the formation of darkened anthrosols in the Amazon. In the midden model the darkest terra preta with abundant ceramics was formed mainly from refuse disposal at habitation sites while in the cultivation model agricultural practices introduced ash, charcoal, and organic material into the soil forming brown soils with few ceramics on the periphery of settlements. With these hypotheses comes the question of intentionality versus unintentionality in the formation of the enriched soils. Were ancient Amazonian farmers intentionally making terra preta? The significance of this research is the ethnoarchaeological context. It was carried out in a contemporary Xinguano (Amerindian) community, the Kuikuro, with historical links to nearby abandoned settlements that have large expanses of terra preta. Working with the community allowed direct observations of activities and soil sample collection from specific activity areas. Little previous research has been carried out in Amazonia in this respect, with several notable exceptions (Hecht 2003, 2009; Hecht and Posey 1989; Heckenberger 1996; Silva 2003; Silva and Rebellato 2004). These few studies provided some intriguing data from observations and a small number of soil samples but this doctoral research is the first to carry out comprehensive soil testing in an ethnoarchaeological context with the objective of documenting terra preta formation processes and characteristics. Several thousand soil samples were collected from the current Kuikuro village, two historic villages, and three large prehistoric sites. Areas that were defined and sampled included the plaza, house floors, backyards, fire hearths, manioc processing areas, trash middens, fields, fallows, and forest. Soil analyses included particle size, Munsell color, pH, organic carbon (OC), available nutrients, and total elements measured with Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry. The data were subjected to statistical analyses that included basic descriptive statistics and multivariate discriminant analyses. The variables used in discriminant analyses included pH, OC, and total Al, Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn. Groups of samples from different activity areas were compared with one another and discriminant analysis was employed to examine differences and determine how well groups could be separated and samples correctly classified. It was also determined which variables were most and least effective at separating groups and which combinations of variables could be used most effectively. The groups were shown to have distinctive soil signatures in the current village context. Middens had a high pH, high OC content, the highest enrichments of the greatest range of plant nutrients (Ba, Ca, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Sr, and Zn), and especially low Al, Fe, Ti, and V. Fallow areas on the periphery of the village showed enrichment similar to middens but at much lower magnitudes. Fire hearths had an elevated pH, low OC content, and exceptionally elevated K content. By comparing middens of different ages it was shown that Mn, Ba, and Sr are among the elements, in addition to pH, that stay most fixed in the soil and are therefore especially useful in pedo-archaeological studies. Many of the variables that are typically elevated from human activities were shown to significantly decrease over time in middens from the current and historic villages including pH, OC, Ca, K, Mg, Na, Sr, P, and Zn. The research documented the extreme heterogeneity of the soil in all areas. Discriminant analyses found that most of the variables were useful in separating groups of samples from different areas but several of them consistently performed better while others added relatively little to the separating power of the discriminant functions. In an analysis using six groups (Fallow Area, Fire hearth, Forest, Manioc Processing, Mid-plaza, and Midden), the ordering of the 15 most effective variables was the following: pH, Ba, Fe, Ti, V, OC, Sr, P, Ca, Mg, Zn, Mn, Co, Al, and K. The five variables that were the least powerful included Cr, Cu, Na, Ni, and Pb. A significant result was that pH came out at or near the top in every analysis and also remained at similar levels in historic and prehistoric middens. This is an intriguing result since pH analysis is fast and easy to perform, can be done in the field, and requires no expensive equipment or reagents. The results of soil analyses and ethnographic observations support the hypotheses set forth by previous researchers and offer further details. Bulky organic refuse, namely waste from manioc processing, is preferentially deposited further away from the house while more diverse and durable refuse is deposited closer to the house. In addition to cultivation, the sorting of refuse by type could contribute to the formation of lighter brown soils on the periphery of settlements. I conclude that the bulk of terra preta was formed in middens. Refuse disposal in middens forms a distinctive pattern of linear mounds on the edges of backyards and trails. It is hypothesized that this process formed the linear and ring-shaped mounds observed not only in Upper Xingu prehistoric sites but also in sites in the Central Amazon and Trombetas regions. Farmers were observed planting a diverse range of crops directly in the middens. They were also observed fertilizing land on the periphery of the village with organic refuse and mulching crops with weeds cleared from within the village. It is clear that they know what they are doing when they enrich soil in the refuse disposal areas and then use it for planting crops. In addition to refuse disposal, there is a significant anthropic impact on the soil in domestic and public areas. Activity areas are extremely dynamic, shifting over time and forming a palimpsest of human impact on the soil. When the village expands, activity areas shift on top of the middens and middens are sometimes leveled to create a pad for building new houses. These processes were likely responsible for the deep stratified deposits of terra preta found in many prehistoric sites throughout the Amazon.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Morgan Schmidt.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Smith, Nigel J.
Local: Co-adviser: Heckenberger, Michael J.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0041412:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0041412/00001

Material Information

Title: Reconstructing Tropical Nature Prehistoric and Modern Anthrosols (Terra Preta) in the Amazon Rainforest, Upper Xingu River, Brazil
Physical Description: 1 online resource (1594 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Schmidt, Morgan
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: amazon, amerindians, anthrosols, brazil, ecology, ethnoarchaeology, grosso, historical, kuikuro, mato, pedoarchaeology, preta, rainforest, terra, upper, xingu
Geography -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Geography thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This project investigates the formation of prehistoric anthrosols known as terra preta in Brazil. Large and small patches of terra preta are found in diverse environments throughout the Amazon Basin. They are highly sought after by farmers for cultivating a diverse range of crops and have attracted considerable attention by scientists and the media because of their phenomenal fertility in a region dominated by highly weathered, infertile tropical soils. Terra preta soils were formed by human activities and mark the locations of ancient settlements. Some scientists espouse terra preta research as key to increasing sustainability and improving the fertility of tropical soils. However, there is considerable speculation and a paucity of empirical data on the formation processes of these soils. The state of the knowledge on terra preta is expressed in four recent edited volumes dedicated to the topic (Glaser and Woods 2004; Lehmann et al. 2003; Teixeira et al. 2009; Woods et al. 2009). Two complementary hypotheses are advocated to explain the formation of darkened anthrosols in the Amazon. In the midden model the darkest terra preta with abundant ceramics was formed mainly from refuse disposal at habitation sites while in the cultivation model agricultural practices introduced ash, charcoal, and organic material into the soil forming brown soils with few ceramics on the periphery of settlements. With these hypotheses comes the question of intentionality versus unintentionality in the formation of the enriched soils. Were ancient Amazonian farmers intentionally making terra preta? The significance of this research is the ethnoarchaeological context. It was carried out in a contemporary Xinguano (Amerindian) community, the Kuikuro, with historical links to nearby abandoned settlements that have large expanses of terra preta. Working with the community allowed direct observations of activities and soil sample collection from specific activity areas. Little previous research has been carried out in Amazonia in this respect, with several notable exceptions (Hecht 2003, 2009; Hecht and Posey 1989; Heckenberger 1996; Silva 2003; Silva and Rebellato 2004). These few studies provided some intriguing data from observations and a small number of soil samples but this doctoral research is the first to carry out comprehensive soil testing in an ethnoarchaeological context with the objective of documenting terra preta formation processes and characteristics. Several thousand soil samples were collected from the current Kuikuro village, two historic villages, and three large prehistoric sites. Areas that were defined and sampled included the plaza, house floors, backyards, fire hearths, manioc processing areas, trash middens, fields, fallows, and forest. Soil analyses included particle size, Munsell color, pH, organic carbon (OC), available nutrients, and total elements measured with Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry. The data were subjected to statistical analyses that included basic descriptive statistics and multivariate discriminant analyses. The variables used in discriminant analyses included pH, OC, and total Al, Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn. Groups of samples from different activity areas were compared with one another and discriminant analysis was employed to examine differences and determine how well groups could be separated and samples correctly classified. It was also determined which variables were most and least effective at separating groups and which combinations of variables could be used most effectively. The groups were shown to have distinctive soil signatures in the current village context. Middens had a high pH, high OC content, the highest enrichments of the greatest range of plant nutrients (Ba, Ca, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Sr, and Zn), and especially low Al, Fe, Ti, and V. Fallow areas on the periphery of the village showed enrichment similar to middens but at much lower magnitudes. Fire hearths had an elevated pH, low OC content, and exceptionally elevated K content. By comparing middens of different ages it was shown that Mn, Ba, and Sr are among the elements, in addition to pH, that stay most fixed in the soil and are therefore especially useful in pedo-archaeological studies. Many of the variables that are typically elevated from human activities were shown to significantly decrease over time in middens from the current and historic villages including pH, OC, Ca, K, Mg, Na, Sr, P, and Zn. The research documented the extreme heterogeneity of the soil in all areas. Discriminant analyses found that most of the variables were useful in separating groups of samples from different areas but several of them consistently performed better while others added relatively little to the separating power of the discriminant functions. In an analysis using six groups (Fallow Area, Fire hearth, Forest, Manioc Processing, Mid-plaza, and Midden), the ordering of the 15 most effective variables was the following: pH, Ba, Fe, Ti, V, OC, Sr, P, Ca, Mg, Zn, Mn, Co, Al, and K. The five variables that were the least powerful included Cr, Cu, Na, Ni, and Pb. A significant result was that pH came out at or near the top in every analysis and also remained at similar levels in historic and prehistoric middens. This is an intriguing result since pH analysis is fast and easy to perform, can be done in the field, and requires no expensive equipment or reagents. The results of soil analyses and ethnographic observations support the hypotheses set forth by previous researchers and offer further details. Bulky organic refuse, namely waste from manioc processing, is preferentially deposited further away from the house while more diverse and durable refuse is deposited closer to the house. In addition to cultivation, the sorting of refuse by type could contribute to the formation of lighter brown soils on the periphery of settlements. I conclude that the bulk of terra preta was formed in middens. Refuse disposal in middens forms a distinctive pattern of linear mounds on the edges of backyards and trails. It is hypothesized that this process formed the linear and ring-shaped mounds observed not only in Upper Xingu prehistoric sites but also in sites in the Central Amazon and Trombetas regions. Farmers were observed planting a diverse range of crops directly in the middens. They were also observed fertilizing land on the periphery of the village with organic refuse and mulching crops with weeds cleared from within the village. It is clear that they know what they are doing when they enrich soil in the refuse disposal areas and then use it for planting crops. In addition to refuse disposal, there is a significant anthropic impact on the soil in domestic and public areas. Activity areas are extremely dynamic, shifting over time and forming a palimpsest of human impact on the soil. When the village expands, activity areas shift on top of the middens and middens are sometimes leveled to create a pad for building new houses. These processes were likely responsible for the deep stratified deposits of terra preta found in many prehistoric sites throughout the Amazon.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Morgan Schmidt.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Smith, Nigel J.
Local: Co-adviser: Heckenberger, Michael J.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0041412:00001


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16 r r r r r r r r

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17 r r

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19 r r r r r

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20 r r r r r r r r

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39 egepe

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64 Introduction terra preta igepe

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67 Human Interaction with th e Environment

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70 resource management

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73 Soils and Human Occupation

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78 Soil Forming Processes

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83 Soils and Sediments: Fundamental to Archaeology

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87 Soil Chemical Analysis in Archaeology

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90 Geographical R eview

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93 terra firme

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97 Early Human Occupation in the South American Tropics

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105 Cucurbita Cucurbita

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106 Cucurbita Cucurbita

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107 The Discovery of the Amazon: Carvajals Account

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111 Collapse and Conquest: The Emptying of the Amazon

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114 Arapaima gigas

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116 The Amazon is Tamed: The 19th Century

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119 capoeira The Standard Model

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120 Handbook of South American Indians Native Peoples of South America

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123 A New View of Amazonia

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127 Terra Preta: T he Enigma

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129 terra mulata

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131 terra preta

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133 Research Objectives

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141 Mauritia flexuosa

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143 The Environment Mauritia flexuosa

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144 inveirno

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145 Xinguanos

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147 The Village and Economy

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149 The Southern Amazon Ethnoarchaeology Project

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150 History and Prehistory

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1 53 Previous Soil Testing in the Study Area

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160 Soil Sample Collection

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162 Laboratory Analyses at the Emlio Goeldi Museu m

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164 Laboratory Analyses at Eletronorte Sample Digestion

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166 I nductively C oupled P lasma O ptical E mission S pectrometry

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167 Sources of Error

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168 Statistical Analyses

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171 r r

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191 19.8 5256 20725 0 0 19.6 1042 118.3 515 31.3 668.8 20.5 34.2 4 11.7 424 14.3 384 389 41588 18.0 3797 1650 2142 0 1495 0

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192 336 2895 24.4 31.8 2503 119.4 48.1 76 699 42.4 398 1858 2533.0 24.1 189.0 3 33.9 415.6 11500 393.7 771.8 76.5 886.9 73.4 64 0.9 51.3 842.2 74.4 140.0 151 546 2039 1066 407 42.0 214.0 0 0 12 160 6

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193 Contemporary Xinguano Settlements

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195 Chapter Organization

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197 Correlation Analysis r r

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200 Baseline Soils

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202 Forest Soils itsuni Forest Description:

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203 Sampling:

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204 Texture:

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205 Color: Soil pH:

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207 Organic carbon (OC):

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208 Phosphorous:

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209 Calcium (Ca):

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210 Potassium (K): Copper (Cu):

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211 Magnesium (Mg):

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212 Manganese (Mn): Zinc (Zn):

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213 Barium (Ba):

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214 Strontium (Sr):

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215 Sodium (Na):

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216 Aluminum (Al):

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217 Iron (Fe): Titanium (Ti):

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218 Vanadium (V):

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219 Chromium (Cr):

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220 Cobalt (Co): Nickel (Ni):

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221 Lead (Pb):

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222 Normality: Outliers:

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223 Correlations: Available nutrients and exchangeable ions:

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224 Trash Middens towards

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225 in situ in situ

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227 Refuse Disposal Area Description

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233 Current Middens

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234 Sampling:

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235 Tex ture:

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236 Color: Correlations:

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237 pH:

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238 OC:

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239 P: Ba, Ca, K, Mg, and Na:

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240 Barium

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241 Cu, Mn, Pb, Sr, and Zn:

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243 Al, Fe, Ti, and V:

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244 Co, Cr, and Ni:

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245 Available nutrients and exchangeable ions:

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248 Historic Middens

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249 Sampling in historic middens:

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250 Differences between historic middens (HM) and current middens (CM):

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251 Texture and color:

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252 Soil pH: OC:

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253 P:

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254 Ba, Mn, and Sr:

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255 Ca, K, Mg:

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256 Cu, Na, and Zn:

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257 Al, Fe, Ti, and V:

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259 Co, Cr, Ni, Pb: Cobalt

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260 Chromium Nickel

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261 Lead

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262 Available nutrients and extractable ions: Grass and Scrub Fallow Soils

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263 Imperata Acrocomia sclerocarpa Hancornia speciosa Caryocar brasiliense

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266 Cultivation:

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267 Defecat ion areas:

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270 Sampling fallows:

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271 Results:

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272 Fallow Area 1:

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273 Fallow Area 2:

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274 Fallow Area 3:

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275 Comparison of fallow areas: Manioc Field Soils

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276 itsuni

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280 Domestic Areas

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282 Fire Hearths

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283 kuigiko

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289 Manioc Processing Areas

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290 Mauritius tucup kuigiku

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292 Deep cores:

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293 Available nutrients and exchangeable ions

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294 Individual processing areas:

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297 Houses

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305 Backyards

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308 Plaza Edge

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312 Plaza Center beiju kine lisi

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318 Mid -P laza

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349 kuigiku Acrocomia sclerocarpa

