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Phylogeny and Revision of the Genus Heraclides Hubner, 1819 (Lepidoptera

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0041378/00001

Material Information

Title: Phylogeny and Revision of the Genus Heraclides Hubner, 1819 (Lepidoptera Papilionidae: Papilioninae: Papilionini)
Physical Description: 1 online resource (302 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Lewis, Delano
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: anchisiades, andraemon, aristodemus, aristor, astyalus, biogeography, caiguanabus, chiansiades, cresphontes, demoleus, epenetus, erostratus, garleppi, hectorides, heraclides, himeros, homothoas, hyppason, isidorus, lamarchei, machaonides, melonius, ornythion, oxynius, paeon, papilio, phylogeny, revison, rogeri, synonym, thersites, thoas, torquatus
Entomology and Nematology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Entomology and Nematology thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This work assessed the information about this economically important group of Citrus-feeding swallowtails and the relationships between these species. Surprisingly, we know little about the biology and habits of the majority of these species. With the recent introduction of a Citrus-feeding swallowtail to the West Indies from Southeast Asia, Papilio demoleus, it becomes crucial to understand the effect this butterfly will have on the ecology of native fauna. This butterfly has spread from the Dominican Republic to Jamaica, and Puerto Rico; potentially dispersing to Florida in the near future. By understanding the relationships within the Heraclides and building our knowledge of their biology and habits, we may be better able to sustainably manage this new invasive, while protecting the native fauna of Florida and the region at large. Evaluation of phylogenetic evidence for subgroups within the Heraclides inferred from investigation of support for relationships among subgroups using existing genetic data, and 133 morphological characters, mainly from genitalic and wing pattern elements yielded the proposed group structure. A generalized wing pattern of homologous elements for Heraclides is proposed and the formal nomenclature, natural history, and life history of the 28 species revised. Three new synonyms are proposed: Papilio isidorus nymphius (Rothschild & Jordan, 1906), Papilio rhodostictus pacificus (Rothschild & Jordan, 1906), and Heraclides chiansiades mossi Brown, 1994. Additionally, distribution maps for each species and subspecies are included as well as a straightforward identification key based mainly on wing pattern for the group. I hope that the identification of major areas for future investigation will serve as a catalyst for future studies into the biology and morphology of this group. There is a need for detailed studies into the morphology and systematics of Papilio (sensu lato) to understand their overall relationships and end controversy about the generic status of the subgroups it contains, including the status of the Heraclides.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Delano Lewis.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Emmel, Thomas C.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2012-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0041378:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0041378/00001

Material Information

Title: Phylogeny and Revision of the Genus Heraclides Hubner, 1819 (Lepidoptera Papilionidae: Papilioninae: Papilionini)
Physical Description: 1 online resource (302 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Lewis, Delano
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2010

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: anchisiades, andraemon, aristodemus, aristor, astyalus, biogeography, caiguanabus, chiansiades, cresphontes, demoleus, epenetus, erostratus, garleppi, hectorides, heraclides, himeros, homothoas, hyppason, isidorus, lamarchei, machaonides, melonius, ornythion, oxynius, paeon, papilio, phylogeny, revison, rogeri, synonym, thersites, thoas, torquatus
Entomology and Nematology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Entomology and Nematology thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This work assessed the information about this economically important group of Citrus-feeding swallowtails and the relationships between these species. Surprisingly, we know little about the biology and habits of the majority of these species. With the recent introduction of a Citrus-feeding swallowtail to the West Indies from Southeast Asia, Papilio demoleus, it becomes crucial to understand the effect this butterfly will have on the ecology of native fauna. This butterfly has spread from the Dominican Republic to Jamaica, and Puerto Rico; potentially dispersing to Florida in the near future. By understanding the relationships within the Heraclides and building our knowledge of their biology and habits, we may be better able to sustainably manage this new invasive, while protecting the native fauna of Florida and the region at large. Evaluation of phylogenetic evidence for subgroups within the Heraclides inferred from investigation of support for relationships among subgroups using existing genetic data, and 133 morphological characters, mainly from genitalic and wing pattern elements yielded the proposed group structure. A generalized wing pattern of homologous elements for Heraclides is proposed and the formal nomenclature, natural history, and life history of the 28 species revised. Three new synonyms are proposed: Papilio isidorus nymphius (Rothschild & Jordan, 1906), Papilio rhodostictus pacificus (Rothschild & Jordan, 1906), and Heraclides chiansiades mossi Brown, 1994. Additionally, distribution maps for each species and subspecies are included as well as a straightforward identification key based mainly on wing pattern for the group. I hope that the identification of major areas for future investigation will serve as a catalyst for future studies into the biology and morphology of this group. There is a need for detailed studies into the morphology and systematics of Papilio (sensu lato) to understand their overall relationships and end controversy about the generic status of the subgroups it contains, including the status of the Heraclides.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Delano Lewis.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local: Adviser: Emmel, Thomas C.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2012-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID: UFE0041378:00001


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HERACLIDES

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Cyllopoda

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Heraclides Heraclides HERACLIDES

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HERACLIDES Heraclides Heraclides thoas Heraclides thoas (Linnaeus, 1771) Heraclides cresphontes Heraclides homothoas Her aclides melonius Heraclides paeon Heraclides aristor Heraclides caiguanabus thersites Heraclides thersites Heraclides androgeus Heraclides astyalus Heraclides ornythion Heraclides andraemon Heraclides aristodemus Heraclides machaonides himeros Heraclides lamarchei Heraclides himeros Heracli des hectorides Heraclides garleppi Heraclides torquatus Heraclides hyppason Heraclides epenetus Heraclides oxynius Heraclides pelaus Heraclides anchisiades Heraclides isidorus Heraclides chiansiades Heraclides rogeri Heraclides erostratus Heraclides

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Heraclides

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Papilio thoas Heraclides thoas thersites

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himeros H. thoas thoas H. thoas thoas H. thoas autocles H. thoas autocles H. thoas brasiliensis H. thoas brasiliensis H. thoas cinyras H. thoas cinyras H. thoas neacles H. thoas neacles H. thoas oviedo H. thoas oviedo H. thoas thoantiades H. thoas thoantiades H. cresphontes H. cresphontes H. cresphontes H. cresphontes H. cresphontes H. cresphontes H. cresphontes H. cresphontes H. homothoas H. homothoas H. melonius H. melonius H. paeon paeonH. paeon paeon H. paeon escomeli H. paeon escomeli H. paeon thrasonH. paeon thrasonH. aristor H. aristor H. caiguanabus H. caiguanabus H. thersites H. thersites H. androgeus androgeus H. androgeus androgeus H. androgeus androgeus androgeus epidaurus H. androgeus epidaurus H. androgeus epidaurus H. androgeus laodocus H. androgeus laodocus H. astyalus astyalus H. astyalus astyalus H. astyalus astyalus H. astyalus astyalus H. astyalus anchicayaensis H. astyalus anchicayaensis H. astyalus bajaensis H. astyalus bajaensis H. astyalus hippomedonH. astyalus hippomedonH. astyalus hippomedonH. astyalus hippomedonH. astyalus pallas H. astyalus pallas H. astyalus phanias H. ornythionH. ornythionH. ornythion H. ornythion H. ornythionH. ornythionH. andraemon andraemonH. andraemon andraemon H. andraemon andraemon H. andraemon andraemon

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H. andraemon bonhotei H. andraemon bonhotei H. andraemon tailoriH. andraemon tailori H. aristodemus aristodemus H. aristodemus aristodemus H. aristodemus bjorndalae H. aristodemus bjorndalae H. aristodemus majasi H. aristodemus majasi aristodemus ponceanus H. aristodemus ponceanus H. aristodemus temenes H. aristodemus temenes H. machaonides H. machaonides H. lamarchei H. lamarchei H. himeros himeros H. himeros himeros H. hectorides H. hectorides H. hectorides H. garleppi garleppi H. garleppi garleppi H. torquatus torquatus H. garleppi interruptus H. garleppi interruptus H. garleppi lecerfi H. garleppi lecerfi H. garleppi lecerfi H. garleppi lecerfi H. torquatus torquatus H. torquatus torquatus H. garleppi interruptus H. torquatus torquatus H. torquatus atsukoae H. torquatus atsukoae H. torquatus jeani H. torquatus leptaleaH. torquatus leptalea H. tassolike H. torquatus tolus H. torquatus mazai H. torquatus polybius H. torquatus polybius H. torquatus tolmides H. torquatus tolmides H. torquatus tolus H. torquatus tolus H. hyppasonH. hyppason H. hyppason H. hyppason H. epenetus H. epenetus oxynius H. oxynius H. pelaus pelaus pelaus pelaus H. pelaus atkinsi H. pelaus atkinsi H. pelaus imerius H. pelaus imerius H. pelaus puertoricensis H. pelaus puertoricensis H. anchisiades anchisiades H. anchisiades anchisiades H. anchisiades anchisiades H. anchisiades anchisiades H. anchisiades anchisiades H. anchisiades anchisiades H. anchisiades capys H. anchisiades capys H. anchisiades capys H. anchisiades idaeus H. anchisiades idaeus H. anchisiades idaeus H. anchisiades idaeus H. anchisiades idaeus H. anchisiades idaeus H. anchisiades idaeus H. anchisiades idaeus H. anchisiades lamasi

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H. anchisiades philastrius H. anchisiades philastrius H. isidorus isidorus H. isidorus isidorus H. isidorus brises H. isidorus brises H. isidorus brises H. isidorus flavescens H. isidorus flavescens H. isidorus flavescens H. isidorus flavescens H. isidorus brises nymphius H. isidorus brises nymphius H. isidorus brises nymphius H. isidorus isidorus isidorus pacificus H. isidorus isidorus isidorus pacificus H. isidorus isi dorus H. unknown H. isidorus tingoH. isidorus tingoH. chiansiades chiansiades H. chiansiades chiansiades H. anchisiades anchisiades H. chainsiades maron(i) H. anchisiades anchisiades H. chainsiades maron(i) H. chiansiades chiansiades H. chiansiades moss(i) H. rogeri rogeri rogeri rogeri H. rogeri rogeri H. rogeri rogeri H. rogeri pharnaces H. rogeri pharnaces H. rogeri pharnaces H. rogeri pharnaces H. rogeri pharnaces H. erostratus erostratus H. erostratus erostratus H. erostratus erostratus H. erostratus erostratus H. erostratus vazquezae H. erostratus vazquezae H. chiansiades dospassosi H. chiansiades dospassosi H. himeros baia H. himeros baia H. tasso H. tasso H. isidorus autana H. isidorus autana Heraclides torquatus mazai Heraclides torquatus mazai Papilio maroni Papilio maroni Heraclides thoas Heraclides cresphontes Heraclides homothoas Heraclides melonius Heraclides paeon Heraclides aristor

