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The Impact of Breast Size in Advertising and Breast Size Satisfaction on Attitude Toward the Ad, Attitude Toward the Bra...

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0041398/00001

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Title: The Impact of Breast Size in Advertising and Breast Size Satisfaction on Attitude Toward the Ad, Attitude Toward the Brand and Purchase Intention
Physical Description: 1 online resource (102 p.)
Language: english
Creator: York, Melanie
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Advertising thesis, M.Adv.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

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Abstract: THE IMPACT OF BREAST SIZE IN ADVERTISING AND BREAST SIZE SATISFACTION ON ATTITUDE TOWARD THE AD, ATTITUDE TOWARD THE BRAND AND PURCHASE INTENTION Melanie Gayle York 706.593.1977 Melanie.York@gmail.com Advertising Dr. Robyn Goodman Master s of Advertising May 2010 The purpose of this study was to determine if a model s breast size in a print advertisement or a woman s satisfaction with her breast impacts the way a woman views an ad or a brand, as well as her decision to purchase the product. With the increase in breast augmentation procedures among college-aged students, as well as the proliferation of eating disorders, diet pills and other means to change one s body, it was important to determine how body shapes in advertising impacts this age group. However, the study found that the breast size of a model in an ad does not considerably impact women.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Melanie York.
Thesis: Thesis (M.Adv.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Goodman, Jennifer R.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0041398:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0041398/00001

Material Information

Title: The Impact of Breast Size in Advertising and Breast Size Satisfaction on Attitude Toward the Ad, Attitude Toward the Brand and Purchase Intention
Physical Description: 1 online resource (102 p.)
Language: english
Creator: York, Melanie
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Advertising thesis, M.Adv.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: THE IMPACT OF BREAST SIZE IN ADVERTISING AND BREAST SIZE SATISFACTION ON ATTITUDE TOWARD THE AD, ATTITUDE TOWARD THE BRAND AND PURCHASE INTENTION Melanie Gayle York 706.593.1977 Melanie.York@gmail.com Advertising Dr. Robyn Goodman Master s of Advertising May 2010 The purpose of this study was to determine if a model s breast size in a print advertisement or a woman s satisfaction with her breast impacts the way a woman views an ad or a brand, as well as her decision to purchase the product. With the increase in breast augmentation procedures among college-aged students, as well as the proliferation of eating disorders, diet pills and other means to change one s body, it was important to determine how body shapes in advertising impacts this age group. However, the study found that the breast size of a model in an ad does not considerably impact women.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Melanie York.
Thesis: Thesis (M.Adv.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Goodman, Jennifer R.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0041398:00001


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1 THE IMPACT OF BREAST SIZE IN ADVERTISING AND BREAST SIZE SATISFACTION ON ATTITUDE TOWARD THE AD, ATTITUDE TOWARD THE BRAND AND PURCHASE INTENTION By MELANIE GAYLE YORK A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIV ERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ADVERTISING UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2010

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2 2010 Melanie Gayle York

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3 T o m y f a m i l y a n d f r i ends thank you for all your support I love you

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank the chair and members of my supervisory committee for their mentoring, the participants in my surveys for their honest and open participation, and the graduate students and other professors of the advertising program for their help.

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5 TABLE OF CON TENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 7 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 8 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 11 Overview ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ 11 Significance of Study ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 14 Study Organization ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 15 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 16 Theoretical Foundations ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 28 Hypotheses and Rationale ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 30 3 METHOD ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 33 Research Design ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 33 Operational Definition of Variables ................................ ................................ ....................... 33 Independent Variables ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 33 Stimuli Development ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 35 Validity ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 37 Reliability ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................ 38 Measurement ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 38 Pretest of Experiment ................................ ................................ ................................ ............. 40 Main Test of Experiment ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 40 Participants ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................... 40 Procedure ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 41 Manipulation Check Measures ................................ ................................ ........................ 43 Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ........................... 44 4 RESULTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................... 46 Experiment ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 46 Profile of the Sample ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 46 Manipulation Checks ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 47 Hypotheses Testing ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 47 Effect of Stimulus Ad on Dependent Variables ................................ .............................. 47

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6 Effect of Breast Size Satisfaction on Dependent Variables ................................ ............ 50 Inter action Effect of Model Breast Size and Participant Breast Size Satisfaction .......... 53 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS ................................ ................................ .................. 61 Theoretical Impli cations ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 61 Managerial Implications ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 66 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ .............................. 67 Limitations and Future Research ................................ ................................ ............................ 67 APPENDIX A STIMULUS AD TEST ................................ ................................ ................................ ........... 69 B STIMULUS AD SMALL BREAST ................................ ................................ ..................... 73 C STIMULUS AD LARGE BREAST ................................ ................................ ...................... 74 D INVITATION TO PARTICIPATE ................................ ................................ ........................ 75 E PRE QUESTIONNAIRE ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 77 F INFORMED CONSENT ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 84 G QUESTIONNAIRE ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 86 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 93 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 102

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7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 3 1 Frequently Read Magazines. ................................ ................................ .............................. 45 3 2 Corrected Item to Total Correlation for Uncertain Certain Scale. ................................ .... 45 4 1 Descriptive Statistics for Attitude Toward the Ad (LB vs. SB). ................................ ....... 55 4 2 Descriptive Statistics for Attitude Toward the Brand (LB vs. SB). ................................ ... 55 4 3 Descriptive Statistics for Purchase Intention (LB vs. SB). ................................ ................ 55 4 4 Test of Between Subject Effects for HYP 1 ................................ ................................ ...... 56 4 5 Parameter Estimates for HYP 1. ................................ ................................ ........................ 57 4 6 Descriptive Statistics for Attitude Toward the Ad (Breast Satisfaction). .......................... 57 4 7 Descriptive Statistics for Attitude Toward the Brand (Breast Satisfaction). ..................... 57 4 8 Descriptive Statistics for Purchase Intention (Breast Size Satisfaction). .......................... 58 4 9 Test of Between Subject Effects for HYP 2 ................................ ................................ ..... 58 4 10 Parameter Estimates for HYP 2 ................................ ................................ ......................... 59 4 11 Group Statistics for HYP 3. ................................ ................................ ............................... 59 4 12 Independent Samples Test for HYP 3. ................................ ................................ ............... 60

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8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 3 1 Furnam, Dias and McClelland Stimulus Figure Drawings. ................................ ............... 45

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9 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Advertising THE IMPACT OF BREAST SIZE IN ADVERTISING AND BREAST SIZE SATISFACTION ON ATTITUDE TOWARD THE AD, ATTITUDE TOWARD T HE BRAND AND PURCHASE INTENTION By Melanie Gayle York May 2010 Chair: Dr. Robyn Goodman Major: Advertising With the continuous increase in breast augmentation surgeries, accompanied by numerous model breast size in advertisements, as well as breast size satisfaction, may have on consumers. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explor e the effects of varying breast sizes in a attitude toward the brand and purchase intention. A sample of 89 undergraduate female students, ages 18 to 23, participa ted in a posttest only, 2 x 2, between subject experiment. They were asked to complete a questi onnaire measuring the impact of small and large breasted models in advertising, and a multivariate analysis of variance, MANOVA, was used to analyze the results College aged female students who were exposed to an advertisement featuring a model with large breast to body ratio did not exhibit any different characteristics than students exposed to an advertisement featuring a model with small breast to body ratio Overall, there was no significant difference in attitude toward the ad, attitude toward the brand or purchase intention. Additionally, female students who were dissatisfied with their breast size (i.e., desired larger

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10 breast) did not exhibit any differen t characteristics than students who were satisfied with their breast size. Overall, there was no significant difference in attitude toward the ad, attitude toward the brand or purchase intention.

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11 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Overview ompares her genetic physical endowments with a few hand picked models. Despite their surreal beauty, the media insist that their beauty is attainable Women are continuously b ombarded by media, including advertisements, featuring a naturally unobtainable beauty standard of a thin woman with large breasts (Sullivan, 2001; Owen & Laurel Seller, 2000; Mazur, 1986; Cusumano & Thompson, 1997), but little is known about how women are affected by exposure to these mass d resulting purchasing behaviors. Multiple studies affirm that medium breast size, or a C cup, leads to the highest breast size satisfaction (Harrison, 2003; Kleinke & Staneski, 1980) and receives the most favorable ratings from both sexes when compared to smaller or larger breasts (Kleinke & Staneski, 1980). Furthermore, there are many women who prefer breasts larger than their current size (Tantleff Dunn, 2002), and, overall, there are a number of women who are simply dissatisfied with their current bre ast size (Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe & Tantleff Dunn, 2001; Sarwer, Bartlett, Bucky, LaRossa, Low, Pertschuk, Wadden & Whitaker, 1998). For example, a 1996 Self magazine survey of 4,000 women discovered that more than half would change their breast size if it was possible (Grant, 1996). Another survey revealed that 34% of women dislike their breasts, which is a 10% increase from 20 years ago (Thompson et al., 2001; Sarwer et al., 1998). This dissatisfaction may possibly be reflected in the continual increas e in the number of breast

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12 augmentation surgeries performed each year, especially since 91% of breast augmentation patients cite the procedure as a way to improve how they feel about themselves (American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS), 2008). While the desire for bigger breast s and overall breast satisfaction may be the result of many factors, research demonstrates that the media are likely a contributor to breast size dissatisfaction (Richens, 1991; Sarwer et al., 1998; Harrison, 2003; Cusumano & Thomps on, 1997; Underwood, 2000; Garner, 1997). First, women compare themselves to the media, and the media often act as a major influence in breast size satisfaction (Latteier, 1998). Furthermore, the media portray a disproportionate body as the ideal a woman with a size t en chest, size four waist, and size six hips (Furnham, Adrian, Dias, Melanie, & McClelland, Alastair, 1998). standard of beauty a thin body frame with m edium sized breasts. It is impossible to lose weight to achieve the thin body standard without negatively affecting breast size, so most women 2003). Reinforcing the idea that women are resorting to cosmetic surgery for breast satisfaction, the American Society of Plastic Surgeons claims a 64% increase in breast augmentation procedures from 2000 to 2007. Breast augmentation was the leading procedure with 347,500 performed in 2007 alone. Moreover, there is controversy surrounding the safety and health repercussions of implants. Not only do potential dangers lie in the actual use of saline implants, late and communicate to the self has been questioned (Brooks, 2004). Additionally, breast augmentation is a major surgery with lengthy recovery time that can result in a decrease in nipple sensitivity, hardening of the breast,

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13 and a need to replace the i mplants multiple times (FDA, 2004). Regardless of these risks, the number of women undergoing breast augmentation continues to increase each year (ASPS, breast s ize. Although many women are highly dissatisfied with their breast size and women are constantly exposed to an ideal of small body frame with large breast size (Latteier, 1998; Owen & Laurel Seller, 2000; Cusumano & Thompson, 1997; Stice, Schupak Neuberg, Shaw, & Stein, 1994; Waller & Shaw, 1994), not all women pursue breast augmentation. Thus, it can be assumed that the mediated ideal does not similarly affect all women. However, this study seeks to determine if women of similar demographics react differe ntly to advertisements featuring a model with large breast size versus an advertisement featuring a model with small breast size, and to discover if the difference in breast size, as well as individual breast size satisfaction, titude toward the ad, attitude toward the brand and purchase intention. When a woman is dissatisfied with her breast size and views an advertisement featuring a model with larger breasts and a thin body frame, the visual image may conjure negative emotio ns regarding self image in the consumer. She may then convey these negative feelings about herself onto the advertisement. Since the advertisement is promoting a specific unknown brand, the negative connotations associated with the advertisement could be r elayed to the brand (Phelps & Thorson, 1991). Multiple studies have shown the significance of attitude toward the ad in understanding the effects of advertising (Holbrook, 1978; Mitchell and Olson, 1981) and that attitude toward the ad acts as a moderator purchasing behaviors (Batra, 1984; Batra & Ray, 1983; Holbrook, 1978; MacKenzie, Lutz & Belch, 1986; MacKenzie & Lutz, 1983; Mitchell & Olson, 1981; Moore & Hutchinson, 1983;

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14 Shimp, 1981; Zinkham, Gelb, & Martin, 1983). Because of negative feelings toward both the advertisement and the brand, the consumer may then alter her purchasing behaviors based on these emotions (Gresham & Shimp, 1985; Cox & Locander, 1987; Moore & Hutchinson, 1983), which could pot entially result in her unwillingness to include a product in her consideration set and the eventual loss of a consumer. As a result, advertisers must be careful in their use of models with disproportionate breast size. However, advertisers may want their advertisements and brands to conjure such negative and the brand because the consumer may feel that the brand that is advertised can help to fix what is causing t he negative emotion (Derbaix, 1995). For example, an advertisement for a push up bra may show a model with extremely large breasts on a very thin frame, which may create negative emotions in a woman dissatisfied with her breasts. These negative emotions ma y result in the woman thinking that the only way to achieve this ideal breast is to purchase the push up bra; therefore, the negative emotions have resulted in favorable purchasing behaviors for the advertiser. Thus, it must be determined whether a woman who is extremely unhappy with her body, particularly her breast size, will project these feelings onto an advertisement or brand and will it result in different purchasing behaviors. This study also focuses on how to portray model breast size in advertisi and to also increase consumer purchasing intention. The findings of my research will help advertisers better understand how breast size in advertising works. Significance of S tudy To date, there is no body of academic research available that discusses the impact of varying breast sizes in advertising. It is not known how women interact with breast size in

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15 advertising or how they react toward advertisements containing large an d small breasted women. Given the use of large breasts on thin bodies (Owen & Laurel Seller, 2000; Cusumano & Thompson, 1997), the level of breast dissatisfaction in women (Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe & Tantleff Dunn, 2001; Sarwer, Wadden, Pertschuk, & Whi taker, 1998), and the increase in breast augmentation procedures (ASPS, 2008), it is important to delve into this area of research so advertisers understand how breast size affects feelings toward both the advertisement and the brand, as well as how these feelings may alter purchasing behaviors. Study Organization First, a brief review of relevant literature will be provided in order to achieve an understanding of the various constructs that support this study and offer a general overview of the current, a lbeit limited, knowledge on breast size in the media. Base d on the lite rature review, Chapter 2 will conclude with the presentation of research questions and hypotheses to guide the remainder of the research. Additionally, theoretical models wil l be developed and explained. C hapter 3 presents the experimental method employed in this study. The research design and procedure is discussed, including specifics surrounding experimental design, stimuli and recruiting respondents. Chapter 4 reports Chapter 5 presents conclusions, industry implications, limitations of this study and recommendations for future research.