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389 0 1 2 3Kilometers N

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468

PAGE 469

469

PAGE 470

470

PAGE 471

471

PAGE 472

472

PAGE 473

473

PAGE 474

474

PAGE 475

475

PAGE 476

476

PAGE 477

477

PAGE 478

478

PAGE 479

479

PAGE 480

480

PAGE 481

481

PAGE 482

482

PAGE 483

483

PAGE 484

484

PAGE 485

485

PAGE 486

486

PAGE 487

487

PAGE 488

488

PAGE 489

489

PAGE 490

490 < .0001 .025 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .006 < .0001 < .0001 < .0 001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .012 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .005 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .013 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .003 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .000 1 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .051 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .034 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .040 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .005 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .034 < .0001 < .0 001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .047 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .050 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .004 < .0001 < .0001 < 0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001

PAGE 491

491

PAGE 492

492 < .0001 .010 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .030 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .030 < .0001 < .0001 .001 .017 < .0001 .015 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .041 < .0001 < .0001 .004 < .0001 .002 < .0001 < .0001 .016 .002 < .0001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 .029 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .002 < .0001 .034 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 < 0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .015 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0 001 < .0001 .002 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .014 < .0001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .034 .008 .027 .007 < .0001 .002 < .0001 .020 < .0001 < .0001 .004 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .011 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .005 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .022 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .029 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001

PAGE 493

493

PAGE 494

494

PAGE 495

495 < .0001 .003 .011 < .0001 .030 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .010 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .049 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .004 < .0001 .007 .013 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 .001 < .0001 .001 .002 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .013 < .0001 .045 .001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .018 .015 < .000 1 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .019 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 .003 < .0001 .017 .001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 .046 .008 < .0001 .006 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 .004 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 .013 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .007 .013 < .000 1 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 .003 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .039 .012 < .0001 .048 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .023 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 .005 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001

PAGE 496

496

PAGE 497

497 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .003 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .00 01 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .014 .002 .020 < .0001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 .000 .001 < .0001 < .0001 .026 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .004 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .037 < .0001 < .0001 .017 < .0001 .029 < .0001 .003 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .043 .003 < .000 1 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .005 .036 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 .019 .016 .010 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < 0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .040 .004 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .044 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .049

PAGE 498

498 < .0001 .002 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .003 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .043 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .002 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .018 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .020 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001

PAGE 499

499

PAGE 500

500

PAGE 501

501

PAGE 502

502

PAGE 503

503 < .000 1 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .005 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0 001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .036 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 .018 .002 < .0001 < .0001 .004 < .0001 .044 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .016 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .043 < .0001 .002 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .006 < .0001 .028 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .008 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001

PAGE 504

504

PAGE 505

505

PAGE 506

506 < .0001 < .0001 .041 < .0001 < .0 001 < .0001 .047 .050 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .012 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .027 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .0 00 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .003 .001 .006 .009 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 .020 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .019 < .0001 < .0001 .001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .028 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .002 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .041 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .031 .003 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .007 < .0001 < .0001 .001 .001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .002 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .00 4 .001 .020 .029 .036 .006 .000 .037 .004 < .0001 .006 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .01 7 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .014 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .004 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .003 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001

PAGE 507

507 < .0001 < .0001 .001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .008 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 .01 7 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .004 .021 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 .036 .001 .011 .007 .032 < .0001 .000 < .0001 .014 .002 < .0001 .001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 .008 < .0001 .000 .018 < .0001 .002 < .0001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 < .0001 .000 .000 .016 .000 < .0001 .002 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 .021 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 .005 .032 .032 .028 .017 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .009 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .039 .033 < .0001 .013 .002 .003 < .0001 .018 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001

PAGE 508

508

PAGE 509

509

PAGE 510

510

PAGE 511

511

PAGE 512

512

PAGE 513

513

PAGE 514

514

PAGE 515

515

PAGE 516

516 Objectives of the Discriminant Analysis

PAGE 517

517

PAGE 518

518

PAGE 519

519

PAGE 520

520 Discriminant Analysis I

PAGE 521

521 Sample Size

PAGE 522

522

PAGE 523

523

PAGE 524

524

PAGE 525

525 Assumptions of Discriminant Analysis Multivariate normality:

PAGE 526

526 Equality of covariance matrices: Multicolinearity:

PAGE 527

527

PAGE 528

528 Results Comparison of M ethods

PAGE 529

529

PAGE 530

530

PAGE 531

531

PAGE 532

532

PAGE 533

533

PAGE 534

534 Validation Accuracy:

PAGE 535

535 Precision:

PAGE 536

536 Missing data and sample size:

PAGE 537

537

PAGE 538

538 Assessment Mahalanobis distances:

PAGE 539

539 Wilks Lambda: Goodness of fit:

PAGE 540

540 Interpretation r

PAGE 541

541 r

PAGE 542

542 r r r r r r r r

PAGE 543

543 Function 1: r

PAGE 544

544 Function 2: r r Function 3: r

PAGE 545

545 r Function 4: r

PAGE 546

546 r Function 5: r r Variable Ranking r

PAGE 547

547 r r Rotation statistics: r r r r r r

PAGE 548

548 Potency index: r

PAGE 549

549 r r r Partial stepwise analysis:

PAGE 550

550 r Leave one variable out:

PAGE 551

551

PAGE 552

552 Two Group Discriminant A nalyses r

PAGE 553

553 r r

PAGE 554

554

PAGE 555

555

PAGE 556

556 r r r r r

PAGE 557

557 Variable Deletion

PAGE 558

558

PAGE 559

559 r r

PAGE 560

560

PAGE 561

561 r

PAGE 562

562

PAGE 563

563

PAGE 564

564 Discriminant Analysis II Historic Middens

PAGE 565

565

PAGE 566

566 r

PAGE 567

567 r

PAGE 568

568 r r r r r

PAGE 569

569 Discriminant Analysis III Fallow Areas

PAGE 570

570 r

PAGE 571

571 r r r r

PAGE 572

572 r

PAGE 573

573 r Discriminant Analysis IV Plaza Zones

PAGE 574

574 r

PAGE 575

575 r r r r

PAGE 576

576

PAGE 577

577

PAGE 578

578 -5 0 5 10 -10 -5 0 5 10

PAGE 579

579 Observations (axes F1 and F2: 79.56 %) Fallow Area 1 Fire hearth Manioc processing Mid-plaza -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 -6-4-202468 F1 (56.37 %) F2 (23.20 % 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 0 20 40 60 80 100

PAGE 580

580 pH OC Al Ba Ca Co Cr Cu Fe K Mg Mn Na Ni P Pb Sr Ti V Zn -1 -0.75 -0.5 -0.25 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 -1-0.75-0.5-0.2500.250.50.751 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 -6-4-202468

PAGE 581

581 pH OC Al Ba Ca Co Cr Cu Fe K Mg Mn Na Ni P Pb Sr Ti V Zn -1 -0.75 -0.5 -0.25 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 -1-0.75-0.5-0.2500.250.50.751 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 -5-4-3-2-10123456

PAGE 582

582 pH OC Al Ba Ca Co Cr Cu Fe K Mg Mn Na Ni P Pb Sr Ti V Zn -1 -0.75 -0.5 -0.25 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 -1-0.75-0.5-0.2500.250.50.751 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 -5-4-3-2-10123456

PAGE 583

583 Zn V Ti Sr Pb P Ni Na Mn Mg K Fe Cu Cr Co Ca Ba Al OC pH -1 -0.75 -0.5 -0.25 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 -1-0.75-0.5-0.2500.250.50.751

PAGE 584

584

PAGE 585

585

PAGE 586

586 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 -10-50 51015 pH C Al Ba Ca Co Cr Cu Fe K Mg Mn Na Ni P Pb Sr Ti V Zn -1 -0.75 -0.5 -0.25 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 -1-0.75-0.5-0.2500.250.50.751

PAGE 587

587 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 8 -10-8-6-4-20246810 Zn V Ti Sr Pb P Ni Na Mn Mg K Fe Cu Cr Co Ca Ba Al OC pH -1 -0.75 -0.5 -0.25 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 -1-0.75-0.5-0.2500.250.50.751

PAGE 588

588

PAGE 589

589 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 -5-4-3-2-10123456 pH C Al Ba Ca Co Cr Cu Fe K Mg Mn Na Ni P Pb Sr Ti V Zn -1 -0.75 -0.5 -0.25 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 -1-0.75-0.5-0.2500.250.50.751

PAGE 590

590

PAGE 591

591

PAGE 592

592 .009 .039 .0497 .013 .011 .025 .018 .023 .038 < .0001 .000 < .0001 < .0001 .007 .010 .009 .001 < .0001 < .0001 .043 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .003 .007 .016 .020 < .0001 .025 .046 .026

PAGE 593

593 .005 .065 .014 .010 .074 .037 .013 .040 .000 .021 .009 .005 < .0001 < .0001 .049 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .013 < .0001

PAGE 594

594 .033 .001 < .0001 .013 .002 .000 < .0001 < .0001 .001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .024 .002 < .0001 .000 < .0001 .006 .003 .009 .012 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .642 < .0001 < .0001 .049 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .044 .012 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .002 .040 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .048 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .002 < .0001 .018 .000 .040 < .0001 < .0001 .005 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .002 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 .040 < .0001 .003 < .0001 < .0001 .022 .043 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .005 < .0001 < .0 001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 .009 < .0001 < .0001 .003 .001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .003 < .0001

PAGE 595

595

PAGE 596

596 1 .58 .64 .78 1 1 .72 .58 1 .70 .62 .64 .70 1 .65 1 1 .53 1 .72 .53 1 .78 .62 .65 1 .60 .60 .64 .60 .61 .54 .59 .51 .60 .52 .52 .56 .52 .54 .53 .56 .71 .71 .79 .54 .90 .69 .60 .52 .60 .60 .71 .79 .59 .54 .60 .52 .69 .52 .54 .61 .56 .53 .71 .90 .64 .54 .51 .56 1 .68 .66 .65 .68 1 .82 .75 1 1 .66 .82 1 .54 1 .65 .75 .54 1 1 .81 .81 1 1

PAGE 597

597

PAGE 598

598 Total 92.2 86.9 89.5 89.4 89.5 89.8

PAGE 599

599

PAGE 600

600

PAGE 601

601 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.00 01 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 0.03

PAGE 602

602 Total 89.0 83.1 94.1 11.0

PAGE 603

603 Total 89.0 78.8 95.8 16.9

PAGE 604

604 16 11 35 22

PAGE 605

605 1.62 2.63 1.72 6.36 1.88 1.34 1.17 1.37 3.0 4 3.70

PAGE 606

606 2.99 1.56 1.51 6.72 1.87 1.06 2.90 4.28 1.57 1.54 1.52 0.67 0.59 0.43 0.42 0.27 0.17 0.42 0.42 0.14 1.99 1.00 1.00 0.59 0.44 0.66 2.77 1.65 1.10 0.62 0.32 0.28 2 Bold

PAGE 607

607 r 0.73 0.62 0.57 0.50 0.26 0.82 0.71 0.70 0.69 0.67 0.66 0.63 0.61 0.58 0.57 0.37 0.34 0.14 0.70 0.33 2 Bold

PAGE 608

608 1.717 .780 .562 .506 .418 .165 .165 .278 1.923 .954 .560 1.221 .621 .578 .439 .343 1.821 1.116 .531 .360 2 Bold

PAGE 609

609 r .239 .632 .589 .514 .508 .495 .453 .395 .360 .350 .206 .194 .486 .366 .315 .073 .532 .265 .522 .254 2 Bold

PAGE 610

610 3.20 2.61 5.53 2.71 2.70 1.18 1.20 2.36 4.16 1.93 2.634 2.340 .994 .505 .381 .138 1.259 .622 .655 .291 .265 .220 1.846 1.073 .800 .743 .638 .18 9 .648 .636

PAGE 611

611 r .540 .504 .468 .343 .634 .632 .556 .475 .413 .402 .401 .396 .225 .218 .649 .189 .782 .710 .224 .095 1 2 Bold

PAGE 612

612 r r

PAGE 613

613

PAGE 614

614

PAGE 615

615 78.72 88.61 95.65 76.60 95.65 87.34 78.72 88.61 92.31 88.61 95.65 95.65 95.65 93.18 88.6 1 93. 18 87.23 88.61 87.23 87.23 93.18 87.23 93.18 93.18 93.18 87.23 97.73

PAGE 616

616 80.0 63.0 79.5 79.5 93.7 80.0 98.7 98.0 72.3 95.3

PAGE 617

617

PAGE 618

618 r r r r r r 0.92 0.89 0.79 0.87 0.96 0.84 0.88 0.79 0.83 0.80 0.82 0.86 0.78 0.72 0.79 0.72 0.77 0.78 0.59 0.79 0.56 0.74 0.75 0.57 0.79 0.53 0.72 0.58 0.56 0.66 0.51 0.68 0.53 0.54 0.64 0.51 0.60 0.48 0.51 0.64 0.47 0.54 0.44 0.50 0.63 0.46 0.54 0.42 0.49 0.62 0.46 0.47 0.44 0.60 0.41 0.52 0.41 0.52 0.48 0.47 0.44

PAGE 619

619 r r r r r 0.92 0.81 0.89 0.95 0.90 0.79 0.67 0.80 0.87 0.67 0.64 0.79 0.85 0.60 0.62 0.74 0.84 0.56 0.55 0.70 0.62 0.54 0.54 0.69 0.61 0.54 0.51 0.68 0.59 0.49 0.42 0.66 0.47 0.44 0.64 0.47 0.42 0.64 0.43 0.42 0.63 0.42 0.41 0.63 0.62 0.60 0.53 0.52 0.46 0.43

PAGE 620

620 r r r r 0.85 0.84 0.93 0.78 0.78 0.84 0.75 0.60 0.82 0.72 0.58 0.80 0.71 0 .56 0.79 0.56 0.55 0.74 0.56 0.52 0.69 0.47 0.50 0.66 0.44 0.46 0.66 0.42 0.65 0.64 0.64 0.62 0.61 0.54

PAGE 621

621 r r r 0.66 0.82 0.54 0.78 0.53 0.75 0.51 0.70 0.49 0.70 0.42 0.66 0.66 0.64 0.64 0.62 0.46 0.46 0.44

PAGE 622

622 r r 0.86 0.80 0.76 0.71 0.69 0.68 0.67 0.63 0.63 0.63 0.56 0.50 0.41 0.40

PAGE 623

623 Total 92.0 94.9 94.8 94.3 92.7 92.7 91.2 91.1 90.3 88.8

PAGE 624

624 Total 88.6 88.6 86.3 83 .9 83.8 82.2 79.9 75.7 71.8 49.3

PAGE 625

625 Total 89.0 93.7 93.0 91.7 91.2 89.0 88.9 87.3 81.3 78.8 74.5

PAGE 626

626 Total 93.0 89.0 96.6 7.6

PAGE 627

627 Total 87.3 80.5 94.1 13.6

PAGE 628

628 Total 88.9 80.5 94.1 13.6

PAGE 629

629 93.7 87.3 98.3 1 1.0

PAGE 630

630

PAGE 631

631 Total 91.2 83.9 97.5 13.6

PAGE 632

632 Total 89.9 83.1 96.6 13.6

PAGE 633

633 Total 81.3 74.6 87.3 12.7

PAGE 634

634 Total 78.8 72.0 89.0 16.9

PAGE 635

635 Total 74.5 62.7 83.1 20.3

PAGE 636

636

PAGE 637

637 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 .000 .000 .001 .015

PAGE 638

638 r r 0.77 0.87 0.65 0.64 0.61 0.45 0.46 0.44 0.41 0.44 1.20 0.57 0.93 0.42 1.71 0.55 0.61 5.58 1.44 1.14 4.97 2.24 1.78 2.19 1.34

PAGE 639

639 r 0.96 0.66 0.65 0.64 0.63 0.63 0.62 0.62 0.42 0.58 0.57 0.56 0.43 0.47 0.45 0.46 0.43 0.45 0.44 0.42 0.48 0.49 0.68 0.51

