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1 SELECTED CHAMBER WORKS OF DAME ETHEL SMYTH By AMY ELIZABETH ZIGLER A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHI LOSOPHY UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2009
2 2009 Amy Elizabeth Zigler
3 To Steve
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This dissertation would not have been possible without the support and encouragement of my colleagues and family. I want to thank my chair, Dr. David Kushner: my journey into the life and music of Ethel Smyth began with his simple suggestion. I also wish to thank Dr. Jennifer Thomas, who constantly pushed me to think as a scholar and not a student. I am indebted to Alice Wilso wish to thank Lyn Liston at Universal Edition and the agents at Roberton Publications d a warm thank you to the British Library Rare Books and Manuscripts staff for their tireless efforts, the Library of Congress, and the staff of the University of Michigan Hatcher Graduate Library Special Collections. I am forever grateful for the love and faith of my family, from my father who showed me the way and my mother who always listened. Finally, I wish to thank Steven Jon Landis, Jr. for his love, devotion, and copying skills.
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGM ENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 7 LIST OF FIGURES ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 8 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 17 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 21 Background of the Study ................................ ................................ ......................... 22 Biographical Overview ................................ ................................ ............................ 25 The Problem Statement ................................ ................................ .......................... 29 Methodology and the Chamber Works ................................ ................................ .... 30 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE ................................ ................................ .................... 36 Biographical Sources ................................ ................................ .............................. 37 Descriptions and Analyses of Compositions ................................ ........................... 50 Dissertations and Theses ................................ ................................ ....................... 60 Smyth and the Issue of Gender and Sexuality ................................ ........................ 61 3 ENGLAND AND GERMAN Y IN THE LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY .................. 70 Victorian Society and the Upbringing of Ethel Smyth ................................ .............. 70 Nineteenth C entury German Society, Wo men, and Music ................................ ...... 90 4 THE EARLY CHAMBER WORKS OF 1880: SONATA IN C MINOR FOR CELLO AND PIANO AND TRIO IN D MINOR FOR VIOLIN, CELLO AND PIANO ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 103 Biographical Context ................................ ................................ ............................. 106 Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 116 Sonata in C minor for Cello and Piano ................................ ........................... 120 Allegro appassionato ................................ ................................ ............... 122 Allegretto (lndler tempo) ................................ ................................ ......... 143 Andante ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 155 Allegro con fuoco ................................ ................................ ..................... 164 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 175 Trio in D minor for Violin, Cello and Piano ................................ ...................... 175 Allegro ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 176 Andante ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 190
6 Scherzo ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 197 Allegro vivace ................................ ................................ ........................... 205 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 221 5 THE PUBLISHED SONATAS OF 1887: SONATA IN A MINOR, OP. 5 FOR CELLO AN D PIANO; SONATA IN A MINOR, OP. 7 FOR VIOLIN AND PIANO 223 Biographical Context ................................ ................................ ............................. 224 Reception ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 240 Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 244 Sonata in A minor, Op. 5, for Cello and Piano ................................ ................ 245 Allegro moderato ................................ ................................ ...................... 246 Adagio non troppo ................................ ................................ .................... 256 Allegro vivace e grazioso ................................ ................................ ......... 266 Sonata in A minor, O p. 7, for Violin and Piano ................................ ............... 276 Allegro ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 277 Scherzo ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 291 Andante g razioso ................................ ................................ ..................... 299 Allegro vivace ................................ ................................ ........................... 310 Summary ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 319 6 STRING QUARTET IN E MINOR (1912) ................................ .............................. 321 Biographical Context: 1887 1912 ................................ ................................ .......... 322 Reception ................................ ................................ ................................ .............. 324 Motivation and Inspiration for the String Quartet in E minor : An Examination of Secondary Sources ................................ ................................ ........................... 329 Summary of Analysis by Mercier and Pickett ................................ ........................ 338 Analysis ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 343 Allegro lirico ................................ ................................ ................................ .... 343 Allegretto molto leggiero ................................ ................................ ................. 352 Andante ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 359 Allegro energico ................................ ................................ ............................. 369 7 CODA AND CONLCUSIONS ................................ ................................ ................ 380 .................... 381 Conclusion ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 387 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ............................. 397 Bibliography ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 397 Manuscripts and collections ................................ ................................ .................. 403 Published score s ................................ ................................ ................................ .. 403 Discography ................................ ................................ ................................ .......... 404 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ .......................... 405
7 LIST OF TABLES 4 1 Formal diagram of first movement, Sonata in C minor sonata allegro form ..... 125 4 2 Formal diagram of second movement Sonata in C minor dance and trio f orm ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 143 4 3 Formal diagram of third movement, Sonata in C minor theme and variations form ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 156 4.4 Formal diagram of fourth move ment, Sonata in C minor sonata rondo form ... 165 4 5 Formal diagram of first movement, Trio in D minor sonata allegro form .......... 177 4 6 Formal diagram of second movement, Trio in D minor theme and variations form ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 190 4 7 Formal diagram of third movement, Trio in D minor scherzo and trio form ...... 198 4 8 Formal diagram of fourth movement, Trio in D minor sonata allegro form ....... 207 5 1 Formal diagram of first movement, Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 sonata alle gro form ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 247 5 2 Formal diagram of second movement, Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 repeated ternary form ................................ ................................ ................................ ...... 257 5 3 Formal diagram of th ird movement, Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 sonata rondo form ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 268 5 4 Formal diagram of first movement, Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 sonata allegro form ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 278 5 5 Formal diagram of second movement, Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 repeated binary form ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 293 5 6 Formal diagram of third movement of Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 sectional form ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 301 6 1 Formal diagram of first movement, String Quartet in E minor sonata allegro form ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 345 6 2 Formal diagram of second movem ent, String Quartet in E minor rondo form .. 354 6 3 Formal diagram of third movement, String Quartet in E minor sonata allegro form ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 362 6 4 Formal diagram of fourth movement, String Quartet in E minor sonata allegro form ................................ ................................ ................................ ....... 370
8 LIST OF FIGURES 4 1 Comparison of a work by Schubert and a work by Smyth ................................ 115 4 2 Comparison of a wor k by Brahms and a work by Smyth ................................ .. 115 4 3 Sonata in C minor principal theme, first movement, mm. 1 9 .......................... 124 4 4 Sonata in C minor introduction to secondary th eme, first movement, mm. 21 24 ................................ ................................ ................................ ..................... 126 4 5 Sonata in C min or secondary t heme, first movement, mm. 25 35 ................... 127 4 6 Sonata in C minor use of secondary theme in the coda first movement, mm. 132 139 ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 128 4 7 Sonata in C minor pitch and rhythmic mo tives, first movement, mm. 1 5 ........ 129 4 8 Sonata in C minor pitch and rhythmic motives, first movement, mm. 6 8 ........ 129 4 9 Sonata in C minor pitch and rhythmic motiv es, first movement, mm. 9 10 ...... 130 4 10 Sonata in C minor first mo vement, mm. 21 24 ................................ ................ 130 4 11 Sonata in C minor pitch and rhythmic mot ives, first movement, mm. 25 35 .... 131 4 12 Sonata in C minor pitch and rhythmic motives, rev ised first movement, mm. 60 63 ................................ ................................ ................................ ................ 131 4 13 Sonata in C minor re vised first movement, mm. 64 68 ................................ .... 132 4 14 Sonata in C minor first moveme nt, mm. 1 8 ................................ .................... 133 4 15 Exam ................................ ................................ .. 134 4 16 Sonata in C minor first movement, mm. 25 37 ................................ ................ 136 4 17 Sonata in C minor first movement, mm. 45 46 ................................ ................ 136 4 18 Sonata in C minor first movement, m m. 45 56 ................................ ................ 137 4 19 Sonata in C minor, first movement, mm. 57 60 ................................ ................ 138 4 20 Sonata in C minor first movement, mm. 49 60 ................................ ................ 139 4 21 Sonata in C minor first movement, mm. 1 4 ................................ .................... 140 4 22 Sonata in C minor first movement, mm. 25 35 ................................ ................ 140
9 4 23 Sonata in C minor first dra ft of first movement, mm. 60 71 ............................. 141 4 24 Sonata in C minor first dra ft of first movement, mm. 60 62 ............................. 141 4 25 Sonata in C minor revised draft of first movement, mm. 60 63 ........................ 141 4 26 Sonata in C minor original dra ft of first movement, mm. 60 68 ........................ 142 4 27 Sonata in C minor re vised first movement, mm. 60 68 ................................ .... 142 4 28 Sonata in C minor first theme, second movement, mm. 1 18 .......................... 145 4 29 Sonata in C minor second movement, mm. 44 51 ................................ ........... 146 4 30 Sonata in C minor second movement, mm. 63 67 ................................ ........... 146 4 31 Sonata in C minor second movement, mm. 97 110 ................................ ......... 147 4 32 Sonata in C minor second movement, mm. 1 4 ................................ ............... 148 4 33 Sonata in C minor second movement, mm. 18 25 ................................ ........... 148 4 34 Sonata in C minor second movement, mm. 30 41 ................................ ........... 148 4 35 Sonata in C minor second movement, mm. 63 64, and m. 71 ......................... 149 4 36 Sonata in C minor second movement, mm. 1 18 ................................ ............. 150 4 37 Sonata in C minor second movement, mm. 24 4 4 ................................ ........... 151 4 38 Sonata in C minor second movement, mm.80 8 3 ................................ ............ 153 4 39 Sonata in C minor second movement, mm. 1 4 ................................ ............... 153 4 40 Sonata in C minor second movement, mm. 97 110 ................................ ......... 154 4 41 Sonata in C minor second movement, mm. 63 67 ................................ ........... 154 4 42 Sonata in C minor third movement, mm. 1 12 ................................ ................. 1 58 4 43 Sonata in C minor third movem ent, mm. 52 57 ................................ ............... 158 4 44 Sonata in C minor third movement, mm. 73 90 ................................ ............... 159 4 45 Sonata in C minor third movement, mm. 1 12 ................................ ................. 160 4 46 Sonat a in C minor third movement, mm. 52 57 ................................ ............... 160 4 47 Use of a p erfect authentic cadence (PAC) ................................ ....................... 162
10 4 48 Example of im perfect authenti c cadence (IAC) ................................ ................. 162 4 49 Sonata in C minor third movement, mm. 73 90 ................................ ............... 163 4 50 Sonata in C minor third movement, mm. 1 12 ................................ ................. 164 4 51 Sonata in C minor fourth movement, mm. 1 8 ................................ ................. 166 4 52 Sonata in C minor fourth movement, mm. 31 38 ................................ ............. 167 4 53 Sonata in C minor fourth movement, mm. 1 5 ................................ ................. 168 4 54 Sonata in C minor fourth movement, mm. 31 35 ................................ ............. 168 4 55 Sonata in C minor fourth movement, mm. 28 30 ................................ ............. 168 4 56 Sonata in C minor fou rth movement, mm. 1 16 ................................ ............... 170 4 57 Sonata in C minor fourth movement, mm. 31 39 ................................ ............. 171 4 58 Sonata in C minor fourth movement, mm. 82 92 ................................ ............. 172 4 59 Sonata in C minor fourth movement, mm. 1 5 ................................ ................. 174 4 60 Sonata in C minor fourth movement, mm. 31 39 ................................ ............. 174 4 61 Sonata in C minor fourth mov ement, mm. 93 97 ................................ ............. 174 4 62 Sonata in C minor fourth movement, mm. 192 195 ................................ ......... 175 4 63 Trio in D minor first mov ement, principle th eme, mm. 1 9 ............................... 179 4 64 Trio in D minor first movem ent, secondary theme, mm. 35 42 ........................ 179 4 65 Trio in D minor first mov ement, clos ing theme, mm. 72 75 ............................. 180 4 66 Trio in D minor first movement, mm. 1 4 ................................ .......................... 182 4 67 Trio in D minor first movement, mm. 5 9 ................................ .......................... 182 4 68 Trio in D minor first movement, mm. 39 42 ................................ ...................... 182 4 69 Trio in D minor first mov ement, principal theme, mm. 1 9 ............................... 183 4 70 Trio in D minor first movem ent, principal theme, mm. 14 20 ........................... 185 4 71 Trio in D minor first movement, mm. 51 54 ................................ ...................... 185 4 72 Trio in D minor first movement, mm. 63 70 ................................ ...................... 186
11 4 73 Trio in D minor first movement, mm. 51 54 ................................ ...................... 187 4 74 Trio in D minor first movement, development section, mm. 81 92 ................... 188 4 75 Trio in D minor first movement, mm. 132 141 ................................ .................. 189 4 76 Trio in D minor second movement, mm. 91 97 ................................ ................ 191 4 77 Trio in D minor second movement, mm. 1 6 ................................ .................... 192 4 78 Trio in D minor second movement, mm. 7 12 ................................ .................. 192 4 79 Trio in D minor second mo vement, mm. 20 30 ................................ ................ 193 4 80 Trio in D minor se cond movement, mm. 1 6 ................................ .................... 193 4 81 Trio in D minor second movement, mm. 48 51 ................................ ................ 194 4 82 Trio in D minor second movement, mm. 1 6 ................................ .................... 194 4 83 Trio in D minor second movement, mm. 1 6 ................................ .................... 195 4 84 Trio in D minor second movement, mm. 20 30 ................................ ................ 196 4 85 Trio in D minor second movement, mm. 48 51 ................................ ................ 196 4 86 Trio in D minor second movement, mm. 91 97 ................................ ................ 196 4 87 Trio in D minor second movement, mm. 115 116 ................................ ............ 197 4 88 Trio in D minor third movement, mm. 1 16 ................................ ...................... 198 4 89 Trio in D minor third movement, mm. 51 54 ................................ .................... 199 4 90 Trio in D minor third movement, mm. 80 90 ................................ .................... 199 4 91 Trio in D minor thi rd movement, mm. 1 16 ................................ ...................... 200 4 92 Trio in D minor third movement, mm. 41 46 ................................ .................... 201 4 93 Trio in D minor third movement, mm. 80 90 ................................ .................... 201 4 94 Trio in D minor third movement, mm. 61 65 ................................ .................... 202 4 95 Trio in D minor third movement, mm. 84 88 ................................ .................... 202 4 96 Trio in D minor third movement, mm. 173 188 ................................ ................ 203 4 97 Trio in D minor third movement, mm. 1 16 ................................ ...................... 204
