African Coastal Elite Architecture

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Material Information

Title:
African Coastal Elite Architecture Cultural Authentication during the Colonial Period in Anomabo, Ghana
Physical Description:
1 online resource (450 p.)
Language:
english
Creator:
Micots, Courtnay
Publisher:
University of Florida
Place of Publication:
Gainesville, Fla.
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Thesis/Dissertation Information

Degree:
Doctorate ( Ph.D.)
Degree Grantor:
University of Florida
Degree Disciplines:
Art History, Art and Art History
Committee Chair:
Poynor, Robin E.
Committee Members:
Rovine, Victoria
Chalfin, Brenda H.
Essegbey, James

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
acquaah, africa, african, afro, aggrey, akan, akuapem, amonoo, amonu, anamaboe, anomabo, anomabu, architecture, art, asante, authentification, basel, brew, bricks, british, builders, cape, castle, coast, coastal, colonial, construction, corantee, coranti, courtyard, cultural, elite, fante, fanti, fort, ghana, history, house, hybrid, kurentsir, larteh, masons, merchant, methodism, mission, mulatto, nigeria, palladian, pise, residence, saltpond, sey, sobrado
Art and Art History -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre:
Art History thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract:
This is a study of African coastal elite residential architecture during the colonial period, specifically between the 1860s and 1930s. Anomabo, a historically-significant port town, serves as a microcosm for a Coastal Elite Style that was popular along the West African coastline in every major port city during the colonial period. The Coastal Elite Style combines elements of the Akan courtyard house, European Palladian architecture and the Afro-Portuguese sobrado. These structures demonstrate how the Fante and other coastal Africans used the creative process of appropriation and transformation, or cultural authentification, to communicate their status and identity visually. African family members who achieve success are expected to extend the family residence or build anew. A home visually reflects the stature of the individual and his family in the community. The family residence communicates their level of connections, wealth, dignity, education and mobility in the global world. More than seventeen stone nog houses survive in Anomabo; all date between the 1860s and 1930s. Although these residences were created during the colonial era, cultural authentification on the coast of modern Ghana is a pre-colonial cultural practice born out of urbanization and multiple cultural interactions. Residential architecture is germane to this study because it provides a point of entry into larger questions dealing with African agency and the impact of globalization, commercialism and colonialization. Family houses built by African coastal elites visually bridge two cultures African and European and make powerful statements about the ability of this group to assimilate outside ideas and transform them into a new and dynamic art form. This is a story about people who, under social and political duress, find a way to express their identity.
General Note:
In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note:
Includes vita.
Bibliography:
Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description:
Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description:
This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Courtnay Micots.
Thesis:
Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2010.
Local:
Adviser: Poynor, Robin E.

Record Information

Source Institution:
UFRGP
Rights Management:
Applicable rights reserved.
Classification:
lcc - LD1780 2010
System ID:
UFE0041366:00001


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Blankson's having enough capital to build the structure, masons trained in stone nog construction

were available as well (discussed in Chapter 6). Thus, Blankson had motive, means and available

masons. A fourth clue offers further evidence of Blankson's commission.

The seven asafo companies of Anomabo elected Blankson to be their Commander in

Chief, or tuafohen, in 1863 upon hearing the news that the Ashanti had invaded the Assin

district. Blankson led the companies to war in Assin Mansu after financing much of the artillery.

They were successful in driving the Ashanti forces north, yet this also closed the trade routes.

Thus, in 1866 Blankson volunteered to negotiate with the Asante king, or asantehene. He was

successful and returned to Anomabo a great hero. 12 He would have been motivated to build his

great structure as a status symbol after this victory.

His luck soon changed. During this time Blankson lost three of his children. In 1868, his

wife also passed. In 1873, the Ashanti armies again moved against the Fante, and Blankson was

asked to lead the Anomabo companies into war. Blankson, unlike his previous triumph, was

accused of taking a bribe from an Asante chief and of selling weapons to the Asante. Although

he was acquitted in 1874, the damage had been done. Blankson was mobbed by his community

who once respected him. His crops, trees, furniture and buildings were looted and destroyed. The

Reverend Thomas Birch Freeman convinced Blankson to rejoin the Methodist church where he

became a lay preacher and church officer in 1876. Blankson chose to confine himself to his

house for the last twelve years of his life, focusing solely on his involvement with the Methodist

church. On August 23, 1898, he died in his home, Castle Brew, at age 89.13





12Sampson, 48-49; and "Blankson," n.p.
13Ephson, 39; Sampson, 49-50; and "Blankson," n.p.









rammed earth homes. Bricks were used to form the window sills and entablatures on the facade

only for the four upper story windows. These embellishements are similar to those on the Justice

Akwa Family Residence (Figure B-73).

The first floor of the original house utilizes the Hall and Chamber plan with two central

halls and four chambers (Figure B-83). The first hall is visually divided by three piers one on

the south wall, one on the north wall, and another located one-third of the distance across the

hall. Two mushroom arches support the upstairs and divide the two halls, showing some

similarity with the plan of the Kobena Mefful Family Residence (Figure B-60). One of these

arches has been obscured by the enclosure of a room within the second hall shortly after 1944.

A door in the second hall leading into a north chamber once had an anse de panier-shaped

transom. Today the door is gone and the space walled in, leaving only the arch above, used as a

little storage shelf. The ceilings are an average height, about eight feet, which is to be expected in

the ground floor of coastal African houses. This is dissimilar to European homes which tended to

have much higher ceilings, up to 12 feet, on both floors. The ground floor ofAbrosan has been

cemented.

The sobrado veranda was oriented to overlook the courtyard instead of being placed to the

front of the house, as it was in Etsiwa Abodo. Originally timber, the concrete stairway in the

courtyard leads to the veranda upstairs, now replaced with a swish floor. These renovations were

made in 1985. Heavy piers support the veranda above. The second floor has the same plan as

below, but without the arches. All second story floors are now swish covered with a cement

plaster, but may have originally been wood planked. Behind the courtyard a new building was

constructed after the original apparently collapsed before 1931. No indication of a ruin is present

on the 1931 Gold Coast Survey.









Cruickshank lived on the coast for twenty years, from 1834 to 1854, but not necessarily all

that time in Anomabo. A report dated 1841 stated that Cruickshank was the only white man in

Fort William,45 and that he was a resident merchant of Anomabo in August of 1844. Thus,

Cruickshank seems to have lived in Anomabo at least during the span of 1841 to 1844. The first

addition to Castle Brew was likely overseen by Cruickshank during this period. He is also

responsible for renaming the Anomabo fort, Fort William. Since King William IV reigned from

1830 to 1837, it is equally possible that Cruickshank built the additions during the latter half of

the 1830s.46

British Palladian Style and Plan

The designer of the addition did not seem concerned with perfect symmetry (Figures B-6

and B-31), which was a major aspect of the original Palladian structure. Lack of symmetry

certainly would have been considered a major flaw by British architects. However, I doubt this

was a consideration here on the Ghanaian coast. The pilasters and belt course of the original

structure are not repeated on the addition. The doors and windows are not symmetrical, either

with each other or with those of the original building. A wide tunnel on the ground floor allows

direct access from the front of the castle to the courtyard. Near this tunnel on the facade a small

round window resembles a porthole, rather than a full window. Perhaps the room inside was used

to store goods to which Cruickshank wanted to limited the possibility of theft. This ground floor

has two rooms connected by a large central archway.

Two rooms were also added upstairs. These were connected to the large south room of the

original structure via a single doorway. On the south end of the far room double doors likely



45Shumway 87, footnote 41; and Doortmont and Savoldi, 133.
46Doortmont and Savoldi, 133.









Rammed Earth Construction

Local coastal history states that many centuries ago both the Etsii and the Fante possessed

the technology of rammed earth construction, using it to build one-story, rectangular houses. 22

Both one and two-story houses in rammed earth construction exist in Anomabo today, conveying

the housing variety apparent in early documentation. The use of this construction method among

the Akan however is believed by Farrar to have been introduced after the early nineteenth

century. 23

The beginnings of rammed earth construction have been extensively researched by Farrar

and archaeologist Kwesi James Anquandah, principally in the Shai Hills and eastern Accra

plains. Their findings revealed that rammed earth construction in Ghana may date to the

Neolithic period. It may have been independently invented, or it may have been adapted from

either the Mande groups to the north or groups to the east such as those from the Dahomey-

Yoruba-Benin cultural sphere. The east-west trading route and north-south route were equally

well-traveled. Until more archaeological data on Neolithic sites in southern Ghana are recovered,

little more can be determined about the early history of building construction in this area. Farrar

promotes indigenous invention over Islamic or European influence. 24

To further complicate its possible origins, rammed earth construction is called atakpame,

after the town and region in central Togo where builders of this technique is locally reported to

have originated. According to Farrar, however, rammed earth construction was the dominant




22Faculty, 452.
23Vincent Kenneth Tarikh Farrar, "Some Comments on Indigenous African Building Technology," Archaeology in
Ghana (3, 1993), 46.
: 'n.i'i, Kenneth Tarikh Farrar, "Indigenous Building Construction in Southern Ghana: Some Aspects of
Technology and History," West African Journal ofArchaeology 25 (1, 1995), 160, 164-165.









the school's acceptance within the Fante social and religious network. His caution proved true, as

none of his educated sons were elected to succeed him.

With this same wisdom, Kurentsir played the British and French against each other for

about 20 years, extracting as many benefits as he could. Priestley noted that "even after the

British had secured the advantage and had begun building operations in 1753, he continued to

behave in the same way."71 The most striking example of these relationships comes from the

education of his two sons, Lewis Banishee (b.c. 1725) and William Ansah Sesarakoo (b.c. 1727).

The Education of Kurentsir's Sons

The details of their education and experience are provided herein to illustrate several

points. Firstly, these princes are among the first from sub-Saharan West Africa to receive

European educations. This education was completely financed by the European merchant

companies as a diplomatic tool to establish their trading forts along the Ghanaian coastline,

further demonstrating the dependence of the Europeans on coastal Africans.

Secondly, Sesarakoo's experience, in particular, is valuable for two reasons. His book

details his mid-eighteenth century experience and is the earliest record available from an African

from Anomabo. He also makes the choice upon his return to serve at Fort William as a linguist,

or clerk, aiding in the lucrative coastal slave trade despite his four-year experience as a slave in

Barbados. This choice contrasts with the one made by another eighteenth-century prince,

Olaudah Equiano a. k. a. Gustavas Vassa, who decided to assist the abolitionists in England.72

Thirdly, the story of Sesarakoo relates to the ability of those in positions of high status,

though only very few during this period, to make different choices within the British system.


71Flather 61-64; and Priestley, West African Trade, 14.

72Olaudah Equiano, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, The African:
Written by Himself (London, 1794).









The aerial plan from the 1931 Gold Gold Survey (Figure B-80) depicts verandas along

three sides of the front of the house and another verandah facing the courtyard. A large cistern or

"tank" existed in the center of the courtyard and can be seen on the ground today. Local bricks

were used to fashion a barrel vault over the hold. Its stately presence on Okokodo hill would

have been quite visually striking and communicated the stature of this newly wealthy merchant.

Today, ruins ofbuildings surround the right and back side of the courtyard, with only a structure

remaining to the left. On the site of the once-grand Jacob Wilson Sey Family Residence, a

concrete house has been built over the area at the back and east side of the original courtyard.

According to his descendant Grace Ntsiful, who once lived in the house, it was built with

stone nog and brick-faced. The straight piers stretched across the front, along the eastern side of

the house, and partially along the western side of the house to support a wooden veranda. The

veranda was well-situated to catch the ocean breezes. All the doorways and windows on the

exterior were arched.

The main entrance had pilastered columns flanking the doors. An entablature likely

surmounted these, though the descendant couldn't remember it. The use of pilastered columns at

the entrance is reminiscent of the Methodist Mission (Figure B-49) and the Kobena Mefful

Family Residence (Figure B-60). The plan, the same upstairs as down, consisted of two large

central halls, each leading to side chambers, for a total of four chambers on each floor. A large

arch covered the entranceway from one hall into the other. The floors upstairs were built in

swish, rather than wood planks.

Sey was a Methodist who used to hold prayer sessions in the first hall. The descendant also

remembered that Sey spoke a type of"Fanglish,"38 to borrow Ebow Daniel's term, combining


38Daniel Ebow, A Tale ofCape Coast (Accra, Ghana: Woeli, 2004), xv.









Residential architecture is germane to this study because it provides a point of entry into

larger questions dealing with African agency and the impact of globalization, commercialism

and colonialization. Family houses built by African coastal elites visually bridge two cultures -

African and European-and make powerful statements about the ability of this group to

assimilate outside ideas and transform them into a new and dynamic art form. This is a story

about people who, under social and political duress, find a way to express their identity.




























Tuafohen 's
Residence


Second Residence


Chamber


Courtyard


Courtyard


i I b a Chanter

... i r ; i T


Figure B-20. Tuafohen' s Palace, Plan
(Drawn by Courtnay Micots, 2009)


Front


t ihI. I '-%. !


-it
2.-Q -f t


Chamber
I!


I,,,,, I


Chamber J


Chamber


.Ch i iilber


Chamber


Chamber


.~









M materials and C construction ......................................... .............................................4 16
S ty le ............. ..... ............ .................................... .................................. ............. 4 1 8
P lan ............................................. ................................. ........................4 18
Status Symbol............................................ 420

D D O C U M E N T S ...............................................................42 1

Document D-1. Obituary for Samuel Collins Brew ....................... ......... .......422
Document D-2. Kofi Aiko Land Purchase Agreement............................ ............... 423
Document D-3. Land Indenture for The Russell House ................... ................425
Document D-4. Building Permit for The Russell House ...................................................429
Document D-5. Obituary for Reverend John Oboboam Hammond ...................................430
Document D-6. Obituary for Charlotte Oyemame Acquaah ..........................................431

L IS T O F R E F E R E N C E S ...............................................................................................432

BIO G RAPH ICA L SK ETCH ...............................................................450




















































Figure B-44. Charles Bentum Annan (c. 1890-1964)
Unknown photographer
c. 1920s
Anomabo, Ghana







329









Francis Chapman Grant (1823-1889), was announced in the March 21, 1881 issue of The Gold

Coast Times. Grant was also Methodist, and like many of the coastal elites, his children were

educated in England.62

John Sarbah

John Sarbah (January 1834-1892) was another prosperous merchant born in Anomabo.

Sarbah was a contemporary of Blankson, Jacob Wilson Sey and James Hutton Brew. These men

shared their religious affiliation and business interests, including being among the merchants

who began the The Gold Coast Native Concession Purchasing Company (Limited) in 1882.63 A

steady increase in the sale of palm oil exported and the emergence of a new export, palm kernels,

ushered in a period of greater prosperity in the late 1860s and 1870s. An increasing number of

young African traders emerged to meet the demand; they were encouraged by the more liberal

extension of credit offered by British consignment houses to small independent trading firms

throughout the colonies, such as The Gold Coast Native Concession Purchasing Company. In the

1880s and 1890s traders were quick to exploit the profits from a new export product, rubber.

Sarbah's business interests by this period rivaled that of the two major British firms on the coast,

including F. and A. Swanzy.64

One source states that Sarbah was a member of the royal family of Anomabo state.65

Another source claimed Sarbah was a member of the Nsona clan. 66 He may have lived in the

rammed earth house, now a ruin, located on Annobil Street near the Omanhen's Palace, but no


62The Gold Coast Times (March 21, 1881), 3.

63The Gold Coast Times (June 24, 1882), front page.

64Dumett, 655. 670, 672.

65Ibid., 658.
66Ephson, 58-62.


















































Figure B-13. Kow Otu Family Residence (1), with Descendant Ama
Kow Otu, a. k. a. John Ogoe Sr.
c. 1860s
Rammed earth, timber, concrete block, cement plaster
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photo by Courtnay Micots, 2009)







298









son, a Western-educated attorney. Both were members of the royal family; the son was also a

member of the coastal elite class. The Omanhen Amonoo V was born Kwamin Tufuantsi16 and

reigned from April 9, 1901, to the day he died March 20, 1921. According to one description:

He was an able and wise ruler. His administration was all that should be
desired. He was a man of great intellectual force. He was bold and ever ready for
criticisms. He was a deep thinker. His suggestions were wholesome. 17

Amonoo V's accomplishments include the partial construction of the road connecting Anomabo

to Cape Coast now used as the coastal highway. He also served as an official member of the

Legislative Council as of September 1916.18

Amonoo V sent his son Kwamin Atta Amonoo, a. k. a. K. Ata Amonu, to England to

become a lawyer. While studying in London, Atta Amonoo was exposed to numerous buildings

in the British Palladian style. After his education, Atta practiced law in Calabar, Nigeria, and he

sent money to Anomabo for the construction of a family residence. It was his father, Amonoo V,

who supervised the project. The romantic version told by local residents is that Atta died in a car

accident on his way to Anomabo to move into his completed family residence. He never lived in

the residence constructed for the family. 19

In actuality, Atta Amonoo is mentioned frequently in The Gold Leader, a major coastal

newspaper, working in southern Ghana in the early 1920s. On August 31, 1920, he held a

"house-warming" with a large party in attendance. 20 Thus, it can be surmised that the residence



16Or Kwamin Tafuantsi or Kwamin Tap iantsi per Sanders, 271-274 and Table 10 on p. 280.

17"History of Anamabu: The Formation of the Town of Anamabu," n.d., 11. Ghana National Archives, Cape Coast.
The Gold Coast Leader (March 26, 1921), 2, reported that Amonoo V died on March 21, 1921.

"Ibid.

191 was told the accident took place west of Accra, somewhere between Adaiso and Bawjiase, between 1922 and
1924.
20Gold Coast Leader (September 4, 1920), 2.









----. "Urban Design and Architecture in Precolonial Africa." Journal of Urban History 2 (4
August 1976): 387-414.

Hyland, A. D. C. "Asante." In Vernacular Architecture of the World, ed. Paul Oliver, 2034-2035.
Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1997.

---. "Fante." In Vernacular Architecture of the World, ed. Paul Oliver, 2042-2043. Cambridge:
Cambridge UP, 1997.

----. "British Colonial," In Vernacular Architecture of the World, ed. Paul Oliver, 2038-2039.
Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1997.

----. "Le Ghana" In Rives Coloniales: Architectures, de Saint-Louis A Douala, ed. Jacques
Soulillou, 135-170. Marseille: Editions Parentheses, 1993.

----. "An Introduction to the Traditional and Historical Architecture of Ghana." In History of
Ghana, ed. Maggie Dodds, 59-71. Accra: American Women's Association of Ghana, 1974

----. "Aspects of Indigenous Architecture." Annual Museums Lectures 1969-1970. Accra: Ghana
Museum and Monuments Board, 1970.

Jacobs, Sylvia M. "James Emman Kwegyir Aggrey: An African Intellectual in the United
States." The Journal of Negro History 81 (1/4 Winter-Autumn 1996): 47-61.

Jenkins, Ray G. "North American Scholarship and the Thaw in the Historiography of Ghanaian
Coastal Settlements." Ghana Studies Bulletin (3 December 1985): 19-28.

----. "Gold Coast Historians and Their Pursuit of the Gold Coast Pasts, 1882-1917." Ph.D. diss.,
University of Birmingham, Alabama, 1985.

Kalman, H. "The Architecture of Mercantilism: Commercial Buildings by George Dance the
Younger." In The Triumph of Culture: 18th Century Perspectives, ed. Paul Fritz and David
Williams, 69-96. Toronto, Canada: A. M. Hakkert, 1972.

Kaplow, Susan Beth. "African Merchants of the Nineteenth Century Gold Coast." Ph.D. diss.,
Columbia University, 1971.

Kea, Ray A. Settlements, Trade, and Polities in the Seventeenth-Century Gold Coast. Baltimore
and London: Johns Hopkins UP, 1982.

Kultermann, Udo. New Directions in African Architecture. NY: George Braziller, 1969.

Kyerematen, A. A Y. Panoply of Ghana; OrnamentalArt in Ghanaian Tradition and Culture.
NY: Praeger, 1964.









B-74 Justice Akwa Fam ily Residence, Plan ........................................ ........................ 359

B-75 Okokodo Road ........................ ........ .. ... .... ...... ............ 360

B-76 Etsiwa Abodo, Plan.................... ................................ .. 361

B-77 Adontehen Amonoo I Family Residence (2), Pier Bases ..........................................362

B -7 8 Y ard H o u se ........................................................................... 3 6 3

B-79 Ed MonsonFamily Residence, Interior View of Standing Wall ........... .. ...............364

B-80 Jacob Wilson Sey Family Residence, Aerial Plan from 1931 Gold Coast Survey..........365

B-81 Gothic House, a. k. a. Oguaa Palace, a. k. a. Emintsimadze Palace .............................366

B -82 A b r san ........................................................ ..................................3 6 7

B -83 A brosan, P lan ...................................... ...................................................368

B-84 Lawyer Atta Amonoo Family Residence, West Side ............................................... 369

B-85 Lawyer Atta Amonoo Family Residence, East Side................................... ...............3. 70

B-86 Allen Quansah Fam ily Residence (1) ........................................ ......................... 371

B -87 Pobee A baka Fam ily R esidence.......................................................................... .... 372

B-88 Lawyer Atta Amonoo Family Residence, Entrance ................................ ............... 373

B-89 Allen Quansah Family Residence (2) ........................................ ........................ 374

B-90 Onismous Brandford Parker Family Residence............... ........... .................. 375

B -91 K rontihen's Palace ................... .... ............................ ........... .. .............376

B-92 K rontihen's Palace, Entrance ...................... .... ................... ................... ............... 377

B-93 Krontihen's Palace, Aerial Plan from 1931 Gold Coast Survey...............................378

B-94 Egyir Aggrey Family Residence ............ .. .............. ............... 379

B -95 W E D A L odge, B ack ........................................................................ ...................380

B-96 W E. D A Fam ily Residence ....................................................................... 381

B-97 K w eku Abakah Fam ily Residence............................................................................. ...382









opened onto a verandah to offer spectacular views of the beach and, more importantly, of Fort

William's west entrance (Figure B-33). Another door once located on the back of the first added

room, also led to a verandah. The verandah possibly extended around the south side and across

the back of the addition. The rooms of the south wing do not extend as far back into the

courtyard area, so the sense of the doubled size of the castle is felt more from the east-facing

facade.

The southernmost room also boasts surviving, large double doors on the south wall that

would have given access to a veranda that allowed access to the wall surrounding the courtyard.

The wall is inset with four wood panels having windows in the upper portion. The two central

panels operate as doors.

Cruickshank also likely added the wall that partially enclosing the courtyard behind the

residence (Figure B-34). Two brick stairways lead to the second floor which may have acted as a

lookout for trading ships, or simply as an extended porch. Fante bricks were used in the

stairways as well as for voissoirs in the anse de panier arches. A brick balustrade survives along

these stairwells and the inner edge of the second floor. Bricks are used to form the rectangular-

shaped cut-outs and above them a row of dentils. Several rows of bricks are coursed along the

top to create a wide railing. Extensive loss to the balustrade, especially to the southwestern

comer, is visible. The western stairway exhibits many patches making it difficult to determine if

the cut-outs were originally present. A row of lancet-shaped openings punctuate the inner west

wall. In comparison to the eastern balustrade, many of the Fante bricks appear new. Due to the

incongruity of design and newness of many bricks, I conclude that this section was reconstructed

in error by the GMMB. This is confirmed by the photograph on page 148 in Hyland' s section of

Rives Coloniales: Architectures, de Saint-Louis A Douala. The picture shows the residence









Few post-framed, wattle and daub constructions, with double-pitched, gable-ended

thatched roofs survive in Anomabo, and these are rarely used as dwelling houses. Prior to the

1930s, swish, or mud mixed with plant materials, was the most common building material used

with the main two construction techniques of wattle and daub and rammed earth.

According to Dickson, the buildings in Southern Ghana and Ashanti-Brong Ahafo by the

fifteenth century were of the Guinea forest house type: rectangular, gable-roofed, and of wattle

and daub. This house type was common to the whole of the Kwa linguistic area (Akan). 19 This

can be evidenced in the late sixteenth-century prints and descriptions of settlements on the coast

as well as from DeCorse's archaeological excavations in Elmina.

Barbot provides some of the earliest illustrations of Anomabo (Figures B-15 and B-16).

His 1679 drawing represents the Fort Charles in its crumbling state while his 1682 drawing

depicts the rebuilt fort. Both include numerous one-story rectangular houses with high-pitched

roofs surrounding the fort. Bosman's illustration (Figure B-17) completed about twenty years

later appears much less accurate in terms of the overly hilly and rocky terrain pictured. Few

houses are included, though they had not likely changed since Barbot's day.

DeMarees described in detail how a rectangular wattle and daub house was built.

First, they take four forked Posts or Trees, which they erect on the ground so as to
make a square. They they lay other Trees on top of the Posts and fasten them well.
Between the posts they place many thin sticks, thus forming the house; and they
bind them together with Laths so tightly that one can hardly squeeze one's hand in
between. Then they make Mud out of yellow earth, which they take from the open
country, and pound it till it is fine and thin like Potter's earth. They slap handfuls of
this mud against the framework of the house, all around, from top to bottom, front
and back, wherever they want it to be filled. They press the mud in between this
wattle with their hands, so that it will stick to the supports. Once they have filled
the walls of their House with this mud, [making them] nearly half a foot thick, they
let it dry and become hard as brick. After it has dried, they make a very thin Pap of
red earth and plenty of water, and, taking a straw-brush in their hand, they besmear

19Dickson, Historical Georgraphy, 51-52.









evidence of influence. To understand these choices it is necessary to view them as creative

processes. The appropriations discussed in this study come from a variety of European,

particularly British, cultures. These are not only borrowed, but also transformed into the local

construct. Each example visually communicates identity and status to Anomabo residents and

visitors.

Status

Akan leadership arts, with all its layering of gold adornments and lush textiles, visually

proclaim the status of chiefs. In addition, each chief is accompanied by an entourage of

attendants and court officials wearing or carrying his embellishments of office. In festival

parades, or durbars, the chief is carried in a palanquin. He also appears during traditional council

meetings and other official court activities and rituals. Whenever he is outside, his attendants

shade him with a large umbrella, revealing the chiefs location. All of these state art forms, first

documented by Kyerematen and then further researched by Herbert C. Cole and Doran H.

Ross, 15 are restricted to the chief and those who serve him.

Consequently, members of the coastal elite class were restricted in the arts they could

choose to demonstrate their nouveau-riche status. For example, unless they were enstooled as a

member of the traditional council, they could not be carried in palanquins during the durbar. It

would be an insult to be seen wearing more gold than the chief Therefore, African coastal elites

had to search for new forms of display to indicate their status. One way was through dress. Many

owned extensive wardrobes of imported cloths and European clothing. As early as 1602, Pieter





5Kyerematen, A. A. Y. Panoply ofGhana; Ornamental Art in Ghanaian Tradition and Culture. NY: Praeger, 1964;
and Herbert M. Cole and Doran H. Ross, The Arts of Ghana (Los Angeles: Museum of Cultural History, University
of California, 1977), 134-169.









LIST OF REFERENCES


Ahuma, Samuel Richard Brew Attoh. Memoirs of West African Celebrities, Europe, &c. (1700-
1850) with Special Reference to the Gold Coast. Liverpool: D. Marples, 1905.

Akyeampong Emmanuel. "Introduction to Visual Interpretation of the Basel Mission Archive
Photo Project." http :/b mpix.org/bmpix/visip_emmanuel/introduction. htm.

Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origins and Spread of
Nationalism. London: Verso, 1984.

Anderson, William. Castles of Europe from Charlemagne to the Renaissance. NY: Random
House, 1970.

Andreasen, Jorgen, Jorgen Eskemose and Anette Lodberg Schmidt. Mpasatia a Town in Ghana:
Tales of Architecture and Planning. Esbjerg Denmark: Grafisk Trykcenter, 2003.

Anquandah, Kwesi J. Castles & Forts of Ghana. Paris: Atalante, 1999.

Appadurai, Arjun. Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. Minneapolis:
University of Minnesota, 1996.

Appiah, Kwame Anthony. "The Postcolonial and The Postmodern." In In My Father's House:
Africa in the Philosophy of Culture, 137-157. NY: Oxford UP, 1992.

Arhin, Kwame. "Diffuse Authority Among the Coastal Fante." Ghana Notes and Queries (9,
1966): 66-70.

Arnold, Dana and Tim Clayton. The Georgian Country House: Architecture, Landscape and
Society. Stroud: Sutton, 1998.

Aronson, Lisa. Threads of Time: African Textiles from the Traditional to the Contemporary.
Brookville, NY: Hillwood Art Museum, 2007.

----. "Threads of Thought: African Cloth as Language." In African andAfrican-American
Sensibility, ed. Michael W. Coy, Jr. and Leonard Plotnicov, 67-90. Ethnology Monographs
Number 15. PA: University ofPittsburgh, 1995.

----. "History of Cloth Trade in the Niger Delta: A Study of Diffusion." In Textile History, eds.
K.G. Ponting and S.D. Chapman, 89-107. Bath: Pasold Research Fund, 1980.

Baiden, J. F. n.d. The Legends ofMankessim. Cape Coast: Ghana Tourist Board, n.d.

Barber, Karin. Readings in African Popular Culture. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1997.

Barbot, Jean. A description of the coasts of North and South Guinea : and of Ethiopia inferior,
vulgarly Angola ... and a new relation of the province of Guiana, and of the great rivers of









imported feature popular in coastal African elite housing in Sierra Leone. Small holes in the

facade, especially above the second story windows and across the belt course section with the

lancet motifs, are practical. They allow water to escape from the rammed earth structure during

heavy rains.

Plan

The interior with its Hall and Chamber plan is like the majority of houses built during this

period for the African coastal elites. Two arched entrance ways separate the two halls upstairs.

This is similar to the first Kow Otu Family Residence (Figure B-13) in Anomabo.

Transformations

All of the residences discussed in this chapter represent the Coastal Elite Style, while

expressing great variety in individual client preferences. This new architectural style is

characterized by the combination of European Palladian elements and the Hall and Chamber

plan, the Afro-Brazilian sobrado plan and second-story veranda, and the Akan courtyard plan

and off-beat phrasing. The Lawyer Atta Amonoo Family Residence is perhaps the most

sophisticated example and evolutionary model of the height of the Coastal Elite Style in

Anomabo.

The style is the result of the process of cultural authentification. According to Hyland,

"Over a period of one hundred years and more, plan forms, building materials and constructional

systems, of European origin, have passed into the working vocabulary of West African builders

and craftsmen, who have made them their own, adopted and adapted them and transformed them,

creating a great variety of buildings for West African colonial society."32 While the Coastal Elite

Style appears during the colonial period, the process which created it has been the result ofpre-


32Hyland, "British Colonial," 2039.









The Afro-Brazilian Francisco Felix da Souza (d. 1849) was a wealthy slave trader at the

turn of the nineteenth century and a favorite minister for the Dahomey king Ghezo. He enjoyed a

lavish lifestyle, typical within the African coastal elite community, by living in a large home

surrounded by his many children and other dependents, slaves and gold and silver dishware. 20

The Brazilian Quarter in Lagos, Nigeria, is also well-known for its wealthy nineteenth-century

African and mulatto inhabitants. Prominent traders, such as Joao Angelo Campos and Joaquim

Devode Branco, had beautiful houses built. 21

These were mainly two-story residences trimmed with elaborate stucco moldings. The

Palladian and Baroque motifs with which the Afro-Brazilians decorated their residences linked

them more closely with European, rather than African, housing trends.22 Baroque motifs were

not selected by many of the elites in Anomabo, though they can be seen in the decorative half-

columns at the Kobena Mefful Family Residence and on several houses in Cape Coast.23

The Brazil House in the Jamestown neighborhood of Accra was once the residence for

Afro-Brazilians. Three waves of freed Afro-Brazilian slaves, who call themselves Tabon (or

Tabom) today, came to Ghana. The first wave comprised seven families from Bahia who landed

on the Ghanaian coast in 1829. Two more groups arrived in 1836. One group came directly from

Bahia, while the other went to Nigeria first. According to a brochure on the Tabon people, "They

mastered handicraft techniques, mainly jewelry work. They were the first tailors and architects of






20Coquery-Vidrovitch, 179. Da Souza may have been a mulatto.

21Da Cunha, 76.

22Vlach, 2033.
23The houses in Cape Coast may have been built by Europeans or Africans.





















































Figure B-23. Twidan Clan Family Residence, Back
Kwesi Dwoma and Kwesi Mensah
c. late 1920s- 1931
Stone nog brick facing asbestos/slate roof
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photo by Courtnay Micots, 2009)




308









new coastal style. George Kuntu Blankson, a wealthy Fante merchant of the coastal elite class,

built his addition to Castle Brew in stone and brick.

Castle Brew- The George Kuntu Blankson Addition

Lawrence maintains that Castle Brew and both of the additions made to it were built by

Cruickshank, the British Judicial Assessor and later Governor, some twenty years after Fort

William was constructed and afterwards to have belonged to the Aggrey family.4 Yet, the houses

never belonged to the Aggrey family. Dr. James Emman Kodwo Mensa Otsiwadu

Humamfunsam Kwegyir Aggrey (October 18, 1875-July 30, 1927) was born in Anomabo, but he

grew up in a house in Akanpaado or in Bantuma. As already established above, the first addition

was built by Cruickshank sometime in the early 1840s.

Margaret Priestley, a few years after Lawrence, documented that the main house was

actually constructed by Richard Brew from 1765-1769, during the latter period of Fort William's

construction. Sometime after Brew died, the house came to be owned by Cruickshank, who later

gave it to one of his agents, Blankson (1809-August 23, 1898), a Fante who became an agent,

then a registrar, and finally a prosperous merchant in Anomabo. Priestley notes that Castle Brew

was occupied in the nineteenth century by Blankson, a contemporary of Samuel Collins Brew,

one of Richard Brew's great grandsons in Anomabo.5 It is my contention that Blankson added

the second addition, which is presently incomplete and lacking a roof(Figures B-18 and B-31).

Early Years

Blankson was born in 1809 in the Fante town of Sodufu while his mother was on the way

to Elmina. His father was Chief Kuntu of Egyaa, a town just east of Anomabo. As a son of a

chief young Blankson and others were rewarded by Brigadier-General Sir Charles McCarthy

4Lawrence, 355.
5Priestley, West African Trade, 57, footnote 2.

































2010 Courtnay Micots









in an irregular fashion.6 Like Cape Coast and Elmina, Anomabo had few streets, many narrow

alleys, and numerous cul-de-sacs. This complex design likely explains why European illustrators

failed to provide detailed city maps. According to DeCorse, this type of congested plan was

characteristic of the coastal towns described by many European writers, who would contrast

them with the more open settlements in the interior.7

Perhaps the most accurate map of Anomabo was created by the Gold Coast Survey in

1931.8 A more recent map was published by Michel R. Doortmont and Benedetta Savoldi.9 Both

maps depict residences of one and two stories constructed close to each other, separated only by

narrow alleys. Anomabo is intersected by a few larger avenues with alleyways either leading

directly to these thoroughfares or having small open courtyards before the intersections. As Hull

has suggested, "pre-colonial African towns minimized urbanity and maximized urban space [by

way of] tight compound clustering. Such spatial intimacy lent a feeling ofcohesiveness."10

The reason for this clustering may also be a practical one based on the physical

environment. During the Roman era, in the hot climates of North Africa and Spain, tightly-

spaced buildings on narrow streets provided shade for the pedestrians below. The shuttered

windows facing these streets ventilated the interiors. 1

African cities influenced by Islam have all the characteristics of the medieval
[European] city, both in function and in structure, such as: compact labyrinth
dwellings; high population density; wall or ditch that shows defense structure;


6Meredith, 95.

7DeCorse, An Archaeology ofElmina, 59-63.

8The Survey includes four sheets, and is owned by the Ghana National Archives in Cape Coast, which charges a fee
to view it.

9Doortmont and Savoldi, 123.

10Hull, 405.

1Fitchen, 201.


















































Figure B-33. Cruickshank Addition, South Room, Second Floor
Brodie G. Cruickshank
c. 1834-1844
Stone nog brick, cement plaster
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photo by Courtnay Micots, 2009)







318



















































Figure B-41. Moses Kwesi Amo Family Residence, Rear
Moses Kwesi Amo
c. 1890-1910
Rammed Earth, Stone nog, Cement Plaster
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photo by Courtnay Micots, 2009)









This appropriation serves as the first surviving architectural example of cultural

authentification in Anomabo. The first stage, selection, refers to the appropriation of a motif or

object, without alteration. Characterization, the next stage, is the naming of the motif to make it

better understood within the culture. The Dutch Lodge was selected by the Fante chief and it was

renamed the Omanhen's Palace. A sign naming the "Omanhene's Palace"7 exists over the main

entrance today. Incorporation involves ownership of a motif by a specific community group, and

lastly, transformation is the creation of something new from this original motif. 8 The palace was

incorporated via its royal ownership, and transformed for Fante purposes into a site of royal

habitation and practices. Thus, the cultural authentification of architecture of European design,

plan and materials was first undertaken by the Anomabos in the late-seventeenth century.

Construction and Materials

The two-story lodge is constructed in stone nog with imported brick. Although the Dutch

are responsible for overseeing the construction of the lodge, they likely did not complete it

without some local assistance. Even though the Dutch masons trained locals, it seems unlikely

that the local people adopted stone or brick as a building material during this period. There was

no motivation at this time, and stone was expensive due to the time needed to cut the rough stone

into usable construction materials. The local material of choice continued to be swish. At some

point, perhaps immediately after taking possession of the lodge, the exterior of the Omanhen's

Palace (Figure B-8) received a mud plaster coat that completely covers all traces of its original

building materials. A cement plaster and paint cover the exterior today. When residents are



7The spelling ofomanhene reflects a Twi spelling. In Fante the final "e" would not exist. This is the combined result
of local languages having an oral tradition and the British promotion of Asante culture (Twi-speaking Akans)
beginning in late-nineteenth century.
8Erekosima and Eicher, 50-51.









consequently built a house for each in c. 1883. The first is located on King Aggrey Street in Cape

Coast (Figure B-86). Quansah had all the trappings of a fine nineteenth-century gentleman of the

coastal elite class. He is said to have imported all of his furnishings and made several trips to

Europe. Today, Quansah's descendants continue to live in the building.

British Palladian Style

His residence on Aggrey is similar to Atta Amonoo's house in that the front has a series

of five symmetrical arched entrances across the first story facade, belt courses, symmetrical

windows across the second story facade and pilasters at the quoins, arched entablatures with a

spoke-like design, and a cornice. Although the Allen Quansah Family Residence is equally

elaborate, some details in the facade differ. The arches are decorated in a similar treatment to the

one at the Chief Joseph Edward Biney Family Residence (Figure B-64). Three belt courses

appear across the facade ofQuansah's house with one following the line of the arches. A set of

short pilasters divide the entablatures for the nine second-story windows. Another difference is

the lack of arches on the sides, and as such, the front did not have an arcade.

Plan

This house has a Hall and Chamber plan with two large central halls and side chambers.

Two front entrances are utilized today, and the two other archways have been boarded so the

original number of entrances is difficult to determine. There appears, however, to have been a

single central entrance. Doors align, leading from this entrance, through the halls, to the

courtyard. Sections of the interior have since been partitioned to create additional bedrooms.

On the back veranda overlooking the courtyard, stairs lead to the second story. The same

floor plan is followed upstairs with an enclosed front veranda, similar to that of the Kobena

Mefful Family Residence (Figure B-60) and the Lawyer Atta Amonoo Family Residence (Figure

B-10). Numerous windows extend across the front facade. One story buildings encircle the









The restorations of 1986 make it difficult to ascertain some aspects of the ground floor

plan. The wall that juts into the center of the space was designated as an old wall. Current walls

to the back of the building and across are new walls (not shown in the plan). It seems likely that

they replaced older walls, yet the descendant currently living in the house remembered only that

the plan was open. A mushroom arch leads from a large central room into a smaller east room

(Figure B-58).

Interior stairs lead to the second floor. Today, the stairs are concrete, though they were

once timber. A room behind these stairs was original and may have served as an office or

storeroom for Bilson. The interior staircase is unusual within the corpus of African coastal

architecture. Also, a window is situated over the stairs. Perhaps it was a way for the agent to

keep an eye on this part of the store. Probably, the original timber staircase was added at a later

time when the original owner Bilson died.

Thus, the downstairs was an open space with a room at the back on each side. These rooms

were accessible via a mushroom arched opening to the east room mirrored by a regular wide

opening to the west room. It was once an elegant and large shop. Though turned 90 degrees, Otu

seems to have built this structure along the same plan as his first house plan.

Upstairs, the original plank floors and timber ceiling remain. The plank floors are

supported by swish, seen in the downstairs ceiling. The upstairs plan has two central halls from

which three bedrooms extend (Figure B-57). The back hall is the main entertaining room,

designated by its decorative molding. The molding appears to be crafted via hand-molded

mortar. Molding was also found at the Omanhen's Palace as a later addition, and in

Cruickshank's additions to Castle Brew and Fort William. This hall leads into the second front

hall through two wide openings. The second hall, considered the dining room today, extends to




















































Figure B-36. J. E. H. Conduah
Unknown photographer
c. 1900s
Elmina, Ghana








321









from the impost blocks on Fort William's northern wall. It is also similar to the one found on the

entrance to Kobena Mefful Family Residence, though not as elaborate.

An arcade of six anse de panier arches once supported the back veranda. Dividing these

arches is the double staircase entry. The staircase and veranda balustrade are now concrete block,

yet they would have been constructed originally from timber. Cement plaster has since been

applied to the arches, yet the bricks are still visible to the close observer.

Off-beat Phrasing

The Russell House plan is not entirely symmetrical. This seems mostly due to its original

downstairs function as a corner store. Three separate large spaces front the streets. Thus, while

the plan is organized around the central corridor, the rooms on either side differ in their

arrangement somewhat, allowing for the store on the west side. As such it is an altered sobrado

plan. I consider this asymmetrical plan to be more the result of practicality than an aesthetic

choice. It is surprising though that the plan upstairs copies the plan below in terms of the

asymmetrical configuration. This plan was likely followed upstairs because of the need to place

walls where support was provided below.

Justice Akwa Family Residence

Justice Akwa, a. k. a. Kofi Amoaku (b.c. 1870 d.c. 1950), was an agent for Cadbury &

Fry, 41 an English trading company based in Saltpond. He was a Methodist who married only

once to Aba Amonuaa. They had one daughter Rebecca Akwa, a. k. a. Ekua Ntsefua, later Mrs.

Markin. Akwa was the uncle to the Anomabo artist Kwamina Amoaku, who built twoposuban

in town and several others along the coast. Akwa probably built the house around 1900, for his




41I was not able to locate a company named Cadbury & Fry on the coast during this period. Probably Akwa worked
for Cadbury Bros., the chocolatiers.









British Palladian Elements Spread by the Methodist Mission

One building in Anomabo, the Methodist Mission, provided a particular source for

appropriation of architectural elements. The mission building demonstrates the use of the British

Palladian elements of the Hall and Chamber plan, interior arcades and a decorative entrance with

half columns and an entablature. Wooden verandas on the front and back of the building

foreshadow the sobrado plan promoted by the Christian missions discussed further in Chapter 6.

The importance of the Methodist movement among African coastal elites in Anomabo can not be

underestimated.

Methodist Mission

Anomabo, for nearly two centuries, has been a Methodist town. The religion was first

adopted by the coastal elite, and then spread to the masses. This is another appropriation that the

coastal elites understood as symbolic of European power. This also converged with ideas of

education and power, as Christian missions brought schooling. Many of the elite members of

Anomabo society are discussed in this section even though they may never have constructed a

stone nog residence, or if so, such a residence no longer stands. Their inclusion is necessary for

two reasons. Firstly, scholars familiar with Anomabo and southern Ghanaian history will want to

know where such local celebrities lived and whether or not they were part of this movement

building stone nog houses. Secondly, it is important to show that not all coastal elites followed

this movement. In fact, Sarbah directly opposed the adoption of such European power symbols

even though he was a Methodist.

Along with Cape Coast and Accra, Anomabo was one of the earliest sites to receive

Methodist missionaries. Apparently, a group of African Christians in Cape Coast took the

initiative in 1831 to petition the Bishop of London to send a missionary and a teacher. By the end

of 1831 a Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge was founded by William de Graft in









Place for Canoes...on a flat sandy part of the Beach between the Rocks opposite
the Gate of the Fort.37

Reverend Thomas Thompson's account elaborated further: "Ananaboe, as being the principal of

three towns, which are situated near together, gives Name to the other two, which are otherwise

called the Fishing-Town, and Agar."38

The Arts

Artisans were drawn to these growing mercantile centers. The urbanization of artistic

production provided a basis for the establishment of exchange relations between coastal cities

and the hinterland. Potters, smiths, leather workers, hatters, and other artisans sold their wares in

exchange for produce or gold. 39 An estimated 5 to 25 percent of port population on the Gold

Coast during the seventeenth century was comprised of artisans. Many of the coastal towns had

inns and dancing houses as well as occupational corporations or guilds artisan guilds, military

guilds and merchant-broker guilds.40

The names of the best artisans would have been known in their lifetimes, and sometimes

extending past the life of the artist and the object. Therefore, portable works were unsigned. This

idea extends to architecture, for documents do not record the names of architects, contractors and

masons who constructed these works of art. Individuals would have built reputations based on

their craftsmanship and the designs they introduced.






37J. J. Crooks, Records Relating to the Gold Coast Settlements From 1750 to 1874 (Dublin: Brown and Nolan, 1923;
reprint, London: Frank Cass, 1973), 24 (page citations are to the reprint edition). From a letter by John Apperley
dated March 9, 1753, Annamaboe.

38Flather, 61.

39Kea, 174.
40Ibid., 40-41.









prominent between 1720 and 1840. While Palladian promoted Classical forms, Neo Gothic

offered its whimsical alternative. Ghanaian coastal style is based upon the former and is

characterized by its proportion and balance. The one exception to this is Gothic House (Figure C-

76), built around 1815 by mulatto trader James Dawson, in Cape Coast and known today as the

Oguaa Palace. 14

Common building materials for Georgian styles are brick or stone. Proponents of the

Palladian style used mathematical ratios to determine room proportions and window placement.

Strict adherence to classical rules was mandated by proponents of the movement, so additions

made to earlier structures, creating asymmetry, were considered a flaw. A major architect who

promoted Georgian styles was Colen Campbell, Scottish architect and author of the influential

book Vitruvius Britannicus, published in 1715 and 1725. These volumes catalogued architectural

designs including those by Campbell as well as Inigo Jones and Sir Christopher Wren. The plans

promoted a clean, Classical approach to decoration. Campbell disapproved of over-

embellishments, popular during the Baroque period. Richard Brew, who kept an extensive

library, may have been familiar with these volumes. Even though his residence was a much-

simplified form of the Palladian plans, Brew skillfully translated the aesthetic using imported and

local materials. In Britain, the Palladian style was applied more to country residences than to

those in town. The late eighteenth century was a great age of building grand country homes,

displaying the wealth of the upper class, many of whom acquired their additional or newfound

wealth through mercantilism. 15



14SupiKobina Minnah, "Oguaaman Can Now Boast of a Modem Palace Befitting the Status of the First Capital of
the Gold Coast-Ghana," in Oguaa Fete afahyE 2009, ed. Supi Kobina Minnah, Anthony Fynn-Cudjoe, J. K.
Koranchie and Lauren Adrover (Cape Coast, Ghana, 2009), 30.
5Harbison, Potterton and Sheehy, 132.









Justice Akwa Family Residence. 44 While the Brazilian plan depicts all the chamber doors

opening into the central corridor, the Akwa house plan has side chambers opening into a central

hall on either side of the corridor. Only the halls open into the corridor. However, it cannot be

determined whether or not this difference is specific to Anomabo, the central Ghanaian coast or

to West Africa.45

Moses Adu Family Residence A Comparison in Larteh

The two-story Moses Adu Family Residence (Figure B-70) across the road from Larteh's

Methodist Mission was built during the colonial period sometime after 1885. Adu was a wealthy

Guan cocoa farmer. He didn't complete the building before his death, and it now exists as a mere

shell. The construction and sobrado plan are still visible and shares similarities with the

Anomabo houses, establishing a possible connection between trained masons in the Akuapem

Hills and the coastal region. A fine detail in the construction is the pattern of larger, horizontally-

placed stones at the coigns.

The Moses Adu Family Residence in comparison with the Anomabo houses discussed,

does not have a corridor and more closely resembles the Calvert Claude Hagan Family

Residence (Structure C-12). The residence in Larteh does not have a Hall and Chamber plan;

rather it is a single block of rooms with a veranda that extended at least on the front and back of

the house, if not on all sides. More in keeping with a strict British Palladian plan, a stairway was

placed on the interior of the Larteh house.







44Vlach, 2034.

45More architectural research on plans for African coastal elite residences needs to be conducted across the Guinea
coast and Brazil to make broad comparisons.









Document D-4. Building Permit for The Russell House


No.

TOWNS ORDINANCE, 1892.

Mr. C. O. Acquaah

OfAnamaboe

Having applied for permission to build a house at Anamaboe



An approved ground plan of which premises is on the back hereof; I hereby, in accordance

with the provisions of the above ordinance, give the required permission; on condition that the

proposed work is completed with six months and to the entire satisfaction of the Colonial

Surveyor, [this title has been crossed out and Director of Public Works was hand-written above]

and in accordance with such directions as he may give concerning the same, and also on

condition that this permit is produced when required for inspection.

This permission does not confer any right or title to the above premises, lands, or

buildings.

Victoriaborg

Given at Christiansborg Castle this

Sst day of November 1897.

BY COMMAND,

[stamped signature] T. M. Hodgson

Colonial Secretary4




4This was copied from typed form provided by family descendant Kwesi Edukuma Hagan. The answers above and
within were hand-written into the blanks. The date below was typed into the blanks.













































-%s ,--


Figure B-5. Kyirem No. 6 Asafo "Indian Regiment" Leading the Company
Akwambo Performance
1975
Various Materials
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photo by Doran H. Ross, 1975)









page 155 are not identified, so it cannot be determined if they are African or European. For

clarity, I will note that the photographs of houses on page 158 are inverted, for the Heritage

House, previously the Government House, is shown at the bottom.74 Therefore, while Hyland

has completed the most extensive research thus far on coastal architecture in this region, much

work still needs to be done to decipher whether the surviving stone nog structures are European

or African and if there are differences between them. This dissertation will make these

determinations for stone nog residences in Anomabo.

Certain details and obituaries about the clients of the residences in this study were

provided by late nineteenth and early twentieth century weekly newspapers. Gold Coast Times

and Gold Coast Leader were competing newspapers based in Cape Coast. The Gold Coast

Times, founded by James Hutton Brew in 1874, ran until 1885, after which it was revived in

1923 and continued until 1940. Samuel Richard Brew Attoh Ahuma, member of the Aborgines

Rights Protection Society, was the editor for the Gold Coast Methodist Times in the late 1880s

and 1890s. He used it in the campaign against the Lands Bill and the paper became an outlet for

criticism of the government. The Gold Coast Leader began in 1902, and continued until the early

1930s. It was co-founded and edited by Anomabo-born J.E. Casely Hayford. According to

Gocking, these newspapers enjoyed a high readership and many well-educated residents had

extensive libraries.75

It was late in my dissertation writing when I was told about Ikemefuna Stanley Okoye's

dissertation "Hideous Architecture: Mimicry, Feint and Resistance in Turn of the Century

Southeastern Nigerian Building."76 Interestingly, I had already come to many of the same


74Hyland, "Le Ghana," 158.

75Gocking, 10.
76Okoye.

























Chamber


Chamber


Courtyard


Hall







Chamber


Chamber








Chamber


Veranda







Figure B-67. Claude Clavert Hagan Family Residence, Plan
(Drawn by Courtnay Micots, 2009)


N






S


Road




















































Figure B-30. Castle Brew, Courtyard Entrance
Richard Brew
c. 1756-1759
Restored by GMMB in the 1960s
Stone nog, brick, cement plaster
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photo by Courtnay Micots, 2008)




315









architectonic, formal or ornamental approach to architectural composition and to
the use of material. 86

The turn of the century seems to have ushered in a building boom of structures reflecting this

new architecture; however, funds for such buildings were tight. The appearance of wealth may

not have reflected actual wealth.

At the end of the nineteenth century, trade on the coast took a downward turn. Some of the

causes included: over-competition, ineffective accounting trade depressions, over-extension of

credit, natural disasters, deaths of company owners and lack of suitable successors,

fragmentation of business and property under inheritance traditions, and price-fixing practices by

the major European trading firms on the coast. Another issue was the new colonial attitude

toward doing business with Africans. European consignment houses now preferred to do

business on the coast with their own paid agents. They began to refuse further credit to African

agents.87 Most of the nineteenth-century merchants started and maintained their businesses on

credit with companies like F. and A. Swanzy and Forster and Smith. Barnes was one of only five

major African merchants who did not have to claim bankruptcy. Therefore, although these

merchants handled large sums of money and product, they had little to invest or pass on to their

children. 88 Ever optimistic, these merchants built large family residences, placing themselves in

further debt. The reality was however that when they died, their families were left with the

financial fallout.







86Ibid., 589-590.

87Kaplow 65; and Dumett, 678.

8Kaplow 62, 84.









well as for his sons and his people, establishing the first Fante Confederation and the Anomabo

state. The fact that Kurentsir is not celebrated as "an ancestral hero for modern Ghana"l1 is a

matter of historical contract and identity politics.

The coastal elite class, mulattoes and Africans, also knew the rules of engagement, so to

speak. They cleverly crafted a persona that allowed them to trade with Western (European and

American) traders on the coast and with Africans (some from as far away as today's Senegal and

Nigeria) on the coast. Four hundred years of cultural mixing made this coastal elite class as much

a part of the global as any businessman today.

A distinction between urban and rural Africans was made by this group of African coastal

elites as a form of protection. Europeans who regarded northern rural peoples as worthy of being

enslaved also considered them as uneducated and uncivilized. Coastal elites, in an effort to

differentiate themselves from those being sold into slavery, crafted an identity as educated and

civilized individuals capable of conducting the same businesses, including slave trading as the

Europeans in the coastal port cities.

Identity: Coastal Elites and Ruling Heirarchies

Kurentsir received some Western education and dealt skillfully with European traders,

British and French among others. He sent two of his sons to be educated in Europe. Yet, neither

of them were enstooled as the next omanhen. Instead, a man was chosen who had no Western-

education and much less experience dealing with Europeans. The son ofAmonoo V, who

reigned from 1901 to 1921, was also not enstooled as omanhen. Rather, Atta Amonoo used his

London education as a barrister to work as a lawyer in Calabar, Nigeria, and to further his


'1Flather, 57.





















To the gracious people of Anomabo -
the leaders, families and individuals without whom
this work would not have been possible














History books begin and end, but the events they describe do not.


-R. G. Collingwood









AFRICAN COASTAL ELITE ARCHITECTURE:
CULTURAL AUTHENTIFICATION DURING THE COLONIAL PERIOD
IN ANOMABO, GHANA



















By

COURTNAY MICOTS


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2010









They shared cultural, religious and housing practices. It is during his period that Anomabo

became an urban center, attracting cultures from within Africa and without.

By 1700 the Fante were powerful enough to close the trade routes to the Central Region

ports and delay trade if they wanted. 48 They maintained this position for more than a century.

Among the larger and more prominent of the coastal settlements were Axim, Shama, Komenda,

Elmina, Cape Coast, Anomabo, Great Kormantin and Accra.49 Yet, Anomabo emerged as the

leader, both in economic prowess and military might. 5 Trade continued to intensify into the

eighteenth century, with Anomabo becoming the largest city on the coast with a population of

some 15,000 by 1807.51

In the eighteenth century, silk fabric and thread became increasingly important trade items

although North African woolens, Indian cottons, and northern European linens had been the most

in demand in earlier coastal trade. 52 Historian Ray A. Kea reveals that among the wide range of

goods offered for sale at European establishments, textiles and metalware were in greatest

demand.53 More than 200 Dutch ships trading on the coast between 1593 and 1607 included in

their merchandise: textiles (including thin silk cloths or taffetas), nap or pile cloths, narrow

cloths (smallen), linens, Leiden and Spanish blankets, several types of woolen cloths, and

carpets. Trade goods other than textiles included metals and metalware (iron bars, axes and


48Ibid., 286; and Dickson, 107-108.

49Dickson, 66.

50Labarthe, 71.

5Equalurban populations of 15,000 were recorded in Kumasi (Asante) and Abomey (Fon/Dahomey kingdom) later
in the nineteenth-century. Anomabo's size was very large in comparison for its time period. Flather, 102; Hull, 389;
and Shumway, 146.
i '.. _-.v Stoltz Gilfoy, Patterns ofLife: West African Strip-Weaving Traditions (Washington, DC and London:
National Museumof African Art and Smithsonian Institution, 1987), 35.
53Kea, 207-208.





























Chamber


Chamber


Hall






Hall


Front



Figure B-38. Kodwo Kuntu Family Residence, Plan
(Drawing by Courtnay Micots, 2009)


Chamher






Chamber


Z~I Q ~rc~ ct,

/1\









sobrado in Anomabo with some exterior Palladian design elements. The Russell House and the

Justice Akwa Family Residence are examples of the stone nog sobrado in Anomabo with more

extensive use of exterior Palladian features. While the sobrado was considered to be well-suited

to the urban environments of the African coast, the corridor, judging from today's uses, appears

to be a space that does not function well for coastal Ghanaians.

The Russell House

The Russell House (Figure B-19) is what family descendants and owners call the building

known locally as abdaan, or stone house. It is located on the corner of Market Street and Aggrey

Road. According to Hyland, this stone and brick rectangular structure was built by the English in

the late-eighteenth century.36 However, documentation provided by the family proves that

masons built this family residence for three African clients Reverend John Oboboam Hammond

(February 2, 1860 December 28, 1918), a Fante Methodist; Francis Medanyamease Hammond

(d. September 3, 1920), his brother who was employed by the Swanzys in Kumasi; and their

sister Mrs. Charlotte Oyemame Acquaah (1858 July 31, 1908). According to paperwork the

family was able to provide, the land was purchased on December 13, 1895, and the building

permit was acquired on November 1, 1897 (Documents D-3 and D-4 respectively). Therefore,

the building was constructed in the late-nineteenth century.

A sketch of the plot is included with the land indenture (Figure B-68). The siblings

purchased the property from "William Topp Nelson Yankah of Anamaboe and other the senior

members of his family." It shows the land measuring 61 feet wide and 75 1/2feet deep. No home

on the property is indicated. Surrounding it are houses owned by laan, Ama Moo, Ekua

Kotwiawa, Yankah, Ekua Nyami, and Kofi Intslfl. On November 1, 1897, the siblings were


36A. D. C. Hyland, "British Colonial," in Vernacular Architecture ofthe World, ed. Paul Oliver (Cambridge:
Cambridge UP, 1997), 2038.









on public works such as port rehabilitation and warehouse construction that would have

improved trading facilities at Anomabo.110 Several members of the elite class felt compelled to

move from Anomabo to larger centers of trade. Most moved to Cape Coast. Their connections to

Anomabo did not end there, for their abusua were in Anomabo. Therefore, not only did the elite

class build new homes in Cape Coast and elsewhere, but also they built family homes in

Anomabo.

Christianity and the British

Brought by Europeans as early as the late fifteenth century, Christianity is the dominant

faith of Ghana today. Although Portuguese missionaries met initially with very little success,111

Christianity developed a following among coastal Akans in the early nineteenth century. Several

denominations established formal bases, including the Presbyterian Basel Mission at

Christiansborg (an area within Accra) in 1828 and Akropong in 1835; the Methodist Church and

the Evangelical Presbyterian Bremen Mission founded between 1829 and 1847; and Roman

Catholic missions in Elmina in 1880.112 Methodism developed a large following in Anomabo in

the middle of the nineteenth century, encouraged mainly through the efforts of Reverend Thomas

Birch Freeman. Most of Anomabo' s coastal elite members were Methodists during the colonial

period, and many of their residences were inspired by the architecture of the Methodist Mission

in Anomabo that Freeman saw completed in 1840.





11Flather, 136.

'''Steven J. Salm and Toyin Falola, Culture and Customs ofGhana (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002), 46;
and Noel Smith, The Presbyterian Church ofGhana, 1835-1960: A Younger Church in a Changing Society (Accra:
Ghana UP, 1966), 86.

112Salm and Falola, 46; and Paul S. Breidenbach and Doran H. Ross, "The Holy Place: Twelve Apostles Healing
Gardens," African Arts 11 (4 July 1978), 34.









As stated in Chapter 2, many immigrants from Elimina moved to Anomabo into the Fare

and Etsiwa neighborhoods in the late seventeenth century. If they were building in stone, then

they may have brought this technology to Anomabo. However, none of these buildings have

survived. Future archaeological work may determine whether stone houses were built in

Anomabo during this period. In all the coastal towns researched, African stone housing was

reported to me as a construction method adopted in the nineteenth century.

Anomabo residents needed to rebuild their homes and places of business after the

destruction caused during the one-day Asante War in Anomabo on June 15, 1807. Even though

the Asante failed at their attempt to seize the fort, they succeeded in wreaking full vengeance on

the town. Meredith wrote: "On the following day, a scene replete with the horrors of war

exhibited itself... houses unroofed and others on fire...the majority was slaughtered and the town

destroyed."40 Joseph Dawson reported in 1815: "During a residence at Annamaboe these nine

months, there appears no improvement in agriculture, but some construction of their houses."41

Thatch, bamboo and timber roofs were burned. Reed and mud structures were easily

damaged and destroyed. Stone, at least in Anomabo, was plentiful. Builders had training from

the Europeans in how to construct with stone and brick. Thus, when people were constructing

new homes to replace those that were damaged, they could have easily chosen stone nog

construction. Yet, no evidence exists that between 1807 and 1860 Anomabos built stone houses.

They still chose to build with earth.

One of the reasons Fante builders had not chosen stone for their own residences initially

was due to the difficulties in dressing or cutting stone into blocks with the tools they had. Even


40Meredith, 143-144.

4George E. Metcalf, Great Britain and Ghana, Documents ofGhana History 1807 (London: Thomas Nelson and
Sons, 1964), 29. Document 22.




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Decorative moldings in the rooms of the new addition to Castle Brew, as well as those

added to the original south room confirm my belief that these were the entertaining rooms. The

moldings are different in each room. They surround all sides of the original south room and new

south room, yet the room in between has molding on two walls only.

The styles of all three sets of molding are different from each other, yet the molding in the

northern room of the addition looks most similar to molding in Fort William's Palaver Hall. It

was not possible to determine the material of this molding yet it appeared to be made from wood

trim. The molding in the Palaver Hall is made from bricks and mortar.

Moldings inform our understanding of colonial period cultural authentification because

this status embellishment was incorporated into some of the African coastal elite structures, such

as Swanzy, later in the nineteenth century. It was also added to the Omanhen' s Palace sometime

during this period. Ceramic tiles would also be incorporated into African coastal elite structures,

such as the first Kow Otu Family Residence (Figure B-13). Similar tiles are found at the

Omanhen's Palace, which suggests that perhaps the coastal elites were borrowing forms as much

from the ruling hierarchy as from the Europeans.

J. H. E. Conduah Family Residence A Dutch Palladian Comparison in Elmina

The J. H. E. Conduah Family Residence (Figure B-35) in Elmina is a stone nog house with

brick facing, built between 1807 and 1839 by the Dutch. Joseph Henry Emmanuel Conduah, or

Condua (d. May 8, 1921) (Figure B-36), was a trading agent and landlord with many properties

in Elmina who purchased this grand home in Nana Kobina Gyan Square in 1903. Conduah

originally worked for the Dutch merchants. When they left Elmina in 1903, they practically gave

the house to Conduah for only seven Ghana cedis (less than $5 today). He later added a two-

story concrete structure off the courtyard with a kitchen and bathrooms. He also modernized the

residence with electricity and plumbing.









Style


The original front entrance, now indoors, (Figure B-92) features an original pier (for the

veranda support) to the left. The entrance is flanked by thick pilasters decorated with an

elongated, inset lancet motif A large entablature, slightly raised in the center, is decorated with a

mortared molding. Some of the decorative features however have been lost under all the

plastering and paint. The left pilaster has molding about one foot from the ground to create the

effect of a base. It is likely the right pilaster matched it, yet at some point, this molding has been

lost.

The remaining pilaster at the front coign is decorated with ridges indicating a base and

another at the center point. The pilaster at the back corner, eastern side, is undecorated. One

original window just above the front stairway has a molded sill and entablature made from

bricks. One row of bricks laid with the short ends outward and flat side up create the sills;

similarly three layers of bricks make up the entablature with the tiers of brick successively

protrude, the top layer the most, the second layer less, and the bottom layerjust above opening,

the least. A similar window treatment is present on the Justice Akwa Family Residence and

Abrosan. This type of embellishment was conventionally used throughout the coastal region in

both rammed earth and stone nog construction in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth century.

Lancet cut-outs decorate the balustrades on the courtyard veranda and the front stairway.

These lancet forms may be inspired by those found at Fort William (Figure B-29) or those on the

George Kuntu Blankson Addition (Figure B- 18).

Plan

The aerial view of the structure provided in the 1931 Gold Coast Survey map (Figure B-

93) suggests the two-story courtyard plan with a central courtyard. Across the front that faces

Fare-Aweano Street the entrance entablature and two concrete block additions are illustrated.









similarities with the Justice Akwa and Kobena Mefful houses, Abrosan was likely built around

1900.

Freeman uses Johannes Gottlieb Christaller's (1827-1895) dictionary of the Akan Twi

language to conclude that "Abrosan, a corrupted version of'Abrofo no san' which literally

translates to 'the white man's barn' gives the clue to the originality of these brick and stone

buildings. 'Abrofo no san' simply means a story building and does not necessarily translate to a

brick or stone building." Freeman implies that since two-story buildings were introduced by

Europeans on the coast, these brick and stone buildings were constructed by Europeans.12 This is

incorrect since many of the stone and brick houses seen on the coast today were constructed for

African clients. Also, two-story houses on the coast may have originated from Mande rammed

earth techniques incorporated from the north.

The direct translation of the Twi word as "white man' s barn" is correct, yet Anomabo is

mainly a city ofFante speakers. In addition, even though the term Abrosan is being used today,

this terminology may not have been applied to the house originally when it was constructed.

Therefore, since the language is different and the origin of its use is unknown, the meaning may

have shifted to concur with the current general belief that these houses were all constructed by

Europeans. When asked, Bonso-Abban remarked that Abrosan meant simply a two-story

building. The characterization of Abrosan further reflects the complete incorporation of outside

cultural technologies into the coastal architectural vocabulary.

The Quayson House A Dutch Comparison in Elmina

The residence known today as the Quayson House was built by the Dutch Viala family in

1855, and later sold to the Quayson family for 1,000 in 1860. The house burned down in


12Freeman, 90.









"I Came to Meet It"

This study presents several African coastal elite residences constructed in Anomabo,

Ghana, during the colonial period, specifically between the 1860s and 1930s. I have attempted to

reconstruct the period and the players through a study of these homes. "I Came to Meet It" is a

phrase used not only by descendents in answer to my questions about the history of these

structures, but also by myself to apply to this research.

Anomabo, a historically-significant port town, serves as a microcosm for investigating the

colonial period Coastal Elite Style of architecture present along the West African coastline in

every major port city. The Coastal Elite Style is an assemblage of elements from the Akan

courtyard house, European Palladian architecture and the Afro-Portuguese sobrado. These

structures demonstrate how the Fante and other coastal Africans used the creative process of

appropriation and transformation, or cultural authentification, to communicate their status and

identity visually. This has been a story about people who, under social and political duress, find a

way to express their identity. And, the story continues.









illuminate some of the diversity and changing fashions of the thriving coastal culture. The

Europeans experimented in bringing new items, such as spectacles, mirrors and keys. Other

artifacts uncovered by DeCorse include: imported ceramics, imported and local tobacco pipe

fragments, guns and gun parts. He also found metal hardware, furniture parts, cutlery and tools. 90

Thus, during the eighteenth-century, common people could become wealthy merchants

through their own trading efforts. A new class of African emerged who acquired his property

chiefly by trading with Europeans and whose house was more splendidly furnished than his

neighbor's house, having imported European furniture and other goods. This new "merchant

prince" symbolized individual ownership of property, an inheritance tie between father and son,

and social ascent through personal effort. These merchant princes possessed wealth in slaves,

houses and money often surpassing that of most of the coastal chiefs. As a result, these

merchants came to wield great influence in coastal trade and politics. 91

Richard Miles, employed by the Company of Merchants, kept detailed records on the coast

between 1772 and 1780. His lists provide indirect information about the African traders with

whom he dealt. In Anomabo, Miles purchased slaves from more than 60 dealers. The main five

traders were Yellow Joe, Little Adu, Amuru, Kwasi Kuah and Sham. Yellow Joe and Little Adu

were chief elders in what the English called "Fishing Town" and "Fantee Town," Fare and

Krokessin respectively. Sham lived in Fare, and according to Miles, was "not fond of selling his

slaves in the Fort." Historian George E. Metcalf interpreted Miles's records and maintained that

those in political power, such as Amonoo I, did not become too involved with dealings at the





90DeCorse, "An Archaeological Study," fig. 3.8, 83, 105, 109-110.
91Priestley, West African Trade, 23-24; and Fynn, 25.


















































Figure B-86. Allen Quansah Family Residence (1)
Allen Quansah
c. 1883
Stone nog brick facing cement plaster
Cape Coast, Ghana
(Photo by Courtnay Micots, 2009)






371









family while he mainly worked and lived in Saltpond. Akwa's grandniece Dora Ferguson, a. k. a.

Adwowa Bentuma (b. 1930), is the current owner and resident.

Palladian Style with Sobrado Plan

The Justice Akwa Family Residence (Figure B-73) is a well-built sobrado of stone nog

construction with brick facing. The facade of the second story has been plastered. Hand-drawn

lines in the wet plaster imitate cement block, the preferred material of the elite class after 1930.

Pilasters once flanked the main entrance facing Annobil Street. Entablatures were constructed

over the doors, perhaps with the most decorative over the door facing Annobil Street. These

Palladian embellishments would have deflected some of the rain. Each window had a decorative

sill and entablature made from local bricks. Three rows of brick fashioned a stepped entablature

that deflects rain. Sills comprised one row of brick with a layer of mortar hand-fashioned to

create a rounded edge. Many of these details have been removed; the losses have visibly altered

the original elegance of the residence.

A centrally-located door on all four sides of the house would have led onto a timber

verandah, allowing cool breezes to circulate upstairs. The small holes evidenced above the belt

course, a single row of side-lain brick, once held iron rods that supported the verandah floor. The

use of iron rods to support the weight was an advance in technology. Small holes between the

windows may have been for beautification, or for fasteners to hold shutters open. Probably the

iron was sold long ago when the veranda was removed. The veranda was supported below by

large piers; evidence of this appears on the ground.42

The Justice Akwa house utilizes the sobrado plan with a central corridor running east to

west (Figure B-74). The interior plan consists of this corridor with only two interior doors, one to


42Confirmed by Mark Henry Freeman August 6, 2009.









the house interiors.68 It is possible that these divisions led to the indigenous development of the

Hall and Chamber plan. The Hall and Chamber plan is not included in the Asante plan given by

Andreasen, Eskemose and Schmidt, or in Carroll's plan of a Nigerian courtyard house. This plan

seems particular to this area of the Ghanaian coast.

In the Tuafohen's Palace the two central halls are connected by a central door. This door is

perfectly in-line with the entrance door, and a third door leads from the second hall into a

rectangular-shaped courtyard. Large rooms to the left and right of the courtyard act as halls,

while the four rooms to the back are bedchambers. The corner chambers are accessed only

through doors to the large halls, and the two central chambers have doors to the courtyard. The

hall located to the south has a large door leading to the outside. This entrance is used during

important ritual ceremonies. Windows are provided either to the exterior or to the courtyard.

The second residence also has a courtyard plan. It is set back-to-back with the tuafohen 's

residence with a wall separating the two. A few important differences exist between these plans.

Only one row of rooms stretches across the front. The entrance is a narrow hall leading directly

into the central L-shaped courtyard. The side rooms are comprised of a hall with a door to the

courtyard and a bedchamber with a door to the hall. Other chambers have a single door to the

courtyard. Windows are provided either to the exterior or to the courtyard. Thus, all rooms in the

entire plan have at least one window. The entire structure originally had dirt floors.

The current TuafohenNana Obuesiwua VII, a. k. a. J. Ebow Quashie, a prominent attorney

based in Takoradi, made several updates to the structure when he was elected to the stool in

1994. He added another two rooms across the front of his palace. Carved double doors at the

entrance lead into the largest room used as a visitor's hall. Two ceiling fans help circulate air.


68Hair, Jones and Law, 511.









sills. The building was standing in 1931 according to the Gold Coast Survey. No defined

courtyard or outbuildings were visible at that time.

The ground floor has two central halls with chambers on either side (Figure B-42). Instead

of the strict Hall and Chamber plan however, the north chamber opens into the front hall while

the chamber to the south opens into a larger chamber behind it. The south chamber has another

door to the front of the building. The larger south chamber has two doors, one to the second hall

and another to the outside at the back of the building. Two chambers on the north open into the

second hall. Thus, three chambers are located to the north while two chambers are located to the

south. This is an asymmetrical configuration, reminiscent of off-beat phrasing.

A timber staircase at the back of the house leads to the second floor hall. Three bedrooms

extend from this hall, with two on the north and one large room on the south like the ground

floor plan. A long enclosed verandah extends across the front of the building, with a chamber on

the south side. Windows and doors on the ground level as well as the windows upstairs are not

equal-distant and reflect a more organic arrangement than that dictated by Palladianism.

Originally, the house had all wood plank floors upstairs, yet most of the floors have since

been replaced with swish floors. Swish flooring was the type of flooring masons knew how to

create at the time period they were replaced. I was told that those who knew how to make wood

plank floors had all died. This likely explains why swish floors replaced second story wood plank

floors in other Anomabo structures, such as the Omanhen's Palace, Kobena Mefful Family

Residence and Abrosan. The Dutch doors at the front entrance and at the back entrance upstairs

are said to be original. These doors seem to have been popular imports in the early twentieth

century.






















A 1
~7;
i .3.
^ "' ..
r r ... -


* 'T'^e


.4


-yr




p, ,a


c-fl- ;r 1ass4C~ sw--;
- e
rh


Figure B-29. Fort William, Interior East Wall
John Apperley
1753-1759
Brick, stone, cement plaster
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photo by Courtnay Micots, 2009)



















































Figure B-81. Gothic House, a. k. a. Oguaa Palace, a. k. a. Emintsimadze Palace
James Dawson
c. 1815
Stone nog, cement plaster
Cape Coast, Ghana
(Photo by Courtnay Micots, 2009)







366









did years later. An early member of the rising coastal elite merchant class in Cape Coast, Barter

built a house, described by Bosman, as "not unlike a small fort" near Cape Coast Castle. 23

Thus, there is a coastal precendent of building houses like fortresses, perhaps if only in

material and construction method, next to the European trading forts as symbols of both status

and power. A fort or castle acted as a visual symbol of the Medieval period in Europe, for the

structure was a fortified building or set of buildings used to provide active and passive defence.

It also served as a residence for the castle's lord and household. In the eighteenth and

nineteenth century, a romantic revival of Gothic architecture renewed interest in castles as a

residential symbol of wealth and power, no longer serving a military purpose. 24 Coastal Africans

and mulattoes appropriated this symbol for their own display of status.

British Palladian Style and Plan

Brew imported the design of a Palladian-style Irish country house, a familiar form in his

native County Clare. He built what he was familiar with and probably aspired to, not just as a

reminder of home. Castle Brew exhibits all the elements of the Georgian British Palladian style -

rigid symmetry, an adherence to Greco-Roman elements such as arches and arcades, and the use

of brick and stone. Visual evidence remains of the original Castle Brew, a wholly symmetrical

conception. This building was built on the far north section of today's complex. Four pilasters are

evenly spaced across the facade with a belt course dividing the two stories. The entrance door is

centrally located and all the windows are symmetrically placed.

A double staircase leads to the veranda at the rear of the residence (Figure B-30). Five anse

de panier, or flat, arches span the veranda. Black and white marble tiles set in a diamond pattern


23Gocking, 27; and Bos man 104.
:'. I l!i. 1i Anderson, Castles ofEurope fom Charlemagne to the Renaissance (NY: Random House, 1970); and
Jacqueline O'Brien and Desmond Guinness, Great Irish Houses and Castles (NY: Random House, 1970), 17-19.









around a courtyard. The Dutch and British brought this plan to Anomabo, with the dominant

function being defense. All of these coastal European forts were designed to withstand attacks

from the locals, rival slave hunters, and merchants and pirates from other countries. 18 Thus, by

bringing the medieval stone fort to the coast, the Portuguese began an irreversible cultural

architectural exchange between Africa and Europe, which continues today.

The Palladian design however seems to be more influenced by Cape Coast Castle which

was begun in 1653 by the Swedes and rehabilitated by the British Royal African Company in

1665. Similar features at Fort William include arched doors and windows, a continuous balcony,

and a parapet (added after Watson's time) with lancet openings (Figure B-29).19

By the spring of 1756, Apperley, then Governor, was described as far advanced in

consumption and unlikely to live for more than a few months. Irishman Richard Brew was

appointed Governor in July of 1756. Apperley died on August 18th.20 Thomas Trinder, an

Englishman and resident of Anomabo, held the post of Overseer of Works until an engineer

arrived to replace Apperley. The new engineer, Captain John Baugh, sent out by the Board of

Ordinance, reached Anomabo in 1758. The first stage of the fort was completed under Baugh.21

The Anomabo Fort was mostly built between 1753 and 1759, though the second story was

added in the 1830s, when it was renamed Fort William after King William IV by Cruickshank,

who was Commandant at the time. 22 Fort William was bombarded by the French on December 4,

1794, and attacked by the Asante on June 15, 1807. The main entrance was walled up, at some

18Lawrence, 71, 74.

19Doortmont and Savoldi, 113-122, 131-133. They provide a more detailed description of Fort William's
architectural features along with several architectural drawings.
-I L.i! 20-32, 45-46, 70-76; and Priestley, West African Trade, 42-44.

21Priestley, West African Trade, 45.
22Lawrence, 71.









Table A-2. List of Anomabo Neighborhoods
1. Krokessin, "the biggest community settlement"
2. Apatem, "shade"
3. Etsiwa
4. Fare, "fishing village"
5. Aweano, "extreme end of town"
6. Etsifi, "upper part of a community"
7. Akanpaado, "meeting place of the original settlers"
8. Okokodo, "hill top"
9. Bantuma, "a mausoleum"
10. Sansramanase, the name of a deity in the area, a tree near the coastal highway
11. Tuntumnim, the name of a deity in the area, a tree
12. Twa Asu Kada, "cross the stream and go to sleep"
13. Ngyakom, the name of a deity in the area, a cluster of large rocks near the taxi rank and
coastal highway
14. Tompremesim, "Temperance," the Temperance Lodge was built nearby, now gone
15. Ohenkokwado, "lawyer's hill"











N






















ii











Front
W--^ -


S









S1i

















Front




Figure B-80. Jacob Wilson Sey Family Residence, Aerial Plan from 1931 Gold Coast Survey
Courtesy of the National Archives, Cape Coast, Ghana
(Copied by Courtnay Micots, 2009)









Portland cement with the lime-mortar mix. 2 Stone nog parallels the more common coastal mud

construction technique of rammed earth in terms of durability, yet houses with the same plans

and design elements exist in both stone nog and rammed earth construction, which involves the

compacting of wet earth into portable wood molds to construct the building one layer at a time.

This technique has also been called monolithic mud construction, coursed clay, aipa

(Portuguese), tapia (Spanish), pist de terre orpise (French).

European or African?

It should be noted that much architecture in Europe and Africa in the sixteenth century,

during initial contact, was essentially the same. In Europe, stone or earthen walls were built in

circular or rectangular one or two-room enclosures. They were often covered with thatch

supported by a timber frame. Europeans brought technologies to the Ghanaian coast that made

stone more usable as a building material. Stone was mainly used for constructing European forts,

castles and homes; it was labor intensive and therefore expensive. As a result, Africans did not

appropriate it until the latter half of the nineteenth century.

Examples of the appropriation and transformation of European technologies, design

elements and plans by African masons and clients serves to celebrate African agency in the light

of continuing misconceptions stemming from the colonial era that European "influence" is a taint

upon "traditional" African cultures. Historian Terence Ranger has explained that Europeans of

the colonial era, including the British in the late nineteenth century in Ghana, believed "African

society was profoundly conservative living with age-old rules which did not change; living

within an ideology based on the absence of change; living within a framework of clearly defined



2Henry S. Fraser, "Architectural Influences," in Vernacular Architecture of the World, ed. Paul Oliver (Cambridge:
Cambridge UP, 1997), 1700; and Patricia E. Green, "Jamaica-Georgian," in Vernacular Architecture ofthe World,
ed. Paul Oliver (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1997), 1716.









long sojourn in a foreign land."83 No mention is given about his companion's return, or if he

returned at all.

When the British completed Fort William in 1760, Sesarakoo became the clerk, acting as

linguist and writer. He belonged to one of the handful of literate African clerks, messengers, and

linguists employed in the service of the British. 84 Sesarakoo, who knew the indecencies suffered

by slaves in the West Indies, chose to work in a position of high status that also aided commerce

in African slavery.

Kurentsir's Legacy

Kurentsir also had a daughter, Effua Ansah, who became the wife of Richard Brew,

contemporary ofKurentsir. The omanhen died on June 28, 1764.85 Kurentsir was one of the first

Ghanaian chiefs to send sons to Europe to receive Western education; this example was soon

adopted by all those of high status who could afford it, merchants and chiefs. This has become a

Ghanaian tradition observed to this day. Priestley stated the importance of Western education

during the eighteenth century:

Allied in the eighteenth century with trade and to a limited degree with
Christianity, education emphasized individual action and rights, and the validity of
personal decision as against the collectivism of extended family and clan. It led to
status based on opportunity and achievement instead of solely on birth and lineage .
Western education [first] embraced a small and select group in the maritime
towns. This included the relatives of influential Africans as a form of coastal
insurance policy for the safeguarding of trade, and the mulatto offspring of
merchants like Richard Brew. 86





83Brown, 114.

84Priestley, West African Trade, 21.

8Ibid., 13-15.
86Priestley, West African Trade, 19-20.









Hagan (Figure B-66) was a merchant who traded cocoa, palm oil and gold as an agent for

F. and A. Swanzy and others. He spent a lot of time inNigeria as a store clerk and agent before

returning to build his family home in Anomabo. The house probably dates to the first decade of

the twentieth century. It is located in Krokessin. Hagan had four wives, including Araba Otuah,

and he had several children. He was a member of the Methodist Church and also The Grand

United Order of Oddfellows Friendly Society. Upon his death, Hagan left the house to his

nephew Annobil. When Annobil died, the house was left to the collective abusua. Samuel

Kodwo Annobil, the current abusuapanyin, lives just north of Cape Coast.

Plan

The plan of the two-story rammed earth residence is based on the sobrado without a

corridor (Figure B-67). A timber veranda surrounds all four sides of the house. All the rooms,

save one, open to the outside, and the courtyard is located behind the house. The plan is

comprised of six nearly equally-sized rooms, three across and two deep. Upstairs, one room acts

as the hall, while the other five are chambers. The room opposite the hall is a chamber accessible

via a door only to the hall. This arrangement is not technically a hall and chamber plan because

the second set of rooms does not include a central hall. Also, three of the side chambers open to

the veranda, rather than to the hall. One opens to both the veranda and the hall, while the

opposite chamber opens solely to the hall. Every room has at least one window except the hall.

The upper flooring was constructed from swish.

The ground floor has the exact same plan except two rooms, located on the front side

facing the east, served as Hagan's store. They have the original wood double doors with hand-

forged iron hinges and locks. A timber staircase within the veranda leads upstairs. A similar set

of stairs can be found on the opposite side of the building. Asbestos/slate sheeting covers the

timber-framed roof The entire structure is raised on a foundation, but due to the thick cement









brought succumbing to the fevers. 14 Therefore, the fort was built by a European engineer, a small

number of British masons, and several more foreign and local masons and carpenters trained in

European methods of construction.

Brick and lime were imported in bulk from Europe with vast quantities of brick used as

ships' ballast. Use of brick for coigning and vaulting was introduced to the coast by the

Portuguese, but further developed by the Dutch, for a brick barrel vault kept out the weather as

well as being ant proof. Small yellow or greenish-buff bricks were used in Dutch forts and other

buildings, together with a small number of the harder red variety. The Brandenburgers

(Germans), Danes and English followed the Dutch example, vaulting and coigning with bricks

imported from their home countries. Around 1750 the British began to use brick for entire

structures, as is the case for Fort William. The inner buildings and the pavements were

constructed of local stone; bricks were used for vaulting and coigning. Fir-timber and boards,

and even 'smith's work,' were imported from England. 15

The new fort (Figure B-28), called Anomabo Fort until Cruickshank renamed it Fort

William in the nineteenth century, required roughly five times the ground covered by Fort

Charles, and many Anomabo leaders protested. In his letter dated March 9, 1753, Apperley

documented some of the trials he experienced.

The 25th of January I attempted to lay down the Plan of the New Fort, on the
Ground where the Old one stood; but as the Old Fort did not take up above One
Fifth of the Ground the New one will require, the Cabboceers (or Chief Magistrates
of the Town) object to it, for reason they were used very ill by the Chiefs of the Old
Fort, tho' small, and they were afraid of the Consequence of letting the English
build a large Fort, as it stands in the Middle between the two Towns (for this place
is distinguished by the Cabboceer and Fishing Towns), but by the Mediation of
John Currantee ... and a few others. ... I have hopes of prevailing on the rest of

14Justice R. Strother c'. ..l 1 "Anomabo, Its Castle and Its People," Transactions ofthe Cape Coast Historical
Society 1 (1 October 1936), 18-19.
15Lawrence, 91, 93, 350.



















































Figure B-39. Kodwo Kuntu Family Residence
Kodwo Kuntu
c. 1875-1931
Stone nog cement plaster
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photo by Courtnay Micots, 2009)









1971). A different version of the scalloped form was used to decorate one facade on the

Nanglican Church (Figure B-54).

The belt course wraps around the front and both sides of Atta Amonoo's house. The

course consists of two layers of side-lain local bricks. Two-story pilasters adorn the coigns and

the walls between. Although they are constructed mainly of brick, the pilasters at the coigns

seem also to include cement blocks. Pilastered coigns serve not only as decoration but also to

stabilize the two-story structures visually. This feature was a common component in Palladian

buildings and is seen in Anomabo on The Russell House and the Mefful house as well. These

three are certainly the most elaborate of the African coastal elite homes in Anomabo.

The ground floor windows are not decorated (Figure B-85), yet the second story windows

are ornamented with brick true arches above and bricks sills below. The sills are created with

two layers of stepped bricks. These arches above have a spoke-like design, also created with

bricks, similar to those found on the Allen Quansah Family Residence (1) in Cape Coast (Figure

B-86).

No evidence exists of a veranda or even iron balconies extending from the second story.

Bricks appear to have been used to fill in an area on the east side of the building, upper story, in

the section over the arch. This is evidence of a repair, since none of the other walls were

constructed with brick facing. Thus, the story over the arcade was always enclosed.

The partial steps in the entrance way today are another later addition (Figure B-84). The

room upstairs, completely unfloored today, was originally floored with wood planks. This floor

would not have originally allowed access to the upstairs. Even though many sobrado-style homes

in town had timber stairways leading up to the front veranda, they never blocked the entrance. A

stairway here at Atta's house would have certainly blocked the main entrance. This was changed









Other churches built in stone nog survive in Anomabo. The Catholic Mission (Structure C-

8) was constructed for the European trading company United Africa Company and later given to

the Anomabo members who followed the Roman Catholic religion who renovated the warehouse

into a church. The Nanglican Church however was originally built to serve as a church

supporting the local Afro-Christian following (Structure C-9). Both are essentially rectangular

structures with modest embellishment.

Stone Nog Reflections of Methodism

The fervor of Methodism was taken up by Kow Otu, a. k. a. John Ogoe Sr., a weathly

merchant who was actively involved in the church in Anomabo. He built three residences in

Anomabo (Structure C-10), including perhaps the building known as Swanzy (Structure C-11).

Further evidence of the Methodist movement in Anomabo is provided by an examination of the

Kobena Mefful Family Residence.

Kobena Mefful Family Residence

The Kobena Mefful Family Residence (Figure B-50) is located on property purchased by

Kofi Aiko a. k. a. Coffee Aikoo from Henry Brew (d. 1890) of Cape Coast on July 22, 1862.

Henry Brew was the great grandson of Richard Brew and brother to Samuel Collins Brew. Eight

acres of land situated between "the East and North side of John Hammond's House, and in the

Road of the Wesleyan Burial Ground, in the front of two stones commonly called Intah na Intah

[located near today's taxi rank]" were purchased for 3 oz. of gold. This description seems strange

at first because other property records show that Reverend John Oboboam Hammond and his

siblings purchased the land for The Russell House in 1895 (see Chapter 6). The house was built

betweenNovember 1897 and April 1898. The land purchase of the Aiko property, although

originally bought in 1862, was not documented until it went before arbitrator Amonoo IV on

April 23, 1898 (Document D-2). By this time, Hammond and his siblings had constructed their









conceptually from the inland peoples, particularly those from the northern savannahs, who were

often raided and brought to the coast to be sold as slaves. Europeans on the coast regarded these

northern peoples, called nnonkofo or slaves, as uncivilized and worthy of being enslaved. In

contrast and likely due to the centuries of commercial contact with the Fante and others, the

Europeans viewed the coastal people as superior to the nnonkofo. The coastal elites sought to

distinguish themselves and impress the resident British with their cultured difference from those

who were enslaved. The danger of being recognized as an enslavable person caused coastal

residents to highlight their identity as urban, cosmopolitan individuals. 19

By the late nineteenth century, this image was projected via Westernized education,

personal dress and habitation as a means to assert status in relation to the Akan ruling hierarchy

and the British administration. The British embraced the Asante model of centralized statehood

because it seemed convenient to have one system of local government. For the coastal Fante and

other groups this unbalanced the customary system of shared rule between chiefs, asafo leaders

and other respected elders. The British promoted the ascention of local chiefs and Akan forms of

leadership arts. While the Fante, a related Akan group, had shared cultural practices with the

Asante, their Akanization was advanced by the British during this period.20

Soon after the British declared the Gold Coast a colony in 1877, the British moved their

capital from Cape Coast to Accra. They felt Accra occupied a more central location. The move

marked a rapid decline in the political status of the coastal elites of Cape Coast and the

surrounding Fante region, for Accra was a Ga city. Initially, these elites expected to keep their

status by acting as intermediaries between the colonial state and the local population. However,


19Holsey, 47-50.
20Gocking, 4, 167-169.









house. This also acknowledges that the Kobena Mefful Family Residence was built sometime

after April of 1898.