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Heraclides caiguanabus Heraclides thersites Heraclides androgeus Heraclides astyalus Heraclides ornythion Heraclides aristodemus Heraclides andraemon Heraclides machaonides Heraclides lamarchei H. hectorides Heraclides garleppi Heraclides torquatus Heraclides hyppason Heraclides epenetus oxynius Heraclides pelaus Heraclides anchisiades Heraclides isidorus Heraclides chiansiades Heraclides rogeri Heraclides erostratus Heraclides H. thoas thoas H. t. thoas H. t. autocles, H. t. brasiliensis, H. t. cinyras H. t. neacles, H. t. oviedo, H. t. thoantiades Heraclides H. cresphontes H. cresphontes H. homothoas, H. melonius, H. paeon paeon, H. p thrason Heraclides H. aristor H. caiguanabus H. thersites H. androgeus androgeus H. a. epidaurus H. a. laodocus

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Heraclides H. astyalus astyalus H. a. bajaensis H. a. hippomedon H. a. pallas H. ornythion H. aristodemus aristodemus H. a. bjorndalae H. a. majasi H. a. ponceanus H. a. temenes Heraclides H. andraemon andraemon H. a. bonhotei H. a. tailori H. machaonides H. lamarchei H. hectorides Heraclides H. torquatus torquatus H. garleppi interruptus H. g. lecerfi H. t. torquatus H. t. atsukoae H. t. leptalea H. t. polybius H. t. tolmides Heraclides H. hyppason H. epenetus H. oxynius H. pelaus pelaus H. p. imerius H. p. puertoricensis H. rogeri rogeri H. r. pharnaces Heraclides H. anchisiades anchisiades H. a. capys H. a. idaeus H. a. philastrius H. isidorus flavescens H. i. isidorus H. erostratus erostratus H. e. erostratus H. e. vazquezae Heraclides thoas Heraclides cresphontes Heraclides homothoas Heraclides melonius Heraclides paeon Heraclides aristor Heraclides caiguanabus Heraclides thersites Heraclides androgeus Heraclides astyalus Heraclides ornythion Heraclides andraemon Heraclides aristodemus Heraclides machaonides Heraclides lamarchei Heraclides himeros Heraclides hectorides Heraclides garleppi Heraclides torquatus Heraclides epenetus Heraclides hypasson Heraclides oxynius

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Heraclides pelaus. Heraclides anchisiades. Heraclides isidorus. Heraclides chiansiades, Heraclides rogeri Heraclides erostratus.

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HERACLIDES Citrus Citrus Papilio demoleus Heraclides Heraclides Heraclides Papilio isidorus nymphius Papilio rhodostictus pacificus Heraclides chiansiades mossi

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Papilio Heraclides

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Introduction Papilio demoleus Amyris Piper Ptelea Ruta Zanthoxylum Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus Heraclides

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Historical Classificat ion and Phylogenetics Graphium PachlioptaPapilio Troides Euryades Cressida Baronia Parnassius

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Papilio Papilio Papilio Pap ilio Heraclides Papilio

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Papilio Papilio ChilasaPapilio Papilio Heraclides Papilio Heraclides Phyl ogenetic Placement of Heraclides Heraclides Heraclides Eleppone Chilasa Pterourus Papilio Princep s PterourusHeraclides -Chilasa-Eleppone Papilio Heraclides Papilio Heraclides Papilio Heraclides Chilasa Heraclides

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Heraclides Heraclides Papilio Heraclides Heraclides Chilasa Cytochrome Oxidase I II Heraclides H. cresphontes H. anchisiades Papilio Heraclides Papilio Papilio

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Heraclides Papilio Heraclides H. cresphontes + H. anchisiades mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I II elongation factor(EF ). Papilio EFCOI/COII Heraclides H. cresphontes + H. anchisiades COI/COII Heraclides H. cresphontes + H. anchisiades Papilio Heraclides Papilio Heraclides H. cresphontes H. anchisiades Heraclides Heraclides H. anchisiades, H. erostratus, H. hectorides, H. torquatus, H. astyalus, H. cresphontes H. thoas COI, COII EF. Heraclides H. cresphontes + H anchisiades Heraclides Papilio Pterourus + Chilasa

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Papilio Heraclides Pterourus ChilasaEleppone Papilio Heraclides Pterourus + Chilasa Papilio Papilio COI, COII tRNAleucine EFHeraclides H. anchisiades, H. erostratus, H. hectorides, H. torquatus, H. astyalus, H. cresphontes H. thoas Heraclides Papilio Heraclides Historical T axonomic Treatment of Heraclides Heraclides Papilio thoas Papilio thoas Heraclides

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Heraclides Heraclides Calaides Papilio androgeus Priamides Priamides hipponous Troilides Troilides tros Heraclides torquatus Thoas Papilio thoas Heraclides Heraclides Papilio thoas Heraclides Priamides anchisiades Heraclides anchisiades Heraclides rogeri Heraclides erostratusHeraclides isidorus Heraclides chiansiades Heraclides epenetus Heraclides oxynius Heraclides pelaus Troilides hyppason Heraclides hyppasonHeraclides garleppi Heraclides lamarchei Heraclides hectorides Heraclides himeros Heraclides torquatus Calaides

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androgeus Heraclides androgeus Heraclides thersites Heraclides caiguanabus Heraclides aristodemus Heraclides andraemonHeraclides machaonides Heraclides ornythionHeraclides astyalus Heraclides aristor Thoas Heraclides thoas Heraclides melonius Heraclides paeonHeraclides homothoas Heraclides cresphontes Papilio peleides Nomen dubium arti fact Papilio tasso torquatus Heraclides Research Objectives and Questions Heraclides H eraclides anchisiades H. astyalus H. cresphontes H. erostratus H. hectorides H. thoas H. torquatus COI COII EF-1 w (g) 16S28S

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ND1 ND5 Heraclides Heraclides Heraclides COI COII

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The Gordian Knots of Taxonomy Systema Naturae He spake of trees, from the cedar tree that is in Lebanon even unto the hyssop that springeth out of the wall: he spake also of beasts, and of fowl, and of creeping things, and of fishes

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What is a Species? evolutionary units

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typological species sibling species morphological species nominalistic species

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metapopulation l ineage c oncept biological species evolutionary species phylogenetic species genotyp ic cluster species

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T he Subspecies

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Si Dieu n'existait pas, il faudrait l'inventer sibling species incipient species semi species clines

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sympatric parapatric allopatr ic

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Heraclides

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S ources of Material Examined Swallowtail Butterflies of the Americas: A Study in Biological Dynamics, Ecological Diversity, Biosystematics, and Conservation Specimen Preparation Heraclides

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Heraclides

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Taxon Sampling Heraclides In -group Taxa. Heraclides Heraclides Out -group Taxa. Papilio Pterourus Papilio glaucus Papilio Papilio machaonPrinceps Papilio constantinus Princeps Papilio

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demoleus H eraclides Pterourus Papilio glaucus Papilio Papilio machaonPrinceps Papilio constantinus Princeps Papilio demoleus Heraclides Genes and Alignment of Molecular Sequence Dat a Eriogynapyretorum Phylogenetic Re analysis of Molecular Data Heraclides

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Maximum Parsimony Analyses Maximum Like lihood Analyses. Bayesian Analyses

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Phylogenetic Analysis of Morphological Data Papilio demoleus P. machaon, P. constantinus, P. glaucus Maximum Parsimony Analyses

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P. demoleus MP Analysis #1 Unconstrained topology with equallyweighted characters MP Analysis #2 Unconstrained topology MP Analysis #3 Production of the topological constraint P. demoleus

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MP Analysis #4 Constrained topology Hypothesis testing

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Morphological Characte rs Heraclides Immature 1. H. anchisiades 2.

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3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. H. anchisiades

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9. 10. H. caiguanabus H. aristodemus

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Heraclides 11. 12. 13.

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14. 15. 16. 17. Adult :

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18. 19. 20. H. ornythion H. hyppason 21. Heraclides H. anchisiades H. hyppason Heraclides 22. Heraclides H. aristodemus H. andrae mon H. machaonides Wings :

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23. thoas H. aristodemus 24. H. aristor H. caiguanabus H. anchisiades 25. H. thersites 26. H. machaonides

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27. 28. 29. H. paeon 30. 31. H. cresphontes 32. Heraclides H. anchisiades H. aristor H. caiguanabus 33. 34. 35.

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36. H. chiansiades H. hyppason 37. H. anchisiades 38. H. garleppi H. torquatus 39. H. isidorus 40. H. androgeus H. torquatus 41. H. garleppi H. torquatus 42. H. pelaus 43. H. aristor H caiguanabus H. caiguanabus,

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44. 45. 46. H. garleppi H. torquatus 47. 48. H. machaonides H. andraemon 49. 50. P. demoleus 51. H. anchisiades 52.

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Heraclides 53. 54. H. himeros H. machaonides 55. H. himeros 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. H. andraemon 62.

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63. 64. 65. 66. 67. Heraclides 68. H. androgeus 69. 70. 71. 72. 73.

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74. P. demoleus 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. H. torquatus tolmides H. torquatus atsukoae H. paeon

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81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. P. demoleus 87. 88. H. hyppason 89. Genitalia 90. P. demoleus

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Heraclides Heraclides 91. 92. P. demoleus, 93. H. melonius 94.