12 4 98 Trio in D minor third movement, mm. 41 46 ................................ .................... 204 4 99 Trio in D minor third movement, mm. 80 90 ................................ .................... 205 4 100 Trio in D minor second movement, mm. 1 9 ................................ .................... 208 4 101 Trio in D minor fourth movement, mm. 51 64 ................................ .................. 209 4 102 Comparison of themes ................................ ................................ ..................... 209 4 103 Trio in D minor fourth movement, mm. 108 112 ................................ .............. 210 4 104 Trio in D minor fourth movement, mm. 17 28 ................................ .................. 211 4 105 Trio in D minor fourth movement, mm. 1 6 ................................ ...................... 212 4 106 Trio in D minor secondary them e of fourth movement, mm. 51 57 .................. 212 4 107 Trio in D minor, fourth movement, mm. 111 121 ................................ .............. 212 4 108 Trio in D minor fourth movement, mm. 1 11 ................................ .................... 213 4 109 Trio in D minor, fourth movement, mm. 17 28 ................................ .................. 214 4 110 Trio in D minor fourth movement, mm. 51 64 ................................ .................. 215 4 111 Trio in D minor fourth movement, mm. 379 390 ................................ .............. 216 4 112 Trio in D minor fourth movement, mm. 391 397 ................................ .............. 217 4 113 Tr io in D minor fourth movement, mm. 17 28 ................................ .................. 218 4 114 Trio in D minor fourth movement, mm. 51 57 ................................ .................. 218 4 115 Trio in D minor fourt h movement, mm. 85 90 ................................ .................. 219 4 116 Trio in D minor fourth movement, mm. 229 233 ................................ .............. 220 4 117 Trio in D minor fourth movement, mm. 10 8 112 ................................ .............. 221 5 1 Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 first mov ement, principal theme, mm. 1 6 ................ 248 5 2 Sonata in A minor, Op. 5, first movem en t, secondary theme, mm. 23 41 ........ 250 5 3 Sonata in A minor, Op. 5, first mov ement, closing theme, mm. 45 49 .............. 250 5 4 Sonata in A min or, Op. 5, first movement, mm. 1 3 ................................ .......... 251 5 5 Sonata in A minor, Op. 5, first movem ent, secondary theme, mm. 23 32 ........ 251
13 5 6 Sonata in A minor, Op. 5, first movement, mm. 1 12 ................................ ....... 253 5 7 Sonata in A minor, Op. 5, first movement, mm. 13 22 ................................ ...... 254 5 8 Sonata in A mino r, Op. 5, first movement, mm. 23 41 ................................ ...... 255 5 9 Sonata in A minor, Op. 5, second movement, mm. 1 4 ................................ .... 258 5 10 Sonata in A minor, Op. 5, second move ment, principal theme, mm. 1 24 ........ 25 9 5 11 Sonata in A minor, Op. 5, second movem ent, secondary theme, mm. 18 30 ... 259 5 12 Sonata in A minor, Op. 5, second movement, mm. 36 46 ................................ 260 5 13 Sonata in A minor, Op. 5, second movement, mm. 1 24 ................................ .. 262 5 1 4 Sonata in A minor, Op. 5, second movement, mm. 18 30 ................................ 262 5 15 Sonata in A minor, Op. 5, second movement, mm. 31 41 ................................ 263 5 16 So nata in A minor, Op. 5, second movement, mm. 62 76 ................................ 264 5 17 Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 second movement, mm. 90 93 ............................... 264 5 18 Sonat a in A minor, Op. 5, second movement, mm. 95 101 ............................. 265 5 19 Sonata in A minor, Op. 5, second movement, mm. 102 106 ........................... 266 5 20 Sona ta in A minor, Op. 5, second movement, mm. 102 110 ............................ 266 5 21 Sonata in A minor, Op. 5, third movement, mm. 1 11 ................................ ....... 269 5 22 Sonata i n A minor, Op. 5, third movement, mm. 49 63 ................................ ..... 270 5 23 Sonata in A minor, Op. 5, third movement, mm. 113 121 ................................ 270 5 24 Sonata in A minor, Op. 5, third movement, mm. 70 75 ................................ ..... 272 5 25 Sonata in A minor, Op. 5, third movement, mm. 113 121 ................................ 272 5 26 Sonata in A mino r, Op. 5, third movement, mm. 120 132 ................................ 273 5 27 Sonata in A minor, Op. 5, third movement, mm. 19 36 ................................ ..... 274 5 28 Sonata in A minor, O p. 5, third movement, mm. 49 63 ................................ ..... 275 5 29 Sonata in A minor, Op. 5, third movement, mm. 113 119 ................................ 276 5 30 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 first movement, mm. 1 5 ................................ .......... 280
14 5 31 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, first movement, mm. 1 17 ................................ ........ 280 5 32 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, first m ovement, mm. 60 76 ................................ ...... 281 5 40 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, first movement, mm. 1 7 ................................ .......... 282 5 33 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, first movement, mm. 1 17 ................................ ........ 283 5 34 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, first movement, mm. 42 55 ................................ ...... 284 5 35 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, first movement, mm. 60 76 ................................ ...... 285 5 36 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, first movement, mm. 102 112 ................................ .. 286 5 37 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, first movement, mm. 138 14 7 ................................ .. 288 5 38 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, first movement, mm. 242 248 ................................ .. 288 5 39 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, first movement, mm. 249 268 ................................ .. 289 5 41 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, first movement, m. 45 ................................ .............. 290 5 42 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, first movement, mm. 48 51 ................................ ...... 290 5 43 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, first movement, mm. 60 76 ................................ ...... 291 5 44 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, second movement, mm. 1 4 ................................ .... 292 5 45 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, second movement, mm. 5 11 ................................ .. 294 5 46 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, second movement, mm. 30 38 ................................ 295 5 47 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, second movement, mm. 1 11 ................................ .. 296 5 48 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, second movement, mm. 30 45 ................................ 297 5 49 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, second movement, mm. 133 143 ............................ 298 5 50 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, second movement, mm. 30 45 ................................ 299 5 51 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, third movement, mm. 8 16 ................................ ....... 302 5 52 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, third movement, mm. 65 70 ................................ ..... 303 5 53 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, third movement, mm. 1 19 ................................ ....... 304 5 54 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, third movement, mm. 39 51 ................................ ..... 305 5 55 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, third movement, mm. 64 70 ................................ ..... 306
15 5 56 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, third movement, mm. 107 127 ................................ 307 5 57 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, third movement, mm. 226 232 ................................ 308 5 58 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, third movement, mm. 233 238 ................................ 308 5 59 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, third movement, mm. 239 255 ................................ 309 5 60 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, third movement, mm. 64 70 ................................ ..... 310 5 61 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, fourth movement, mm. 1 8 ................................ ...... 311 5 62 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, fourth movement, mm. 9 23 ................................ .... 313 5 63 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, fourth movement, mm. 38 49. ................................ 313 5 64 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, fourth movement, mm. 50 59 ................................ .. 314 5 65 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, four th movement, mm. 121 132 .............................. 314 5 66 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, fourth movement, mm. 158 169 .............................. 316 5 67 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, fo urth movement, mm. 44 59 ................................ .. 317 5 68 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, fourth movement, mm. 112 120 .............................. 318 5 69 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, fo urth movement, mm. 139 150 .............................. 319 6 1 String Quartet in E minor first movement, mm. 1 5 ................................ .......... 341 6 2 String Quartet in E minor third movement, mm. 1 6 ................................ ........ 341 6 3 String Quartet in E minor fourth movement, mm. 47 52 ................................ .. 342 6 4 Strin g Quartet in E minor first move ment, mm. 1 14 ................................ ........ 346 6 5 String Quartet in E minor first movement, mm. 34 44 ................................ ...... 347 6 6 String Quart et in E minor first movement, mm. 51 66 ................................ ...... 348 6 7 String Quartet in E minor first movement, mm. 1 14 ................................ ........ 350 6 8 String Quartet in E minor first movement, mm. 51 66 ................................ ...... 351 6 9 Important rhythmic ideas in the String Quartet in E minor first movement ....... 352 6 10 Str ing Quartet in E minor se cond movement, mm. 1 15 ................................ .. 355 6 11 String Quartet in E minor second movement, mm. 40 54 ................................ 356
16 6 12 String Quartet in E minor sec ond movement, mm. 1 20 ................................ .. 357 6 13 String Quartet in E minor second movement, mm. 1 15 ................................ .. 358 6 14 String Qua rtet in E minor secon d movement, mm. 40 54 ................................ 359 6 15 String Quartet in E minor third movement, mm. 1 6 ................................ ........ 360 6 16 String Quartet K. 465, th ird movement, mm. 1 8 ............................... 360 6 17 String Quartet in E minor third movement, mm. 7 14 ................................ ...... 361 6 18 String Quartet i n E minor third movement, mm. 39 46 ................................ .... 363 6 19 String Quartet in E minor third movement, mm. 57 66 ................................ .... 364 6 20 String Quartet in E minor third mo vement, mm. 39 46 ................................ .... 365 6 21 String Quartet in E minor third movement, mm. 57 66 ................................ .... 366 6 22 String Quartet in E mino r third move ment, mm. 163 172 ................................ 367 6 23 String Quartet in E minor third movement, mm. 31 38 ................................ .... 368 6 24 String Quartet in E minor first move ment, principal theme, mm. 1 4 ............... 371 6 25 String Quartet in E minor first movem ent, secondary theme, mm. 50 52 ........ 372 6 2 6 String Quartet in E minor third movement, mm. 75 77 ................................ .... 373 6 27 String Quartet in E minor fourth movement, mm. 1 12 ................................ .... 375 6 28 St ring Quartet in E minor fourth movement, mm. 47 55 ................................ .. 376 6 29 String Quartet in E minor fourth movement, mm. 262 268 .............................. 376 6 30 St ring Quartet in E minor fourth movement, mm. 84 99 ................................ .. 377 6 31 String Quartet in E minor fourth movement, mm. 119 126 .............................. 378
17 Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy SELECTED CHAMBER WORKS OF DAME ETHEL SMYTH By Amy Elizabeth Zigler December 2009 Chair: David Z. Kushner Major: Music Dame Ethel Smyth (1858 1944) was a British composer of great acclaim from the end of the nineteenth century to World War II. She composed many works, including operas, orchestral works, a mass, several choral compositions, and numerous song s, many of which have received scholarly attention and study. It is less widely known that Smyth composed over a dozen chamber pieces during a fifty year time span. These works have seldom been performed or studie d. l style is discerned through a detailed examination of her chamber works in the context of her biography. Drawing upon traditional and theory of feminist ae sthetics, the author examined select works as well as those of her contemporaries illumina ted the historical context of each work. Throughout her career, Smyth turned to the genre of chamber music. Although these works were not as publicly recognized as her operas or her Mass in D seven out of twelve chamber pieces were published by firms suc h as Breitkopf & H rtel and
18 Universal Edition, and these works were also publicly performed. More so than the other genres in which Smyth composed, the chamber works afford the opportunity to examine her style over a period of almost fifty years (from the Sonata in C minor for Cello and Piano composed in 1879 to the for flute, oboe, and studying these six pieces in their historical and biograp hical context will also partially Recent scholarship on Smyth has focused on the connection between her gender or sexuality and her music, but it will also be helpful to stu shaped her philosophical and compositional style. Coincidentally, these events often corresponded with the specific years during which she was composing chamber music. Smyth began her career with the more intimate genre, writing several works before advancing to larger orchestral and vocal works. Four of these early pieces are discussed in detail in this dissertation. Smyth later returned to the genre at three profound moments in her life: on the cusp of operatic success i n 1902; following the death of her friend, Harry Brewster, in 1912; and during the waning years of her career when her deafness made it increasingly difficult to compose. A distinct musical style emerged after analyzing the early derivative compositions an d the later mature works Even as late as 1912, Smyth was composing multi movement works that incorporated such traditional forms as sonata allegro and scherzo and trio, yet her harmonic language became increasingly chromatic with each work. Her melodic st yle also defied expectations of the Classical tradition associated with the genres, except in specific examples where the section or passage adopted a
19 deliberately Classical style. Sally Macarthur argues that this avoidance of the Golden Mean in otherwise Classical structures is possible evidence of a feminist aesthetic. an affront to the Classical style by Romantic composers of the 19 th century, including Smyth, rather than a deliberate practice by female composers to subvert the masculine degree of emotional expression and the possibility for autobiographical interpretation, evidence of w hich will be revealed in the chapters below. either been overlooked or treated lightly. Often, this has been the result of little documented evidence with which to fully tell the lisabet von Herzogenberg and Hen ry Brewster were significant to her compositional development throughout her not gone unexplored in previous scholarship, and this study aims to further explore the influence Herzogenberg had on Smyth, both emotionally and musically. Brewster, however, has often been treated as merely her librettist, but their relationship was act ually the longest and most twenty five year bond Brewster shared with Smyth was only broken by his death in 1908. Their letters reveal a connection that went beyond profess ionalism or casual final chamber work, and previously unpublished diary excerpts reveal her frustration and
20 ultimate success. It is possible that the warm reception acc orded to this work gave Smyth the confidence to compose her final large scale effort, The Prison Little evidence exists to prove that Smyth had autobiographical intentions for her compositions. She strove to write to the best to her ability and to be re cognized for her achievements. Her works are absolute compositions with minimal direct extramusical reference. The analyses undertaken in this study provide evidence of a skilled composer with an individual voice. Whether her music is the voice of women, t he Britons, or the Romantic generation will only be revealed through further research. It is the hope of the author that this detailed examination will encourage the study and
21 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION For fifty years, Ethel Smyth (1858 1944) 1 charged headlong into the male dominated world of classical composition. Her biggest fear was not that music by women composers would be repressed out of prejudice against their gender; rather, she believed that their music would be disliked, and therefore disregarded, because it was t here is a and it comes out in their the originality 2 As further evidence, she cited a letter from Maurice Baring to Vernon Lee in which her opera The Wreckers i ndividual as to 3 gender being voiced in the music. 4 She believed men and women were not only physiologically different, but also intellectually and creatively different. A ccording to her memoirs, Smyth was concerned that her music would be rejected because male all male body, may come to perceive that something not quite negligible is being uttered though in a language different to their own; while non creative women, listening 1 doctorate in music from Durham University in 1910 and was named a Dame of the Order of the British Empire in 1922 for her achievements and contribut ions to British musical culture. 2 Smyth, 298 3 Ibid., 4 Ibid., 299.
