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1 MATERNAL IMMUNE CHANGES DURING BOVINE PREGNANCY: A FOCUS ON THE ENDOMETRIAL MACROPHA GE By LILIAN DE JESUS OLIVEIRA A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY pt-BR UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA pt-BR pt-BR 2010
2 pt-BR pt-BR pt-BR pt-BR 2010 Lilian de Jesus Oliveira pt-BR pt-BR pt-BR
3 pt-BR pt-BR pt-BR To my parents Luiz Manoel and Maria Aparecida de Jesus, my brother and sister, Rodolfo Manoel and Luciana de Jesus Oliveira, my boyfriend Robson Fortes Giglio, and my major advisor, Dr. Peter J. Hansen
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to express my heartfelt thanks in having Dr. Peter J. Hansen as my major advisor. His guidance, support and challenges throughout my PhD program have made me grow not only as scientist but also as a person. His enthusiasm, knowledge and intelligence inspired me every day during these years. He is more than an advisor; he is a very good friend that I am glad to have the opportunity to meet. I am going to miss our weekly meetings. Also, I would like to thank my committee members, Dr. Nasser Chegini, Dr. William Thatcher, Dr. Daniel Sharp and Dr. Ammon Peck, for their contributions and suggestions for improving my research projects and academic training. I am also grateful to Dr. Joel Yelich his continuous support and the opportunity to teach in his class. This experience was indispensable to my formation as a teacher; his passion for teaching is contagious. I would like to thank my current lab mates, Dr. Silvia Carambula, Sarah Fields, Barbara Loureiro, Luciano and Aline Bonilla, Justin Fear, and Jim Moss, as well as my old lab mates, Dr. Jeremy Block, Dr. Maria Padua, Dr. Dean Jousan, Dr. Luiz Augusto de Castro, Dr. Katherine Hendricks, Adriane Bell ( in memoria m) and Amber Brad, for their friendship and help. A special thanks to William Rembert, for his friendship and help. I am also grateful to Dr. Carlos Risco for his help in the obtention of the samples for my first chapter. Likewise, I would like to thank my friends at the Department of Animal Sciences for serving as my family all these years. Thanks are also extended to all personnel in the Department of Animal Sciences with special mention to Joann Fischer, Cora, Darlene; Dolores, Rick, Frank and Joyce for all their help and friendship.
5 I also want to thank the International Student Center staff, especially to Ms. Debra Anderson, for her kindness and assistance to me and all international students. I thank my Fulbright fellows for their support and friendship during this time. To Dr. Debora Faria from the University of Oklahoma, your friendship is one of the most valuable things that I have received. I also thank Neal Benson and my dear friend Steve McClellan from the Flow Cytometry Core Laboratory for their help during all my Ph. D. Many times they worked after hours so I could finish my experiments. Without the ir help, my dissertation would have been very different. I also thank Dr. Gigi Ostrow and Dr. Jason Li from the Gene Expression Core Laboratory for giving me valuable advice I could not name all the friends I have made during these years in Gainesville, but without them, my journey here would have seemed longer. I want to thank especially Izabella and Bryan Thompson; Juliana Fernandes; Juliano Laran; Lincoln Zotarelli ; Flavio Avila; Luis Symanski; Luciano Silva; Carlos Canas; Leandro Grecco; Aline Monari; Oscar Queiroz; Maria Belen Rabaglino; Beatriz Sanz; Qien Yang; Flavia Barros; Jacob Bulboz; Suzan Rodgers; and John Midolo for their friendship and the good times that we spent together. It was really fun, I really love you guys and I miss you all. You are lifetime friends. I would like to especially thank Dr. Flavio Silvestre for his help, scientific discussions and valuable friendshi p. I also dina, Kathleen Pennington, Michelle Twilla and Krista DeRespino for their friendship and their valuable help since the day I arrived in Gainesville.
6 Likewise, I would like to thank Krista DeRespino and Amber Brad for their unconditional friendship and love through all good and not so good times. I also would like to thank my friends that are more likely a family to me Agda Barreirinhas, Marcelo Tamassia, Vanessa Ferraz, Cassio Auada Ferrigno, Andre and Renata Shih for the continuous support and friendship. I would like to thank my family, my mom, my dad and brother and sister for their love. I would like to extend my acknowledgments to Giglio Family. Finally, I sincerely would like to thank my partner in life and my best friend Robson Giglio for his constant love and support in every moment in my life
7 TABLE OF CONTENTS P age ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................................................................. 4 LIST OF TABLES .......................................................................................................... 10 LIST OF FIGURES ........................................................................................................ 11 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ........................................................................................... 13 ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................... 19 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................... 22 2 LITERATURE REVIEW .......................................................................................... 25 Origin, Development, and Function of Macrophages .............................................. 25 Development .................................................................................................... 25 Macrophage Activation and Differentiation ....................................................... 29 Regulation of Immune Responses ................................................................... 33 Wound Healing and Tissue Remodeling .......................................................... 35 Angiogenesis .................................................................................................... 36 Tumor Progression ........................................................................................... 37 Macrophages in the Pregnant Endometrium ........................................................... 38 Immunology of the Uterus in the Cow ..................................................................... 44 MHC Proteins Expression by the Trophoblast ........................................................ 46 Uterine Immune System ......................................................................................... 47 Regulatory Molecules Affecting Endometrial Immune Function .............................. 50 Progesterone .................................................................................................... 51 Prostaglandins .................................................................................................. 52 Interferon-tau .................................................................................................... 52 Parturition ............................................................................................................... 53 Synopses and Objectives ....................................................................................... 54 3 DEVIATIONS IN POPULATIONS OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONONUCLEAR CELLS AND ENDOMETRIAL MACROPHAGES IN THE COW DURING PREGNANCY ......................................................................................................... 55 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 55 Materials and Methods ............................................................................................ 57 Materials ........................................................................................................... 57 Flow Cytometric Analysis of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells ................... 58 Isolation of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) ................................ 59 Immunohistochemistry for CD68 and CD14 ..................................................... 60
8 Two-color Immunofluorescence for CD68 and CD14 ....................................... 62 Two-color Immunofluorescence for CD68 and CD14 in Adherent Cells from Endometrium ................................................................................................ 62 Statistical Analysis ............................................................................................ 63 Results .................................................................................................................... 63 Representative Flow Cytometry Patterns ......................................................... 63 Differences between Pregnant and Nonpregnant Cows at Day 33-34 of Gestation in Subpopulations of PBMC .......................................................... 65 Differences between Preparturient and Nonpregnant Cows in Subpopulations of PBMC .............................................................................. 65 Immunolocalization of CD68 + and CD14 + Cells in Endometrium as Affected by Pregnancy Status ..................................................................................... 68 Discussion .............................................................................................................. 72 4 PHENOTYPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF MACROPHAGES IN THE ENDOMETRIUM OF THE PREGNANT COW ........................................................ 78 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 78 Materials and Methods ............................................................................................ 80 Materials ........................................................................................................... 80 Tissues ............................................................................................................. 81 Two-color Immunofluorescence ....................................................................... 82 DualColor Flow Cytometric Analysis for CD68 and CD14 in Dispersed Endometrial cells ........................................................................................... 83 Results .................................................................................................................... 84 Localization of Cells Positive for CD68 and CD14 ............................................ 84 Expression of CD11b on Cells Positive for CD68 ............................................. 84 Localization of Cells Positive for MHC class II .................................................. 87 Discussion .............................................................................................................. 87 6 TRANSCRIPTOMAL PROPERTIES OF THE ENDOEMTRIAL MACROPHAGE IN THE PREGNANT COW ..................................................................................... 94 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 94 Materials and Methods ............................................................................................ 96 Materials ........................................................................................................... 96 Collection of Endometrium and Blood .............................................................. 96 Isolation of Mononuclear Leukocytes in Blood ................................................. 97 Preparation of Cell Suspension from Endometrium .......................................... 97 Purification of CD14 + Cells ............................................................................... 98 RNA Purification ............................................................................................... 99 Microarray Hybridization ................................................................................... 99 Analysis of Microarray Data ............................................................................ 100 Gene Ontology Analysis ................................................................................. 101 Quantitative Real-Time PCR .......................................................................... 101 Results .................................................................................................................. 104 Purification of Endometrial and Blood CD14 + Cells ........................................ 104
9 Expression of Genes in Blood and Endometrial CD14 + Cells ......................... 104 Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes ............................................. 104 Gene Ontology Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes ................................ 115 Differentially Expressed Pathways ........................................................................ 115 Differentially Expressed Genes Characteristically Regulated during Macrophage Differentiation ......................................................................... 123 Comparison to Genes Expressed by Human Decidual Macrophages ............ 126 Quantitative RT-PCR ............................................................................... 130 Discussion ............................................................................................................ 132 6 GENERAL DISCUSSION ..................................................................................... 143 LIST OF REFERENCES ............................................................................................. 155 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .......................................................................................... 180
10 LIST OF TABLES Table P age 5-1 Primer/probe sets used for qRT-PCR ................................................................ 103 5-2 Top 100 upregulated genes based on fold change in endometrial CD14 + cells as compared to CD14 + cells in blood ................................................................ 109 5-3 Top 100 upregulated genes based on fold change in blood CD14 + cells as compared to CD14 + cells in the endometrium. ................................................... 112 5-4 Ontologies where the incidence of frequency of overexpressed genes in the endometrium was different than the incidence of overexpressed genes in the blood. ................................................................................................................. 117 5-5 Pathways subject to differential regulation. ........................................................ 119 5-6 Differentially regulated genes in endometrial and blood CD14 + cells that are differentially regulated in the intermediately-differentiated macrophage. ........... 124 5-7 Differentially regulated genes in endometrial and blood CD14 + cells that are differentially regulated in fully differentiated macrophages ................................ 127 5-8 Differentially regulated genes in endometrial and blood CD14 + cells that are differentially regulated in M1 and M2 macrophages. .......................................... 128 5-9 Differentially expressed genes in endometrial and blood CD14 + cells that are also differentially expressed in human decidual macrophages vs human blood monocytes. a ....................................................................................................... 129 510 qPCR validation of 12 genes that were differentially regulated in the microarray analysis ............................................................................................ 131
11 LIST OF FIGURES Figure P age 2-1 Pathways of macrophage activation.. ................................................................ 31 3-1 Representative acquisition dot plots to analyze subpopulations of bovine per ipheral blood mononuclear cells .................................................................... 64 3-2 Effect of pregnancy status at days 33 34 after insemination on populations of peripheral blood mononuclear cells as determined by flow cytometry.. .............. 66 3-3 Differences in peripheral blood mononuclear cell populations between nonpregnant (NP) and preparturient cows (P) as determined by flow cytometry. ........................................................................................................... 67 3-4 Immunolocalization of cells positive for (A C) CD68 and (D) CD14 in bovine endometrium.. ..................................................................................................... 69 3-5 Effect of pregnancy status on the intensity of staining for CD68 in the lamina propria (A) and submucosa (B) of the endometrium.. ......................................... 70 3-6 Co -localization of CD68 and CD14 in edometrium at day 209 of pregnancy. The top panels represent sections that were dual labeled with anti-CD14 (red) and anti-CD68 (green).. ............................................................................. 71 3-7 Co -localization of CD68 and CD14 in adherent cells isolated from dispersed endometrial cells from a pregnant cow at day 166 of pregnancy.. ...................... 71 4-1 Immunofluorescent labeling of cells for CD68 (green) and CD14 (red) in endometrium from a cow at ~Day 145 of pregnancy. ......................................... 85 4-2 Acquisition dot-plots from flow cytometric analysis of the proportion of CD68 + cells in dispersed endometrial cells from the interplacentomal endometrium of a cow at ~Day 166 of pregnancy. ................................................................... 86 4-3 Immunofluorescent labeling of cells for CD68 (green) and CD11b (red) in endometrium from a cow at ~Day 145 of pregnancy. ......................................... 88 4-4 Immunofluorescent labeling of cells for CD68 (green) and MHC class II (red) in endometrium from a cow at ~Day 216 of pregnancy. ..................................... 89 4-5 Immunofluorescent labeling of cells for MHC class II (red) and CD14 (green) in interplacentomal endometrium from a cow at ~Day 243 of pregnancy.. ......... 90 5-1 Representative acquisition dot plots for CD14 + cells in endometrium and peripheral blood as determined by flow cytometry. ........................................... 105
12 5-2 Graphical representation of differentially regulated genes in endometrial and blood CD14 + cells. .......................................................................................... 106 5-3 Graphical representation of differentially regulated genes in endometrial and blood CD14 + cells that have been reported to be differentially regulated during macrophage differentiation. ................................................................... 125
13 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS C1QA Complement component C1R Complement C1r subcomponent C1S Complement C1s subcomponent CALCB Calcitonin related polypeptide beta CCL C hemokine (C C motif) legend CCL17 C C motif chemokine 17 CCL18 Chemokine (C C motif) le gend 18 CCL22 C C motif chemokine 22 CCL22 Chemokine (C C motif) ligand 22 CCL24 Chemokine (C C motif) ligand 22 CCL3 C C motif chemokine 3 CCL8 Chemokine (C C motif) ligand 8 CCL8 Chemokine (C C motif) ligand 8 CCR C C chemokine receptor CCR3 Chem okine (c c motif) receptor 3 CD Cluster of differentiation CD163 CD163 molecule CD21 Complement component (3d/Epstein Barr virus) receptor 2, CD335 Natural cytotoxicity triggering receptor 1 CD63 CD63 antigen CD80 CD80 antigen CD86 CD86 molecule CD 94/KLRD1 Killer cell lectin like receptor subfamily D, member 1 CdC42 Cell division control protein 42 CDH1 E cadherin CFB Complement factor B CXCR4 Chemokine (CXC motif) receptor 4 CIDEB Cell death inducing DFF45 like effector B CLDN1 Claudin 1 CLDN1 Claudin 1 CLDN3 Claudin 3 CLDN8 Claudin 8 CLU Clusterin CRLF2 Cytokine receptor like factor 2 CRLF2 Cytokine receptor like factor 2 CSF2 Colony stimulating factor 2 CSF3 Colony stimulating factor 3 CTGF Connective tissue growth factor CXC L10 Chemokine (C X C motif) ligand 10
14 CXCL11 Chemokine (C X C motif) ligand 11 CXCL14 Chemokine (C X C motif) ligand 14 CXCL9 Chemokine (C X C motif) ligand 9 DIAPH1 Diaphanous homolog 1 ESM 1 Endothelial cell specific molecule 1 FCGR3A Fc fragment o f IgG, low affinity IIIa, receptor (CD16a) FGF Fibroblast growth factor FGF1 Fibroblast growth factor 1 FIZZ1 Resistin like beta FN1 Fibronectin 1 FOLR2 Folate receptor 2 (fetal) FOXP3 Forkhead box P3 GAS6 Growth arrest specific 6 GATM L arginine :glycine amidinotransferase GRLF1 Glucocorticoid receptor DNA binding factor 1 GZMA Granzyme A (granzyme 1, cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated serine esterase 3) gzmA Granzyme A GZMB Granzyme B HLA Human leukocyte antigen HLAC Major histocompatabil ity complex, class I, C HLADP Major histocompatability complex, class II, DP HLADQ Major histocompatability complex, class II, DQ HLADR Major histocompatability complex, class II, DR HLAE Major histocompatability complex, class I, E HLAG Major histoco mpatability complex, class I, G HMOX1 Heme oxygenase (decycling) 1 IDO Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase IFNAR1 Interferon receptor 1 IFNAR1 Interferon, alpha; receptor IFNG Interferon gamma IFNT interferon tau IGF1 Insulin like growth factor 1 IGF BP 4 Insulin like growth factor binding protein 4 IGFBP6 Insulin like growth factor binding protein 6 IL10 Interleukin 10 IL12 Interleukin 12 IL15 Interleukin 15 IL15RA IL15 receptor alpha chain IL17 Interleukin 17 IL17RA IL17 receptor alpha
15 IL17R A Interleukin 17 receptor A IL18R1 Interleukin 18 receptor 1 IL18RAP Interleukin 18 receptor accessory protein IL1B Interleukin 1, beta IL1B Interleukin 1 beta IL1R IL1 receptor IL1R2 IL1 receptor IL23 Interleukin 23 IL2RA IL2 receptor alpha cha in IL4 Interleukin 4 IL6 Interleukin 6 IL8RA Interleukin 8 receptor alpha IL8RB Interleukin 8 receptor beta IL8RB Interleukin 8 receptor IL8RB I nterleukin 8 receptor, beta I NOS Inducible nitric oxide synthase ITGA4 integrin alpha 4 IL1A Inte rleukin 1 alpha ISG15 Interferon stimulated gene 15 JAM2 Junctional adhesion molecule 2 Kdm6b KDM1 lysine (K) specific demethylase 6B KIR2DL1 Killer cell immunoglobulin like receptor 2DL1 KRT7 K eratin 7 LILR Leukocyte Ig like receptor LPS Lipopolys accharide MAP1S Microtubule associated protein 1S MAP4K2 Mitogen activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase MCP1 Monocyte chemotactic protein 1 MHC Major histocompatability complex MHC class II Major histocompatability complex II MIF Macrophage m igration inhibitory factor MMP1 Matrix metalloproteinase 1 MMP12 Macrophage specific metalloproteinases 12 MMP12 Matrix metalloproteinase 12 MMP9 Matrix metallopeptidase 9 MPS Mononuclear phagocyte system MR Mannose receptor MRC1 Mannose recepto r C type 1 MUC1 mucin 1 Mx1 Myxovirus resistance 1 MyD88 Myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88)
16 MYH10 Myosin, heavy chain 10, non muscle MYL2 Myosin, light chain 2, regulatory, cardiac, slow MYLPF Myosin light chain, phosphorylatable, fas t skeletal muscle NRP1 Neurophilin 1 NFKB Nuclear factor kappa beta NK Natural killer cell NO Nitric oxide PAF Platelet activating factor PAG Pregnancy associated glycoprotein PAMPS Pathogen associated molecular patterns PDGF Platelet derived grow th factor B PDGFB P latelet derived growth factor, B polypeptide PGE Prostaglandin E PGE2 Prostaglandin E2 PGF2A Prostaglandin F2 alpha POLB Polymerase (DNA directed) beta PPARG Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma PRP Prolactin related protein PTX3 Pentraxin 3 PVRL3 Nectin 3 PXN Paxillin RAC Rho GTPase (rac) gene RNASE6 Ribonuclease, RNase A family, k6 ROS Reactive oxigen species SERPINA14 Uterine serpin SERPINB2 Serpin 2 SLCO2B1 Solute carrier organic anion transporter famil y, member 2B1 SPP1 Secreted phosphoprotein 1 STAB1 Stabilin 1 STAT1 Signal transducer & activator of transcription 1 Stat6 Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 SDF1 Stromal cell derived factor 1 TGFB Transforming growth factor beta T GFB1 Transforming growth factor beta 1 TGFBI Transforming growth factor beta induced TIMP2 TIMP metallopeptidase inhibitor 2 TLR Toll like receptor TLR 4 Toll like receptor 4 TLR 6 Toll like receptor 6 TLR 7 Toll like receptor 7 TLR 9 Toll like r eceptor 9
17 TLR1 Toll like receptor 1 TLR10 Toll like receptor 10 TLR2 Toll like receptor 2 TMSB4X thymosin beta 4 TNF Tumor necrosis factor alpha TNFRS1B Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 1B TNFRSF6 Fas (TNF receptor superfamily, m ember 6) TNFRSF8 Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 8 TRAIL Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 2 Tregs Regulatory T cells TREM2 Triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells 2 TSGA14 Testis specific, 14 VEGFA Vascula r endothelial growth factor A VCAM 1 Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 VSIG4 V set and immunglobulin domain containing 4 VTCN1 v set domain containing T cell activation inhibitor 1 Ym1 Chitinase 3 like 3 T Gamma delta T cell
18 CLUSTER OF DIFFERENTIATION ANTIGENS USED TO IDENTIFY CELLS Name Description CD4 Co receptor for MHC class II molecules ; expressed on thymocytes, Th1 and Th2 T cells, monocytes and macrophages CD8 Co receptor for MHC class I mole cules ; expressed on thymocytes, cytotoxic T cells. CD25 Il 2 receptor alpha chain ; expressed on activated T and B cells, and monocytes. CD68 Also called macrosialin ; expressed on monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, basophils and large lymphocytes. CD14 Receptor for LPS and LPS binding protein ; expressed on myelomonocitic cell. CD11b A lpha M subunit of integri n CR3 associated with CD18 ; expressed on myeloid an d NK cells.
19 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy MATERNAL IMMUNE CHANGES DURING BOVINE PREGNANCY: A FOCUS ON THE ENDOMETRIAL MACROPHA GE pt-BR By pt-BR Lilian de Jesus Oliveira pt-BR pt-BR May 2010 pt-BR Chair: Peter Hansen Major: Animal Molecular and Cell Biology The presence of conceptus alloantigens necessitates changes in maternal immune function. Here, using the cow as a model, we evaluated these changes. I n early pregnancy, there was no effect of pregnancy status on number of cells positive for CD8, CD4, T cell receptor, or the monocyte marker CD68 in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) population compared to nonpregnant cows. However, there was an increase in the proportion of CD4 + cells that were positive for CD25 at day 3334 of pregnancy in the cow. Periparturient cows had an increased percent of PBMC that were T cells and that co-expressed CD4 + CD25 + Moreover, there was a tendency for a lower percentage of circulating CD68 + cells. The increase in cells co-expressing CD4 + CD25 + reflects an increase in the proportion of cells that were CD4 + rather than in the proportion of CD4 + cells that also were CD25 + In the endometrium, there were increased numbers of CD68 + cells in interplacentomal regions in pregnant cows as compared to non-pregnant cows and these cells were also abundant in caruncular septa of the placentome. However, CD68 + cells were not present in the in fetal villi of the placentomes or in the interplacentomal chorion. Regardless of location, the majority
20 of CD68 + cells also expressed CD14, another monocyte macrophage marker. In the interplacentomal endometrium, CD68 + cells were present in deeper areas of the endometrial stroma co-expressed CD11b + but not in shallow region. In caruncular septa of the placentome, CD68 + cells were negative for CD11b. CD68 + cells in the interplacentomal endometrium were negative for MHC class II while most CD68 + cells in caruncular septa were positive for MHC class II. Macrophages co-expressing CD68 + CD14 + present in the stroma of the interplacentomal endometrium and in the caruncular septa of the placentome were regionally differentiated with regards to expression of CD11b and MHC class II. Moreover the macrophages present in the pregnant endometrium are regionally differentiated perhaps as a result of the different maternal and fetal interaction between the interplacentomal and placentome region in the cow. Transcriptomal analysis of endometrial CD14 + cells showed that these cells express genes characteristic of macrophages; the endometrial macrophages overexpressed genes related to alternative (M2) activation pathway. Gene ontology analysis comparing differentially-regulated genes between endometrium and blood CD14 + cells showed an enrichment of ontologies related to proteolysis activity which suggests a tissue remodeling role for the endometrial macrophages. Despite differences in the types of placentation between human and bovine, many genes preferentially regulated in decidual macrophages were also differentially regulated between blood and endometrial macrophage in the cow. Around 17% of the genes found to be differentially expressed between decidual and blood human monocytes were also differentially expressed in the same direction for the cow. Presence o f macrophages in the endometrium during late pregnancy suggests a role for these cells
21 in parturition, expulsion of fetal membranes, and the process of uterine involution. Better understanding of the complex role of the endometrial macrophages may help re searchers develop new practical techniques to positively affect the ability of cows to establish pregnancy following parturition.
22 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Physiological cross-talk between the mother and the developing fetus allows successful birth of a neo or potential for producing future offspring. Among the maternal adjustments to support pregnancy is the establishment of an immunological relationship with the conceptus that allows the allogeneic fetus to evade immunological rejection while allowing the uterus to remain in a sterile condition. The immunological problems posed by the allogeneic nature of the conceptus were first identified by the transplantation biologist, Sir Peter Medawar in 1953 (Billigham et al. 1953). At that time, the immune system was thought of largely as a system to protect the body against invasion by foreign microorganisms. Today, however, it is recognized that the immune system plays a much more global role to promote homeostasis of the body beyond the prevention of microorganism invasion, such as the role of natural killer (NK) cells in placental vascularization (Bilinsk et al. 2008) Key to the survival of the fetal allograft is modulation of the immune response at the fetal-maternal interface by locally acting immunosuppressive cells and their cytokine secretions (Hill 1995; van Nieuwenhoven et al. 2003; Guleria and Sayegh 2007; Mold et al. 2008). Activation of a local immune response, such as when infection takes place in the uterus, can result in abortion of the fetus (Krishnan et al. 1996; Robertson et al. 2007; Thaxton et al. 2009). Development of an immunosuppressive environment depends upon expression of non-classical major histocompatability complex (MHC ) molecules on trophoblast cells (King et al. 2000; Ishitani et al. 2003; Hunt et al. 2005; Lightner et al. 2008), tryptophan catabolism by the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-
23 dioxygenase (IDO) to starve T cells and generate immunosuppressive products (Munn et al. 1998), T cell apoptosis (Hunt et al. 1997; Guleria et al. 2005), inhibition of the complement system (Holmes et al. 1992; Nishikori et al. 1993;Bulla et al. 2003), and the migration of the specific leukocyte populations to the uterus including regulatory T cells (Tregs) (Aluvihare et al. 2004; Heikkinen et al. 2004; Sommerset et al. 2004; Tilburgs et al. 2006;Tilburgs et al. 2008), T-cells (Heyborne et al. 1992; Mincheva-Nillsson et al. 1992, 1997) and NK cells (Bilinski et al. 2008; Shigeru et al. 2008). Another cell that accumulates in the uterus during pregnancy is the macrophage. The recruitment of macrophages to the pregnant uterus has been described in many species including humans (Heikkinen et al. 2003; Cupurdija et al. 2004; Kim et al. 2007), mice (Hunt et al. 1985), pigs (Kaeoket et al. 2001); cynomologus and vervet monkeys, (Dambaeva et al. 2008) and sheep (Tekin and Hansen 2004). Macrophages are important immune effectors that bridge the innate and adaptive immune responses. They recognize, process and present antigens to initiate an immune response specific to a given antigen and secrete cytokines to prime and support immune responses (Janeway et al. 2004; Wu et al. 2009). They also have a role in the wound-healing process by the secretion of cytokines and growth factors (Chung et al. 2009; Chung and Kao 2009; Mosser and Edwards 2009; Barrientos et al. 2008), removal of apoptotic cells (Gregory and Devitt 1999; Chang et al. 2004; Krysko et al. 2006; Xu et al. 2006), and angiogenesis (Pollard 2009). Given the involvement of macrophages in antigen processing, regulation of immune responses, tumor growth and angiogenesis, these cells are likely to play a key role in ensuring the proper immunological environment for development of the
24 conceptus as well as preparing the uterus for the post-parturient period when parturition is likely to result in contamination of the reproductive tract with microorganisms. Little is known about the particular role of macrophages in pregnancy. The purpose of this dissertation is to use the cow as a model to identify possible roles for uterine macrophages during pregnancy. This literature review will focus on describing briefly the function of the macrophage and what is known about its role during pregnancy in species other than the cow. In addition, knowledge about immunological function in the uterus of the pregnant cow will be reviewed to provide a background for understanding original studies on the number, location and possible function of endometrial macrophages described in later chapters of this dissertation.