PAGE 640

640 1.10 0.78 0.46 0.47 0.57 0.7 8 1.46 0.45 1.55 1.94 0.41 0.57 0.56 0.39 0.62 0.79 0.78 1.18 0.52 0.56 0.41 1.54 1.11 1.53 0.43 0.39 0.59 0.42 0.72 0.77 0.54 0.76 1.02 0.49 0.72 0.92 4.08 1.72 2.84 1.51 2.70 1.27

PAGE 641

641 r 0.95 0.73 0.67 0.67 0.44 0.66 0.66 0.65 0.65 0.60 0.40 0.39 0.59 0.58 0.49 0.57 0.56 0.54 0.54 0.41 0.40

PAGE 642

642 1.10 0.94 1.87 0.76 1.55 2.24 0.74 0.57 1.36 0.60 0.93 0.44 0.66 1.44 0.63 0.59 0.84 0.40 0.41 0.76 0.42 0.91 0.46 0.40 0.68 1.17 0.57 0.83

PAGE 643

643

PAGE 644

644 Three groups 80.3 Four groups 71.8 Five groups 94.6 Six groups 79.6 Linear (3 groups) 98.8 Linear (4 groups) 97.8

PAGE 645

645 r 0.91 0.82 0.80 0.77 0.76 0.70 0.64 0.50 0.53 0.51 0.51 0.47 0.63 0.42 0.44 0.44 0.48 0.81 0.80 0.88 4.69 0.95 4.35 1.91 0.98 0.71 0.65 0.51 0.53 0.46 0.55 0.45 0.82 0.86 0.43 1.49 0.61

PAGE 646

646 r r 0.92 0.88 0.42 0.85 0.85 0.83 0.79 0.40 0.78 0.73 0.72 1.23 0.69 3.17 0.61 0.60 0.59 0.82 3.85

PAGE 647

647 r r 0.89 7.55 0.87 1.19 0.84 0.87 0.83 0.72 0.79 1.42 0.74 0.73 1.86 0.73 0.46 0.71 8.16 0.62 0.53 1.13 0.51 2.09 0.49 0.48 1.23 1.32 0.84 0.77 0.83

PAGE 648

648 r r 0.98 0.82 0.86 1.40 0.85 0.76 0.72 0.67 0.86 0.67 1.67 0.67 0.59 1.25 0.56 0.56 0.50 0.48 0.50 1.55 0.46 0.77 0.58 0.43 5.31 1.73 2.59 2.15 1.42 1.00 1.12 1.39 3.16 2.59 1.67

PAGE 649

649 r 0.96 0.75 0.70 0.70 0.69 0.68 0.66 0.63 0.62 0.59 0.59 0.54 0.44 0.53 0.41 0.47 0.47 0.42 0.63 0.41 0.40 0.56 0.43

PAGE 650

650

PAGE 651

651 89.3 88.6 96.1 95.6

PAGE 652

652 r 0.59 0.57 0.52 0.48 0.62 0.42 0.65 0.59 1.25 0.82 1.24 0.99 1.06 0.82 0.53 0.72 0.71 0.53 0.40 0.45 0.41 1.08 0.60 0.51

PAGE 653

653 r r 0.62 1.75 0.62 0.59 0.49 0.60 0.40 1.27 0.56

PAGE 654

654 r r 0.66 0.62 1.37 0.49 0.47 0.45 1.30 0.45 0.41 0.47 0.68 0.75 0.44 0.99 1.01

PAGE 655

655 r r 0.62 1.29 0.61 0.49 1 .15 0.41 0.67 0.40 1.53 1.94 0.88 0.42 0.49 0. 48

PAGE 656

656 Description of Prehistoric Sites

PAGE 657

657

PAGE 658

658

PAGE 659

659

PAGE 660

660

PAGE 661

661

PAGE 662

662 Depopulation and Settlement Abandonment

PAGE 663

663

PAGE 664

664 Landscape Capital egepe egiho Fitsifitsi gepg

PAGE 665

6 65 Hymeneae

PAGE 666

666 chacaras

PAGE 667

667

PAGE 668

668 Nokugu (MT FX -6)

PAGE 669

669

PAGE 670

670

PAGE 671

671

PAGE 672

672

PAGE 673

673

PAGE 674

674

PAGE 675

675 Noku gu Soil Results

PAGE 676

676

PAGE 677

677 Bloc k excavation:

PAGE 678

678 Domestic area:

PAGE 679

679

PAGE 680

680 Features:

PAGE 681

681

PAGE 682

682

PAGE 683

683

PAGE 684

684 Middens:

PAGE 685

685

PAGE 686

686

PAGE 687

687

PAGE 688

688

PAGE 689

689

PAGE 690

690

PAGE 691

691

PAGE 692

692

PAGE 693

693

PAGE 694

694 Plaza curb mound column samples:

PAGE 695

695 Discriminant Analysis V

PAGE 696

696

PAGE 697

697

PAGE 698

698 r r

PAGE 699

699

PAGE 700

700 r r

PAGE 701

701 r r r r r r r

PAGE 702

702 r r r r r

PAGE 703

703 r r r

PAGE 704

704 Test pits:

PAGE 705

705

PAGE 706

706

PAGE 707

707

PAGE 708

708 FX -13)

PAGE 709

709

PAGE 710

710 Mauritia

PAGE 711

711

PAGE 712

712

PAGE 713

713

PAGE 714

714

PAGE 715

715

PAGE 716

716 FX -18) chacras

PAGE 717

717 Gynerium sagitt atum Mauritius flexuosa buritizal Mauritia flexuosa

PAGE 718

718 Mauritia Mauritia

PAGE 719

719

PAGE 720

720

PAGE 721

721

PAGE 722

722

PAGE 723

723

PAGE 724

724 Predicting Group Membership of Select Samples

PAGE 725

725

PAGE 726

726

PAGE 727

727

PAGE 728

728 Discriminant Analysis VI

PAGE 729

729

PAGE 730

730 r r r

PAGE 731

731 r r r r r

PAGE 732

732

PAGE 733

733

PAGE 734

734

PAGE 735

735

PAGE 736

736

PAGE 737

737

PAGE 738

738

PAGE 739

739

PAGE 740

740

PAGE 741

741

PAGE 742

742

PAGE 743

743 Mauritia flexuosa

PAGE 744

744

PAGE 745

745

PAGE 746

746

PAGE 747

747

PAGE 748

748

PAGE 749

749

PAGE 750

750

PAGE 751

751

PAGE 752

752

PAGE 753

753

PAGE 754

754

PAGE 755

755

PAGE 756

756

PAGE 757

757

PAGE 758

758

PAGE 759

759

PAGE 760

760

PAGE 761

761

PAGE 762

762

PAGE 763

763

PAGE 764

764

PAGE 765

765

PAGE 766

766

PAGE 767

767

PAGE 768

768

PAGE 769

769

PAGE 770

770

PAGE 771

771

PAGE 772

772

PAGE 773

773 -10 -5 0 5 10 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 pH OC Al Ba Ca Co Cr Cu Fe K Mg Mn Na Ni P Pb Sr Ti V Zn -1 -0.75 -0.5 -0.25 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 -1-0.75-0.5-0.2500.250.50.751

PAGE 774

774 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 -8-6-4-202468 pH OC Ba Ca Mg Mn P Sr -1 -0.75 -0.5 -0.25 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 -1-0.75-0.5-0.2500.250.50.751

PAGE 775

775

PAGE 776

776

PAGE 777

777

PAGE 778

778

PAGE 779

779

PAGE 780

780

PAGE 781

781

PAGE 782

782

PAGE 783

783

PAGE 784

784 # 0 0.5 1Kilometers N

PAGE 785

785 egepe Flecha Gynerium sagittatum Mauritia flexuosa

PAGE 786

786

PAGE 787

787

PAGE 788

788

PAGE 789

789

PAGE 790

790

PAGE 791

791

PAGE 792

792

PAGE 793

793

PAGE 794

794

PAGE 795

795

PAGE 796

796 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 -3-2-101234567 pH OC Ba Ca Mg Mn P Sr -1 -0.75 -0.5 -0.25 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 -1-0.75-0.5-0.2500.250.50.751

PAGE 797

797

PAGE 798

798 .002 < .0001 .022 < .0001 < .0001 .013 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001

PAGE 799

799 .022 .004 < .0001 < .0001 .017 < .0001 .027 .019 < .0001

PAGE 800

800

PAGE 801

801 .004 .007 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 .002 < .0001 < .0001 .003 .022 .043

PAGE 802

802

PAGE 803

803

PAGE 804

804

PAGE 805

805

PAGE 806

806

PAGE 807

807 < 0. 0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 0.00 0.00 0.02

PAGE 808

808 96.2 97.8 98.3 97.5 99.2

PAGE 809

809 r 0.90 0.89 0.87 0.83 0.74 0.62 0.58 0.55 0.70 0.75 0.69 0.73 0.64 0.49 0.67 1.79 1.47 1.95 1.15 0.90 0.97 0.56 0.92 0.72 0.69 0.64 0.50 0.55 0.61 0.47 1.75 0.46 0.57 0.66

PAGE 810

810 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 0.00 1.51 2.71 2.47 0.86 r 0.71 0.47 0.59 0.62 0.48 0.51 0.46 0.56 0.44 0.62 0.43 0.41 0.51

PAGE 811

811 2.73 0.97 1.53 2.46 0.95 0.40 0.44 1.59 0.41 0.68 r r 0.82 0.79 2.37 0.71 0.57 0.69 0.59 0.68 0.96 0.53 0.52 1.34 1.1 4 r r 0.83 1.22 0.65 0.72 0.53 0.70 0.45 0.42 0.42 0.61 0.47 1.33 r r 0.74 2.86 0.68 0.55 0.98 0.48 0.48 0.46 1.75

PAGE 812

812 r r 0.97 1.11 0.95 1.68 0.86 0.80 0.61 0.80 2.42 0.73 2.23 0.68 0.53 1.11 r r 0.85 0.83 0.45 0.77 0.50 0.71 0.69 2.19 2.76 r r 0.71 0.79 0.59 0.48 0.48 0.44 0.43 0.40 1.14 0.98 0.44

PAGE 813

813 .036 .000 < .0001 .003 < .0001 .001 <.0001 .003 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .002 .001 < .0001

PAGE 814

814 .005 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 .000 .003 < .0001 .0 04 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 .006 < .0001

PAGE 815

815

PAGE 816

816

PAGE 817

817 .003 .001 .000 < .0001 < .0001 .048

PAGE 818

818 .025 .006 < .0001 < .0001 .011 .001 .021 .000 .010 .000 .000 < .0001 .028 .018

PAGE 819

819 89.1 97.5 86.1 88.9 2.84 0.82 1.49 0.80 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 0.000 0.040

PAGE 820

820 r 0.88 0.84 0.75 0.71 0.70 0.44 0.50 0.43 1.17 1.22 1.02 0.57 0.86 0.65 2.09 0.57 0.65 1.87 1.07 r r 0.87 0.83 0.82 0.73 1.17 0.73 0.67 0.55 0.41 1.55 r r 0.86 0.87 0.61 0.62 0.49 0.43 0.45 0.83

PAGE 821

821 r r 0.86 1.05 0.79 0.72 0.87 0.63 0.98 0.61 0.40 1.02 0.66

PAGE 822

822 The Refuse Cycle and the Creation of Enriched Soil

PAGE 823

823

PAGE 824

824

PAGE 825

825

PAGE 826

826

PAGE 827

827 Middens as the Center of Terra Preta Production

PAGE 828

828

PAGE 829

829

PAGE 830

830

PAGE 831

831

PAGE 832

832

PAGE 833

833

PAGE 834

834

PAGE 835

835

PAGE 836

836

PAGE 837

837

PAGE 838

838 The Cultivation Context

PAGE 839

839

PAGE 840

840

PAGE 841

841

PAGE 842

842 Crescentia cujete Caryocar brasiliense Malpighia glabra Myrciaria cauliflora Hancornia speciosa Acrocomia sclerocarpa

PAGE 843

843

PAGE 844

844 v arze

PAGE 845

845

PAGE 846

846 habitation Cultivation in prehistoric sites:

PAGE 847

847

PAGE 848

848

PAGE 849

849 The Domestic Context

PAGE 850

850

PAGE 851

851 Public Areas: Roads and Plazas

PAGE 852

852

PAGE 853

853 Cha nges Over Time to Anthrosols

PAGE 854

854

PAGE 855

855 Patterns of Anthrosol Formation in Prehistoric Sites

PAGE 856

856

PAGE 857

857

PAGE 858

858

PAGE 859

859

PAGE 860

860

PAGE 861

861

PAGE 862

862

PAGE 863

863 The Humanized Inter -Village Landscape

PAGE 864

864

PAGE 865

865 Bixa orellana

PAGE 866

866

PAGE 867

867

PAGE 868

868 can Caryocar brasiliense

PAGE 869

869 itsuni Mauritia flexuosa

PAGE 870

870 A Model for Terra Preta Formation

PAGE 871

871

PAGE 872

872 Caryocar brasiliense

PAGE 873

873 per se

PAGE 874

874

PAGE 875

875

PAGE 876

876

PAGE 877

877

PAGE 878

878

PAGE 879

879

PAGE 880

880

PAGE 881

881

PAGE 882

882

PAGE 883

883

PAGE 884

884 Implications for Interpreting Archaeological Soil Data Variation:

PAGE 885

885 Classification of groups of soil samples using discriminant analysis:

PAGE 886

886 Variable ordering:

PAGE 887

887

PAGE 888

888 Soil signatures:

PAGE 889

889 Further remarks:

PAGE 890

890

PAGE 891

891 Implications for Classifying Anthrosols

PAGE 892

892 terra escura terra preta te rra mulata Archeo -anthrosols archaeo-anthropedogenic horizon

PAGE 893

893

PAGE 894

894

PAGE 895

895

PAGE 896

896

PAGE 897

897

PAGE 898

898

PAGE 899

899

PAGE 900

900 Implications for the Stone Axe Hypothesis

PAGE 901

901

PAGE 902

902

PAGE 903

903

PAGE 904

904

PAGE 905

905

PAGE 906

906 The Southern Amazon and Beyond

PAGE 907

907

PAGE 908

908

PAGE 909

909

PAGE 910

910 Central Amazon Project

PAGE 911

911

PAGE 912

912

PAGE 913

913 Trombetas Project

PAGE 914

914

PAGE 915

915

PAGE 916

916

PAGE 917

917

PAGE 918

918 Further Research

PAGE 919

919

PAGE 920

920

PAGE 921

9 21

PAGE 922

922

PAGE 923

923

PAGE 924

924

PAGE 925

925

PAGE 926

926 Significance

PAGE 927

927

PAGE 928

928

PAGE 929

929 Conclusion

PAGE 930

930

PAGE 931

931

PAGE 932

932

PAGE 933

933

PAGE 934

934 Middens Houses 04080120160200240280320360Meters NKuikuro Village

PAGE 935

935

PAGE 936

936

PAGE 937

937

PAGE 938

938

PAGE 939

939

PAGE 940

940

PAGE 941

941

PAGE 942

942

PAGE 943

943

PAGE 944

944

PAGE 945

945

PAGE 946

946

PAGE 947

947 < .0001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .00 01 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001

PAGE 948

948 < .0001 < .0001 .00 0 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .000 1

PAGE 949

949 .00 1 .0 1 8 < .0001 .00 0 .023 < .049 .036 < .0001 < .0001 0.013

PAGE 950

950 < .0001 .001 .013 .047 < .0001 .022 .004 .000 .046

PAGE 951

951 .005 .001 .002 < .00 01 < .0001 .049 .001

PAGE 952

952 < .0 001 < .0001 < .0001 .038 .001 .000 .000 .000 .006 < .0001 .000 .001

PAGE 953

953 .054 .011 .002 .000 .020 < .0001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 .023 .017 .001 .001