22 5 Despite the fact that scholars today have determined that gender c annot be distinguished in music, Smyth herself believed otherwise. What was it in her music that exemplified this originality? Is it possible to distinguish a female voice in music, even or especially when the composer claims it is there? Smyth, for her p art, never provided musical examples to demonstrate her statements. Since the 1990s, scholars, such as Sally Macarthur and Liane Curtis, have attempted to find traits specific to the music of female composers, but acknowledge that these same traits are als o found in the music of male composers. 6 nevertheless, color any interpretation of her music. This study did not uncover a female voice, one that could claim to speak to other women musicians and listeners more so than to men. The resear ch undertaken as part of this dissertation revealed a more significant finding in Smyth research her consistent musical style within a larger nineteenth century custom. 7 Background of the Study he 1980s has been issued, and her opera, The Wreckers and her Concerto for V iolin, H orn and 5 Smyth, As time went on, professors at the Royal C ollege of Music, the Royal Academy of Music, Oxford University and Cambridge University as well as the press and music festival committees. 6 Feminist a esthetics in music, 13. 7 Scholars such as Liane Curtis a nd Marcia Citron have argued that genres such as the sonata or string quartet, having been composed primarily by male composers, are therefore impacted by the male experience. The theory then suggests that female composers writing in these genres either ad opt or subvert this gendered genre. As the Romantic style was primarily developed by male composers, there is Gender and the m usical c anon
23 O rchestra have recently been performed. 8 An objective, albeit dated, biograp hy by Christopher (Marie) St. John was published in 1959, and a non academic biography by An abridged and critical edition of her writings was published in 1987. 9 Furthe rmore, several dissertations on her vocal works as well as some of the instrumental music have been written in more recent years. 10 Elizabeth Wood, however, has published the most compelling and controversi al research on Smyth to date; she focuses on gender and attention, Smyth is still not granted the acknowledgements afforded Clara Schumann, Fanny Mendelssohn, or Cecile Chaminade. Today, Smyth is known primarily for her operatic works and for her involvement in the Suffragette movement. This information, however, represents but a small portion of her music and biography. Her instrumental music has not received the same degree of analysis and critical interpretation. In fact, only the Concerto for V iolin, H orn and O rchestra and the String Quartet in E minor have been the subjects of dissertations or theses. In addition to the String Quartet in E minor Smyth composed over a dozen chamber works that have not been the focus of schol arly activity. Several possible reasons exist to explain this. First, many of the scores were not published or have not 8 The Wreckers was presented in concert form at Lincoln Center in New York City on 30 September 2007. The Concerto for Violin, Horn, and Orchestra was performed on 4 August 2008 at a Proms concert in Ro yal Albert Hall by the BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra. 9 Smyth, The m emoirs of Ethel Smyth a bridged an d introduced by Ronald Crichton, with a chronological listing of works compiled by Jory Bennett. 10 Recent research is summarized in detail in chapter 2.
24 been in print for several years, rendering analysis of the music difficult. 11 Second, Smyth only briefly mentions a small number of the pieces in her memoirs and essays, suggesting that the works were not valued by the composer. Third, the chamber works, because they were not published or widely disseminated, may not offer anything new to the evolution of composition; they are often descr ibed as Brahmsian and put back on the proverbial shelf. Finally, few primary sources exist that could provide the necessary evidence for a critical interpretation based on gender analysis, which has been the primary focus of recent Smyth research. Only fiv e publications are currently available that examine the chamber works. A brief article appeared in The Strad magazine that reviewed the unpublished Sonata in C minor for Cello and Piano 12 The Glickman and Schleiffer collection of music by women composers p ublished an introductory analysis and score of the String Quartet in E minor 13 briefly discussed the String Quartet in E minor experience, 14 and a m Jennifer Gwynn Hughes, Sapphonic L istening: String Quartet in E minor 15 a lesbian in relation to the composition. This brief listing of secondary sources highlights the significa nt void in Smyth research with regard to her chamber works. The goal of 11 Ronald Crichton and Jory Bennett established a chronology and location of these sources in their 1987 publication, but new information has emerged in the past twenty years. 12 19. 13 Mercier and Pic th: String quartet in E minor (1912) 14 15 Hughes, Sapphonic l String Quartet in E minor
25 musical style. Throughout her career, Smyth returned to the genre of chamber music. Altho ugh these works were not as publicly recognized as the operas or the Mass seven out of twelve chamber pieces were published by major firms and publicly performed. More so than the other genres in which Smyth composed, the chamber works afford the opportun ity to examine her style over a period of almost fifty years (from the Sonata in C minor for Cello and Piano composed in 1880 to the for flute, oboe, and piano published in 1926). Not only does this allow for an examinatio n of her musical style over the course of her career, it also provides the opportunity to examine the music as it may relate to different events in her personal life. Recent scholarship on Smyth has focused on the connection between her gender or sexuality which shaped her philosophical and compositional style. Coincidentally, these events often corresponded with the years she was composing chamber music. Biographical Overview S choices and musical style. Like other composers of the same period, Smyth was heavily influenced by Brahms, who served both as a personal and a musical inspiration. Her early work s (1878 1893) reflect a romantic style containing chromatic harmonies within traditional forms, but the pieces also demonstrate the German devotion to counterpoint. Most of her chamber music was composed during this period. Later, conversations with Tchaik ovsky inspired Smyth to experiment with tone color and dramatic effect. Her middle period (1893 1914) focused on romantic grand opera as her primary genre.
26 Between 1902 and 1912, she also composed her only published string quartet. The end of this period i s marked by the death of her friend Henry Brewster (1850 1908). It was also during this period that she took a two year sabbatical from music to serve in the suffragette movement. Her experience with the Suffragettes inspired Smyth to write music for broad er British audiences. 16 Consequently, later works (1914 1931) focus on accessibility, partly by arranging her orchestral compositions as chamber ensembles. Smaller versions of her works also allowed for private consumption by amateur musicians and were more profitable as publications. It was also after 1914, and the beginning of World War I, that Smyth experienced increasing deafness, an affliction that limited her ability to compose as she grew older. Between 1878 and 1931, Smyth composed over seventy work s. Her instrumental works include piano solos; chamber music, including string quartets, a string quintet, piano trios (for violin and viola, or for flute and oboe), two cello sonatas and a violin sonata; a concert overture; and a multi movement serenade f or orchestra. Her vocal works include songs for voice and piano, for voice and small chamber ensemble, and for voice and orchestra; choruses (several of which were composed for the suffragette movement), both a cappella and with orchestra; six operas; a sy mphony for soprano and bass solos, chorus and orchestra; and a mass for soloists, chorus, and orchestra. Her works were premiered in Germany, England, and the United States, and championed by conductors Bruno Walter, Henry Wood, and Thomas Beecham. In ad dition to composing, Smyth was also a prolific writer of prose, an avocation which she adopted after World War I. Her personal letters, often several pages long, 16 and can also be found in the music and ideas of composers such as Hindemith and, later, Shostakovich.
27 offer tremendous insight into the memoirs. She also published ten volumes of autobiographical material and essays on a variety of subjects from 1919 to 1940. In many respects, this creative outlet filled the void brought on by her deafness. Just as Brahms and Tchaikovsky encouraged her to compose, Smyth was also encouraged by successful writers to publish her prose, including Virginia Woolf. led to numerous and varied relationships with prominent musicians, writers, politicians, and royalty. Her early career was heavil y influenced by the musical culture of bourgeois society in Leipzig. She often attended and participated in regular hausmusik concerts, and her musical studies thrived under the tutelage and care of Heinrich and Elisabeth von Herzogenberg, who were close f riends of Johannes Brahms, Joseph Joachim, and Clara Schumann. In England she gained the support of Queen Victoria, the Archbishop of Canterbury, and the ex took her to major cities in Germany, Italy Ireland, Greece and Egypt where she was welcomed into the homes of German chancellors and cosmopolitan sculptors. Her music was accepted by audiences and critics on the continent, but Smyth often felt that she was constantly fighting against the musical own term for Stanford, Parry, Sullivan, Holst and others on the composition faculty at the Royal Academy of Music, the Royal College of Music, Oxford University and Cambridge University. 17 Her views may not have been entirely unfo unded; she is rarely included in surveys of the English Renaissance in music during the early twentieth 17 Smyth, The m emoirs of Ethel Smyth 357.
28 century, 18 even though research has shown that her works received almost as many performances as her male counterparts. 19 Despite her musical and literar y successes, Smyth is usually known among literary scholars for her close relationship with Virginia Woolf and among feminist scholars for her anecdotes about Brahms, Grieg, Tchaikovsky, and Clara Schumann. Yet she is not widely known in her own right as a composer. Aside from brief mention in history. There are several reasons for this. Smy th believed that it was because she was a woman and suffered from the prejudices of male professors of music, male music critics, and male conductors. It is easy to assume that this early prejudice was then continued by music historians in the mid twentiet h century, who were ignoring many of the women composers and performers and excluding them from text books. Her music is also in the late Romantic style, and, after World War I, this style was set aside in favor of a lean, objective musical style exemplifi ed by the music of Schoenberg and Stravinsky. Yet Another plausible, though less controversial, theory is that she was British. The music of Stanford, Parry, Holst, Elgar, Vaughan Willia ms and others is still today not as popular as that of non British Europeans among audiences or scholars. According to Nancy 18 women composers of the British r enaissance, as well as a published volume on the English musical renaissance, Women c omposers d uring the British musical Renaissance, 1880 1918 19 Gisbrecht, An examination of the operatic environment in which Ethel Smyth composed and its effect on her career
29 counterparts, yet none of them have the name recogn ition of their German contemporaries. Even so, the musi in particular Holst, Elgar, a nd Vaughan Williams has found its way i nto the musical canon while her music has not. than other female composers, including Clara Schumann, Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel, Cecile Chaminade, plus more recently, Ellen Taffe Zwillich, Joan Tower, and Judith Lang unab le to be determined at this time. The Problem Statement Two questions arise out of a general knowledge of the music of Smyth and the how did class, nationality, gender, and biographical events in her life express themselves in her music or influence her music? In order to answer these questions, this dissertation examines select chamber compositions by Ethel Smyth from four periods in her life: as a student at the Leipzig Conservatory, as a new and unknown professional composer, as a successful international composer at the high point of her career, and as her compositional career was waning. These works were chosen in part for their quality of composition and for their si gnificance in her life. Where possible, the autograph scores, diaries, and letters have been consulted. These compositions do not, however, categorize her compositional style, for that was variable throughout her career. This dissertation aims to demonstra te the prominent music and its related forms, to determine how her approach to the genre changed during her life, and ultimately to understand her music from the perspective of a female composer at the turn of the twentieth centur y.
30 Methodology and the Chamber Works Many musicological methodologies in the past thirty years have either focused on a positivistic approach or an interpretive approach, exposing a dichotomy within the field whose boundaries have recently started to blu r. A formalist, historical method might focus entirely on the music itself: the score, the manuscripts, and the musical relationships within the composition. 20 The challenge proposed over twenty years ago by Joseph Kerman demanded that scholars look beyond this approach and examine the composition as it existed in its cultural context, invoking not only biography but also social history, including issues of class, gender, and even the sexuality of the composer. 21 This form of musicology draws upon critical th eory (often from literature her controversial and speculative interpretations. 22 In the past ten years, many musicologists and theorists have tempered the two described this compromise as cultural musicology (as opposed to a formalist approach on the one side and the New musicology of the 1990s on the other), noting that musicology itself has always included a study of the culture, sociology and biography of 20 Kofi Agawu addresses the debate between f 21 Kerman, Contemplating m usic: c hallenges to m usicology 22 Symphony No. 9 in Fe minine e ndings
31 continuing ef 23 He notes that analytic knowle 24 Today the debate persists between analytically based musicologists and interpretively based musicologists, although many scholars have drawn from both as a means of examining music. gy, which used expressive interpretation to examine a chamber work by Brahms, has served as a partial model for this dissertation and can be seen as a product of the debate of the past thirty years in American musicology. Grounded in the theories of Leonar d Meyer and informed by Edward T. Cone and Nicholas Cook, expressive interpretation seeks to address how a composition conveys particular emotions and how it expresses meaning. 25 formalist approach [to expressive interpretat ion] is not to force interpretation to become a mechanism through which structure somehow dictates meaning. Rather, the intention 26 By basing a critical interpretation on musical analysis, it is not poss ible to provide a definitive interpretation of a piece of music, but to ground the argument in musical facts that serve as the starting point for possible discussion. 23 24 Ibid., 10. 25 centuries. The ideas of Meyer, Cone and Cook especially have influenced my theories of expressive interpretation, in particular Emotion and meaning in music. My analysis, however, is more closely tied to that of Pet er H. Smith. 26 Smith, Expres instrumental m usic: s tructure and m eaning in h is q uartet 187.
32 The melodic analysis of each of the themes in this collection is also based upon Sally M Feminist Aesthetics in Music She argues that it may 27 masterworks from What we find with the divine ratio is that the climax tends to be positioned around two thirds of the way through the music (or at the proportion of 0.618). This corresponds to a stereotypica l idea of male sexual experience in which erection and penetration leading to climax take longer than the aftermath leading to closure. 28 According to Macarthur, the stereotypical idea of female sexual experience might have different proportions or several 29 She does not argue that either stereotype is inherent to one sex or the other but that either sex may appropriate bot Applied to Thus, while Smyth was able to adopt both feminine and masculine modes of communication, her tendency was to subvert the C lassical tradition. One must use caution, however, when applying gendered methodologies, for such theories may not necessarily feminine (or feminist), but it does have a de cisively Romantic style that is demonstrated by her often unpredictable phrase structures. 27 Macarthur, Feminist a esthetics in m usic 69. 28 Ibid., 70. 29 Ibid.