25 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Origin, Development, and Function of Macrophages Macrophages are part of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), which includes the polymorphonuclear phagocytes (granulocytes) and the mononuclear phagocytes as originally proposed in 1924 by Aschoff (van Furth et al. 1972). Cells of the MPS are derived from the hematopoietic cell lineage in the bone marrow; myeloid progenitor cells differentiate into circulating monocytes and then migrate to the tissue to become macrophages (Hume et al. 2002). The macrophages are widely distributed in the body, in part because of their wide distribution but vary in function and activation. In 1908, Metchnikoff won the Nobel Prize for his description of amoeboid cells in lower animals such as sponges and their function to engulf foreign antigens ( http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1908/mechnikov-lecture.html ). Metchnikoff demonstrated the presence of amoeboid cells by inserting a thorn in a starfish and viewing recruitment of amoeboid cells towards the injury. Later, Metchnikoff called the amoeboid cells macrophages to distinguish them from the socalled microphages previously described by him and now identified as polymorphomononucleated cells, i.e neutro macrophages have been recognized as being one of the most ancient cells in the immune system. They are present in lower organisms such as coelomocytes, corals and annelids (Anastassova-Kristeva 2003). Development In the mouse, the first hematopoietic cells arise in the yolk sac around day 7.5 of embryonic development (Snchez et al. 1996), and macrophages can be detected in
26 the yolk sac at day 9 (Takahashi et al. 1988). By day 10 of development, hematopoietic cells arise in the intraembryonic aortic-gonadal-mesonephros region (Snchez et al. 1996; Nobuhisa et al. 2007) and migrate towards to the fetal liver at day 11 (Snchez et al. 1996). Later in embryonic life and adult life, hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow comprise the main hematopoietic stem cell pool in the body (Papayannopoulou et al. 2003). The idea of the existence of a multipotent progenitor cell lineage arose from the fact that irradiated mouse and guinea pigs were able to recover hematopoiesis after bone marrow transplantation (Til et al. 1961; Becker et al. 1963). The transplanted bone marrow cells from previous transplanted animal were also able to form a new colony of hematopoietic stem cell after being retransplantated to a new animal (Juraskova et al.1965). This experiment demonstrates ability of hematopoietic stem cells for selfrenewal The most accepted model for differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells is called the myeloid-lymphoid dogma. In this model, the pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell commits itself to an increasingly specialized cell lineage at each branch point. The first differentiation event is lineage commitment to either myeloid or lymphoid cells. Exposure to colony stimulating factor 2 (CSF2) and interleukin 3 (IL3) results in differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells to myeloid stem cells whereas exposure to IL3 alone results in differentiation into lymphoid stem cells. Ordinarily, myeloid progenitors subsequently differentiate into eosinophils, megakaryocytes, mast cells, granulocytes and macrophages while lymphoid progenitors are the source of T, B and NK lymphocytes (Metcalf 2007). Each stage in the differentiation process is under
27 control of cytokines. For example, granuclocyte/macrophage progenitors are form ed from myeloid stem cells under the influence of IL3, CSF2 and interleukin 6 ( IL6 ). Subsequently, the stimulation with colony stimulating factor 1(CSF1) and CSF2 leads to formation of a progenitor of monocytes and neutrophils. The migration of monocytes from periphery to the tissues can be induced by a variety of factors that change the expression and activation of both monocyte and endothelial adhesion molecules. Usually, transendothelial migration is influenced by soluble factors such as chemokines ex pressed on the surface of endothelial cells and cytokines that are released into the bloodstream (Imhof and Aurrand-Lions 2004). Chemokines are ligand-specific. The interaction of a specific chemokine with its ligand promotes the adhesion of the circulating monocyte to the endothelial cell surface; the strength of this interaction is specific to the type of chemokine-ligand interaction (Maslin et al. 2005). For example, interleukin 8 receptor alpha (IL8RA) expressed by the monocytes strongly interacts with the interleukin 8 (IL8) expressed on the surface of endothelial cells, however the IL8 is not strong on attractor of cells to the site where they are expressed (Luscinskas et al. 2000). On the other hand, the interaction of the C-C chemokine receptor type 1(CCR1) on the monocytes to the chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) on the endothelium promotes a strong attraction to the site of inflammation (Wang et al. 2009). Soluble factors such as colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) can change gene expression of monocytes and induce their migration into the tissues (Jones 2000). The proposed model for that states that the gradient of CSF1 would progressively change monocyte gene expression to induce the expression of genes related to filopodia
28 formation [cell division control protein 42 ( C DC 42) and rho-GTPase (rac) ( RAC )]; cellular spreading via extension of lamellipodia and polarization towards the focus of expression of CSF1, and further active migration by the expression of Rho and RAC proteins (Jones 2000). Once the monocytes reside in the tissues, many signals can induce their maturation into macrophages; one example is by CSF2 stimulation (Metacalf 2007). The myeloid lymphoid dogma of hematopoisis has been revisited. Adolfsson et al. (2005) proposed a new composite model of blood cell differentiation in which granulocytes and monocytes can originate from either lymphoid or myeloid precursors. Thymic progenitor cells so-called DN1 cells are characterized to be CD4 CD8 c-Kit + CD25 and they lack B-progenitor capability (Benz and Bleul 2005). Indeed, in clonal studies using DN1 cells from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice macrophages were formed by the co-culture of DN1 cells with with PA6 stromal cell line (bone marrow-derived stromal cell line) in the presence of colony stimulating factor 3 (CSF3). Moreover, DN1 cells from GFP-transgenic mice showed to give a rise of macrophages after single cell intra-thymic transplantation (Wada et al. 2008). Moreover, there is evidence that monocyte/macrophages can arise in tissues other than those derived from the bone marrow. Local proliferation of macrophages has been described in lungs (Sawyer 1986; Wesselius and Kimler 1989; Lohmann-Matthes et al. 1994), kidneys (Lan et al. 1995), and testis (Schlatt et al. 1999). Repopulation of tissue macrophages in lungs and peritoneum can occur in mice subjected to total body irradiation to deplete blood monocytes (Sawyer et al.1982).
29 Macrophage Activation and Differentiation Under the influence of specific local ly -produced mediators, macrophages are capable of displaying different functional phenotypes, many of which are antagonistic to each other. An additional cause for variability in function of macrophages is heterogeneity in the circulating pool of monocytes. Subtypes of monocytes circulating can respond differently once they differentiate into macrophages in the tissues (Auffray et al. 2009). For example, the majority of blood monocytes are represented by CD14 + CD16 + cells, and express low levels of proinflammatory cytokines and high levels of IL10 after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation (Passlick et al. 1989). However, a small number of cells are CD14 + CD16 and they produce high levels of proinflammatory cytokines after LPS stimulation (Passlick et al.1989). The classical functions of macrophages are to phagocytose microorganisms, promote an acute inflammatory response by production of proinflammatory factors such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF), IL1 and IL6, and antigen presentation from phagocytosed microorganisms to T lymphocytes thus initiating an acquired immune response (Stout and Suttles 2005). For a long time, macrophages were thought to be a less efficient type of cell in regards to antigen presenting function as compared with dendritic cells (DC) (Ueno et al. 2007). Nevertheless, macrophages ha ve been shown to possess many characteristics in common with DC such as the expression of surface markers and the ability to initiate an immune response by the stimulation of nave lymphocytes (Hume 2008). In addition, macrophages are involved in tissue remodeling (clearance of damaged or apoptotic cells, matrix and necrotic debris; inducing cell proliferation; matrix regeneration), apoptosis, and angiogenesis (Pollard 2009).
30 Immune responses are usually characterized by a changing cytokine milieu during the progression from activation of inflammation, resolution of the immune response, wound healing and removal of inflammatory cells. Changes in macrophage function are an important part of this progression. Two main patterns of macrophage activation are recognized classical (M1) and alternative (M2). M1 macrophages, which are typically produced during inflammation, elicit pro-inflammatory immune responses and the killing of intracellular pathogens. The major activation signals are INFG and TNF. M2 macrophages, which are often produced during resolution of the immune response and wound healing, can develop several specific phenotypes depending upon the cytokine environment. They are involved in regulation of Th2-like immune responses, tissue remodeling, angiogenesis and immunosuppression (Gordon 2003). The M2 activation pathway can be divided into three subpathways. The M2a pathway represents macrophages that are stimulated by IL13 and IL4; M2b pathway involves macrophage differentiation under the influence of immune complexes via toll-like receptor (TLR) and IL1 receptor (IL1R); M2c are macrophages that differentiate under the influence of IL10 and transforming growth factor-beta (TGFB) (Mantovani et al. 2002; Gordon 2003) or glucocorticoid hormones (Mantovani 2006) (Figure 2-1). The M1 activation pathway occurs in response to IFNG and TNF inducers or TNF alone (Natan 1991; Gordon 2003). Activated NK cells usually are the main source of IFGN at the earlier stages of the immune response. As the proinflammatory immune response progressess; the components of the acquired immune system such as activated T helper 1 (Th1) cells become the main source of IFNG (Mosser and Edwards 2008). The Th1 activated cells produce IFNG in sufficient quantities to support a large
31 population of activated macrophages (Mosser and Edwards 2008). The autocrine and paracrine production of TNF by macrophages can be upregulated via TLR activation in a MyD88-dependent manner (Mosser and Edwards 2008). Figure 2-1 Pathways of macrophage activation. Classically activated or M1 macrophages typically promote immune responses. They differentiate under the influence of TNFA, IFNG and/or LPS E xamples of characteristic functions of M1 macrophages are shown in the red box Alternatively activated or M2 macrophages are involved in immunosuppression, tissure remodeling and angiogenesis. The type of differentiation can be divided into M2a (differentiate under control of IL4 and/or IL13), M2b immunocomplexes, TLR and/or IL1R ) and M2c (IL10 and/or TGFB) Examples of functions for all three subtypes of M2 macrophages are shown in the blue box.
32 M1activated macrophages promote inflammation by releasing high amounts of proinflamm presenting capacity is also increased as a result of up-regulation of expression of MHC class II (Pai et al. 2002) and CD86 (Mosser 2003). Other effector functions are also increase, for example, increased production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) (Mosser 2003; Mantovani et al. 2009). M1 activated macrophages express high levels of genes for inducible nitric oxide synthase ( INOS ), IL1 beta ( IL1B ), IL6, IL12, IL15, IL23, IL17, TNF chemokine (C-XC motif) ligand 9 ( CXCL9 ), CXCL10 CXCL11 IL2 receptor chain ( IL2RA ), IL15 receptor chain ( IL15RA ), tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily, member 2 ( TRAIL ), tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 6 (Fas), pentraxin 3 ( PTX3 ), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4 ( IGFBP-4 ) (Martinez et al. 2006; Mantovani et al. 2009) to induce and sustain an inflammatory immune response. Alternative or M2 activation was first described as a response to interleukin 4 (IL4) (Gordon 2003). Other inducers of alternative activation have now been described including IL13, immunocomplexes, IL10 and glucocorticoid hormones (Mantovani 2006). The M2 activated macrophages possess various functions including regulation of tissue remodeling processes, angiogenesis and antibody-mediated inflammatory responses (Hebert et al. 2005; Mosser and Edwards 2008; Barrientos et al. 2008; Martinez et al. 2009). Because of the trophic functions such as angiogenesis, the M2 macrophages are associated with tumor progression (Sica et al. 2008; Allavena et al. 2008; Mantovani et al. 2009) and parasite resistance (encapsulation) (Anthony et al. 2006; Reece et al. 2006; Ishii et al. 2009).
33 Among M2 macrophages subsets, there is a tendency for downregulation of CD86/80 and inducible nitric oxide synthase ( INOS ) while mannose receptor (MR), arginase 1( ARG1 ) and IL10 are frequently upregulated in all three subtypes of M2 activation pathways (Gordon 2003). Other markers have been related to M2 activation include chitinase 3-like 3 ( Ym1 ), resistin like beta ( FIZZ1 ), CCL22 CCL17 IL1 receptor, type II ( IL1R2 ), IL10 and galactose receptors (Mantovani et al. 2009). Martinez et al. (2006) found a total of 52 genes upregulated in M2 activated macrophages including insulin-like growth factor 1 ( IGF1 ), fibronectin 1 ( FN1 ), growth arrest-specific 6 ( GAS6 ), CCL18 and mannose receptor C type 1 ( MRC1 ). The molecular mechanisms for M1 and M2 polarization are being elucidated. For example, it has been shown that M2 differentiation ensues when p50 homodimers inhibit activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFKB)-driven M1 activation. Moreover, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) agonists have been shown to induce M2-like differentiation in blood monocytes but not in macrophages already committed to M1 activation (Bouhlel et al. 2007). A molecular pathway involved in the epigenetic regulation of expression of key M2-associated genes in the mouse has been proposed (Ishii et al. 2009). This model involves IL4 upregulating the KDM1 lysine (K)specific demethylase 6B ( Kdm6b ) via signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (Stat6) to activate promoters of M2 marker genes such as mannose receptor. Regulation of Immune Responses Macrophages induced to differentiate along the M2 pathway experience a decrease in all functions characteristic of M1 macrophages including antigen presentation, proinflammatory cytokine secretion and pathogen killing through secretion of NO and ROS (Edwards et al. 2006). M2 macrophages can also exert regulatory
34 effects on the immune response because of their increased arginase activity into ornithine, which is a precursor of polyamines such as bis-naphthalimidopropyl putrescine and collagen; components of the extra cellular matrix (ECM). Also the aginine metabolism deviated to L-onithine instead NO production can suppress the clonal expansion of activated neighboring lymphocytes by interfering cell proliferation in vitro (Cordeiroda -Silva et al. 2004). Recently, M2 cells were shown to induce differentiation of regulatory T-cells in vitro using the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatch model (Savage et al. 2008). Regulatory T-cells, in turn, can induce alternative activation of human mononuclear phagocytes (Tiemessen et al. 2007). The co-culture of Treg cells and monocytes induced the upregulation of M2 markers (MCR1, CD163 and CCL18) and downregulation of M1 marker HLADR. Moreover, the Treg cells inhibit the proinflammatory immune response to LPS, by decreasing the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF, IL6, interleukin 1 beta (IL1B), IL8 and CC motif chemokine 3 (CCL3). Indeed, the induction of M2 macrophage differentiation by Treg cells is a partially cytokine-dependent event, but also depends on cellto -cell contact (Tiemessen et al. 2007). A subpopulation of M2 macrophages known as regulatory macrophage can be induced by immune complexes, prostaglandins, glucocorticoids, apoptotic cells and IL10 (Pollard 2009). The production of prostaglandins by endometrial cells (Cheung et al. 1990), glucorticoids (Alfaidy et al. 2003) and the presence of apoptotic trophoblastic cells (Von Rango et al. 2003) indicate the potential for macrophages to be activated along the M2 activation pathway during pregnancy.
35 The regulation of immune response by M2 activated macrophages relies mainly on their cytokine secretion and their poor ability to present antigens to T-cells (Hume 2009). The M2 activated macrophage can release large amounts of cytokines such as transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) and suppress T-cell activation as shown in the mouse model where the injection of a TLR2 ligand zymozan increased the secretion of TGFB by the macrophages (Dillon et al. 2006). Furthermore, when TLR2 ligand zymozan injected animals were challenged by vaccination against ovalbumin, they showed an increased secretion of TGFB and IL10 accompanied by decreased secretion of IL6 (Dillon et al. 2006). Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells also increases the expression of TGFB in macrophages (Dillon et al. 2006), induces downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines (IL1B, IL8, IL10 and CSF2), leukotriene C4 and tromboxane B2, an increase of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and platelet-activating factor (PAF) so that local inflammation is reduc ed (Fadok et al.1998). In the bovine placenta, apoptotic cells were detected, especially at the edges of the placentomes and in the interplacentomal region (Facciotti et al. 2009). Also, apoptosis is one mechanism by which extravillous trophoblast cells are eliminated in the human placenta (Von Rango et al. 2003). Wound Healing and Tissue Remodeling One function of M2 macrophages is to promote tissue remodeling (Allavena et al. 2008). Wound healing macrophages are generated under influence of IL4 released from resident basophils, mast cells and granulocytes in response to tissue injury (Loke et al. 2005). Additionally, IL4 can be produced in response to biopolymers such as chitin found in fungi and parasites (Reese et al. 2000). Moreover, IL4 and IL13 are
36 considered the most abundant cytokines in the Th2 immune response (promotes antibody-mediated immunity) (Reese et al. 2000; Loke et al. 2007). IL -4 activation of human macrophages induces upregulation of extracellular matrix proteins fibronectin, tenascin-C, and transforming growth factor, beta-induced (TGFBI) (Gratchev et al. 2001). The expression of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1) and matrix metallopeptidase 12 (macrophage elastase) (MMP12) (Gratchev et al. 2005), which degrade extracellular matrix components such as elastin type IV collagen and fibronectin (Chen 2004; Djonov et al. 2001) and granzyme B (GZMB) that cleaves extracellular matrix components such as vitronectin, fibronectin and laminin (Buzza et al. 2005). IL4 also stimulates the production of extracellular matrix by macrophages through upregulation of ARG1 expression (Kreider et al. 2007). Another tissue remodeling factor produced by macrophages is platelet derived growth factor B (PDGF). This growth factor stimulates proliferation and regulates differentiation of fibroblasts (Barrientos et al. 2008). Angiogenesis Macrophages can contribute to the process of angiogenesis in the tumor by the secretion of angiogenic factors including VEGF, fibroblast growth factor (FGF), TGFB and chemokines (Dace and Ape 2007). They also induce degradation and remodeling of the matrix by expression of MMPs such as matrix metalloproteinase 9 ( MMP9 ) (Dace and Ape 2007). Moreover, tumor associated macrophage (TAM) is classified as a di stinct M2 activated population and can induce angionesis in the growing tumor (Sica et al. 2006). Macrophages have been implicated in the regulation of angiogenesis during wound healing (Lighnen et al. 2001; Bergmann et al. 2007). Also, M2 macrophages can promote angiogenesis through expression of chemokine (CXC motif)
37 receptor 4 ( CXCR4 ) via VEGF signaling. CXCR4 is a ligand for macrophage recruitment which is expressed by pericytes (Song et al. 2009), where they secrete angiogenic molecules such as VEGF (Grunewald et al. 2006) in response to stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF1) signaling (Shiba et al. 2009). A similar mechanism was report ed during organogenesis where CXCR4 + bone -marrow progenitor cells are guided to the site of vascular expansion in embryo via SDF1 signaling (Ceradini et al. 2004). Moreover, CXCR4 and SDF1 were upregulated in response to hypoxia which resulted in the recruitment of similar myeloid cell (Ceradini et al. 2004). Furthermore, during embryo implantation, the absence of monocyte-derived dendritic cells compromises decidualization because of a defective angiogenesis which causes the pregnancy to terminate (Plaks et al. 2008 ). Dendritic cells (DC) has been shown to produce a variety of both pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factor such as vascular endothelial growth factor A ( VEGFA ) and pentraxin 3 ( PTX3 ) respectively (Barientos et al. 2008). Tumor Progression In established tumors, tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) are the principal leukocyte subset. In the some cases of breast cancer, leukocytes can account for almost 50% of the tumor mass (Lewis and Pollard 2006). The TAM possesses a phenotype that resembles M2 activation (Sica et al. 2006) and therefore inflammatory responses are inhibited through secretion of M2 cytokines. Tumor cells can release many cytokines that induce an immunosuppressive environment (Sica et al. 2008). CSF1 promotes the recruitment of monocytes and lymphocytes to the tumor mass, whereas IL10 promotes monocyte differentiation into macrophages but not into DC (Sica et al. 2008). Moreover, IL10, TGFB, PGE2 and IL6
38 have the potential to promote the polarization of M2 macrophages (Mantovani et al. 2004). IL -10 itself or together with IL-6 induce upregulation of macrophage v-set domain containing T cell activation inhibitor 1 ( VTCN1 ) expression, is a molecule implicated in the suppression of antigen-specific anti-tumor immunity (Kryczek et al. 2006) and VTCN1 is expressed by a subset of decidual macrophages in humans (Galazka et al. 2009). Moreover, TAMs secrete TGFB that can stimulate development of tumor cells (Byrne et al. 2008). The amino acid metabolism seems to be important to macrophage activation and polarization. The shift in amino acid catabolism also promotes tumor progression due to the unbalanced activity of iNOS and ARG1 (Grohmann et al. 2003). ARG1 expression by TAM is suggested to be an adaptor mechanism to avoid formation of cytotoxic NO in consequence to the immunosuppressive tumor environment and low expression of nuclear factor Kappa B ( NFKB ) by tumor resident immune cells (Weigerta and Brne 2008). The expression of antiinflammatory cytokines such as TGFB and IL10 is probably due to the phagocytosis of apoptotic cellular debris in the tumor (Johann et al. 2007). The proangiogenic role of M2 macrophages results in a further stimulation of tumor growth. The maternal fetal interface as in the tumor microenvironment possess an For example, TAMs accumulate in the hypoxic regions of the tumor (Du et al. 2008) and produces angiogenic factors such as VEGF (Lewis et al. 2006). Macrophages in the Pregnant Endometrium Accumulation of macrophages is one of the characteristic changes in the endometrium during pregnancy. The recruitment of macrophages to the pregnant endometrium occurs in a wide range of mammalian species including mice (Hunt et al.
39 1985), humans (Heikkinen et al. 2003; Cupurdija et al. 2004), cynomologus and vervet monkeys (Dambaeva et al. 2009) and sheep (Tekin and Hansen 2004). The majority of what is known about the role of macropha ges during pregnancy is based on human and mouse models. In the mouse, distribution of macrophages in the uterus fluctuates during the estrous cycle. Estrogen induces influx of macrophages into the endometrium whereas progesterone antagonizes the effect of estrogen (De et al. 1990; Tibetts et al. 1999). During pregnancy, the presence of macrophages can be observed from day 7 of pregnancy. Endometrial macrophages are associated closely with the luminal epithelium in the mouse and some macrophages were observed in the uterine lumen (Hunt et al. 1985). Moreover, there is an accumulation of macrophages in the term placenta of the mouse where they are observed as a thick layer between decidua and trophoblast (Lagadari et al. 2004). The increased expression of chemokine ligands such as CCL2 a leukocyte chemoattractant factor (Carr at al. 1994), and CSF1 by the uterus of pregnant mice suggests that these molecules regulate macrophage recruitment and differentiation to the uterus (Kyaw et al. 1998). An essential role for macrophages in pregnancy can be inferred through indirect evidence from the Csf1 op -/opmouse where expression of CSF1 is absent. H omozygous females show compromised recruitment of macrophages to the uterus and are infertile (Pollard et al. 1991). Pregnancies are possible, although with reduced litter size, when homozygous females were bred with heterozygous males, probably because of CSF1 from the fetal tissue or seminal fluid.
40 In humans, the number of macrophages in the endometrium is essentially constant throughout the menstrual cycle and 7 to 9 weeks of pregnancy (Rieger et al. 2004). After about 9 to 12 weeks of gestation, there is an accumulation of macrophages. Macrophages account for about 20% of the immune cells in the decidua during first trimester of gestation, and they are present throughout the first and second trimester of pregnancy (Bulmer et al. 1995; Trundley and Moffett 2004). In the third trimester of pregnancy, the number of macrophages decreases in the human placenta (Williams et al. 2009). There is an increase in number of CD68 + macrophages in the basal plate and myometrium during labor, and macrophage number is higher in pregnancies with clinical complications such as premature labor (Leong et al. 2008) suggesting that labor is a proinflammatory event, and macrophages are involved in this process. The signals for accumulation of macrophages in the endometrium remain unclear. Glandular epithelium and stromal cells of the endometrium produce macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) (Acuri et al. 2001) as do trophoblast cells, and this chemokine could promote accumulation of macrophages in the decidua. Moreover, human trophoblast can cause migration of blood monocytes in vitro (Fest et al. 2007). Most of the decidual macrophages originate from the mother (Sutton et al. 1999). Decidual macrophages express CD14 (Bulmer et al. 1984) and HLADR, HLADP and HLADQ which are MHC class II proteins (Bulmer et al. 1988; Heikkinen et al. 2003). There is also low expression of CD80 and CD86 costimulatory molecules (Heikkinen et al. 2003). Macrophages in the human decidua can present alloantigen in vitro (Mizuno et al.1994), and are therefore able to arm an adaptative immune response. They also
41 express an array of enzymes such as acid phosphatase, non-specific esterase, alpha1anti-protease and alpha1-anti-chymotrypsin that are involved in the phagocyte activity of these cells (Bulmer et al. 1984). Furthermore, pathogen recognition and clearance activity of macrophages are preserved in the decidua as suggested by production of superoxide radicals and TNF upon stimulation with bacteria (Singh et al. 2005). Thus, decidual macrophages can participate in host defense during pregnancy. In addition, decidual macrophages are associated intimately with the extravillous trophoblast (Bulmer et al. 1988; Bulmer et al. 1995) and may have a role on the maternal control of trophoblast invasion. The human maternal-fetal interface is an immunosuppressive environment characterized by the high levels of cytokines that can cause M2 activation such as IL10 (Chaouat et al. 1999; Hanna et al. 2000; Sacks et al. 2001), IL4 (Chaouat et al. 1999; Sacks et al. 2001) and IL13 (Dealtry et al. 1998; Rieger et al. 2002; Brown et al. 2004). During pregnancy, the activation of macrophage in the decidua can be modulated by interaction with trophoblast HLAG molecules (Li et al. 2009). HLAG is a nonclassic MHC protein (Le Gal et al. 1999), conversely other HLA genes; HLAG is a nonpolymorphic gene (Huddleston and Schust 2004). Alternate splicing provides two forms of HLAG, one that is membrane-bound protein, and one that is a soluble protein (O'Callaghan and Bell 1998). The soluble form of HLAG can occur in a monomeric form or a homodimeric form (Kovats et al. 1990). The recognition of the leukocyte Ig-like receptor (LILR) by HLA-G dimers seems to have a pivotal role in the immune suppression at the maternal-fetal interface (Apps et al. 1999). The soluble form of HLAG (sHLA-G) is shed from the trophoblast cell surface and it can inhibit immune
42 responses by binding to LILRB1/2-expressing cells in the decidua (O'Callaghan and Bell 1998). HLAE usually is expressed concomitant to HLAG (Wei et al. 1990) and is involved in the inhibition of NK cell activation. HLAE binding to the inhibitory receptor CD94/NKG2A (Braud et al. 1998) triggers disruption of the actin network at the immunological synapse and consequently inhibits NKG2A-expressing NK and CD8 + and T (Masilamani et al. 2006). HLAC has been shown to interact with killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor 2DL1 (KIR2DL1) present in the surface of NK cells and some subsets of T-cell (Colonna et al. 1995). In HLAC-mismatched pregnancies, there is an increased number of activated CD4 + CD25 + (CD4 + CD25 dim and CD4 + CD25 bright ) T cells in decidua compared to HLAC matched pregnancies. The true specificity of decidual CD4 + CD25 dim and CD4 + CD25 bright T cells remains unclear (Tilburgs et al. 2009). Macrophages undergo a M2 polarization in the presence of Treg cells (Tiemessen et al. 2007). Decidual macrophages display an immunosuppressive profile. First trimester decidual macrophages in humans express markers related to M2 activation such as expression of stabilin-1 ( MS1 ) and coagulation factor XIIIa (Curpudija et al. 2004). Decidual macrophages also secrete high levels of IL10 (Heikkinen et al. 2003; Cupurdija et al. 2004). In addition, there is expression of the lymphocyte inhibitory enzyme, indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO), in the third trimester of pregnancy (Heikkinen et al. 2003) but not in the first trimester (Cupurdija et al. 2004), suggesting that there are adjustments of the immunosuppression mechanisms during pregnancy.