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95. H. thoas 96. H. andraemon 97. H. paeon 98. 99. H. aristor H. caiguanabus, H. anchisiades thersites H. himeros 100. H. machaonides

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101. H. lamarchei H. hectorides 102. 103. H. torquatus 104. H. homothoas 105. 106.

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107. 108. 109. 110. 111. ther sites H. aristodemus H. hyppason

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112. Heraclides 113. H. aristor H. caiguanabus 114. 115. 116. 117. 118.

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119. H. paeon 120. 121. H. hyppason H. hyppason 122. 123. 124. 125. 126. H. paeon 127. H. garleppi

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128. H. machaonides 129. 130. 131. 132. H. lamarchei H. himeros 133.

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Heraclides anchisiades anchisiades Heraclides anchisiades capys Heraclides anchisiades idaeus Heraclides anchisiades philastrius Heraclides andraemon andraemon Heraclides andraemon bonhotei Heraclides andraemon tailori Heraclides androgeus androgeus Heraclides androgeus epidaurus Heraclides androgeus laodocus Heraclides aristodemus aristodemus Heraclides aristodemus bjorndale Heraclides aristodemus majasi Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus Heraclides aristodemus temenes Heraclides aristor Heraclides astyalus astyalus Heraclides astyalus bajaensis Heraclides astyalus hippomedon Heraclides astyalus pallas Heraclides astyalus phanias Heraclides caiguanabus Heraclides chiansiades chiansiades Heraclides chiansiades chiansiades (formerly moss i) Heraclides cresphontes Heraclides cresphontes Heraclides epenetus Heraclides erostratus erostratus Heraclides erostratus erostratus Heraclides erostratus vazque zae Heraclides garleppi garleppi Heraclides garleppi lecerfi Heraclides Heraclides h ectorides himeros Heraclides homothoas Heraclides hyppason

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Heraclides isidorus brises Heraclides isidorus brises (formerly nymphius) Heraclides isidorus flavescens Heraclides isidorus isidorus Heraclides isidorus isidorus Heraclides isidorus isidorus (formerly pacificus) Heraclides isidorus tingo Heraclides lamarchei Heraclides machaonides Heraclides melonius Heraclides ornythion Heraclides oxynius Heraclides paeon escomeli Heraclides paeon paeon Heraclides paeon thrason Heraclides pelaus atkinsi Heraclides pelaus imerius Heraclides pelaus pelaus Heraclides pelaus puertoricensis Heraclides rogeri pharnaces Heraclides rogeri rogeri Heraclides thersites Heraclides thoas autocles Heraclides thoas brasiliensis Heraclides thoas cinyras Heraclides thoas neacles Heraclides thoas oviedo Heraclides thoas thoantiades Heraclides thoas thoas Heraclides torquatus atsukoae Heraclides torquatus jeani Heraclides torquatus leptalea Heraclides torquatus polybius Heraclides torquatus tolmides Heraclides torquatus tolus Heraclides torquatus tolus Heraclides torquatus torquatus Heraclides torquatus torquatus

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Heraclides anchisiades anchisiades Heraclides anchisiades capys Heraclides anchisiades idaeus Heraclides anchisiades philastrius Heraclides andraemon andraemon Heraclides andraemon bonhotei Heraclides andraemon tailori Heraclides androgeus androgeus Heraclides androgeus epidaurus Heraclides androgeus laodocus Heraclides aristodemus aristodemus Heraclides aristodemus bjorndale Heraclides aristodemus majasi Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus Heraclides aristodemus temenes Heraclides aristor Heraclides astyalus astyalus Heraclides astyalus bajaensis Heraclides astyalus hippomedon Heraclides astyalus pallas Heraclides caiguanabus Heraclides cresphontes Heraclides cresphontes Heraclides epenetus Heraclides erostratus erostratus Heraclides erostratus erostratus Heraclides erostratus vazque zae Heraclides torquatus torquatus Heraclides garleppi interruptus Heraclides garleppi lecerfi Heraclides Heraclides h ectorides himeros Heraclides homothoas Heraclides hyppason

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Heraclides isidorus flavescens Heraclides isidorus isidorus (formerly pacificus) Heraclides lamarchei Heraclides machaonides Heraclides melonius Heraclides ornythion Heraclides oxynius Heraclides paeon paeon Heraclides paeon thrason Heraclides pelaus atkinsi Heraclides pelaus imerius Heraclides pelaus pelaus Heraclides pelaus puertoricensis Heraclides rogeri pharnaces Heraclides rogeri rogeri Heraclides thersites Heraclides thoas autocles Heraclides thoas brasiliensis Heraclides thoas cinyras Heraclides thoas neacles Heraclides thoas oviedo Heraclides thoas thoantiades Heraclides thoas thoas Heraclides torquatus atsukoae Heraclides torquatus leptalea Heraclides torquatus polybius Heraclides torquatus tolmides Heraclides torquatus torquatus

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Heraclides anchisiades Heraclides astyalus Heraclides cresphontes Heraclides erostratus Heraclides hectorides Heraclides thoas Heraclides torquatus Papilio constantinus Papilio demoleus Papilio glaucus Papilio machaon

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Characters H. thoas H. cresphontes H. homothoas H. melonius H. paeon H. aristor H. c aiguanabus H. thersites H. a ndrogeus H. astyalus H. ornythion H. a ristodemus H. andraemon H. machaonides H. la marchei H. himeros H. h ect orides H. garleppi H. torquatus H. hyppason H. epenetus H. oxy nius H. pelaus H. anchisiades H. isidorus H. c hiansiades H. rogeri H. e rostratus P. demoleus

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Characters H. thoas H. cresphontes H. homothoas H. melonius H. paeon H. aristor H. c aiguanabus H. thersites H. a ndrogeus H. astyalus H. ornythion H. a ristodemus H. andraemon H. machaonides H. la marchei H. himeros H. h ect orides H. garleppi H. torquatus H. hyppason H. ep enetus H. oxy nius H. pelaus H. anchisiades H. isidorus H. c hiansiades H. rogeri H. e rostratus P. demoleus

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Characters H. thoas H. cresphontes H. homothoas H. melonius H. paeon H. aristor H. c aiguanabus H. thersites H. a ndrogeus H. astyalus H. ornythion H. aristodemus H. andraemon H. machaonides H. la marchei H. himeros H. h ect orides H. garleppi H. torquatus H. hyppason H. epenetus H. oxy nius H. pelaus H. anchisiades H. isidorus H. c hiansiades H. rogeri H. e rostratus P. demoleus

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Characters H. thoas H. cresphontes H. homothoas H. melonius H. paeon H. aristor H. c aiguanabus H. thersites H. a ndrogeus H. astyalus H. ornythion H. a ristodemus H. andraemon H. machaonides H. la marchei H. himeros H. h ect orides H. garleppi H. torquatus H. hyppason H. epenetus H. oxy nius H. pelaus H. anchisiades H. isidorus H. c hiansiades H. rogeri H. e rostratus P. demoleus

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Characters H. thoas H. cresphontes H. homothoas H. melonius H. paeon H. aristor H. c aiguanabus H. thersites H. a ndrogeus H. astyalus H. ornythion H. a ristodemus H. andraemon H. machaonides H. la marchei H. himeros H. h ect orides H. garleppi H. torquatus H. hyppason H. epenetus H. oxy nius H. pelaus H. anchisiades H. isidorus H. c hiansiades H. rogeri H. e rostratus P. demoleus

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Characters H. thoas H. cresphontes H. homothoas H. melonius H. paeon H. aristor H. caiguanabus H. t h ersites H. androgeus H. a styalus H. ornythion H. aristodemus H. andraemon H. ma chaonides H. lamarchei H. himeros H. hect orides H. garleppi H. t orquatus H. hyppason H. epenetus H. oxynius H. pelaus H. anchisiades H. i sidorus H. chiansiades H. rogeri H. erostratus P. demoleus

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Characters H. thoas H. cresphontes H. homothoas H. melonius H. paeon H. aristor H. caiguanabus H. t h ersites H. androgeus H. as tyalus H. ornythion H. aristodemus H. andraemon H. m achaonides H. lamarchei H. himeros H. hectorides H. g arleppi H. torquatus H. h yppason H. epenetus H. oxynius H. pelaus H. anchisiades H. isidorus H. c hiansiades H. rogeri H. erostratus P. demoleus

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Papilio thoas Sc R M Cu A

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A B C D E F G H ae c cb css db j m ob p pa pp pr pu pvp s sc sg t u vl vvs

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Heraclides DS CB MB SMB P PDB I PD B TS ES

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Phylogenetic Reanalysis of Molecular Data Sequence Alignment and Data Description P. glaucus H. anchisiades H. cresphontes H. hectorides H. torquatus Tests for Best fit Model

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Tests for Homogeneity Maximum Parsimony Analyses

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Maximum Likelihood Analyses Bayesian Analyses

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Phylogenetic Analysis of Morphological Data Maximum Parsimony Analyses

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Heraclides Hypothesis testing

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H. torquatus tRNAleucine

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thoas

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t hersites

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himeros

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HERACLIDES Molecular Phylogeny Heraclides H. astyalus H. hectorides H. torquatus H. hectorides H. torquatus H. astyalus Heraclides

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P. demoleus P. constantinus P. machaon H. hectorides H. torquatus P. glaucus Heraclides H. hectorides

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Morphological Phylogeny Heraclides Heraclides Pterourus [Papilio] victorinus Heraclides P. victorinus Pterourus Heraclides Pterourus Heraclides Heraclides Pterourus

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Heraclides Heraclides Group Structure and Bio geography Heraclides thoas Heraclides H. hyppason

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H. andraemon thersites H. thoas H. cresphontes H. mel onius H. homothoas H. paeon H. aristor H. caiguanabus H. aristor H. caiguanabus Heraclides H. melonius H. cresphontes H. cresphontes H. homothoas H. paeon H.