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16 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW While there are few studies exploring the influ ence of the media, particularly advertising, Childers, 2004), this chapter reviews the limited available literature concerning the relationship between breast size in advertising and women, as well as applicable theo retical approaches. It employs literature pertaining to the current breast ideal, how it is displayed in the media and the resulting impact on women. The purpose of this review is to provide a map of previous research in which the present study fits, as well as a rationale for the variables used in the study. It also presents a critique of the literature in order to illustrate how this study contributes to the general knowledge of the present topic. According to multiple studies, many women today are dissatisfied with their breasts (Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe & Tantleff Dunn, 2001; Sarwer, Wadden, Pertschuk, & Whitaker, 1998). A nationwide body satisfaction survey conducted in 1997 cited 34% of respondents as unhappy with their breasts (Sarwer, et al., 1998), while a breast satisfaction survey conducted by Self m agazine found that more than half of the 4,000 respondents would alter their breast size if possible (Grant, 1996). According to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, women are so dissatisfied with their breast that they are resorting to cosmetic surgery to fix the problem. The group conducted a study as to why women choose various surgical breast procedures and concluded that 91% of patients cited breast augmentation procedures as a method of improving self esteem. These same patients also declared themselves as the driving force behind the decision to pursue cosmetic surgery rather than outside influences.

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17 The large number of women dissatisfied w ith their breasts may be a result of the breast For women, it seems that American society is particularly obsessed with breasts, and that society, by overe eroticism, and by promulgating unrealistic standards, is encouraging women to assess their self worth by the appearance of their breasts. (Koff & Benavage, 1998, p. 671) According to multi ple authors including Brownmiller (1984) and Latteier (1998), breasts are viewed as a source of many different things. Because of their visibility to others, they are satisfa ction, but Reinforcing the idea of breasts as the most public part o femininity, are in many way s foreign to or separable from the bodies that possess them even breasts, with particular attention paid to breast size (Latteier, 1998). Research suggests that women are aware of this, and their body image is impacted as a result (Koff & Benavage, 1998). greater impact on how a woman feels about her body and her overall self esteem more than other body parts (Koff & Benavage, 1998). The ideal breast. With such a large amount of research identifying the fact that many women are dissatisfied with their breasts, the issue of what is the ideal breast must be addressed. Acco

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18 the breast as it should be is the adolescent breast. It is a firm, milky white globe. The nipple is smooth, not the lumpy, bumpy nipple of women who have nursed a ba (p. 6). In America, the 36 C cup is the highest selling bra size (Kim, 2001), and the C cup is considered to be the ideal breast size across many races, cultural and socioeconomic lines (Koff & Benavage, 1998). Reinforcing the current dominance of the C cup are recent statistics from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons citing that the majority of breast augmentation patients request a size C cup with an increasing number of patients preferring an even larger size (ASPS, 200 8). The preference in cup size for patients under the age of 35 has remained a C since the 1 980s ; however, the second most popular cup size in the 80s most requested cup size is now a D. Overall, research from Springe n (2003) found that since the 1980s, the average size of breast implants has increased 40%. Additionally, research has shown that while models are becoming thinner, their breast size is staying the same size, resulting in a disproportionate body to breas t size ratio (Owen & Laurel Seller, 2000). Owen and Laurel Seller (2000) studied the measurements of Playboy centerfold models and commercial print models. The study showed that while both groups of women were exceptionally thin, the Playboy models were c onsidered shapely because of their disproportionately large breast size. Goodman and Walsh Childers (2004) evaluated research performed by Cusumano and Thompson (1997) and found that the average breast and body sizes of women in magazines often read by co llege aged women featured visuals of thin models with moderately sized breasts. As a result, the students were looking at women with a disproportionate breast size in relation to their overall body size. With disproportionately large breast found through out the media, qualitative research performed by Goodman and Walsh

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19 Childers (2004) also found that the idea of proportion was prominent in the minds of the participants in their focus groups. The participants wanted thin, toned bodies that were free from fat but desired a cup size of around a C, which is not proportionate. While the participants in Goodman and Walsh figure as their ideal, Lattier (1998) believes women know large breasts on a very thin body are n ot normal. I believe that many women are aware that this image is a fantasy and that many of them intellectually reject it. They know better, but they cannot shake it off. Despite their disclaimers, at the moment of truth, when they look in the mirror at t heir naked breasts, they perceive that what they have, what they are, is not good enough. Their breasts are too long and pendulous or too flat or too saggy. The nipples are too big or too small or the wrong color. The two breasts are different sizes or dif ferent shapes. The reality is that breasts vary as widely as faces. But we see faces every day, and we know that. We do not see breasts, except mostly different. (p. 6) The ideal breast and what it suggests. While the average breast implant size may continue to increase, bigger bust size comes with both positive and negative connotations. Large breasts are associated with sex appeal and attractiveness (Goodman & Walsh Childers, 2 004), as well as popularity, assertiveness and nurturing qualities (Koff & Benavage, 1998). Conversely, women with large breasts are also stereotyped as incompetent, unintelligent and immoral (Latteier, 1998) and thought to be hypersexual and socially devi ant (Goodman & Walsh Childers, 2004). Often times, if a w oman 1998, p.10). Women with small breasts also endure a myriad of stereotypes, such as being viewed as more intelligent and athletic (Koff & Benavage, 1998) but also conjure images of masculinity and asexuality (Goodman & Walsh

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20 The r esult of these extreme polar associations tied to both large and small breast size may be In addition to connotations associated with varying breast sizes, some studies have linke d breast satisfaction to varying levels of self esteem. Research from Koff and Benavage (1998) found that women with low self esteem often had lower breast satisfaction, and that women with a higher degree of self consciousness or appearance and social an xiety (which can also be classified as a lower degree of self esteem) have a significantly larger discrepancy between their ideal and perceived breast size. However, Tantleff Dunn and Thompson (2000) discovered no correlation between perceived and current breast satisfaction in relation to self esteem, body image anxiety or overall appearance satisfaction. The ideal breast and the media. As previously mentioned, women in the media are equipped with the current idea of the perfect figure a size two wais t with size four hips and size t en breasts. This figure of large breasts on an extremely thin body is the idealized shape seen across the majority of media (Owen & Laurel Seller, 2000; Cusumano & Thompson, 1997). Additionally, according to Latteier (1998) the media portray not only a body with very specific dimensions but also idealizes a very exact type of breast a firm, uplifted breast with plenty of cleavage. Media provide a way of thinking about the ideal body and how to achieve it (Goodman & Walsh C hilders, 2004). Women are not often exposed to a variety of breast sizes and shapes in the mainstream media; rather, they are exposed to the ideal breast (Goodman & Walsh Childers, 2004) and overall largely singular version of beauty (Dove, 2004). Moreover the media tend to only display images of an unnatural idealistic breast size (Tantleff Dunn, 2002), and advertisements contain visuals of one option for how a woman should look (Bordo, 1993).

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21 As a result, the media have created a situation in which women cannot help but compare themselves to the images they are faced with on a daily basis (Goodman & Walsh Childers, 2004). Women frequently evaluate themselves against magazine and TV models and look to celebrities as guides for what is attractive and are, not surprisingly, disappointed with their own appearance (Sarwer et al., 1998; Underwood, 2000). For example, a study by Heinberg and Thompson (1995) found that women with body image issues most often compared themselves against media celebrities, while G rogan (1999) revealed that women in their 20s most often compared their bodies to fashion models and actresses. Furthermore, a study by Garner (1997) found that when interviewing women with appearance dissatisfaction, 43% of them compared themselves with of identification, desire, and imitation, the more ordinary people will turn to surgery, and the lum, 2003, p. 229). As the above studies have demonstrated, women compare themselves to models in the media, and Wood (1994) found that both women and men tend to emulate these visuals. The constant exposure to the mediated ideal results in a higher standa rd of beauty for women to attain while simultaneously lowering their self satisfaction (Richens, 1991; Sarwer et al., 1998; Harrison, 2003; Cusumano & Thompson, 1997). Moreover, multiple studies have cited a correlation between exposure to media messages a (Cafri, Yamamiya, Brannick, & Thompson, 2005). Research has also shown that exposure to enhancing bras (Harrison, 200 3).

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22 As a result, women may internalize this ideal and compare themselves to it (Latteier, 1998; Harrison, & Hefner, 2006; Levine, & Harrison, 2004). Markey and Markey (2009) found that women who internalized media messages concerning body issues tended t o be more be that the media act as a source of many things for women. The media educate us on conventional male and female roles (Tuchman, 1978; Artz & Murphy 2000) and provide a foundation of cultural norms and behavior expectations, both of which provide information for women as to what sort of rewards (i.e., love, success, etc.) may be bestowed upon a them for possessing the ideal breast (Brownmiller, 1984; Bordo, 1993; Tseelon,1995; Freedman, 1984). The ideal breast and celebrity. cultural research suggests that e media, and those they celebrate, have always influenced fashion (Underwood, 2000, p.36 ). Fashion reinforces a cyclic resurgence of designer body parts (Latteier, 1998) that often coincide with the most popular celebrity at that time. Pl astic surgeons in California release an annual listing of the facial and bodily features of the most popularly requested celebrity parts because patients continue to mimic the bodies and faces of top actors or celebrities. Another surgeon cites that for t he past quarter of a century plastic surgery patients have turned to the According to research from Heinberg and Thompson (1995), women ranked their friends as the foremost source for bodily comparison, with media celebrities as second. In addition, a Toronto plastic surgeon claims that younger women, who make up the majority of breast implant

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23 procedures (ASPS, 2008), look to the stars of today for information on wh at is physically desirable (Underwood, 2000). The ideal breast in a mediated society. average woman compares her genetic physical endowments with a few hand picked models. Despite their surreal beauty, the media insist that their beauty is attainable through hard work and for media related images in fostering such discrepancies between current, ide al and perception of Additionally, the more society is exposed to versions of the ideal female, the ideal body shape, and the ideal breast size, the more both men and women approve of cosmetic sur gery, including breast augmentation (Brooks, 2004; Harrison, 2003). For example, Harrison (2003) found that exposure to ideal body images on TV was associated with male and female college eived themselves to be smaller busted preferring a larger bust, or females who perceived themselves to be larger busted preferring a smaller bust. Most women recognize that meeting the current beauty idea (Martin & Kennedy, 1993, p. 516). Compounding this desire for the ideal breast is the fact that in ty

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24 C osmetic surgery has long been associated with physical health which in turn is linked with wealth, power and confidence. But whereas thirty years ago, the cosmetic surgery patient required an operation to address a debilitating insecurity surgery than before. (Woodstock, 2001, p. 421) Woman can take control of their live and meeting the current beauty ideal. the continuous increase in breast augmentation procedures. According to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, breast augmentation was the number one procedure performed in 2007, a 64% increase from 2000. More than $12.4 billion was spent by Americans on cosmetic procedures in 2007 with Caucasians representing 76% of cos metic surgery. In 20 07, women from 18 to 19 years old underwent 10,505 breast augmentations, and women from 20 to 29 years old underwent 108,116 breast augmentations. In addition to these statistics, there have been multiple studies linking breast dis satisfaction with desire for cosmetic surgery (Sarwer, et al., 1998). For example, Nordmann (2000) looked at two groups of women with similar breast size and discovered that women seeking breast augmentation surgery had greater body dissatisfaction with r egards to their breast only. Additionally, women seeking the surgery were found to have a much larger discrepancy between their actual and ideal breast size, tended to avoid bodily exposure and contact, and believed that both men and women preferred large r breast to smaller ones. Moreover, the increase in cosmetic surgery procedures mirrors an increase in the popularity of reality TV cosmetic surgery makeover programs. In 2003, Extreme Makeover an example of reality cosmetic surgery shows, was the second most watched television program for viewers under age 50 (Sarwer & Crerand, 2004). Additionally, a study by Crockett, Pruzinsky

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25 and Persing (2007) found that cosmetic surgery patients who watched at least one or more reality cosmetic surgery television p rogram cited these reality shows and the media as having a greater influencing breast augmentation. Obviously, the part of the body that cosmetic patients feel most dissatisfied with is the part on which they decide to operate (Sarwer, et al., 1998), which further demonstrates that the majority of women seeking cosmetic procedures are unhappy with breast size. The bulk of patients choosing breast augmentation ar e attempting to enhance their self image (Goodman & Walsh Childers, 2004) and reduce self consciousness (Koff & Benavage, 1998), and are more preoccupied with appearance than women who abstain from cosmetic surgery (Sarwer, et al., 1998). Many women resor t to surgery because of social pressures to be beautiful and have a perfect body (Latteier, 1998). The need to conform to what society considers beautiful and the desire to please men (Brooks, 2004) also play a role, as well as a desire to mimic higher soc ial classes (Underwood, 2000 ) and increase overall quality of life (Rankin, Borah, Perry, & Wey, 1998). Women also choose plastic surgery when they want to market themselves in social relationships (Askegaard, Gertsen, & Langer, 2002), enhance their sense of control and domination, or to create economic gain (Morgan, 1991). An aging population, surgery profitability (McLellan, 2006), the preoccupation with looks by younger people (Underwood, 2000 ), as well as technological advances in the field (Brooks, 2 004) and psychological issues (Figueroa, 2003), have also impacted the number of breast augmentations performed each year. breast size and their desire to be beautiful as d efined by the mediated ideal, breasts become a source of many different emotions for women, ranging from pride to shame and from sexuality