43 Recently, Repnik et al. (2008) studied the macrophage phenotype from human decidua in early/mid pregnancy and at term by flow cytometry. They tested whether stage of pregnancy or location had an effect on the state of activation of the uterine macrophage. They found higher expression of CD80 CD86 and human leukocyte antigen HLADR in early/mid pregnancy than at term (Heikinen et al. 2003), suggesting that the phenotype of decidual macrophages changes during pregnancy. They also found higher expression of M2 markers on cells from the decidua basalis compared to cells from decidua parietalis. This result suggests macrophages closer to the implantation site become more activated along the M2 activation pathway. Decidual macrophages from normal pregnant women secrete lower levels of interleukin 1 alpha (IL1A) and IL1B when compared to women who subsequently spontaneously aborted their pregnancy (Laird et al. 2003 ), suggesting that an immunosuppressive environment is necessary to sustain pregnancy. Recently, comparative analysis of gene expression in blood monocytes and human decidual macrophages revealed 120 genes that were differentially regulated (Gustafsson et al. 2008). A total of 100 of these differentially expressed genes were in four major clusters: immunomodulation (30 genes), tissue remodeling (20 genes), cell cycle (20 genes) and cell metabolism and transport (20 genes). Some markers of M2 activation were expressed in higher levles in the decidual macrophages compared to blood monocytes such as: neurophilin-1 ( NRP1 ), which is associated with T-regulatory cell synapses (Bruder et al. 2004); triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells2 ( TREM2 ), which is downregulated by IFNG and upregulated by IL4 (Turnbull et al. 2006); and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 ( MCP1 ), which is upregulated by IL4 and
44 IL -3 (Bouchelouche et al. 2006). Also decidual macrophages had increased expression of genes involved in tissue remodeling such as fibronectin-1 ( FN1 ), and MMP9 (Gustafsson et al. 2008). Immunology of the Uterus in the Cow Anatomy of the Placenta. The bovine placenta is classified as epitheliochorial and is characterized by apposition and interdigitation of chorionic epithelium with endometrial epithelium. Evolutionary studies on eutherian mammals showed that epitheliochorial placentation arose as a specialization from an ancestral hemotropic placenta (Vogel 2005). Evolutionary pressure for development of this type of placentation could have involved increased efficiency of placental transport (Leiser et al. 1997) and increased maternal control over the vascular supply to the conceptus (Mess and Carter 2007). The epitheliochorial placenta might also have evolved as a strategy for immunological defense of the conceptus by limiting the degree of contact between the tissues (Moffett and Loke 2006). The bovine placenta is cotyledonary and there is no decidualization of the endometrium. There are two areas of interaction between maternal and fetal tissues the placentomal and interplacentomal regions. In the placentomal region, the fetal cotyledon interacts with maternal caruncles to form the placentome. Both cotyledons and caruncules are richly vascularized tissues and the placentome is the predominant site of gas and nutrient exchange between mother and fetus (Miglino and DiDio 1992, Miglino et al. 2007). Maternal and fetal blood flow to the placenta is initially multivillous and later in gestation the blood flow becomes counter-current characterized by the maternal and fetal blood flux running in opposite directions (Leiser and Kaufmann, 1994). Counter-current blood flow is a very efficient method of nutrient transfer and
45 allows the mother more control of placental blood flow than is the case for endotheliochorial placentae. The efficiency of placental transfer, as measured by the grams of fetus supported per gram of placenta, is higher for ruminants than humans (Leiser et al. 1997). At the interplacentomal region, the chorionic epithelium is apposed to the luminal epithelium. In addition, binucleated cells from the trophoblast migrate into the luminal epithelium of the endometrium where they fuse with epithelial cells to form multinucleated syncytium (Leiser and Kaufmann 1994). This form of placenta is oft en referred to as a synepithelialchorial placenta. Migration of fetal cells begins between day s 18-19 of pregnancy and is a constant process during gestation (Wooding and Wathes 1980, Kaufman and Leiser 2004) and continuous throughout the pregnancy The function of the syncytium is not known. It is proposed that the fusion of fetal binucleated cells with maternal epithelial cells represents a mechanism to transport substances that are not easily permeable in the maternal fetal interface (Wooding and Wathes 1980). In the ruminant, the binucleate cell (BNC) plays a central role in forming the structures and secretions at the fetomaternal interface that are crucial in establishing and maintaining pregnancy. BNCs comprise aorund 20% of the total trophoblast cell population (Wooding et al. 1996). They continuously migrate from the time of the implantation and throughout gestation across chorionic tight junctions to fuse with maternal luminal epithelial cells and feto-maternal syncytial plaques (Wooding and Flint 1994). The BNCs are source of an array of factors including bovine placental lactogens (bPL), prolactin-related protein-1 (bPRP-1) and pregnancy-associated glycoproteins
46 (bPAG) (Wooding and Flint 1994). They are also a source of steroid hormones such as progesterone, prostanoids, peptides and other protein hormones (Wooding and Flint 1994). MHC Proteins Expression by the Trophoblast Th e expression of paternal antigens by the trophoblast is generally suppressed in all species examined including the mice (Hunt et al. 1985), sheep (Gogolin-Ewens et al. 1989) and mares (except endometrial cups) (Donaldson et al. 1990; Kydd et al. 1991) The lack of expression of MHC proteins on the placenta reduces exposure of the maternal system to paternal antigens (Moffett-King 2002) but also makes trophoblast susceptible to NK cells since these cells lyse target cells without MHC expression (Heemskerk et al. 2005). Accordingly, non-classical MHC antigens that are largely monomorphic are expressed on trophoblast (Bulmer and Johnson 1990). For example, in humans, trophoblast expresses HLAC (Tilburgs et al. 2009), HLAE and HLAG (Hunt et al. 2000; Ishitani e t al. 2003; Hviid 2006). In the cow, too, chorionic tissue in the placentome is negative for MHC class I expression throughout pregnancy. However, chorionic tissue in the interplacentomal regions can express MHC class I in the last four months of pregnancy (Low et al. 1990 ; Davies et al. 2000; Davies et al. 2004). Interestingly, in pregnancies established by transfer of somatic cell nuclear transferred cloned embryos, expression of MHC class I was detected as early as day 36 of pregnancy (Davies et al. 2004), suggesting that abnormal expression of MHC class I genes may be correlated with the high embryo wastage in cloned cattle. MHC class I proteins on the chorion are predominately encoded by non-classical MHC class I genes (Davies et al. 2006). These non-classical
47 MHC class I proteins are possibly analogous to HLAG in humans that can regulate NK cell and macrophage function (Li et al. 2009). Uterine Immune System Little is known about the immunology of the bovine uterus. A functional immune system is a requirement since the uterus becomes exposed to microorganisms at various times. The parturition process, in particular, is characterized by influx of bacteria so that almost all cows have bacteria present in the uterine lumen shortly after calving (Fold i et al. 2006). The uterus of the cow is an immunocompetent site which can generate an immune response against infections by recruiting leukocytes and production of cytokines (Rosbottom et al. 2008). In the sheep, a closely related animal, allografts expressing classical histocompatability proteins are promptly rejected when placed in the uterus (Hansen et al. 1989). Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is a family of pattern recognition receptors characterized by an extracellular leucine-rich domain and a cytoplasmic domain that share homology with the drosophila toll protein. TLRs belong to a large family of receptors on cells of the innate immune response that recognize specific antigens on viruses and bacteria called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS) and which cause activation of cells to et al. 2007). The bovine endometrium expresses TLR1 to TLR10. Purified populations of epithelial cells expressed TLRs 1 to 7 and 9, and stromal cells expressed TLRs 1 to 4, 6, 7, 9 and 10 (Petzl et al. 2008, Davies et al. 2008). During pregnancy, the expression of TLR2, -3, -4, -6 and -9 was greater in the interplacentomal endometrium than in the placentome (Petzl 2007). Endometrial epithelial cells stimulated in vitro with LPS also express acute phase proteins and secrete the proinflammatory eicosanoid prostaglandin E2 (Davies et al. 2008). The
48 defensins (Cormican et al. 2008) and mucin 1 (MUC1) (Davies et al. 2008) The distribution of T-lymphocytes depends upon the location in the uterus. CD5 + cells are widely distributed throughout the endometrium, being present in the stroma, and in the luminal and glandular epithelium (Cobb and Watson 1995). CD8 + cells are present mainly within the glandular and luminal epithelia and some scattered cells are located in the shallow stroma immediately beneath the luminal epithelium (Cobb and Watson 1995). CD4 + cells are present almost exclusively in the deep stroma; few CD4 + cells are present in the shallow stroma and none within the epithelium (Cobb and Watson 1995). The number of CD4 + cells increases in the later stages of the luteal phase so that the ratio of CD4:CD8 cells increases from 3:1 (mid-luteal phase) to 7:1 (late luteal phase) (Cobb and Watson 1995). B-cells are very rare in the noninfected uterus (Cobb and Watson 1995), however infection can lead a production of antibodies (Corbaeil et al. 1974) and the presence of lymphocytic foci in endometritis probably contain B-cells (Hartigan et al. 1972). In the cyclic cow, MHC class II positive cells are widely distributed in the endometrial stroma (Cobb and Watson 1995). The MHC class II cells are more abundant in stroma closer to luminal epithelium than in deeper areas of the endometrium. It was concluded in this study that the MHC class II + cells were mainly lymphocytes and macrophages. However, no dual-color immnunostaining was performed and conclusions were made based on morphology and location of the MHC class II + cells (Cobb and Watson 1995). Macrophages are limited to the endometrial stroma (both deep and shallow endometrium). They are absent in the luminal or
49 glandular epithelia and accumulation of macrophages around the uterine glands is rare (Cobb and Watson 1995). Around day 20 of pregnancy, the number of intraepithelial CD5 + cells decreases in the bovine endometrium (Vander and King 1984). In mid and late pregnancy, the bovine endometrium experiences an increase of MHC class II + cells in the interplacentomal compared to placentomal endometrium (Low et al. 1990). In sheep, macrophages are very abundant in endometrial stroma during midto late pregnancy (Tekin et al. 2004). In a unilateral pregnancy model, in which the conceptus was surgically restricted to one uterine horn, accumulation of macrophages occurred in both pregnant and nonpregnant uterine horns (Tekin and Hansen, 2004). This result is interpreted to mean that systemic signals are involved in macrophage recruitment to the uterus. However the number of macrophages in the nonpregnant horn was lower than in the pregnant horn indicating that local signals are also important as well. Progesterone alone is not a signal for accumulation of macrophages because progesterone treatment of ovariectomized ewes did not cause macrophage accumulation in the endometrium (Tekin and Hansen 2004). There are no reports on the presence of T-cells in the bovine endometrium. In sheep, these cells are major components of the immune cell population in the uterus during pregnancy. There is an increase in number of -T-cells in the endometrium after day 50 of pregnancy with cells being mainly localized within the luminal epithelium (Leslie and Hansen 1991, Lee et al. 1992; Meuseen et al. 1993). It has been speculated that cells promote a tolerogenic microenvironment by secretion of cytokines (Heyborne et al. 1994) or directly regulating cells activated against fetal antigens (Suzuki et al. 1995).
50 The presence of endometrial masT-cells has been reported in cows and heifers (Galleotti et al. 1997). They are present in all uterine layers, and they are higher in number in the shallow stroma of the endometrium than elsewhere (Galleotti et al. 1997). M as T-cells and eosinophils are present immediately beneath the uterine epithelium during diestrus in heifers (Galleotti et al. 1997) and increase in number at estrus (Tibbits et al. 1989). They may be there to protect the uterus against infection during mating It is not known if the bovine endometrium experiences an influx of NK cells during normal pregnancy as shown to occur in mice and humans (Croy et al. 2006; Moffett and Loke 2006). In fact, the discovery of bovine NK cells was only made a few years ago, by Storset et al. (2004) when they used a human antibody against natural cytotoxicity triggering receptor 1 also called NKp46 or CD335. The bovine NKp46 + cells has typical, large granular lymphocyte morphology, is able to proliferate in response to bovine IL2, and develops lytic activity after IL2 stimulation in vitro (Storset et al. 2004). T he presence of NK cells (as indicated by detection of the NKp46 antigen) was described in the caruncular septa of the placentome after experimental infection of pregnant cows with Neospora canis (Rosbottom et al. 2008). In the uterus of ruminants, the only functional evidence for the presence of NK cells comes from an experiment by Tekin and Hansen (2004); where they found lymphokine-activated killer function in epithelial uterine lymphocytes after stimulation with IFNG and interferon tau (IFNT) Regulatory Molecules Affecting Endometrial Immune Function Pregnancy is marked by the production of systemic and locally-acting factors that can affect the maternal immune response. Whether there are systemic effects of pregnancy on the maternal immune system in the cow is not clear. Reports showing the decreased lymphocyte proliferation in vitro from cows during mid-pregnancy (Manak
51 1982) are in contradiction with a variety of experiments showing no difference in lymphocyte proliferation comparing pregnant and nonpregnant cows (Winter et al. 1986). The expression of IFNT by the embryo at the early implantation period modulates expression of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) such as ISG15 in peripheral blood (Han et al. 2006). Nonetheless, most regulation of immune responses during pregnancy is probably at the maternal-fetal interface by locally acting factors. Progesterone Progesterone is essential for maintenance of pregnancy in mammals. In cattle, the major source is the corpus luteum with some placental synthesis late in pregnancy (Senger 2003). The importance of progesterone as an immunomodulatory molecule is indicated by studies where rejection of allografts placed into the uterus of the sheep can be delayed by treatment with progesterone (Hansen et al. 1989). Among its many actions, progesterone is immunomodulatory and can directly inhibit lymphocyte proliferation (Low and Hansen 1988; Monteroso and Hansen 1993). The concentrations required for inhibition are in the micromolar range and it is likely, therefore, that progesterone synthesized locally by the placenta could reach such high concentrations but that effects on peripheral blood leukocytes would be absent because concentrations of progesterone in the blood are 100-fold less than needed for inhibition. In addition to its direct effects on lymphocytes, progesterone can also induce synthesis of endometrial molecules that act locally to inhibit lymphocyte proliferation. Treatment of ovariectomized cows with progesterone increased lymphocyte inhibitory activity in uterine flushes as compared with uterine flushes from control cows (Lander et al. 1990). One progesterone induced protein is the uterine serpin or SERPINA14 (Leslie and Hansen 1991). SERPINA14 is secreted by the endometrial glands and, in
52 sheep, showed antiproliferative properties on lymphocytes and cancer cells (Padua and Hansen 2008). Prostaglandins In the cow, the sources of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE2) are the endometrium, trophoblast and, in early pregnancy, embryo (Shemesh et al. 1979; Scodras et al. 1990). Moreover, PGE2 can enhance the inhibitory capacity of human CD4 + CD25 + Treg cells and induce a regulator phenotype in CD4 + CD25 T-cells (Baratelli et al. 2005). PGE2 inhibits lymphocyte proliferation in vitro (Low and Hansen 1988). Furthermore, PGE2 contributes to the suppression of dendritc cells differentiation and function through its capacity to inhibit IL-12 synthesis (Kalinski et al. 1999; Sombroek et al. 2002). Treatment of bovine peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) with PGE2 downregulates IL2 and CSF2 mRNA levels (Emond et al. 1998). However, PGE2 stimulates CSF2 gene expression in PBL when the PBL is preconditioned with IFNT (Emond et al. 2000). The supplementation of CSF2 in the culture of preimplantati on bovine embryo has been shown to increase posttranfer embryo survival (Loureiro et al. 2009). Interferon-tau Interferon-tau (IFNT) is an embryo-derived cytokine in the type I interferon family secreted by the trophoblast from day 15-25 of pregnancy that acts on the endometrium to inhibit endometrial synthesis of the luteolytic signal prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2A) and allow continued survival of the corpus luteum (reviewed by Spencer et al. 2004). In addition, IFNT inhibits lymphocyte proliferation in vitro (Skopets et al. 1992) and could contribute to maternal tolerance towards the conceptus in early pregnancy. However, IFNT does not affect the endometrial immune cell populations because there are no
53 differences in number of CD4 (T helper cell), CD21 (B-cells) and CD14 (monocyte/macrophages) cells in the endometrium of pregnant cows as compared to nonpregnant cows at Day 16 after artificial insemination (Leung et al. 2000). Nevertheless, analysis of the global transcriptome of bovine endometrium during the pre-attachment period demonstrated the upregulation of many interferon-stimulated genes that may be involved in embryo-maternal immune modulation including complement C1s subcomponent ( C1S ) complement C1r subcomponent ( C1R) SERPINA14 and bone marrow stromal antigen 2 ( BST2 ) (Bauersachs et al. 2008) Systemic effects on circulating leukocytes can be detected in response to IFNT. In particular, interferon stimulated gene 15 ( ISG15) and myxovirus resistance 1, interferoninducible protein p78 ( Mx1) genes are upregulated in pregnant cows around day 20 after insemination compared to nonpregnant cows (Gifford et al. 2007), suggesting that are effects of IFNT. Parturition There is evidence that the periparturient dairy cow is immunosuppressed with a decline in numbers of CD4 + CD8 + -T-cells in peripheral blood (Van Kampen and Mallard 1997; Kimura et al. 1999; 2002) and reduced proliferation and interferongamma (IFNG) secretion by mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes (Detilleux et al. 1995; Nonnecke et al. 2003). These findings have not always been replicated. Karcher et al. -T-cells as parturition approached. In the peripartum period, there is also impairment of function of circulating neutrophils with respect to phagocytosis and oxidative function (Kehrli et al. 1989; Kehrli and Goff 1989; Cai et al. 1994; Detilleux et al. 1995).
54 Evidence for immunological participation in the parturition process is indicated by the increased incidence of retained placenta in cows which share major histocompatability class I antigens with their conceptus (Joosten et al. 1981). Also, chemotaxis and myeloperoxidase activities are reduced in circulating neutrophils from cows that had retained fetal membranes (Kimura et al. 2002). This reduced neutrophil activity was detected before parturition and it lasted until 1 to 2 weeks after parturition (Kimura et al. 2002). Moreover, retained placenta has been correlated with decreased activity of macrophages in the caruncular area (Miyoshi et al. 2002). Synopses and Objectives The goal of th e research described in this dissertation is to test the thesis that endometrial macrophages accumulate during pregnancy in the cow, and possess an M2 phenotype to promote a microenvironment at the maternal-fetal interface that inhibits maternal immune responses against the conceptus and supports fetal development and growth. To address this objective, three working hypotheses were tested: 1. There is accumulation of macrophages in the endometrium during pregnancy. 2. Endometrial macrophages in the pregnant cow possess macrophage markers that include those indicative of M2 activation (i.e., an immunosuppressive or tolerogenic function) rather than characteristic markers of activation via the classical pathway that promotes cytotoxic immune responses. 3. Residency of macrophages in the uterine endometrium of the pregnant cow results in upregulation of genes related to M2 activation.
55 CHAPTER 3 DEVIATIONS IN POPULATIONS OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONONUCLEAR CELLS AND ENDOMETRIAL MACROPHAGES IN THE COW DURING PREGNANCY Introduction Pregnancy is an immunologically-distinct period for the eutherian female because the presence of conceptus alloantigens necessitates changes in maternal immune function to prevent immunological destruction of the conceptus. These changes can be observed systemically and at the fetal-maternal interface. Maternal immune adjustments to pregnancy have been most clearly defined in the human and mouse. Both of these species have an invasive, hemotropic placenta in which trophoblast invades the endometrium. Among the changes in immune function during pregnancy are an increase in circulating regulatory T cells (Treg), defined as CD4 + CD25 + FoxP3 + cells, which act to downregulate T lymphocyte function (Aluvihare et al. 2004; Somerset et al. 2004; Yang et al. 2007), a temporary anergy of maternal lymphocytes to conceptus MHC class I antigens (Tafuri et al. 1995), and synthesis of immunosuppressive proteins at the maternal-fetal interface including IL10 (Hanna et al. 2000; Murphy et al. 2005a) and TGFB (Suzuki et al. 1995; Gorivodsky et al. 1999; Simpson et al. 2002). In addition, pregnancy is characterized by an increase in numbers of specific leukocyte populations within the uterus including macrophages (Hunt et al. 1985; Heikkinin et al. 2003 Cupurdija et al. 2004; Kim et al. 2007), T cells (Heyborne et al. 1992; MinchevaNillson et al. 1992, 1997) and NK cells (Bilinski et al. 2008 Shigeru et al. 2008). These cells have been implicated in vascular remodeling (NK cells Bilinski et al. 2008), immunosuppression through secretion of IL10 and TGFB ( T cells Suzuki et al. 1995;
56 Nagaeva et al. 2002; NK cells Murphy et al. 2005b) and parturition (macrophages Thomson et al. 1999; Mackler et al. 2000). One of the characteristics of pregnancy in eutherian mammals is great diversity in placental anatomy and uterine function. At three separate times in mammalian evolution, epitheliochorial placentation arose as a specialization from an ancestral hemotropic placenta in lemurs, moles, and in the ancestor of cetartiodactyls, suidae, and perrisodactyls (Vogel 2005). Evolutionary pressure for development of this type of placentation could have involved increased efficiency of placental transport (Leiser et al. 1997) and increased maternal control over the vascular supply to the conceptus (Mess and Carter 2007). The epitheliochorial placenta might also have evolved as a strategy for immunological defense of the conceptus. The apposition of placental trophoblast and endometrial epithelium in species with epitheliochorial placentation has been likened to the immunological relationship between commensal bacteria and host organisms with little immunological recognition occurring unless the epithelial barrier is breached (Moffett and Loke 2006) There is some evidence, however, that the immunological adjustments to pregnancy in species with epitheliochorial placentation are similar to those seen in the mouse and human. In the sheep, for example, pregnancy is associated with an increase in numbers of macrophages in stroma (Tekin and Hansen 2004) and in the number of T-cells in the luminal epithelium and immediately adjacent stroma (Lee et al. 1992; Majewski et al. 2001). There is evidence for specific downregulation of maternal cytotoxic lymphocytes activity towards paternal antigens in pregnant mares (Baker et al. 1999) and there is accumulation of cells with non-cytotoxic NK activity during early pregnancy in the pig (Yu et al. 1993).
57 For the present series of experiments, the cow was used as a model to define changes in immune function during pregnancy with a view to test whether changes in immune function seen in human and mice are also seen in a species with epitheliochorial placentation. The specific hypotheses tested were that CD4 + CD25 + cells increase in circulation during pregnancy while circulating concentrations of T cells and macrophages decrease. Moreover, it was hypothesized that the reduction in numbers of the latter two cell types reflects recruitment to the uterus. Identification of similar changes in immune function during pregnancy would strengthen the notion that existence of an epitheliochorial placenta does not minimize the need for immunological adjustments in pregnancy. Moreover, such changes could result in altered immune function in the periparturient period when the female is susceptible to uterine infection and other immune challenges. Materials and Methods Materials Tissue Culture Medium-199 (TCM-199), normal goat serum, bovine serum albumin (BSA) Fraction33342 were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA). The Fico-Lite 1077 was from Atlanta Biologicals (Norcross, GA, USA). The Zenon Alexa Fluor 488 mouse IgG1 labeling kit, Zenon Alexa Fluor R-phycoerythrin mouse IgG1 labeling kit, Zenon Alexa Fluor 647mouse IgG2a, labeling kit and the mounting medium (Prolong Antifade Kit) were obtained from Invitrogen Molecular Probes (Eugene, OR, USA). Paraformaldehyde (8%, w/v) was purchased from Electron Microscopy Sciences (Fort Washington, PA, USA).
58 Hybridoma cells producing monoclonal antibodies against bovine CD8 (clone 7C2) and ovine T (clone 86D) were purchased from European Type Cell Culture Collection (Salisbury, UK). These monoclonal antibodies were obtained as culture supernatants of hybridoma cell cultures prepared by the Hybridoma Core Laboratory of the University of Florida Interdisciplinary Center for Biotechnology Research. Mouse anti-human CD68 (clone EBM11; clarified ascites fluid, 2.3 g / mL ) was obtained from Biomeda (Foster City, CA, USA), mouse anti-bovine CD14 (clone MM61A, clarified ascites fluid, 10 g / mL ), mouse anti-bovine CD4 (clone CATC 138A; clarified ascites fluid, 10 g / mL ), and mouse anti-bovine bovine CD25 (clone CATC 108A; clarified ascites fluid, 10 g / mL ) were from VMRD (Pullman, WA, USA). Control mouse ascites fluid (clarified, clone NS1) was from Sigma-Aldrich (St Louis, MO, USA). Normal goat serum was purchased from Pel-Freez Biologicals (Rogers, AR, USA). The Histoscan Monoclonal Detector kit and mounting medium were obtained from Biomeda. Tissue freezing medium was obtained from Biotech Medical Corporation (Kuala Lampur, Malaysia). Lab-Tek Glass Chamber Slides were obtained from Electron Microscopy Sciences (Hatfield, PA, USA). Flow Cytometric Analysis of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Animals. Cows were maintained at the University of Florida Dairy Research Unit at Hague, Florida. The first experiment was designed to determine differences in peripheral blood lymphocyte populations between nonpregnant and pregnant cows at Day 33-34 of gestation. A total of 33 lactating Holstein cows were subjected to timed artificial insemination using a modified Presynch-OvSynch procedure (Brusveen et al. 2008) for insemination at Days 233 21 days after calving (range = 127-389). Cows
59 were examined for pregnancy using transrectal ultrasound at Day 33-34 after insemination and a blood sample was collected by coccygeal venipuncture into heparinized tubes and used for flow cytometry. Blood samples were collected from a total of 18 non-pregnant and 15 pregnant cows. The second experiment was designed to determine differences between nonpregnant and preparturient cows. A coccygeal blood sample was collected from a total of 8 nonpregnant cows that were non-lactating and at random stages of the estrous cycle and from 8 pregnant cows that were nonlactating and were at an average of 281.3 2.9 days of gestation (range = 273-289). The preparturient cows were at an average of 4.9 + 1.7 days before parturition (range 1-14 days). Isolation of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) Blood (10 mL ) was centrifuged at 600g for 30 min to obtain the buffy coat. This layer was mixed with 2 mL TCM199, and the cell suspension transferred to the top of 2 mL Fico/Lite LymphoH placed in a 15 mL conical tube. Cells were centrifuged at 600g for 30 min. Mononuclear cells were collected at the top of the Fico/Lite, centrifuged at 600g for 10 min, resuspended in DPBS, and used to determine cell concentration and viability by trypan blue exclusion using a hemotocytometer. Cells were resuspended to a final concentration of 5 x 10 7 / mL Flow cytometry analysis. 5 x 10 6 cells were placed into 13 x 100 mm polyethylene tubes in staining buffer [DPBS supplemented with 0.1% (w/v) BSA and 0.1% (w/v) sodium azide], washed twice with 2 mL staining buffer and resuspended in the smallest volume possible with staining buffer. Cells were stained for single color analysis using antiand anti-CD68 antibodies and for dual-color analysis with anti-
60 CD4 and anti-CD8 and anti-CD4 and anti-CD25. A mouse IgG was used at the same dilution of the primary antibody as a control to nonspecific antibody staining. The antibodies, including the IgG control, were tagged with Fab fragments against mouse IgG conjugated to Alexa Flour 488, Alexa R-phycoerythrin and Alexa 647 using the Zenon Mouse La antibody complex was then diluted in antibody staining buffer to a final concentration of 10 g/ mL at room temperature for 30 min. After incubation, samples were washed with 2 mL staining buffer, and resuspended with DPBS containing 4% (w/v) paraformaldehyde for fixation. Before analysis, cells were washed once with 1 mL of staining buffer and resuspended in 300 L staining buffer. The flow cytometry profiles were obtained on Fluorescent Analys flow cytometry software (Becton-Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ USA). The cell populations analyzed were gated on the basis of forward and side scatter at the lymphocyte and monocyte regions. Immunohistochemistry for CD68 and CD14 Uteri were obtained from pregnant and nonpregnant cows of various breeds at a local abattoir. Fetal crown-rump length was measured to estimate fetal age (Noden and Lahunta, 1985). Reproductive tracts from nonpregnant cows were used only if a corpus luteum was present. Tissues from a total of 20 pregnant cows (estimated fetal ages ranging from 54-240 days of pregnancy) and 7 nonpregnant cows were collected. Samples of intercotyledonary uterine endometrium ipsilateral to the corpus luteum were snap-frozen in Tissue-Tek OCT embedding compound. Tissues from pregnant and
61 nonpregnant cows were processed in parallel to avoid confounding physiological stage with procedural replicate. For immunohistochemistry, 5 m tissue sections were prepared with a cryostat microtome. Sections were placed onto precleaned glass slides, fixed in ice-cold acetone for 10 min and air dried. The sections were rehydrated in histochemistry buffer at 4 o C [10 mM NaPO4, pH 7.4 containing 0.9% (w/v) NaCl supplemented with 1% (v/v) normal goat serum] for 30 min. Procedures for immunohistochemistry were carried out according to peroxidase blocking buffer [histochemistry buffer with 0.3% (v/v) H 2 O 2 ] for 5 min and washed three times in histochemistry buffer. The tissue conditioner supplied in the kit was applied to the samples for 4 min before incubation with primary antibody overnight at 4 o C; primary antibodies used were anti-CD68 (2.3 g/ mL ) and an ti -CD14 (10 g/ mL ) in histochemistry buffer. As controls, other sections were incubated with IgG (10 g/ mL ) in histochemistry buffer. Slides were then sequentially incubated with secondary antibody (biotinylated anti-mouse immunoglobulin as supplied in the kit) for 30 min, streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase reagent (from kit) for 30min, and hematoxylin (as supplied in the kit) for 2 min. Slides were washed under tap water, cover slips were mounted, and slides were examined for staining using light microscopy. The concentration of CD68 + cells in the endometrial stroma was estimated subjectively according to a scale ranging from 0 (no positive cells) to 5 (very intense accumulation of positive cells). Evaluation was performed blindly with respect to reproductive stage.
62 Two-color Immunofluorescence for CD68 and CD14 Uterine sections were prepared as described above. Sections were incubated with blocking buffer [DPBS supplemented with 20% (v/v) goat serum] for 20 min followed by incubation overnight at 4 o C with an ti -CD68 (2.3 g/ mL ); anti-CD14 (10 g/ mL ) and isotype controls (10 g/ mL ) labeled using the Zenon labeling system as described before. Sections were then washed three times for 5 min using PBS and then labeled with Hoescht 33342 reagent (2.3 g/ mL ) for 15 min. Sections were washed an additional three times for 5 min each, coverslips mounted using Prolong Antifade reagent and slides examined using a Zeiss Axioplan 2 epifluorescence microscope (Zeiss, Gottingen, Germany) with a 40x objective and using Zeiss filter set 02 (DAPI filter), Zeiss filter set 03 (FITC filter) and Zeiss filter set 15 (rhodamine filter) Digital images were acquired using AxioVision software (Zeiss) and a high-resolution black and white Zeiss AxioCam MRm digital camera. Two-color Immunofluorescence for CD68 and CD14 in Adherent Cells from Endometrium Two-color immunofluorescence was performed using preparations of dispersed adherent cells from endometrium of a pregnant cow at Day 166 of pregnancy. The uterus was obtained at a local abattoir and transported to the lab on ice (~2 h). A sample of the intercaruncular region was taken for isolation of stromal endometrial cells. Endometrial cells were removed from intercaruncular areas of the endometrium by mechanically scraping the inner surface of the endometrium with a sterile surgical blade. Cell scrapings were collected into a 50 mL sterile culture tube containing 50 mL TCM-199 supplemented with type I collagenase at 150 U/ mL Cells were incubated at 37C for 1h under gentle rotation. Cells in suspension were then filtered through a
63 sterile 100 m cell strainer into 50 mL sterile culture tubes and centrifuged at 110g for 5 min. The cell pellet was resuspended with 5 mL TCM-199 supplemented with 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum and cell number was determined using a hemacytometer. The cell suspension was placed into 8-well sterile chamber slides (Lab-Tek Glass incubated at 37C for 2 h to allow cells to adhere. The wells were washed three times with DPBS to eliminate non-adherent cells. The remaining adherent cells were fixed in DPBS containing 4% (w/v) paraformaldehyde for 15 min. Wells were washed three times in DPBS and two-color immunoflourescence staining was performed as described above. Statistical Analysis Data were analyzed by least square analysis of variance using the General Linear Models procedure of SAS (SAS for Windows, version 9.3, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). For the flow cytometry studies, the model included effect of physiological status (pregnant vs nonpregnant), date samples were collected (i.e, replicate) and the interaction. For intensity of CD68 staining in endometrium, cows were grouped into 4 groups based on stage of pregnancy (nonpregnant, n=7; Day 54-100 of pregnancy, n=7; Day 101-200 of pregnancy, n=8 and Days 201-240 of pregnancy, n=5). The mathematical model included the effect of stage of pregnancy Results Representative Flow Cytometry Patterns Typical dot plots are shown in Figure 3-1. Analysis of PBMC by side scatter and forward scatter resolved cells into two populations (Figure 3-1A). The first, more abundant population was of small size and little granularity, and represents lymphocytes
64 Figure 3-1. Representative acquisition dot plots to analyze subpopulations of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (A) Forward (x-axis) and side (y-axis) scatter plots to analyze cells on the basis of size (x-axis) and granularity (yaxis). The lymphocyte (gate 1) and monocyte (gate 2) gates are circled. (B) Dual labeling for CD4 (y-axis) and CD8 (x-axis) among the cells in the lymphocyte gate. (C) Dual labeling of CD4 (y-axis) and CD25 (x-axis) for the cells in the lymphocyte gate. Note that CD25 labeling could be categorized as dim or bright. (D in the lymphocyte gate (D and F) and monocyte gate (E and G). For D G, the x-axis represents fluorescence and the y-axis represents forward scatter (FSC).