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thoas Heraclides Heraclides thersites H. thersites H. androgeus H. astyalus H. ornythionH. aristodemus H. andraemonH. machaonides thoas thoas thersites H. aristodemus+H. andraemon+H. machaonides

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H. ornythion+H. astyalus+H. thersites+H. androgeus thersites H. thersites H. androgeus Heraclides thersites thersites thoas thersites Heraclides Heraclides H. melonius H. thersites

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H. melonius H. thersites H. melonius H. thoas H. melonius H. cresphontes H. garleppi H. anchisiades himeros H. himeros+H. lamarchei

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H. anchisiades H. h yppason H. anchisiades H. isidorus H. rogeri H. erostratus H. pelaus H. epenetus H. oxynius H. chiansiades H. hyppason H. hyppason H. hyppason thersites H. pelaus H oxynius H.

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pelaus H. oxynius H. epenetus Heraclides Heraclides H. aristor H. caiguanabus H. aristodemus H. andraemonH. machaonides Heraclides H. p elaus H. oxynius H. melonius H. thersites H. pelaus Heraclides

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H. androgeus

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HERACLIDES Heraclides Hbner 1819 Heraclides Papilio thoas Calaides Pap ilio androgeus Priamides Priamides hipponous Troilides Troilides tros Thoas Papilio thoas Diagnosis and Variation Parides Host Plant Heraclides Distribution H. cresphontes H. thoas Key to Heraclides Adult s H. aristor H. caiguanabus H. melonius H. aristodemus

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H. paeon H. himeros H. lamarchei H. machaonides H. homothoas H. cresphontes H. thoas H. hyppason H. oxynius H. pelaus H. epenetus H. chiansiades H. anchisiades H. isid orus H. erostratus H. rogeri

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H. androgeus H. thersites H. astyalus H. ornythion H. hectorides H. thersites H. garleppi H. torquatus Females of Sexually D imorphic Species H. androgeus H. thersites H. astyalus H. ornythion H. hector ides H. garleppi H. torquatus

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The thoas Subg roup H. thoas H. cresphontes H. melonius H. homothoas H. paeonH. aristor H. caiguanabus Heraclides thoas (Linnaeus, 1771) Diagnosis H. cresphontes H. melonius H. homothoas H. paeon H. cresphontes H. thoas H. cresp hontes Variation Natural History Bougainvillea Po i nsettia Bauhinia Life History Distribution Remarks Heraclides H. cresphont es H. homothoas H. paeonH. melonius Heraclides thoas thoas Papilio thoas Papilio archimedes Adul t Male Body

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Forewing Hindwing Genitalia H. thoas autocles H. thoas autocles H. thoas oviedoAdult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia

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Type(s) Distribution Remark s Heraclides thoas autocles Papilio thoas autocles Papilio thoas autocles nigro-caudata Papilio thoas autocles nigrimarginata Papilio thoas autocles ochracea Adult Male Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Type(s) Distribution Remarks Heraclides thoas brasiliensis Papilio thoas brasiliensis Papilio thoas impunc tata Papilio thoas brasiliensis completa Papilio thoas brasiliensis reducta

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Adult Male Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Type(s) Distribution Remarks H. t. thoantiades Heraclides thoas cinyras Papilio cinyras Papilio lampedon Papilio thoas chamadus Papilio cinyras ridens Papilio thoas flavibrunneus Adult Male Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Gen italia Type(s)

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Distribution Remarks Heraclides thoas neacles Papilio thoas neacles Adult Male Body Forewing Hindwing Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Type(s) Distribution Remarks Heraclides thoas oviedo Papilio oviedo Papilio epithoas Adult Male Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Type(s) Distribution Remarks H. thoas

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Heraclides thoas thoantiades Papilio thoantiades Papilio euclides Papilio thoas brasiliensis ochracea Adult Male Body H. t. brasiliensis Forewing H. t. brasiliensis Hindwing H. t. brasiliensis Genitalia H. t. cinyras Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Type(s) Distribution Remarks H. t hoas brasiliensis H. thoas brasiliensis Heraclides cresphontes Papilio cresphontes Heraclides oxilus Papilio cresphontes lurida Papilio thoas cresphontes luxuriosa Papilio cresphontes intacta Papilio cresphontes maxwelli Papilio cresphontes forsythae Papilio cresphontes melanurus Papilio cresphontes pennsylvannicus Diagnosis H. thoas H. melonius H. h omothoas H. paeon H. thoas, Adult Male Body H. thoas Forewing H. thoas

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H. thoas Hindwing H. thoas Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Variation Natural History Schinus terebinthifolius Bouggainvillea glabra, Bourreria ovate, Carica papaya, Eupatorium odoratum, Lantana involucrate, Metopium toxiferum, Morinda royoc, Pithecellobium keyense, Lantana camaraSenecio m exicana Delonix regia Life History H. thoas

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H. thoas Type(s) Distribution Remarks H. thoas H. melonius luxuriosa luxuriosus pennsylvannicus pennsylvannic a. Heraclides homothoas Papilio homothoas Diagnosis H. cresphontes Adult Male Body H. thoas Forewing H. cresphontes Hindwing H. cresphontes Genitalia H. cresphontes H. cresphontes Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia H. cresphontes Variation Natural History Life History

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Type(s) Distrib ution Remarks H. thoas H. cresphontes H. paeon H. cresphontes Heraclides melonius Papilio thoas melonius Diagnosis Adult Male Body H. thoas Forewing H. cresphontes Hindwing H. cresphontes Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Variation Natural History H. andraemon andraemon Life History Type(s) Distribution Remarks H. cresphonte s; this H. thoas H. thoas H. thoas

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Heraclides paeon Diagnosis H. cresphontes H. melonius Variation Natural History Life History thoas thoas H. paeon Distribution Remarks Heraclides paeon paeon Papilio paeon Papilio paon paon perigino Papilio paeon marxi Adult Male Body H. thoas Forewing H. cresphontes H. melonius Hindwing H. melonius Genitalia

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Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Type(s) Distribution Remarks Heraclides paeon escomeli Heraclides paeon escomeli Adult Male Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Type(s) Distribution Remarks Heraclides paeon thrason Heraclides thrason Heraclides thrason Adult Male Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia

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Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Type(s) Distribution Remarks Heraclides aristor Papilio aristor Diagnosis Adult Male Body H. thoas Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia

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Variation Natural History Acacia CordiaLantana ovatifoliaAntgonon leptotus L ife history Type(s) Distribution Remarks H. caiguanabus Heraclides caiguanabus Papilio caiguanabus Papilio numicus Diagnosis Adult Male Body H. aristor H. aristor Forewing Hindwing H. aristor H. aristor Genitalia H. aristor H. aristor Adult Female Body

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Forewing Hindwing Genitalia H. aristor Variation Natural History H. aristor Life History H. anchisiades H. aristor thoas Type(s) Distribution Remarks The thersites Subg roup H. thersites H. androgeus H. astyalus H. ornythionH. aristodemus H. andraemonH. machaonides Heraclides thersites Papilio thersites Papilio palamedes Papilio acamas Diagnosis Adult Male Body H. thoas Forewing Hindwing

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Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Variation Natural History Lantana Life History H. androgeus

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Type(s) Distribution Remarks Lantana Psidium Heraclides androgeus Diagnosis H. thersites Variation Natural History Citrus Citrus Zinniaelegans Hibiscus CordiaLantana Life History H. androgeus epidaurus Distribution H. thoas Remarks Heraclides androgeus androgeus Papilio androgeus Papilio orestes Papilio polycaon Papilio piranthus Papilio acanthus Papilio androgeus bagous Papilio androgeus mira

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Papilio androgeos feyeri Papilio androgeus fassli Papilio androgeus androgeus decellei Papilio hibisci Papilio altheae Adult Male Body H. thoas Forewing H. thersites H. thersites H. thersites Hindwing H. thersites Genitalia H. thersites Adult Female Body H. thersites Forewing Hindwing H. thersites Genitalia H. thersites Type(s) Distribution Remarks Heraclides androgeus epidaurus Papilio epidaurus Papilio androgeus epidaurus ochracea Adult Male Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Adult Female Bod y Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Type(s)

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Distribution Remarks Heraclides androgeus laodocus Papilio laodocus Papilio laodocus limbatus Papilio laodocus vollmanni Adult Male Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Type(s) Distribution Remarks Heraclides astyalus Diagnosis H. androgeus androgeus H. androgeus epidaurus Variation Natural History H. androgeus epidaurus CordiaStachytarphetaLantanaIxora IngaSenecio Life History H. thoas of H. astyalus Distribution Rema rks H. ornythion Heraclides astyalus astyalus

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Papilio astyalus Heraclides lycophron Papilio mentor Papilio pirithous Papilio oebalus Papilio drepanon Papilio lycophron drepanon Papilio lycophron delunensis Papilio lycophron paulina Papilio lycophron lycophron thersitoides Papilio lycophron pirithous suffusa Adult Male Body H. thoas ForewingSimilar to H. androgeus Hindwing H. androgeus Genitalia H. androgeus Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia H. thersites Type(s) Distribution

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Remarks Heraclides astyalus anchicayaensis Heraclides astyalus anchicayaensis Adult Male Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Type(s) Distribution Remarks Heraclides astyalus bajaensis Papilio astyalus occidentalis Papilio astyalus bajaensis Adult Male Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Adult Female Body

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Forewing Hindwing H. astyalus anchicayaensis Genitalia Type(s) Distribution Remarks H. ornythion Heraclides astyalus h ippomedon Papilio hippomedon Papilio theophron Papilio theophron Papilio hippomedon iraidari Papilio hippomedon taini Adult Male Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing H. androgeus epidaurus H. androgeus epidaurus H. androgeus epidaurus Genitalia Type(s)

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Distribution Remarks Heraclides astyalus pallas Papilio pallas Papilio pallas Papilio hozaus Adult Male Body Forewing H. astyalus bajaensis Hindwing H. astyalus bajaensis Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing H. astyalus hippomedon Hindwing H. androgeus androgeus H. astyalus hippomedon H. androgeus androgeus H. androgeus epidaurus Genitalia Type(s) Distribution Remarks H. astyalus bajaensis H. ornythion H. astyalus bajaensis H. ornythion Heraclides astyalus phanias Papilio lycophron phanias Papilio lycophronbrunneus Adult Male Body Forewing H. astyalus hippomedon Hindwing H. astyalus hippomedon