Aiko was a merchant in Anomabo who lived in his house, probably of rammed earth

construction, with his brothers and sisters. When he died, his grandson Kobena Mefful (b.c.

1853-March 1943) inherited (Figure B-59). Mefful was a subchief in Anomabo, more

specifically, the tuafohen. Sanders lists J. B. Mefful as the tuafohen from 1923-1925.48 It is not

stated by Sanders or known by the family what the initials J. B. mean. It is possible that Mefful

took an English name when he was baptized by the Methodist Church.

He stirred some trouble in Anomabo in March of 1924 when an asafo section headed by

Tuafohen Mefful attempted to destool the Omanhen Amonoo VI. The reason for the incident was

not either known or provided by the newspaper reporter, but it was settled by the Commissioner

of the Central Province on October 27th. The report further states:

It is a pity that this ancient town with her great reputation, which no other town in
the Colony could beat, is thus becoming disintegrated at this most critical period in
the country's history. 49

Mefful was also a farmer and owned quite a lot of land. It is remembered that he owned a

kiln, located somewhere across the coastal highway, that was used to make burnt bricks. When

Mefful died, his daughter Adwoa Okyema (1910-March 21, 2004) inherited the house. She was

known for baking bread and producing high-quality kenkey. 50 Okyema was a member of the

Ebenzer Methodist Church and took part in the Christ Little Band. Her nephew Kobina George

Kingsley Otoo ofFosu, the current abusuapanyin, inherited after her death in 2004.



48Captain Mefful is mentioned in the "Anomabu" section of the Gold Coast Leader (May 21, 1921), 7.
49Gold Coast Leader (March 29, 1924), 2; and Gold Coast Leader (September 6, 1924), 2.
5oKenkey, or dokonu, is a fermented mixture of corn, flour and water.









relevant subjects. 28 Training lasted three years and apprentices received small stipends. Those

trained were in high demand throughout the coast. Going home to their villages, some set up

their own workshops. 29 Some of those trained were West Indian immigrants, who under the

guidance of the mission, built several of these homes, with variations, in the Akuapem Hills

area. 30

The Akuapem-trained masons migrated southwest to the coastal areas in search of work.

This led to the dissemination of a wide range of building techniques. Hyland observed that

eventually every Fante town contained at least one substantial Christian mission or church with

walls of stone, brick or swish with a timber verandah, revealing the work of a mission-trained

builder. 31 Not long afterward, the major coastal towns also had similar residences with walls of

stone, brick or swish with a timber verandah.

Larteh

The small hilltop town of Larteh retains a fine church, several stone walls and partial

homes as evidence of its once grand Basel Mission architecture. A Methodist Mission similar to

the one in Anomabo was probably built in the same decade (1840s). The Samuel Otu Memorial

Presbyterian Church was constructed in 1853. The church was likely the first stone nog

construction in Larteh, a town inhabited by Guan people (not Akan-related, but similar to the

Afutu people of Elmina). After the construction of the church, stone structures soon dominated.

Masons used the plentiful local stone and a mortar consisting of mud, small stones, water and



28Peter A. Schweizer, Survivors of the Gold Coast: The Basel Missionaries in Colonial Ghana (Accra, Ghana:
Smartline Ltd., 2000), 29.

29Smith, 60.

30Hyland, "Le Ghana," 161-162.

31Hyland, "An Introduction," 68-69.









The Global Focus

The cultural traffic within historical Anomabo exemplifies how "boundaries" are liquid,

i.e. not stationary. Artists and art forms move "from place to place, crosscutting and penetrating

an array of so-called ethnic 'boundaries.' 'Interaction, not isolation,' summarizes Monica

[Blackmun] Visona, seems to characterize much of the production and distribution of traditional

art forms."26 Anomabo serves as a microcosm in this study for architectural production in major

port cities in the Atlantic world. The surviving stone nog residences in Anomabo date to the

colonial period, yet they exemplify a Coastal Elite Style that had its roots in the pre-colonial era.

Caribbean

On the edge of the Caribbean in South America, the urban architecture of Cartagena,

Colombia, in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries has been described as having:

...a 'Spanish' air... The houses are high, of two or three storeys, while the
outbuildings are arranged round an arched courtyard, often closed in by wooden
railings. On the ground floor, the rooms which give onto the street are often used as
store houses and have high ceilings and wooden entresols, (sic) Outside, the ground
and first floors have a flat facade, difficult to climb. By contrast the next floor has
very prominent wooden balconies which are supported by protruding beams. The
balconies are so wide that it is possible to sleep on them on the hottest of nights.27

Vernacular architecture of Barbados, settled by the English in 1627, depicts the adoption of

Georgian elements during the height of sugar prosperity in the early nineteenth century. Building

design and materials "came to acquire a social class value." Stone houses were built by the

English planters; wood houses were built by the poor; and a mixture of house materials were

utilized by the middle classes. The homes of the English planters incorporated "standard

detailing with window hoods, jalousies or Georgian sash windows, and wooden balconies with

turned or chamfered posts; and above all perfect symmetry, with a predilection for porches,

26Christopher B. ,ic .i. I jican Art in Transit (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1994), 11-12.
27Bayon, 30.









British Palladian Style

The remaining exterior features hint at its once elegant and refined presence in downtown

Anomabo. Across the facade are seven anse de panier arched openings. All of the curves of the

arches are formed with brick voussoirs. English-style homes, on the Ghanaian coast as well as

other commercial and later colonial habitations such as those in the Caribbean, were often built

of a uniform size, in local stone, with Palladian arcades on the lower floors and windows on the

upper floors. This provided a convenient way to display merchandise, for the prospective

customers could stroll along the shaded arcades, out of the heat of the sun. 40 These entranceways

may have been left open or fitted for doors or long display windows.

A belt course of four bricks wide runs around the entire exterior of the building visually

dividing the two floors. Seven windows on the front side of the second floor are aligned with the

openings below. The windows have anse de panier arches and may have once been Palladian

windows. Both the arches and the sills are formed with bricks. Some of the windows on the sides

of the buildings have had their arched sections bricked in; the window was likely fitted for a

newer window and shutters, as was the case at the Kobena Mefful Family Residence. Bricks

were also used to frame the sides of the windows. These are flush with the wall and the brick

against the stone makes a striking decorative effect.

Pilasters running the entire height of the building form the coigns. Pilasters were also

placed on either side of the central opening. However these only extend up to the belt course,

framing the entrance. Large holes are visible just above the belt course. My contention is that a

timber verandah once existed on either two or three sides of the building. It may have extended

only across the front and back, or it may also have extended along the eastern side overlooking


40David Buisseret, Historic Architecture of the Caribbean (London: Heinemann, 1980), 26.









proportions. However, several important differences exhibit an advanced transformation phase of

the cultural authentification process.

The front facade (Figure B-9) of the building includes an open arcade on the ground level.

The arcade is composed of true arches framed in brick and divided by two-story pilasters. They

are evenly and symmetrically placed as typical in Palladian design. Five arches span the facade

with one at each side. Only the southwest corner is open today; the rest of the arcade has been

enclosed. Each arch springs from a heavy impost block about two feet high. Some of these

blocks and lower sections of the arches were constructed with early concrete blocks. These are

used sporadically intermixed with the local brick. This appears to be an early experimentation

with concrete block construction. Like the arches seen at The Russell House, bricks on the front

of the arch were placed lengthwise to create an attractive band of constrasting color and texture

to the stone wall. This is in contrast to the Blankson Addition arcade where dark gray granite

stones were laid lengthwise, yet exhibits the same aesthetic inclination.

A cornice wraps around the exterior of the building and inside the courtyard on the kitchen

wall. No cornice exists on the back of the building. The cornice was made using three layers, two

with brick and one with a succession of cement forms with a scalloped edge. Bricks laid flat with

their short side protruding outward create the top layer. This layer extends furthest from the

building. On the bottom layer bricks were laid sideways with their long side protruding. This is

the shallowest layer. The middle layer however is the most decorative. Created in European

molds and shipped to the coast, these scalloped cement forms were popular decorative elements

throughout the coast serving a variety of architectural purposes. The combination of flat edging

with these scallops creates a lively surface. Such scalloped elements were used in Anomabo on

the Tuafoposuban (c. 1921) and the Ebenezer Methodist Church (reconstruction phase, 1966-









coastal business.31 The Swanzy firm had established one of the most successful trading

operations on the coast. Swanzy observed that Anomabo, with an estimated population of 3,000,

was exporting about 137,000 ounces of gold, eight tons of ivory and 1,300 puncheons of palm

oil, equivalent to about 500 tons, annually. 32 The Swanzys are said to have introduced the first

motor-car to the Coast around 1910.33 Even though neither Andrew nor Frank apparently built a

house in Anomabo, the goodwill attached to the name ofF. and A. Swanzy was so great that it

was attached to the structure even after the Swanzy store was closed in Anomabo.

Style and Plan

The exterior of Swanzy is plain with two-story pilasters as its only ornamentation. These

pilasters are at the coigns and in the center of the sides of the building. These have decorative

ridges at the bottom as if to indicate a pedestal; in the center at two points, about one-third up

and two-third up the pilaster; and at the top. Three plain doorways are located symmetrically

across the front and four symmetrically-placed windows are on the second floor. Locals consider

the exterior to be typically Fante, with the added decoration of European pilasters to beautify the

residence. A small courtyard enclosed at the rear of the building has a separate entrance. A

veranda overlooking the courtyard extends across the back of the building.

The interior plan of the structure today (Figure B-57) retains some of its original character

although the ground floor has had some additional walls installed to create more rooms in 1986.

The ground floor once had a more open floor plan, ideal for a store, with two indoor bathrooms

at the back of either corner. These may have been storage rooms initially.



31Ibid., 110-113.
i i, '. 106 .
33Swanzy, 116-117. Allen Quansah of Cape Coast and William Emmanuel Daniel Acquaah of Anomabo are also
remembered as having been the first to own and drive a motor-car on the coast.









each side hall. Each side then, follows the Hall and Chamber plan. Both floors are identical.

Thus, each floor had a corridor and six rooms; the arrangement was symmetrical. Upstairs retains

its original flooring of wood planks on timber supports.

The Dutch doors are later additions; originally the house had full-length doors. The doors

on the interior and exterior are original, with only a hinge or two replaced. The hinges were

probably imported but may have been made locally. Some of these doors are Dutch doors with

separate top and bottom sections. The double entrance doors were made from odom, a very hard

local wood.43

Modern Alterations

Today, it is possible to see that the exterior doors leading from the upstairs corridor have

been closed in, with the one to the west only partially blocked into create a window. The

verandah was removed before 1930. The downstairs floors, originally dirt, have been cemented.

Off-beat Phrasing

The plan of the Justice Akwa Family Residence is similar to the plan of the Kodwo Kuntu

Family Residence (Figure B-38), with only a corridor dividing the plan. Like the Kuntu house,

the Akwa house has a mostly symmetrical plan with one of the four interior walls placed

asymmetrically. Unlike the Kuntu house, all of the windows and doors in the Akwa house align

symmetrically. Therefore, off-beat phrasing occurs only in the placement of the interior walls.

This is a common arrangement found in Anomabo residences.

Comparison with an Afro-Brazilian Sobrado in Brazil

The sobrado with a corridor is a common plan found throughout West Africa. A plan

drawn by Vlach of a nineteenth-century Afro-Brazilian house in Brazil shows similarities to the


43All of the doors from this period (e.g. those of the Claude Calvert Hagan Family Residence) may be made from
odom, yet this wasn't confirmed.



















































Figure B-97. Kweku Abakah Family Residence
Kweku Abakah (d. 1990s)
1990s
Concrete
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photograph by Courtnay Micots, 2009)






382









dignity. Having the ability to construct a family house of such size and prominence and of a style

reflecting their worldly knowledge and travel is symbolic of such and indicates their high status.



















































Figure B-63. Kobena Mefful Family Residence, Enclosed Veranda, Second Floor
Kobena Mefful (1853-March 1943)
c. 1900
Stone nog brick facing
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photograph by Courtnay Micots, 2009)






348









Kodwo Kuntu Family Residence

Kodwo Kuntu worked as a carpenter on other houses in Anomabo, but the family doesn't

remember which ones. It is possible that he helped to construct Blankson's Addition to Castle

Brew. Kuntu had one wife, Adwoa Gyan, and they had five children: Ama Mansa, Ekua Amissa,

Kweku Ninsin, Kweku Tawia and Kweku Aban (in that order). When Kuntu died, the property

passed in patrilineal fashion to his son Kweku Ninsin. When he died, a niece Aba Ehyam (d.

1971) inherited. Her nephew Kofi Teitu, a. k. a. Paul Amo, has since inherited the house and is

the current abusuapanyin.

The only renovation the house has received is a cement plaster on the exterior. The plan

(Figure B-38) consists of six rooms a hall with a chamber on each side, then this is doubled.

No arches or decorative features are present. The plan does exhibit off-beat phrasing in its

positioning of interior walls and by placing the back door out of alignment with the front door

and passageway between the halls. While most of the elements, such as the windows, are

symmetrically aligned, one wall and one door are placed out of this alignment. By selecting and

incorporating the Hall and Chamber plan and the technology and material of stone nog

construction, these clients merged the British Palladian style with Akan aesthetics of off-beat

phrasing. The residence is transformed into something new that displays cosmopolitan status.

Other stone nog houses in Anomabo demonstrating the Hall and Chamber Plan include the

Moses Kwesi Amo Family Residence (Structure C-4), the Charles Bentum Annan Family

Residence (Structure C-5), the Kodwo Baffoe Family Residence (Structure C-6) and the Ama

Moo Family Residence (Structure C-7). A close examination of these residences will

demonstrate the same process of cultural authentification, where elements of the British

Palladian are selected and incorporated into the Akan aesthetic and in some cases, the Akan

courtyard plan as well.








N




S


Front


Figure B-12. Kow Otu Family Residence (2), Aerial Plan from 1931 Gold Coast Survey
Courtesy of the National Archives, Cape Coast, Ghana
(Copied by Courtnay Micots, 2009)


I:
"'-::5. 1-:.


i









and which could incorporate outsiders with surprising ease."1 These blurred boundaries are

evidenced through the choices made by some of the elites in Anomabo. He might build a family

residence with British Palladian features and be a staunch Methodist, yet still belong to Fante

asafo groups that practice local animistic religious customs. Such was the case for Kobena

Mefful, who served as tuafohen, or general of the asafo troops. Thus, this study will divulge the

personal and career backgrounds of Anomabo elites where such information is available in order

to reveal the diversity of this social class and their ability to bridge cultures.

Similar coastal elite classes developed in other port towns along the Atlantic trade routes,

including those in the Caribbean, Brazil and elsewhere in West Africa. A common identity arose

among indigenous groups throughout as an urban elite class. During the colonial period this was

reflected in elite architecture where generally Palladian elements were adopted for urban

environments and Afro-Portuguese sobrado features were borrowed for rural environments.

While cultural interactions had taken place during pre-colonial times in these Atlantic port

cities, it is not until the colonial era that new art forms appeared in profusion. Within Anomabo's

cosmopolitan environment, people from a variety of cultures came to live and work. Such

cultural mixing naturally resulted in the rise of identity issues. As a result, people used their arts

to visually establish commonality and difference. For example, to belong to an asafo company,

the para-military troops ofFante communities, meant to express identity in relationship with

others during times of warfare, ritual and performance. For example, folklorist Daniel B. Reed,

regarding the Dan in Liberia, states: "This expression of religious and ethnic identity is taking

place in contexts in which increasingly more people of other ethnic and religious identities are

present." Within Ge performance of the Dan, ritual performance becomes "a means for people to


"Ibid.


















































Figure B-62. Kobena Mefful Family Residence, Chamber Doorways, Ground Floor
Kobena Mefful (1853-March 1943)
c. 1900
Stone nog brick facing
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photograph by Courtnay Micots, 2009)







347









I owe the locating of my most important archival findings in Ghana to the following

people. William J. Otoo, Records Assistant, at the National Archives in Cape Coast assisted me

with the 1931 Gold Coast Survey Map of Anomabo along with some biographical data. His

continuing efforts to uncover Anomabo's property records from the 1860s to 1930s give me hope

for future data to further support my theories. My appreciation also to Joseph Prempeh Maisie,

Acting Director of the Ghana Museums & Monuments Board, for sharing the Little Fort, a. k. a.

Castle Brew, files with me. I am grateful to Phillip Atta-Yawson, caretaker of Fort William and

Castle Brew; Nicholas Ivor, Director, Cape Coast Castle; and Kwesi Essel Blankson, Museum

Educator and Tour Guide, Cape Coast Castle, for assisting with historical knowledge, sources,

contacts and discussions.

Initial tours around town were given by Nkum and Mensah, a. k. a. John Kofi. Other

valuable contacts and insights were lent by Grace Kyeremeh, Chief Kodwo Addae II of Abura,

Abaka Quansah, masons Kwame Amanbu and Joseph Kofi Ackom, and artists Joseph Benjamin

Arcct Bunyan a. k. a. Kofi Benya, a.k.a Dollar; Mark E. Aidoo a.k.a Kobena Edu; and Kweku

Rhule.

Encouragement and support was additionally provided by my dear friend and Ghanaian

sister Grace (Kyeremeh). She opened her door to me for a six-month homestay and cooked the

most delicious Ghanaian foods. I am forever grateful to Grace; her kindness made every trip to

Ghana a homecoming. For clothing and vibrant conversations, I thank Joyce Okwaisie, a. k. a.

Efua Brunwa, in Anomabo. Emily Asiedu or "Auntie," Solomon Ofosu Appeah, a. k. a. Kwaku,

and Dina Dentaa in Accra provided accommodations, food, clothing lively discussions and even

their prayers when KLM/Delta did not reissue my airline ticket. To Auntie and all the scholars

that congregate at her home, I am grateful for all the assistance and advice I have received. For









The Courtyard House

The most basic Fante house consists of one rectangular room with a small entrance door.

Windows may or may not be included. For those with means, additional rooms are added and

perhaps include a courtyard behind. Many African people practice an outdoor communal

lifestyle that revolves around a defined space within the yard, or compound, adjacent to the

house. Since the house is used mainly for sleeping at night, providing shelter from rain, and for

storage of valuables, these outdoor spaces are an integral part of the living zone. Another outdoor

extension of the house is the veranda. 52

Numerous courtyard houses were built in Anomabo and generally all across the Fante

region. The coastal Akan courtyard house uses some variant of louvered or natural openings into

the house. Sometimes openwork screens in bamboo are utilized to encourage air circulation. 53

Fante courtyard plans may have a front row of rooms, one or two rooms deep. External staircases

to upper stories are of monolithic earth construction, built against the outside wall of the

building. Hyland stated that this type of construction appears to be indigenous to Cape Coast and

Anomabo. 54

In local building, floors are composed of either plain loose soil or compacted earth. Loose

soil is generally used in houses in fishing villages along the coast, while in other parts of the

coastal areas and in the hinterland the floors are made of stone. A compacted earth floor can be

smoothly finished in a variety of available materials, such as clay applied to the floor with the





52Patricia Green, "Architecture," in Vernacular Architecture ofthe World, ed. Paul Oliver (Cambridge: Cambridge
UP, 1997), 1702.
53Prussin, "An Introduction," 185.
54Hyland, "Fante," 2042-2043.









live there. By 1963, the roofing had deteriorated to such a point that the family was forced to

abandon the structure.27

Functions

The once grand house stood vacant and soon became overgrown, so much so, that many

of today's elderly residents remember as children they believed that dwarfs lived there. They

would leave food and find it gone the next day. They never dared to enter the structure. 28

When Atta Amonoo's wife died and another family member became the abusuapanyin,

they allowed the Anglican Church to use it free of charge as the site of their middle school from

1968 until 1986 when the school was moved into Castle Brew where it exists today. The family

reroofed the building in 1980.

Another church used the residence from 1986 to 1989.29 Then, sometime between 1989

and 2003, the family allowed the Kwegyir Aggrey Secondary School to use the residence as a

Boys Hostel in exchange for repairs. Unfortunately, over the years the structure has suffered

from damages and repairs, some of which compromised the original elegance. Yet, a functional

building is less likely to deteriorate completely. Unfortunately its original imposing presence has

diminished. The Ebenezer Rest Stop and Hotel was built in front of the building, essentially

blocking the entire facade. Thus, the house can barely be seen from the town below today. When

it was first constructed however, it would have been very impressive (Figure C-83).

Materials and Construction

The materials and size of the structure (Figure B-84) directly compare to two European

buildings in town, Fort William and Castle Brew, constructed about 150 years earlier. According

2Harrison lives in Accra today.

28Harrison affirms that dwarfs never lived in the house.
I i, one could remember the name of this church.









Labarthe, Pierre. Voyage a la c6te de Guinee: ou, Description des c6tes d'Afrique, depuis le Cap
Tagrinjusqu'au Cap de Lopez-Gonzalves. Paris: Chez Debray, 1803.

Labi, Kwame Amoah. "A Study of Change and Continuity in Fante Asafo Art." Ph.D. diss.,
University of Ghana, 2002.

-----. "Fante Asafo Flags of Abandze and Kormantse: A Discourse between Rivals." African Arts
35 (4 Winter 2002): 28-37, 92.

---. "Fights, Riots and Disturbances with 'Objectionable and Provocative Art' Among the Fante
Asafo Companies." Transactions of the Historical Society of Ghana 2 (1998): 101-116.

----. "Criminalizing Art: The Struggle Between Fante Asafo Companies and the British
Administration on the Gold Coast (1844-1957)." Baessler-Archiv 50(2002): 153-168.

LaGamma, Alisa and Christine Giuntini. The Essential Art ofAfrican Textiles: Design Without
End. NY: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2008.

Lamb, Venice. West African Weaving. London: Duckworth, 1975.

Lawrence, A. W. Trade Castles & Forts of West Africa. Stanford, CA: Stanford UP, 1963.

Lewcock, Ronald. "French Colonial." In Vernacular Architecture of the World, ed. Paul Oliver,
1712-1713. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1997.

Lundgren, Nancy. Watch and Pray: A Portrait of Fante Village Life in Transition. Orlando, FL:
Harcourt, 2002.

MacDonald, George. The Gold Coast, Past and Present: A .\/1,, t Description of the Country and
its People. London and New York: Longmans, Green, 1898.

Mackie, Erin Skye. "Cultural Cross-Dressing: The Colorful Case of the Caribbean Creole." In
The Clothes that Wear Us: Essays on Dressing and Transgressing in Eighteenth-Century
Culture, eds. Jessica Munns and Penny Richard, 250-270. Cranbury, NJ: Associated UP, 1999.

Mark, Peter. "Portuguese" Style and Luso-African Identity: Precolonial Senegambia, Sixteenth-
Nineteenth Centuries. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2002.

Matson, J. N. "The French at Amoku." Transactions of the Gold Coast and Togoland Historical
Society 1 (2, 1953): 47-60.

McCarthy, Mary. Social Change and the Growth of British Power in the Gold Coast: The Fante
States 1807-1874. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1983.

Meier, Prita. "Hybrid Heritage: Objects on the Edge Swahili Coast Logics of Display." African
Arts 42 (4 Winter 2009): 8-23.









Structure C-16. Jacob Wilson Sey Family Residence

One of the most prominent African merchants during the colonial period was Jacob Wilson

Sey, a. k. a. Kwaa Bonyin (March 10, 1832-1902). He was a Fante born in Anomabo.36 He was

from poor and illiterate parents and received no formal education. He was a palm wine and palm

oil seller as well as a carpenter who mysteriously became rich when he found pots of gold under

his trees (probably he underearthed a burial). Kwaa Bonyin then changed his name to Jacob

Wilson Sey. He continued to prosper as a merchant and landlord who owned several properties

in Cape Coast.

Sey was a co-founder and the first president of the Aborigines Rights Protection Society,

established to protect Fante rights to their own land.37 He built two similar stone residences, one

in Cape Coast and another in Anomabo on the highest point of the Okokodo, or hill top,

neighborhood. The house in Anomabo was the family house, while Sey mainly worked and lived

in Cape Coast. The site for a family house is chosen according to the place of residence for the

abusua. This lends credence to the claim that Sey was born in Anomabo, yet it does not confirm

it.

Style and Plan

The entire building was standing in 1931 according to the Gold Coast Survey. The front of

the Anomabo building faced southward toward the ocean. Today, ground-level remains of piers,

the foundation and part of the brick underground cistern are all that remain of Sey's grand two-

story residence.


36Anomabo descendants are adamant about this attribution even though several publications argue for a Cape Coast
birth. Ephson, 53-55; and Hutchinson, 176-177. The National Commission on Culture states that he was born in
Biriwa, a fishing village just west of Anomabo. "Remembering Jacob Wilson Sey," National Commission on
Culture (March 3, 2007), http://www.ghanaculture.gov.gh/indexl.php?linkid=337&archiveid=495&page=
1&adate=03/03/2007.
37Ephson, 53-55; and Hutchinson, 176-177.









ignorant with Haughtiness or Contempt, is to abuse Power and Science, and in spite
of both to shew ourselves worse Men than those who have neither.75

Sesarakoo remained on Barbados for four years. During this time, the captain wrote to

Kurentsir explaining the matter. It can be supposed that the captain had a change of heart since

he died soon after he sent the letter; perhaps nearing death, the captain regretted his actions.

In Anomabo, Kurentsir continued to be courted by the French and British. Upon receiving

the captain's letter, he no doubt wished to end communication with the British, but he could not.

The French and British had undergone the Anglo-French War of 1744-1748, and the British had

effectively run the French contingent out of Anomabo. Thus, with great tact, Kurentsir forgave

the British for their part in Sesarakoo's sale, but reminded them of how the French kindly treated

Banishee and of the British insult Kurentsir received. The "English Caboceiro," or manager of

the English Company, promised the omanhen the recovery of his son, education in England and

safe return. This captain volunteered to take his own son along the journey to secure Kurentsir's

confidence.76

The captain found Sesarakoo in Barbados in 1748, and took him to England.77 Sesarakoo

was placed under the care of the Right Honorable Earl of Halifax, First Commissioner of Trade

and Plantations.78 Horace Walpole wrote in 1749 that "There are two black Princes of Anamaboe

here, who are in fashion at all assemblies."79 Walpole and other contemporary accounts state that



75Ibid., ix-x.

76The name of this caboceiro and his son are not given by Sesarakoo. Sesarakoo, 44-48.

7Ibid., 48-52. The date of 1748 was provided by Dodd in the "Advertisement" at the front of his text.

78Priestley, West African Trade, 20.

79He goes on to tellthe story of Sesarakoo and "another sprightly youth" who were sold into slavery and then
recovered and brought to England. Peter Cunningham, ed. The Letters ofHorace Walpole, Fourth Earl ofOxford.
Vol. 2, 1749-1759 (Edinburgh: John Grant, 1906), 30-31. Letter 2to Horace Mann, March 23, 1749. The October
16, 1754, minutes for the British Company of Merchants state: "Two Black Boys at Rochester...Agna and Suckee"
are to be carried to Cape Coast Castle by the Gosport. Donnan, vol. 2, 490, 508, 509. It's not likely that this refers to









eighteenth century. To better understand the global modernity of today, it is useful to study the

results of cultural mixing in the past. This record ofAnomabo' s architectural history is an answer

to Appadurai's call "for the deep study of specific geographies, histories, and languages" of

globalization that he described as "a deeply historical, uneven, and even localizing process."2

Anomabo as a bustling city in the late-seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was marked by

Dutch and English stone nog architecture, e.g. the Dutch Lodge, Fort Charles, Fort William and

Castle Brew. Africans and mulattoes who acted as intermediaries or middlemen were

beneficiaries of the trade brought by these foreigners. This new merchant class became the

political and social force on the coast. This is evidenced in structures like the George Kuntu

Blankson Addition to Castle Brew (Figure B-18) and the once-standing Samuel Collins Brew

Family Residence which date to the 1860s and 1870s.

The Decline of Anomabo

Anomabo's last hold on prominence coincided with the move of the British colonial

administration from Cape Coast to Accra in 1877,3 and with the British transferring limited local

political power to the local ruling hierarchies. The African coastal elites were losing their long-

standing position in the social, economic and political activities of the coast. African coastal elite

building in stone nog flourished during this period from the 1860s to the 1930s in reaction to this

shift as an emphatic statement of their status as Western-educated, globally-aware and wealthy

businessmen. The finest examples of their homes in Anomabo include The Russell House

(Figure B-19), the Kobena Mefful Family Residence (Figure B-50) and the Lawyer Atta





Ibid., 17. His italics.
3Flather, 144. Cape Coast had been the headquarters of the British since 1664.









As an aside, two cemented barrels are located outside on the ground to the north of the

residence. In the late-nineteenth century cement was imported in barrels. If they got wet, then

they hardened. Hardened barrels like these are found, here and there, within Anomabo as

evidence of its historical prominence as a port city. Cement was initially used sparingly in

sculptures, as seen onposuban shrines for the asafo, or as mortar or decoration (see Lawyer Atta

Amonoo' s Family Residence in Chapter 7).

Structure C-5. Charles Bentum Annan Family Residence

Charles Bentum Annan, a. k. a. Kobena Abonkyi (c. 1890-1964), was a cocoa dealer and

farmer. He went as far as Jasikan, a town near Accra, to sell cocoa. He built a fine, two-story

stone nog house in Anomabo town proper (Figure B-43) and had a one-story rammed earth

courtyard house on his plantation in Assin Manso, north of Anomabo state. Annan had five

wives: Ama Seguwa, Ekuwa Amoasiwa, Aba Bedu, Ekuwa Mansa and Ekuwa Otuwa (in that

order). He had 18 children. Annan, photographed sometime in the 1920s in a Western-style

business suit (Figure B-44), was a Methodist who purchased the church's first organ. He also

paid the Methodist school teachers when funds ran short. Most of the current residents are

tenants. The landlord who lives on site is Annan's granddaughter Elizabeth Anderson, the

Headmistress for the Methodist School. One of Annan's great-granddaughters, Joana Otoo, is a

teacher at the Methodist School.

The stone house was probably built between the 1920s and 1931. It appears on the 1931

Gold Coast Survey Map in first class or good condition. A shortened veranda, or better described

as a balcony, is located in the center of the facade. This is decorated with motifs indented in the

two piers and across the balcony railing. The motifs consist of extended lozenges, or a double

lancet, vertically on the piers and horizontally across the lower section of the railing. Inset arch

and lancet shapes alternate across the main section of the railing. These were apparently chosen



















































Figure B-4. Dontsin No. 3 Asafo Company Posuban
Kwamina Amoaku (1898-1987)
1948, Renovated 1966
Brick, Cement
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photo by Courtnay Micots, 2009)






289









Amazons and Oronoque in South-America : with an appendix, being a general account of the
first discoveries of America, in the fourteenth century and some observations thereon : and a
geographical, political, and natural history of the Antilles-Islands in the North-Sea ofAmerica.
London: A. & J. Churchill, 1732.

-----. A Supplement to the Description of the Coasts ofNorth and South Guinea. London: H.
Lintot and J. Osborn, 1746.

Bartels, F. L. The Roots of Ghana Methodism. Cambridge: Cambridge UP and Methodist Book
Depot, 1965.

Bassani, Ezio and William B. Fagg. Africa and the Renaissance: Art in Ivory. NY: Center for
African Art and Prestel-Verlag, 1988.

Bayly, C. A. The Birth of the Modern World 1780-1914: Global Connections and Comparisons.
Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004.

----. Imperial Meridian: The British Empire and the World, 1780-1830. London and New York:
Longman, 1989.

Bayon, Damian and Murillo Marx. History of South American ColonialArt and Architecture:
Spanish South America and Brazil. NY: Rizzoli, 1989.

Bech, Niels and A. D. C. Hyland. Elmina: A Conservation Study. Kumasi, Ghana: University of
Science and Technology, 1978.

Berlin, Ira. Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America.
Cambridge, MA and London: Belknap and Harvard UP, 1998.

Bhabha, Homi K. The Location of Culture. London: Routledge, 1994.

Boahen, A. Adu. "Asante and Fante A.D. 1000-1800." InA Thousand Years of West African
History: A Handbook for Teachers and Students, ed. J. F. Ade Ajayi and IanEspie, 165-190.
Ibadan, Nigeria: Ibadan UP, 1965.

Bosman, Willem. A New andAccurate Description of the Coast of Guinea. (London: Printed for
James Knapton...and Dan, 1705. Reprint, NY: Barnes & Noble, 1967).

Bowdich, T. Edward. Mission from Cape Coast Castle to Ashantee, with a Statistical Account of
that Kingdom, and Geographical Notices of Other Parts of the Interior of Africa. London: John
Murray, 1819.

"Brazil House." Accra, Ghana: The Brazilian Embassy, n.d.

Breidenbach, Paul S. and Doran H. Ross. "The Holy Place: Twelve Apostles Healing Gardens."
African Arts 11 (4, 1978): 28-35, 95.









and continue the transformation process of cultural authentification by incorporating new

materials and styles.

Egyir Aggrey Family Residence

The Egyir Aggrey Family Residence (Figure B-94) was built by the Mpontuhen, or

Development Chief, Egyir Aggrey. Aggrey works in Accra as a modern-day merchant, importing

and distributing new and used jeans across Ghana. His concrete residence, built in 2005,

continues to incorporate elements of the Palladian style. It is an elaborate example of the type of

home to which many Ghanaians today aspire.

The grand entrance is decorated with a Greek pediment and Ionic-columned portico,

reminiscent ofPalladio's Villa Rotunda. The first and second floor utilize arcades for a front

entrance porch and veranda respectively. Iron balustrades painted gold complete the look with a

Baroque touch. The large residence is situated on a hilltop that overlooks the entire town,

including the Lawyer Atta Amonoo Family Residence (Figure B-9). Some of the current coastal

elite residents admitted to finding this "ostentatious" building symbolic of the Mpontuhen's

display of wealth and newly-acquired local status, as he has a close relationship with Omanhen

Amonoo XI.

W. E. D. A. Lodge

The William Emmanuel Daniel Acquaah Lodge (Figure B-95) was built in 1963 using

concrete and bricks. It is included here in this study to acknowledge the changing desires of

Fante clientele and fads of building construction. By this time, stone nog was no longer being

used on the coast or in Anomabo. Concrete had definitely taken the lead.

In keeping with the preference to build on the hilltop, this structure surmounts what

seems the highest point in Anomabo, making an indelible impression. Mr. Acquaah was a very

wealthy businessman during his time. W. E. D. Acquaah (b. September 16, 1917-d. October 18,









Structure C-1. Twidan Clan Family Residence

In the late-nineteenth century, when Adontehen Amonoo I, a. k. a. Kweigyakwa II, a. k. a.

Nana Kweku Amonoo,1 was wooing his future wife Ketuwa, she requested that he build her a

kitchen, a structure often constructed separate of the family house. He gave her a large stretch of

land and built apate for her in the Apatem neighborhood of Anomabo. The property was put in

Ketuwa's name and passed down into her family, the Twidan clan.

According to descendants, the brothers Kwesi Dwoma and Kwesi Mensah built the Twidan

Clan family residence in the late 1920s to 1931 (Figures B-22 and B-23) for all four siblings, the

two brothers and their sisters Ekua Hannah and Aba Sasah. The entire building was standing in

1931 according to the Gold Coast Survey. When the last of the siblings died, the house was

willed to a daughter Efua Bankye. The current owners are her children Kobena Kum, Kobena

Essilfie and Atta Morrison.

Locally-made bricks were used to face the stone nog building; however the southeast

comer includes a partial rock wall about three feet high. It seems that this building was

constructed on the site of a previous stone nog residence. Maintenance on the house has included

painting sealing cracks in the shell mortar with cement, and repairing the deteriorated roofing

with both new timbers and iron corrugated sheeting. The walls are not plumb, due to either poor

workmanship or lack of interest in such symmetry.

This house is not based on the typical Akan courtyard house (Figure B-24), rather it seems

to resemble early descriptions of coastal two-story rammed earth residences. Each ground floor

room opens to the exterior and not into each other. The entire outside is the living space, the




'Sanders spells the name Kwa Agya Acquah, 288-291. His dates of reign were probably before Kweku Amonu II
whose reign was reported to Sanders to be 1901-1921.






















,.PEN.\ fNYISN


Figure B-87. Pobee Abaka Family Residence
Pobee Abaka
c. 1845-1900
Stone nog brick, rammed earth, cement forms, cement plaster
Saltpond, Ghana
(Photo by Courtnay Micots, 2009)


i










----. "Traditional Akan Architecture and Building Construction: A Technological and Historical
Study." Ph.D. diss., University of California, 1988.

Feinberg, Harvey M. Africans and Europeans in West Africa: Elminans and Dutchmen on the
Gold Coast during the Eighteenth Century. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1989.

Ferguson, James. Global .\/h/adn, Africa in the Neoliberal World Order. Durham and London:
Duke UP, 2006.

----. "Of Mimicry and Membership: African and the 'New World Society'." Cultural
Anthropology 17 (4, 2002): 551-569.

Ffoulkes, A. "The Company System in Cape Coast Castle." Journal of the African Society
(1908):261-277.

Fitchen, John. Building Construction Before Mechanization. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 1986.

Flather, Newell. "Anomabu; The History ofa Fante Town on the Ghana Coast." Masters thesis,
Columbia University, 1966.

Fraser, Henry S. "Architectural Influences." In Vernacular Architecture of the World, ed. Paul
Oliver, 1700-1701. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1997.

----. "Barbadian." In Vernacular Architecture of the World, ed. Paul Oliver, 1704-1705.
Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1997.

----. "British Colonial." In Vernacular Architecture of the World, ed. Paul Oliver, 1706-1707.
Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1997.

Freeman, Mark Henry. "Archaeology of Early European Contact in Anomabu, Ghana." Masters
thesis, University of Ghana, 2008.

Freeman, T. B. Journals of Various Visits to the Kingdoms ofAshanti, Aku, andDahomi in
Western Africa. London: J. Mason, 1844.

Fynn, John Kofi. Asante andIts Neighbors 1700-1807. London: William Clowes, 1971.

Garrard, Timothy F. Akan Weights and the Gold Trade. London, 1980.

"George Kuntu Blankson." The Gold Coast Aborigines (September 5, 1898), n.p.

Gilfoy, Peggy Stoltz. Patterns of Life: West African Strip-Weaving Traditions. Washington, DC
and London: National Museum of African Art and Smithsonian Institution, 1987.









channelled the widespread tension against colonial rule and formed the beginnings of the

nationalist movement. 96

This chapter, perhaps more so than any other, has delineated some of the complicated

connections between coastal elites and the borrowing of Palladian architecture. While adopting

the Hall and Chamber Plan, they also appropriated and transformed many architectural details,

utilizing them on both residences and churches. The spread of Methodism encouraged a building

boom in churches and mission houses. The Methodist Mission in Anomabo demonstrates this

spread among the African coastal elites who embraced this European religion and its schooling

first. They also selected and incorporated parts or all of the mission's architecture into their

housing. The interior arch is used in several coastal elite residences.

The economic booms of the 1860s into the 1890s, and later in the 1920s and early 1930s,

fueled the construction of large family residences. The selection and incorporation of the

Palladian style reflects mid-century economic and political instability in which the coastal elite

class felt pitted against both the local African hierarchy, now Akanized, and the British

administration. Many of these stone nog residences no longer survive along the Ghanaian coast.

Anomabo and Cape Coast are fortunate to have an example (the Blankson Addition in Anomabo

discussed earlier in this chapter and the Allen Quansah Family Residence in Cape Coast

discussed in Chapter 8). There are many more surviving two-story rammed earth houses that

display Palladian design elements and the Hall and Chamber plan. The selection and

incorporation of European architecture is further complicated by the introduction of the Afro-

Portuguese sobrado.


96Bush, 113.









Urban Design

Descriptions of the settlement plan of coastal communities and their architecture is

provided as early as 1602 by De Marees. He details wattle and daub construction and offers this

record of early housing arrangements.3

Their dwellings are not situated in any order; but as each man fences off his own
dwellings with a reed partition, the houses are separated from one another and the
reed partitions form Streets which divide each quarter of Houses from the other.
The streets are very narrow, so that only one Man can pass at a time. 4

Coastal people, including those in Anomabo, lived in their own distinct quarters 400 years

ago as they do today. These quarters were and still are subdivided into groups of compounds

inhabitated by related clans. This is especially evident today in the Aweano, Fare and Etsiwa

neighborhoods of Anomabo where nearly every house is painted with the symbols of the resident

family clan. Anomabo, like other coastal towns, seems to have grown organically, i.e. without a

set plan (Figure B-2). Barbot recorded a similar description of Elmina:

The town is very long containing about twelve hundred houses, all built with rock-
stones, in which it differs from all other places, the houses being generally only
composed of clay and wood. It is divided into several streets and lanes very
irregular, crooked, and dirty in rainy weather, the ground being low and flat, and
the streets and lanes close and very narrow ....5

Elmina exhibited the same dense housing as Anomabo. The difference between the pre-colonial

coastal Akan towns was the stone houses in Elmina described by Barbot.

In the early eighteenth century Cape Coast was described by Meredith as having about

eight thousand inhabitants, who constructed square-shaped houses of swish and thatch, arranged

3De Marees, 75-77.
4Ibid., 76.

5Barbot,A description of the coasts ofNorth and South Guinea : and ofEthiopia inferior, vulgarly Angola ... and a
new relation ofthe province ofGuiana, and of the great rivers ofAmazons and Oronoque in South-America : with
an appendix, being a general account ofthefirst discoveries ofAmerica, in the fourteenth century and some
observations thereon : and a geographical, political, and natural history of the Antilles-Islands in the North-Sea of
America (London: A. & J. Churchill, 1732), 156. This was written around 1683, though published much later.





















Front e


Hal .



Hall


Hall


. .. I -" .


I .111,1 I I .111,1 I


lhambher I


i. -


.. .. L


J


Courtyard




Figure B-45. Charles Bentum Annan Family Residence, Plan
(Drawing by Courtnay Micots, 2009)


I .1i 11Jl I


-1


"`


u


j,









They are symmetrical arranged to create a balanced facade. Attached columns with capitals

surround the upper-story windows for added embellishment. Two-story pilasters meet at the

coigns.42 While these choice and placement of these features are unique to this structure, the

resemblance in aesthetics to coastal elite residences in Anomabo (The Russell House, Figure B-

19) and Cape Coast (Allen Quansah Family Residence, Figure B-86) are strikingly similar. The

same may be said for the second house.

The second house owned by Romao Campos43 resembles the Afro-Portuguese sobrado

with its veranda. The veranda railing is wrought iron, and the piers are thin, appearing to be iron

as well. Four wide entrances on the ground level suggest a merchant function. Four windows

above are placed directly above these entrances. Though this arrangement is aligned, the spaces

between these doors and windows are uneven, disturbing the symmetricality of the facade. This

may exhibit the sense of off-beat phrasing common in the West African aesthetic.

Southeastern Nigeria

A comparison between the Lawyer Atta Amonoo Family Residence (Figure B-9) and a

three-storied house in Okrika, Nigeria built in the early 1920s,44 demonstrates the Coastal Elite

Style and its regional variations. Unfortuantely Okoye does not provide a plan for the house in

Okrika, yet in his pictures and text it is possible to observe certain similarities and differences. 45

The two monumental structures are similar for they are multi-storied and have an arcade on the

ground level, though it does not appear than the arcade is placed on the front of the Okrikan


42Ibid., 54-55. Though this structure appeals to have been constructed with stone nog, da Cunha does not mention it,
nor does she provides a plan for the interior spaces.
43Ibid. Da Cunha does not state that Romao Campos had this house built, nor when the house was built. No plan was
provided.
44Okoye, 637-639, Figures 17-21.
45Ibid., 122-133.









Off-beat Phrasing

The courtyard entrance of The Russell House (Figure B-19) is decorated with a double-

columned pilaster with base at each side of the entrance. An anse de panier arch springs from

their capital, connecting them. The house and courtyard entrance are entirely symmetrical and

balanced, following the Palladian dictum. In contrast, even though true arches, anse de panier

arches, and pilasters are utilized on the Lawyer Atta Amonoo Family Residence, they are not

always symmetrically arranged. For example, the true arches framing the sides of the arcade are

not centered evenly between the two-story pilaster on the side and the corner quoin and impost

block (Figure B-82). The true arches across the front arcade, in contrast, are centered between

the pilasters. In fact, the arch appears to be cut off by the left pilaster. Since the front facade

demonstrates that the builders were quite capable of producing symmetry, this asymmetry is a

deliberate choice. Another example of asymmetry occurs at the current entrance. The entablature

arch over the entrance door appears abruptly cut off on the left by the side arcade arch. Inside,

this same entrance arch is not cut off or asymmetrical. It matches its counterpart on the opposite

wall. Such combinations of symmetry and asymmetry are an essential component to identifying

African coastal elite housing.

Plan

The plan (Figure B-10) for the residence consists of large halls toward the facade and a

row of chambers following behind on one side with an enclosed courtyard on the other side. All

the chambers open to the courtyard. A separate set of rooms were built in the back far corner.

The ground floor room was used as a kitchen. This plan reflects a Fante courtyard plan.

Downstairs one long hall spans the majority of the front of the building while upstairs two

long halls repeat the plan and also span the arcade below. The remainder of the upstairs plan is

identical to that below. The forward section of the house is similar to The Russell House (Figure


























~I


Figure B-37. J. E. H. Conduah Family Residence, Second Floor
Dutch
C. 1807-1839
Stone Nog
Elmina, Ghana
(Photo By Courtnay Micots, 2009)


i~-1IP









Document D-6. Obituary for Charlotte Oyemame Acquaah


Voluminous was the outburst of sorrow and affection that attended the
announcement of the death of Revd. Mrs. Acquaah, commonly known as Teacher
Oyeamam. Punctually at 4 p.m. On the first inst. everything that was mortal of the
deceased was conveyed from the native Mission House to the Wesleyan Church,
for interment. The order of service was conducted by Revds. J. D. Russell and I.
Hayford, an address by Revd. A. W. Parker and Prayer by Revd. E. E. Brew. Prayer
and Benediction being offered by Revd. Ibnijy Hayford...

In his address Father Parker stated: Ere she entered her teens, Mrs. Acquaah
became a resident of this place and endeared herselfby the early religions
convictions and intense piety which at once, eliminated from the minds ofthose
who had the previledge of her acquaintance, the slightest elements of doubt as to
her life work. In 1875, it was found her supreme joy to visit, with her bible in hand
on every afternoon she was off her School and domestic duties, the troops
garrisoned here for the Ashanti expedition. The expectations of those who watched
her burning earnestness of evangelistic labours ripened into fruition when, in 1882
at the age of 24, she was married to Revd. R. M. Acquaah. By her gentle courtesy
to all, by her assiduous Bible instructions, as a Sunday School votary and class
Leader, she exemphtied the real life in Christ Jesus. About two years back her
native robust health began battling with very exhaustive disease which terminated
her mortal existence on last Friday, the 31st July at the age of 50. The devoted
mother is survived by four sons and four daughters.

The strains of "Dead March in Saul" had scarcely died away when the coffin,
reverently borne from before the pulpit, was placed into a hearse drawn in the
Wesleyan Cemetary by the nearest kin to the deceased, and followed in a long
procession of mourners from Elmina, Anamaboe, Saltpond, and other places to pay
their last tribute to the beloved Christian labourer now called to her eternal rest. 6

















6The Gold Coast Leader (August 15, 1908), 2.

















































Figure B-65. Claude Calvert Hagan Family Residence, South Side and Partial Front
Claude Calvert Hagan
c. 1900s
Rammed Earth, iron or aluminum sheeting over verandah, asbestos/slate roof
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photo by Courtnay Micots, 2009)







350









The second room is smaller and is used as both a private visiting room and bedchamber. A door

was cut into the adjoining bedchamber. The tuafohen also added terrazzo flooring throughout the

the first residence and courtyard as well as a fresh cement plaster to the exterior walls, including

those inside the courtyards. The cement plaster not only protects the earth from the rains and

intense sun, but also allows the home owner to have the house painted. Murals were painted

across the front by Joseph Benjamin Arcct Bunyan, a. k. a. Kofi Benya, a.k.a Dollar. A figural

cement sculpture of a linguist pouring libations from a real glass gin bottle was brought from

Takoradi.

Combining the Two-Story and Courtyard Plans

One of the more interesting developments that Cruickshank observed is the addition of the

second story on the front row of rooms over the standard one-story courtyard house. "There is

frequently a second story on one side of the square, and sometimes upon all. This is considered

necessary to meet the idea of a white man's house, which they think it so desirable to imitate."69

It is debatable whether the second story was an imitation of the European house. As

discussed in Chapter 3, it is equally possible the inspiration derived from northern housing. The

courtyard house is a vernacular form firmly rooted in Akan culture. Yet, not unlike other cultural

forms, it was inspired by ideas borrowed from outside cultures. Two-story houses, or abrasan,

are locally reported as a form adopted from Europeans on the coast. However, housing in the

Western Sudan consists of mostly two-story buildings with flat roofs combined with a courtyard

within the main house. Some are made from earth, while others are made with molded or cast,


69Ibid., 291.









to Atta Amonoo's descendants, stone from Fort William was used to construct the residence.

Since Fort William is mostly constructed in brick, it is doubtful that they acquired much stone

from Fort William, though they may have used other rubble from collapsed buildings in town,

perhaps even from the Samuel Collins Brew Family Residence. Another possible source of stone

came from the road construction authorized by Amonoo V. Since the early 1880s roads were

being cleared to facilitate trade, bringing cocoa, palm kernels and rubber from the hinterland to

the coast. Cape Coast was the more important port city in the early twentieth century, and the

much-frequented path between Cape Coast and Anomabo needed to be converted into a good

road.30

The exterior of the Lawyer Atta Amonoo Family Residence was not plastered and was

painted white only recently. In 2009 much of the paint had already washed off so the section

layered approach to the stone nog construction on the back side of the building was visible. Since

this technique seems common in the buildings constructed around 1900 as in The Russell

House (Figure B-69) and the Ed Monson Family Residence (Figure B-79) and not in the earlier

structures of the Cruickshank and Blankson Additions, it seems possible that the stone nogging

technique underwent a transformation phase of its own. By the turn of the century, the technique

may have merged with that from rammed earth construction which had been practiced on the

coast for centuries.

British Palladian Style

The Lawyer Atta Amonoo Family Residence was only constructed about 20 years after

The Russell House. It exhibits many of the same Palladian features stone nogging and

Palladian design elements such as pilasters, a ground floor arcade, arches and symmetrical



3Dickson, Historical Geography, 203, 220.









early as the 1820s. Afro-Brazilian masons who lived in Nigeria may have also worked on the

Ghanaian coast.

Chapter 7: Transformation: The Coastal Elite Style This chapter focuses on the resulting

mixture of elements and plans borrowed from the Palladian style and sobrado. Further examples

of the Coastal Elite Style demonstrate the transformation phase, yet exhibit the individual

character of each home at the same time. The transformation phase is further realized in the

Lawyer Atta Amonoo Family Residence, one of the most sophisticated African coastal elite

structures in Anomabo, blending all three cultural styles into a harmonious new form. Atta

Amonoo's continuous travels between Nigeria and Ghana, as well as his political involvement in

both countries provide another link between these British colonial territories. Aspects of the

Akan architectural vernacular, namely the courtyard plan and the insertion of asymmetrical

elements, are incorporated.

Chapter 8: Communicating Status through the Visual This is the conclusion where the

examples will be analyzed in broader comparisons, especially with those in the Caribbean, Brazil

and Nigeria, to demonstrate how Anomabo has localized the global. Contemporary houses in

Anomabo will be discussed as a means to demonstrate how the process of cultural

authentification continues to operate with new twentieth-century materials and ideas.

All the Figures in Appendix C are mostly grouped so that the photos and plans are together

for each building. I apologize if this causes the reader any confusion reading comparisons.

Lastly, I need to say a word about the plans. As an art historian and not an architect, I must

explain that the plans within this study are an approximation. They are not precise architectural

plans. Also, part of the charm of these structures is the imperfections. While the width of a room

might be measured as 120 inches at one point, it may be 124 inches at another, and still 128










N

\i/



S


Front


Annobil Street


Veranda


Chamber









Chamber


Hall









Hall


Chamber









Chamber


J1


Figure B-74. Justice Akwa Family Residence, Plan
Ground floor
(Drawing by Courtnay Micots, 2009)









Residence demonstrate the ability of both Europeans and Fante to visually communicate and

transfer ideas of power and status.

This is the case for Irishman Richard Brew who in the 1750s built his Castle Brew, a

monumental Georgian mansion (Figure B-6), in Anomabo opposite to the British Company of

Merchants' fort, later known as Fort William (Figure B-7). He was visually communicating his

identity as a major player in the coastal trade, equal to the British Company of Merchants, and

also as a powerful member of the community, having married into the local royal family. Thus,

although he was aligned with both the British and the local community, Brew's intention was to

rival both British and Fante power on the coast as an independent trader, for he wanted control of

the lucrative slave trade. Brew consciously appropriated the image of the massive brick and

stone structure of the fort to visually transfer and neutralize the power of the British. The two-

story stone and brick Castle Brew also challenges the Omanhen's Palace (Figure B-8).

About a century later the Fante merchant and tuafohen George Kuntu Blankson built a

south addition to Castle Brew. While Castle Brew and Fort William symbolize European power

on the coast, the addition that separates them significantly asserts Fante power. This power is

defined in terms of economic, political and military power for all concerned. Such visual

references to indigenous power were especially crucial during the nineteenth century when Fante

power was weakened both by Asante forces and British administration. While initially these

references signified the Fante and British allegiance against the Asante in battle, by the last

quarter of the nineteenth century this partnership dissolved with the British in power.

Nevertheless, the Blankson Addition asserts coastal elite status, indirectly confronting both the

British and the Fante hierarchy as evidenced by architecture.









before the twentieth century renovations. A section of Cruickshank's wall facing the courtyard

still stands and displays evidence of at least five piers.47

A curious row of flat stone, maybe marble, tiles protrude with points outward from the

other side of this wall near the top. It is difficult to ascertain their purpose, and no one I asked

could explain it. My best estimation is that they are part of the original flooring for an upper

walkway that no longer exists. Today, the stairways lead nowhere, and the balustrades are often

used for hanging laundry. Perhaps, these tiles, set at an angle, could not be removed without

damaging the wall's integrity.

Moldings

I believe the moldings were added to the upstairs rooms by Cruickshank at this time. Such

embellishments further the image of high status for the occupants. The two rooms added to the

new upstairs rooms have molding. The northern room has molding only on the north and south

sides, possibly made from wood trim. The southern room has very simple, rounded molding on

all sides, possibly hand-made from the mortar (Figure B-33).48

Molding was added to the middle room, part of Brew's original residence. This molding

may have been constructed from either wood, brick or mortar or any combination. It would make

sense that Cruickshank had the molding added to this room since it was one of the large rooms

emanating from the entrance hall. He may have chosen to entertain his guests in this room as

Brew would have done as well as in the adjoining room. These two rooms have the most

elaborate moldings. The hall and far northern room from Brew's original structure, possibly used

as a bedchamber, do not have molding.


47Hyland, "Le Ghana," 135-170.

48I was not able to investigate the moldings up close and had to make determinations about material and process via
inquiry and viewing fromthe floorbelow.









under the system of indirect rule, political power was vested instead in traditional rulers whom

the British believed better represented the local population. Thus, along with political reforms,

the colonial government no longer recognized coastal elites as a distinct social group and no

longer cultivated the assimilation of the coastal elites. 21 According to Jenkins, this shift

represented an embrace of a "settled view" of colonialism, which he describes as "a strong

preference for the rural and the traditional; the masculine, the athletic and the pristine, rather than

the urban and the modern; the weak, the clever, the tainted and the hybrid."22

Rather than inheriting wealth and status as did traditional rulers, savvy coastal elites could

arise from poverty to achieve status through their own industry. These elites wanted and were

expected to express their new-found wealth and status in a public way. Through the adoption of

European cultural traits, the coastal elite were able to challenge the internal Fante hierarchies and

European racist constructions of African inferiority. Grand family houses visually communicated

ideas of wealth, status and identity for both the ruling and coastal elite classes.

Visual Transfers

Art historian Roy Sieber wrote that "power may be transferred from one object to

another."23 In certain instances, the siting of a family residence seems to make visual references

to other structures in Anomabo. Power, stemming from knowledge of outside cultures, can be

communicated through the display of foreign elements on family residences as a status art form.

Castle Brew, the George Kuntu Blankson Addition and the Lawyer Atta Amonoo Family




21Holsey, 51.

22Ray G. Jenkins, "Gold Coast Historians and Their Pursuit of the Gold Coast Pasts, 1882-1917" (Ph.D. diss.,
University of Birmingham, Alabama, 1985), 145.

2Roy Sieber, African Art: Permutations ofPower (Gainesville, FL: Samuel P. Ham Museum of Art, 1997),
Introduction, np.









The Fante are not weavers. The earliest accounts state that the Fante wore garments of

animal-hide or barkcloth produced within the households by women.41 In the late sixteenth and

early seventeenth centuries cotton cloths imported from the Kwakwa coast in today's Ivory

Coast as well as the locally-produced bark cloth comprised the common dress in towns and

villages. With the growth of Dutch trade after 1595 linen and woolen textiles became available in

greater quantities. These became the most important of the seventeenth century textiles imported

by the European factors, often representing up to one-fourth or more of the value of a ship's

cargo. Between the 1620s and 1660s, coarse and fine linen and woolen cloths had mostly

replaced Kwakwa and bark cloths as the conventional dress in coastal towns, whereas Kwakwa

and bark cloths were still mainly worn by town slaves and rural populations in the hinterland

who could not afford such imported luxuries. During the latter half of the seventeenth century

one of the distinctions between commoners of the towns and those of the villages were the cloths

they wore.42

Barbot stated that less expensive cloths made in Holland and Cape Verde were worn

around the waist in the late seventeenth century. Wealthier nobles and merchants distinguished

themselves with larger and richer materials, such as China satin, taffetas or colored Indian cloth

worn as a mantle. 43 By the end of the seventeenth century bark cloth production declined

significantly, particularly in the coastal towns, as the locals relied upon imported clothing. 44





41Ibid., 299.

42Ibid., 209, 298-299.
43 Flather, 36-44; Hair, Jones and Law, 493-494; and Margaret Priestley, "Richard Brew; An Eighteenth-Century
Trader at Anomabu" Transactions of the Historical Society ofGhana 4(1 Legon 1959), 36.
44Kea, 299.









ivory objects (pendants, bracelets, combs, and so on), as well as a variety ofwood,
stone, and bone, aggrey and other expensive beads, and tools and other iron
objects. 49

Villault assumed the Africans learned how to build houses with several chambers from the

Europeans, but this is a debatable origin. He also does not make it clear whether these larger

houses had one or two-stories. However, information is provided that great men had larger

homes, the chambers opened into each other and slaves were owned.

Smaller seventeenth century houses in urban environments along the Ghanaian coast were

described by Kea.

The sizes of urban commoners' houses depended on the number of people residing
in them. Incomplete data suggest a range of two to eight people per house. The
houses included sleeping quarters and rooms for cooking storage, and the like.
Most lacked courtyards. The majority of town-dwelling [residents] probably built
their own residences, not being able to afford to hire carpenters and swish (clay)
makers. It is likely that commoners resident in the same ward assisted each other in
house building. The houses were generally rectangular in shape, although in certain
coastal towns and villages circular huts were common. They were low, the outer
walls standing only as high as a man, and they were constructed of swish and
wood, and had thatched roofs. Thatch for roofing was sold in the town markets by
thatchers, and the wood used in house or hut construction was obtained from the
woods and forests, a fee being paid to the ohene [or chief] whose land supplied it. 50

In contrast, wealthy residents in urban environments of the same period owned

large, spacious houses one or two stories high. Most upper-class dwellings were
constructed of clay and wood and had either thatched roofs, which were
constructed so that they could be opened or closed, or flat roofs. Some...were
constructed of stone .. upper-class houses had large courtyards, an architectural
feature associated with urban domestic housing and high social status. 51

According to Kea, many of these two-story houses also incorporated elements of the courtyard

house.


49Kea 318-319; and W. J. Muller Die africanische aufder Guineische Gold-Cust gelegene I, ..i,, ii.,,ii Fetu.
Hamburg, 1670.

50Kea, 300.
5Ibid., 318.









This takes place during the pre-colonial era as a result of urbanization, and is not an effect of

colonialism. Differing choices, made visible in architecture, also occur between the African

coastal elites dealing with the British in the colonial period.

The eldest son, Banishee, was sent to France for his education in the early 1740s. Using the

eloquent gentleman's English of the period, Sesarakoo wrote about his half-brother Banishee

making:

a strong impression... He was not only cloathed, lodged, maintained, and attended,
but educated in all Respects in a Manner suitable to one of that Dignity; and as
such was received and treated at Court, where he appeared on all Occasions in a
splendid Dress, and was allowed to wear a Knot upon his right shoulder...after he
remained in France a proper Time... he was sent home in one of the Company's
Ships, in a very handsome Manner, and with fine laced Cloaths to dazzle the Eyes
of the Negroes, and to draw the Father over entirely to the French Interest. 73

Nothing is documented about Banishee's employment after his return.

Sesarakoo was sent to England for his education in 1744 a short time after Banishee's

return. His journey however was to be marked by a tragic beginning. "A certain Captain" tricked

Kurentsir into entrusting him to deliver his son to England. Instead, the Captain steered his ship

toward Bridgetown, Barbados, where he proceeded to sell Sesarakoo as a slave like the other

Africans aboard ship. The captain pretended he was taking Sesarakoo to England throughout the

entire journey, for when Sesarakoo was put into the boat to go ashore he thought he was in

England. In this smaller boat with two other slaves, Sesarakoo realized his plight. 74 He wrote

elegantly about slavery in his introduction:

For whatever some Men may think, human Nature is the same in all Countries, and
under all Complexions; and to fancy that superior Power or superior Knowledge
gives one Race of People a Title to use another Race who are weaker or more


73Sesarakoo, 28-31.

74Ibid., 33-43; and William Dodd, The African Prince, When in England, to Zara, at His Father's Court (London: J.
Payne and J. Bouquet, 1755). The date of 1744 was provided by Dodd in the "Advertisement" at the front of his text.









(2) in Cape Coast (1883) (see Chapter 8). These once covered the entire house. Perhaps the tiles

at the Omanhen's Palace were also purchased at a Swanzy store in Anomabo.

Second Residence

About twenty years later, Otu built the second house using stone nog with brick facing

(Figure B-12) for his first daughter Aba Tsetsewa. Although in ruins today, family members

remember it as a two-story house without a front veranda. This is confirmed by the 1931 Gold

Coast Survey Map. A slate stone floor is visible on the northwest corner. A central courtyard

incorporated a stairway that led to a short veranda on the second floor. The building collapsed in

1988, not long after the roof had blown off during a storm.

Anomabo locals maintain that the third house built by Otu was Etsiwa Abodo (Figure B-

55). However, the abusuapanyin Robert Entsua-Mensah of Accra contradicted them all by

stating that the third house was the building now known as Swanzy. Locals avow that a Mr. or

Rev. Bilson constructed Swanzy for his wife, Araba Essumanba, the second daughter ofKow

Otu. Since property information is generally bestowed upon the abusuapanyin, this study will

present his oral history.

Structure C-11. Swanzy

Otu built this stone nog house with brick facing (Figure B-56) as a wedding present for his

daughter and Mr. Bilson, an agent for F. and A. Swanzy. 29 The structure was built in the 1890s.

This building has since received a cement plaster and paint. The name "Swanzy" is boldly

painted on the facade. This name refers to the structure's history as a Swanzy store. Bilson and

his family lived upstairs and rented out the ground floor to F. and A. Swanzy for use as a store.

The building today is still known as "Swanzy."


- 1 i. one could remember Bilson's first name or whether he was Fante. No further information was available on this
gentleman.



















































Figure B-55. Etsiwa Abodo with Supi Kofi Dickson
Kow Otu or Egya Edzii
c. 1900s
Stone nog brick, cement plaster
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photo by Courtnay Micots, 2009)






340






































'*~t~R~L~rC~I~~" -.- -


^, "^^. -. Yi ^ -
"""" -/'" rA '*-


Figure B-16. Fort Charles, 1682
Jean Barbot
c. 1679-1682
Stone, brick
Anomabo, Ghana
(Hair, Jones and Law, p. 414, Figure 38)


__ ___. __ ____ ____ ______


..._


_- ..,-









invoking British Palladian features for himself and his family. While both styles are local

interpretations of European global architectural movements, the Coastal Elite Style by this time

has long since been incorporated into the African coastal elite architectural vernacular. Thus, he

chose an African style for his houses and a European style to impress his European guests.

Kweku Abakah Family Residence

Kweku Abaka (d. 1990s) built his postmodern house (Figure B-97) entirely in concrete.

Abaka was a mason and contractor who unfortunately died during the construction of this

extraordinary house. Today the descendants rent the house out. The juxtaposition of angular and

organic elements enervates the surface creating a playful, lively environment. It undoubtedly

displays the best Abaka could imagine and may have been intended to act as a showcase for his

work. Although the style of this house is unique to Anomabo and the coast, it shows the African

coastal elite ability to continually appropriate and transform new ideas and forms from outside

cultures. Although stone houses are no longer being constructed, the "tradition" of cultural

authentification continues into the postmodern era.

Thus, a reading of African colonial and post colonial architecture on the coast of Ghana as

reflecting a culture of mimesis completely misses the potential for a deeper study of the political

and social climate on the coast and the resulting intentions of the clients and builders. As Okoye

states, "the understanding of these buildings demands that one goes beyond the representation

which the surface of these buildings might offer."63 An extensive study of exterior elements,

plans and the families who live in these dwellings in Anomabo has further complicated the issue

of colonial mimicry.


630koye, 168.









the west side of the building and included the interior stairs. This room was probably once also

functioned as an enclosed veranda.

Swanzy A Comparison in Saltpond

Another Swanzy store stands in Saltpond. It is constructed from stone nog and is only one-

story. Arches comprise the doorways and windows on the exterior. A large archway connects the

larger front room of the store with another room behind about half the size. The structure

exhibits the same feature of an interior arch as a room divider to enliven the store interior, yet the

building utilizes true arches rather than mushroom arches.

I was told by locals that this store was built for and run by a European agent. Considering

the similarities between the two stores, it is possible that F. and A. Swanzy had the building in

Anomabo constructed and allowed or rented the upstairs to their agent Bilson who ran the store

below. The placement of a staircase on the interior may be evidence of a European client.

However, the plan is similar to Otu's first residence, and off-beat phrasing can be seen in the

asymmetrical placement of interior walls and absence of two windows (downstairs in the

northeast room and upstairs in the southwest room). The evidence is stronger for an African

client, but without documentation this attribution cannot be certain.

Structure C-12. Calvert Claude Hagan Family Residence

The house (Figure B-65) known for its most famous resident Jonah Abraham Annobil

(1910-c. 1982) was actually built by his uncle Calvert Claude Hagan (c. 1880-1937) (Figure C-

60). Annobil is known for his teaming with Reverend Gaddiel R. Acquaah (1884-1950, son of

Charlotte from the Russell House) to translate the Christian Bible into Fante, first published in

1948. Both Annobil and Acquaah were schooled by the Methodist mission in Anomabo. In

addition, Annobil attended the Methodist Wesley College in Kumasi.














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db
14 lb- 20 28
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34 8 \


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Beach


Gulf of Guinea


Figure B-2. Map of Anomabo
(Drawing by Courtnay Micots, 2009)


LEGEND
1 Tuafohen'sPalace
2 Twidan Clan Family Residence
3 Dutch Lodge / Omanhen's Palace
4 Fort William
5 Castle Brew
6 Brodie G Cruickshank Addition
7 Kweku Banful Family Residence, ruin
8 George Kuntu Blankson Addition
9 Samuel Collins Brew Family Residence
10 Kodwo Kuntu Family Residence
11 Moses Kwesi Amo Family Residence
12 Charles BentumAnnan Family Residence
13 Kodwo Baffoe Family Residence
14 Ama Moo Family Residence
15 Methodist Mission
16 Ebenezer Methodist Church
17 Ghartey' s Cistern


18 Kow Otu Family Residence (1)
19 Kow Otu Family Residence (2), ruin
20 Swanzy
21 KobenaMefful Family Residence
22 United Africa Company (UAC) storage
facility / Catholic Church
23 St Mary's Immaculate Conception Catholic
Church
24 Nanglican Church
25 Calvert Claude Hagan Family Residence
26 The Russell House
27 Justice Akwa Family Residence
28 EtsiwaAbodo
29 Abrosan
30 Jacob Wilson Sey Family Residence, ruin
31 Adontehen Amonoo I Family Residence (1),
ruin


32 Adontehen Amonoo I Family Residence (2),
ruin
33 Enchia Family Residence, ruin
34 Yard House, ruin
35 Ed Monson Family Residence, ruin
36 Krontihen' s Palace
37 Lawyer Atta Amonoo Family Residence
38 Kweku Abakah Family Residence
39 Mosque
40 Echinaba
a TuafoNo 1 Posuban
b EtsiwaNo 2Posuban
c DontsinNo 3Posuban
d IburonNo 4Posuban
e EbramWassaNo 5 Shrine
f KyiremNo 6Posuban
g AkomfodziNo 7Posuban


New
Methodist
38 Cemetary


Nanglican
Cemetery


23




Twa Asu Kada









was one of diplomacy."32 Sarbah contrasts this pre-colonial relationship with that during his era

of colonialism, which represented a major shift. In an effort to resist the transfer of power to the

traditional hierarchy, Sarbah and his colleagues J. E. Casely Hayford and Samuel Richard Brew

Attoh Ahuma critiqued local assimilation of European dress, speech, and the taking on of

English names. However, instead of developing a cultural renaissance as they desired, these

critiques only served to heighten the awareness of local assimilation. 33 Sarbah was not dissimilar

from those he criticized, for he was a Methodist and promoted local customs as did the British.

According to Holsey, "Notions of Fante identity within the popular imagination of coastal

residents at this time and ... in many ways since center around both their struggle for political

autonomy from the British and their practices of assimilation."34

Resistance to their political disenfranchisement was conducted by these early Fante

nationalists who in 1889 founded a political organization, Mfanti Amanbuhu Fekuw, or the Fante

Political Society, which later became the Aborigines Rights Protection Society. It was initially

founded by coastal elites in Cape Coast specifically to contest the highly unpopular Lands Rights

Bill. Sarbah, who was born in Anomabo yet lived much of his life in Cape Coast, became one of

the group's most prominent members. He wrote Fanti Customary Laws in 1897, followed in

1906 withFanti National Constitution. Therein, he defined a traditional Fante political culture

and made his claim for its legitimacy and implementation as the basis of colonial law. Sarbah felt

the Fante needed to challenge "the idea that aboriginal administration is hopelessly saturated

with cruelty and inextricably permeated with corruption, and therefore should be destroyed."35


32Holsey, 241.
33Ibid.

34Ibid.
35Ibid., 53.

















































Figure B-14. William Ansah Sesarakoo (b.c. 1727)
Portrait from Gentleman's Magazine vol. 20, 1750
Unknown printmaker
(Priestley, West African Trade, opposite p. 48, Figure 3)










299









like Djenne to Kumasi. 58 Thus, many houses located in the savanna, sahel and desert regions of

the Western Sudan, adopted the courtyard plan, also known as the Sudanese style.

This plan, found in the forest regions of West Africa, was adopted by such groups as the

Asante in Ghana and the Bini, Igbo and Yoruba in Nigeria. Thomas Bowdich, a writer with the

British Company of Merchants, accompanied Hutchison and Henry Tedlie to Kumasi in 1817. In

his published journal Mission from Cape Coast Castle to Ashantee, &c., Bowdich described

Asante swish houses and their configuration of four buildings with a courtyard in the center. 59

Their exterior elaboration however is quite different from what developed on the coast.

Cruickshank's description of courtyard houses present on the coast in the second quarter of

the nineteenth century is similar to those documented on the Gold Coast Survey map of 1931 and

existent today.

Their ordinary plan of construction is in the form of a square, the rooms forming its
sides, and enclosing a quadrangular space, of dimensions proportionate to the size
of the side rooms. The entrance is through a door or gateway, leading into one of
these rooms, which is generally kept as an open lodge, through which to pass into
the inner square, and in which the chief or head man is in the habit of keeping his
drums. On the side of the square, fronting this lodge, the floor of the apartments is
raised about a couple of feet from the ground, and is altogether open towards the
square, or yard. Sometimes there is only a part of it open; a small space at each end
being set apart for rooms. The other two sides of the square consist of rooms with
doors and windows, their floors being on a level with the ground; or, as in the
meaner class, of raised and open sheds...

These houses have rarely any windows opening to the outside, so that the entrance
through the gateway is the only means of external communication. The greatest
privacy is enjoyed by every family, even in the centre of a town,...Of course there is
some variety in the arrangements of the different houses, according to the taste of
individuals; but the prevailing, and what may be termed the purely native style, is
such as we have here described...



5Elleh, 48, 54; and Prussin, Hatumere, 105-108, 159.
59T. Edward Bowdich, Mission from Cape Coast Castle to Ashantee, with a Statistical Account ofthat Kingdom, and
Geographical Notices ofOther Parts ofthe Interior ofAfrica (London: John Murray, 1819), 304-309.









Fante and English together that was difficult for both the Fante and English to understand him.

Sey was not well-educated. He apparently dried his money in the sun in the courtyard. He was

certainly exhibiting his wealth. At other times, he kept his money in a box in his chamber. The

house collapsed in stages and was finally demolished around 1970.

Status Symbol

Sey lived in a residence he purchased in Cape Coast, known as Gothic House, the Oguaa

Palace or Emintsimadze Palace (Figure B-81). Located across from Victoria Park, Gothic House

was named for its Neo Gothic architecture, another aspect of Georgian architecture. This house

was built in c. 1815 by the mulatto trader James Dawson who used it as both his residence and

trading establishment. It was taken over by Thomas Hutton in 1853 and since occupied by the

Public Works Department and various other governmental organizations. Sey purchased the

property in the 1890s. Sey probably built his family residence in Anomabo in the 1890s at the

same time as the purchase of Gothic House. He transferred Gothic House to the Gold Coast

government before he died in 1905. 39

Like Strawberry Hill in England, Sey's stone nog house in Cape Coast transforms Gothic

features like crenellations and Gothic arches into a more modern fantasy. Such a fantasy

structure was a status marker, communicating an identity of someone well-traveled, intelligent

and wealthy. The same may be deduced for his Georgian Palladian style family residence in

Anomabo.

It is important to note that such identity markers were largely possible on the coast because

of its history as a commercial site. Individuals could rise to wealth and achieve power through

their own industry and cunning rather than having inherited it. Probably Sey dug under a tree he


39Minnah, 30.














































II


Cl'I- ;~~~


Figure B-90. Onismous Brandford Parker Family Residence
Onismous Brandford Parker
c. 1875-1900
Rammed earth, brick facing
Cape Coast, Ghana
(Photo by Courtnay Micots, 2009)









was required in the past more than today. 19 Some of the municipal projects included road

clearing, building of the town market, collecting taxes, killing of wild animals that bothered the

town and searches for missing persons.20 Both male and female company members live together

in town wards, each considered an exclusive neighborhood.21 Today's neighborhoods in

Anomabo are named after early residents (Akanpaado), geographic attributes (Okokodo) and for

the asafo groups (Etsiwa) (See Table A-2 and Figure B-2).

In Anomabo, the hierarchy of asafo companies is determined by the order of their

settlement and location. According to local history, Ebiram Wassa No. 5 was the first asafo

group to be formed in Anomabo. It was formed from the Nsona clan, the family of the hunter

who originally settled the area. The asafo group was charged with protecting the settlement from

Asante and other aggressors. As this group enlarged over time, Iburon No. 4 was comprised from

the Ebiram Wassa group. Then, Dontsin No. 3 was created. Although the royal family belongs to

Dontsin, not all members are royalty. These three asafo groups work together, both in war and in

performances. They are considered the main group, and many of the members live in the

hinterland.

The next asafo groups formed were Akomfodze No. 7 and Tuafu No. 1. Both of these

groups were composed of farmers who farmed inland. When the first group of immigrant

fishermen from Dutch Kommenda moved to Anomabo in the late seventeenth century,

Akomfodzi took them under their wing. They cleared the coastal area for these fishermen to



19Preston, 107.

20Kwame Amoah Labi, "Fights, Riots and Disturbances with 'Objectionable and Provocative Art' Among the Fante
Asafo Companies," Transactions of the Historical Society ofGhana 2 (1998), 102-103; and Eva L. Meyerowitz, The
Sacred State ofthe Akan (London: Faber and Faber, 1951), 116.
21 Kwame Amoah Labi, "Fante Asafo Flags of Abandze and Kormantse: A Discourse between Rivals." African Arts
35 (4 Winter 2002), 28-29.









1971) was a major timber merchant and later also a salt contractor. He owned the salt pond

located today between W.E.D.A. Lodge and Wankum Beach Farm. His bust is placed at the

Kwegyir Aggrey Secondary/Technical School. His family descends from the royal line of Besi

Kurentsir. His father was the Reverend Gaddiel Robert Acquaah, O.B.E. (b. July 25, 1894 (or

1884?)-d. March 19, 1954), the son of Charlotte, co-client of The Russell House (Figure B-19),

and associated with the Calvert Claude Hagan Family Residence (Figure B-65). He was the first

African (Ghanaian) Chairman of the Methodist Church on the Gold Coast. The Reverend was an

educationist, poet, hymnist, author and statesman.61

W. E. D. A. Lodge was not built to house Acquaah or his descendants. It was built as a

lodge for his European friends and business associates who visited the coast. Today, W. E. D. A.

Lodge continues to be an oceanview resort. Multiple terraces cascade down the boxy structure.

Instead of borrowing Palladian elements of design, this building appropriates elements of the

International Style. This style was promoted by the Nkrumah regime as part of the promotion of

of architectural modernity, and by extension, creating the image of a modern nation. 62 As part of

the Western-educated elite class, Nkrumah and his administration were following in the footsteps

of prior African coastal elites.

In addition to the lodge, Acquaah built two identical concrete houses for himself and his

family one in Anomabo (across from the Ebenezer Methodist Church) and the other in

Takoradi (Figure B-96). Both incorporate a Doric colonnade for the porch entry and verandas

inspired by Palladian architecture. Acquaah performed the act of cross-cultural building when he

chose the International Style for his lodge to house European visitors and the Coastal Elite Style



61Ephson, 121-122.
62Janet Berry Hess,Art andArchitecture in PostcolonialAfrica (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2006), 75.






















Chamber


Ground
Floor


Chamber


Front


LI'


Chamber |


Second
Floor


Chamber


I .


Enclosed Veranda


Front



Figure B-60. Kobena Mefful Family Residence, Plan
(Drawing by Courtnay Micots, 2009)


Chamber


s


Chamber


Chamber




Chamber


ii









invention, used in English forts along the coast, including Cape Coast Castle. The mushroom

arch may be a simplified version of the arch, which springs from half-piers, or impost blocks. An

excellent example of the latter surmounts Fort William.

Exquisite black and white marble tiles, laid on the diagonal, line the entryway, which has

large wooden double doors. Important local leaders and foreign ship's captains would have

entered the house via this impressive courtyard entrance. Castle Brew stands as a fine example of

eighteenth century Ghanaian coastal Palladian architecture. Perhaps because of its simplified

decorative components, it exemplifies well Campbell's rebuke of Baroque embellishments.

Connections to Anomabo Leaders hip

Brew's account books reveal that he paid regular allowances to Kurentsir. He also gave

frequent gifts of rum, tobacco, fine chintz, and other commodities to the ruler, to his wives and

household, as well as to Kurentsir's son Sesarakoo and to Anomabo elders and headmen. After

Brew was fired as Governor in 1760, he went to England for about a year and a half. When he

returned to Anomabo in 1761, he brought a gift of a blue velvet umbrella with a gold fringe for

the Omanhen.29

Brew's marriage to Effua Ansah, daughter of Kurentsir, secured local recognition. Their

courtship and marriage may have begun before his tenure in Anomabo, yet it seems most likely

that it began during his residence at the Omanhen' s Palace in the late 1750s. They had at least

two daughters, Eleanor and Amba, who were baptized in 1767 by the Fante Reverend Philip

Quaque. Priestley was not able to confirm that Brew's sons, Richard and Henry (known as Harry)


29Priestley, West African Trade, 46, 50.










----. Conversation with Courtnay Micots, 23 October 2008.

----. "Convivencia at Timbuktu: Archetypes, Architects, and Artisans." University
of Florida, Gainesville, FL: Ham Eminent Scholar Chair in Art History Program Presentation,
October 23, 2008. Photocopied.

----. "Architecture & Pottery: Sacred Earth; the Earth as Symbol and Metaphor." In SAVI.
Keramiikanja arkkitehtuurin perinne Lansi-Afrikassa = Poterie et architecture en Afrique de
l'Ouest, 11-24, 66-73. Finland: Pyynikinlinna, 1993.

----. Hatuwnere: Islamic Design in West Africa. Berkeley: University of California, 1986.

----. "Shelter for the Soul." In .lheier: Models of Native Ingenuity, ed. James Marston Fitch, 34-
42. Katonah, NY: The Katonah Gallery, 1982.

----. "An Introduction to Indigenous African Architecture." Journal of the Society of
Architectural Historians 33 (3 October 1974): 183-205.

Rael, Ronald. Earth Architecture. NY: Princeton Architectural, 2009.

Ranger, Terence. "The Invention of Tradition in Colonial Africa." In The Invention of Tradition,
ed. Eric Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger, 211-262. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1992.

Rapoport, Amos. "An Approach to Vernacular Design." In Shelter: Models of Native Ingenuity,
ed. James Marston Fitch, 43-48. Katonah, NY: The Katonah Gallery, 1982.

Rattray, R. Sutherland. 1969. Ashanti. (London: Oxford University Press: 1923. Reprint, NY:
Negro UP).

----. Ashanti Law and Constitution. Oxford: Clarendon, 1929.

Reed, Daniel B. Dan Ge Performance: Masks and Music for New Realities in Contemporary
Cote d'Ivoire. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2003.

"Remembering Jacob Wilson Sey." National Commission on Culture (March 3, 2007),
http://www.ghanaculture.gov. gh/ index .php? linkid=337 &archiveid=495 &page=
1&adate=03/03/2007.

Roberts, Allen F. and Mary Nooter Roberts. A Saint in the City: Sufi Arts of Urban Senegal. Los
Angeles: Fowler Museum of Cultural History, 2003.

Roberts, Andrew, ed. The ColonialMoment in Africa: Essays on the Movement of Minds and
Materials 1900-1940. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1990.









1807, lost its commercial prominence, and the port was eventually closed in 1912.49 A more

complex definition of the urban phenomenon can be applied to Anomabo because it retains much

of its character as a new culture, continuing to appropriate and transform culturally, although it

has reverted back into a town.

Anomabos were not only exposed to the Dutch, Swedes, Danes and British on-site, but

also to all the goods and ideas they brought with them. Utilizing Appadurai's twentieth century

concept of a global ethnoscape, in which human beings move quickly and easily from one part of

the globe to another, this term may be used to span Anomabo's pre-colonial and colonial periods.

During the pre-colonial period, Anomabos experienced the world within their imagination

inspired by these outsiders as well as outside goods. In the colonial era many coastal elites were

able to travel physically from one country to another, thereby gaining first-hand access to

information about the world beyond their home communities. Although Appadurai refers to the

ease of modern airline travel and the influence and availability of international media in the form

ofmovies, television, internet and print, the pervasiveness ofthese so-called modernities was

likely as strong in the past as today, and not just a twentieth century phenomenon as Appadurai

argues. 50 The influence of outside cultures, whether it be from Westerners or Africans, would

have been tremendous. This connection to the outside world was a desired trait, particularly

among those with ambition wanting to join the class of coastal elites, for it brought education,

wealth and ultimately, power.

My case study will add to the understanding of cultural authentification as a process that

crosses pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial Africa by providing an example drawn from the


I ic i!! Father, "Anomabu; The History of a Fante Town on the Ghana Coast" (Master's thesis, Columbia
University, 1966), 136.
5Appadurai, 35-37.









courtyard behind. Although descendants state that these back structures were built as the original

part of the home, architecturally from the exterior, this section appears to be a later addition.

The Second Allen Quansah Family Residence in Tantri

The second house on Ashanti Road in Tantri (Figure B-89) was constructed in stone nog

and has brick facing. The structure has four commercial shops on the first floor, while Quansah's

second wife lived upstairs. The plan upstairs is similar to the one in the first Quansah house.

Both of the Quansah houses, though different in their details, exhibit similar plans to houses in

Anomabo. A cement plaster covers the exterior today.

A courtyard behind the house has a two-story wing on the right side. One story buildings

once surrounded the remainder of the courtyard. In the center of this courtyard is a large cistern,

once used by the entire neighborhood. The upstairs wing provides evidence that imported tiles

once covered the entire upstairs floor. Today only a small section of tiles on the verandah and on

its stairway remain. These tiles are similar to those Otu used in his first house in Anomabo and to

the ones added to the Omanhen's Palace. The second Quansah House also incorporated imported

doors, of which several remain, and imported stained glass windows. These windows either have

a portrait of Quansah or landscape scenery on a large panel. Smaller colored panels surround it.

The display of the owner's portrait served as a visible reminder of the status of this owner and

the associated related occupants.

Onismous Brandford Parker Family Residence A Sierra Leonian Comparison in Cape
Coast

Not all of the coastal elites were Fante. Onismous Brandford Parker came from Sierra

Leone to Cape Coast to make his fortune as a merchant during the late-nineteenth century

economic boom. He built his family residence (Figure B-90) onNtsin Street between 1875 and

1900 in rammed earth with local brick facing incorporating Palladian elements on the interior









contrast, architectural choices seem to have changed as early as the second quarter of the

nineteenth century. These changes may be a reflection of the power shifts from African coastal

elites to Asante to British in the nineteenth century.

A rammed earth house on Annobil Street near the Omanhen's Palace was constructed in

the middle of the nineteenth century by Kweku Banful of the Nsona Clan and exhibits the early

incorporation of the Hall and Chamber plan. Until 2007, the two-story house was in fine

condition. Today, however, only the first story remains. The lower story plan reveals the six-

room Hall and Chamber plan, similar to the Kodwo Kuntu Family Residence (Figure B-38).

Timber stairs on the back of the structure would have allowed access to the upper story, which

was said to have had the same plan as the ground floor. Since no concrete plaster protects the

structure, it is rapidly decaying. The building construction is now visible, and it is evident that

bricks and pieces of brick were used in the framing of windows and doorways. Brick also

reinforced the exterior corners of the house.

In this case and evidenced in other buildings along the coast, it seems that the Fante were

making their own burnt brick and incorporating the material into their earthen structures for

stability. The brick work would have been covered with a layer of swish plaster, so it would not

have been visible in the finished residence. It can be surmised that coastal masons chose to

incorporate this new material into indigenous construction.

Brick continues to be used in rammed earth construction today. Therefore, the selection of

the European technology of making burnt bricks and their incorporation into indigenous

construction methods demonstrates the process of cultural authentification. Adopting stone and

stone nog construction parallels this development. Adding Palladian design elements such as

pilasters, arches and arcades further enriches the process of cultural authentification to create a









Hagan. Anomabo became the most important Methodist center on the coast even though, or

perhaps as the result of, the town was in decline during the latter half of the nineteenth century.

British Palladian Style and Plan

The two-story structure is built in rammed earth with an entrance flanked by two large

columnar pilasters supporting an entablature. The unadorned entablatures over the door and

windows were constructed in brick.

Inside, the building has a Hall and Chamber plan. The large central hall is bisected twice

by arcades constructed with brick voussoirs. Three chambers on each side open into the hall. The

same plan for the Methodist Mission, constructed in rammed earth, was translated directly into

stone for the Kobena Mefful Family Residence (Figure B-50).

Growth and the Ebenezer Methodist Church

The Methodist following had grown to such a degree that in order to accommodate the

attendance, Reverend James Picot began to lay plans for enlargening the chapel in 1870. Records

for 1874 indicate that of the 3,500 members of the Methodist Church onthe coast, 1,400 lived in

Anomabo. 46 The foundation stone for Ebenezer Methodist Church in Anomabo was laid by

Reverend James Fletcher on December 10, 1880 (Figure B-51).

The church was built in stone nog construction and completed in 1895. William Daniel

Acquaah, a member of the African coastal elite class who worked in London, was a major patron

of the church. At the front entrance is a memorial to Reverend Gaddiel Robert Acquaah (July 25,

1894-March 19, 1954), father of William Daniel Acquaah. The former Acquaah was the first

African (Ghanaian) Chairman of the Methodist Church on the coast. He was also educationist,

poet, hymnist (translated a hymn book for the Methodist Church inFante), author and statesman.


46Flather 134; and Bartels 83, 96, 98









British Palladian Style

This spectacular two-story stone nog house with brick facing (Figure B-50) is located in

Okokodo, or hilltop, and faces this hill surmounted by the old Methodist Mission, now a school.

Because the house is the only stone house on Okor Road, it is called abodan okor, Okor stone

building by locals. The building is illustrated on the 1931 Gold Coast Survey. This large and

impressive building has a decorative entrance with column pilasters and an arched entablature

with relief motifs appearing to me to be three stars flanked by two crescents on each side. The

current family does not name or attach any significance to these motifs. The arch springs from

short pilasters situated on top of tall half-columns. This arrangement is similar to the decorative

arch on the wall of Fort William, visible to town residents, that uses piers but two-thirds up the

pier a break is created with a molding. The Mefful arch creatively matches a half-column with a

pilaster, with the cornice at the top of the half-column forming the break. The star and moon

shapes however are not incorporated in the fort's arch.