PAGE 954

954 .032 .005 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .047 .001 .004 .016 .005 .011 .001

PAGE 955

955 .001 .000 < .0001 .037 .007 .002 .002 .023 .005 .001 002 .008 < .0001 .003

PAGE 956

956 .000 < .0001 .005 < .0001 .001 .032 .001 < .0001 .000 .000 < .0001

PAGE 957

957 .030 .000 .026 .001 .001 .000 .002 011 .002

PAGE 958

958 .005 < .0001 .013 .017 .003 .009 .001 < .00 01 .026

PAGE 959

959 < .0001 .007 < .0001 < .0001 .007 .010 .001 .006 .002 < .0001

PAGE 960

960 .005 .000 .012 < .0001 .024 .031 .006 .009 .003 .042 .008

PAGE 961

961 .0 03 < .0001 .009 .025 .043 .005

PAGE 962

962 .006 < .0001 < .0001 .012 .001 .010 .005 .002

PAGE 963

963 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .00 01 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .010 .002 < .0001 < .0001 .0 20 .001

PAGE 964

964 .022 .049 < .0001 < .0001 .038 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .00 01 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001

PAGE 965

965 .022 < .0001 .000 .046 < .0001 < .0001 .002 .002 .000 .001 .001 < .0001 < .0001 .026

PAGE 966

966 .026 .001 < .0001 .007 .001 .002 .035 .018 < .0001 < .0001 .005 .004 < .0001 .003 .001

PAGE 967

967 .018 .044 < .0001 .002 .008 < .0001 .008 .005 < .0001 .008 < .0001

PAGE 968

968 .014 .010 .042 < .0001 .006 .020 .006 < .0001 .004 .012

PAGE 969

969 .046 .001 < .0001 .001 .041 .009 .043 < .0001 .002 .000 < .0001 .043 < .0001

PAGE 970

970 .000 .001 .001 .001 .000 < .0001 .005 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .002 .0 00 .021 .004 .049 < .0001

PAGE 971

971 < .0001 < .0001 .045 .002 .002 < .0001 .001 < .0001 .036 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .002 .001 .000 .0 33 < .0001

PAGE 972

972 .019 .045 < .0001 .049 .004 .001 .022

PAGE 973

973

PAGE 974

974 .007 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .022 < .0001 .018 < .0001 .004 .001 < .0001

PAGE 975

975 .000 < .0001 .000 < .0001 .031 < .0001 < .0001 .043 .001 < .0001

PAGE 976

976

PAGE 977

977

PAGE 978

978

PAGE 979

979

PAGE 980

980 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001

PAGE 981

981 .003 .052 .019 .020 < .0001 < .0001 .049 .000 .046 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .025

PAGE 982

982 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .002 .002 .021 < .0001 .000 .000 .015 < .0001 .001 < .0001

PAGE 983

983 .003 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 < .0001 .004 < .0001 .009 < .0001 < .0001

PAGE 984

984

PAGE 985

985 < .0001 < .0001 .027 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < 0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001

PAGE 986

986 < .0001 < .0001 .001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001

PAGE 987

987 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .028 < .0001 < .0001

PAGE 988

988 < .0001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 0.012 .000 < .0001 .017 < .0001 < .0001

PAGE 989

989 < .0001 .000 < .0001 < .0001 .005 < .0001 .010 .016

PAGE 990

990 .006 .000 .001 .014 .000 .000 .001 .004 < .0001 .035 < .0001 < .0001 .004 .006 < .0001 Bold

PAGE 991

991 .008 .005 .001 < .0001 .022 < .0001 .007 < .0001 < .0001 .019 < .0001 .013 < .0001 < .0001 .002 < .0001 Bold

PAGE 992

992 .007 .006 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 .002 .005 .002 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 Bold

PAGE 993

993 .001 .002 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 0.004 0.008 < .0001 < .0001 .024 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .004 < .0001 Bold

PAGE 994

994 .000 .010 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .002 .046 < .0001 Bold

PAGE 995

995 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .01 0 .004 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .019 < .0001 Bold

PAGE 996

996 .003 .027 .007 .00 1 .013 .000 .001 .000 Bold

PAGE 997

997 .010 .000 < .0001 < .0001 .003 < .0001 .010 Bold

PAGE 998

998 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 Bold text

PAGE 999

999 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 Bold text

PAGE 1000

1000 <.0001 <.0001 .002 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 .006 <.0001 <.0001 Bold text

PAGE 1001

1001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 < .0001 .001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .002 .000 .008 .003 .002 .001 .001 < .0001 Bold text

PAGE 1002

1002 .008 .001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .003 .009 .014 Bold

PAGE 1003

1003 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 < .0001 Bold

PAGE 1004

1004 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 < .0001 Bold

PAGE 1005

1005 .013 < .0001 .000 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 < .0001 .019 Bold

PAGE 1006

1006 .001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .019 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .012 .030 Bold

PAGE 1007

1007 < .0001 .036 .002 .003 < .0001 < .0001 .006 < .0001 < .0001 .007 < .0001 .040 Bold

PAGE 1008

1008 .039 .001 .003 .004 .001 < .0001 .007 < .0001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 .005 Bold

PAGE 1009

1009 .030 .009 .043 < .0001 < .0001 .021 < .0001 .048 .001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .00 01 < .0001 < .0001 .000 .002 Bold

PAGE 1010

1010 .018 .018 .006 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 .000 < .0001 .002 Bold

PAGE 1011

1011 .016 .005 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .003 .002 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 .000 < .0001 .002 Bold

PAGE 1012

1012 .003 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .006 < .0001 .000 .018 Bold

PAGE 1013

1013 .019 .002 < .0001 .042 < .0001 .019 .001 < .000 1 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .008 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 Bold

PAGE 1014

1014 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 .002 .034 .000 .002 .001 .004 .003 Bold

PAGE 1015

1015 .012 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .016 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .002 .000 Bold

PAGE 1016

1016 .000 .000 < .0001 .000 .002 .034 .000 .002 .001 .004 .003 Bold

PAGE 1017

1017 .006 < .0001 .045 < .0001 .036 .015 .002 .000 .012 .001 .001 Bold

PAGE 1018

1018 .026 .000 .011 .000 < .0001 < .0001 .005 < .0001 .010 < .0001 .001 < .0001 .041 .001 Bold

PAGE 1019

1019 .000 .019 .036 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 .001 .010 .005 Bold

PAGE 1020

1020 .025 .001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0 001 .002 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 .037 < .0001 Bold

PAGE 1021

1021 < .0001 .003 < .0001 < .000 1 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .00 01 < .0001 < .0001 .001 .006 < .0001 Bold

PAGE 1022

1022 .009 .000 .041 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .008 .001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 .007 .000 .007 Bold

PAGE 1023

1023 .031 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .031 .008 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 .000 Bold

PAGE 1024

1024 .024 .033 .035 .003 .001 Bold

PAGE 1025

1025 .002 .000 .001 .006 .005 Bold

PAGE 1026

1026 < .0001 .001 .048 .014 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 .047 .016 < .0001 .001 < .0001 .002 < .0001 Bold text

PAGE 1027

1027 < .0001 .009 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .036 .001 .000 .008 < .0001 .003 < .0001 Bold text

PAGE 1028

1028 < .0001 .005 .029 .029 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 .008 .040 .005 .006 < .0001 Bold text

PAGE 1029

1029

PAGE 1030

1030

PAGE 1031

1031

PAGE 1032

1032

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1033

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1034

PAGE 1035

1035

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1036

PAGE 1037

1037

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1038

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1039

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1040

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1041

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1042

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1043

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1044

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1045

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1048

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1049

PAGE 1050

1050

PAGE 1051

1051 1 0.59 0.52 1 1 0.60 1 0.57 0.59 0.57 1 0.54 1 1 0.55 1 0.60 0.55 1 0.52 0.54 1 0.58 0.59 0.57 0.51 0.52 0.52 0.59 0.58 0.66 0.58 0. 78 0.58

PAGE 1052

1052 0.58 0.59 0.66 0.52 0.59 0.58 0.58 0.57 0.52 0.58 0.78 0.51 1 0.61 0.57 0.61 1 0.77 0.65 1 1 0.57 0.77 1 1 0.65 1 1 0.71 0.71 1 1

PAGE 1053

1053 1 0.59 1 1 0.60 1 0.80 0.80 1 1 1 0.54 1 0.60 0.54 1 0.59 1 0.58 0.59 0.82 0.54 0.51 0.82 0.81 0.68 0.82 0.83 0.92 0.62 0.60 0.62 0.57 0.85 0.54

PAGE 1054

1054 0.58 0.51 0.62 0.62 0.59 0.82 0.68 0.83 0.82 0.81 0.82 0.92 0.54 0.57 0.60 0.85 0.54 1 0.74 0.64 0.82 0.74 1 0.80 0.91 0.54 1 1 0.64 0.80 1 0.79 1 0.82 0.91 0.79 1 0.53 1 0.67 0.67 1 0.54 0.53 1

PAGE 1055

1055 1 0.61 0.57 1 1 0.61 1 0.60 0.61 0.60 1 0.52 1 1 0.55 1 0.61 0.55 1 0.57 0.52 1 0.60 0.65 0.55 0.52 0.52 0.53 0.61 0.58 0.68 0.54 0.80 0.59

PAGE 1056

1056 0.60 0.61 0.68 0.53 0.65 0.59 0.54 0.55 0.52 0.58 0.80 0.52 1 0.62 0.54 0.55 0.62 1 0.76 0.67 1 1 0.54 0.76 1 1 0.55 0.67 1 1 0.73 0.73 1 1

PAGE 1057

1057 1 0.61 1 1 0.65 1 0.82 0.82 1 1 1 1 0.65 1 0.61 1 0.57 0.59 0.80 0.57 0.76 0.78 0.72 0.81 0.82 0.91 0.64 0.63 0.68 0.83 0.52

PAGE 1058

1058 0.57 0.64 0.68 0.59 0.76 0.72 0.82 0.80 0.78 0.81 0.91 0.52 0.63 0.83 0.57 1 0.74 0.63 0.82 0.74 1 0.81 0.89 0.54 1 1 0.63 0.81 1 0.78 1 0.82 0.89 0.78 1 1 0.72 0.72 1 0.54 1

PAGE 1059

1059 1 0.52 1 1 0.60 1 0.54 0.52 0.54 1 0.53 1 1 0.55 1 0.60 0.55 1 0.53 1 0.52 0.58 0.52 0.56 0.57 0.64 0.63 0.77 0.58

PAGE 1060

1060 0.52 0.56 0.64 0.58 0.63 0.58 0.52 0.57 0.77 1 0.59 0.58 0.59 1 0.77 0.61 1 1 0.58 0.77 1 1 0.6 1 1 1 0.70 0.70 1 1

PAGE 1061

1061 1 0.55 1 0.54 0.52 1 0.55 0. 54 1 0.79 0.52 0.79 1 1 1 0.59 1 0.55 0.59 1 0.55 1 0.57 0.61 0.87 0.56 0.87 0.87 0.64 0.85 0.53 0.83 0.94 0 .59 0.57 0.56 0.64 0.86 0.59

PAGE 1062

1062 0.57 0.56 0.53 0.59 0.56 0.61 0.87 0.64 0.83 0.87 0.87 0.85 0.94 0.59 0.64 0.57 0.86 1 0.75 0.66 0.84 0.53 0.75 1 0.79 0.92 0.55 1 1 0.66 0.79 1 0.80 0.51 1 0.84 0.92 0.80 1 0.56 1 0.63 0.63 1 0.53 0 .55 0.51 0.56 1

PAGE 1063

1063 1 1 0.53 1 0.54 0.58 0.87 0.53 0.54 1 0.50 0.62 0.60 0.69 0.50 1 0.52 1 1 0.58 0.62 1 0.57 0.55 0.87 0.60 0.57 1 0.50 0.69 0.52 0.55 0.50 1 0.61 0.72 0.64 0.66 0.52 0.57 0.56 0.50 0.50 0.62 0.75 0.59 0.60 0.92 0.52 0.80 0.52 0.54

PAGE 1064

1064 0.61 0.50 0.75 0.52 0.72 0.57 0.59 0.80 0.50 0.64 0.60 0.66 0.62 0.92 0.52 0.52 0.56 0.54 1 0.53 0.53 1 0.52 0.69 1 1 1 1 1 0.52 1 0.74 0.69 0.74 1 0.51 0.51 1

PAGE 1065

1065 1 1 0.52 1 0.60 0.91 1 1 1 1 0.52 0.60 1 0.60 0.54 0.91 0.60 1 0.54 1 0.63 0.54 0.52 0.52 0.54 0.56 0.61 0.86 0.60 0.97 0.69 0.51

PAGE 1066

1066 0.52 0.54 0.86 0.63 0.69 0.56 0.54 0.52 0.60 0.61 0.97 0.51 1 0.66 0.66 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.70 0.70 1 1

PAGE 1067

1067 1 1 0.59 0.53 1 0.61 0.68 0.69 0.82 0.56 0.59 0.61 1 0.53 0.71 0.61 0.75 0.53 1 0.54 0.68 1 0.59 0.54 1 0.53 0.69 0.71 0.59 1 0.66 0.70 0.82 0.61 0.54 0.66 1 0.68 0.56 0.75 0.54 0.70 0.68 1 0.63 0.69 0.51 0.66 0.61 0.52 0.63 0.68 0.54 0.54 0.72 0.64 0.81 0.64 0.52 0.51 0.59 0.88 0.51 0.63 0.66 0.63 0.65 0.62

PAGE 1068

1068 0.63 0.63 0.64 0.64 0.63 0.69 0.68 0.52 0.54 0.66 0.51 0.51 0.63 0.66 0.54 0.59 0.61 0.81 0.88 0.65 0.52 0.72 0.51 0.62 1 0.57 0.57 1 0.54 0.54 0.63 1 1 0.54 1 1 1 0.54 1 0.93 0.63 0.93 1 0.53 0.53 1

PAGE 1069

1069 1 1 0.65 0.58 1 0.51 0.65 0.73 0.91 0.65 0.5 1 1 0.71 0.52 0.64 1 0.65 1 0.63 0.60 1 0.58 0.73 0.71 0.63 1 0.73 0.63 0.91 0.52 0.60 0.73 1 0.64 0.63 1 0.57 0.56 0.80 0.71 0.63 0.58 0.53 0.75 0.58 0.61 0.86 0.84 0.50 0.57 0.70 0.97 0.71 0.58 0.52 0.57

PAGE 1070

1070 0.71 0.75 0.84 0.56 0.63 0.50 0.57 0.80 0.71 0.58 0.57 0.58 0.58 0.61 0.70 0.86 0.97 0.52 0.53 0.57 1 0.72 0.72 1 0.59 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.90 0.90 1 0.51 0.59 0.51 1

PAGE 1071

1071 1 1 0.57 0.62 1 0.68 0.64 0.89 0.57 0.68 1 0.75 0.64 1 1 1 0.64 1 0.71 0.89 0.75 0.71 1 0.62 0.64 1 0.68 0.57 0.57 0.65 0.74 0.62 0.73 0.55 0.68 0.52 0.62 0.81 0.73 0.70 0.95 0.51 0.78 0.51

PAGE 1072

1072 0.68 0.65 0.68 0.81 0.57 0.74 0.52 0.73 0.78 0.62 0.70 0.51 0.57 0.73 0.62 0.95 0.55 0.51 1 0.54 1 0.52 0.74 1 0.55 1 0.52 1 0.68 0.54 0.54 1 1 0.55 1 0.53 0.74 0.68 0.53 1 0.54 1