65 The second population, which represents primarily monocytes, was of large size and a CD25 bright and a CD25 dim population (Figure 1C). There were, however, no treatment differences in the percent of CD25 + cells that were bright and dim. Therefore, data were analyzed after pooling both populations. Differences between Pregnant and Nonpregnant Cows at Day 33-34 of Gestation in Subpopulations of PBMC There were no differences between pregnant and nonpregnant cows in the proportions of PBMC in the lymphocyte gate that were positive for CD4 (Fig 3-2A) and CD8 (Fig 3-2A). Pregnant cows had, however, a higher (P<0.06) percent of PBMC that were CD25 + (Fig 2A; P<0.06). Moreover, the percent of CD4 + cells that were also positive for CD25 was higher (P<0.05) for pregnant cows (Fig 3-2C). There was no effect of pregnancy status on the proportion of PBMC in the lymphocyte gate and monocyte gate that were T + and CD68 + cells (Fig 3-2D and 32E). Differences between Preparturient and Nonpregnant Cows in Subpopulations o f PBMC There was no effect of pregnancy status on the percent of cells in the lymphocyte gate that were positive for CD8 (Fig 3-3A). However, the percent of cells in the lymphocyte gate that were CD4 + CD25 + and CD4 + CD25 + were higher ( P <0.05) for preparturient cows than for nonpregnant cows (Fig 3-3A and 3-3B). The increase in number of CD4 + CD25 + cells represents an increase in CD4 + cells rather than an increase in the proportion of CD4 + cells that were CD25 + because the number of CD4 + that were CD25 + cells did not change with pregnancy status (Fig 3-3C). Preparturient cows also had a greater proportion of cells in the lymphocyte gate that were T +
66 Figure 32. Effect of pregnancy status at days 33 34 after insemination on populations of peripheral blood mononuclear cells as determined by flow cytometry. Data are least-squares meansS.E.M. for results for nonpregnant (NP) and pregnant cows (P). (A) Percentage of cells in the lymphocyte gate positive for CD4, CD8, and CD25. (B) Percentage of cells in the lymphocyte gate that are positive for both CD4 and CD25. (C) Percentage of CD4 + cells that are also CD25 + (D) Percentage of cells in the lymphocyte gate (G1) and monocyte gate (G2) that are positive for T. (E) Percentage of cells in the lymphocyte gate (G1) and monocyte gate (G2) that are positive for CD68.
67 Figure 3-3 Differences in peripheral blood mononuclear cell populations between nonpregnant (NP) and preparturient cows (P) as determined by flow cytometry. Data are least-squares means SEM. A) Percent of cells in the lymphocyte gate positive for CD4, CD8, and CD25. B) Percent of cells in the lymphocyte gate that are positive for both CD4 and CD25. C) Percent of CD4 + cells in the lymphocyte gate that are also CD25 + D) Percent of cells in the lymphocyte gate (G1) and mon E) Percent of cells in the lymphocyte gate (G1) and monocyte gate (G2) that are positive for CD68.
68 ( P <0.01) and a tendency for a greater proportion of cells in the monocyte gate that were T cells ( P <0.07) (Fig 3-3D). There was also a tendency ( P <0.10) for the percentage of cells that were CD68 + to be lower for preparturient cows for the monocyte gate (Fig 33E). Immunolocalization of CD68 + and CD14 + Cells in Endometrium as Affected by Pregnancy Status Cells positive for CD68 were very abundant in the lamina propria of the endometrial stroma in pregnant cows (Fig 3-4B and 3-4C). A fewer number of positive cells were present in the submucosa. There were no CD68 + cells in luminal or glandular epithelia. In contrast to the pattern in pregnancy, there were very few CD68 + cells in endometrium from nonpregnant cows (Fig 3-4A). The pattern of CD14 + cells was very similar to that for CD68 (figure 3-4D). The high degree of staining for CD68 in pregnant endometrium made counting of individual cells impossible. Instead, a subjective score for staining intensity was used to determine pregnancy status effects on numbers of CD68 + cells. Staining intensity was greater for pregnant cows than for nonpregnant cows at all stages of pregnancy examined ( P <0.05) for both the lamina propria (Fig 3-5A) and submucosa (Fig 3-5B). The co-localization of CD68 and CD14 expression was analyzed by dual-color immunofluorescence. In one experiment, two color immunofluorescent labeling of endometrial sections was performed using antibodies to CD68 and CD14. The majority of CD14 + cells were positive for CD68 (Fig 3-6). In the second experiment, two color immunofluorescent labeling of single cell preparations of adherent endometrial cells revealed that cells that labeled with CD14 were also labeled with CD68 (Fig 3-7).
69 Figure 34. Immunolocalization of cells positive for (A C) CD68 and (D) CD14 in bovine endometrium. Represented are sections of endometrium from a nonpregnant cow (A) and pregnant cows at days 75 (C) and 209 (B and D) of pregnancy. Note that fetal chorion has been retained for panel B only. Brown, immune reaction product; blue, hematoxylin counterstain. LE, luminal epithelium; LP, lamina propria; Myo, myometrium; UG, uterine gland; SM, submucosa; CE, chorionic epithelium.
70 Figure 3-5 Effect of pregnancy status on the intensity of staining for CD68 in the lamina propria (A) and submucosa (B) of the endometrium. Shown are data for nonpregnant cows (n=7) and pregnant cows at days 54 100 (n=7), 101 200 (n=8), and 201 240 of pregnancy (n=5). Intensity was estimated subjectively using a scoring system from 0 to 5. Data are least-squares meansS.E.M. Bars with different letters are different from each other (P<0.05).
71 Figure 3-6. Co -localization of CD68 and CD14 in endometrium at day 209 of pregnancy. The top panels represent sections that were dual labeled with anti-CD14 (red) and anti-CD68 (green). Blue indicates nuclear stain. The bottom panels represent sections incubated with redand green-labeled isotype controls. Figure 3-7. Co -localization of CD68 and CD14 in adherent cells isolated from dispersed endometrial cells from a pregnant cow at day 166 of pregnancy. Cells were labeled with anti-CD14 (red), anti-CD68 (green), and Hoescht 33342 (blue) for nuclei. Photomicrographs represent images obtained using differential interference contrast as well as fluorescence with the green and blue filters (CD68), red and blue filters (CD14), or with all three colors merged (merge).
72 Discussion Results presented here indicate that pregnancy in the cow, as in other species, is characterized by changes in immune cell populations in the periphery and uterus. During early pregnancy, at Day 33-34 of gestation, there was an increase in the pr oportion of peripheral blood lymphocytes that were CD4 + CD25 + cells. These cells, which could be analogous to the Treg cells described as increasing during pregnancy in mice and humans (Somerset et al. 2004; Aluvihare et al. 2004), were also present in higher amounts in preparturient cows as compared to nonpregnant cows. Late pregnancy was also associated with an increase in the proportion of T-cells in peripheral blood and a tendency for decrease in the proportion of cells (presumably monocytes) positive for CD68 + The most striking change associated with pregnancy was large-scale recruitment of macrophages positive for CD68 and CD14 to the endometrial stroma (Figure 34) Pregnancy-associated changes in immune cell populations are likely to be important for protection of the conceptus from maternal immune attack or for removal of cellular debris and microorganisms from the uterus following parturition. The observation that pregnancy causes changes in immune function in the cow that parallel what is seen in other species suggests that the trophoblast-maternal immunological relationship in species with epitheliochorial placentae is not an inert one, as has been implied (Moffatt and Loke 2006), but one characterized by immunological adaptation. At both Day 33-34 and late pregnancy, there were changes in the population of CD4 + CD25 + cells in periheral blood. At Day 33-34, this change reflected an increased proportion of CD4 + cells that expressed CD25 + In preparturient cows, there was an
73 increase in CD4 + CD25 + cells that resulted from an increase in relative numbers of CD4 + in the periphery rather than in an increase in the proportion of CD4 + cells that were positive for CD25. In both women and mice, a subpopulation of CD4 + CD25 + that expresses the transcription factor forkhead box P3 ( FOXP3) is increased in peripheral blood during pregnancy (Somerset et al. 2004; Aluvihare et al. 2004). These cells have been identified as Treg cells that can secrete cytokines such as IL4 that inhibit activation of cytotoxic T cells against alloantigens (Mjsberg et al. 2007). The importance of Treg cells for pregnancy success is indicated by the observation that the percent of CD4 + CD25 + cells in PBMC is reduced in women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (Yang et al. 2007). In mice, depletion of CD25 + cells decreased the ability the female to sustain pregnancy (Aluvihare et al. 2004). It is not clear from the present results whether some or all of the CD4 + CD25 + seen in peripheral blood of cows are Treg cells. Antibodies to bovine FOXP3 are not available and several unsuccessful attempts were made to identify antibodies raised against F OX P3 in other species that crossreact with bovine. The immune changes coincident with pregnancy seen here do not represent the earliest such changes in pregnancy. Ruminant species are unique among mammals in that they have evolved to use a type I interferon tau (IFNT) as the trophoblast signal that inhibits endometrial prostaglandin F2 synthesis and allows prolonged lifespan of the corpus luteum (Roberts et al. 2003). IFNT has retained its immunomodulatory properties and changes in expression of interferon-stimulated genes have been described in PBMC in cattle as early as Day 16 of gestation (Han et al. 2006, Gifford et al. 2007). By Day 32 of pregnancy, expression of interferon stimulated gene 15 in blood
74 cells was similar to that for non-pregnant cows (Han et al. 2006) but it cannot be ruled out that changes in PBMC seen at Day 33-34 in the present study were caused by IFNT secretion by the conceptus earlier in pregnancy. It was hypothesized that the relative numbers of T cells in peripheral blood would decline during pregnancy, especially in the preparturient period, because of re cruitment to the uterus. Indeed, accumulation of T cells to the endometrium is a characteristic of pregnancy in humans (Mincheva-Nilsson et al. 1992; 1997), mice (Heyborne et al. 1992) and sheep (Lee et al. 1992; Meussen et al. 1993; Majewski et al. 2001). In contrast to our hypothesis, the relative numbers of T cells in peripheral blood was not affected by pregnancy status at Day 33-34 after insemination and was higher for preparturient cows than for non-pregnant cows. An increase in relative numbers of T cells in peripheral blood 3 weeks before parturition followed by a decrease to initial values at the time of parturition has been seen by others (Van Kampen and Mallard 1997). The recruitment of macrophages to the pregnant uterus has been described in many species such as in humans (Heikkinen et al. 2003; Cupurdija et al. 2004; Kim et al. 2007), mice (Hunt et al. 1985) and sheep (Tekin and Hansen 2004). Present results indicate that this process occurs in the cow, also, with numbers increasing by Day 54100 of pregnancy. For preparturient cows, there was a decline in the relative number of CD68 + cells in peripheral blood and this change could reflect increased recruitment to the uterus. That the CD68 + cells in endometrial stroma are macrophages is indicated by the co-expression of CD14, which is also expressed in tissue macrophages such as in pulmonary alveoli (Yang et al. 1995) The signals for movement of monocytes from the
75 blood to the uterus and their local differentiation once resident in the endometrium is not known. Mouse trophoblast can cause migration of blood monocytes in vitro (Fest et al. 2007) and change monocyte cytokine prolife and activation in response to lipopolysaccharide. The accumulation of large numbers of macrophages in the endometrium during pregnancy strongly suggests an important role for these cells in the uterus. One possibility is that uterine macrophages participate in parturition by promoting placental detachment. Evidence for immunological participation in the parturition process is indicated by the increased incidence of retained placenta in cows which share major histocompatibility class I antigens with their conceptus (Joosten et al. 1981). Retained placenta in cattle has also been related to decreased activity of macrophages in the placentomal area (Miyoshi et al. 2002). The postpartum uterus is characterized by abundant lochia and mic roorganisms (Lewis 1997; Thatcher et al. 2006), and macrophages may participate in the involution process whereby these materials are removed in the postpartum period. Finally, it may be that macrophages function during pregnancy to promote survival of the allogeneic conceptus. In human, placental macrophages express markers of alternative activation (Cupurdija et al. 2004) and markers such as stabilin-1 that have been suggested to be involved in an antiinflammatory function (Politz et al. 2002). It has been proposed that clearance of apoptotic trophoblast cells by uterine macrophages alters macrophage cytokine secretion to reduce inflammation and promote conceptus survival (Mor et al. 2006). Also, macrophage-associated stabilin-1 can bind to and process placental lactogen in
76 vitro, suggesting regulation of extracellular levels of placental lactogen by alternatively activated macrophages (Kzhyshkowska et al. 2008). There is evidence that the preparturient dairy cow is immunosuppressed with a decline in numbers of CD4 + CD8 + and T cells in peripheral blood (Van Kampen and Mallard 1997; Kimura et al. 1999; 2002) and reduced proliferation and IFNG secretion by mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes (Detilleux et al. 1995; Nonnecke et al. 2003). There was little evidence of immunosuppression in the present study. Preparturient cows did not have reduced proportions of CD8 + cells in peripheral blood compared with nonpregnant cows and numbers of CD4 + and T cells were increased. Karcher et al. (2008) also did not observe declines in CD8 + cells as parturition approached and there was a tendency for an increase in the proportion of T cells as parturition approached. In the present study, the only direct evidence for reduced immune competency in preparturient cows was the tendency for a reduction in numbers of CD68 + cells. It is possible, however, that the increase in numbers of CD4 + CD25 + and T cells seen in preparturient cows is an indication for immunosuppression in the preparturient period if some of these cells are Treg cells. Moffett and Loke (2006) have likened the maternal-fetal immunological relationship in species with epitheliochorial placenta to the immunological relationship between commensal bacteria and host organisms. In this view, little immunological recognition of the conceptus occurs unless the epithelial barrier is breached. The current results indicate that development of the epitheliochorial placenta during evolution has not changed the occurrence of several immunological adjustments to pregnancy. Like the human and mouse, there is an increase in CD4 + CD25 +
77 lymphocytes in peripheral blood and accumulation of macrophages in the endometrium. These pregnancy-associated changes in immune function indicate that, rather than being an immunologically-inert tissue, the bovine conceptus is a tissue whose presence requires maternal immunological adjustments. These adjustments can be detected as early as Day 16 (Han et al. 2006; Gifford et al. 2007), are present at Day 33-34 of pregnancy, and are still occurring close to parturition. Thus, the maternal immune system in the cow is constantly adjusting to the conceptus. Given this pattern of immunological change during pregnancy, which is also seen in other species with epitheliochorial placenta (Lee et al. 1992; Yu et al. 1993; Baker et al. 1999; Majewski et al. 2001; Tekin et al. 2004), it seems more likely that evolution of an epitheliochorial placenta occurred because of increases in efficiency of placental transport (Leiser et al. 1997) or increased maternal control over the vascular supply to the conceptus (Mess and Carter 2007) rather than to change the fundamental characteristics of the maternalfetal immunological relationship.
78 CHAPTER 4 PHENOTYPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF MACROPHAGES IN THE ENDOMETRIU M OF THE PREGNANT COW Introduction Re cruitment of macrophages to the endometrium is a characteristic of pregnancy in many species including the mouse (Hunt et al. 1985); human (Heikkinen et al. 2003; Cupurdija et al. 2004; Kim et al. 2007) cynomologus and vervet monkeys, (Dambaeva et al. 2008), sheep (Tekin and Hansen 2004) and cattle (Oliveira and Hansen 2008). One function of endometrial macrophages may be to serve as sentinels to prevent pathogens from establishing infection or to clear dead cells. Endometrial macrophages increase in number in caruncular septa after experimental infection with Neospora caninum in the pregnant cow (Rosbottom et al. 2008). Endometrial macrophages could also be key regulators of the immunological interaction between mother and conceptus. Human decidual CD14 + cells express low levels of the costimulatory molecule CD86 as compared to cells in blood (Heikkinen et al. 2003) and spontaneously express alternative activation markers interleukin 10 (IL10), stabilin-1 and coagulation factor XIIIa. (Heikkinen et al. 2003; Kim et al. 2007). The comparison of the global transcriptome of circulating CD14 + cells to decidual CD14 + cells in human revealed that decidual CD14 + have a distinct phenotype and express genes for regulatory proteins such as DC-SIGN (Gustafsson et al. 2008). A population of DC-SIGN positive macrophages also is present near the site of placental attachment in early pregnancy is also present in cynomologous and vervet monkeys (Dambaeva et al. 2008). It also has been suggested that endometrial macrophages regulate the concentrations of placental lactogen at the uteroplacental interface by binding of placental lactogen to macrophage stabilin-1 and subsequent processing of the protein (Kzhyshkowska et al. 2008). A role
79 in parturition is also possible because macrophages accumulate in the uterus near parturition (Mackler et al. 2000; Thomson et al. 1999). The signal or signals that drive the accumulation and differentiation of macrophages in the pregnant endometrium remain unclear. Using the unilaterallypregnant sheep as a model, there was evidence for both local and systemic signals for macrophage accumulation in the interplacentomal endometrium during pregnancy (Tekin and Hansen 2004). There is a variety of cytokines produced by the uterus or placenta that can regulate monocyte or macrophage differentiation. In the cow, these include transforming growth factor) IL10, IL 12 IL 18, TNF and IFNG (Rosbottom et al. 2008). In ruminants, the nature of the relationship between mother and fetus varies regionally within the placenta. Most gas and nutrient exchange occurs at specialized structures called placentomes where fetal villi are interdigitated with maternal caruncular septa. In the intervening interplacentomal areas, the chorioallantois is apposed to the endometrial luminal epithelium. A synctium forms in the endometrial epithelium due to migration of fetal binucleated cells and their fusion with maternal epithelium (Wooding 1982). The immunogenicity of the placenta differs between placentomal and interplacentomal sites. Chorionic tissue in the placentome is negative for MHC class I expression throughout pregnancy while chorionic tissue in the interplacentomal regions can express MHC class I in the third trimester of pregnancy (Low et al. 1990; Davies et al. 2004). MHC class I proteins on the chorion are predominately encoded by nonclassical MHC class I genes (Davies et al. 2006). These non-classical MHC class I
80 proteins are possibly analogous to human leukocyte antigen HLAG that can regulate natural killer cell and macrophage function (Li et al. 2009) In this study, we hypothesized that the endometrial macrophage in the placentome has a different pattern of differentiation than the endometrial macrophage in the interplacentomal region. To identify macrophages, we used antibody to CD68, a lysosomal-associated protein that is expressed on monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (Ferenbach 2008). Expression of three markers by CD68 + cells in the endometrium were evaluated to determine whether regional differentiation of endometrial macrophages occurs. The first marker examined was CD14, a co-receptor for bacterial lipopolysaccharide expressed on monocytes, macrophages and neutrophils (Paape et al. 1996; Triantafilou et al. 2002). CD14 is expressed on most interplacentomal CD68 + cells in the pregnant cow (Chapter 3). The second was CD11b -1 (Mac-1) that is involved in leukocyte-endothelial adhesion (Fagerholm et al. 2006). The third molecule was MHC class II, which is involved in antigen presentation, and can be upregulated in activated macrophages and downregulated in inactivated macrophages (Gordon 2003). Materials and Methods Materials Mouse anti-human CD68 (clone EBM11; ascites, 2.3 g / mL ) was obtained from Dako (Carpinteria, CA, USA) (Tekin and Hansen 2004), mouse anti-bovine CD14 (clone MM61A, ascites, 10 g / mL ) (Miyoshi et al. 2002), mouse anti-bovine MHC class II [a mixture of and equal mass of anti-DR alpha (clone TH14B) and an anti-DQ (clone TH81A5); ascites, 1 mg / mL ] (Cannon and Pate 2003) and mouse anti-human CD11b
81 (clone MM12A; ascites, 1 mg / mL ) (souza et al. 2008) were from VMRD (Pullman, WA, USA). IgG controls matching the isotype of each antibody used were obtained as control mouse ascites fluid (Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO, USA). The Zenon Alexa Fluor labeling kit and the Prolong Antifade mounting medium were obtained from Invitrogen (Eugene, OR, USA) The antibodies, including the IgG control, were tagged with fluorescently-labeled fragment antigen-binding (Fab) fragments against mouse IgG conjugated using the Zenon -CD68 was labeled with Alexa Fluor 488, the anti-CD14 was labeled with Alexa Fluor 488 or Alexa Fluor 594 for immunofluorescence and with Alexa Fluor R-Phycoerythrin for flow cytometry, and anti-bovine MHC class II and anti-CD11b were labeled with Alexa Fluor 594. Normal goat serum and fetal bovine serum were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich or Pel-Freez Biologicals (Rogers, AR, USA). The tissue freezing medium (Tissue-Tek OCT) was purchased from Sakura Finetek USA, Inc. (Torrance, CA). Tissue Culture Medium-199 (TCM-199), bovine serum albumin (BSA) Fraction-V, type I and Hoescht 33342 were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA). Tissues Uteri were obtained from pregnant cows of various breeds at a local abattoir. The uteri were transported to the lab on ice within 1.5 h after slaughter. Fetal crown-rump length was measured to estimate fetal age (Noden and Lahunta 1990). Tissues from a total of 20 pregnant cows (estimated fetal age 137 242 days; mean + SD = 182.0 + 37 days) were collected. Samples of interplacentomal endometrium and placentome
82 ipsilateral to the corpus luteum were snapfr ozen in Tissue-Tek OCT embedding compound (see Noden and de Lahunta 1990; Davies et al. 2000) for representation of the anatomy of the bovine placenta highlighting features of interplacentomal and placentomal endometrium). Samples of lymph node, thymus and spleen were also collected from cows at Day 17 of pregnancy for use as positive controls. Two-color Immunofluorescence Tissue was processed for dual-color immunofluorescence by preparing 4 m sections with a cryostat microtome. Sections were placed onto precleaned poly-L-lysine coated glass slides, fixed in ice-cold acetone for 10 min and air dried. The sections were rehydrated in phosphate buffered solution (PBS) at 4 o C [0.01 M Na 2 HPO 4 pH 7.4 containing 0.85% (w/v) NaCl]. Sections were incubated with blocking buffer [PBS containing 10% (v/v) goat serum] for 1 h followed by incubation overnight at 4 o C with labeled anti-CD68 (2.3 g/ mL ) as a pan-macrophage marker concomitant with either labeled anti-CD14 (10 g/ mL ), anti-CD11b (10 g/mL ) or anti-MHC class II (10 g/ mL ). Other sections were incubated with Zenon-labeled isotype controls (10 g/ mL ). Sections were then washed three times for 5 min using PBS and incubated with Hoescht 33342 reagent [2.3 g/ mL in PBS] for 15 min. Sections were washed an additional three times for 5 min each, coverslips mounted using Prolong Antifade reagent, and slides examined using a Zeiss Axioplan 2 epifluorescence microscope (Zeiss, Gottingen, Germany) with a 40x objective and using Zeiss filter set 02 (DAPI filter), Zeiss filter set 03 (FITC filter) and Zeiss filter set 15 (rhodamine filter). Digital images were acquired using AxioVision
83 software (Zeiss) and a high-resolution black and white Zeiss AxioCam MRm digital camera. DualColor Flow Cytometric Analysis for CD68 and CD14 in Dispersed Endometrial cells Two-color immunofluorescence was performed using preparations of dispersed endometrial cells from the interplacentomal endometrium of one pregnant cow at an estimated Day 166 of pregnancy. The uterus was obtained at a local abattoir and transported to the lab on ice. Interplacentomal endometrium was obtained by dissection. Tissue fragments were collected into a 50 mL sterile culture tube containing 30 mL Tissue Culture Medium (TCM)-199 supplemented with type I collagenase at 150 U/ mL and 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum. Cells were incubated at 37C for 1 h under gentle rotation. Dispersed cells were then filtered through a sterile 200 m cell strainer into 50 mL sterile culture tubes and centrifuged at 110g for 5 min. The cell pellet was resuspended with 5 mL TCM-199 supplemented with 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum and cell number was determined using a hemacytometer. 5 x 10 6 cells were placed into 13 x 100 mm polyethylene tubes in staining buffer ed with 0.1% (w/v) BSA and 0.1% (w/v) sodium azide], washed twice with 2 mL staining buffer and resuspended in the smallest volume possible with staining buffer. Cells were stained for dual-color flow cytometry analysis using Zenon-labeled anti-CD68 (2.3 g/ mL ; tagged with Alexa Fluor 488 ) and anti-CD14 ( 10 g/ mL ; tagged with Alexa Fluor R-phycoerythrin) diluted in antibody staining buffer After incubation, samples were washed with 2 mL staining buffer, and resuspended with /v) paraformaldehyde for fixation. Before analysis, cells were washed once with 1 mL of staining buffer and resuspended in 300 l staining
84 buffer. The flow cytometry profiles were obtained on Fluorescent Analysis Cell Sorter low cytometry software (Becton-Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ USA). Gates for identification of positive cells were established by analyzing other aliquots of cells that were incubated with control IgG (tagged with Alexa Fluor 488 and Alexa Fluor R-phycoerythrin) at the same dilution as the primary antibodies described above. Results Localization of Cells Positive for CD68 and CD14 In interplacentomal regions, CD68 + cells were abundant in the endometrial stroma (Figure 3-1b). Density of CD68 + cells was lowest in stroma closest to the luminal epithelium and in the deepest regions of the stroma near glands (Figure 4-3b). Regardless of location, the majority of CD68 + cells also expressed CD14 (Figure 4-1c and d). There were also many cells in the stroma, most prominently in the areas closest to luminal epithelium, that were positive for CD14 but either negative or weakly staining for CD68 (Figure 4-1c and d). In the placentomal areas, CD68 + cells and CD14 + cells were present in the caruncular septa (maternal tissue) but were absent in fetal villi (Figure 4-1e and f). The majority of CD68 + cells also expressed CD14 (Figure 4-1g and h). Analysis by flow cytometry confirmed that the majority of CD68 + cells in interplacentomal endometrium expressed CD14 and vice versa (Figure 4-2). Expression of CD11b on Cells Positive for CD68 In the stroma of the interplacentomal endometrium, cells dual-labeled for CD68 and CD11b were present in deep stroma but most CD68 + cells closer to the luminal
85 Figure 4-1. Immunofluorescent labeling of cells for CD68 (green) and CD14 (red) in endometrium from a cow at ~Day 145 of pregnancy. The top panels represent sections of interplacentomal endometrium (a-d) and the bottom panels represent sections of placentome (e-h). Nuclei were labeled with Hoescht 33342 (blue). Merged images are in panels c, d, g and h. CS = caruncular septum, FV = fetal villi,.LE= luminal epithelium, and Str=endometrial stroma.
86 Figure 4-2. Acquisition dot-plots from flow cytometric analysis of the proportion of CD68 + cells in dispersed endometrial cells from the interplacentomal endometrium of a cow at ~Day 166 of pregnancy that were CD14 + Plots represent: (a) analysis of cells on the basis of size (FSC, forward scatter characteristics; x axis) and granularity (SSC, side scatter characteristics; y axis), with the gate subjected to further analysis (Gate 1) shown as the red rectangle, (b) fluorescence for cells incubated with isotype controls, (c) duallabeling of cells in Gate 1 for CD14 (x axis) and CD68 (y axis) and (d) representative histogram showing cells labeled with isotope control in FL1 (black), anti-CD68 (green) and anti-CD14 (red).
87 epithelium did not express CD11b (Figure 4-3c). In the placentome, CD11b + cells were rare (Figure 4-3e) and none of the CD68 + cells were positive for CD11b. (Figure 4-3g and h). Localization of Cells Positive for MHC class II In the interplacentomal endometrium, there were three major populations of MHC class II + cells. The first two were in the stroma immediately adjacent to the basement membrane of the luminal epithelium (Fig. 4a,e). These cells were negative or weakly positive for CD68 (Fig. 4c,d,g,h). One population of MHC class II + cells near the luminal epithelium was also positive for CD14 (Fig. 5c,d) whereas the other, more abundant, population, was negative for CD14 (Fig. 5c,d). The third population was in the stroma immediately adjacent to the basement membrane of the endometrial glands. These cells were negative for CD68 (Fig. 4c,d) and CD14 (not shown). In the caruncular septa of placentomes, there were numerous MHC class II + cells (Figure 4i and m). Some were CD68 + and others were CD68 Most CD68 + cells were also MHC class II (Figure 4-4k, l, o and p). No MHC class II + cells were found in fetal villi (Figure 4-4i, k, l, m, o and p). Discussion Results indicate that the endometrial accumulation of CD68 + cells during pregnancy in the cow seen previously for the interplacentomal endometrium (Chapter 3) also occurs in the caruncular septa of the placentome. That these CD68 + cells originate from the myeloid hematopoietic lineage is likely because they also express CD14. CD68 is expressed on monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (Ferenbach
88 Figure 4-3. Immunofluorescent labeling of cells for CD68 (green) and CD11b (red) in endometrium from a cow at ~Day 145 of pregnancy. The top panels represent sections of interplacentomal endometrium (a-d) and the bottom panels represent sections of placentome (e-h). Nuclei were labeled with Hoescht 33342 (blue). Merged images are in panels c, d, g and h. CS = caruncular septum and FV = fetal villi.