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Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing H. astyalus bajaensis Hindwing H. astyalus bajaensis Genitalia Type(s) Distribution Remarks Heraclides ornythion Papilio ornythion Diagnosis Adult Male Body H. astyalus bajaensis Forewing H. astyalus bajaensis H. astyalus pallas Hindwing H. astyalus bajaensis H. astyalus pallas Genitalia H. astyalus Adult Female Body H. astyalus Forewing Hindwing Genitalia H. thersites Variation Natural History Life History H. astyalus Type(s) Distribution Remarks H. astyalus H. astyalus

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Heraclides andraemon Diagnosis Variation Natur al History Citrus Citrus Bourreria ovata, Dalbergia brownei, Lantana involucrataStachytarphetajamaicensis Bidens,Heliotropium angiospermum, Metopium toxiferum, Morinda royoc,Zanthoxylum fagara Melanthera aspera, Melanthera nivea Life History Citrus Zanthoxylum fagaraRuta Amyris elemifera FagaraPiper H. cresphontes Distribution Remarks Heraclides andraemon andraemon Heraclides andraemon Papilio ( Heraclides ) andraemon hernandezi Adult Male Body H. thoas

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Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Type(s) Distribution Remarks Heraclides andraemon bonhotei Papilio bonhotei

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Adult Male Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Type(s) Distribution Remarks Heraclides andraemon tailori Papilio andraemon tailori Adult Male Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Type(s) Distribution Remarks Heraclides aristodemus Diagnosis Variation Natural History Acacia Lantana

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Bidens Bauhinia divaricataAlternathera ramosissima, Borrichia arborescens, Canella winterana, Capraria biflora, Coccoloba diversifolia, Coccoloba uvifera, Dalbergia brownie, Heliotropium angiospermum, Melanthera aspera, Morinda royoc, Psidium guajava, Psychotria nervosa, Rania aculeate, Stachytarpheta jamaicensis, Cordia sebestena, Cordia exarata Tournefortia hirsutissima Heraclides Life History H. thoas Distribution Remarks thoas thersites thoas thoas thoas Heraclides aristodemus aristo demus Papilio aristodemus Papilio cresphontinus Papilio daphnis Adult Male Body Similar to H. thoas Forewing H. cresphontes Hindwing Genitalia H. thersites, H. androgeus, H. astyalus H. ornythion

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Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia H. thersites Type(s) Distribution Remarks Heraclides aristodemus bjorndalae Papilio bjorndale Adult Male Body Forewing Hindwing H. paeon Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Type(s) Distribution Remarks H. aristodemus majasi Heraclides aristodemus majasi Heraclides aristodemus majasi Adult Male Body H. aristodemus bjorndalae Forewing H. aristodemus bjorndalae Hindwing H. aristodemus bjorndalae Genitalia Adult Female Body

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Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Type(s) Distribution Remarks H. aristodemus bonhotei Heraclides aristodemus poncean a Papilio ponceana Papilio aristodemus driophilus Adult Male Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Type(s) Distribution Remarks Papilio ponceana Papilio ponceana Heraclides aristodemus temenes Papilio temenes

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Adult Male Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Type(s) Distribution Remarks Heraclides machaonides Papilio machaonides Papilio lycoraeus Diagnosis Adult Male Body H. andraemon Forewing Hindwing H. andraemon Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia

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Variation Natural History H. androgeus epidaurus Citrus Ixora Bauhinia divaricata, Asclepia s curassavica Cordia haitensis Psychotria brachiataP onsietta and Lantana ovatifilia Life History H. cresphontes Citrus Type(s) Distribution Remarks H. andraemon The himeros Subg roup H. lamarchei H. himeros Heraclides lamarchei Papilio lamarchei Diagnosis Adult Male Body H. thoas

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Forewing H. androgeus H. androgeus Hindwing H. thoas Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia H. andraemon Variation Natural History Life History Type(s) Distribution Remarks H. himeros

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Heraclides himeros Diagnosis Variation Natural History Esenbeckia leiocarpa Life H ist ory Distribution Remarks Heraclides himeros himeros Papilio mentor Papilio himeros Papilio herodotus Papilio lycophron minor Papilio herodotus Adult Male Body H. thoas Forewing H. lamarchei Hindwing H. lamarchei H. lamarchei Genitalia H anchisiades thersites Adult Female Body Forew ing Hindwing Genital ia H. lamarchei Type(s)

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Distribution Remarks Heraclides himeros baia Papilio himeros baia Adult Male Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Type(s) Distribution Remarks The Unresolved Subgroup Heraclides hectorides Papilio hectorides Papilio argentus Papilio torquatinus Papilio pandrosus Papilio lysithous Menelaides chirodamas Papilio mezentius Papilio torquatinus melania Papilio hectorides catamelas Papilio hectorides agordus Papilio hectorides lysirte Diagnosis Adult Male Body H. lamarchei

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Forewing Hindwing H. lamarchei H. lamarchei Genitalia H. lamarchei Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Variation Natural History Life History H. hectorides Piper Zanthoxylum Citrus limon

PAGE 148

Type(s) Distribution Remarks H. lamarchei H. himeros Heraclides garleppi Diagnosis Variation Natural History Life History Distribution Remarks H. torquatus H. torquatus Heraclides garleppi garleppi Papilio garleppi Adult Male Body H. thoas H. thoas Forewing Hindwing

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Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Type(s) Distribution Remarks Heraclides garleppi interruptus Papilio garleppi interruptus Adult Male Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia

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Type(s) Distribution Remarks Heraclides garleppi lecerfi Papilio garleppi insidiosus Heraclides garleppi lecerfi Adult Male Body H. garleppi interruptus Forewing H. garleppi interruptus Hindwing H. garleppi interruptus Genitalia Adult Female Body H. garleppi interruptus Forewing H. garleppi interruptus Hindwing H. garleppi interruptus H. garleppi interruptus Type(s) Distribution Remarks Heraclides torquatus Diagnosis H. garleppi Variation Natural History Parides Stachytarpheta

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Life History H. thoas H. anchisiades Distribution Remarks tasso Heraclides tasso H. tasso Papilio tasso Heraclides torquatus torq uatus Papilio torquatus Princeps caudius Papilio patros Papilio torquatus flavida Papilio tassoPapilio torquatus theras Papilio torquatus cleolas Papilio torquatus dubia Papilio torquatus modestus Papilio garleppi interruptus xanthica Papilio torquatus leo Adult Male Body H. garleppi Forewing H. garleppi interruptus Hindwing H. garleppi

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Genitalia Adult Female Body H. garleppi interruptus Forewing H. garleppi interruptus Hindwing H. garleppi interruptus Genitalia Type(s) Distribution Remarks Heraclides torquatus atsukoae Papilio torquatus atsukoae Adult Male Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing

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Hindwing Genitalia Type(s) Distribution Remarks Heraclides torquatus jeani Papilio orchamus Papilio torquatus jeani Adult Male Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Adu lt Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Type(s) Distribution Remarks Heraclides torquatus leptalea Papilio torquatus leptalea Adult Male Body H. torquatus atsukoae Forewing H. torquatus atsukoae Hindwing H. torquatus atsukoae Genitalia H. torquatus jeani Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Type(s)

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Distrib ution Remarks Par ides Heraclides torquatus mazai Papilio torquatus tolus semimaculata Papilio tolus mazai Papilio torquatus atsukoae Adult Male Body H. torquatus atsukoae Forewing H. torquatus atsukoae Hindwing H. torquatus atsukoae Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Type(s) Distribution R emarks Heraclides torquatus polybius Papilio polybius Papilio trojanus Papilio polybius albosignata Adult Male Body H. torquatus jeani Forewing H. torquatus jeani Hindwing H. torquatus jeani Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Type(s) Distribution Remarks Heraclides torquatus tolmides

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Papilio tolmides Adult Male Body H. torquatus jeani Forewing H. torquatus jeani Hindwing H. torquatus jeani Genitalia H. torquatus atsukoae Adult Female Body H. torquatus atsukoae Forewing H. torquatus atsukoae Hindwing H. torquatus atsukoae Genitalia Type(s) Distribution Remarks Heraclides torquatus tolus Papilio tolus Papilio tolus prorsus maculata Papilio torquatus tolus semipunctata Adult Male Body H. torquatus atsukoae Forewing H. torquatus atsukoae Hindwing H. torquatus atsukoae Genitalia H. torquatus atsukoae Adult Female Body H. torquatus mazai Forewing H. torquatus mazai Hindwing H. torquatus mazai Genitalia Type(s) Distribution Remarks Heraclides hyppason Papilio hyppason Papilio amosis

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Papilio hippason paraensis Papilio hippasonides Papilio hyppason ptilion Papilio hyppason rousseaudecellei Papilio hyppason unimaculata Papilio hyppason modestior Diagnosis Adult Male Body H. thoas Forewing Hindwing Genitalia H. ther sites H. androgeus H. astyalus H. ornythionH. aristodemus Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Variation Natural History Mimoides ariarathes gayi

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Life History Type(s) Distribution Remarks thersites Heraclides epenetus Papilio epenetus Diagnosis Adult Male Body H. thoas Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia H. thersites

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Variation Natural History Life History H. anchisiades Citrus Type(s) Distribution Remarks Heraclides oxynius Papilio oxynius Papilio oxynius niveomarginatus Papilio oxynius ochracea Papilio augustus Diagnosis Adult Male Body H. epenetus Forewing H. epenetus Hindwing Genitalia H. epenetus Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia H. epenetus Variation Natural History

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H. caiguanabus Eupatorium odoratum Life History H. anchisiades Type(s) Distribution Remarks Heraclides pelaus Diagnosis Variation Natural History H. oxynius Anetia cubanaand Greta cubana Pterourus homerus Bidens alba Bauhinia divaricataLantana camaraLantana ovatifolia, Ageratum conyzoides ournefortia hirsutissimaEupatorium Life History H. oxynius

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Distribution Remarks H. anchisiades Heraclides pelaus pelaus Papilio pelaus Papilio ornofagus Adult Male Body H. epenetus Forewing Hindwing H. oxynius Genitalia H. epenetus Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia H. epenetus Type(s) Distribution Remarks Heraclides pelaus atkinsi Papilio pelaus atkinsi Adult Male Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Ty pe(s) Distribution