PAGE 1073

1073 1 1 0.67 1 0.68 0.90 0.57 1 0.51 0.51 1 1 1 0.53 0.68 1 0.73 0.90 0.53 0.73 1 0.53 0.67 0.57 0.53 1 0.77 0.64 0.54 0.58 0.64 0.66 0.53 0.57 0.55 0.53 0.86 0.73 0.97 0.52 0.51 0.75 0.53

PAGE 1074

1074 0.77 0.58 0.57 0.86 0.51 0.75 0.53 0.64 0.73 0.64 0.66 0.55 0.97 0.54 0.53 0.52 0.53 1 0.53 0.52 0.59 0.53 1 0.64 1 0.52 1 1 0.63 0.52 1 1 0.52 1 0.53 0.59 0.64 0.63 0.53 1 1

PAGE 1075

1075 1 0.72 1 0.56 0.59 1 0.92 0.56 1 0.67 0.73 0.63 0.67 1 0.71 0.57 1 1 0.73 0.71 1 0.61 0.92 1 0.72 0.59 0.63 0.57 0.61 1 0.61 0.75 0.55 0.72 0.68 0.72 0.82 0.71 0.55 0.54 0.75 0.74 0.74 0.93 0.80 0.67 0.79 0.66 0.93 0.54 0.55 0.90 0.57 0.80 0.74 0.80 0.64

PAGE 1076

1076 0.61 0.57 0.79 0.93 0.68 0.54 0.74 0.80 0.75 0.72 0.75 0.93 0.74 0.55 0.54 0.55 0.55 0.82 0.74 0.80 0. 80 0.66 0.90 0.72 0.71 0.67 0.64 1 0.64 0.54 0.81 0.59 0.64 1 0.67 0.82 0.82 1 1 0.54 0.67 1 0.52 0.72 0.66 0.52 1 0.81 0.82 0.72 1 0.84 1 0.70 0.70 1 0.59 0.82 0.66 0.84 1

PAGE 1077

1077 1 0.58 1 0.57 0.53 0.62 1 0.88 0.57 1 0.73 0.53 0.58 0.53 0.73 1 0.54 0.73 1 1 0.53 0.54 1 0.88 1 0.58 0.62 0.58 0.73 1 0.55 0.77 0.54 0.88 0.73 0.65 0.82 0.66 0.60 0.52 0.64 0.92 0.67 0.83 0.83 0.67 0.77 0.54 0.65 0.91 0.59 0.62 0.67 0.58

PAGE 1078

1078 0.55 0.52 0.59 0.83 0.77 0.64 0.77 0.73 0.66 0.92 0.62 0.54 0.65 0.54 0.65 0.60 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.91 0.88 0.82 0.83 0.58 1 0.84 0.90 0.5 8 0.84 1 0.89 0.76 1 1 1 0.59 0.62 1 0.90 0.89 0.59 1 0.73 1 0.61 0.61 1 0.58 0.76 0.62 0.73 1

PAGE 1079

1079 1 0.72 1 0.58 1 0.91 1 0.69 0.54 0.58 0.69 1 0.64 0.64 1 0.53 0.53 1 0.54 0.64 1 0.51 0.91 1 0.72 0.58 0.58 0.64 0.51 1 0.62 0.69 0.73 0.59 0.67 0.84 0.67 0.54 0.57 0.62 0.72 0.90 0.71 0.70 0.69 0.51 0.56 0.92 0.58 0.88 0.80 0.79 0.76 0.64

PAGE 1080

1080 0.62 0.69 0.92 0.59 0.72 0.80 0.69 0.67 0.57 0.90 0.51 0.79 0.54 0.58 0.84 0.62 0.71 0.76 0.56 0.88 0.73 0.67 0.70 0.64 1 0.58 0.79 0.57 0.58 1 0.52 0.76 0.79 1 1 0.57 0.52 1 0.54 1 0.79 0.76 1 0.83 1 0.63 0.57 0.63 1 0.57 0.79 0.54 0.83 1

PAGE 1081

1081 1 0.62 1 0.58 0.59 1 0.81 0.58 1 0.81 0.52 0.81 1 0.63 0.73 1 1 0.56 0.63 1 0.58 0.81 0.56 1 0.62 0.59 0.52 0.73 0.58 1 0.58 0.71 0.58 0.89 0.67 0.82 0.78 0.60 0.68 0.64 0.6 3 0.91 0.74 0.85 0.75 0.54 0.67 0.79 0.90 0.52 0.67 0.84 0.69

PAGE 1082

1082 0.58 0.75 0.67 0.60 0.63 0.52 0.71 0.67 0.68 0.91 0.67 0.79 0.58 0.82 0.64 0.74 0.84 0.54 0.90 0.89 0.78 0.85 0.69 1 0.83 0.89 0.65 0.83 1 0.88 0.84 1 1 1 0.55 0.58 1 0.89 0.88 0.55 1 0.79 1 1 0.65 0.84 0.58 0.79 1

PAGE 1083

1083 1 0.69 1 0.64 0.51 0.65 0.59 1 0.55 0.91 0.64 1 0.66 0.87 0.73 0.51 0.66 1 0.78 0.50 0.55 1 1 0.65 0.87 0.78 1 0.69 0.91 1 0.69 0.59 0.73 0.50 0.69 1 0.55 0.53 0.76 0.61 0.68 0.61 0.71 0.76 0.82 0.66 0.59 0.55 0.63 0.86 0.84 0.57 0.55 0.52 0.79 0.93 0.85 0.60 0.85 0.55 0.74 0.91 0.67 0.89 0.71 0.78 0.72 0.86 0.64

PAGE 1084

1084 0.55 0.61 0.55 0.52 0.71 0.85 0.91 0. 53 0.71 0.63 0.79 0.78 0.76 0.76 0.86 0.57 0.93 0.72 0.59 0.55 0.67 0.61 0.82 0.8 4 0.55 0.85 0.86 0.74 0.89 0.68 0.66 0.60 0.64 1 0.61 0.62 0.50 0.76 0.59 0.61 1 0.80 0.80 0.85 1 1 0.62 0.80 1 0.65 0.86 0.75 0.50 0.65 1 0.76 0.80 0.86 1 0.83 1 0.76 0.76 1 0.59 0.85 0.75 0.83 1

PAGE 1085

1085 1 0.53 1 0.53 0.57 0.57 0.63 1 0.62 0.94 0.53 1 0.52 0.73 0.64 0.57 0.52 1 0.59 0.70 0.62 1 0.53 1 0.57 0.73 0.59 1 0.94 0.53 1 0.53 0.63 0.64 0.70 1 0.60 0.85 0.56 0.85 0.67 0.65 0.83 0.59 0.87 0.51 0.66 0.60 0.63 0.65 0.95 0.69 0.80 0.87 0.61 0.79 0.91 0.71 0.93 0.75 0.51 0.62 0.60

PAGE 1086

1086 0.60 0.67 0.63 0.75 0.87 0.91 0.65 0.65 0.51 0.85 0.83 0.66 0.95 0.62 0.51 0.61 0.71 0.56 0.59 0.60 0.69 0.60 0.79 0.93 0.85 0.87 0.80 1 0.85 0.90 0.53 0.85 1 0.92 0.71 1 1 1 0.59 0 .62 0.64 0.59 1 0.90 0.92 0.62 1 0.71 1 0.81 0.81 1 0.53 0.71 0.64 0.71 1

PAGE 1087

1087 1 0.74 0.62 0.68 0.74 1 0.63 0.62 1 0.52 0.62 0.62 0.63 0.52 1 0.84 1 1 1 0.55 1 0.55 1 0.68 0.62 0.62 0.84 1 0.90 0.80 0.56 0.75 0.68 0.81 0.79 0.52 0.56 0.51 0.97 0.63 0.56 0.97 0.81

PAGE 1088

1088 0.56 0.75 0.52 0.68 0.51 0.90 0.80 0.79 0.97 0.81 0.56 0.63 0.97 0.81 0.56 1 0.68 0.63 0.89 0.70 0.68 1 0.94 0.79 0.84 1 0. 58 1 0.63 0.94 1 0.73 0.83 0.58 1 0.89 0.79 0.73 1 0.79 1 0.64 0.64 1 0.70 0.84 0.83 0.79 1

PAGE 1089

1089 1 0.75 0.61 0.68 0.75 1 0.62 0.67 1 0.64 0.61 0.62 1 0.79 0.88 0.5 8 0.79 1 0.83 1 1 0.51 0.88 0.83 1 0.51 1 0.68 0.67 0.64 0.58 1 0.82 0.93 0.84 0.74 0.91 0.85 0.64 0.75 0.77 0.56 0.83 0.94 0.83 0.60 0.55 0.95 0.60 0.86 0.62

PAGE 1090

1090 0.64 0.82 0.74 0.83 0.60 0.93 0.91 0.77 0.94 0.86 0.55 0.84 0.85 0.56 0.83 0.62 0.60 0.95 0.75 1 0.87 0.61 0.95 0.84 0.87 1 0.77 0.91 0.86 1 1 0.61 0.77 1 0.60 0.63 1 0.95 0.91 0.60 1 0.86 1 0.66 0.66 1 0.84 0.86 0.63 0.86 1

PAGE 1091

1091 1 1 1 0.67 0.82 0.58 1 0.59 0.88 0.73 0.59 1 0.58 0.67 1 0.55 0.76 1 0.88 1 0.73 0.82 0.55 1 0.58 0.73 0.58 0.76 0.73 1 0.57 0.57 0.58 0.66 0.70 0.54 0.67 0.55 0.61 0.54 0.56 0.81 0.82 0.62 0.77 0.84 0.69 0.96 0.58 0.71 0.88 0.80 0.50 0.87 0.62

PAGE 1092

1092 0.67 0.56 0.69 0.88 0.57 0.66 0.81 0.82 0.55 0.62 0.96 0.80 0.50 0.58 0.70 0.77 0.57 0.61 0.58 0.87 0.54 0.54 0.84 0.71 0.62 1 0.78 1 0.55 1 0.61 0.78 1 1 0.56 0.68 1 0.55 0.61 1 0.58 0.50 0.56 0.58 1 0.82 0.68 0.50 0.82 1 1

PAGE 1093

1093 1 1 1 0.78 0.66 0.69 1 0.52 0.87 0.77 1 0.78 0.52 1 0.51 0.52 0.82 1 0.66 0.87 0.51 1 0.74 0.66 0.52 0.66 1 0. 69 0.77 0.82 0.74 1 0.52 0.52 0.55 0.67 0.53 0.52 0.54 0.61 0.68 0.81 0.76 0.69 0.78 0.85 0.76 0.97 0.78 0.86 0.83 0.86 0.66

PAGE 1094

1094 0.52 0.61 0.68 0.76 0.86 0.55 0.52 0.81 0.76 0.69 0.97 0.83 0.67 0.54 0.78 0.52 0.86 0.53 0.85 0.78 0.66 1 0.80 1 0.60 1 0.80 1 1 0.64 1 0.60 1 0.64 0.56 0.64 1 0.80 0.64 0.56 0.80 1 1

PAGE 1095

1095 1 1 1 0.53 0.94 0.53 0.87 0.79 1 0.65 0.53 1 0.94 1 0.59 0.85 0.79 1 0.53 0.59 1 0.63 0.87 0.85 1 0.68 0.79 0.65 0.79 0.63 0.68 1 0.84 0.56 0.61 0.72 0.62 0.63 0.69 0.66 0.66 0.74 0.72 0.50 0.64 0.52 0.66 0.55 0.75 0.52 0.81 0.54 0.84 0.77 0.61 0.64 0. 71 0.93 0.51 0.51 0.97 0.60 0.84 0.85 0.92 0.53 0.89 0.97 0.82 0.79 0.74 0.67 0.73

PAGE 1096

1096 0.84 0.66 0.52 0.81 0.93 0.92 0.79 0.56 0.66 0.54 0.51 0.53 0.61 0.66 0.75 0.84 0.51 0.72 0.74 0.77 0.97 0.89 0.74 0.62 0.72 0.52 0.61 0.60 0.63 0.50 0.55 0.64 0.84 0.97 0.67 0.69 0.64 0.71 0.85 0.82 0.73 1 0.61 0.52 0.85 0.76 0.71 0.68 0.61 1 0.68 0.82 0.69 0.58 1 0.52 1 0.59 0.53 0.68 1 0.68 1 0.85 0.82 0.68 1 0.78 0.72 0.59 0.76 0.69 0.78 1 0.90 0.79 0.71 0.58 0.59 0.72 0.90 1 0.74 0.68 0.53 0.59 0.79 0.74 1

PAGE 1097

1097 1 1 1 0.51 0.93 0.67 0.90 0.70 0.51 1 0.66 1 0.93 1 0.61 0.87 0.69 1 0.67 0.61 1 0.59 0.90 0.87 1 0.59 0.70 0.66 0.69 0.59 0.59 1 0.87 0.59 0.59 0.78 0.71 0.71 0.51 0.77 0.58 0.54 0.78 0.78 0.63 0.77 0.59 0.53 0.62 0.85 0.64 0.77 0.81 0.69 0.72 0.71 0.94 0.51 0.51 0.97 0.66 0.87 0.73 0.92 0.89 0.53 0.98 0.66 0.70 0.70 0.59 0.69

PAGE 1098

1098 0.87 0.77 0.85 0.94 0.92 0.70 0.59 0.58 0 .59 0.64 0.51 0.59 0.54 0.62 0.77 0.51 0.78 0.78 0.81 0.97 0.89 0.70 0.71 0.78 0.69 0.66 0.53 0.71 0.63 0.53 0.72 0.87 0.98 0.59 0.51 0.77 0.71 0.73 0.66 0.69 1 0.65 0.81 0.84 0.75 0.63 0.65 1 0.85 0.79 0.66 0.50 1 1 0.57 0.53 1 1 0.81 0.85 1 0.84 0.75 0.59 0.84 0.79 0. 84 1 0.90 0.72 0.75 0.66 0.57 0.75 0.90 1 0.68 0.63 0.50 0.53 0.59 0.72 0.68 1

PAGE 1099

1099 1 1 0.56 1 0.83 0.53 1 0.70 1 1 0.64 0.63 1 0.70 1 0.83 0.64 1 0.62 0.56 0.53 0.63 0.62 1 0.56 0.60 0.72 0.61 0.58 0.66 0.60 0.56 0.56 0.62 0.69 0.65 0.74 0.50 0.53 0.94 0.61 0.58 0.78 0.70 0.98 0.63

PAGE 1100

1100 0.56 0.56 0.65 0.78 0.61 0.74 0.56 0.66 0.94 0.70 0 .58 0.60 0.62 0.50 0.61 0.98 0.72 0.60 0.69 0.53 0.58 0.63 1 0.57 0.54 0.52 0.61 1 1 0.57 1 0.66 0.71 0.54 1 0.52 0.57 1 0.52 1 0.52 0.66 1 0.68 0.61 0.57 0.68 1 0.71 1

PAGE 1101

1101 1 1 0.64 1 0.53 0.57 1 0.68 1 1 0.55 0.51 1 0.79 0.68 1 0.53 0.55 0.79 1 0.64 0.57 0.51 1 0.59 0.77 0.52 0.56 0.65 0.56 0.62 0.53 0.69 0.61 0.78 0.93 0.61 0.66 0.68 0.98 0.53

PAGE 1102

1102 0.56 0.62 0.61 0.61 0.78 0.59 0.56 0.93 0.66 0.68 0.52 0.53 0.98 0.77 0.65 0.69 0.53 1 0. 62 0.53 0.61 1 1 0.62 1 0.55 0.53 1 0.55 0.56 1 0.55 1 0.61 0.55 1 0.50 0.56 0.50 1 1

PAGE 1103

1103 1 1 0.54 0.63 0.54 1 0.92 1 0.55 0.55 1 0.62 1 0.80 1 0.62 1 0.63 0.92 1 0.80 1 0.55 0.75 0.83 0.59 0.67 0.54 0.62 0.67 0.60 0.74 0.58 0.68 0.54 0.54 0.56 0.91 0.80 0.63 0.92 0.62 0.89 0.67 0.80 0.72 0.68 0.51