The Kobena Mefful Family Residence is anchored at all four pilastered coigns. Two

additional pilasters are located on each side of the house at the junction of interior walls. The

pilasters and windows are regularly spaced creating a symmetrical and harmonious Palladian

design. Two windows have been enclosed on the ground floor of the front facade and all four

windows were enclosed on the back of the building. The front windows on the ground floor

would not have aligned with the windows above. This is a practical solution, or else the ground

floor would have been a veranda as well to incorporate the numerous windows. However, the

window design of the facade is asymentrical and could be another example of off-beat phrasing.

All the exterior windows were at one time arched including those across the front enclosed

veranda. The arched Palladian windows would have resembled those on Castle Brew. All of









inches at another. I tried to take the median of these measurements and draw them as accurately

as possible. These plans were then scanned into my computer and sized to fit the space within

this document. They are not likely to scale accurately in comparison to each other. Doors and

curtains acting as doors have been omitted from the plans. Rather, my goal in recording the plans

here was to provide general evidence of layout for further discussions concerning coastal

transformations. I attempted to document the original plan of each structure, removing newer

walls and additions from the drawings. I also hope that my photographs and documentation will

preserve these structures, even if only in recorded history.









this understanding of how specific motifs, forms or technologies are selected and transformed,

the aesthetic preferences and motives of the African coastal elite class have been uncovered. This

study proves that the African coastal elite's aesthetic choices and aims consistently are made

apparent through their residential architecture.

This process, evidenced as early as the late-sixteenth century with textiles, is essentially a

cultural practice and thus can be labeled "traditional." It was not born out of the colonial era,

though the stone nog residences discussed in this study were created during this timeframe.

Cultural authentification was the process certain mulattoes and Africans used to create an image

of high status within their community. The process does not belong only to those on the coast of

Ghana, for it applies to numerous urban coastal elites around the world. In fact, Anomabo and its

housing examples share many similarities with those in other parts of the world encountered by

Europeans during the age of discovery.

Therefore African coastal elite identity along the Ghanaian coast has been and continues to

be the production of an image and the transformation of the subject. Not only has this been

proven in the architectural examples in which builders selected European stone nogging

construction and Palladian plans and design elements, but also this image can be more directly

visualized in the photographs taken of some of the clients. During the colonial era, the coastal

elite appropriated the architectural forms of the British along with European furnishings, customs

and habits of dressing.

Such furnishings were typically owned by African coastal elites all along the West African

coast. For Krios, "The greater the individual's success in achieving a style of living which, at

least in its external aspects, approximated that of the white residents of Sierra Leone, the higher









earth walls (Figure B-69). Inbetween these layers is a thin horizontal layer of small dark gray

granite stones. These stones are also carefully placed throughout the entire facade between the

larger stones. Although smaller stones are mixed judiciously with larger stones on the Moses

Adu Family Residence (Figure B-70), they are not arranged to create any decorative horizontal

bands, though the construction of the walls may have been conducted in layered sections.

Whether or not the technique was to layer the stones in sections, it seems that part of the exterior

decoration of The Russell House was to create the appearance of regular horizontal lines (Figure

B-69).

In addition, rectangular-shaped holes about five or six inches deep are seen in the center of

the ground-level exterior walls on The Russell House. These holes were likely used by the

masons to hold scaffolding. On the back of the residence, four layers of bricks alternate between

these holes, creating a decorative effect. An almost similar treatment can be seen inside the

Blankson Addition on the Western wall of the large eastern room. Rectangular shapes, in about

the same size as those found on The Russell House, in the wall are created with four bricks, then

above this, runs a horizontal band three bricks in width. The areas with four bricks were probably

the scaffolding holes, later filled in with decorative bricks. Thus, the technique used to complete

the Blankson Addition in the later 1860s-1873 matches that of the Russell House dating to 1897-

1898.

A mud plaster once covered the interior walls, and some of this plaster remains. Since

damaged roofing was never replaced, the rains have penetrated the interior and have destroyed

much of the plastering. The walls have huge cracks, and all the wood floors and frames have

deteriorated. The building is not inhabitated. The structure is beyond repair and will likely

collapse before another decade goes by.









replaced. All three of the rooms forming the Hall and Chamber plan off the second courtyard

have mortared moldings around the tops of the rooms. The central room and the bedchamber in

the southwest corner have since had dropped ceilings that now cover these moldings. The

moldings were likely added in the nineteenth century when similar molding was added in

Cruickshank's additions to Fort William and Castle Brew.

The stairway and landing on the second courtyard veranda have ceramic tile in multiple

shades ofearthtone colors, probably added in the late-nineteenth century. Similar tile can also be

seen in the first Kow Otu house in Anomabo and the Allen Quansah House in Tantri, Cape

Coast. Both the molding and ceramic tiling exhibit embellishments that display current interior

design trends. Persons of high status convey their modernity through display.

The entire exterior of the Omanhen's Palace has received a cement plaster. Today, it is

painted yellow with a horizontal band of black paint along the bottom. Across the front, this

black band covers the wider area tapering outward from the wall. On the interior, the foyer and

first courtyard are similarly painted yellow, but they have a tall band of dark red paint. Tapered

points of this red band are formed at the corners. Other rooms in the palace are painted in the

same yellow or other colors. Electricity is another recent introduction to the structure, though no

plumbing has been installed. A shrine has been walled off by a short concrete wall to the exterior

to the right of the entrance. The small tree in the enclosure is considered to be a local deity. In

the late-nineteenth century asbestos/slate roofing probably replaced the thatch. Today, iron or

aluminum sheeting is used.

British Palladianism

Some English and Irish architects felt the Palladianism of the late seventeenth century bore

little resemblance to the Classical prototypes studied by Palladio who asserted that architecture

should be governed by reason. Its clarity, order, and symmetry, demonstrated in the use of









The British Forts

Forts on the Ghanaian coast were constructed to serve three main purposes. They were

commercial trading centers, fortifications against rival European traders, and residences for the

small number of company merchants. As stated before, when the Dutch-Anglo war ended in

1667, the British gained the foothold in Anomabo and began building Fort Charles by 1672 or

1673 (Structure C-2). After some difficult financial years, Fort Charles lay in ruins by 1730. The

French tried to negotiate terms with Kurentsir to construct their own fort, but they never reached

an agreement. The new British Royal African Company was able to make an agreement with

Kurentsir by 1753, and they began construction of the new Anomabo fort, later named Fort

William (Structure C-3). Local masons were utilized in burnt brick production and in the

construction of these forts, yet there is no evidence that locals adopted this material or stone nog

construction for their own structures.

Castle Brew

Built during the same period as Fort William is Castle Brew, known locally as aban

kakraba, or Little Fort (Figure B-6). The residence was named Castle Brew by its original

inhabitant Richard Brew, an Irishman living in Anomabo for more than 25 years. Brew landed

on the Gold Coast in 1751, shortly after the Parliamentary decision to create the Company of

Merchants as a replacement for the defunct Royal African Company. He held a post at

Tantumquerry for a couple of years and then seems to have vanished. He re-emerged in

Anomabo as a private trader in 1754, and soon after, Brew wisely made friends with Kurentsir. 19

Brew held the Governorship for two periods: 1756-1760 and 1761-1764. Like Apperley,

Brew began his Anomabo command by living in the OmanhenKurentsir's Palace. Early in 1757,


19Priestley, West African Trade, 46.









However it was the Brazilians, mostly from Bahia, who seem to have made the greatest impact

on the African coastal elite class. 10

Coquery-Vidrovitch described the motives and make up of the Afro-Brazilian community

of wealthy eighteenth and nineteenth century traders.

.. hey had implicitly made a choice. They were all raised in an urban culture and
hoped to speed up the evolution toward a Western civilization with more advanced
technology than that of their own cultural heritage, going along with a Christian,
Muslim, or, later humanist spirit that would allow them to build a Western
civilization that might also respect their views and lifestyles. 1

This group, comprised of former slaves who gained their freedom and managed to return to

coastal Africa in the late-seventeenth, eighteenth and early-nineteenth centuries, was scattered all

across the coastal areas of West Africa. Foremost merchants in coastal cities employed artisans,

masons and carpenters from Bahia to support their aristrocratic lifestyle and construct their

lavish homes. 12

Coquery-Vidrovitch defines the sobrado as "a single, massive residence, usually with more

than one floor and many windows, and more or less isolated on its land..." with a veranda. 13

Folklorist John Michael Vlach offers more detail.

The houses that the Afro-Brazilians constructed were mainly two-storey dwellings
trimmed with elaborate stucco mouldings, buildings known in Brazil as
sobrados...In plan, the Brazilian houses consisted of a block of contiguous room
units. The rooms were usually symmetrically arranged on either side of a broad
central corridor extending from the front door to the rear of the house. 14


'1Coquery-Vidrovitch, 178-179, 357-358, endnote 98.

"Coquery-Vidrovitch, 180. G. Brooks estimates that nearly two million Luso-Africans were living in the Cape
Verde Islands and West Africa. G. Brooks, Eurafricans in Western Africa. Commerce, Social Status, Gender, and
Religious Observance from the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century (Athens: Ohio UP, 2003).

12Ibid., 178-179.

13Coquery-Vidrovitch, 181.
14John Michael Vlach, "Afro-Brazilian," In Vernacular Architecture ofthe World, ed. Paul Oliver (Cambridge:
Cambridge UP, 1997), 2033.









unknown date before 1820, probably during the Asante invasion. It was not reopened till 1954

after the restoration by the Ghana Museums and Monuments Board (GMMB). 23 When Fort

William was wired for electricity in the early 1960s, the iron gas lamp posts once located in front

of the fort were removed. It has since served as the District Commissioner's Court and a post

office during the colonial period up until the 1920s, a rest house, and after independence in 1957

as a prison. It was opened as a tourist destination by the GMMB only recently. According to

Anquandah: "As an architectural model, Fort William has been acclaimed as one of the most

elegant and best built forts of the coast."24

Doortmont and Savoldi argue that Fort William, though tied to Anomabo's history, is not

an "element of identity" due to the current lack of local interaction with the fort. 25 On the

contrary, I believe the opposite is true. Masons trained in British techniques of stone

construction, arch-building and other technologies also constructed Castle Brew and

Cruickshank's Addition in Anomabo. These masons may have passed down skills of stone and

brick construction to their descendants and apprentices who may have constructed African

coastal elite housing in the colonial period. Several of these structures built in Anomabo took the

architectural form, materials and certain design elements directly from Fort William. According

to the head of KNUST's Department of Architecture, Dr. G.W.K. Intsiful, the Fante look to the

forts as aban, or government. 26 These forts become a visual symbol of power, and by relation, so

do similarly-constructed large stone and brick buildings. Such structures become status markers,



23Claridge, 594; Lawrence, 354-355; and J. D. Fage, ed., "A New Check List of the Forts and Castles of Ghana,"
Transactions ofthe Historical Society ofGhana 4 (1, Legon 1959), 58.

24Anquandah, 45.

25Doortmont and Savoldi, 126.
26Personal communication with Dr. G. W. K. Intsiful, Head, Department of Architecture, KNUST, July 15, 2009.










N






.-* 0 ~.. _


Front


I I
I .


Fl


I i


I-- -.


17*- -3




Courtyard 1



i i


-- .--


ICourtyard 2
Courtyard 2 .-j

L -
!; |J 1


' 1


Courtyard 3


Figure B-26. Dutch Lodge / Omanhen's Palace, Plan
Ground floor
(Drawing by Courtnay Micots, 2009)


. i '


i
-------~~.~~--c~.^-. .~~


i '









































, wlL


Figure B-88. Lawyer Atta Amonoo Family Residence, Entrance
Atta Amonoo and his father, Amonoo V
c. 1910s-1922
Stone nog brick, concrete
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photo by Courtnay Micots, 2009)









with the introduction of European technologies, the coastal stone, mainly oxidized laterites and

granites, can only be laid as a rubble masonry. 42 Interior walls were finished with a smooth lime

render, while the outside was finished with a rough textured pebble dash finish.43

Trained masons were present on the coast in the early nineteenth century. For example,

among the Asante a stone building called the Aban was completed under Asantehene Osei Bonsu

in 1822 by masons from the coast. The Aban was intended as a museum or palace of culture, and

the treasures of the Asantehene, or king, were stored in the new stone stronghold. During the

invasion of Kumasi in 1874, the British removed most of the Aban's valued contents and took

them to England, at the same time, destroying the structure. Although it's not possible to know

what the Aban looked like, it likely incorporated Palladian design elements (see Chapter 4) since

it was partly inspired by accounts of the British Museum. 44

The surviving African coastal elite stone nog buildings in Anomabo were built between the

1860s and 1930s. Some are faced with brick and many use brick to frame the windows and

doors. Stone and brick have advantages over mud. Its seeming permanence appealed to the

Anomabos, just as today cement blocks are the building material of choice.

Anomabo' s stone architecture can also reveal clues about how the stone quarries were

used. The George Kuntu Blankson Addition (Figure B-18) is comprised of both sedimentary

rock, i.e. sandstone, and igneous rock, such as granite. Sedimentary rock is located in the upper

layers of the quarry and is formed from mineral and organic particles fusing together. It is a



42Prussin, "An Introduction," 189.

43Fraser, "Architectural Influences," 1700.
44Doran H. Ross, Wrapped in Pride: Ghanaian Kente andAfrican American Identity (Los Angeles: UCLA Fowler
Museum, 1998), 36; and Ivor Wilks, Asante in the Nineteenth Century: The Structure and Evolution ofa Political
Order (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1975), 200-201. Examples of stone nog residences built for mulattoes can be
seen at Cape Coast (Gothic House, a. k. a. Oguaa Palace, c. 1815) and Elmina (Bridge House, c. 1830s).










Mends, E. H. "Ritual Ceremonies and Social Cohesion in a Fante Village of Anomabo." M.A.
Thesis, Cambridge University, 1967.

Meredith, Henry. An Account of the Gold Coast of Africa. London: Thomas Nelson, 1812.
Reprint, London: Frank Cass, 1967.

Metcalf, George E. "Gold, Assortments and the Trade Ounce: Fante Merchants and the Problem
of Supply and Demand in the 1770s." The Journal ofAfrican History 28 (1, 1987): 27-41.

----. Great Britain and Ghana, Documents of Ghana History 1807. London: Thomas Nelson and
Sons, 1964.

Meyer, Birgit. "Impossible Representations: Pentecostalism, Vision, and Video Technology in
Ghana." In Religion, Media, and the Public Sphere, ed. Birgit Meyer and Annelies Moors, 290 -
312. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2006.

----. "Mediating Tradition: Pentecostal Pastors, African Priests, and Chiefs in Ghanaian Popular
Films." In Christianity and social change in Africa: essays in honor of J. D. Y Peel, ed. Toyin
Falola, 275 306. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2005.

----. "Praise the Lord: Popular Cinema and Pentecostal Style in Ghana's New Public Sphere."
American Ethnologist 31 (1 February 2004): 92-110.

----. "Pentecostalism, Prosperity, and Popular Cinema in Ghana." In Representing Religion in
World Cinema: Fihuiiiin ing,,,. I hfi tuk.il,,,g. Culture Making, ed. S. Brent Plate, 121-143. NY:
Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.

Meyerowitz, Eva L., The Sacred State of the Akan (London: Faber and Faber, 1951.

Micots, Courtnay. "Griffins, Crocodiles and the British Ensign: Kweku Kakanu's Asafo Flags
and Followers," in Africa Interweave, ed. Susan Cooksey. Gainesville, FL: Samuel P. Harn
Museum of Art, 2011. (forthcoming)

Minnah, SupiKobina. "Oguaaman Can Now Boast of a Modern Palace Befitting the Status of
the First Capital of the Gold Coast-Ghana." In Oguaa Fete afahyE 2009, eds. Supi Kobina
Minnah, Anthony Fynn-Cudjoe, J. K. Koranchie and Lauren Adrover, 28-31. Cape Coast,
Ghana, 2009.

Muller, W. J. Die africanische auf der Guineische Gold-Cust gelegene Landschafft Fetu.
Hamburg, 1670.

Nooter, Mary H. Secrecy: African Art that Conceals and Reveals. Munich: Prestel, 1993.

O'Brien, Jacqueline and Desmond Guinness. Great Irish Houses and Castles. NY: Abrams,
1992.









Outside the back door centered in the hall, a double staircase leads up to the second floor.

Although this stairway is now made in concrete, the original stairwell was made of timber. The

entrance upstairs leads into two long parallel central halls, each with a chamber located on either

side. Three openings connect the halls. The first set of rooms open into the first hall. The middle

set of rooms however is only accessible through a doorway to the front enclosed veranda.

The second hall also has three openings leading to the long enclosed verandah extending

from one end of the building to a small room at the other end. This probably once extended

across the entire front since the columns between the front and first side windows are similarly

formed. Here the openings for windows are numerous and would have allowed cool breezes to

refresh the occupants (Figure B-63). Between each window are beautifully-shaped half-columns

displaying Baroque inspiration. From the exterior, these columns are reminiscent of Roman

shades and appear to have been duplicated for the renovated exterior of the Ebenezer Methodist

Church pilasters (Figure B-51).

The upstairs flooring is all swish today, yet once it had wood plank flooring. Now the

swish floors are giving way, and much of the upstairs is unlivable. About twenty years ago the

family put a new roof on the house. No doubt the upstairs floors are damaged now from the years

it suffered under a bad roof.

Like Abrosan (see Chapter 7), the ground floor exterior walls are quite thick, much more

so than the interior walls. The exterior wall thickness is about 26 inches and the interior walls are

about 16 inches. Abrosan's exterior walls measure 31 inches with 12-inch interior walls. It's not

sure why these thicknesses were created. Most of the homes created at the turn of the century had

wall thicknesses the same or only slightly larger for the exterior than the interior walls, and many

measured no more than 20 inches for the exterior wall. Perhaps the masons were experimenting









next to each other; the effect is both dazzling and engaging ."56 He compares the juxtaposition

of these varied patterns to embroidered Kuba raffia cloths from the Democratic Republic of

Congo,57 yet for the comparison of homes in Anomabo it is only necessary to look at Akan

textiles, both in Ghana, to find this same aesthetic.

While an ethnic style cannot be ascribed to these stone nog residences with their off-beat

phrasing mixed with outside cultural styles and plans, it can be attributed to the group designated

as African coastal elites. Many of the stone nog houses built for wealthy Africans on the coast

between Winneba and Elmina are lost. While many of those that survive were built for Fante,

others were built for immigrants, as exemplified by the Onismous Brandford Parker Family

Residence in Cape Coast (Parker was from Sierra Leone). The father of the siblings who had The

Russell House in Anomabo constructed was Ga (from Accra), while the mother was Fante. Thus,

the children had Ga and Fante cultural backgrounds. The African coastal elites were their own

community, and they used West African methods of display to assert their identity, imagined as

equally educated and successful as their Western counterparts who, during the colonial period,

held the true political and economic power.

Maintenance and Survival of Stone Nog Residences

Many stone nog and brick buildings did not survive over the past 150 years or so. The only

evidence of surviving stone nog houses built for Africans exist in Anomabo and Cape Coast even

though such residences were also built in Winneba, Apam, Saltpond and Elmina. Smaller

residences built for clients with limited income may have had lesser craftsmen build their homes.

This appears to be the case with The Yard House where family members, likely not trained



56Okoye, 485.
57Ibid., and see his figures 116-118, pp. 699-700.









on the coast. Some structures combined the two. Coastal brick, a micaeous orange-red brick, is

softer than European bricks, usually darker red or yellow.

Bricks are also made in the Sahel. The Islamic technology may have made its way

southward to the coast from the north along with two-story rammed earth construction.

According to Carroll, building in burnt brick was introduced into southern Nigeria about the

middle of the nineteenth century. Thus, brick-making techniques may have traveled to Anomabo

via the north-south or east-west routes. It may have been introduced in the mid-nineteenth

century either via European or African cultures. Although much is left unknown, it may be

determined that many groups in West Africa knew the technology and it spread in many

directions before, during and after European presence on the Ghanaian coast.

Stone

DeCorse noted around 1000 stone houses in Elmina were built in the late seventeenth and

early eighteenth centuries. The town was known for its masons who were sent to other parts of

the coast to assist with construction. 38 The Elmina houses were multi-storied, flat-roofed, stone

structures with rooms of linear-arrangement and central courtyards. DeCorse states that stone

"construction methods illustrate a unique aspect of Elmina, probably originating in the latter half

of the seventeenth century with African artisans trained by the Dutch."39 It is difficult to

determine whether the housing Barbot witnessed in Elmina was constructed for the Dutch or for

Africans. A courtyard plan may have been invoked by either culture. By the time Barbot reached

Elmina, these houses, perhaps some of them intended for Europeans, were extended and

inhabitated by many of the local Afutu people.



38DeCorse, "An Archaeological Study," 68.
39DeCorse, An Archaeology ofElmina, 177.









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Ghanaians are a welcoming people. It was my good luck on my first trip to Ghana in the

summer of 2007 to meet Adwoa Grace Kyeremeh, member of the royal family and dairy farmer,

who welcomed me and made me feel at home in Anomabo. This study of Anomabo's rock

residences results from the collective efforts of many people, including Grace, to whom I owe

gratitude. Contacts made in the summer of 2007 with local leaders and individuals such as Nana

Kwa Nyanfoeku Akwa (Nana Kwa), the town historian, revealed the potential for dissertation

study of the visual culture. I returned in the summer of 2008 to further my pre-dissertation

research with scholars at the University of Ghana in Legon, the Kwame Nkrumah University of

Science & Technology inKumasi (KNUST), and the University of Cape Coast as well as several

of the leaders and townspeople of Anomabo. I stayed in Ghana for six months in 2009 to

complete my dissertation fieldwork.

To prepare for my interviews, I studied the Akan culture and Twi language at the

University of Florida. I had the good fortune of being awarded a Foreign Language & Area

Studies (FLAS) Fellowship through the campus Center for African Studies for the summer of

2009. It allowed me to study the Fante language and customs of this coastal Akan subgroup in

greater depth and on-site. I must thank my patient teacher Peter A. Hope, lecturer at the

University of Cape Coast.

Due to the nature of my research, I spent the greatest amount of my time in Ghana with the

people of Anomabo leaders, elders and families associated with the homes in this study. I also

spoke with elders and families in the Akuapem Hills area north of Accra and in Fante towns all

along the coast. They were gracious, understanding and willing participants. I am grateful to

each person who shared his or her time and history with me. Any exclusion is deeply regretted.









granted a building permit or "Towns Ordinance" to "build a house at Anamaboe...on condition

that the proposed work is completed within six months." The current structure was built between

the indicated date and April 1, 1898. This date is confirmed by the arbitration document for the

property, purchased by Aiko, where his grandson later built the Kobena Mefful Family

Residence.

A simpler plan was attached to the ordinance indicating the location of the proposed

building. The only difference between the indenture's plan and the ordinance is that laan is

replaced by Idun, and Yankah's house is placed directly across from The Russell House. Except

for The Russell House and part of the Ama Moo Family Residence, none of the other homes on

the plans survive today.

Functions

At The Russell House, family history dictates that while the siblings and their families

lived upstairs, they always rented out the lower floor to merchants. This was a common

arrangement used on the coast by Europeans and Africans alike. In early 1915, a representative

for H. B. W. Russell & Co., Ltd. of Cape Coast wrote to inquire about the space. Shortly

afterward it appears that an agent for the English company rented the lower level to use as a store

and part of the second floor became his own residence. It was during this time that the premises

became known, or characterized, around town as The Russell House, for the store name not the

property owner. A surviving one-story stone building on the beach in the Fare neighborhood was

used as a warehouse for the company.37

The family rented The Russell House to the government for use as a post office on

December 11, 1941, until it was relocated to Fort William about ten years later. The annual rent


37The structure may have been built for company purposes, or it may have been constructed prior for another client.









Coastal Economy

After Britain passed the Parliamentary Act of 1807 making it illegal for Britain to

participate in the trade in enslaved Africans, nothing was done for many years to implement the

Act. British participation in the slave trade continued. The Act of 1833 abolished slavery in a few

British colonies but not in the ever-growing British Empire. Cotton and other slave-grown

products contributed to Britain's mid-nineteenth century wealth. The economy on the Ghanaian

coast slowly changed as merchants incorporated the growing commodity of palm oil into their

trade. 108

Port closures were indicative of late-nineteenth century economic and political instability.

As the seats of the colonial administration, Cape Coast and Accra became the most important

port cities during the colonial period. Second to them, ports survived if they had more

pronounced bays and more calm water allowing ships to anchor closer to shore. These included

those at Winneba, Apam, Shama, Elmina and Moree. Anomabo, with its rocks, was never an

easy harbor. Cacao, the basis for chocolate, was first exported in 1885. By 1911, it was worth

more than gold. As such, the success of the ports became linked to the spread of cacao. Railways

and roads were constructed to aid in transporting cacao along with other exports grown in the

hinterland, such as rubber and palm oil, to the coastal ports. Because of its proximity to Cape

Coast, Anomabo lost much of its trade and its port closed in 1912. Both Cape Coast and

Saltpond then thrived. Other surrounding smaller ports closed soon after. 109

Since Anomabo was less able to compete successfully with the established centers or with

newly emerging ports, the British, sensing Anomabo's decline, were reluctant to expend funds


'10Shumway, 164.

109Kwamina B. Dickson, "Evolution of Seaports in Ghana: 1800-1928," Annals of the Association ofAmerican
Geographers 55 (1 March 1965), 98-99, 107-111.


















































Figure B-21. Tuafohen' s Palace
Unknown client
c. 1850-1875
Rammed earth and concrete block addition on front, iron or aluminum sheet roof
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photo by Courtnay Micots, 2007)










Dickson, Kwamina B. A Historical Geography of Ghana. London, Cambridge UP, 1969.

----. "Evolution of Seaports in Ghana: 1800-1928." Annals of the Association of American
Geographers 55 (1 March 1965): 98-111.

Dodd, William. The African Prince, When in England, to Zara, at His Father's Court. London:
J. Payne and J. Bouquet, 1755.

Donnan, Elizabeth Documents Illustrative of the History of the Slave Trade to America. NY:
Octagon, 1965.

Doortmont, Michel R. and Benedetta Savoldi. The Castles of Ghana: Axim Butre Anomabu.
Saonara and Lorano, Italy: I1Prato, 2006.

----- and Jinna Smit. Sources for the Mutual History of Ghana and the Netherlands. Leiden, The
Netherlands; Boston: Brill, 2007.

Dos Santos, Ana Lucia Vieira, Eurico Antonio Calvente, M. de Lourdes Luz, Sandra Lemos
Coelho and William Seba Mallman Bittar. Contact Architecture: Women, Slaves and House in
Brazil. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Papel Virtual Editora, 2000.

Doutreuwe, Francoise. "La Cote d'Ivoire." In Rives Coloniales: Architectures, de Saint-Louis A
Douala, ed. Jacques Soulillou, 105-134. Marseille: Editions Parentheses, 1993.

Drewal, Margaret Thompson. "The State of Research on Performance in Africa," African Studies
Review 34 (3 December 1991): 1-64.

Dumett, Raymond E. "African Merchants of the Gold Coast, 1860-1905 Dynamics of
Indigenous Entrepreneurship." Comparative Studies in Society and History 25 (4 October 1983):
661-693.

----. "John Sarbah, the Elder, and African Mercantile Entrepreneurship in the Gold Coast in the
Late Nineteenth Century." The Journal ofAfrican History 14 (4, 1973): 653-679.

Dunlevy, Mairead. Dress in Ireland. London: B.T. Batsford, 1989.

Ebow, Daniel. A Tale of Cape Coast. Accra, Ghana: Woeli, 2004.

Edusei, Kodwo. "Significant Ghanaian Educational Innovations and Landmarks and Their Socio-
Cultural Impact." Ph.D. Diss., University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, 1991.

Eicher, Joanne B. and Barbara Sumberg. "World Fashion, Ethnic, and National Dress." In Dress
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Herndon, VA: Berg 1995.









human capability."53 The social meaning inherent in music and textiles can be equally applied to

residential architecture. Although the coastal elites borrowed elements from the Europeans and

Afro-Brazilians, they transformed them into something recognizably African. A comparison of

the house plans from Anomabo demononstrates this point.

Asymmetrical elements juxtaposed to symmetrical Palladian-inspired features have already

been discussed regarding the exterior of the Lawyer Atta Amonoo Family Residence. This same

juxtaposition is subtlely expressed in the interiors as well. In Palladian plans, the interior rooms,

doors and stairways are symmetrical, believed to create a harmonious and balanced interior

environment. On the coast, occasional doors and windows are placed out of alignment and by

more than a few inches, exemplifying the different aesthetic tastes of a harmonious environment

for the coastal Africans.

Hyland' s plan of Castle Brew (Figure B-31) illustrates the absolute symmetry observed in

Brew's country manor. Notice how the doorways and windows align perfectly. Each has a

matching partner across from it. This differs from the Kodwo Kuntu Family Residence plan

(Figure B-38). Although the rooms are symmetrical, one dividing wall between the southwest

chamber and the hall is shifted so the door to this chamber falls opposite its partner on the other

side of the hall. Most of the windows are in alignment. The back door however is shifted to the

north, placing it out of symmetry with the front and hall doorways. Therefore, nearly all the

elements are symmetrical with a couple of asymmetrical beats added to create a syncopated

tempo. The shifting of an interior wall to create an asymetrical door placement can be seen also

in the Charles Bentum Annan Family Residence (Figure B-45) and the Justice Akwa Family

Residence (Figure B-74).


53Thompson, 11.









Like the Kobena Mefful Family Residence, Abrosan has thick exterior walls. The ground

floor exterior wall measures 31 inches in depth, but the interior wall is only 12 inches, thinner

than most interior walls that generally measure between 16 and 19 inches. Since the construction

of the Mefful house dates around 1900, it is difficult to explain what was happening with the

variance in wall thickness. It is not possible to discuss any linear progression in developing

construction techniques, especially since dates are so evasive. Most likely the combination of a

display of wealth and a desire for stability and longevity was behind the choices made. The

exterior has since received a cement plaster and is painted yellow. Iron or aluminum corrugated

sheeting over a timber frame roofs the structure.

Off-beat phrasing is present in the pier, which unevenly divides the space in the first hall

on the ground floor. The exclusion of certain windows, as in the northeast room in the upper

story, detracts from the symmetricality of the otherwise Palladian plan. These off-beat elements

lend vitality to the massive structure. The inclusion of this Akan element also signifies an

African client had the house built.

Characterization

The meaning of the termabrosan may provide a clue to the origin of the residence. Locals

consider this house to be the first two-story stone nog residence in the town, yet no evidence was

given to provide a date for this residence. According to Bonso-Abban, the house was built before

papers, i.e. land indentures and building ordinances, were required. 1 However, its Hall and

Chamber plan and overall design fit the Coastal Elite Style of the colonial period. Due to several




1 While it is true that the Fante did not produce paperwork for land purchases until the British colonial government
enforced it, this is an explanation often used when the family no longer had their copies of this paperwork. At least
by the 1880s, the British required paperwork for land purchases, but it may not have been until the reign of Amonoo
V (1901-1921), who was Western-educated, that this was locally enforced.









settle. The fishermen formed the asafo group KyiremNo. 6. Akomfodzi and Kyirem work

together. They follow the other groups in war and in performance. When immigrant fishermen

from Ampenyi, a district of Elmina, moved to Anomabo in the late seventeenth century slightly

later than the group from Dutch Kommenda, it was Tuafu that hosted this group. These

fishermen became Etsiwa No. 2. Tuafu and Etsiwa are the first groups to go into battle or

performance. Thus, in war and in performance, the order is Tuafu and Etsiwa first; Dontsin,

Iburon and Ebiram Wassa second; and Kyirem and Akomfodzi third.

Earliest Culture Contact

Evidence of early trade in the area known today as Ghana has existed since the

introduction of the Saharan Neolithic culture in approximately 900 B.C. This was significant

because it forged a line of communication along which people and commodities traveled

between the Western Sudan and Ghana. Although it cannot be proved, the Ghana coast may have

been among the places where Phoenicians in the seventh or sixth century B.C. docked in their

three-year search for gold. Gold could have been one of the items of traffic between Western

Mauritania and Morocco and between the Fezzan and the Niger Bend during the first millennium

B.C. Dickson noted that "The extent of Carthaginian gold trade in West Africa may well have

been kept a secret in conformity with the known Carthaginian policy of falsifying information or

covering up their activities in order to discourage trade rivals."22

Bayly uses the term "archaic globalization" to describe these older networks that created

a geographical expansion of ideas and social forces from the local and regional level to the inter-

regional and inter-continental level. 23 Thus, globalized trade in Ghana was present prior to the


22Dickson, 38; and Nnamdi Elleh, African Architecture: Evolution and Transformation (NY: McGraw-Hill, 1997),
51.
23C. A. Bayly, The Birth ofthe Modern World 1780-1914: Global Connections and Comparisons (Malden, MA:
Blackwell, 2004), 41-42.









In order to effectively explore all the information available on the residences of Anomabo,

I tried to locate archival data, and I spoke to families who were the current owners and

descendants of the original clients for whom the residences were built. Often it was the

abusuapanyin, or family head, who held the most information and any paperwork pertaining to

my inquiries. Descendants have little information regarding the construction dates, the reasons

for the choices made in original design and plan, and the artisans who built them. Through a

series of separate interviews I spoke with two of the most informed historians in town Kwa

Nyanfueku Akwa, or Nana Kwa (Figure B-11), and Osebo. I photographed the buildings and

took measurements with the families' permission and patience. My colleagues in the field and I

interpreted and analyzed together the compiled information in a process that enabled me to

understand the social context better.

My primary research assistant was Nana Kwa. This gentleman knew more about the

history of Anomabo than any other person I spoke with. We developed a working relationship

since my initial visit in 2007, whereby he gave me several tours of the town and assisted me with

my interviews, particularly with translation of my Americanized Fante into Anomabo Fante.

Nana Kwa, as a native ofAnomabo, was connected intimately to several properties discussed in

this study. Kow Otu, a. k. a. John Ogoe, was Nana Kwa's great grand uncle, and Nana Kwa's

father, Nana Ababio, was born in Otu's second house made in stone nog. Akwa is a grandnephew

of Justice Akwa. He is also a distant relation of Jacob Wilson Sey and Charlotte Acquaah.

Nana Kwa completed primary school in Anomabo and secondary school in Takoradi,

another coastal town located farther west. He then completed a two-year degree in accounting

from Takoradi Workers College. His work and his interest led him through the years to self-

study environmental management, coastal history and African culture in general. Born in 1954,









Priestley in 1969 about Richard Brew and his descendants. 57 The Irishman and his descendants

were instrumental in the politics of Anomabo and the Fante region (from the 1750s to today) as

well as notable for the residences they constructed. These massive residences of European

design, materials and technology translated into images of identity and status. Such imagery was

subsequently appropriated and transformed into African coastal elite constructs. Priestley goes

further to describe the urban context, specifically European-Fante relations and the Western-

educated mulatto classes.

Historian Arnold Walter Lawrence, conservator of the Monuments and Relics Committee

(later the Ghana Museums and Monuments Board), conducted the first in-depth study of Fort

William, including detailed information about construction materials and techniques. 58 Historian

Albert Van Dantzig offers further information, but some of his information has been proven

inaccurate.59 Both of these authors however neglect to name their sources, complicating the

verification of their data. Historians Michel R. Doortmont and Benedetta Savoldi's recent book

The Castles of Ghana: Axim Butre Anomabu60 offers the most in-depth study of Fort William's

architecture and focuses on conservation.

Informative sources concerning Anomabo comprise academic theses and dissertations by

several historians. They include a history of eighteenth-century Fante society by Rebecca

Shumway in 2004,61 Fante politics in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries by James R.

Sanders in 1980, and a history of Anomabo by Newell Flather in 1966. Shumway's history of

57Margaret Priestley, West African Trade and Coast Society: A Family Study (London: Oxford UP, 1969).

5A. W. Lawrence, Trade Castles & Forts of WestAfrica (Stanford, CA: Stanford UP, 1963).

59Albert van Dantzig, Forts and Castles ofGhana (Accra, Ghana: Sedco, 1999).
0Michel R. Doortmont and Benedetta Savoldi, The Castles of Ghana: Axim Butre Anomabu (Saonara and Lorano,
Italy: I1Prato, 2006).

61Rebecca Shumway, "Between the Castle and the Golden Stool: Transformations in Fante Society in the Eighteenth
Century," (Ph.D. diss., Emory University, 2004).









Nineteenth Centuries"63 and subsequent book An Archaeology of Elmina: Africans and

Europeans on the Gold Coast.64 His work is the first to emphasize the urban design of the coastal

town, discussing both its architecture and multi-cultural artifacts. DeCorse conducted a thorough

archaeological examination of Elmina' s built environment prior to 1873 when the British leveled

the city. His findings are published in his dissertation, his subsequent book and in numerous

articles.

Several art historical texts and articles written by art historian Doran H. Ross assisted my

understanding ofFante arts. Ross, who has conducted fieldwork in the area since 1974, has

documented and written about Fante arts extensively. In their seminal book The Arts of Ghana,

Ross and fellow art historian Herbert M. Cole include a chapter on architecture, yet they only

briefly mention coastal architecture. 65 This text and subsequent publications by Ross have

illuminated the development of monumental shrines, known asposuban. Ross shared his

research with me and served as a mentor. His numerous publications (and works by other

scholars) tend to single out arts (flags, posuban and performance) of the asafo, and rarely include

other Fante art forms. I am extending this work by utilizing a wider approach in observing how

the Anomabo coastal elites, mostly Fante, have responded visually to their global history as a

commercial hub.

General sources on West African building construction include several by architect and art

historian Labelle Prussin. Practical building technologies as well as concepts regarding shelter

and space are discussed in her works "An Introduction to Indigenous African Architecture,"


63Christopher Raymond DeCorse, "An Archaeological Study of Elmina, Ghana: Trade and Culture Change on the
Gold Coast Between the Fifteenth and Nineteenth Centuries" (Ph. D. diss., University of California, 1989).
64Christopher Raymond De Corse, An Archaeology ofElmina: Africans and Europeans on the Gold Coast
(Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution, 2001).
65Cole and Ross, 96.

















































Figure B-8. Dutch Lodge / Omanhen's Palace
Arent Jacobsz van der Graeff (1557-1642)
c. 1639-1642
Stone nog brick, cement plaster, iron or aluminum roof
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photo by Courtnay Micots, 2007)









































Figure B-7. Fort William
John Apperley
1753-1759
Stone nog with brick facing, cement plaster (on the interior)
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photo by Courtnay Micots, 2009)




















































Figure B-47. Ama Moo Family Residence, Front, with Friend Mensah
Ama Moo
c. 1870-1895
Stone nog brick, concrete block, cement plaster
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photo by Courtnay Micots, 2007)






332









The Swanzys

The Swanzys have a long history on the coast and in Anomabo. James Swanzy (b. 1767)

came to Africa from Ireland with the British Company of Merchants. While working as a

surgeon in Winneba and at Apollonia (Beyin) and as Governor at Dixcove and Sekondi, he had

the opportunity to visit all the coastal forts and initiate a thriving trade business. He retired in

1799 and married an English lady, not returning to the coast until c. 1817. Two of his brothers

also worked on the coast. John Swanzy became Lieutenant Governor in Accra, while Francis

Lucas Swanzy served with Henry Meredith at Fort William during the Asante invasion of 1807.

James Swanzy had four sons. John (d. July 11, 1824) was a Lieutenant in the African Colonial

Corps. James (the second) was the principal magistrate under Governor George Maclean in the

1830s and 1840s. Francis, known as Frank (b. 1816), and Andrew were children from James's

(the first) second marriage after he returned to the coast. Frank and Andrew who may have been

mulattoes founded the firm F. and A. Swanzy. Their center of operation was Cape Coast where

they built a large office30 known as The Heritage House today. The Heritage House is a

Palladian-style building not unlike Castle Brew.

Andrew was appointed to Fort William sometime in 1847. Although he never received his

promised salary, he met with an unexpected windfall in August 1848 when he received rewards

from the seizure of thieves with stolen gold from the ship Lemuel. He lived in Anomabo for two

years, probably within Fort William. He went to work in London from late 1849 or early 1850

until 1853 when he returned briefly. Even though he wasn't on the coast for much of his adult

life, he was the main architect of the firm ofF. and A. Swanzy. The firm had factories along the

whole coast with agents like Bilson, Robert Hutchison and Ferguson's father, handling the daily


30Swanzy, 87-103.









softer rock and easier to cut and shape. Igneous rock is located deeper in the quarry, though no

deeper than ten meters. It is harder and more difficult to cut and shape. Although it was more

difficult to determine because of the cement plaster, Castle Brew and the Cruickshank Addition

(Figure B-6) appear to have been constructed from a mix of sedimentary and igneous rock.

The Russell House (Figure B-19), built about 30 years after the Blankson Addition, was

built with mostly igneous rock with only some sedimentary rock. The Lawyer Atta Amonoo

Residence (Figure B-9), built another 20 years later, was constructed entirely from igneous rock.

It seems reasonable that as the Fante dug deeper into the quarries, they had less and less

sedimentary rock to utilize. Also, as time progressed, local technologies developed that allowed

stone cutters to manage the igneous rock more easily.

Concrete

During the 1930s, cement blocks replaced bricks as a favored building material. However,

as early as the 1910s, the coastal elite were experimenting with concrete. For example, the

palatial residence known as the Adaaso House in Cape Coast was built entirely of concrete block

in 1937. Concrete blocks are less costly and labor-intensive than stonework. Thus, due to the

resourcefulness and inventiveness ofbuilders and masons to adapt materials and techniques used

by other cultures (European or Western Sudanic) to the coast, architecture has continuously been

appropriated and adapted to suit a client's needs.

Mason Guilds

In both Europe and Africa, artisans were trained in building construction via

apprenticeship. No distinction was made between designer, builder, owner and user of the built

environment. Therefore, building is a collective process, directed by the client. 45 The


45Prussin, "Shelter for the Soul," 41.









roofs of wattle and daub construction were used in Elmina33 as well as on a variety of European

buildings along the coast, yet this type of roof is more commonly used in dryer climates of the

north.34 It is equally possible that the flat-roofed technology came to the coast via the north-south

trading route by the Akans, Mande or another African group or by sea with the Europeans. In the

nineteenth century some houses were given corrugated asbestos/slate sheeting. Corrugated iron

or aluminum sheeting was introduced in the twentieth century. Very few coastal houses, and

none in Anomabo, have thatched roofs today.

Windows and doors have altered considerably over time. Prior to the arrival of Europeans

on the coast, the entrances to Fante homes were very small openings without doors. Window

openings were narrow holes for air and light. Ventilation is extremely important in this zone so

near the equator. Although the thick mud walls insulated the space within, during the day the

temperatures would rise and the interior would be unbearable without the cooler ocean breezes.

European-style windows and doors were adopted by the Fante in the early nineteenth century.35

Today these are considered part of the local traditional architectural vernacular. Thus, styles

were not static and incorporated techniques, materials, plans and design elements from outside

cultures, such as the Mande, Togolese and Europeans. Architecture is a continually changing art

form. It can be surmised then that when locals call a certain architectural form "traditional," they

mean that it has been popular for a while, generally more than their lifetime, i.e. "I came to meet

it."






3DeCorse, An Archaeology ofElmina, 177.

34DeCorse, "An Archaeological Study," 84-93, 98-100.
35Farrar, "Indigenous Building," 156.











































Figure B-50. Kobena Mefful Family Residence
Kobena Mefful (1853-March 1943)
c. 1900
Stone nog brick facing
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photograph by Courtnay Micots, 2009)









cosmopolitan Anomabo were indeed living in an "ambivalent world on the margins of

metropolitan desire."19 They expressed their aspirations to belong to the global by appropriating

imports that allowed them to express their local cosmopolitan image and status. I agree with

Wilson who wrote that within an urban society such appropriation was meant to earn respect and

membership in the global world.20 This image expresses the coastal elite member's ability to

cross between two worlds, or liminality.

The role of leaders who resisted colonial dominance "were neither less far sighted nor less

progressive than those who collaborated. 'In fact they were often the same men."'21 Some of the

Ghanaian coastal elites chose to assimulate into the British Empire in order to maintain their

prestige and privileges. In no way does this mean they agreed with British rule or with the

restrictions placed on them by the British administration. For example, Sey, whose stone nog

family residence in Anomabo reflected British Palladian elements, was a prominent member of

the African protonationalist group that included Ghartey, John Sarbah, Grant and W. F.

Hutchison.22 Kaplow notes:

There was thus created on the coast an African community capable and desirous of
working with the colonial power or of asserting itself against that power when
necessary. The African merchants and their educated sons knew how to confront
the Governor or to petition the Colonial Office when they felt their rights infringed.
They had contact with overseas organizations like the Aborigines Protection
Society and used the pages of its journal and the good will of its editor as leverage
against unsympathetic or overtly hostile administrators. Furthermore, the merchants




19Ibid.
20Ferguson, 554-555.

21Robert O. Collins, James McDonald Bums and Erik Kristopher Ching, Historical Problems of Imperial Africa
(Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener, 1994), 59.
22Raymond E. Dumett, "African Merchants of the Gold Coast, 1860-1905 -Dynamics of Indigenous
Entrepreneurship," Comparative Studies in Society andHistory 25 (4 October 1983), 677-678.









Connections between the two British colonial countries, Ghana and Nigeria, are

illuminated by Okoye who notes that a few hundred thousand Ghanaians were present in Nigeria

in the 1930s and 1940s. Traffic flowed both ways, for Accra served as a capital city of "a

somewhat hypothetical British east-Atlantic colony."83 The lawyer Atta Amonoo and a number

of other clients' descendants from Anomabo worked and visited Nigeria. Thus, someone like

London-educated Atta Amonoo would have been well-aware of British architecture in London,

Nigeria (Calabar especially) and along the Ghanaian coast as well as Nigerian and Ghanaian

architecture by other African coastal elites. Although regional styles prevailed, the ideas for

appropriation and transformation, and especially the reasons behind such cultural

authentifications, were shared. Thus, if Okoye was able to prove resistance as a motivation for

Western appropriations in southeastern Nigerian architecture, it is possible that at least some of

the most aware and connected Anomabo elites, like Atta Amonoo, had similar objectives.

In four ways my work contributes to the discipline of African arts. Firstly, while cultural

authentification has been used as a methodology to explore textiles emerging from the colonial

era, my work enlarges the scope by applying this process to architecture. Secondly, it broadens

the context of this process to prove that it is not always based entirely on something forced upon

Africans during the colonial era, thus highlighting African agency. Thirdly, this study expands

the scope ofFante arts to include architecture, previously unstudied. In addition, it complicates

the definition of an ethnic or cultural art form by incorporating other ethnicities than Fante into

the corpus of Anomabo and coastal arts.

Lastly, my work builds the corpus of research on African architecture, often not the focus

of current research or classroom studies. Rather than focusing on "traditional" architecture, this

83Ibid., 92. Additionally, in footnote 133, Okoye notes that Lagos was part of the Gold Coast colony from 1874 to
1886.









there that the house was rammed earth and the stone nog walls were added at a later date to

bolster the walls. On that structure, the stone nog walls end flatly at the top on the sides of the

house, but on the back a more decorative treatment is used. Thus, returning to the Krontihen's

Palace, it is probable that the palace was constructed in rammed earth and then, at least the

forward portion of the eastern wall, was bolstered with a partial stone nog wall. This wall was

either brick-faced, or bricks were used solely for the pilasters and stairway. A low ledge

extending about a foot and a half from the structure is constructed in stone nog and may indicate

either an original stone foundation or just as protection from erosion.

This east wall exhibits several rectangular holes in the surface across the midportion of the

wall, presumably at the division of the two floors. This feature also exists on the Moses Kwesi

Amo Family Residence (Figure B-40). One mason suggested that this may indicate supports for

the upper floor. Yet, these holes are only located toward the center of the wall on both buildings.

It is also visible only on one side of the building. Perhaps some of the holes were later filled in.

A photograph of El Hato hacienda in the Cauca Valley of New Granada (Caribbean)41 depicts

this two-story structure with similar wood beams emerging from its second floor across the

facade. Chipped plaster reveals the building at least had a brick facing, and probably was

constructed in stone nog. While no further information is provided about the house, it can be

more easily seen that the wood beams offer support for the second story. This is likely the same

construction method followed by the mason(s) who constructed the Krontihen' s Palace and the

Moses Kwesi Amo Family Residence (Figure B-40).






4German Tellez, Casa Colonial: Domestic Architecture oJ .. w Granada (Bogota, Columbia: Villegas Editores,
1995), 170 center.


















































Figure B-70. Moses Adu Family Residence
Moses Adu
After 1885
Stone nog cement plaster
Larteh, Ghana
(Photo by Courtnay Micots, 2009)







355









favored spelling by its inhabitants. I have introduced some Fante terminology in the text as

needed, but I made an effort not to encumber the reader.

Pre-Colonial Urbanity

Post-colonial theory is currently used as a means to understand African cities. Although

many of the theories put forth by Arjun Appadurai inModernity at Large describe post-colonial

African cities, they can also be applied to the urban historical Anomabo and to a lesser degree to

Anomabo today. Appadurai's theories regarding "culturalism," defined as a construct that

cultural differences tend to take in the era of mass mediation, migration and globalization, can be

utilized to unpack historical urban Anomabo. This "engagement with modernity"43 takes place

prior to colonial rule and illustrates the impact of cultural contact upon this early commercial

metropolis. It continues in Anomabo's on-going receptivity to cultural flows, as evidenced in the

town's vibrant visual culture today.

Appadurai discusses how cultural interactions, until the past few centuries, have been

"bridged at great cost and sustained over time only with great effort," deterring the formation of

large-scale societies. This changed when Europeans made advances in navigational technology

after 1500, and with the development of "large and aggressive social formations" such as those

in Central America, Eurasia, Southeast Asia and African kingdoms, e.g. Dahomey.44 "An

overlapping set of ecumenes began to emerge, in which congeries of money, commerce,

conquest, and migration began to create durable cross-societal bonds." Appadurai's theory

applies to the growth of Anomabo in the late seventeenth century into a busy commercial port,

and later in the mid-eighteenth century with the formation of the first Fante Coalition that unified


43Appadurai, 10-16.
44Ibid., 28.






















_. :,-.7- "


&L .A KAMAn tP 0







^. ."












Figure B-15. Fort Charles, 1679
Jean Barbot
c. 1672-1673
Rammed earth
Anomabo, Ghana
(Hair, Jones and Law, p. 414, Figure 37)









Document D-5. Obituary for Reverend John Oboboam Hammond


At his death he was 58 years of age, and 32 years in the ministry of the Wesleyan
Methodist Church. In 1833 he was married to Rachel Mary, eldest daughter of the
late Rev. A. W. Parker, and had issue four sons and six daughters, of whom all but
two daughters survive him.

The remains of the deceased minister were consigned to the grave on Monday the
30th ultimo. It had been announced that the funeral service would be held at 4 p.m.
at the Ebenezer Church, Anamaboe. Long before that time a multitude of people
had assembled from Salt Pond, Kuntu, Winnebah, Cape Coast, Elmina, Seccondee
and other places for the interment, as the suddenness of Mr. Hammond's death had
naturally excited much public interest in his burial. At 3:30 p.m. the procession
moved and arrived at the Chapel at 4 p.m. As the corpse entered the Eastern gate of
the Ebenezer Church, it was received by the Rev. E. A. Sackey who read the
opening sentences. The sacred edifice was crowded to excess. The pulpit was
draped in black. Rev. F. E. Ekubau read Psalm 90, and Rev. James Reynolds read
the inspiring Funeral Lesson from 1 Corinthians xv. 20-58. The speakers were the
Revs. R. M. Acquaah and C. W. Armstrong both of whom paid high tribute to Mr.
Hammond's work and worth. The service in the Church was then closed by the
Rev. F. O. Pinanko, M. A., leading in Prayer. After which Prof Chas. E. Graves,
Principal of the West African College of Music and Commerce played the Dead
March in "Saul," and to its solemn strains, the good soldier of Jesus Christ was
carried forth to his grave at the Wesleyan cemetery, Anamaboe.

The Singing Bands of Cape Coast, Anamaboe and Salt Pond with the Cape Coast
Wesleyan Church Surpliced Choir at the base headed the procession. Next to the
front of the hearse were the Abura royal members with the State Sword, Gold
Canes and Breast Plate. The blood relatives of the deceased followed immediately
after the bearer, then the main procession with the Omanhin the Honourable
Amonu V of Anamaboe and his retinue at the rear. The service at the graveside was
conducted by the Revs. R. M. Acquaah, C. E. Barnes, A. A. Sceath, M. A., and C.
W. Armstrong. Sisters Francis Hunt and Evelyn Bellamy, and the Rev. S. R. B.
Attoh-Ahuma, M. A., the Revs. J. W. Taylor, J. Evans Appiah, C. H. Bartels were
also present at both services.5












5Gold Coast Leader (January 11-18, 1919), 2.









akuasahen. The tuafohen (tufuhen, twafohen) is second in rank after the omanhen and commands

all state companies in times of war. The adontehen oversees the largest of the military divisions,

and as such, reports directly to the tuafohen. 1

The omanhen rules his state through the authority of the sword of leadership, conferred

upon him by the people. Although he must be a man of the royal family, he is chosen for the

position after demonstrating his character. The current Omanhen Kantamanto Amonoo XI was

previously a successful timber merchant in Takoradi. An omanhen's authority can be withdrawn

for good reason. 12 Enstoolment and destoolment is the responsibility of the asafo in conjunction

with the town councils, or beguafo, made up of wealthy male elders, often members of several

state asafo companies. 13 Thus, the asafo military organization serves to balance the power of the

ruling class. 14

Asafo Companies

A brief description of the asafo companies and their functions is provided in order to

understand choices made by certain African coastal elites, who held positions within the asafo

yet also adopted European cultural practices, during the colonial period. For example, as

mentioned previously, George Kuntu Blankson and Kobena Mefful served as tuafohen. Sarbah

was installed as safuhen, or captain, of his father's asafo in Anomabo in 1898.15




1Sanders, 261, 288.
12Christensen, 117; and A. Ffoulkes, "The Company System in Cape Coast Castle," Journal of the African Society
7(1908), 267.
13George Nelson Preston, "Perseus and Medusa in Africa: Military Art in Fanteland 1834-1972," African Arts 8 (3
Spring 1975), 70.
14Doran H. Ross, "Cement Lions and Cloth Elephants: Popular Arts of the Fante Asafo," in 5000 Years ofPopular
Culture, ed. Fred E. H. Schroeder (Bowling Green: Bowling Green UP, 1980), 291.

5Gocking, 152.









The private courtyard toward the back of the house has decorative woodwork with cut-outs

along the top of the verandah, yet this was locally crafted a transformation, or cultural

authentification, of the Alpine woodwork. This African woodwork, though similar in idea to that

on the exterior verandah, is entirely different. Motifs are spaced more widely apart and repeated

less. Christian crosses worked into the design were added after Conduah's ownership. Chambers

surround much of the courtyard that features an old iron lamp post, no doubt added during

Conduah's time, and a natural spring. A large cistern was built over this spring.

From Inhabiting European Palladian Houses to Building Them

All the African coastal elite stone nog houses in Elmina have since collapsed or have been

replaced, yet from the examples surviving in Anomabo and Cape Coast I can determine that the

Palladian style was popular for European structures built prior and during the colonial period and

for African coastal elites buildings built during the colonial period. Clearly the Africans

appropriated certain Palladian elements from the Europeans for their architecture, yet these were

added to, and did not replace, their Akan architectural vernacular.









Oral history can be a useful source of information; however, other data needs to support

the information communicated. For material and mode of construction, I found myself searching

for cracks or wear in the cement plaster for clues. For family history, as stated previously, I tried

to justify the data with archived property records at the National Archives in Cape Coast where

records of 30 or more years are archived. Families were able to provide me with copies of the

paperwork for two structures The Russell House and the Kobena Mefful Family Residence. At

of the time of this publication, the National Archives has not been able to locate any Anomabo

property records for the period 1860-1940.

The names given to these structures were either used by the descendants, locals or in

some cases applied by me. In the latter case, I used the original client's name if known. Since the

structures in this study were built for families and not just for an individual alone, I have labeled

them "family residence" as opposed to "house." However, in the discussions I may alternate

between residence or house to describe them, since either term is accurate. The Russell House is

named such by the descendants of the original clients. I tried in all cases to use or mention all the

names used by the descendants and townspeople for these structures.

Most of the academic research for this study was conducted in English, while many of the

on-site interviews were conducted in Fante. The reader will notice two letters belonging to the

Fante alphabet, but not to English. They include "E," pronounced like a short e, i.e. get. The

letter "3" is pronounced like the "aw" in law. I have used the spellings given to me by the Fante

for people's names and for references to locations and houses in order to identify and represent

people and places as they would be in their home contexts. Thus, while there have been many

different spellings, both local and European, for the site ofAnomabo, I have chosen the current









family houses that displayed their status. These structures incorporated all the traditions they

knew, developing the Afro-Bazilian sobrado through the process of cultural authentification.

Designs are based on aesthetics and functionality with a special focus on circulation and

ventilation. Corridors provided thermal insulation between the external walls and inner

structures. Large, wide doors and windows captured the cross breezes. These elements suited the

tropical climates and, as a result, it was a popular form in many regions. Characteristics of the

Afro-Brazilian house are seen in those built in the towns of the Gulf of Benin, such as Porto-

Novo, Ouidah, Agoue and Badagry.39

The Brazilian quarter in Lagos encompassed Campos Square, Bamgboshe Street and

Tokunboh Street. Some of the wealthy traders had impressive houses built in this area. The

merchant Josiah Henry Doherty had a "magnificent villa residence" built on the corner of

Bamgboshe Street and Campos Square. His architect was the engineer Herbert Samuel Heelas

Macaulay (1864-1946), the prominent Nigerian nationalist leader. 40

The successful merchant Joao Angelo Campos was the descendant ofRomao Campos, for

whom the Square was named. Romao constructed two family houses illustrated in Marianno

Carneiro da Cunha's book, Da Senzala ao Sobrado: Arquitetura Brasileira na Nigeria e na

Republica Popular do Benim /From Slave Quarters to Town Houses: Brazilian Architecture in

Nigeria and the People 's Republic of Benin. 41 The two-story home clearly Palladian inspired was

built in 1897. Like family houses built in Anomabo during this time, the Campos house has

pilasters framing the main central entrance. Instead of an arch, a pointed entablature, resembling

a pediment, is placed over the entrance. The double hung windows have an anse de panier arch.

39Gerard Tognimassou, "Afro-Brazilian Architecture, A Mixed Heritage," Africa 2009 Newsletter 4 (July 2009), 13.

40Da Cunha, 76.
41Ibid., 55.









language, clothing foods, and practices when it suited them, never foregoing those which

maintained their specific identity as Fante, Anomabos or even asafo members. Thus, the site and

its people were continually changing, assimilating and transforming objects, ideas and practices.

Some of these things were discarded, while others maintained. In fact, some of the imported

ideas became traditions, such as the wearing of Asante kente cloth and the technology of making

burnt brick.

When the Portuguese reached Elmina, they found they could trade for gold that had been

mined inland in the forest region. To secure this trade, the Portuguese built the first trading post

on the Guinea Coast, Fort St. George in Elmina, in the late fifteenth century. Several European

traders followed, eager to take advantage of the lucrative trade. Over the next two and half

centuries, a fort or castle was built nearly every seven miles along what they termed, the "Gold

Coast."25 Even though the medieval castle as an architectural form was outdated in Europe, it

was chosen as a representation of power, to provide relatively luxurious accommodations, and

for fortified defensive purposes. Although, in actuality, the forts did not provide the luxury the

Europeans hoped for due to the weather conditions of the tropical zone, they did adequately

fulfill the other two functions as power image and defensive structure. 26 This transplantation of

European architectural forms was not without modifications. Local materials were used

whenever possible. Eventually, some accommodations were made for the weather conditions and

the type of trade conducted. For example, Fort William in Anomabo is the only fort constructed

purely for the slave trade.





25 Flather, 102; Hull, 389; and Shumway, 146.

26Doortmont and Savoldi, 17, 23.


















































Figure B-69. The Russell House, West Side
Reverend John Oboboam Hammond, Francis Medanyamease Hammond, Mrs.
Charlotte Oyemame Acquaah (1858 July 31, 1908)
1897-1898
Stone nog
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photo by Courtnay Micots, 2009)





354









Amonoo Family Residence (Figure B-9) as well as the now ruined Jacob Wilson Sey Family

Residence (Figure B-80).

According to one report, the population of Anomabo in 1921 was only 2,457. The town "is

connected with the telegraph system and has a trade of some importance. The town

comprises several white houses and a conspicuous church with a square tower."4 According to a

1939 report, Anomabo was "not a port and enjoys little trade. There are a few white-washed

houses in the town which mostly consists of mud huts; a church with a square tower is situated

behind the fort. A hamlet consisting of a few mud huts stands on the point." 5

Although Ghana achieved independence from Britain in 1957, Anomabo has yet to regain

political and economic importance in the region. However, according to the Population Census

of the Gold Coast Colony and of Ghana, Anomabo's population nearly tripled from 3,301 in

1931 to 9,437 in 2000.6 The town's seven asafo companies still exist, though their roles have

changed. This continuation of the asafo reflects long-held belief systems. Therefore, although the

town is replete with global influences, the townspeople continue their own cultural practices,

absorbing new ideas, technologies and forms through choice, often transforming the global into

something new and local.

Identity: Africans and Europeans

The classification of every Palladian-style, stone nog and brick building on the Ghanaian

coast needs to be rethought as potential African coastal elite architecture and not necessarily

European ones. Hyland makes the case that coastal towns such as Anomabo were populated by


4Colonial Secretary, Accra, "'African Pilot'- Part I," ADM. 23/1/337, Ancient Castles and Forts in the Central
Province, December 27, 1939, n.p. Ghana National Archives, Cape Coast. The church was Ebenzer Methodist
Church.

5Ibid.
6Doortmont and Savoldi, 123.


























































Figure B-53. Warehouse, a. k. a. Old Catholic Mission, Back
United Africa Company
c. 1850
Stone nog, cement plaster
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photo by Courtnay Micots, 2009)


r i r










Brooks, G. Eurafricans in Western Africa. Commerce, Social Status, Gender, and Religious
Observancefrom the Sixteenth to the Eighteenth Century. Athens: Ohio UP, 2003.

Brown O. B. E., E. J. P. Gold Coast andAsianti Reader. Book II. London: A. Brown & Sons,
1929.

Buisseret, David. Historic Architecture of the Caribbean. London: Heinemann, 1980.

Bush, Barbara. Imperialism, Race and Resistance: Africa and Britain, 1919-1945. London and
NY: Routledge, 1999.

Campbell, Colin. Vitruvius Britannicus, or the British Architect. 1715-1725. Reprint, NY: B.
Blom, Amo, 1967-1978.

Cardinall, A. W. "Aggrey Beads of the Gold Coast."Journal of the RoyalAfrican Society 24 (96
July 1925): 287-298.

Carroll, Kevin. Architectures of Nigeria. London: Ethnographica, 1992.

Casely-Hayford, Augustus. "Prosopographical Approaches to Fante History." History in Africa
18 (1991): 49-66.

Christensen, James Boyd. Double Descent Among the Fanti. New Haven: Human Relations Area
Files, 1954.

Chukwukere, B. I. "Akan Theory of Conception: Are the Fante Really Aberrant?" Africa 48 (2,
1978):137-148.

----. Cultural Resilience: The Asafo Company System of the Fanti. Cape Coast: University of
Cape Coast, 1970.

Claridge, W. Walton. A History of The Gold Coast and Ashantifrom the Earliest Times to the
Commencement of the Twentieth Century. 2d. ed. London: Frank Cass, 1964.

Clayton, Tim. The Georgian Country House: Architecture, Landscape and Society. Stroud:
Sutton, 1998.

Cole, Herbert M. "The Art of Festival in Ghana." African Arts 8 (3 Spring 1975): 12-23, 60-62,
90.

---- and Doran H. Ross. The Arts of Ghana. Los Angeles: Museum of Cultural History,
University of California, 1977.

Collins, Robert O., James McDonald Burns and Erik Kristopher Ching. HistoricalProblems of
ImperialAfrica. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener, 1994.









uniformity of building height; and large civic buildings, mosques, churches, or
palaces that break the uniformity of the buildings. The city square, which is often
near the market or king's residence, is the central nerve of the city's social
activities, and major roads lead to and from this particular square.12

Anomabo and other coastal towns may have brought this urban plan from northern Akan towns

which, in turn, may have adopted the plan from Islamic cities in the Western Sudan, such as

Djenne and Timbuktu, on the north-south trade route. However, this urban design, a practical one

for tropical climates, may simply be an indigenous solution.

Even though Anomabo appears to have grown exponentially and organically, it did have

defined neighborhoods (Table B-2). Early Fante settlement of Anomabo took place to the east of

Fort William in the neighborhood known today as Krokessin, or "Old Town." The term

"krokessin" means "the biggest community settlement," and it remains today one of the largest

neighborhoods in town. Krokessin is the site of the first Omanhen's Palace, a one-story residence

built of swish using rammed earth construction pre-dating the 1640s. Today, the building has

undergone much renovation, including an exterior coat of cement plaster. Akanpaado, or "the

meeting place of the original settlers," is the neighborhood of Anomabo where the original Etsii

settled (Map A-2).

Anomabo lacks evidence of the typical European quarter, found in many other coastal

towns, including Cape Coast. In many coastal cities, the European Town was usually part of the

African Town, built near the sea on an elevated site nearby. The elevated site was chosen for the

command of view it afforded and the cooler breezes at higher altitudes. The European residents

originally had rather limited social intercourse with the residents of the African community. 13




12Elleh, 336.
3Dickson, Historical Georgraphy, 290.









attending with darts in their hands in the nature of guards, which are received at
certain hours.

All their houses are made of earth, but the common people have their walls so low,
they seldom exceed the height of a man. Their beame and rafters, and the whole
frame of the house resting only upon them; the houses of the Grandees as well as
the commons are all thatch'd, and have all of them but one little square hole, which
serves for a door, to which they fasten a piece of board, without either lock or
hinges, like the poor Peasants in the Countrey to their Garden doors, and are
contended to fasten them only with a rope, either without or within. Their windows
are small. And the earth they make their floors with, very close and compact, they
have at least two chambers to a house, and this character must be given them, that
they are very curious in keeping them neat, and paint them very frequently both
without and within.

Amongst the common sort, there is nothing of household-stuff, or what is us'd
commonly about the house, to be seen, all is lock'd up in their Coffers, which they
buy of the Whites; except they be Merchants or great men, and then their Tables
and Chairs appear sometimes, but never no Beds, for they lye always upon Skins
spread upon the ground, of else upon Mattresses made of Rushes, covering
themselves with the Skins of Oxen, or some other Beast, without any Boulster,
except they be of the Nobles, and then they have Pillows under their heads, and a
good fire in the middle of their Room, but not the least hole for a Chimney.48

This text provides information regarding the interiors of these homes and makes a useful

comparison between classes. Merchants and great men, or African coastal elites, furnished their

homes with imported objects during the pre-colonial period. W. J. Mueller also provides a

description of the interiors of seventeenth-century houses owned by wealthy leaders.

in their homes one could see 'silver drinking vessels, silver knives, tin dishes and
cups, costly table knives, tables and benches, and hand cloths, (and) servietten
[napkins].' The walls of the bedrooms were decorated with expensive, finely
woven multicolored mats imported from Sierra Leone. The beds were covered with
costly skins, particularly leopard skins...and all kinds of expensive blankets and
pillows ... The bedroom also contained several large chests full of clothing and a
number of small boxes or containers full of gold dust, gold nuggets, and silver
jewelry and ornaments ... An ofahene' s house contained a great deal of other
property: seashells overlaid with silver ... brass and/or bronze oil lamps, gold-
weight paraphernalia, tobacco pipes, utilitarian and luxury pottery (both local and
imported), gold objects (rings, chains, armlets, bracelets, necklaces, anklets, and so
forth), brassware (such as jewelry andforowa and kuduo containers), umbrellas,


48Villault, 162-165.









his status within the Creole community."15 The same could be applied to Ghanaian coastal elites

who acquired higher status among their group via Western appearance and lifestyle. They

manufactured an image of the educated, civilized urban elite class by expressing their

cosmopolitanism, by dressing in Western clothes, and by surrounding themselves with imported

luxury objects (Figure B-66).

Nevertheless, according to Bhabba, "colonial mimcry is the desire for a reformed,

recognizable Other, as a subject of a difference that is almost the same, but not quite."16 He

describes this predicament as "not quite/not white," and describes it as a cultural trait of an

ambivalent world on the margins of metropolitan desire. 17 Even though the coastal elites wore

European clothing styles, they never became Europeans. They maintained their identity as

Africans while appropriating certain British cultural forms to make their status more visible.

They emphatically proclaimed themselves to be British subjects, 18 yet they were not denying

their identity as Africans.

Although Bhabba stated that "mimcry emerges as one of the most elusive and effective

strategies of colonial power and knowledge," the wearing of European fashions first appears in

Anomabo in the late-sixteenth century, long before the colonial era. Cultural borrowing may not

necessarily be the product of colonialism, but it is certainly the product of cultural interactions

and urbanization. The ability to prove this, of course, depends on surviving materials, whether

written or materially present. Yet, I suggest to a certain extent that African coastal elites of



5Nonindigenous, repatriated blacks have become collectively known as Krios. Leo Spitzer, The Creoles of Sierra
Leone (Madison: University of Wisconsin, 1974), 14 in Wass and Broderick, 64.

16Bhabba, 86. His italics.

17Ibid., 92.

"Bush,120.









expanded his business across the Central Region with factories in Kormantine, Asafa, Arkrah,

Apam, Mankwadzi, Winneba, Otuam, Anomabo and Cape Coast.

The height of Blankson's career came in 1861 when he was appointed a member of the

Legislative Council; he served until 1873. He was the second Gold Coast African to be so

honored, following the Accra mulatto, James Bannerman. 8 This also marks an important shift in

the emergence of more Africans in the coastal elite class, previously mostly comprised of

mulattoes.

The Second Addition

Lawrence surmised that this addition to Castle Brew was built by Cruickshank around

1841.9 I argue that it is more likely this second addition to Castle Brew was built by Blankson

sometime after his trip to England in 1854, perhaps even handling the transaction while in

England. Blankson lived for an extended period in Anomabo (from the 1840s until his death in

1898) and constructed a factory there. By 1854, he had achieved considerable wealth as a

merchant. According to historian Isaac S. Ephson, Blankson built "a magnificent lodge, which is

still in existence (exactly opposite Fort William, Anomabu)." He employed over a thousand

people, some as store keepers, clerks, factory hands, boat boys, plantation workers and laborers.

He reportedly owned as many as one hundred slaves at one time. 10 He most likely lived in Castle

Brew and planned to use the addition as a store, for it faces both Fort William and the coastline.

This property may have been the factory in Anomabo referred to by Ephson. 11 Yet, many

possibilities, however, exist for the local location of Blankson's factory. In addition to


8Ibid.

9Lawrence, 355.

'1Ephson, 38-39.
1Ibid., 38.









N





S


K77i

11r


2 P


Arcade


Figure B-10. Lawyer Atta Amonoo Family Residence, Plan
Ground floor
(Drawing by Courtnay Micots, 2009)


VC-


Courtyard


Veranda


Front
Front









hierarchical status."3 This study documents how changes experienced by Ghanaian coastal

society during the colonial era are visually expressed through architecture. These forms make

visible rapid social and political changes, an ideology that willingly accepts ideas and transforms

them, and a framework that includes a new coastal elite group which arose outside royal

hierarchies. Therefore, the coastal societies of central Ghana utilized a process of borrowing

from outside cultures in order to serve their own purposes. This process was a reflection of

urbanization and cultural interactions. It was continually changing and being re-invented, never

conforming to a static "traditional" model.

The rising group of coastal elites had learned, since pre-colonial times, how to navigate

between cultures. Savvy businessmen could work within each system European and African -

to get what they wanted. By the late nineteenth century, the coastal elites were bridging the

colonial administration and local hierarchies. The borrowing of British architectural forms was a

way to display status that conformed to Akan practices and a way to exhibit their alliance with

the British.

The Site

The Anomabo Traditional Area encompasses an area of roughly fifty square miles and

includes 64 villages and towns, counting the town of Anomabo. The chief, or omanhen4, of the

state of Anomabo resides in this town. Seven omanhen lists compiled in the 1970s are provided





3Terence Ranger, "The Invention of Tradition in Colonial Africa," in The Invention ofTradition, ed. Eric
Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1992), 247.

40manhen is a term applied by the British government in the nineteenth century. Chief, Braffo or Caboceer is the
term used for earlier periods. Caboceer is a corruption of the Portuguese caboceiro or captian. Mary McCarthy,
Social Change and the Growth ofBritish Power in the Gold Coast: The Fante States 1807-1874 (Lanham, MD:
University Press of America, 1983), 15, note 5. For clarity, the current term of omanhen will be used throughout this
text.









Clusters of European houses forming a tight-knit community are found in all the major

towns along the coast, whether they were referred to as a European Town or not. Moree, for

example, had a few stone houses, of which only one still stands. Some foundations do remain of

other houses. These homes were built by the Dutch alongside Fort Nassau. The fort and these

homes stand in ruin today because of deliberate destruction by the local Fante after the area was

abandoned by the Dutch around 1816.14 Sekondi, populated more by the Ahanta peoples than the

Fante, is located on the west side of the Pra River. It also had a European Town, located on the

hill near Fort Orange. According to DeCorse, Elmina did not have a European Town. Instead,

Europeans lived in the area north of the Benya where plantations and prosperous merchants, both

African and European, were located.15

Like Elmina, Anomabo does not appear to have had a separate European community. From

early sources it is known that the Europeans living in Anomabo stayed in the fort, except for

Brew who built his Castle Brew. After his time, Europeans living in or visiting Anomabo stayed

in the fort or Castle Brew. Without further archaeological evidence, no proof of another

European house in town exists. The lack of a specific European community may be based on

Anomabo's early strategy not to side with one European contingent over another. The Dutch

were allowed to build their lodge and the British were allowed to build Fort Charles and later

Fort William, yet the Anomabos continued to trade openly with other cultural groups, including

the French, Dutch and Americans. This is probably why Miles found certain leaders and

members of the ruling class unwilling to become deeply involved with the British company.

Thus, it seems likely that no one group could get a foothold strong enough in Anomabo to


14For the date: W. Walton Claridge, A History of The Gold Coast andAshanti from the Earliest Times to the
Commencement ofthe Twentieth Century, 2d ed., vol. 2 (London: Frank Cass, 1964), 600.
5DeCorse, Email to Courtnay Micots, 15 April 2009.









led to the adoption of Ekua's son, William Ansah, a. k. a. Attoh Ahuma.69 Kurentsir was a

dominant personality in local affairs. He developed the first Fante Coalition, and after much

negotiation, he allowed the British to build Fort William in Anomabo. His leadership exemplifies

the advantage Africans had over the Europeans of the coast during the pre-colonial period, and

his skillful ability to bridge the two cultures to his and the city's great benefit.

Kurentsir utilized the asafo companies in a military expansion that transformed Anomabo

from a single city under one chief to a consolidated state with a hierarchy of chiefs subordinate

to the omanhen of Anomabo. The new state of Anomabo attained a considerable level of power

and prosperity. From about 1750 to 1807, Kurentsir's Fante Coalition effectively exploited the

trans-Atlantic slave trade based on the port in Anomabo. The wealth acquired through trade

enabled the Fante Coalition to enforce restrictions and taxes on trade through military action.

This ensured a profit for the coastal middlemen throughout the eighteenth century.70

Kurentsir was courted persistently by both the British and the French from the 1730s to

1750s. Each merchant company wanted to build a fort at Anomabo to take advantage of the site's

commercial potential, and for this the permission of Kurentsir was essential. Kurentsir, who had

some British schooling in Cape Coast, acquired some knowledge of the English language. When

Reverend Thompson visited Anomabo in 1751, he was impressed by Kurentsir's modest

education and capable governing abilities. Although Thompson came to the coastal area with the

intentions of establishing his residence and building a school, he was not given permission.

Though Kurentsir valued education as a means to facilitate commercial interests, he was wary of


69Priestley, WestAfrican Trade, 13-14.
70Flather 60; and Shumway, 11.














































1 h ... .... .


Figure B-46. Kodwo Baffoe Family Residence (Ground Floor Only)
Kodwo Baffoe and Thomas Kweku Mensah Wonkyi
c. 1920s-1931
Stone nog
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photo by Courtnay Micots, 2009)









her friendship and traveling companionship I thank Ariane J. Malawski, Programme Coordinator

for the Abusua Foundation in Cape Coast. I'm also grateful to all my friends at the Abusua

Foundation for their support and providing stress relief.

I must thank my outside mentors. Firstly, Doran H. Ross, former director of the Fowler

Museum at UCLA, is much appreciated for all his support and encouragement over the past four

years. His shared knowledge of Akan arts and Ghana in general has been invaluable to my

experience. Lively discussions, both in person and on the phone, have fueled many ideas

presented herein. Monica Blackmun Visona, Assistant Professor of Art History at the University

of Kentucky, has also been a supporter of my interest in Fante and coastal arts. I benefited a great

deal from our discussions online and on-site in Ghana.

For initial direction and discussions over my preliminary findings I am grateful to Dr. Roy

Graham, Director of Historic Preservation programs in the College of Design, Construction and

Planning at the University of Florida. I thank art historian and architect Labelle Prussin, a.k.a.

Libby Prussin, who has studied West African architecture since the early 1960s. Her

recommendations in October of 2008 and January of 2009 have helped to shape my ethnographic

methods and interpretations, in particular her interest in craftsmen and construction techniques.

Several people have had the patience to read numerous versions of the entire dissertation.

For their insightful comments I thank my dissertation committee: Drs. Robin Poynor and

Victoria Rovine, both African art historians; Dr. Brenda Chalfin, an anthropologist whose

specialty is Ghana; and Dr. James Essegbey, a Ghanaian linguist. To them I owe much gratitude

for their patience and time. Their model of professionalism, intelligence and unwavering

generosity has made an indelible impression upon me.









Worldwide Adoption of the Sobrado

The sobrado, originally a Portuguese architectural form, was introduced as early as the

sixteenth century to many of the cultures with whom the Portuguese interacted around the world.

It was embraced by other Europeans who also navigated the globe during the age of discovery.

Its adoption was due to its functionality. In Africa, the sobrado was implemented in nearly every

port town and city from today's Cape Verde Islands and Senegal to Cameroon. Though

Europeans first had these structures built for themselves, local cultures soon adapted certain

features like the veranda to their buildings. Europeans, Afro-Brazilians and locals, such as the

fishermen especially those well-skilled from the coast of Ghana, traveled the trade routes

between these ports. Thus, the impact of the sobrado upon Anomabo and the coast of Ghana may

have originated from knowledge of sobrado in other African towns, from freed slaves from

Brazil who came to the coast, and/or from local training provided by Christian missionaries,

particularly the Basel Mission.

Buildings like The Russell House and the Justice Akwa Family Residence with their

materials, construction techniques and symmetrical facade proportions are present throughout the

coastal area. Scholars must be careful however in the attribution of clients for whom these homes

were constructed. While some were made for Europeans, not all Palladian and sobrado style

buildings denote European clients. The Russell House exemplifies sobrado structures built all

over the world.

These architectural symbols of wealth and status were readily adopted by the African

coastal elites. Sons of wealthy elites were sent to Europe for education. When they returned to

Africa, they wanted to live as the Europeans did. Akans generally expect that when someone

travels outside Africa, they should return with an improved lifestyle. This new lifestyle

symbolizes that they learned something. It is symbolic of knowledge, wealth, connections and









Thus, the image of the urban coastal elite was expressed through the wearing of imported textiles

and fashions at this early period.

The Eighteenth Century and the Height of Anomabo

Anomabo is considered the site where a disproportionate number of celebrated Ghanaian

political, religious and other well-educated and influential persons and/or their families

originated. It is the first Fante capital, and as such, it is considered the maternal birthplace of

modern Ghana. An African coastal elite class developed in Anomabo out of this commercial

growth of Anomabo and the availability of Western education.

During the 1650s the number of ships trading along the seaboard averaged more than 50 a

year, and by the early 1700s more than 150 ships visited annually.45 Itinerant traders of the Assin

state dominated commercial inland trade in the seventeenth century. When the Assin were

destroyed by Denkyira in 1698, trade was opened to ambitious middlemen within the Central

Region. The Fante were quick to exploit the advantage of their position on northern trade routes

that lead to the coast. 46

Anomabo first rose to prominence when the Fante began to expand their territory between

1707-1712 and 1716-1724. Much of their success is attributed to their acquisition of guns and

ammunition from the British.47 Like so many African states, the Fante used this imported

weaponry to conquer and grow their territory during the eighteenth century. The people they

conquered and absorbed into their culture or sold as slaves were little different from the Fante.





45Ibid., 211-212.
46James R. Sanders, "The Expansion of the Fante and the Emergence of Asante in the Eighteenth Century." Journal
ofAfrican History 20 (3, 1979), 356.
47Ibid.









The Fante asafo military companies expanded their roles in response to the changing

conditions of the trade, economy and growing urbanization during the pre-colonial period. The

omanhen could use the asafo military to exert force on fort governors to impose demands, such

as increased land rents. The asafo could cut off access to the fort so the occupants were denied

food, water and trade. They also could refuse to allow foreign trading ships to land their parties

on shore.

At Anomabo Bosman noted:

The Englifh here are fo horribly plagued by the Fantynean Negroes, that they are
sometimes even confined to their Fort, not being permitted to ftir out. And if the
Negroes diflike the Governour of the Fort they ufually fend him in a Canoa in
contempt to Cabocors [Cape Coast]; nor are the Englifh able to oppofe or prevent
it, but are obliged to make their Peace by a Prefent. The TownAnnamabo may very
well pafs for the ftrongeft on the whole coaft. 16

Duties during peacetime included policing (especially maintaining peace and security in the

markets) and construction (building and repairing European trading establishments). 17 They also

functioned as the fighting force of the Fante Coalition during the eighteenth and early nineteenth

centuries. Thus, Fante asafo companies developed these more varied roles and different

functions than the asafo of the Asante. 8

Today's asafo serve four critical roles in the Fante community: political in that they give

the common man a voice in governmental issues; social in that they act as a cooperative group to

provide labor for public works and as the local unit called upon in cases of emergency; religious

in that they play an important role in member funerals and state ceremonies; and military which


16Bosman, 56. His italics.

7Ray A. Kea, Settlements, Trade, and Polities in the Seventeenth-Century Gold Coast (Baltimore and London:
Johns Hopkins UP, 1982), 131.

"The Asante kingdom arose in the late seventeenth century in response to the threatening neighboring kingdom of
Denkyira. Asafo companies served as militia to unite against Denkyira. Cole and Ross, 6-7; and Doran H. Ross,
Fighting with Art: Appliqud flags of the Fante Asafo (Los Angeles: University of California, 1979), 3.









hatchets, spades, copper basins, copper pots and buckets, tin pots and pans) and various cutlery

and weapons. Other items included beads and coral, earthenware, mirrors, hats, shirts and leather

bags. Although Kea does not report that these European goods were directly traded at Anomabo,

they were traded in nearby ports such as Moree. 54 These interactions, cloths and goods all

provided exciting visual stimuli for the Anomabos.

According to Hull, "we must see a town or a city as a center, not only of population but of

religion, the arts, governance, the military, industry, or commerce ... Towns and cities also act

as cultural transmitters... urban synthesizers of a wide array of diverse cultures "55 Great

cities like Anomabo were founded on the efforts of middlemen, "or focal points of commercial

exchange."56 Emerging urban centers like Anomabo developed societies with effective

leadership that could command resources and control the increasingly diverse population. The

city also had to have a supply of skilled people to perform specialized tasks. Anomabo not only

hosted European traders but also it catered to traders and laborers of various kinds from other

African regions, creating ethnically diverse populations. This cultural mixing "played a key role

in the emergence of an urban coastal identity and the development of a larger national

identity."57

The Melting Pot

Contact with American traders, mainly interested in the slave trade, began in the early

eighteenth century.58 Captains from Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and New York were frequent


54Ibid.

5Hull, 388-391, 400.
56Ibid.

57Holsey, 28.
58Flather, 102; Hull, 389; and Shumway, 146.









entrance, with pillars on each side and possibly a balcony above it. There was no further

decoration.4 An example of Dutch Palladianism is located in Anomabo with today's Omanhen's

Palace.

The Dutch Lodge / Omanhen's Palace

According to colleagues in the field, the Omanhen's Palace (Figure B-8) was constructed

in 1621 by Fante builders. However, the heavily fortified walls of stone, brick and local shell

mortar suggest European sources for these materials and building technology. Flather states that

the Dutch began construction on Anomabo's first lodge in 1639 or 1640. Work was temporarily

halted when the English told the Dutch that the Fante territory had been ceded to the English.

Yet, after the arrival of the Dutch Commander, Arent Jacobsz van der Graeff (1557-1642), the

lodge was soon completed under his supervision. 5 The structure dates to the earliest period of

cultural contact in Anomabo and reflects the restrained style of Dutch Palladianism. The lodge is

located in the northern part of Krokessin.

Ten or twelve years later the Swedes captured it. Danish forces took the lodge in 1657

under Caerlof, and the Dutch recaptured it in 1660.6 When the second Dutch-Anglo war ended in

1667 (Treaty of Breda), the British gained a foothold in Anomabo and had begun building Fort

Charles by 1672 or 1673. An early chief, perhaps Eno or Eno Besi, inhabited the Dutch lodge at

this time and declared it his palace.





4Ibid.

5Flather, 23. Flather located this information in the Dutch Records available at the University of Ghana in Legon.
Anquandah stated that the Dutch lodge in Anomabo was built under the direction of Polish mercenary Heindrick
Caerlof, a. k. a. Sir Henry Carlof. Kwesi J. Anquandah, Castles & Forts ofGhana (Paris: Atalante, 1999), 10. His
source is not given.
6Claridge, vol. 2, 594.










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status as well. The omanhen, as part of the traditional hierarchy, would want to assert his power,

now granted by the British colonial government but only at a subservient level. The son would

want to assert his power as a member of the coastal elite whose power had been extricated. Atta

was also a member of the royal family and a potential participant in the ruling hierarchy. Perhaps

his display was an attempt to stage his future ascension to the omanhen stool, which never

materialized. 31 As exemplified in The Russell House, the new coastal elite lifestyle was meant to

symbolize that they had gained wisdom through their education and global connections. Having

the ability to construct a stone house of such size and prominence and of a style reflecting his

worldly knowledge and travel symbolizes both Amonoo V's and Atta Amonoo's power.

"Power says, with God all things are possible." This adage is crudely painted on the

current entrance door to the Lawyer Atta Amonoo Family Residence (Figure B-88). This saying

is an altered form of the popular Biblical phrase, "With God all things are possible." (Mark

10:27) The adage on the door however is appropriate to ascribe to this monumental structure, for

its imposing size, placement, and European architectural style served as a visual statement of

power and wealth. Not only would the immense structure be visible to everyone in the town, but

also to every passerby on the coastal road. It is a tantalizing idea that these men may have been

subtly displacing British colonial forces by embracing their power symbols, for the architecture

makes a powerful visual statement by transforming British technology and Palladian style into

something entirely belonging to African coastal elites.

The Family Residences of Allen Quansah- A Fante Comparison in Cape Coast

Allen Quansah was a wealthy Fante merchant with farms and lands throughout the area.

According to the current abusuapanyin, Crement Thomason, Quansah had two wives and


31Kwa Alex Appiah was appointed Regent at the time of Amonoo V's death until a new omanhen could be
enstooled. Gold Coast Leader (May 21, 1921), 7.










Vlach, John Michael. "Afro-Brazilian." In Vernacular Architecture of the World, ed. Paul
Oliver, 2033-2034. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1997.

Ward, W. E. F. A History of Ghana. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1958.

Wass, Betty M. and S. Modupe Broderick. "The Kaba Sloht." African Arts 12 (3 May 1979): 62-
65, 96.

Weir, Hugh. Houses of Clare. Whitegate, County Clare: Ballinakella, 1986.

Wendl, Tobias. "Entagled Traditions: Photography and the History of Media in Southern
Ghana." Anthropology and Aesthetics 39 (Spring 2001): 78-101.

Wilks, Ivor. Asante in the Nineteenth Century: The Structure and Evolution of a Political Order.
Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1975.

----. "A Medieval Trade-Route from the Niger to the Gulf of Guinea." Journal ofAfrican
History 3 (2, 1962): 337-341.

----. "Islam in Ghana History." The Ghana Bulletin of Theology II, 3 (December 1962): 20-28.

"William Ansah Seseraku." The Gentlemen's Magazine 19 (February 1749): 89-90.

Wilson, Arthur. The Living Rock: The Story of Metals since Earliest Times and Their Impact on
Civilization. Cambridge: Woodhead, 1996.

Wilson, Godfrey. "An Essay on the Economics of Detribalization in Northern Rhodesia." The
Rhodes-Livingstone papers, no. 5. Manchester: Manchester UP, 1941.

Yarak, Larry W. "Early Photography in Elmina," Ghana Studies CouncilNewsletter 8 (1995).

Archival Records

GHANA MUSEUMS AND MONUMENTS BOARD, ACCRA

"The Little Fort" file, vols. 1 and 2.



GHANA NATIONAL ARCHIVES, CAPE COAST

Regional Records Original Correspondence

ADM. 23/1/128. Anomabo Native Affairs, November 15, 1906 March 29, 1910.


















































Figure B-73. Justice Akwa Family Residence, Front
Justice Akwa
c. 1900
Stone nog brick facing
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photo by Courtnay Micots, 2009)







358









the sentry niche and small barrel-vaulted storage area is now used as a sacred storage area. I was

told that in the distant past, this room and the room to the east of the stairs were used as

dungeons for criminals. To the west of this courtyard is a wide opening to another long room. In

one corner, several stools are stored on their sides for visiting chiefs. A window opens to the

entrance foyer. At the opposite end of the window is a doorway leading to a small transitional

room. This room houses the kyensin drum, a short drum used for emergency meetings.