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Remarks Heraclides pelaus imerius Papilio imerius Papilio augias Adult Male Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Type(s) Distribution Remarks Heraclides pelaus puertoricensis Heraclides pelaus puertoricensis Adult Male Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Type(s) Distribution Remarks Heraclides anchisiades Diagnosis Variation Natural History

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Lantana camaraIxora coccinea Senecio confusus Hamelia patens Igna Parides Life History Distribution Remarks H. anchisiades tasso Heraclides anchisiades anchisiades Papilio anchises Papilio anchisiades Priamides hipponous Papilio archelaus Papilio theramenes Heraclides matusiki Adult Male Body H. epenetus Forewing Hindwing

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Genitalia H. epenetus H. oxynius Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia H. epenetus Type(s) Distribution Priamides hipponous Papilio anchisiades Remarks Heraclides anchisiades capys Princeps capys Papilio evander Adult Male Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Type(s) Distribution Remarks

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Heraclides anchisiades idaeus Papilio idaeus Papilio pandion Papilio anchisiades pandion Papilio pandion Papilio pandonius Adult Male Body Forewing H. anchisiades capys Hindwing H. anchisiades capys Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing H. anchisiades capys Hindwing Genitalia Type(s) D istribution Remarks Heraclides anchisiades lamasi Papilio anchisiades lamasi Adult Male Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing H. anchisiades capys Hindwing H. anchisiades capys Genitalia Type(s) Distribution Remarks

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Heraclides anchisiades philastr ius Papilio anchisiades philastrius Adult Male Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Type(s) Distribution Remarks Heraclides isidorus Diagnosis. H. anchisiades Variation Natural History Life History H. isidorus isidorus H. anchisiades H. isidorus isidorus H. anchisiades Distribution Remarks Heraclides isidorus isidorus Papilio isidorus Papilio isidorus chironis Papilio isidorus pseudoflavescens Papilio rhodostictus

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Papilio rhodostictus pacificus syn. nov. Adult Male Body H. anchisiades Forewing Hindwing H. anchisiades anchisiades Genitalia H. epenetus Adult Female Body Forewing H. isidorus flavescens Hindwing H. isidorus flavescens Genitalia H. isidorus flavescens Ty pe(s) Distribution Remarks Papilio rhodostictus pacificus Heraclides isidorus autana Heraclides isidorus autana Adult Male Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Type(s) Distribution Re marks Heraclides isidorus brises

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Papilio isidorus brises Papilio rhodostictus nymphius syn. nov. Papilio metrobates Papilio isidorus leleargei Papilio rhodostictus nymphius occidentalis Papilio rhodostictus nymphius orientalis Adult Male Bo dy Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Adult Female Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Type(s) Distribution Remarks Papilio rhodostictus nymphius Papilio isidorus brises Heraclides isidorus flavescens Papilio isidorus flavescens Papilio isidorus leucostictus Papilio ceus Adult Male Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing H. isidorus autana Hindwing H. isidorus autana Genitalia H. pelaus Type(s) Distribution

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Remarks Heraclides isidorus tingo Heraclides isidorus tingo Adult Male Body Forewing H. isidorus flavescens Hindwing H. isidorus flavescens Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing H. isidorus flavescens Hindwing H. isidorus flavescens Genitalia Type(s) Distribution Remarks Heraclides chiansiades Papilio chiansiades Heraclides chiansiades mossi syn. nov. Papilio dospassosi Papilio maroni Diagnosis Mimoides ariariathes gayi Adult Male Body Forewing Hindwing H. isidorus isidorus Genitalia H. epenetus Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Variation Natural History H. anchisiades Mimoides ariariathes gayi Citrus

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Life History Type(s) Distribution Remarks mossi Heraclides rogeri Diagnosis Variation Natural History H. anchisiades Citrus aurantifolia Life History Distribution Remarks rogeri Heraclides rogeri rogeri Papilio rogeri Adult Male Body H. anchisiades idaeus Forewing H. anchisiades idaeus Hindwing Genitalia H. epenetus Adult Female Body Forewing

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Hindwing Genitalia H. anchisiades Type(s) Distribution Remarks Heraclides rogeri pharnaces Papilio pharnaces Papilio phanostratus Papilio polycharmus Papilio pharnaces paucimaculata Papilio pharnaces dissimilis Adult Male Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Type(s) Distribut ion Remarks Heraclides erostratus Diagnosis Variation Natural HistoryCitrus Life History Distribution

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Remarks Heraclides erostratus erostratus Papilio erostratus Papilio rhetus Papilio erostratinus Adult Male Body H. rogeri Forewing H. rogeri Hindwing Genitalia H. rogeri Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing H. rogeri pharnaces H. rogeri pharnaces Ge nitalia H. pelaus Type(s) Distribution Remarks Heraclides erostratus vazquezae Papilio erostratus vazquezae Adult Male Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Adult Female Body Forewing Hindwing Genitalia Type(s) Distribution Remarks Synonymic Checklist of Heraclides HERACLIDES Papilio thoas CALAIDES Papilio androgeus PRIAMIDES Priamides hipponous TROILIDES Troilides tros

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THOAS Papilio thoas anchisiades anchisiades anchises hipponous archelaus theramenes matusiki anchisiades capys evander anchi siades idaeus pandion anchisiades pandion pandion pandonius anchisiades lamasi anchisiades philastrius andraemon andraemon andraemon hernandezi andraemon bonhotei andraemon tailori androgeus androgeus orestes polycaon piranthus acanthus androgeus bagous androgeus mira androgeos feyeri androgeus fassli androgeus androgeus decellei hibisci altheae androgeus epidaurus androgeus epidaurus ochracea androgeus laodocus laodocus limbatus laodocus vollmanni aristodemus aristodemus cresphontinus daphnis aristodemus bjorndalae aristodemus majasi aristodemus ponceanus aristodemus driophilus aristodemus temenes aristor

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astyalus astyalus lycophron mentor pirithous oebalus drepanon lycophron drepanon lycophron delunensis lycophron paulina lycophron lycophron thersitoides lycophron pirithous suffusa astyalus anchicayaensis astyalus bajaensis astyalus occidentalis astyalus hippomedon theophron theophron hippomedon iraidari hippomedon taini astyalus pallas pallas hozaus astyalus phanias lycophron phanias lycophronbrunneus caiguanabus numicus chiansiades chiansiades chiansiades mossi syn. nov. dospassosi maroni cresphonte oxilus cresphontes lurida thoas cresphontes luxuriosa cresphontes intacta cresphontes maxwelli cresphontes forsythae cr esphontes melanurus cresphontes pennsylvannicus epenetus erostratus erostratus rhetus erostratinus erostratus vazquezae garleppi garleppi

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garleppi interruptus garleppi lecerfi garleppi insidiosus hectorides argentus torquatinus pandrosus lysithous chirodamas mezentius torquatinus melania hectorides catamelas hectorides agordus hectorides lysirte himeros himeros mentor herodotus lycophron minor herodotus himeros baia homothoas hyppason amosis hippason paraensis hippasonides ppason ptilion hyppason rousseaudecellei hyppason unimaculata hyppason modestior isidorus i sidorus isidorus chironis isidorus pseudoflavescens isidorus rhodostictus rhodostictus pacificus syn. nov. isidorus autana isidorus brises isidorus nymphius syn. nov. me trobates rhodostictus nymphius orientalis isidorus leleargei rhodostictus nymphius occidentalis isidorus flavescens isidorus leucostictus ceus isidorus tingo

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lamarchei machaonide ly coraeus melonius thoas melonius ornythion oxynius oxynius niveomarginatus oxynius ochracea augustus paeon paeon paon paon perigino paeon marxi paeon escomeli paeon thrason thrason pelaus pelaus ornofagus pelaus atkinsi pelaus imerius augias pelaus puertoricensis rogeri rogeri rogeri pharnaces phanostratus polycharmus pharnaces paucimaculata pharnaces dissimilis thersites palamedes acamas thoas thoas archimedes thoas autocles thoas autocles nigro-caudata thoas autocles nigrimarginata thoas autocles ochracea thoas brasiliensis thoas impunctata thoas brasiliensis completa thoas brasiliensis reducta thoas cinyras lampedon thoas chamadus cinyras ridens thoas flavibrunneus

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thoas ne acles thoas oviedo epithoas thoas thoantiades euclides thoas brasiliensis ochracea torquatus torquatus caudius patros torquatus flavida tasso torquatus theras torquatus cleolas torquatus dubia torquatus modestus garleppi interruptus xanthica torquatus leo torquatus atsukoae torquatus jeani orchamus torquatus leptalea torquatus mazai torquatus tolus semimaculata tolus mazai torquatus polybius trojanus polybius albosignata torquatus tolmides torquatus tolus tolus prorsus maculata torquatus tolus semipunctata Papilio peleides P. peleides

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Heraclides Host Plant Family H. thoas H. cresphontes H. homothoas H. melonius H. paeon H. aristor H. caiguanabus H. thersites H. androgeus H. astyalus H. ornythion H. aristodemus H. andraemon H. machaonides Arracacia Arracacia xanthorrhiza Conium maculatum Pastinaca sativa Syngonium podophyllum Piper Piper aduncum Piper amalago Piper arboreum Piper arboreum tuberculatum Piper augustifolium Piper auritum Piper belemense Piper colonense Piper dilatatum Piper emarginatum Piper gaudichaudianum Piper guanacostense Piper hispidum Piper jacquemontianum Piper kerberi Piper lanceifolium Piper marginatum Piper marginatum marginatum Piper mikanianum Piper multiplinervium Piper papantlense Piper peltata Piper pseudofuligineum

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Host Plant Family H. thoas H. cresphontes H. homothoas H. melonius H. paeon H. aristor H. caiguanabus H. thersites H. androgeus H. astyalus H. ornythion H. aristodemus H. andraemon H. machaonides Piper reticulatum Piper sanctifelicis Piper umbellatum Piper urostachyum Piper villiramulum Amyris Amyris balsamifera Amyris elemifera Amyris pinnata Balfourodendron riedelianum Casimora Casimora edulis Casimora tetrameria Choisya ternata Citrus Citrus aurantiifolia Citrus aurantium Citrus limetta Citrus limon Citrus maxima Citrus medica Citrus paradisi Citrus reticulata Citrus sinensis Dictamnus Esenbeckia Esenbeckia berlandieri Esenbeckia febrifuga Esenbeckia leiocarpa Esenbeckia pentaphylla