33 A structural and harmonic ana establishes the building blocks of her musical style, as well as a foundation from which to atte mpt an e xpressive interpretation. Several similarities were found in the works examined. The during the course of her compositional career. Second to have early or late climactic points with relation to the Golden Mean. The third finding revealed that three motives can be found in five of the six pieces. harmonic language freely incorporates mode mixture with a tendency toward N 6 cho rds and enharmonic spellings that facilitate key changes to distantly related key areas. Finally, the last movements of these works are experimental versions of standard sonata or rondo form. The data produced by the analysis reveals a consistent compositi onal style that continued to evolve. Furthermore, the emotional content in complex rhythms was partially the result of events in her personal life. Evidence from letters, diari es, and memoirs supports this. In order to better understand the context in which the works were composed, the devoted to the social history of England and Germany as it dir biography from 1858 to 1880. The purpose of this is to explore the motives and subsequent chapters as it correlates to the pieces, establishing the con text for each work as it is discussed.
34 The three analytical chapters progress chronologically, and each subsequent chapter builds upon the findings and discoveries of the previous chapter. The section examining the earliest chamber works reveals the eleme nts of her musical style: structure, thematic and motivic treatment, harmonic language, and rhythmic design. Chapter five presents this first layer of analysis and also adds an interpretation of the work based on biographical details. In the four works exa mined in both chapters four and five, personal biography and musical analysis were more useful tools than general categories of gender or nationality. In chapter six, the analysis of biography and music counter argues the most controversial topic in Smyth research: her sexuality. Based on role related to motivation or inspiration than her sexuality. In four of the six pieces, markings in the score and personal letters and diaries suggest specific expressive scores provide a pathway for expressive interpretation. er. Recent scholars such as Marcia Citron, Liane Curtis, Sally Macarthur, Susan McClary, and Elizabeth Wood have explored the theory that music by women composers does not always fit into sonata form (or indeed other standardized forms). They have argued t hat this is not because these women were incapable of composing in abstract forms, but because they chose to subvert the traditional, masculine model by not conforming to accepted traditions. 30 According to this theory, the musical forms may not contain 30 Citron, Gender and the m usical c anon and s onata f orm : questions of gender and genre 393 429; Hughes, Sapphonic l String Quartet in E minor ; Macarthur, Feminist a esthetics in m usic
35 acc epted ideas regarding principle and secondary themes, in which case it is the responsibility of the analyst to discover the actual structure, how it functions, and what the form communicates to the listener. It must be remembered, however, that these theor ies are quite speculative and depend as much on the analyst as the composer for the results. Male composers of the time were not necessarily composing in standard masculine models, either. The gendered analyses presented by the above named scholars are on ly Although Smyth believed her music would speak to other women, her writing does not suggest that this quality would be as tangible as gendered themes in sonata form, for example. Rather than subverting the masculine tradition, the equality of themes in the musicians (both male and female) in me lodic structure is the only element that exhibit s a possible feminist aesthetic Thus, her themes reveal more about her style than the conservative forms she chose. The music and life of Ethel Smyth have been the subjects of either musical analysis or bio graphical study. This dissertation examined six chamber works from throughout her career through both musical and biographical analysis in order to understand her compositional style and to provide a useful interpretation of the music based on her life exp eriences. Smyth was a complex and vibrant woman and it is only by exploring all of her works, including the lesser known chamber pieces, that it will be possible to better understand the woman and her music. 606 643.
36 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE uninteresting, the themes are just not good enough, the concerted 31 Unfortunately for Smyth, she lived too long. By 1944, the music of Brahms had come and gone. Two world wars had turned a udiences away from the lush, expressive music of Austro German romanticism. The British musical renaissance was then led by Vaughan Williams and Britten; her contemporaries had been Parry, Elgar, and Stanford. That she was neglected by music historians is due as much to the lack of interest in British composers as it is to her gender. The assessment quoted above appeared in 1959; it was not until the feminist movement in musicology began in the 1980s that scholars began to explore, and understand, Smyth and her music. writings, and her music. Chapters from collections on women in music history and gay/lesbian musicology, scholarly articles and periodicals, and encyclopedia entries a re excellent sources of secondary information. Three biographies of varying perspective and scope are also available. Although there are several dissertations, performance studies far outweigh musicological topics, but these studies contain sparse mention of the instrumental chamber works. It is the purpose of this dissertation to fill this void in the research, as well as to counter some of the more subjective interpretations discussed below. 31 Sackville Ethel Smyth: a b iograph y, 254.
37 Biographical Sources Smyth believed her music was ignored by c ritics and impresarios (she never blamed the public), but as early as the 1890s her compositions were known in Germany and Britain. By 1910, her successes in music were such that she was awarded an honorary doctorate from Durham University; in 1922 she was named Dame of the British Empire for her musical and literary contributions to crown and country and in 1926 Oxford University also granted her an honorary doctorate nume rous, and often positive, articles and reviews were written about her and her music during her lifetime. The first evidence of her growing success as a composer is found in an entry from a musical dictionary dated 1897, still a time when most women compose rs received little attention. She was included, along with Parry, Elgar, Stanford, British Musical Biography: A D ictionary of M usical A rtists, A uthors and C omposers, B orn in Britain an d I ts C olonies. A lthough details such as her birth date are omitted (while they are included in most other entries), the editors do list her published chamber works as well as orchestral performances at the Crystal Palace (1890) and the Royal Albert Hall (1893). The succes s of these performances and news from Germany of her accomplishments seem to have warranted the entry. It also demonstrates the respect the editors had for her promising career. Women & Music: A H istory Smyth is
38 Marcia Citron. 32 The three gh her decision to study in Leipzig, to compose opera, and to Mass in D information is abou regardless of the 33 The consequences to which Citron is referring are possibly the social consequences of being an unmarried woman with a professional career, subjected to the scorn of her middle and upper class peers. The results of tually positive, for she received numerous performances of her music, several awards, and the acclamation of composers such as Brahms and Tchaikovsky. Neules Source Readings from Women in Music History 34 offers the chapter on women composers, listing her among better known composers such as Fanny Mendelssohn, Clara Schumann, and Amy Cheney Beach. Why have these three composers been included in mainstream music history texts, while Smyth has been omitted? One pos sibility is that Smyth had no e c history, while Clara and Fanny were known in relation to their famous male counterparts.Amy Cheney Beach (and Clara Schumann) was a well known concert pianist before she beg an a composing career and thus had a vehicle for presenting music to audiences. Smyth did not have 32 193 226. 33 Pendle, Women & music: a h istory 188 191. 34 Neules Bates, ed., Women in music: an anthology of so urce r eadings f rom the m iddle a ges to the p resent
39 those early opportunities. Women Composers: The Lost Tradition Found 35 i n which a handful of composers are discussed in eac h musico historical period, Smyth is not one of the composers to receive her own section, even compose the appropriate (read: feminine ) types of pieces, preferring masses and operas to songs and character pieces? Or was it simply because she was not a per former first, a trait common to composers discussed before the twentieth century? e in music history has fluctuated since her death, and the successive editions of the Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians provide a succinct and clear view of this circumstance. The breadth or brevity of the articles corresponds to trends in musicology and musical taste. When the first edition of The Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians was publi shed in 1954, Smyth was still prominently mentioned in British music histories. J. A. Fuller Maitland admired her music and wrote a detailed entry that also included a complete list of works, both published and unpublished. 36 Fuller Maitland lists her student works at Leipzig, as well as the opp. 1 7, and states that the String Quintet, Op. 1 37 He also lists her orchestral p erformances and provides a detailed discussion of her Mass in D more important work [that] definitely placed the composer easily at the head of all 38 This last assessment is difficult to judge because it is unclear 35 Jezic, Women composers: The lost tradition found 36 Fuller 860 863. 37 Ibid. 38 Ibid.
40 who t he other female composers are to whom Fuller Maitland is referring. Perhaps he was comparing Smyth to Fanny Mendelssohn or C cile Chaminade, but he may also have been referring to the lesser known Augusta Holm s. Despite comparing her only to other women c omposers, Fuller absen[t] of the qualities that are usually associated with feminine productions; throughout it was virile, masterly in construction and workmanship, and particularly remarkable for the excell Mass was not performed for another thirty years. By that time Smyth had switched to opera, after successful reception (but few performances) in the 1890s of her Serenade for O rchestra or her Overture to Anthony and Cleopatra. Specifically, he claims that The Wreckers Maitland, was becoming a fashion in the concert room, and moreover feminism was 39 Consequently, many of Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 for violin and piano He details her remaining operas, as well as her Concerto for Violin, Horn and O rchestra (written exclusively for British hornist, Aubrey Brain) and The Prison (1930). Furthermore, Fuller performed t 40 He also argues that the Mass The Wreckers and The Prison were the three major works of her career, 39 Fuller Mait 860 863. 40 Ibid.
41 to the three majo hyperbolic statement given the other British writers in the 1920s and 1930s such as O scar Wilde, Virginia Woolf and D. H. Lawrence. The extensive and detailed works list includes dates of the published and unpublished compositions. 41 existent, and her romantic style of music was viewed as conservati ve and even out dated. The article by Michael Hurd in the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (1980) reflects this shift; it is significantly more cursory than the article by Fuller Maitland, and the works list does not include the unpublished work essays in chamber music met with approval, derivative though they were, and she was further encouraged by meetings with Brahms, Grieg, Tchaikovsky, Dvrk, Clara Schumann and Joachim all of whom accepted her 42 Hurd al so discusses the Mass 43 In 1980, it seems that a woman composer who wrote strong, large opinion comes out at the end of the article: 41 Fuller 860 863. 42 43 Ibid., 425 26.
42 She was larger than life as a character, and there is nothing shrinking about personal style was eclectic and she never acquired a settle d, personal voice. Throughout her work remarkable harmonic conventions lie cheek by jowl with conventional formulae, and striking thematic ideas are followed by themes that are plainly manufactured. Nevertheless, the overall impression is of power an d grandeur and great sincerity, and her music remains an important part of that new seriousness of purpose that characterized the renaissance of English music. 44 This concluding paragraph is a mixture of appreciation for her musical importance and disappro val of her musical style. It is a reserved description that in many ways revealed conditional importance among the composers of the British musical renaissance. Twenty years later, in an articl e written by one of the foremost champions of New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (2001) is highly detailed, including a portrait of S 45 A complete works list (including lesser known works not previously mentioned) and a detailed bibliography demonstrating the surge in research since 1980 is also provided. Many more details about her life are included, especially regarding her musical upbringing. Sophie Fuller, unlike Fuller Maitland and Hurd, reserves judgment on the early chamber works. Instead, she simply lists the String Quintet, Op. 1 and the Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 for violin and piano as having received performances at the Gewandhaus in Leipzig, omitting any references to their success or failure. A detailed 44 26. 45 blatantly feminist composition. These extramusical associations are frequently the reason that this work is aff
43 entry. Sophie s the first of the Grove articles, however, to write of no evidence of any physical relations hips with women, however, and she fails to This article does offer more insight into the socio friends and their influence with regard to gaining performances of her works. and immersion 46 She discusses in detail the songs and piano Fuller, the Op. 1, Op. 5 and Op. 7 are the most important of the early chamber works; she notes that String Quartet in E minor (1912) is equal detail and p generation to achieve public recognition, her forthright determination and astute political awareness ensured that she remained a feminist icon even when her music ceased to 47 Yet despite her recognized status during her lifetime, Smyth 46 47 Ibid., 593.
44 has not achieved the name recognition since her passing that has been afforded to Clara Schumann or ev en Fanny Mendelssohn. in Women Making Music: The Western Art Tradition, 1150 1900 Bernstein presents the s examples of women composers of parlor music and performer teachers, Bernstein suggests that Smyth was the first woman composer to strive for success at the level of her male counterparts. As evidence of this success, she specifically cites three chamber pieces from the 1880s, her two major orchestral works of 1890 and the Mass in D of 1893. Bernstein provides some musical examples, but aside from brief detail about the Mass there is little formal analysis. All information is presented within a biographica l compositions, written in a Brahmsian vein, demonstrate the technical skill in counterpoint and harmony the young woman acquired from Herzogenberg, a skill that proved e 48 in detail with some musical description of The Wreckers gri 48 9.
45 49 year period with the Suffragettes in 1910, supplemented by a musical example The Marc h of the Women concludes her article with a high view of Smyth: Ethel Smyth stands out as one of the most original figures of British music history. She ranked with such contemporaries a s Parry, Stanford, Sullivan, and even Elgar. She proved, in the age of the amateur lady musician, that a woman could attain the status of a professional opera composer. In this sense Ethel Smyth stands alone as an important pioneer whose fight for re cognition and efforts as a composer, writer, and feminist paved the way toward a new age in music. 50 both male and female. Similarly, in New Found Voices: Women in Ninete enth century English Music its performance be received on equal terms with that of 51 The chapter essays, and letters. 52 primary focus of this article. According to Hyde, she was always conscious of and that: 49 50 Ibid., 319. 51 Hyde, New f ound v oices: w omen in nineteenth century English music 153. 52 After 1919, Smyth became quite prolific as a writer, publishing three autobiographies, each covering a different part of her life; fi ve collections of essays; and numerous newspaper articles and letters.
46 Both in her music and her lifestyle many of the characteristics traditionally associated with masculinity predominate: she was a born fight er, quite fearless both physically and morally, and a keen sportswoman, with riding, tennis and golf her major preoccupations. Perhaps she felt it necessary to adopt certain masculine characteristics so that her music would be viewed more seriously. 53 Altho ugh Smyth did use her initials rather than her full name on scores at the beginning of her career (not an unusual practice for women authors), her autobiography revealed rtain masculine characteristics to advance her career. Quit e child, to be a tomboy. Her tenaciousness and love for sport were not traits that she chose later in life in order to better her career, but traits she already had when sh e became a professional composer. Hyde does make the interesting point, however, that Smyth herself was concerned that her work would be ignored or misunderstood because she was a sis on understood that the male dominated public of her day was not ready to accept 54 personal belief that a female composer writes differently than a male composer? R ather than attempt to answer this in any definitive manner, Hyde acknowledges that it is next 53 Hyde, New found voices, 153. 54 Ibid., 155.