The Western door leads into the omanhen's sacred rooms, including a second courtyard.

Piers support a three-sided veranda above. Several rooms surround this courtyard. A large brick

barrel-vaulted niche is built into the northern side of this courtyard, underneath the stairs. This

niche may have originally been used as an oven for cooking or forging.12

The southern door off the transitional room leads into the third courtyard towards the back

of the building. Originally only three rooms extended from this space. The courtyard was once

open to the southern side, but now rammed earth additions have somewhat enclosed this space.

Lastly, two ground floor rooms are accessed from the exterior of the building. These are

located on the western side of the building, behind the omanhen's sacred courtyard. They are

small rooms and serve no purpose today. The room to the north was once used as a post office

during the colonial era. This room has a curiously small, sliver-shaped window facing north.

The original flooring on the second level would have been made of wood planks. They

have since been replaced with swish floors supported by tree limbs laid in parallel fashion about

a foot apart, which is visible from underneath. The floors have received a recent cement plaster.

Stairs from the first courtyard leads to the large Visitor's Hall (Figure B-27). Four windows




12No one except the omanhen and his closest attendants and priests are allowed access to this area of the lodge
today. My plan was estimated via my view from the veranda above.















































Figure B-95. W. E. D. A. Lodge, Back
William Emmanuel Daniel Acquaah
1963
Brick, concrete, stone facing, tile facing
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photograph by Courtnay Micots, 2008)










380









having lost the Capacity of supporting it, this Castle has been slighted. The Walls
and Ruins of it, however, still remain.9

For the next two decades, the French negotiated for the rights to build a fort on the site of Fort

Charles. Although the French appealed to Kurentsir with gifts of a broad sword, French brandy,

hats and other dashes, to build a lodge or fort in Anomabo, their appeals were of no avail. 10

Structure C-3. Fort William

The Company of Merchants was established in 1750 to succeed the Royal African

Company. This newly-formed company returned to Anomabo in 1753 to reestablish their station

and rebuild their fort. The French, who were proposing to build a fort at Anomabo at the same

time, were frustrated by the arrival of John Apperley, an engineer whose design had been

accepted in London, and who was sent out to execute it.11 Apperley was known in England for

building the Plymouth dockyard.12

On January 4, 1753, Apperley, the Engineer Superintendent of the Company of Merchants,

arrived in Anomabo with stores and materials of the value of 6,116 3 s. 9d. to construct the fort

(Figure B-7). Imported brick, lime and timber were used in conjunction with local sand, shells

and stone. 13 Although he was instructed by his superiors in London to complete the fort within

two years, he found only seven bricklayers, "white and black," on the coast to add to the five he

brought. His letters complain of the inability to find enough trained masons and of those he



9Sesarakoo, 16-17.
10J. N. Matson, "The French at Amoku," Transactions ofthe Gold Coast and Togoland Historical Society 1 (2,
1953), 47-48. Dantzig is the only source that states the French actually built a small fort, which they purposefully
demolished before leaving Anomabo to the English. No source is given for his information, 58-59.

"Lawrence, 349; and Doortmont and Savoldi, 132.
'I\ i b.iin St. Clair, The Grand Slave Emporium: Cape Coast Castle and the British Slave Trade (London: Profile,
2006), 186.
13Ibid.









by James R. Sanders. 5 I have consolidated his lists and updated them with data provided by

several colleagues in the field (Table A-i).

The coastal city of Anomabo is historically significant as the primary commercial hub

along the Gold Coast for more than 130 years, from the last quarter of the seventeenth century to

1807. Anomabo experienced urbanization because of its location on the coast and at the end of a

direct trade route with the Asante gold mines to the north. During this period the first attempt at

creating a Fante Coalition was manuevered by the omanhen Besi Kurentsir. Thus, Anomabo

became the first unofficial Fante capital.

Even though Anomabo was once an important urban site on the coast, today its port is

closed, much of its historic grandeur in ruins, seemingly a sleepy, rural town unaffected by

global concerns. Yet, unusual combinations of technologies, ideas and motifs converge in this

one site. Like numerous pre-colonial African cities, Anomabo experienced urbanization,

attracting and combining cultures.

People express themselves through architecture. A coastal urban center like Anomabo can

be read from this viewpoint. Unlike other Ghanaian port cities like Elmina and Cape Coast; or

Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC); Dakar, Senegal; and Johannesburg South

Africa; Anomabo was not subjected to a European urban design. There was no "European

Town." As such, Anomabo ranks among other urban centers in Africa, like Djenne in Mali

today.

Anomabo thwarted European developments via clever political and economic maneuvering

engineered primarily by the omanhens of the eighteenth century, particularly by Kurentsir. This

ability to stimulate commercial trading with a variety of outside cultures, yet deny large-scale

5James R. Sanders, "The Political Development of the Fante in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries: A Study of
a West African Merchant Society," (Ph.D. diss., NorthWestern University, 1980), 271-274 and Table 10 on p. 280.









From my first visit to Anomabo, OmanhenNana Kantomanto Amonoo XI has been a

supporter of my interest in Anomabo history and arts. It was the TuafohenNana Obuesiwua VII,

a. k. a. J. Ebow Quashie, who introduced me to the aforementioned Nana Kwa, the man who

would become my main colleague in the field. I sincerely thank Nana Kwa who introduced me to

many of the people interviewed for this study and often served as an interpreter.

Other elders who imparted important historical information for this study include Kwame

Esuon, a. k. a. James Mensah, a. k. a. Osebo, and Safohen Kofi Dickson of Anomabo, Victor

Aggrey of Saltpond, and Ishmael Parry of Larteh. The abusuapanyin (family heads), descendants

and friends shared their home and family histories with me, as well as any documents and

pictures. Among the many people to whom thanks are due in Anomabo are the following: at the

Dutch Lodge, now the Omanhen's Palace, I am grateful to Omanhen Amonoo XI, his wife

Omankrado Nana Gyanwa (queen mother ofAjumako Besease), and the omanhen's personal

secretary Daniel Kofi Gdlonyah. For information regarding the Tuafohen's Palace I am indebted

to Tuafohen Obuesiwua VII and his brother Kobina Atta, a. k. a. Emmanuel Okyem. At the

Twidan Clan House, I must thank Ekua Bentuma, Kobena Kum, Kobena Essilfie and Joseph

Kwesi Thompson.

For lively discussions regarding the George Kuntu Blankson Addition, I thank Edward

Kofi Abaidoo and Ebenezer Austin Sagoe. I am grateful to Kofi Tietu, a. k. a. Paul Amo, and

Charles Otu at the Kodwo Kuntu House. At the Kwesi Amo House, I thank Eric Amonoo, a. k. a.

Kwesi Obuakwan, and Samuel Bonney, a. k. a. Kobina Gyebi. I extend my thanks to Elizabeth

Anderson and Araba Dansowa Bentum Annan at the Charles Bentum Annan Family Residence. I

am sincerely grateful to Stephen Kwame Ackon for his memories of the Kodwo Baffoe Family

Residence.



















































Figure B-92. Krontihen's Palace, Entrance
Kow Appiah
c. 1900
Rammed earth, stone nog brick facing
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photo by Courtnay Micots, 2009)






377































}'E~luse'e------
61 f,,+





I 1'o *
Si .... ".,,'- --
MQM .. "( -
.,c


.-3..0 -.La3 0 j "4 )'i. _____I___ __.7-I .-


I-







Figure B-68. Survey from Indenture Document
1895
Anomabo, Ghana
(Copy provided by Kwesi Edukuma Hagan, 2009)









the Town, to give me what Ground I shall want, by shortening the Faces of the
Bastion from 55 to 50 Feet in length, being bound by the Beach (where the
Inhabitants must have a Road to carry their Dead past the Fort to their Burying
Ground) on one side, and the Houses on the othe three Sides.

As is the Custom of the Country to bury the Chiefs of their Families in their
Houses, no Reward will prevail on them to take down the least Part for our
convenience.

The Length of both Towns from East to west is one Mile and 14 and built along the
Beach, the Breadth fromNorth to South half a Mile. The Old Fort stands in the
Middle between both Towns, on a Rock eight Feet above High Water Mark, and
sixty Yards distant... I shall be obliged to blow up about six Feet perpendicular of
Rock under the greatest part of the New Fort for the conveniency of getting Stone
for the building; the Quantity of Bricks, sent out, will only raise the Parapet and
Houses the Inside of the Fort, and leveling the Ground the Inside. 16

Apperley complained regularly in his letters to England of being forced to stop work due

to disagreements between chiefs in Anomabo and other unexplained interruptions by the

inhabitants of Anomabo. However, in the end, Apperley skillfully won the support ofKurentsir

in whose palace (the former Dutch Lodge) he stayed during the construction. He was obliged to

reduce the original size of the fort in a compromise: one fort wall stopped short of the beach so

that locals had a road to carry their dead past the fort to their burying ground. The northwest

bastion was limited by some ancestral houses, due to the practice ofburials taking place in

family homes.17 Apperley also chose not to carry out the provisional scheme of restoring and

extending Fort Charles, but built entirely anew. Only the inland extremity of the fort overlapped

the previous site. The courtyard plan of the fort depicts these compromises.

Like the Dutch Lodge, Anomabo Fort utilized a two-story courtyard plan. According to

Lawrence, the Medieval fortress plan of the fort was, like many others, based on the fort at

Elmina. Forts built after Elmina consisted of a single fortified enclosure, lined with rooms


16Crooks, 23-24.
17Ibid., 20-28.









Reasonably, similar imposing structures in Anomabo would have had the same effect upon

political interchanges.

Cultural Authentification

Family houses built by African coastal elites visually bridge two cultures African and

European -and make powerful statements about the ability of this group to assimilate outside

ideas and transform them into a new and dynamic art form. These structures demonstrate how

the Fante and other coastal Africans used the creative process of appropriation and

transformation, or cultural authentification, to communicate their status and identity visually.

The process of cultural authentification involves four stages: selection, characterization,

incorporation and transformation.

The process, however, is more complicated than a linear progression of selection to

transformation. This study of stone nog architecture has shown that certain forms and plans were

appropriated and immediately transformed during the same early period (prior to 1900). For

example, the Blankson Addition shows transformation of the Hall and Chamber plan with an

additional chamber in the late 1860s. In 1898-1899 The Russell House borrows the sobrado plan

but alters it slightly for shops facing two streets. The Russell House may show evidence of a

transformation in the construction technique as well. The layering of stone nog in sections, or the

appearance of it, may stem from rammed earth construction methods.

Therefore, the progression from selection to transformation is a complicated one, with

transformation taking place at the outset with these examples. Confirmation of an advanced

transformation phase in Anomabo occurs later in the building period, for the Lawyer Atta

Amonoo Family Residence, was built in c. 1920. Using the framework provided by Erekosima

and Eicher is still useful because cultural authentification is a process, and this process allows an

understanding of how these new forms that look European are entirely coastal African. Through









building. Both display a symmetrical window placement, and several bays are created across the

facade using two-story pilasters. The Okrikan building has a veranda over its arcade. The

structures are dissimilar in that Amonoo's residence was built in stone nog with brick and limited

use of cement blocks, whereas the Okrikan building was constructed from molded concrete

blocks having an ornate surface pattern. Thus, this building has a floral, decorative surface. In

addition, the windows are not Palladian, as seen on Amonoo's residence, rather they are

rectangular with corbels or brackets above, presumably to hold a wooden shade. Most striking

about the Okrikan building is its roofline, comprised of crenallations with adjoining cross bars,

literally creating a crown. The original roof of Amonoo' s residence was a timber and metal

shingle roof like many of the typical mission-style roofs. Therefore, the Okrikan structure is far

more ornate in style than Amonoo's residence, yet both present an imposing persona derived

from a transformation of various European and local architectural appropriations.

Other similarities are found between the structures in Anomabo and southeastern Nigeria.

Okoye finds asymmetrical elements in the Ojiakor House, but attributes it to practical solutions

and lack of skill instead of an aesthetic choice. He questions the irregular bay spacings on the

ground level when the upper level is "clearly and precisely thought out."46 Even if the original

issue of a needed doorway at a certain location was a practical building solution, the entire

building could have been conceived symmetrically if that was the intention. It was more likely an

off-beat aesthetic choice, similar to those seen in nearly every building in Anomabo. In no way

does this choice reflect a lack of skill. Instead, I argue that it takes greater skill for the builder,

like a musician, to improvise upon the symmetrical base and add elements of syncopation for a

greater sense of Akan and West African rhythm.


46Ibid., 274-275.









either of them or any such other person or persons as aforesaid or any person claiming through or

in trust for them or any of them And further that the Vendors respectively and every person or

persons having or claiming any estate or interest in the said premises through or in trust for them

or either of them or any such other person or persons as aforesaid will at all times at the coast of

the said Vendors their heirs successors and Assigns execute and do or cause to be executed and

done every such act deed assurance or thing for the further or more effectually assuring all or any

part of the said premises to the use of the said Purchasers their heirs as aforesaid or assigns as by

them shall be reasonably required In Witness whereof the said parties to these Presents have

hereinto set their hands and seals at Anamaboe the day and year first above Written


Signed sealed

and delivered in the

presence of

[signed] Essi Affowooh (sic) X her mark

[signed] AmbahKobinba X her mark

[signed] Robert Nitequack (sic)

[signed] Mclure (sic)

Witness marks

[signed] J. Yankah


[signed] W. T. N. Yankah

[signed] J. Simason (sic)

[signed] Animbal Akayire X her mark

[signed] J. O. Hammond

[signed] F. M. Hammond

[signed] C. O. Acquaah


On the 13th day ofDec 1895 at 10.30 o'clock in the forenoon this instrument was proved before

me by the oath of the within named C. O. [these initials have been crossed out and R M written









pediments and Palladian-style staircases." After 1850, "a unique villa design developed,

Palladian inspired, with a double staircase leading to an upper-floor entrance, apiano nobile

effect .... They were built of wood or stone, or sometimes both .... They evolved elegant

window arrangements for the essential front balcony or gallery."28 Thus, in Barbados elements

of the Palladian intermixed with local traditions to assert the status of the client.

Similar to those in Barbados, vernacular houses of Jamaica, settled by the British in 1655,

adopted Georgian and Palladian designs in the eighteenth century after the sugar boom.

"Georgian style ... was introduced, first in pure form, perhaps from commercially sold

architect's drawings, and later with much variation and adaptation. Georgian and Palladian

designs reflected the taste of the colonizers and in turn impressed the Creole population. But in

each island unique preferences developed, so that plantation houses, for example, evolved quite

differently in Jamaica and Barbados, each adopting distinct solutions to similar problems, yet

retaining enough of the original harmony, symmetry and details..."29 Green uses the term

"Jamaica-Georgian" to refer to the Georgian type structures of the mid-eighteenth to mid-

nineteenth centuries that evolved with local modifications within Jamaica's sociocultural and

climatic environment. It is widely used on all types of building such as domestic, commercial

and public buildings in both the urban and rural context. 30

Residences in the Jamaica-Georgian style were

constructed as masonry and sometimes timber core buildings to which piazzas were
added, and Doric was the most popular classical detail decorated with dentils and
modillions of that architectural order. The buildings are characterized by a steeply


2Henry S. Fraser, "Barbadian," in Vernacular Architecture ofthe World, ed. Paul Oliver (Cambridge: Cambridge
UP, 1997), 1704.
29Henry S. Fraser, "British Colonial," in Vernacular Architecture ofthe World, ed. Paul Oliver (Cambridge:
Cambridge UP, 1997), 1706-1707.
30Green, "Jamaica-Georgian," 1716.









streets of Cayenne in French Guiana... "commercial and even residential buildings face directly

onto the public way. Balconies with wood or iron balustrading project from the facade above

pedestrian level... Facades are often classical, with large, well-proportioned windows in generous

wall surfaces."37

Not only did locals and Africans in West Africa, the Caribbean and South America adopt

European styles and plans for their architecture, but also the Europeans living in these tropical

climates appropriated African housing elements and blended those with their own to create

something new. Fraser noted: "The resilience of the African structures to withstand the heat and

natural disasters of the tropics resulted in the eventual adoption of some of the aspects of the

African construction practices by the Europeans which gave birth to an early vernacular

expression, or creole architecture, by the close of the 18th century."38 As such the Europeans also

used the process of cultural authentification to marry their Georgian Palladian heritage with local

and African (slaves) housing.

Afro-Brazilian Communities

Afro-Brazilian architecture incorporates elements from Portuguese and Brazilian housing.

African or mulatto slaves in Brazil, some of whom were fortunate enough to gain their freedom

as early as the seventeenth century, became merchants in the urban port cities, such as Salvador

in the Bahia state. Those who amassed small fortunes built family residences that reflected their

new-found status. Groups of Afro-Brazilians made their way in the nineteenth century to West

Africa, settling in small communities within the larger port cities, such as the Brazilian quarter in

Lagos, Nigeria, or Jamestown in Accra, Ghana. Here too, those who succeeded built impressive


37Ibid., 1712.
38Fraser, "Architectural," 1702.









descendants of his domestics, and marking the place where he is buried."21 The Methodist

cemetery was moved in the late 1990s, and the family moved the marble stone for Brew's wife to

the courtyard house where he and his wife are said to have lived before the stone residence was

built. The whereabouts of his "large stone monument" is unknown. 22

British Palladian Style and Plan

This question of who built the Castle Brew Addition is crucial when considering the

architectural choices made. Only the first floor remains, but the style and materials selected are

in obvious appropriation of the British Palladian style found throughout the coast. A symmetrical

and broad arcade with four, brick-formed, true arches welcomed potential clients to Blankson's

store. These large brick arches form a Palladian arcade facing the beach to the south.

The Hall and Chamber plan was utilized (Figure B-31). The arch on each end opens into a

chamber that has another large archway opening to the main hall. Another larger room extends

eastward beyond this Hall and Chamber plan. This room links the Blankson Addition to

Cruickshank's Addition. On the common wall a window or door is currently blocked. The

mushroom arch over this entry matches those of Castle Brew and the Cruickshank Addition. The

mushroom arch is not used in the Blankson Addition. It would make sense that the original entry

may have been a window and then it was made into a door during Blankson's construction of the

second addition. The doorway was blocked to probably keep out intruders sometime after 1873.

Observing the overall plan of the ground floor, it seems well-suited for a merchant's shop.

The arcade allowed easy access to the space and into the courtyard. The room to the east may

have been used as a storeroom. Three arched windows that extend almost to the floor are located



21Priestley, West African Trade, 156-157.
22Collins Brew's obituary from The Gold Coast Times is reprinted in AppendixD, see Document D-1.









J. E. Casely Hayford and William Ward Brew

Hutton Brew's nephews J. E. Casely Hayford (1866-1930) and William Ward Brew (1878-

1943) were educated in England and became barristers.79 The Hayfords lived in the Krokessin

area of town in stone nog houses. These were demolished and replaced with concrete houses in

the 1930s. Casely Hayford was an active journalist, writer and politician. He helped to form the

National Congress of British West Africa, established in Accra in 1920. He served as President

from 1923 until his death in 1930. Ward Brew was one of the founding members. 80

Samuel Henry Brew

The second Samuel Henry Brew (1867-June 6, 1922), a great great great grandson of

Richard Brew, was a government official for more than 30 years and was described as "a man of

great literary ability."81 He was Secretary to the Native Jurisdiction Bill Committee, and his

interest in education eventually led him to his last position as Chief Clerk to the Medical

Department. Circumstances were more difficult during the colonial era, and Henry Brew was

kept back from higher greater rank.82

Ebenezer Annan Brew

Samuel Henry Brew's younger brother Ebenezer Annan Brew (1878-1932) was born in

Cape Coast. He spent two years at Hope gardens in Jamaica for agricultural training and later

worked as an assistant at the Botanical Station in Aburi, near Accra. At first, promotions came

slowly to Ebenezer. Yet by 1922, he was promoted into senior levels of the Agricultural

Department. "By the nineteen-twenties...the government machine had made some


79Priestley, West African Trade, 127.

80Ibid., 173.

8Gold Coast Leader (July 17, 1920), 2.
82Ibid.; and Priestley, West African Trade,, 173.









the people are carry'd ashore in canoes, which come out from the town, to a narrow sandy

beach."35

Anomabo' s exponential growth in the last quarter of the seventeenth century was the result

of its trading significance and the subsequent immigration of people from nearby coastal areas,

especially Abura and Elmina. Over a thousand fishermen relocated from Elmina between 1642

and 1681. This increased population boosted Anomabo's economic and military power. 36 The

earliest immigration of fishermen from Dutch Kommenda and Elmina formed the neighborhoods

known today as Fare, or "fishing village," and Etsiwa. It seems likely that the Elmina fisherman

took over the original Etsii area. They originally used the area northwest of these called

Bantuma, or "mausoleum," as their cemetery. However, today Bantuma is integrated into

Anomabo as a housing and commercial neighborhood (Figure B-1).

As trade increased and the town developed into a more urban environment, more groups

immigrated to Anomabo. According to local historians, these people came from Elmina,

Kommenda, and Winneba as well as from the Gomoa and Ekumfi districts. Two descriptions

from the eighteenth century describe Anomabo's dimensions and appearance. John Apperley

wrote that:

...this place is distinguished by the Cabboceer and Fishing Towns... The Length of
both Towns, from East to West is one Mile and 14 and built along the Beach, the
Breadth from North to South half a mile. The Old Fort stands in the Middle
between the Towns, on a Rock eight Feet above High Water Mark, and sixty Yards
distant. There is a steep Beach opposite the Fort, but a tolerable Good Landing





35Hair, Jones and Law, 420. This may be Barbot's recollection or from his brother James Barbot who anchored at
Anomabo.
36A. Adu Boahen, "Asante and Fante A.D. 1000-1800," in A Thousand Years of West African History: A Handbook
for Teachers and Students, ed. J. F. Ade Ajayi and Ian Espie (Ibadan, Nigeria: Ibadan UP, 1965), 183; Flather 36-
38; and Dickson, 68.









APPENDIX B:
FIGURES


Figure B-1. Ghana
(Drawing by Courtnay Micots, 2009)









it, they transformed it into an entirely new local form by the nineteenth century. 1 This is a

parallel example to cultural authentification on the central Ghanaian coast.

Cruickshank's descriptions of coastal Ghanaian towns in the second quarter of the

nineteenth century for the most part probably came from his knowledge of Anomabo and Cape

Coast since he spent much of his time at these sites. As Cruickshank notes, "The changes that

begin to take place in the style of houses and the building materials, in furniture and decoration,

in clothing, and occupations all afford an insight into the social effects of the encounter between

Europe and Africa."2 Such family houses were built in the towns, while much of the living took

place in the hinterland where the crops were grown and harvested. Thus, the African coastal

elites lived in small wattle and daub houses in the hinterland and built swish (rammed earth?)

residences in the towns and cities. Cruickshank laments the state of these residences, often

neglected for long periods of time.

they gradually come to limit their visits to stated occasions of public festivity or
annual custom-making. At last the disjunction is completed by the fallen roof and
broken-down walls of the old family house, always to be, but never repaired. ...
The principal towns are deformed by heaps of roofless walls in all stages of decay,
while substantial houses of higher pretensions are being built upon new sites in
uninhabited parts of the country. These houses are built in mud, or 'swish' ..3

Therefore, prior to the 1860s, Cruickshank described the coastal housing as swish

courtyard residences, some having two stories. In keeping with urban coastal practices to select

and incorporate many European cultural items, these items enhance their lives and display their

cosmopolitan status. The cultural authentification of such items was ongoing since the sixteenth

century when goods, especially textiles, from outside cultures, were traded on the coast. In


'Green, "Architecture," 1702-1703.
2Brodie Cruickshank, 22.
3Ibid., 288-290.









LIST OF FIGURES

Figure page

B 1 G h a n a .........................................................................2 8 6

B-2 M ap of Anom abo .......................... ........ .. .......... .. ............287

B-3 Kyirem N o. 6 Asafo Company Flag ...................................................... ... ............ 288

B-4 Dontsin No. 3 Asafo Company Posuban .................... ....... ....... ...............289

B-5 Kyirem No. 6 Asafo "Indian Regiment" Leading the Company ...................................290

B-6 Castle Brew and the Cruickshank Addition.................... ................ ...............291

B -7 Fort W illiam ......... .. ........ ................. ................. ......... 292

B-8 D utch Lodge / O m anhen's Palace................................ ...................... ............... 293

B-9 Lawyer Atta Amonoo Family Residence, Front ......................................................294

B-10 Lawyer Atta Amonoo Family Residence, Plan.................................... ............... 295

B -11 N ana K w a N yanfoeku A kw a ........................................ .............................................296

B-12 Kow Otu Family Residence (2), Aerial Plan from 1931 Gold Coast Survey ..................297

B-13 Kow Otu Family Residence (1), with Descendant Ama...........................................298

B-14 W illiam Ansah Sesarakoo (b.c. 1727) ............................................................ ........... 299

B- 1 5 Fort Charles, 1679 .................. .................. ................. ........... ...............300

B-16 Fort Charles, 1682 ..................... .. .................. .... .......... 301

B-17 Fort Charles, c. 1700 .................................... ....... .......................302

B-18 Castle Brew, George Kuntu Blankson Addition................................... ............... 303

B-19 The Russell House, Front and East Side.................................. ....................... ........... 304

B -20 T uafo hen 's P alace, P lan ........................................................... .................................. 305

B-21 Tuafohen's Palace ....................................................... ............... ... ..... 306

B -22 Tw idan C lan Fam ily R evidence .......................................................................... ... ... 307

B-23 Twidan Clan Family Residence, Back.................. ......... .. ............................ 308









hands. In other areas, oil palm kernels, small pebbles or sea shells are also used as floor

finishes. 55

De Marees was the first to observe courtyard houses on the coast in 1602:

They link together three or four such Huts, standing next to each other so as to form
a square, so that the women have a place in the middle where they cook... They
surround their dwelling with a fence of Maize Stalks, about the height of a Man, or
as tall as the walls of their dwellings. 56

De Marees describes the typical Akan courtyard house in which four rectangular rooms with

thatched roofs, either separately or together, face a central courtyard. The courtyard was the

center of religious and fellowship functions and served as gathering places for socialization. The

courtyard plan has a long history.

The origin of the Akan courtyard house may stem from either the Egyptian or Roman

courtyard houses, the direct result of Roman conquest and imperialistic territorial expansionism

in North Africa in the first century. The earliest evidence of the courtyard plan stems from Egypt

for an enclosed courtyard was a very important aspect of ancient Egyptian architecture. Prussin

has established important architectural links along the Saharan east-west trade route. As a

highway of cultural, political and commercial exchange, the Saharan route connected most major

cities.57

The Roman houses are considered the first major introduction of Western architecture on

the continent. This house type later spread southward along the trans-Saharan trade routes either

as early as Roman times or later in the seventh to tenth century through Islamic traders or via

invasions. It likely reached the coast of Ghana via the Mande trade routes linking Islamic cities


55Faculty, 451.
56De Marees, 76.

57Labelle Prussin, "Convivencia at Timbuktu: Archetypes, Architects, and Artisans," University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL: Ham Eminent Scholar Chair in Art History ProgramPresentation, October 23, 2008. Photocopied.








































r ~~'~


) L(~'


Figure B-17. Fort Charles, c. 1700
Willem Bosman
c. 1679-1682
Stone, brick
Anomabo, Ghana
(Bosman, opposite page 41, Figures 8 and 9)









line the walkway from the steps to the doors. This elegant facade would have made an

impression upon the many visitors who would have entered the residence via the courtyard. As in

the Twidan Clan family residence, visitors entered the courtyard to ascend stairs into the visitor's

hall of the house. While English homes of the period had stairs indoors and not outdoors, outside

staircases were the norm on the Guinea coast. Whether Brew selected this feature from local

Fante housing or from other European housing on the coast is not documented. However, at Fort

William and many of the coastal forts, stairs from the courtyard lead to the upper story.

In Castle Brew, the two floors have the same plan (Figure B-31), with the entrance for the

downstairs on the front of the building and the courtyard entrance on the back side. A large room

emanates from each side of a central hall. Upstairs, the hall was used to receive and entertain

guests. On the ground floor two wide arches allowed access from the corridor to the rooms. This

floor is dark and was likely used for storage. Upstairs, doorways replace the arches, yet they

were topped with similar anse de panier arched openings. The original entrance double doors, on

both floors, were constructed from sturdy wood. The rooms on this upper floor are roomy and

light, thanks to their high flat ceilings and many windows.

Thus, the first building was conceived as a simple two-story box, using a strict

symmetrical plan. On Palladian residences, the entrance doors were often double doors with a

rectangular transom above. They were further capped with a decorate entablature supported by

pilasters. In Castle Brew, the anse de panier arch was carried throughout the plan for windows

and doorways. The pilasters were restricted to the facade, and no entablatures were used. Castle

Brew is topped by the usual Palladian cornice embellished with decorative moldings, though not

dentils. The roof, since replaced, may have looked something like the flat roof at Stourhead

House in Wiltshire, England, completed in 1720. Or, it may have been a hip roof like the one on


















































Figure B-94. Egyir Aggrey Family Residence
Egyir Aggrey
2004
Concrete
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photograph by Courtnay Micots, 2009)








379









courtyard. The Hall and Chamber configuration is not present. The ground floor consists of four

equally- sized small rooms measuring only about 8' x 9'.

The back of the house (Figure B-23) would originally have had timber stairs leading to the

visitor's hall, but it was replaced in 1971 with steep concrete steps. Upstairs, the visitor's hall is a

long room extending from one side of the house to the other. This room faces south towards the

ocean and takes full advantage of the cool ocean breezes. The inner wall evenly divides the

second floor in two. On the front side of the house are two bedchambers, each with a single door

to the hall.

A verandah was not built. However a curious ledge is present on the west side of the

building. Its intended purpose is perplexing. Local masons today thought such a ledge may have

been used to deflect water and protect the foundation. Another possibility was that the builder

wanted to make the first story thicker at the bottom to support the weight above better. While

either of these explanations is plausible, it seems odd that the ledge occurs only on the one side

of the building.

The ledge may be part of the off-beat phrasing, or asymmetry, present in this house. While

the room sizes are generally the same, doors and windows may not align. On the ground floor,

the windows in the south chambers do not align while those in the north chamber do. Upstairs,

no windows are present on the east side of the building or on the north wall of the northwest

chamber. If fact, this house shows a greater sense of the asymmetrical aesthetic than any other

house in this study. This may lead some to conclude that the craftsmanship may be poor. Perhaps

family members constructed the house, like the Yard House (Structure C-14), rather than

professional masons. Or, perhaps that's just the way the clients preferred the placement of doors

and windows.









apprenticeship training system was required to achieve the highest standard of craftsmanship. In

addition to beauty, the finished product was judged for its functionality, worksmanship and

durability. Builders were expected to subordinate their personal styles and ideas in favor of the

master's style and techniques that were passed down through the generations. This collectivity

encouraged anonymity. Although these masters may have been known to the people of their

time, their names were not recorded and have been lost. 46

Larger houses required the coordinated services of many different artisans. Unlike other

crafts, the erection of buildings took place at the site of the project. Construction skills were

learned by example and by demonstration at the site. Generally, construction was a complicated,

overall operation that often took years to complete. 47

The Two-Story Urban House

Anomabo has a large number of two-story houses built with rammed earth construction.

Local contractors believed that two-story houses were introduced by the Europeans on the coast.

Early European settlers built their homes on hills and/or with a second story having many

windows or a verandah to capture the best breezes. The Fante would have been quick to

appropriate this innovation. The Twidan Clan Family Residence (Structure C-1) is an example of

a two-story house built in the late 1920s to 1931, yet likely resembles those built much earlier.

Less than 70 years after De Marees, Villault recorded the different houses he viewed on the

coast, yet did not document which earthen construction technique was used.

Europeans having learned them the art ofbuilding the Officers and great
Merchants of this Countrey have followed their directions, and built themselves
houses, with high and lofty roofes, several apartments, with one chamber opening
into another, and usually at the door of their chamber two Slaves constantly


46Bassani and Fagg, 18.
47Fitchen, 14-17.




















































Figure B-19. The Russell House, Front and East Side
Reverend John Oboboam Hammond, Francis Medanyamease Hammond, Mrs.
Charlotte Oyemame Acquaah (1858 July 31, 1908)
1897-1898
Stone nog
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photo by Courtnay Micots, 2009)




304









Thus, the first Fort Charles (Figure B-15) was an earthern building more like a house,

possibly using local builders. Barbot's illustration depicts a two-story building a long wall

extending across the length of the beach with a tall two or three-story turret at the center. The

houses, shown behind the wall, may have been constructed in wattle and daub or rammed earth,

as Barbot's "turf' may have described either method.

A few years later, Barbot illustrated the second Fort Charles (Figure B-16) that was rebuilt

in stone, brick and lime around 1679, shortly after his drawing of the ruined first Fort Charles.

He described it as follows:

The village lies under the cannon of the English castle, lately built there, inftead of
an old house, which stood there in 1679, the mud walls whereof are still to be feen
before the castle. This is a fmall, neat, compact fort, as here represented in the cut;
being rather a large ftrong houfe, defended by two turrets on the one fide, and two
flankers on the other next to the fea, all built with ftone, brick and lime, and feated
on a rock, about thirty paces from the ftrand; having twelve good guns and two
pattareroes mounted on it, and commonly garrison'd by twelve white men, and
eighteen Grometto Blacks, under a chief factor. The lodgings within are convenient,
and there are proper warehoufes. 4

Given the close wording, it seems that Sesarakoo used Barbot's account above to inform

his text. Bosman only writes that in "Annamabo, the Englifh have a fmall, but very neat compact

Fort."5 Again, Bosman appears to be quoting Barbot's description. The illustration from his book

(Figure B-17) gives the impression that he described the fort to an artist in England who then

created the print. Barbot was known for making his own meticulous drawings. Therefore, Barbot

provides the most detailed description ofthe first and second versions of Fort Charles.

The second fort was likely constructed in stone nog with brick facing. Probably the few

British masons and carpenters trained and oversaw local African builders. Some of these builders


4Barbot, A description, 176.

5Bosman, 56.









seventeen surviving residences in Anomabo and by bringing to the fore the enduring influence of

cultural and artistic practices that developed during the pre-colonial period. Anomabo's historic

cosmopolitanism continues to influence current art forms evidencing the openness of artists to

new influences, motifs, experimentation and cultural blending.

The globalization of Anomabo and its culture must be placed in a historical perspective.

Anomabo's worldliness does not stem from its position as a satellite to Accra, Cape Coast or any

Western urban center, nor its positioning at the periphery of global flows, but reflects its past

position at the center of a vast cultural and commercial network. This historic cosmopolitanism

isn't a post-colonial phenomenon, and the evidence is made visible in the architecture of

Anomabo.

Historiography

In order to provide a comprehensive and holistic approach to the subject ofFante art and

architecture in the site of Anomabo, I have consulted a variety of sources from different

disciplines. Primary sources included documents from the historical periods, such as

correspondence and travel journals. These histories, written prior to the twentieth century by

Europeans and Americans, are fraught with personal agenda and opinions. Few of these sources

record the history, thoughts and beliefs of African cultures from their point of view. Pieter De

Marees is the first to describe the Fante coast in 1602. He includes detailed descriptions of the

housing, dress and customs. 51 NicolasVillault also described Fante housing dress and customs

witnessed on the Guinea Coast during his 1666-1667 voyage. 52 Willem Bosman wrote about his



51De Marees.
5Nicolas Villault, sieur de Bellefond, A Relation of the Coasts ofAfrick called Guinee with a description of the
countreys, manners and customs of the inhabitants, ofthe productions of the earth, and the merchandise and
commodities it afirdl. : with some historical observations upon the coasts : being collected in a voyage made by the
Sieur Villault ... in the years 1666, and 1667. (London: Printed for John Starkey, 1670).









after the official British withdrawal ofKumasi in 1826. Although Maclean's intention was

probably to convince Hutchison to give up his hold on the fort, Hutchison could not be forced to

relinquish it. According to a description written by the Landers: "Mr. Hutchison lives in his

castle like an English baron in the feudal times" with "his silken banners" flying over "his

turreted castle."105 Hutchison remained in the fort without pay until his death in 1832.

Amazingly, he was able to persuade other merchants to pay for the fort's upkeep. After he died,

the merchant company once again owned the fort. The British government reestablished their

ownership of the fort in 1844 when the Gold Coast colony was established. 106

For decades, the British operated as mediators between the two Akan groups, eventually

usurping control. Their interest was commercial; they did not want the trade routes to be severed,

denying access to the Asante gold mines. Yet, the British were sympathetic to the pitiable state

of the Fante people, often starved due to the lack of men available to fish and farm. When the

Asante attacked the Fante of Elmina in 1873, the British retaliated. Under Major General Garnet

Wolseley, the British defeated the Asante who signed the Treaty ofFomena on March 14, 1874.

By July of the same year, Britain formally established the British Crown Colony of the Gold

Coast. This made legal a colonial policy that had been in force since the signing of the bond

between coastal leaders and British in 1844. 107





105Flanders, 119.
106Flather, 118, footnote 320.

107Fynn, 33. Oddly, Amonoo IV is honored with a bronze statue in Anomabo as one of their three heroes. The other
statues honor Dr. James Emman Kodwo Mensa Otsiwadu HumamfunsamKwegyirAggrey (October 18, 1875-July
30, 1927) and George Ekem Ferguson (1864-1897). Amonoo IV is credited by locals as one of the primary Fante
signers of the Bond of 1844, which led the nation toward colonialism However, the dates of reign forAmonoo IV
recorded by Sanders (July 3, 1869 November 23, 1900) do not correlate. Sanders, "The Political Development,"
280. When I asked local historians about this, they were not able to rectify this discrepancy. No statues honor
Kurentsir even though he was Anomabo state's first omanhen and perhaps the Fante's greatest leader.









ways. So, while the process wasn't named, there was certainly awareness that it was taking

place.1

Anthropologists in recent years have debated the motivation behind "mimicry" among

Africans during the colonial era.2 Since the Anomabo coastal elites discussed in this study were

not alive to interview and they did not leave papers behind expressing their views on this matter,

it is difficult to determine their exact reasons for appropriating British architectural elements.

However, two theories behind their reasoning can be proven. First, it can be shown that cultural

authentification was a process used that combined British and Afro-Brazilian elements into the

local architectural vernacular, thus widening the scope of their "mimicry" by the inclusion of

Afro-Brazilian elements. Second, such borrowings, which occurred all along the West African

coast, demonstrate a widespread desire of the part of Africans to visually express their status as

wealthy, cosmopolitan, global individuals who were educated and economically connected. This

was well-expressed by British anthropologist Godfrey Wilson in 1941.

They wanted, that is, to be full and equal citizens of a modern urban society. If they
enthusiastically adopted elaborate forms of European dress and manners, it was to
press their claim 'to be respected by the Europeans and by one another as civilized,
if humble, men, members of the new world society.'3

The family residences in Anomabo were constructed by some of the most powerful

members of the coastal elite class as a visual form pressing their rights in a global sociocultural

order. In other words, their membership in lucrative commercial enterprises on the coast and in


'Among the exponents against this trend were John Mensah Sarbah, James Hutton Brew, Samuel Richard Brew
Attoh Ahuma, Joseph Ephraim Casely Hayford and Kobina Sekyi, a. k. a. William Esuman-Gwira Sekyi (1892-
1956). Sekyi wrote the comedic satire The Blinkards, which thoughtfully and mercilessly teases other African
coastal elite members who adopted European ways. Kobina Sekyi, The Blinkards (London: Heinemann, 1974).

2James Ferguson, "Of Mimicry and Membership: African and the 'I ic World Society'," Cultural l,. ah '. '-, 17
(4, 2002): 553-555.

Ibid.; and Godfrey Wilson, "An Essay on the Economics ofDetribalization in Northern Rhodesia," The Rhodes-
Livingstone papers, no. 5 (Manchester: Manchester UP, 1941), 19-20.









the Anomabo state. Appadurai, however, applies C. A. Bayly's ideas that technological

innovations in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries "created complex colonial orders

centered on European capitals and spread throughout the non-European world."45 While trade

with Europeans on the coast was primarily responsible for the growth of Anomabo, this growth

took place a century earlier than Bayly supposes. The Anomabos were very much in control of

trading relations with the Europeans and Americans who docked at port. It was not until their

crushing defeat in the 1807 war with the Asante, that the Fante lost their power to the British

colonial order. Thus, the British gained their power in Anomabo, not because of any

technological advances, but due to their being literally in the right place at the right time.

According to historian Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch in The History ofAfrican Cities, "the

urban lifestyle transforms the habits and mentalities" of city dwellers and those who are subject

to the power of urban institutions and culture.46 Historian Richard W. Hull defines the city as a

center, a place where both population and civilization are concentrated, attracting and blending

cultures and memories. A city becomes a site for cultural sharing and dissemination.47 Coquery-

Vidrovitch adds that the city absorbs, integrates and blends these contributions from the outside

to create new cultures, and in turn, conveys the result to the outside world. 48 Anomabo grew

from a village to a town to a thriving city with the increasing importance of coastal trade in the

seventeenth century. Then it reverted to a town again when it was defeated by the Asante in



45Ibid.; and C. A. Bay ly, Imperial Meridian: The British Empire and the World, 1780-1830 (London and New York:
Longman, 1989).
46Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch, The History of African Cities South ofthe Sahara: From the Origins to
Colonization (Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2005), 9.
47Richard W. Hull, "Urban Design and Architecture in Precolonial Africa," Journal of Urban History 2 (4 August
1976), 388.
4Coquery-Vidrovitch, 17.









linked several rectangular rooms together, enclosing a central courtyard space to create the Akan

courtyard house. This popular plan is utilized across southern Ghana and Nigeria, and its origins

are debated. The two-story rammed earth house, common in Anomabo, is also explored as it

further demonstrates pre-colonial cultural authentification. It may originate from European or

Western Sudanic sources.

Chapter 4: The European Palladian Style This chapter focuses on the earliest stone nog

residences European lodges, forts and houses. Characteristics of the Dutch Palladian and

English Palladian styles are described and related to the Anomabo structures. Certain elements

from the Medieval and Palladian styles as well as stone nog construction will be appropriated in

the colonial period by the African coastal elites.

Chapter 5: Selection and Incorporation of the Palladian Style Arches, arcades, pilasters

and cornices are some of the elements borrowed from the Palladian style. Evidence suggests that

a specific Hall and Chamber plan also develops from this incorporation. The earliest surviving

African stone nog building in Anomabo depicting Palladian elements was constructed for George

Kuntu Blankson in the late 1860s. His addition to Castle Brew will be the first of many coastal

elite structures that select European materials and techniques.

Chapter 6: Selection and Incorporation of the Sobrado The third source borrowed by the

African coastal elites for their family residences was the Afro-Portuguese sobrado. The sobrado

is essentially a house with multiple interior chambers accessible from a central corridor. A

second-story timber veranda is essential to this plan, which was first spread throughout the world

in tropical climates by Europeans. In Ghana, the sobrado plan was spread by masons trained by

European missionaries of the Basel Mission in the Akuapem Hills area (north of Accra) in the

mid-nineteenth century and by Afro-Brazilians who landed on the Ghanaian coast (Accra) as









in this storeroom as well, so it may have also been used as an office. Access to the room is

reached via a small accessway between the back wall of the shop and the courtyard wall of the

Cruickshank Addition.

The large anse de panier arches located on Cruickshank's courtyard wall also differentiate

it from the Blankson Addition. While anse de panier arches characterize Castle Brew and the

Cruickshank Addition, the Blankson Addition favored the true arch. The facade arcade and the

two interior arches use dark gray granite stone as voussoirs. The remaining arches however use

local brick, matching the arches in the Cruickshank wall. The use of the granite creates an

attractive arch unusual for the coast. The walls incorporate a mix of granite and sandstone.

A belt course consisting of three courses of local brick as well as a well-designed red brick

cornice surround the facade of the east room. The belt course and cornice are also visible onjust

the end of the southwest wall. They do not extend across the west wall that would have abutted

another building.

The stairway leading to the entrance arcade includes a handrail of local brick with lancet-

shaped cut-outs identical to those used on the stairwells and balustrades inside Fort William. The

flooring for these stairs is marble, black on the steps and checked in black and white on the

landing. A newer floor has been placed within the structure, done during the Ghana Museum and

Monuments Board renovation in the 1960s. The entire floor was probably either originally

granite like the Castle Brew courtyard or intended to be laid with granite flooring. In these

details, it seems apparent that Blankson is making a visual connection with the original Castle

Brew and Fort William, two of the most visible European structures in Anomabo.

Even in its unfinished state the Blankson Addition is an impressive African coastal elite

interpretation of Palladian architecture. The European style was selected and it was characterized



































rI

















Figure B-11. Nana Kwa Nyanfoeku Akwa, local historian and my primary research assistant,
standing at the entrance to the Lawyer Atta Amonoo Family Residence
(Photo by Courtnay Micots, 2009)









residences in Anomabo demonstrate Fante agency in self-presentation to promote ideas of being

cultured, educated and, most importantly, urban.

The process continues today in the post-colonial era whereby artists appropriate and

transform ideas and forms to create something new. Anomabo's historic cosmopolitanism

continues to influence current art forms evidencing the openness of artists to new influences,

motifs, experimentation, and cultural blending. By tracing this process over a period of time, I

argue that Fante artists are creative and adaptive; their products continually change to meet the

demands of their clients. Cultural authentification is used to demonstrate how Fante agency

spans pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial time periods.

New cultural art forms have been considered expressions of"hybridity" by Karin Barber26

or "creolization" by Ulf Hannerz,27 both under the umbrella term "popular culture." Although

attempting to highlight the creative process, or "interplay between imported and indigenous

cultures,"28 the terms hybridityy" and "creolization" may imply, but do not discuss fully the

process undergone to achieve the final result. Consequently, African agency is reduced to mere

"influence." Nor does the classification of popular culture apply to coastal African stone nog

architecture of the colonial period. Johannes Fabian defines one aspect of popular culture as

suggesting "contemporary cultural expressions carried by the masses in contrast to both modern

elitist and traditional 'tribal' cultures."29 Coastal African stone nog architecture is an expression

of select members of the elite class and may or may not concur with the masses. This dissertation


26Karin Barber, Readings in African Popular Culture (Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1997), 6.
27Ulf Hannerz, "The World in Creolization," in Readings in African Popular Culture, ed. Karin Barber.
(Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1997), 15.
28Hannerz, 12.

29Johannes Fabian, "Popular Culture in Africa," in Readings in African Popular Culture, ed. Karin Barber
(Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1997), 18.









Successfu l M erchant............................................................................ ....................167
T he Second A dd ition .......... ......... .... .. ........ .. ... ............................ .. ........... 168
Samuel Collins Brew Family Residence A Comparison.................. ... .................170
B ritish P alladian Style and P lan ........................................................................ ... ... 172
O ff-beat Phrasing ..................................... ................ ................. .. ..... .. 174
B lankson's Legacy ........................ .. ........................ .... .... ......... .. .... .. 175
K odw o K untu Fam ily Residence ............................ ..................................... ...... 178
British Palladian Elements Spread by the Methodist Mission..................................179
M methodist M mission ........... ...... ......... .. ................ .......... ......... 179
B ritish P alladian Style and P lan ........................................................................ ... ... 183
Growth and the Ebenezer Methodist Church .............. .......................................183
G eorgian G othic Style and P lan ........................................................................ ... ... 184
Stone N og Reflections of M ethodism ............................................................................. ... 185
K obena M efful Fam ily Residence ....................................................... .... ........... 185
B ritish Palladian Style ..................................... ....... ............ .. ........ .. 187
P la n ..................... .......................... ...... .................................... .. ......... ............... 1 8 8
Joseph Edward Biney Family Residence A Comparison in Cape Coast................. 190
African Coastal Elite Methodists in Anomabo ...................................... ...............191
George Ekem Ferguson ..................................................................... ............... 191
Robert Hutchison .......................................................... ........ 192
R obert Johnson G hartey ................................................................ .. ...................... 192
T he M ove to C ape C oast .............................................................................. ..... ... 193
John Sarbah .................................. ............. ....... .... ... ... ...............194
Dr. James Emman Kodwo Mensa Otsiwadu Humamfunsam Kwegyir Aggrey ..........196
T h e B re w s ................................................................................................................ 1 9 7
Sam K anto B rew ............................................... ....... ........ 197
James Hutton Brew....................................... .... .. ....... ......... 198
J. E. Casely Hayford and W illiam W ard Brew ....................................................... 199
Samuel Henry Brew ......................... ............ .. ........... ....... .. 199
Ebenezer A nnan Brew ........................... ............................................ ............... 199
Anomabo at the Turn of the Century ....................................................... ............... 200

6 SELECTION AND INCORPORATION OF THE SOBRADO ............... ................205

O rigin of the A fro-Portuguese Sobrado ...............................................................................205
Sobrado A cross the A tlantic ........................................................................... ...... 207
Afro-Brazilian Sobrado in W est Africa...................................................................... 209
T h e B a se l M issio n ..............................................................................................2 1 1
L a rte h .......................................................................................................2 12
P lan and C onstruction....................... .......................... ... ........... ...... .. ............. 2 13
Masons for the Anomabo Coastal Elite Residences .................................. ...............214
T he Sobrado in A nom abo .................................................................................. ......... 2 14
The Russell House ................................ ... .. ... .. .. .................. .. 215
F u n ctio n s ...............................................................2 16
The Sibling C clients .................................................... ............ ............ .. 217
Construction M ethod .......................................................... .. ........ .... 218
B ritish P alladian Style ....................... .............................................. .. .............. 220


13










the trade in 1822. Barnes became a prosperous timber merchant in Anomabo and Cape Coast,

and he apparently directed part of the Anomabo Mission's construction.40

He is credited with being a major contributor to the building fund for the Christ Church in

Cape Coast (begun April 11, 1859). He is also responsible for the construction "of an elegant and

durable stone bridge of two arches, thrown over the brook which separates the District of Cape

Coast from that ofAnamaboe."41 Although he is designated as "the late Henry Barnes of

Prospect Hill Cape Coast Castle,"42 Barnes may have built two residences, one in Cape Coast

and the other in Anomabo. In fact, Freeman expressed gratitude to Barnes: "in whose house I

always find a hearty welcome, and a comfortable home whenever I visit Anomabu."43 By 1842,

two schools were built in Cape Coast, and one each in Accra, Anomabo, and Dixcove.44

Anomabo provided adjacent villages and towns with evangelists. It also provided skilled

craftsmen, such as brick-layers, carpenters and painters, to fellowships in Saltpond, Winneba and

Kommenda, to assist with the building of their places of worship. It was Freeman and Barnes

who dispatched these workmen to other communities. 45

The Mission and its school were self-supporting thanks to the assistance of wealthy

donors, such as the merchants (Samuel) Henry Brew, George Kuntu Blankson, Charles Bentum

Annan, John Sarbah (father of John Mensah Sarbah), Jacob Wilson Sey and Calvert Claude

40Ibid.; Crooks, 152; Flather 123-124; Claridge, vol. 1, 451; Sampson 104; Susan Beth Kaplow, "African Merchants
of the Nineteenth Century Gold Coast" (Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 1971), 62; and F. L. Bartels, The Roots of
Ghana Methodism (Cambridge: Cambridge UP and Methodist Book Depot, 1965), 34.

41"Sketches," 3.

42Ibid.

43Flather 124; and Freeman, 74-76. No one in Anomabo knew which house belonged to Barnes. I suspect Abrosan
(see Chapter 7) may have been Barnes' house since the family does not know the history of its construction and it is
considered the first two-story house in town. Yet no evidence supports my intuition.

44Swanzy, 96.

45Bartels, 42-43.









capture cool breezes. A room located to the southwest of the Visitor's Hall retains its original

wood flooring though it probably belongs to a later date than the 1640s.

A number of rooms open from the veranda. Another large room on the opposite side of the

Visitor's Hall is the Omanhen' s Great Hall. A window opening to the veranda retains wood

shutters and hand-forged iron hinges from a century or more ago. This is the room where first-

time visitors are received by the omanhen. The private bedrooms of close members of the royal

family open into this hall. The current omanhen's wife, or obaahemaa, Omankrado Nana

Gyanwa, the queen mother ofAjumako Besease, uses the southern room for her bedchamber.

The central door to the west leads from the Omanhen's Great Hall to the veranda over the

second courtyard. Important private rooms are located off this veranda. A large room to the south

of the veranda acts as a storage room and houses several important stools. The central

westernmost room is often used by the current omanhen for receiving close family and friends.

Two bedchambers emanate from this room forming a plan similar to the Hall and Chamber

plan. Since this plan occurs only in the innermost reaches of the building where few locals would

have been allowed access, it seems unlikely that it served as the inspiration for the Hall and

Chamber Plan that became so popular in the nineteenth century. However, the possibility exists.

If it was the inspiration, I contend that it was based on the omanhen's use of the configuration,

and not on European usage. The omanhen's use of these rooms, in turn, was likely based on

indigenous ways of living. Original uses of rooms and the intentions behind their configurations

are difficult to determine. It is especially challenging to differentiate between European and

African origins because both cultures had similar lifestyles during the seventeenth century.

Modem Adaptations

The Obaahemaa's chamber retains wood molding around the top of all four sides of the

room. The Omanhen's Great Hall also once had the same molding, though it has since been









and their sons were able to found and publish newspapers of their own which they
used vigorously to champion their own interests.23

The display of art forms associated with social and political status has a verbal component

in Akan arts often depicted through or related to proverbs. Cole and Ross have discussed this

verbal-visual nexus as a key feature of Akan arts. 24 Many of the houses discussed in this study

are known in town by a specific name, such as The Russell House or Abrosan. This is part of the

naming phase, or characterization, of cultural authentification and the verbal-visual nexus, as

adinkra symbols are identified by a word or phrase. As the cornerstone of Akan aesthetics, it is

not surprising that coastal elite architecture would be used in sociopolitical ways to communicate

status during the colonial era.

Liminality is visually communicated through architecture. This study has provided

examples of architecture that borrow ideas from a variety of sources, including European,

Sudanic and Afro-Brazilian, utilizing "an aesthetic of assemblage."25 Therefore, the globalization

of Anomabo and its culture must be placed in a historical perspective. Anomabo's worldliness

does not stem from its position as a satellite to Accra, Cape Coast or any Western urban center,

nor its positioning at the periphery of global flows, but reflects its past position at the center of a

vast cultural and commercial network. This historic cosmopolitanism isn't a post-colonial

phenomenon, and the evidence is made visible in the art and architecture of contemporary

Anomabo.







23Kaplow, 235-236.

24Okoye., 8-9.
25Ibid., 12.









Cape Coast. The early members of the study group included Blankson, Henry Brew, Kobina

Mensah, John Sam and John Smith with deGraft as their leader. At first, this group convened,

amongst other places, at the home of Henry Barnes in Anomabo.32

The first Wesleyan, or Methodist, reverend on the Ghanaian coast was the Englishman

Reverend Joseph Dunwell, who arrived in January 1, 1835, in Cape Coast. His African students

became the true pioneers of the religion, spreading it far beyond Cape Coast. 33 When Dunwell

arrived he started work earnestly and the group initially formed by de Graft grew steadily into

the nucleus of the Methodist Church in Ghana. Dunwell traveled frequently to Anomabo. Under

his supervision Methodist class meetings were quickly established.34 Dunwell died on June 24,

1835, only six months after his arrival.

After his death, Dunwell was replaced by Reverend George Wrigley who visited Anomabo

regularly.35 Wrigley and his wife Harriet landed in Cape Coast on September 15, 1836.

According to Frank Deaville Walker (1878-1945), editor of the Methodist Missionary Society

journals from 1914 to 1945, "under Wrigley's guidance they had begun to build themselves a

'swish' church. But the rains had utterly destroyed the unfinished walls."36 Wrigley, using local

builders skilled in rammed earth construction, is likely responsible for the plan and architectural

details chosen for the Methodist Mission in Anomabo (Figure B-49).





32Flather 120; and A. E. Southen, Gold Coast Methodism, 1835-1935 (London: Cargate, 1934), 20.
33Charles Francis Hutchinson, The Pen-Pictures ofModern Africans andAfrican Celebrities, vol. 1 (London:
African Library, n.d.), 96.

34Flather, 121.
35Hutchinson, 96.

36F. D. Walker, Thomas Birch Freeman: The Son of an African (London: Student Christian Movement, 1929), 45,
99, 102.









The Wrigleys were followed by the Reverend and Mrs. Harrop. Harrop died a few weeks

after arrival, and his wife died soon after. Wrigley's death followed later in November of 1837,

only a year after his arrival. Thus, when mulatto Reverend Thomas Birch Freeman (1809-1890),

known locally as Osofo Kweku Annan, arrived in Cape Coast in 1838, it was hoped that his

African blood would allow him to weather the coastal illnesses better than those before him.

However, soon after his arrival Freeman was attacked by malaria, and Mrs. Freeman who was

nursing him died. Freeman miraculously recovered and served the Church for over 50 years. The

Methodist Mission in Anomabo was one of the first structures to be visited by Freeman, and, in

1839, he supervised its completion. According to Freeman, "The foundation was laid August

14th, 1838 .... on Sunday, May 26th, 1839, I opened it for divine worship .... many of our

people at Anomabu ... were often seen busily engaged in carrying swish, etc., as early as two or

three o'clock in the morning. Since the Chapel has been opened ... Mr. Barnes has, at his own

expense, painted the pulpit and communion rails."37 Sometime in early 1840, fire destroyed part

of the mission, and it had to be restored. By April of 1840, this was completed. 38

Henry Barnes (1800-September 23, 1865), was probably a mulatto, born to a "Captain

Barnes of a trade schooner"39 in either Anomabo or Cape Coast. He began as a writer in

government service, making commercial contacts with Forster and Smith. He personally entered









37T. B. Freeman, Journals of Various Visits to the Kingdoms ofAshanti, Aku, and Dahomi in Western Africa
(London: J. Mason, 1844), 74-76.
38Ibid., 45, 99, 102.
39"Sketches of the Lives and Labours of Our Great Men," The Gold Coast Aborigines (March 19, 1898), 3.









wearing a Western business suit, following Methodism and building a family residence

resembling British Palladian architecture served to align the African elite with the prime source

of power, the British. Although the stone nog residences in Anomabo and other coastal port

cities were created during the colonial era, cultural authentification on the coast of modern

Ghana is a pre-colonial cultural practice born out of urbanization and multiple cultural

interactions.

Art historian Prita Meier recorded similar artistic responses on the Swahili Coast in the

East African port cities of Lamu and Mombasa. Although outside the Atlantic world, these cities

share a history as sites ofpre-colonial and colonial social and commercial interactions as well as

being British colonies. According to Meier, "Local symbolic and material worlds cultivated to

articulate selfhood and cultural belonging were also reshaped and re-imagined in order to counter

or co-opt the growing authority of the British Empire and Sultanate of Zanzibar."14 Thus, like the

Ghanaian coast, coastal elites were bridging the powers of the British and ruling hierarchies. By

visually displaying their cosmopolitanism, both local groups were able to express their status

through artistic displays ofcommodification (through the purchase and appointment of imported

furnishings) as a means to demonstrate their wealth, knowledge, connections and ability to

travel. This visual assertion of identity began in pre-colonial times, yet was exacerbated during

the colonial period.

Architecture, such as the Blankson Addition and the Lawyer Atta Amonoo Family

Residence, also provide evidence of the growing prosperity ofthe independent merchants and

traders along the coast, and more specifically, in Anomabo. The choices to appropriate certain

forms from outside cultures were consciously made for specific purposes, and not merely

14Prita Meier, "Hybrid Heritage: Objects on the Edge Swahili Coast Logics of Display," African Arts 42 (4 Winter
2009), 9-10.









British Government Takes Over Fort William and the Coast ............ ... ................ 100
Coastal Econom y ..................................................... ............... .. ..... .. 102
C hristianity and the B ritish ............................................. ......................................... 103
E d u c a tio n ............................................................................................... ............... 1 0 4
C cultural Interactions and C hoices............................................ ....................................... 105

3 THE AKAN COURTYARD HOUSE..................................................... .......................106

U rban D design ............. .............. ....... ..... .. .. .....................107
Pate, Wattle and Daub, and Unbaked Brick Construction......................................11
R am m ed Earth C onstruction......... ................... ................ ........................ ............... 114
Roofing, W window s and D oors ............................................................................ .............. 116
Materials ................................118............................................................................................... 118
B rick s .. ........... ........................................................................................... 118
S to n e ...... ..... ................... ................. ........................................................ 1 1 9
C o n cre te ................................1 22.............................
M ason G uilds ......... ...... ...................... ................................. .................................... 122
The Two-Story Urban House .......................... .......... ........ 123
T he C o urtyard H o u se ...................... ............... ................................................. 12 6
Tuafohen's Palace .................................. ............. ...... .................... 130
Combining the Two-Story and Courtyard Plans ........................ .......... 133

4 THE EUROPEAN PALLADIAN STYLE ....... .......................... 135

Dutch Palladianism ................... ..... ............... 135
The Dutch Lodge / Omanhen's Palace ......................... ..........................137
Construction and Materials ...................................... .......... .. ......138
Plan ................................................ 140
Modern Adaptations ........................ ........ ..... ........142
B ritish P alladianism ................................................................................... ............... 143
T he B ritish F o rts ......... ..................... .......... ................. ..........................................14 7
Castle Brew............................... .. ..... ...... .......... ...... 147
Status Sym bol................................................................................. ...... 148
British Palladian Style and Plan ............................................... ....................... 149
Connections to A nom abo Leadership ........................................ ........ ............... 152
Status Furnishings ......................................... ........... .......... .... 153
B rew s L egacy ........................................................................................... 155
The Brodie G. Cruickshank Addition.............................................................. ............... 156
British Palladian Style and Plan ............................................................... ........ .. 157
M o ld in g s ............................................... ....................................... ........ .......... .. .. 15 9
J. H. E. Conduah Family Residence A Dutch Palladian Comparison in Elmina ..............160
From Inhabiting European Palladian Houses to Building Them ..................................... 162

5 SELECTION AND INCORPORATION OF THE PALLADIAN STYLE ......................... 163

Castle Brew The George Kuntu Blankson Addition ......................................................... 166
E early Y ears ................................................................... ................................... 166



12









CHAPTER 8
COMMUNICATING STATUS THROUGH THE VISUAL

Anomabo' s built environment produces a visual energy equal to the rhythms of daily

activities conducted by the townspeople. Just as buildings rise and fall, so too they incorporate a

variety of materials and styles. The town literally teems with the cultural mixing of African and

global imagery, whether it is visible in posters, technology (computers, televisions, radios,

vehicles), media, Milo canisters (Nestle chocolate powder), lions onposuban (DontsinNo. 3),

and architecture. Anomabo, a historically-significant port town, serves as a microcosm for

understanding the Coastal Elite Style of architecture that was popular along the West African

coastline in every major port city during the colonial period. Surviving African coastal elite

residential architecture in Anomabo dates to the colonial period, specifically between the 1860s

and 1930s. The Coastal Elite Style combines elements ofthe Akan courtyard house, European

Palladian architecture and the Afro-Portuguese sobrado.

The Site

Anomabo brought together cultures from a variety of African as well as Western and Afro-

Brazilian cultures. The convergence of ideas, products and technologies resulted in an

"experiential engagement with modernity." The Etsii, the original inhabitants of the Anomabo

coastal area, and the Fante who immigrated to the area in the late-sixteenth century encountered

the first Europeans on the coast during that time. By the last quarter of the seventeenth century,

Anomabo grew into a bustling city with cultures from all over the region moving into town to

take advantage of the trading opportunities. Thus, while Anomabo is essentially Fante, a number

of other ethnic groups lived in town. The people of Anomabo, rich and poor, had access to the

global modernity of their times during its height in the late-seventeenth century and through the


'Appadurai, 10.









APPENDIX C:
ADDITIONAL ANOMABO STRUCTURES

The descriptions for the following structures residences, stores, forts and churches have

been placed in this separate appendix in order to clarify the main body of text in the dissertation.

These are additional examples to supplement the overall argument, yet they are not germaine to

the hypotheses. I wanted to include them in this study however because they complete the

catalog of surviving Anomabo stone nog buildings and provide a more comprehensive and

complex overview of the subject.









































Cruickshank Addition Castle Brew


Figure B-6. Castle Brew and the Cruickshank Addition
Richard Brew, Brodie G. Cruickshank
c. 1756-1759, c. 1834-1844
Stone nog brick, cement plaster
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photo by Courtnay Micots, 2009)


;t
'; r 1~
--- i r









In houses of recent erection, the open apartments are now giving place to rooms
with doors and windows, there being seldom more than one open apartment in the
square. They frequently consist of a succession of these quadrilateral buildings and
yards, the number being in proportion to the consequence and riches of the
individual, and size of his family. A small door of communication at one of the
comers leads out of one square into another.60

Danish architects Jorgen Andreasen, Jorgen Eskemose and Anette Lodberg Schmidt

illustrate an Asante courtyard house in Mpasatia a Town in Ghana: Tales of Architecture and

Planning on page 17.61 In a typical Akan house, called apato, all rooms are small since they

serve only as shelter at night and for storage of valuable possessions. These rooms open onto an

internal courtyard, the living area of the house used for dining, receiving guests, holding

arbitrations and for laying bodies in state at funerals. 62

Hull commented that "One's standing in the community was reflected in house style,

building materials. African compounds usually looked inward upon an open courtyard ...

every ward or quarter had its own community wells, market places, and centers of worship."63

Residential architecture of the Fante and other Akan subgroups utilized this courtyard plan. Men

and women spent most of the waking hours outside the home; men worked in the fields, hunted

or fished while women cooked in the courtyards or worked in the markets. Rooms were used for

greeting visitors, sleeping or storage.

As coastal towns grew into busy, commercial urban ports, these city homes were

elaborated according to the owner's wealth and status. Women continued to live in the city, while

men often had a one or two-room house in the hinterland where they could maintain the farm.


60Ibid., 288-290.

61Jorgen Andreasen, Jorgen Eskemose and Anette Lodberg Schmidt. Mpasatia a Town in Ghana: Tales of
Architecture and Planning (Esbjerg, Denmark: Grafisk Trykcenter, 2003), 17.
62Faculty, 457-458.
63Ibid.



















































Figure B-18. Castle Brew, George Kuntu Blankson Addition
George Kuntu Blankson
c. 1860s-1873
Stone nog
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photo by Courtnay Micots, 2009)






303









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

A casual stroll through the coastal town of Anomabo, Ghana (Lat. 5 10' N., Long. 1 07'

W.) (Figures B-l and B-2) reveals a myriad of building materials and construction techniques.

These are often combined and even layered on top of one another in efforts to repair, maintain or

extend the structure. Buildings of all types seem to be either in process of falling down or being

constructed, producing a visual energy equal to the rhythms of daily activities conducted by the

townspeople.

This study is concerned with residential architecture using the stone nogging construction

technique in the historically-significant city of Anomabo, a community comprised of mostly

Fante people, an Akan subgroup. Residential architecture are structures built as homes places

where people live, store goods and sleep. Some of these residences double as commercial

venues, usually with the residence upstairs and the store or warehouse downstairs. This

commercial character is common to Anomabo and other port cities.

Family members who achieve success are expected to extend the family residence or

build anew. A home or a set of homes visually reflects the status of both the individual and his

family in the community and regionally if such homes are also built in other towns. Thus, a

family's stature is closely linked to architecture. The family residence communicates its level of

connections, wealth, dignity, education and mobility in the world. The houses discussed in this

study will demonstrate how the Fante and other coastal Africans used the creative process of

appropriation and transformation, or cultural authentification, in pre-colonial, colonial and post-

colonial contexts as a means to communicate identity amd status visually. Seemingly European

style homes were not imitations; rather elements of European architecture were incorporated into

the coastal vernacular.









The two houses located by the echinaba were two-story, while the adontehen 's second

house was one-story. It appears that the Adontehen's Palace and the Enchia Family Residence

facing the echinaba had piers only on the front, while the second Adontehen's Palace, located

just behind the first, had piers surrounding the building suggesting a sobrado plan with a veranda

on all four sides (Figure B-77). The design of the base of the piers on the Enchia Family

Residence and second Adontehen's Palace are identical to each other and to those at the Calvert

Claude Hagan Family Residence (Figure B-65). This may signify a preferred style at a similar

point in time, similar masons, or the availability of a cast concrete form (like the scallop form).

It is difficult to determine whether or not these piers supported arches and an arcade.

The adontehen was the leader of the advance group (asafo companies No. 3, 4 and 5) in

times of war as well as the linguist in Anomabo Traditional Council meetings. In contrast,

Enchia was a prominent merchant who achieved his power outside "traditional" avenues. For

those serving more traditional local roles in the early twentieth century, the construction of stone

nog houses was also appropriated as an indication of status. Thus, cultural authentification had

resulted in a form utilized by both the hereditarial ruling class and the merchant class as

symbolic of membership in the wider African coastal elite class.

Structure C-14. Yard House

The house known as Yard House is now a pile of ruins located west on Market Street from

The Russell House. Yard House was once a two-story, stone nog house. Today, only the stone

foundations and a highly-raised floor are evident (Figure B-78). It was built by Charles Essuman

McCarthy, a.k.a Kwa Atsen, a. k. a. Mankata, a Fante who adopted the British name of a famous

former Governor. McCarthy was a fisherman and land owner. He sold some or all of his land to

pay for the building materials and then used family labor to construct the house. Descendants









seventy five and a half feet by sixty one feet is in the occupation of the Vendors and is more

particularly delineated and described in the plan drawn here on Together with all buildings

commons fences hedges ditches ways waters watercourses liberties privileges easements and

appurtenances whatsoever to the said piece or parcel of land belonging or in anywise

appertaining or usually held or occupied therewith or reputed to belong or be appurtenant thereto

And All the Estate right title interest claim and demand whatsoever of the said Vendors and each

of them in to out of and upon the said premises and every part thereof To Have and To Hold the

said premises hereinbefore expressed to be hereby granted Unto the said Purchasers their heirs

according to the Fanti Law and Custom of inheritance and their Assigns for ever And the said

Vendors jointly and each of them separately hereby covenant with the said Purchasers their heirs

as aforesaid and assigns that notwithstanding anything by them the Vendors or either of them or

any other person from whom they derive title or otherwise than by purchase for valuable

consideration [d?] one omitted or knowingly suffered they the said Vendors now have good right

and the power and the members of their family owning such property have empowered

authorized and given their consent to them to grant and dispose of the said premises hereinbefore

expressed to be hereby granted to the Use of the said Purchasers their heirs as aforesaid and

assigns And that the said premises shall at all times remain and be to the Use of the said

Purchasers their heirs as aforesaid and Assigns and be quietly entered into and held and enjoyed

and the rents thereof received by them accordingly without any interruption or disturbance by the

Vendors or either of them or any such other person or persons as aforesaid And that free and

discharged from or otherwise by them the said Vendors the members of their family or their

respective heirs successors or administrators sufficiently indemnified against all estates

incumbrances claims and demands created occasioned or made by the Vendors their family or









TABLE OF CONTENTS

page

A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S .................................................................................... .....................4

IST O F T A B L E S ................................................................17

LIST OF FIGURES ............................. .... ...................... .. ........ 18

A B S T R A C T ..............................................................................................................2 2

CHAPTER

1 IN TRODUCTION ........................ ........................... ....................... .. 24

Construction Techniques and M materials ........................................ ........................... 25
European or African? ............ ............................. ...... ..... .... ........ 26
T h e S ite ................... ...................2...................7.........
Id e n tity ................... ................... ...................1..........
S tatu s ............ ...................................................................................3 6
V isual T transfers ................................................................................ 39
Cultural Authentification ........... ........ ............................... 41
Off-beat Phrasing ....................... ......... ........... ...............44
M im icry and R esistanc e ................................................................................................... 4 4
M etho d s ........... ...................................................................... 4 7
"I C am e to M eet It" ...............................................................................49
P re-C o lo n ia l U rb a n ity ....................................................................................................... 52
H istorio g rap hy ................................................................5 5
Chapter Organization................... .................66

2 PRE-COLONIAL HISTORY OF AN AFRICAN PORT CITY ............... ............ 70

M migration to the C oast ............................................................................... ............ ..... 70
F ante L leadership ...............................72..........................
A safo C om panies ................................................................73
Earliest C culture Contact................................................. 76
E u ro p ea n C o ntact .............................................................................................................. 7 7
Urban Growth in the Seventeenth Century ........................................................ ......... 79
T h e A rts ..................................................................................................................................8 2
The Eighteenth Century and the Height of Anomabo ...................................... .................84
T h e M e ltin g P o t ................................................................................................................ 8 6
Besi Kurentsir .................. .... .................................. 89
The Education ofK urentsir's Sons ...................... ...... ....... ................................91
K urentsir's Legacy................................................... 95
L ate E ighteenth C entry ............................................................96
T he A sante Invasion June 15, 1807 ................................................................................ 98
N ineteenth Century Developm ents ...................... ...... ....... ................................99


11









inside well-insulated and at least ten degrees cooler during the day. 28 Rammed earth is preferred

over wattle and daub construction. Although it takes about the same amount of time and expense

to build either type of house, the rammed earth house lasts longer and requires less care. 29

Rounded bases along the exterior walls serve two primary functions: they prevent people

from from sitting too close to the house and conversing thus insuring greater privacy for the

residents; and they protect the building from erosion caused by the rains and flooding by forming

a thick base. Like the builders from the Shai Hills and the Kintampo culture in Boyase Hill and

Bonoase, some of the rammed earth houses in Elmina and Anomabo were laid on stone

foundations. Other Akan rammed earth houses were laid directly on a cleared, smoothed ground

surface.30 It would make sense that coastal cities like Elmina and Anomabo would make the

most use of the natural materials, both mud and stone, in their region. As Prussin states, "In

Africa the built form and the natural habitat are inseparable from each other."31

Roofing, Windows and Doors

The first type of roofing on coastal houses was thatch as evidenced in the description given

by De Marees. Although wattle and daub is a method still practiced on the coast, the "winged"

roofing no longer exists. Historians Albert van Dantzig and Adam Jones state that in Cape Coast

there stands "many flat-roofed houses with long drainage spouts surprisingly similar to those

found in the Sahel... Some people say that this type of house was introduced to the coast by

people from the North, others that it was inspired by the (originally) flat roofs of the forts."32 Flat


- 1 .I a more thorough discussion on the materials and construction process of rammed earth, called coursed clay by
Farrar, see Farrar, Building Technology, 95-111, 129-131.

29Ibid., 131.

3Farrar, "Some Comments," 46; and idem, "Indigenous Building," 166.
31Prussin, "Architecture & Pottery," 66.

32De Marees, 76, footnote.


















































Figure B-96. W. E. D. A. Family Residence
William Emmanuel Daniel Acquaah
1960s
Concrete
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photograph by Courtnay Micots, 2008)








381



















































Figure B-79. Ed Monson Family Residence, Interior View of Standing Wall
Ed Monson
c. 1900
Stone nog brick
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photo by Courtnay Micots, 2009)






364









Although Sarbah and others opposed those coastal elites who assimilated European

practices, I believe both sides resisted colonial pressures. Sarbah directly resisted through his

writing ofFanti National Constitution and through his affiliation with the Aborigines Rights

Protection Society, while other coastal elites indirectly resisted by asserting their identity as loyal

subjects and working within the British system to effect change. An example of such indirect

resistance can be found in a 1926 memorandum advanced by the Nigeria Democratic Party

directed at legal and electoral reforms and the abolition of segregation laws in Lagos. According

to historian Barbara Bush, the Secretary of State for Colonies reported that "rather [than] there

being any suggestion of 'sedition or non-cooperation' in West Africa, there was a 'dominating

sense of loyalty ... to the empire.' Buell made similar observations about the Gold Coast."36

These important social and political shifts are reflected in the residential architecture of the

coastal elite, such as the Lawyer Atta Amonoo Family Residence (Figure B-9).

Theorist Homi K. Bhabha and anthropologists James Ferguson and Bayo Holsey, have

debated the motivation behind so-called "mimicry" among Africans during the colonial era as

resistance. Bhabha's phrase "not quite/not white" describes the challenges faced by the coastal

elites to establish their identity during this rapidly changing period. "Mimicry is like a

camouflage, not a harmonization of repression of difference, but a form of resemblance, that

differs from or defends presence by displaying it."37 Sarbah argued that what the British deemed

as a "failure" of the mass coastal population to completely assimilate to European norms, does

not demonstrate their weakness. On the contrary, it portrays their agency to embrace freely an

alternative culture as the first step in the development of a national consciousness. In hypocritical


36Barbara Bush, Imperialism, Race and Resistance: Africa and Britain, 1919-1945 (London and NY: Routledge,
1999), 120.
37Homi K. Bhabha, The Location ofCulture (London: Routledge, 1994), 85-92.









classical forms and decorative motifs, appealed to the rising merchant elites in Britain who

demanded a new sensibility in their commercial buildings. British cities, like London, were

comprised of buildings with retail shops on street level with spaces for residential living above.

The seventeenth century shop was no more than a front room with a large window facing the

street. The space above was used by the wealthy shopkeeper or rented as flats. In the early

eighteenth century with expanded mercantilism, some of the shop facades became more ornate

with larger windows, signs and embellishments. 13 This mercantile shop with living space above

was transported to the Ghanaian coast by both the British and African coastal elites.

One of the hallmark innovations of British Palladianism was the floor plan. It was

symmetrical and balanced with a central hall and a chamber extending from each side. Often two

sets of this plan were brought together, creating two central halls and four equally-sized

chambers. Although the Palladian style was based on Roman prototypes, the Roman house had a

narrow vestibulum, or entrance corridor, that led directly into a courtyard area. This courtyard

was often used as a formal entrance hall. Palladio incorporates this type of plan in his Villa

Rotunda. An entrance on each side of the building leads visitors down a narrow corridor to the

vast central receiving area under the dome. British Palladian architects simply did away with this

corridor to create a greater sense of balance.

While forts along the Ghanaian coast were constructed in the Palladian style with Medieval

fortress plans, housing tended to use both Palladian plans and style. Surviving evidence in

Anomabo shows a prevalence of the British Palladian style. The Palladian and Neo Gothic styles

belong to the overarching category of Georgian architecture, a set of architectural styles



13Harbison, Potterton and Sheehy, 132; and H. Kalman, "The Architecture of Mercantilism: Commercial Buildings
by George Dance the Younger," in The Triumph of Culture: 181 Century Perspectives, ed. Paul Fritz and David
Williams (Toronto, Canada: A. M. Hakkert, 1972), 69-71.









descendants of these slaves, now fully incorporated members of the tuafohen's family, continue

to live in the second residence behind the tuafohen's residence as part of the same building

(Figure B-20). Since the tuafohen is the commander of the asafo armies, his palace was a target

for enemies. It was attacked and destroyed by an asafo company from Asafra about 150 years

ago. 66 A one-story, rammed earth double courtyard house was built in its stead.

Current residents do not remember when the two-story rammed earth residence was first

built or who built it. They also do not remember who built the current residence, except that it is

on the same location in Akanpaado (Figure B-21). A unique feature may help to date the

structure. An old iron ship's part is substituted for a window. Iron was gradually adopted in ship

construction, initially in small areas needing greater strength. British engineer Isambard

Kingdom Brunel's Great Britain of 1843 was the first propeller-driven iron ship. 67 The circular

part forming the window in the palace is claimed to be from a propeller. Originally all the

windows in the house used this 16" part. Later all but one in the current stool room was replaced

with rectangular jalousie windows. If the iron part was incorporated into the house when it was

built, then the house might be dated to the last half of the nineteenth century. The part however

may have been old when the house was originally constructed, dating the house later. A similar

window can be seen on Cape Coast Castle facing the main road.

The plan of the Tuafohen's Palace (Figure B-20) has three rooms across the front, two

rooms deep. The central rooms are used as halls and the rooms on each side are used as

chambers usually for sleeping or storage. In the late seventeenth century Barbot witnessed that

"several of these little cabins logess) slight partitions of canes, reeds or other material" divided

66The date of 150years ago was given to me by Tuafohen Nana Obuesiwua VII, a. k. a. J. Ebow Quashie, in 2007.
In 2009, he claimed it was 300 years ago.
67Arthur Wilson, The Living Rock: The Story ofMetals since Earliest Times and Their Impact on Civilization
(Cambridge: Woodhead, 1996), 202-203.









in above] Acquaah to have been duly executed by the within named William Topp Nelson

Yankah

[signed] Wm. Hermast (sic)

Registrar of Deeds

This instrument is registered as 16"121 and is engrossed on pages 342 to 345 in Register of

Leases and Conveyances vol. 5.

Depositing 2/6

Recording 20/6 [signed] Wm. Hermast (sic)

Proof 2/6 Registrar of Deeds

Taking out 2/6

27/6



[written on the back of the Indenture:]

Dated 29th June 1895

W. T. N. Yankah

and family

to

John O. Hammond

and others

Conveyance 3







3This was copied from copy of the original form provided by family descendant Kwesi Edukuma Hagan.









APPENDIX A:
TABLES

Table A-1. List of Anomabo State Omanhen
Eno / Endo (1600s) (remembered as the first omanhen, but actually the chief of Anomabo
town)
Eno Besi / Endo-Basi / Endo-Besi / Eno Basi / Eno-Baisie (1600s-c. 1700s) (remembered
as the second omanhen, but actually the chief ofAnomabo town)
1. Besi Kurentsi / Basi-Kurantsir / Besi Kurensri / Baisie-Kurentsir / (1747-1764 or 1774) /
John Currantee or Coranti [English]
"The fourth omanhen was from a different household than the first three. The change
came about because the first three were unable to raise the tribute money demanded by
the Asantes. Mborabah Kantamanto, (meaning, 'one who does not break her oath'), a
woman, got the money so the state sword was given to her, but she couldn't be the
omanhen because she was a woman so she passed it to Amonu I." (Sanders, comments
from his colleague in the field)
2. Kofi Amonu, Kofi Amonoo Panyin, Ammoney Coomah, Amonu Kuma, nephew of
Enstir, Amonoo 1(1765 or 1774-November 9, 1801)
3. Entsi, Entsir, Antee, son ofMborabah (1801-1804)
4. Kwow Amonoo, Kwa Amonoo, Amonoo II (1717-1867) or (1857-1865) or (-1837)
OR Kofi Aferi, Kofi Afere, Amonoo II (October 31, 1857-1865) (in Sanders Table 10)
5. Kwow Amonu, Kwow Saman, Kwa Saman, Amonoo III (December 5, 1865 May 28,
1869), destooled
6. Kofi Amonu, Kofi Atta, Amonoo IV (July 3, 1869-November 23, 1900)
7. Kwamin Tufuantsi, Kwamin Tafuantsi, Kwamin Tapiantsi, Amonoo V (April 9, 1901-
March 20 or 21, 1921)
8. Osborne Mends, Kodwo Amonoo, Kodjo Amonoo, Kojo Amonoo, Amonoo VI (January
24, 1922-November 19, 1924), died by lorry accident
9.* Kwabena Kwakwa, Kobina Kwakwa, Amonu Ababio, Ababio, Amonoo VII (1926-1929)
or (1926-1932), destooled
10. Kweku Kwakwa, J.B. Essel, Amonoo VIII (1933-1935), destooled
11. Kwa Wayland Amoah, Yaw Amoah, Amonoo IX (April 7, 1936-1939), died
12.* Kwabena Kwakwa, Kobina Kwakwa, Amonu Ababio, Ababio, Amonoo VII, reinstated
(194?-1948), died
13. Kweku Acquah, Amonu Aferi II (1955-1966), destooled
14. James Fletcher, Kofi Panyin, Amonoo X (1975-1987), died
15. Kofi Essel, Amonoo Aferi II (1992-1993), died
16. Kwesi Essuman, Kantomanto Amonoo XI, (1994-present)
*same man









travels in Africa from 1688 to 1702.53 Jean Barbot was on the coast twice, in 1678-1679 and

1681-1682. He visited Fort Charles in Anomabo five times in 1679. Barbot's writings are

problematic in that he borrows some of his information from earlier and contemporary texts.

Also, there have been numerous editions of his first voyage and letters (his journal from the

second voyage is lost). The best source to detangle this jumble is given by P.E.H. Hair, Adam

Jones and Robin Law. 54 Pierre Labarthe wrote about his travels to the Guinea Coast, including to

Anomabo, in the 1780s. 55 Cruickshank served on the coast from 1834 to 1854, and he lived in

Anomabo for much of that time.

The one exception to the Western recorded history is William Ansah Sesarakoo's The

Royal African: or, Memoirs of the Young Prince ofAnnamaboe from 1750.56 This is the one and

only first-hand account from an Anomabo Fante prior to the colonial period. Not only does he

relay the events leading to his deceptive sale into slavery in Barbados and his retrieval, but also

he describes certain historic events, people and the cosmopolitan atmosphere ofAnomabo during

the period. His work evidences the intelligence and wisdom of one Fante man, son of the

Omanhen Kurentsir, and it describes his long-distance journey to Barbados and London.

Materials specifically geared towards Anomabo are rare. One of the most helpful books,

West African Trade and Coast Society: A Family Study, was written by historian Margaret





53Willem Bosman, A New and Accurate Description ofthe Coast ofGuinea (London: Printed for James
Knapton...and Dan, 1705; reprint, NY: Barnes & Noble, 1967).

54P.EH. Hair, Adam Jones and Robin Law, eds., Barbot on Guinea: The Writings ofJean Barbot on West Africa
1678-1712, Vol. 2. (London: The Hakluyt Society, 1992), xii, xxix, 415-419.

55Pierre Labarthe, Voyage a la c6te de Guinee: ou, Description des c6tes d'Afrique, depuis le Cap Tagrinjusqu'au
Cap de Lopez-Gonzalves (Paris : Chez Debray, 1803).

56William Ansah Sesarakoo, The Royal African: or, Memoirs of the Young Prince ofAnnamaboe, 2d ed. (London:
W. Reeve, 1750).


















































Figure B-59. Kobena Mefful (1853-March 1943)
Unknown photographer
c. 1870s
Anomabo, Ghana










344










N





S
i/'I

$-^ -


Front


Veranda


Chamber

Shrine
xI


Figure B-76. Etsiwa Abodo, Plan
Ground floor
(Drawing by Courtnay Micots, 2009)


Chamber









Traders found the vestibule or hall important for welcoming and conducting business.

Goods may have been stored in the chambers that opened into this hall. Slaves, surmised Mark,

were probably kept in the inner courtyard for pending sale.7 If so, then this would explain the

high earthen and stone nog walls some of the surviving houses maintain. Thus, these houses may

have served functions as residence, business center and slave hold in addition to showing off the

wealth of the owner.

Sobrado Across the Atlantic

Sobrado houses can be found throughout the colonial world including the Caribbean and

Brazil. Essentially very little difference exists between sobrado designated as Creole, Spanish,

Brazilian or Afro-Brazilian. They all have Portuguese and Spanish roots, since Brazil was a

former colony ofPortugal. In French and Spanish colonies, balconies overlook the street, and

people used them to converse with their neighbors. Balconies and verandahs on English-

speaking islands in the Caribbean tend to be more intimate; often enclosed and sometimes hidden

at the side or rear of the house. 8

Afro-Caribbeans incorporated elements from Portuguese, Brazilian and Bahian

architecture, lifestyles and customs, into first, their rural houses, and then second into their urban

residences. In the early nineteenth century, former slaves who were freed or purchased their

freedom wanted to return to Africa. Skilled artisans, masons and carpenters brought their skills to

the African coastal cities. Francoise Doutreuwe defined two-story buildings with verandas in

Cote d'Ivoire as plantation models, serving as a reminder ofCarribean sobrado origins. 9


7Mark, 45.

Suzanne Slesin, Stafford Cliff, Jack Berthelot, Martine Gaume, and Daniel Rozensztroch, Caribbean Style (NY:
Clarkson Potter, 1985), 20.

9Francoise Doutreuwe, "La Cote d'Ivoire," in Rives Coloniales: Architectures, de Saint-Louis A Douala, ed. Jacques
Soulillou (Marseille: Editions Parentheses, 1993), 110.









these windows were altered in 1975 to fit shutters. The back of the building faces the coastal

highway while the front is located across a dirt road from the Charles Bentum Annan House.

Plan

The ground plan (Figure B-60) mirrors that of the Methodist Mission. Although the family

did not remember, it seems very likely that Mefful was a devout Methodist who ordered the

transformation of the rammed earth construction into his stone nog family residence. It is also

probable that Kofi Aiko and his son, father to Mefful, were all Methodists since the property is

located so close to the Methodist Mission. The house incorporates a large central room bridged

by two arcades that support the second floor. The first arcade incorporates three anse de panier

arches, while the second incorporates two larger mushroom arches (Figure B-61). This central

room is known as the main hall. Today, a small family-run business of baking polo biscuits,

made with coconut, is conducted there.

Three chambers emanate from each side of the hall, making a symmetrical plan. It is

possible that the entrances to these rooms from the hall are decorated in symmetrical fashion.

The front set of rooms has a plain rectangular entrance with no decoration. The middle set may at

one time have been a set of mushroom arches. Today, the arches are filled in and doors have

been cut into each. The same may apply to the next set. Here, however, rather than mushroom

arches, the door has been cut into an unusual shape that recesses into the wall (Figure B-62).

This shape doesn't appear anywhere else on the coast, and as such, appears to be an entirely

original invention for the house. The ground floor would be well-designed for a store or for

storage, yet the family does not remember how it was first used by Mefful. The distance between

each row of arcades varies. While the middle and rear spaces measure equally, the front width is

only five feet. Even though a symmetrical Palladian plan was followed, great variety was

interwoven.









Kubekor. The UAC was comprised of English merchants who traded in palm oil, textiles,

building materials, gunpowder and other goods. The UAC paid rent to the Adwenadze family for

the use of the land.

The UAC was stationed in Saltpond as well as in Anomabo. After problems arose with

unfair trading practices and looting by some locals in Saltpond, several companies including

UAC dissolved in c. 1938. UAC left the building in Anomabo to the Adwenadze family.