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Host Plant Family H. thoas H. cresphontes H. homothoas H. melonius H. paeon H. aristor H. caiguanabus H. thersites H. androgeus H. astyalus H. ornythion H. aristodemus H. andraemon H. machaonides Esenbeckia pilocarpoides Esenbeckia pumila Fortunella marginata Galipea jasminiflora Murraya paniculata Pilocarpus pennatifolius pennatifolius Ptelea Ptelea trifoliata Ruta Ruta chalepensis Ruta graveolens Skimmia japonica Swinglea glutinosa Zanthoxylum Zanthoxylum americanum Zanthoxylum caribaeum Zanthoxylum coco Zanthoxylum culantrillo Zanthoxylum ekmanii Zanthoxylum fagara Zanthoxylum flavum Zanthoxylum martinicense Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Zanthoxylum riedelianum Zanthoxylum setulosum

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Host Plant Family H. lamarchei H. himeros H. hectorides H. garleppi H. torquatus H. hyppason H. epenetus H. oxynius H. pelaus H. anchisiades H. isidorus H. chiansiades H. rogeri H. erostratus Piper Piper amalago Piper belemense Piper mikanianum Piper umbellatum Piper xylosteoides Amyris pinnata Angostura nicaraguensis Casimora Casimora edulis Casimora tetrameria Choisya ternata Citrus Citrus aurantiifolia Citrus aurantium Citrus limetta Citrus limon Citrus maxima Citrus medica Citrus mitis Citrus paradisi Citrus reticulata Citrus sinensis Dictamnu s Esenbeckia Esenbeckia berlandieri Esenbeckia febrifuga Esenbeckia leiocarpa Esenbeckia pentaphylla

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Host Plant Family H. lamarchei H. himeros H. hectorides H. garleppi H. torquatus H. hyppason H. epenetus H. oxynius H. pelaus H. anchisiades H. isidorus H. chiansiades H. rogeri H. erostratus Esenbeckia pilocarpoides Euxylophora paraensis Fortunella japonica Fortunella marginata Galipea jasminiflora Helietta Monnieria trifolia Pilocarpus Skimmia japonica Swinglea glutinosa Zanthoxylum Zanthoxylum coco Zanthoxylum culantrillo Zanthoxylum ekmanii Zanthoxylum fagara Zanthoxylum martinicense Zanthoxylum melanostictum Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Zanthoxylum riedelianum Zanthoxylum setulosum

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Heraclides H. thoas thoas H. thoas thoas H. thoas autocles H. thoas autocles H. thoas brasiliensis H. thoas brasiliensis

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Heraclides H. thoas cinyras H. thoas cinyras H. thoas neacles H. thoas neacles H. thoas oviedo H. thoas oviedo

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Heraclides H. thoas thoantiades H. thoas thoantiades H. cresphontes H. cresphontes H. cresphontes H. cresphontes

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Heraclides H. cresphontes H. cresphontes H. cresphontes H. cresphontes H. homothoas H. homothoas

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Heraclides H. melonius H. melonius H. paeon paeon H. paeon paeon H. paeon escomeli H. paeon escomeli

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Heraclides H. paeon thrasonH. paeon thrason H. aristor H. aristor H. caiguanabus H. caiguanabus

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Heraclides H. thersites H. thersites H. androgeus androgeus H. androgeus androgeus H. androgeus androgeus androgeus epidaurus

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Heraclides H. androgeus epidaurus H. androgeus epidaurus H. androgeus laodocus H. androgeus laodocus H. astyalus astyalus H. astyalus astyalus

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Heraclides H. astyalus astyalus H. astyalus astyalus H. astyalus anchicayaensis H. astyalus anchicayaensis H. astyalus bajaensis H. astyalus bajaensis

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Heraclides H. astyalus hippomedonH. astyalus hippomedon H. astyalus hippomedonH. astyalus hippomedon H. astyalus pallas H. astyalus pallas

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Heraclides H. astyalus phanias H. ornythion H. ornythionH. ornythion H. ornythion

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Heraclides H. ornythionH. ornythion H. andraemon andraemonH. andraemon andraemonH. andraemon andraemon H. andraemon andraemon

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Heraclides H. andraemon bonhotei H. andraemon bonhotei H. andraemon tailori H. andraemon tailori H. aristodemus aristodemus H. aristodemus aristodemus

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Heraclides H. aristodemus bjorndalae H. aristodemus bjorndalae H. aristodemus majasi H. aristodemus majasi aristodemus ponceanus H. aristodemus ponceanus

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Heraclides H. aristodemus temenes H. aristodemus temenes H. machaonides H. machaonides H. lamarchei H. lamarchei

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Heraclides H. himeros himeros H. himeros himeros H. hectorides H. hectorides H. hectorides H. garleppi garleppi

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Heraclides H. garleppi garleppi H. torquatus torquatus H. garleppi interruptus H. garleppi interruptus H. garleppi lecerfi H. garleppi lecerfi

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Heraclides H. garleppi lecerfi H. garleppi lecerfi H. torquatus torquatus H. torquatus torquatus H. garleppi interruptus H. torquatus torquatus

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Heraclides H. torquatus atsukoae H. torquatus atsukoae H. torquatus jeani H. torquatus leptalea H. torquatus leptaleaH. tassolike

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Heraclides H. torquatus tolus H. torquatus mazai H. torquatus polybius H. torquatus polybius H. torquatus tolmides H. torquatus tolmides

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Heraclides H. torquatus tolus H. torquatus tolus H. hyppason H. hyppason H. hyppasonH. hyppason

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Heraclides H. epenetus H. epenetus oxynius H. oxynius H. pelaus pelaus pelaus pelaus

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Heraclides H. pelaus atkinsi H. pelaus atkinsi H. pelaus imerius H. pelaus imerius H. pelaus puertoricensis H. pelaus puertoricensis

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Heraclides H. anchisiades anchisiades H. anchisiades anchisiades H. anchisiades anchisiades H. anchisiades anchisiades H. anchisiades anchisiades H. anchisiades anchisiades

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Heraclides H. anchisiades capys H. anchisiades capys H. anchisiades capys H. anchisiades idaeus H. anchisiades idaeus H. anchisiades idaeus

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Heraclides H. anchisiades idaeus H. anchisiades idaeus H. anchisiades idaeus H. anchisiades idaeus H. anchisiades idaeus H. anchisiades lamasi

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Heraclides H. anchisiades philastrius H. anchisiades philastrius H. isidorus isidorus H. isidorus isidorus H. isidorus brises H. isidorus brises

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Heraclides H. isidorus brises H. isidorus flavescens H. isidorus flavescens H. isidorus flavescens H. isidorus flavescens H. isidorus brises nymphius

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Heraclides H. isidorus brises nymphius H. isidorus brises nymphius H. isidorus isidorus isidorus pacificus H. isidorus isidorus isidorus pacificus H. isidorus isidorus H. unknown

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Heraclides H. isidorus tingoH. isidorus tingo H. chiansiades chiansiades H. chiansiades chiansiades H. anchisiades anchisiades H. chainsiades maroni) H. anchisiades anchisiades H. chainsiades maroni)

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Heraclides H. chiansiades chiansiades H. chiansiades moss i) H. rogeri rogeri rogeri rogeri H. rogeri rogeri H. rogeri rogeri H. rogeri pharnaces

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Heraclides H. rogeri pharnaces H. rogeri pharnaces H. rogeri pharnaces H. rogeri pharnaces H. erostratus erostratusH. erostratus erostratus

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Heraclides H. erostratus erostratus H. erostratus erostratus H. erostratus vazquezae H. erostratus vazquezae H. chiansiades dospassosi H. chiansiades dospassosi

PAGE 215

Heraclides H. himeros baia H. himeros baia H. tasso H. tasso H. isidorus autana H. isidorus autana

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Heraclides Heraclides torquatus mazai Heraclides torquatus mazai Papilio maroni Papilio maroni

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Heraclides thoas H. t. thoas H. t. autocles H. t. brasiliensis H. t. cinyras H. t. neacles H. t. oviedo H. t. thoantiades H. t. thoas H. t. autocles

PAGE 218

H eraclides cresphontes H cresphontes H. cresphontes

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Heraclides homothoas

PAGE 220

Heraclides melonius

PAGE 221

Heraclides paeon H. p. paeon H. p. escomeli H. p. thrason

PAGE 222

Heraclides aristor

PAGE 223

Heraclides caiguanabus

PAGE 224

Heraclides thersites

PAGE 225

Heraclides androgeus H. a. androgeus H. a. epidaurus H. a. laodocus H. androgeus androgeus H. a. epidaurus

PAGE 226

Heraclides astyalus H. a. astyalus H. a. bajaensis H. a. hippomedon H. a. pallas H. a. phanias

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Heraclides ornythion

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Heraclides aristodemus H. a. aristodemus H. a. bjorndalae H. a. majasi H. a. ponceanus H. a. temenes

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Heraclides andraemon H. a. andraemon H. a. bonhotei H. a. tailori

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Heraclides machaonides

PAGE 231

Heraclides lamarchei H. hectorides H. hectorides H. hectorides H. hectorides H. lamarchei H. hectorides H. lamarchei H. hectorides H. lamarchei H. hectorides H. hectorides H. lamarchei

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Heraclides garleppi H. garleppi garleppi H. g. lecerfi

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Heraclides torquatus H. t. torquatus H. t. atsukoae H. t. jeani H. t. leptalea H. t. polybius H. to. tolmides H. t. tolus

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Heraclides hyppason

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Heraclides epenetus oxynius H. epenetus H. epenetus H. epenetus H. oxynius H. epenetus H. oxynius H. epenetus H. oxynius H. epenetus H. epenetus

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Heraclides pelaus H. p. pelaus H. p. atkinsi H. p. imerius H. p. puertoricensis