47 55 In his section on musical analysis in this chapter, Hyde disregards the gender issue, preferring to analyze the music from a formalist perspective. composers who influenced her but also the personal relationships that she cherishe d so deeply. He notes the important relationship with Elisabet von Herzogenberg during 1889), as well as the direct influence of Brahms, Grieg, Tchaikovsky, and even the music of Bach. He also points out that this period of the 1880s Smyth first met Brewster, and Hyde discusses this relationship with Brewster as well as her relationships with women. He confirms the conclusion presented here: passionate feelings, her real love, though not overtly sexual, was Henry Brewster who 56 The list of women, however, extends from child hood passions to Lisl von Herzogenberg and Marie Geistinger in Germany, as well as Rhoda Garrett, Pauline Trevelyan, Emmaline Pankhurst, and Virginia Woolf in England. None of these lasted as long or carried as mu five year relat ionship with Brewster, which ended in 1908 with his death. In the remainder of the chapter, Hyde provides a detailed overview of the Mass in D The Wreckers, the chamber music s ongs of 1908 Hey Nonny No Mate and The Prison a survey whi 55 Hyde, New found v oices ,155. 56 Ibid.,158.
48 any of her purely instrumental works. Much of the information involves rehearsals, performances, and reception, along with a general description of the work. He points out influences of the German style in the Mass while the operas reveal the influence of Wagner and the English ballad opera tradition. In Hey Nonny No (1911), however, Hyde and augmented chords infuses the whole work and tonally makes for good contrasts 57 Hyde also argues that in the c hamber music s ongs as well as the varied textures and virtuosic instrumental writing. 58 However, there is no discussion of harmonic, melodic, or rhythmic characteristics that would help to place these songs within an overall style. Appendix four of this volume also presents performances because she did not write enough music and that the few works she did t would seem that [the lack of performances] had more to do with the kind of music she wrote and its inability to escape from a 59 discusses her writing style as well as com mon threads and details she included, supporting the summary with quotations from the texts themselves. He provides extensive footnotes, a detailed bibliography, and several musical examples. 57 Hyde, New found v oices 171. 58 Ibid., 170 1. 59 Ibid., 196.
49 Of the other biographical works which have been published in E nglish, only own published writings as well as letters and diaries that Smyth did not pu blish. Written especially after 1908, the last year narrated in What Happened Next The appendices are especially valuable: Edward Sackville outlets. Impetuous Hear t : The Biog raphy of Ethel Smyth anecdotes are numerous, and some are not found in other sources, yet the sources of many of the quotations are not cited. The author simply descri bes the music of the String Quartet in E minor only receives a brief mention; her later ensemble works are absent. The audience of this biography is the interested everyday reader and not necessar ily an academic scholar; although it is a fascinating story, the lack of documented evidence undermines The Burning Rose: Ethel Smyth: A Brief Biography (1997), by contrast, contains more r elevant information toward understanding Smyth as an entire person. The title comes from a description by Virginia
50 directly influenced by Woolf. Anderson also discusses the o peras and the instrumental works. She believed the music to be as important to understanding Smyth as her career. Unfortunately, there are also some errors in this book that are easily corrected when cross 60 This is not true. Brewster repeatedly asked Smyth for her hand in marriage, but only after his wife d ied, and Smyth adamantly against the institution of marriage and to state otherwise is to misrepresent the composer herself. Memoirs of Ethel Smyth contains useful explanations of dates and people in addition to the primary sources. It helps to largely allowing the anecdotes to speak for them selves. The Crichton edition can be a useful resource for the more obscure writings by Smyth, such as A Final Burning of Boats A detailed chronology of works, while outdated, includes publication and unpublished works. This was compiled by Jory Bennett. Descriptions and Analyses of Compositions V ery few articles or chapters in the collections attempt to define her musical style. Often authors use general statements o r descriptive adjectives without providing any musical examples. While this allows for a sense of the 60 Anderson, The b urning r ose : Ethe l Smyth: a b rief b iography 17.
51 character of a work, it makes it difficult to ascertain any real information about the music itself. In addition, several of the later authors offer their personal interpretations of the works they discuss, a perspective that has become increasingly common in the past thirty years in musicology. A few works do offer analyses of the music. This section details briefly those writings and includes relevant des works. works. In his 1937 Essays in Musical Analysis he provides a detailed account of Mass in D Missa Sol emnis and placing it among the more praised masses in music history. 61 incarnation [in the Credo] is sung in strains of such spirituality as Palestrina would have approved if he had been brought into touch with our or 62 Comparing Smyth to Beethoven and Palestrina places her among the great composers, not just the women composers. 63 More significantly, this demonstrates that by the 1930s Smyth was held in high respect by a major scholar. Another conte (1895 1984) th. Her article in Music & Letters 61 Tovey, Essays in m usical a nalysis: v ol. V, v ocal m usic 62 Ibid., 238. 63 important composer of history; however, comparing compos ers of different musical styles and periods to among her contemporaries, such as Brahms, Dvorak, Tchaikovsky or Verdi.
52 String Quintet, Op. 1 and two sets of songs, Balladen und Lieder Op. 3 and 4 She also list s the chamber work manuscripts and their location, now outdated. Dale also question is why Smyth kept the Leipzig compositions but never published them nor mentioned them in her musical catalogue. Smyth also kept several sketches, exercises, and various vocal works, all of which were unpublished. 64 Among the unpublished manuscript scores are string quartets, orchestral works, songs, and fugues, yet Dale only provides a detailed description of the piano works. The focus on the piano works appears to be largely due to her surprise at finding piano works at all in the collection; Smyth never publ ished them or returned to the genre as she did with the chamber the piano suggests that the principal reasons for her not pursuing this line of composition any further 65 If this were true, however, one could make a similar argument about her chamber pointed out, Smyth wrote several string quartets and, up to 1887, she wrote works for chamber ensemble with imply that Smyth felt incapable of writing chamber music. Smyth, however, did publish the sonatas for string instrument a nd piano and did not publish any piano music. What 64 Tovey Essays in musical an alysis, 331 2. 65 332.
53 66 She dismisses the works as student compositions that have no bearing example. Dale describes the first movement of the Sonata N o. 1 for piano 67 She depicts the slow movement of the sonata no. 2 for piano 68 descriptions are, they offer little that actually tells us about the music. There is no mention of form, melodic style, particular rhythmic characteristics, or textures, and one Piano Sonata No. 3 is slightly more specific, but only if one movement Allegro rhythm, though not in mood or tempo, the Andante (Romanze) of the Sonata Op. 7 69 Rather than provide musical examples or even a brief comparison of the two rhythms, 66 333. 67 Ibid. 68 Ibid. 69 Ibid., 334.
54 70 It is then up to the reader/listener to figure out the meaning of Variations on an Original Them e for Solo Piano but without further explanation as to how the music is ingenious or piani stic. she seems to be more interested in the fact that Smyth even became a composer, rathe r than in the music she produced. As one who knew her, at least at the end of her life, Dale demonstrates that Smyth had developed celebrity status more as a personality than as a composer: Her prominence as a personality during her lifetime makes it imper ative to study her as a woman of her times. Her career gains enormously in interest when it is considered as the achievement of a woman who, in the face of strong opposition, embarked upon serious music study when women had yet to win recognition as creative musicians. 71 rich biography of her life. The critical study itself affords more detail with regard to the larger works. Dale does offer significant insight into maturity [which Dale claims came after 1887], wide as it is in range and varied in scope, 70 71
55 is dominated by her preocc 72 Continuing with this theory of the importance of human qualities, Dale suggests the to Dale, the friendships in Sm Indeed they were indispensable to her creative faculty. The intensity of feeling which characterized her own human relationships distinguishes the majority of her important compositions, most especiall y those she wrote while under the spell of some outstanding emotional or spiritual experience. 73 Dale was referring to works such as the Mass in D but I argue that this also applies to the Piano Sonata No. 2 the three string s onata s, and the String Quart et in E minor The next two articles offer only brief glances at the music itself. In 1981, Carl The Wreckers (1906) by the Metropolitan Opera Company was published in American Music Teacher 74 The article is primarily biographical and historical, using the rare performance as a window into contemporary reviews, and those focus primarily on her gender. The London Times wrote that the scored, with rich coloring and skillful command of Musical Courier masculine style, strong and virile Her melodic vein is pronounced Her climaxes 72 Dale concluded that this was also true of her early student works, which were often programmatic. The chapters in this dissertation will also demonstrate a vocal quality in many of her melodies as well as the influences of folk styles of Britain and Germany. 73 Ibid. 74 17.
56 are full blooded and the fortissimi 75 While these are interesting opinions, they (and the author) do not tell us anything about what makes her music distinct. The Strad Sonata in C minor for Cello and Pi ano 76 John Franca, as with Johnson, wrote more the unpublished work to the published Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 for cello and piano although his comments are brief. About t finished in presentation but academic in approach compared to the manuscript, which to 77 The remainder of the article focused on formation. It lacks an analysis or even a description of the music itself. The next item in this survey stands apart from the previous sources because of The British Piano Sonata, 1870 1945 78 includes Smyth, although her opinions are not always positive nor are they very different from those of Dale. Hardy argues that the Smyth sonatas 79 Her methodology, forma chamber works. Hardy succeeded where Dale failed at providing informative musical descriptions. For example, of the Piano Sonata No. 1 (1877), Hardy writes: 75 76 19. 77 Ibid., 718. 78 Hardy, The British p iano sonata, 1870 1940, 24 28. 79 Ibid., 25.
57 The first subject is almost Mozartian, the textures are clear, and there is frequent use of ornaments throughout. The second subject is in the expected dominant key. More remote modulations seem to present problems for Smyth, and there are a number of occasions on which a diminished seventh chord is used t o wrench the phrase into a new key. 80 from earlier essays. For example, her comparison of Smyth with Brahms attempts to ement [of the first sonata] is a funeral march that opens with low thick chords, doubled in octaves and filled in with thirds in the 81 She also elaborates her definition of pianistic style, with the in C sharp minor demands a more advanced piano technique as its scales are virtuosic and it is dramatic and emotional in 82 At least with this sentence, the reader can discern that fast or technically difficult passages were one aspect of Smyth Despite a greater attention to musical details, by the end of the section Hardy demonstrates that she may only be elaborating on ideas first stated by Dale. In one particular instance Hardy is no clearer than Dale in her musical description. F or example, Hardy describes the second movement of the Piano Sonata No. 2 as having: a lilting feel, and its use of 9/8 metre makes it similar to a barcarolle. It is in the key of D flat major, the enharmonic equivalent of the tonic major [a technique to w hich Smyth was prone]. Smyth is harmonically quite adventurous and the movement contains frequent modulations and chromatic notes, although it lapses into sentimentality in parts. 83 80 Hardy, The British p iano sonata, 1870 1940, 26. 81 Ibid. 82 Ibid., 27. 83 Ibid.
58 Dale also described the second movement of the Piano Sonata No. 2 (see pg. 53) It is at this point that one begs to know what Dale and Hardy mean by difficult to compare to a score as neither author provides measure numbers for the admiration for both Brahms and Wagner, Mozart and Beethoven were her primary influences, at least in her early piano works. All of the sources examined thus far avoid d music counterbalances a German romantic infl uence with the rugged dance rhythms and robust folksong melodies of her native English music and a French musical tradition ther and numerous scores by French 84 in the current literature. In this article, h owever, as in others, Wood provides no musical examples. The best representative of scholarly research that directly examines the music present a detailed formal and 84 49. However, Smyth also had numerous scores by a variety of Requiem. emphasis on counterpoint, is more likely reason for the clarity and order in her works.
59 String Quartet in E minor 85 in Women Composers: Music Through the Ages Unlike most other articles on Smyth, this chapter not only provides a lengthy biography but also the complete score, along with a formal and structural analysis. This particular authors note that, while Smyth is known for her operas and large scale choral works, itish audiences in the early twentieth century, is 86 The authors also state that the chamber music serves as a compositional years from her student days in Leipzig to her last years before total String Quartet in E minor (1902 1912), but also include details on the early Leipzig works, as well as her late popular trios from 1928. arrived in Leipzig. They conclude that the chamber works were influenced by Brahms rhythms 87 unpublished works an d their dates. The analysis provided by Mercier and Pickett of the String Quartet in E minor will be discussed in chapter seven. 85 Mercier and Pickett String q uartet in E minor 307. 86 Ibid., 303. 87 Ibid.
60 Dissertations and Theses In the past thirty years, several dissertations on the music and life of Smyth have been released. Th ese works often combine the categories of biography and analysis and therefore are better discussed in a separate category. Three D.M.A. dissertations Mass in D All are performance studies and include an analysis of the work. 88 Concerto for Violin H orn and Orchestra or its arranged counterpart for piano trio. 89 Of particularly that Smyth had a tendency toward the flat side and favored the subdominant over the dominant in her works. 90 and within them, and even her national identity. 91 woman composer in the nineteenth century primarily establishes her as a composer similar in stature to Clara Schumann or Fanny Mendelssohn. The dissertation also 88 Edith Copley, A survey of the choral works of Dame Ethel Smyth with an analysis of the Mass in D (1891) (D. M. A. diss., University of Cincinnati, 1990); Robert Marion Dan iel, Ethel D: a performance study guide (D. M. A. diss., University of North Carolina Greensboro, 1994); Linda J Farquharson, Dame Ethel Smyth: Mass in D (D. M. A. diss., University of I llinois Urbana Champaign, 1996). 89 Mary Lee Keays, T ooting (D. M. A. diss., University of California Los Angeles, 2001); Janiece Marie Luedeke, Concerto for Violin, Horn, and Orchestra: a performance guide for the hornist (D. M. A. diss., Louisiana State University, 1998). 90 Keays, Tooting h er o wn h orn 26 30, 34 36. 91 Eugene Gates, The woman composer question: four case studies from the romantic era (Ed. D. diss., University of Toronto, 1992); Nancy Gisbrecht, An examina tion of the operatic environment in which Ethel Smyth composed and its effect on her career (M. A. thesis, University of South Carolina Press, 1980); Jean Hoover, Constructions of national identities: opera and nationalism in the British Isles (Ph. D. diss ., Indiana University, 1999); Ruth A. Robertson, (D. M. A. diss., University of Kansas, 1995).