Adontehen Amonoo I, abusuapanyin for the Twidan clan at the time, gave the building outright

to the Roman Catholic Church probably sometime in the 1880s. He was not Catholic himself but

several of the family members had converted. The Catholics had a much smaller following than

the Methodists in Anomabo in the late-nineteenth century. It was not until about 1990 that a new

church was built, St. Mary's Immaculate Conception Catholic Church, located in the

neighborhood far east of the center of town called Twa Asu Kada, i.e. "cross the stream and go

to sleep."

The English merchants had the one-room, long rectangular building constructed using

stone nog. The evenly-spaced doors and windows have anse de panier arches. Although a simple

design, appropriate for a warehouse, it followed the Palladian dictum. The church later added the

chapel divider inside and the decorative colored glass panels in the thirteen windows. Today the

space is used as a kindergarten and nursery, though I also spotted it being used as a space for the

church ladies to stencil cloth to be cut into their matching kaba and slit outfits. The church added

a two-story mission house on the side of the courtyard in rammed earth. The English priests

stayed in this mission house when they visited Anomabo. Today, some of the Catholic school

teachers live in this structure.









The fourth clue is apparent in the fact that the building appears to be missing its second

story, started in one corner but not completed. Thus, the construction was probably halted in

1873 when Blankson fell into difficulties. Therefore, this structure was likely built between the

late 1860s and 1873. Blankson's addition to Castle Brew remains as a legacy of one of the most

prominent nineteenth century Fante merchants of Anomabo.

Samuel Collins Brew Family Residence A Comparison

Blankson's contemporary Samuel Collins Brew (c. 1810- February 2, 1881) followed in

his great grandfather Brew's footsteps by becoming a prominent merchant in Anomabo.14

Collins Brew was a legitimate (i.e. not trading in slaves) trading merchant and public official.

Although he was born in Cape Coast, he moved to Anomabo in his twenties or thirties to

establish and grow his business. His records state that he mainly traded in gold and ivory. Like

Blankson and others, Collins Brew and his brother Harry imported goods on credit from British

firms. These items included cloth, rum and tobacco pipes. They were sold in stores Collins Brew

maintained in Anomabo and other places along the coast.15

His family residence was located on Sam Brew's kukwadu, or hill, in the Krokessin, or

old town, neighborhood. Today, his house is in such a ruinous state that it is difficult to even find

traces of the foundations. It is reputed to have been a magnificent and large house that collapsed

sometime before 1929.16 His brick factory is reputed to have been located nearby. It is likely that

this factory produced the burnt bricks used in his stone nog residence as bits of brick are strewn





14For his obituary, see Document D-1 in the Appendix.
15Priestley, West African Trade, 143-147.

16A set of buildings marked in poor condition in depicted on the Gold Coast Survey map of 1931, so perhaps it
collapsed shortly thereafter.









S ob radio P lan ......................................................22 1
O ff-beat Phrasing ......... .............................. ........... ................ 222
Justice A kw a F am ily R evidence ........................................ ............................................222
Palladian Style w ith Sobrado Plan ........................................ .......................... 223
M modern A alterations ................. .............. ........ .... ....................... .... 224
O ff-beat Phrasing .................... ................ .... ...... ... ........ ........ .. 224
Comparison with an Afro-Brazilian Sobrado in Brazil..............................224
Moses Adu Family Residence A Comparison in Larteh..................................................225
W orldw ide A adoption of the Sobrado......... ................. ............................... ............... 226

7 TRANSFORMATION: THE COASTAL ELITE STYLE.............................. ................228

The Hall and Chamber Plan with a Sobrado Verandah ................ ................................. 230
E tsiw a A b o d o ...................................... ................................................... 2 3 1
A b ro sa n ................... ...................2...................3.........2
Style and P lan ...................................................................................................... 233
Characterization .................................................... ...... .................. 235
The Quayson House A Dutch Comparison in Elmina...............................................236
Lawyer Atta Amonoo Family Residence ........................................ ........................ 237
F u nctio n s ..............................................................................2 4 0
M materials and C construction .......................................... ............................................240
B ritish P alladian Style .............. ... ....... ...... .......... .................... 24 1
Pobee Abaka Family Residence A Comparison in Saltpond ...................................244
O ff-beat P hrasing ............... .............................. ..................... ..... ...... 245
P la n ................... ...................2...................4.........5
Status Symbol.................................... ..............................246
The Family Residences of Allen Quansah- A Fante Comparison in Cape Coast........247
B ritish P alladian Style ....................... .............................................. .. .............. 248
P lan .................. ........................ ....... .............. ................... 2 4 8
The Second Allen Quansah Family Residence in Tantri...............................249
Onismous Brandford Parker Family Residence A Sierra Leonian Comparison in Cape
C o a st ...................... .. ............. .. ........................................................ 2 4 9
B ritish P alladian Style ....................... .... .......................... .. ........ .... ..... ...... 250
P la n ................... ...................2...................5.........1
T transform nations .......................................................................... 25 1

8 COMMUNICATING STATUS THROUGH THE VISUAL ...........................................253

T h e S ite .......................2 5.....3.......... ... ............................................ .. 2 5 3
T he D decline of A nom abo .................................................................................. ......254
Identity: A fricans and Europeans .................................................. ........................... 255
Identity: Coastal Elites and Ruling Heirarchies ............... ............................................ 257
Status and V isual Transfers ......................................................................... ................... 258
C cultural A uthentification ......... ................. .............................................. .......................260
T he G lob al F ocu s ............................ .........................................................265
C arib b ea n .......................................................... ................ 2 6 5
A fro-B razilian C o m m unities .............................................................. .....................269


14









Despite strong European religious, political and economic presence on the coast,

Christianity did not replace indigenous religions. Rather, certain aspects of Christianity were

consciously appropriated and incorporated into Akan belief systems. Akan religions and

Christianity amazingly co-existed in the nineteenth century and continue to do so today even

though Christianity is monotheistic and Fante religions are polytheistic. They co-exist due to

relatively positive interaction between Christian churches, Chieftaincies, and asafo companies.

Although Christianity requires that a convert disavow all ties to previous religious affiliations,

Akan religions are more inclusive, allowing for multi-layered theologies. It is a struggle for some

Fante members of Christian churches to rescind deeply-ingrained, time-honored Fante religious

beliefs. Therefore, when Christian churches relaxed in the nineteenth century to integrate certain

coastal African performative practices (i.e. singing, dancing and possession), the Akans found it

easier to incorporate Christian beliefs into their faith. Also, the upheaval caused by political and

economic instability in the nineteenth century served to heighten the need to apply to a higher

power for guidance and support. The power of Christianity, like the power of European forts and

military, appealed to the Akans who appropriated their visual forms and transformed them to

create what anthropologists Fabian, Hannerz and Nelson Graburn describe as "new creole art

forms,"113 and textile and clothing specialists Eicher and Erekosima call cultural authentification.

Other scholars have used the term hybrid. Regardless of academic terminology, this is how

Christianity was, and continues to be, accepted among many Akans.

Education

The spread of literacy promoted by the Christian missionaries had an impact on coastal life

in both urban and rural areas. Literacy provided useful business skills, such as account keeping


113Fabian, 317; Hannerz, 14-15; and Nelson H. H. Grabum, "The Evolution of Tourist Arts," Annals ofTourism
Research 11 (1984), 402.





















.t.

I,,,,, I


Hal!


, h,,,, I,


i i .l ',.1 ci.inda i' "'''-'
,I













S I.. I ...

Hall Chamber


Chamber


_t Ii iiii. I


, h,,,,I


Front


Figure B-42. Moses Kwesi Amo Family Residence, Plan
(Drawing by Courtnay Micots, 2009)


*- v


Second Floor


Ground Floor


_h 1 l-.l


~- --~









fort. Although they were friendly to Miles, they feared becoming overly dependent on the British

Company of Merchants. 92

The American presence in Anomabo trade remained strong until the start of the American

Revolutionary War (1775-1783), which had a significant economic impact on Anomabo. With

the fleets busy at war, a general scarcity of trans-Atlantic traders came to the coast. The

interruption in the British and American trade caused the price of slaves to drop and the price of

European goods to skyrocket. 93 This means that those who had become dependent upon

European goods paid more money to keep up appearances, while at the same time, they earned

less due to the temporary lull in the slave trade. The recession ended when the war ended and

commercial interests peaked again.

Labarthe wrote in 1803 that Anomabo was the center of commerce for the Gold Coast. 94

The prominence of Anomabo was not lost on the Asante who wanted direct access to the coast

and trade with the Europeans and Americans. Commercial interests drove the more centrally-

organized Asante to periodically invade key trade routes within the Fante region and into

Anomabo state from the 1750s to 1807. Flather considered this period "a prelude to disaster."95

The Asante Invasion- June 15, 1807

The turning point for Anomabo was the Asante invasion on June 15, 1807. Governor

Henry Meredith (1801-1847), who witnessed the battle first-hand, estimated that 8,000 persons





92George E. Metcalf, "Gold, Assortments and the Trade Ounce: Fante Merchants and the Problem of Supply and
Demand in the 1770s," The Journal ofAfrican History 28 (1, 1987), 30-31, 40.

93Shumway, 112.

94Labarthe, 71.

95Flather, 83.









Europeans formed an insignificant proportion of the coastal population. They were often

confined to their forts. Yet, for those Europeans who lived longer, lived outside the fort, and

interacted more with the local population, they adapted some of their behaviors to Akan social

institutions and beliefs. Richard Brew, who lived in Anomabo for about 25 years, is one such

example. Hence they acknowledged the importance of chiefs, elders, and the asafo through a

system of allowances and gifts on special occasions. A considerable difference in European

attitude existed between the eighteenth century and the late nineteenth century.63

Mulattoes, the offspring of liaisons between European men and African women, lived

mainly in the coastal settlements and were able to bridge the two cultures. Due to this liminality,

the mulattoes soon held many of the military, linguistic and commercial posts in the coastal

cities. Most spoke Dutch or English in addition to local languages. They received some degree of

Western education, and they often had European names in addition to their African ones. These

liminal peoples, like other Atlantic Creoles located in major ports throughout the Atlantic World,

handled much of the expansion oftrans-Atlantic commerce and the resulting cultural and

demographic transformation of the Atlantic World. These mulattoes held lucrative middleman

positions during the highly competitive years of the trans-Atlantic slave trade in the eighteenth

century, in the face of Asante invasions and European companies that would have preferred to

trade directly with Asante, which by this time had become the most powerful of the inland Akan

states. 64

It seemed surprising then that none of the families I spoke with admitted to mulattoes as

residence builders or prominent members in their families. Important mulattoes in Anomabo


63Priestley, West African Trade, 8-9, 19.

64Shumway 35, 51; and Ira Berlin, Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries ofSlavery in North America
(Cambridge, MA and London: Belknap and Harvard UP, 1998), 17-28.









of the veranda is not visually appealing, but it serves the practical function of shielding the house

and its occupants against the occasional torrential rains and winds. This same technique has been

used on the Methodist Mission in Larteh (located across from the Moses Adu Family Residence)

to cover its entire veranda, and this is not uncommon. Concrete block additions have been added

to the west and north side of the house.

A cement plaster has been applied to the exterior, and the house is currently painted yellow

with a lower band ofblack. This dark band hides the dirt washed up onto the surface by the rains,

but also seems to be a common decorative touch across the region. This painting technique was

also applied to the tuafohen's courtyard, with white walls trimmed with an earthy red strip about

four feet high. The painter also extended the red upwards toward the doorway leading to the

southernmost hall. This type of triangular highlighting of entrances is another common painting

practice in the coastal region.

Structure C-13. Ruins of the Adontehen Amonoo I Palaces and the Enchia Family
Residence

The ruins of two palaces built by the Adontehen Amonoo I, and the family residence of

Enchia (c.b. 1900)35 are situated around Anomabo's echinaba, a sacred tree, inKrokessin.

Remains of stone foundations and piers are all that are visible today of these once grand two-

story houses likely both constructed in the early twentieth century. Enchia, a merchant, was a

member of The Grand United Order of Oddfellows Friendly Society. He likely knew fellow

member Hagan and was contemporaries with Hagan' s nephew Annobil. Enchia's house is said to

have been built between 1925 and 1931. All of three houses were standing according to the 1931

Gold Coast Survey map. The adontehen's buildings collapsed around 1940. Enchia's house

collapsed around 1950.


35No one could remember Enchia's first name.


















































Figure B-48. Ama Moo Family Residence, Back
Ama Moo
c. 1870-1895
Stone nog brick, concrete block, cement plaster
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photo by Courtnay Micots, 2007)








333



















































Figure B-43. Charles Bentum Annan Family Residence
Charles Bentum Annan (c. 1890-1964)
c. 1920s-1931
Stone nog cement plaster
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photo by Courtnay Micots, 2009)






328









Interviewees, if elderly, can supply some general information on these clients, but they seldom

have specific knowledge regarding the builders and why certain choices were made. Details

regarding the ruins in town were even more difficult to uncover.

History is a construct. This applies to Anomabo in the way nearly every person or family

I spoke with claimed their house was built by one of their ancestors. The Omanhen's Palace, for

example, was described as always being the Omanhen's Palace. According to Omanhen

Kantomanto Amonoo XI, the building was constructed by the first omanhen of his family lineage

Omanhen Amonoo I, which would date the structure to the late eighteenth century. Yet, he also

stated the structure was built in 1621. Many people claimed the structure was built in swish, a

mud mixture with vegetal materials used in rammed earth construction.42 The omanhen's

personal secretary Daniel Kofi Gdlonyah showed me a niche and small storage area inside the

palace that clearly demonstrate Dutch building techniques in stone nog and imported bricks. The

location of the structure and its overall fortress-like quality indicates that this building was the

Dutch Lodge built in Anomabo around 1640.

Thus, even though the evidence proves that the building is constructed of stone and brick

and built for the Dutch, Anomabos still identify it as swish, built for the Fante. They also

construct a history that the structure was built for royal purposes, when in reality it was built as a

European commercial residence and fortification. In this way, the structure is incorporated into

Anomabo history. Therefore, I had to be aware of such transformations, or historical constructs,

while analyzing my data on this and other buildings in town. Anomabos who know about the

Asante invasion of 1807, claim that the Fante won a clear victory over the Asante. This is

another cautionary example that locals invent their own histories.

42Although people in the area discuss the mode of construction as swish, I will refer to the actual mode of
construction, rammed earth, rather than to the material used.



















































Figure B-72. The Russell House, Courtyard Entrance
Reverend John Oboboam Hammond, Francis Medanyamease Hammond, Mrs.
Charlotte Oyemame Acquaah (1858 July 31, 1908)
1897-1898
Stone nog
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photo by Courtnay Micots, 2009)





357









The Hall and Chamber plan found in so many of Ghana's coastal residences is missing

from the Nigerian plans provided by Okoye. While he does not provide a plan for every building

he discusses, a representative sample of house plans demonstrate a different organizational

preference in this region. These plans vary with the ground floor of the Onwudinjo House

exhibiting the only Hall and Chamber configuration.47 The ground floor plan for the Adinembo

House resembles the Calvert Claude Hagan Family Residence (Figure C-12) in its cluster of four

central rooms surrounded on all four sides by a veranda. 48 The second and third story of the

Adinembo House however differs in its enclosure of several rooms over the veranda below.

Rooms to receive visitors (Conversation Room, Dining Room, Sitting Room) are among these

rooms that are placed along the exterior walls with the cluster of private rooms toward the

interior. It can be determined that, at least in this comparison of Ghanaian and southeastern

Nigerian coastal elite residences, that the Hall and Chamber plan is a component of the Ghanaian

regional style.

The Builders

Taking a more global approach to identify the builders of these Anomabo residences, it is

possible to identify several possibilities. Unlike Okoye,49 I was unable to obtain specific names

for the builders of the homes in Anomabo or anywhere in the researched Ghanaian coastal port

towns. Yet, it is possible to conclude that a variety of builders knowledgeable in stone nog

construction were available. Okoye notes that builders trained in the Akuapem Hills area of

Ghana "were routinely transported from the Gold Coast to southeastern Nigeria, to work as

contractors on building projects." These trained carpenters were successful enough to obtain

47Ibid., 674, Figure 82.
48Ibid., 686, Figure 101.
49Ibid., 450-481, 495-505.








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S


CIT/


277177-"--^ V


Aggrey
Road


-c I


SStore
Store


Market Street


Store

SStore





Store

"ll .


Front


Figure B-71. The Russell House, Plan
Ground floor
(Drawing by Courtnay Micots, 2009)


II U


I +I


K

I
i^k


I I


'I









Regarding the missions and churches in town, I thank Headmistress Elizabeth Anderson

and Bishop Atto Brown at the Methodist Mission. For information on the three Kow Otu Houses,

I thank Ekow Entsuah Mensah, Safohen Kofi Dickson, Nana Kwa and Kofi Etsiwa. I also thank

Ekow Entsuah Mensah and Beatrice Harrison Mends for their assistance with Swanzy. I

appreciated those chilled lemon Fantas Beatrice kept for me. At the Kobena Mefful House, I am

grateful to Kobina George Kongsley Otoo, Efua Grace Mensah and Ekua Ntsefuwa.

At the Catholic Mission, originally the United Africa Company storage facility, I convey

my gratitude to Atta Hawkson and Osebo. I am grateful to Samuel Kodwo Annobil, Esther

Mensah and Grace Afukaah at the Calvert Claude Hagan Family Residence. I thank Edukuma

Hagan for sharing family information and documents on The Russell House a. k. a. Abodan. At

the Justice Akwa Family Residence, I am grateful to Dora Ferguson and Nana Kwa.

I am indebted to Samuel Bonso-Abban, Harriet Dadzie, Suzy Butler and Comfort Aggrey

at Abrosan. I am sincerely grateful to Grace Ntsiful for her memories of the Jacob Wilson Sey

Family Residence. For their histories regarding these ruins ofAnomabo, I thank Joseph Kofi

Ackom and Nana Kwa for the Samuel Collins Brew's Family Residence, the Adontehen's

palaces and Enchia's Family Residence; Aba Mansa, a. k. a. Aba Ed Monson, at the Ed Monson

Family Residence, and John Kweku Aikins at the Yard House.

I thank Kwa Twento Mensah, regent until a new Krontihen is installed, at the Krontihen's

Palace. At the Lawyer Atta Amonoo's Family Residence I am grateful to Inspector Harrison and

caretaker PaulNorty. I thank Kodwo Ampiah, a.k.a Atta Papa, for information on W. E. D. A.

Lodge. At Kweku Abaka's Family Residence, I thank the current tenants.

In Cape Coast, I thank the residents and especially Crement Thomason, Samuel Ankrah

and Ramses Ankrah for sharing the Allen Quansah Family Residences with me. In Elmina, at the









retired, he became a Methodist preacher. He was born to Englishman Dr. Samuel Ferguson, a

colonial surgeon, and a local woman. 53 While the doctor probably lived inside Fort William, the

Ferguson family lived in a rammed earth house to the east side of the Omanhen's Palace. Today,

the house no longer stands and a cemetery is in its place.

Robert Hutchison

Robert Hutchison (1828-1863), the mulatto son of William Hutchison (d. 1832), was born

in Cape Coast and attended school in England. When he returned to the coast he became an

exclusive agent for F. and A. Swanzy. He became a successful merchant in Cape Coast. He was

presumably worth 60,000.54 Hutchison established Freemasonry on the Gold Coast with his

cousin Charles Bartels and others in 1859. He was elected to the Legislative Council from 1861-

1863 shortly after Blankson.55 Hutchison was a contemporary of George Smith, commandant of

Anomabo. 56

Robert Johnson Ghartey

As a youth Robert Johnson Ghartey (b. 1820), son of GyatehKumah III, Ohene of

Winneba, Ghartey worked for various European firms, eventually working his way up to the

position of agent, as well as acquiring the name Robert Johnson Ghartey. In the early 1850s

Ghartey established his own business at Anomabo called Ghartey Brothers. Working from his

Anomabo base, he controlled thirteen factories along the coast.57 Unfortunately no one could

remember where Ghartey Brothers was located or where Ghartey resided in Anomabo.



53Magnus J. Sampson, Gold Coast Men ofAffairs (Past and Present) (London: Dawsons, 1969), 130.
54Ibid., 128; and Kaplow 79.

55Hutchinson, 110.

56Ephson, 50-52.
57Flather, 131.









Sey and Samuel Collins Brew are now gone. However, more than seventeen houses still exist,

though in various states of condition. 7

Identity

The majority of individuals in the Central Region today identify themselves as belonging

to the Fante ethnic group, then by hometown, which is the place where the head of their lineage

is situated, and then by clan, referring to their matrilineage, tracing their descent to a common

female ancestor. According to cultural anthropologist Bayo Holsey, "If someone cannot identify

these aspects of their identity, he or she cannot be incorporated into normal modes of relating."8

Asserting one's individual or group identity is a recurrent theme in Anomabo art, whether the

clients are European or African.

The African coastal elite class is a liminal group of Africans who knew how, since pre-

colonial times, to bridge the two cultures Western and African. Savvy businessmen who could

work within each system attained great wealth and status in urban communities. Along the

central Ghanaian coast, these elites were first mulattoes,9 offspring of white soldiers or traders

and their African wives, who received some European education in the church schools within the

castles and forts. In a few cases, such as William Ansah Sesarakoo, royal sons were sent to

Europe for education and returned to work as linguists or clerks, a highly-respected role, in the

castles and forts. Education became more available to Africans in the nineteenth century with the

spread of church missions in the area. More Africans joined these privileged royals and

7This is not necessarily an exhaustive study of stone nog houses, since homes with renovations too great to discern
the original residence were not included.

Bayo Holsey, Routes ofRemembrance: Refashioning the Slave Trade in Ghana (Chicago: University of Chicago,
2008), 42.
9The term mulatto is used in this text only to differentiate African people who had a parent of Caucasian background
fromthose Africans with local parentage. Later, when I discuss "Africans and mulattoes," I am only making the
distinction that initially the group of merchant elites was mulattoes and in the nineteenth century more non-mulatto
Africans joined this elite group.









Sesarakoo and his companion were "richly dressed in the European manner" and introduced to

the King of England, His court, and attended the theaters (Figure B-14).80

Captain Baird brought Sesarakoo to Anomabo from England on the H.M.S. Surprise, a 20-

gun frigate.

We delivered to him [the king of Anomabo] his son with, alas, all the feelings of an
Englishman, magnificently equipped in a full-dress scarlet suit, with gold lace a la
Bourgogne, point d'Espagne hat, handsome white feather, diamond solitaire
buttons, etc. The King bore no other mark of Royal dignity than a piece of broad-
cloth thrown over his shoulders. He carried his son on shore in full dress, under a
Royal Salute from our men-of-war, and the moment he landed stripped the poor
Prince, giving him no other mark of distinction from the other savages than that
borne by himself 81

Afterward great festivals were held. "... one is not surprised to learn that the distressed and

humiliated prince did not appear again on board the ship in his undress uniform." What happened

was probably misread by Lieut.-General Sir J. Spencer Ewart, K.C.B. 82 As Brown states, "...the

stripping of the Prince of his foreign habiliments was not a degradation, but an honour to him, to

be introduced to his father's subjects in Native garb, as, according to custom, he could not be

received otherwise. The fetes held, which gave the narrator 'a perfect and painful idea of savage

life,' were really expressive of the great joy the people felt at the return of their Prince after a







Sesarakoo (though Agna could be a corruption ofAnsah) and his companion because of the location and ship.
Probably repeating this reference, Samuel Richard Brew Attoh Ahuma gave the name of this youth as "Sackitte" in
his 1905 bookMemoirs of WestAfJrican Celebrities Europe &c (1700-1850). Samuel Richard Brew Attoh Ahuma,
Memoirs of West African Celebrities, Europe, &c. (1700-1850) with Special Reference to the Gold Coast
(Liverpool: D. Marples, 1905), 36. William Dodd reprinted this youth's 200-line poem, originally published in the
Gentlemen's Magazine. Dodd.

8Brown, vol. 2, 105-108; and "William Ansah Seseraku," The Gentlemen's Magazine 19 (February 1749), 89-90.

8Lieut.-General Sir J. Spencer Ewart, K.C.B., "Colonel Hamilton of the Honourable East India Company's
Service," Blackwood's Magazine 208 (1262 December 1920), 773-774.

82Ibid., 774.









B -49 M methodist M mission ................... .... .............................. ........... .. .............334

B-50 Kobena M efful Family Residence .............................................................................335

B -51 Ebenezer M methodist C hurch............................................................................. ....... 336

B-52 Samuel Otu Memorial Presbyterian Church .......... ............................... ...............337

B-53 W warehouse, a. k. a. Old Catholic M mission, Back .................................. ............... 338

B-54 N anglican Church, South Side and Back.................................................... .............. 339

B-55 Etsiw a Abodo with SupiK ofi Dickson....................................... ......................... 340

B -5 6 S w a n z y ................... ......................................................................... 3 4 1

B -57 Sw anzy, P lan ...................................... ................................................. 342

B-58 Swanzy, Interior Mushroom Arch, with Descendant Beatrice Harrison Mends ............343

B-59 K obena M efful (1853-M arch 1943) ...................................................... ... ............ 344

B-60 Kobena Mefful Family Residence, Plan ............................... ...................345

B-61 Kobena Mefful Family Residence, Interior, Ground Floor .......................................346

B-62 Kobena Mefful Family Residence, Chamber Doorways, Ground Floor .........................347

B-63 Kobena Mefful Family Residence, Enclosed Veranda, Second Floor.............................348

B-64 Chief Joseph Edward Biney Family Residence, Courtyard Entrance.........................349

B-65 Claude Calvert Hagan Family Residence, South Side and Partial Front.........................350

B-66 Claude Calvert Hagan and Wife, Possibly Araba Otuah............. ..... ............... 351

B-67 Claude Clavert Hagan Family Residence, Plan .................................... ................... 352

B-68 Survey from Indenture Docum ent......................................................... ............... 353

B-69 The R ussell H house, W est Side ............................................................................. 354

B-70 M oses A du Fam ily R evidence ............................................................................. 355

B -71 The R ussell H house, P lan ................................................................ ......................... 356

B-72 The Russell House, Courtyard Entrance.............................. ................ ... ............... 357

B-73 Justice Akwa Family Residence, Front....................................... ......................... 358

















































Figure B-61. Kobena Mefful Family Residence, Interior, Ground Floor
Kobena Mefful (1853-March 1943)
c. 1900
Stone nog brick facing
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photograph by Courtnay Micots, 2009)








346









arrival of Europeans on the coast. The Ghanaian coast was also in commercial contact with the

Western Sudan, and the regions comprising Ivory Coast, Togo, Dahomey and Nigeria today. The

Fante exchanged salt, gold, ivory and kola nuts for beads, cowrie shells and cloths. Anomabo

was one of the earliest Fante communities to be established on the coast; it lay at the seaboard

end of an accessible inland trading route. It was not until European contact that Anomabo

entered the global arena in such a way that an urban port developed.

European Contact

In 1471, the region received its first European visitors, the Portuguese, at Elmina, a small

village located a mere 17 miles west of Anomabo. Eager to dominate trade along the coast and to

take advantage of inland trade routes, the Dutch, Danish, Swedes, Brandenburgs, French, English

and Americans quickly sought to dominate the lucrative coastal trade. Lodges, forts and castles

were built by the Europeans who imported masons and also trained locals to assist with their

construction. These were built not so much for protection against the natives, but as commercial

centers, residences and fortifications against their European rivals. The Fante soon became

power brokers as the middlemen between the inland groups bringing gold, ivory, slaves and

agricultural produce to the coast and the Europeans and Americans who docked there. New

building techniques and materials were introduced to the coastal ports and gradually spread into

the interior.

According to Hull, stable and enduring towns and cities ofpre-colonial Africa developed

as a result of either intense ritual or market activity, lying at the crossroads of commercial

exchange. 24 Anomabo's development was due to the latter reason. Anomabo is part of a wider

trading network that has existed for five centuries. This town absorbed incoming cultures, their


24Hull, 392.









eighteenth-century Fante society focuses upon the regional politics with European contact, yet it

does not mention the visual culture. An earlier dissertation concerning Fante politics written by

Sanders offers specific information regarding Anomabo chieftaincy and other community

leadership roles. Although helpful in discussing leadership roles, their arts are not investigated.

Flather's dissertation offers many details regarding Anomabo's complex history. He

focuses on a number of important personages useful in this study. An entire chapter is devoted to

the accomplishments ofKurentsir, recorded historically as John Currantee. Flather also

documents the trade relationships, the resulting urbanization and eventual downfall ofAnomabo.

He does this, however, by mainly utilizing American and European historical documents by

merchants, missionaries and officers, without including local oral histories. My work

incorporates all of these histories as a means to understand the unique and layered Anomabo

context.

Archaeologist Mark Henry Freeman has recently conducted two archaeological digs in

Anomabo as published in his master's thesis "Archaeology of Early European Contact in

Anomabu, Ghana" from the University of Ghana. 62 One site, in particular, yielded evidence of

glass and pottery from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries confirming the city's global

connections. This site was a refuse pit located on Okokodo Street near the Kobena Mefful

Family Residence and Methodist Mission.

Although the focus is on Elmina rather than Anomabo, archaeologist Christopher

DeCorse's work further informs impressions of urban Anomabo. His archaeological excavations

of Elmina between 1985 and 1987 are recorded in his dissertation "An Archaeological Study of

Elmina, Ghana: Trade and Culture Change on the Gold Coast between the Fifteenth and

62Mark Henry Freeman, "Archaeology of Early European Contact in Anomabu, Ghana," (Master's thesis, University
of Ghana, 2008).









empower themselves by asserting a measure of control over worlds often perceived to be rapidly

changing."12

On June 15, 1807, Anomabo lost half of its people and most of the buildings were

destroyed. Afterward, the city lost its prominence as the leading cosmopolitan center on the

central Ghanaian coast, and although it slowly gained some importance during the nineteenth

century, it never fully regained its former glory. Constant attacks from the Asante on coastal

towns and along important trade routes throughout the century weakened the Fante hold over the

region and increased Fante reliance on the British. The coast unofficially became a British

colony with the Bond of 1844; the entire territory known as Ghana today officially became a

colony in 1874. As a result, the nineteenth century marked a period of great change with political

and economic instability.

Late nineteenth century and early twentieth century Fante art and architecture exhibit an

assertion of identity. Asafo companies, once the military arm of the omanhen, wielded physical

power during the height of Anomabo's cosmopolitanism. However, their power was greatly

curbed by the British administration, leading to alternative ways to express bravery and strength.

This resulted in the increased use ofapplique flags in the mid-nineteenth century (Figure B-3), 13

large asafo company shrines orposuban in the late nineteenth century (Figure B-4), and for the

Kyirem No. 6 company of Anomabo, the adoption of the Native American warrior image in

performance in the 1950s prior to independence in 1957 (Figure B-5).

This study proves that the African coastal elite's identity is closely tied to their aesthetic

choices, which are consistently made apparent through their art forms. During the colonial era,

12Daniel B. Reed, Dan Ge Performance: Masks andMusicfor New Realities in Contemporary Cote d'Ivoire
(Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2003), 13.
13See my forthcoming essay "Griffins, Crocodiles and the British Ensign: Kweku Kakanu's Asafo Flags and
Followers," in Africa Interweave, ed. Susan Cooksey. Gainesville, FL: Samuel P. Ham Museum of Art, 2011.









Nana Kwa grew up in the second Kow Otu Family Residence (Figure B-12) with his father

Nyanfoeku Ababio (July 7, 1896-1985) who was Chief ofNyanfoeku Ekroful, a village in

Anomabo state, for 45 years. Prior to his father becoming chief, they lived in the first Kow Otu

Family Residence (Figure B-13). Today, Nana Kwa lives in the first Kow Otu house. His father's

interest and vast knowledge of the history of Anomabo sparked Nana Kwa's lifelong passion for

history.

As Reed states, "I prefer to think of fieldwork not as a particular spatially or temporally

bound experience. Rather fieldwork is, as Michelle Kisliuk writes, 'a broad conceptual zone

united by a chain of inquiry."'40 I would agree that my continual contact with Nana Kwa and

other persons in Anomabo and along the coast, together with my research and writing in Florida,

has oriented my thinking within a constant fieldwork mind set.

"I Came to Meet It"

I am basing much of this text on my ethnographic research in Ghana, and as such, I faced

certain challenges. Oral history can offer much information, yet drawbacks exist. In answer to

my queries regarding when a particular house was built or who built the structure, the most

common reply I heard was "I came to meet it." In other words, the house was built before they

were born, and they know little else about it.

Historian Raymond E. Dumett stated: "detailed case studies of eighteenth and nineteenth

century African merchants are rare because of the paucity of statistical data and the loss or

destruction of valuable business papers."41 This applies to property records as well. Acquiring

details regarding Anomabo's coastal elite, the clients of the stone nog houses, is problematic.


'"i,:c. .I 8.

41Raymond E. Dumett, "John Sarbah, the Elder, and African Mercantile Entrepreneurship in the Gold Coast in the
Late Nineteenth Century," The Journal ofAfrican History 14 (4, 1973), 653.









Art historian Susan Vogel describes some of the similarities between the European and

African worlds of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries in her introduction to Ezio Bassani and

William B. Fagg' s exhibition catalog Africa and the Renaissance: Art in Ivory. Commonalities

include thatched residences, societies based on the extended family, certain belief systems, the

craftsmen guild system, and the anonymity of workshop artisans. Art historian Peter Mark

outlines the long-standing trading relationship between Africa and Europe since antiquity in the

same text. He maintains that during the fifteenth century, Africans and Europeans shared

technologies, wide-spread illiteracy, and common religious concepts, including a belief in

witchcraft and protective charms or amulets. 27 Thus Europeans and Africans meeting on the

coast at this time were similar in many ways.

European activities begin in Anomabo with the Dutch as early as 1639. With the

permission from Omanhen Kurentsir, the Dutch constructed the first European lodge in

Anomabo. It was completed under the supervision of Dutch Commander, Arent Jacobsz van der

Graeff (1557-1642).28 A convention, originally instituted by the Dutch when they were trying to

undermine Portuguese trade, was established whereby European merchants were obliged to give

presents, called dassy, to brokers who agreed to sell their goods. European merchants found this

irksome but still had to follow it for fear of losing their business. 29

Urban Growth in the Seventeenth Century

The growth of Ghana's maritime trade in the seventeenth century was part of the broader

development of European maritime empires throughout the Atlantic World. Different European


27Ezio Bassani and William B. Fagg, Africa and the Renaissance: Art in Ivory (NY: Center for African Art and
Prestel-Verlag, 1988), 18-26.
28Hair, Jones and Law, 377; Flather, 23; and W. E. F. Ward,A History of Ghana (London: George Allen and Unwin,
1958), 81.
29Dickson, 107. Dassy is a corruption of the Akan word medaase, meaning thankyou.



















































Figure B-54. Nanglican Church, South Side and Back
Unknown builder
c.1910
Stone nog cement plaster
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photo by Courtnay Micots, 2009)






339









all over the hillside. Unfortuantely, none of his descendants in Anomabo could remember the

facade or the interior plan of this residence.

Although he also built a house in Cape Coast on Bentsil Street,17 I was unable to locate it.

It is likely in ruins today. It is possible that the house was destroyed after heavy rains caused

damage in 1929.18 Priestley notes that the "Brew House" in Cape Coast became the family

residence of descendants, including his son, James Hutton Brew. Unfortunately, also like his

great grandfather, Collins Brew lost his wealth after a decade of disruptions in trade due to

Asante invasions. In 1867, he had to relinquish his properties, including his houses in Anomabo

and Cape Coast, to pay his creditor Forster and Smith. 19

After the death of Collins Brew in February of 1881, a public auction was held on

December 15, 1881, to sell "house-hold furniture, wearing apparel, silver wares, country cloths,

bedsteads, mattrasses..."20 Brew, Blankson and Collins Brew suffered the same fate in their latter

years loss of wealth because of Asante political entanglements and wars. And, the English

trading firm of Foster and Smith benefited.

When Collins Brew died, "his funeral was celebrated in a manner appropriate to one who

had been at the forefront of the Anomabu trading community. Liberal calabashes of rum, for

instance, are said to have been placed at various points of the town for all and sundry, including

Brew's customers from up-country, to enjoy. Nor was Christian symbolism neglected, and the

Methodist Cemetery at Anomabu today contains a large stone monument, still cared for by the



17Gold Coast Leader (January 11-18, 1919), 1.

"This would seem to suggest that the Cape Coast residence was constructed in earthen materials, possibly a rammed
earth structure. Gold Coast Leader (July 6, 1929), 8.

19Priestley, West African Trade, 148-150.
20The Gold Coast Times (December 10, 1881), back page.









Status Symbol

The many similarities to the Omanhen's Palace suggest that the Krontihen's Palace was

intentionally designed to reflect that of the Omanhen's Palace. The stool had been passed from

the Abaidoo Paado clan to Kow Appiah, creating the new position ofkrontihen. It seems obvious

that Appiah selected for his own palace forms from the three Anomabo architectural structures

most associated with power the Omanhen's Palace, Castle Brew and Fort William. The two-

story courtyard plan is suggestive of that of the Omanhen's Palace; the pilasters at the coigns

resemble those on Castle Brew; and the lancet motif was taken from Fort William or Castle

Brew. The palace is situated just down the road from Fort William and Castle Brew, so the

common decorative elements visually link these structures and would have thus elevated the

status of its owner in the eyes of local inhabitants.









the hinterland stimulated their desire to be recognized as major players in the global economy.

And indeed, they were. Britain however, by moving its colonial capital from Cape Coast to

Accra in 1877 and by placing political authority in the hands of traditional rulers, 4 denied

recognition of the economic, social and political status of the long-established African elite class.

Thus, the elites appropriated the symbols of power belonging to the Europeans, including

clothing furnishings and architecture, as a means to exhibit their affiliation with the group that

held the true power on the coast.

This chapter will first highlight those Anomabo residences that utilize the Palladian Hall

and Chamber Plan with the sobrado verandah. The last home discussed, the Lawyer Atta

Amonoo Family Residence, combines elements from the Palladian style, sobrado veranda and

the Akan courtyard house. The refinement of the Lawyer Atta Amonoo Family Residence marks

the high point of the Coastal Elite Style in Anomabo.

The Hall and Chamber Plan with a Sobrado Verandah

A prominent street in the Okokodo neighborhood of Anomabo is Okokodo Road, or

shortened to Okor Road (Figure B-75). On this street is the Methodist Mission on the hillside,

Armah Hall (now gone), the Kobena Mefful Family Residence (Figure B-50), Charles Bentum

Annan Family Residence (Figure B-43), Kobena Samson Family Residence (rammed earth),5

and the Kwa Akwa Family Residence (rammed earth). All these houses were built around the

same time, thus proving that both techniques of rammed earth and stone nog were available to

these clients. The two rammed earth houses display plans similar those of to the stone nog


4Flather, 144.

5The Kobena Samson Family Residence was built for a wealthy Asante cocoa farmer from Obuase. While he would
have had a much simpler house, probably built with wattle and daub, in the hinterland, this two-story rammed earth
house in Anomabo was constructed for the family. The same Hall and Chamber plan is repeated on both floors. The
flooring upstairs, accessed via a timber stairway on the front veranda, is constructed from timber supports covered
with wood planks.









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makes a conscious attempt to highlight African agency and complicate the elective process of

creating new art forms that utilize outside cultural materials, technologies, forms and ideas.

Off-beat Phrasing

Art historian Robert Farris Thompson noted combinations of symmetry and asymmetry,

which he referred to as "off-beat phrasing," a common cultural component of Akan and West

African arts. 30 Anomabo family residences exhibit off-beat phrasing in subtle ways. In fact, it is

hardly discernable until an intensive study such as this one is conducted. Thus, it is so ingrained

into the cultural aesthetic that is not commented upon by the local residents. However in the

floor plans, there is a discernible combination of the Palladian and sobrado symmetrical plan

with one or two elements that appear out of place, or asymmetrical. This phrasing will be

illustrated in the chapters ahead with each example.

Mimicry and Resistance

The African coastal elites utilized West African practices of display through the

appropriation of European religion, dress, residences and furnishings as a means to express their

cosmopolitanism and distance their identity from northerners and rural people deemed worthy of

being enslaved. Holsey states that the prevalent notion that the Fante "mimic as a cultural traitor

must be reexamined in light of this analysis. Indeed, coastal elites' treatment by Europeans as

equals in a context in which other peoples had been routinely reduced to chattel demonstrates the

expediency of their self- fashioning."31

The Fante nationalist John Mensah Sarbah stressed that the encounter between the

Europeans and Fante "was not one of a violent imposition of European will; on the contrary, it


30Robert Farris Thompson,African Art in Motion: Icon andAct in the Collection ofKatherine Coryton White (Los
Angeles: University of California, 1974), 13.
31Holsey, 47-50.









trading companies maintained mercantile establishments in various Ghanaian ports with gold as

the primary export. The personnel of the lodges and forts included Europeans and locally-

employed persons, both free and slave.30

Three major trade routes dominated the seventeenth and eighteenth century: the south-

north trade between Ghana and the Western Sudan; the coast-interior trade based on the

exchange of gold, ivory and slaves from the interior of the country for goods, especially cloth

and firearms, obtained from Europeans on the coast; and the sea trade between the coastal

settlements of Ghana and Nigeria where the various European merchants acted as middlemen. 31

Mande traders from the region of Upper Niger and Fon traders from the kingdom ofDahomey

(in modern-day Togo and Republic of Benin) contributed to these networks.32 The sea trade was

primarily based on the importation of cloths fromWhydah, Ardra and Benin, purchased by the

Europeans for trade along the Ghanaian coast.33 Well-traveled north-south trade routes from

centers in the Western Sudan reached Anomabo.34 Therefore, Anomab o was located in the

strategic position of benefiting from both of these trade routes.

By the mid-seventeenth century, important commercial hubs were located at the port cities

of Elmina, Cape Coast and Anomabo. The commercial interest in Anomabo had to be strong for,

as Barbot wrote, "The landing at Anomabo is pretty difficult, the shore being full of rocks,

among which the sea sometimes breaks very dangerously. The ships boats anchor close by, and



30Kea, 206-207.

3Dickson, 41; and Ivor Wilks, "A Medieval Trade-Route from the Niger to the Gulf of Guinea," Journal ofAfrican
History 3 (2, 1962), 337-341.

32Dickson, 41-42; Flather, 92; and Labarthe, 71.

33John Kofi Fynn,Asante and Its Neighbors 1700-1807 (London: William Clowes, 1971), 11.
3Venice Lamb, WestAfrican Weaving (London: Duckworth, 1975), 74-84.









include descendants of Richard Brew, Governor of Fort William and builder of Castle Brew.

Even though the Akrampa neighborhood in Elmina was recognized by the Dutch as a distinct

ward associated with local mulattoes in the 1780s,65 no such ward has been described in

Anomabo. Berlin noted that African Creoles in North America gained social prominence, and

"intermarriage with established peoples allowed creoles to fabricate lineages that gained them

full membership in local elites."66 Mulattoes who intermarried into Anomabo society became

incorporated into the lineage as fully African family members. My assistant Nana Kwa, a well-

read local historian, accurately recounted that Samuel Collins Brew, great grandson of Richard

Brew, had a European great grandfather and Fante great grandmother. The Brew family

descendants currently living in Anomabo however did not remember the mixed heritage, nor

were they aware of Richard Brew.

Besi Kurentsir

Perhaps the most important leader in Anomabo history is Besi Kurentsir, or John

Currantee, or Coranti, in European and American documents. He was born in the 1680s or 1690s

and became chief of Anomabo city in the 1730s.67 Kurentsi is a Borbor Fante name (see page 68)

and still refers to a quarter ofMankessim, suggesting that his ancestory belongs to the early

Akan migrants to the coast in the fourteenth century.68 Kurentsir was the last of Anomabo's first

dynasty of powerful chiefs. Kurentsir married Ekua, the daughter of King Ansa Sesarakoo, or

Sasraku, of Akwamu after the defeat of the Akwamu state by a coalition in 1730. His marriage



6DeCorse, An Archaeology ofElmina, 58-59.

66Berlin, 20.
67Flather, 59. Shumway gives the date of 1747 for his ascendancy to Chieftancy, but this is too late considering his
sons were sent to Europe previous to 1747, and during his reign. Shumway, 118.
68Shumway, 118.









Rosenberg, Jakob, Seymour Slive, and E.H. ter Kuile. Dutch Art and Architecture, 1600 to 1800,
Baltimore, MD: Penguin, 1966.

Ross, Doran H. "'Come and Try': Towards a History ofFante Military Shrines." African Arts 40
(2 Summer 2007): 12-35.

----. "We Will Fight You Day or Night: a Fante Flag (Frankaa)." In See the Music Hear the
Dance: Rethinking African Art at The Baltimore Museum ofArt, ed. Frederick John Lamp, 82-
85. Munich: Prestel, 2004.

----. Wrapped in Pride: Ghanaian Kente and African American Identity. Los Angeles: UCLA
Fowler Museum, 1998.

----. "The Heraldic Lion in Akan Art: A Study of Motif Assimilation in Southern Ghana."
Metropolitan Museum Journal. 16 (1981): 165-180.

----. "Cement Lions and Cloth Elephants: Popular Arts of the Fante Asafo." In 5000 Years of
Popular Culture, ed. Fred E. H. Schroeder, 287-317. Bowling Green: Bowling Green UP, 1980.

----. Fighting with Art: Appliqud flags of the Fante Asafo. Los Angeles: University of
California, 1979.

---- and Timothy F. Garrard, eds. Akan Transformations: Problems in Ghanaian Art History.
California: Regents of the University of California, 1983.

Rovine, Victoria L. "Fashionable Traditions: The Globalization of an African Textile." In
Fashioning Africa: Power and the Politics of Dress, ed. Jean Allman, 189-211. Bloomington and
Indianapolis: Indiana UP, 2004.

Sackey, Brigid M. "Asafo and Christianity: Conflicts and Prospects." Transactions of the
Historical Society of Ghana 2 (1998): 71-86.

Saillant, John. "Dress, Power, and Crossing (the Atlantic): Figuring the Black Exodus to Sierra
Leone in the Late Eighteenth Century." In The Clothes that Wear Us: Essays on Dressing and
Transgressing in Eighteenth-Century Culture, eds. Jessica Munns and Penny Richard, 301-317.
Cranbury, NJ: Associated UP, 1999.

Salm, Steven J. and Toyin Falola. Culture and Customs of Ghana. Westport, CT: Greenwood
Press, 2002.

Sampson, Magnus J. Makers of Modern Ghana. Accra, Ghana: Anowuo Educational
Publications, 1969.

-----. Gold Coast Men ofAffairs (Past and Present). London: Dawsons, 1969.

Sanders, James R. "The Political Development of the Fante in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth









Ghartey, who was involved in the Methodist Church in Anomabo, went to England in

1861, where he was introduced to the Temperance Movement. When he returned to Anomabo he

founded a branch of the movement, which quickly gained the support of the educated elite class,

such as J. A. Solomon; J. Fynn; J. E. Sampson and Kow Otu, a. k. a. John Ogoe Sr.58 Ghartey is

reputed to have donated L150 for the building of a water tank as a way of "winning his people

from the habit of drinking palm-wine and imported liquor."59 The cistern today is located on the

northern side of the coastal highway at the bottom ofOhenkokwado, or lawyer's hill, in a

neighborhood known as Tompremesim, or temperance lodge.

Ghartey was politically active in Anomabo, serving variously as Treasurer, and, on

appointment by King Kofie Afedsi and the chiefs of the place, as Magistrate for the Town Court.

He was elected in 1867, to be the first president of the reformed Fante Confederation. Ghartey

left Anomabo for Winneba after he was elected its chief is 1872.60

The Move to Cape Coast

Although some of these elites operated in both Anomabo and Cape Coast, others moved

permanently to the thriving port city of Cape Coast, then capital of the British administration.

Hutchison moved his operations in 1858, and John Sarbah transferred his firm along with his

four-year-old son John Mensah Sarbah to Cape Coast.61 The coastal elite were a tight group.

Anomabo natives were quickly embraced by the elites in Cape Coast. The marriage of

Hutchison's son (William Hutchison's grandson) William F. Hutchison, a prosperous Cape

Coast merchant, to Maria Francis Grant, second daughter of another Cape Coast merchant

58Flather, 132; and Sampson,Makers, 120.

59Bartels 82.
60Flather, 132; and Sampson, Makers, 118-128. A more comprehensive biography of John Sarbah and his business
dealings is provided by Kaplow, 92-103, 105-106.
61Flather, 138.









hunting and warring prowess, the Anomabos were called the wielderss of iron,"7 perhaps

because of their production of iron tools and weapons.

Like many others on the coast, Anomabo was a salt-producing village with modest trade

inland. Coastal towns were sustained by food production in the hinterland. Although oral

traditions state that Anomabo was established in the early thirteenth century, this date is too early

to be credible. According to Sanders, the establishment of Anomabo more likely took place in

the late sixteenth century or early seventeenth century. 8

Fante Leadership

The matrilineal family or abusua, matrilineal omanhen (omanhen, omanhin or oman), and

patrilineal asafo are the Fante's fundamental social groupings as recorded by anthropologist

James Boyd Christensen who described this system of matrilineal and patrilineal descent as

"double descent" in the 1950s. While the nephew inherits property from the mother's side of the

abusua, the son and daughter belong to their father's asafo.9 The patrilineal aspect of Fante

culture has been debated as a recent addition from nineteenth-century European pressures.10

The highest office is held by the paramount chief or omanhen. He rules in conjunction with

a state council composed of subchiefs, the Queen Mother, village chiefs, and leaders of the asafo

companies. Traditional Council meetings are held regularly where the omanhen and his chiefs

meet to discuss state affairs and hear disputes. The core of the Anomabo state council is

composed of sub chiefs, including the enohen, tufuhen, adontehen, tuafohen, kyidomhen and


7Ibid., 71.

8Sanders, 165-168.

9James Boyd Christensen, Double Descent Among the Fanti. (I ic Haven: Human Relations Area Files, 1954); and
R. Sutherland Rattray,Ashanti (London: Oxford University Press: 1923; reprint, NY: Negro UP, 1969), 35-37 (page
citations are to the reprint edition).
'1B. I. Chukwukere, "Akan Theory of Conception: Are the Fante Really Aberrant?" Africa 48 (2, 1978), 137-148.


















































Figure B-49. Methodist Mission
Begun by Rev. George Wrigley, partially rebuilt by Rev. Thomas Birch Freeman
c. 1836-1840
Rammed earth, timber, concrete block, cement plaster
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photo by Courtnay Micots, 2009)


r 1
~5c*
b~f~P~i~L~ ~U
~t, .~s.









respects. These connections to both the coastal elite class and the ruling class demonstrate how

these people could bridge different worlds.

Among his siblings, Rev. Hammond was most likely the lead client in selecting the plans

and details for The Russell House. At the opening and dedication of the Methodist Chapel in

Saltpond about seven years after Rev. Hammond's death, it was reported that a song written by

Professor Graves-Abayie entitled "The Heavens are Telling" but known as "Hammond" was

sung. The news report also credits the late Rev. Hammond with the design of the building, for he

"while alive, expressed his genius in brick and mortar."39

Rev. Hammond's brother died about two years later. Little is known about Francis

Hammond, but as an agent for F. and A. Swanzy, he likely sent money to his brother for the

construction of the residence. Their sister Charlotte was married to Reverend R. M. Acquaah of

Kuntu near Saltpond (birthplace also for George Kuntu Blankson). They had five sons and four

daughters. One of their sons, Reverend Gaddiel R. Acquaah, OBE, was the first African

Chairman of the Ghana Methodist District. The ninth and last child, Mrs. Mary Enyaawa Ogoe a.

k. a. Aunt Adwoa, was a seamstress by trade (April 29, 1901-1981). She was a leader and local

preacher of the Ebenezer Methodist Church, and she was the last to reside in The Russell House.

The obituary for Charlotte Acquaah also lists the prominent members attending her service

(Document D-6).

Construction Method

The walls utilize local materials of stone, brick and shell mortar. The Russell House was

never plastered or painted on the exterior. Thus, it is possible to see the construction materials

and method. The walls appear to have been constructed in layered sections, much like rammed


39Gold Coast Leader (December 5, 1925), 4.









may have been the Elmina fishermen who migrated to Anomabo during this period. They may

have received their initial masonry training in Elmina.

Fort Charles suffered an attack by the people ofAnomabo on September 4, 1701, yet the

reasons are not documented. "Great numbers of them came down to the fort and succeeded in

breaking open the outer-gate, and having set fire to the outbuildings and corn-room, directed a

heavy fusillage against the fort itself "6 Fighting continued for the next 22 days, with the English

burning almost the entire town. After summoning the Chief of Saboe, a nearby state, to mediate a

truce, the Anomabos agreed to pay an indemnity for damages done to the fort. Relations between

the British and Anomabos remained strained for sometime afterward.7 Trade was growing

increasingly competitive in Anomabo, and the British factor found it difficult to compete. Yet,

on March 12, 1715, Captain Peter Holt wrote that trade in Anomabo was so good that he was

trading 12,000 perpets a year, in addition to guns, tallow, sheets, powder, pewter, brass and

20,000 gallons of rum. Holt operated as both an agent for the Royal African Company and as an

independent trader, preceding Richard Brew by almost fifty years. 8

By 1730, Fort Charles was abandoned by the British Royal African Company which was

disintegrating due to internal conflicts and lack of funding. The physical structure of Fort Charles

quickly deteriorated. Sesarakoo described the state of the fort in 1750, which he likely

witnessed.

...by slow Degrees, like the rest of the Fortresses in the Hands of that unfortunate
Company, it fell to Decay, lost first its Beauty, then its Conveniency, and lastly, its
Strength: so that, at this Time, it being of no farther Use, or rather its Owners


6Claridge, vol. 1, 200.
7Ibid., 200-201.

8Flather, 50-53; and Donnan, vol. 2, 192. Perpets refer to perpetuanas, durable woollen textiles widely made and
used in England during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.









all the inside of their house, using this mixture instead of Paint. They like to Paint
their houses this way, some with red, others with white or black earth, as if it were
for a contest. They were very proud of their houses; for when we come ashore, the
first thing they will show you is their dwelling.

They make two flat square covers out of the leaves of Palm Wine trees, which they
bind tightly together so that they provide shelter from the rain, and they place them
on top of their house [so] as [to form] a Point[ed roof]. They tie the ends together
firmly; and if the weather is good and the Sun is shining, they open this Roof,
supporting it with sticks, like two wings, letting the Sun shine into their house... At
the front of the house they make a square hole by way of a doorway, with a Door
made of Reeds, which they push open and shut and which they lock by tying it up
with a Rope made of wisps. They make their floors flat and polish them very
smooth with red earth, as if they had been paved.20

Thus, wattle and daub is the technique of constructing a frame of vertical and horizontal

wooden or bamboo beams. Swish is then daubed into the frame to fill in the wall. Today, this

technique is more often used in the forest region, among the Asante for example, but can still be

seen in a few coastal one-room structures. Cruickshank described the wattle and daub houses of

the hinterland in his bookEighteen Years on the Gold Coast of Africa published in 1853.

These huts consist of one, two, or more apartments, and have square holes to serve
the purpose of windows and door-ways. Some of these huts, of higher
pretensions, have window shutters and doors, with all the advantages of hinges and
bolts. The smaller villages are entirely composed of huts of this description.21

Pate and rammed earth are the more common construction techniques in Anomabo. Large

handmolded, sun-dried bricks set in a mud mortar are used to build one or two-room structures

sporadically along the coast and in Anomabo. Mortar along the coast consists of sand, small

stones, shells, lime (made locally from oyster shells or imported) and water. Mortar is used in

between sun-dried bricks, burnt bricks and stones. It is also used as a plaster for interior walls

and, in the nineteenth century, to form molded trim.


20De Marees, 75.
21Cruickshank, 285.









with attendance at the Colonial School in Anomabo. Blankson had to walk the two miles

between Egyaa and Anomabo twice each day. When the headmaster Mr. Anderson died,

Blankson was transferred to the Cape Coast Government School at the Castle. Despite these

trials, Blankson graduated in 1824 as a qualified scholar. He found his first employment with Mr.

Thompson and joined his expedition to the Ashanti.6

At the same time Blankson, his friend William de Graft, John Sam and others, started the

"Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge" that later became the Wesleyan Methodist Church

under Reverend Joseph Dunwell. In 1834, Blankson was employed by Governor McLean on a

mission to the Ashanti. Asantehene Osei Yaw Akoto detained Blankson for 18 months using

Blankson's services as a clerk with political correspondence. By 1843, Blankson had returned to

Anomabo and was managing the Anomabo Wesleyan Mission with six sub-agents under him.7

Successful Merchant

Ten years later, he became a trading agent, and he met the prosperous English trader

Cruickshank. When Cruickshank took an appointment to become the Judicial Assessor in Her

Majesty's Settlements in Cape Coast Castle, he transferred the management of his business to

Blankson. Blankson managed Cruickshank's interests so well, that Cruickshank left the business

and his property of Castle Brew to Blankson when he left the coast in 1854. At that time

Cruickshank took Blankson with him to England and introduced Blankson to his former partners,

the mercantile house of Foster & Smith. Blankson's wife managed the business in Anomabo in

his absence. Utilizing a successful business relationship with Foster & Smith, Blankson



6Isaac S. Ephson, Gallery of Gold Coast Celebrities 1632-1958, vol. 1 (Accra, Ghana: Ilen, 1969), 38; Magnus J.
Sampson, Makers ofModern Ghana (Accra, Ghana: Anowuo Educational Publications, 1969), 46; and "George
Kuntu Blankson," The Gold Coast Aborigines (September 5, 1898), n.p.
7Ephson, 38; Sampson, 47; and "Blankson," n.p.










I


Ii


Figure B-82. Abrosan
Unknown builder
c. 1900
Stone nog brick facing cement plaster
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photo by Courtnay Micots, 2009)









The current concrete block enclosure around the entrance, and the veranda upstairs was

completed sometime after 1931. Concrete steps with a brick railing lead to the enclosed addition

above. Originally, this was likely a timber stairway leading up to a timber veranda. Perhaps the

veranda extended only as far as the enclosed space today, but more probably, it stretched across

the entire front entrance.

The wide entrance, fitted with double doors, is today usually open with a small gate

added in front to keep goats and other animals out. This entrance leads to a room that has another

wide opening at the other side into the courtyard. Several rooms open into the courtyard. Stone

and brick stairs lead to an upper veranda that wraps around the courtyard, supported by large

piers and two iron columns.

The imported iron columns situated on the western side seem to have been awkwardly

placed during the initial construction. Too short for the height of the veranda, they were topped

with timber-constructed capitals in spite of the fact that they each already had a small capital. No

bases for the columns to rest on lead me to believe that had the masons been properly trained in

classical modes of architectural construction, they would have placed the timber box capitals

below to create bases instead. It thus seems that local masons familiar with local methods of

construction, and not European, were employed to construct the palace.

Several rooms open from the veranda. A large hall on the northern side opens directly onto

the front veranda, allowing for pleasant cross-ventilation. Two chambers connect to the central

hall, creating the Hall and Chamber plan. All the upstairs floors are swish. The exterior cement

plaster has been painted a yellow similar to that on the Omanhen's Palace and Abrosan. A three

foot band in dark red spans the front and follows the front stairs up to the door to the newly

enclosed space.









Smith, Fred T. and Joanne B. Eicher. "The Systematic Study of African Dress and Textiles."
African Arts 15 (3 May 1982): 28-29.

Smith, Noel. The Presbyterian Church of Ghana, 1835-1960: A Younger Church in a Changing
Society. Accra: Ghana UP, 1966.

Soulillou, Jacques. Rives Coloniales: Architectures, de Saint-Louis A Douala. Marseille:
Editions Parentheses, 1993.

Southen, A. E. Gold Coast Methodism, 1835-1935. London: Cargate, 1934.

Spitzer, Leo. The Creoles of Sierra Leone. Madison: University of Wisconsin, 1974.

St. Clair, William. The Grand Slave Emporium: Cape Coast Castle and the British Slave Trade.
London: Profile, 2006.

Steiner, Christopher B. African Art in Transit. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1994.

Stone, Gregory P. "Appearance and the Self." In Human Behavior and Social Processes: An
Interactionist Approach, ed. Arnold M. Rose, 86-118. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1962.

Swanzy, Henry. "A Trading Family in the Nineteenth Century Gold Coast." Transactions of the
Gold Coast and Togoland Historical Society 2 (2 Achimoto 1956): 86-120.

Tellez, German. Casa Colonial: Domestic Architecture of New Granada. Bogota, Columbia:
Villegas Editores, 1995.

Thompson, Robert Farris. African Art in Motion: Icon and Act in the Collection of Katherine
Coryton White. Los Angeles: University of California, 1974.

Thompson, William J. "Culture and Architecture: Theoretical and Methodological Issues." In
Housing, Space and Quality of Life, ed. Ricardo Garcia Mira, 125-137. Hants, England and
Burlington, VA: Ashgate, 2005.

Tognimassou, Gerard. "Afro-Brazilian Architecture, A Mixed Heritage." Africa 2009 Newsletter
4 (July 2009): 13.

Van Dantzig, Albert. Forts and Castles of Ghana. Accra: Sedco, 1980.

Vaughan-Richards, Alan. "Le Nigeria." In Rives Coloniales: Architectures, de Saint-Louis A
Douala, ed. Jacques Soulillou, 243-288. Marseille: Editions Parentheses, 1993.

Villault, Nicolas, sieur de Bellefond. A Relation of the Coasts ofAfrick called Guinee with a
description of the countreys, manners and customs of the inhabitants, of the productions of the
earth, and the merchandise and commodities it affords : with some historical observations upon
the coasts : being collected in a voyage made by the Sieur Villault ... in the years 1666, and
1667. 2d ed. London: Printed for John Starkey, 1670.









APPENDIX D
DOCUMENTS

The following text is copied from documents used to support my study. These may include

obituaries, building permits and other paperwork related to the properties. Often these are too

lengthy for inclusion in the main text, yet may provide the reader is a greater sense of the people

who inhabited Anomabo, their status in the community, and their connections to other leading

elites along the Ghanaian coast.

















































Figure B-56. Swanzy
Kow Otu or Mr. Bilson
c. 1890s
Stone nog brick facing cement plaster
Anomabo, Ghana
(Photo by Courtnay Micots, 2009)








341









Document D-3. Land Indenture for The Russell House


This Indenture

Made the 29th day of June in the year of Our Lord one thousand eight hundred and ninety

five Between William Topp Nelson Yankah of Anamaboe and other the senior members of his

family for themselves and as representing their family hereinafter called the vendors of the one

part and John Obobuam Hammond of Anamaboe Wesleyan Minister Francis M'danyamiasi

Hammond of Anamaboe and Cape Coast Castle Clerk and Cashier and Charlotte Oyeman

Acquaah of Anamaboe hereinafter called the Purchasers of the other part Whereas the Vendors

are seised (sic) for an estate in fee simple or an estate equivalent thereto free from incumbrances

of the lands message and hereditaments hereinafter described and intended to be hereby

conveyed and Whereas the Vendors have agreed to sell the said land message and

hereditaments to the said Purchasers at the price of Eighty four pounds and to bind such contract

the earnest money Tremma amounting to Thirty shillings has been paid by the said Purchasers to

and received by the said Vendors in accordance with the native Law and Custom Now this

Indenture Witnesseth that in pursuance of the said agreement and in consideration of the Tremma

amounting to thirty shillings as well as in consideration of the sum of Eighty four pounds of

lawful money of Great Britain on or before the execution of these presents paid by the said

Purchasers to the Vendors the receipt whereof the Vendors hereby acknowledge the said

Vendors do hereby grant and convey unto the said Purchasers their heirs and successors

according to the native law and custom of inheritance in the Fanti portion of the Gold Coast and

to their assigns all that piece or parcel of land situate in Anamaboe on that part of the town called

Hchefee [or Itchefee?] which piece or parcel of land was by the judgment of the Supreme Court

of the Gold Coast in re McCarthy against Yansah and Yankah delivered on the 11th day of

November 1887 declared to be the property of the said Vendors and which land measuring









Brew library collection was detailed more in the inventory than his pictures, consisting of

periodicals, novels, poems and essays popular in eighteenth-century Britain."33

Ten years after Kurentsir's death in 1764, Brew wrote in a letter to Captain Thomas Eagles

that small pox had taken many lives "amongst them your old friend & my old Servant John

Currantee; he has died worth a great deal of money, and is a great loss to this Town."34 Brew's

power after Kurentsir's death is expressed by the fact that during a peace negotiation with the

Asantehene, the Asantehene deposited a close relative as hostage in Anomabo at Castle Brew,

"in preference" Brew boasted, "to Cape Coast or Elmina: As for Anomabu fort it was never

thought of"35 In 1776, when Effua Ansah's mother had died, Brew accepted the responsibilities

within the Fante social framework by contributing to the deceased's funeral expenses, a custom

incumbent on family and friends. He also obtained Indian "Blue Bafts" for the funeral

attendants. 36

While in certain ways Brew assimilated to the coast by honoring certain Fante customs, in

other ways he behaved as the British Georgian gentleman. From Brew's inventory at the time of

death, it is known that he possessed a sub stantial eighteenth-century British wardrobe of clothes.

It included 15 waistcoats, nine coats laced and plain, 16 shirts, nine velvet collars, cravats,

patterned black silk breeches, and several pairs of stockings, some of them silk. Also, old gold

lace was kept in a bureau in the bedroom.37




33Ibid., 101.
34Sanders, "The Political Development," 277-278.

35Donnan, vol. 2, 528.

36Priestley, West African Trade, 108.
37Ibid., 108.

















Front


Chamber

r-~ -..


- .. ..


Chamber


Ground
Floor


k I, 1111 d.' I


Chamber


li- i


Chamber




Chn mber -V


Figure B-24. Twidan Clan Family Residence, Plan
(Drawn by Courtnay Micots, 2009)


Second
Floor


-









From the Origins to Colonization was useful for my understanding ofpre-colonial urbanity

within Africa as well as the world-wide distribution of the sobrado plan. 69

Scholarship by art historian John Fitchen and architect Edward E. Crain70 informed some

of my understanding of stone nog construction techniques, those incorporated within Ghana and

in comparison to the Caribbean. Pivotal to comprehending the scope of stone nog construction

adopted along the entire Guinee Coast is Rives Coloniales: Architectures, de Saint-Louis A

Douala edited by Jacques Soulillou. The essay by Odile Goerg stresses the impact of Portuguese

expeditions along this coastal area between 1434 and 1475, including their exploration of the

Ghanaian coast between 1470 and 1471. Much of the discussion then turns to economics and fort

construction. A general history leading to colonial occupation and the post-colonial era reiterates

points made by other authors. Of main interest to this study are the essays that follow with

information and photographs of European administrative and residential structures. Many

illustrate the Palladian elements and forms discussed herein. The emphasis however is placed on

European, and not African, buildings. Few plans are provided, mostly for the forts.71

Hyland wrote the essay for Ghana. After the section devoted to forts, Hyland turns to

housing and offers several plans from Elmina and Accra. Plans of nineteenth century Dutch

houses on Liverpool Street in Elmina72 are provided and more thoroughly discussed in Elmina: A

Conservation Study by Hyland and Niels Bech.73 Other plans illustrated in Rives Coloniales on


69Coquery-Vidrovitch, 178-183.
70John Fitchen, Building Construction Before Mechanization (Cambridge, MA: MIT, 1986); and Cram, 61-62.

71Jacques Soulillou, Rives Coloniales: Architectures, de Saint-Louis A Douala (Marseille: Editions Parentheses,
1993).

72Anthony Hyland, "Le Ghana," in Rives Coloniales: Architectures, de Saint-Louis A Douala, ed. Jacques Soulillou
(Marseille: Editions Parentheses, 1993), 135-170, plans 153.

73Niels Bech and A. D. C. Hyland, Elmina:A Conservation Study (Kumasi, Ghana: University of Science and
Technology, 1978), 53-55, 93-97.









Structure C-9. Nanglican Church

The Afro-Christian Nanglican Church (Figure B-54) was built later in 1909, but is similar

to the Old Catholic Mission.27 It is a simple one-story rectangular structure built with stone nog

construction. Located in the Bantuma neighborhood, the Nanglican Church, has decorative

additions to its south facade. Just above the windows is a row of cement forms with alternating

flat and scallop shapes acting as a belt course and entablature across the entire facade. These

concrete forms were imported from Europe and were available in Saltpond, Anomabo and Cape

Coast.

Structure C-10. The Residences of Kow Otu

Three large houses were built by Kow Otu, a. k. a. John Ogoe Sr., near the Etsiwa

posuban. Otu was a merchant who sold gun powder, cloth, imported building materials, and

many other goods. He used palm wine and later cocoa to barter for these imported goods. He had

only one wife, Tanoah Hilda Ogoe. Otu was a Methodist who donated part of his land for the

construction of the Ebenezer Methodist Church. He, along with George Kuntu Blankson and

others, contributed greatly to the construction costs of this church, completed in 1895. Otu also

served as Head Master of the Methodist School. 28

Otu and his wife had five children: Aba Tsetsewa, a. k. a. Mary Gordon; Araba

Essumanaba; John Ogoe Jr., a. k. a. Kobena Otu (c.d. 1909); Kwesi Kobia; and Kofi Etsiwa.

Ogoe Jr. was schooled in England and worked as a registrar at Fort William and in the northern

region of Ghana. When he returned to Anomabo, he became the Headmaster of the Methodist

School. Kobia trained as a surveyor in England and, along with Ferguson, is responsible for


27The Nanglican Church is an African branch of the English Anglican Church, also known as The Church of
England.
28The Gold Coast Leader (December 18-25, 1909), 7.














N



-- e;6 urmy J4-
mmB Uas*%Ion


Richard Brew
1756-1759







Brodie G. Cruickshank
c. 1834-1844


^-. 7- ..='--- n-TLE wB' i -, iw



George Kuntu Blank son
c. late 1860s-1873


Figure B-31. Castle Brew, Plan
A. D. C. Hyland (with added notations by Courtnay Micots)
January 27, 1962
Anomabo, Ghana
(Priestley, West African Trade, p. 56)









He grew up in The Russell House and later owned the Claude Calvert Hagan house (see Chapter

6).

Georgian Gothic Style and Plan

The stone nog church originally resembled the Samuel Otu Memorial Presbyterian Church

in Larteh (c. 1853) with Gothic-shaped windows and pilasters (Figure B-52). The chapel tower

was added later on both of these churches. Inside Anomabo's Ebenezer Methodist Church are

terrazzo floors, wood pews and ceiling, stairways to the choir above, and painted columns and

elaborate capitals. Anse de panier arches spring from these capitals dividing the entrance foyer

and aisles from the central nave. A large anse de panier arch springs from colomns in the chapel

to create a slight niche for the altar. Doors on either side lead to a prepatory area.

Thus, a simple Gothic plan was used, and Medieval architecture found its way again to

Anomabo after Fort William was constructed nearly 120 years before. Again, it was the British

Picot who chose the plan. The Georgian Gothic style and plan was incorporated in the many

Christian mission churches built along the Guinea coast. A similar example of an English church

in Conakry, Guinea, was built using local, unfired mud bricks as a cost-effective measure against

the damage of termites.47

When the front of the Ebenezer Methodist Church collapsed in the 1960s, this portion of

the building was reconstructed between 1966 and 1971 in stone nog. The exterior also received a

Baroque face lift. Mosaic stones and the pilasters were re-fashioned with lavish embellishments.

The Roman shade and scallop design elements are also found in the Kobena Mefful and Lawyer

Atta Amonoo (see Chapter 8) houses respectively.




47Odile Goerg, "Le Guinee Conakry," in Rives Coloniales: Architectures, de Saint-Louis A Douala, ed. Jacques
Soulillou (Marseille: Editions Parentheses, 1993), 85-86.



















































Figure B-66. Claude Calvert Hagan and Wife, Possibly Araba Otuah
Unknown photographer
c. 1900s
Anomabo, Ghana









351









The grandson Stephen Kwame Ackon remembers the house as having a central hall

downstairs with a chamber on either side. The upstairs also had a central hall, but with two

chambers on each side. He does not remember a veranda. The current rectangular holes in the

concrete block construction on the second story do not offer evidence of an original timber

veranda, yet it is shown on the 1931 Gold Coast Survey Map. The original wide door entrance

has been partially enclosed to fit a more recent Dutch door. Timber stairs would have been

placed at the back of the house for access to the second story. Ackon's uncle was Ed Morson (see

Structure C-15).

Structure C-7. Ama Moo Family Residence

The Ama Moo Family Residence (Figure B-47) was built sometime between the boom of

the 1860s and 1895 when it appears on an indenture survey for The Russell House in December

of 1895. Ama Moo was listed as the owner on this map. Today it is known as Nana Amamu's

Palace belonging to a subchief in town. Unfortunately, the house has had many renovations from

different periods and the second floor is uninhabitable. Concrete verandas have been added to

both the front and back of the structure. (Figure B-48) Also, the west wall shows signs of

extensive repair. The original stone facing is evident in the center of the west side, while brick

has replaced remainder and the entire east side. Today, the ground floor is used for stores, while

residents used to live upstairs, which had a double Hall and Chamber plan. This is one of the

houses so altered over time that it is difficult to reconstruct the original facade and plan.

Structure C-8. Catholic Mission

The Old Catholic Mission on Annobil Street was constructed for the United Africa

Company (UAC) as a storage facility sometime in the late-nineteenth century (Figure B-53). The

structure is shown on the 1931 Gold Coast Survey Map in poor condition. It is located in the

southeast corner of the Okokodo neighborhood in an area locally known as both Kakawum and









today, yet it would have been understood at the time of their construction. Thus, visual transfers

are liminal and time sensitive. Even on less-imposing residences, such as the Krontihen' s Palace

(Figure B-92) and the Charles Bentum Annan Family Residence (B-43), lancet forms visually

transfer ideas of status by forming links between buildings.

Okoye called this the "dramaturgy of feint," or a falso show to put off an opponent. This

theatricality is demonstrated in buildings on the Ghanaian coast, both residences and

monumental shrines (posuban), which adopt features of the European forts and castles. Lancet

forms are perhaps the most identifiable appropriation. Lancets are found in Fort William, Castle

Brew, George Kuntu Blankson's Addition, the Krontihen's Palace and the Charles Bentum

Annan Family Residence in Anomabo.

Built by coastal builders, the Asante Aban, constructed in 1822 and destroyed in 1874, is

replicated in a drawing provided by Okoye. 13 Lancet cut-outs are visible across the rooflines.

Stone construction and lancet motifs reference the fortress quality of the structure, linking it to

forts on the coast. Thus, these visible elements were read by the community as symbols of

strength, impenetrability and wealth. The effect of the Aban or related buildings on political

interchanges amonst Africans or between Africans and Europeans can only be surmised. Okoye

notes:

The local politics of power and of client loyalty are known to be extremely dense in
Asante, and to have been played out in the milieu of everyday life. Located in the
palace grounds, the Aban was certainly a part of this, and would, it seems, have
been used by the Asantehene in the mediation of his relationship with both his own
sub chiefs, with his Akan and Arab subjects, and with the emissaries of his rival
states such as were Dahomey and Mossi for example. 14


13Okoye, 636, Figure 14.
14Ibid., 99-100.









one can confirm this. His father may have engaged in a small trading operation, and this may

have been where Sarbah initially learned his business skills. As a young man he may have been

influenced by Freeman for he spent his early adulthood as a schoolmaster and mission agent for

the Wesleyan Missionary Society. He served as headmaster of the Wesleyan elementary school

at Cape Coast until 1870.67

Sarbah also organized the The Gold Coast Rifle Corps.68 He served with distinction as a

captain of the British militia in the sixth Asante War of 1873-1874. However, he was critical of

many aspects of colonial rule. In 1878 he joined with Grant and other local merchants to petition

for African representation on the Gold Coast Legislative Council. He was appointed to one of

three specially created positions for Africans on the Council in 1886. Later, Sarbah won an

appointment by Governor Griffith to the post of regular nominated unofficial member, along

with W. F. Hutchison and Grant. 69 Although Sarbah is probably best remembered as the father of

African nationalist, lawyer and author John Mensah Sarbah (June 3, 1864-November 6, 1910),70

his political activism no doubt had a great influence on his son.

Sarbah's obituary notice encapsulated his political contribution:

The system of government which prevails in this country does not give a
representative of the people much room to do anything but all that it was in the
power of the deceased to do for his people, he did willingly and without
hesitation. 71






67Dumett, 658. Wesleyan was the earlier name for Methodist.
68The Gold Coast Leader (July 10/17, 1909), 3.

69Dumett, 658.

70Hutchinson, 171-172.
71Gold Coast Chronicle (July 11, 1892), 3.




















































Figure B-35. J. E. H. Conduah Family Residence
Dutch
c. 1807-1839
Stone nog
Elmina, Ghana
(Photo by Courtnay Micots, 2009)






320









was completed by this date and that Atta Amonoo was living in it, at least when he visited

Ghana. Another newspaper issue reported that he and William Ward Brew returned from Calabar

January 29, 1921. After their return, Atta Amonoo, Secretary, and Brew, Vice President, were

working together on the CentralProvince (Gold Coast) Committee of the Congress of Africans

of British West Africa.21 It was recorded that Atta Amonoo arrived in Anomabo shortly after his

father's death,22 and was present during the Native Tribunal which tried the case of witchcraft as

the cause of Amonoo V's death.23 Atta Amonoo seems to have traveled several times to Ghana

from his permanent residence in Calabar on behalf of his political and familial commitments.24

He was elected, by a thin margin, to the Legislative Council of Nigeria in 1923.25 Locals were

correct that Atta Amonoo died in a motor accident, but it took place after the construction of the

residence in December 1929. His funeral was held in Anomabo on January 28, 1930.26

After his death the large structure was inherited by his abusua, or mother's family, which

continues to own it today. Atta's grandson, Inspector Acquah Harrison (b.c. 1945) is the current

abusuapanyin. He remembers living in the residence after his father's death in 1940 when he and

his mother came to Anomabo from Sekondi. Harrison lived there until 1944, when he joined the

army to serve in WWII. Family members continued to live in the residence until 1963. Such

residents included Nana Kuntu, a cousin of Amonoo V, who moved from the United States to



21Gold Coast Leader (February 5, 1921), 2.

22Gold Coast Leader (May 21, 1921), 7.

23Gold Coast Leader (June 25, 1921), 7.

24Gold Coast Leader (February 5, 1921), 2; Gold Coast Leader (August 25, 1923), 2.and Gold Coast Leader
(December 27, 1924), 4.
25Gold Coast Leader (July 28, 1923), 2; Gold Coast Leader (September 29, 1923), 2; and Gold Coast Leader
(November 3, 1923), 2.
26Gold Coast Times (January 4-11, 1930), 6.









when the Anglican School used the property. The new partial steps were constructed entirely of

cement blocks. Partial steps to the courtyard verandah were originally constructed with stone nog

and brick facing. These have since crumbled and been replaced partially with concrete steps.

Wood steps once completed the incline to the verandah. In 2009, the secondary school was in the

process of rebuilding the timber courtyard veranda and steps.

Although the roof has been replaced today at the residence, it seems likely that it originally

had a pitched Basel-mission roof. Timber supports may have first been covered with thatch and

later changed to asbestos/slate, iron or aluminum corrugated sheets imported from England. On

the back of the mansion lie the ruins of an original bathhouse or perhaps just a rock retainment

wall. An original reservoir or cistern is located to the far side of the mansion (Figure B-85). A

visible clay pipe leads into the main building indicating some type of early plumbing.

Pobee Abaka Family Residence A Comparison in Saltpond

The Pobee Abaka Family Residence in Saltpond (Figure B-87) also incorporated the

scalloped cement forms into its cornice. Pobee Abaka, a Fante merchant who once served as the

chief regent, built a fine stone house on the main road entering Saltpond. Although rumored to

have been built in 1845, it is more likely to have been built several decades later. Today, only the

front corners of the original stone house survive. When portions of the house collapsed, these

were replaced with rammed earth construction, incorporating the remaining stone corners. The

cornice may have been original to the house, thus dating the house closer to the turn of the

century. Or, the cornice may have been added later.

Like the cornice on Atta Amonoo's house, it is constructed with three layers. A brick layer

on top protrudes the furthest. Then, a layer of scalloped cement forms. Below this are bricks laid

in a dentil pattern. Amonoo V may have been aware of the Pobee Abaka Family Residence in

Saltpond, for the two were contemporaries and the distance between the two port cities is short.




































.2
...
K'ii:!! ..ge ~ ii^ ,...,.- ,, .


Figure B-3. Kyirem No. 6 Asafo Company Flag
Kwamina Amoaku (1898-1987)
1974
Imported cotton
Anomabo, Ghana
Commissioned by Doran H. Ross
(Photo by Doran H. Ross, 1974)










Odile, Goerg. "Le Guinee Conakry." In Rives Coloniales: Architectures, de Saint-Louis A
Douala, ed. Jacques Soulillou, 79-104. Marseille: Editions Parentheses, 1993.

Okoye, Ikemefuna Stanley. "Hideous Architecture: Mimicry, Feint and Resistance in Turn of the
Century Southeastern Nigerian Building." Ph.D. diss., Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
1995.

----. "Good News for Modern Man?: Architectural as Evangelical Mission in Southern Nigeria."
Passages 6 (1993): 13-15.

----. "The Other Primitivism: Some Aspects of Early 20th Century Near-Coastal West African
Architecture." San Francisco, CA: CAA Conference, 1989.

Oliver, Paul, ed. Vernacular Architecture of the World. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1997.

----, ed. \hel//r in Africa. NY: Praeger, 1971.

Perani, Judith and Norma H. Wolff. Cloth, Dress andArt Patronage in Africa. Oxford: Berg,
1999.

Phillips, Thomas. "Journal of a Voyage Made in the Hannibal of London." InA Collection of
Voyages and Travels, ed. Awnsham Churchill, 187-255. (London, Messieurs Churchill for
Thomas Osborne, 1752).

Picton, John and John Mack. African Textiles: Looms, Weaving andDesign. London: British
Museum, 1979.

Porter, R. "The Cape Coast Conflict of 1803: A Crisis in Relations Between the African and
European Communities." Transactions of the Historical Society of Ghana 11 (1970): 27-82.

Potter, James J., Rodrigo Cantarero, X. Winston Yan, Steven Larrick, Heather Keele and Blanca
E. Ramirez. "How Does Immigration Impact on the Quality of Life in a Small Town?" In
Housing, Space and Quality of Life, ed. Ricardo Garcia Mira, 81-95. Hants, England and
Burlington, VA: Ashgate, 2005.

Preston, George Nelson. "Perseus and Medusa in Africa: Military Art in Fanteland 1834-1972."
African Arts 8 (3 Spring 1975): 36-41, 68-71, 91-92.

Priestley, Margaret. West African Trade and Coast Society: A Family Study. London: Oxford
UP, 1969.

----. "Richard Brew; An Eighteenth-Century Trader at Anomabu" Transactions of the Historical
Society of Ghana 4 (1 Legon 1959): 29-46.

Prussin, Labelle. Email to Courtnay Micots, 26 October 2008.









masons, were employed. It may also explain the rather poor condition of the Twidan Clan house

with its bowing walls and odd angles. Yet, several larger buildings for wealthier clients are also

in rubble. This includes the stately residences built for Samuel Collins Brew, Adontehen

Amonoo I and Jacob Wilson Sey. Lack of regular maintenance is the most likely explanation for

the decay.

Although rock is a durable material, shell mortar is vulnerable to the harsh downpours of

the rainy season. Constant reapplication is needed to keep the mortar in good condition. Softer

local bricks also erode faster from the rains and intense sun than their European counterparts.

Their erosion is commonly seen in the surviving structures, whereas buildings using European

bricks in other towns appear in better condition. Regular maintenance may not have been

accomplished because of the local inheritance system, whereby property is given to the collective

abusua. When this took place, such a building would belong to all and to no one in particular. So

while everyone would enjoy the residence, no one would want to front the funds to maintain it. 58

Architectural recycling, or the reuse of materials, occurs quite often. Old bricks and stones

are gathered and used to construct the outdoor brick baking ovens for bread and smoking ovens

for fish seen in every coastal town. The only place where descendants admitted to such recycling

for house construction was the Lawyer Atta Amoono Family Residence (Figure B-9). The

function of this residence has changed over time and along with it, several renovations have been

made. Major changes also took place at the Ama Moo Family Residence (Figure B-47). Nearly

every functioning residence has had a cement plastering to the exterior. This is believed to

extend the life of the building, providing a protective shell against the elements. Timber verandas

have rotted, have been purposely removed, or have been enclosed with iron or aluminum


5Personal communication with Dr. Annan-Prah (July 27, 2009).





















































*" .- ^ **- **-


4w''" '* ; ., -"
_R -* -


-X-


:-1--,-;-a. af
gp!
AM


Figure B-77. Adontehen Amonoo I Family Residence (2), Pier Bases
(Photo by Courtnay Micots, 2009)












Front


r


Ground Floor


iFT


Store


I.!


' .. j !.- .


Courtyard








Enclosed Veranda


SChamber


Chamber

(J
' Ti '


-.


Hall


Figure B-57. Swanzy, Plan
(Drawing by Courtnay Micots, 2009)


N


w e


Second Floor


Chamber



_









The elegant faCade of the residence has been diminished by additions that enclose portions

of the balcony. Originally the open spaces on the ground and second floors were symmetrically

balanced. Its current asymmetrical presence does not seem to bother the occupants.

Intention evidence of off-beat phrasing is visible in the floor plan with the varied Hall and

Chamber plan. The doors leading into the first hall from the side chambers do not align

symmetrically. Otherwise, the windows all have symmetrical pairs, the balcony is centered, and

other proportions are symmetrical and harmonic according to the British Palladian dictum.

Structure C-6. Kodwo Baffoe Family Residence

Sometime before 1931, brothers Kodwo Baffoe and Thomas Kweku Mensah Wonkyi built

a two-story stone house (Figure B-46) in Anomabo across from The Russell House. Previously

the property may have had a house owned by Ekua Kotwiawa or William Topp Nelson Yankah

(see The Russell House, Chapter 6). Baffoe was a tailor working in Sekondi. He sent money

home to his brother who oversaw the construction.

Today, the house is in ruin, but it appeared on the 1931 Gold Coast Survey Map in first

class or good condition. Concrete blocks are positioned at the front corners of the structure. I was

told that these blocks were added later to stabilize the structure, but it is possible that they were

incorporated into the original residence, like those in the Lawyer Atta Amonoo Family

Residence (see Chapter 7). These blocks are only about four inches in depth. Their placement at

the coigns appears to imitate large masonry blocks used on many European structures as

decorative embellishments.

The west side of the residence shows evidence of the laying of stone nog in horizontal

sections. This construction technique was used across the street to build The Russell House

(Figure B-19) as well. The technique is discussed more thoroughly in Chapter 6.









CHAPTER 5
SELECTION AND INCORPORATION OF THE PALLADIAN STYLE

Though it is possible that both the Akans and the Europeans had the Hall and Chamber

plan, is seems more likely that this plan along with other elements of the British Palladian style

was appropriated by African coastal elites in the nineteenth century. This style was not only

adopted by African coastal elites in Anomabo and the Ghanaian coast, but also it was utilized by

African coastal elites in port cities all along the Guinea coast and in the Caribbean and Brazil.

While many Anomabos would have been directly familiar with Castle Brew and its interior,

inspiration could have been found in structures all along the Guinea coast as well as in Europe

and in books. It was promoted by Methodist missionaries who provided spiritual guidance,

literacy and craftsman workshops. Therefore, African coastal elites of Anomabo were well-

aware of architectural trends in other parts of the Atlantic world before, during and after the

colonial period.

The selection and incorporation of the Palladian style in urban environments across the

Atlantic is demonstrated by the fact that the Hall and Chamber plan can also be found in mulatto

and African housing in the Caribbean. Architect Patricia E. Green noted that vernacular

architecture in the Caribbean consisted of three rooms, each approximately 10 feet square, with a

door on the front and back of the central hall. A piazza, or porch, fronted this type of structure.

She determined that such architecture was located in rural areas first and later transported into

the cities. Green concludes by claiming that the mulatto vernacular "is an expression generated

from the cultural matrix using material within the locale." Thus, while people in the Caribbean

modified European architecture in the eighteenth century, essentially selecting and incorporating





PAGE 1

1 AFRICAN COASTAL ELITE ARCHITECTURE: CULTURAL AUTHENTIFICATION DURING THE COLONIAL PERIOD IN ANOMABO, GHANA By COURTNAY MICOTS A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILL MENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2010

PAGE 2

2 2010 Courtnay Micots

PAGE 3

3 To the gracious people of Anomabo the leaders, families and individuals without whom this work would not have been p ossible H i s t ory books begin and end, but t he events they describe do not. R. G. Collingwood

PAGE 4

4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Ghanaians are a welcoming people. It was my good luck on my first trip to Ghana in the summer of 2007 to meet Adwoa G race Kyeremeh, member of the royal family and dairy farmer, who welcomed me and made me feel at home in Anomabo. This study of Anomabo's rock residences results from the collective efforts of many people including Grace to whom I owe gratitude. Contacts made in the summer of 2007 with local leaders and individuals such as Nana Kwa Nyanfoeku Akwa (Nana Kwa) the town historian, revealed the potential for dissertation study of the visual culture. I returned in the summer of 2008 to further my pre dissertati on research with scholars at the University of Ghana in Legon, the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology in Kumasi (KNUST), and the University of Cape Coast as well as several of the leaders and townspeople of Anomabo. I stayed in Ghana for six months in 2009 to complete my dissertation fieldwork. To prepare for my interviews, I studied the Akan culture and Twi language at the University of Florida. I had the good fortune of being awarded a Foreign Language & Area Studies (FLAS) Fellowship throu gh the campus Center for African Studies for the summer of 2009. It allowed me to study the Fante language and customs of this coastal Akan subgroup in greater depth and on site. I must thank my patient teacher Peter A. Hope, lecturer at the University of Cape Coast. D ue to the nature of my research, I spent the greatest amount of my time in Ghana with the people of Anomabo leaders, elders and families associated with the homes in this study. I also spoke with elders and families in the Akuapem Hills area north of Accra and in Fante towns all along the coast. They were gracious, understanding and willing participants. I am grateful to each person who shared his or her time and histor y with me. Any exclusion is deeply regretted.