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26 to insecurity (Goodman & Walsh Childers, 2004). Breast size satisfaction has been related to levels of self esteem (K off & Benavage, 1998) and overall body image satisfaction (Tantleff Dunn & Thompson 2000). In order to address the issue of lower self esteem and decreased body satisfaction, the media tell women there are no bounds to pursuing the perfect body (Underwoo d, 2000). There are many tools women can use to attain the perfect body and become the ideal specimen, including cosmetic surgery. In essence, women are driven to meet the mediated ideal through altering their bodies, which results in their bodies becoming a commodity. The body simply becomes another experiment (Haiken, 1997), another object to be changed. Hard work and determination, as well as a little nip here and a minor tuck there, may be the keys to being beautiful. Because of advances in technology ( Morgan, 1991) and the ability to select parts of the body (Goodman & Walsh Childers, 2004), it is now unimaginable as to why beauty standard, more and more women are willingly conforming to social ideals of beauty (Tantleff Dunn, 2002). an extremely narcissistic culture (Underwood, 2000 ), the popularity of the age management move Childers, 2004, p. 637), to name a few. Viewed as yet another lifestyle choice, cosmetic surgery (U nderwood, 2000 ) enables wome against the constraints of the given in their embodied lives and seek liberation from those

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27 However, Fredrickson and Roberts (1997) believe that women often look at themselves view, which results in their bodies becoming objects subject to the opinions of others. This concern with appearance and the desire to meet current beauty standards has been identified throughout research (Bartky, 1990; Henderson King & Henderson King, 200 5). Henderson King and Henderson feel about not having met socially defined standards of beauty the more likely they are to accept Men and the ideal breast. Men are another fact or driving women to meet the ideal breast size. Because of societal pressures, women are forced to compete for male attention and approval. This approval results in higher status both socially and professionally, as well as physically (Brownmiller, 1984; Bordo, 1993; Tseelon, 1995; Freedman, 1984). Additionally, more of a source of stress and concern for women (Brownmiller, 1984). According to focus groups condu cted by Goodman and Walsh participants were also aware that the male targeted media portrayed women with large breasts, and large breasts are an attraction for men. As a result, many participants felt that meeting the ideal breast size was necessary. A combination of societal infl uences, including men and the media, has influenced many women to conform to an ideal breast size seen in advertising. As noted in the introduction, few Childers, 2004).

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28 the current ideal. There are many unintended consequences of exposure to the unrealistic images portrayed in advertising, including feelings of inadequacy, obsession with physical attractiveness and skewed views on what is the normal beauty standard (Martin & Kennedy, 1993; Martin & Gentry, 1997). Studies also have shown that exposure to these ideal images raises the standard for comparison of physical beauty but does not positively affect levels of personal evaluation (Martin & Kennedy, 1993). Additionally, exposure to these perfect images has resulted in a decrease in confid ence, tendency to resort to unhealthy eating practices and the use of plastic surgery (Richens, 1991). Theoretical Foundations Based on the literature, two theories served as background for the present study. The first theory, Self discrepancy Theory, cont ributed to the understanding of how women compare themselves to the ideal breast and the potential impact of this comparison. The second theory, ad b Self Discrepancy Theory helped explain breast size dissatisfaction resulting from the models in print advertisements. The differences were e valuated and used to understand how breast size affects the way a consumer views an advertisement or brand and possibly the discrepancy theories, body dissatisfaction reflects the extent of discrepancy betwe en self perceived physical attributes and these Discrepancy Theory was used to assess the negative psychological situations that coincide with a discrepancy between an or the self

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29 desire for that individual, i.e., desired or ideal breast satisfaction), resulting in v arious types of discomfort. The outcome is affected by the magnitude of the discrepancy (i.e., how large a difference there is between ideal and actual breast satisfaction) and the accessibility (i.e., can the ideal actually be obtained by the individual) positive outcome results in dejection related emotions, such as disappointment, dissatisfaction, and sadness (Higgins, 1987). The emotions may be then transferred to the product. The second theory is bas Belch (1986). This theory was used to explain how attitude toward ad, attitude toward the brand and purchasi ng behavior are related. According to Model of Predictive Measurements, consumers do not automatically go from simply being unaware of the existence of a specific product to actively purchasing the product. Instead, consumers go through an incredibly com some point, the consumer is made aware of the existence of a particular product through an e particular advertisement, the customer begins to learn about the product and what benefits the product offers. After discovering what the product offers, the consumer will begin to develop attitudes toward the product and begin liking or disliking the p roduct, having a favorable or unfavorable toward the advertisement. If the consumer begins liking the product and has a favorable attitude toward the produ ct and also has a favorable attitude toward the advertisement, the consumer will start to consider the product over its competitors. Once the product is positioned as the most

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30 favorable product in a category because of the combination of the advertising a nd the product favorability, most consumers connect this liking to a desire to purchase the product. The desire to purchase the product is coupled with the belief that the acquisition of this product would be an asset to the consumer. The last and final s tep in the model is the purchase of the product by the consumer. As previously mentioned, this method was later refined by Mackinzie, Lutz and Belch (1986), who postulated and confirmed that attitude toward the ad influenced attitude toward the brand thr ough both direct and indirect means. Moore and Hutchinson (1983 & 1985) found a direct relationship between ad attitude and brand attitude, and Mitchell and Olson (1981) found that ad attitude was a more significant determinant of attitude toward the brand actual beliefs and evaluations of a brand. Additionally, multiple studies have cited attitude toward the ad as a mediating variable in the advertising process during which both attitude toward the brand and purchase intention are developed (Mitchell & Olson, 1981; Shimp, 1981, Holbrook, 1978). Research has also shown that attitude toward the ad acts as a moderator of (Batra, 1984; Batra & Ray, 1983; Holbrook, 1978; MacKen zie, Lutz & Belch, 1986; MacKenzie & Lutz, 1983; Mitchell & Olson, 1981; Moore & Hutchinson, 1983; Shimp, 1981; Zinkham, Gelb, & Martin, 1983). Because Burke and Edell (1989) have demonstrated that negative feelings may directly affect the attitude toward the brand, the researcher hoped to determine how negative feelings (i.e., women who are dissatisfied with their breast size) can be relayed into feelings toward both the advertisement and the brand, and how these feelings may alter purchasing behaviors. H ypotheses and Rationale In an effort to determine how breast size in advertising influences women, this study aimed to answer the following questions:

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31 RQ1 : Do women perceive an advertisement differently based on varying breast size of a model in an advert isement? RQ2 : Do women perceive a brand differently based on varying breast size of a model in an advertisement? RQ3 advertisement? RQ4 : Do women with lower breast size satisfaction perceive an advertisement differently than women with higher breast size satisfaction? As noted in the introduction, multiple studies affirm that medium breast size leads to the highest breast size satisfaction (Harrison, 2003; Kleinke & Stane ski, 1980), yet many women prefer breasts larger than their current size (e.g., Tantleff Dunn, 2002). The present average breast size is a B cup, and more than 60% of women are a B cup size or smaller (Breast Options, 2009). The desire for extremely large breast may be the result of the media, which portrays a woman with unnaturally large breasts and a thin body frame as the ideal (Furnham, Adrian, Dias, Melanie, & McClelland, Alastair, 1998). Women have tried a number of approaches to meet the ideal, but because body fat and breast size are positively correlated, women cannot naturally attain large breast size while simultaneous decreasing body frame size (Harrison, 2003). As a amatic and steady increase in cosmetic surgery, regardless of the dangers associated with the procedures, signal that women are highly dissatisfied with their current breast size. This negative body image and the viewing of a naturally unobtainable ideal across all media may result in negative feelings and reactions on behalf of female consumers when viewing advertisements containing attitude toward the brand (Mo ore & Hutchinson, 1983). Additionally, since attitude toward the Holbrook, 1978; MacKenzie, Lutz & Belch, 1986; MacKenzie & Lutz, 1983; Mitchell & Olson,

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32 1981; Moore & Hutchinson, 1983; Shimp, 1981; Zinkham, Gelb, & Martin, 1983), a negative product featured in the advertisement. Therefore, it is hypothesized that: HYP1a: Wom en exposed to advertising with large breast to body ratio will have a less favorable attitude toward the advertisement than women exposed to ads with small breast to body ratio. HYP1b: Women exposed to advertising with large breast to body ratio will ha ve a less favorable attitude toward the brand than women exposed to ads with small breast to body ratio. HYP1c: Women exposed to advertising with large breast to body ratio will demonstrate a lower intent to purchase a product than women exposed to ads wit h small breast to body ratio. Additionally, it is hypothesized that: HYP2a: Women dissatisfied with their breast size (i.e., desire larger breast) will have a less favorable attitude toward the advertisement than women satisfied with their breast size. H YP2b: Women dissatisfied with their breast size (i.e., desire larger breast) will have a less favorable attitude toward the brand than women satisfied with their breast size. HYP2c: Women dissatisfied with their breast size (i.e., desire larger breast) wil l demonstrate a lower intent to purchase a product than women satisfied with their breast size. Finally, it is hypothesized that: HYP3a: There will be an interaction between model breast size and participant breast size satisfaction in an advertisement. HYP3b: For an advertisement, the small breast to body ratio model/satisfied participant will yield more favorable attitude toward the ad than the large breast to body ratio model/dissatisfied participant. HYP3c: For an advertisement, the small breast to bo dy ratio model/satisfied participant will yield more favorable attitude toward the brand than the large breast to body ratio model/dissatisfied participant. HYP3d: For an advertisement, the small breast to body ratio model/satisfied participant will yield more favorable purchase intention than the large breast to body ratio model/dissatisfied participant. Large breast size is equivalent to a C cup or larger

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33 CHAPTER 3 METHOD Research Design To test the hypotheses, a posttest only between subject experime ntal design was implemented. An experiment was the most appropriate testing method because it met the three criteria for causality: the cause took place before the effect, there were no confounding variables ensuring that the independent variable caused t he changes in the dependent variable, and there was a statistical correlation between the two variables (Babbie, 2001). Meeting the criteria for causality was important to this study because the research questions and resulting hypotheses needed to show ca usality between the breast size of a model in an advertisement and breast size satisfaction, and the resulting attitude toward the advertisement, attitude toward the brand and purchase intention. As a result a multivariate analysis of variance, MANOVA, was used to analyze the data. Operational Definition of Variables Independent Variables The study had two independent variables the breast size of the model in the stimulus advertisement, and the breast size satisfaction of the participants. The independen t variable, breast size, had two levels small breasted and large breasted with each breast size being on the same thin body frame. Breast size was operationalized using to hip rat io and breast size. The stimulus figure drawings were adopted by Furnham, Dias and McClelland (1998) from previous research by Singh (1993 & 1994), and, according to these studies, were found to be relevant and discerning for research concerning body image Of the eight figures used in their study, the two selected were the S7SB (slender (S), feminine WHR (7) and small

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34 breasted (SB)) and the S7LB (slender (S), feminine WHR (7) and large breasted (LB)). The S7SB stimulus drawing represented a model with a disproportionately small breast size to body frame, while the S7LB represented the disproportionately large breast size to body frame. Both stimulus figures represented the universal feminine ideal of the 0.7 waist to hip ratio (Furnham, Dias & McClelland 1998). To ensure the proper matching of the stimulus drawings to the created stimulus advertisements, two coders were used to evaluate the difference between waist to hip ratio and breast size. Breast size satisfaction was measured during the experimen t through the use of two tools during the questionnaire. The use of two measurements helped minimize any threats to the validity of this portion of the experiment, and the additional information gathered from the second tool will allow for confidence in d first measure of breast size satisfaction required participants to state their actual and ideal breast size using standard American bra cup sizes (A D), as well as their scale within each cup size (smal l, medium and large). This resulted in a size scale ranging from one to 12, with a small A cup equaling one and a large D cup equaling 12. The satisfaction with breast size was operationalized as the difference between the participants actual breast size and her ideal breast size (ideal breast size actual breast size =discrepancy score). This information not only provided a differentiation between those satisfied and unsatisfied with breast size but allowed for dividing participants into groups accordin g to who preferred a larger breast size, a smaller breast size or no change at all. The second test exposed participants to Furnham, Dias and to hip ratio and breast size and asked them to identify the ir ideal and actual body frame by selecting the figure they felt most closely reflected each.