89 Figure 4-4 Immunofluorescent labeling of cells for CD68 (green) and MHC class II (red) in endometrium from a cow at ~Day 216 of pregnancy. The top panels represent sections of interplacentomal endometrium (a-h) and the bottom panels represent sections of placentome (i-q). Nuclei were labeled with Hoescht 33342 (blue). Merged images are in panels c, d, g, h, k, l, o, and p. CS = caruncular septum, EG=endometrial gland, FV = fetal villi,LE= luminal epithelium, and Str=endometrial stroma.
90 Figure 4-5 Immunofluorescent labeling of cells for MHC class II (red) and CD14 (green) in interplacentomal endometrium from a cow at ~Day 243 of pregnancy. Nuclei were labeled with Hoescht 33342 (blue). Merged images are in panels c and d. LE=luminal epithelium and Str =endometrial stroma. et al.2008; Micklem et al. 1989; Ackermann et al. 1994) and CD14 is expressed on monocytes, macrophages and neutrophils (Paape et al. 1996). It is also apparent from this study that endometrial macrophages are regionally differentiated. CD68 + cells in the interplacentomal endometrium were negative for MHC class II and sometimes positive for CD11b, while CD68 + cells in the placentomal endometrium were MHC class II + and negative for CD11b. This regional differentiation likely reflects different trafficking patterns and regulatory signals in the two placental regions. The most striking difference between CD68 + cells in interplacentomal and placentomal regions was in the expression of MHC class II. Presence of MHC class II on CD68 + cells in the caruncular septa of the placentomal endometrium is consistent with the activation of these cells by the M1 or M2 pathway (Godon 2003). In contrast, the absence of detectable MHC class II in interplacentomal CD68 + cells could indicate that the cells are inactivated macrophages (Godon 2003) or monocytes newly recruited
91 to the endometrium that have defective antigen-presentation function. Further evidence suggesting that at least some of the interplacentomal CD68 + cells are newly arrived in the endometrium is the staining pattern for CD11b. This protein, which is involved in monocyte movement through the endothelium (Fagerholm et al. 2006) was only expressed on a population of CD68 + cells in the deeper stromal areas of interplacentomal endometrium. The lack of CD11b + cells in shallow stroma and the placentome could reflect loss of CD11b expression as macrophages migrate towards the placenta and differentiate in response to changes in the endometrial microenvironment. Further evidence for a role of CD11b in monocyte trafficking to the endometrium is the finding in humans that expression of CD11b by circulating blood cells was higher in pregnant women compared with nonpregnant women (Luppi et al. 2004). It is also possible that CD68 + cells in the interplacentomal endometrium are negative for MHC class II because they are more distant from trophoblast-derived activation signals than CD68 + cells in the placentomes or that a molecule secreted by the interplacentomal trophoblast or endometrium inhibits macrophages. Non-classical MHC class I antigens are expressed on the interplacentomal trophoblast of the cow (Davies et al. 2006). In the human, trophoblast non-classical MHC class I proteins can regulate endometrial macrophage function (Li et al. 2009). The interplacentomal endometrium produces uterine serpin in glandular epithelium (Peltier and Hansen 2000) and, at least in sheep, this protein can inhibit proliferation of peripheral mononuclear cells in vitro (Leslie and Hansen 1991; Padua and Hansen 2008).
92 Another possibility is that some or all of the CD68 + cells in the interplacentomal endometrium are not derived from a myeloid mononuclear phagocyte lineage but instead represent stromal cells that have differentiated in a manner associated with upregulation of certain genes characteristically expressed by macrophages. In species where endometrium undergoes a decidual response, decidualized stroma express cytokines and chemokines characteristically secreted by immune cells (Salamonsen et al. 2007; Chen et al. 2009). Perhaps similar differentiation pathways exist in species like cattle that do not undergo decidualization. In the interplacentomal endometrium, there were numerous MHC class II + cells that were not positive for CD68. These included cells in stromal tissue beneath the luminal epithelium, some of which were CD14 + and cells in the glandular epithelium that were negative for CD14. A similar pattern of MHC class II + cells exists in sheep (Gottshall and Hansen 1992; Leung et al. 2000). The CD14 + MHC class II + cells could be mononuclear phagocytic cells derived from CD68 + macrophages in deep stroma or another other cell type. Presence of CD14 + cells in the subepithelium stroma has been previously reported at Day 16 after estrus in cyclic and pregnant cattle (Leung et al. 2000). Some MHC class II + cells in the subepithelial stroma could also be B cells because cells staining for the B cell marker CD21 were localized mostly to this region (Leung et al. 2000). As mentioned in the Introduction, recruitment of macrophages to the endometrium is a characteristic of pregnancy in many species. What sets the sheep and cow apart from the other species examined is the magnitude of infiltration, particularly into the
93 interplacentomal endometrium. The consequences of this infiltration for the course of pregnancy and immune function in the post-parturient period remain to be defined..
94 CHAPTER 5 TRANSCRIPTOMAL PROPERTIES OF THE ENDOMETRIAL MACROPHAGE IN THE PREGNANT COW Introduction Pregnancy leads to immunological adjustments in the mother that facilitate survival of the conceptus. One of these adjustments, recruitment of macrophages to the pregnant endometrium, occurs in a wide range of mammalian species including the mice (Hunt et al. 1985), humans (Heikkinen et al. 2003; Cupurdija et al. 2004; Kim et al. 2007), cynomologus and vervet monkeys (Dambaeva et al. 2008), sheep (Tekin and Hansen 2004) and bovids (Chapters 3 and 4). The role of endometrial macrophages is not known and may vary depending upon anatomical location. In cattle, for example, endometrial macrophages are regionally differentiated, with macrophages in the interplacentomal endometrium being largely CD68 + CD1 4 + MHC class II and often positive for CD11b while the less-numerous macrophages in the caruncular septa of placentomes are largely CD68 + CD14 + MHC class II + and have little or no expression of CD11b (Chapter 4). One possible function for endometrial macrophages is to participate in host defense. Indeed, endometrial macrophages increase in number in caruncular septa of the pregnant cow after experimental infection with Neospora caninum. (Rosbottom et al. 2008). Since accumulation can increase with impending parturition (Thompson et al. 1999; Mackler et al., 2000), a role for macrophages in clearing bacteria after parturition or in the expulsion of the conceptus is a possibility. There is evidence in the human that endometrial macrophages participate in vascular remodeling since they produce VEGF (Li et al. 2009) and macrophage accumulation in the uterus is abnormal in women with pre-eclampsia (Williams et al. 2009). Macrophages can also clear placental lactogen
95 (Kzhyshkowska et al. 2008) and may participate in regulation of this hormone at the fetal-maternal interface. One important function of macrophages is regulation of cells participating in the humoral and cellular arms of the immune response. Given the potential antigenicity of the conceptus by virtue of inheritance of paternal antigens and, at least in cows, the expression of classical MHC proteins on the placenta (Davies et al. 2004; Davies et al. 2006), a role for macrophages in limiting activation of anti-conceptus immune responses is possible. Macrophages can follow different differentiation pathways when activated by cytokines. Exposure to interferon gamma (IFNG), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA) and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) leads to activation along the classical or M1 activation pathway to produce a macrophage that promotes inflammation and cytotoxicity while exposure to interleukin 14 (IL4) and interleukin 13 (IL13) leads to activation via the alternative or M2 activation pathway to produce a macrophage that directs immunosuppression and wound healing (Mantovani et al. 2002; Gordon, 2003). Endometrial macrophages in humans and mice have been reported to have characteristics of M2 activation (Heikkinen et al. 2003; Curpudja et al. 2004; Gustafsson et al. 2008) although it is possible that endometrial macrophages possess a unique activation status. In the experiment reported herein, likely functions of macrophages residing in the interplacentomal endometrium of pregnant cows were determined through use of global analysis of the macrophage transcriptome to characterize the pattern of gene expression and identify functional pathways that are activated or inhibited in endometrial macrophages compared with monocytes in blood. We hypothesized that macrophages in the pregnant endometrium will express genes that support placental growth
96 (angiogenesis and tissue remodeling) and that are indicative of a M2 phenotype that signifies a role in modulation of immune responses towards fetal antigens. Materials and Methods Materials Mouse anti-bovine CD14 (clone MM61A, clarified ascites fluid, 10 g / mL ; (Miyoshi et al. 2002) was obtained from VMRD, Inc. (Pullman, WA, USA). The antibody was tagged with labeled Fab fragments against mouse IgG conjugated to Alexa Flour 488 using the Zenon Mouse Labeling IgG kit from Invitrogen Molecular Probes (Eugene, Fico/Lite LymphoH was purchased from Atlanta Biologicals (Norcross, GA, USA). Fetal bovine serum was purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA) or PelFreez Biologicals (Rogers, AR, USA). Tissue Culture Medium-199 (TCM-199), bovine serum albumin (BSA) Fractioncollagenase type I was purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA). Other reagents were from Sigma-Aldrich or Fischer (Pittsburgh, PA, USA). Collection of Endometri um and Blood For microarray analysis, the uterus and cardiac blood were obtained at the time of euthanasia at a local abattoir from four cows at an estimated 164, 239, 242 and 248 days of pregnancy, respectively [i.e., dating based on fetal crown-rump length; Noden and Lahunta, 1985]. Blood was collected into heparinized tubes. Blood and the uterus were transported to the lab on ice within 1.5 h after slaughter. The uterus and cardiac blood from three additional cows at an estimated 156, 169 and 176 days of pregnancy were collected as described above for RNA collection to be used for quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) analysis.
97 Isolation of Mononuclear Leukocytes in Blood Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained from blood as follows. Blood (10 mL ) was centrifuged at 600 g for 30 min to obtain the buffy coat. This layer was mixed with 2 mL TCM-199 and the cell suspension was transferred to the top of 2 mL Fico/Lite LymphoH placed in a 15 mL conical tube. Cells were centrifuged at 600 g for 30 min. Mononuclear cells were collected at the top of the Fico/Lite LymphoH, centrifuged at 600 g for 10 min, resuspended in DPBS, and evaluated with a hemacytometer to determine cell concentration and viability (trypan blue exclusion). Cells were resuspended to a final concentration of 5x10 7 / mL in staining buffer (DPBS supplemented with 0.1% (w/v) BSA). Preparation of Cell Suspension from Endometrium A suspension of cells was prepared from interplacentomal endometrium dissected from the uterine horn containing the fetus. Dissected endometrium was finely minced in DPBS using a sterile scalpel blade and a petri dish and then placed into a 50 mL sterile culture tube containing 25 mL digestion medium (TCM-199 supplemented with 150 U/ mL type I collagenase). Tissue was incubated at 37 o C under gentle rotation for 15 min. Undigested tissue was allowed to settle for 5 min; the supernatant fraction was then collected by aspiration, and 25 mL of fresh digestion medium was added to the tissue fraction. The remaining tissue was incubated for an additional 15 min under rotation, and the supernatant fraction produced after settling was pooled with the previous supernatant fraction. Cells in suspension in the supernatant fraction were collected by filtration through a sterile 100 mm cell strainer into 50 mL sterile culture tubes. Cells were centrifuged at 110x g for 5 min, resuspended in 5 mL TCM199 supplemented with 10% (v/v) fetal bovine serum, analyzed for cell number using a
98 hemacytometer, and diluted to a final concentration of 5x10 5 / mL in TCM-199. A 10 mL aliquot of the dispersed endometrial cell suspension was layered onto 5 mL Fico/Lite LymphoH in a 15 mL conical tube. Cells were centrifuged at 600 g for 30 min. The interface containing mononuclear cells was collected and resuspended in 10 mL of staining buffer, washed once, resuspended in staining buffer, and evaluated for cell concentration and viability (trypan blue exclusion) using a hemacytometer. Cells were then resuspended to a final concentration of 5x10 6 / mL Purification of CD14 + Cells Endometrial cells and PBMC were separately subjected to flow cytometry and cell sorting to prepare CD14 + cells. The entire pool of cells obtained as described above was placed into a 25 mL conical tube containing staining buffer, washed twice with 5 mL staining buffer, and resuspended in the smallest volume possible with staining buffer. Cells were then labeled by incubation with Zenon-labeled anti-CD14 by adding 0.1 g of labeled antibody per 5x10 6 cells. A Zenon-labeled mouse IgG1 at the same concentration as the primary antibody was incubated with another aliquant of cells to determine nonspecific labeling. Cells and labeled antibody were incubated at room temperature for 30 min. After incubation, cells were diluted to 5 mL with staining buffer at a rate of 5x10 6 cells/ mL and subjected to cell sorting using flow cytometry with a FACSCAria Cell Sorter supported by DiVa software (Becton-Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA). Sorting was performed with a 100 micron nozzle and pressure of 20 psi. Cells were gated on the basis of forward and side scatter to analyze the monocyte region. Two rounds of cell sorting were performed. The first round of sorting, at a high flow rate, was performed to maximize yield of CD14 + cells while the second step was designed to maximize purity of the CD14 + cells at low flow rate.
99 RNA Purification Sorted CD14 + cells were centrifuged at 600g for 5 min and the total cellular RNA was extracted using the using the RNeasy Micro kit (Qiagen Inc, Valencia, CA, USA). Concentration of total cellular RNA was determined using the Nanodrop 1000 spectrophotometer (Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA) and integrity determined by Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer with RNA 6000 Pico LabChip kit (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara CA, USA). Only samples that showed high RNA integrity (RIN > 7) were used for the microarray hybridization and quantitative PCR analysis. Extracted RNA was stored at 80 o C until microarray analysis. Microarray Hybridization Four pairs of samples of blood and endometrial CD14 + cells were subjected to transcriptional profiling using the Bovine Oligo Microarray Chip (Bovine 4X44K G2519F) from Agilent (Santa Clara CA, USA). Each pair was collected from the same animal. The array contains 43,803 bovine probes representing 20,767 unique 60-mer probes and approximately 19,500 distinct bovine genes arranged on a slide as 4 arrays in a 4 x 44K format. The probes were developed by clustering more than 450,000 mRNA and EST sequences of the bovine genome (btau 2.1). All microarray protocols were carried out by Mogene LLC (St. Louis, MO, USA), an Agilent Certified Service Provider. Prior to microarray hybridization, 10-50 ng of total RNA was amplified using the WT -Ovation Pico RNA Amplification Kit (NuGen Technologies, Inc, San Carlos, CA, g of the amplified material was labeled with Cy3 or Cy5 using Agilent Genomic DNA Enzymatic Labeling Kit (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara CA, USA) and 1.5 g of each labeled sample were co-hybridized to the array for 17 h at 65 o C at 10 rpm in a rotating oven in an
100 ozone-free room using sureHyb chambers from Agilent (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara CA, USA). Wash conditions were as outlined in the Agilent processing manual and the arrays were scanned using an Agilent G2505B scanner (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara CA, USA). Two technical replicates were performed. For the first replicate, RNA samples from blood were labeled with Cy3 and RNA from endometrium was labeled with Cy5. For the second technical replication, 3 samples of RNA from blood were labeled with Cy5 and their matching pairs of RNA from endometrial were labeled with Cy3 while the fourth pair used Cy3 for blood and Cy5 for endometrium. Analysis of Microarray Data The microarray image extraction and data pre-processing were performed using USA). The intensity of each spot was summarized as the median pixel intensity followed by log transformation. The lowess normalization was done within-array lowess on median of the intensities of the spots. The JMP Genomics 3.1 for SAS 9.1.3 software (SAS Inst., Inc., Cary, NC) was used. The quantile normalization method for data global normalization was performed. Differentially regulated genes were identified by least-squares analysis of variance (ANOVA) by the PROC ANOVA procedure of JMP Genomics 3.1 for SAS 9.1.3. The model included animal, replicate, and tissue source (blood or endometrium). Fixed effects included tissue and replicate and random effects included animal. Tissue x animal was the error term for tissue. Correction for false discovery rate was performed by the Benjamini and Hochberg method (1995) with a maximum false discovery rate (FDR) of 0.01. Genes with a minimum intensity of 16 were considered to be expressed. Only genes with at least 2-fold difference and a probability of P 0.05 for a tissue difference were considered differentially expressed.
101 Gene Ontology Analysis An analysis was performed using FatiGo (a web-based program for functional profiling; http://www.babelomics.org ) to indentify functional enrichment by comparing the two lists of differentially regulated genes from endometrium and blood by means of a Fishers exact test (Al-Shahrour et al. 2007). Furthermore, Pathway Express ( http://vortex.cs.wayne.edu/ontoexpress ) was used to identify relevant pathways represented by the differentially regulated gene set. Pathway Express calculates a probability (P) value, based on the density of genes that belong to a determined pathway using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genome database (Draghici et al. 2007). It also calculates a gamma P value using the perturbation factor for each input gene in the pathway that accounts for the normalized fold change of the gene and the number and the amount of perturbation of genes at downstream positions on the pathway. Both Pand gamma P-values are combined to generate the impact factor which was used to rank the pathways according to their biological significance. A pathway was considered to be significantly affected by tissue source if the gamma Pvalue 0.05. Quantitative Real-Time PCR Quantitative PCR was performed on 12 genes found to be differentially expressed by microarray hybridization as well as a housekeeping gene used as an internal control (RPL19 bovine ribosomal protein L19). Samples from a total of five pairs were analyzed by qPCR. These included 2 pairs of samples that were also used for the microarray analysis and 3 pairs of new samples. We could not use samples from all 4 pairs used in the microarray analysis for the qPCR validation due to insufficient quantities of RNA.
102 Primers and probes are shown in Table 5-1. Quantitative real time PCR experiments were carried out by Mogene LLC (St. Louis, MO, USA). The hydrolysis IDT DNA ( www.idtdna.com ) and the primers and probes were purchased from the same company. The final primer and probe concentration was 200 nM. All probes had a 5' 6Fam label and a 3' IA-Black Quencher. The reaction was designed for a total reaction volume of 25.0 L. The template cDNA (25 ng per reaction) was added to each reaction in 5.0 l. The Applied Biosystems Taqman Gene Expression Mastermix (Foster City, CA, USA) was used. Cycling conditions were 95 o C for 10 min, and 40 cycles at a 95 o C melting temperature for 15 sec. and 60 o C for 1min. Each sample was assayed in 3 replicates. The level of expression of each tested gene was calcu with normalization to the RPL19 housekeeping gene. Treatment effects were analyzed by least square analysis of variance using the General Linear Models procedure of SAS (SAS for Windows, version 9.3, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). Results are presented as least-squares means standard errors. Animal and tissue intereaction was used as the error term for tissue.
103 Table 5-1. Primer/probe sets used for qRT-PCR a Forward=sense (5') primer b Each probe was synthesized with a 5' 6-FAM reporter dye and 3' IA-Black quencher. c Reverse=antisense (3') primer. Gene Name Accession Primer/ Probe CD163 molecule ( CD163 ) NM_001077402 Forward a AAT TTC GTG GA C AGA GTT CTC Probe b /56 FAM/AGA CAG CGG CTT GCA GTT TCC /3IABlk_FQ Reverse C AAT TTC GTG GAC AGA GTT CTC Mannose receptor C1 ( MRC1 ) XM_001252128 Forward a TCG AGT TGA GCC ACT TCA Probe b /56 FAM/CCA CAC CCA CAT TCC TTC AAC ATT TCT /3IABlk_FQ/ R everse C TCT TTC ACC AGA GGG ATC AC Granzyme A ( GZMA ) NM_001001142 Forward a AAG ACG CTA CAT GGC TCT Probe b /56 FAM/CGC TCA TTG TGA CCT GAA GGG C/3IABlk_FQ/ Reverse C ATG GGA TGT AGA GTG GGC H eme oxygenase (decyclizing) 1 ( HMOX1 ) NM_001014912 Forward a CGG AGA ATG CAG AGT TCA Probe b /56 FAM/AAG GTT TTA AGC TGG TGA TGG CGT C/3IABlk_FQ/ Reverse C TGT TGC GTT CGA TCT CCT Chemokine (C C motif) ligand 2; CCL2 ( MCP1 ) XM_614752 Forward a AGA GGC TGT GAT TTT CAA GAC Probe b /56 FAM/AGT TAT GTG CAG ACC CC A AGC AGA /3IABlk_FQ/ Reverse C GGT TGT GGA GTG AGT GCT Fc fragment of IgG, low affinity IIIa, receptor ( CD16A ) NM_001077402 Forward a GAA TGG AGG GAT GGC AAA Probe b /56 FAM/TTA GGA CAA ATG GAG GCA TCT CTG GG/3IABlk_FQ/ Reverse C ACA GAG TTG GGT GAA GGA TC Ribonuclease k6 ( RNASE6 ) NM_174594 Forward a CCC CTT ATC ATT TGG TTC CTG Probe b /56 FAM/AGG TTG TTT AAA TCA CTT TGC TTC TCG CT/3IABlk_FQ/ Reverse C AAA TCA ATA AAA GAC AAG AAA ATC AGA G Testis specific, 14 ( TSGA14 ) XM_583431 Forward a AGA ATC CCC GCT CAC TG Probe b /56 FAM/CAA GGT CCT TTA CTT CCA GGG TTT GC/3IABlk_FQ/ Reverse C GAA AAC ATT TAT TTG ACT AAG GCA G Pregnancy associated glycoprotein 10 ( PAG10 ) NM_176621 Forward a GCC CAA GCT TAC ATC CAA AG Probe b /56 FAM/TCT CCG ACT CGT TCA C AC GCT /3IABlk_FQ/ Reverse C GAG AAA TAC AGC CTC AGG AAG S olute carrier organic anion transporter family, member 2B1 ( SLCO2B1 ) NM_174843 Forward a ATC CAG AGT GTG AGC TGT Probe b /56 FAM/CCC AAT ACC CAA TTC CAG GCA AAG G/3IABlk_FQ/ Reverse C CAA GTT AGC GGA AGA CTC AC Ribosomal protein L19 ( RPL19 ) NM_001040516 Forward a CTG AAG GTG AAG GGT AAC G Probe b /56 FAM/AGG CAG ACA AGG CTC GCA AGA /3IABlk_FQ/ Reverse C GGG CTT CCT TGG TCT TAG A
104 Results Purification of Endometrial and Blood CD14 + Cells The final preparation of endometrial CD14 + cells had a purity of 90-95% based on flow cytometry while blood CD14 + cells were 98-99% pure (Figure 5-1). Expression of Genes in Blood and Endometrial CD14 + Cells The transcriptomes of blood and endometrial CD14 + cells were compared using a bovine whole genome array that covers ~19,500 bovine genes. As shown from results of hierarchical cluster analysis (Figure 5-2A), the pattern of gene expression was largely similar for CD14 + cells from both sources, suggesting that cells from both tissues are from the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Figure 5-2B shows a Venn diagram of expressed genes. A total of 14,808 genes were expressed in blood CD14 + cells. Of these, 1,386 were not expressed in endometrial CD14 + cells. A total of 13,872 genes were expressed in endometrial CD14 + cells and 450 of these were not expressed by blood CD14 + cells. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes Criteria for identifying differentially expressed genes was a level of significance of P 0.05, a fold change > 2, and a maximum false discovery rate of 0.01. A total of 1,364 unique genes were differentially expressed, with 680 genes upregulated in endometrial CD14 + cells as compared to blood CD14 + cells and with 674 genes downregulated in endometrial CD14 + cells as compared to blood CD14 + cells (i.e, upregulated in blood). Of these differentially expressed genes, 647 of the 685 upregulated genes in the endometrium and 581 of the 679 upregulated in the blood could be annotated.
105 Figure 5-1 Representative acquisition dot plots for CD14 + cells in endometrium and peripheral blood as determined by flow cytometry. Shown are analyses for dispersed endometrial cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a cow at ~Day 230 of pregnancy before (A) and after two rounds of cell sorting (B). The y-axis depicts side scatter characteristics (SSC) to analyze cells on the basis of granularity and the x-axis depicts intensity of fluorescence (FL1) associated with antiCD14. The circles and rectangles in the dot plots identify CD14 + cells targeted for sorting.
106 Figure 5-2. Graphical representation of differentially regulated genes in endometrial and blood CD14 + cells. (A) Hierarchical cluster representing the global gene expression of endometrial and blood CD14 + cells. Each sample is identified by tissue source [endometrium (E) and blood (B)], dye (Cy3 vs Cy5), replicate (A vs M), and cow number (1 to 5). (B) Venn diagram characterizing expressed genes in endometrium and blood. Circles represent the genes expressed in both cell types (brown; 13,422 genes), genes exclusively expressed by endometrial CD14 + cells (green; 450 genes) and genes expressed exclusively by blood CD14 + cells (red; 1386 genes). (C) Venn diagram characterizing the expression of immune genes reported by Jensen et al. (2006) to be expressed by the bovine macrophages. Circles represent the genes expressed in both cell types (brown; 52 genes), genes exclusively expressed by endometrial CD14 + cells (green; 1 gene) and genes expressed exclusively by blood CD14 + cells (red; 3 genes). An additional 4 genes reported by Jensen et al. (2006) were not identified in either cell population.