PAGE 1104

1104 0.55 0.59 0.75 0.67 0.67 0.54 0.63 0.89 0.56 0.72 0.54 0.91 0.92 0.67 0.60 0.58 0.68 0.83 0.62 0.74 0.68 0.54 0.80 0.51 0.80 0.62 1 0.88 0.61 0.60 0.57 1 0.56 0.56 0.77 1 0.88 1 0.66 0.64 0.67 0.6 1 0.66 1 0.54 0.60 0.64 1 0.69 0.56 1 0.88 0.76 0.56 0.88 1 0.75 0.77 0.76 0.75 1 0.57 0.67 0.54 0.69 1

PAGE 1105

1105 1 1 0.52 1 0.85 1 0.52 0.52 0.51 0.52 1 0.61 0.52 1 0.69 1 0.53 0.61 1 0.52 0.85 0.53 1 0.51 0.69 1 0.74 0.76 0.56 0.69 0.66 0.63 0.51 0.56 0.64 0.50 0.57 0.67 0.54 0.61 0.52 0.90 0.64 0.67 0.88 0.73 0.70 0.83 0.60 0.65 0.74

PAGE 1106

1106 0.56 0.50 0.60 0.74 0.69 0.51 0.61 0.67 0.73 0.52 0.65 0.90 0.88 0.70 0.56 0.57 0.74 0.76 0.66 0.64 0.67 0.54 0.83 0.63 0.64 1 0.86 0.59 0.66 0.54 1 0.51 0.55 0.70 1 0.86 1 0.70 0.80 0.65 0.59 0.70 1 0.51 0.63 0.66 0.80 0.51 1 0.67 0.51 1 0.87 0.59 0. 55 0.87 1 0.58 0.70 0.59 0.58 1 0.54 0.65 0.63 0.67 1

PAGE 1107

1107 1 0.52 1 0.54 1 0.56 0.53 0.87 1 0.63 0.52 0.54 0.56 0.63 1 0.53 1 0.55 1 0.61 1 0.87 0.55 0.61 1 1 0.67 0.67 0.57 0.72 0.81 0.51 0.63 0.87 0.53 0.53 0.66 0.85 0.52 0.60 0.66 0.62 0.57 0.87 0.72 0.88 0.91 0.58 0.57 0.99 0.57 0.76 0.54

PAGE 1108

1108 0.53 0.67 0.81 0.5 3 0.52 0.87 0.91 0.57 0.67 0.51 0.66 0.60 0.57 0.85 0.66 0.76 0.63 0.57 0.72 0.58 0.57 0.72 0.87 0.62 0.88 0.99 0.54 1 0.75 0.74 0.66 0.69 0.77 0.67 0.71 0.57 0.75 1 0.93 1 0.74 1 0.64 0.54 0.92 0.86 0.56 0.66 1 0.70 0.71 0.69 0.64 0.70 1 0.59 0.59 0.67 0.77 0.93 0.54 1 0.67 0.92 0.59 1 0.90 0.53 0.71 0.86 0.59 0.90 1 0.55 0.57 0.56 0.71 0.67 0.53 0.55 1

PAGE 1109

1109 1 0.53 0.72 1 1 0.57 0.86 0.53 1 0.76 0.72 0.76 1 0.57 1 0.53 1 1 0.86 0.53 1 1 0.72 0.75 0.83 0.55 0.64 0.74 0.66 0.53 0.88 0.61 0.50 0.78 0.92 0.51 0.54 0.58 0.90 0.70 0.90 0.93 0.57 0.97

PAGE 1110

1110 0.72 0.55 0.61 0.50 0.66 0.90 0.93 0.75 0.64 0.78 0.54 0.83 0.74 0.92 0.58 0.53 0.70 0.57 0.88 0.51 0.90 0.97 1 0.76 0.71 0.72 0.76 1 0.72 0.93 1 1 0.54 0.82 0.79 0.71 0.72 1 0.54 0.54 1 0.53 0.72 0.93 0.54 1 0.82 0.53 1 0.92 0.79 0.92 1 1

PAGE 1111

1111 1 0.62 1 1 0.70 0.83 0.66 1 0.56 0.59 0.70 1 0.74 0.55 0.83 0.56 0.74 1 1 0.50 1 0.66 0.50 1 0.62 0.59 0.55 1 0.63 0.70 0.79 0.76 0.61 0.55 0.67 0.57 0.53 0.82 0.52 0.52 0.79 0.56 0.82 0.61 0.50 0.85 0.69 0.63 0.54 0.57

PAGE 1112

1112 0.76 0.82 0.82 0.69 0.70 0.52 0.61 0.57 0.5 2 0.63 0.55 0.53 0.79 0.61 0.54 0.50 0.63 0.67 0.56 0.85 0.57 0. 79 1 0.64 1 0.71 0.54 1 0.64 1 0.65 0.71 0.7 9 0.71 1 1 0.54 1 0.65 1 0.73 0.63 0.71 0.73 1 0.68 0.79 0.63 0.68 1

PAGE 1113

1113 1 0.62 1 1 0.74 0.70 1 0.55 0.63 1 0.59 0.74 0.55 0.59 1 0.53 1 1 0.70 1 0.62 0.63 0.53 1 0 .60 0.54 0.53 0.68 0.71 0.75 0.51 0.50 0.75 0.64 0.81 0.53 0.66 0.65 0.85 0.89 0.67

PAGE 1114

1114 0.75 0.81 0.85 0.67 0.68 0.53 0.60 0.51 0.50 0.64 0.66 0.54 0.53 0.75 0.65 0.89 0.71 1 0.74 1 0.64 1 0.74 1 0.65 0.75 0.68 0.64 1 1 1 0.65 1 0.79 0.62 0.75 0.79 1 0.58 0.68 0.62 0.58 1

PAGE 1115

1115 1 0.53 1 0.63 0.65 0.57 0.53 0.60 0.63 1 0.51 0.73 0.78 0.65 0.65 0.51 1 0.55 0.67 0.53 0.57 1 0.60 0.53 0.73 0.55 1 0.74 1 0.60 1 0.78 0.60 1 0.60 0.65 0.67 0.60 0.74 1 0.60 0.65 0.58 0.68 0.50 0.51 0.55 0.58 0.53 0.76 0.80 0.57 0.62 0. 83 0.60 0.52 0.94 0.58 0.53 0.58 0.54

PAGE 1116

1116 0.58 0.58 0.76 0.83 0.68 0.58 0.53 0.60 0.53 0.58 0.50 0.80 0.60 0.52 0.65 0.55 0.57 0.94 0.51 0.62 0.54 1 1 0.57 0.52 0.61 1 0.50 1 0.57 1 0.52 1 0.57 1 0.50 1 0.64 0.64 1 0.61 0.57 1

PAGE 1117

1117 1 0.70 1 0.58 1 0.75 0.85 0.61 0.58 1 0.52 0.60 0.70 1 0.52 0.75 0.52 1 0.70 1 1 0.85 1 0.61 0.60 0.52 0.70 1 0.55 0.79 0.50 0.56 0.57 0.57 0.53 0.8 0 0.77 0.67 0.57 0.85 0.62 0.95 0.53 0.57 0.57 0.55

PAGE 1118

1118 0.55 0.56 0.80 0.85 0.50 0.57 0.79 0.57 0.57 0.77 0.62 0.57 0.67 0.95 0.53 0.57 0.53 0. 55 1 1 0.64 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.67 0.67 1 0.51 0.64 0.51 1

PAGE 1119

1119 1 0.58 0.77 0.57 1 1 0.79 0.58 1 0.56 0.51 0.77 0.56 1 0.60 1 1 0.51 1 0.79 0.51 0.51 1 0.57 0.60 1 0.67 0.94 0.68 0.74 0.75 0.82 0.61 0.63 0.65 0.53 0.82 0.84 0.72 0.93 0.77 0.51 0.75 0.60 0.82 0.51 0.54 0.57

PAGE 1120

1120 0.67 0.74 0.84 0.51 0.77 0.75 0.75 0.63 0.53 0.72 0.54 0.94 0.82 0.82 0.93 0.57 0.60 0.65 0.51 0.82 0.68 0.61 1 0.82 0.82 0.85 0.56 0.82 1 0.53 0.78 0.87 0.74 0.53 1 0.55 0.56 1 0.82 0.78 1 0.72 0.68 0.55 1 0.56 0.85 0.87 0.72 1 0.63 1 0.57 0.56 0.57 1 0.56 0.74 0.68 0.56 0.63 1

PAGE 1121

1121 1 0.69 0.63 1 1 0.90 1 0.69 1 0.71 1 1 1 0.90 1 0.63 0.71 1 0.68 0.88 0.83 0.72 0.74 0.70 0.67 0.64 0.62 0.69 0.65 0.60 0.50 0.64 0.59 0.69 0.77 0.54 0.98 0.73 0.72 0.58 0.75 0.63 0.78 0.61

PAGE 1122

1122 0.68 0.72 0.77 0. 64 0.50 0.72 0.75 0.74 0.62 0.64 0.54 0.61 0.88 0.70 0.60 0.98 0.58 0.63 0.69 0.59 0.65 0.69 0.78 0.83 0.67 0.73 1 0.85 0.55 0.89 0.85 1 0.66 0.56 0.51 0.79 0.56 0.66 1 0.53 0.80 0.54 1 0.53 0.60 0.55 0.56 0.53 1 0.58 0.51 0.80 0.53 1 0.82 0.89 0.79 0.58 1 1 0.67 0.67 1 0.56 0.54 0.60 0.82 1

PAGE 1123

1123 1 0.51 0.53 0.70 1 1 0.80 0.52 1 0.53 0.51 0.53 1 1 1 1 0.53 0.80 1 0.70 0.52 1 0.81 0.68 0.71 0.61 0.63 0.50 0.71 0.59 0.69 0.70 0.60 0.54 0.67 0.69 0.70 0.76 0.96 0.51 0.81 0.51

PAGE 1124

1124 0.81 0.54 0.51 0.50 0.60 0.68 0.67 0.76 0.71 0.69 0.71 0.59 0.70 0.81 0.61 0.69 0.96 0.51 0.63 0.70 1 0.57 0.61 0.57 0.56 0.57 1 0.79 0.62 1 1 0.79 1 0.59 1 0.58 1 0.61 0.58 1 0.65 0.57 0.65 1 0.56 0.62 0.59 1

PAGE 1125

1125 1 0.54 0.61 1 1 0.53 0.75 1 0.92 0.53 0.92 1 1 1 0.53 1 0.54 0.75 0.53 1 0.61 1 0.69 0.67 0.65 0.68 0.56 0.54 0.59 0.80 0. 70 0.83 0.81 0.53 0.77 0.75 0.51 0.73 0.65 0.58 0.65 0.58 0.97 0.53 0.75 0.83 0.57

PAGE 1126

1126 0.69 0.51 0.59 0.53 0.67 0.73 0.65 0.53 0.65 0.80 0.83 0.77 0.75 0.68 0. 70 0.81 0.75 0.83 0.58 0.56 0.65 0.97 0.57 0.54 0.58 1 0.68 0.59 0.54 0.53 0.67 0.68 1 0.80 0.64 0.80 1 1 0.59 0.80 1 0.81 1 0.54 0.64 1 0.52 0.53 1 0.57 0.57 1 0.56 0.67 0.80 0.81 0.52 0.56 1

PAGE 1127

1127 1 0.72 0.62 0.72 1 0.60 0.61 1 0.51 0.55 0.58 0.55 0.80 0.51 1 0.54 0.60 0.62 0.60 0.55 0.54 1 0.50 0.60 0.58 1 0.58 0.60 0.50 1 0.63 0.61 0.55 0.60 1 0.60 0.80 0.58 0.63 0.60 1 1 0.75 0.76 0.55 0.80 0.67 0.53 0.62 0.57 0.83 0.65 0.62 0.85 0.54 0.73 0.51 0.70 0.69 0.67 0.56 0.50 0.77 0.89 0.55 0.69 0.84 0.58 0.59 0.63 0.53 0.71 0.69

PAGE 1128

1128 0.75 0.51 0.76 0.55 0.62 0.89 0.84 0.57 0.58 0.80 0.83 0.54 0.70 0.56 0.53 0.65 0.59 0.67 0.62 0.69 0.50 0.55 0.71 0.53 0.85 0.73 0.67 0.77 0.69 0.63 0.69 1 0.70 0.78 0.52 0.70 1 0.75 0.81 0.76 0.51 0.70 0.75 1 0.66 0. 71 0.56 1 0.53 0.78 0.81 0.66 1 0.65 0.67 0.76 0.71 0.65 1 0.71 0.53 1 0.58 0.52 0.51 1 0.75 0.75 1 0.70 0.56 0.67 0.71 0.58 1

PAGE 1129

1129 1 0.74 0.67 0.74 1 0.61 1 0.64 0.66 0.83 1 0.67 0.61 0.64 1 0.54 0.62 1 0.52 0.66 0.54 1 0.72 1 0.83 0.62 0.72 1 0.52 1 0.73 0.61 0.61 0.86 0.56 0.63 0.55 0.75 0.82 0.71 0.88 0.55 0.53 0.70 0.51 0.56 0.69 0.58 0.82 0.53 0.84 0.63 0.85 0 .62 0.64 0.58

PAGE 1130

1130 0.73 0.55 0.51 0.61 0.61 0.75 0.55 0.56 0.84 0.85 0.53 0.86 0.82 0.53 0.69 0.56 0.71 0.58 0.62 0.63 0.88 0.70 0.82 0.63 0.64 0.58 1 0.82 0.77 0.54 0.82 1 0.77 0.91 0.54 0.50 0.77 1 0.73 1 0.51 0.52 0.77 0.91 0.73 1 0.54 0.56 0.54 1 0.52 0.51 1 0.53 0.54 0.54 1 0.78 0.78 1 0.50 0.52 0.56 0.52 0.53 1

PAGE 1131

1131 1 0.65 0.66 1 0.56 1 0.96 1 0.67 0.53 0.65 0.56 0.67 1 0.63 1 1 0.56 0.66 0.53 0.63 1 0.96 0.56 1 1 0.83 0.54 0.59 0.81 0.70 0.62 0.50 0.66 0.74 0.84 0.53 0.61 0.61 0.71 0.73 0.61 0.63 0.83 0.56 0.54 0.51 0.55 0.73 0.82 0.80 0.78 0.74 0.60 0.76 0.62 0.61 0.59 0.88 0.62

PAGE 1132

1132 0.83 0.62 0.61 0.62 0.54 0.61 0.50 0.61 0.54 0.80 0.74 0.59 0.66 0.73 0.59 0.81 0.74 0.63 0.82 0.88 0.60 0.70 0.84 0.61 0.83 0.51 0.62 0.53 0.71 0.56 0.55 0.78 0.76 0.73 1 0.81 0.75 0.63 0.77 0.81 1 0.76 0.91 0.63 0.59 0.75 0.76 1 0.80 0.65 1 0.75 0.91 0.80 1 0.57 0.61 0.63 0.65 0.57 1 0.63 0.59 1 0.63 1 0.84 0.84 1 0.77 0.75 0.61 0.63 1

PAGE 1133

1133 1 0.60 0.51 0.53 1 0.67 1 0.97 1 0.73 0.60 0.67 0.73 1 0.56 1 1 0.51 1 0.97 1 0.53 0.56 1 0.67 0.65 0.82 0.54 0.75 0.67 0.65 0.52 0.65 0.51 0.73 0.62 0.68 0.66 0.52 0.56 0.83 0.88 0.79 0.76 0.70 0.69 0.58 0.73 0.61 0.89 0.5 4