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35 Stimuli Development Development of the advertising stimuli consisted of multiple stages. First, the magazine from which the stimulus was selected had to be det ermined. According to Cusumano and Thompson (1997), Cosmopolitan is one of the most popular magazines among the target demographic. This fact was confirmed during the pre questionnaire that asked subjects to list the top three magazines read ( See Table 3 2 for magazines most mentioned and rankings). The October 2009 edition of Cosmopolitan was purchased and an advertisement featuring a form of laundry detergent was selected from the publication ( See Appendix B). Instead of using an appearance based product that could possibly cause an emotional response, a more ndry detergent) was selected Specifically, the stimulus advertisement used was chosen because it was an advertisement for a lo w involvement product in which the model was wearing clothing that allowed for easy and obvious manipulation of her breast size. Ad One (See Appendix C) featured a model with large breast size, while Ad Two (See Appendix B) featured a model with small brea st size. Thus, the exact same model was used in each each condition except for breast size The stimulus advertisements were created by a professional graphic designer who was hired to ensure a realistic looking advertisement. The designer was provided the original advertisement selected from the magazine and all relevant information for development of the ad. The original advertisement was a brand of laundry detergent. The graphic designer left all elements of the ad intact except for the brand of laundry detergent and breast size of the model. The use of an actual laundry detergent advertisement increased external validity. The original advertisement had the brand name removed to prevent it from acting as a confounding variable. Instead, a fictitious brand called Natural Laundry Detergent was created and used in the

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36 advertisement. The brand name was created to reflect the feel of the advertisement selected, and the pro duct packaging was designed to reflect the natural theme. The ads were exactly alike placement, colors, etc. except for the breast size of the model. The advertising stimuli were then printed on 8.5 x 11 s thesis committee prior to use in the experiment. Print advertisements were the preferred form of media because it was the easiest and most obvious way to judge differences in breast size. To ensure an authentic look of the advertisements, two independe nt coders were recruited from the Master of Advertising program. These students rated the advertisements for authentic appearance and appreciable differences in breast size to body frame in comparison to the s figure drawings The study used five point semantic differential scales to rate the advertisements on the following items ( See Appendix A) : likely are you to believe that the woman featured in the advertisement would be found in a Cosmopolitan or Glamour typic Cosmopolitan or Glamour rtisements for laundry rating every single question the exact same. The coders found that the stimulus advertisements oth found it extremely likely that the stimulus advertisements looked like an advertisement that would be

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37 they found it extemely likely that the advertisements could be for laundry detergent and they indicated that both stimulus ads matched the desired Additionally, the coders were asked to loo stimulus figure drawings and indicate which drawing most closely resembled the body frame to breast size in Stimulus Ad A and which drawing most closely resembled the body frame to breast size in Stimulus Ad B Validity This study ensured a high level of both internal and external validity. Campbell and to decide whether experimental treatments of a particular g roup actually impact the dependent variable measured in the study. Internal validity was ensured through the careful screening of participants and instrument reliability. The maturation of subjects could have been an issue, so participant fatigue or bore dom had to be considered in the study, both of which were prevented through the use of a brief and concise questionnaire. Pretesting of the subjects could also have become an issue because the participants may have been more aware of their breast size and possibly pay more attention to their breast size in relation to others; however, this issue was addressed by allowing at least one week between the pre questionnaire and the actual experiment. According to Campbell and Stanley (1963), external validity is the degree to which the results of an experiment can be found repeatedly. For this study, external validity was maintained through the use of a realistic advertisement protoype.

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3 8 Reliability Reliability is defined as the consistency of an experiment so that when repeated the same results occur (Carmines & Zeller, 1979). For this study, reliability was maintained through internal consistency, specifically in the development of a reliable survey instrument. The instrument, which was a questionnaire, requi scales. The use of multiple scales ensured the items that reflected the same construct yielded reported in the d ependent measures section. Additionally, a pretest was used to discover visual problems with the stimulus advertisements, wording problems with the questionnaire, as well as any unexpected matters. Measurement The dependent variables were measured usin g a questionnaire ( See Appendix F for the complete questionnaire). Specifically, the questionnaire assessed dependent variables including attitude toward the ad, attitude toward the brand, and purchase intention. All variables utilized a multitude of measu ring techniques, which included a five point Likert scale and a seven point semantic differential scales. Dependent Measures : Attitude toward the ad was defined as the tendency to respond favorably or unfavorably to an advertising stimulus (Lutz, 1985). F or this particular study, it was measured on a seven point semantic differential scale. Five items were included as potential indicators of attitude toward the ad: favorable unfavorable, boring interesting, dislike very much like very much, not irritating irritating, holds attention does not hold attention. These scale items have been used by a number of researchers studying attitude toward the ad, including Lutz and Belch (1983), Mitchell and Olson (1981), Gardner (1985), MacKenzie, Lutz and Belch (1986), and Phelps and Thorson (1991). A check on the reliability of these items from

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39 luation of a particular brand (Wilkie, 1986). For this study, it was measured on a seven point semantic differential scale. The following scale items were included as potential indicators of attitude toward the brand: dislike very much like very much, ba d good, unpleasant pleasant and worthless valuable. These scale items have been used by a number of researchers studying attitude toward the brand, including Shimp (1981), Park and Young (1986), Gardner (1985), Gardner, Mitchell and Russo (1985), Muehling (1987), and Phelps and Thorson (1991). A check on the reliability of these Purchase intention was defined by Fishbein and Ajzen (1975, p. 369) as "the best single predictor of an individual's behavior will be a measure of his intention to perform that behavior." For this particular study, it was measured on a seven point semantic differential scale that measured the likelihood that participa nts would purchase the featured product. As previously mentioned, a fake brand of laundry detergent was created for use in the stimuli advertisements. The following scale items were included as potential indicators of purchase intention: unlikely likely, u ncertain certain, improbable probable and definitely not definitely (Li, Daugherty & additional statistics were run on the individual scale items to determine the c ause of the low reliability score. The corrected item to total correlation for the scales indicated an abnormally low number for the uncertain certain scale ( see Table 3 3). After deleting the uncertain certain scale, the reliability check for purchase int

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40 Pretest of Experiment Prior to the full experiment, 25 women, similar in demographics to those from the main experiment sample, participated in a pretest. The purpose of the pretest was to discover visual problems with the stim ulus advertisements, wording problems with the questionnaire, as well as any unexpected matters (See Appendix E). The use of previously tested scales that have been found to be both reliable and valid allowed the researcher to accurately predict if the impact of the experimental treatment (which, for this study, is varying breast sizes in an advertisement) of a particular group actually im pacted the dependent variables in this group (attitude toward the ad, attitude toward the brand and purchase intentio n). The reliability checks for the scales showed a high internal consistency for the scales, check on the reliability of attitude toward the ad resulted in a Main Test of Experiment Participants According to Gravetter and Forzano (2009), each condition required at least 30 present study, however, had a total of 89 participants distributed between both conditions. Participants were recruited among female undergraduate stud ents from a large southeastern university. All of them were 18 to 23 year old women; the avera ge age was 20. One was a freshm a n (1%), 31 were sophomores (35%), 34 were juniors (38%) and 23 were seniors (26%).

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41 They voluntarily participated in the study an d received extra credit from their instructors for participation. There are multiple reasons for this demographic being a desirable group to participate in the study. First, young people are preoccupied with body image and display a strong interest in th e media (Underwood, 2000 ). Moreover, according to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, 10.7 million cosmetic procedures were performed in 2007, with breast augmentation as the number one cosmetic procedure with a total of 347,500 patients undergoing this surgery during that year. Additional ly, women from 18 to 19 years old underwent 10,505 breast augmentations, and women from 20 to 29 years old underwent 108,116 breast augmentations, 34% of the total breast augmentation procedures in 2007. Procedure For recuiting purposes, professors teaching undergraduate advertising classes were contacted. After receiving permission from the professors, a pre questionnaire was distributed via email to the students. Potential subjects to decrease the formation of preconceived notions and prevent the participants from talking about the research. The pre questionnaire served multiple purposes. First, it eliminated ineligible participants, which was determined by questions such as sex (males were elminated because this study only focuses on how women are impacted by breast size in advertising), current school level (in an effort to eliminate any student s who were not undergraduates), citizen of the U.S. for more than 10 years (in an effort to eliminate any cultural differences and maintain study integrity), and whether the student had undergone breast augmentation (in an effort to eliminate women who may be overly sensitive to the breast size of the stimulus model). Of the 456 students who participated in the prequestionnaire, a total of 204 students were eliminated based

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42 on these criteria, which left 250 students qualified to participate in the study. Th ere was a 64 % dropout rate among participants who qualified for the study, with only 89 of the 250 qualified students participating in the experiment. The prequestionnaire also provided a tool for collecting demographic information (ethnicity and ag breast satisfaction prior to participation in the experiment so that it could be compared to breast satisfaction following the completion of the experiment. Finally, the participants were asked to list the t op three most frequently read magazines to compare findings with Cusumano and Cosmopolitan is one of the most popular magazines among the target demographic. Following the identification of students who were eligible and willing to participate, take part in the experiment ( See Appendix D). The experiments were conducted during 12 30 minute sessions held from October 13 to October 19, 2009, on campus in a conference r oom The conference room had multiple tables arranged in a large circle. Once participants entered the room, they were asked if the purpose of t the location to participate in the study, each woman provided the moderator her name and was randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions. Random assignment was conducted using a random numbers table to prearrange the experimental packets, wh ich contained an instruction/informed consent sheet, the stimulus advertisement and the questionnaire, as well as a yellow sheet of paper placed between the instruction sheet and stimulus ad in an effort to prevent the participants from viewing the ad long er than necessary. The researcher drew from the top of the prearranged packets to assign each participant to an experimental condition. After the subjects received their packets they were seated around the

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43 table and separated as much as the room set up allowed as to prevent one participant from seeing open their packets until given further instructions. Once all participants arrived for the 30 minute session, the moderator provided instructions to the group. Each participant was told to open the packet but to place the papers on the table, leaving them in order, and not go through them. Once all participants had done this, the moderator instructed the participants to read and sign the informed consent (See Appendix F) and once this was done, to turn over the informed consent so that the yellow page was on top of the stack. Once all participants had signed the informed consent, the moderator asked the participants to turn over the yellow page and look at the advertisement for a few seconds. The participants were exposed to the stimulus advertisement for 30 seconds, which was timed by the moderator. Next, the subjects were asked to complete the questionnaire (See App endix G). They were all told to ask the moderator if any questions arose and that they could leave once the questionnaire was complete. Each subject was again asked to enter the last four digits of her phone number and initials in order to match both the p re questionnaire and main experiment questionnaire. Participants responded to questions regarding attitude toward the ad, attitude toward the brand and purchase intention, followed by questions regarding breast size satisfaction and manipulation check mea sures. One of the participants was eliminated because she did not complete all aspects of the survey. Manipulation Check Measures In an effort to ensure that participants actually read and carefully considered the questions, it was announced that administ ration time for the questionnaire packet would take a minimum of 30 minutes. Additionally, two items were randomly added, which required the subjects to write a certain number in the answer space or circle a particular answer to a question. No datasets ha d

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44 to be discarded based on this criterion because subjects answered both manipulation checks correctly. Analysis The present study employed The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 17 for Windows) for statistical data analysis. Given the pres ence of multiple dependent variables and independent variables, MANOVA was conducted. It was run with two independent variables (small breasted/ large breasted stimulus advertisement, breast size satisfaction) and three dependent variables (attitude toward the ad, attitude toward the advertised brand, and intent to purchase).

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45 Figure 3 1. Furnam, Dias and McClelland Stimulus Figure Drawings. Table 3 1 Frequently Read Magazines. Rank Magazine Name Frequency Percentage 1 Cosmopoliton 106 42.4% 2 Peopl e 19 7.6% 3 Glamour 14 5.6% 4 InStyle 11 4.4% 5 Elle 10 4.0% Table 3 2 Corrected Item to Total Correlation for Uncertain Certain Scale. Individual Scale Items C orrected item to total correlation unlikely/likely 0.712 improbable/probable 0.754 unc ertain/certain 0.023 definitely not/definitely 0.652

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46 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS Experiment This chapter presents the results of the experimental investigation that determined whether action affected the icipants who were satisfied versus participants who wanted larger breasts. The dependent variables were attitude toward the ad, attitude toward the brand and purchase intention. Two magazine prototypes were used as stimuli in the experiment: an advertiseme nt featuring a model with large breast size and an advertisement featuring a model with small breast size. Subjects were randomly assigned to view one of the two prototypes and then answered a questionnaire that measured the dependent variables. A multiva riate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted to investigate hypotheses and research questions. The result of the experiment is presented in the following order of describing sample profiles, manipulation checks and reliability checks. Profile of the Sample All participants used for this experimental study were American college students. Among a total of 89 participants, 89 (100%) were females. All of them were 18 to 23 year old women; the average age was 20. All of them were undergraduate students (1 00%). In terms of academic classification, one was a freshman (1%), 31 were sophomores (35%), 34 were juniors (38%) and 23 were seniors (26%). In terms of ethnicity, 66 were Caucasians (74%), four were African Americans (4.5%), 12 were Hispanic (14%), four were Asian (4.5%), one was Pacific Islander

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47 (1%) and two people listed Other (2%). Of the majors listed, 52 were Journalism and Communications majors, 2 6 were Business majors, six were Liberal Arts and Sciences majors, one was Health and Human Performance major, one was Agricultural and Life Sciences major and one student was Undecided Manipulation Checks As a manipulation check, two questions were added toward the end of the questionnaire. One question asked the participants to spell the number eight, whi le the other question asked the participants to identify a geometric shape. The entire sample of participants (100%) correctly identified the triangle. In addition, all participants correctly spelled the number eight. Hypotheses Testing The objective of th is study was to examine the impact of breast size in print toward the brand and purchase intention. MANOVA was conducted to examine the effects of a small or l arge breasted model in a print advertisement on attitude toward the ad, attitude toward the brand and purchase intention. The analysis was run with three dependent variables (attitude toward the ad, attitude toward the brand, purchase intention) and two in dependent variables (stimulus advertisement featuring a small or large breasted model, breast satisfaction). Effect of Stimulus Ad on Dependent Variables Table 4 1 lists the descriptive statistics for the dependent variable attitude toward the ad by each experimental condition of the stimulus ad (large breast to body ratio and small breast to body ratio). The attitude toward the ad scales had a possible range of 5 to 35 with the higher numbers indicating a more positive attitude toward the advertisement. The overall attitude toward the ad of the respondents ranged from 13 to 35 and had a mean of 24.83 (SD= 5.16, SE=

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48 (SD= 5.63, SE= 0.85). The small breast group with a mean of 25.31 (SD= 4.68, SE= 0.70). Based on the means, the small breast group had the highest attitude toward the ad mean, but it was only slightly higher than the mean for the overall results and the mean for the large breast group. Table 4 2 lists the descriptive statistics for the dependent variable attitude toward the brand by each experimental condition of the stimulus ad (large breast to body ratio and small breast to body ratio). The attitude t oward the brand scales had a possible range of 5 to 35, with the higher numbers indicating a more positive attitude toward the brand. The overall attitude toward the brand of the respondents ranged from 6 to 27 and had a mean of 18.50 (SD= 3.38, SE= 0.36). with a mean of 18.64 (SD= 3.38, SE= 0.36). Based on the means, the small breast group had the highest attitude toward the brand mean, but it was only slightly higher than the mean for the overall results and the mean for the large breast group. Table 4 3 lists the descriptive statistics for the dependent variable purchase intention by each experimental condition of the stimulus ad (large breast to body ratio and small breast to body ratio). The purchase intention scales had a possible range of 5 to 35, with the higher numbers indicating a more positive intent to purchase t he product. The overall purchase intention of the respondents ranged from 3 to 2 0 and had a mean of 11.17 (SD= 4.40, SE= 0.47). The large 0.62). The small breast gro (SD= 4.73, SE= 0.71). Based on the means, the small breast group had the highest purchase