107 A list of the 100 differentially-expressed genes showing the highest fold increase in endometrium is presented in Table 5-2. The gene with the greatest fold-increase in the endometrium was granzyme A ( GZMA ), a serine proteinase enzyme produced by cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells, which induces apoptosis of the target cells. There were other genes characteristically expressed in immune cells that were among the top 100 overexpressed genes such as stanniocalcin-1 ( STC1 ), heat shock protein70 B ( HSPA6 ) and macrophage scavenger receptor A ( MSR1 ). There were several growth factor and cytokine genes that were upregulated in endometrium. These include connective tissue growth factor ( CTGF ), insulin-like growth factor binding protein6 ( IGFBP6 ), endothelial cell-specific molecule 1 ( ESM1 ), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 14 ( CXCL14 ), and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 22 ( CCL22 ). Additionally, there were molecules involved in the complement system [V-set and immunglobulin domaincontaining 4 ( VSIG4 ), clusterin ( CLU ), and complement component ( C1QA )], and genes related to cell adhesion [nectin-3 ( PVRL3 ), claudin-1 ( CLDN1 ), and claudin-8 ( CLDN8 )], and in responses to hypoxia [aryl-hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator 2 ( ARNT2 ), angiogenin ( ANG ) and L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase ( GATM )] Several genes characteristically produced by the placenta were in the group of genes upregulated in endometrial CD14 + cells. These genes include several members of the pregnancy-associated glycoprotein family ( PAG17, PAG3, PAG6, PAG15, PAG5, PAG10, PAG7 ), placental lactogen, a group of genes encoding prolactin-relate d proteins ( PRP3, PRP6, PRP15, PRP1, PRP8 ), a folate receptor gene associated with the placenta and fetus ( FOLR2 ) and keratin-7 ( KRT7 ). Uterine milk protein precursor, a product of uterine epithelium also called uterine serpin ( SERPINA14 ), was also highly
108 expressed in endometrial CD14 + cells. Thus, it is likely that some cells in the endometrial CD14 + cell preparation were of placental and endometrial epithelial origin. A list of the 100 differentially-expressed genes showing the highest fold increase in the blood is shown in Table 5-3. Calcitonin-related polypeptide beta, transcript variant 2 ( CALCB ) was the gene most upregulated in blood CD14 + cells. This gene encodes for a hormone involved in vascular homeostasis. Other clusters of genes are involved in inflammatory and immune response process such as pentraxin-related gene ( PTX3 ), cytokine-cytokine interaction, chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 3 ( CCR3 ), interleukin 8 receptor ( IL8RB ) and interleukin 18 receptor 1 ( IL18R1 ). Moreover, B-lymphocyte antigen CD20 and B-cell receptor CD22 precursor were also upregulated in the blood. Other genes upregulated in the blood were involved in signal transduction including, among others, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase ( MAP4K2 ) and microtubule-associated protein-1S ( MAP1S ). There were also upregulated genes involved in apoptosis including serpin 2 ( SERPINB2 ), polymerase (DNA directed), beta ( POLB ), and cell death-inducing DFF45-like effector-B ( CIDEB ). To address the question of whether CD14 + en dometrial cells express genes that are characteristic of bovine macrophages, we compared the transcriptome of endometrial and blood CD14 + cells to the list of genes identified by Jensen et al. (2006) using DNA microarray hybridization as being expressed by bovine macrophages. Of the 56 immune genes reported by Jensen et al. (2006) to be expressed in bovine macrophages, 52 were expressed by both endometrial and blood CD14 + cells. Of these 52 genes, 5 were differentially expressed (Figure 5-2C). Two genes were upregulated in endometrium [CD63 antigen ( CD63 ) and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8 ( CCL8 )] and
109 Table 5-2. Top 100 upregulated genes based on fold change in endometrial CD14 + cells as compared to CD14 + cells in blood Description Accession Intensity Fol d Change P Endometrium Blood Granzyme A ( GZMA ) NM_001001142 33196 276 120 0.00 Stanniocalcin 1 ( STC1 ) NM_176669 1795 16 110 0.01 Unknown AU278548 6233 67 98 0.00 P antigen family, member 4 (prostate associated) ( PAGE4 ) NM_001081580 7230 75 97 0.00 Uterine milk protein precursor ( LOC286871 ) NM_174797 70190 759 92 0.00 Meprin A, beta ( MEP1B ) NM_001144098 4271 52 81 0.00 Predicted: multiple EGF like domains 10 ( MEGF10 ) XM_001788482 3282 47 70 0.00 Hypothetical protein LOC614841 ( LOC614841 ) NM_0010 76350 55302 955 57 0.00 Heat shock 70kDa protein 6 ( HSPA6 ) XM_589747 4634 83 55 0.00 Prolactin related protein VI ( PRP6 ) NM_205778 7527 141 53 0.00 Aspartoacylase (Canavan disease)( ASPA ) NM_001046033 939 18 51 0.00 Retinoic acid receptor responder 1 ( RARRES1 ) NM_001075430 15631 305 51 0.00 Organic anion transporting polypeptide 2b1 ( SLCO2B1 ) NM_174843 8667 174 50 0.00 Cathepsin L ( CTSL ) NM_174032 25931 526 49 0.00 Unknown BM433723 1273 28 47 0.01 Endothelial cell specific molecule 1 ( ESM1 ) NM_00109 8101 2174 46 46 0.00 Claudin 1 ( CLDN1 ) NM_001001854 2357 51 46 0.00 Ribonuclease ( RNASE1 ) NM_001014386 5671 124 45 0.01 Membrane metallo endopeptidase ( MME ) XM_616885 12095 269 45 0.00 Claudin 8 ( CLDN8 ) NM_001098096 962 22 45 0.00 Placental lactogen ( CSH1 ) NM_181007 5865 134 44 0.00 Synaptosomal associated protein, 91kDa homolog ( SNAP91 ) NM_001105378 1575 36 43 0.00 Chromosome 1 open reading frame 210 ortholog ( C3H1ORF210 ) NM_001081517 1815 43 43 0.00 Unknown AU279033 15008 363 41 0.00 Predicted: Folate receptor alpha ( FOLR1 ) XM_589186 3733 91 41 0.01 Solute carrier family 4, sodium bicarbonate cotransporter, member 4 ( SLC4A4 ) NM_174605 2264 56 40 0.01 Connective tissue growth factor ( CTGF ) NM_174030 13225 337 39 0.04 DCN protein ( DCN ) NM_173906 1608 42 38 0.02 SMAD family member 1 ( SMAD1 ) NM_001076223 652 17 38 0.00 Prolactin related protein 1 ( PRP1 ) NM_174159 8462 222 38 0.00 Angiogenin ( ANG ) NM_173891 18115 476 38 0.02 Carboxylesterase 2 (intestine, liver) ( CES2 ) NM_001034260 2088 55 37 0. 01
110 Table 5-2. Continued. Description Accession Intensity Fold Change P Endometrium Blood Pregnancy associated glycoprotein 1 (PAG1B ) NM_174411 1109 30 37 0.00 chemokine (C X C motif) ligand 14 ( CXCL14 ) NM_001034410 3374 92 38 0.00 Pregnancy asso ciated glycoprotein 4 ( PAG4 ) NM_176615 2662 73 36 0.00 Ovo like 2 (Drosophila) ( OVOL2 ) XM_611927 825 23 36 0.01 Cadherin 1, type 1, E cadherin (epithelial) ( CDH1 ) NM_001002763 3184 92 34 0.00 Alpha 2 glycoprotein 1, zinc binding ( AZGP1 ) NM_001034331 982 29 34 0.00 RAB13, member RAS oncogene family ( RAB13 ) NM_001024540 33728 991 34 0.01 Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 5 ( ARHGEF5 ) NM_001110075 7470 224 33 0.00 Angiotensinogen (serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A, member 8)( AGT ) NM_001035369 710 2 1 33 0.01 Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor, pi ( GABRP ) NM_001015618 2656 82 32 0.00 Natriuretic peptide precursor C ( NPPC ) NM_174125 556 17 32 0.00 Secreted phosphoprotein 1 ( SPP1 ) NM_174187 4939 154 32 0.00 5' nucleotidase, ecto ( NT5E ) NM_174 129 5145 165 31 0.00 Oxytocin receptor ( OXTR ) NM_174134 4207 136 31 0.00 Glycine amidinotransferase (L arginine:glycine amidinotransferase) ( GATM ) NM_001045878 7387 240 30 0.00 Calbindin 3, (vitamin D dependent calcium binding protein) ( CALB3 ) NM_174257 17680 576 30 0.00 Sorbin and SH3 domain containing 2 ( SORBS2 ) NM_001079787 555 18 30 0.01 Prolactin related protein VIII ( PRP8 ) NM_001038200 1779 58 30 0.00 Microfibril associated glycoprotein 2 ( MAGP2 ) NM_174386 2365 78 30 0.00 T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain containing 4 ( TIMD4 ) NM_001075320 3946 130 30 0.00 Eetinol binding protein 4, plasma ( RBP4 ) NM_001040475 5918 196 30 0.00 sorbin and SH3 domain containing 2 ( SORBS2 ) NM_001079787 988 33 30 0.00 Pregnancy associated glycoprotein 10 ( PAG1 0 ) NM_176621 33870 1148 29 0.00 Chemokine (C C motif) ligand 22 ( CCL22 ) NM_001099162 897 31 29 0.00 Claudin 1 ( CLDN1 ) NM_001001854 5622 200 28 0.00 Ring finger protein 217 ( RNF217 ) XM_615503 25454 92 28 0.04 Unknown CB224956 13099 479 27 0.00 Prolacti n receptor ( PRLR ), transcript variant 1 NM_174155 4211 154 27 0.03 TBC1 domain family, member 12 ( TBC1D12 ) XM_585982 822 30 27 0.04 Clusterin ( CLU ) NM_173902 18183 672 27 0.02 Fibroblast growth factor binding protein ( FGF BP ) NM_174337 5672 210 27 0.00 Solute carrier family 27 (fatty acid transporter), member 2 ( SLC27A2 ) XM_615837 773 29 27 0.01 BARX homeobox 2( BARX2 ) NM_001101266 2221 85 26 0.00 Unknown CB436038 1383 53 26 0.02 Unknown BI849183 722 28 26 0.01 Mal, T cell differentiation protein 2 ( MAL2 ) NM_001081719 2141 84 26 0.00 Phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein 4 ( PEBP4 ) NM_001079584 1600 63 26 0.01 Unknown EE981171 3904 154 25 0.00 Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase 15 (NAD) ( PGDH ) NM_001034419 1733 69 25 0.00
111 Table 5-2. Continued Description Accession Intensity Fold Change P Endometrium Blood Phosphotyrosine interaction domain containing 1 ( PID1 ) NM_001079584 21218 853 24 0.01 Pregnancy associated glycoprotein 7 ( PAG7 ) NM_176618 8995 362 24 0.00 Unknown CB457576 540 22 24 0 .04 Macrophage scavenger receptor 1 ( MSR1 ) NM_174113 5072 208 24 0.00 Thy 1 cell surface antigen ( THY1 ) NM_001034765 418 17 24 0.02 Mannose receptor, C type 1 like 1 ( MRC1 ) XM_001252128 2246 93 24 0.00 Folate receptor 2 (fetal) ( FOLR2 ) NM_001075325 148 6 63 24 0.00 Peptidylprolyl isomerase C (cyclophilin C) ( PPIC ) NM_001076910 1165 50 24 0.01 Ribosomal modification protein rimK like family member B ( RIMKLB ) NM_001076113 1078 46 23 0.01 Rhomboid, veinlet like 2 (Drosophila) (RHBDL2) NM_001102014 5718 2 45 23 0.00 Protein S (alpha) ( PROS1 ) NM_174438 1670 72 23 0.00 Procollagen C endopeptidase enhancer 2 (PCOLCE2) NM_001075629 3717 160 23 0.05 Granzyme B ( GZMB ) XM_585453 58478 2603 23 0.01 Unknown AW429981 431 19 22 0.00 Tissue factor pathway inhibito r ( TFPI ) XM_585593 4573 207 22 0.00 Cytochrome P450, family 4, subfamily A, polypeptide 11 ( CYP4A11 ) NM_001077908 3785 175 21 0.00 Claudin 3 ( CLDN3 ) NM_205801 4521 210 21 0.00 Epithelial cell adhesion molecule ( EPCAM ) NM_001035290 3549 167 21 0.01 Fibr inogen beta chain ( FGB ) NM_001142917 732 36 20 0.04 Hypothetical LOC614490 ( LOC614490 ) XM_866023 1510 74 20 0.00 V set and immunoglobulin domain containing 4 ( VSIG4 ) NM_001046529 590 28 20 0.01 Lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 ( LPAR1 ) NM_174047 393 19 2 0 0.02 Calcium dependent phospholipase A2 ( PLA2G2D1 ) NM_001009572 1393 71 19 0.02 Nuclear factor I/B ( NFIB ) NM_001076104 796 40 19 0.01 Complement component 1, q subcomponent, A chain ( C1QA ) NM_001014945 15126 793 19 0.00 Predicted: Myosin VI (Unconven tional myosin VI) ( MYO6 ) XM_615128 367 19 19 0.02 Creatine kinase, mitochondrial 1 (ubiquitous) ( CKMT1 ) NM_174275 3257 174 18 0.00 v erb b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 3 (avian) ( ERBB3 ) NM_001103105 883 47 18 0.00 Phospholipase D1, ph osphatidylcholine specific ( PLD1 ) XM_592425 359 19 18 0.03
112 Table 5-3. Top 100 upregulated genes based on fold change in blood CD14 + cells as compared to CD14 + cells in the endometrium. Description Accession Intensity Fold change P Endometrium Bloo d Calcitonin related polypeptide beta ( CALCB ) NM_001001149 192 4564 24 0.02 Fc receptor like 3 ( FCRL3 ) XM_593037 8 181 23 0.00 Unknown NM_001077854 304 6759 22 0.04 POU domain, class 2, associating factor 1 ( POU2AF1 ) NM_001075915 22 465 21 0.01 Chem okine (C C motif) receptor 3, transcript variant 2 ( CCR3 ) XM_869148 8 151 20 0.01 Tachykinin 3, neurokinin beta ( TAC3 ) NM_181017 11 201 18 0.05 Pentraxin related gene, rapidly induced by IL 1 beta ( PTX3 ) NM_001076259 933 16716 18 0.05 Transcription fact or Spi B (SPIB ) XM_001252761 57 973 17 0.04 Membrane spanning 4 domains, subfamily A, member 1 ( MS4A1 ) NM_001077854 56 933 17 0.04 Myosin, light polypeptide 2, regulatory, cardiac, slow ( MYL2 ) NM_001035025 20 323 16 0.02 Unknown CB430318 312 4764 15 0.0 1 Chromosome 16 open reading frame 65 ortholog ( C25H16orf65 ) NM_001076094 12 179 15 0.01 Unknown CB450328 207 3048 15 0.00 Interleukin 8 receptor, beta ( IL8RB ) NM_174360 17 245 14 0.00 Patatin like phospholipase domain containing 1 ( PNPLA1 ) NM_00109920 0 39 546 14 0.01 Immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 3 ( IGHG3 ) U63639 15 198 13 0.03 Unknown BE684495 11 137 13 0.00 Unknown CB427006 71 895 13 0.02 similar to AT rich interactive domain 5B (MRF1 like) ( LOC783538 ) XR_027785 37 441 12 0.03 EGF like mod ule containing mucin like hormone receptor like 3 precursor ( EMR3 ) XR_042808 44 513 12 0.01 Similar to Ki antigen ( LOC520216 ) XM_598451 37 405 11 0.02 Kelch like 10 (Drosophila) ( KLHL10 ) NM_001078033 25 275 11 0.02 Triggering receptor expressed on myelo id cells like 2 ( TRE ML 2 ) XM_593583 109 1164 11 0.00 B lymphoid tyrosine kinase ( BLK ) NM_001075968 65 667 10 0.00 Abl interactor 1 ( ABI1 ) NM_001076241 28 275 10 0.01 KH and NYN domain containing ( KHNYN ) NM_001102551 14 137 10 0.03 Cyclin E1 transcript v ariant 1 ( CCNE1 ) XM_612960 26 251 10 0.05 Creatine kinase, mitochondrial 2 (sarcomeric) nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein ( CKMT2 ) NM_001034656 7 65 9 0.01 B cell CLL/lymphoma 11A (zinc finger protein) ( BCL11A ) NM_001076121 18 169 9 0.03 Hypoth etical protein LOC782848, transcript variant 1 ( KIAA1429 ) XM_001250788 110 1014 9 0.01 Xylosyltransferase I ( XYLT1 ) NW_001494295 141 1282 9 0.02 Kelch like protein 3 ( KLHL3 ) XM_612749 43 388 9 0.04 UDP GlcNAc:betaGal beta 1,3 N acetylglucosaminyltransfe rase 5 ( B3GNT5 ) NM_001076979 171 1512 9 0.02
113 Table 5-3. Continued. Description Accession Intensity Fold change P Endometrium Blood Misc_RNA ( LOC517126 ) XR_028030 11 94 9 0.00 Similar to hCG2042749 ( ZFP91 ) XM_607444 36 310 9 0.02 Unknown EE9711 50 73 635 9 0.01 EGF like module containing, mucin like, hormone receptor like sequence 1 ( LOC788835 ) XM_001789147 72 621 9 0.03 Zinc finger protein 295 ( ZNF295 ) NM_001083659 605 5167 9 0.04 Phosphoglucomutase 2 ( PGM2 ) XM_583514 23 191 8 0.00 CD200 mol ecule ( CD200 ) NM_001034620 73 570 8 0.02 Uncharacterized protein C13orf18 homolog ( MGC165939 ) NM_001102041 41 322 8 0.03 Similar to stromal antigen 3 ( STAG3 ) XM_593416 116 888 8 0.02 v myb myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog (avian) ( MYB ) NM_175050 13 101 8 0.03 Phospholipase A2, group VII (platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase, plasma) ( PLA2G7 ) NM_174578 3417 25693 8 0.05 Casein kinase 1, alpha 1 ( CSNK1A1 ) NM_174711 62 464 7 0.02 Unknown CB461815 74 557 7 0.00 Eukaryotic translation initiatio n factor 2C, 2 ( EIF2C2 ) NM_205794 1182 8812 7 0.04 Unknown BP108872 57 426 7 0.02 Exocyst complex component Sec8 ( LOC537690 ) NM_001102207 11 84 7 0.00 Unknown CB422154 115 854 7 0.04 Cell division cycle 27 homolog (S. cerevisiae) ( CDC27 ) NM_001105428 3 0 223 7 0.02 Unknown BI84934 18 130 7 0.02 Serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade B (ovalbumin), member 2 ( SERPINB2 ) XM_582291 197 1455 7 0.03 Unknown CB440027 215 1590 7 0.04 Polymerase (DNA directed), beta ( POLB ) NM_001034764 28 205 7 0.00 Unknown EE8957 28 29 214 7 0. 2 04 G protein coupled receptor 114 ( GPR114 ) XM_587049 2337 16994 7 0.04 Regulatory factor X3 ( RFX3 ) XM_618263 21 150 7 0.02 Unknown EE943006 9 66 7 0.04 Misc_RNA ( LOC532845 ) XR_027911 15 104 7 0.01 Calcium binding tyrosine (Y) phosphory lation regulated ( CABYR ) NM_001038067 461 3283 7 0.03 TP53 regulating kinase ( TP53RK ) NM_001099180 11 79 7 0.04 Unknown EE894024 13 91 7 0.01 RAB11 family interacting protein 1 (class I) transcript variant 1 ( RAB11FIP1 ) XM_597040 641 4374 7 0.04 Spire homolog 2 ( SPIRE2 ) XM_001787738 227 1538 7 0.04 Unknown EE903724 18 119 7 0.02 Carbonic anhydrase IV ( CA4) NM_173897 25 166 7 0.01 Unknown CB457397 123 817 7 0.05
114 Table 5-3. Continued. Description Accession Intensity Fold change P Endometrium Bl ood Unknown CB462630 12 79 7 0.04 Vacuolar protein sorting 37 homolog B (S. cerevisiae) ( VPS37B ) XM_615672 328 2165 7 0.01 Chromatin assembly factor 1, subunit B (p60) ( CHAF1B ) NM_001098014 148 976 7 0.04 Unknown CB534202 9 60 7 0.02 Zinc finger, MY M type 6 ( ZMYM6 ) XM_870563 962 6258 7 0.03 Gametocyte specific factor 1 ( GTSF1 ) NM_001034273 25 163 6 0.02 COX15 homolog, cytochrome c oxidase assembly protein (yeast), mitochondrial protein ( COX15 ) NM_001076861 55 353 6 0.02 E3 ubiquitin protein ligase HECW2 (HECT, C2 and WW domain containing protein 2) (NEDD4 like E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 2) ( LOC531691 ) XM_001787494 17 110 6 0.03 Zinc finger CCCH type containing 12A ( ZC3H12A ) NM_001102187 2142 13562 6 0.03 Microtubule associated protein 1S ( MAP1S ) NM_001102114 10 64 6 0.01 Interleukin 18 receptor 1 ( IL18R1 ) XM_590497 46 290 6 0.04 Similar to NHS like 2 ( NHSL2 ) XM_591407 336 2093 6 0.02 Unknown CB172491 205 1276 6 0.02 Unknown AV615490 38 232 6 0.02 Slingshot homolog 2 (Drosophila) ( SSH2 ) XM_59 0201 13698 84007 6 0.04 Special AT rich sequence binding Protein SATB homeobox 11 (binds to nuclear matrix/scaffold associating DNA's) ( SATB1 ) NM_001102040 2188 13269 6 0.04 TERF1 (TRF1) interacting nuclear factor 2 ( TINF2 ) NM_001098114 83 497 6 0.03 Ce ll death inducing DFFA like effector b ( CIDEB ) NM_001034567 84 503 6 0.01 Ropporin 1 like ( ROPN1L ) NM_001075717 18 110 6 0.02 PPDE peptidase domain containing 1 ( PPPDE1 ) NM_001100384 132 790 6 0.03 Interleukin 18 receptor accessory protein XM_001255518 15 89 6 0.02 Mitogen activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 2 ( MAP4K2 ) XM_869702 366 2175 6 0.00 CD22 molecule ( CD22 ) NW_001493607 628 3723 6 0.05 Phosphoprotein associated with glycosphingolipid microdomains 1 ( PAG1 ) XM_865981 1650 9771 6 0.05 Unknown EE935096 38 225 6 0.02 H2A histone family, member Y2 ( H2AFY2 ) NM_001076086 58 343 6 0.03 Unknown EE906578 80 469 6 0.05 Synaptogyrin 3 ( SYNGR3 ) NM_001082464 100 573 6 0.04 Torsin family 1, member A (torsin A) ( TOR1A ) NM_001099058 931 5310 6 0.0 4 Mannosyl (alpha 1,3 ) glycoprotein beta 1,4 N acetylglucosaminyltransferase, isoenzyme A ( MGAT4A ) NM_177520 256 1448 6 0.02 Similar to hCG22803 ( LOC516576 ) XM_594731 10 56 6 0.03 Unknown AW428380 25 139 2 0.02
115 three were upregulated in blood [CD80 antigen (CD80); signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 ( STAT1 ); apoptosis (APO1) antigen 1 (FAS), member 6 ( TNFRSF6 )]. Gene Ontology Analysis of Differentially Expressed Genes The FatiGo (fatigo.org) web tool was used to perform a functional enrichment analysis to determine ontologies in which differentially regulated genes were more frequent in either endometrium or blood (Table 5-4.) A total of 10 ontology classes were significant. In 4 cases, there was over-representation of differentially-expressed genes in endometrium (peptidase activity, endopeptidase activity, proteolysis, and extracellular region part) while in 6 cases there was over-representation of differentially-expressed genes in blood (zinc ion binding, phosphotransferase activity alcohol group as acceptor, biopolymer metabolic process, signal transduction, nucleus, and cell communication). Differentially Expressed Pathways Pathway Express software ( http://vortex.cs.wayne.edu/ontoexpress ) was used to identify pathways that were preferentially represented in the group of differentially expressed genes. A total of 33 pathways were significantly affected by the genes that were differentially regulated in our data set (Table 5-5). Among these were 6 pathways from the immune system group. Two pathways (complement and coagulation cascades, hematopoietic cell lineage) contained more upregulated genes in the endometrium than in the blood whereas three (toll-like receptor signaling, Fc epsilon RI signaling, and B cell receptor signaling) contained more upregulated genes in the blood. The pathway with the greatest impact factor, leuokocyte transendothelial migration, was represented by 6 genes upregulated in endometrium and 6 upregulated in blood.
116 There were 3 pathways of the signal molecules and interactions group (cell adhesion molecules, ECM-receptor interaction, and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction) that were differentially regulated. There were more upregulated genes in the endometrium than in the blood in the first two pathways whereas, for the cytokinecytokine receptor interaction pathway, there were 12 genes upregulated in endometrium and 9 upregulated in blood. Another group in which several pathways were differentially regulated was the signal transduction network. A total of 7 pathways were differentially regulated including those with a preponderance of genes upregulated in endometrium (calcium signaling), those with a preponderance of genes upregulated in blood (phosphatidylinositol signaling, Jak-STAT signaling and ErbB signaling) and those with large numbers of upregulated genes in both tissues (TGFB signaling, MAPK signaling and wnt signaling).
117 Table 5-4. Ontologies where the incidence of frequency of overexpressed genes in the endometrium was different than the incidence of overexpressed genes in the blood. a Ontology term Genes differentially expressed in the endometrium (E) and blood (B) Percentage of genes in the ontology P Endometrium Blood Molecular functi on Peptidase activity (GO:0008233) E: CTSK; CTS; DPP4; GZMA; PAG3; PAG4; PAG5; PAG6; PAG10; PAG11; PAG15; PAG17; PAG18; PAG1B; PAG21; PLAT; PSEN1; ST14 16.1 0.0 0.003 B: none Endopeptidase activity (GO:0004175) E: CTSB; CTSK; CTSL; CTSZ; DPP4; GZMA; GZMA; PAG10; PAG11; PAG15; PAG17; PAG18; PAG1B; PAG21; PAG3; PAG4; PAG5; PAG6; PAG9; PLAT; ST14 15.3 0.0 0.016 B:none Zinc ion binding (GO:0008270) E: FBLIM1;egr1;RNF128;NT5E ;NR1H3 5.6 26.9 0.048 B: CA4; FGD6; MYNN; NR1H2; PCGF1; PCGF4; PHF1 7; PPARD; PRKCB1; RABEX5; RARA; SEC23B; ZFX; ZNF410 Phosphotransferase activity; alcohol group as acceptor (GO:0016773) E: IHPK3; STK25 1.5 13.2 0.052 B: CSNK1A1; CSNK1E; DGKH; FYN; IPMK; LOC538702; PDIK1L; PRKCB1; RIOK3 Biological process proteolysis (GO:0006508) E: C1QA; CTSB; CTSK; CTSL; CTSZ; DPP4; gzmA; GZMA ; PAG10; PAG11; PAG15; PAG17; PAG18; PAG1B; PAG21; PAG3; PAG4; PAG5; PAG6; PAG9; PLAT; PSEN1; RNF128; ST14; 25.0 0.0 0.001 B: none signal transduction (GO:0007165) E: A NG; EDG2; EDNRB; EPAS1; FZD3; GRIM19; ITGB6; OXTR; PGDH; PRLR; PSCD4; PSEN1; RAB13; RRAS; 11.3 34.3 0.013 B: ARNT; ASB6; CDK5R1; CNIH4; CSNK1A1; CSNK1E; DGKH; FGD6; ITGA4; MS4A1; OPN1SW; PPP2CA; PRKCB1; RAB11A; RAB3A; RABIF; RASGRP4; STAT3; STAT5A; STAT5 B; TAC3; TIMAP; TNFRSF1B; TNFRSF6; UPK1A;
118 Table 5-4. Continued. Ontology Term Genes differentially expressed in the endometrium (E) and in the blood (B) Percentage (%) of genes in the ontology P Endometrium Blood biopolymer metabolic process (GO:0043283) E: ANG; AR; CBX6; CTGF; EGR1; ELF5; EPAS1; ERCC5; FOS; FOXA3; GGCX; GRIM19; HAND1; JUN; MSX1; NR1H3; PSEN1; RNF128; ST3GALIV; STK25; TFB1M; 16.9 41.1 0.013 B: ARNT;B3GNT5; BAT3; CBX7; CSNK1A1; CSNK1E; DUSP12; IRF1; L41691;MYB; MYNN; NR1H2; O PN1SW; PDIK1L; PHF17; POP4; PPARD; PPIL1; PPP2CA; PRKCB1; RARA; RPP38; SNURF; STAT3; STAT5A; STAT5B; TREX1; UBE2B; UFM1; ZFX; cell communication (GO:0007154) E: ANG; APOE; EDG2; EDNRB; EPAS1; FZD3; GJB1; GRIM19; ITGB6; OXTR; PGDH; PRLR; PSCD4; PSEN1; R AB13; RRAS ; 12.7 33.3 0.042 B: ARNT; ASB6; CDK5R1; CNIH4; CSNK1A1; CSNK1E; DGKH; FGD6; ITGA4; MS4A1; OPN1SW; PPP2CA; PRKCB1; RAB11A; RAB3A; RABIF; RASGRP4; STAT3; STAT5A; STAT5B; TAC3; TIMAP; TNFRSF1B; TNFRSF6; UPK1A; Cellular component n ucleus (GO:0005634) E: ANG; AR; BANF1; CBX6; egr1; ELF5; EPAS1; ERCC5; FOS; FOXA3; GRIM19; HAND1; JUN; MSX1; NR1H3; PSEN1; UACA; 29.82 64.29 0.019 B: ARNT; CBX7; CCNE2; CDK5R1; IRF1; L41691; MYB; MYNN; NR1H2; PHF17; POLR2J2; POP4; PPARD; PPIL1; PPP2CA; RARA; RBM15B; RPP38; SNURF; STAT3; STAT5A; STAT5B; TAF11; TREX1; UBE2B; UFM1; ZFX; extracellular region part (GO:0044421) E: ANG; APOE; CCL2; CCL8; COL1A2; CTGF; DCN; GJB1; MAGP2; SPP1; 8.85 0.00 0.079 B: none a Analysis was performed using FatiGo a web tool for finding significant associations of Gene Ontology terms with groups of genes (Al-Shahrour et al., 2007).