61 changed from comparison of the operatic careers and successes of Charles Villiers Stanford, Frederick Delius, and Ethel Smyth reveals that Smyth was not less successful than her male counterparts in terms of the number of performances. Smyth, however, composed fewer works and even fewer choral works, thus limiting her potential for performances of her music. Finally, literary scholars have researched the connection between Smyth and the world of belle lettres 92 She wrote several autobiographies and published collections of essays from 1919 to 1940. Most of the research, however, has focused more on The studies on S myth and Woolf focus either on the literary connection or lean towards an examination of Woolf through Smyth. The limitations of this dissertation do not allow enhance ou r understanding of the person as a whole. Smyth and the Issue of Gender and Sexuality In more recent years, Smyth and her music have become the subject of research in gender (or sexuality) and music. Since 1980, research on Smyth has grown exponentially. F renaissance actually avoids a discussion of Smyth and her works because, according to 92 Elicia Clements, Resonant dis closu res: aural strategies of resistance in Virginia Woolf, Gertrude Stein, and Ethel Smyth (Ph.D. diss., York University, 2003); Donna Sue Parsons, Their voices sing true and clear: British women musicians and their literary counterparts, 1860 1920 (Ph. D. dis s., University of Iowa, 2001).
62 Fuller, a great deal of research was already being accomplished on the music and life of Smyth. 93 Leading this scholarly charge has been Elizabeth Wood, one of the most prolific scholars on Smyth. She has written and published articles on the composer since 1981. seve ral conferences and then published in 1991 in The Musical Woman, Vol. 3. 94 She 95 This is quite her abstract works equally well wrought in counterpoint that is Brahmsian in cast but with a particular rhythmic vitality and an originality of unexpected, almost daring 96 Similar to many of the articles music that have rhythmic vitality or daring harmonic ideas. I do not disagree with Woo and harmonic style. Much of is insightful especially when it is describing vocal works. For example, she writes that the solo voice in The Wreckers 93 Fuller Women composers during the Britis h musical renaissance, focused on composers who wrote songs and parlor pieces rather than sonatas and operas, placing Smyth outside of the parameters of her research. 94 95 Ibid., 493 4. 96 Ibid., 494.
63 97 although specific musical examples are not provided to demonst in the dramatic setting of the opera. realm of interpretation. In her commentary on The Wreck ers, an opera about social upheaval in a coastal community, Wood argues that the cave in the last act where the female symbol of the womb as sanctuary and as a seal of se 98 Without knowledge of the music itself, these ideas are difficult to substantiate. There is no evidence that Smyth felt this way about the cave setting in her operas. These descriptions are subjective, but it is important to remember that this ar ticle appeared in a larger work which explored theoretical interpretations involving gender and sexuality in music. The most interesting ideas on gender and genre, or at least gender as it is found in the genre of opera, are finally stated at the end of t he article. According to Wood, sopranos abnormally partnered with high tenors, heroines, like Smyth herself, personify and dramatize s vocal register and a strong sense of independence. 99 The lack of musical examples, however, limits the persuasiveness of the argument. That aside, the above statement 97 497. 98 Ibid. 99 Ibid., 500.
64 regarding key, tempo, and chromaticism is more useful in other compositions. 100 a constant theme of lesbianism and counter themes and episodes which involved two important figures in her life, Elisabet von Herzogenberg and Henry Brewster. She rightly intertwine with variations and fragments of the sa me material: both music and writing together with her life, [Wood] and conceal lesbian experience; that her narrative invention, which inscribes a m usically coded lesbian message, is derived from the craft as well as the metaphor of fugue and fugal counterpoint. 101 The difficulty with this interpretation, however, is that it limits the understanding of lity. Although Wood does clarify that she is applying the term lesbian as a broad term encompassing romantic friendships and physical relationships, the connotative baggage that accompanies such a label implies that Smyth had physical relationships with ot her women, despite a lack of evidence to support such a theory. Wood 102 focusing entirely on the possible homosexuality in five year relat ionship with Henry Brewster 103 in the memoirs because Smyth chose to write 100 183. 101 Ibid., 165. 102 Ibid. 103 Ibid., 171.
65 about friends and personalities other than Brewster after his death. According to Wood, the story of their friendship in the memoirs was a ploy to de lesbianism from the reading public. her life and music. The memoirs, specifically served as a basis for likened herself to an instrument with two strings that embodied two lovers and vibrated to their touch, a triple play on love, for her favorite 104 This idea serves as an interesting point from which to begin analytic String Quintet, Op. 1 : quintet for two violins, viola, an d two cellos. Its central adagio movement, dedicated to the memory of Rhoda [with whom Smyth had developed a strong voice, inviting speculation that the accompanying counterp oint on paired upper and lower strings may have been intended to represent Irene [Hildebrand] and Julia [Brewster], Adolf [Hildebrand] and Harry [Brewster]. 105 This type of speculation proposed by Wood, however, is purely subjective and, while intriguing, is not supported by any manner of analysis or biographical evidence in this article. A description or musical interpretation of the movement itself is not provided with the above speculation, and the music appears to not be as important as the people it mig ht represent. her life is also presented in this article. There is no analysis of the music itself, at least in 104 105 Ibid.,179.
66 terms of harmonic or formal details. Wood continuously draws conc lusions based on parallels between the chronology of composition and the chronology of the 106 The danger in this analysis, as acknowledged by Wood, is that it is specu lative and therefore impossible to prove without specific statements by Smyth or her friends. unique model by which to approach the composer. In more recent research, Wo od has incorporated greater amounts of queer ideas. 107 This article focuses primarily on opera and the singing voice, specifically with a discussion of female singers and opera within nineteenth century society. She briefly writers, musicians, and aristocrats of the period, especially those connected to Princess de Polignac. 108 According to Wood, Smyth knew the Princess and was inspired by Carmen and the singers who created the famous role. In fact, she wrote that ire as dominant and defiant, and of the cultural oppression of the sexual outsider, is the vocal and dramatic model for the operas of the lesbian composer Ethel Smyth, who, I believe, heard Carmen 109 od, is discussed at the 106 107 55. 108 Ibid., 46. 109 Ibid., 44.
67 lesbian opera singers and artists at that time. The musical focus of the discussion Der Wald and The Wreckers The analysis centered on the plots and libretto as well as vocal registers, but Wood does not examine the music Carmen and composed her own operas, in a particularly lesbian manne r. 110 the militant Suffragette movement from 1910 to 1912. She views Smyth as a feminist and acti may also apply to other works. Wood writes: ctures, public sites, and and musical genres. They invent parodic, subversive counternarratives to musical models. Her music articulates and performs the female voice and visionary compulsion of a rebellious feminist activism. 111 Although the musical focus is largely on choral and/or vocal music, Wood also String Quartet in E minor period as a Suffragette. According to Wood Smyth completed the work (begun in 1902) after her sabbatical. 112 below. 110 Carmen Leipzig and elsewhere. See Smy th, Impressions that remain, 243. 111 112 Ibid., 623.
68 Jennifer Gwynn Hughes takes Wo String Quartet and combines them in an even more personal interpretation. Her thesis, Sapphonic Listening is focused on how she hears the music and what it tells her about Performing Rights Sapphonics 113 This statement ignores the relationship Smyth h ad with Henry Brewster in 1902 when she began the String Quartet in E minor as well as the impact of his death ons are not based on all of the opening subject of the fourth movement is the voice of a butch [a masculine natured 114 I argue music is that of a woman composer who will not be ignored. Chapter seven will examine this work and the research around it in detail. Finally, in a thesis that focused on a broader topic which included Smyth, Andrea Lowgren exa mined the effects (or lack thereof) of marriage on British women composers, specifically Ethel Smyth and Elizabeth Lutyens. 115 Her research concluded personal ones. First, she came from a wealthy, land owning upper middle class family, 113 Hughes, Sapphonic l String Quartet in E minor 29. 114 Ibid., 38. 115 Lowgren, If creative w omen h ad a w ife: t he e ffe cts of the i nstitution of m arriage on two British women composers 39.
69 which allowed more freedom than if she had been born of a strictly middle class family. She also had a small pension from her father, and then after his death an annual Smyth acquired over the years also aided in her ability to compose and promote her traditional marriage of h er generation did not complement her desire to become a I must 116 Thus it appears to ha ve been the institution of marriage itself that Smyth was rejecting, given the era in which she was raised and the limitations which still existed for married women even in the early twentieth century. 117 The research conducted on Smyth and her music in the past century has been extensive, covering almost all of her compositions and biography. This research has not yet covered the chamber works of Smyth or their place in her biography, thus necessitating the need for this study. Like Mercier and Pickett, I b elieve the chamber perspective on the chamber music repertoire of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. 116 Lowgren, If creative women had a wife 49. Quoting Smyth in a letter to Lady Ponsonby, January 30, 1895. 117 Ibid. Lowgren does refer to the relationship with Brewster and his numerou s marriage proposals, but unfortunately, her dates are incorrect. She states that Brewster and Smyth consummated their relationship after his wife died, but Lowgren provides an anecdote that refers to the winter of 1884 85 Julia Brewster died in 1895. In fact the winter of 1884 Smyth and the Leipzig love triangle referred to above. It is entirely possible that the affair went that far although Smyth is ambiguous at best about it; however, it is completely ina ccurate to state that they waited until after his marriage dissolved to do so. Julia Brewster was very much alive and living in Florence, Italy. This relationship is examined further in chapter five of this dissertation.
70 CHAPTER 3 ENGLAND AND GERMANY IN THE LATE NINETEEN TH CENTUR Y The 1870s and 1880s in England and Germany were decades of fluctuation. Relative peace and stability prevailed in Europe, even as class struggles smoldered or meeting muc h opposition. Smyth encountered these two political and social climates, or their aftermaths, as she was coming of age and embarking on her musical course in life. She also experienced the differences between English and German cultures and learned to navi gate them. This juxtaposition of the two cultures and ideas is a theme understand her perspective as a composer at the cusp of the Romantic era, it is necessary to briefly e xamine the two cultures, noting in particular the commonalities and differences. The first part of this chapter examines Victorian society. Smyth was fortunate to have been born into a large, wealthy, upper middle class family in 1858. But her circumstan ces also presented direct challenges to her musical desires. Part two of this recognizing those particular aspects of her new life which were at various times comforting an creative artist, particularly during years of growth and experimentation. Victorian Society and the Upbringin g of Ethel Smyth In many ways, Smyth did not conform to the mores of Victorian society. She preferred traditionally masculine activities, such as riding horses and hunting, to
71 traditionally feminine activities, such as attending balls and doing needlework She chose not to marry but rather to embark upon a career and she generally preferred the company of women. Her upbringing was also typical of a girl growing up in High Victorian England, yet for reasons unexplained, Smyth chose to rebel against the res trictions placed on wo men in the nineteenth century. Thus, t he course of her life is more akin to a twentieth century biography than one of the late nineteenth century. The ideologies held by middle and upper middle class society in mid to late nineteen th century England supported the acquiring of musical skills and encouraged musical performance by women A t the sam e time, young women were restricted from using these talents for anything other than securing a husband and creating a home for him, or poss ibly for the education profession From a general perspective, Victorian education, law, m orality and ideology impacted Smyth as a woman of her era. On a more personal level, an awareness of the unfavorable role as wife, the musical influence of her govern ess (a lower class status than herself), and affinity for ladies with creative or musical ability all contributed to her decision to reject Victorian ideologies (including marriage ) and become a composer. unusual life and career pat h draws into question the nature of her childhood and teenage years in England. Why did she choose the profession of a composer? Did something or someone infl uence her rejection of the institution of marriage? Why did she choose to travel to Germany instea d of training in England? To answer these questions I
72 her life represents a typical English family, there is also evidence of her natural rebelliousness and a learned tendency toward progressiveness as a woman. The ideology of public and private spheres for men and women was aimed at and supported by the middle class. In the working class, both men and women labore d for an income to support the family, and in the upper class aristocracy women had the financial freedom to pursue professional pursuits of t he literary or patronage nature Middle class ideologies in Victorian England, however, purported that a hard work ing, responsible, and ethical husband would earn enough income to support his wife and children. Therefore, a woman with an income was a sign that she could not garner a husband, or worse, that her husband was not doing his duty for his family. The econo mic nature of the middle class created a wide spectrum of income level. T he middle cla ss gained distinctions such as upper and lower middle class depending on the amount of capital or they were also referred to as the bourgeois or the leisure class. 118 The gained negative connotations, and descriptors su wealthy and educated these more negative class descriptors of the bourgeoisie. 119 Monetary status did not ultimately determine stature in society alt hough it did provide for other accoutrements. Education was a large factor in improving th e social stature of the family. Literature, philosophy, theology, and languages were taught to both boys and girls, but mathematics, sciences, and politics were speci fically taught to boys and music, arts, and domestic services were taught to girls. 118 Gunn, The p ublic culture of the Victorian m iddle c lass: r itual and authority and the English i ndustrial c ity 1890 1914, 17. 119 Ibid.
73 These restrictions had developed during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries as new social distinctions emerge d in the roles of men and women Following the Industrial Revolution, men increasingly left the home to work while the women stayed at home and cared for the family and the household 120 In the urban public sphere a carry over from rural society the family household was still extremely important 121 According to S imon a public world of work and politics associated with men, and a private world of home an d family to w hich women were confined 122 Catherine Hall and Leonore Davidoff also 123 The moral reaction of the middle class to aristocratic excess es of the eighteenth century influenced the development of gender ideology as much economic factors. This ideology, however, was primarily limited to the middle class. Unlike her counterparts in the working or aristocratic classes, a woman in the middle cl ass, was her involvement in business enterprises and from supporting herself 124 The ideology of separate spheres, 120 Cooper, The Victorian woman, 10. 121 Gunn, The p ublic culture of the Victorian m iddle c lass 26. 122 Ibid., 15. 123 Davidoff and Hall, Family f ortunes: m en a nd w omen of the English m iddle c lass, 1780 1850 21. 124 Ibid., 272.