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49 intention mean, but it was only slightly higher than the mean for the overall results and the mean f or the large breast group. HYP1: The first hypothesis tested the main effect of exposure to advertising with large breast to body ratio on attitude toward the ad, attitude toward the brand and purchase intention. The main effect of model breast size in a print advertisement on the three combined dependent variables indicated no statistical significance [F (3, 85) = 0.266, p = 0.850], and thus was not supported. According to Table 4 4 and Table 4 5, the parameter estimates for the dependent variables were not significant (attitude toward the ad: B= 0.97, t=0.89, ns ; attitude toward the brand: B= 0.30, t=0.42, ns ; purchase intention: B= 0.20, t=0.21, ns ). Hypothesis 1 A stated that participants exposed to advertising with large breast to body ratio will have a le ss favorable attitude toward the advertisement than women exposed to ads with small breast to body ratio. The results indicated the main effect of large breast to body ratio on attitude toward the advertisement [F (1, 87) = 0.783 p = 0.379], such that par ticipants who viewed the ad with a small breast to body ratio [ M = 25.31, SD = 4.68] showed no more favorable of an attitude toward the ad than did participants who viewed the ad with a large breast to body ratio [ M = 24.34, SD = 5.63]. Thus, hypothesis 1 A was not supported; i.e., women who were exposed to the advertisement featuring a model with small breast to body ratio showed no more favorable attitude toward the ad than women exposed to the advertisement featuring a model with large breast to body ratio. H ypothesis 1 B stated that participants exposed to advertising with large breast to body ratio will have a less favorable attitude toward the brand than women exposed to ads with small breast to body ratio. The results indicated the main effect of large brea st to body ratio on attitude toward the brand [F (1, 87) = 0.178, p = 0.675], such that participants who viewed the ad with

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50 small breast to body ratio [ M = 18.64, SD = 3.05] showed no more favorable of an attitude toward the brand than did participants who v iewed the ad with a large breast to body ratio [ M = 18.34, SD = 3.72]. Thus, hypothesis 1 B was not supported; i.e., women who were exposed to the advertisement featuring a model with small breast to body ratio showed no more favorable attitude toward the bra nd than women exposed to the advertisement featuring a model with large breast to body ratio. Hypothesis 1 C stated that participants exposed to advertising with large breast to body ratio will have lower purchase intention than women exposed to ads with sm all breast to body ratio. The results indicated the main effect of large breast to body ratio on purchase intention [F (1, 87) = 0.045, p = 0.833], such that participants who viewed the ad with small breas t to body ratio [ M = 11.27, SD = 4.73] showed no more intent to purchase than did participants who viewed the ad with large breast to body ratio [ M = 11.07, SD = 4. 09 ]. Thus, hypothesis 1 C was not supported; i.e., women who were exposed to the advertisement featuring a model with small breast to body ratio sho wed no more intent to purchase the product than women exposed to the advertisement featuring a model with large breast to body ratio. Effect of Breast Size Satisfaction on Dependent Variables Table 4 6 lists the descriptive statistics for the dependent var iable attitude toward the ad by each experimental condition for breast size satisfaction (satisfied and unsatisfied). The attitude toward the ad scales had a possible range of 5 to 35, with the higher numbers indicating a more positive attitude toward the advertisement. The overall attitude toward the ad of the respondents ranged from 13 to 35 and had a mean of 24.83 (SD= 5.16 SE= 0.55 ). The satisfied ranged from 19 to 33 and had a mean of 28.38 (SD= 4.50 SE= 1.59 ). The diss atisfied ranged from 13 to 35 and had a mean of 24.48 (SD= 5.12 SE= 0.57 ). Based on the means, the satisfied group had the highest attitude

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51 toward the ad mean, but it was only slightly higher than the mean for both the overa ll results and the dissatisfied group. Table 4 7 lists the descriptive statistics for the dependent variable attitude toward the brand by each experimental condition for breast size satisfaction (satisfied and dissatisfied ). The attitude toward the brand s cales had a possible range of 5 to 35, with the higher numbers indicating a more positive attitude toward the brand. The overall attitude toward the brand of the respondents ranged from 6 to 27 and had a mean of 18.49 (SD= 3.38, SE= 0.36 ). The satisfied gr 16 to 22 and had a mean of 19.00 (SD= 2.14, SE= 0.76 ). The dissatisfied 6 to 27 and had a mean of 18.44 (SD= 3.49, SE= 0.39 ). Based on the means, the satisfied group had the highest attitude toward the brand mean, but it was only slightly higher than the mean for both the overall results and the dissatisfied group. Table 4 8 lists the descriptive statistics for the dependent variable purchase intention by each experime ntal condition for breast size satisfaction (satisfied and dissatisfied ). The purchase intention scales had a possible range of 5 to 35, with the higher numbers indicating a more likely intent to purchase the product. The overall purchase intention of the respondents ranged from 3 to 20 and had a mean of 11.17 (SD= 4.40 SE= 0.47 ranged from 3 to 16 and had a mean of 10.88 (SD= 4.73 SE= 1.67 ). The dissatisfied purchase intention ranged from 3 to 20 and had a mean of 11.20 (SD= 4.40 SE = 0.49). Based on the means, the satisfied group had the highest purchase intention mean, which was only slightly higher than the mean for the overall results and the dissatisfied group. HYP2: The second hypothesis tested the main effect of participant breast size satisfaction (i.e., desire larger breast) on attitude toward the ad, attitude toward the brand and purchase

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52 intention. The main effect of participant breast size satisfaction on the dependent variables indicated no s tatistical significance [F (3, 85) = 1.77, p= 0.159], and thus was not supported. According to Table 4 9 Table 4 10, the parameter estimates for the dependent variables were not significant (attitude toward the ad: B= 3.89, t=2.07, ns ; attitude toward the brand: B= 0.56, t=0.44, ns ; purchase intention: B= 3.23, t= 0.20, ns ). Hypothesis 2 A stated that participants who were dissatisfied with their breast size (i.e., desire larger breast) will have a less favorable attitude toward the advertisement than wom en satisfied with their breast size. The results indicated the main effect of breast size satisfaction on attitude toward the advertisement [F (1, 88) = 4.29, p = 0.041] such that participants who were satisfied with their breast size [ M = 28.38, SD = 4.50] showed no more favorable attitude toward the ad than women who were dissatisfied with their breast size [ M = 24.48, SD = 5.12]. Thus, hypothesis 2 A was not supported; i.e., women who were dissatisfied with their breast size did not have a less favorable att itude toward the advertisement than those who were satisfied with their breast size. Hypothesis 2 B stated that participants who were dissatisfied with their breast size (i.e., desire larger breast) will have a less favorable attitude toward the brand than women satisfied with their breast size. The results indicated the main effect of breast size satisfaction on attitude toward the brand [F (1, 88) = 0.20, p = 0.660] such that participants who were satisfied with their breast size [ M = 19.00, SD = 2.14] sho wed no more favorable attitude toward the brand than women who were dissatisfied with their breast size [ M = 18.44, SD = 3.49]. Thus, hypothesis 2 B was not supported; i.e., women who were dissatisfied with their breast size did not have a less favorable atti tude toward the brand than those who were satisfied with their breast size.

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53 Hypothesis 2 C stated that participants who were dissatisfied with their breast size (i.e., desire larger breast) will have a lower intent to purchase than women satisfied with the ir breast size. The results indicated the main effect of breast size satisfaction on purchase intention [F (1, 88) = 0.04, p = 0.845], such that participants who were satisfied with their breast size [ M = 10.88 SD = 4. 73 ] showed no more intent to purchase t han women who were dissatisfied with their breast size [ M = 11.20 SD = 4.40 ]. Thus, hypothesis 2 C was not supported; i.e., women who were dissatisfied with their breast size showed no less intent to purchase the product than women who were satisfied with th eir breast size. Interaction Effect of Model Breast Size and Participant Breast Size Satisfaction HYP3: The third hypothesis tested the interaction effect of model breast size and participant breast size satisfaction on attitude toward the ad, attitude t oward the brand and purchase intention. Hypothesis 3 A 3 B 3 C and 3 D explored whether there were any interaction effects between model breast size and participant breast size satisfaction. Hypothesis 3 A stated that there will be an interaction between mod el breast size and participant breast size satisfaction in an advertisement. Hypothesis 3 B stated that the small breast to body ratio model/satisfied participant will yield more favorable attitude toward the ad than the large breast to body ratio model/di ssatisfied participant. Hypothesis 3 C stated that the small breast to body ratio model/satisfied participant will yield more favorable attitude toward the brand than the large breast to body ratio model/dissatisfied participant. Hypothesis 3 D stated that t he small breast to body ratio model/satisfied participant will yield more favorable purchase intention than the large breast to body ratio model/dissatisfied participant. Independent sample t tests were conducted to determine if subjects in the two groups categorized by their levels of model breast size (small/large) were significantly different. For each breast discrepancy scale the two tailed significance was examined. For the first breast

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54 discrepancy scale the discrepancy between ideal and actual cup si zes A, B, C or D the two tailed significance was 0.46, which was not significant. The mean score of women satisfied with current breast size compared to the mean score of women dissatisfied with current breast size did not result in a significant differen ce (t (87) = 0.743, p = 0.383) (F= 0.78). The mean of participants exposed to the large breast stimulus advertisement ( M = 1.57, SD= 0.50) was not significantly different from the mean of participants exposed to the small breast stimulus advertisement ( M = 1 .49, SD= 0.51). For the second breast discrepancy scale the discrepancy between ideal and actual cup sizes small, medium or large the two tailed significance was 0.46, which was not significant. The mean score of women satisfied with current breast size compared to the mean score of women dissatisfied with current breast size resulted in a significant difference (t (87) = 0.737, p = 0.823) (F= 0.05). However, the mean of participants exposed to the large breast stimulus advertisement ( M = 1.45, SD= 0.50) was not significantly different from the mean of participants exposed to the small breast stimulus advertisement ( M = 1.53, SD= 0.50). For the third breast discrepancy scale the discrepancy between the ideal and actual stimulus figure drawings the two t ailed significance was 0.12, which was not significant. The mean score of women satisfied with current breast size compared to the mean score of women dissatisfied with current breast size resulted in a significant difference (t (87) = 1.592, p = 0.555) ( F= 0.35). However, the mean of participants exposed to the large breast stimulus advertisement ( M = 1.43, SD= 0.50) was not significantly different from the mean of participants exposed to the small breast stimulus advertisement ( M = 1.60, SD= 0.50).

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55 Table 4 1. Descriptive Statistics for Attitude Toward the Ad (LB vs. SB). Group N Min. Max. M (mean) SD (standard deviation) SEM (standard error of mean) MD (median) R (range) Large Breast 44 13.00 34.00 24.34 5.63 0.85 26.00 21.00 Small Breast 45 16.00 35.00 25.31 4.68 0.70 26.00 19.00 Overall Results for Attitude toward the Ad 89 13 .00 35 .00 24.83 5.16 0.55 26 .00 22 .00 Table 4 2. Descriptive Statistics for Attitude Toward the Brand (LB vs. SB). Group N Min. Max. M (mean) SD (standard deviation) SEM (sta ndard error of mean) MD (median) R (range) Large Breast 44 6.00 25.00 18.34 3.72 0.56 18.00 19.00 Small Breast 45 10.00 27.00 18.64 3.05 0.46 18.00 17.00 Overall Results for Attitude toward the Brand 89 6 .00 27 .00 18.50 3.38 0.36 18 .00 21 .00 Table 4 3. Descriptive Statistics for Purchase Intention (LB vs. SB). Group N Min. Max. M (mean) SD (standard deviation) SEM (standard error of mean) MD (median) R (range) Large Breast 44 3.00 18.00 11.07 4.09 0.62 11.50 15.00 Small Breast 45 3.00 20.00 11.27 4 .73 0.71 12.00 17.00 Overall Results for Purchase Intention 89 3 .00 20 .00 11.17 4.40 0.47 12 .00 17 .00

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56 Table 4 4. Test of Between Subject Effects for HYP 1 Source Dependent Variable Type III Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Corrected Model AAD 20.9 41 a 1 20.941 .783 .379 ABR 2.050 b 1 2.050 .178 .675 PI .876 c 1 .876 .045 .833 Intercept AAD 54846.514 1 54846.514 2051.853 .000 ABR 30432.297 1 30432.297 2636.543 .000 PI 11097.910 1 11097.910 566.089 .000 StimAdv AAD 20.941 1 20.941 .783 .379 ABR 2.050 1 2.050 .178 .675 PI .876 1 .876 .045 .833 Error AAD 2325.531 87 26.730 ABR 1004.197 87 11.542 PI 1705.595 87 19.605 Total AAD 57224.000 89 ABR 31448.000 89 PI 12808.000 89 Corrected Total AAD 2346.472 88 ABR 1006 .247 88 PI 1706.472 88 a. R Squared = .009 (Adjusted R Squared = .002) b. R Squared = .002 (Adjusted R Squared = .009) c. R Squared = .001 (Adjusted R Squared = .011)