119 Table 5-5. Pathways subject to differential regulation. a Pathway Name IF b Genes overexpressed in endometrium (E) and blood (B) IG/GP b P b P b Immune system Leukocyte transendothelial migration 895 E: PXN; VCAM1; THY1; CLDN3; CLDN1; CLDN8 12/119 0.02 0.00 B: GRLF1; MYL2; ITGA4; PIK3R5; PIK3R3; MYLPF Toll like receptor signaling pathway 11 E: MAPK3; FOS; JUN; TLR3; SPP1 16/1 02 0.00 0.00 B: MAP2K4; RELA; MAP2K3; PIK3R3; STAT2; TIRAP; MAPK3K8; IFNAR1; TRAF3; CD80; PIK3R5 Complement and coagulation cascades 11 E: C1QA; C1QB; C1QC; C3AR1; CD59; CFB; PLAT; PROS1; SERPINA5; TFPI; FGB 11/69 0.00 0.00 B: none Hematopoie tic cell lineage 5 E : CD59; TFRC; ITGA6; CD7; CSFR1; MME 9/87 0.03 0.03 B: MS4A1; CD22; ITGA4 Fc epsilon RI signaling pathway 5 E: MAPK3; RAC3; PLA2G3 9/78 0.01 0.04 B: PIK3R5; PIK3R3; GRB2; MAP2K3; MAP2K4; FYN B cell receptor signaling pathw ay 5 E : RAC3; JUN; FOS 8/65 0.04 0.04 B: CD79A; RELA; PIK3R5; PIK3R3; CD22 Signaling molecules and interaction Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) 632 E: ALCAM; SIGLEC1; ITGA6; VCAM1; PVRL3; MPZL1; CDH1; CLDN8; CLDN1; CLDN3; SDC3 14/134 0.01 0.00 B: CD80; CD22; ITGA4 ECM receptor interaction 6 E: AGRN; SDC3; ITGA6; ITGB6; LAMC1; COL1A2; COL3A1; SPP1 9/84 0.02 0.02 B: ITGA4 Cytokine cytokine receptor interaction 6 E: CXCL14; CCL22; PRLR; INHBB; CCL24; CSF1R; PRL; LTBR; TNFRSF9; CCL8; CCL 2; PDGFB 21/263 0.04 0.02 B: CCR3; IL8RB; IL18RAP; CRLF2; IFNAR1; TNFRSF1B; IL17RA; TNFRSF8; CLCF1
120 Table 5-5. Continued. Pathway Name IF b Genes overexpressed in endometrium (E) and blood (B) IG/GP b P b P b Signal transduction Phosphatidylin ositol signaling system 17 E: CLML5 7/76 0.08 0.00 B: CDS2; DGKH; DGKZ; INPP5K; PIK3R5; PIK3R3 TGF beta signaling pathway 7 E: MAPK3; INHBB; ID4; DCN 7/87 0.14 0.01 B: PPP2CA; CREBBP; E2F5 Jak STAT signaling pathway 7 E: BCL1L1; PRPL; CSH1; P RL 16/155 0.00 0.01 B: PIK3R5; CRFL2; IFNAR1; CLCF1; PIAS2; STAT5B; STAT1; PIK3R3; GRB2; CREBBP; STAT3; STAT5A ErbB signaling pathway 7 E: MAPK3; JUN; ERBB3 11/87 0.00 0.01 B: CDKN1A; MAP2K4; STAT5B; PIK3R5; PIK3R3; GRB2; STA5A; NCK1 Calcium signaling pathway 7 E: CALM5; EDNRB; ERBB3; OXTR; SLC8A3 5/182 0.95 0.01 B: none MAPK signaling pathway 6 E: MAPK3; FOS; JUN; RAC3; PDGFB; NF1; RRAS; PLA2G3; FGF1; HSPA1B; HSPA1A; HSPA6 21/272 0.05 0.02 B: DUSP1; MAP4K2; MAP3K5; MAP3K8; GRB2; MAP 2K3; RELA; MAP2K4; RASGRP4 Wnt signaling pathway 5 E: PSEN1; FZD3; JUN; RAC3; WNT10B; DKK1 14/152 0.02 0.03 B: CSNK1A1; PPARD; CSNK1A1L; PPP2R5B; DAAM1; CREBBP; CSNK1E; PPP2CA Cancers Pathways in cancer 16 E: CDH1; ARNT2; PLD1; CSF1R; AR; CCNA1; FGF1; LAMC1; ITGA6; BCL2L1; WNT10B; PDGFD; RAC3; JUN; FOS; FZD3; EPAS1; MAPK3 39/330 0.00 0.00 B: CCNE1; PIK3R5; TRAF3; RARA; PIAS2; PML; STAT5B; STAT1; PIK3R3; PPARD; GRB2; RET; CDKN1A; RELA; CCNE2; CREBBP; STAT3; ARNT; RUNX1; STAT5A; TCEB1 Acute myeloid leukemia 13 E: CCNA1; MAPK3 13/59 0.00 0.00 B: STAT5A; RUNX1; STAT3; RELA; GRB2; PPARD; PIK3R3; STAT5B; PML; RARA; PIK3R5 Renal cell carcinoma 9 E : MAPK3; JUN; PDGFB; EPAS1; ARNT2 11/69 0.00 0.00 B: PIK3R3; PIK3R5; GRB2; CREBBP; ARN T; TCEB1 pt-BR
121 Table 5-5. Continued. Pathway Name IF b Genes overexpressed in endometrium (E) and blood (B) IG/GP b P b P b Cancers Prostate cancer 9 E: MAPK3; CREB5; PDGFB; CRE3L2; AR 13/90 0.00 0.00 B: PIK3R3; GRB2; CDKN1A; RELA; CCNE2; CREBBP Chronic myeloid leukemia 6 E: MAPK3; BCL2L1 10/75 0.00 0.01 B: PIK3R5; STAT5B; PIK3R3; GRB2; CDKN1A; RELA; RUNX1; STAT5A Small cell lung cancer 6 E: BCL2L1; ITGA6; LMAC1 10/86 0.01 0.02 B: CCNE1; PIK3R5; PIK3R3; TRAF3; PIAS2; RELA; CCNE2 Pan creatic cancer 5 E: MAPK3; RAC3; BCL2L1; PLD1 9/72 0.01 0.03 B: PIK3R3; PIK3R5; STAT1; RELA; STAT3 Melanoma 5 E: MAPK3; PDGFB; FGF 1; CDH1 7/71 0.05 0.05 B: PIK3R5; PIKR3R3; CDKN1A Cell communication Adherens junction 15 E: RAC3; LMO7; PVRL4; PVRL3; CDH1; MAPK3; PARD3; 10/78 0.01 0.00 B: CREBBP; FYN; SNAI1 Tight junction 13 E: RRAS; AMOTL1; RAB13; CLDN3; CLDN1; CLDN8; CGN; PARD3 16/135 0.00 0.00 B: MYL2; EXOC4; ASHL1; MYLPF; MYH10; PPP2CA; CASK; PRKCI Focal adhesion 7 E: MA PK3; RAC3; PDGFB; JUN; ITGB6; ITGA6; LAMC1; COL1A2; COL3A1; SPP1 20/203 0.00 0.00 B: MYL2; PIK3R5; ITGA4; MYLPF; GRLF1; PXN; DIAPH1; GRB2; PIK3R3; FYN Endocrine system PPAR signaling pathway 8 E: NR1H3; PCK1; SCD; CYP27A1; CYP4A11; SLC27A2 1 1/70 0.00 0.00 B: CPT1A; CPT1C; OLR1; PPARD; GK Renin angiotensin system 6 E: AGT; CTSA; MME 3/17 0.04 0.01 B: none
122 Table 5-5. Continued. Pathway Name IF b Genes overexpressed in endometrium (E) and blood (B) IG/GP b P b P b Behavior Circadian rhythm E: none 10 B: CRY2; CSNK1E; PER1 3/13 0.02 0.00 Infectious diseases Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection 6 E: TUBB6; TUBA3C; KRT18; CLDN1; CDH1 7/54 0.02 0.02 B: FYN; NCK1 Transcription Basal transcription factor s 5 E: GTF2A1; TAF1; GTF2I 6/37 0.01 0.03 B: TAF4B; TAF11; GTF2B Cell motility Regulation of actin cytoskeleton 6 E: MAPK3; TMSB4X; RAC3; PDGFB; RRAS; ITGA6; ITGB6; ENAH; FGF1 19/217 0.01 0.02 B : MYL2; SSH2; PIK3R5; PIK3R3; ITGA4; GRLF1; MY LPF; MYH10; DIAPH1; PXN a Pathway express was used to determine pathways that are differentially regulated (Draghici et al. 2007) b Abbreviations are as follows: IF, Impact Factor; IG/GP, number of differentially regulated genes/ total number of genes involved in by impact factor.
123 Differentially Expressed Genes Characteristically Regulated during Macrophage Differentiation To determine the maturational state of endometrial macrophages as compared to blood monocytes, we evaluated which genes that are regulated during macrophage differentiation are differentially regulated between endometrial and blood CD14 + cells. The data set used as reference was developed by Martinez et al. (2006). In that study, human blood monocytes were cultured with colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) for 7 days to drive differentiation of monocytes to macrophages. Subsequently, CSF1 treated cells were cultured with either interferon gamma ( IFNG ) and LPS to cause differentiation to the classically-activated or M1 phenotype or interleukin-4 (IL4) to cause differentiation to the alternatively-activated or M2 phenotype (Figure 5-3). Martinez et al. (2006) identified 143 genes that were differentially regulated in monocytes after three days of culture in CSF1 medium (i.e., intermediate differentiation). A total of 122 of these 143 differentially-expressed genes were expressed by endometrial and blood CD14 + cells and 11 were differentially expressed between endometrium and blood (Figure 5-3). Of the 73 genes shown by Martinez et al. (2006) to be upregulated in differentiating macrophages, expression of 7 were higher in the endometrium and 1 was higher in the blood (see Table 5-6). Of the 55 genes shown by Martinez et al. (2006) to be downregulated in the differentiating macrophage, 2 were expressed in higher amounts in endometrium and 2 were expressed in higher amounts in blood (Table 5-6).
124 Table 5-6. Differentially regulated genes in endometrial and blood CD14+ cells that are differentially regulated in the intermediately-differentiated macrophage. a Description Accession Intensity Fold change P Tissue b Endometrium Blood Upregulated genes during monocyte to macrophage differentiation Fc fragment of IgG, high affinity I, receptor for ( FCGR1 ) NM_174538 306 11 28 0.05 Endo Chemokine (C C motif) ligand 2 ( CCL2 ) NM_174006 18786 3526 5 0.01 Endo Early growth response 1 ( EGR1 ) NM_001045875 64632 17902 4 0.02 Endo Centromere protein A transcript variant 1 ( CENPA ) XM_864817 11731 5692 2 0.02 Endo Chromosome 6 open reading frame 115 ( C6orf115 ) XM_582278 10895 6280 2 0.02 Endo Lectin, mannose binding 2 ( LMAN2 ) NM_001101309 34142 17438 2 0.03 Endo 24 dehy drocholesterol reductase ( DHCR24 ) XM_613218 101952 47891 2 0.05 Endo Opa interacting protein 5 ( OIP5 ) XM_588370 204 630 3 0.00 Blood Downregulated genes during monocyte to macrophage differentiation Predicted: Palladin, cytoskeletal ass ociated protein ( PALLD ) XM_869983 753 48 16 0.00 Endo BCL2 like 1, nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein ( BCL2L1 ) NM_001077486 2017 342 6 0.00 Endo Inhibitor of growth family, member 3, transcript variant 2 ( ING3 ) XM_863966 4923 15733 3 0.05 Endo a The list of genes that are upregulated or downregulated during the monocyte to macrophage differentiation process was obtained from Martinez et al. (2007). See Figure 5-3 for details of conditions for macrophage differentiation used by Martinez et al. (2007). b Tissue with higher expression in the current experiment. Endo signifies that expression was higher for endometrial CD14 + cells whereas Blood signifies higher expression in blood CD14 + cells.
125 Figure 5-3. Graphical representation of differentially regulated genes in endometrial and blood CD14 + cells that have been reported to be differentially regulated during macrophage differentiation. Martinez et al. (2006) identified genes that are differentially expressed in monocytes after 3 (A) or 7 days (B) of culture with CSF1 to cause differentiation into macrophages and after macrophages were polarized towards the classical activation (M1) pathway (C, achieved by culture with interferonactivation (M2) pathway (D, achieved by culture with interleukin 4). For each stage of differentiation, bars represent the number of genes in the Martinez et al. (2006) data set that were found in the present data set of endometrial and blood CD14 + cells. Genes that are upregulated in endometrium are in green, genes upregulated in blood are in red, and genes that were not significantly upregulated are in black.
126 Martinez et al. (2006) identified 120 genes that were differentially regulated in monocytes after 7 days of culture with CSF1 (i.e., full differentiation). All of these genes were expressed in endometrial and blood CD14 + cells. Of the 59 genes that were shown by Martinez et al. (2006) to be upregulated after macrophage differentiation, 12 were upregulated in the endometrium and none were upregulated in blood (Figure 5-3). Of the 61 genes that were reported to be downregulated, 9 were upregulated in endometrium and 3 were upregulated in the blood. A list of these genes is in Table 5-7. Martinez et al. (2006) identified 62 genes upregulated in M1 activated macrophages and 52 genes upregulated in M2 activated macrophages. Of the 62 genes identified to be upregulated in M1 macrophages, 1 gene was upregulated in the endometrium and 3 were higher in the blood (Figure 5-3). Of the 52 upregulated in M2 macrophages, 7 genes were significantly higher in the endometrium and 1 gene was upregulated in the blood. The list of these genes is in Table 58. Comparison to Genes Expressed by Human Decidual Macrophages In the human, decidual macrophages possess a unique pattern of gene expression as compared to monocytes (Gustafson et al. 2008). We asked the question if the genes that are upregulated or downregulated in human decidual macrophages are also differentially regulated in bovine endometrial macrophages. A total of 90% (107 of 120) of the genes found by Gustafson et al. (2008) to be differentially-expressed in human decidual macrophages were present in our dataset. Of the 80 genes identified to be upregulated in decidual macrophages, 19 genes were significantly higher in the endometrium and 2 were higher in the blood. Of the 52 upregulated in blood monocytes, 3 genes were significantly higher in the blood and none were higher in the endometrium. The list of these genes is in Table 5-9.
127 Table 5-7. Differentially regulated genes in endometrial and blood CD14 + cells that are differentially regulated in fully differentiated macrophages. a Description Accession Intensity Fold change P Tissue b Endometrium Blood Upregulated gene s in differentiated macrophages Ribonuclease ( RNASE1 ) NM_001014386 5671 124 46 0.01 Endo Folate receptor 2 (fetal) ( FOLR2 ) NM_001075325 1486 63 24 0.00 Endo Component 1, q subcomponent, alpha polypeptide ( C1QA ) NM_001014945 15126 793 19 0.00 Endo Apolipoprotein E ( APOE ) NM_173991 3576 208 17 0.00 Endo Complement component 1, q subcomponent, B chain ( C1QB ) NM_001046599 29681 2122 14 0.00 Endo Transcobalamin II; macrocytic anemia ( TCN2 ) NM_174195 6560 811 8 0.03 Endo Myloid beta (A4) precursor p rotein ( APP ) NM_001076796 18442 2748 7 0.04 Endo Sialoadhesin ( SIGLEC1 ) XM_870818 277 50 6 0.05 Endo Hypothetical LOC539693 ( AK3L1 ) XM_588793 163 49 3 0.04 Endo Phospholipase D family, member 3 ( PLD3 ) NM_001078041 3318 1003 3 0.03 Endo Zinc finger, FY VE domain containing 26 ( ZFYVE26 ) XM_592247 6979 3169 2 0.02 Endo Nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 3 ( NR1H3 ) NM_001014861 10998 5265 2 0.01 Endo Scm like with four MBT domains protein 2 ( SFMBT2 ) XM_607062 63 211 3 0.05 Blood Downreg ulated genes in differentiated macrophages Desmoglein 2 preproprotein ( DSG2 ) XM_584890 201 7 30 0.05 Endo Cystatin E/M ( CST6 ) NM_001012764 17864 1411 13 0.01 Endo Ankycorbin (Retinoic acid induced protein 14) ( RAI14 ) XM_604226 1960 160 12 0.00 Endo Regulator of G protein signaling 2, 24kDa ( RGS2 ) NM_001075596 57900 6307 9 0.05 Endo Cytochrome P450, family 27, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 ( CYP27A1 ) NM_001083413 2018 366 6 0.04 Endo FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog ( FOS ) NM_182786 3 4786 8393 4 0.02 Endo Zinc finger, MYND domain containing 15 (predicted) ( ZMYND15 ) XM_589053 2419 868 3 0.02 Endo DEAD (Asp Glu Ala Asp) box polypeptide 17 ( DDX17 ) NM_001101993 41773 22419 2 0.03 Endo Interleukin 27 receptor, alpha ( IL27RA ) NM_001098028 28729 12407 2 0.05 Endo Predicted: cytokine receptor like factor 2 ( CRLF2 ) XM_608251 188 880 5 0.04 Blood Low density lipoprotein (lectin like) receptor 1 ( OLR1 ) NM_174132 564 2330 4 0.03 Blood FYN oncogene related to SRC, FGR, YES ( FYN ) NM_001077972 4343 7566 2 0.05 Blood a The list of genes that are upregulated or downregulated in fully differentiated macrophages as compared to blood monocytes was obtained from Martinez et al. (2007). See Figure 5-3 for details of conditions for macrophage differentiation used by Martinez et al. (2007). b Tissue with higher expression in the current experiment. Endo signifies that expression was higher for endometrial CD14 + cells whereas Blood signifies higher expression in blood CD14 + cells.
128 Table 58. Differentially regulated genes in endometrial and blood CD14 + cells that are differentially regulated in M1 and M2 macrophages. a a The list of genes that are differentially regulated in M1 as compared to M2 was obtained from Martinez et al. (2007). See Figure 5-3 for details of conditions for macrophage differentiation used by Martinez et al. (2007). b Tissue with higher expression in the current experiment. Endo signifies that expression was higher for endometrial CD14 + cells whereas Blood signifies higher expression in blood CD14 + cells. Description Accession Intensity Fold change P Tissue b Endometrium Blood Overexpressed genes in M1 macrophages Complement fa ctor B ( CFB ) NM_001040526 18183 1647 11 0.03 Endo Pentraxin related gene, rapidly induced by IL 1 beta ( PTX3 ) NM_001076259 933 16716 18 0.05 Blood Fas (TNF receptor superfamily, member 6) ( FAS ) NM_174662 360 1971 5 0.03 Blood Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase 1 ( IDO1 ) NM_001101866 380 1549 4 0.05 Blood Overexpressed genes in M2 macrophages Solute carrier organic anion transporting polypeptide 2b1 ( SLCO2B1 ) NM_174843 8667 173 50 0.00 Endo Glycine amidinotransferase (L arginine:glycine amidino transferase) ( GATM ) NM_001045878 7387 240 31 0.00 Endo Predicted: mannose receptor C1 (MRC1) XM_001252128 2246 93 24 0.00 Endo Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A1 ( ALDH1A1 ) NM_174239 3722 210 18 0.01 Endo Prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase 1 (pr ostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase 1) ( PTGS1 ) NM_001105323 2102 242 9 0.03 Endo Ribonuclease, RNase A family, k6 ( RNASE6 ) NM_174594 33082 4824 7 0.04 Endo C type lectin domain family 7, member A ( CLEC7A ) NM_001031852 50 22 2 0.03 Endo Predicted : dipeptidase 2 ( DPEP2 ) XM_586714 140 328 2 0.05 Blood
129 Table 5-9. Differentially expressed genes in endometrial and blood CD14 + cells that are also differentially expressed in human decidual macrophages vs human blood monocytes. a Description Accession Intensity Fold change P Tissue b Endometrium Blood Upregulated genes in decidual macrophages Granzyme A ( GZMA ) NM_001001142 33196 276 120 0.00 Endo Solute carrier organic anion transporter family, member 2B1 ( SLCO2B1 ) NM_174843 8667 173 50 0.00 Endo Ribonuclease, RNase A family, 1 ( RNASE1 ) NM_001014386 5671 124 46 0.01 Endo Secreted phosphoprotein 1 ( SPP1 ) NM_174187 4939 154 32 0.00 Endo Collagen, type III, alpha 1 ( COL3A1 ) XM_588040 430 15 29 0.02 Endo Mannose receptor, C type 1 ( MRC1 ) NM_002438 2246 93 24 0.00 Endo Protein S (alpha) ( PROS1 ) NM_174438 1670 72 23 0.00 Endo V set a nd immunoglobulin domain containing 4 ( VSIG4 ) XM_865690 590 29 20 0.01 Endo Complement component 1, q subcomponent, alpha polypeptide ( C1QA ) NM_001014945 15126 793 19 0.00 Endo Apolipoprotein E ( APOE ) NM_173991 3576 208 17 0.00 Endo Leprecan like 1 ( LEP REL1 ) XM_589206 1776 125 14 0.03 Endo Complement component 1, q subcomponent, beta polypeptide ( C1QB ) XM_869694 29681 2122 14 0.00 Endo Collagen, type I, alpha 2 ( COL1A2 ) NM_174520 892 72 12 0.04 Endo Chemokine (C C motif) ligand 8 ( CCL8 ) NM_174007 9546 1735 6 0.03 Endo Chemokine (C C motif) ligand 2 ( CCL2 ) NM_174006 18786 3526 5 0.01 Endo NKG2C protein ( NKG2C ) NM_001098163 665 139 5 0.03 Endo Nerve growth factor receptor (TNFRSF16) associated protein 1 ( NGFRAP1 ) NM_014380 6512 1418 5 0.03 Endo Endot helial PAS domain protein 1 ( EPAS1 ) NM_174725 7981 2114 4 0.05 Endo Transmembrane protein 97 ( TMEM97 ) NM_001034403 6653 3454 2 0.05 Endo Stathmin 1/oncoprotein 18 ( STMN1 ) XM_589478 384 2113 6 0.05 Blood Nicotinamide riboside kinase 1 ( LOC510456 ) XM_5875 97 166 422 3 0.05 Blood Upregulated genes in blood monocytes Selenoprotein X, 1 ( SEPX1 ) NM_001034810 7361 19546 3 0.03 Blood Dipeptidase 2 ( DPEP2 ) XM_586714 140 328 2 0.05 Blood Benzodiazapine receptor (peripheral) ( BZRP ) NM_175776 2367 5508 2 0 .04 Blood a The list of genes that are differentially regulated in human tissues are obtained from Gustafsson et al. (2008). b Tissue with higher expression in the current experiment. Endo signifies that expression was higher for endometrial CD14 + cells whereas Blood signifies higher expression in blood CD14 + cells.
130 Quantitative RT-PCR To validate the findings of the microarray analysis, qPCR was performed for 12 differentially expressed genes and a housekeeping gene (RPL19 bovine ribosomal protein L19). Analyses were performed on two sets of samples of mRNA. The first set was composed of mRNA from two pairs of endometrial and blood CD14 + cells that were used in the microarray. The second set was composed of mRNA from an additional three pairs of endometrial and blood CD14 + cells that were not used for the microarray analysis. In the first analysis (Table 5-10), with samples used in the microarray, 7 of 12 genes were significantly affected by tissue type [ PAG10; GZMA; HMOX1; MRC1; RNASE6; TSGA14; FCGR3A ]. In each case, expression was higher in endometrium, in agreement with results of the microarray analysis. In addition, an additional gene, SLCO2B1, tended to be higher in the endometrium (7.2-fold; P = 0.09). This gene was also more highly expressed in endometrium in the microarray analysis. Amounts of mRNA as determined by qPCR were not affected by tissue type for two other genes ( PTX3 and MCP1 ). In both cases, the fold-change was numerically higher for endometrium whereas, in the microarray analysis, expression was higher in blood. For the group of independent samples, 4 genes were significantly upregulated in endometrium compared with the blood ( PAG10; GZMA, TSGA14 and HMOX1 ) and all of these genes were higher in the endometrium in the microarray analysis. An additional 5 genes show differences in the same direction as for the microarray although differences were not significant ( MCP1, RNASE6, SLCO2B1, PTX3 and MCP1 ). Two genes were not significantly affected by tissue but differences were in the opposite direction as for the microarray analysis ( CD163, CD16 ).
131 Table 5-10. qPCR validation of 12 genes that were differentially regulated in the microarray analysis RNA samples submitted to microarray and qPCR analysis RNA samples submitted only to q PCR analysis a a Gene Accession Endometrium Blood Ste b Fold change P MC c Endometrium Blood Ste b Fold change P MC c PAG10 NM_176621 8.2 18.7 0.1 10.4 1389 0.0003 Confirmed 7.5 19.1 1.2 11.5 2964.0 0.002 Confirmed GZMA NM_00 1001142 6.8 16.5 0.9 9.8 867 0.0112 Confirmed 7.7 16.1 1.5 8.3 322.5 0.016 Confirmed HMOX1 NM_001014912 12.4 16.8 0.1 4.4 22 0.0002 Confirmed 11.9 16.0 1.3 4.1 17.5 0.000 Confirmed MRC1 XM_001252128 15.7 18.4 0.5 2.7 6.7 0.0009 Confirmed 15.7 18.6 0 .6 3.0 7.8 0.065 Same direction TSGA14 XM_583431 13.0 14.5 0.1 1.5 2.9 0.0064 Confirmed 13.1 14.2 1.1 1.1 2.1 0.523 Confirmed CD16a NM_001077402 10.1 11.0 0.2 0.9 1.9 0.0115 Confirmed 11.4 11.1 1.4 0.3 1.2 0.889 Opposite direction CD163 XM_613380 12 .4 13.1 0.2 0.7 1.6 0.0115 Confirmed 12.1 12.0 1.4 0.2 1.1 0.938 Opposite direction PTX3 XM_614752 16.4 16.9 0.2 0.5 1.4 0.0156 Opposite direction 17.4 16.4 0.6 1.0 2.0 0.351 Same direction MCP1 NM_174006 15.2 15.3 0.1 0.0 1.0 0.0002 Opposite direction 15.4 14.5 2.3 0.8 1.8 0.814 Same direction RNASE6 NM_174594 14.5 16.1 0.5 1.6 3.0 0.1567 Same direction 11.1 14.2 1.0 3.2 9.0 0.079 Same direction SLCO2B1 NM_174843 15.8 18.7 0.1 2.8 7.2 0.0887 Same direction 14.1 19.1 3.4 5.0 31.3 0.365 Same direct ion a b c MC = Microarray confirmation.
132 Discussion Accumulation of macrophages is one of the characteristic changes in the endometrium during pregnancy (Hunt et al. 1985; Heikkinen et al. 2003; Tekin and Hansen 2004, Cupurdija et al. 2004; Kim et al. 2007, Dambaeva et al. 2008; Chapters 3 and 4). The fact that accumulation of macrophages is widespread phylogenetically and of large magnitude are evidence that these immune cells play an important role in supporting the growth and survival of the conceptus. Using global transcriptomal analysis, it can be inferred that macrophages in the interplacentomal endometrium play important roles in immune regulation, tissue remodeling, and apoptosis. Moreover, this is likely to be a general function of endometrial macrophages and not a specific role of these cells in the cow because the pattern of genes that are differentially regulated in endometrial macrophages of the cow is similar to genes that are differentially regulated in decidual macrophages in the human (Gustafsson et al. 2008). To assess gene expression, cells expressing CD14 were purified from endometrium and blood. CD14 is a co-receptor for bacterial lipopolysaccharide and is expressed on monocytes, macrophages and neutrophils (Paape et al. 1996; Triantafilou et al. 2002). Earlier ( Ch apters 3 and 4), CD14 + cells in endometrium of pregnant cows were identified as macrophages because they also express CD68, a lysosomalassociated protein that is expressed on monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (Ferenbach and Hughes 2008). The classification of endometrial CD14 + cells as macrophages is supported by additional evidence reported here. In particular, endometrial CD14 + cells had a pattern of gene expression that was largely similar to that of blood CD14 + cells (Figure 5-2A). Moreover, 53 of 56 genes reported as being characteristic of macrophages by Jensen et al. (2006) were identified in endometrial
133 CD14 + cells. Given the similarity in gene expression between endometrial and blood CD14 + cells, it is likely that the massive infiltration of CD14 + cells in the pregnant endometrium is a result of the recruitment from blood monocytes. Interestingly, the proportion of PBMC that are monocytes decreases in late pregnancy in the cow (Chapter 3), possibly as a result of recruitment to the endometrium. The pattern of differential gene expression is indicative of changes in cell migratory function as monocytes move from blood to endometrial stroma. Blood monocytes appear to have a high capacity for responsiveness to external signals that ensures activation of migration into tissues upon chemotactic signals from tissues There was a preponderance of upregulated genes in blood for several differentiallyregulated pathways involved in cell signaling including toll-like receptor signaling, Fc epsilon RI signaling, B cell receptor signaling, phosphatidylinositol signaling, J AK-STAT signaling and ErbB signaling (Table 5-5). There were also numerous genes in the MAPK, wnt and cytokine-cytokine receptor signaling pathways that were upregulated in blood (Table 5-5) as well as large numbers of genes in the signal transduction, cell communication and nuclear ontologies (Table 5-4). Among the upregulated genes that would promote activation of migration into tissues are various cytokine receptors including IL8 receptor beta ( IL8RB ), IL18 receptor accessory protein ( IL18RAP ), cytokine receptor like factor 2 ( CRLF2 ), interferon receptor 1 ( IFNAR1 ), tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 1B ( TNFRS1B ), IL17 receptor alpha ( IL17RA ), and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 8 ( TNFRSF8 ). Monocytes in blood also have increased expression of several genes involved in transendothelial migration. One pertinent gene is integrin alpha 4 ( ITGA4 ), that encodes for the alpha 4 subunit of
134 the VLA-4 receptor and which promotes transendothelial migration by interacting with endothelial cell surface receptors VCAM-1 and JAM2 (Johnson-Lger et al 2002). Another is the gene for the nuclear repressor protein glucocorticoid receptor DNA binding factor-1 ( GRLF1 ) that mediates effects of transforming growth factor beta 1 ( TGFB1 ) on monocyte recruitment from the periphery (Kim et al. 2006). Several genes involved in cell motility were also upregulated in blood including several myosin genes ( MYL2 MYLPF and MYH10 ) and two regulators of the actin cytoskeleton, diaphanous homolog 1 ( DIAPH1 ) and paxillin ( PXN ) would promote activation of migration into tissues are various cytokine receptors including IL8 receptor beta ( IL8RB ), IL18 receptor accessory protein ( IL 18RAP ), cytokine receptor like factor 2 ( CRLF2 ), interferon receptor 1 ( IFNAR1 ), tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 1B ( TNFRS1B ), IL17 receptor alpha ( IL17RA ), and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 8 ( TNFRSF8 ). Monocytes in blood also have increased expression of several genes involved in transendothelial migration. One pertinent gene is integrin alpha 4 ( ITGA4 ), that encodes for the alpha 4 subunit of the VLA-4 receptor and which promotes transendothelial migration by interacting with endothelial cell surface receptors VCAM-1 and JAM2 (Johnson-Lger et al. 2002). Another is the gene for the nuclear repressor protein glucocorticoid receptor DNA binding factor-1 ( GRLF1 ) that mediates effects of transforming growth factor beta 1 ( TGFB1 ) on monocyte recruitment from the periphery (Kim et al. 2006). Several genes involved in cell motility were also upregulated in blood including several myosin genes ( MYL2, MYLPF and MYH10 ) and two regulators of the actin cytoskeleton, diaphanous homolog 1 ( DIAPH1 ) and paxillin ( PXN ).