PAGE 5

5 From my first visit to Anoma bo, Omanhen Nana Kantomanto Amonoo XI has been a supporter of my interest in Anomabo history and arts. It was the Tuafohen Nana Obuesiwua VII a. k. a. J. Ebow Quashie who introduced me to the aforementioned Nana Kwa the man who would become my main colleague in the field I sincerely thank Nana Kwa who introduced me to many of the people interviewed for this study and often served as an interpreter. Other elders who imparted important historical information for this study include Kwame Esuon a. k. a. J ames Mensah a. k. a. sebo and Safohen Kofi Dickson of Anomabo Victor Aggrey of Saltpond, and Ishmael Parry of Larteh. The abusuapanyin ( family heads ) descendants and friends shared their home and family histor ies with me, as well as any documents and pictures. Among the many people to whom thanks are d ue in Anomabo are the following: a t the Dutch Lodge, now the Oma nhen's Palace, I am grateful to Omanhen Amonoo XI, his wife Omankrado Nana Gyanwa (queen mother of Ajumako Besease ), and the omanhen's perso nal secretary Daniel Kofi Gdlonyah For information regarding the Tuafohen's Palace I am indebted to Tuafohen Obuesiwua VII and h is brother Kobina Atta a. k. a. Emmanuel Okyem. At the Twidan Clan House, I must thank Ekua Bentuma, Kobena Kum, Kobena Essilf ie and Joseph Kwesi Thompson. For lively discussions regarding the George Kuntu Blankson Addition, I thank Edward Kofi Abaidoo and Ebenezer Austin Sagoe. I am grateful to Kofi Tietu, a. k. a. Paul Amo, and Charles Otu at the Kodwo Kuntu House. At the Kwes i Amo House, I thank Eric Amonoo, a. k. a. Kwesi Obuakwan, and Samuel Bonney, a. k. a. Kobina Gyebi. I extend my thanks to Elizabeth Anderson and Araba Dansowa Bentum Annan at the Charles Bentum Annan Family Residence. I am sincerely grateful to Stephen Kw ame Ackon for his memories of the Kodwo Baffoe Family Residence.

PAGE 6

6 Regarding the missions and churches in town, I thank Headmistress Elizabeth Anderson and Bishop Atto Brown at the Methodist Mission. For information on the three Kow Otu Houses, I thank Ekow Entsuah Mensah, Safohen Kofi Dickson, Nana Kwa and Kofi Etsiwa. I also thank Ekow Entsuah Mensah and Beatrice Harrison Mends for their assistance with Swanzy. I appreciated those chilled lemon Fantas Beatrice kept for me. At the Kobena Mefful House, I am g rateful to Kobina George Kongsley Otoo, Efua Grace Mensah and Ekua Ntsefuwa. At the Catholic Missio n, originally the United Africa Company storage facility, I convey my gratitude to Atta Hawkson and sebo. I am grateful to Samuel Kodwo Annobil, Esther Men sah and Grace Afukaah at the Calvert Claude Hagan Family Residence. I thank Edukuma Hagan for sharing family information and documents on The Russell House a. k. a. Ab dan. At the Justice Akwa Family Residence, I am grateful to Dora Ferguson and Nana Kwa I am indebted to Samuel Bonso Abban, Harriet Dadzie, Suzy Butler and Comfort Aggrey at Abr san. I am sincerely grateful to Grace Ntsiful for her memories of the Jacob Wilson Sey Family Residence For their histories regarding these ruins of Anomabo, I than k Joseph Kofi Ackom and Nana Kwa for the Samuel Collins Brews Family Residence the Adontehen s palaces and Enchia's Family Residence ; Aba Mansa a. k. a. Aba Ed Monson at the Ed Monson Family Residence and John Kweku Aikins at the Yard House. I thank Kwa Twento Mensah, regent until a new Krontihen is installed, at the Krontihen's Palace. At the Lawyer Atta Amonoo's Family Residence I am grateful to Inspector Harrison and caretaker Paul Norty. I thank Kodwo Ampiah a.k.a Atta Papa for information on W. E. D. A. Lodge. At Kweku Abaka's Family Residence I thank the current tenants. In Cape Coast, I thank the residents and especially Crement Thomason, Samuel Ankrah and Ramses Ankrah for sharing the Allen Quansah Family Residences with me. In Elmina, at th e

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7 J H. E. Conduah Family Residence I am grateful to Stephen Ackon, Catherine Agyemang, Elizabeth Condua, Christina Annan Mary Kofi and Alexander Blavo. I am also grateful to Kwame Asante for his knowledge concerning the Moses Adu Family Residence in Lar teh. I must also thank the many other families who graciously opened their doors to let me w a nder around their homes. All these interv iews were granted to me without charge. I am forever grateful t o all th e se families for their kindness and generosity. Sch olars who informed my work with lively discussions include the following. At the University of Cape Coast: Dr. Gilbert Kuupole Domwin previously The Dean of the Faculty of Arts Department Dr. Nicholas Kofie, Head, African Studies; Sir Dr. Anthony Annan P rah, Senior Lecturer School of Agriculture ; Dr. Benjamin Kofi Nyarko, Physical Geographer; and Dr. Prempeh Fiscian, Hall Master of Casel Hayford Hall. At KNUST: Dr. G. W. K. Intsiful, Head, Department of Architecture, and Professors Dr. George Felix Olymp io and Dr. Kodwo Edusei. I must thank Mercy Vanessa D. Appiah at the International Programmes Office at KNUST for all her assistance with scheduling meetings with these professors as well as arranging my campus accommodations and travel around Kumasi. At t he University of Ghana Institute of African Studies, I am grateful to Brigid Sackey, Director, and Rev. Dr. Abraham Akrong, Senior Research Fellow. I am grateful to Mark Henry Freeman, Master s graduate from the University of Ghana, who shared his master s thesis, experiences and finds while conducting archaeological fieldwork in Anomabo. I hope he will continue his diligent work uncovering Anomabo's past. Currently Freeman is Vice President for the NGO Heritage & Site Save Africa (HASSA) and is attemptin g to establish a historical museum in Anomabo.

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8 I owe the locating of my most important archival findings in Ghana to the following people William J. Otoo, Records Assistant, at the National Archives in Cape Coast assisted me with the 1931 Gold Coast Surve y Map of Anomabo along with some biographical data. His continuing efforts to uncover Anomabos property records from the 1860s to 1930s give me hope for future data to further support my theories. My appreciation also to Joseph Prempeh Maisie, Acting Dire ctor of the Ghana Museums & Monuments Board, for sharing the Little Fort a. k. a. Castle Brew files with me. I am grateful to Phillip Atta Yawson, caretaker of Fort William and Castle Brew; Nicholas Ivor, Director, Cape Coast Castle; and Kwesi Essel Blan kson, M useum Educator and Tour Guide, Cape Coast Castle, for assisting with historical knowledge, sources, contacts and discussions. Initial tours around town were given by Nkum and Mensah, a. k. a. John Kofi. Other valuable contacts and insights were len t by Grace Kyeremeh, Chief Kodwo Addae II of Abura, Abaka Quansah, masons Kwame Amanbu and Joseph Kofi Ackom, and artists Joseph Benjamin Arcct Bunyan a. k. a. Kofi Benya a.k.a Dollar ; Mark E. Aidoo a.k.a K bena Edu; and Kweku Rhule. Encouragement and su pport was additionally provided by my dear friend and Ghanaian sister Grace (Kyeremeh) She opened her door to me for a six month homestay and cooked the most delicious Ghanaian foods. I am forever grateful to Grace ; h er kindness made every trip to Ghana a homecoming. For clothing and vibrant conversations, I thank Joyce Okwaisie a. k. a. Efua Brunwa in Anomabo. Emily Asiedu or Auntie Solomon Ofosu Appea h a. k. a. Kw a ku, and Dina Dentaa in Accra provided accommodations, food, clothing, lively discussions and even their pray ers when KLM/Delta did not reissue my airline ticket To Auntie and all the scholars that congregate at her home, I am grateful for all the assistance and advice I have received. For

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9 her friendship and traveling companionship I thank Ariane J. Malawski, Programme Coordinator for the Abusua Foundation in Cape Coast. Im also grateful to all my friends at the Abusua Foundation for their support and providing stress relief. I must thank my outside mentor s. Firstly Doran H. Ross former director of the Fowler Museum at UCLA, is much appreciated for all his support and encouragement over the past four years His shared knowledge of Akan arts and Ghana in general has been invaluable to my experience. Lively discussions, both in person and o n the phone, have fueled many ideas presented herein. Monica Blackmun Visona, Assistant Professor of Art History at the University of Kentucky has also been a supporter of my interest in Fante and coastal arts. I benefited a great deal from our discussion s online and on site in Ghana. For initial direction and discussions over my preliminary findings I am grateful to Dr. Roy Graham, Director of Historic Preservation programs in the College of Design, Construction and Planning at the University of Florida. I thank art historian and architect Labelle Prussin, a.k.a. Libby Prussin, who has studied West African architecture since the early 1960s. Her recommendations in October of 2008 and January of 2009 have helped to shape my ethnographic methods and interpr etations, in particular her interest in craftsme n and construction techniques Several people have had the patience to read numerous versions of the entire dissertation. For their insightful comments I thank my dissertation committee : Drs. Robin Poynor and Victoria Rovine, both African art historians; Dr. Brenda Chalfin, an anthropologist whose specialty is Ghana; and Dr. James Essegbey, a Ghanaian linguist. To them I owe much gratitude for their patience and time. Their model of professionalism, intelligen ce and unwavering generosity has made an indelible impression upon me.

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10 I also thank my dear friend Dr. Richard Lankenau for his knowledge and suggestions. His upbringing in Brazil and worldly travels made him an invaluable reader for this project His und erstanding of the sobrado house helped me to better understand its journey to Anomabo. The support of Richard and his wife Cindy has enabled me to pursu e many professional and personal goals throughout the years I am grateful to my mother Doreen Micots wh o labored extensively over my initial versions of the dissertation. Portions of this document were also reviewed by my friends in Ghana: Grace Kyeremeh and Nana Kwa. I paid Nana Kwa what little funding I was able. Yet, for his assistance, I will always be deeply indebted. Thanks to everyone involved my Ph.D. studies became a reality, rather than just a dream. Medaase pii!

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11 TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...............................................................................................................4 page lIST OF TABLES ..........................................................................................................................17 LIST OF FIGURES .......................................................................................................................18 ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................................................22 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................24 Construction Techniques and Materials .................................................................................25 European or African? ..............................................................................................................26 The Site ...................................................................................................................................27 Identity ....................................................................................................................................31 Status .......................................................................................................................................36 Visual Transf ers ......................................................................................................................39 Cultural Authentification ........................................................................................................41 Off beat Phrasing ....................................................................................................................44 Mimicry and Resistance .........................................................................................................44 Methods ..................................................................................................................................47 I Came to Meet It ................................................................................................................49 Pre Colonia l Urbanity .............................................................................................................52 Historiography ........................................................................................................................55 Chapter Organization ..............................................................................................................66 2 PRE CO LONIAL HISTORY OF AN AFRICAN PORT CITY ............................................70 Migration to the Coast ............................................................................................................70 Fante Leadership .....................................................................................................................72 Asafo Companies ....................................................................................................................73 Earliest Culture Contact ..........................................................................................................76 European Contact ....................................................................................................................77 Urban Growth in the Seventeenth Century .............................................................................79 The Arts ..................................................................................................................................82 The Eighteenth Century and the Height of Anoma bo ............................................................84 The Melting Pot ......................................................................................................................86 Besi Kurentsir .........................................................................................................................89 The Education of Kure ntsirs Sons .........................................................................................91 Kurentsirs Legacy ..................................................................................................................95 Late Eighteenth Century .........................................................................................................96 The Asante Invasion June 15, 1807 ......................................................................................98 Nineteenth Century Developments .........................................................................................99

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12 British Government Takes Over Fort William and the Co ast .......................................100 Coastal Economy ...........................................................................................................102 Christianity and the British ............................................................................................103 Edu cation .......................................................................................................................104 Cultural Interactions and Choices .........................................................................................105 3 THE AKAN COURTYARD HOUSE ..................................................................................106 Urban Design ........................................................................................................................107 Pate Wattle and Daub, and Unbaked Brick Construction ...................................................111 Rammed Earth Construction .................................................................................................114 Roofing, Windows and Doors ..............................................................................................116 Materials ...............................................................................................................................118 Bricks .............................................................................................................................118 Stone ..............................................................................................................................119 Concrete .........................................................................................................................122 Mason Guilds ........................................................................................................................122 The Two Story Urban House ................................................................................................123 The Courtyard House ............................................................................................................126 Tuafohens Palace.................................................................................................................130 Combining the TwoStory and Courtyard Plans ..................................................................133 4 THE EUROPEAN PALLADIAN STYLE ...........................................................................135 Dutch Pa lladianism ...............................................................................................................135 The Dutch Lodge / Omanhens Palace .................................................................................137 Construction and Materials ............................................................................................138 Plan ................................................................................................................................140 Modern Adaptations ......................................................................................................142 British Palladianism ..............................................................................................................143 The British Forts ...................................................................................................................147 Castle Brew ...........................................................................................................................147 Status Symbol ................................................................................................................148 British Palladian Style and Plan ....................................................................................149 Connections to Anomabo Leadership ...........................................................................152 Status Furnishings .........................................................................................................153 Brews Legacy ...............................................................................................................155 The Brodie G. Cruickshank Addition ...................................................................................156 British Palladian Style and Pla n ....................................................................................157 Moldings ........................................................................................................................159 J. H. E. Conduah Family Residence A Dutch Palladian Comparison in Elmina ..............160 From Inhabiting European Palladian Houses to Building Them ..........................................162 5 SELECTION AND INCORPORATION OF THE PALLADIAN STYLE .........................163 Castle Brew The George Kuntu Blankson Addition ..........................................................166 Early Years ....................................................................................................................166

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13 Successful Merchant ......................................................................................................167 The Second Addition .....................................................................................................168 Samuel Collins Brew Family Residence A Comparison ............................................170 British Palladian Style and Plan ....................................................................................172 Off beat Phrasing ...........................................................................................................174 Blanksons Legacy ........................................................................................................175 Kodwo Kuntu Family Residence ..........................................................................................178 British Palladian Elements Spread by the Methodist Mission ..............................................179 Methodis t Mission .........................................................................................................179 British Palladian Style and Plan ....................................................................................183 Growth and the Ebenezer Methodist Church ................................................................183 Georgian Gothic Style and Plan ....................................................................................184 Stone Nog Reflections of Methodism ...................................................................................185 Kobena Mefful Family R esidence .................................................................................185 British Palladian Style ...................................................................................................187 Plan ................................................................................................................................188 Joseph Edward Biney Family Residence A Comparison in Cape Coast ....................190 African Coastal Elite Methodists in Anomabo .....................................................................191 George Ekem Ferguson .................................................................................................191 Robert Hutchison ...........................................................................................................192 Robert Johnson Ghartey ................................................................................................192 The Move to Cap e Coast ...............................................................................................193 John Sarbah ...................................................................................................................194 Dr. James Emman Kodwo Mensa Otsiwadu Humamfunsam Kwegyir Aggrey ...........196 The Brews ......................................................................................................................197 Sam Kanto Brew ............................................................................................................197 James Hutton Brew ........................................................................................................198 J. E. Casely Hayford and William Ward Brew .............................................................199 Samuel Henry Brew ......................................................................................................199 Ebenezer Annan Brew ...................................................................................................199 Anomabo at the Turn of the Century ....................................................................................200 6 SELECTION AND INCORPORATION OF THE SOBRADO ..........................................205 Origin of the Afro Portuguese Sobrado ................................................................................205 Sobrado Across the Atlantic ..........................................................................................207 Afro Brazilian Sobrado in West Africa .........................................................................209 The Basel Mission ................................................................................................................211 Larteh .............................................................................................................................212 Plan and Construction ....................................................................................................213 Masons for the Anomabo Coastal Elite Residences .............................................................214 The Sobrado in Anomabo .....................................................................................................214 The Russell House ................................................................................................................215 Functions .......................................................................................................................216 The Sibling Clients ........................................................................................................217 Construction Method .....................................................................................................218 British Palladian Style ...................................................................................................220

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14 Sobrado Plan..................................................................................................................221 Off beat Phrasing ...........................................................................................................222 Justice Akwa Family Residence ...........................................................................................222 Palladian Style with Sobrado Plan ................................................................................223 Modern Alterations ........................................................................................................224 Off beat Phrasing ...........................................................................................................224 Comparison with an Afro Brazilian Sobrado in Brazil .................................................224 Moses Adu Family Residence A Comparison in Larteh ...................................................225 Worldwide Adoption of the Sobrado ....................................................................................226 7 TRANSFORMATION: THE COASTAL ELITE STYLE ...................................................228 The Hall and Chamber Plan with a Sobrado Verandah ........................................................230 Etsiwa Abodo ........................................................................................................................231 Abr san .................................................................................................................................232 Style and Plan ................................................................................................................233 Characterization .............................................................................................................235 The Quayson Hou se A Dutch Comparison in Elmina ................................................236 Lawyer Atta Amonoo Family Residence .............................................................................237 Functions .......................................................................................................................240 Materials and Construction ............................................................................................240 British Palladian Style ...................................................................................................241 Pobee Abaka Family Residence A Comparis on in Saltpond .....................................244 Off beat Phrasing ...........................................................................................................245 Plan ................................................................................................................................245 Status Symbol ................................................................................................................246 The Family Residences of Allen Quansah A Fante Comparison in Cape Coast ........247 British Palladian Style ...................................................................................................248 Plan ................................................................................................................................248 The Second Allen Quansah Family Residence in Tantri ...............................................249 Onismous Brandfor d Parker Family Residence A Sierra Leonian Comparison in Cape Coast ..................................................................................................................................249 British Palladian Style ...................................................................................................250 Plan ................................................................................................................................251 Transformations ....................................................................................................................251 8 COMMUNICATING STATUS THROUGH THE VISUAL ..............................................253 The Site .................................................................................................................................253 The Decline of Anomabo ......................................................................................................254 Identity: Africans and Europeans .........................................................................................255 Id entity: Coastal Elites and Ruling Heirarchies ....................................................................257 Status and Visual Transfers ..................................................................................................258 Cultural Authentification ......................................................................................................260 The Global Focus ..................................................................................................................265 Caribbean .......................................................................................................................265 Afro Brazilian Communities .........................................................................................269

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15 Southeastern Nigeria .............................................................................................................271 The Builders ..........................................................................................................................273 Off beat Phrasing ..................................................................................................................274 Maintenance and Survival of Stone Nog Residences ...........................................................277 Continuation of the Coastal Elite Style ................................................................................279 Egyir Aggrey Family Residence ...................................................................................280 W. E. D. A. Lodge .........................................................................................................280 Kweku Abakah Family Residence ................................................................................282 I Came to Meet It ..............................................................................................................283 APPENDIX A TABLES ...............................................................................................................................284 B FIGURES ..............................................................................................................................286 C ADDITIONAL ANOMABO STRUCTURES .....................................................................383 Structure C 1. Twidan Clan Family Residence ....................................................................384 Str ucture C 2. Fort Charles ...................................................................................................386 Structure C 3. Fort William ..................................................................................................389 Structure C 4. Moses Kwesi Amo Family Residence ..........................................................394 Structure C 5. Charles Bentum Annan Family Residence ...................................................396 Structure C 6. Kodwo Baffoe Family Residence .................................................................398 Structure C 7. Ama Moo Family Residence .........................................................................399 Structure C 8. Catholic Mission ...........................................................................................399 Structure C 9. Nangli can Church .........................................................................................401 Structure C 10. The Residences of Kow Otu .......................................................................401 First Residence ..............................................................................................................402 Ceramic Tiles .................................................................................................................402 Second Residence ..........................................................................................................403 Structure C 11. Swanzy ........................................................................................................403 The Swanzys ..................................................................................................................404 Style and Plan ................................................................................................................405 Swanzy A Comparison in Saltpond ............................................................................407 Structure C 12. Calvert Claude Hagan Family Residence ...................................................407 Plan ................................................................................................................................408 Style ...............................................................................................................................409 Modern Alterations ........................................................................................................409 Structure C 13. Ruins of the Adontehen Amonoo I Palaces and the Enchia Family Residence ..........................................................................................................................410 Structure C 14. Yard House .................................................................................................411 Structure C 15. Ed Monson Family Residence ....................................................................412 Structure C 16. Jacob Wilson Sey Family Residence ..........................................................413 Style and Plan ................................................................................................................413 Status Symbol ................................................................................................................415 Structure C 17. Krontihen's Palace .......................................................................................416

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16 Materials and Construction ............................................................................................416 Style ...............................................................................................................................418 Plan ................................................................................................................................418 Status Symbol ................................................................................................................420 D DOCUMENTS .....................................................................................................................421 Document D 1. Obituary for Samuel Collins Brew .............................................................422 Document D 2. Kofi Aiko Land Purchase Agreement .........................................................423 Document D 3. Land Indent ure for The Russell House .......................................................425 Document D 4. Building Permit for The Russell House ......................................................429 Document D 5. Obituary for Reverend John O boboam Hammond .....................................430 Document D 6. Obituary for Charlotte Oyemame Acquaah ................................................431 LIST OF REFERENCES .............................................................................................................432 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .......................................................................................................450

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17 LIST OF TABLES Table page A 1 List of Anomabo State Omanhen .....................................................................................284 A 2 List of Anomabo Neighborhoods .....................................................................................285

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18 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page B 1 Ghana ..............................................................................................................................286 B 2 Map of Anomabo ............................................................................................................287 B 3 Kyirem No. 6 Asafo Company Flag.................................................................................288 B 4 Dontsin No. 3 Asafo Compa ny Posuban .........................................................................289 B 5 Kyirem No. 6 Asafo Indian Regiment Leading the Company .....................................290 B 6 Castle Brew and the Cruickshank Addition .....................................................................291 B 7 Fort William .....................................................................................................................292 B 8 Dutch Lodge / Omanhens Palace ....................................................................................293 B 9 Lawyer Atta Amonoo Family Residence, Front ..............................................................294 B 10 Lawyer Atta Amonoo Family Residence, Plan................................................................295 B 11 Nana Kwa Nyanfoeku Akwa ...........................................................................................296 B 12 Kow Otu Family Residence (2), Aerial Plan from 1931 Gold Coast Survey ..................297 B 13 Kow Otu Family Residence (1), with Desce ndant Ama ..................................................298 B 14 William Ansah Sesarakoo (b.c. 1727) .............................................................................299 B 15 Fort Charles, 1679 ............................................................................................................300 B 16 Fort Charles, 1682 ............................................................................................................301 B 17 Fort Charles, c. 1700 ........................................................................................................302 B 18 Castle Brew, George Kuntu Blankson Additi on ..............................................................303 B 19 The Russell House, Front and East Side ..........................................................................304 B 20 Tuafohens Palace, Plan ...................................................................................................305 B 21 Tuafohens Palace ............................................................................................................306 B 22 Twidan Clan Family Residence .......................................................................................307 B 23 Twidan Clan Family Residence, Back .............................................................................308

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19 B 24 Twidan Clan Family Residence, Plan ..............................................................................309 B 25 Dutch Lodge / Omanhens Palace, Niche with Barrel Vault ...........................................310 B 26 Dutch Lodge / Omanhens Palace, Plan ...........................................................................311 B 27 Dutch Lodge / Omanhens Palace, Plan ...........................................................................312 B 28 Anomabo Fort, Plan .........................................................................................................313 B 29 Fort William, Interior East Wall ......................................................................................314 B 30 Castle Brew, Courtyard Entrance .....................................................................................315 B 31 Castle Brew, Plan .............................................................................................................316 B 32 Fort William Addition, Palaver Hall and Governors Quarters .......................................317 B 33 Cruickshank Addition, South Room, Second Floor .........................................................318 B 34 Cruickshank Addition, Courtyard Wall ...........................................................................319 B 35 J. E. H. Conduah Family Residence ................................................................................320 B 36 J. E. H. Conduah ..............................................................................................................321 B 37 J. E. H. Conduah Family Residence, Second Floor .........................................................322 B 38 Kodwo Kuntu Family Residence, Plan ............................................................................323 B 39 Kodwo Kuntu Family Residence .....................................................................................324 B 40 Moses Kwesi Amo Family Residence, Front and North Side .........................................325 B 41 Moses Kwesi Amo Family Residence, Rear ....................................................................326 B 42 Moses Kwesi Amo Family Residence, Plan ....................................................................327 B 43 Charles Bentum Annan Family Residence ......................................................................328 B 44 Charles Bentum Annan (c. 18901964) ...........................................................................329 B 45 Charles Bentum Annan Family Residence, Plan .............................................................330 B 46 Kodwo Baffoe Family Residence (Ground Floor Only) ..................................................331 B 47 Ama Moo Family Residence, Front, with Friend Mensah...............................................332 B 48 Ama Moo Family Residence, Back .................................................................................333

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20 B 49 Methodist Mission ...........................................................................................................334 B 50 Kobena Mefful Family Residence ...................................................................................335 B 51 Ebenezer Methodist C hurch .............................................................................................336 B 52 Samuel Otu Memorial Presbyterian Church ....................................................................337 B 53 Warehouse, a. k. a. Old Catholic Mission, Back .............................................................338 B 54 Nanglican Church, South Side and Back .........................................................................339 B 55 Etsiwa Abodo with Supi Kofi Dickson............................................................................340 B 56 Swanzy .............................................................................................................................341 B 57 Swanzy, Plan ....................................................................................................................342 B 58 Swanzy, Interior Mushroom Arch, with Descendant Beatrice Harrison Mend s .............343 B 59 Kobena Mefful (1853March 1943) .................................................................................344 B 60 Kobena Mefful Family Residence, Plan ..........................................................................345 B 61 Kobena Mefful Family Residence, Interior, Ground Floor .............................................346 B 62 Kobena Mefful Family Residence, Chamber Doorways, Ground Floor .........................347 B 63 Kobena Mefful Family Residence, Enclosed Veranda, Second Floor .............................348 B 64 Chief Joseph Edward Biney Family Residence, Courtyard Entrance ..............................349 B 65 Claude Calvert Hagan Family Residence, South Side and Partial Front .........................350 B 66 Claude Calvert Hagan and Wife, Possibly Araba Otuah .................................................351 B 67 Claude Clavert Hagan Family Residence, Plan ...............................................................352 B 68 Survey from Indenture Document ....................................................................................353 B 69 The Russell House, West Side .........................................................................................354 B 70 Moses Adu Family Residence .........................................................................................355 B 71 The Russell House, Pl an ..................................................................................................356 B 72 The Russell House, Courtyard Entrance ..........................................................................357 B 73 Justice Akwa Family Residence, Front ............................................................................358

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21 B 74 Justice Akwa Family Residence, Plan .............................................................................359 B 75 Okokodo Road .................................................................................................................360 B 76 Etsiwa Abodo, Plan..........................................................................................................361 B 77 Adontehen Amonoo I Family Residence (2), Pier Bases ................................................362 B 78 Yard House ......................................................................................................................363 B 79 Ed Monson Family Residence, Interior View of Standing Wall .....................................364 B 80 Jacob Wilson Sey Family Residence, Aerial Plan from 1931 Gold Coast Survey ..........365 B 81 Gothic House, a. k. a. Oguaa Palace, a. k. a. Emintsimadze Palace ................................366 B 82 Abr san ............................................................................................................................367 B 83 Abr san, Plan ...................................................................................................................368 B 84 Lawyer Atta Amonoo Family Residence, West Side ......................................................369 B 85 Lawyer Atta Amonoo Family Residence, East Side ........................................................370 B 86 Allen Quansah Family Residence (1) ..............................................................................371 B 87 Pobee Abaka Family Residence .......................................................................................372 B 88 Lawyer Atta Amonoo Family Residence, Entrance ........................................................373 B 89 Allen Quansah Family Residence (2) ..............................................................................374 B 90 Onismous Brandford Parker Family Residence ...............................................................375 B 91 Krontihens Palace ...........................................................................................................376 B 92 Krontihens Palace, Entrance ...........................................................................................377 B 93 Krontihens Palace, Aerial Plan from 1931 Gold Coast Survey......................................378 B 94 Egyir Aggrey Family Residence ......................................................................................379 B 95 W. E. D. A. Lodge, Back .................................................................................................380 B 96 W. E. D. A. Family Residence .........................................................................................381 B 97 Kweku Abakah F amily Residence ...................................................................................382

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22 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy AFRICAN COASTAL E LITE ARCHITECTURE: CULTURAL AUTHENTIFICATION DURING THE COLONIAL PERIOD IN ANOMABO, GHANA By Courtnay Micots August 2010 Chair: Robin Poynor Major: African Art History This is a study of African coastal elite residential architecture during the colonia l period, specifically between the 1860s and 1930s. Anomabo, a historically significant port town, serves as a microcosm for a Coastal Elite Style that was popular along the West African coastline in every major port city during the colonial period T he C oastal Elite Style combines elements of the Akan courtyard house, European Palladian architecture and the Afro Portuguese sobrado. The se structures demonstrate how the Fante and other coastal Africans used the creative process of appropriation and transfor mation, or cultural authentification, to communicate their status and identity visually. African family members who achieve success are expected to extend the family residence or build anew. A home visually reflects the stature of the individual and his f amily in the community. The family residence communicates their level of connections, wealth, dignity, education and mobility in the global world. More than seventeen stone nog houses survive in Anomabo ; all date between the 1860s and 1930s Although these residences were created during the colonial era, cultural authentification on the coast of modern Ghana is a pre colonial cultural practice born out of urbanization and multiple cultural interactions.

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23 Residential architecture is germane to this study beca use it provides a point of entry into larger questions dealing with African agency and the impact of globalization, commercialism and colonialization. F amily houses built by African coastal elites visually bridge two cultures African and European and ma ke powerful statements about the ability of this group to assimilate outside ideas and transform them into a new and dynamic art form. This is a story about people who, under social and political duress, find a way to express their identity.

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24 CHAPTER 1 INT RODUCTION A casual stroll through the coastal town of Anomabo, Ghana (Lat. 5o 10' N., Long. 1o 07' W.) ( Figures B 1 and B 2) reveals a myriad of building materials and construction techniques. These are often combined and even layered on top of one anothe r in efforts to repair, maintain or extend the structure. Buildings of all types seem to be either in process of falling down or being constructed, producing a visual energy equal to the rhythms of daily activities conducted by the townspeople. This study is concerned with residential architecture using the stone nogging construction technique in the historically significant city of Anomabo, a community comprised of mostly Fante people, an Akan subgroup. Residential architecture are structure s built as hom e s place s where people live store goods and sleep. Some of these residences double as commercial venues, usually with the residence upstairs and the store or warehouse downstairs. This commercial character is common to Anomabo and other port cities. Fa mily members who achieve success are expected to extend the family residence or build anew. A home or a set of homes visually reflects the status of both the individual and his family in the community and regionally if such homes are also built in other to wns. Thus, a family s stature is closely linked to architecture. The family residence communicates its level of connections, wealth, dignity, education and mobility in the world. The houses discussed in this study will demonstrate how the Fante and other c oastal Africans used the creative process of appropriation and transformation, or cultural authentification, in pre colonial, colonial and post colonial context s as a means to communicate identity amd status visually Seemingly European style homes were no t imitations; rather elements of European architecture were incorporated into the coastal vernacular

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25 Construction Techniques and Materials F ive main building materials are used in Fante structures today: palm leaves woven into mat walls, earth, stone, bri ck and concrete. These are usually combined within a single structure often because of repairs and additions. Thus, it is not uncommon to find houses consisting of a stone foundation and earthen walls with a concrete block addition. Or the walls may be st one nog with brick facing. Since buildings exist in a partial state, either half built or in a state of ruin, it can be challenging at first to discern any building trends among the Fante, the dominant ethnic group along the coast in the Central Region ( Fi gure B 1) Recent cement plastering on the exterior s of buildings while protecting the surface from the damaging rains and intense sun, make s it difficult to determine the building material and mode of construction. Stone nog or rubble masonry denotes a type of construction using a wood framework with masonry infill. Distinguishing features are rubble stone or brick, or both, in the facing and very thick walls, usually 16 to 18 inches. This technology was transported to the coast via European trade and i s commonly found throughout the world wherever Europeans traded and later colonized such as in the Caribbean and Brazil Stone is widely available in most towns along the Ghanaian coast. A 1931 Gold Coast Survey Map indicates four stone quarries located j ust north of the coastal highway in Anomabo ( Figure B 2) The nogging on the Ghanaian coast resembles that used in Jamaica another place where Europeans traded and the English later colonized. In Jamaica, t he masonry infill consisted of whatever material was available: brick, stone and mortar.1 1Edward E. Crain, Historic Architecture in the Caribbean Islands (Gainesville, FL: University of Florida, 1994), 61 62. Nog building on the Ghanaian coast also uses a variety of infill materials including small stones, sawdust and corncobs. Sometimes these bui ldings may exhibit rock or brick facing Later technology employed concret e nog using

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26 Portland cement with the lime mortar mix.2European or African? Stone nog parallels the more common coastal mud construction technique of rammed earth in terms of durability, yet houses with the same plans and design elements exist in both stone nog and rammed ear th construction, which involves the compacting of wet earth into portable wood molds to construct the building one layer at a time. This technique has also been called monolithic mud construction, coursed clay, aipa (Portuguese), tapia (Spanish), pis de t erre or pis (French) It should be noted that much architecture in Europe and Africa in the s ix teenth century, during initial cont act, was essentially the same. In Europe, s tone or earthen walls were built in circular or rectangular o ne or two room enclosures. They were often covered with thatch supported by a timber frame. Europeans brought technologies to the Ghanaian coast that made stone more usable as a building material. S tone was mainly used for constructing Eu ropean forts, ca st les and homes; it was labor intensive and therefore expensive A s a result, Africans did not appropriate it until the latter half of the nineteenth century. E xamples of the appropriation and transformation of European technologies, de sign elements and plans by African masons and clients serves to celebrate African agency in the light of continuing misconceptions stemming from the colonial era that European influence is a taint upon traditional African cultures Historian Terence Ranger has explained th at Europeans of the colonial era, including the British in the late nineteenth century in Ghana, believed African society was profoundly conservative living with age old rules which did not change; living within an ideology based on the absence of chang e; living within a framework of clearly defined 2Henry S. Fraser, Architectural Influences, i n Vernacular Architecture of the World ed. Paul Oliver (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1997), 1700; and Patricia E. Green, Jamaica Georgia n, in Vernacular Architecture of the World ed. Paul Oliver (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1997), 1716.

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27 hierarchical status.3The rising group of c oastal elites had learned, since pre colonial times, how to navigate between cultures S avvy businessmen could work within each system European and African to get what they wanted By the late nineteenth century, the coastal elites were bridging the co lonial administration and local hierarchies. The borrowing of British architectural forms wa s a way to display status that conformed to Akan practices and a way to exhibit their alliance with the British. This study documents how changes experienced by Ghanaian coastal society during the colonial era are visually expressed through architecture. These forms make visible rapid social and p olitical changes, an ideology that willingly accepts ideas and transforms them, and a framework that includes a new coastal elite group which arose outside royal hierarchies. Therefore, the coastal societies of central Ghana utilized a process of borrowing from outside cultures in order to serve their own purposes. This process was a reflection of urbanization and cultural interactions. It was continually changing and being re invente d, never conforming to a static traditional model. The Site The Anomabo Traditional Area encompasses an area of roughly fifty square miles and includes 64 villages and towns, counting the town of Anomabo. T he chief, or omanhen4 3Terence Ranger, The Invention of Tradition in Colonial Africa, in The Invention of Tradition ed. Eric Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1992), 247. of the state of Anomabo resides in this town Seven omanhen lists compiled in the 1970s are provided 4Omanhen is a term applied by the British government in the nineteenth century. Chief, Braffo or Caboceer is the term used for earlier periods. Caboceer is a corruption of the Portuguese caboceiro or captian. Mary McCarthy, Social Change an d the Growth of British Power in the Gold Coast: The Fante States 1807 1874 (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1983), 15, note 5. For clarity, the current term of omanhen will be used throughout this text.

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28 by James R. Sanders.5The coastal city of Anomabo is historically significant as the primary commercial hub along the Gold Coast for more than 130 years, from the last quarter of the seventeenth century to 1807. Anomabo experienced urbanization because of its location on the coast and at the end of a direct trade route with the Asante gold mines to the north. During this period the first attempt at creating a Fante Coali tion was manuever ed by the omanhen Besi Kurentsir. Thus, Anomabo became the first unoffical Fante capital. I hav e consolidated his lists and updated them with data provided by several colleagues in the field (Table A 1) Even though Anomabo was once an important urban site on the coast, today its port is closed, much of its historic grandeur in ruins, seemingly a sle epy, rural town unaffected by global concerns. Yet, u nusual combinations of technologies, ideas and motifs converge in this one site. Like numerous pre colonial African cities, Anomabo experienced urbanization, attracting and combining cultures. People ex press themselves through architecture. A coastal urban center like Anomabo can be read from this viewpoint. Unlike other Ghanaian port cities like Elmina and Cape Coast; or Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC); Dakar, Senegal; and Johannesburg, South Africa; Anomabo was not subjected to a European urban design. There was no European Town. As such, Anomabo ranks among other urban centers in Africa like Djenne in Mali today Anomabo thwarted European developments via clever political and economic maneuvering engineered primarily by the omanhens of the eighteenth century, particularly by Kurentsir. This ability to stimulate commercial trading with a variety of outside cultures, yet deny large scale 5James R. Sanders, The Political Developm ent of the Fante in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries: A Study of a West African Merchant Society, (Ph.D. diss., NorthWestern University, 1980), 271 274 and Table 10 on p. 280.

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29 Western settlement, is an indicator of the indepen dent spirit and powerful character of Anomabo's people and their leadership. An examination of stone nog residential architecture will demonstrate Anomabo's long term cultural contact, the resulting flow of visual forms and cultural ideas, and the choices that cultures, communities and artists have made and continue to make in appropriating, transforming and recontextualizing visual forms in art and architecture. Residential stone nog architecture is germane to this study because it provides a point of ent ry into larger questions dealing with African agency and the impact of globalization, commercialism and colonialization. These structures demonstrate how the Fante and other coastal Africans used the creative process of appropriation and transformation, or cultural authentification, of European architecture to communicate their status and identity visually. In this way, the architectural trends in Anomabo serve as a microcosm for major port cities all along the West African coast. The analysis of this micro cosm also unpacks contemporary architectural movements. When considering any architectural structure it is necessary to consider the physical environment. The rocky terrain in which Anomabo was built is the source for its name Anomabo means bird rock. Although rocks are abundant along the coastline, mud bamboo and small trees were readily and more easily available to use for building materials. An analysis of the evolution of vernacular architecture in Anomabo presents the array of solutions to both c limatic and building problems Even when the Asante i nvasion of 1807 necessitated the rebuild ing of homes and places of business Anomabos did not choose to build with stone. During the colonial period, African coastal elites adopted European technology, materials, plans and design elements for their own residences. Many of these houses were constructed by

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30 and for prosperous elites in Anomabo. Stone and brick residences once filled the area west and north of Fort William, from the beach to the coastal high way ( Figure B 2). Stone nog houses in Anomabo conform to what I have identified as the Coastal Elite Style which combines elements of the Akan courtyard house, European Palladian architecture and the Afro Portuguese sobrado. T he sobrado was a plan applie d by masons trained by European missionaries of the Basel Mission in the Akuapem Hills area north of Accra in the mid nineteenth century ( Figure B 1). After the training of masons by the Wesleyan/Methodist and Catholic missions in the Akuapem Hills, the ma sons came to the major ports along the coast to look for work. The sobrado was also transported by Afro Brazilian mason s These masons may have traveled to the central Ghanaian coast from Accra, where Afro Brazilians settled as early as the 1820s or from those who lived in Nigeria mainly in the Brazilian quarter of Lagos Anomabo is an important site for this study because numerous stone nog residences have survived. S imilar residences, although they were once built in Winneba, Apam, Saltpond and Elmina no longer exist in these towns Many have collapsed or have been destroyed purposely to make way for concrete houses. Thus, among the coastal towns, Anomabo and Cape Coast are the only towns with extant stone nog houses. While a few European homes have be en restored, especially in Elmina via the Elmina Heritage Project,6 6The Elmina Heritage project is funded by the European Union and the Net herlands Culture Fund. The goal of the 2015 strategy is to restore and manage the cultural heritage existing in Elmina while improving the tourist, social and economic conditions of the town. One segment of this project is the Cultural Heritage and Local E conomic Development Project (CHELDEP). Begun in 2000, the coordinator Dr. Annan Prah kindly gave me a tour in 2009 of the 15 residences completed out of the 18 slated for renovation. African structures have been neglected by such projects. Anomab o has also had its casualties; for example, the fine houses of Jacob Wilson

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31 Sey and Samuel Collins Brew are now gone. However more than seventeen houses still exist, though in various states of condition.7Identity The majority of i ndividuals in the Central Region today identify themselves as belonging to the Fante ethnic group, then by hometown, which is the place where the h ead of their lineage is situated, and then by clan, refer r ing to their matrilineage, tracing their descent to a common female ancestor. According to cultural anthropologist Bayo Holsey, If someone cannot identify these aspects of their identity, he or she cannot be incorporated into normal modes of relating.8The African coastal elite class is a liminal group of Africans who knew how, since pre colonial times, to bridge the two cultures Western and African. Savvy businessmen who could work within each system attained great wealth and status in urban communities. Along the central Ghanaian coast, these elites were first mulatto e s Asserting one's individual or group identity is a recurrent theme in Anomabo art, whether the clients are European or African. 9 7This is not necessarily an exhaustive study of stone nog houses, since h omes with renovations too great to discern the original residence were not included. offspring of white soldiers or traders and their African wives, who received some European education in the church schools within the castles and forts. In a few cases, such as William Ansah Sesarak oo, royal sons were sent to Europe for education and re turned to work as linguists or clerks, a highly respected role, in the castles and forts. Education became more available to Africans in the nineteenth century with the spread of church missions in the area. More Africans joined these privileged royals and 8Bayo Holsey, Routes of Remembrance: Refashioning the Slave Trade in Ghana (Chicago: University of Chicago, 2008), 42. 9The term mulatto is used in this text only to diff erentiate African people who had a parent of Caucasian background from those Africans with local parentage. Later, when I discuss Africans and mulattoes, I am only making the distinction that initially the group of merchant elites was mulattoes and in th e nineteenth century more non mulatto Africans joined this elite group.

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32 mulattoes as a way to rise from poverty into a class of well respected, wealthy merchants, landowners, reverends and lawyers. The definition of coastal elites however is not so evenly applied. While Kwamin Atta Amonoo became a lawyer through his London e ducation, Jacob Wilson Sey was an illiterate wine tapper who parlayed a small fortune found in gold under a tree (he probably accidentally unearthed a burial) into vast wealth through merchant activities and rental property ownership. These men were at the top of the class tier in terms of wealth and influence. In the middle were agents who worked for large trading firms like F. and A. Swanzy ( Rev. or Mr. Bilson and Francis Medanyamease Hammond ) or Cadbury Bros. (Justice Akwa). Lower still, were men like Ko dwo Baffoe and Charles Essuman McCarthy. Baffoe was a tailor working in Sekondi who sent money home to his brother in Anomabo for the construction of a family house. McCarthy was a fisherman and land owner who sold some or all of his land to pay for the building materials and then used family labor to construct his family residence. Therefore, the elite class was comprised of varied individuals of differing levels of education, wealth and status. Consequently it is understandable that historians Ray G. Jen kins and Roger S. Gocking utilize the term Euro Africans to describe this group of people who were not exclusive as the term class implies.10determined The definition of a social class however is usually by a groups prestige acquired mainly through economic success and accumulation of wealth As an economic group, coastal elite is the term I use in this study. I agree with Gocking that by r ecognizing the importance of ethno cultural interaction we can appreciate how blurred the boundaries remained between people in societies where large extended families were the norm, 10Roger S. Gocking, Facing Two Ways: Ghanas Coastal Communities Under Colonial Rule (Lanham, MD: UP of America, 1999), 7.

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33 and which could incorporate outsiders with surprising ease.11 Similar coastal elite classes developed in other port towns along the Atlantic trade routes, including those in the Caribbean Brazil and elsewhere in West Africa. A common identity arose among indigenous groups throughout as an urban elite class. During the colonial period this was reflected in elite architecture where generally Palladian elements were adopted for urban environments and AfroPortuguese sobrado features were borrowed for rural e nvironments. These blurr ed boundaries are evidenced through the choices made by some of the elites in Anomabo. He might build a family residence with British Palladian features and be a staunch Methodist, yet still belong to Fante asafo groups that practice local animistic religious customs Such was the case for Kobena Mefful, who served as tuafohen, or general of the asafo troops. Thus, this study will divulge the personal and career backgrounds of Anomabo elites where such information i s available in order to reveal the diversi ty of this social class and their ability to bridge cultures. While cultural interactions had taken place during pre colonial times in these Atlantic port cities, it is not until the colonial era that new art forms appeared in profusion Within Anomabos cosmopolitan environment, people from a variety of cultures came to live and work. Such cultural mixing naturally resulted in the rise of identity issues. As a result, people use d their arts to visually establish commonality and difference. For example to belong to an asafo company, the para military tro ops of Fante communities mean t to express identity in relationship with others during times of warfare, ritual and performance. For example, folklorist Daniel B. Reed, r egarding the Dan in Liberia, states : This expression of religious and ethnic identity is taking place in contexts in which increasingly more people of other ethnic and religious identities are present. Within Ge performance of the Dan, ritual performance becomes a means for people to 11Ibid.

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34 empower themselves by asserting a measure of control o ver worlds often perceived to be rapidly changing.12On June 15, 1807, Anomabo lost half of its people and most of the buildings were destroyed. Afterward, the city lost its prominence as the leading cosmopolitan center on the central Ghanaian coast, and although it slowly gained some importance during the nineteenth century, it never fully regained its former glory. Constant attacks from the Asante on coastal towns and along important trade routes throughout the century weakened the Fante hold over the re gion and increased Fante reliance on the British. The coast unofficially became a British colony with the Bond of 1844; the entire territory known as Ghana today officially became a colony in 1874. As a result, the nineteenth century marked a period of gre at change with political and economic instability. Late nineteenth century and early twentieth century Fante art and architecture exhibit an assertion of identity. Asafo companies, once the military arm of the omanhen, wielded physical power during the he ight of Anomabo's cosmopolitanism. However, their power was greatly curbed by the British administration, leading to alternative ways to express bravery and strength. This resulted in the increased use of appliqu flags in the mid nineteenth century (Figur e B 3),13This study proves that the African coastal elites identity is closely tied to their aesthetic choices, which are consistently made apparent through their art forms. During the colonial era, large asafo company shrines or posuban in the late nineteenth century (Figure B 4), and for the Kyirem No. 6 company of Anomabo, the adoption of the Native American warrior image in performance in the 1950s prior to independence in 1957 (Figure B 5). 12Daniel B. Reed, Dan Ge Performance : Masks and Music for New Realities in Contemporary Cote d'Ivoire (Bloomington: Indiana UP, 2003), 13. 13See my forthcoming essay Griffins, Crocodiles and the British Ensign: Kweku Kakanu's Asafo Flags and Followers, in Africa Interweave, ed. Susan Cooksey. Gainesville, FL : Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art, 2011.

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35 we aring a Western business suit, following Methodism and bui lding a family residence resembling British Palladian architecture serve d to align the African elite with the prime source of power, the British. Although the stone nog residences in Anomabo and other coastal port cities were created during the colonial er a, cultural authentification on the coast of modern Ghana is a pre colonial cultural practice born out of urbanization and multiple cultural interactions. Art historian Prita Meier recorded s imilar artistic responses on the Swahili Coast in the East Africa n port cities of Lamu and Mombasa. Although outside the Atlantic world, these cities share a history as sites of pre colonial and colonial social and commercial interactions as well as being British colonies According to Meier, Local symbolic and materia l worlds cultivated to articulate selfhood and cultural belonging were also resha ped and re imagined in order to counter or co opt the growing authority of the British Empire and Sultanate of Zanzibar.14Architecture, such as the Blankson Addition and the Lawyer Atta Amonoo Family Residence also provide evidence of the growing prosperity of the independent merchants and traders along the coast, and more specifically, in Anomabo. The choices to appropriate certain forms from outside cultures were conscious ly made for specific purposes, and not merely Thus, like the Ghanaian coast, coastal elites were b ridging the powers of the British and ruling hierarchies. By visually displaying their cosmopolitanism both local groups were able to express their status through artistic displays of commodification (through the purchase and appointment of imported furni shings) as a means to demonstrate their wealth, knowledge, connections and ability to travel. This visual assertion of identity began in pre colonial times, yet was exacerbated during the colonial period. 14Prita Meier, Hybrid Heritage: Objects on the Edge Swahili Coast Logics of Display, African Arts 42 (4 Winter 2009), 9 10.

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36 evidence of influence. To understand these choices it is necessary to view them as creative processes. The appropriations discussed in this study come from a variety of European, particularly British, cultures. These are not only borrowed, but also transformed into the local construct. Each example visually communicates identity and status to Anomabo residents and visitors. Status Akan leadership arts, with all its layering of gold adornments and lush textiles, visually proclaim the status of chief s In addition, each chief is accompanied by an entourage of attendants and court officials wear ing or carr ying his embellishments of office. In festival parades, or durbars the chief is carried in a palanquin. He als o appears during traditional council meetings and other official court activities and rituals. Whenever he is outside, his attendants shade him with a large umbrella revealing the chiefs location All of these state art forms, first documented by Kyerema ten and then further researched by Herbert C. Cole and Doran H. Ross,15Consequently members of the co astal elite class were restricted in the arts they could choose to demonstrate their nouveau riche st atus. For example, unless they were enstooled as a member of the traditional council, they could not be carried in palanquins during the durbar It would be an insult to be seen wearing more gold than the chief. Therefore, African coastal elites had to sea rch for new forms of display to indicate their status. One way was through dress. Many owned extensive wardrobes of imported cloths and European clothing. As early as 1602, Pieter are restricted to the chief and those who serve him. 15Kyerematen A. A. Y. Panoply of Ghana; Ornamental Art in Ghanaian Tradition and Culture NY: Praeger, 1964 ; and Herbert M. Cole and Doran H. Ross, The Arts of Ghana (Los Angeles: Museum of Cultural History, University of California, 1977), 134 169.

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37 De Marees documented that distinguished Fante wore imported linens in Europe an fashions.16 These Fante had to be in a position either to be able to afford the purcha se of such imports or to be of high status to receive such gifts. Another way to indicate status was through the building of large family residences. In the colonial ar ea, some of the African coastal elites chose to borrow European forms, continuing a history of such displays. Not only do these displays demonstrate their cosmopolitan ability to purchase items from other cultures, but also they serve as examples of the ow ners knowledge of and connections to the world. Owning this privileged knowledge, of outside places and cultures, is a form of power.17Identity as a cultured, educated and cosmopolitan member of an urban environment was an important shield of protection f or the coastal elite. Describing the environment on the coast between 1834 and 1854, Brodie G. Cruickshank, the British Judicial Assessor and later Governor, wrote, There are few houses now...in the neighborhood of Cape Coast, and other principal towns, in which many of the comforts and luxuries of civilized life are not to be found...[the tendency] at present is strong towards a higher standard of excellence in the objects of their pursuit, which are chiefly based upon an anxious desire to imitate Europea n habits of life. 18According to Holseys study of Cape Coast, t his imitation took place because there was an increasing desire on the part of coastal elites to separate themselves physically and African coastal elites selected English names in addition to their African names. They adopted Christianity with fervor and eagerly imported numerous European furnishings and other goods for their homes. 16Pieter de Marees, Description and Historical Account of the Gold Kingdom of Guinea (1602), Transla ted by Albert van Dantzig and Adam Jones. (Oxford: Oxford UP, 1987), 35. 17Mary H. Nooter, Secrecy: African Art that Conceals and Reveals (Munich: Prestel, 1993), 24. 18Brodie Cruickshank, Eighteen Years on the Gold Coast of Africa (London, Hurst and Blacket t, 1853; reprint, London: Frank Cass, 1966), vol. 2, 294 (page citations are to the reprint edition).

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38 conceptually from the inland peoples, particularly those from the northern savannahs, who were often raided a nd brought to the coast to be sold as slaves. Europeans on the coast regarded the se northern peoples, called nnonkofo or slaves, as uncivilized and worthy of being enslaved. In contrast and likely due to the centuries of commercial contact with the Fante a nd others the Europeans viewed the coastal people as superior to the nnonkofo. The coastal elites sought to distinguish themselves and impress the resident British with their cultured difference from those who were enslaved. The danger of being recognized as an enslavable person caused coastal residents to highlight their identity as urban, cosmopolitan individuals.19By the late nineteenth century, this image was projected via Western ized education, personal dress and habitation as a means to assert statu s in relation to the Akan ruling hierarchy and the British administration. The British embraced the Asante model of centralized statehood because it seemed convenient to have one system of local government. For the coastal Fante and other groups this unbal anced the customary system of shared rule between chiefs, asafo leaders and other respected elders. The British promoted the ascention of local chiefs and Akan forms of leadership arts. While the Fante, a related Akan group, had shared cultural practices w ith the Asante, their Akanization was advanced by the British during this period. 20Soon after the British declared the Gold Co a st a colony in 1877, the British moved their capital from Cape Coast to Accra. They felt Accra occupied a more central location. The move marked a rapid decline in the political status of the coastal elites of Cape Coast and the surrounding Fante region, for Accra was a Ga city. Initially, these elites expected to keep their status by acting as intermediaries between the colonial st ate and the local population. However, 19Holsey, 47 50. 20Gocking, 4, 167 169.

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39 under the system of indirect rule, political power was vested instead in traditional rulers whom the British believed better represented the local population. Thus, along with political reforms, the colonial governmen t no longer recognized coastal elites as a distinct social group and no longer cultivated the assimilation of the coastal elites.21 According to Jenkins, this shift represented an embrace of a settled view of colonialism, which he describes as a strong preference for the rural and the traditional; the masculine, the athletic and the pristine, rather than the urban and the modern; the weak, the clever, the tainted and the hybrid.22Rather than inheriting wealth and status as did traditional rulers savvy coastal elites could arise from poverty to achieve status through their own industry. These elites wanted and were expected to express their new found wealth and status in a public way. Through the adoption of European cultural traits, the coastal elite w ere able to challenge the internal Fante hierarchies and European racist constructions of African inferiority. Grand family houses visually communicated ideas of wealth, status and identity for both the ruling and coastal elite classes. Visual Transfers Ar t historian Roy Sieber wrote that power may be transferred from one object to another.23 21Holsey, 51. In certain instances, the siting of a family residence seems to make visual reference s to other structures in Anomabo. P ower stemming from knowledge of outside cultu res, can be communicated through the display of foreign elements on family residences as a status art form. Castle Brew, the George Kuntu Blankson Addition and the Lawyer Atta Amonoo Family 22Ray G. Jenkins, Gold Coast Historians and Their Pursuit of the Gold Coast Pasts, 1882 1917 (Ph.D. di ss., University of Birmingham, Alabama, 1985), 145. 23Roy Sieber, African Art: Permutations of Power (Gainesville, FL: Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art, 1997), Introduction, np.

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40 Residence demonstrate the ability of both Europeans and Fante to v isually communicate and transfer ideas of power and status This is the case for Irishman Richard Brew who in the 1750s built his Castle Brew, a monumental Georgian mansion (Figure B 6) in Anomabo opposite to the British Company of Merchants' fort, later known as Fort William (Figure B 7) He was visually communicating his identity as a major player in the coast al trade, equal to the British C ompany of M erchants, and also as a powerful member of the community, having married into the local royal family. T hus, although he was aligned with both the British and the local community, Brews intention was to rival both British and Fante power on the coast as an independent trader, for he wanted control of the lucrative slave trade. Brew consciously appropriated the image of the massive brick and stone structure of the fort to visually transfer and neutralize the power of the British. The twostory stone and brick Castle Brew also challenges the Omanhen's Palace (Figure B 8) About a century later the Fante merch ant and tuafohen George Kuntu Blankson built a south addition to Castle Brew. While Castle Brew and Fort William symbolize European power on the coast the addition that separates them significantly asserts Fante power. This power is defined in terms of ec onomic, political and military power for all concerned. Such visual references to indigenous power were especially crucial during the nineteenth century when Fante power was weakened both by Asante forces and British administration. While initially these r eferences signified the Fante and British allegiance against the Asante in battle, by the last quarter of the nineteenth century this partnership dissolved with the British in power. Nevertheless, the Blankson Addition asserts coastal elite status indirec tly confronting both the British and the Fante hierarchy as evidenced by architecture.

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41 About 160 years after Castle Brew and 50 years after the Blankson Addition were constructed the Fante lawyer Kwamin Atta Amonoo, son of Omanhen Amonoo V, had an immense family residence built on a hill overlooking Anomabo (Figure B 9) His position as a wealthy, London educated man attached to the royal family is translated into an architectural form that visually communicates his power not only as a member of the coasta l elite but also as a member of the ruling family. Atta Amonoo was educated in Britain and worked as a lawyer in Calabar, Nigeria, in the early twentieth century. He regularly sent money home to his father in Anomabo with the intention that Amonoo V would supervise the construction of his family home. Status is also made visible by situating the structure on a hill overlooking the town and the equally imposing structures of the European buildings of Fort William and Castle Brew, making a powerful statement about coastal elite presence during British occupation. It also aligns this coastal elite member with the traditional hierarchy during the period when the British relied on local traditional governance. Cultural Authentification The process of cultural authentification, introduced by textile specialists Tonye Victor Erekosima and Joanne Bubolz Eicher, involves four stages: selection, characterization, incorporation and transformation Selection refers to the appropriation of a motif, or object, without alteration. Characterization is the naming of the motif to make it better understood within the culture that is adopting it Incorporation involves ownership of a motif by a specific group within the community. Lastly, transformation is the creation of someth ing new from th e original motif. It is at this stage that such a motif, or object, is most valued.24 24Tonye Victor Erekosima and Joanne Bubolz Eicher, Kalabari Cut Thread and Pulled T hread Cloth, African Arts 14 (2 February 1981), 50 51.

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42 Cultural authentification is a useful framework to examine architecture, even though the phrase was initially c reated to understand textile s and seems to h ave been isolated to discussions regarding new textiles or dress born out of the colonial period. It functions for my project because of its definition as a process. Through an understanding of how specific motifs, forms or technologies are selected and tr ansformed, a cultures aesthetic preferences and motives can be uncovered. This study proves that the African coastal elites aesthetic choices and aims consistently are made apparent through their art forms. D ur ing the colonial era, w earing a Western busi ness suit, following Methodism and building a family residence resembling British Palladian architecture serve d to align the African elite with the prime source of power, the British And, although these stone nog residences were created during the colonia l era, cultural authentification on the coast of modern Ghana is a pre colonial cultural practice. As stated previously, Sarbah recognized Fante agency and this process of assimilation from outside cultures for wholly Fante purposes. Arjun Appadurai also hinted at this process as a localizing process.25 25Arjun Appadurai, Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1996 ) 17. His italics. Completed around 1920, Atta Amonoo's impr essive 15 room family residence incorporates both European and Fante aspects in plan, design and construction method (Figure B 10) This sophisticated structure exe mplifies cultural authentification's final stage of transformation. Utilizing a combination of the British Palladian style, Afro Portuguese sobrado plan and the Akan courtyard plan, Atta Amonoo and his father created something entirely new. The examples ch osen in this study will demonstrate how the process of cultural authentification in Anomabo is the result of urbanization and the mixing of cultures during the pre colonial era as early as Anomabo's connections to the global world in the seventeenth centur y. The height of artistic production occurs during the colonial period as a form of status display Stone nog

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43 residences in Anomabo demonstrate Fante agency in self presentation to promote ideas of being cultured, educated and, most importantly, urban. Th e process continues today in the post colonial era whereby artists appropriate and transform ideas and forms to create something new. Anomabos historic cosmopolitanism continues to influence current art forms evidencing the openness of artists to new infl uences, motifs, experimentations, and cultural blending. By tracing this process over a period of time, I argue that Fante art ists are creative and adaptive ; the ir products continually chang e to meet the demands of their clients. Cultural authentification is used to demonstrate how Fante agency spans pre colonial, colonial and post colonial time periods. New cultural art forms have been considered expressions of hybridity by Karin Barber26 or creolization by Ulf Hannerz,27 both under the umbrella term popular culture. Although attempting to highlight the creative process, or interplay between imported and indigenous cultures,28 the terms hybridity and creolization may imply, but do not discuss fully the process undergone to achieve the final result Consequently African agency is reduced to mere influence. Nor does the classification of popular culture apply to coastal African stone nog architecture of the colonial period. Johannes Fabian defines one aspect of popular culture as suggesting conte mporary cultural expressions carried by the masses in contrast to both modern elitist and traditional tribal cultures.29 26Karin Barber, Readings in African Popular Culture (Bloomingto n: Indiana UP, 1997), 6. Coastal African stone nog architecture is an expression of select members of the elite class and may or may not concur with the masse s. This dissertation 27Ulf Hannerz, The World in Creolization, in Readings in African Popular Culture ed. Karin Barber. (Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1997), 15. 28Hannerz, 12. 29Johannes Fabian, Popular Culture in Africa, in Readings in African Popular C ulture ed. Karin Barber (Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1997), 18.

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44 makes a conscious attempt to highlight African agency and complicate the elective process of creating new art forms that utilize outside cultural materials, technologies, forms and ideas. Off beat Phrasing Art historian Robert Farris T hompson noted combina tions of symmetry and asymmetry, which he referred to as off beat phrasing, a common cultural component of Akan and West African arts.30Mimicry and Resistance Anomabo family residences exhibit off beat phrasing in subtle ways I n fact it is hardly discern able until an intensive study such as this one is conducted. Thus, it is so ingrained into the cultural aesthetic that is not commented upon by the local residents. However in the floor plans, there is a discernible combination of the Palladian and sobrado symmetrical plan with one or two elements that appear out of place, or asymmetrical. This phrasing will be illustrated in the chapters ahead with each example The African coastal elites utilized West African practices of display t hrough the appropriation of European religion, dress, residences and furnishings as a means to express their cosmopolitanism and distance their identity from northerners and rural people deemed worthy of being enslaved. Holsey states that the prevalent not ion that the Fante mimic as a cultural traitor must be reexamined in light of this analysis. Indeed, coastal elites' treatment by Europeans as equals in a context in which other peoples had been routinely reduced to chattel demonstrates the expediency of their self fashioning.31The Fante nationalist John Mensah Sarbah stressed that the encounter between the Europeans and Fante was not one of a violent imposition of European will; on the contrary, it 30Robert Farris Thompson, African Art in Motion: Icon and Act in the Collection of Katherine Coryton White (Los Angeles: University of California, 1974), 13. 31Holsey, 47 50.

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45 was one of diplomacy.32 Sarbah contrasts this pre col onial relationship with that during his era of colonialism, which represented a major shift. In an effort to resist the transfer of power to the traditional hierarchy, Sarbah and his colleagues J. E. Casely Hayford and Samuel Richard Brew Attoh Ahuma criti qued local assimilation of European dress, speech, and the taking on of English names. However, instead of developing a cultural renaissance as they desired, these critiques only served to heighten the awareness of local assimilation.33 Sarbah was not dissi milar from those he criticized, for he was a Methodist and promoted local customs as did the British. According to Holsey, Notions of Fante identity within the popular imagination of coastal residents at this time and in many ways since center aroun d both their struggle for political autonomy from the British and their practices of assimilation.34Resistance to their political disenfranchisement was conducted by these early Fante nationalists who in 1889 founded a political organization, Mfanti Amanbuhu Fekuw or the Fante Political Society, which later became the Aborigines Rights Protection Society. It was initially founded by coastal elites in Cape Coast specifically to contest the highly unpopular Lands Rights Bill. Sarbah, who was born in Anomabo yet lived much of his life in Cape Coast, became one of the group's most prominent members He wrote Fanti Customary Laws in 1897, followed in 1906 with Fanti National Constitution. Therein, he defined a traditional Fante political culture and made his c laim for its legitimacy and implementation as the basis of colonial law. Sarbah felt the Fante needed to challenge the idea that aboriginal administration is hopelessly saturated with cruelty and inextricably permeated with corruption, and therefore shoul d be destroyed. 35 32Holsey, 241. 33Ibid. 34Ibid. 35Ibid., 53.

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46 Although Sarbah and others opposed those coastal elites who assimilated European practices, I believe both sides resisted colonial pressures. Sarbah directly resisted through his writing of Fanti National Constitution and through his affi liation with the Aborigines Rights Protection Society, while other coastal elites indirectly resisted by asserting their identity as loyal subjects and working within the British system to effect change. An example of such indirect resistance can be found in a 1926 memorandum advanced by the Nigeria Democratic Party directed at legal and electoral reforms and the abolition of segregation laws in Lagos. According to historian Barbara Bush, the Secretary of State for Colonies reported that rather [than] ther e being any suggestion of sedition or non cooperation in West Africa, there was a dominating sense of loyalty to the empire. Buell made similar observations about the Gold Coast 36Theorist Homi K. Bhabha and anthropologists James Ferguson and Bayo Holsey, have debated the motivation behind socalled mimicry among Africans during the colonial era as resistance. Bhabha's phrase not quite/not white describes the challenges faced by the coastal elites to establish their identity during this rapidly changing period. Mimicry is like a camouflage, not a harmonization of repress ion of difference, but a form of resemblance, that differs from or defends presence by displaying it. These important social and political shifts are reflected in the residential architecture of the coastal elite, such as the Lawyer Atta Amonoo Family Residence (Figure B 9). 37 36Barbara Bush, Imperialism, Race and Resistance: Africa and Britain, 1919 1945 (London and NY: Routledge, 1999), 120. Sarbah argued that what the British deemed as a failure of the mass coastal population to completely assimilate to European norms, does not demonstrat e their weakness. On the contrary, it portrays their agency to embrace freely an alternative culture as the first step in the development of a national consciousness. In hypocritical 37Homi K. Bhabha, The Location of Culture (London: Routledge, 1994), 85 92.

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47 fashion, the British colonial policy required the assimilation of its sub jects, but also these subjects' ultimate failure, in order to maintain the legitimacy of its power.38Art historian Ikemefuna Stanley Ifejika Okoye has been able to connect ideas of mimicry and resistance to such borrowings in southeastern Nigeria. 39Methods At th is time, I have been unable to uncover sufficient evidence to document this trend among Ghanaian elites. Further research at the National Archives in Cape Coast and with the family heads of Anomabo residences may reveal that this too was an incentive for G hanaian architecture. At this point in my research however, I believe that some of the top members of the Ghanaian elite class were aware of developments in other coastal areas, such as Nigeria, where resistance also took violent form. I have been studying Fante arts since 2006 when I was drawn into the study of Fante posuban, encouraged by my dissertation committee advisor Robin Poynor and Doran H. Ross, former director of the Fowler Museum at UCLA and expert in Akan arts. For three years I prepar ed on campus for my fieldwork. I read numerous texts dealing with the coast, its art, history, politics and society. I discussed ideas with colleagues and mentors, developing my research questions and approach. I spent three weeks in May of 2007, on the Gh anaian coast in order to search for my specific topic and gain an understanding of the culture. I returned to Ghana for my pre dissertation studies for four weeks in May and June of 2008, spending the majority of my time in Anomabo. I spent six months in 2 009, from May to November, mostly living with a family in Anomabo. I gathered my data and, armed with my laptop, plugged the information into my working dissertation on a regular basis. 38Holsey, 53, 241. 39Ikemefuna Stanley Ifejik a Okoye, Hideous Architecture: Mimicry, Feint and Resistance in Turn of the Century Southeastern Nigerian Building, Ph.D. diss., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1995.

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48 In order to effectively explore all the information available on the residences of Anomabo, I tried to locate archival data, and I spoke to families who were the current owners and descendants of the original clients for whom the residences were built Often it was the abusuapanyin, or family head, who held the most informa tion and any paperwork pertaining to my inquiries. D escendants have little information regarding the construction dates, the reasons for the choices made in original design and plan, and the artisans who built them. Through a series of separate interviews I spoke with two of the most informed historians in town Kwa Nyanfueku Akwa or Nana Kwa (Figure B 11) and sebo. I photographed the buildings and t ook measurements with the familie s' permission and patience. My colleagues in the field and I interpreted and analyzed together the compiled information in a process that enabled me to understand the social context better My primary research assistant was Nana Kwa This gentleman knew more about the history of Anomabo than any other person I spoke with. We developed a working relationship since my initial visit in 2007, whereby he gave me several tours of the town and assisted me with my interviews, particularly with translation of my Americanized Fante into Anomabo Fante. Nana Kwa, as a native of Anomabo, wa s connected intimately to several properties discussed in this study. Kow Otu, a. k. a. John Ogoe, was Nana Kwa's great grand uncle, and Nana Kwa's father, Nana Ababio, was born in Otu's second house made in stone nog. Akwa is a grandnephew of Justice Akwa He is also a distant relation of Jacob Wilson Sey and Charlotte Acquaah. Nana Kwa completed primary school in Anomabo and secondary school in Takoradi, another coastal town located farther west. He then completed a two year degree in accounting from Tako radi Workers College. His work and his interest led him through the years to self study environmental management, coastal history and African culture in general. Born in 1954,

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49 Nana Kwa grew up in the second Kow Otu Family Residence (Figure B 12) with his f ather Nyanfoeku Ababio (July 7, 18961985) who was Chief of Nyanfoeku Ekroful, a village in Anomabo state, for 45 years. Prior to his father becoming chief, they lived in the first Kow Otu Family Residence (Figure B 13) Today, Nana Kwa lives in the first Kow Otu house. His father's interest and vast knowledge of the history of Anomabo sparked Nana Kwa 's lifelong passion for history. As Reed states, I prefer to think of fieldwork not as a particular spatially or temporally bound experience. Rather fieldwork is, as Michelle Kisliuk writes, 'a broad conceptual zone united by a chain of inquiry.'40I Came to Meet It I would agree that my continual contact with Nana Kwa and other persons in Anomabo and along the coast, together with my research and writing in Florida, has orien ted my thinking within a constant fieldwork mind set. I am basing much of this text on my ethnographic research in Ghana, and as such, I faced certain challenges. Oral history can offer much information, yet drawbacks exist In answer to my queries regarding when a particular house was built or who built the structure, the most common reply I heard was I came to meet it. In other words, the house was built before they were born, and they know little else about it. Historian Raymond E. Dumett stated: detailed case studies of eighteenth and nineteenth century African merchants are rare because of the paucity of statistical data and the loss or destruction of valuable business papers.41 40Reed, 8. This applies to property records as well. Acquiri ng details regarding Anomabos coastal elite, the clients of the stone nog houses, is problematic. 41Raymond E. Dumett, John Sarbah, the Elder, and African Mercantile Entrepreneurship in the Gold Coast in the Late Nineteenth Century The Journal of African History 14 (4, 1973), 653.

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50 Interviewees, if elderly, can supply some general information on these clients but they seldom have specific knowledge regarding the builders and why certai n choices were made. Details regarding the ruins in town were even more difficult to uncover. History is a construct. This applies to Anomabo in the way nearly every person or family I spoke with claimed their house was built by one of their ancestors. Th e Omanhen's Palace, for example, was described as always being the Omanhen's Palace. According to Omanhen Kantomanto Amonoo XI, the building was constructed by the first omanhen of his family lineage Omanhen Amonoo I which would date the structure to the late eighteenth century. Yet, he also stated the structure was built in 1621. Many people claimed the structure was built in swish a mud mixture with vegetal materials used in rammed earth construction .42Thus, even though the evidence proves that the building is constructed of stone and brick and built for the Dutch, Anomabos still identify it as swish built for the Fante. They also construct a history that the struc ture was built for royal purposes, when in reality it was built as a European commercial residence and fortification. In this way, the structure is incorporated into Anomabo history. Therefore, I had to be aware of such transformations, or historical const ructs, while analyzing my data on this and other buildings in town. Anomabos who know about the Asante invasion of 1807, claim that the Fante won a clear victory over the Asante. This is another cautionary example that locals invent their own histor ies The omanhen's personal secretary Daniel Kofi Gdlony ah showed me a niche and small storage area inside the palace that clearly demonstrate Dutch building techniques in stone nog and imported bricks. The location of the structure and its overall fortress like quality indicate s that this building was the Dutc h Lodge built in Anomabo around 1640. 42Although people in the area discuss the mode of construction as swish I will refer to the actual mode of construction, rammed earth, rat her than to the material used.

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51 O ral history can be a useful source of information; however other data needs to support the information communicated. For material and mode of construction, I found myself searching for cracks or wear in the cement plaster for clues. For family history, as stated previously, I tried to justify the data with archived property records at t he National Archives in Cape Coast where records of 30 or more years are archived. Families were able to provide me with copies of the paperwork for two structures The Rus sell House and the Kobena Mefful Family Residence. At of the time of this publication, the National Archives has not been able to locate any Anomabo property records for the period 18601940. The names given to these structures were either used by the de scendants, locals or in some cases applied by me. In the latter case, I used the original client's name if known. Since the structures in this study were built for families and not just for an individ ual alone, I have labeled them family residence as opposed to house. However, in the discussions I may alternate between residence or house to describe them since either term is accurate. The Russell House is named such by the descendants of the original clients. I tried in all cases to use or mention all the names used by the descendants and townspeople for these structures. Most of the academic research for this study was conducted in English, while many of the on site interviews were conducted in Fante. The reader will notice two letters belonging to th e Fante alphabet, but not to English. They include pronounced like a short e, i.e. get. The letter is pronounced like the aw in law. I have used the spellings given to me by the Fante for peoples names and for references to locations and houses in order to identify and represent people and place s as they would be in their home context s Thus, while there have been many different spellings, both local and European, for the site of Anomabo, I have chosen the current

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52 favored spelling by its inhabitants. I have introduced some Fante terminology in th e text as needed but I made an effort not to encumber the reader. Pre Colonial Urbanity Post colonial theory is currently used as a means to understand African cities. Although many of the theories put forth by Arjun Appadurai in Modernity at Large descr ibe post colonial African cities, they can also be applied to the urban historical Anomabo and to a lesser degree to Anomabo today. Appadurais theories regarding culturalism, defined as a construct that cultural differences tend to take in the era of ma ss mediation, migration and globalization, can be utilized to unpack historical urban Anomabo. This engagement with modernity43Appadurai discusses how cultural interactions until the past few centuries, have been bridged at great cost and sustained o ver time only with great effort, deterring the formation of large scale societies. This change d when European s ma de advances in navigational technology after 1500, and with the development of large and aggressive social formations such as those in Central America, Eu rasia, Southeast Asia and African kingdoms, e g Dahomey. takes place prior to colonial rule and illustrates the impact of cultural contact upon this early commercial metropolis. It con tinues in Anomabos on going receptivity to cultural flows, as evidenced in the towns vibrant visual culture today. 44 43Appadurai, 10 16. An overlapping set of ecumenes began to emerge, in which congeries of money, commerce, conquest, and migration began to create durable cross societal bonds. Appadurais theory applies to the grow th of Anomabo in the late seventeenth century into a busy commercial port, and later in the mid eighteenth century with the formation of the first Fante Coalition that unifie d 44Ibid., 28.

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53 the Anomabo state. Appadurai, however applies C. A. Bayl ys ideas that technolo gical innovations in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries created complex colonial orders centered on European capitals and spread throughout the non European world.45According to historian Ca therine Coquery Vidrovitch in The History of African Cities the urban lifestyle transforms the habits and mentalities of city dwellers and those who are subject to the power of urban institutions and culture. While trade with Europeans on the coast was primarily responsible for the growt h of Anomabo, this growth t ook place a century earlier th an Bayl y supposes. The Anomabo s were very much in control of trading relations with the Europeans and Americans who docked at port. It was not until their crushing defeat in the 1807 war with the Asa nte, that the Fante lost their power to the British colonial order. Thus, the British gained their power in Anomabo not because of any technological advances, but due to their being literally in the right place at the right time. 46 H istorian Richard W. Hull defines the city as a center, a place where both population and civilization are concentrated, attracting and blending cultures and memories. A city becomes a site for cultural sharing and dissemination.47 Coquery Vidrovitch adds that the city absorbs, integrates and blends these contributions from the outside to create new cultures, and in turn, conveys the result to the outside world.48 45Ibid.; and C. A. Bayly, Imperial Meridian: The British Empire and the World, 1780 1830 (London and New York: Longman, 1989). Anomabo grew from a village to a town to a thriving city with the increasing importance of coastal trade in the seventeenth century. Then i t reverted to a town again when it was defeated by the Asante in 46Catherine Coquery Vidrovitch, The History of African Cities South o f the Sahara: From the Origins to Colonization ( Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2005), 9. 47Richard W. Hull, Urban Design and Architecture in Precolonial Africa, Journal of Urban History 2 (4 August 1976), 388. 48Coquery Vidrovitch, 17.

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54 1807, lost its commercial prominence, and the port was eventually closed in 1912.49Anomabos were not only exposed to the Dutch, Swedes, Danes and British on site, but also to all the goods and ideas they brought with them. Utilizing Appadurais twentieth century concept of a global ethnoscape, in which human beings move quickly and easily from one part of the globe to another, this term may be used to span Anomabos pre colonial and colonial period s. During the pre co lonial period, Anomabos experienced the world within their imagination inspired by these outsiders as well as outside goods In the colonial era many coastal elites were able to travel physically from one country to another, thereby gaining first hand acce ss to information about the world beyond their home communities. Although Appadurai refers to the ease of modern airline travel and the influence and availability of international media in the form of movies, television, internet and print, the pervasivene ss of these so called modernities was likely as strong in the past as today and not just a twentieth century phenomenon as Appadurai argues. A more complex definition of the urban phenomenon can be applied to Anomabo because it retains much of its c haracter as a new culture, continuing to appropriate and transform culturally, although it has reverted back into a town. 50My case study will add to the understanding of cultural authenti fication as a process that crosses pre colonial, colonial and post colonial Africa by providing an example draw n from the The influence of outside cultures, whether it be f rom Western ers or Africans, would have been tremendous. This co nnection to the outside world was a desired trait, particularly among those with ambition wanting to join the class of coastal elites, for it brought education, wealth and ultimately, power. 49Newell Fl ather, Anomabu; The History of a Fante Town on the Ghana Coast (Masters thesis, Columbia University, 1966), 136. 50Appadurai, 35 37.

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55 seventeen surviving residences in Anomabo and by bringing to the fore the enduring influence of cultural and artistic practices that d eveloped during the pre colonial period. Anomabos historic cosmopolitanism continues to influence current art forms evidencing the openness of artists to new influences, motifs, experimentations and cultural blending. The globalization of Anomabo and it s culture must be placed in a historical perspective. Anomabos worldliness does not stem from its position as a satellite to Accra, Cape Coast or any Western urban center, nor its positioning at the periphery of global flows, but reflects its past positio n at the center of a vast cultural and commercial network. This historic cosmopolitanism isnt a postcolonial phenomenon, and the evidence is made visible in the architecture of Anomabo. Historiography In order to provide a comprehensive and holistic approach to the subject of Fante art and architecture in the site of Anomabo, I have consult ed a variety of sources from different disciplines. Primary sources included documents from the historical periods, such as correspondence and travel journals. These histories, written prior to the twentieth century by Europeans and Americans, are fraught with personal agend a and opinions. Few of these sources record the history, thoughts and beliefs of African cultures from their point of view. Pieter De Marees is the first to describe the Fante coast in 1602. He includes detailed descriptions of the housing, dress and customs.51 NicolasVillault also described Fante housing, dress and customs witnessed on the Guinea C oast during his 16661667 voyage.52 51De Marees. Willem Bosman wrote about his 52Nicolas Villault, sieur de Bellefond, A Relation of the Coasts of Africk called Guinee with a description of the countreys, manners and customs of the inhabitants, of the productions of the earth, and the merchandise and commodities it affords : with some historical observations upon the coasts : being collected in a voyage made by the Sieur Villault in th e years 1666, and 1667 (London: Printed for John Starkey, 1670).

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56 travels in Africa from 1688 to 1702.53 Jean Barbot was on the coast twice, in 1678 1679 and 16811682. He visited Fort Charles in Anomabo five times in 1679. Barbots writings are problematic in that he borrows some of his information from earlie r and contemporary texts. Also, there have been numerous editions of his first voyage and letters (his journal from the second voyage is lost). The best source to detangle this jumble is given by P.E.H. Hair, Adam Jones and Robin Law.54 Pierre Labarthe wrot e about his travels to the Guinea Coast, including to Anomabo, in the 1780s .55The one exception to the Western recorded history i s William Ansah Sesarakoos The Royal African: or, Memoirs of the Young Prince of Annamaboe from 1750. Cruickshank served on the coast from 1834 to 1854, and he lived in Anomabo for much of that time 56Materials specifically geared towards Anomabo are rare. One of the most helpful books West African Trade and Coast Society: A Family Study was written by historian Margaret This is the one and only firsthand account from an Anomabo Fante prior to the colonial period Not only does he relay the events leading to his deceptive sale into slavery in Bar bados and his retrieval, but also he describes certain historic events, people and the cosmopolitan atmosphere of Anomabo during the period. His work evidences the intelligence and wisdom of one Fante man, son of the Omanhen Kurentsir and it describes his l ong distance journey to Barbado s and London 53Willem Bosman, A New and Accurate Description of the Coast of Guinea (London: Printed for James Knaptonand Dan, 1705; reprint, NY: Barnes & Noble, 1967). 54P.E.H. Hair, Adam Jones and Robin Law, eds., Barbot on Guinea: The Writings of Jean Barbot on West Africa 1678 1712, Vol. 2. (London: The Hakluyt Society, 1992), xii, xxix, 415 419. 55Pierre Labarthe, Voyage a la cte de Guine: ou, Description des ctes d'Afrique, depuis le Cap Tagrin jus qu'au Cap de Lopez Gonzalves ( Paris : Chez Debray, 1803 ) 56William Ansah Sesarakoo, The Royal African: or, Memoirs of the Young Prince of Annamaboe 2d ed. (London: W. Reeve, 1750).

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57 Priestley in 1969 about Richard Br ew and his descendants.57Historian Arnold Walter Lawrence, conservator of the Monuments and Relics Committee (later the Ghana Museums and Monuments Board) conducted the first in depth study of Fort William, including detailed informatio n about construction materials and techniques. The Irishman and his descendants were instrumental in the politics of Anomabo and the Fante region (from the 1750s to today) as well as notable for the residences they constructed. These massive residences of European design, mater ials and technology translated into images of identity and status Such imagery was subsequently appropriated and transformed into African coastal elite constructs. Priestley goes further to describe the urban context, specifically Eu ropean Fante relations and the Western educated mulatto classes. 58 Historian Albert Van Dantzig offers further information, but some of his information has been proven inaccurate.59 Both of these authors however neglect to name their sources, complicating the verification of their data. Historians Michel R. Doortmont and Benedetta Savoldi's recent book The Castles of Ghana: Axim Butre Anomabu60Informative sources concerning Anomabo compr ise academic theses and dissertations by several historians. They include a history of eighteenth century Fante society by Rebecca Shumway in 2004, offers the most in depth study of Fort William's architecture and focuses on conservation. 61 57Margaret Priestley, West African Trade and Coast Society: A Family Study (London: Oxford UP, 1969). Fante politics in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries by James R. Sanders in 1980, and a history of Ano mabo by Newell Flather in 1966. Shumways history of 58A. W. Lawrence, Trade Castles & Forts of West Africa (Stanford, CA: Stanford UP, 1963). 59Albert v an Dantzig, Forts and Castles of Ghana (Accra, Ghana: Sedco, 1999). 60Michel R. Doortmont and Benedetta Savoldi, The Castles of Ghan a: Axim Butre Anomabu (Saonara and Lorano, Italy: Il Prato, 2006). 61Rebecca Shumway, Between the Castle and the Golden Stool: Transformations in Fante Society in the Eighteenth Century, (Ph.D. diss., Emory University, 2004).

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58 eighteenth century Fante society focuses upon the regional politics with European contact, yet it does not mention the visual culture. An earlier dissertation concerning Fante politics written by Sanders offers specific information regarding Anomabo chieftaincy and other community leadership roles. Although helpful in discussing leadership roles, their arts are not investigated. Flather's dissertation offers many details regarding Anomabo's complex hist ory. He focuses on a number of important personages useful in this study. An entire chapter is devoted to the accomplishments of Kurentsir, recorded historically as John Currantee. Flather also documents the trade relationships, the resulting urbanization and eventual downfall of Anomabo. He does this however, by mainly utilizing American and European historical documents by merchants, missionaries and officers, without including local oral histories. My work incorporates all of these histories as a means to understand the unique and layered Anomabo context. Archaeologist Mark Henry Freeman has recently conducted two archaeological digs in Anomabo as published in his master s thesis Archaeology of Early European Contact in Anomabu, Ghana from the Universi ty of Ghana.62Although the focus is on Elmina rather than Anomabo, archaeologist Christopher DeCors e's work further informs impressions of urban Anomabo. His archaeological excavations of Elmina between 1985 and 1987 are recorded in his dissertat ion An Archaeological Study of Elmina, Ghana: Trade and Culture Change on the Gold Coast b etween the Fifteenth and One site, in particular, yielded evidence of glass and pottery from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries confirming th e city's global connections. This site was a refuse pit located on Okokodo Street near the Kobena Mefful Family Residence and Methodist Mission. 62Mark Henry Freeman, Archae ology of Early European Contact in Anomabu, Ghana, (Masters thesis, University of Ghana, 2008).

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59 Nineteenth Centuries63 and subsequent book An Archaeology of Elmina: Africans and Europeans on the Gold Coast .64Several art historical texts and articles written by art historian Doran H. Ross assisted my understanding of Fante arts. Ross, who has conducted fieldwork in the area since 1974, has documented and written about Fante arts extensively. In their seminal book The Arts of Ghana, Ross and fellow art historian Herbert M. Cole include a chapter on architecture, yet they only briefly mention coastal architecture. His work is the first to emp hasize the urban design of the coastal town, discussing both its architecture and multi cultural artifacts. DeCorse conducted a thorough archaeological examination of Elminas built environment prior to 1873 when the British leveled the city. His findings are published in his dissertation, his subsequent book and in numerous articles. 65G eneral sources on West African building construction include several by architect and art historian Labelle Prussin. Practical building technologies as well as concepts regarding shelter and space are discussed in her works An Introduction to Indigenous A frican Architecture, This text and subs equent publications by Ross have illuminated the development of monumental shrines, known as posuban. Ross shared his research with me and served as a mentor. His numerous publications ( and works by other scholars ) tend to single out arts (flags, posuban a nd performance) of the asafo, and rarely include other Fante art forms. I am extend ing this work by utilizing a wider approach in observing how the Anomabo coastal elites, mostly Fante, have responded visually to their global history as a commercial hub. 63Christopher Raymond DeCorse, An Archaeological Study of Elmina, Ghana: Trade and Culture Change on the Gold Coast Between the Fifteenth and Nineteenth Centu ries (Ph. D. diss., University of California, 1989). 64Christopher Raymond DeCorse, An Archaeology of Elmina: Africans and Europeans on the Gold Coast (Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution, 2001). 65Cole and Ross, 96.

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60 Shelter for the Soul, Architecture & Pottery: Sacred Earth; the Earth as Symbol and Metaphor, and her seminal study Hatumere: Islamic Design in West Africa .66Anthropologist Vincent Kenneth Tarikhu Farrar s work concerning pr e colonial Akan architecture was useful for this study when considering local building construction, forms and city planning. His most current text, Building Technology and Settlement Planning in a West African Civilization: Precolonial Akan Cities and Tow ns summarizes his earlier articles and clearly outlines each of these aspects. He also discusses the finer points that distinguish him from scholars such as Michael Swithenbank, Andrew Rutter and Prussin. Prussin n ot only tackle s the practical architectural study, but also del ves into the beliefs of the builders and dwellers who create the structures. Her work inspire s me to look beyond the visual and explore the ways people live and utilize their living spaces. 67 He is particularly critical of Prussins over em phasis of foreign, especially Islamic influences, and less [considerate] of the essentially indigenous origins and character of Asante and other Akan architecture and building construction.68The faculty of the University of Science and Technology (KNUST) in Kumasi, Ghana, including architect A. D. C. Hyland, have written about indigenous architectural styles within Ghana. Hy land also provides the plan for Castle Brew and its additions within Priestley's book. The historian Catherine Coquery Vidrovitch's Th e History of African Cities South of the Sahara: 66Labelle Prussin, Architectu re & Pottery: Sacred Earth; the Earth as Symbol and Metaphor, in SAVI: Keramiikan ja arkkitehtuurin perinne Lansi Afrikassa = Poterie et architecture en Afrique de l'Ouest, 11 24, 66 73 (1993); idem, Hatumere: Islamic Design in West Africa (Berkeley: Univ ersity of California, 1986); idem, Shelter for the Soul, in Shelter: Models of Native Ingenuity ed. James Marston Fitch, 34 42 (Katonah, NY: The Katonah Gallery, 1982); and idem, An Introduction to Indigenous African Architecture, Journal of the Socie ty of Architectural Historians 33 (3 October 1974): 183 205. 67Vincent Kenneth Tarikhu Farrar, Building Technology and Settlement Planning in a West African Civilization: Precolonial Akan Cities and Towns (NY: Edwin Mellen, 1996). 68Ibid., 52.