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57 Table 4 5. Parameter Estimates for HYP 1. Dependent Variable Parameter B S td. Error T Sig. AAD Intercept 24.341 .779 31.229 .000 Small breast .970 1.096 .885 .379 Large breast 0 a ABR Intercept 18.341 .512 35.809 .000 Small breast .304 .720 .421 .675 Large breast 0 a PI Intercept 11.068 .668 16.582 .0 00 Small breast .198 .939 .211 .833 Large breast 0 a a. This parameter is set to zero because it is redundant. Table 4 6. Descriptive Statistics for Attitude Toward the Ad (Breast Satisfaction). Group N Min. Max. M (mean) SD (standard deviation ) SEM (standard error of mean) MD (median) R (range) Satisfied 8 19.00 33.00 28.38 4.50 1.59 30.00 14.00 Dissatisfied 81 13.00 35.00 24.48 5.12 0.57 26.00 22.00 Overall Results for Attitude Toward the Ad 89 13.00 35.00 24.83 5.16 0.55 26.00 22.00 Ta ble 4 7. Descriptive Statistics for Attitude Toward the Brand (Breast Satisfaction). Group N Min. Max. M (mean) SD (standard deviation) SEM (standard error of mean) MD (median) R (range) Satisfied 8 16.00 22.00 19.00 2.14 0.76 19.00 6.00 Dissatisfied 81 6.00 27.00 18.44 3.49 0.39 18.00 21.00 Overall Results for Attitude Toward the Brand 89 6.00 27.00 18.49 3.38 0.36 18.00 21.00

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58 Table 4 8. Descriptive Statistics for Purchase Intention (Breast Size Satisfaction). Group N Min. Max. M (mean) SD (standard deviation) SEM (standard error of mean) MD (median) R (range) Satisfied 8 3 16 10.88 4.73 1.67 13.0 13 Dissatisfied 81 3 20 11.20 4.40 0.49 12.0 17 Overall Results for Purchase Intention 89 3 20 11.17 4.40 0.47 12.0 17 Table 4 9. Test of Between S ubject Effects for HYP 2 Source Dependent Variable Type III Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Corrected Model AAD 110.375 a 1 110.375 4.294 .041 ABR 2.247 b 1 2.247 .195 .660 PI .757 c 1 .757 .039 .845 Intercept AAD 20341.431 1 20341.431 791.426 .0 00 ABR 10208.449 1 10208.449 884.597 .000 PI 3547.229 1 3547.229 180.926 .000 OVBS AAD 110.375 1 110.375 4.294 .041 ABR 2.247 1 2.247 .195 .660 PI .757 1 .757 .039 .845 Error AAD 2236.097 87 25.702 ABR 1004.000 87 11.540 PI 1705.715 87 19 .606 Total AAD 57224.000 89 ABR 31448.000 89 PI 12808.000 89 Corrected Total AAD 2346.472 88 ABR 1006.247 88 PI 1706.472 88 a. R Squared = .047 (Adjusted R Squared = .036) b. R Squared = .002 (Adjusted R Squared = .009) c. R Squared = .000 (Adjusted R Squared = .011)

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59 Table 4 10. Parameter Estimates for HYP 2 Dependent Variable Parameter B Std. Error t Sig. AAD Intercept 24.481 .563 43.460 .000 Satisfied 3.894 1.879 2.072 .041 Dissatisfied 0 a ABR Int ercept 18.444 .377 48.865 .000 Satisfied .556 1.259 .441 .660 Dissatisfied 0 a PI Intercept 11.198 .492 22.760 .000 Satisfied .323 1.641 .197 .845 Dissatisfied 0 a a. This parameter is set to zero because it is redundant. Table 4 11 Group Statistics for HYP 3. Large or Small Breast Stimulus Advertisement N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean is woman satisfied with current breast size or not Large 44 1.5682 .50106 .07554 Small 45 1.4889 .50553 .07536 cup size satisfaction or no t Large 44 1.4545 .50369 .07593 Small 45 1.5333 .50452 .07521 stimulus figures satisfied or not Large 44 1.4318 .50106 .07554 Small 45 1.6000 .49543 .07385

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60 Table 4 12. Independent Samples Test for HYP 3. Levene's Test for Equality of Variances t test for Equality of Means F Sig. t df Sig. (2 tailed) Mean Difference Std. Error Difference is woman satisfied with current breast size or not Equal variances assumed .769 .383 .743 87 .459 .07929 .10671 Equal variances not assumed .743 86.983 .4 59 .07929 .10670 cup size satisfaction or not Equal variances assumed .050 .823 .737 87 .463 .07879 .10688 Equal variances not assumed .737 86.961 .463 .07879 .10688 stimulus figures satisfied or not Equal variances assumed .350 .555 1.592 87 115 .16818 .10563 Equal variances not assumed 1.592 86.899 .115 .16818 .10564

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61 CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCL USIONS The current study was intended to determine if a causal relationship exists between the size and ho w wom en perceive advertisements and brands, as well as their re satisfaction influences the aforementioned advertising effects To date, there is no body of academic research available that discusses the impact of varying breast size in advertising or how breast size satisfaction influences attitudes and behaviors; therefore this study also aim ed to provide insight to marketers and advertisers about how to portray women in pr int advertisements. Because of the use of large breasts on thin bodies (Owen & Laurel Seller, 2000; Cusumano & Thompson, 1997), the level of breast dissatisfaction in women (Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe & Tantleff Dunn, 2001; Sarwer, Wadden, Pertschuk, & Whi taker, 1998), and the increase in breast augmentation procedures (ASPS, 2008), it was important to delve into this area of research. However, the study found that all three proposed hypotheses were not supported. Unlike the original expectations, exposure to a stimulus ad featuring a large breasted model versus a stimulus ad featuring a small breasted model resulted in no significant impact on a ny of the dependent variables, nor did the breast size satisfaction of the participants. Additionally, there were satisfaction. Theoretical Implications The results were both surprising and interesting, as they did not perform as originally expected. This study demonstrated that a impact how she views an ad, nor does the breast size of a print model influence the effect of the advertising. While women may be continuously bombarded by media, including advertisements,

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62 featuring a natura lly unobtainable beauty standard of a thin woman with large breasts (Sulliv an, 2001; Owen & Laurel Seller, 2000; Mazur, 1986; Cusumano & Thompson, 1997), this study found that they seem to not be impacted by the images presented in these advertisements. Wh ile there may be a few possible reasons for the unexpected results, cultivation theory can provide an adequate explanation for the outcome ( Gerbner, Gross, Morgan, & Signorielli, 1986). In a natural environment women are normally exposed to a media message multiple times; however, this study utilized a single 30 second exposure in an artificial environment to determine the impact of breast size in advertising. Cultivation breast size may only be made through mu ltiple exposures over an extended period of time, so the outcome of this study may have varied if participants had been exposed to the stimulus ads multiple times over an extended period of time and then measured for their attitudes. This is compounded by the fact that participants in this study were tested immediately following exposure, so the women may not yet have displayed signs of being impacted by the advertising; however, if they had been measured an hour or two after exposure, different results may have occurred. Furthermore, the combination of cultivation theory and various life experiences may have an impact. While a woman may not be impacted by viewing a print advertisement and then proceeding with tasks that do not relate to body image (i.e., wo rking, class), if a woman is exposed to such an advertisement several times and is then put in a situation where body image is prevalent (i.e., pool party), the effects of the advertisement may be exacerbated (the pool party could trigger the negative feel ings associated with the advertisement). In conjunction with cultivation theory, the theory of repetition in advertising may also present an explanation for the results. This theory states that the effectiveness of an advertising message is in the shape of an inverted U, and that a consumer is most impacted by an

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63 advertisement when it is at a level of low to moderate exposures. However, once a consumer is overwhelmed with a particular type of message, the communication will cease to be effective (Berlyne, 1 970; Cacioppo & Petty, 1979). An advertisement being viewed enough times to where it is no longer effective is thought to be the result of multiple things, including tedium, and, according to repetition theory, tedium can be caused by boredom and satiation (Berlyne, 1970). Women have been inundated with images of large breasts on thin bodies (Owen & Laurel Seller, 2000; Cusumano & Thompson, 1997), and repetition theory suggests that because she may no longer be media (boredom), to the point that the y pay no attention to it. Additionally, previous research has found women are largely dissatisfied with their current breast size (Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe & Tantleff Dunn, 2001; Sarwer, Bartlett, Bucky, LaRossa, Low, Pertschuk, Wadden & Whitaker, 1998), and the results from this study coincided with earlier studies with 91 % with their current breast size. However, the present study found that breast size satisfaction did not predict a parti advertisement featuring a model with large breasts or an advertisement featuring a model with small breasts Furthermore, breast size satisfaction did not impact the parti ad attitude toward the brand or purchase intention. A possible explanation for these findings is that women already have a means to alter breast size despite their dissatisfaction including breast augmentation, padded bras, or dietary supplements. For exa mple, b reast augmentation was the leading procedure with 347,500 performed in 2007 alone (ASPS, 2008), which may reinforce the idea

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64 that women are taking action to correct their dissatisfaction with their breast size. The Wonderbra, which is a cleavage enh ancing padded bra, was introduced in 1994 and was instantly successful, with one bra sold every 15 seconds (Moberg, Sisken, Stern & Wu, 1999) and is the third most popular brand of bra in the United States (The NPD Group Report Bras and Panties, 2008) Similarly, sales of breast enhancement pills, or dietary supplements, are growing at a double digit percentage rate each year, with annual sales estimated between $200 million and $2 billion (Schoettle, 2003). While previous research has shown that desire for bigger br east s and overall breast satisfaction may be the result of many factors, past studies demonstrate that the media are likely a contributor to breast size dissatisfaction (Richens, 1991; Sarwer et al., 1998; Harrison, 2003; Cusumano & Thompson, 1997; Underwood, 2000; Garner, 1997). Women compare themselves to the media, and the media often act as a major influence in breast size satisfaction (Latteier, breast size satisfaction, advertisements featuring models with a large breast to body ratio and advertisements with a small breast to body ratio do not differ in how they impact the way women feel about an ad or brand, nor does it impact th eir intention to purchase an item. with her breast size, does not impact attitude toward the ad, brand or purchase behavior. The question then becomes what poten tially caused these results. One possible explanation is that women are desensitized to female breast size in advertising. Because the ideal breast is strewn across all forms of media, including advertising, women may no longer be impacted by it. Much of the previous work cited in this study was from 10 to 20 years ago, and it

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65 woman may simply not pay attention to breast size because she sees breasts strewn acro ss multiple forms of media and is simply immune to them, and, because of the large number of advertisements seen daily, she may not be as easily influenced by any advertising. It is also possible that advertising does not impact women the way it once did, and that an ad may have a brief, momentary impact instead of a considerable, long lasting impact as cited in previous literature. Additionally, the majority of previous research was attempting to demonstrate a correlation between the media and body image, while this study was hoping to show causation between breast size and consumer behavior. Another possible explanation is the product category featured in the advertisement. The fact that the stimulus ad was for laundry detergent which would be considered a low involvement product, could have resulted in participants thinking less about the model and, overall, having less interest in the ad (Petty, Cacioppo & Schumann, 1983). This is in comparison to an appearance based product that could possibly trigger an emotional response in the participant, thus causing the participant to pay more attention to the advertisement and possibly the breast size of the model Finally, as previously mentioned, cultivation theo ry may explain the unexpected results. A single 30 second exposure may not be enough time to affect how the participant feels, and, instead, multiple exposures over an extended period of time may cultivate the feelings of dissatisfaction with breast size. For example, research from Myers and Biocca (19 92) states that reaction to advertising. Women internalize these images and use them as a guide for determining what they should and should not look like their id eal breast size and compare themselves to the images to decide how close or far away they are from meeting the ideal their actual breast

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66 size (Lautman, 1991). According to previous studies ( e.g., Biocca, 1991; Johnson Laird, 1983), this process of inter nalizing and adopting a social ideal includes the creation of a mental model and may include visualizing oneself in the socially represented ideal body. Lautman (1991) says that it is during this time that women may connect with the models in the media mes sages and fantasize about being these models. This process is actually described as a type of cultivation (Gerbner, Gross, Morgan & Signorielli, 1980; Signorielli & Morgan, 1990). However, Myers and Biocca (1992) claim that at this point, women are not co mpletely impacted by this ideal version of the female. It is at a later point in time when women are faced with the reality that they do not meet this ideal (whether this is true or something they simply perceive) that the contrast between actual and ideal body may lead to negative views of their present body As a result, the negative views may impact their attitude toward the ad, brand and purchase intention. Since the participants in this study were tested immediately after exposure, the women may not yet display signs of being impacted by the advertising, but if they were measured an hour or two following exposure the results may be different. The outcome may also vary if the participants had been exposed to the stimulus ads multiple times and then measured for their attitudes. Managerial Implications The results of this study offer marketers and advertising agencies practical insights into the use of models of varying breast size in advertisements as well as a better understanding of how women are significant in that they suggest that women are not particularly impacted by the breast size of models in print advertisements for a low involvement product followi ng a single exposure The necessarily play an act the

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67 lly, the findings propose that breast size satisfaction Therefore, advertising and marketing communication practitioners and researchers may not need to serious female consumers when creating advertisements for low involvement products. Furthermore, practitioners now have a study documenting the impact of breast size in advertising and can refute arguments claiming a direct route between advertisements and body image dissatisfaction. Conclusion The goal of this study was to determine if breast size in advertising impacts attitude toward advertisements and brands, changes the purchase b ehavior of consumers or impacts a to the limited research focusing on this area. This is one of the first studies to explore the impact of model breast size and consumer breast size satisfaction on advertising effectiveness. The impact how a consumer views an ad or brand, nor did it affect purchasing behavior or the marketers and advertisers portray breast size in advertisements, and how women with varying breast size satisfaction negotiate advertisements featuring women of varying breast size. Limitations and Future Research More needs to be known about how media content influences the perception of the ideal breast and how women navigate exposure to this image. The limitations of this study suggest a number of issues for fu ture research. The first limitation involves the study participants, who were restricted to female college students. Although this sample was appropriate for a study on body image, the results may differ for other subjects. For example, it may be interesti ng to see