135 Once the macrophages are in the endometrium, the above-mentioned genes involved in cell signaling and diapedesis become downregulated. Other genes involved in motility increase, including thymosin beta 4 ( TMSB4X ), which promotes cell motility through sequestration of G-actin monomers during actin-cytoskeletal organization (Safer et al. 1991; Bock-Marquette et al. 2004) and enabled homolog ( ENAH), which blocks capping of actin filaments and promotes filopodia formation (Gomez and Robles 2004). These changes may indicate a different pattern of cell motility once monocytes enter the endometrium. At the same time, endometrial CD14 + cells gain increased capacity for interacting with other cellular and extracellular components of the endometrium as indicated by increased expression of genes in the cell adhesion molecules and ECM-receptor interaction pathways (Table 5-5). Cell adhesion proteins on endometrial macrophages likely function to facilitate regulation of other immune cells. For example, e-cadherin ( CDH1 ), a gene upregulated in endometrium, promotes ma crophage T cell interactions (Van den Bossche et al. 2009). Dendritic cells and macrophages can also form tight junctions with epithelial cells to allow uptake of antigens from the lumen without disruption of the epithelial barrier (Lehman et al. 2009) and upregulation of genes controlling formation of juctional complexes. Interestingly, CD14 + cells in the interplacentomal endometrium of pregnant cows express MHC class II more intensely when near the luminal epithelium (Chapter 4). Perhaps fetal antigens shed by the trophoblast and taken up by macrophages interacting with endometrial epithelial cells leads to increased MHC class II expression. Endometrial CD14 + cells may themselves promote migration of monocytes and other leukocytes into the endometrium as indicated by upregulation of chemokine (C-X-
136 C motif) ligand 14 ( CXCL14 ) and chemokine (C-C motif) ligands 8 ( CCL8 ), 22 ( CCL22 ) and 24 ( CCL24 ). The platelet derived growth factor; B polypeptide (PDGFB) and inhibin beta B gene ( INHBB ) were also upregulated in endometrium. PDGF directs movement of neutrophils and macrophages (Barrientos et al. 2008). INHBB is a subunit for inhibin B and activin B. While the roles of these members of the TGFB family are unknown, activin A can induce recruitment of mast cells (Funabu et al. 2003). Despite the identification of CD14 + cells as macrophages, some of the upregulated genes in endometrium were placental and uterine genes. Examples include pregnancy associated glycoproteins (Green et al. 1998), prolactin related proteins (Hashizume 2007) and uterine serpin (Padua and Hansen 2009). Endometrial CD14 + cells were 9095% pure, and the presence of placental or endometrial genes could reflect contamination of the CD14 + population with trophoblast, endometrial epithelium or endometrial stroma. Another possibility is that some of the CD14 + cells in the interplacentomal endometrium are not derived from a myeloid mononuclear phagocyte li neage but instead represents trophoblast cells or cells from the endometrial stroma or epithelium. In species where endometrium undergoes a decidual response, decidualized stroma express cytokines and chemokines characteristically secreted by immune cells (Salamonsen et al. 2007; Chen et al. 2009). Perhaps similar differentiation pathways exist in species like cattle so that CD14 becomes upregulated in non-myeloid cells. Once migrating into the endometrium, it is apparent that at least a subset of CD14 + mo nocytes undergo es differentiation. This is so because many of the genes identified by Martinez et al. (2006) as being upregulated in macrophages during differentiation
137 were upregulated in endometrial CD14 + cells as compared to CD14 + cells in blood. Of t he 128 genes shown by Martinez et al. (2006) to be upregulated in monocytes after 3 or 7 days of culture with CSF1, 19 were higher in the endometrium and 2 were higher in the blood. Of the 116 genes that were downregulated after 3 or 7 days of culture (full differentiation), 2 were upregulated in the endometrium and 3 in the blood. Absence of a more extensive list of differentially-regulated genes associated with macrophage differentiation may reflect the existence of multiple subpopulations of endometrial macrophages with some populations differentiated and others not. Regulation of immune function is an important function of macrophages. In the reproductive tract of the pregnant female, immune responses against paternal antigens on the trophoblast must be limited to prevent immunological destruction of the conceptus. In the cow, trophoblast expresses classical and non-classical MHC antigens in the interplacentomal regions where accumulation of endometrial macrophages is most dense (Davies et al. 2004; Davies et al. 2006). At the same time, the reproductive tract is susceptible to infection, particularly at parturition when the cervix is relaxed and the placenta and fetus extend across the cervical barrier. Thus, it could be hypothesized that populations of macrophages in the endometrium serve to inhibit immune responses against conceptus antigens while other populations serve a surveillance role against pathogens to directing inflammatory responses against microorganisms. We hypothesized that, in the absence of infection, endometrial macrophages would be preferentially activated along the M2 activation pathway so that that differentiation results in macrophages that promote inhibition of inflammation, angiogenesis, and tissue remodeling (Sica et al. 200 6; Benoit et al. 2008; Allaventa et
138 al. 2008). Indeed, as detailed in the next paragraphs, there is evidence for skewing of endometrial macrophages towards M2 activation. Nonetheless, it is likely that there is more than one subpopulation of endometrial macrophage resident in the endometrium of pregnant cows. In addition, it remains possible that the endometrial macrophage undergoes a differentiation process that is unique for that tissue. Seven of the 52 genes found by Martinez et al. (2006) to be upregulated in M2 activated macrophages were upregulated in endometrial CD14 + cells. One of these genes was glycine amidinotransferase ( GATM ) which competes with the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase for arginine and thereby reduces production of the pr oinflammatory molecule nitric oxide (Bronte and Zanovello 2005). Two C-type lectins characteristically activated in M2 macrophages, mannose receptor C1 ( MRC1 ) and Ctype lectin domain family 7, member A ( CLEC7A or dectin-1) were also upregulated in endometrial CD14 + cells. Both of these molecules recognize various pathogens as part of the innate immune response (Hsu et al. 2009). Activation of MRC1 can lead to inhibition of secretion of IL12 (stimulates NK cell and T-cells) and increased secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL8, IL10, IL1 receptor antagonist and IL1 receptor type II (Gazi and Martinez-Pomares 2009). In contrast, CLEC7A, which recognizes fungal carbohydrates, can participate in release of inflammatory cytokines (Underhill 2007). Another gene upregulated in endometrium was prostaglandin G/H synthase ( PTGS1 or cyclooxygenase 1) which is a key enzyme in prostaglandin, prostacyclin, and thromboxane A2 biosynthesis. These eicasonoids have been implicated in immunosuppression (prostaglandin E2) and angiogenesis (prostaglandins E2, I2, F2alpha, and thromboxane A2 (Frstenberger et al. 2006).
139 The one upregulated gene in endometrium that could be classified as characteristic of M1 macrophages (complement factor B, CFB ) also encodes for a protein that can have anti-inflammatory properties. Cleavage of CFB by complement factor D liberates the Ba fragment that inhibits proliferation of B cells (Ambrus et al. 1990). In addition to the genes identified by Martinez et al. (2006), some other genes expressed in M2 macrophages were upregulated in endometrium including CD163 which is a scavenger receptor that, in its soluble form, exerts anti-inflammatory actions (Onofre et al. 2009) as well as the anti-inflammatory cytokines CCL22 and CCL24 that ar e produced by M2a macrophages (Benoit et al. 2008). CCL2, an M1 cytokine (Benoit et al. 2008), was also upregulated in endometrium. Another gene upregulated in M2 macrophages, E-cadherin ( CDH1 ), was one of the top 100 upregulated genes in the endometrium. This cell adhesion protein promotes macrophage fusogenic activity and ma crophage T cell interactions (Van den Bossche et al. 2009). Two other genes with anti-inflammatory activity were upregulated in endometrium. TMSB4 can be oxidized by macrophages exposed to glucocorticoteroids to form thymosin beta 4 sulfoxide that has anti-inflammatory properties (Young et al. 1999). Fibroblast growth factor 1 ( FGF1) another gene upregulated in endometrium, inhibits expression of monocyte adhesion molecules on endothelial cells involved in transendothelial movement and may be antiinflammatory (Zhang and Issekutz 2002). One function of M2 macrophages is to promote tissue remodeling (Allavena et al. 2008) and analysis of the transcriptome of endometrial vs blood CD14 + cells is consistent with endometrial CD14 + cells being actively involved in this process. There
140 was over-representation of differentially-expressed genes in endometrium for three ontologies related to proteolysis (peptidase activity, endopeptidase activity, and proteolysis). Among these genes were granzyme B (GZMB), which cleaves extracellular matrix components such as vitronectin, fibronectin and laminin (Buzza et al. 2005), TMSBX4, which can increase metalloproteinase expression in macrophages (Philip et al. 2005) and macrophage-specific metalloproteinases 12 (MMP12) and 19 (MMP19) which degrade extracellular matrix components such as elastin type IV collagen, fibronectin, and promoting tissue remodeling (Chen 2004; Djonov et al. 2001). Another gene upregulated in endometrium was platelet derived growth factor, B polypeptide ( PDGFB ). PDGF could participate in remodeling of the endometrial stroma since macrophage derived PDGF stimulates fibroblast proliferation and regulates fibroblast differentiation (Barrientos et al. 2008). Tissue remodeling in the endometrium during pregnancy is important for angiogenesis, migration of trophoblast binucleate cells into the endometrial epithelium, development of endometrial glands and facilitation of endometrial growth necessary for expansion of uterine size. Inappropriate tissue remodeling may compromise pregnancy. There is increased expression of the metalloproteinase inhibitor TIMP2 in the endometrium of cows carrying cloned fetuses (Kim et al. 2008). Upregulation of proteinase gene expression in the endometrium of pregnant cattle has been observed previously (Takagi et al. 2007; Bauersachs et al. 2008) and the present results implicate macrophages as one source of those enzymes. The massive upregulation of GZMA and GZMB in endometrial CD14 + cells is consistent with a role for these cells in induction of apoptosis. One possible target is the
141 trophoblast cell. Apoptotic cells are common in the placenta, especially at the edges of the placentomes and in the interplacentomal region (Facciotti et al. 2009). Apoptosis is one mechanism by which extravillous trophoblast cells are eliminated in the human placenta (Von Rango et al. 2003). While the bovine trophoblast is considered to be non -invasive and not capable of crossing the basement membrane of the luminal epithelium of the endometrium, it is possible that endometrial macrophages remove placental cells that stray past this barrier. Apoptosis could also be a signal for regulation of macrophage function. Abrahams et al. (2004) hypothesized that ingestion of apoptotic trophoblast cells causes decidual macrophages to develop an immunosuppressive phenotype. Other signals for regulation of monocyte migration into the endometrium during pregnancy and for differentiation of these cells once in the endometrial stroma are not clear. In human, monocyte migration can be stimulated by trophoblast cells in culture (Fest et al. 2007). In sheep, there were more macrophages in the pregnant uterine horn of unilaterallypr egnant ewes than in the non-pregnant uterine horn (Tekin and Hansen 2004), suggesting that a placental signal could be involved. However, there were also large numbers of macrophages in the non-pregnant horn of the unilaterally-pregnant ewe than in endometrium of nonpregnant ewes (Tekin and Hansen 2004). Thus, it is likely that there are also systemic signals that control influx of monocytes into the endometrium during pregnancy. Progesterone, the characteristic hormone of pregnancy, is not that signal because progesterone treatment did not increase macrophage numbers in endometrium of sheep (Tekin and Hansen 2004). Progesterone may be involved in controlling macrophage differentiation in the
142 endometrium, however, because there is evidence using a wound healing model in mice that progesterone or estrogen can promote macrophage polarization along the M2 pathway (Routley and Ashcroft 2009). Validation of microarray results with qPCR validation resulted in differential expression being confirmed for 8 of 11 genes evaluated. Examination of differences between endometrial and blood CD14 + cells using qPCR of an independent data set indicated a smaller degree of agreement with microarray results (4 of 11 genes) but a total of 9 of 11 genes showed differences in the same direction as the results from microarray hybridization. The independent samples were from a slightly earlier stage of pregnancy and this fact could have resulted in some discrepancies with the microarray data set. In summary, here we show that endometrial CD14 + cells express genes characteristically found in macrophages. Moreover, analysis of the transcriptome of these cells indicates that at least a subpopulation of the cells differentiates along an M2 activation pathway and that the cells play roles in immune regulation, tissue remodeling, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. These roles are likely of broad relevance to mammalian reproduction rather than to be specific properties of pregnancy in the cow. Endometrial macrophages in the human also undergo M2 activation (Cupurdija et al. 2004; Gustafsson et al. 2008). In addition, 17% of the genes found by Gustafsson et al. (2008) to be differentially expressed between decidual and blood macrophages were also differentially expressed in the same direction in cow.
143 CHAPTER 6 GENERAL DISCUSSION The recruitment of macrophages to the pregnant uterus has been described in many species such as humans (Heikkinen et al 2003, Cupurdija et al 2004, Kim et al 2007), mice (Hunt et al 1985), pigs (Kaeoket et al. 2003), cynomologus and vervet monkeys (Dambaeva et al. 2008) and sheep (Tekin and Hansen 2004). To date, little is known about the macrophage role during pregnancy in the cow. There is evidence of defective macrophage activation in cases of retention of fetal membranes in the cow (Miyoshi et al. 2002). The goal of this dissertation was to develop a better understanding of the pregnancyrelated changes in the maternal immune system in the cow. The central thesis of this research is that endometrial macrophages accumulate during pregnancy in the cow and possess an M2 phenotype that promotes a microenvironment at the maternal-fetal interface that inhibits maternal immune responses against the conceptus and supports fetal development and growth. In particular, this dissertation focused on three major questions as follows below: 1) Does the accumulation of macrophages in the endometrium during pregnancy as reported in other species also occur in the cow? The analysis of selected immune cell populations was performed in the blood to identify changes in the peripheral blood that would reflect modulation of the maternal immune system in early pregnancy (Day 34 after artificial insemination) and close to parturition. The most intriguing result was the decreased number of circulating CD68 + monocytes in periparturient cows compared with the nonpregnant cows. In addition, there was an accumulation of CD68 + cells in the interplacentomal (Figure 3-3) and placentomal endometrium (Figure 4-1) as shown by immunohistochemistry. The
144 decreased number of circulating CD68 + monocytes in blood of periparturient cows as compared to nonpregnant cows (Chapter 3) may reflect massive recruitment of blood monocytes to the pregnant endometrium. 2) Are the endometrial macrophages present in the interplacentomal endometrium differentially activated from those present in the placentomal endometrium with regards to the expression of activation markers in the pregnant cow? The expression of three markers of activation was evaluated by dual-color immunofluorescence using the pan-macrophage marker CD68 protein. The CD68 is a lysosomal-associated protein that is expressed on monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (Ferenbach and Hughes 2008). The three markers analyzed were CD14, a co-receptor for bacterial lipopolysaccharide expressed on monocytes, integrin) that with CD18 composes the macrophage complex-1 (Mac-1) and is involved in leukocyte-endothelial adhesion (Fagerholm et al 2006) and the MHC class II which is involved in antigen presentation and can be upregulated in activated macrophages and downregulated in inactivated or deactivated macrophages. (Gordon 2003). In the interplacentomal region, there were at least 3 distinct populations of endometrial macrophages. The first population of macrophages was present in the deeper regions of the stroma and were CD68 + CD14 + MHC classII CD11b + The second population, which accumulated in the shallow stroma, was CD68 + CD14 + MHC class II + CD11b This suggests that some of the endometrial macrophages are already activated and they may be functioning as antigen presenting cells because of the upregulation of the MHC class II molecules. The third population of macrophages,
145 which was the most abundant type of CD68 + cell adjacent to the luminal epithelium, was CD68 + CD14 + MHC classII CD11b In contrast, in the placentomal endometrium the macrophages were mainly CD68 + CD14 + MHC classII + CD11b There was a regional regulation of macrophages in the bovine placenta between regions (interplacentomal vs placentomal regions) and within the interplacentomal region with regards to CD11b expression by the cells in the deep endometrium stroma 3) Does the presence of macrophages in the uterine endometrium of the pregnant cow result in upregulation of genes related to M2 activation? Using the tools for global transcriptomal analysis, we characterized the pattern of gene expression of interplacentomal endometrial macrophages compared to resting monocytes in blood. Endometrial CD14 + cells had a very similar gene expression profile to their blood counterparts (Figure 5-2A) although over a 1000 genes were differentially regulated between endometrium and blood. More than 90% (53 of 56) of the genes characteristically expressed in macrophages were identified in endometrial CD14 + cells (Jensen et al. 2006). Moreover, regardless of placenta type, the endometrial macrophages had a similar gene expression profile to decidual CD14 + cells in humans (Gustafsson et al. 2008) where ~90% of the genes that were differentially regulated in the decidual macrophages were expressed by the endometrial macrophages. The pattern of differential gene expression indicated that CD14 + cells change their migratory function as the monocytes move from blood to endometrial stroma. The blood cells contain upregulated genes that promote migration from the periphery to the tissues and cell-endothelium interaction ( IL8RB; IL18RAP; CRLF2; IFNAR1; TNFRS1B;
146 IL17RA and TNFRSF8 ), whereas the endometrial cells express genes that enhance cell adhesion and communication between neighboring cells ( CDH1 ; CLDN1; CLDN3; SPP1 and PDGFB ). The upregulation of genes involved in the monocyte to macrophage activation process indicates that at least a subset of CD14 + monocytes undergo differentiation (Martinez et al. 2006). Also, there were nine genes associated with macrophage activation upregulated in the endometrial CD14 + cells. Eight of these upregulated genes were associated with the M2 macrophage activation pathway including GATM ; MRC1 ; CLEC7A CD163 and chemokine ligands ( CCL22 and CCL24 ). In contrast, only one gene characteristic of the M1 activation pathway, CFB was upregulated in the endometrium. Thus, endometrial macrophages in the pregnant cow are likely to be activated via M2 activation. Human decidual macrophages also possess a bias towards M2 activation, as reported by Gustafsson et al. (2008) by comparison of decidual macrophages (CD14 + cells) to their blood counterparts. One possibility is that endometrial macrophages possess a unique pattern of activation so that they do not totally fit into the M1 or M2 activation pathways. Such an occurrence could explain why only some of the genes characteristic of M2 activation were upregulated in endometrium. Identification of such a large number of CD68 + cells in the endometrium lead early on to the question of whether these cells are in fact macrophages or another cell type expressing CD68. One of the pieces of evidence that endometrial CD68 + cells were macrophages was the co-expression of other characteristic markers of macrophages, as indicated by immunohistochemistry. Results from Chapters 3 and 4, indicated that
147 CD68 + cells also expressed CD14, which is a macrophage marker in both interplacentomal and placentomal endometrium. Moreover, the expression of MHC class II by the CD68 + CD14 + cells in the placentomal endometrium indicates that they are macrophages due to the restricted expression of MHC class II by immune cells. Additional evidence for the conclusion that most endometrial CD68 + cells are macrophages comes from Chapter 5, in particular, the simillarity of the general transcriptomal profile between endometrial and blood CD14 + cells and the expression of genes characteristic of bovine macrophages (Jensen et al. 2006). Human and bovine placentation are characterized by distinct anatomical differences. Nonetheless, bovine endometrial macrophages have genes differentially regulated in a similar manner as that of decidual macrophages in humans (Gustafsson et al. 2008). What sets ruminants apart from other mammals such as mice (Hunt et al. 1985) is the magnitude of macrophage accumulation in the pregnant endometrium. Such a large-scale infiltration of macrophages may be the result of ruminant evolution. Analysis of the bovine genome indicates that evolution in this species has been accompanied by large-scale duplication of genes involved in innate immunity (Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium 2009). For example, there a defensin genes in cattle compared to 39 in human and 52 in mouse. It has been speculated that this change in the bovine genome was the consequence of evolution of the rumen where a large number of microorganisms are resident within the animal (Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium 2009). Perhaps, the ruminant immune system responds to pregnancy with a heightened macrophage accumulation in the uterus because of these evolutionary changes in the immunogenome. The
148 consequences of this infiltration of macrophages for the course of pregnancy and immune function in the post-parturient period remain to be defined. Macrophages that accumulated in the interplacentomal region may be distinct in functional properties from macrophages present in the placentomal endometrium. The ruminant placenta is a unique type of placenta that possesses two sites of maternal fetal interaction, the interplacentomal and the placentomal regions (Wooding and Wathes 1980; Schlafer et al. 2004). In the interplacentomal region, the chorionic epithelium is apposed to the luminal epithelium and there is little invasion of fetal cells towards the maternal side. In contrast, the placentomal region is the site where most of the interaction between mother and fetus occurs. Chorionic villi are interdigitated with the maternal septa and migration of fetal cells to the maternal side leads to formation of a syncytium (Wooding and Wathes 1980; Schlafer et al. 2004). Evidence for regional differentiation between interplacentomal and placentomal regions is clear. CD68 + cells in the interplacentomal endometrium were mainly negative for MHC class II while CD68 + cells in the placentomal endometrium were MHC class II + (Chapter 4). The expression of MHC class II indicates that CD68 + in the caruncular septa are activated by either the M1 or M2 pathway, whereas the CD68 + cells in the interplacentomal stroma are likely inactivated macrophages (Gordon 2003) or monocytes that have a defective antigen-presentation function. The expression of CD11b was also regionally differentiated between placentomal and interplacentomal regions and within the interplacentomal region itself (Chapter 4). The CD68 + cells in the caruncular septa were largely negative for CD11b. In the interplacentomal region, only CD68 + cells present deep in the endometrial stroma were positive for CD11b. This regional differentiation
149 likely reflects different trafficking patterns and regulatory signals in the two placental regions. Although the activation state of the macrophages previously mentioned is better understood, the signals for macrophage accumulation in the endometrium of the cow remain unclear. Systemic signals are involved in macrophage recruitment to the uterus as shown by the data from the unilateral pregnancy sheep model where the nonpregnant horn also showed macrophage accumulation (Tekin and Hansen 2004). Nevertheless, there is evidence that suggests the existence of an embryo-derived factor that induces the macrophage accumulation due to the higher density of macrophages in the pregnant horn compared to the nonpregnant one (Tekin and Hansen 2004). In addition, the treatment of ovariectomized sheep with progesterone did not trigger macrophage recruitment to the endometrium indicating that neither progesterone nor other progesterone-induced factors are primarily involved in the recruitment of macrophages to the endometrium during pregnancy (Tekin and Hansen 2004). Progesterone does not seem to be the most important signal for the trafficking of macrophages to the endometrium, but it may control macrophage differentiation in the endometrium, because of the evidence from the wound healing model in mice in which progesterone or estrogen can promote macrophage polarization along the M2 pathway (Routley and Ashcroft 2009). Some embryo-derived factors such as interferon-tau (IFNT) and prolactin (PRL) may be involved in this recruitment of macrophages. To date, it is not known if the migration of macrophages begins at this time of pregnancy in the cow.
150 Interferon-tau (IFNT) is a ruminant specific cytokine (Spencer et al. 2004) secreted by the conceptus during the perimplantation period (from day 14 to day 25). The earliest date that macrophages were found in the endometrium of the pregnant cow in this study was at day 50 of the pregnancy. In humans and mice, macrophage accumulation was detected in the first trimester of pregnancy (Guleria et al. 2005; Hunt et al. 1985). It is not known if the macrophage accumulation in the cow endometrium begins at the same time that INFT peaks during pregnancy. Several attempts to understand the effects of IFNT secretion on the maternal immune system have been made, however there is no evidence that IFNT can trigger the migration of macrophages to the endometrium during pregnancy. Nevertheless, analysis of the global transcriptome of bovine endometrium during the pre-attachment period demonstrated the upregulation of many interferonstimulated genes that may be involved in embryo-maternal immune modulation, including complement C1s subcomponent ( C1S ), complement C1r subcomponent ( C1R ), SERPINA14 and bone marrow stromal antigen 2 ( BST2 ) (Bauersachs et al. 2008). Perhaps IFNT primes the endometrium to help recruit immune cells to the endometrium to support pregnancy. Prolactin is a hormone that is involved in both maintenance and lysis of corpus luteum (Morishige and Rothchild 1974). Prolactin has been shown to recruit macrophages to the corpus luteum during lutogenesis and luteolysis, and the inhibition of prolactin activity reduces this macrophage recruitment to the corpus luteum. Perhaps, prolactin is one of the signals for macrophages accumulation to the endometrium (Gaytan et al. 1997).
151 Knowing the phenotype and gene expression profile of the endometrial macrophages can lead to some ideas about their function during pregnancy. One function of M2 macrophages is to promote tissue remodeling (Allavena et al. 2008). The over-representation of differentially-expressed genes in endometrium for three ontologies related to proteolysis supports the idea that endometrial macrophages are involved in the tissue remodeling process in the cow. This over-representation of proteinase gene expression in the endometrium of pregnant cattle has been observed previously (Takagi et al. 2007; Bauersachs et al. 2008) and the present results implicate macrophages as one source of those enzymes. The upregulated expression of genes such as granzymes ( GZMA, gzmA and GZMB ) and genes involved in metalloproteinase activity ( MMP12, MMP9 and TMSBX4 ) supports the tissue remodeling function of the endometrial macrophages in the cow. Moreover, PDGFB expression was higher in the endometrium and therefore could participate in remodeling of the endometrial stroma since macrophage derived PDGF stimulates proliferation and fibroblast differentiation (Barrientos et al. 2008). In the pregnant uterus, tissue remodeling is essential for the adjustment of the uterus to the growing fetus. In cows carrying fetuses derived from cloning, there is increased expression of the metalloproteinase inhibitor TIMP-2 in the endometrium (Kim et al. 2009). Moreover, placentome formation in cows carrying cloned fetuses is decreased (Miglino et al. 2007). This may be a result of inappropriate tissue remodeling. The expression of GZMA and GZMB is consistent with a role for CD14 + cells in the induction of apoptosis. Presence of apoptotic cells is common in the placenta,
152 especially at the edges of the placentomes and in the interplacentomal region (Facciotti et al 2009). In addition, extravillous trophoblast cells are eliminated in the human placenta through apoptosis (Von Rango et al. 2003). The bovine trophoblast is considered to be less-invasive and not capable of crossing the basement membrane of the luminal epithelium of the endometrium. It is possible that endometrial macrophages remove placental cells that stray past this barrier. Futhermore, apoptosis could also be a signal for regulation of macrophage function. Abrahams et al. (2004) hypothesized that ingestion of apoptotic trophoblast cells causes decidual macrophages to develop an immunosuppressive phenotype. Thus, it is likely that endometrial macrophages play a role in immune regulation, tissue remodeling, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. A better understanding of the functions of endometrial macrophages implied by the global gene expression analysis requires confirmation of changes at the level of protein synthesis. Changes in the expression of a given gene do not always translate into similar changes in the level of the respective protein. Moreover, experiments to test the functional characteristics of endometrial macrophages in vitro are an essential step to understand the role of endometrial macrophages during pregnancy. For example, results of this dissertation suggest that endometrial macrophages play a role in the tissue remodeling process during pregnancy. To address this function, assays to evaluate ECM degradation or cell migration in vitro can be performed using purified preparations of endometrial macrophages. Moreover, it is important to test the thesis that endometrial macrophages are involved in modulation of the immune system to help prevent deleterious maternal responses against the fetus. Mixed lymphocyte reaction
153 using the purified endometrial macrophages as APCs can be done to evaluate their effects on clonal lymphocyte expansion and cytokine expression. If the role of endometrial macrophages as immunomodulators is confirmed, it will be important to understand the mechanisms responsible. It will be instructive to determine whether the immunosuppressive effect requires cellto -cell contact or is mediated via secreted factors. Proliferation assays in the presence of the purified endometrial macrophages or using the conditioned culture media from endometrial ma crophages would answer this question. The presence of macrophages in the pregnant endometrium of the cow leads to the question of the signals involved in immune cell migration to the endometrium. The study of the functional and gene expression assays of pregnancy-related factors such as IFNT on resting blood monocytes would help to understand how pregnancy modulates the trafficking of these cells and also how pregnancy-related factors can modulate differentiation and function of blood monocytes in vitro. Also, the large-scale accumulation of macrophages in the bovine endometrium may be a result of a deciduallike response in the intercaruncular regions as seen in other species that undergo a decidual response, decidualized stroma express cytokines and chemokines characteristically secreted by immune cells (Salamonsen et al. 2007; Chen et al. 2009). The expression of prolactin and members of the prolactin related family have been reported to be upregulated in the decidua reactions in vitro in rat (Matsumoto et al. 2009), these genes were also upregulated by the endometrial CD14 + cells. Perhaps similar differentiation pathways exist in species like cattle so that CD14 becomes upregulated in non-myeloid cells.
154 The results of this dissertation help provide a better understanding of how the uterine immune system is involved in pregnancy and parturition in the cow. Involvement of macrophages in disturbances of the immune system in pathological conditions in the cow such as retained placenta (Myioshi et al 2002), post-partum endometritis and early embryo loss cannot be ruled out. Knowledge of the presence of macrophages and their state of activation in the endometrium during pregnancy may lead to practical benefits for dairy producers. For instance, new approaches for altering placental function, fetal growth, and the immunosuppressive state of the uterus around the time of parturition may help to reduce the incidence of retained placenta and also hasten uterine involution after parturition. In summary, here we show that endometrial CD14 + cells express genes characteristically found in macrophages. Moreover, analysis of the transcriptome of these cells indicates that at least a subpopulation of the cells differentiates along an M2 activation pathway and that the cells play a role in immune regulation, tissue remodeling, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. These roles are likely of broad relevance to mammalian reproduction rather than specific properties of pregnancy in the cow. Endometrial macrophages in the human also undergo M2 activation (Cupurdija et al. 2004; Gustafsson et al. 2008). In addition, 17% of the genes found by Gustafsson et al. (2008) to be differentially expressed between decidual and blood macrophages were also differentially expressed in the same direction for the cow. Macrophage recruitment during the peripartum period suggests they have a role in parturition, expulsion of fetal membranes and uterine involution. Malfunction of the endometrial macrophages may have a negative effect on the ability of cows to establish pregnancy after parturition.
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180 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Lilian de Jesus Oliveira was born in Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil, to Luiz Manoel de Jesus and Maria Aparecida de Jesus in January 1 st of 1975. Lilian received her veterinary medical degree from Universidade Sao Paulo Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2001. After receiving her degree, she was accepted as trainee in Immunology of Transplants at the Instituto do Coracao (Heart Institute) at the school of medicine at Universidade de Sao Paulo from December 2001 nicas program of the sciences with the major in anatomy of domestic and wild animals, at the same school of veterinary medicine. She recei in 2005. At this time, Lilian was awarded in first place with a CAPES/Fulbright fellowship and enrolled to the University of Florida Gainesville Graduate School to pursue her Doctor of Philosophy in animal molecular and cellular biology at the department of Animal Sciences under the supervision of Dr. Peter J. Hansen. She expects to graduate in May 2010 and to pursuit her career as scientist in the area of animal reproduction and food animal clinics.