PAGE 1134

1134 0.67 0.54 0.58 0.73 0.65 0.79 0.70 0.65 0.75 0.51 0.68 0.83 0.61 0.82 0.67 0.66 0.88 0.89 0.65 0.52 0.52 0.73 0.56 0.76 0.69 0.62 0.54 1 0.80 0.63 0.76 0.76 0.62 0.80 1 0.85 0.85 0.78 0.63 0.85 1 0.85 1 0.76 0.85 0.85 1 0.69 0.50 1 0.76 0.78 0.69 1 0.65 1 0.84 0.84 1 0.62 0.50 0.65 1

PAGE 1135

1135 1 0.58 0.63 0.61 1 0.55 1 0.53 0.63 0.58 0.55 0.53 1 0.77 0.51 0.67 0.63 0.77 1 0 .61 0.63 0.51 1 1 0.55 1 0.55 1 0.61 0.67 0.61 1 0.62 0.61 0.60 0.74 0.52 0.77 0.62 0.74 0.76 0.82 0.51 0.56

PAGE 1136

1136 0.62 0.74 0.76 0.61 0.82 0.74 0.52 0.77 0.62 0.51 0.56 0.60 1 0.52 0.52 1 0.63 0.80 0.64 0.63 1 0.65 0.57 1 0.56 0.80 0.65 1 0.76 0.61 0.64 0.57 0.7 6 1 0.64 0.56 1 1 0.70 0.70 1 0.61 0.64 1

PAGE 1137

1137 1 0.55 0.60 0.52 1 0.53 1 0.65 0.55 0.53 1 0.61 0.60 0.61 1 0.53 1 1 0.65 1 1 0.52 0.53 1 0.64 0.57 0.52 0.55 0.67 0.72 0.63 0.69 0.54 0.61 0.80 0.53 0.58

PAGE 1138

1138 0.64 0.55 0.61 0.80 0.57 0.67 0.63 0.72 0.69 0.54 0.53 0.58 0.52 1 0.61 0.61 1 0.66 0.77 0.52 0.66 1 0.65 1 0.60 0.77 0.65 1 0.55 0.52 0.55 1 0.60 1 1 0.66 0.66 1 1

PAGE 1139

1139 1 1 1 0.82 1 1 1 1 0.67 1 0.82 0.67 1 1 0.80 0.52 0.63 0.64 0.73 0.58 0.78 0.55 0.62 0.53 0.67 0.74 0.54 0.60 0.51 0.61 0.69 0.69 0.80 0.55 0.74 0.69 0.56 0.72 0.71 0.65 0.74 0.55 0.58 0.73 0.68

PAGE 1140

1140 0.63 0.55 0.51 0.74 0.72 0.55 0.64 0.62 0.69 0.80 0.73 0.53 0.74 0.80 0.58 0.69 0.71 0.65 0.58 0.54 0.61 0.73 0.78 0.67 0.60 0.69 0.55 0.56 0.74 0.68 0.52 1 0.55 0.63 0.65 0.55 1 0.74 0.81 0.71 0.79 0.75 0.74 1 0.66 0.67 0.5 8 0.55 1 0.63 0.81 0.66 1 0.63 0.59 0.67 0.71 0.67 0.63 1 0.52 0.68 0.65 0.79 0.58 0.59 0.52 1 0.64 1 0.69 0.69 1 0.75 0.55 0.67 0.68 0.64 1

PAGE 1141

1141 1 0.52 1 1 0.81 1 0.52 0.52 1 0.54 1 1 1 0.81 1 0.52 0.54 1 0.82 0.75 0.68 0.75 0.59 0.60 0.52 0.64 0.58 0.63 0.57 0.56 0.63 0.92 0.77 0.61 0.52 0.76 0.51 0.73 0.54 0.60

PAGE 1142

1142 0.60 0.77 0.76 0.68 0.52 0.57 0.63 0.82 0.75 0.58 0.92 0.54 0.61 0.51 0.59 0.64 0.63 0.56 0.52 0.73 0.60 0.75 1 0.63 0.80 0.63 1 0.60 0.82 0.55 0.82 0.70 0.60 1 0.66 0.67 0.59 1 0.55 0.82 0.66 1 0.59 0.56 0.73 0.55 0.67 0.55 0.59 1 0.73 0.80 0.82 0.56 1 0.55 1 0.71 0.71 1 0.70 0.59 0.73 0.73 0.55 1

PAGE 1143

1143 1 0.77 0.75 1 0.54 1 0.64 1 0.74 0.56 0.77 0.74 1 0.78 0.64 1 1 0.66 0.54 1 0.66 1 0.75 0.56 0.78 1 0.71 0.75 0.80 0.54 0.60 0.69 0.69 0.60 0.61 0.58 0.55 0.55 0.65

PAGE 1144

1144 0.71 0.54 0.60 0.58 0.60 0.75 0.69 0.61 0.55 0.55 0.65 0.80 0.69 1 0.64 0.57 0.79 0.64 1 0.73 0.67 0.55 1 0.53 1 0.74 0.51 0.57 0.73 0.74 1 0.61 1 0.79 0.67 0.53 1 1 0.50 0.50 1 0.55 0.51 0.61 1

PAGE 1145

1145 1 0.55 0.81 1 1 0.56 1 0.60 0.55 0.60 1 0.60 0.56 1 1 0.72 1 0.72 1 0.81 0.60 1 0.74 0.65 0.89 0.54 0.51 0.55 0.58 0 .73 0.68 0.52 0.71 0.65 0.72 0.53

PAGE 1146

1146 0.74 0.58 0.71 0.54 0.73 0.65 0.68 0.53 0.65 0.51 0.55 0.72 0.89 0.52 1 0.59 1 0.84 0.76 0.84 0.79 0.84 1 0.80 0.75 0.63 0.76 0.80 1 0.87 0.54 0.84 0.75 0.87 1 0.55 0.64 1 0.59 0.79 0.63 0.55 1 1 1 0.54 0.64 1

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1147

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PAGE 1232

1232 < .0001 .018 < .0001 .000 < .0001 .000 .018 .000 .026 .000 < .0001 .026 < .0001 < .0001 .032 .000 < .0001 < .0001 .022 .000 .405 .001 .018 < .0001 .000 .023 < .049 < .0001 .001 .013 .047 .005 .001 .002 .000 .023 < 0001 < .0001 < .0001 .002 .008 .024 .002 < .0001 .000 < .0001 .006 .003 .009 .004 < .0001 .010 .000 .020

PAGE 1233

1233 .000 .002 .022 .001 .003 .036 < .0001 < .0001 0.013 < .0001 .022 .004 .000 .046 < .0001 < .0001 .049 .001 .003 < .0001 .000 < .0001 < .0001 .043 .000 .040 < .0001 .003 < .0001 < .0001 .022 .043 < .0001 .003 < .0001 < .0001 .049 .008

PAGE 1234

1234 .026 .044 .035 .003 .008 .016 .002 .011 .021 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .038 .001 .054 .011 .002 .000 .020 < .0001 .032 .005 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .047 .015 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .044 .012 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .002 .040 < .0001 .019 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001

PAGE 1235

1235 .006 .018 .024 .049 < .0001 .017 .029 .029 < .0001 .000 .000 .000 .006 < .0001 .000 .001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 .023 .017 .001 .001 .001 .004 .016 .005 .011 .001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 < .0001 .006 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 .009 < .0001 < .0001 .003 .001 < .0001 < .0001 < 0001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 < .0001

PAGE 1236

1236 .001 .019 .021 < .0001 .011 .004 .049 .002 .014 .007 < .0001 .005 .008 .044 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .014 < .0001 < .0001 .029 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .022 < .0001 .000 .046 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .007 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .042 < .0001 < .0001 .049 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .036 < .0001 < .0001 .006 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001

PAGE 1237

1237 .033 .027 .027 .018 .023 .003 .024 .002 .035 .009 .021 .047 .003 .005 .003 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .010 .002 < .0001 < .0001 .020 .001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .002 .002 .000 .001 .001 < .0001 < .0001 .026 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .000 1 < .0001 .020 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .008 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .013 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .002 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001

PAGE 1238

1238 .000 .019 .000 .031 .000 .001 .001 .001 .000 < .0001 .005 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .045 .002 .002 < .0001 .001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .002 .000 .002 .014 < .0001 .005 .042 < .0001 < .0001 .002 .000 .021 .004 .049 < .0001 .036 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .002 .001 .000 .033 < .0001 .019 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .007 .000 < .0001 .002 < .0001

PAGE 1239

1239 .009 .039 .0497 .013 .019 .045 < .0001 .049 .011 < .0001 .033 .001 < .0001 .013 .005 .065 .014 .010 .074 .037 .004 .001 .022 .000 < .0001 .018 .000 .040 < .0001 < .0001 .005

PAGE 1240

1240 .006 .019 .039 .002 .007 .009 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .022 < .0001 018 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .007 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .044 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 .001 .007 .030 .006 .004 .020 .002 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 < .0001 .031 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 < .0001 < .0001 .015 < .0001 < .0001 .000 .000 < .0001

PAGE 1241

1241 .015 .006 .018 .018 .005 .008 .016 < .0001 .002 .006 .014 .021 .014 < .0001 .002 .002 .049 .007

PAGE 1242

1242 .011 .025 .0 18 .023 .038 .006 .000 .001 .014 .000 .000 .008 .005 .001 < .0001 .022 < .0001 .007 < .0001 .002 .000 < .0001 < .0001 .001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .013 .040 .001 .004 < .0001 .035 < .0001 < .0001 .004 .006 < .0001 < .0001 .019 < .0001 .013 < .0001 < .0001 .002 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .002 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 < .0001

PAGE 1243

1243 < .0001 .007 .010 .009 .001 < .0001 .000 .044 .009 .029 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 < .0001 .023 .013 < .0001 < .0001 .043 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .002 .006 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .013 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .007 .006 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 < .0001 .002 .001 .002 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 0.004 0.008 < .0001 .000 .010 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 < .0001 .441 < .0001 < .0001 .038 < .0001 .012 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .642 < .0001 < .0001 .049 < .0001 < .0001 .335 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .004 < .0001

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1244 .000 .021 .009 .005 .040 .028 < .0001 .023 .047 < .0001 .001 .002 .030 < .0001 < .0001 .049 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .024 .020 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .128 < .0001 .674 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .003 .005 .002 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 <.0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .004 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .002 .046 < .0001 < .0001 < 0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .126 .032 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .598 .005 < .0001 < .0001 .002 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 .019 .011 < .0001

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1245 .010 .042 .014 .044 .000 .000 < .0001 .036 .002 .003 < .0001 .039 .001 .003 .004 .001 .045 < .0001 .000 < .0001 .001 < .0001 .003 .006 < .0001 .006 < .0001 < .0001 .007 < .0001 .040 < .0001 .007 < .0001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 .005 < .0001 .000 < .0001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 .001

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1246 .001 .008 .025 .001 .000 .031 .007 .006 .030 .009 .043 < .0001 < .0001 .021 < .0001 .048 .001 .018 .018 .006 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 < .0001 .000 .005 < .0 001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 < .0001 .003 .002 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .000 1 < .0001 .000 .002 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 .000 < .0001 .002 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001

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1247 .000 .010 .034 .012 .000 .000 .037 .048 .004 < .0001 .004 .030 .009 .043 < .0001 < .0001 .021 < .0001 .048 .001 .016 .005 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .003 .002 < .0001 .000 .005 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 < .0001 .001 .039 .036 .001 .039 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 .002 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 .000 < .0001 .002 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001

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1248 .002 .001 .002 .005 .007 .001 .003 .019 .002 < .0001 .042 < .0001 .019 .001 < .0001 .002 .000 < .0001 < .0001 .002 .001 .001 .011 .014 .002 .006 .045 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .006 < .0001 000 .018 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .008 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .045

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1249 .046 .003 .000 .001 .001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 047 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .035 .002 .034 .0 00 .002 .001 .004 .003 < .0001 < .0001 .016 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .002 .000 < .0001 < .0001 .001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .010 < .0001

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1250 .016 .001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 .006 < .0001 .045 .047 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .030 .027 .002 .034 .000 .002 .001 .004 .003 < .0001 .036 .015 .002 .000 .012 .001 .001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .010 < .0001

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1251 .000 .004 .003 < .0001 .000 .013 .001 < .0001 .026 .000 .011 .000 < .0001 < .0001 .005 .000 .019 .036 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .002 .044 .015 < .0001 < .0001 < 0001 < .0001 < .0001 .045 < .0001 < .0001 .046 < .0001 < .0001 .010 < .0001 .001 < .0001 .041 .001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 .001 .010 .005 < .0001 .000 < .0001 .035 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001

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1252 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .429 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .025 .001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .002 < .0001 < .0001 .003 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 .001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .025 .008 .001 < .0001 .009 .031 .021 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0 001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 .037 < .0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 < 0.0001 0.001 0.006 < 0.0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 .001 < .0001

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1253 .001 .011 .026 < .0001 .016 .001 .009 .000 .041 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .008 .001 .031 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 031 .008 .001 .000 .001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 .023 .007 .007 .008 .018 .001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 .007 .000 .007 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001

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1254 .024 .033 .035 .002 .000 .001 .001 .002 .000 .007 .001 .045 .003 .001 .006 .005 .002 .045 .000 .000 .043 < .0001

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1255 < .0001 .005 .005 .044 .003 .018 .000 .020 .036 < .0001 .003 .011 .013 < .0001 .000 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 .001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .019 < .0001 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .039 .002 .003 .036 .020 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .019 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .012 .030 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .008 .001 .035

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1256 < .0001 .034 .000 < .0001 .003 < .0001 .000 .010 < .0001 < .0001 .002 < .0001 .005 < .0001 .000 .000 < .0001 .001 .048 .014 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 < .0001 .009 < .0001 < .0 001 < .0001 .036 < .0001 .005 .029 .029 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .017 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .035 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .004 .047 .000 .017 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000

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1257 .000 .008 .000 .009 .040 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .006 .046 .047 .016 < .0001 .001 < .0001 .002 < .0001 .001 .000 .008 < .0001 .00 3 < .0001 .001 .008 .040 .005 .006 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 .000 < .0001

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1258 .011 .009 .033 .013 .028 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .000 1 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .003 .052 .019 .020 < .0001 < .0001 .049 .000 < .0001 .022 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .044 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .046 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .025 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001

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1259 .003 .007 .016 .020 < .0001 .025 .046 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .002 .003 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .013 < .0001 .002 .021 < .0001 .000 .000 .015 < .0001 .001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 < .0001 .004 < .0001 .009 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001 .000 < .0001 < .0001 < .0001

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PAGE 1555

1555 Novo Descobrimento do Grande Rio das Amazonas .Archaeological Chemistry III Science World Archaeology Resource Management in Amazonia: Indigenous and Folk Strategies Investigacion Arqueolgica dos Antrosolos de Araraquara Geographical Review Science Journal of Field Archaeology Zeitschrift fr Pflanzenernhrung, Dngung, und Bodenkunde Zeitschrift Pflanzenernhrung, Dngung, und Bodenkunde Teil B

PAGE 1556

1556 Sveriges Geologiska Undersokning .Vallhagan, II Ethnos Steps towards and Ecology of Landscape: a Geoarchaeological Approach to the Study of Anthropogenic Dark Earths in the Central Amazon Region, Brazil. Resource Management in Amazonia: Indigenous and Folk Strategies Footprints of the Forest: Ka'apor Ethnobotony the Historical Ecology of Plant Utilization by an Amazonian People Advances in Historical Ecology Biotropica .Time and Complexity in Historical Ecology: Studies in the Neotropical Lowlands Time and Complexity in Historical Ecology: Studies in the Neotropical Lowlands .Gardens of Prehistory: The Archaeology of Settlement Agriculture in Greater Mesoamerica Geoarchaeology