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68 how males react to models of varying breast size In addition, students from the Southern region of the U.S. may be different from students in other geographic locations. Thus, future research should investigate a wider demographic base to genera lize the results across segments. Additionally, f uture research should employ more sophisticated sampling methods to recruit a sample whose demographics, psychology and lifestyles are more diverse. Another limitation of the study is associated with the a rtificial environment of the advertisement could have led respondents to pay closer attention to the ads than they would have in a natural setting. Thus, future resear ch may consider exposing participants to the stimulus ad in a more natural environment, such as their home, and then testing the participants at a later date. Additionally, this study took a cross sectional approach to determining the impact of both breast size in advertising and participant breast size satisfaction on multiple advertising effects, without taking into consideration developmental influences (Smolak, Levine, & Striegel Moore, 1996). Future research should possible take a more developmental pe rspective through the use of continue as is or worsen over time (Field, Camargo, Taylor, Berkey, & Colditz, 1999). Finally, the method of measuring dependent var iables in the study could be improved. Because all the dependent variables in this study were measured right after exposure to the stimulus ad, important long term effects went unanalyzed. Additionally, multiple exposures to the advertisements have not be e n analyzed. Therefore, future research should consider evaluating the long term effects of the stimulus ad, as well as multiple exposures to the stimulus ad vertisement

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69 APPENDIX A STIMULUS AD TEST Melanie York Master of Advertising Candidate Stimul us Ad Test My name is Melanie York, and I am a Master of Advertising candidate at the University of Florida. I am currently working toward the completion of my degree requirements for graduation through work on a thesis. As part of my research, I am sur veying female undergraduate students to collect valuable information for my study on the impact of breast size on how a consumer views an advertisement, brand, purchase intention and breast satisfaction. My academic advisor for this research is Dr. J. Roby n Goodman, who is an associate professor of advertising in the College of Journalism and Communications. This questionnaire should take approximately 10 minutes to complete. Once you have completed this questionnaire please hand it in to me. Any informa tion that you provide will be kept confidential. You do not have to answer any questions you do not wish to answer. Your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law such that no personal information will be made public either during or following the completion and release of this study. During the study no one other than Dr. Goodman or me will have access to any answered questionnaires. The questionnaires will be destroyed once the study has been completed. Questions or concerns about your rights as a research participant may be directed to the IRB02 office, University of Florida, Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611; (352) 392 0433. Thank you, Melanie York

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70 1. and hair, how likely are you to believe that the woman featured in the advertisement would be Cosmopolitan or Glamour magazines)? Extremely Somewhat Not at all likely likely 1 2 3 4 5 2. Cosmopolitan or Glamour )? Extremely Somewhat Not at all likely likely 1 2 3 4 5 3. ize, do these advertisements look just alike (font, color, layout, etc.)? Extremely Somewhat Not alike at all alike alike 1 2 3 4 5 4. advertisements for laund ry detergent? Extremely Somewhat Not at all likely likely 1 2 3 4 5

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71 5. Please review the below drawings and indicate which drawing most closely resembles the ow the figure. 6. Please review the below drawings and indicate which drawing most closely resembles the figure.

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72

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73 APPENDIX B STIMULUS AD SMALL BREAST

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74 APPENDIX C STIMU LUS AD LARGE BREAST

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75 APPENDIX D INVITATION TO PARTIC IPATE Invitation to Participate I would like to invite you to participate in a study for the purpose of better understanding how the media portrays women. The study will be administered on the fo llowing dates and times in Weimer Hall on the University of Florida campus. The study should take approximately 30 minutes to complete. Name: Date: Will you be able to participate? yes _____ no _____ Please indicate the date and time you plan to att end. Tuesday Oct. 13 (Weimer 3032) 9:35 a.m. Tuesday Oct. 13 (Weimer 3032) 10:00 a.m. Tuesday Oct. 13 (Weimer 3032) 10:35 a.m. Tuesday Oct. 13 (Weimer 3032) 11:00 a.m. Wednesday Oct. 14 (Weimer 3032) 9:35 a.m. Wednesday Oct. 14 (Weimer 3032) 10:00 a .m. Wednesday Oct. 14 (Weimer 3032) 10:35 a.m. Wednesday Oct. 14 (Weimer 3032) 11:00 a.m. Monday Oct. 19 (Weimer 3032) 2:00 p.m. Monday Oct. 19 (Weimer 3032) 2:30 p.m. Monday Oct. 19 (Weimer 3032) 3:00 p.m. Monday Oct. 19 (Weimer 3032) 3:30 p.m. If for any reason you are unavailable your scheduled time, please call me at ( x xx ) x xx x xxx

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76 Map to Weimer Hall

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77 APPENDIX E PRE QUESTIONNAIRE Melanie York Master of Advertising Candidate Pre questionnaire Women and the Media My name is Melani e York and I am a Master of Advertising candidate at the University of Florida. I am currently working toward the completion of my degree requirements for graduation through work on a thesis. As part of my research, I am surveying undergraduate students to collect valuable information for my study on women and the media. My academic advisor for this research is Dr. J. Robyn Goodman, who is an associate professor of advertising in the College of Journalism and Communications. I would like to invite you t o participate in this survey. Your participation will assist me in determining qualified students for my experiment. If you agree to participate in this screening process, please complete the questionnaire below. This questionnaire should take approximatel y 15 minutes to complete. You do not have to answer any questions you do not wish to answer. If you agree to participate, I will email your professor with a list of people who completed the questionnaire. This list will not have any information concerning your responses. Any information that you provide will be confidential to the researchers. Your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law such that no personal information will be made public either during or following the completio n and release of this study. During the study no one other than Dr. Goodman or me will have access to any answered questionnaires. The questionnaires will be destroyed once the study has been completed. Questions or concerns about your rights as a researc h participant may be directed to the IRB02 office, University of Florida, Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611; (352) 392 0433. Thank you, Melanie York

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78 1. Please provide your first and last name.________________________ 2. Please provide the name of your profe ssor that provided this extra credit opportunity._____________________ (**The above questions are only asked so that you can be compensated through extra credit for your participation in the survey.) 3. Please provide the last four digits of your phone numb er and your initials: 4. Please list the top three magazines you most frequently read (in order). 5. Please provide your age: 6. Please provide your gender: 7. Please provide your ethnicity: 8. Please provide your Major: 9. Please provide your current school status: (freshman, sophomore, junior, senior) 10. How long have you lived in the United States? 11. Have you ever undergone any sort of cosmetic surgery? If so, please provide type and year of surgery. Please circle the number that best represents how you feel about t he following questions. 12. clothes? Very often Never 5 4 3 2 1 13. How concerned are your body is not muscular enough? Very concerned Not concerned at all 5 4 3 2 1 14. Very much Not at all 5 4 3 2 1

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79 If you are a female, please continue with questions 15 through 20. If you are a male, please skip questions 15 through 20, and cont inue with question 21. 15. Please state your actual breast size using standard American bra cup sizes of either A, B, C or D. a. __ b. __ c. __ d. __ 16. Within your cup size, please state whether you consider your actual breast size to be a small, medium or large version of the cup size? (For example, are you a small A?) a. Small b. Medium c. Large 17. Please state your ideal breast size using standard American bra cup sizes of either A, B, C or D. a. __ b. __ c. __ d. __ 18. Within this ideal cup size, please state whether you consider your ideal breast size to be a small, medium or large version of the cup size? (For example, are you a small A?) a. Small b. Medium c. Large 19. Please review the drawings below and indicate which drawing most closely resembles your actual body frame to breast size by marking

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80 20. Please review the below drawings and indicate which drawing most closely resembles your ideal body If you are a m ale, please continue with questions 21 through 23. If you are a female, you are finished with the survey. 21. Please review the below drawings and indicate which drawing most closely resembles your actual figure by e.

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81 22. Please review the below drawings and indicate which drawing most closely resembles your ideal figure by

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82 23. Please review the below drawings and indicate which drawing most closely resembles your a ctual body

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83

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84 APPENDIX F INFORMED CONSENT Informed Consent Protocol Title: Women and the media Please read this consent document carefully before you decide to participate in thi s study. Purpose of the research study: My name is Melanie York and I am a Master of Advertising candidate at the University of Florida. I am currently working toward the completion of my degree requirements for graduation through work on a thesis. As p art of my research, I am surveying undergraduate students to collect valuable information for my study on women and the media. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the media on how women feel about themselves. What you will be asked to do in the study: You will be asked to look at print advertisements for a brand of laundry detergent. After looking at the ad, you will be asked a series of questions including information about your attitude toward the advertisement, brand and purchasing in tentions. Time required: 30 minutes Risks and Benefits: There are no direct benefits or risks to you for participating in the study. Compensation: You will receive extra class credit as compensation for participating in this research. Confidentiality: Your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law. Your information will be assigned a code number. The list connecting your name to this number will be kept in a locked file in my faculty supervisor's office. When the study is comple ted and the data have been analyzed, the list will be destroyed. Your name will not be used in any report.

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85 Voluntary participation: Your participation in this study is completely voluntary. There is no penalty for not participating. Right to withdraw fr om the study: You have the right to withdraw from the study at anytime without consequence. Whom to contact if you have questions about the study: Melanie York, Master of Advertising Candidate, Department of Journalism and Communications, Weimer Hall, Melanie.York@ufl.edu x xx x xx xxxx Dr. Robyn Goodman, Associate Professor of Advertising, Department of Journalism and Communications, Weimer Hall, rgoodman@jou.ufl.edu 352 392 2704. Whom to contact about your rights as a research participant in the study: IRB02 Office, Box 112250, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 2250; phone 392 0433. Agreement: I have read the procedure described above. I voluntarily agr ee to participate in the procedure and I have received a copy of this description. Participant printed name: ____________________________________________ Participant signature: _______________________________________________ Date: _____________ Principa l investigator signature: _______________________________________ Date: _____________ Department of Journalism and Communications Weimer Hall PO Box 118400 University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611

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86 APPENDIX G QUESTIONNAIRE Melanie York Master of Advertising Candidate Questionnaire Women and the Media My name is Melanie York, and I am a Master of Advertising candidate at the University of Florida. I am currently working toward the completion of my degree requirements for graduation through work on a thesis. As part of my research, I am surveying female undergraduate students to collect valuable information for my study on women and the media. My academic advisor for this research is Dr. J. Robyn Goodman, who is an associate professor of adve rtising in the College of Journalism and Communications. This questionnaire should take approximately 30 minutes to complete. Once you have completed this questionnaire please hand it in to me. Any information that you provide will be kept confidential. You do not have to answer any questions you do not wish to answer. Your identity will be kept confidential to the extent provided by law such that no personal information will be made public either during or following the completion and release of this st udy. During the study no one other than Dr. Goodman or me will have access to any answered questionnaires. The questionnaires will be destroyed once the study has been completed. Questions or concerns about your rights as a research participant may be dir ected to the IRB02 office, University of Florida, Box 112250, Gainesville, FL 32611; (352) 392 0433. Thank you, Melanie York

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87 1. Please provide the last four digits of your phone number and your initials: ______________ 2. Please reference the advertisement for laundry detergent and circle one response for each of the following statements. I find the ad to be favorable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I find the ad to be unfavorable I find the ad to be boring 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I find the ad to be interesting I dislike the ad very much 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I like the ad very much I do not find the ad irritating 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I find the ad irritating The ad holds my attention 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 The ad does not hold my attention 3. Please reference the advertisement for laundry detergent and ci rcle one response for each of the following statements about your feelings of the brand. I dislike the brand very much 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I like the brand very much I find the brand to be bad 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I find the brand to be good I find the brand to be un pleasant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I find the brand to be pleasant I find the brand to be worthless 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I find the brand to be valuable 4. Please reference the advertisement for laundry detergent and circle one response for each of the following statements a bout your willingness to purchase the product. I am unlikely to purchase the product 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I am likely to purchase the product It is improbable that I will purchase the product 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 It is probable that I will purchase the product I am uncertain as to whether I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I am certain as to whether I

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88 will purchase the product will purchase the product I will definitely not purchase the product 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I will definitely purchase the product 5. Please rate the importance of each o f the following groups as to their significance when considering breast size. Circle one response from the following items (1 to 5). Not an important comparison group A very important comparison group Family 1 2 3 4 5 Closest friends 1 2 3 4 5 Other students 1 2 3 4 5 Average university student 1 2 3 4 5 Celebrities/ famous people 1 2 3 4 5 Average U.S. citizen 1 2 3 4 5 Media models 1 2 3 4 5 6. Please state your actual breast size using standard American bra cup sizes of either A, B, C or D. a. __ b. __ c. __ d. __ 7. Within your cup size, please state whether you consider your actual breast size to be a small, medium or large version of the cup size? (For example, are you a small A?) a. Small b. Medium c. Large 8. Please state your ideal breast size using standard Ame rican bra cup sizes of either A, B, C or D. a. __ b. __ c. __ d. __ 9. Within this ideal cup size, please state whether you consider your ideal breast size to be a small, medium or large version of the cup size? (For example, are you a small A?) a. Small b. Medium c. Large 10. Pl ease review the below drawings and indicate which drawing most closely resembles your actual

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89 11. Please review the below drawings and indicate which drawing most closely resembles your ideal body

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90 12. Please spell out the number eight. __________ 13. Please circle the triangle below. 14. Please circle one response from the following items. Definitely disagree Mostly d isagree Neither agree nor disagree Mostly agree Definitely agree My body is sexually appealing 1 2 3 4 5 I like my looks just the way they are 1 2 3 4 5 Most people would consider me good looking 1 2 3 4 5 I like the way I look without my clothes on 1 2 3 4 5 I like the way 1 2 3 4 5

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91 my clothes fit me I am physically unattractive 1 2 3 4 5 I dislike my physique 15. Please review the following questions and circle the statement that best fits. Never Rarely Sometimes Often Very often Always Have you been so worried about your shape that you have been feeling that you ought to diet? 1 2 3 4 5 6 Have you thought that your thighs, hips or bottom are too large for the rest of you? 1 2 3 4 5 6 Have you been afraid that you might become fat (or fatter )? 1 2 3 4 5 6 Have you worried about your flesh not being firm enough? 1 2 3 4 5 6 Have you worried about your thighs spreading out when sitting down? 1 2 3 4 5 6 Have you noticed the shape of other women and felt that 1 2 3 4 5 6

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92 your own shape compared unfavorab ly?