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Heraclides anchisiades H. a. anchisiades H. a. capys H. a. idaeus H. a. philastrius

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Heraclides isidorus H. i. isidorus H. i. isidorus H. i. brises H. i. flavescens H. i. tingo

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Heraclides chiansiades

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Heraclides rogeri H. r. rogeri H. r. pharnaces

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Heraclides erostratus H. e. erostratus H. e. erostratus H. e. vazquezae

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Heraclides H. thoas thoas H. t. thoas H. t. autocles,H. t. brasiliensis, H. t. cinyras H. t. neacles H. t. oviedo, H. t. thoantiades

PAGE 243

Heraclides H. cresphontes H. cresphontes H. homothoas,H. melonius, H. paeon paeon, H. p. thrason

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Heraclides H. aristor H. caiguanabus H. thersites H. androgeus androgeus H. a. epidaurus H. a. laodocus

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Heraclides H. astyalus astyalus H. a. bajaensis H. a. hippomedonH. a. pallas H. ornythion H. aristodemus aristodemus H. a. bjorndalae H. a. majasi H. a. ponceanus H. a. temenes

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Heraclides H. andraemon andraemonH. a. bonhotei H. a. tailori H. machaonides H. lamarchei H. hectorides

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Heraclides H. torquatus torquatus H. garleppi interruptus H. g. lecerfi H. t. torquatus H. t. atsukoae H. t. leptalea H. t. polybius H. t. tolmides

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Heraclides H. hyppason H. epenetus H. oxynius H. pelaus pelaus H. p. imerius H. p. puertoricensis H. rogeri rogeri H. r. pharnaces

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Heraclides H. anchisiades anchisiades H. a. capys H. a. idaeus H. a. philastrius H. isidorus flavescens H. i. isidorus H. erostratus erostratus H. e. erostratus H. e. vazquezae

PAGE 250

Heraclides thoas

PAGE 251

Heraclides cresphontes

PAGE 252

Heraclides homothoas Heraclides melonius

PAGE 253

Heraclides paeon

PAGE 254

Heraclides aristor Heraclides caiguanabus Heraclides thersites

PAGE 255

Heraclides androgeus

PAGE 256

Heraclides astyalus

PAGE 257

Heraclides ornythion

PAGE 258

Heraclides andraemon

PAGE 259

Heraclides aristodemus

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Heraclides machaonides Heraclides lamarchei Heraclides himeros Heraclides hectorides

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Heraclides garleppi

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Heraclides torquatus

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Heraclides epenetu s Heraclides hypasson Heraclides oxynius

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Heraclides pelaus.

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Heraclides anchisiades.

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Heraclides isidorus.

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Heraclides chiansiades, Heraclides rogeri Heraclides erostratus.

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News of the Lepidopterists Society 24(1) Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution12(2) Bulletin of the Museum of comparative Zoology 78(2) 8 Nature Reviews Genetics 3 The American Naturalist 42(496) Suites Buffon. Histoire naturelle des Insectes. Spcies gnral des Lpidopt res Jamaica and its butterflies Butterflies of Baja California. Faunal survey, natural history, conservation biology Papilio tolus Revista de la Sociedad mexicana de Historia natural 35 Papilio erostratus Anales del Instituto de Biologa. Universidad nacional autnoma de Mxico 56(1) Species Profile: Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus Red List of Pollinator Insects of North America Evolution3(4) Evolution3(4)

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Description physique de la Rpublique Argentine d'aprs des observations personelles et trangeres. 5. Lpidoptres. Premire partie. Contenant les diurnes, crpusculaires et bombycodes Proceedings of the zoological Society of London1874(3) Systematic Biology 50(1) Papilio Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution11(1) Priamides anchisiades idaeus News of the Lepidopterists' Society 45(2), Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution9 Papilio aristodemus Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 32(4) Psyche 6(205) Papilio paeonProceedin gs of the entomological Society of Washington29(2) Threatened swallowtail butterflies of the world De uitlandische Kapellen voorkomende in de drie Waereld-Deelen Asia, Africa en America. Papillons exotiques des trois parties du monde l'Asie, l'Afrique et l'Amrique Catlogo dos Papilionidae americanos USGA Turfgrass and Environmental Research Online 3(11) The butterflies of Costa Rica and their natural history. Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102 Zoogeography of Caribbean I nsects Annals and Magazine of natural History 18(121) University of Kansas Science Bulletin 39(8) Papilio rogeri News of the Lepidopterists' Society 46(2) Systematic Biology 52(5) Die auslndische oder die ausserhalb Europa zur Zeit in den brigen Welttheilen vorgefundene Schmetterlinge in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschr eibungen Magazin der neuesten auslndischen Insecten die ausserhalb Europa zur Zeit in den brigen Welttheilen vorgefundene Schmetterlinge in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen Systema entomologiae, sistens insectorvm classes, ordines, genera, species, adiectis synonymis, locis, descriptionibvs, observationibvs Entomologia systematica emendata et aucta. Secundum classes, ordines, genera, species adjectis synonimis, locis, observationibus, descriptionibus Systematic Biology 18 Wiener entomologische Monatschrift Reise der sterreich ischen Fregatte Novara um die 162 Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859 unter den Befehlen des Commodore B. von WllerstorfUrbair. Zoologischer Theil. Zweiter Band. Zweite Abtheilung: Lepidoptera

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Transactions of the royal entomological Society of London94(2) Entomologische Rundschau32(12) Sammlung exotischer Schmetterlinge Systematic Zoology 23(4) Catalogue of lepidopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum. Part I. Papilionidae Encyclopdie Mthodique. Histoire naturelle. Entomologie, ou histoire naturelle des crustacs, des arachnides et des insectes Biologia Centrali-Americana. Insecta. LepidopteraRhopalocera OrnithopteraPapilio Proceedings of the Royal Society, London33 Descripcin de una nueva especie de mariposa diurnal cubana del gnero Papilio Reper torio fsico -natural de la Isla de Cuba Anales de la Sociedad espaola de Historia natural 20(1) Smithersia 2 Illustrations of new species of exotic butterflies selected chiefly from the collections of W. Wilson Saunders and William C. Hewitson Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 132(3)

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Papilio Stettiner entomologische Zeitung27(1/3) Sammlung e xotischer Smetterlinge Sammlung e xotischer Smetterlinge Sammlung e xotischer Smetterlinge Ty to Ga34(2) Eriogyna pyretorum International Journal of Biological Sciences 5 Entomologische Zeitschrift 21 Zeitschrift fr zoologische Systematik und EvolutionsForschung14(1) Papilio Evolution63(10) Bulletin du Musum national d'Histoire Naturelle 30(2) Mariposas de Colombia. Tomo I: Papilionidae Regni animalis Mantissa plantarum altera generum editionis VI & specierum editionis II Trends in Ecology and Evolution 10 Species, concepts of Encyclopedia of Biodiversity Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 363

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A hierarchy of species concepts: the denoument in the saga of the species problem Species: The units of biodiversity Evolution3(4) Principles of systematic zoology Philosophy of Science 63(2) Enumeratio corporum animalium Musei Imperialis Academiae Scientiarum Petropolitanae. Classis insectorum. Ordo lepidopterorum Papilio cresphontes Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 186(4) Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 8(2) Heraclides aristodemus Bulletin of the Allyn Museum 113 Biogeography of the West Indies, Patterns and Perspectives Butterflies of the Florida Keys Papilionidae V. Neue und wenig bekannte papilioniden aus der neotropischen Region ( Papilionidae, Lepidoptera) Butterflies of the World 8 Papilio Bulletin de la Socit entomologique de France 10 Bulletin de la Socit entomologique de France 17 The Canadian Entomologist 17 Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution42(1)

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Journal of Experimental Zoology 291 Evolution and Development 5(6) tudes d'Entomologie 4 Tokurana10(2) The Jo urnal of Research on the Lepidoptera40 Papilio hectorides Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 29(1/2) Centuria de lepidpteros y catlogo de las mariposas de la Isla de Cuba. Obras ya publicadas por el autor de estas memorias, Memorias sobre la Historia Natural de la Isla de Cuba, acompaadas de sumarios latinos y extractos en francs Heraclides isidorus Lambillionea4(2 Papilio Molecular Biology and Evolution 16(2) A field guide to the butterflies of the West Indies Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 44(1) Papilios Novitates Zoologicae 13(3) tassoPapilio torquatus News of the Lepidopterists Society46(1) Papilio Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 23(4)

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Papilio Entomological News 22(10) The butterflies of Hispaniola Papilio astyalus pallas Tropical Lepidoptera7(2) Swallowtail butterflies: Their ecology and evolutionary biology Einleitung. Die Gross-Schmetterlinge des Amerikanischen Faunengebietes Die Gross -Schmetterlinge der Erde 5 Proceedings of the zoological Society of London2 Evolution 5(4) Systematics and Biodiversity 6(2) The Butterflies of the West Indies and South Florida Cercyonis pegala News of the Lepidopterists Society 50(2) I. Theil. Exotische Tagfalter in systematischer Reihenfolge mit Bercksichtigung neuer Arten Exotische Schmetterlinge Deutsche entomologische Zeitschrift "Iris" 5(2) Molecular Biology and Evolution26 Zoological illustrations, or original figures and descriptions of new, rare or interesting animals, selected chiefly from the classes of ornithology, entomology, and conchology, and arranged according to their apparent affinities. Second series Zoological illustrations, or original figures and descriptions of new, rare, or interesting animals, selected chiefly from the classes of ornithology, entomology, and conchology, and arranged on the principles of Cuvier and other modern zoologists

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Papilio thersites Journal of the Institute of Jamaica 1(8) Swallowtail butterflies of the Americas A study in biological dynamics, ecological diversity, biosystematics, and conservation Papilio anchisiades anchisiades Entomologische Berichten17(10) Anales del Instituto de Biologa de Mxico18(1) Papilio paeonEntomologist's monthly Magazine 19(219) Papilio Transactions of the entomological Society of London5(2) Transactions of the entomological Society of London2 Molecular Biology and Evolution25 The Auk 99(3) Papilio anchisiades Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society40(1) Systematic Biology 53(2) Evolution58(12)

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Cyllopoda Heraclides