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61 From the Origins to Colonization was useful for my understanding of pre colonial urbanity within Africa as well as the world wide distribution of the sobrado plan.69Scholarship by art historian John Fitchen and architect Edward E. Crain 70 informed some of my understanding of stone nog construction techniques, those incorporated within Ghana and in comparison to the Caribbean. Pivotal to comprehending the scope of stone nog construction adopted along the entir e Guinee Coast is R ives Coloniales : Architectures, de Saint Louis A Douala edited by Jacques Soulillou. The essay by Odile Goerg stresses the impact of Portuguese expeditions along this coastal area between 1434 and 1475, including their exploration of the Ghanaian coast between 1470 and 1471. Much of the discussion then turns to economics and fort construction. A general history leading to colonial occupation and the post colonial era reiterates points made by other authors. Of main interest to this study are the essays that follow with information and photographs of European administrative and residential structures. Many illustrate the Palladian elements and forms discussed herein. The emphasis however is placed on European, and not African buildings. Fe w plans are provided, mostly for the forts.71Hyland wrote the essay for Ghana. After the section devoted to forts, Hyland turns to housing and offers several plans from Elmina and Accra Plans of nineteenth century Dutch houses on Liverpool Street in Elmin a 72 are provided and more thoroughly discussed in Elmina: A Conservation Study by Hyland and Niels Bech.73 69Coquery Vidro vitch, 178 183. Other plans illustrated in Rives Coloniales on 70John Fitchen, Building Construction Before Mechanization (Cambridge, MA: MIT, 1986); and Crain, 61 62. 71Jacques Soulillou, Rives Coloniales: Architectures, de Saint Louis A Douala (Marseille: Editions Parentheses, 1993). 72Anthony Hyland, Le Ghana, in Rives Coloniales: Architectures, de Saint Louis A Douala ed. Jacques Soulillou (Marseille: Editions Parentheses, 1993), 135 170 plans 153 73Niels Bech and A. D. C. Hyland, Elmina: A Conservation Study (Kumasi, Ghana: University of Science and Technology, 1978), 53 55, 93 97.

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62 page 155 are not identified, so it cannot be determined if they are African or European. For clarity, I will note that t he photographs of houses on page 158 are inverted, for the Heritage House, previously the Government House, is shown at the bottom.74Certain details and obituaries about the clients of the residences in this study were provided by late nineteenth and early twentieth century weekly newspapers. Gold Coast Times and Gold Coast Leader were competing newspapers based in Cape Coast. The Gold Coast T imes founded by James Hutton Brew in 1874, ran until 1885, after which i t was revived in 1923 and continued until 1940. Samuel Richard Brew Attoh Ahuma member of the Aborgines Rights Protection Society, was the editor for the Gold Coast Methodist Times i n the late 1880s and 1890s. H e used it in the campaign against the Lands Bill and the paper became an outlet for criticism of the government The Gold Coast Leader began in 1902, and continued until the early 1930s. It was cofounded and edited by Anomaboborn J.E. Casely Hayford. According to Gocking, these newspapers enjoyed a high readership and many well educated residents had extensive libraries. Therefore, while Hyland has completed the most extensive research thus far on coastal architecture in this region, much work still needs to be done to decipher whether the surviving stone nog structures are European or African and if there are differences between them. This dissertation will make these determinations for stone nog residences in Anomabo. 75It was late in my dissertation writing when I was told about Ikem efuna Stanley Okoyes dissertation Hideo us Architecture: Mimicry, Feint and Resistance in Turn of the Century Southeastern Nigerian Building. 76 74Hyland, Le Ghana, 158. Interestingly, I had already come to many of the same 75Gocking, 10. 76Okoye.

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63 conclusions as Okoye regarding those buildings constructed between the mid nineteenth century to 1 939 by a similar class of wealthy African leaders and businessmen. He focuses on perceptions of these structures by both locals and visitors. Some readers may in fact discover that they are familiar with many of the kinds of structures presented here, but would not have thought them particularly Nigerian. For this reason it is hardly recognized that the previously unattended turn of the century and early 20th century architecture of south eastern Nigeria certainly offers much, as will become obvious, that should be of interest to architectural theory, to historiography, to ethnography, and to Africanist intellectual history, mainly by way of challenging some of its essential constructs. It certainly appears to demand an end to the exclusion of certain kinds of building (or at least their marginalization) from both historical scholarship about architecture, and from contemporary discourse around both architecture and its critique.77This study will address similar attention to such structures, yet broade n the scope to another coastal area in Ghana. Although Okoye does not utilize the term of cultural authentification, he hints at the process in both its appropriations of Western style and transformations, resulting in buildings that are radically inventive in both form and style. They may be read as an appropriation to a customary architectural vocabulary of some architectonic elements, motifs, figures, spatial relationships, forms, and aesthetic qualitities of surface and volume gleaned from atyp ical direct (or second hand) readings of West European and American architecture. 78Our fieldwork also shares similarities for we both had problems locating written documents to support oral histories. We obtained a f ew records from families who managed to preserve their documents or obtained them through the National Archives, yet much of the The resulting structures, however, are quite different in southeastern Nigeria from those in southern Ghana, reflecting each locations cultural specificity. Thus, a Coasta l Elite Style can be applied broadly to coastal Guinea, but each region transforms the global into the local differently. 77Ibid., 8, footnote 6. 78Ibid., 9 10.

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64 research was conducted on site and from what oral history could be collected.79 The slow and complex process of obtaining this oral history through a successio n of visits and meetings is well documented by Okoye, and I experienced a comparable process.80 As a solution to analyzing these structures, Okoye proposes to read buildings both as locally scripted self reflexive text, and as document, especially where for the localities themselves, architecture is created with the intention that it function as text.81Okoye identifies the clients of the Nigerian structures as individuals and groups who had access to what at the time would have been still consolidating non traditional power centers. Many of these patrons were moreover often not i n the direct service or employment of the colonial administration. These new patrons were furthermore often involved in a power struggle with the older traditional authorities, a struggle in which architecture may have been ceased [seized] upon as a discernible index of the will to triumph: a struggle about and around which architecture became the visible form. Likewise, family residences in Anomabo can by read in lieu of written documents to observe how status is communic ated in the community. 82 79Ibid., 11, 27 18. I reached the same conclusions in my research among the Anomabo elites, who appear to have communicated visually their identity architect urally in the face of British and local royal power struggles. Like Okoye however, I was unable to speak directly to any clients to ascertain their direct viewpoint in this regard. Their surviving structures are all that remain to communicate their origina l intentions. 80Ibid., 28 33. 81Ibid., 25. 82Ibid., 16.

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65 Connections between the two British colonial countries, Ghana and Nigeria, are illuminated by Okoye who notes that a few hundred thousand Ghanaians were present in Nigeria in the 1930s and 1940s. Traffic flowed both ways for Accra served as a capital city of a somewhat hypothetical British east Atlantic colony.83In four ways my work contribute s to the discipline of African arts. Firstly, while cultural authentification has been used as a methodology to explore textiles emerging from the col onial era, my work enlarge s the scope by applying this process to architecture. Secondly, it broadens the context of this process to prove that it is not always based entirely on something forced upon Africans during the colonial era, thus highlighting Afr ican agency. Thirdly, this study expands the scope of Fante arts to include architecture, previously unstudied. In addition, it complicates the definition of an ethnic or cultural art form by incorporating other ethnicities than Fante into the corpus of An omabo and coastal arts. The lawyer Atta Amonoo and a number of other clients descendants from Anomabo worked and visited Nigeria. Thus, someone like London educated Atta Amonoo would have been well aware of British architecture in London, Nigeria (Calabar especially) and along the Ghanaian coast as well as Nigerian and Ghanaian architecture by other African coastal elites. Although regional styles prevailed, the ideas for appropriation and transformation, and especially the reasons behind such cultural authentification s were shared. Thus, if Okoye was able to prove resistance as a motivation for Western appropriations in southeastern Nigerian architecture, it is possible that at least some of the most awa re and connected Anomabo elites, like Atta Amonoo, had similar objectives. Last ly, my work builds the corpus of research on African architecture, often not the focus of current research or classroom studies. Rather than focusing on traditional architecture, this 83Ibid., 92. Additionally, in footnote 133, Okoye notes that Lagos was part o f the Gold Coast colony from 1874 to 1886.

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66 study wi ll encourage future research in tr ends during the colonial and post colonial era, especially in West African port cities, and move away from ideas that Western styles are in some way a bad influence on traditional architecture. The belief that Fante coastal architecture is tainted by E uropean influence is a colonial idea. Chapter Organization This introductory chapter has striven to situate my study in Anomabo and highlight its importance as a microcosm for the West African coast. The coastal elite group was defined as a stratified clas s who learned in pre colonial times how to bridge two cultures European and African. The second chapter on the history of Anomabo is included in order to set the stage for the stone nog period of Fante coastal elite building. It p rovides a historical fra mework upon which the coastal elite group and their architectural assimilations and transformations can be examined. The stone nog residences of Anomabo have been roughly divided according to similarities in their plans. In each of t he following chapters o ne or two residential examples are provided to illustrate appropriations and the result of their harmonization. Further housing examples are included in Appendix C My conclusion analyzes the Coastal Elite Style with broader comparisons, namely with archit ecture across the Atlantic and in Nigeria, and trends in the post colonial era. Chapter 2: Pre Colonial History of an African Port City Since g eneral histories of Anomabo have already been written, this chapter is not an attempt to re write them Rather it will focus on the architectural history, where documentation is available, and the personalities a nd cultural interactions relevant to this study that shaped Anomabo Chapter 3 : The Akan Courtyard House Local methods and materials of construction ar e important to this survey, for the African coastal elites will later appropriate European ones and mix them with indigenous architectural concepts to create something new. Wealthy owners

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67 linked several rectangular rooms together, enclosing a central court yard space to create the Akan courtyard house. This popular plan is utilized across southern Ghana and Nigeria and its origins are debated T he two story rammed earth house, common in Anomabo, is also explored as it further demonstrates pre colonial cultu ral authentification. It may originate from European or Western Sudanic sources. Chapter 4: The European Palladian Style This chapter focuses on the earliest stone nog residences European lodges, forts and houses. Characteristics of the Dutch Palladian and English Palladian styles are described and related to the Anomabo structures. Certain elements from the Medieval and Palladian styles as well as stone nog construction will be appropriated in the colonial period by the African coastal elites. Chapter 5: Selection and Incorporation of the Palladian Style Arches, arcades, pilasters and cornices are some of the elements borrowed from the Palladian style. Evidence suggests that a specific Hall and Chamber plan also develops from this incorporation. The e arliest surviving African stone nog building in Anomabo depicting Palladian elements was constructed for George Kuntu Blankson in the late 1860s His addition to Castle Brew will be the first of many coastal elite structures that select European materials and techniques Chapter 6 : Selection and Incorporation of the Sobrado The third source borrowed by the African coastal elites for their family residences was the Afro Portuguese sobrado. The sobrado is essentially a house with multiple interior chambers accessible from a central corridor A second story timber veranda is essential to t his plan which was first spread throughout the world in tropical climates by Europeans. In Ghana, t he sobrado plan was spread by masons trained by European missionaries of the Basel Mission in the Akuapem Hills ar ea (north of Accra) in the mid nineteen th century and by Afro Brazilians who landed on the Ghanaian coast (Accra) as

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68 early as the 1820s. AfroBrazilian masons who lived in Nigeria may have also worked on the Ghanai an coast. Chapter 7 : Transformation : T he Coastal Elite Style This chapter focuses on the resulting mixture of elements and plans borrowed from the Palladian style and sobrado. Further examples of the Coastal Elite Style demonstrate the transformation pha se, yet exhibit the individual character of each home at the same time. T he transformation phase is further realized in th e La w ye r Atta Amonoo Family Residence, one of the most sophisticated African coastal elite structures in Anomabo, blending all three c ultural styles into a harmonious new form. Atta Amonoos continuous travel s between Nigeria and Ghana, as well as his political involv ement in both countries provide another link between these British colonial territories. A spects of the Akan architectural vernacular namely the courtyard plan and the insertion of asymmetrical elements are incorporated Chapter 8 : Communicating Status t hrough the Visual This is the conclusion where the examples will be analyzed in broader comparisons especially with th ose in the Caribbean Br a zil and Nigeria to demonstrate how Anomabo has localized the global. Contemporary houses in Anomabo will be discussed as a means to demonstrate how the process of cultural authentification continue s to operate with new twentieth c entury materials and ideas. All the Figures in Appendix C are mostly grouped so that the photos and plans are together for each building. I apologize if this causes the reader any confusion reading comparisons Lastly, I need to say a word about the plans. As an art historian and not an architect, I must explain that the plans within this study are an approximation. They are not precise architectural plans. Also, part of the charm of these structures is the imperfections. While the width of a room might be measured as 120 inches at one point, it may be 124 inches at another, and still 128

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69 inches at another. I tried to take the median of these measurements and draw them as accurately as possible. These plans were then scanned into my computer and sized to fit the space within this document. They are not likely to scale accurately in comparison to each other. Doors and curtains acting as doors have been omitted from the plans. Rather, my goal in recording the plans here was to provide general evidence of layout for further discussions concerning coastal transformation s I attempted to document the original plan of each structure, removing newer walls and additions from the drawings. I also hope that my photographs and documentation will preserve these structures even if only in recorded history.

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70 CHAPTER 2 PRE COLONIAL HISTORY OF AN AFRICAN PORT CITY Understanding key players and political tensions from Anomabos pre colonial history inform s my study of the choices African coastal elites make later in selecting their residential architecture, not only in terms of the materials and construction methods but also in the plans and design elements. T he choice to build in stone and to incorporate European architectural elements happen ed in the 1860s to 1930s as a cont inued propensity to select outside cultural technology and forms that display cosmopolitan identity and status This begins as early as the late seventeenth century when Anomabo became an urban center. Migration to the Coast M ost scholars accept that the a ncestors of Akan people migrated into Ghana in a series of disjointed groups beginning with the collapse of the Old Ghana Empire in the tenth century and extending into the fifteenth century when the Mali Empire crumbled.1 The Akan succeeded in establishin g themselves and their rule over the indigenous groups in the Brong Ahafo region, probably due to their possession of superior iron weapons. Rattray suggests that the Brong, Fante and Asante had a common origin, for they all use the Brong system of social organization by streets. In Techiman, for example, divisions among the people took their names from streets or quarters in the towns. Some of the Akan then broke away from the Brong, migrated southward and possibly came into contact with another culture fr om which they borrowed their present organization whereby the community is organized by family clans.2 1Both empires covered areas in the Western Sudan, northwest of the current country of Ghana. 2Rattray, R. Sutherland, Ashanti Law and Constitution (Oxford: Clarendon, 1929), 64 65.; E. J. P. Brown O. B. E., Gold C oast and Asianti Reader, Book II. (London: A. Brown & Sons, 1929), 48 54; and Kwamina B. Dickson A Historical Geography of Ghana (London, Cambridge UP, 1969), 15 19.

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71 Oral traditions suggest the Fante migrated south from the city of Techiman in the forest belt to Mankessim, a few miles inland from the coast, sometime during the fourteenth century. Those who left were referred to as Fa a watsiw or the part that has separated, hence the name Mfantsi fu 3 or Fante people Along the migration route, priests planted sacred trees to determine where they would settle. If the tree blossomed the following morning, it was the sign of fertility to make t hat site their final settlement. Each time, the tree did not bloom. The Fante traversed rivers and continu ed south till they arrived at Adowegyir inhabited by the Etsi. Her e, the sacred tree blossomed. The Fante conquered the Etsi and renamed the community Oman kesemu or big town, present da y Mankessim.4 Over the next several centuries, small groups of Fante moved southward. According to Dickson, there were five main fami ly clans the Abura, Kurentsi, Ekumfi, Nkusukum and Enyan groups. 5 According to oral traditions in Anomabo, a hunter from the nearby coastal town of Egya travelled west and found a spring with fine drinking water, known today as Kekuwa. The hunter brought his family to settle here. He noticed the flocks of sea birds that frequently alighted on a grouping of rocks in the sea close to where they had settled a nd named the place Nnumabu, or bird ( nnuma) rock ( bu). Another translation given by Brown states that the original national appellative of Nnumabu is 'n numabu asafu dadsi man' i.e., the Nnumabu forces or army, wielders of iron.6 3Brown, 52. A fter the hunter's clan moved to Nnumabu, six other clans joined them, forming the seven paramilitary groups known today as asafo companies. As a testament to their 4J. F. Baiden, The Legends of Mankessim (Cape Coast: Ghana Tourist Board, n.d .). 5Dickson, 20 21. Brown recorded that the Borbor Mfantsi immigrants were the Aburafu, Kurentsi Amanmfu, Ekumfifu, Nkusukrumfu, Nnumabufu and Enyanmfu. Brown, 53 54. 6Brown, 74 75.

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72 hunting and warring prowess, the Anomabos were called the wielders of iron 7 Like many other s on the coast, Anomabo was a salt producing village with modest trade inland. Coastal towns were sustained by food production in the hinterland. Although oral traditions state that Anomabo was established in the early thirteenth century, this date is too early to be credible. According to Sanders, the establishment of Anomabo more likely took place in the late sixteenth century or early seventeenth century perhaps because of their production of iron tools and weapons. 8Fante Leadership The matrilineal family or abusua, matrilineal omanhen ( omanhen, omanhin or oman) and patrilineal asafo are the Fantes fundamental social groupings as recorded by anthropologist James Boyd Christensen who described this system of matrilineal and patrilineal descent as double descent in the 1950s. While the nephew inherits property from the mother s side of the abusua, the son and daughter belong to their fathers asafo .9 The patrilineal aspect of Fante culture has been debated as a recent addition from nineteenth century European pressure s .10The highest office is held by the paramount chief or omanhen. He rules in conjunction with a state c ouncil composed of subchiefs, the Queen Mother, village chiefs, and leaders of the asafo companies Traditional Council meetings are held regularly where the omanhen and his chiefs meet to discuss state affairs and hear disputes. The core of the Anomabo st ate council is composed of sub chiefs, includ ing the enohen, tufuhen, adonte hen tuafohen, kyidomhen and 7Ibid., 71. 8Sanders, 165 168. 9James Boyd Christensen, Double Descent Am ong the Fanti (New Haven: Human Relations Area Files, 1954); and R. Sutherland Rattray, Ashanti (London: Oxford University Press: 1923; reprint, NY: Negro UP, 1969), 35 37 (page citations are to the reprint edition). 10B. I. Chukwukere, Akan Theory of Con ception: Are the Fante Really Aberrant? Africa 48 (2, 1978), 137 148.

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73 akuasahen. The tuafohen ( tufuhen, twafohen) is second in rank after the omanhen and commands all state companies in times of war. The adontehen oversees the largest of the military divisions, and as such, reports directly to the tuafohen.11The omanhen rules his state through the authority of the sword of leadership, conferred upon him by the people. Although he must be a man of the royal family, he is cho sen for the position after demonstrating his character. The current O manhen Kantamanto Amonoo XI was previously a successful timber merchant in Takoradi. An omanhen's authority can be withdrawn for good reason. 12 Enstoolment and destoolment is the responsib ility of the asafo in conjunction with the town councils, or beguafo, made up of wealthy male elders, often members of several state asafo companies.13 Thus, t he asafo military organization serves to balance the power of the ruling class.14Asafo Companies A brief description of the asafo companies and their functions is provided in order to understand choices made by certain African coastal elite s, who held positions within the asafo yet also adopted European cultural practices, during the colonial period. For example, as mentioned previously George Kuntu Blankson and Kobena Mefful served as tuafohen. Sarbah was installed as safuhen, or captain, of his fathers asafo in Anomabo in 1898.15 11Sanders, 261, 288. 12Christensen, 117; and A. Ffoulkes, The Company System in Cape Coast Castle, Journal of the African Society 7(1908), 267. 13George Nelson Preston, Perseus and Medu sa in Africa: Military Art in Fanteland 1834 1972, African Arts 8 (3 Spring 1975), 70. 14Doran H. Ross, Cement Lions and Cloth Elephants: Popular Arts of the Fante Asafo, in 5000 Years of Popular Culture ed. Fred E. H. Schroeder (Bowling Green: Bowling Green UP, 1980) 291. 15Gocking, 152.

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74 The Fante asafo military companies expanded their roles in response to the changing conditions of the trade economy and growing urbanization during the pre colonial period. The omanhen could use the asafo military to exert force on fort governors to impose demands, such as increased land rents. The asafo c ould cut off acce ss to the fort so the occupants were denied food, water and trade. They also could refuse to allow foreign trading ships to land their parties on shore. At Anomabo Bosman noted: The Engli f h here are fo horribly plagued by the Fantynean Negroes that they are fometimes even confined to their Fort, not being permitted to ftir out. And if the Negroes diflike the Governour of the Fort they ufually fend him in a Canoa in contempt to Cabocors [Cape Coast]; nor are the Englifh able to oppofe or prevent it, but ar e obliged to make their Peace by a Prefent. The Town Annamabo may very well pafs for the ftrongeft on the whole coaft .16Duties during peacetime included policing (especially maintaining peace and security in the markets) and construction (building and repairing European trading establishments). 17 They also functioned as the fighting force of the Fante Coalition during the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Thus, Fante asafo companies developed these more varied roles and different functions than the asafo of the Asante.18 Todays asafo serve four critical roles in the Fante community: political in that they give the common man a voice in governmental issues; social in that they act as a cooperative group to provide labor for public works and as the local unit called upon in cases of emergency; religious in that they play an important role in member funerals and state ceremonies; and military which 16Bosman, 56. His italics. 17Ray A. Kea, Settlements, Trade, and Polities in the Seventeenth Century Gold Coast (Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins UP, 1982), 131. 18The Asante kingdom arose in the late seventeenth centu ry in response to the threatening neighboring kingdom of Denkyira. Asafo companies served as militia to unite against Denkyira. Cole and Ross, 6 7; and Doran H. Ross, Fighting with Art: Appliqud flags of the Fante Asafo (Los Angeles: University of Califor nia, 1979), 3.

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75 was required in the past more than today.19 Some of the municipal projects included road clearing, buildi ng of the town market, collecting taxes, killing of wild animals that bothered the town and searches for missing persons.20 Both male and female company members live together in town wards each considered an exclusive neighborhood.21 In Anomabo, the hierarchy of asafo companies is determined by the order of their settlement and locati on. According to local history, Ebiram Wassa No. 5 was the first asafo group to be formed in Anomabo. It was formed from the Nsona clan, the family of the hunter who originally settled the area. The asafo group was charged with protecting the settlement fr om Asante and other aggressors. As this group enlarged over time, Iburon No. 4 was comprised from the Ebiram Wassa group. Then, Dontsin No. 3 was created. Although the royal family belongs to Dontsin, not all members are royalty. These three asafo groups w ork together, both in war and in performances. They are considered the main group, and many of the members live in the hinterland. Today's neighborhoods i n Anomabo are named after early residents (Akanpaado), geographic attributes (Okokodo) and for th e asafo groups (Etsiwa) ( See Table A 2 and Figure B 2) The next asafo groups formed were Akomfodze No. 7 and Tuafu No. 1. Both of these groups were composed of farmers who farmed i nland. When the first group of immigrant fishermen from Dutch Kommenda moved to Anomabo in the late seventeenth century, Akomfodzi took them under their wing. They cleared the coastal area for these fishermen to 19Preston, 107. 20Kwame Amoah Labi, Fights, Riots and Disturbances with Objectionable and Provocative Art Among the Fante Asafo Companies, Transactions of the Historical Society of Ghana 2 (1998), 102103; and Eva L. Meyerowitz, The Sacred State of the Akan (London: Faber and Faber, 1951), 116. 21 Kwame Amoah Labi, Fante Asafo Flags of Abandze and Kormantse: A Discourse between Rivals. African Arts 35 (4 Winter 2002), 28 29.

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76 settle. The fishermen formed the asafo group Kyirem No. 6. Akomfodzi and Kyirem work together. They follow the other groups in war and in performance. When immigrant fishermen from Ampenyi, a district of Elmina, moved to Anomabo in the late seventeenth century slightly later than the group from Dutc h Kommenda, it was Tuafu that hosted this group. These fishermen became Etsiwa No. 2. Tuafu and Etsiwa are the first groups to go into battle or performance. Thus, in war and in performance, the order is Tuafu and Etsiwa first; Dontsin, Iburon and Ebiram W assa second; and Kyirem and Akomfodzi third. Earliest Culture Contact Evidence of early trade in the area known today as Ghana has existed since the introduction of the Saharan Neolithic culture in approximately 900 B .C. This was significant because it f orged a line of communication along which people and co mmodities traveled between the Western Sudan and Ghana. Although it cannot be proved, the Ghana coast may have been among the places where Phoenicians in the seventh or sixth century B.C. docked in the ir three year search for gold. Gold could have been one of the items of traffic between Western Mauritania and Morocco and between the Fezzan and the Niger Bend during the first millennium B.C. Dickson noted that The extent of Carthaginian gold trade in W est Africa may well have been kept a secret in conformity with the known Carthaginian policy of falsifying information or covering up their activities in order to discourage trade rivals.22 Bayl y uses the term archaic globalization to describe these ol der networks that created a geographical expansion of ideas and social forces from the local and regional level to the inter regional and inter continental level. 23 22Dickson, 38; and Nnamdi Elleh, African Architecture: Evolution a nd Transformation (NY: McGrawHill, 1997), 51. Thus, globalized trade in Ghana was present prior to the 23C. A. Bayly, The Birth of the Modern World 1780 1914: Global Connections and Comparisons (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004), 41 42.

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77 arrival of Europeans on the coast. The Ghanaian coast was also in commercial contact with the Western Sudan, and the regions comprising Ivory Coast, Togo, Dahomey and Nigeria today The Fante exchanged salt, gold, ivory and kola nuts for beads, cowrie shells and cloths. Anomabo was one of t he earliest Fante communities to be established on the coast; it lay at the seaboard end of an accessible inland trading route. It was not until European contact that Anomabo entered the global arena in such a way that an urban port developed. European Co ntact In 1471, the region received its first European visitors, the Portuguese, at Elmina, a small village located a mere 17 miles west of Anomabo. Eager to dominate trade along the coast and to take advantage of inland trade routes, the Dutch, Danish, Sw edes, Brandenburgs, French, English and Americans quickly sought to dominate the lucrative coastal trade. Lodges, forts and castles were built by the Europeans who imported masons and also trained locals to assist with their construction. These were built not so much for protection against the natives, but as commercial centers, residences and fortifications against their European rivals. The Fante soon became power brokers as the middlemen between the inland groups bringing gold, ivory, slaves and agricult ural produce to the coast and the Europeans and Americans who docked there New building techniques and materials were introduced to the coast al ports and gradually spread into the interior. According to Hull, stable and enduring towns and cities of pre c olonial Africa developed as a result of either intense ritual or market activity, lying at the crossroads of commercial exchange.24 24Hull, 392. Anomabo's development was due to the latter reason. Anomabo is part of a wider trading network that has existed for five cent uries. This town absorbed incoming cultures, their

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78 language, clothing, foods, and practices when it suited them, never foregoing those which maintained their specific identity as Fante, Anomabos or even asafo members. Thus, the site and its people were con tinually changing, assimilating and transforming objects, ideas and practices. Some of these things were discarded, while others maintained. In fact, some of the imported ideas became traditions, such as the wearing of Asante kente cloth and the techno logy of making burnt brick. When the Portuguese reached Elmina they found they could trade for gold that had been mined inland in the forest region. To secure this trade, the Portuguese built the first trading post on the Guinea Coast, Fort St. George in Elmi na, in the late fifteenth century. Several European traders followed, eager to take advantage of the lucrative trade. Over the next two and half centuries, a fort or castle was built nearly every seven miles along what they termed, the Gold Coast.25 Even though the medieval castle as an architectural form was outdated in Europe, it was chosen as a representation of power, to provide relatively luxurious accommodations, and for fortified defensive purposes. Although, in actuality, the forts did not provide the luxury the Europeans hoped for due to the weather conditions of the tropical zone, they did adequately fulfill the other two functions as power image and defensive structure.26 25 Flather, 102; Hull, 389; and Shumway, 146. This transplantation of European architectural forms was not without modific ations. Local materials were used whenever possible. Eventually, some accommodations were made for the weather conditions and the type of trade conducted. For example, Fort William in Anomabo is the only fort constructed purely for the slave trade. 26Doortmont and Savoldi, 17, 23.

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79 Art his torian Susan Vogel describes some of the similarities between the European and African worlds of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries in her introduction to Ezio Bassani and William B. Faggs exhibition catalog Africa and the Renaissance: Art in Ivory Co mmonalities include thatched residences, societies based on the extended family, certain belief systems, the craftsmen guild system, and the anonymity of workshop artisans. A rt historian Peter Mark outline s the long standing trading relationship between Af rica and Europe since antiquity in the same text. He maintains that during the fifteenth century, Africans and Europeans shared technologies, wide spread illiteracy, and common religious concepts, including a belief in witchcraft and protective charms or amulets.27European activities begin in Anomabo with the Dutch as early as 1639. With the permission from O manhen Kurentsi r the Dutch constructed the first European lod ge in Anomabo. It was completed under the supervision of Dutch Commander, Arent Jacobsz van der Graeff (1557 1642) Thus Europeans and Africans meeting on the coast at this time were similar in many ways. 28 A convention, originally instituted by the Dutch when they were trying to undermine Portuguese trade, was established whereby European mer chants were obliged to give presents, called dassy to brokers who agreed to sell their goods. European merchants found this irksome but still had to follow it for fear of losing their business.29Urban Growth in the Seventeenth Century The growth of Ghana s maritime trade in the seventeenth century was part of the broader development of European maritime empires throughout the Atlantic World. D ifferent European 27Ezio Bassani and William B. Fagg, Africa and the Renaissance: Art in Ivory (NY: Center for African Art and Prestel Verlag, 1988), 18 26. 28Hair, Jones and Law, 377; Flather, 23; and W. E. F. Ward, A History of Ghana (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1958), 81. 29Dickson, 107. Dassy is a corruption of the Akan word medaase meaning thank you.

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80 trading companies maintained mercantile establishments in various Ghanaian ports with gold as th e primary export. The personnel of the lodges and forts included Europeans and locally employed persons, both free and slave.30Three major trade routes dominated the seventeenth and eighteenth century: the south north trade between Ghana and the Western S udan; the coast interior trade based on the exchange of gold ivory and slaves from the interior of the country for goods, especially cloth and firearms, obtained from Europeans on the coast; and the sea trade between the coastal settlements of Ghana and N igeria where the various European merchants acted as middlemen. 31 Mande traders from the region of Upper Niger and Fon traders from the kingdom of Dahomey (in modern day Togo and Republic of Benin) contributed to these networks.32 The sea trade was primarily based on the importation of cloths from Whydah, Ardra and Benin, purchased by the Europeans for trade along the Ghanaian coast.33 Well traveled northsouth trade routes from centers in the Western Sudan reached Anomabo.34By the mid seventeenth century, important commercial hubs were located at the port cities of Elmina, Cape Coast and Anomabo. The commercial interest in Anomabo had to be strong for, as Ba rbot wrote, The landing at Anomabo is pretty difficult, the shore being full of rocks, among which the sea sometimes breaks very dangerously. The ships boats anchor close by, and Therefore, Anomabo was located in t he strategic position of benefiting from both of these trade routes. 30Kea, 206 207. 31Dickson, 41; and Ivor Wilks, A Medieval Trade Route from the Niger to the Gulf of Guinea, Journal of African History 3 (2, 1962), 337 341. 32Dick son, 41 42; Flather, 92; and Labarthe, 71. 33John Kofi Fynn, Asante and Its Neighbors 1700 1807 (London: William Clowes, 1971), 11. 34Venice Lamb, West African Weaving (London: Duckworth, 1975), 74 84.

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81 the people are carryd ashore in canoes, which come out from the town, to a narrow sandy beach.35Anomabos exponential growth in the last quarter of the seventeenth century was the result of its trading significance and the subsequent immigration of people from nearby coastal areas, especially Abura and Elmina. Over a thousand fi shermen relocated from Elmina between 1642 and 1681. This increased population boosted Anomabo's economic and military power. 36As trade increased and the town developed into a more urban environment, more groups immigrated to Anomabo. According to local historians, these people came from Elmina, Kommenda, and Winneba as well as from th e Gomoa and Ekumfi districts Two descriptions from the eighteenth century describe Anomabos dimensions and appearance. John Apperley wrote that: The earliest immigration of fishermen from Dutch Kommenda and Elmina formed the neighborhoods known today as Fare, or fishing vi llage, and Etsiwa. It seems likely that the Elmina fisherman took over the original Etsii area. They originally used the area northwest of these called Bantuma, or mausoleum, as their cemetery. However, today Bantuma is integrated into Anomabo as a hous ing and commercial neighborhood ( Figure B 1). this place is distinguished by the Cabboceer and Fishing TownsThe Length of both Towns, from East to West is one Mile and and built along the Beach, the Breadth from North to South half a mile. The Old Fort stands in the Middle between the Towns, on a Rock eight Feet above High Water Mark, and sixty Yards distant. There is a steep Beach opposite the Fort, but a tolerable Good Landing 35Hair, Jones and Law, 420. This may be Barbots recollec tion or from his brother James Barbot who anchored at Anomabo. 36A. Adu Boahen, Asante and Fante A.D. 1000 1800, in A Thousand Years of West African History: A Handbook for Teachers and Students ed. J. F. Ade Ajayi and Ian Espie (Ibadan, Nigeria: Ibadan UP, 1965) 183; Flather 36 38; and Dickson, 68.

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82 Place for Canoeson a flat sandy part of the Beach between the Rocks opposite the Gate of the Fort.37Reverend Thomas Thompsons account elaborated further: Ananaboe, as being the principal of three towns, which are situated near together, gives Name to the other two, which are otherwise called the Fishing Town, and Agar. 38The Arts Artisans were drawn to these growing mercantile centers The urbanization of artistic production provided a basis for the establishment of exchange r elations between coastal cities and the hinterland. Potters, smiths, leather workers, hatters, and other artisans sold their wares in exchange for produce or gold.39 An estimated 5 to 25 percent of port population on the Gold Coast during the seventeenth ce ntury was comprised of artisans. Many of the coastal towns had inns and dancing houses as well as occupational corporations or guilds artisan guilds, military guilds and merchant broker guilds.40The names of the best artisans would have been known in th eir lifetime s and sometimes extending past the life of the artist and the object. Therefore, portable works were unsigned This idea extends to architecture, for documents do not record the names of architects contractor s and masons who constructed these works of art. I ndividuals would have built reputations based on their craftsmanship and the designs they introduced. 37J. J. Crooks, Records Relating to the Gold Coast Settlements From 1750 to 1874 (Dublin: Brown and Nolan, 1923; reprint, London: Frank Cass, 1973), 24 (page citations are to the reprint edition). From a lette r by John Apperley dated March 9, 1753, Annamaboe. 38Flather, 61. 39Kea, 174. 40Ibid., 40 41.

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83 The Fante are not weavers. The earliest accounts state that the Fante wore garments of animal hide or barkcloth produced within the hous eholds by women .41 In the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries cotton cloths imported from the Kwakwa coast in todays Ivory Coast a s well as the locally produced bark cloth comprised the common dress in towns and villages. With the growth of Dutc h trade after 1595 linen and woolen textiles became available in greater quantities. These became the most important of the seventeenth century textiles imported by the European factors, often representing up to one fourth or more of the value of a ships cargo. Between the 1620s and 1660s, coarse and fine linen and woolen cloths had mostly replaced Kwakwa and bark cloths as the conventional dress in coastal towns whereas Kwakwa and bark cloths were still mainly worn by town slaves and rural populations in the hinterland who could not afford such imported luxuries During the latter half of the seventeenth century one of the distinctions between commoners of the towns and those of the villages w ere the cloths they wore.42Barbot stated that less expensive c loths made in Holland and Cape Verde were worn around the waist in the late seventeenth century. Wealthier nobles and merchants distinguished themselves with larger and richer materials, such as China satin, taffetas or colored Indian cloth worn as a mantl e. 43 By the end of the seventeenth century bark cloth production declined significantly particularly in the coastal towns, as the locals relied upon imported clothing.44 41Ibid., 299. 42Ibid., 209, 298 299. 43 Flather, 36 44; Hair, Jones and Law, 493 494; and Margaret Priestley, Richard Brew; An Eighteenth Century Trader at Anomabu Tr ansactions of the Historical Society of Ghana 4 (1 Legon 1959), 36. 44Kea, 299.

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84 Thus, the image of the urban coastal elite was expressed through the wearing of importe d textiles and fashions at this early period. The Eighteenth Century and the Height of Anomabo Anomabo is considered the site where a disproportionate number of celebrated Ghanaian political, religious and other well educated and influential persons and/or their families originated. It is the first Fante capital, and as such, it is considered the maternal birthplace of modern Ghana. An African coastal elite class developed in Anomabo out of this commercial growth of Anomabo and the availability of Western e ducation. During the 1650s the number of ships trading along the seaboard averaged more than 50 a year, and by the early 1700s more than 150 ships visited annually.45 Itinerant traders of the Assin state dominated commercial inland trade in the seventeenth century. When the Assin were destroyed by D enkyira in 1698, trade was opened to ambitious middlemen within the Central Region. The Fante were quick to exploit the advantage of their position on northern trade routes that lead to the coast .46Anomabo first rose to prominence when the Fante began to expand their territory between 17071712 and 17161724. Much of their success is attributed to their acquisition of guns and ammunition from the British. 47 45Ibid., 211 212. Like so many African states, the Fante used this imported weaponry to conquer and grow their territory during the eighteenth century. The people they conquered and absorbed into their culture or sold as slaves were little different from the Fante. 46James R. Sanders, The Expansion of the Fante and the Emergence of Asante in the Eighteenth Century. Journal of African History 20 (3, 1979), 356. 47Ibid.

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85 They shared cultural, religious and housing practices. It is durin g his period that Anomabo became an urban center, attracting cultures from within Africa and without. By 1700 the Fante were powerful enough to close the trade routes to the Central Region ports and delay trade if they wanted.48 They maintained this positio n for more than a century. Among the larger and more prominent of the coastal settlements were Axim, Shama, Komenda, Elmina, Cape Coast, Anomabo, Great Kormantin and Accra.49 Yet, Anomabo emerged as the leader, both in economic prowess and military might.50 Trade continued to intensify into the eighteenth century, with Anomabo becoming the largest city on the coast with a population of some 15,000 by 1807.51In the eighteenth century, silk fabric and thread became increasingly important trade items although N orth African woolens, Indian cottons, and northern European linens had been the most in demand in earlier coastal trade. 52 Historian Ray A. Kea reveals that among the wide range of goods offered for sale at European establishments, textiles and metalware we re in greatest demand.53 48Ibi d., 286; and Dickson, 107 108. More than 200 Dutch ships trading on the coast between 1593 and 1607 included in their merchandise: textiles (including thin silk cloths or taffetas), nap or pile cloths, narrow cloths ( smallen ), linens, Leiden and Spanish blankets, several types of woolen cloths, and carpets. Trade goods other than textiles included metals and metalware (iron bars, axes and 49Dickson, 66. 50Labarthe, 71. 51Equal urban populations of 15,000 were recorded in Kumasi (Asante) and Abomey (Fon/Dahomey kingdom) later in the nineteenth century. Anomabos size was very large in comparison for its time perio d. Flather, 102; Hull, 389; and Shumway, 146. 52Peggy Stoltz Gilfoy, Patterns of Life: West African Strip Weaving Traditions (Washington, DC and London: National Museum of African Art and Smithsonian Institution, 1987), 35. 53Kea, 207 208.

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86 hatchets, spades, copper basins, copper pots and buckets, tin pots and pans) and various cutlery and weapons. Other items inclu ded beads and coral, earthenware, mirrors, hats, shirts and leather bags. Although Kea does not report that these European goods were directly traded at Anomabo, they were traded in nearby ports such as Moree.54According to Hull, we must see a town or a city as a center, not only of population but of religion, the arts, governance, the military, industry, or commerce Towns and cities also act as cultural tran smittersurban synthesizers of a wide array of diverse cultures These interactions, cloths and goods all provided exciting visual stimuli for the Anomabos. 55 Great cities like Anomabo were founded on the efforts of middlemen, or focal points of commercial exchange.56 Emerging urban centers like Anomabo developed societies with effective l eadership that could command resources and control the increasingly diverse population. The city also had to have a supply of skilled people to perform specialized tasks. Anomabo n ot only hosted European traders but also it catered to traders and laborers of various kinds from other African regions, creating ethnically diverse populations. This cultural mixing played a key role in the emergence of an urban coastal identity and the development of a larger national identity.57The Melting Pot Contact with Am erican traders, mainly interested in the slave trade, began in the early eighteenth century.58 54Ibid. Captains from Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and New York were frequent 55Hull, 388 391, 400. 56Ibid. 57Holsey, 28. 58Flather, 102; Hull, 389; and Shumway, 146.

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87 American visitors to Anomabo.59 According to Flather, Anomabo became an established quality brand name in the marketing of slaves in America.60Additionally, traders from Europe and the Caribbean as well as the African interior brought goods and slaves to the coastal hub to exchange for gold, guns, brandy, New England rum, Nigerian and Indian text iles, European linens, Brazilian tobacco and a variety of other goods. Merchants of the Royal African Company in the eighteenth century came to the coast to make their fortunes. They came from all over Great Britain, including Ireland. Anomabo s likewise ca me in contact on a daily basis with a wide variety of other peoples from the interior namely the Asante and Islamic Mande traders from the north as well as Fon traders from the kingdom of Dahomey to the east Repatriated Brazilian slaves came to the Gold Coast at the end of the eighteenth century. Possibly by this time, sailing boats manned entirely by Africans were transporting large quantities of African produce directly to Brazil.61 Indian soldiers were brought by the British to serve at the fort. This cast of characters also included the occasional crew of pirates, particularly between 1713 and 1722, whose origins might have been anywhere in the world.62 59Flather, 91; and Elizabeth Donnan, Documents Illustrative of the History of the Slave Trade to America vol. 3 (NY: Octagon, 1965), 209 210. Some of the more permanent migrants built homes, shops and storage facilities. Some, who married Anom abo women and had mulatto children, built homes for their wives and sent their children to the fort schools. 60Flather, 91. 61Such activity was taking place prior to 1915 as reported by Sir Harry Johnson in Bush, 53. It is difficult to confirm whether this sea passage was traveled as early as the eighteenth century, but it is possible. 62Shumway, 42.

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88 Europeans formed an insignificant proportion of the coastal population They were often confined to their forts. Yet, for those Europeans who lived longer lived outside the fort, and interacted more with the local population, they ad a pted some of their behaviors to Akan social institutions and beliefs. Richard Brew, who lived in Anomabo for about 25 years, is one such example. Hence they acknowledge d the importance of chiefs, elders, and the asafo through a system of allowances and gifts on special occasions A cons iderable difference in European attitud e existed between the eighteenth century and the late nineteenth century .63M ulattoes, the offspri ng of liaison s between European men and African women lived ma inly in the coastal settlements and were able to bridge the two cultures Due to this liminality, the mulattoes soon held many of the military, linguistic and commercial posts in the coastal ci ties. Most spoke Dutch or English in addition to local languages. They received some degree of Western education, and they often had European names in addition to their African ones These liminal peoples like other Atlantic Creoles located in major ports throughout the Atlantic World, handled much of the expansion of trans Atlantic commerce and the resulting cultural and demographic transformation of the Atlantic World. These mulattoes held lucrative middleman position s during the highly competitive years of the trans Atlantic slave trade in the eighteenth century, in the face of Asante invasions and European companies that would have preferred to trade directly with Asante which by this time had become the most powerful of the inland Akan states 64It se emed surprising then that none of the families I spoke with admitted to mulattoes as residence builders or prominent members in their famil ies Important mulattoes in Anomabo 63Priestley, West African Trade 8 9, 19. 64Shumway 35, 5 1; and Ira Berlin, Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America (Cambridge, MA and London: Belknap and Harvard UP, 1998), 17 28.

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89 include descendants of Richard Brew, Governor of Fort William and builder of Cast le Brew. Even t hough the Akrampa neighborhood in Elmina was recognized by the Dutch as a distinct ward associated with local mulattoes in the 1780s,65 no such ward has been described in Anomabo. Berlin noted that African Creoles in North America gained soci al prominence and intermarriage with established peoples allowed creoles to fabricate lineages that gained them full membership in local elites. 66Besi Kurentsir M ulattoes who intermarried into Anomabo society became incorporated into the lineage as fully African famil y members. My assistant Nana Kwa a well read local historian, accurately recounted that Samuel Collins Brew, great grandson of Richard Brew, had a European great grandfather and Fante great grandmother. The Brew family descenda nts curr ently living in Anom abo however did not remember the mixed heritage, nor were they aware of Richard Brew. Perhaps t he most important leader in Anomabo history is Besi Kurentsir or John Currantee or Coranti, in European and American documents. He was born in t he 1680s or 1690s and became chief of Anomabo city in the 1730 s.67 Kurentsi is a Borbor Fante name (see page 6 8) and still refers to a quarter of Mankessim, suggesting that his ancestor y belongs to the early Akan migrants to the coast in the fourteenth cent ury.68 65DeCorse, An Archaeology of Elmina 58 59. Kurentsir was the last of Anomabos first dynasty of powerful chiefs. Kurentsir married Ekua, the daughter of King Ansa Sesarakoo or Sasraku of Akwamu after the defeat of the Akwamu state by a coalition in 1730. His marriage 66Berlin, 20. 67Flather, 59. Shumway gives the date of 174 7 for his ascendancy to Chieftancy, but this is too late considering his sons were sent to Europe previous to 1747, and during his reign. Shumway, 118. 68Shumway, 118.

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90 led to the adoption of Ekuas son, William Ansah a. k. a. Attoh Ahuma .69 Kurentsir utilized the asafo companies in a military expansion that transf ormed Anomabo from a single city under one chief to a consolidated state with a hierarch y of chiefs subordinate to the omanhen of Anomabo. The new state of Anomabo attained a considerable level of power and prosperity. From about 1750 to 1807, Kurentsirs Fante Coalition effectively exploited the trans Atlantic slave trade based on the port in Anomabo. T h e wealth acquired through trade enabled the Fante Coalition to enforce restrictions and taxes on trade through military action. Th is ensured a profit for t he coastal middlemen throughout the eighteenth century Kurentsir was a dominant personality in local affairs. H e developed the first Fante Coalition and after much negotiation, he allowed the British to build Fort William in Anomabo. His leadership exemplifies the advantage Africans had over the Europeans of the coast during the pre colonial period, and his skillful ability to bridge the two cultures to his and the citys great benefit. 70Kurentsir was courted persistently by both the British and the Frenc h from the 1730s to 1750s Each merchant company w ant ed to build a fort at Anomab o to take advantage of the sites commercial pote ntial and for this the permission of Kurentsir was essential. Kurentsir, who had some British schooling in Cape Coast acquired some knowledge of the English language. When Reverend Thompson visited Anomabo in 1751, he was impressed by Kurentsirs modest education and capable governing abilities. Although Thompson came to the coastal area with the intentions of establishing his residence and building a school, he was not given permission. Though Kurentsir valued education as a means to facilitate commercia l interests, he was wary of 69Priestley, West African Trade 13 14. 70Flather 60; and Shumway, 11.

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91 the schools acceptance within the Fante social and religious network. His caution proved true, as none of his educated sons were elected to succeed him With this same wisdom, Kurentsir played the British and French against ea ch other for about 20 years, extracting as many benefits as he could. P r i e stley noted that even after the British had secured the advantage and had begun building operations in 1753, he continued to behave in the same way.71The Education of Kurentsirs Sons The most striking example of these relationships comes from the education of his two sons, Lewis Banishee (b.c. 1725) and Will iam Ansah Sesarakoo (b.c. 1727) The details of their education and experience are provided herein to illustrate several points. Firstly, these princes are among the first from sub Saharan West Africa to receive European education s This education wa s completely financed by the European merchant companies as a diplomatic tool to establish their trading forts along the Ghanaian c oastline, further demonstrating the dependence of the Europeans on coastal Africans. Secondly, Sesarakoos experience, in particular, is valuable for two reasons. His book details his mid eighteenth century experience and is the earliest record available from an African from Anomabo. He also makes the choice upon his return to serve at Fort William as a linguist, or clerk, aiding in the lucrative coastal slave trade despite his four year experience as a slave in Barbados. This choice contrasts with the one made by another eighteenth century prince, Olaudah Equiano a. k. a. Gustavas Vassa who decide d to assist the abolitionists in England.72Thirdly, t he story of Sesarakoo relates to the ability of those in positions of high status, though only very few dur ing this period, to make different choices within the British system. 71Flather 61 64; and Priestley, West African Trade 14. 72Olaudah Equiano, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, The African: Written by Himself (London, 1794).

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92 This takes place during the pre colonial era as a result of urbanization, and is not an effect of colonialism. Differing choices, made visible in architecture, also occur between the Afr ican coastal elites dealing with the British in the colonial period. The eldest son, Banishee was s ent to France for his education in the early 1740s U sing the eloquent gentlemans English of the period Sesarakoo wrote about his half brother Banishee ma king: a strong impressionHe was not only cloathed, lodged, maintained, and attended, but educated in all Respects in a Manner suitable to one of that Dignity; and as such was received and treated at Court, where he appeared on all Occasions in a splendid Dress, and was allowed to wear a Knot upon his right shoulderafter he remained in France a proper Timehe was sent home in one of the Companys Ships, in a very handsome Manner, and with fine laced Cloaths to dazzle the Eyes of the Negroes, and to draw th e Father over entirely to the French Interest. 73Nothing is documented about Banishees employment after his return. Sesarakoo was sent to England for his education in 1744 a short time after Banishees return. His journey however was to be marked by a tra gic beginning. A certain Captain tricked Kurentsir into en trusting him to deliver his son to England. Instead, the Captain steered his ship toward Bridgetown, Barbado s where he proceeded to sell Sesarakoo as a slave like the other Africans aboard ship. The c aptain pretended he was taking Sesarakoo to England throughout the entire journey, for when Sesarakoo was put into the boat to go ashore he thought he was in England. In this smaller boat with two other slaves, Sesarakoo realized his plight .74For whatever some Men may think, human Nature is the same in all Countries, and under all Complexions; and to fancy that superior Power or superior Knowledge gives one Race of People a Title to use another Race who are weaker or more He wrote elegantly about slavery in his introduc tion: 73Sesarakoo, 28 31. 74Ibid., 33 43; and William Dodd, The African Prince, When i n England, to Zara, at His Fathers Court ( London: J. Payne and J. Bouquet, 1755 ) The date of 1744 was provided by Dodd in the Advertisement at the front of his text.

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93 ignorant with Haughtiness or Contempt, is to abuse Power and Science and in spite of both to shew ourselves worse Men than those who have neither.75Sesarakoo remained on Barbado s for four years. During this time, the c aptain wrote to Kurentsir explaining the matter. It can be supposed that the c aptain had a change of heart since he died soon after he sent the letter ; p erhaps nearing death, the c aptain regretted his actions. In Anomabo, Kurentsir continued to be courted by the Frenc h a nd British. Upon receiving the c aptains letter, he no doubt wished to end communication with the British but he could not The French and British had undergone the AngloFrench War of 17441748, and the British had effect ive ly run the French contingen t out of Anomabo. Thus, with great tact, Kurentsir forgave the British for their part in Sesarakoos sale, but reminded them of how the French kindly treated Banishee and of the British insult Kurentsir received. The English Caboceiro, or manager of the English Company promised the omanhen the recovery of his son, education in England and safe return. This captain volunteered to take his own son along the journey to secure Kurentsirs confidence.76The captain found Sesarakoo in Barbados in 1748, and took him to England. 77 Sesarakoo was placed under the care of the Right Honorable Earl of Halifax, First Commissioner of Trade and Plantations.78 Horace Walpole wrote in 1749 that There are two black Princes of Anamaboe here who are in fashion at all assemblies .79 75Ibid., ix x. Walpole and other c ontemporary accounts state that 76The name of this caboceiro and his son are not given by Sesarakoo. Sesa rakoo, 44 48. 77Ibid., 48 52. The date of 1748 was provided by Dodd in the Advertisement at the front of his text. 78Priestley, West African Trade 20. 79He goes on to tell the story of Sesarakoo and another sprightly youth who were sold into slavery and then recovered and brought to England. Peter Cunningham, ed. The Letters of Horace Walpole, Fourth Earl of Oxford Vol. 2 1749 1759 (Edinburgh: John Grant, 1906 ), 30 31. Letter 2 to Horace Mann, March 23, 1749. The October 16, 1754, minutes for the Britis h Company of Merchants state: Two Black Boys at RochesterAgna and Suckee are to be carried to Cape Coast Castle by the Gosport Donnan, vol. 2, 490, 508, 509. Its not likely that this refers to

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94 Sesarakoo and his companion were richly dressed in the European manner and introduced to the King of England, His court, and attended the theaters (Figure B 14) .80Captain Baird brought S e sar a koo t o Anomabo from England on the H.M.S. Surprise a 20gun frigate. We delivered to him [the king of Anomabo] his son with, alas, all the feelings of an Englishman, magnificently equipped in a full dress scarlet suit, with gold lace a la Bourgogne point dE spagne hat, handsome white feather, diamond solitaire buttons, etc. The King bore no other mark of R oyal dignity than a piece of broad cloth thrown over his shoulders. He carried his son on shore i n full dress, under a Royal S alute from our men of war, and the moment he landed stripped the poor Prince, giving him no other mark of distinction from the other savages than that borne by himsel f.81Afterward great festivals were held. one is not surprised to learn that the distressed and humiliated prince did not appear again on board the ship in his undress uniform. What happened was probably misread by Lieut. General Sir J. Spencer Ewart, K.C.B 82 Sesarakoo (though Agna could be a corruption of Ansah) and his companion because of the location and ship. Probably repeating this reference, Samuel Richard Brew Attoh Ahuma gave the name of this youth as Sackitte in his 1905 book Memoirs of West African Celebrities Europe &c (1700 1850) Samuel Richard Brew At toh Ahuma, Memoirs of West African C elebrities, Europe, &c. (1700 1850) with Special Reference to the Gold Coast ( Liverpool: D. Marples, 1905 ), 36. William Dodd reprinted this youths 200 line poem, originally published in the Gentlemens Magazine Dodd As Brown states, the stripping of the Prince of his foreign habiliments was not a degradation, but an honour to him, to be introduced to his fathers subjects in Native garb, as, according to custom, he could not be received otherwise. The fetes held, which gave the narrator a perfect and painful idea of savage life, were really expressive of the great joy the pe ople felt at the return of their Prince after a 80Brown, vol. 2, 105 108; and William Ansah Seseraku, The Gentlemens Magazine 19 (February 1749), 89 90. 81Lieut. General Sir J. Spencer Ewart, K.C.B., Colonel Hamilton of the Honourable East India Companys Service, Blackwoods Magazine 208 ( 1262 Decemb er 1920), 773 774 82Ibid., 774

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95 long sojourn in a foreign land.83When the British completed Fort William in 1760, Sesarakoo became the clerk, acting as linguist a nd writer. He belonged to one of the handful of literate African clerks, messengers, and linguists employed in the service of the British. No mention is given about his companions return or if he returned at all 84Kurentsirs Legacy Sesarakoo who knew the indecencies suffered by slaves in the West Indies chose to work in a position of high statu s that also aided commerce in African slavery. Kurentsir also had a daughter, Effua Ansah, who became the wife of Richard Brew contemporary of Kurentsir The omanhen died on June 28, 1764.85Allied in the eighteenth century with trade and to a limited degree with Christianity, education emphasized individual action and rights, and the validity of personal decision as against the collectivism of extend ed family and clan. It led to status based on opportunity and achievement instead of solely on birth and lineage Western education [first] embraced a small and select group in the maritime towns. This included the relatives of influential Africans as a form of coastal insurance policy for the safeguarding of trade, and the mulatto offspring of merchants like Richard Brew. Kurentsir was one of the first Ghanaian chiefs to send sons to Europe to receive Western education; this example was soon adopted by all those of high status who could afford it, merchants and chiefs. This has become a Ghanaian tradition observed to this day. Priestley stated the importance of Western education during the eighteenth century: 86 83Brown, 114. 84Priestley, West African Trade 21. 85Ibid., 13 15. 86Priestley, West African Trade 19 20.

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96 The first school of Western education on the coast, later known as the Colonial School, was established by the British in 1751 at Cape Coast Castle for mulatto children. Thompson, as mentioned before, was not allowed to establish a school in Anomabo. Yet, Thompson returned several times between 1751 and 1755 to preach at Kurentsirs house, probably the Omanhens Palace. One of his early followers included a bricklayer named Coffi. This bricklayer was likely working on Fort William and Castle Brew at the time. Thompson endeavored to send six boys under the age of ten to London for education. While Cape Coast readied three boys for the journey, Anomabo could not decide on the children to send. Flather notes that this indecision was more likely resistance to Western education.87According to Flather, Kurentsir could be advanced as an ancestral hero for modern Ghana: a powerful warrior Chief, a master trader, incomparably clever in an age of grand deception, flexible to the needs of his society in a time of change, but uncompromisingly against change which could undermine the traditional foundations of that society, Coranti stood firm a s an early exponent of positive action and non alignment. 88Late Eighteenth Century Thus, it i s surprising that Anomabos today do not remember Kurentsir except as a chief from ancient times. For all he accomplished, he is not celebrated today in Anomabo, the Fante r egion or the country of Ghana. Trade in Anomabo during the latter half of the eighteenth century continually grew, making Anomabo the busiest port on the coast. Priestley note d that between 1749 and 1752, British and French warships visited th e coast carrying a variety of gifts, for example, brandy, a large silver cup, a sword, a gun, cloaks, and f eathere d hats.89 87Flather, 67 68. DeCorse's finds in Elmina 88Flather, 57. 89Priestley, West African Trade 39.

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97 illuminate some of the diversity and changing fashions of the thriving coastal culture. The Europeans expe rimented in bringing new items, such as spectacles, mirrors and keys. Other artifacts uncovered by DeCorse include: imported ceramics, imported and local tobacco pipe fragments, guns and gun parts. He also found metal hardware, furniture parts, cutlery and tools.90Thus, during the eighteenth century c ommon people could become wealthy merchants through their own trading efforts. A new class of African emerged who acquired his property chiefly by trading with Europeans and whose house was more splendidly fu rnished than his neighbor s house having imported European furniture and other goods This new merchant prince symbolized individual ownership of property, an inheritance tie between father and son, and social ascent through personal effort. These merch ant princes possessed wealth in slaves, houses and money often surpassing that of most of the coastal chiefs. As a result, these merchants came to wield great influence in coastal trade and politics. 91Richard Miles, employed by the Company of Merchants, kept detailed records on the coast between 1772 and 1780. His lists provide indirect information about the African traders with whom he dealt. In Anomabo, Miles purchased slaves from more than 60 dealers. The main five traders were Yellow Joe, Little Adu, A muru, Kwasi Kuah and Sham. Yellow Joe and Little Adu were chief elders in what the English called Fishing Town and Fantee Town, Fare and Krokessin respectively. Sham lived in Fare, and according to Miles, was not fond of selling his slaves in the Fort Historian George E. Metcalf interpreted Miless records and maintained that those in political power, s uch as Amonoo I, did not become too involved with dealings at the 90DeCorse, An Archaeological Study, fig. 3.8, 83, 10 5, 109 110. 91Priestley, West African Trade 23 24; and Fynn, 25.

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98 fort. Although they were friendly to Miles, they feared becoming overly dependent on the British Company of Merchants.92The American presence in Anomabo trade remained strong until the start of the American Revolutionary War (17751783), which had a significant economic impact on Anomabo With the fleets busy at war, a general scarcity of trans Atlantic traders came to the coast. The interruption in the British and American trade caused the price of slaves to drop and the price of European goods to skyrocket. 93Labarthe wrote in 1803 that Anomabo was the center of commerce f or the Gold Coast. This means that those who had become dependent upon European goods paid more money to keep up appearances, while at the same time, they earned less due to the temporary lull in the slave trade. The recession ended when the war ended and commercial interests peaked again. 94 The prominence of Anomabo was not lost on the Asante who wanted direct access to the coast and trade with the Europeans and Americans. Commercial interests drove the more centrally organized Asante to periodic ally inva de key trade route s within the Fant e region and into Anomabo state f rom the 1750s to 1807. Flather considered this period a prelude to disaster.95The Asante Invasion June 15, 1807 The turning point for Anomabo was the Asante invasion on June 15, 1807. Governor Henry Me redith (18011847) who witnessed the battle firsthand, estimated that 8,000 persons 92George E. Metcalf, Gold, Assortments and the Trade Ounce: Fante Merchants and the Problem of Supply and Demand in the 1770s, The Journal of African History 28 (1, 1987), 30 31, 40. 93Shumwa y, 112. 94Labarthe, 71. 95Flather, 83.

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99 were killed and another 2,000 enslaved.96 Of the estimated 15,000 townspeople in Anomabo, nearly two thirds were lost. The defeat by the Asante brought an abrupt end to th e loosely formed Fante Coalition. P owerful and wealthy members of coastal society were ruined.97 After the defeat, A nomabo reverted to a small town and lost its commercial prominence for a time .98F ifteen years later Anomabo was gradually rising to a posi tion of commercial pro minence and political and social influence again, a position it would hold until the last quarter of the nineteenth century. Imports in 1816 include Indian cloth, canvas, linseed, tar, lead, brass, paints and barrels. 99 Although having been defeated so severely by the Asante in 1807, b y the early 1820s Anomabo ranked second in importance to Cape Coast and w as well ahead of Accra.100Nineteenth Century Developments The escalating British intervention between the Fante and Asante preceded c olonialism. The Fante have never been a centralized polity even though strong rulers governed certain states, called commonwealths by the British.101 96Henry Meredith, An Account of the Gold Coast of Africa (London: Thomas Nelson, 1812; reprint, London: Frank Cass, 1967), 152 (page citations are to the reprint edition). While several Fante states would band together against a common enemy, they always returned to their aceph elous organization afterward. Kurentsir was the only leader in Fante history to this point that attempted to centralize the area via his Fante Confederacy. This decentralized system allowed for the growth of powerful port cities. The new found wealth of th ese urban centers gave their asafo companies the capacity to dominate interior trade routes, effectively separating the Asante from the European powers on 97Shumway, 142. 98Flather, 136. 99Henry Swanzy, A Trading Family in the Nineteenth Century Gold Coast, Transactions of the Gold Coast and Togoland Historical Society 2 (2 Achimoto 1956), 89. 100Flather 105. 101Sanders, The Political Development, 98 102.

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100 the coast and establishing the Fante as middlemen in the trade.102 Although battles had intensified dur ing the eighteenth century, the Asante led formal military attacks on Fante towns and cities between 1805 and 1807. The Fante asafo expanded their roles to become fighting forces of independent Fante states and the loosely re formed Fante Coalition.103British Government Takes Over Fort William and the Coast In ti me however, the Fante decentralized system with its varied alliances and in fighting, proved to be a weak political and military force against centralized Asante forces. A British report written bef ore April 14, 1847, detailed the history of Fort William and Anomabo during this period. In 1821 the Fort at Anomabu passed to the crown when the British Government assumed the Government of the colony. It was transferred again to the merchants in 1828, w hen the British Government relinquished the colony only to come under the British Government again in 1843, when crown colony Government was resumed. On the 6th August, 1844, Lieut. Governor Hill strongly recommended to Lord Stanley that the Fort sho uld be reoccupied, and a person appointed to administer justice and decide the numerous appeals made by natives, and also to keep peace among the different petty states in that district. He goes on to say 'There are two resident merchants at Anamabu, Mr. C ruickshank and Mr. Stanley. The latter is a very young man. The first is a magistrate, but declines giving up his time to decide the constant calls arising from petty disputes of the natives.104Such a report provides evidence that Anomabo had become so dep endent upon British aid that the coastal territory was under British Government of the colony as early as 1821. Soon after George Maclean, President of the Council of Merchants, arrived on the coast in 1830, he and Richard and John Lander visited William Hutchison on March 3rd in Anomabo Hutchison was the former British consul to Kumasi. He had made Fort William his own property shortly 102Flather, 38 41, 57 60. 103Shumway, 11. 104A Short Histo ry of Anomabu Castle, ADM. 23/1/337, Ancient Castles and Forts in the Central Province, previous to April 14, 1947, 5. Ghana National Archives, Cape Coast.

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101 after the official British withdrawal of Kumasi in 1826. Although Macleans intention was probably to convince Hutchiso n to give up his hold on the fort, Hutchison could not be forced to relinquish it. According to a description written by th e Landers: Mr. Hutchi son lives in his castle like an English baron in the feudal times with his silken banners flying over his t urreted castle 105 Hutchison remain ed in the fort without pay until his death in 1832. Amazingly, he was able to persuade other merchants to pay for the forts upkeep. After he died, the merchant company once again owned the fort. The British government ree stablished their ownership of the fort in 1844 when the Gold Coast colony was established.106For decades, the British operated as mediators between the two Akan groups, eventually usurping control. Their interest was commercial; they did not want the trade routes to be severed, denying access to the Asante gold mines. Yet, the British were sympathetic to the pitiable state of the Fante people, often starved due to the lack of men available to fish and farm. When the Asante attacked the Fante of Elmina in 187 3, the British retaliated. Under Major General Garnet Wolseley, the British defeated the Asante who signed the Treaty of Fomena on March 14, 1874. By July of the same year Britain formally establish ed the British Crown Colony of the Gold Coast. This made legal a colonial policy that had been in force since the signing of the bond between coastal leaders and British in 1844. 107 105Flanders 119 106Flather, 118, footnote 320. 107Fynn, 33. Oddly, Amonoo IV is honored with a bronze s tatue in Anomabo as one of their three heroes. The other statues honor Dr. James Emman Kodwo Mensa Otsiwadu Humamfunsam Kwegyir Aggrey (October 18, 1875 July 30, 1927) and George Ekem Ferguson (1864 1897). Amonoo IV is credited by locals as one of the prim ary Fante signers of the Bond of 1844, which led the nation toward colonialism. However, the dates of reign for Amonoo IV recorded by Sanders (July 3, 1869 November 23, 1900) do not correlate. Sanders, The Political Development, 280. When I asked local historians about this, they were not able to rectify this discrepancy. No statues honor Kurentsir even though he was Anomabo states first omanhen and perhaps the Fantes greatest leader.

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102 Coastal Economy After Britain passed the Parliamentary Act of 1807 making it illegal for Britain to participate in the trade in ensl aved Africans, nothing was done for many years to implement the Act. British participation in the slave trade continued. The Act of 1833 abolished slavery in a few British colonies but not in the ever growing British Empire. Cotton and other slave grown pr oducts contributed to Britain's mid nineteenth century wealth. The economy on the Ghanaian coast slowly changed as merchants incorporated the growing commodity of palm oil into their trade .108Port closures were indicative of late nineteenth century economi c and political instability. As the seats of the colonial administration, Cape Coast and Accra became the most important port cities during the colonial period. Second to them, ports survived if they had more pronounced bays and more calm water allowing ships to anchor closer to shore. These included those at Winneba, Apam, Shama, Elmina and Moree. Anomabo, with its rocks, was never an easy harbor. C a c ao the basis for chocolate, was first exported in 1885. By 1911, it was worth more than gold. As such, the success of the ports became linked to the spread of cac ao Railways and roads were constructed to aid in transporting cac ao along with other exports grown in the hinterland, such as rubber and palm oil, to the coastal ports. Because of its proximity to Ca pe Coast, Anomabo lost much of its trade and its port closed in 1912. Both Cape Coast and Saltpond then thrived. Other surrounding smaller ports closed soon after. 109Since Anomabo was less able to compete successfully with the established centers or with ne wly emerging ports, the British, sensing Anomabos decline, were reluctant to expend funds 108Shumway, 164. 109Kwamina B. Dickson, Evolution of Seaports in Ghana : 1800 1928, Annals of the Association of American Geographers 55 (1 March 1965), 98 99, 107 111.

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103 on public works such as port rehabilitation and warehouse construction that would have improved trading facilities at Anomabo.110Christianity and the British Several members of the elite class felt compelled to move from Anomabo to larger centers of trade. Most moved to Cape Coast. Their connections to Anomabo did not end there, for their abusua were in Anomabo. Therefore, not only did the elite class build new homes in Cape Coast and elsewhere, b ut also they built family homes in Anomabo. Brought by Europeans as early as the late fifteenth century, Christianity is the dominant faith of Ghana today. Although Portuguese missionaries met initially with very little succe ss,111 Christianity developed a following among coastal Akans in the early nineteenth century. Several denominations established formal bases, including the Presbyterian Basel Mission at Christiansborg (an area within Accra) in 1828 and Akropong in 1835; the Methodist Church and the Evangelical Presbyterian Bremen Mission founded between 1829 and 1847; and Roman Catholic missions in Elmina in 1880 .112 110Flather, 136. Methodism developed a large following in Anomabo in the middle of the nineteenth century, encouraged mainly thr ough the efforts of Reverend Thomas Birch Freeman. Most of Anomabos coastal elite members we re Methodists during the colonial period, and many of their residences we re inspired by the architecture of the Methodist Mission in Anomabo that Freeman saw compl eted in 1840. 111Steven J. Salm and Toyin Falola, Culture and Customs of Ghana (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002), 46; and Noel Smith, The Presbyterian Chu rch of Ghana, 1835 1960: A Younger Church in a Changing Society (Accra: Ghana UP, 1966), 86. 112Salm and Falola, 46; and Paul S. Breidenbach and Doran H. Ross, The Holy Place: Twelve Apostles Healing Gardens, African Arts 11 (4 July 1978), 34.

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104 Despite strong European religious, political and economic presence on the coast, Christianity did not replace indigenous religions. Rather, certain aspects of Christianity were consciously appropriated and incorporated into Akan belief syste ms. Akan religions and Christianity amazingly co existed in the nineteenth century and continue to do so today even though Christianity is monotheistic and Fante religions are polytheistic. They co exist due to relatively positive interaction between Chris tian churches, Chieftaincies, and asafo companies. Although Christianity requires that a convert disavow all ties to previous religious affiliations, Akan religions are more inclusive, allowing for multi layered theologies. It is a struggle for some Fante members of Christian churches to rescind deeply ingrained, time honored Fante religious beliefs. Therefore, when Christian churches relaxed in the nineteenth century to integrate certain coastal African performative practices (i.e. singing, dancing and pos session), the Akans found it easier to incorporate Christian beliefs into their faith. Also, the upheaval caused by political and economic instability in the nineteenth century served to heighten the need to apply to a higher power for guidance and support The power of Christianity, like the power of European forts and military, appealed to the Akans who appropriated their visual forms and transformed them to create what anthropologists Fabian, Hannerz and Nelson Graburn describe as new creole art forms,113Educatio n and textile and clothing specialists Eicher and Erekosima call cultural authentification. Other scholars have used the term hybrid. Regardless of academic terminology, this is how Christianity was, and continues to be, accepted among many Akans The spread of literacy promoted by the Christian missionaries had an impact on coastal life in both urban and rural areas. Literacy provided useful business skills, such as account keeping 113Fabian, 317 ; Hannerz, 14 15; and Nelson H. H. Graburn, The Evolution of Tourist Arts, Annals of Tourism Research 11 (1984), 402.

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105 and record copying, enabling many to become shop clerks, agents a nd supervisors. The few women who received education began to adopt European attitudes about marriage and womens domestic roles. The welldeveloped coastal elite class, Western educated and having close ties to British commercial interests,114Cultural Interactions and Choices grew exponent ially in the nineteenth century. The history of Anomabos pre colonial urbanity demonstrates the complex cultural interactions between numerous cultures African, European, North American, Caribbean and Brazilian. A suc cessful African merchant class developed; their success was achieved through the ability to maneuver between the two coastal cultures, African and European. This continues into the nineteenth century and is pivotal to understanding the following architectu ral choices made by African coastal elites between the 1860s and 1930s. This multi cultural history sets the stage for the Coastal Elite Style, which combines elements of the Akan courtyard house with European architecture. 114Shumway, 158.

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106 CHAPTER 3 THE AKAN COURTYARD HOUSE During Barbots time in late seventeenth century the kingdom or state of Fantyn covered about nine leagues of coast, a much smaller area than the present day Fante region Fantyn included the villages of Anomabo, Egyaa and Kormantine (Cormentin). T his kingdom was heavily populated, being one of the most considerable on Gold Coast.1 In a 1629 Dutch map of The States of the Gold Coast, printed in Bosmans journal, Funtin (Fanti) territory is depicted, with Anomabo as its only city. The Futu (Afutu) state comprised of Guan related peoples encompassed Cape Coast (Cabo Corsso), while Elmina or Myna is shown at the edge of Comendo (Eguafo/Komenda) territory.2This chapter will explore the variety of housing construction methods and materials utilized by coastal people, and specifically by those in Anomabo where documentation is available. The two most dominant forms for wealthy people in urban environments are the courtyard house and two story house, both made with rammed earth construction. These housing types may be combined All three the courtyard, the two story, and the combination of the two are found in African coastal elite housing during the colonial period and exist presently in Anomabo and other port cities in southern Ghana Thus, it can be determined at this early date that several people of small Akan and Guan relate d states inhabited portions of the coastline. Early prints and descriptions describe similar housing trends among these groups. This makes sense since they shared cultural traits and were well connected via the trade routes of the fishermen. 1Hair, Jones and Law, 416. 2Bosmans map is inserted after the Contents page.

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107 Urban Design D escriptions of the settlement plan of coastal communities and their architecture is provided a s early as 160 2 by De Marees. He details wattle and daub construction and offers this record of early housing arrangements.3Their dwellings are not situated in any order; but as each man fences off his own dwellings with a reed partition, the houses are separated from one another and the reed partitions form Streets which divide each quarter of Houses from the other. The streets are very narrow, so that only one Man can pass at a time. 4Coastal people, including those in Anomabo, lived in their own distinct quarters 400 years ago as they do today. These quarters we re and still are sub divided into groups of compounds inhabitated by related clans. This is especially evident today in the Aweano, Fare and Etsiwa neighborhoods of Anomabo where nearly every house is painted with the symbols of the resident family clan. Anomabo, like other co astal town s seem s to have grown organi cally, i.e. without a set plan ( Figure B 2) Barbot recorded a similar descr iption of Elmina: The town is very long, containing about twelve hundred houses, all built with rock stones, in which it differs from all oth er places, the houses being generally only composed of clay and wood. It is divided into several streets and lanes very irregular, crooked, and dirty in rainy weather, the ground being low and flat, and the streets and lanes close and very narrow .5Elmina exhibited the same dense housing as Anomabo. The difference between the pre colonial coastal Akan towns wa s the stone houses in Elmina described by Barbot. In the early eighteenth century Cape Coast was described by Meredith as having about ei ght thousand inhabitants, who constructed square shaped houses of swish and thatch, arranged 3De Marees, 75 77. 4Ibid., 76. 5Barbot, A d escription of the coasts of North and South Guinea : and of Ethiopia inferior, vulgarly Angola ... and a new relation of the province of Guiana, and of the great rivers of Amazons and Oronoque in South America : with an appendix, being a general account of the first discoveries of America, in the fourteenth century and some observations thereon : and a geographical, political, and natural history of the Antilles Islands in the North Sea of America ( London: A. & J. Churchill, 1732 ), 156. This was written aro und 1683, though published much later.

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108 in an irregular fashion.6 L ike Cape Coast and Elmina, Anomabo had few streets, many narrow alleys, and numerous cul de sacs. This complex design likely explains why Eu ropean illustrators failed to provide detailed city maps. According to DeCorse, this type of congested plan was characteristic of the coastal towns described by many European writers, who would contrast them with the more ope n settlements in the interior.7Perhaps the most accurate map of Anomabo was created by the Gold Coast Survey in 1931. 8 A more recent map was published by Michel R. Doortmont and Benedetta Savoldi .9 Both maps depict r esidences of one and two storie s constructed close to each other, sepa rated only by narrow alleys. Anomabo is intersected by a few larger avenues with alleyways either leading directly to these thoroughfares or having small open courtyards before the intersections. As Hull has suggested, pre colonial African towns minimized urbanity and maximized urban space [by way of] tight compound clustering. Such spatial intimacy le nt a feeling of cohesiveness.10The reason for this clustering may also be a practical one based on the physical environment. During the Roman era, in the hot climates of North Africa and Spain, tightly spaced buildings on narrow streets provided shade for the pedestrians below. The shuttered windows facing these streets ventilated the interiors. 11African cities influenced by Islam have all the characteristic s of the medieval [European] city, both in function and in structure, such as: compact labyrinth dwellings; high population density; wall or ditch that shows defense structure; 6Meredith, 95. 7DeCorse, An Archaeology of Elmina 59 63. 8The Survey includes four sheets, and is owned by the Ghana National Archives in Cape Coast, which charges a fee to view it. 9Doortmont and Savoldi, 123. 10Hull 405. 11Fitchen, 201.

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109 uniformity of building height; and large civic buildings, mo s ques, churches, or palaces that break the uniformity of the buildings. The city square, which is often near the market or kings residence, is the central nerve of the citys social activities, and major roads lead to and from this particular square.12Anomabo and other coa stal towns may have brought this urban plan from northern Akan towns which, in turn, may have adopted the plan from Islamic cities in the Western Sudan, such as Djenne and Timbuktu on the north south trade route However, this urban design, a practical on e for tropical climates, may simply be an indigenous solution. Even though Anomabo appears to have grown exponentially and organically, it did have defined neighborhoods (Table B 2) Early Fante settlement of Anomabo took place to the east of Fort William in the neighborhood known today as Krokessin, or Old Town The term krokessin means the biggest community settlement, and it remains today one of the largest neighborhoods in town. Krokessin is the site of the first Omanhen's P alace, a one story resi dence built of swish using rammed earth construction pre dating the 1640s. Today, the building has undergone much renovation, including a n exterior coat of cement plaster. Akanpaado, or the meeting place of the original settlers, is the neighborhood of A nomabo where the original Etsii settle d (Map A 2) Anomabo lacks evidence of the typical European quarter, found in many other coastal towns including Cape Coast In many coastal cities, t he European Town was usually part of the African Town, built near the sea on an elevated site nearby. T he elevated site was chosen for the command of view it afforded and the cooler breezes at higher altitudes The European residents originally had rather limited social intercourse with the residents of the African commu nity .13 12Elleh, 336. 13Dickson, Historical Georgraphy 290.

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110 Clusters of European houses forming a tight knit community are found in all the major towns along the coast, whether they were referred to as a European Town or not. Moree for example, had a few stone houses, of which only one still stands Some f oundations do remain of other houses. These homes were built by the Dutch alongside Fort Nassau. The fort and these homes stand in ruin today because of deliberate destruction by the local Fante after the area was abandoned by the Dutch around 1816.14 Sekon di, populated more by the Ahanta peoples than the Fante, is located on the west side of the Pra River. It also had a European Town, located on the hill near Fort Orange. According to DeCorse, Elmina did not have a European Town Instead, Europeans lived in the area north of the Benya where plantations and prosperous merchants, both African and European, were located.15Like Elmina, Anomabo does not appear to have had a separate European community From early sources it is known that the Europeans living in Anomabo stayed in the fort, except for Brew who built his Castle Brew. After his time, Europeans living in or visiting Anomabo stayed in the fort or Castle Brew. Without further archaeological evidence, no proof of another European house in town exists Th e lack of a specific European community may be based on Anomabos early strategy not to side with one European contingent over another. The Dutch were allowed to build their lodge and the British were allowed to build Fort Charles and later Fort William, y et the Anomabos continued to trade openly with other cultural groups, including the French, Dutch and Americans. This is probably why Miles found certain leaders and members of the ruling class unwilling to become deeply involved with the British company. Thus, it seems likely that no one group could get a foothold strong enough in Anomabo to 14For the date: W. Walton Claridge, A History of The Gold Coast and Ashanti from the Earliest Times to the Commencement of the Twentieth Century 2d ed., vol. 2 (London: Frank Cass, 19 64), 600. 15DeCorse, Email to Courtnay Micots, 15 April 2009.

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111 develop a European Town. Europeans did live in Anomabo and in other towns along the coast in rented houses too Many of these were free traders who were not in the ser vice of the forts company. Others were men temporarily onshore from the trading ships.16Damage to the town was incurred when physical violence threatened the peace. For example, t he people of Anomabo attacked the English fort on September 4, 1701. In reta liation the English overreacted, burning almost the entire town over the next 22 days 17Pate Wattle and Daub, and Unbaked Brick Construction A considerable effort at repairs and reconstruction took years. Such repairs were the consequence not only of the destructive recurrence of warfare but also of the for ces of nature. In buildings made of organic materials, the materials themselves dry out, become brittle, and are no longer effective protection against rain or wind. Although mud plaster extends the life span of these materials, such coatings wash away, cr ack or fall off in time and need to be patched. O ver the years, as social needs and institutions have changed, repairs to some buildings have also involved shifts in the function s of the buildings. Wov en palm fronds over a bamboo or wood frame are used for temporary structures called pate Among fishing communities, mats are often used for the walls, made by weaving together the fronds of fresh coconut branches in herringbone fashion. These mats are pla ced in position by tying the ribbed section of the mats to the intermediary bamboo or wooden frames with twine.18 16R. Porter, The Cape Coast Conflict of 1803: A Crisis in Relations Between the African and European Communities, Transactions of the Historical Society of Ghana 11 (1970), 32. 17Jean Barbot, A Supplement to the Description of the Coasts of North and South Guinea (London: H. Lintot and J. Osborn, 1746), 446; and Claridge, vol. 2, 200 201. 18Faculty of Architecture, University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Traditional Forms of Architecture in Ghana, International Social Science Journal 30 (3, 1978), 452.

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112 Few post framed, wattle and daub constructions, with double pitched, gable ended thatched roofs survive in Anomabo, and these are rarely used as dwelling houses. Prior to the 1930s, swish or mud mixed with plant materials, was the most common building material used with the main two construction techniques of wattle and daub and rammed earth. According to Dickson, the buildings in Southern Gha na and Ashanti Brong Ahafo by the fifteenth century were of the Guinea forest house type: rectangular, gable roofed, and of wattle and daub. This house type was common to the whole of the Kwa linguistic area (Akan).19Barbot provides some of the earliest illustrations of An omabo (Figures B 15 and B 16) His 1679 drawing represents the Fort Ch arles in its crumbling state while his 1682 drawing depicts the rebuilt fort. Both include numerous one story rectangular houses with high pitched roofs surrounding the fort. Bosmans illustration (Figure B 17) completed about twenty years later appears mu ch less accurate in terms of the overly hilly and rocky terrain pictured. Few houses are included, though they had not likely changed since Barbots day. This can be evidenced in the late sixte enth century prints and descriptions of settlements on the coast as well as from DeCorses archaeological excavations in Elmina. DeMarees described in detail how a rectangular wattle and daub house was built First, they take four forked Posts or Trees, which they erect on the ground so as to make a square. They they lay other Trees on top of the Posts and fasten them well. Between the posts they place many thin sticks, thus forming the house; and they bind them together with Laths so tightly that one can hardly squeeze ones hand in between. Then they make Mud out of yellow earth, which they take from the open country, and pound it till it is fine and thin like Potters earth. They slap handfuls of this mud against the framework of the house, all around, from top to bottom, front and back, wherever they want it to be filled. They press the mud in between this wattle with their hands, so that it will stick to the supports. Once they have filled the walls of their House with this mud, [making them] nearly half a foot thick, they let it dry and become hard as brick. After it has dried, they make a very thin Pap of red earth and plenty of water, and, taking a straw brush in their hand, they besmear 19Dickson, Historical Georgraphy 51 52.

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113 all the inside of their house, using thi s mixture instead of Paint. They like to Paint their houses this way, some with red, others with white or black earth, as if it were for a contest. They were very proud of their houses; for when we come ashore, the first thing they will show you is their d welling. They make two flat square covers out of the leaves of Palm Wine trees, which they bind tightly together so that they provide shelter from the rain, and they place them on top of their house [so] as [to form] a Point[ed roof]. They tie the ends to gether firmly; and if the weather is good and the Sun is shining, they open this Roof, supporting it with sticks, like two wings, letting the Sun shine into their houseAt the front of the house they make a square hole by way of a doorway, with a Door made of Reeds, which they push open and shut and which they lock by tying it up with a Rope made of wisps. They make their floors flat and polish them very smooth with red earth, as if they had been paved.20Thus, wattle and daub is the technique of construct ing a frame of vertical and horizontal wooden or bamboo beams. Swish is then daubed into the frame to fill in the wall. Today, this technique is more often used in the forest region, among the Asante for example, but can still be seen in a few coastal one room structures. Cruickshank described the wattle and daub houses of the hinterland in his book Eighteen Years on the Gold Coast of Africa published in 1853. These huts consist of one, two, or more apartments, and have square holes to serve the purpose of windows and door ways Some of these huts, of higher pretensions, have window shutters and doors, with all the advantages of hinges and bolts. The smaller villages are entirely composed of huts of this description.21Pate and rammed earth are the mo re common construction techniques in Anomabo. Large handmolded, sun dried bricks set in a mud mortar are used to build one or tworoom structures sporadically along the coast and in Anomabo. Mortar along the coast consists of sand, small stones, shells, li me (made locally from oyster shells or imported) and water. Mortar is used in between sun dried bricks, burnt bricks and stones. It is also used as a plaster for interior walls and in the nineteenth century, to form molded trim. 20De Marees, 75. 21Cruickshank, 285.

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114 Rammed Earth Construction Local coastal history states that many centuries ago both the Etsi i and the Fante possessed the technology of rammed earth construction, using it to build one story, rectangular houses.22 Both one and two story houses in rammed earth construction exist in Anomabo today, conveying the housing variety apparent in early documentation. The use of this construction method among the Akan however is believed by Farrar to have been introduced after the early nineteenth century.23The beginnings of rammed earth const ruction have been extensively researched by Farrar and archaeologist Kwesi James Anquandah, principally in the Shai Hills and eastern Accra plains. Their findings revealed that r ammed earth construction in Ghana may date to the Neolithic period. It may hav e been independently invented, or it may have been adapted from either the Mande groups to the north or groups to the east such as those from the Dahomey Yoruba Benin cultural sphere. The east west trading route and north south route were equally well trav eled Until more archaeological data on Neolithic sites in southern Ghana are recovered, little more can be determined about the early history of building construction in this area. Farrar promotes indigenous invention over Islamic or European influence. 24To further complicate its possible origins, r ammed earth construction is called atakpame after the town and region in central Togo where builders of this technique is locally reported to have originated. According to Farrar, however, rammed earth constru ction was the dominant 22Faculty, 452. 23Vincent Kenneth Tarikh Farrar, Some Comments on Indigenous African Building Technology, Archaeolog y in Ghana (3, 1993), 46. 24Vincent Kenneth Tarikh Farrar, Indigenous Building Construction in Southern Ghana: Some Aspects of Technology and History West African Journal of Archaeology 25 (1, 1995), 160, 164 165.

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115 building technology in the Accra Plains and Sha i Hills area from a remote period.25 Among the northern and central forest Akan people the construction method has been the most dominant technology since the late nineteenth century. H istorical record s such as Barbots journals, describe wattle and daub as the previous dominant construction method on the coast. Among the Asante and Fante this technology is also called afapim possibly referring to the foundation, fapem or more likely, the thick, pim walls of the place or rooms, fa Rammed earth construction was not common among these southern Akan grou ps until the nineteenth century .26Layers of successive courses of wet earth or clay are packed into portable wooden m olds to the desired height of the wall. Portable molds are made from lightweight wood. Manageable by one or two people, the mold allows a builder to construct small sections of the wall at a time, moving the form along the length of the wall and lifting it as the wall grows taller. Each course is slightly battered, or tapered so as to be thinner at the top. The Akan method differ s from that of other groups who build with rammed earth, such as those in the Accra Plains and Shai Hills In those places, builde rs reduce the height of the course, but the width remains the same Each course must dry about a week before laying the next, and e ach course weighs less than the one underneath so as not to crumble the course (s) below it. W indows and doors are formed duri ng the process of building by leaving an opening Taking under consideration the connections Anomabo had with the north and with groups to the east, su ch as those in present day Togo, it is equally possible that rammed earth construction was borrowed from Mande or Akan neighbors in the north or directly from the Togolese. 27 25Farrar, Some Comments, 46. This construction technique is designed to resist the outward forces created by the compaction of the soil. Thick earthen walls also keep the space 26Ibid. 27Ib id., 46 47; and Ronald Rael, Earth Architecture (NY: Princeton Architectural, 2009), 18.

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116 inside well insulated and at least ten degrees cooler dur ing the day .28 Rammed earth is preferred over wattle and daub construction. Although it takes about the same amount of time and expense to build either type of house, the rammed earth house lasts longer and requires less care.29Rounded bases along the exter ior walls serve two primary functions: they prevent people from from sitting too close to the house and conversing, thus insuring gr eater privacy for the residents; and they protect the building from erosion caused by the rains and flooding by forming a th ick base Like the builders from the Shai Hills and the Kintampo culture in Boyase Hill and Bonoase some of the rammed earth houses in Elmina and Anomabo were laid on stone foundations. O ther Akan rammed earth houses were laid directly on a cleared, smoot hed ground surface. 30 It would make sense that coastal cities like Elmina and Anomabo would make the most use of the natural materials both mud and stone, in their region. As Prussin state s In Africa the built form and the natural habitat are inseparable from each other.31Roofing, Windows and Doors The first type of roofing on coastal houses was thatch as evidenced in the description given by De Marees Although wattle and daub is a method still practiced on the coast, the winged roofing no longer exi sts Historians Albert van Dantzig and Adam Jones state that in Cape Coast there stands many flatroofed houses with long drainage spouts surprisingly similar to those found in the SahelSome people say that this type of house was introduced to the coast by people from the North, others that it was inspired by the (originally) flat roofs of the forts.32 28For a more thorough discussion on the materials and construction process of rammed earth, called coursed clay by Farrar, see Farrar, Building Technology 95 111, 129 131. Flat 29Ibid., 131. 30Farrar, Some Comments, 46; and idem, Indigenous Building 166. 31Prussin, Architecture & Pottery, 66. 32De Marees, 76, footnote.