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93 LIST OF REFERENCES 2008 Report of the 2007 Statistics. (2008). Retriev ed December 11, 2008, from American Society of Plastic Surgeons Official Site. Website: http://www.plasticsu rgery.org/Media/stats/2008 US cosmetic reconstructive plastic surgery minimally invasive statistics.pdf Ajzen, I. & Fishbein, M (1977). Attitude Behavior Relations: A Theoretical Analysis and Review of Empirical Research. Psychological Bulletin 84 No. 5, 888 918. Askegaard, S. Gertsen, M. C & Langer, R.. (2002). The Body Consumed: Reflexivity and Cosmetic Surgery. Psychology and Marketing 19 No. 10, 79 3 812. Artz, L., & Murphy, B.O. (2000). Cultural Hemogeny in the United States Thousand Oaks: Sage. Babbie, E. (2001). The Practice of Social Research Belmont: Wadsworth. Bartky, S. L. (1990). Femininity and Domination: Studies in the Phenomenology o f Oppression. New York: Routledge, Chapman and Hall, Inc. Batra. R. (1984). Low I nvolvement Message Reception Processes and Advertising Implications ( Unpublished doctoral dissertation), Stanford University, 1984. Batra, R., & Ray, M. L. (1983). Operat ionalizing Involvement as Depth and Quality of Cognitive Response. Advances in Consumer Research 10 309 313. Berlyne, D. E. (1970) Novelty, Complexity, and Hedonic Value. Perception and Psychophysics 8 279 86. Biocca, F. (1991). odels of Political Ads: Towards a Theory of Semantic Processing of Television. Hillsdale : Erlbaum. Blum, V (2003). Flesh Wounds The Culture of Cosmetic Surgery Berkeley: University of California Press. Bordo, S (1993). Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture, and The Body Berkeley : University of California Press. Breast Augmentation: Your Options. (2009). Retrieved September 7, 2009, from Breast Options Official Site. Website: http://www.breastoptions.com/augment.html Breast Implants. (2009). Retrieved November 3, 2009, from Food & Drug Administration Site. Website: http://www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/ProductsandMedicalProcedures/ImplantsandProsthe tics/BreastImplants/ucm064332.htm

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94 Brooks, A. (2004). Under the Knife and Proud of It: An Analysis of the Normalization of Cosmetic Surgery. Critical Sociology 30 No. 2, 207 239. Brown, T. A., Cash, T. F., & Mikulaka, P. J. (1990). Attitudinal Body Image Assessment: Factor Analysis of the Body Self Relations Questionnaire. Journal of Personality Assessment 55 135 144. Brownmiller, S (1984). Fe mininity New York : Linden Press. Burke, M. & Edell, J. A. (1989). The Impact of Feelings on Ad Based Affect and Cognition. Journal of Marketing Research 26 No. 1, 69 83. Cacioppo, J. T., & Petty, R. E. (1979) Effects of Message Repetition and Posit ion on Cognitive Response, Recall and Persuasion Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37 97 109. Cafri, G. Yamamiya, Y. Brannick, M. & Thompson, K. J. (2005). The Influence of Sociocultural Factors on Body Image: A Meta Analysis. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 12 No. 4, 421 433. Campbell, D. T., & Stanley, J. C. (1963). Experimental and Quasi experimental Designs for Research on Teaching. Chicago: Rand McNally. Carmines, E., & Zeller, R. (1979). Reliability and Validity As sessment Newbury Park: Sage Publications. Crockett, R. J., Pruzinsky, T. & Persing, J. A. (2007) The Influence of Plastic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 120 No 1, 316 324. Cox, D. S. & Locander, W. B. (1987). Product Novelty: Does It Moder ate the Relationship Between Ad Attitudes and Brand Attitudes? Journal of Adverti sing 16 No. 3, 39 44. Cusumano, D. L., & Thompson, K. J. (1997). Body Image and Body Shape Ideals in Magazines: Exposure, Awareness, and Internalization. Sex Roles 37 No. 9/10, 701 721. Derbaix, C (1995). The Impact of Affective Rea ctions on Att itudes toward the Advertisement and the Brand: A Step toward Ecological Validity. Journal of Marketing Research 32 No. 4, 470 479. Etcoff, N. L. (1999). Survival of the prettiest: The sc ience of beauty (1st ed.). New York: Doubleday. Figueroa, C (2003). Self esteem and Cosmetic Surgery: Is There a Relationship Between the Two? Plastic Surgical Nursing 23 No. 1, 21 24.

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95 Field, A. Camargo, C. A., Taylor, C. B. Berkey, C. & Coldit z, G. (1999). Relation of Peer and Media Influences to the Development of Purging Behaviors Among Preadolescent and Adolescent Girls. Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 153 No. 11, 1184 1189. Fredrickson, B. L., & Roberts, T. (1997). Objectification The ory: Towards Understanding Women's Lived Experiences and Mental Health Risks. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21 173 206. Freedman, R. J. (1984). Reflections on Beauty as it Relates to Health in Adolescent Females. Women & Health, 9 No. 2/3, 29 45. Furnham, A. Dias, M. & McClelland, A (1998). The Role of Bo dy Weight, Waist to Hip Ratio, and Breast Size in Judgments of Female Attractiveness. Sex Roles 39 No. 314, 311 326. Gardner, M.P. (1985). Does Attitude Toward the Ad Affect Brand Attitude Under a Brand Evaluation Set? Journal of Marketing Research, 22 192 198. Gardner, M. P., Mitchell, A. A., &. Russo, J. E. (1985). Low Involvement Strategies for Processing Advertisements. Journal of Advertising, 14 No. 2, 4 12. Garner, D. M. (1997 ) The 1997 Body Image Survey Results. Psychology Today, 30 30 47. Gerbner, G., Gross, L., Morgan, M., & Signorielli, N. (1986). Living with Television: The Dynamics of the Cultivation Process. Hillsdale : Erlbaum. Goodman, J. R., & Walsh Childers, K. (20 04). Sculpting the female breast: How college women negotiate the media's ideal breast image. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 81 No. 3, 657 674. Grant, P. (1996). If You Could Change Your Breasts. Self Magazine, 186 89 & 210 11. Gravette r, F. J., & Foranzo, L. B. (2009). Research Methods for the Behavioral Sciences (3 rd Edition). Belmont : Wadsworth Cengage Learning. Gresham, L. G., & Shimp, T. A. (1985). Attitude Toward the Advertisement and Brand Attitudes: A Classical Conditioning Perspective. Journal of Advertising, 14 No. 1, 10 17. Grogan, S (1999). Body Image: Understanding Body Dissatisfaction in Men, Women and Children. London: Routledge. Haiken, E. (1997). Venus envy: A history of cosmetic surgery Baltimore: Johns Hopkin s University Press.

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96 Harrison, K. (2003). Television viewers' ideal body proportions: The case of the curvaceously thin woman. Sex Roles 48 255 264. Harrison, K., & Hefner, V (2006). Media Exposure, Current and Future Body Id eals, and Disordered Eat ing Among Preadolescent Girls: A Longitudinal Panel Study. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 35 No. 2, 146 156. Heinberg, L. J. & Thompson, K. J. (1995). Body Image and Televised Images of Thinness and Attractiveness: A Controlled Laboratory Investigat ion. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 14 1 14. Henderson King, D., & Henderson King, E (2005). Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery: Scale Development and Validation. Body Image 2 137 149. Higgins, T. E. (1987). Self Discrepancy: A Theory Relat ing Self and Affect. Psychological Review 94 No.3, 319 340. Holbrook, M. B. (1978). Beyond Attitude Structure: Toward the Informational Determinants of Attitude. Journal of Marketing Research 15 546 56. Irving, L. M. (2001). Media Exposure And Diso rdered Eating: Introduction To The Special Section. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 20 No. 3, 259 269. Jacobi, L. & Cash, T. F. (1994). In Pursuit of the Perfect Appearance: Discrepancies Among Self Ideal Percepts of Multiple Physical Attrib utes. Journal of Applied Psychology s No. 5, 379 396. Jain, K (1990). An Empirical Assessment of Multiple Operationalizations of Involvement. Advances in Consumer Research 17 594 602. Johnson Laird, P. N. (1983). Mental Models: Towards A Cognitive Science and Language, Inference and Consciousness. Cambridge : Harvard University Press. Kim, J (2001). Would You Change Your Breast Size? Two Women Who Did and Got Dramatically Different Results Share Their Stores. Shape s No. 4, 116. Journal of Social 110 123 134. Koff, E., & Benavage, A (1998). Breast Size Perception and Satisfaction, Body Image, and Psychological Functioning in Caucasian and Asian Americ an College Women. Sex Roles 38 No.718, 655 673. Latteier, C. (1998). Breasts : The women's perspective on an American Obsession New York : Haworth Press.

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97 Laurent, G., & Kapferer, J (1985). Measuring Consumer Involvement Profiles. Journal of Marketing Research 22 No. 1, 41 53. Lautman, M. (1991). End benefit Segmentation and Prototypical Bonding. Journal of Advertising Research 3 No. 3, 9 18. Lavidg e, R., & Steiner, G (1961). A Model for Predictive Measurements of Advertising Effectiveness. The Journal of Marketing 25 No. 6, 59 62. Levine, M. P., & Ha rrison, K. (2004). Media's role in the perpetuation and prevention of negative body image and disordered eating. In J. K. Thompson (Ed.), Handbook of eating disorders and obesity (695 717). Hoboken: Wiley. Li, H. Daugherty, T. & Biocca, F (2002). Imp act of 3 D Advertising on Product Knowledge, Brand Attitude, and Purchase Intention: The Mediating Roles of Presence. Journal of Advertising 31 No. 3, 43 57. Lutz, R. L., & Belch, G. E. (1983). Attitude Toward the Ad as a Mediator of Advertising Ef fectiveness: Determinants and Consequences. Advances in Consumer Research, 10 532 539. Lutz, R. (1985). Affective and Cognitive Antecedents of Attitude Toward the Ad: A Conceptual Framework In L. Alwitt & A. Mitchell (Eds.), Psychological Processes and Advertising Effects (45 65). Hillsdale: Lawrence J. Erlbaum MacKenzie, S. B., Lutz, R. J., & Belch, G. E. (1986). The Role of Attitude Toward the Ad as a Mediator of Advertising Effectiveness: A Test of Competing Explanations. Journal of Marketing R esearch, 23 130 143. MacKenzie, S. B., & Lutz, R. J. (1983). Testing Competing Theories of Advertising Effectiveness via Structural Equation Models. Research Methods and Causal Modeling in Marketing 23 No. 2, 130 143. Markey, C. N., & Markey, P. M. Obtaining Cosmetic Surgery. Sex Roles I 158 166. Martin, M. C., & Gentry, J. W (1997). Stuck in the Model Trap: The Effects of Beautiful Models in Ads on Female Pre Adolescents and Adolescents. The Jou rnal of Advertising 26 No. 2, 19 33. Martin, M. C., & Kennedy, P. F. (1993). Adve rtising and Social Comparison: Consequences for Female Preadolescents and Adolescents. Psychology & Marketing 10 No. 6, 513 530. Mazur, A (1986). U.S. Trends in Femin ine Beauty and Overadaptation. Journal of Sex Research, 22 281 303.

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98 McLellan, R. D. (2006). Nip/tuck: How Americans are slashing away at age, one body part at a time. The Washington Post. Mitchell, A. A., & Jerry C (1981). Are Product Attri bute Beli efs the Only Mediator of Advertising Effects on Brand Attitudes? Journal of Marketing Research 18 318 22. Moberg, Matthew, Sisken, Jonathan, Stern, Barry, & Wu, Ru. (1999). Sara Lee: Wonderbra, University of Michigan Business School. http://www personal.umich.edu/~afuah/cases/case15.html. [Accessed: 12/9/10] Moore, D. L., & Hutchinson, J. W (1983). The Effects of Ad Affect on Advertising Effectiveness. Advances in Consumer Research 10 No. 1, 526 531. Morgan, K. P. (1991). Women and the knife: Cosmetic surgery and the colonizatio n of women's bodies. Hypatia, 6 25 53. Muehling, D. D. (1987). Comparative Advertising: The Influence of Attitude Toward The Ad on Brand Evaluation. Journal of Advertising, 16 No. 4, 43 49. Myers, P. N. & Biocca, F. A. (1992). The Elastic Body Image: The Effect of Television Advertising and Programming on Body Image Distortions in Young Women. Journal of Communication 42 108 133. Nordmann, J. E. (2000). Body Image and Self Esteem in Women Seeking Breast Augmentation. Dissertation Abstracts Internat ional: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 61 No. 3 B, 1647. A (2002). Patient Survey Reveals Beauty Ideals Based on Celebrity Looks. Cosmetic Surgery Times 5 No. 2, 8. Only Two Percent of Women Describe Themselves as Beautiful. (2004). Retrieved on November 22, 2008, from Dove Official Site. Web site: http://www.campaignforrealbeauty.com/press.asp?section=news&id=110 Owen, P. B. & Laurel Seller, E (2000). Weight and Sha pe Ideals: T hin Is Dangerously In. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 30 No. 5, 979 990. Park, C.W., & Young, S.M. (1986). Consumer Response to Television Commercials: The Impact of Involvement and Background Music on Brand Attitude Formation. Journal of Marketi ng Research, 23 11 24. Petty, R. E., Cacioppo, J. T., & Schumann, D (1983). Central and Periphera l Routes to Advertising Effectiveness: The Moderating Role of Involvement. Journal of Consumer Research 10 135 146.

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102 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Melanie York is from Lexington, S.C. She attended Auburn University in Auburn, Ala., earning a Bachelor of Liberal Arts with a major in journalism and minor in ma rketing. She came to the University of Florida in August 2008 to pursue a Master of Advertising.