74 however, was so prevalent that it even made an appearance in the widely popular P unch magazine: he home 125 in England from the 1850s to the 1890s having relocated from a military post in India Their lives demonstrated the precariousness of middle ather was a captain whose loyal service to the Quee n resulted in a command position at Aldershot Artillery Depot in Surrey County, a rural area just southwest of London 126 T hey owned land and a manor home. B ecause Captain associated with active participation in the economy, the Smyt hs would have been considered upper middle class, despite frequent financial difficulties Certainly, their actions resemble those of the typical bourgeois family. The Smyth household employed several servants to care for and run the house and grounds, as well as a governess who minded and educated the eight children A governess in the home w as the preferred form of education for young middle class children. In fact, there was much debate over sending Ethel and her older sister Mary off to boarding school rather than continue their education at home Smyth wrote in her he idea was not readily entertained for at that time it was not considered the thing to let your girls associate wi th Heaven knows whom under a strange roof. 127 In the end daughters also attended the same institution thus confirming its high reputation. Even at a young age, the Smyth girls w ere learning the importance of status and social connections. 125 Quoted by Cooper in The Victorian woman, 13. 126 Smyth, Impressions t hat remain 6. 127 Ibid., 79.
75 As the anecdote demonstrates, association with other members of a social circle had an enormous impact on the lives of the middle class. It was necessary to carefully consider the status of fri ends and acquaintances so as to not become associated with a person of lesser status, possibly someone who was of a lower profession, or perhaps a girl who was too free with her emotions towards the young men. Character traits could raise or lower the stat us of the family. Responsibility, solid work ethic, determination, and ambition were expected for boys; purity, grace, and beauty were expected for girls. Embedded in these labels was a sense of morality and r esponsibility that pervaded the Victorian era. favorably by their contemporaries. The failure of the Agra Bank in the 1860s caused General Smyth to lose all his savings and placed the Smyths in a precarious financial situation. 128 T older sister, Mary, had reached courting age, one mother said that she of letting her darling and only son marry a girl witho ut money 129 It seems that in the eyes of o thers from their social circle, the Smyths were not as wealthy as their peers. daughters, it was imperative that the girls marry above their status. In fact, Ethel wrote tha into matrimony, and ship his only remaining boy, Bob, off to India; and with one solitary 128 Smyth, Impressions t hat r emain 29. 129 Ibid., 73.
76 130 For the daughters of an upper middle class family, marriage was the only way to achieve financial support. their social advancement ) was through the ir musical education. All the girls were taught to sing and play the piano. By the mid 1800s pianos were relatively inexpensive and came in a variety of sizes 131 Affordable editions of a variety of music were also widely avail able The family still had to have the time and money h owever, to spend on a piano, music lessons, and practicing. A family that had one or more daughters with musical ability was ab le to include itself among the leisure class by these actions alone 132 M usic itself was not valued; the value was placed on that which the pursuit of music represented ( such as leisure time, money, and taste) Young ladies learned early on that the primary goal of their upbringing was to secure a good marriage. This was encouraged by not onl y mothers and grandmothers women such as journalists, novelists, an d even the Queen 133 Smyth in h er memoirs provides anecdotes that support this belief On one occasion, while visiting friends in Ireland while in her teens, her hostess advised Smyth to put forth just a little more effort in find ing a husband. The lady said ou must remember, my dear, your poor father has still got fo ur girls on his hands 134 marriage without delay to allow younger sisters to begin courting. Another anecdote 130 Smyth, Impressions t hat r emain 36. 131 Mackerness, A s ocial h istory of English m usic 175. 132 Clapp Itnyre, Angelic a irs, s ubversive s ongs: m usic as d iscourse in the Victorian novel, 33. 133 Cooper, The Victorian woman 18. 134 Smyth, Impressions that remain, 101.
77 demonstrated just how well aware the girls were of their place as a commodity to be bought and sold by suitors. In this example, Smyth and her older sister were at a ball, and Smyth slipped and fell ou must have knocked at least 135 indicating that Smyth was less eligible as a marriage partner. Clearly, Smyth and her sisters knew that marriage was based much less on love than on money, grace, beauty, ma nners, talent, and intelligence Another piece of evidence that summarizes the prev ailing attitude of the time was written by a journalist for the Saturday Review hood interest identical who would make his house h is true home and place of rest a tender mother, an ind ustrious housekeeper 136 These were the virtues of the ideal Victorian woman and they were constantly reinforced publications Practical Education published in the early 1800s and republished frequently thr oughout the nineteenth century, stated that the education of a young lady was solely to better herself and he r home. M usic was a large part of this, but mai nly to stave off bo redom and to add entertainment rather than to develop artistic talent 137 from 1850 stated that playing] is a fashionable branch of education prowess at the keyboard increase 138 In 1864, 135 Smyth, Impressions that remain, 9 3. 136 Cooper, The Victorian w oman 10. 137 Clapp Itnyre, Angelic a irs, s ubversive s ongs 32. 138 Quoted in Mackerness, A s ocial h istory of English m usic 173.
78 that through a stellar education and a development of good taste, a woman could be a spiritual and emotional suppor t to her husband. 139 The Sch ools Inquiry Commission Music is equally demanded of all girls. One of the considerations which mainly influence parents of the middle class in selecting a school for their daughters is that instrumental music is the leading subject of instruction for women. It is said to be seldom more than the acquisition of manual ski 140 Thus while music was a primary concern for female pupils and their parents, the goal of musical instruction was not to produce artists an d performers but to raise upstanding women. These same women were then expected to drop their musical talents upon marriage and children in exchange for running the household. In a very back handed way, English society proclaimed that music was not a value in itself but only a means to an end. Periodicals and magazines were also an other effective means of maintaining responsibilities of managing a home, the proper place of a wo man was reinforced 141 W omen who tried to step out of thi s role and exhibited masculine qualities were discussed in a negative tone. 142 One example of this came from an 1868 article titled, In it the author wrote that the woman who dre ssed like a man, and who loved animals such as dogs and horses more than children was exhibiting from first to last, affectation; a mere assumption of virile fashions utterly 139 Clapp Itnyre, Angelic a irs, s ubversive s ongs 30. 140 Quoted by Mackerness, A s ocial h istory of Engl ish m usi c, 173. 141 Fraser, Green and Johnston, Gender and the V ictorian p eriodical 7. 142 Ibid., 8.
79 inharmonious to the whole being, physical and mental, of a wo man 143 According to this writer, any woman who pursued these interests was pretending to be someone she was and literature contributed to the family highe r social status while also giving the girls the necessary skil ls to attract a husband. An anecdote written in 1875 clearly demonstrates this situation: playing the piano it makes a girl sit upright and pay attention to details 144 Here the Rev erend H.R. Haweis extolled the virtues of music as mbodiments of virtue 145 Thus, women who were musical were also moral in the eyes of the Victorians. E.D. Mackerness, in h is A Short History of English Music wrote that playing the piano pianoforte is an excellent accompanying instrument; on the other, it is a first rate v ehicle for social display 146 Boys and young men of the middle and upper classes, however, were not encouraged to be musical, as this was seen as a feminine trait. It was emasculating for a British man to be very musical. Well known figures such as Tennyson and Gladstone e ven bragged about how un musical they were. 147 In many ways, Ethel Smyth received conflicting information while growing up in the Victorian era. She was encouraged to excel in subjects that would make her a 143 Fraser, Green and Johnston, Gender and the V ictorian p eriodical 9. 144 Hyde, New found voices 51. 145 Ehrlich, The m usic p rofession in Britain s ince the e igh teenth c entury: a s ocial h istory 67. 146 Mackerness, A s ocial h istory of English m usic 173. 147 Weliver, Women m usicians in Victorian England, 1860 1900: representations of music, s cience and g ender in the l eisured home 20.
80 properly educated, tasteful, and graceful woman. F or the middle class, especially, education. 148 In addition to the examples mentioned, other anecdotes show that she was also encouraged to take the Cambridge Local Examination fo r which her brother voluntarily helped her prepare, and he was also helping her with her math homework which involved such advanced concepts as square roots. 149 Yet she was not supposed to pursue a career of any sort; she was instead intended to secure a go od husband and make a proper home for him and their family. Smyth objected to this ideal as she approached the courting age. Smyth knew early on that she was not suited for marriage. In her memoirs she describes how, even as a young child, she had strong attractions for women, especially older cousins or women in maternal roles. 150 As she grew up, Smyth entertained brief flirtations with boys, but noted that they always ended up turning their attentions to her sister, Mary: It had always been an axiom in th e family that from earliest years Mary had been drawn by me into tomboyish ways that really were foreign to her nature. I think this is probably true; anyhow, as time went on, boys who began by being attracted by my independence and proficiency in games al ways ended by forsaking me in 151 By her teenage years, Smyth had decided that instead of coming out to society, she would instead pursue a career in music. 152 148 Davidoff and Hall Family f ortu nes 289. 149 Smyth, Impressions that remain, 119. 150 Ibid., 20. 151 Ibid., 68 69. 152 Ibid., 109.
81 C apt ain Smyth would not hear of one of his da ughters becoming a professional 153 Smyth explained part of prevailing attitude towards married versus single wom en. My father would never let me go abroad willingly, if only for reasons of economy, and I quite grasped that making an allowance to a married daughter, whose future is no longer your business is quite another thing than financing a m whim failure and knocking too late at doors in the marriage market; meanwhile his income was none too large to keep the home going. 154 It would not have been his burden to bear if she had b een married, b ut as an unmarried woman, her schooling in Germany would still be funded by him (and might reflect on the morality of their family) He was therefore completely against the idea. her decision to pursue a career in music rather than marriage was a central plot in a successful novel from that same year. Daniel Deronda (1876) was George Eliot acclaimed novel. In the story, a young woman of considerable beauty an d musical talent S he would rather rely on her own resources and become a famous singer than marry a man she does not love While her music teacher believes she is looking for a quick path to a wealthy marriage, this is exactly what she is trying to avoid. When he confronts her with this, she 155 153 Smyth, Impressions t hat r emain ,109. 154 Ibid., 96. 155 Clapp Itnyre, Angelic a irs, s ubversive s ongs 44.
8 2 novel demonstrates, young women desired the independence tha t music teaching, and even performance, could provide. 156 The above anecdotes demonstrate one of the key contradictions in a young languages, and literature but then were pr evented from using that education. Music especially was a field of double standards and mixed messages. Conservatories on the continent had finally opened their doors to female students in the 1870s, 157 but in England a professional pursuit of music was st ill often viewed by society as immoral, even akin to prostitution. T o perform on the stage was to invite scandal and gossip 158 Female professional musicians were also given unequal or no pay, and they were usually limited t o performing salon music (vocal and small piano pieces) in private homes For these reasons, as well as limited high level training, many female musicians turned to teaching rather than performance or composition as a means of income. Of all the possibl e professions, the role of a governess was often a viable alternative for young, well educated musically inclined women. Music especially offered women an opportunity at finan cial independence, and teaching in the home was attuned to the social ideologies As Hyde noted countless women, particularly as the accomplishments of singing and playing were 156 While no direct correlation has been made between the wri tings of George Eliot and the career husband. She also received two letters from friends who mention also seeing Eliot at concerts. It seems that Smyth k new who she was enough to recognize her on sight. Further research could prove to be very interesting on this subject. See Impressions t hat r emain 109 110, 124 25, 275. 157 Weliver, Women m usicians in Victorian England, 26. 158 Clapp Itnyre, Angelic a irs, s u bversive s ongs 133.
83 encouraged wholeheartedly by fathers, su 159 Consequently, scores of middle class women were e ducated in music. It was a skill they possessed and one that was needed by successive generations. While any fo rm of work in place of a favorable marriage was considered a demotion in class status 160 it was often necessary in a family with several children or when faced with an undesirable marriage. The teaching profession was one acceptable solution. The role of the governess was also often addressed in literary fiction of the time. I f a female character earned money by music in these novels, she was not a performer but a governess 161 For example, in the novel Emma by Jane Austen, as discussed by Alisa Clapp Itnyre, the character Jane F airfax is a talented musician associates the job with th 162 Young women in the 19 th century faced this dilemma. They were not prevented by law from earning wages, but they did face judgment from society. The choice of profession often relied on its relative approval. Th e governess was not viewed in the same light as a professional musician on stage because she wa s still confined to her proper place in the home. The musical direction of Ethel Smyth was largely initiated by one governess in part icular, although Smyth nev er considered the profession of governess for herself 163 159 Hyde, New found voices, 51. 160 Clapp Itnyre, Angelic a irs, s ubversive s ongs 29. 161 Ibid. 162 Ibid. 163 understood how impossible is the position o Impressions that remain 58.
84 This young lady had studied at the Leipzig Conservatory. One day she played a classical music to her 164 Smyth recalls in her memoirs her d ecision to study music in Leipzig in 1870. She the Leipzig Conservatorium; for the first time I heard classical music and a new world opened up before me. I then and there conceived the plan, carried out seven years 165 The Leipzig Conservatory had only been established since 1843 Mendelssohn, revered composer in England and a representative of an upstanding mid dle class gentleman, w as the first director 166 By female students into its composition and orchestration classes in addition to instrumental lessons and pedagogy cla sses 167 Before Smyth matriculated in Leipzig, she studied music with amateur musicians in England. In her teenage years, Smyth was taught music and piano by an instructor at her boarding school. ends also composed their own songs. During these years she also was exposed to the music of Mendelssohn. While seemingly satisfied with her musical studies at home, however, Smyth expressed discontent at school. There appeared to have been a lack of musica l on Sunday afternoons. She made the girls learn to sing chants and hymns that she 164 Smyth, Impressions that remain 74. 165 Ibid., 75. 166 Ehrlich, The m usic p rofession in Britain s ince the e ighteenth c entury 84. 167 Weliver, Women m usicians in Vict orian England, 26.
85 school 168 seems to have been to the dismay of the German Jewish male music teacher, who wanted the girls to sing and play his compositions But as indeed is it likely that one already deep in Schumann, Schubert, and B eethoven would add H 169 This last comment reveals upbringing. One is the training she acquired (albeit by a governess of possibly amateur ability) in musical knowledge, piano playi ng, along with harmony and composition. Another is that once introduced to classical music by her governess, she had quickly absorbed works of the great masters of the early nineteenth century. The religious music of the Anglican Church with its chants an d hymns often experienced in the home on Sundays after lunch was a third influence Smyth makes reference to church music as early as 1869. She wrote of her musical acti y this time I had taken to composing chants and hymns, music bei ng connected in my mind mainly with religion a well known English malady. And to each of these productions the name of 170 These early pieces of her childhood and school days were never published and no manuscripts exist of the se early works. Even in this situation, though, there were restrictions. The types of pieces Smyth was writing complied with the idea that graceful works for piano and voice; it would not have been acceptable to write po werful, aggressive music as this was associated with m asculine qualities Yet Smyth later reject ed these societal norms of 168 Smyth, Impressions that remain, 81. 169 Ibid. 170 Ibid., 72.