PAGE 1557

1557 Latin American Antiquity World Archaeology Science The Tropical Crops The Last Cannibals: A South American Oral History The Naturalist on the River Amazons American Antiquity Geoarchaeology Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory Elementary Statistics for Geographers Journal of Archaeological Science

PAGE 1558

1558 .Scientific Analysis in Archaeology Journal of Counseling Psychology Space, Time, and Archaeological Landscapes Journal of Archaeological Science Trace Elements in Biochemistry Terra Preta .Amazonian Dark Earths: Wim Sombroek's Vision The Nature and Properties of Soils Armies of Pestilence: The Impact of Disease on History Fifteen Thousand Miles on the Amazon and its Tributaries Estudos de Alguns Perfis do Solos Coletados em Diversas Regies da Hilia

PAGE 1559

1559 .Time and Complexity in Historical Ecology: Studies in the Neotropical Lowlands Subsistence and Social Structure: An Ecological Study of the Kuikuru Indians Men and Cultures Man in Adaptation: The Cultural Present Science Peoples and Cultures of Native South America: An Anthropological Reader Ethnologische Zeitschrift Zrich Ethnoarchaeology: Implications of Ethnography for Archaeology .Adaptive Responses of Native Amazonians Indigenous Peoples and the Future of Amazonia: An Ecological Anthropology of an Endangered World Institut Ind ochinois pour l'Etude de l'Home, Bulletins et Travaux

PAGE 1560

1560 A Cronologia dos Stios Lago do Iranduba e Laguinho Luz das Hipteses da Ocupao Humana para a Amazonia Central. Journal of Field Archaeology Food Chemistry Soil Science Society of America Journal Jordens Forforsyreindold som Indikator for Tidligere Kultur og Bebyggelse; en Studie af Ermitageslettens Historie Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin, Properties, Management .Time and Complexity in Historical Ecology: Studies in the Neotropical Lowlands Ethnographic Atlas of Ifugao: A Study of Environment, Culture, and Society in Northern Luzon Journal of Soil Science Journal of Archaeological Science

PAGE 1561

1561 Calleva Atrebatum Journal of Archaeological Science Studies on the Chemical Analysis of Archaeological Sites Journal of Archaeological Science American Antiquity Historical Ecology: Cultural Knowledge and Changing Landscapes Revista da Sociedade dos Agronomos e Veterinrios do Par Tesouro Descoberto no Rio Amazonas The Advancement of Science Geoarchaeology Journal of Archaeological Science American Antiquity

PAGE 1562

1562 Th e Aboriginal Cultural Geography of the Llanos de Mojos of Bolivia The Native Population of the Americas in 1492 .Frontier Expansion in Amazonia Annals of the Association of American Geographers Journal of the Steward Anthropological Society Annals of the Association of American Geographers Cultivated Landscapes of Native Amazonia and the Andes .Amazonian Dark Earths: Explorations in Space and Time .Time and Complexity in Historical Ecolo gy: Studies in the Neotropical Lowlands Swidden-Fallow Agroforestry in the Peruvian Amazon Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences American Antiquity

PAGE 1563

1563 American Antiquity Evolutionary Anthropology .Handbook of South American Archaeology Science Quaternary International Annual Review of Anthropology World Archaeology A Arqueologia da Margem Norte do Lago Grande, Iranduba, Amazonas. Annals of the Association of American Geographers Geoarchaeology .Space, Time, and Archaeological Landscapes Journal of Field Archaeology

PAGE 1564

1564 Latin American Antiquity American Antiquity American Antiquity Science Advances in Abandoned Settlement Analysis: Application to Prehistoric Anthrosols in Colombia, South America Archaeological Geology Manual de Mtodos de Anlise de Solo Journal of Archaeological Science Journal of Archaeological Science .Archaeology in the Lowland American Tropics: Current Analytical Methods and Recent Applications

PAGE 1565

1565 Nature Expedition Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin, Properties, Management .Time and Complexity in Historical Ecology: Studies in the Neotropical Lowlands .Handbook of South American Archaeology Time and Complexity in Historical Ecology: Studies in the Neotropical Lowlands American Anthropologist Food Chemistry Archaeological Investigations in British Guiana Amazonian Dark Earths: Wim Sombroek's Vision .Man in the Amazon

PAGE 1566

1566 The Museum Journal Journal of Archaeological Science Advances in Historical Ecology Geoarchaeology A Refio Occidental da Provincia do Par Educational and Psychological Measurement Life: A Natural History of the First Four Billion Years of Life on Earth Bolletin Museu Paraense Emlio Goeldi. Ciencias Humanas The Dynamics of Terra Preta: An Integrated Study of Human-environmental Interaction in a Nutrient-poor Amazonian Ecosystem Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin, Properties, Management .As Terra Pretas de ndio da Amaznia: Sua Caracterizao e Uso deste Conhecimento na Criao de Novas reas

PAGE 1567

1567 Geoderma Exploration of the Valley of the Amazon Science Bayreuther Bodenkundliche Berichte Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B Organic Geochemistry .Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin, Properties, Management Naturwissenschaften Amazonian Dark Earths: Explorations in Space and Time Q uaternary International Science

PAGE 1568

1568 Journal of Field Archaeology The Human Impact on the Natural Environment Palmeras: Centinelas de la Conservacin en la Amazonia Journal of Field Archaeology Advances in Historical Ecology .Time and Complexity in Historical Ecology: Studies in the Neotropical Lowlands Geoderma Geoderma American Anthropologist Handbook of South American Archaeology Alm da Margem do Rio A Ocupao Konduri e Poc na Regio de Porto Trombetas, PA.

PAGE 1569

1569 World Archaeology Multivariate Data Analysis Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences Arquivos do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro Journal of Field Archaeology Journal of Anthropological Archaeology World Archaeology Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin, Properties, Management .Amazonian Dark Earths: Wim Sombroek's Vision Resource Management in Amazonia: Indigenous and Folk Strategies

PAGE 1570

1570 War and Peace in the Shadow of Empire: Sociopolitical Change in the Upper Xingu of Southeastern Amazonia, A.D. 1400-2000. Antiquity .Os Povos do Alto Xingu: Historia e Cultura Comparative Arawakan Histories The Ecology of Power: Culture, Place, and Personhood in the Southern Amazon, A.D. 1000-2000 Science Latin American Antiquity Latin American Antiquity Science Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Red Gold: The Conquest of the Brazilian Indians

PAGE 1571

1571 World Archaeology Comparative Arawakan Histories .Amazonian Dark Earths: Origins, Properties, Management The Ants Journal of Archaeological Science Psychological Bulletin .Advances in Social Science Methodology, Vol. 1 The Journal of Experim ental Education Applied Manova and Discriminant Analysis Palaeoecology and Ontario Prehistory Caraterizacao das Praticas de Manejo dos Sistemas Agroflorestais em Quintais pelos Produtores na R eserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentavel de Mamiraua, Tefe (AM)

PAGE 1572

1572 Nature .Soil Micromorphology: Studies in Management and Genesis Ancient South Americans Biogeochemistry Proceedings of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin Properties Management Grundzge der Geologie des unteren Amazonasgebietes (des Staates Par in Brasilien Boletim da Seco do Fomento Agrcola no Estado do Par Science Science

PAGE 1573

1573 The Amazon and Madeira Rivers, Sketches and Descriptions from the Note-Book of an Explorer Caracterizao Pedolgica de Solos com Terra Preta Arqueolgica na Regio de Oriximin, Par. Geoquimica e Pedogeoquimica em Sitios Arqueologicos com Terra Preta na Floresta Nacional de Caxiuana (PortelPA). .Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin, Properties, Management Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo Terra Preta Nova .Amazonian Dark Earths: Wim Sombroek's Vision Pedological Perspectives in Archaeological Research Advances in Historical Ecology

PAGE 1574

1574 Advances in Historical Ecology Journal of Archaeological Science Journal of Archaeological Science Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics Journal of Archaeological Science Formica polyctena European Journal of Soil Science Science Science .Archaeological Chemistry III American Antiquity

PAGE 1575

1575 The Upper Amazon World Archaeology .Origins of Agr iculture Terra Preta Amazonian Dark Earths: Wim Sombroek's Vision Amazonian Dark Earths: Explorations in Space and Time Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin, Properties, Management Imperfect Balance: Landscape Transformations in the Precolumbian Americas Journal of Archaeological Science Geoderma American Antiquity Journal of Archaeological Science

PAGE 1576

1576 Geoarchaeology Journal of Field Archaeology Science Zeitschrift fr Erdkunde Methodische Untersuchungen zur Wstungsforschung. Arbeiten zur Landesund Volksforschung, Band 4 Geographische Zeitschrift Die Naturwissenschaften .Jahrbcher fr Statistik und Landeskunde von BadenWrttemberg English and Irish Settlement on the River Amazon 1550-1646 Annals of the Association of American Geographers American Journal of Science .Ancient South Americans

PAGE 1577

1577 American Antiquity A Formao de Montculos Artificiais: Um Estudo de Caso no Sitio Hatahara, Amazonas. Journal of Archaeological Science Amazonian Dark Earths: Explorations in Space and Time Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin, Properties, Management A J ourney across South America from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean Biotropica Journal of Archaeological Science Journal of Soil Science Journal of Archaeological Science

PAGE 1578

1578 .Sustainable Management of Soil Organic Matter Science The Discovery of the Amazon American Anthropologist Ama zonia: Man and Culture in a Counterfeit Paradise Boletim do Museu Paraense Emlio Goeldi, sries Antropologica Latin American Antiquity Science Archaeological Investigations at the Mouth of the Amazon Under the Canopy: The Archaeology of Tropical Rain Fore sts Anales de Antropologa Annual Review of Anthropology

PAGE 1579

1579 .Handbook of South American Indians, Volume 3, The Tropical Forest Tribes Journal of Archaeological Science Arqueologia nos Empreendimentos Hidreltricos da Eletronorte: Resultados Preliminares Science Permaculture: A Designers' Manual Conceptual Issues in Environmental Archaeology Cultivars, Anthropic Soils and Stability: A Preliminary Report of Archaeological Research in Araracuara, Colombian Amazonia Arqueologia na Amaznia Central Vista de Uma Perspectiva da Regio do Lago do Limo. Amazonia Peruana .Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin, Properties, Management

PAGE 1580

1580 Earth system science overview : a program for global change, prepared by the Earth System Sciences Committee, NASA Advisory Council Ethnohistory Antiquity .Handbook of South American Archaeology Time and Complexity in Historical Ecology: Studies in the Neotropical Lowlands .Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin, Properties, Management Amazonian Dark Earths: Explorations in Space and Time Handbook of South American Indians, Volume 3, The Tropical Forest Tribes Kroeber Anthropological Society Papers Unknown Amazon: Culture and Nature in Ancient Brazil

PAGE 1581

1581 Maniot Esculenta Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Biogeochemistry Environmental Geochemistry and Health Boletim do Museu Paraense Emlio Goeldi, sries Antropologica Economic Botany Geoarchaeology Journal of Archaeological Science Latin American Antiquity .Renvall Institut e Publications .Archaeology in the Lowland American Tropics: Current Analytical Me thods and Recent Applications

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1582 .Os Cerami stas Tupiguarani Unknown Amazon Archaeology in the Lowland American Tropics: Current Analytical Methods and Recent Applications Nature Cucurbita Science Advances in Economic Botany Agroforestry Systems .Advances in Historical Ecology Early Human Adaptations to New World Tropical Forests: the View from Panama .Renvall Institute Publications

PAGE 1583

1583 In Amazonia: A Natural History Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Handbook of South American Archaeology Interpretando a Variabilidade Cermica e as Assinaturas Qumicas e Fsicas de solo no Stio Arqueolgico Hatahara AM. Amazonian Dark Earths: Wim Sombroeks Vision Os ndios e a Civilizao Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics Manihot esculenta Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club Parmana: Prehistoric Maize and Manioc Subsistence along the Amazon and Orinoco Resource Management in Amazonia: Indigenous and Folk Strategies Moundbuilders of the Amazon: Geophysical Archaeology on Maraj Island, Brazil

PAGE 1584

1584 Science Science .Handbook of South American Archaeology Handbook of South American Archaeology Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin, Properties, Management Integrated Approach to Predictive Modelling: A Case Study from the Upper Xingu (Mato Grosso, Brazil). Journal of Archaeological Science Science Archaeometry Properties and Management of Soils in the Tropics

PAGE 1585

1585 Scie nce Science Science Science Science Journal of Archaeological Science Aboriginal Population of northwestern Mexico Agricultural Origins and Dispersals: The Domestication of Animals and Foodstuffs The Camutins Chiefdom: Rise and Development of Social Complexity on Maraj Island, Brazilian Amazon. .Handbook of South American Archaeology Arqueologia da Amazonia Ocidental: Os Geoglifos do Acre

PAGE 1586

1586 Soil Science Behavioral Archaeology Journal of Archaeological Science Farming and Patterns of Agrobiodiversity on the Amazon Floodplain in the Vicinity of Mamirau, Amazonas, Brazil. Landscape Archaeology in the Region of the Confluence of the Trombetas and Amazon Rivers: Report of Activities 2006 -2007 Report of Activities, Sitio Laguinho, Projeto Amazonia Central Field School, July 15th to August 15th 2007 As Terra Pretas de ndio da Amaznia: Sua Caracterizao e Uso deste Conhecimento na Criao de Novas reas Amazonian Dark Earths: Wim Sombroek's Vision

PAGE 1587

1587 European Journal of Soil Science Fornvnnen Pedological Perspectives in Archaeological Research Archaeometry Annual Review of Anthropology Advances in Agronomy The Counseling Psychologist .Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin Properties Management .As Terra Pretas de ndio da Amaznia: Sua Caracterizao e Uso deste Conhecimento na Criao de Novas reas Terra Preta Amazonian Dark Earths: Explorations in Space and Time

PAGE 1588

1588 Journal of Archaeological Science Geoarchaeology Journal of Field Archaeology Australian Journal of Soil Research Explorers of the Amazon Brazil, th e Amazons and the Coast Annals of the Association of American Geographers International Tree Crops Journal The Amazon River Forest: A Natural History of Plants, Animals, and People Soil Taxonomy: A Basic System of Soil Classification for Making and Interpreting Soil Surveys Science American Antiquity Exploration of an Adena Mound at Natrium, West Virginia

PAGE 1589

1589 Amazon Soils A Reconnaissance of Soils of the Brazilian Amazon Region .Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin Properties Management World Archaeology Latin American Antiquity Viagem pelo Brasil Notes of a Botanist on the Amazon and Andes .Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater American Holocaust Science .Amazonian Dark Earths: Explorations in Space and Time A gua e o Homem na Vrzea do Careiro

PAGE 1590

1590 Applied Multivariate Statistics for the Social Sciences Handbook of South American Indians Native Peoples of South America American Antiquity Quaternary International Journal of Archaeological Science .Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin P roperties Management Journal of Archaeological Science Geoarchaeology .Amazonian Dark Earths: Explorations in Space and Time Environmental Geochemistry and Health

PAGE 1591

1591 Terra Preta. Amazonian Dark Earths: Wim Sombroek's Vision The Professional Geographer Science .Handbook of South American Archaeology Annual Review of Anthropology A Narrative of Travels on the Amazon and Rio Negro, with an Account of the Native Tribes, and Observations on the Climate, Geology, and Natural History of the Amazon Valley Science Science Geoarchaeology Geoarchaeology Journal of Archaeological Science

PAGE 1592

1592 Annals of the Association of American Geographers Cultivated Landscapes of Middle America on the Eve of Conquest Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge American Antiquity Archaeological Chemistry Amazonian D ark Earths: Origin Properties Management .Amazonian Dark Earths: Wim Sombroek's Vision Latin American Antiquity

PAGE 1593

1593 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Campos Elevados e Historia Cultural Prehispnica en los Llanos Occidentales de Venezuela

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1594