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117 roofs of wattle and daub construction were used in Elmina33 as well as on a variety of Europ ean buildings along the coast, yet t his type of roof is mor e commonly used in dryer climates of the north.34Windows and doors have altered considerably o ver time. Prior to the arrival of Europeans on the coast, the entrances to Fante homes were very small openings without doors. Window openings were narrow holes for air and light. Ventilation is extremely important in this zone so near the equator. Althoug h the thick mud walls insulated the space within, during the day the temperatures would rise and the interior would be unbearable without the cooler ocean breezes. European style windows and doors were adopted by the Fante in the early nineteenth century. It is equally possible that the flatroofed technology came to the coast via the north south trading route by the Akans, Mande or another African group or by sea with the Europeans. I n the nineteenth centur y some houses were given corrugated asbestos/ slate sheeting. Corrugated iron or aluminum sheeting was introduced in the twentieth century. Very few coastal houses, and none in Anomabo, have thatched roofs today. 35 33DeCorse, An Archaeology of Elmina 177. Today these are considered part of the local traditional architectural vernacular Thus, styles were not static and incorporated techniques, materials, plans and design elements from outside cultures, such as the Mande Togolese and Europeans A rchitectu re is a continually changing art form It can be surmised then that when locals call a certain architectural form traditional, they mean that it has been popular for a while, generally more than their lifetime, i.e. I came to meet it. 34DeCorse, An Archaeological Study, 84 93, 98 100. 35Farrar, Indigenous Building, 156.

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118 Materials Ntwum a, a special red soil, is the preferred material for wattle and daub as well as rammed earth construction. If the soil does not have the proper sand to clay ratio, the walls will crack and fall apart when drying. Ntwuma is found by digging about a meter be low the ground surface. For the plaster used to smooth floors and walls, a ntwuma with a deeper red color (possibly from a higher red ochre or iron content) is used.36Mud as a building material has two serious disadvantages. It is easily eroded by rain an d it is not termite resistant. M ud walls can be protected from rain by bases, verandas or by overhanging roofs, by giving them a very smooth finish, by painting them with gums, or by a regular recoating with mud plaster T hese techniques however can be cos tly and time consuming. 37Bricks Locall y made bricks were being produced in Anomabo as early as the 1670s when the second version of Fort Charles was being constructed. Although imported bricks were mainly used in the construction of Fort William, l ocally made bricks were also being produced in the 1750s. M any materials, including bricks used as ships ballast ( a heavy substance placed in such a way as to improve stability and control) were imported, yet it was also necessary for Apperley to have his mason s train locals in the production of local brick. During the nineteenth century, locally produced brick seemed to be preferred over the imported variety. It was undoubtedly less expensive. E vidence of their wide use is observed in the surviving structures a nd the rubble found throughout Anomabo European brick was more commonly used in European structures 36Farrar, Building Technology 102 103, 129. 37Kevin Carroll, Architectures of Nigeria (London: Ethnographica, 1992), 7.

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119 on the coast. Some structures combined the two. Coastal brick, a micaeous orange red brick, is softer than European bricks, usually darker red or yellow. Bricks are also made in the Sahel. T he Islamic technology may have made its way southward to the coast from the north along with two story rammed earth construction According to Carro l l, building in burnt brick was introduced into southern Nigeria about t he middle of the nineteenth century. Th us brickmaking techniques may have traveled to Anomabo via the north south or east west routes. It may have been introduced in the mid nineteenth century either via European or African cultures Although much is lef t unknown, it may be determined that many groups in West Africa knew the technology and it spread in many directions before, during and after European prescence on the Ghanaian coast. Stone DeCorse noted around 1000 stone houses in Elmina were built in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centur ies The town was known for its masons who were sent to other parts of the coast to assist with construction.38 The Elmina houses were multi storied, flatroofed, stone structures with rooms of linear arrangement and central courtyards. DeCorse states that stone construction methods illustrate a unique aspect of Elmina, probably originating in the latter half of the seventeenth century with African artisans trained by the Dutch.39 38DeCorse, An Archaeological Study, 68. It is difficult to determine whe ther the housing Barbot witnessed in Elmina was constructed for the Dutch or for Africans. A courtyard plan may have been invoked by either culture. By the time Barbot reached Elmina, these houses, perhaps some of them intended for Europeans were extended and inhabitated by many of the local Afutu people. 39DeCorse, An Archaeology of Elmina 177.

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120 As stated in Chapter 2, many immigrants from Elimina moved to Anomabo into the Fare and Etsiwa neighborhoods in the late seventeenth century. If they were building in stone, then they may have brought th is technology to Anomabo. However, none of these buildings have survived. Future archaeological work may determine whether stone houses were built in Anomabo during this period. In all the coastal towns researched African stone housing was reported to me as a construction method adopted in the nineteenth century Anomabo residents needed to rebuild their homes and places of business after the destruction caused during the one day Asante War in Anomabo on June 15, 1807. Even though the Asante failed at th eir attempt to seize the fort, they succeeded in wreaking full vengeance on the town. Meredith wrote: On the following day, a scene replete with the horrors of war exhibited itselfhouses unroofed and others on firethe majority was slaughtered and the to wn destroyed.40 Joseph Dawson reported in 1815: During a residence at Annamaboe these nine months, there appears no improvement in agriculture, but some construction of their houses.41Thatch, bamboo and timber roofs were burned. Reed and mud structures w ere easily damaged and destroyed. Stone, at least in Anomabo, was plentiful. Builders had training from the Europeans in how to construct with stone and brick. Thus, when people were constructing new homes to replace those that were damaged, they could hav e easily chosen stone nog construction. Yet, no evidence exists that between 1807 and 1860 Anomabos built stone houses. They still chose to build with earth. One of the reasons Fante builders had not chosen stone for their own residences initially was due to the difficulties in dressing or cutting stone into blocks with the tools they had. Even 40Meredith, 143 144. 41George E Metcalf, Great Britain and Ghana, Documents of Ghana History 1807 (London: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1964), 29. Document 22.

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121 with the introduction of European technologies, the coastal stone, mainly oxidized laterites and granites, can only be laid as a rubble masonry.42 Interior walls were finished with a smooth lime render, while the outside was finished with a rough textured pebble dash finish.43T rained masons were present on the coast in the early nineteenth century. For example, among the Asante a stone building called the Aban was comp leted under Asantehene Osei Bonsu in 1822 by masons from the coast. The Aban was intended as a museum or palace of culture, and the treasures of the Asantehene or king, were stored in the new stone stronghold. During the invasion of Kumasi in 1874, the Br itish removed most of the Abans valued contents and took them to England, at the same time, destroying the structure. Although its not possible to know what the Aban looked like, it likely incorporated Palladian design elements (see Chapter 4) since it w as partly inspired by accounts of the British Museum. 44The surviving African coastal elite stone nog bu ildings in Anomabo were built between the 1860s and 1930s Some are faced with brick and many use brick to frame the windows and doors. Stone and brick h ave advantages over mud. Its seeming permanence appealed to the Anomabos, just as today cement blocks are the building material of choice. Anomabos stone architecture can also reveal clues about how the stone quarries were used. The George Kuntu Blankson Addition (Figure B 18) is comprised of both sedimentary rock, i.e. sandstone, and igneous rock, such as granite. Sedimentary rock is located in the upper layers of the quarry and is formed from mineral and organic particles fusing together. It is a 42Prussin, An Introduction, 189. 43Fraser, Architectural Influences, 1700. 44Doran H. Ross, Wrapped in Pride: Ghanaian Kente and A frican American Identity (Los Angeles: UCLA Fowler Museum, 1998), 36; and Ivor Wilks, Asante in the Nineteenth Century: The Structure and Evolution of a Political Order (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1975), 200 201. Examples of stone nog residences built for mu lattoes can be seen at Cape Coast (Gothic House, a. k. a. Oguaa Palace, c. 1815) and Elmina (Bridge House, c. 1830s).

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122 softer rock and easier to cut and shape. Igneous rock is located deeper in the quarry, though no deeper than ten meters. It is harder and more difficult to cut and shape. Although it was more difficult to determine because of the cement plaster, Castle Brew and the Cruickshank Addition (Figure B 6) appear to have been constructed from a mix of sedimentary and igneous rock. The Russell House (Figure B 19) built about 30 years after the Blankson Addition was built with mostly igneous rock with only some sedimenta ry rock. The Lawyer Atta Amonoo Residence (Figure B 9) built another 20 years later, was constructed entirely from igneous rock. It seems reasonable that as the Fante dug deeper into the quarries, they had less and less sedimentary rock to utilize. Also, as time progressed, local technologies developed that allowed stone cutters to manage the igneous rock more easily Concrete During the 19 30s, cement blocks replaced bricks as a favored building material. However, as early as the 1910s, the coastal elite w ere experiementing with concrete For example, the palatial residence known as the Adaaso House in Cape Coast was built entirely of concrete block in 1937. C oncrete blocks are less costly and labor intensive than stonework Thus, due to the resourcefulness and inventiveness of builders and masons to adapt materials and techniques used by other cultures (European or Western Sudanic) to the coast architecture has continuously been appropriated and adapted to suit a client's needs. Mason Guilds In both Europe and Africa, artisans were trained in building construction via apprenticeship. No distinction was made between designer, builder, owner and user of the built environment. Therefore, b uilding is a collective process, directed by the client.45 45Prussin, Shelter for the Soul, 41. The

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123 apprentice ship training system was required to achieve the highest standard of craftsmanship. In addition to beauty, the finished product was judged for its functionality, worksmanship and durability. Builders were expected to subordinate their personal styles and i deas in favor of the masters style and techniques that were passed down through the generations. This collectivity encouraged anonymity. Although these masters may have been known to the people of their time, their names were not recorded and have been lo st.46Larger houses required the coordinated services of many different artisans. Unlike other crafts, the erection of buildings took place at the site of the project. Construction skills were learned by example and by demonstration at the site. Generally, construction was a complicated, overall operation that often took years to complete. 47The Two Story Urban House Anomabo has a large number of two story houses built with rammed earth construction. Local contractors believed that two story houses were intr oduced by the Europeans on the coast. Early European settlers built their homes on hills and/or with a second story having many windows or a verandah to capture the best breezes. The Fante would have been quick t o appropriate this innovation. The Twidan Cl an Family Residence ( Structure C 1) is an example of a two story house built in the late 1920s to 1931, yet likely resembles those built much earlier. Less than 70 years after De Marees, Villault recorded the different houses he viewed on the coast, yet di d not document which earthen construction technique was used. Europeans having learned them the art of building, the Officers and great Merchants of this Countrey have followd their directions, and built themselves houses, with high and lofty roofes, sev eral apartements, with one chamber opening into another, and usually at the door of their chamber two Slaves constantly 46Bassani and Fagg, 18. 47Fitchen, 14 17.

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124 attending with darts in their hands in the nature of guards, which are releived at certain hours. All their houses are made of earth, b ut the common people have their walls so low, they seldom exceed the height of a man. Their beame and rafters, and the whole frame of the house resting only upon them; the houses of the Grandees as well as the commons are all thatchd, and have all of them but one little square hole, which serves for a door, to which they fasten a piece of board, without either lock or hinges, like the poor Peasants in the Countrey to their Garden doors, and are contended to fasten them only with a rope, either without or w ithin. Their windows are small. And the earth they make their floors with, very close and compact, they have at least two chambers to a house, and this character must be given them, that they are very curious in keeping them neat, and paint them very frequ ently both without and within. Amongst the common sort, there is nothing of household stuff, or what is usd commonly about the house, to be seen, all is lockd up in their Coffers, which they buy of the Whites; except they be Merchants or great men, and t hen their Tables and Chairs appear sometimes, but never no Beds, for they lye always upon Skins spread upon the ground, of else upon Mattresses made of Rushes, covering themselves with the Skins of Oxen, or some other Beast, without any Boulster, except th ey be of the Nobles, and then they have Pillows under their heads, and a good fire in the middle of their Room, but not the least hole for a Chimney.48This text provides information regarding the interiors of these homes and makes a useful comparison between classes. Merchants and great men, or African coastal elites, furnished their homes with imported objects during the pre colonial period. W. J. Mueller also provides a description of the interiors of seventeenth century houses owned by wealthy leaders. i n their homes one could see silver drinking vessels, silver knives, tin dishes and cups, costly table knives, tables and benches, and hand cloths, (and) servietten [napkins]. The walls of the bedrooms were decorated with expensive, finely woven multi colored mats imported from Sierra Leone. The beds were covered with costly skins, particularly leopard skinsand all kinds of expensive blankets and pillows The bedroom also contained several large chests full of clothing and a number of small boxes or containers full of gold dust, gold nuggets, and silver jewelry and ornaments An ofahene s house contained a great deal of other property: seashells overlaid with silver brass and/or bronze oil lamps, goldweight paraphernalia, tobacco pipes utilitarian and luxury pottery (both local and imported), gold objects (rings, chains, armlets, bracelets, necklaces, anklets, and so forth), brassware (such as jewelry and forowa and kuduo containers), umbrellas, 48Villault, 162 165.

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125 ivory objects (pendants, bracelets, comb s, and so on), as well as a variety of wood, stone, and bone, aggrey and other expensive beads, and tools and other iron objects.49Villault assume d the Africans learned how to build houses with several chambers from the Europeans, but this is a debatable o rigin. He also does not make it clear whether these larger houses had one or two stories. However, information is provided that great men had larger homes, the chambers opened into each other and slaves were owned. Smaller s eventeenth century houses in ur ban environments along the Ghanaian coast were described by Kea. The sizes of urban commoners houses depended on the number of people residing in them. Incomplete data suggest a range of two to eight people per house. The houses included sleeping quarters and rooms for cooking, storage, and the like. Most lacked courtyards. The majority of town dwelling [residents] probably built their own residences, not being able to afford to hire carpenters and swish (clay) makers. It is likely that commoners resident in the same ward assisted each other in house building. The houses were generally rectangular in shape, although in certain coastal towns and villages circular huts were common. They were low, the outer walls standing only as high as a man, and they were c onstructed of swish and wood, and had thatched roofs. Thatch for roofing was sold in the town markets by thatchers, and the wood used in house or hut construction was obtained from the woods and forests, a fee being paid to the ohene [or chief] whose land supplied it.50In contrast, wealthy residents in urban environments of the same period owned large, spacious houses one or two stories high. Most upper class dwellings were constructed of clay and wood and had either thatched roofs, which were constructed so that they could be opened or closed, or flat roofs. Somewere constructed of stone upper class houses had large courtyards, an architectural feature associated with urban domestic housing and high social status.51According to Kea, many of these two story houses also incorporated elements of the courtyard house. 49Kea 318 319; and W. J. Muller Die afric anische auf der Guineische Gold Cust gelegene Landschafft Fetu Hamburg, 1670. 50Kea, 300. 51Ibid. 318.

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126 The Courtyard House The most basic Fante house consists of one rectangular room with a small entrance door. Windows may or may not be included. For those with means, additional rooms are a dded and perhaps include a courtyard behind. Many African people practice an outdoor communal lifestyle that revolve s around a defined space within the yard, or compound, adjacent to the house. Since the house i s used mainly for sleeping at night, providing shelter from rain, and for storage of valuable s, these outdoor spaces a re an integral part of the living zone. Another outdoor extension of the house is the ve randa .52Numerous courtyard houses were built in Anomabo and generally all across the Fante reg ion. The coastal Akan courtyard house uses some variant of louvered or natural openings into the house. Sometimes openwork screens in bamboo are utilized to encourage air circulation. 53 Fante courtyard plans may have a front row of rooms, one or two rooms d eep. External staircases to upper stories are of monolithic earth construction, built against the outside wall of the building. Hyland stated that this type of construction appears to be indigenous to Cape Coast and Anomabo.54In local building, floors are composed of either plain loose soil or compacted earth. Loose soil is generally used in houses in fishing villages along the coast, while in other parts of the coastal areas and in the hinterland the floors are made of stone. A compacted earth floor can b e smoothly finished in a variety of available materials, such as clay applied to the floor with the 52Patricia Green, Architecture, in Vernacular Architecture of the World ed. Paul Oliver (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1997), 1702. 53Prussin, An Introducti on, 185. 54Hyland, Fante, 2042 2043.

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127 hands. In other areas, oil palm kernels, small pebbles or sea shells are also used as floor finishes.55De Marees was the first to observe courtyard houses o n the coast in 1602: They link together three or four such Huts, standing next to each other so as to form a square, so that the women have a place in the middle where they cookThey surround their dwelling with a fence of Maize Stalks, about the height of a Man, or as tall as the walls of their dwellings.56De Marees describes the typical Akan courtyard house in which four rectangular rooms with thatched roofs, either separately or together, fac e a central courtyard. The courtyard was the center of religiou s and fellowship functions and served as gathering places for socialization. The courtyard plan has a long history. The origin of the Akan courtyard house may stem from either the Egyptian or Roman courtyard houses, the direct result of Roman conquest and imperialistic territorial expansionism in North Africa in the first century. The earliest evidence of the courtyard plan stems from Egypt for a n enclosed courtyard was a very important aspect of ancient Egyptian architecture. Prussin has established impor tant architectural link s along the Saharan east west trade route. As a highway of cultural, political and commercial exchange, the Saharan route connected most major cities .57The Roman houses are considered the first major introduction of Western architect ure on the continent. This house type later spread south ward along the trans Saharan trade routes either as early as Roman times or later in the seventh to tenth century through Islamic traders or via invasions. It likely reached the coast of Ghana via the Mande trade routes linking Islamic cities 55Faculty, 451. 56De Marees, 76. 57Labelle Prussin, Convivencia at Timbuktu: Archetypes, Architects, and Artisans, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL: Harn Eminent Scholar Chair in Art History Program Presentation October 23, 2008. Photocopied.

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128 like Djenne to Kumasi.58This plan, found in the forest region s of West Africa, was adopted by such groups as the Asante in Ghana and the Bini, Igbo and Yoruba in Nigeria. Thomas Bowdich, a writer with the British Company of Merchants, accompanied Hutchison and Henry Tedlie to Kumasi in 1817. I n his published journal Mission from Cape Coast Castle to Ashantee, &c., Bowdich described Asante swish houses and their configuration of four buildings with a courtyard in the center. Thus, many houses located in the savanna, s ahel and desert regions of the Western Sudan, adopted the courtyard plan, also known as the Sudanese style. 59Crui ckshanks description of courtyard houses present on the coast in the second quarter of the nineteenth century is similar to those documented on the Gold Coast Survey map of 1931 and existent today. Their exterior elaboration however is quite different from what developed on the coast. Their ordinary plan of construction is in the form of a s quare, the rooms forming its sides, and enclosing a quadrangular space, of dimensions proportionate to the size of the side rooms. The entrance is through a door or gateway, leading into one of these rooms, which is generally kept as an open lodge, through which to pass into the inner square, and in which the chief or head man is in the habit of keeping his drums. On the side of the square, fronting this lodge, the floor of the apartments is raised about a couple of feet from the ground, and is altogether o pen towards the square, or yard. Sometimes there is only a part of it open; a small space at each end being set apart for rooms. The other two sides of the square consist of rooms with doors and windows, their floors being on a level with the ground; or, a s in the meaner class, of raised and open sheds These houses have rarely any windows opening to the outside, so that the entrance through the gateway is the only means of external communication. The greatest privacy is enjoyed by every family, even in the centre of a town,...Of course there is some variety in the arrangements of the different houses, according to the taste of individuals; but the prevailing, and what may be termed the purely native style, is such as we have here described 58Elleh, 48, 54; and Prussin, Hatumere 105 108, 159. 59T. Edward Bowdich, Mission from Cape Coast Castle to Ashantee, with a Statistical Account of that Kingdom, and Geographical Notices of Other Parts of the Interior of Afr ica (London: John Murray, 1819), 304 309.

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129 In houses of rec ent erection, the open apartments are now giving place to rooms with doors and windows, there being seldom more than one open apartment in the square. They frequently consist of a succession of these quadrilateral buildings and yards, the number being in proportion to the consequence and riches of the individual, and size of his family. A small door of communication at one of the corners leads out of one square into another.60Danish architects Jorgen Andreasen, Jorgen Eskemose and Anette Lodberg Schmidt illustrate an Asante courtyard house in Mpasatia a Town in Ghana: Tales of Architecture and Planning on page 17. 61 In a typical Akan house, called a pato, all rooms are small since they serve only as shelter at night and for storage of valuable possessions. Th ese rooms open onto an internal courtyard, the living area of the house used for dining, receiving guests, holding arbitrations and for laying bodies in state at funerals.62Hull commented that Ones standing in the community was reflected in house style, building materials African compounds usually looked inward upon an open courtyard. every ward or quarter had its own community wells, market places, and centers of worship. 63As coastal towns grew into busy, commercial urban ports, these city homes were elaborated according to the owner's wealth and status. Women continued to live in the city, while men often had a one or two room house in the hinterland where they could mainta in the farm. Residential architecture of the Fante and other Akan subgroups util ized this courtyard plan. Men and women spent most of the waking hours outside the home; men worked in the fields, hunted or fished while women cooked in the courtyards or worked in the markets. Rooms were used for greeting visitors, sleeping or storage. 60Ibid., 288 290. 61Jorgen Andreasen, Jorgen Eskemose and Anette Lodberg Schmidt. Mpasatia a Town in Ghana: Tales of Architecture and Planning (Esbjerg, Denmark: Grafisk Trykcenter, 2003), 17. 62Faculty, 457 458. 63Ibi d.

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130 These houses were usually built in wattle and daub construction. Thus, the Fante were familiar with and using more than one type of construction method at the same time These methods were selected according to the purpose and location of the structure. Missionary priest and cultural enthusiast Kevin Carroll drew a similar house plan typical of the Yoruba or Bini in Nigeria. He described these houses as having walls about nine to twelve inches thick; the floors are raised above ground l evel. The rooms are linked together round an open courtyard. Wooden posts or mud pillars carry the inner slope of the roof. A veranda runs between the wall of the building and the courtyard.64The Danish plan of the Asante courtyard house and Carolls plan of a Nigeria courtyard house both have an entrance corridor leading into a central receiving area, much like those found in Roman h ouses. The Fante courtyard house plan, as illustrated by Hyland in Vernacular Architecture of the World Thus, the courtyard house plan may have spread to the Fante by either the north south trading route or the east west route. 65Tuafohens Palace differs from these in that the entrance leads directly into a large hall. Another door on the direct opposite side of the hall leads into the courtyar d. Two bedchambers are accessed from either side of the central hall. Hyland did not state when th is courtyard house was b uilt, yet I would venture that it was constructed after the mid nineteenth century, for the Tuafohens Palace exhibits this same Hall and Chamber configuration. According to the current tuafohen, t he original Tuafohen s P alace in Anomabo was a two story rammed earth residence with a thatched roof. A large courtyard stood in front of this house, and a small one behind. A residence was built behind this courtyard for the palace slaves. The 64Carroll, 12 13. 65A. D. C. Hyland, Fante, in Vernacular Architecture of the World ed. Paul Oliver (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1997), 2043.

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131 descendants of these slaves, now fully incorporated members of the tuafohens family, continue to live in the second residence behind the tuafohens residence as part of the same buildin g (Figure B 20) Since the tuafohen is the commander of the asafo armies, his palace was a target for enemies. It was attacked and destroyed by an asafo company from Asafra about 150 years ago.66Current residents do not remember when the two story rammed earth residence was first built or who built it. They also do not remember who built the current residence except that it is on the same location in Akanpaado (Figure B 21) A unique feature may help to date the structure. An old iron ships part is substituted for a window. Iron was gradually adopted in ship construction, initially in small areas needing greater strength. British engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel 's Great Britain of 18 43 was the first propeller driven iron ship A one story, rammed earth double courtyard house was built in its stead. 67The plan of the Tuafohens P alace (Figure B 20) has three rooms across the front, two rooms deep. The central room s are used as hall s and the rooms on each side are use d as chambers usually for sleeping or storage. In the late seventeenth century Barbot witnessed that several of these little cabins (loges) slight partitions of canes, reeds or other material divided The circular part f o r ming the window in the palace is claimed to be from a propeller. Originally all the windows in the house used this 16 part. Later all but one in the current stool room w as replaced with re ctangular jalousie windows. If the iron part was incorporated into the house when it was built, then the house might be dated to the last half of the nineteenth century The part however may have been old when the house was originally constructed dating t he house later A similar window can be seen on Cape Coast Castle facing the main road 66The date of 150 years ago was given to me by Tuafohen Nana Obuesiwua VII, a. k. a. J. Ebow Quashie, in 2007. In 2009, he claimed it was 300 years ago. 67Arthur Wilson, The Living Rock: The Story of Metals since Earliest Times and Their Impact on Civilization (Cambridge: Woodhead, 1996), 202 203

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132 the house interiors .68In the Tuafohens Palace t he two central halls are connected by a central door. This door is perfectly in line with the entrance door and a third door leads from the second hall into a rectangular shaped courtyard. Large room s to the left and right of the courtyard act as halls, while the four rooms to the back are bedchambers. The corner chambers are accessed only through doors to the large halls, and the two central chambers have doors to the courtyard. The hall located to t he south has a large door leading to the outside. This entrance is used during important ritual ceremonies. Windows are provided either to the exterior or to the courtyard. It i s possible that these divisi ons led to the indigenous development of the Hall and C hamber plan. The H all and C hamber plan is not included in the Asante plan given by Andreasen, Eskemose and Schmidt, or in Carrolls plan of a Nigerian courtyard house. T his plan seems particular to thi s area of the Ghanaian coast The second residence also has a courtyard plan. It is set back to back with the tuafohens residence with a wall separating the two A few important differences exist between these plans. O nly one row of rooms stretch es across the front. The entrance is a narrow hall leading directly into the central L shaped courtyard. The side rooms ar e comprised of a hall with a door to the courtyard and a bedchamber with a door to the hall. Other chambers have a single door to the courtyard. Windows are provided either to the exterior or to the courtyard. Thus, all rooms in the entire plan have at lea st one window. The entire structure originally had dirt floors. The current Tuafohen Nana Obuesiwua VII, a. k. a. J. Ebow Quashie, a prominent attorney based in Takoradi, made several updates to the structure when he was elected to the stool in 1994. He added another two rooms across the front of his palace. Carved double doors at the entrance lead into the large st room used as a visitors hall. Two ceiling fans help circulate air. 68Hair, Jones and Law, 511

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133 The second room is smaller and is used as both a private visiting room and bedchamber. A door was cut into the adjoining bedchamber. The tuafohen also added terrazzo flooring throughout the the first residence and courtyard as well as a fresh cement plaster to the exterior walls, including those inside the courtyards. The cement p laster not only protects the earth from the rains and intense sun, but also allows the home owner to have the house painted. Murals were painted across the front by Joseph Benjamin Arcct Bunyan a. k. a. Kofi Benya, a.k.a Dollar A figural cement sculpture of a linguist pouring libations from a real glass gin bottle was brought from Takoradi Combining the Two Story and Courtyard Plans One of the more interesting developments that Cruickshank observed is the addition of the second story on the front row of rooms over the standard one story courtyard house. There is frequently a second story on one side of the square, and sometimes upon all. This is considered necessary to meet the idea of a white man's house, which they think it so desirable to imitate.69It is debatable whether the second story was an imitation of the European house. As discussed in Chapter 3, it is equally possible the inspiration derived from northern housing. The courtyard house is a vernacular form firmly rooted in Akan culture. Yet, n ot unlike other cultural forms, it was inspired by ideas borrowed from outside cultures. Two story houses, or abrsan are locally reported as a form adopted from Europeans on the coast. However, h ousing in the Western Sudan consists of mostly two story buildings with flat roofs combined with a courtyard within the main house. Some are made from earth, while others a re made with molded or cast, 69Ibid., 291.

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134 baked rectangular bricks.70According to Prussin, Rome built a system of major for tresses, or limitanei. These fortified farms were built as far south as the third parallel. The limitanei was a cubic structure built of ashlar limestone masonry, two or three stories high, with a single entrance. Rooms faced an internal open courtyard or lightwell. As previously stated, the origin of the courtyard plan may come from Roman housing. The two story structure may have a European or Roman origin. 71 70Elleh, 24 25; and Prussin, Hatu mere 163. This combination of storied courtyard structure is similar to those Europeans would build on the coast as their lodges and forts in the fifteenth to eighteenth centuries. 71Prussin, Hatumere 106.

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135 CHAPTER 4 THE EUROPEAN PALLADIAN STYLE The Europeans utilized stone nog construction on the Ghanaian coast from the late fif teenth century through the nineteenth century. Coastal forts were built in the European Medieval style by all the European merchant companies. The Dutch introduced classical restraint in Palladian style l odges and housing. The British later brought a slightly revised Georgian Palladian style. The British Palladian differs from the earlier Dutch style in the development of a Hall and Chamber plan. T hese styles are evident in Anomabo in buildings that surviv e today. This survival confirms the skills of the masons and construction techniques as well as to the periodic maintenance theyve received over the centuries. Dutch Palladianism T he Dutch East India Company the first ever multinational corporation, was founded in 1602. It was financed by shares that established the first modern stock exchange. The company became the world's largest commercial enterprise of the seventeenth century. Th e Dutch monopoly on Asian trade persisted for two centuries. Spices imported in bulk brought huge profits. The Dutch also dominated trade among European countries. In 1619 t he Dutch initiated the slave trade between Africa and the America s ; by 1650 they bec ame the paramount slave trading country in Europe, a position eventual ly taken by Britain around 1700. The flourishing Dutch trade produced a large, wealthy merchant class in Holland as well as on the Ghanaian coast where m erchants and their money domina ted the port cities .1Dutch merchants used their new fortune s to commis sion house s to be constructed along canals recently dug in and around many cities (for both defense and transport ation ) H ouse s with 1Jakob Rosenberg, Seymour Slive and E.H. ter Kuile, Dutch Art and Architecture, 1600 to 1800 (Baltimore, MD: Penguin, 1966), 3 10, 229 247

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136 ornamented faade s befitted their new status. The Classical architectural style of the Greeks and Romans was interpreted by many architects in the most liberal fashion in the seventeenth century. Andrea Palladio, who lived and worked in northern Italy, studied the remains of Greek and Roman buildings especially temples He published his findings in the book I Quattro Libri De ll architectura or The Four Books of Architecture in 1570. The immensely popular book stimulated several Classical movements in architecture since its introduction in the sixteenth century .2Dutch Palladianism is marked by sobriety and restraint. The arc hitecture of the first republic in Northern Europe was intended to reflect democratic values by quoting extensively from classical antiquity. This style was promot ed mainly by Hendrick de Keyser (15651621) who was instrumental in introduc ing a Venetian i nfluenced style into early seventeen th century architecture through buildings like the Noorderkerk ("Northern church 16201623) and Westerkerk (" Western church 16201631) in Amsterdam Even though late Gothic elements prevailed in the early seventeen th century, as the century progressed less ornamentation was used and natural stone was preferred to bricks. In the last decades of the century this trend towards restraint intensified. 3The major architects of the Dutch Palladian style include Jacob van Cam pen (15961657) and Pieter Post (16081669) who adopted de Keyser's ideas for such elements as enlarged pilasters, gable roofs, central pediments, and dynamic steeples. Brought together in a coherent combination, these stylistic developments anticipated B ritish architect Christopher Wren's (16321723) c lassicism. From around 1670 the most prominent features of a Dutch housefront were its 2Peter Harbison, Homan Potterton and Jeanne Sheehy, Irish Art and Architecture f rom prehistory to the Present (London: Thames and Hudson, 1978), 132. 3Rosenberg, Slive and ter Kuile, 3 10, 229247

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137 entrance, with pillars on each side and possibly a balcony above it There was no further decoration.4The Dutch Lodge / Omanhens Palace An example of Dut ch Palladianism is located in Anomabo with todays Omanhens Palace. According to colleagues in the field the Omanhens Palace (Figure B 8) was constructed in 16 21 by Fante builders. H owever, the h eavily fortified walls of stone, brick and local shell mortar suggest European sources for these materials and building technology. Flather states that the Dutch began construction on Anomabos first lodge in 1639 or 1640. Work was temporarily halted when the English told the Du tch that the Fante territory had been ceded to the English. Yet, after the arrival of the Dutch Commander, Arent Jacobsz van der Graeff (1557 1642) the lodge was soon completed under his supervision.5Ten or twelve years later the Swedes captured it. Danish forces took the lodge in 1657 under Caerlof and the Dutch recaptu red it in 1660. The structure dates to the earliest period of c ultural contact in Anomabo and reflects the restrained style of Dutch Palladianism. The lodge is located in the northern part of Krokessin. 6 4Ibid. W hen the second Dutch Anglo war ended in 1667 (Treaty of Breda), the British gained a foothold in Anomabo and had begun building Fort Charles by 1672 or 1673. A n early chief perhaps Eno or Eno Besi, inhabited the Dutch lodge at this time and declar ed it his palace. 5Flather, 23. Flather located this information in the Dutch Records available at the University of Ghana in Legon. Anquandah stated that the Dutch lodge in Anomabo was built under the direction of Polish mercenary Heindrick Caerlof, a. k. a. Sir Henry Carlof. Kwesi J. Anquandah, Castles & Forts of Ghana (Paris: Atalante, 1999), 10. His source is not given. 6Claridge, vol. 2, 594.

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138 T his appropriation serves as the first surviving architectural example of cultural authentification in Anomabo The first stage, s election refers to the appropriation of a motif, or object, without alteration. Characterization the next stage, is the naming of the motif to make it better understood within the culture. The Dutch Lodge was selected by the Fante chief and it was renamed the O manhens Palace. A sign naming the Omanhenes Palace7 exists over the main entrance toda y. Incorporation involves ownership of a motif by a specific community group and lastly, transformation is the creation of something new from this original motif.8Construction and Materials The palace was incorporated via its royal ownership, and transformed for Fante purposes into a site of royal habitation and practices. Thus, the cultural authentif i c ation of architecture of European design, plan and materials was first undertaken by the Anomabos in the late seventeenth century. The two story lodge is constructed in stone nog w ith imported brick Although the Dutch are responsible for overseeing the construction of the lodge, they likely did not complete it without some local assistance. Even though t he Dutch masons trained locals i t seems unlikely th at the local people adopted stone or brick as a building material during this period. There was no motiv ation at this time, and stone was expensive due to the time needed to cut the rough stone into usable construction materials. T he local material of choi ce continued to be swish At some point, perhaps immediately after taking possession of the lodge, the exterior of the Omanhen's Palace (Figure B 8) received a mud plaster coat that completely covers all traces of its original building materials. A cement plaster and paint cover the exterior today. W hen residents are 7The spelling of omanhene reflects a Twi spelling. In Fante the final e would not exist. This is the combined result of local languages having an oral tradition and the British promotion of Asante culture (Twi speaking Akans) beginning in late nineteenth cen tury. 8Erekosima and Eicher, 50 51.

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139 asked, they proclaim that the Omanhen's Palace was always the palace and is constructed of swish The only visual evidence of the original Dutch Lodge is the fortress like quality of the struc ture, the symmetrical placement of the windows, and two unplastered interior space s. The first space, located i n the first courtyard has a three feet tall, brick lined arched entrance lead ing into a brick barrel vaulted room probably used for artillery s torage The other space is located next to this storage room behind the courtyard wall. The brick barrel vaulted niche, likely used by the sentry guard, sits about 19 inches deep in the wall (Figure B 25) B arrel vaults created from imported bricks are a h allmark construction method found on the coast in many Dutch forts including Fort Nassau (1621) in Moree, Fort Patience (1697) in Apam and Fort Amsterdam (English 1638, Dutch 1665) in Abandze Locally manufactured bricks can be easily distinguished from th e imported European bricks. The local bricks contain coarse grain materials with specks of mica, a material that abounds in the clay of the area.9Archaeologist Mark Freeman conducted a preliminary study of Anom abo in 2008 and found in a site loca ted in Krokessim southeast of the lodge a small number of locally manufactured burnt bricks on a level dating prior to the 1750s when Fort William was constructed. Thus, these bricks have a sparkling quality. 10 9Freeman, 82. This suggests that the technology of burnt bricks was introduced to Anomabo prior to this period. It does not however, confirm that the technology was practiced by either Europeans or Fante or both, nor does it confirm that Fante masons constructed homes for themselves using these bricks during this early pe riod. Although this may have been the site of 10Ibid., 94.

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140 Dutch brick production during the construction of the lodge in the 1640s, further archaeological investigation will be necessary to provide more concrete data. Plan While the Dutch Lodge was built according to European tastes and utilizes the Palladian style in its restraint, it reflects both European and Fante tastes in form and function. During the seventeenth century Europeans and Akan lived in similar housing, including living outdoors during much of the day light hours. While seventeenth century houses in Amsterdam do not utilize the courtyard plan, it would have been necessary in lodges on the coast. Because the lodge provided defense, outdoor space needed to be enclosed. T he Dutch imported a medieval fortre ss plan similar to the Akan courtyard plan. Therefore, on the coast the Europeans and Akans were living in houses with similar plans. It would not have been unusual for chiefs to have had a house, or compound, with several interconnecting courtyard plans. Europeans and Africans also used similar thatched roofing. The roof of the Dutch lodge would have originally been thatched.11The rectilinear, two story lodge is organized around three courtyards (Figure B 26) A wide stone ramp, now covered with a layer of cement, leads up to the double doored entrance. This leads into a small room or fo yer that houses the important fontomfrom drums. The foyer opens to the first and largest courtyard. Several rooms surround this courtyard. Three large piers support the veranda upstairs and provide a sheltered walkway underneath. The long room behind All the courtyard spaces open to the sky, letting in light and air. The main difference between these plans however, is that the Du tch utilized a two story courtyard plan. 11A watercolor entitled The European man admonished the African caboceer not to kill any of his slavesAnamaboe by Daniel Biney painted in December of 1851 depicts a high ranking Fante man wrap ped in gold colored cloth, seated on a typical Akan stool, and shaded by a large, decorative umbrella. Behind him in the distance is a two story building with a central door at ground level. On each side of the door are three windows on each story for a to tal of twelve windows. This building, which may be the Omanhens Palace, is covered with a high pitched thatched roof. Michael Graham Stewart, Far Away and Long Ago (London: Michael Graham Stewart, 2000), n.p.

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141 the s entry niche and small barrel vaulted storage area is now used as a sacred storage area. I was told that in the distant past, this room and the room to the east of the stairs were used as dungeons for criminals. To the west of this courtyard is a wide openi ng to another long room. In one corner, several stools are stored on their side s for visiting chiefs. A window opens to the entrance foyer. At the opposite end of the window is a doorway leading to a small transitional room. This room houses the kyensin dr um, a short drum used for emergency meetings The Western door leads into the omanhens sacred ro o ms, including a second courtyard. P iers support a three sided veranda above. Several rooms surround this courtyard. A large brick barrel vaulted niche is bui lt into the northern side of this courtyard, underneath the stairs. This niche may have originally been used as an oven for cooking or forging.12The south ern door off the transitional room leads into the third courtyard towards the back of the building. O riginally only three rooms extended from this space. The courtyard was once open to the south ern side but now r ammed earth a dditions have somewhat enclosed this space. Lastly, two ground floor rooms are accessed from the exterior of the building. These a re located on the w estern side of the building, behind the omanhens sacred courtyard. T hey are small rooms and serve no purpose today The room to the north was once used as a post office during the colonial era. This room has a curiously small, sliver sh aped window facing north. The original flooring on the second level would have been made of wood planks They have since been replaced with swish floors supported by tree limbs laid in parallel fashion about a foot apart which is visible from underneath. The floors have received a recent cement plaster. Stairs from the first courtyard leads to the large Visitors Hall (Figure B 27) Four windows 12No one except the omanhen and his closest att endants and priests are allowed access to this area of the lodge today. My plan was estimated via my view from the veranda above.

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142 capture cool breezes. A room located to the southwest of the Visitors Hall retains its original wood flooring, though it probably belongs to a later date than the 1640s A number of rooms open from the veranda. Another large room on the opposite side of the Visitors Hall is the Omanhens Great Hall. A window opening to the veranda retains wood shutters and hand f orged iron hinges from a century or more ago. This is the room where first time visitors are received by the omanhen. The private bedrooms of close members of the royal family open into this hall. The current omanhens wife, or obaahemaa, Omankrado Nana Gy anwa, the queen mother of Ajumako B e seas e uses the south ern room for her bedchamber. The central door to the west leads from the Omanhens Great Hall to the veranda over the second courtyard. Important private rooms are located off this veranda. A large room to the south of the veranda acts as a storage room and houses several important stools. The central w estern most room is often used by the current omanhen for receiving close family and friends. Two bedchambers emanate from this room forming a plan similar to the Hall and Chamber plan. Since this p lan occurs only in the innermost reaches of the building where few locals would have been allowed access it seems unlikely that it served as the inspiration for the Hall and Chamber Plan that became so popul ar in the nineteenth century. However, the possibility exists. If it was the inspiration, I contend that it was based on the omanhens use of the configuration, and not on European usage The omanhens use of these rooms in turn, was likely based on indig enous ways of living. Original uses of rooms and the intentions behind their configurations are difficult to determine. It is especially challenging to differentiate between European and African origins because both cultures had similar lifestyles during t he seventeenth century. Modern Adaptations The Obaahemaas chamber retains wood molding around the top of all four sides of the room. The Omanhens Great Hall also once had the same molding, though it has since been

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143 replaced. All three of the rooms forming the Hall and Chamber plan off the second courtyard have mortared moldings around the tops of the rooms. The central room and the bedc h amber in the southwest corner have since had dropped ceilings that now cover these moldings. The moldings were likely add ed in the nineteenth century when similar molding was added in Cruickshanks additions to Fort William and Castle Brew. The stairway and landing on the second courtyard veranda have ceramic tile in multiple shades of earthtone colors, probably added in th e late nineteenth century. Similar tile can also be seen in the first Kow Otu house in Anomabo and the Allen Quansah House in Tantri, Cape Coast. Both the molding and ceramic tiling exhibit embellishments that display current interior design trends. Persons of high status convey their modernity through display. The entire exterior of the Omanhens Palace has received a cement plaster. Today, i t is painted yellow with a horizontal band of black paint along the bottom Across the front, this black band covers the wider area tapering outward from the wall. On the interior, t he foyer and first courtyard are similarly painted yellow, but they have a tall band of dark red paint. Tapered points of this red band are formed at the corners. Other rooms in the palace a re painted in the same yellow or other colors. Electricity is another recent introduction to the structure, though no plumbing has been installed A shrine has been walled off by a short concrete wall to the exterior to the right of the entrance. The small tree in the enclosure is considered to be a local deity. In the late nineteenth century asbestos/slate roofing probably replaced the thatch. Today, iron or aluminum sheeting is used. British Palladianism Some English and Irish architects felt the Palladia nism of the late seventeenth century bore little resemblance to the Classical prototypes studied by Palladio who asserted that architecture should be governed by reason. Its clarity, order, and symmetry, demonstrated in the use of

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144 classical forms and decorative motifs appealed to the rising merchant elites in Britain who demanded a new sensibility in their commercial buildings. British cities, like London, we re comprised of buildings with retail shops on street level with spaces for residential living above. The seventeenth century shop was no more than a front room with a large window facing the street. The space above was used by the wealthy shopkeeper or rented as flats. In the early eighteenth century with expanded m ercantilism, some of the shop facades became more ornate with larger windows, signs and embellishments.13One of the hallmark innovations of British Palladian ism was the floor plan. It was symmetrical and balanced with a central hall and a chamber extending from each side. Often two sets of this plan were brought together, creating two central halls and four equally sized chamber s. Although the Palladian style was based on Roman prototypes, the Roman house had a narrow vestibulum, or entrance corridor, that led directly into a courtyard area. This courtyard was often used as a formal entrance hall. Palladio incorporates this type of plan in his Villa Rotunda. An entrance on each side of the building leads visitors down a narrow corridor to the vast central receiving area under the dome. British Palladian architects simply did away with this corridor to create a greater sense of bal ance. This mercantile shop with living space above wa s transported to the Ghanaian coast by both the British and African coastal elites. While f orts along the Ghanaian coast w ere constructed in the Palladian style with Medieval fortress plans housing tended to use both Palladian plans and style Surviving evidence in Anomabo shows a prevalence of the British Pal ladian style The Pal ladian and Neo Gothic style s belong to the overarching category of Georgian architecture, a set of architectural styles 13Harbison, Potterton and Sheehy, 132; and H. Kalman, The Architecture of Mercantilism: Commercial Buildings by George Dance t he Younger, in The Triumph of Culture: 18th Century Perspectives ed. Paul Fritz and David Williams (Toronto, Canada: A. M. Hakkert, 1972), 69 71.

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145 prominent between 1720 and 1840. While Palladian promoted Classical forms, Neo Gothic offered its whimsical alternative Ghanaian c oasta l style is based upon the former and is characterized by its proportion and balance. The one exception to this is Gothic House (Figure C 76) built around 1815 by mulatto trader James Dawson, in Cape Coast and known today as the Oguaa Palace .14Common building materials for Georgian style s are brick or stone. Proponents of the Palladian style used mathematical ratios to determine room proportions and window placement. Strict adherence to classical rules was mandated by proponents of the movement so a dditio ns made to earlier structures, creating asymmetry, w ere considere d a flaw. A majo r architect who promoted Georgian style s was Colen Campbell, Scottish architect and author of the influential book Vitruvius Britannicus published in 1715 and 1725. These vol umes catalogued architectural designs including those by Campbell as well as Inigo Jones and Sir Christopher Wren. The plans promoted a clean, Classical approach to decoration. Campbell disapproved of over embellishments, popular during the Baroque period. Richard Brew, who kept an extensive library, may have been familiar with these volumes. Even though his residence was a much simplified form of the Palladian plans, Brew skillfully translated the aesthetic using imported and local materials. In Britain, t he Palladian style was applied more to country residences than to those in town. The late eigh teen th century was a great age of building grand country homes, displayin g the wealth of the upper class, many of whom acquired their additional or newfou nd wealt h through mercantilism. 15 14Supi Kobina Minnah, Oguaaman Can Now Boast of a Modern Palace Befitting the Status of the First Capital of the Gold Coast Ghana, in Oguaa Fete afahyE 2009 ed. Supi Kobina Minnah, Anthony Fynn Cudjoe, J. K. Koranchie and Lauren Adrover (Cape Coast, Ghana, 2009), 30. 15Harbison, Potterton and Sheehy, 132.

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146 One of the earliest Palladian houses in Ireland is Bellamont Forest in County Cavan. Sir Edward Lovett Pearce (c. 1699 1733) de signed the country mansion in 17 30 for Thomas Coote, a colon e l in the British army. The two story brick house rests on a basement. The center of the red brick faade is distinguished by a Greek temple style Doric portico. Pediments adorn the first floor windows while t he windows on the second floor are plain Details, such the belt course and cornice emph asize horizontality. Bellamont Forest exhibits many of the features synonymous with the British Palladian style. Everything is symmetrical and well balanced. The decorative entablature above the door and pilasters at either side emphasize symmetry The ent rance opens into a large central hall, from which t wo rooms open on either side. Behind, another hall opens into a gain into rooms on each side This Hall and Chamber plan of three or six well proportioned rooms becomes the vernacular for Ghanaian coastal a rchitecture.16D uring the eighteenth century Georgian architecture especially of the Pa lladian style, was widely disseminated in English settlements and colonies. The Palladian style was adaptable to using locally available materials. This spread of the Georgian Palladian style is attributed to the new medium of inexpensive suites of engravings, such as Campbell's volumes. 17After about 1840, a number of revival styles gradually replaced the Georgian style. The Neo Georgian was a revived Georgian Palladia n style that emerged in Britain at the beginning of the twentie th century. 18 16Ibid., 132 133; and Dan Cruickshank, A Guide to the Geo rgian Buildings of Britian & Ireland (London: George Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1985), 58. Along the Ghanaian coast certain Palladian elements such as arches, arcades columns and pediments have rather consistently persisted to the present day. 17Paul Oliver, ed., Vernacular Architecture of the World (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1997), 1699 1717; and Dana Arnold and Tim Clayton, The Georgian Country House: Archi tecture, Landscape and Society (Stroud: Sutton, 1998) 18Ibid.

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147 The British Forts F ort s on the Ghanaian coast w ere constructed to serve three main purposes. They were commercial trading center s fortification s against rival European traders, and residence s for the small number of company merchants. As stated before, when the Dutch Anglo war ended in 1667, the British gained the foothold in Anomabo and began buildi ng Fort Charles by 1672 or 1673 ( Structure C 2) After some difficult financial years, Fort Charles lay in ruins by 1730. The French tried to negotiate terms with Kurentsir to construct their own fort, but they never reached an agreement. The new British Royal African Company was able to make an agreement with Kurentsir by 1753, and they began construction of the new Anomabo f ort, later named Fort William ( Structure C 3). Local masons we re utilized in burnt brick production and in the construction of these forts, yet there is no evidence that locals adopted this material or stone nog construction for their own structures. Castle Brew Built during the same period as Fort William is Castle Brew, known locally as aban kakraba, or Little Fort (Figure B 6) The residence was named Castle Brew by its original inhabitant Richard Brew, an Irishman living in Anomabo for more than 25 years. Brew landed on the Gold Coast in 1751, shortly after the P arliamentary decision to create the Company of Merchants as a replacement for the defunct Royal African Company. He held a post at Tantumquerry for a couple of years and then seems to have vanished. He re emerged in Anomabo as a private trader in 1754, and soon after, Brew wisely made friends with Kurentsir.19Brew held the Governorship for two periods: 1756 1760 and 17611764. Like Apperley, Brew began his Anomabo command by living in the Omanhen Kurentsir's Palace. Early in 1757, 19Priestley, West African Trade 46.

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148 Brew moved into the fort a nd became the first Governor to occupy it. Building was still in progress however, and it was not until 1759 that it was described as near being finished. Fort William and Castle Brew were constructed at the same time by the same European and Fante craft smen, both overseen by Governor Brew.20Status Symbol Castle Brew, an impressive British Palladian style residence was built directly across from Fort William's northwestern corner. Castle Brew has its own warehouses, guns and large courtyard (behind the m ain house). It often function ed as the hold for slaves to be traded from the coast when Fort William, small in comparison to the forts of Elmina and Cape Coast, was full. Brews intention was to rival British power on the coast as an independent trader, fo r he wanted control of the lucrative slave trade. Priestley notes that the name Castle Brew was a title suggestive of his intention that it should rival the fort in the eyes of the Fanti population.21Like Sesarakoo, the mulatto Edward Barter wa s educated in England at the expense of the Royal African Company between 1690 and 1693. Upon his return to the coast he was employed by the Royal African Company, yet also worked on the side as an independent trader Often at odds with the British Company of Merchants wh o hired and fired Brew as Governor of the fort several times, Brew consciously appropriated the power image of the massive brick and stone structure to visually transfer and neutralize the power of the British. 22 20Ibid. 44 45. as Brew 21Ibid. 42 44, 57. 22J. D. Fage and Roland Oliver, eds., The Cambridge History of Africa Volume 4 c. 1600 c. 1790 (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 19 75), 308.

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149 did years later. An early memb er of the rising coastal elite merchant class in Cape Coast, Barter built a house, described by Bosman, as not unlike a small fort near Cape Coast Castle.23Thus, there is a coastal precendent of building houses like fortresses, perhaps if only in materia l and construction method, next to the European trading forts as symbols of both status and power. A fort or castle acted as a visual symbol of the Medieval period in Europe, for the structure was a fortified building or set of buildings used to provide ac tive and passive defence. It also served as a residence for the castle's lord and household In the eighteen th and nineteenth century, a romantic revival of Gothic architecture renewed interest in castles as a residential symbol of wealth and power, no longer serving a military purpose.24British Palladian Style and Plan Coastal Africans and mulattoes appropriated this symbol for their own display of status Brew imported the design of a Palladian style Irish country house, a familiar form in his native County Clare. He built what he was familiar with and probably aspired to, not ju st as a reminder of home. Castle Brew exhibits all the elements of the Georgian British Palladian style rigid symmetry, an adherence to Greco Roman elements such as arches and arcades, and the use of brick and stone. Visual evidence remains of the origin al Castle Brew, a wholly symmetrical conception. This building was built on the far north section of today's complex. Four pilasters are evenly spaced across the facade with a belt course divid ing the two stories. The entrance door is centrally located and all the windows are symmetrically placed. A double staircase leads to the veran da at the rear of the residence (Figure B 30) Five anse de panier or flat, arches span the veranda. Black and white marble tiles set in a diamond pattern 23Gocking, 27; and Bosman 104. 24William Anderson, Castles of Europe from Charlemagne to the Renaissance (NY: Random House, 1970); and Jacqueline O'Brien and Desmond Guinness, Great Irish Houses and Castles (NY: Random House, 1970), 17 19.

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150 line the walkway fr om the steps to the doors. This elegant facade would have made an impression upon the many visitors who would have entered the residence via the courtyard. As in the Twidan Clan family residence, visitors entered the courtyard to ascend stairs into the vis itors hall of the house. While English homes of the period had stairs indoors and not oudoors, outside staircases were the norm on the Guinea coast. Whether Brew selected this feature from local Fante housing or from other European housing on the coast is not documented. However, at Fort William and many of the coastal forts, stairs from the courtyard lead to the upper story. In Castle Brew, t he two floors have the sa me plan (Figure B 31) with the entrance for the downstairs on the front of the building and the courtyard entrance on the back side. A large room emanates from each side of a central hall. Upstairs, t he hall was used to receive and entertain guests On the ground floor two wide arches allowed access from the corridor to the rooms. This floor is dark and was likely used for storage. Upstairs, doorways replace the arches, yet they were topped with similar anse de panier arched openings. The original entrance double doors, on both floors, were constructed from sturdy wood. The rooms on this upper floor are roomy and light, thanks to their high flat ceilings and many windows. Thus, the first building was conceived as a simple two story box, using a strict symmetrical plan. On Palladian residence s the entrance doors were often double doors with a rectangular transom above. They were further capped with a decorate entablature supported by pilasters. In Castle Brew, the anse de panier arch was carried throughout the plan for windows and doorways. The pilasters were restricted to the facade, and no en tablatures were used. Castle Brew is topped by the usual Palladian cornice embellished with decorative moldings, though not dentils. The roof, since replaced, may have looked something like the flat roof at Stourhead House in Wiltshire, England, completed in 1720. Or, it may have been a hip roof like the one on

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151 Bellamont Forest or Furness in County Kildare (c. 1731) .25Hugh Weir offers numerous examples of Irish Palladian country homes in his book Houses of Clare Rather than a portico at the entrance like Bellamont Forest, Furness has simplified this to double columns flanking the entrance with a flat entablature above. Thus, architects drew from the Palladian corpus and applied them as ornately as their clients desired, or could afford. 26 Brew would have be en familiar with m any of these houses. These houses were often two story five bay houses with little embellishment except around the entrance Materials were usually locally quarried limestone or bricks crafted in brickworks nearby. Larger residences had slate roofs, but smaller ones were thatched. They were whitewashed, had stone floors on the ground level and some even had roof gutters.27What sets Castle Brew apart from the Irish country homes is the lack of embellishment around the front entrance, the arched windows and the courtyard porch. The arched windows are in keeping w ith the idea of Palladian windows however. Some of the original glass panes and wood framing survives in the upper arched portion of the windows. A double entrance staircase, derived from Palladio, leads to the entrance porch. Th is arcaded porch is more re miniscent of Palladian city architecture for commercial buildings. Five arches span the front, while an arch on each side catches the north south breezes. The mushroom arches While it is not known if Castle Brew had a slate roof or if the exterior was whitewashed, it does have stone floors on the ground level and evidence exists of the original gutters. 28 25Harbiso n, Potterton and Sheehy, 137. appear to be a coastal 26Hugh Weir, Houses of Clare (Whitegate, County Clare: Ballinakella, 1986). See Appleville, Corofin on p. 6; Aran View, Miltown Malbay on p. 6; Atlantic House on p. 11; Ballycorrick Castle on p. 21; Ballyvoe House, Kilmaley on p. 33; and Clonmacken House, Limerick n.p. 27Ibid., Introduction, n.p. 28Mushroom arch is my own term. This is an arch that seems to spring from half piers, creating an inner niche.

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152 invention, used in English forts along the coast including Cape Coast Castle The mushroom arch may be a simplified version of the arch which springs from half piers, or impost blocks. An excellent example of the latter surmounts Fort William. Exquisite black and white marble tiles laid on the diagonal line the entryway which has large wooden double doors. Important local leaders and foreign ships captains would have entered the house via this impressive courtyard entrance. Castle Brew stands as a fine example of eighteenth century Ghanaian c oastal Palladian architecture. Perhaps because of its simplified decorative components, it exemplifies well Campbell's rebuke of Baroque embellishments. Connections to Anomabo Leadership Brew's account books reveal that he paid regular allowances to Kurentsir He also gave frequent gifts of rum, tobacco, fine chintz, and other commodities to the ruler, to his wives and household, as well as to Kurentsir's son Sesarakoo and to Anomabo elders and headmen. After Brew was fired as Governor in 1760, he went to England for a bout a year and a half. When he returned to Anomabo in 1761, he brought a gift of a blue velvet umbrella with a gold fringe for the Omanhen.29Brew's marriage to Effua Ansah, daughter of Kurentsir secured local recognition. Their courtship and marriage ma y have begun before his tenure in Anomabo, yet it seems most likely that it began during his residence at the Omanhen's P alace in the late 1750s. They had at least two daughters, Eleanor and Amba who were baptized in 1767 by the Fante Reverend Philip Quaq ue. Priestley was not able to confirm that Brew's sons, Richard and Henry (known as Harry) 29Priestley, West African Trade 46, 50.

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153 shared Effua as their mother. They were older than Eleanor and Amba and may have been born during Brews first years on the coast.30Status Furnishings Visitors to C astle Brew included ships captains from Liverpool and Rhode Island. They combined business with the pleasures of Brews table, bringing new arrivals to West Africa, information from the outside world, and perhaps a particular item shoes, slippers, or t rinkets which Brew had ordered in England or had had repaired there.31His bedroom and the hall were f urnished in mahogany. The former contained a bedstead, a settee, two arm chairs, a table, and a bureau and a bookcase used for the storage of valuables such as gold. In the hall, which was clearly of spacious dimensions and the scene of his social and busi ness dealings, there were two settees, twenty three Windsor chairs, four mahogany tables, two bureaux and bookcases, and a sideboard. Four bedsteads provided extra sleeping accommodation. Lighting was in the form of candles, and the hall was adorned by a glass chandelier. There were also four looking glasses and 6 pictures of different sizes, a miniature art gallery about which the inventory, alas, is uninformative. An organ, listed in the effects, must have been played in the hall when religious service s were conducted there by the Reverend Philip Quaque, the African chaplain at Coast Cape Castle and an occasional visitor to An omabu. According to the inventory records, the interior of Castle Brew visually reflected the tastes of an eighteenth century gentleman. Priestley describes: 32 Brew also possessed a quantity of silverware (candlesticks, a large salver, cream jug, and teaspoons) as well as china glassware and linen. The c hina included over five dozen plates, two dozen cups and saucers, Queens Ware [Wedgwood china], decanters for wine, punch, and water, wineglasses and twenty six tablecloths. Leisure activities include cards and backgammon. 30Ibid., 107 109, 117, 132. 31Ibi d., 108 109. 32Ibid., 100.

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154 Brew library collection was detailed more in the inventory than his pictures, consisting of periodicals, novels, poems and essays popular in eighteenth century Britain.33Ten years after Kurentsi rs death in 1764, Brew wrote in a letter to Captain Thomas Eagl es that small pox had taken many lives amongst them your old friend & my old Servant John Currantee; he has died worth a great deal of money, and is a great loss to this Town. 34 Brews power after Kurentsirs death is expressed by the fact that during a p eace negotiation with the Asantehene, the Asantehene deposited a close relative as hostage in Anomabo at Castle Brew, in preference Brew boasted, to Cape Coast or Elmina: As for Anomabu fort it was never thought of.35 In 1776, when Effua Ansahs mother had died, Brew accepted the responsibilities within the Fante social framework by contributing to the deceaseds funeral expenses, a custom incumbent on family and friends. He also obtained Indian Blue Bafts for the funeral attendants.36While in certain ways Brew assimilated to the coast by honoring certain Fante customs, in other ways he behaved as the British Georgian gentleman. From Brews inventory at the time of death, it is known that he possessed a substantial eighteenth century British wardrobe o f clothes. It included 15 waistcoats, nine coats laced and plain, 16 shirts, nine velvet collars, cravats, patterned black silk breeches, and several pairs of stockings, some of them silk. Also, old gold lace was kept in a bureau in the bedroom. 37 33Ibid., 101. 34Sanders, The Political Development, 277 278. 35Donnan, vol. 2, 528. 36Priestley, West African Trade 108. 37Ibid., 108.

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155 Brews L egacy Within eighteenth century Irish culture, an aspiration to better oneself, particularly among the poorer classes existed .38 Brew, who seemed to spring up from nowhere, exemplified the ideal of the self made man from this period. He acquired his fame a nd fortune through his own cunning and fortitude. Yet, at the same time, his marriage to a member of state royalty also propelled his stature within the Fante social hierarchy. He skillfully played off his relationship both with the Fante hierarchy and wit h the British Company of Merchants in order to achiev e the greatest status and power .39Castle Brew provides evidence of the growing prosperity of the independent merchants and traders along the coast, and more specifically, in Anomabo. Castle Brew is per haps the finest surviving example of eighteenth century European merchants buildings. In early nineteenth century Elmina Palladian style residences were built by Dutch and mulatto merchants, such as Bridge House which was built across the river from the castle. 40Brew's sons, Richard and Harry were sent to England for their education, and returned to Anomabo in 1768. Richard was a clerk in the business, and Harry served as a linguist at Cape Coast Cast le. Harry married a female relative of Philip Quaque. From this marriage sprang the These houses were designed for commercial purposes on the first floor, many with arcades along the street level and with warehouse spaces. Residents lived upstairs. In the case of Castle Brew, the ground floor was u sed for storage while the owner dwelled upstairs. Thus, the upper floors were more decorated. 38Mairead Dunlevy, Dress in Ireland (London: B.T. Batsford, 1989), 112. 39Priestley, West African T rade 57, 103. 40Bridge House may have been constructed in the 1830s by John Fountaine Coorengel, a merchant of European (Dutch?) and Ghanaian descent. Larry W. Yarak, Early Photography in Elmina, Ghana Studies Council Newsletter 8 (1995), footnote 4. The original structure collapsed in 1981 and a new hotel built in resemblance to the first Bridge House stands on the property. A photograph of the original building (far right) along with other Dutch Palladian residences is provided by Hyland Le Ghana, 15 2.

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156 Brew family descendants, many of whom were educated coastal elites during the colonial period. The Brews are notable for the part they played in trade, law, religious, poli tical and public affairs.41After Richard Brews death on August 5, 1776, his debts were discovered. Forster & Smith, his main creditor in England, held an auction to sell all of Castle Brews effects as well as those of the subsidiary factories. The aucti on of furniture, apparel, and goods was held in Fort William and brought in 3,327. 42 Castle Brew was later assigned to Robert Stanley as the owner, who later sold the building to Charles Croston When he died, the residence fell to his executor Cruicksha nk who later sold or gave it to George Kuntu Blankson.43The Brodie G. Cruickshank Addition At some point in time, an addition was made to the south side of Castle Brew. I propose that this addition was made by Cruickshank during his tenure in Anomabo. Whi le it is possible that Brew nearly doubled his castle in length a short time after its original completion to accommodate his growing business and importance on the coast, he never documented its construction which would be unlike his character. More like ly, Cruickshank built it to suit his needs in the early nineteenth century using the same masons employed in constructing the third story Palaver Hall and Governor's Quarters, now the library, at Fort William (Figure B 32) In style, they are greatly simil ar, and it would explain the information gathered by Lawrence who wrote that the addition (both of them) was built by Cruickshank around 1841.44 41Ibid., 107 109, 117, 132. 42Ibid., 86 87. 43Freeman, 92. From the National Archives in Cape Coast, ACC No. 16/1964. The records assistant was unable to locate this record for my perusal. 44Lawrence, 355.

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157 Cruickshank lived on the coast for twenty years, from 1834 to 1854, but not necessarily all that time in Anomabo A report dated 1841 stated that Cruickshank was the only white man in Fort William ,45 and that he was a resident merchant of Anomabo in August of 1844. Thus, Cruickshank seems to have lived in Anomabo at least during the span of 1841 to 1844. T he first ad dition to Castle Brew was likely overseen by Cruickshank during this period. He is also responsible for renaming the Anomabo f ort, Fort William. Since King William IV reigned fr om 1830 to 1837, it is equally possible that Cruickshank built the additions during the latter half of the 1830s.46British Palladian Style and Plan The designer of the addition did not seem concerned with perfect symmetry (Figures B 6 and B 31) which was a major aspect of the original Palladian structure. Lack of symmetry certainly would have been considered a major flaw by British architects. However, I doubt this was a consideration here on the Ghanaian coast. The pilasters and belt course of the original structure are not repeated on the addition. The doors and windows are not sym metrical, either with each other or with those of the original building. A wide tunnel on the ground floor allows direct access from the front of the castle to the courtyard. Near this tunnel on the facade a small round window resembles a porthole, rather than a full window. Perhaps the room inside was used to store goods to which Cruickshank wanted to limited the possibility of theft. This ground floor has two rooms connected by a large central archway. Two rooms were also added upstairs. These were conne cted to the large south room of the original structure via a single doorway. On the south end of the far room double doors likely 45Shumway 87, footnote 41; and Doortmont and Savoldi 133. 46Doortmont and Savoldi, 133.

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158 opened onto a verandah to offer spectacular views of the beach and, more importantly, of Fort William's west entrance (Figure B 33) Another door once located on the back of the first added room, also led to a verandah. The verandah possibly extended around the south side and across the back of the addition. The rooms of the south wing do not extend as far back into the courtyard area, so the sense of the doubled size of the castle is felt more from the east facing facade. The southern most room also boasts surviving, large double doors on the south wall that would have given access to a veranda that allowed access to the wall surr ounding the courtyard. The wall is inset with four wood panels having windows in the upper portion. The two central panels operate as doors. Cruickshank also likely added the wall that partially enclosing the courtyard behind the residence (Figure B 34). Two brick stairways lead to the second floor which may have acted as a lookout for trading ships, or simply as an extended porch. Fante bricks were used in the stairways as well as for voissoirs in the anse de panier arches. A brick balustrade survives alo ng these stairwells and the inner edge of the second floor. Bricks are used to form the rectangular shaped cut outs and above them a row of dentils. Several rows of bricks are coursed along the top to create a wide railing. Extensive loss to the balustrade especially to the southwestern corner, is visible. The western stairway exhibits many patches making it difficult to determine if the cut outs were originally present. A row of lancet shaped openings punctuate the inner west wall. In comparison to the ea stern balustrade, many of the Fante bricks appear new. Due to the incongruity of design and newness of many bricks, I conclude that this section was reconstructed in error by the GMMB. This is confirmed by the photograph on page 148 in Hylands section of Rives Coloniales: Architectures, de Saint Louis A Douala. The picture shows the residence

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159 before the twentieth century renovations. A section of Cruickshanks wall facing the courtyard still stands and displays evidence of at least five piers .47A curious row of flat stone, maybe marble, tiles protrude with points outward from the other side of this wall near the top. It is difficult to ascertain their purpose, and no one I asked could explain it. My best estimation is that they are part of the original flo oring for an upper walkway that no longer exists. Today, the stairways lead nowhere, and the balustrades are often used for hanging laundry. Perhaps, these tiles, set at an angle, could not be removed without damaging the walls integrity. Moldings I belie ve the moldings were added to the upstairs rooms by Cruickshank at this time Such embellishments further the image of high status for the occupants The two rooms added to the new upstairs rooms have molding. The northern room has molding only on the nort h and south sides, possibly made from wood trim. The southern room has very simple, rounded molding on all sides, pos sibly hand made from the mortar (Figure B 33) .48Molding was added to the middle room, part of Brew's original residence. This molding may have been constructed from either wood, brick or mortar or any combination. It would make sense that Cruickshank had the molding added to this room since it was one of the large rooms emanating from the entrance hall. He may have chosen to entertain his gu ests in this room as Brew would have done as well as in the adjoining room. These two rooms have the most elaborate moldings. The hall and far northern room from Brew's original structure possibly used as a bedchamber, do not have molding. 47Hyland, Le Ghana, 135 170. 48I was not able to investigate the moldings up close and had to make determinations about material and process via inquiry and viewing from the floor below.

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160 Decorative mo ldings in the rooms of the new addition to Castle Brew, as well as those added to the original south room confirm my belief that these were the entertaining rooms. The moldings are different in each room. They surround all sides of the original south room and new south room, yet the room in between has molding on two walls only. The styles of all three sets of molding are different from each other, yet the molding in the northern room of the addition looks most similar to molding in Fort William's Palaver Hall. It was not possible to determine the material of this molding, yet it appeared to be made from wood trim. The molding in the Palaver Hall is made from bricks and mortar. Moldings inform our understanding of colonial period cultural authentification because this status embellishment was incorporated into some of the African coastal elite structures, such as Swanzy, later in the nineteenth century. It was also added to the Omanhens Palace sometime during this period. Ceramic tiles would also be incorp orated into African coastal elite structures, such as the first Kow Otu Family Residence (Figure B 13) Similar tiles are found at the Omanhens Palace, which suggests that perhaps the coastal elites were borrowing forms as much from the ruling hierarchy a s from the Europeans. J. H. E. Conduah Family Residence A Dutch Palladian Comparison in Elmina The J. H. E. Conduah Family Residence (Figure B 35) in Elmina is a stone nog house with brick facing, built between 1807 and 1839 by the Dutch Joseph Henry Em manuel Conduah, or Condua (d. May 8, 1921) (Figure B 36) was a trading agent and landlord with many properties in Elmina who purchased this grand home in Nana Kobina Gyan Square in 1903. Conduah originally worke d for the Dutch merchant s. When they left El mina in 1903, they practically gave the house to Conduah for only seven Ghana cedis (less than $5 today) He later added a two story concrete structure off the courtyard with a kitchen and bathrooms. He also modernized the residence with electricity and plumbing.

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161 While this residence is Dutch and not African, it is useful to compare certain features of the house with those in Anomabo. The Dutch house observes both Palladian and sobrado design (see Chapter 6) The floor plan for the J. H. E. Condua h House is complex with two courtyards. Anse de panier arches are located over many of the doors and windows. The main hall has three Palladian windows surmounting glass paneled French doors that lead onto the verandah (Figure B 37) Th e verandah extends across the front and northern side of the house, basically the sides that abut the square and side street. The ground floor incorporated at least three stores at the front and a grand marble staircase entrance accessed via the front courtyard door located to the righ t of the house. The steps lead to a corridor with chambers and two halls emanating. The plan is not symmetrical and does not incorporate the Hall and Chamber plan. It is essentially a later version of the Dutch Palladian style that was utilized in the Dut ch Lodge in Anomabo The upstairs floors are timber and wood plank. C olored glass decorative window panels were installed by Condua h in the main hall and in the door of the smaller hall leading to the wood plank verandah. Imported Alpine woodwork covers this exterior verandah. Conduah was not the original client for the house; it was essentially given to him. Yet, he would have enjoyed the benefits of having such a status symbol denoting his success as a trader with European connections T he ownership of s uch a fine family house also dem onstrat ed his membership in the coastal elite class. In keeping with the expectations, h e decorated the interior with imported Victorian furniture. A large mirror in the small hall is reported to have been used to dress the brides of Elmina. Thus, the coastal elites would have been familiar with this house and its interior, as they were with Castle Brew

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162 The private courtyard toward the back of the house has decorative woodwork with cut outs along the top of the verandah, ye t this was locally crafted a transformation, or cultural authentification, of the Alpine woodwork. This African woodwork, though similar in idea to that on the exterior verandah, is entirely different. Motifs are spaced more widely apart and repeat ed les s. Christian crosses worked into the design were added after Conduahs ownership. Chambers surround much of the courtyard that features an old iron lamp post, no doubt added during Conduahs time, and a natural spring. A large cistern was built over this s pring. From Inhabiting European Palladian Houses to Building Them All the African coastal elite stone nog houses in Elmina have since collapsed or have been replaced, yet from the examples surviving in Anomabo and Cape Coast I can determine that the Palla dian style was popular for European structures built prior and during the colonial period and for African coastal elites buildings built during the colonial period. Clearly the Africans appropriated certain Palladian elements from the Europeans for their a rchitecture, yet these were added to, and did not replace, their Akan architectural vernacular.

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163 CHAPTER 5 SELECTION AND INCORPORATION OF THE PALLADIAN STYLE Though it is possible that both the Akans and the Europeans had the Hall and Chamber plan, is s eems more likely that this plan along with other elements of the British Palladian style was appropriated by African coastal elites in the nineteenth century. This style was not only adopted by African coastal elites in Anomabo and the Ghanaian coast, but also it was utilized by African coastal elites in port cities all along the Guine a coast and in the Caribbean and Brazil While many Anomabos would have been directly familiar with Castle Brew and its interior, inspiration could have been found in structur es all along the Guinea coast as well as in Europe and in books. It was promoted by Methodist missionaries who provided spiritual guidance, literacy and craftsman workshops. Therefore African coastal elites of Anomabo were well aware of architectural tren ds in other parts of the Atlantic world before, during and after the colonial period Th e selection and incorporation of the Palladian style in urban environments across the Atlantic is demonstrated by the fact that the Hall and Chamber plan can also be fo und in mulatto and African hous ing in the Caribbean. Architect Patricia E. Green noted that vernacular architecture in the Caribbean consisted of three rooms, each approximately 10 feet square, with a door on the front and back of the central hall. A piazz a, or porch, fronted this type of structure. She determined that such architecture was located in rural areas first and later transported into the cities. Green concludes by claiming that the mulatto vernacular is an expression generated from the cultural matrix using material within the locale. Thus, while people in the Caribbean modified European architecture in the eighteenth century, essentially selecting and incorporating

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164 it, they transformed it into an entirely new local form by the nineteenth centu ry.1Cruickshank s descriptions of coastal Ghanaian towns in the second quarter of the nineteenth century for the most part probably came from his knowledge of Anomabo a nd Cape Coast since he spent much of his time at these sites. As Cruickshank notes, The changes that begin to take place in the style of houses and the building materials, in furniture and decoration, in clothing, and occupations all afford an insight int o the social effects of the encounter between Europe and Africa. This is a parallel examp le to cultural authentification on the central Ghanaian coast. 2they gradually come to limit their visits to stated occ asions of public festivity or annual custom making. At last the disjunction is completed by the fallen roof and broken down walls of the old family house, always to be, but never repaired The principal towns are deformed by heaps of roofless walls i n all stages of decay, while substantial houses of higher pretensions are being built upon new sites in uninhabited parts of the country. These houses are built in mud, or 'swish Such family houses we re built in the towns, while much of the living took place in the hinterland where the crops we re grown and harvested. Thus, the African coastal elites lived in small w attle and daub houses in the hinterland and built swish (rammed earth? ) residences in the towns and cities. Cruickshank laments the state of these residences, often neglected for long periods of time. 3Therefore, prior to the 1860s, Cruickshank describe d the coastal hous ing as swish courtyard residences, some having two stories. In keeping with urban coastal practices to select and incorporate many European cultural items these items enhance their lives and display their cosmopolitan status. The cultural authentification of such items was ongoing since the sixteenth century when goods, especially textiles, from outside cultures, were traded on the coast. In 1Green, Architecture, 1702 1703 2Brodie Cruickshank, 22. 3Ibid., 288 290.

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165 contrast, architectural choices seem to have change d as early as the second quarter of the nineteenth century. These changes may be a reflection of the power shifts from African coastal elites to Asante to British in the nineteenth century. A rammed earth house on Annobil Street n ear the Omanhen s Palace was constructed in the middle of the nineteenth century by Kweku B anful of the Nsona Clan and exhibits the early incorporation of the Hall and Chamber plan Until 2007, the two story house was in fine condition. Today, however, only the first story remains. The l ower story plan reveals the six room Hall and Chamber plan similar to the Kodwo Kuntu Family Residence (Figure B 38) Timber stairs on the back of the structure would have allowed access to the upper story, which was said to have had the same plan as the ground floor. Since no concrete plaster protects the struct ure it is rapidly decaying T he building construction is now visible and it is evident that bricks and pieces of brick we re used in the framing of windows and doorways. Brick also reinforced the exterior corners of the house. I n this case and evidenced in other buildings along the coast, it seems that the Fante were making their own burnt brick and incorporating the material into their earthen structures for stability. The brick work would have be en covered with a layer of swish plaster, so it would not have been visible in the finished residence. It can be surmised that coastal masons chose to incorporate this new material into indigenous construction. Brick continues to be used in rammed earth construction today. Therefore, the selection of the Europea n technology of making burnt bricks and their incorporation into indigenous construction methods demonstrates the process of cultural authentification. Adopting stone and stone nog construction parallels this development. Adding Palladian design elements s uch as pilasters, arches and arcades further enriches the process of cultural authentificatio n to create a

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166 new coastal style George Kuntu Blankson, a wealthy Fante merchant of the coastal elite class, built his addition to Castle Brew in stone and brick. Castle Brew The George Kuntu Blankson Addition Lawrence maintains that Castle Brew and both of the addition s made to it were built by Cruickshank, the British Judicial Assessor and later Governor, some twenty years after Fort William wa s constructed an d afterwards to have belonged to the Aggrey family.4Margaret Priestley a few years after Lawrence, documented that the main house was actually constructed by Richard Brew from 17651769, during the latter period of Fort William's construction. S ometime after Brew died, the house came to be owned by Cruickshank, who later gave it to one of his agents, Blankson (1809August 23, 1898), a Fante who became an agent, then a registrar, and finally a prosperous merchant in Anomabo. Priestley notes that Castle Brew was occupied in the nineteenth century by Blankson, a contemporary of Samuel Collins Brew, one of Richard Brews great grandsons in Anomabo. Yet, t he houses neve r belonged to the Aggrey family. Dr. James Emman Kodwo Mensa Otsiwadu Humamfunsam Kwegyir Aggrey (October 18, 1875July 30, 1927) was born in Anomabo, but he grew up in a house in Aka npaado or in Bantuma As already established above, the first addition was built by Cruickshank sometime in the early 1840s. 5Early Years It is my contention that Blankson adde d the second addition, which is presently incomplete and lacking a roof (Figure s B 18 and B 31) Blankson was born in 1809 in the Fante town of Sodufu while his mother was on the way to Elmina. His father was Chief Kuntu of Egyaa, a town just e ast of Anomabo. As a son of a chief young Blankson and others were rewarded by Brigadier General Sir Charles McCarthy 4Lawrence, 355. 5Priestley, West African Trade 57, footnote 2.

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167 with attendance at the Colonial School in Anomabo. Blankson had to walk the two miles between Egyaa and Anomabo twice each day. When the h eadmaster Mr. Anderson died, Blankson was transferred to the Cape Coast Government School at the Castle. Despite these trials, Blankson graduated in 1824 as a qualified scholar. He found his first employment with Mr. Thompson and joined his expedition to t he Ashanti .6At the same time Blankson, his friend William de Graft, John Sam and others started the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge that later became the Wesl eyan Methodist Church under Reverend Joseph Dunwell. In 1834, Blankson was employed by Governor McLean on a mission to the Ashanti. Asantehene Osei Yaw Akoto detained Blankson for 18 months using Blankson's services as a clerk with political correspondence. By 1843, Blankson had returned to Anomabo and was managing the Anomabo Wesleyan Mi ssion with six sub agents under him. 7Successful Merchant Ten years later, he became a trading agent and he met the prosperous English trader Cruickshank. When Cruickshank took an appointment to become the Judicial Assessor in Her Majesty's Settlements in Cape Coast Castle, he transferred the management of his business to Blankson. Blankson managed Cruickshank's interests so well, that Cruickshank left the business and his property of Castle Brew to Blankson when he left the coast in 1854. At that time Cru ickshank took Blankson with him to England and introduced Blankson to his former partners, the mercantile house of Foster & Smith. Blankson's wife managed the business in Anomabo in his absence. Utilizing a successful business relationship with Foster & Sm ith, Blankson 6Isaac S. Ephson, Gallery of Gold Coast Celebrities 1632 1958 vol. 1 (Accra, Ghana: Ilen, 1969), 38; Magnus J. Sampson, Makers of Modern Ghana (Acc ra, Ghana: Anowuo Educational Publications, 1969), 46; and George Kuntu Blankson, The Gold Coast Aborigines (September 5, 1898), n.p. 7Ephson, 38; Sampson, 47; and Blankson, n.p.

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168 expanded his business across the Central Region with factories in Kormantine, Asafa, Arkrah, Apam, Mankwadzi, Winneba, Otuam, Anomabo and Cape Coast. The height of Blanksons career came in 1861 when he was appointed a member of the Legislat ive Council ; he served until 1873 He was the second Gold Coast African to be so honored, following the Accra mulatto, James Bannerman.8The Second Addition This also marks an important shift in the emergence of more Africans in the coastal elite class, previously mostly comp rised of mulattoes. Lawrence surmised that th is addition to Castle Brew was built by Cruickshank around 1841.9 I argue that it is more likely this second addition to Castle Brew was built by Blankson sometime after his trip to England i n 1854, perhaps even handling the transaction while in England. Blankson lived for an extended period in Anomabo (from the 1840s until his death in 1898) and constructed a factory there By 1854, he had achieved considerable wealth as a merchant. According to historian Isaac S. Ephson, Blankson built a magnificent lodge, which is still in existence (exactly o pposite Fort William, Anomabu). He employed over a thousand people, some as store keepers, clerks, facto ry hands, boat boys, plantation workers and l aborers. He reportedly owned as many as one hundred slaves at one time.10 He most likely lived in Castle Brew and planned to use the addition as a store, for it faces both Fort William and the coastline. This property may have been the factory in Anomabo re ferred to by Ephson .11 8Ibid. Yet many possibilities however, exist for the local location of Blanksons factory. In addition to 9Lawrence, 355. 10Ephson, 38 39. 11Ibid., 38.

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169 Blankson s having enough capital to build the structure mason s trained in stone nog construction were available as well (discussed i n Chapter 6) Thus, Blankson had motive, means and available masons A fourth clue offers further evidence of Blankson's commission. The seven asafo companies of Anomabo elected Blankson to be their Commander in Chief, or t uafohen, in 1863 upon hearing the news that the Ashanti had invaded the Assin district. Blankson led the companies to war in Assin Mansu after financing much of the artillery. They were successful in driving the Ashanti forces north, yet this also closed the trade routes. Thus, in 1866 Bl ankson volunteered to negotiate with the Asante king or asantehene He was successful an d returned to Anomabo a great hero .12 His luck soon changed. D uring this time Blankson lost three of his children. In 1868, his wife also passed. In 1873, the Ashanti armies again moved against the Fante and Blankson was asked to lead the Anomabo companies into war. Blankson unlike his previous triumph, was accused of taki ng a bribe from an Asante chief and of selling weapons to the Asante. Although he was acquitted in 1874, the damage had been done. Blankson was mobbed by his community who once respected him. His crops, trees, furniture and buildings were l ooted and destro yed The Reverend Thomas B irch Freeman convinced Blankson to rejoin the Methodist church where he became a lay preacher and church officer in 1876. Blankson chose to confine himself to his house for the last twelve years of his life, focusing solely on his involvement with the Methodist church. On August 23, 1898, he died in his home, Castle Brew, at age 89. He would have been motivate d to build his great structure as a status symbol after this victory. 13 12Sampson, 48 49; and Blankson, n.p. 13Ephson, 39; Sampson, 49 50; and Blankson, n.p.

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170 The fourth clue is apparent in the fact that the building appears to be missing its second story, started in one corner but not completed. Thus, the construction was probably halted in 1873 when Blankson fell into difficulties. Therefore, this structure was likely built between the late 1860s and 1873. Blankson's addition to Castle Brew remain s as a legacy of one of the most prominent nineteenth centu ry Fante merchant s of Anomabo Samuel Collins Brew Family Residence A Comparison Blanksons contemporary Samu el Collins Brew (c. 1810February 2, 1881) followed in his great grandfather Brews footsteps by becoming a prominent merchant in Anomabo .14 Col lins Brew was a legitmate ( i.e. not trading in slaves ) trading merchant and public official. Although he was born in Cape Coast, he moved to Anomabo in his twenties or thirties to establish and grow his business. His records state that he mainly traded in gol d and ivory. Like Blankson and others, Collins Brew and his brother Harry imported goods on credit from British firms. These items included cloth, rum and tobacco pipes. They were sold in stores Collins Brew maintained in Anomabo and other places along the coast.15 His family residence was located on Sam Brew's kukwadu, or hill, in the Krokessin, or old town, neighborhood. Today, his house is in such a ruinous state that it is difficult to even find traces of the foundations. It is reputed to have bee n a magnificent and large house that collapsed sometime before 1929. 16 14For his obituary, see Document D 1 in the Appendix. His brick factory is reputed to have been located nearby. It is likely that this factory produced the burnt bricks used in his stone nog residence as bits of brick are strewn 15Priestley, West African Trade 143 147. 16A set of buildings marked in poor condition in depicted on the Gold Coast Survey map of 1931, s o perhaps it collapsed shortly thereafter.

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171 all over th e hillside. Unfortuantely, none of his descendants in Anomabo could remember the faade or the interior plan of this residence. Although h e also built a house in Cape Coast on Bentsil Street,17 I was unable to locate it. It is likely in ruins today. It is possible that the house was destroyed after heavy rains caused damage in 1929.18 Priestley notes that the Brew House in Cape Coast became the family residence of descendants, including his son, James Hutton Brew. Unfortunately, also like his great grandf ather, Collins Brew lost his wealth after a decade of disruptions in trade due to Asante invasions. In 1867, he had to relinquish his properties, including his houses in Anomabo and Cape Coast, to pay his creditor For ster and Smith.19After the death of Co llins Brew in February of 1881, a public auction was held on December 15, 1881, to sell house hold furniture, wearing apparel, silver wares, country cloths, bedsteads, mattrasses... 20 When Collins Brew died, his funeral was celebrated in a manner appropriate to one who had been at the forefront of th e Anomabu trading community Liberal calabashes of ru m for instance, are said to have been placed at various points of the town for all and sundry, including Brews customers from up country, to enjoy. Nor was Christian symbolism neglected, and the Methodist Cemetery at Anomabu today contains a large stone monument, still cared for by the Brew, Blankson and Collins Brew suffered the same fate in their latter years loss of wealth because of Asante political entanglements and wars. And, the English trading firm of Foster and Smith benefited. 17Gold Coast Leader (January 11 18, 1919), 1. 18This would seem to suggest that the Cape Coast residence was constructed in earthen materials, possibly a rammed earth structure. Gold Coast Leader (July 6, 1929), 8. 19Priestley, West African Trade 148 150. 20The Gold Coast Times (December 10, 1881), back page.

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172 descendants of his domestics, and marking the place where he is buried.21 The Methodist cemetery was moved in the late 1990s, and the family moved the marble stone for Brews wife to the courtyard house where he and his wife are said to have lived before the stone residence was built. The whereabouts of his large stone monument is unknown.22British Palladian Style and Plan This question of who built the Castle Br ew Addition is crucial when considering the architectural choices made. Only the first floor remains, but the style and materials selected are in obvious appropriation of the British Palladian style found throughout the coast. A symmetrical and broad arcad e with four, brick formed, true arches welcome d potentia l clients to Blankson's store. These large brick arches form a Palladian arcade fac ing the beach to the south. The Hal l and Chamber plan was utilized (Figure B 31) The arch on each end open s into a chamber that has another large archway opening to the main hall. A nother larger room extends eastward beyond this Hall and Chamber plan. This room links the Blankson A ddition to Cruickshanks A ddition. On the common wall a window or door is currently blocked. The mushroom arch over this entry matches those of Castle Brew and the Cruickshank Addition. The mushroom arch is not used in the Blankson Addition. It would make sense that the original entry may have been a window and then it was made into a door dur ing Blanksons construction of the second addition. The doorway was blocked to probably keep out intruders sometime after 1873. Observing the overall plan of the ground floor, it seems wellsuited for a merchants shop. The arcade allowed easy access to t he space and into the courtyard. The room to the east may have been used as a storeroom. Three arched windows that extend almost to the floor are located 21Priestley, West African Trade 156 157. 22Collins Brews obituary from The Gold Coast Times is reprinted in Appendix D, see Document D 1.

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173 in this storeroom as well, so it may have also been used as an office. Access to the room is reached v ia a small accessway between the back wall of the shop and the courtyard wall of the Cruickshank Addition. The large anse de panier arches located on Cruickshanks courtyard wall also differentiate it from the Blankson Addition. While anse de panier arche s characterize Castle Brew and the Cruickshank Addition, the Blankson Addition favored the true arch. The faade arcade and the two interior arches use dark gray granite stone as voussoirs. The remaining arches however use local brick, matching the arches in the Cruickshank wall. The use of the granite creates an attractive arch unusual for the coast. The walls incorporate a mix of granite and sandstone. A belt course consisting of three courses of local brick as well as a well designed red brick cornice s urround the facade of the east room. The belt course and cornice are also visible on just the end of the southwest wall. They do not extend across the west wall that would have abutted another building. The stairway leading to the entrance arcade includes a handrail of local brick with lancetshaped cut outs identical to those used on the stairwells and balustrades inside Fort William. The flooring for these stairs is marble, black on the steps and checked in black and white on the landing. A newer floor h as been placed within the structure, done during the Ghana Museum and Monuments Board renovation in the 1960s. The entire floor was probably either originally granite like the Castle Brew courtyard or intended to be laid with granite flooring. In these det ails, it seems apparent that Blankson is making a visual connection with the original Castle Brew and Fort William, two of the most visible European structures in Anomabo. Even in its unfinished state the Blankson Addition is an impressive African coastal elite interpretation of Palladian architecture. The European style was selected and it was characterized

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174 as Blankson's place of business. He incorporated this structure to visually impress not only his European clients but also his African clients and the Anomabo community. Such a structure would have communicated his status both in economic and social terms As tuafohen, he would have also been communicating his military power. The structure, situated between Castle Brew and Fort William visually separate s the buildings, the two symbolic of European power and the other one symbolizing African power. To be specific, African coastal elite power, and the freedom of choice that comes with this power, was in flux during the nineteenth century when they were wea kened by both Asante forces and British administration. Off beat Phrasing Although Blankson continued the tradition of the Palladian style of Castle Brew, he apparently did not intend to copy it. Firstly, the east room sets the plan off balance, inhibiting its symmetry. Secondly, the arches do not symmetrically balance. At the back of the shop are a series of five arched entrances. Hylands plan depicts a regular plan of one in each chamber and three in the main hall placed at equal and proportionate dista nces. However, today this plan is slightly different. The central opening is larger than the other four. It spans a space of approximately 70 inches, while the other entrances span an average of 38 inches. So, either Hyland made an error in his plan, or the Ghana Museums and Monuments Board made this alteration due to damag