86 music for the home and of a passive nature in favor of large such as the string quartet, the opera and the co ncerto. S ocietal chang es took place in the 1870s that may have actually encouraged Smyth to consider a life as an independent professional woman. The very idea of marriage may have been a negative one for young girls: being treated like commodities by me n yet all their worth leaving their hands upon marriage. Up until 1870, by law all goods and funds assigned to a lady passed to her husband with marriage. After 1870 a woman could only keep a small sum of her earnings for herself (a maximum of 200 pounds). 171 T he laws and attitudes toward women as the property of their fathers ( and then husbands ) was commonplace, painting marriage as a restrictive institution that may have been something to dread instead of anticipate. The situation did improve and by 1882 a law was passed that allowed a woman to own and ad minister property five years after Smyth broke free from Victorian England. Ideas and attitudes persisted after laws had passed, of course, especially in the rural areas of Surrey County. Single women st ill needed chaperones to travel and were show the restrictions pla ced on young women as late as the 1870s and 1880s For example, h initial refusal to allow her to study music in G ermany led her to take increasingly drastic measures as a means of persuasion. In 1875, Smyth stole away across the fields of Surrey County to reach a train station that would take her to London There, she took the bus to the various music concert s throug hout the city. By sneaking out, borrowing she was breaking many of the rules of 171 Cooper, The Victorian w oman 20.
87 n those days, no decent girls traveled alone, third class [trains] and omnibuses were things unhe ard of in our world, and I had no money 172 Her appearance at these concerts largely went unnoticed. Many of the popular concerts were frequented by a wider variety of classes (unlike the classical concerts which were usually by invitation and attended by u pper class society). But coordinating a chaperone after older sisters had moved away and younger siblings needed to be looked after was difficult ; the lack of an available chaperone to escort her to concerts may have contributed to her insubordination Smy reason why she pursued a professional career rather than marriage. Historically, male professional musicians had dominated the field but fortunately for Smyth a change in this trend began in the nineteenth century. The middle class desired more qualified music teachers as musical skill increasingly became a measure of status. In England, music was not a skill that was desired in a middle or upper class young man. In contrast, women were not expected to per form or compose music, only to teach it. According to census recordings of 1851 of England and Wales, there were more male music teachers ( 2,800 ) than female music teachers ( 2,300 ) ; just ten year later the census recorded a drop in male music teachers (2,4 00) and a significant increase in female music teachers (3, 100). W hile music education was allowing more were separate, presumably indicating a distinction between teachers a nd perf ormers or composers) were overwhelmingly compri se d of men in 1861: 7, 800 to 600 women 173 172 Smyth, Impressions that remain, 109. 173 Ehrlich, The m usic p rofession in Britain s ince the e ighteenth c entury 53.
88 This decline in male musicians and the rise in female musicians was most assuredly a result of the changing attitudes of Victorian society Men were expected to choose professions that provided for the families and allowed for upward social mobility. Women who had not yet married or who may have been considered lower middle class turned to music as a profession. Governesses were in high demand, and women were ed. It was socially acceptable and advantageous for a young woma n to sing or pl ay the piano or harp 174 According to Clapp making is as functional [in Victorian homes] as coo king when it comes to the domestic comfort of family Growing up to especially for young girls 175 Yet the more women excelled music ally the more women desired a professional outlet for this talent and became mus ic teachers. Men regarded music in two different and contradicting manners. Noble and upper middle class young men and boys were discouraged from feminine skill, yet the lower class men were encouraged to join choruses and the many bras s bands For the upper class men and those seeking upward mobility, music was actually viewed as 176 or serious interest 177 For the lower class men, music was thought to build confidence and a strong work ethic, and it was also believed that musical activities would keep them out of the public houses. 174 Ehrlich, The m usic p rof ession in Britain s ince the e ighteenth c entury 157. 175 Clapp Itnyre, Angelic a irs, s ubversive s ongs 30. 176 Weliver, Women m usicians in Victorian England, 19 177 Ehrlich, The m usic p rofession in Britain s ince the e ighteenth c entury 71.
89 Foreign musicians, on the other hand, such as Mendelssohn, Thalberg, or Jose ph Joachim, were highly praised but they were not English. Smyth describes this non musical quality in the young men she encountered at dances and balls; she was in fact rather annoyed ones who were acceptable for cou rting .] were the worst time 178 She notes that the better dancers [ and the more musically inclined less physically attractive, less wealthy young men. Her conclusion from th e experience also helps explain the not ion of England at the time as a non musical nation. She wrote, 179 culture might have been. Many Victorians were indeed prejudiced against native composers and musician s even though a national music identity c r isis was declared 180 In fact, this non mu sical quality, according to Weliver, may have been another means of distinguishing upper class English men from women, foreigners, and the working class; while others played, upper class men watched and appreciated 181 Mackerness agreed in his assessment of the s his [the development of amateur instead of professional music] was wholly due to the intense commercialism of the nineteenth century and the short sighted utilitarian philosophy which made fathers compel their sons who showed 178 Smyth, Impressions t hat r emain 104. 179 Ibid. 180 Clapp Itnyre, Angelic a irs, s ubversive s ongs 10. 181 Weliver, Women m usicians in Victorian England, 19.
90 any signs of musical or other gifts go into business 182 One can thus safely assume that it may have become increasingly acceptable for women to enter the music profession. mother. With the help of these conspirators, Smyth was able to convince her father to let her go to Leipzig to study music. Her description of the extensive arrangements required to satisfy her father demonstrates the restrictions of the society aptly: Fraulein Freidla ndler was able, by some miracle, to produce adequate testimony to the respectability of her aunt, Frau Professor Heimbach, who lived at Leipzig and would certainly be willing to take me under her wing, till her very own mother had a room at my disposal; th reports as to the cheapness of life in Germany; my father named the maximum allowance he could make me; it was pronounced to be sufficient with care; and finally, on July 26, 1877, under the charge of Harry David in law], who knew Germany well, I was packed off, on trial and in deep disgrace, but had first conceived this plan in 1870]. 183 In order to study at the Lei pzig Conservatory and forego marriage, Smyth needed respectable and accountable lodging, a minimal financial allowance, and a chaperone. Once these were acquired, the General was finally coerced by family members to grant the aspiring musician her wish t o study composition at the Leipzig Conservatory. Nineteenth C entury German Society, Women, and Music The period of 1870 to 1890 in Germany was one of relative political and social following categories of analysis are used to examine this period in German history: the distinction of the classes, gender ideology and its practice, and the role of music in the lives of the German people, especially as it differed between men and women. These issues 182 Mackerness, A s ocial h istory of English m usic 63. 183 Smyth, Impressions t hat r emain 111 112.
91 she arrived in Germany, Smyth found a society in which the divisions between the sexes and the than in England The mos t noticeable difference between the two countries according to Smyth, was not in the social hierarchy, but the musical culture of the German middle and upper middle classes. Although it was a patriarchal society, the musical world of Leipzig allowed a mor e equal rel ationship between men and women than that found in England. In Germany, the ideology of separate spheres was much stronger than in England. A still primarily agrarian society limited the number of women who were needed for factory work (and eve n that work was confined to textiles and clothing). 184 open their doors to women until 1908, 185 and the fight for suffrage did not surface for several more years. 186 These develop ments are decades behind their counterparts in the United States and the United Kingdom. Frank Tipton points out, for example, that 187 Even after 1875, feminist activities continued to focus on demands for education and 188 Although women were working, they were still limited to traditionally female tasks and prevented from entering 184 Tipton, A history of mod ern G ermany s ince 1815 105. 185 Sagarra, Germany in the n ineteenth c entury 162. 186 Ibid., 166 7. 187 Tipton A history of modern G ermany s ince 1815 155. 188 Ibid., 153.
92 the dominant male work forces and pr ofessions. Barriers to professional careers were especially prevalent for married women of child bearing years. The idea of separate spheres emerged in Germany after the Napoleonic wars and during the period of Restoration prior to the 1848 revolutions. 189 The growing middle class as a force in society greatly impacted gender ideology. According to David the heart of it was the separation of workplace from home, how much clearer than it had been and the progression of material resources sufficient for the employment of 190 These ideas then applied to the class most affected by new industries and technologies the middle or bourgeois class. 191 F revert writes: as the external world [in Germany] changed more rapidly and radically (one only has to think of the revolutionary innovation of the railway after 1835, or progress in activities grew more and more animated, so the disparities between the family life of women and the vocational orientation of men became more distinct. 192 In Germany as in England, the woman at home was the source of escape, creating a refuge for her husba nd from the competitive and callous world of business. Ruth Ellen Boetcher Jores writes that middle ideological perceptions of that other sphere, the home, the private space and ostensibly peaceful and orderl y refuge in which women were said to be in charge, and to which they were, to all intents and purposes, confined if they were members of the married 189 Ute Frevert, Women in G erman h istory 65. 190 Blackbourn, Fontara h istory of Germany, 178 0 1918: t he l ong n ineteenth century 213. 191 Sagarra, Germany in the n ineteenth c entury: h istory and l iterature 251.The term bourgeoisie during the second half of the nineteenth century usually indicated the upper middle class, those who were wealthy thro ugh commerce and industry or who were well educated professionals. The German lower middle was labeled Mittelstand 192 Frevert, Women in German h istory 65.
93 193 By the middle of the nineteenth c entury, this ideology was firmly set in the minds of the middle class. There are many anecdotal examples to support the gender ideology of nineteenth century Germany. Fanny Mendelssohn, a known amateur composer and musician, was told by both father and bro ther that despite her gift for composition, her place was to run a household and to serve music by providing a welcome venue for bestimmung supported by treatises in medicine as well as philosophy and education since the turn of the nineteenth century. 194 Patricia Herminghouse quotes philosophers such as Emmanuel Kant in her essay, writing that, 195 Further evidence of the widespread adh erence to this ideology can be found in the books read by the middle class. For example, in 1854 linguist Wilhelm Heinrich Riehl published Die Familie a book on the sociology of the family that supported the notion that the separation of the sexes was due to natural law, and that these 193 Boetcher Jores, Respectability and d eviance 257. 194 Sagarra, Germany in the nineteenth century, 15 3. 195
94 differences only increased with advancing civilization. According to Riehl, the progress 196 Twenty years later, the Conversation Lexicon was a popular middle cla ss encyclopedia, published in 1876. Its popularity suggests that the ideas and beliefs the Lexicon espoused were read by successive editions. Woman was here primarily de fined by and in her relationship to man. Her claims to education were to be defined, not by her personal need or wish for self 197 She further quotes the Lexicon not think, she perceives, instinctively, intuitiv 198 According to Sagarra, Herminghouse, and others, this attitude prevailed in German culture. to face with the prejudice against women. As a member of English upper middle class society, she was acc ustomed to more freedom than was permitted in Germany, where the separate spheres of male and female were more distinct. Soon after arriving in Leipzig, the restrictions on young women became very apparent. She had heard about an outdoor concert and announ ced to her guardian that she wanted to attend: 196 2. 197 Sagarra Germany in the nineteenth century, 153. 198 Ibid., 154
95 Frau Professor said this was impossible, that no young girl could go to a place like that by herself and she unfortunately could not take me as the next day was Grosse Wasche oing with B. [the other, male, lodger] was ruled out of the question, so I hit upon a plan which this capital old lady somewhat reluctantly fell in with. 199 Smyth then proceeded to disguise herself as an old women, complete with a gray wig and knitting needl es, and traveled alone to the evening concert. She did not return Frau Professor was so well broken to English eccentricity, and so convinced that sons and daughters of our race can look after themselves, that she never ev en sat up for me a fact which raised her immensely in my estimation. 200 This anecdote not only demonstrates the barriers Smyth faced as a young woman, it also demonstrates how she manipulated her status as a foreigner to her advantage. She comes back to th is issue of independence later in the memoirs: It was quite unusual for girls of my class either to go to restaurants or to walk about the streets alone at night, and at first friends used to implore me to let a servant see me home; but neither that nor an y other curtailment of my liberty would I permit. Reflecting on it all, I am astonished to think how calmly, on the whole, my Mentor, now my neighbour, took my proceedings. Moreover she way of explaining their indulgence to her protge were for ever reminding each other feverishly that I was English (a card I played, alas, poor England! for all it was worth), as a matter of fact I met with more than tolerance. 201 In many ways music enab led the women in Leipzig to negotiate the boundaries of the separate spheres, something not possible in England. W omen in Leipzig frequently performed music with men, they attended public concerts and belonged to musical societies such as the Bach Verein. participated in a professional capacity, meaning that they did not receive a fee for their 199 Smyth, Im pressions t hat r emain 140. 200 Ibid., 141. 201 Ibid., 161
96 performances or compositions. Elizabeth von Herzogenberg played piano quite well, having been a pupil of Brahms, and she even composed small pieces; yet she did not earn an income from her music. 202 The Rntgen women were as talented as the men but only the men played in professional orchestras, composed, conducted, and taught at university. Women were encouraged to make music, provided that it was in the home or did not interfere with the household duties. Two notable exceptions that inspired Smyth were Clara Schumann, who was 203 and Amal ie Joachim, a renowned mezzo soprano and wife of Joseph Joachim. Reich points out, however, that these women would have been considered part of the professional artisan class rather than the bourgeoisie, a distinction that made wage earning permissible. 204 B oth women were performers and not composers. The ideology of the time prescribed that men created and women recreated that men were intellectual and women were intuitive. Thus conceivably a task more humble than composition. 205 Schumann and Joachim both were also married. 206 Although Schumann had seven children, her widowhood required her to have an income in order to support her family. Joachim never bore any children, but Joseph insisted she stop singing in 202 Kalbeck, Johannes Brahms: t he Herzogenberg c orrespondence viii. 203 Reich, Clara Schumann: t he a rtist and the w oman 158. 204 Reich, musicians: a question of class 211. 205 Ibid. 206 It is k nown that Robert Schumann died in 1856. The divorce of Joseph and Amalie Joachim is he new G rove d ictionary of m usic and m usicians ). The absence of a husband in both cases seems to have enabled these talented w omen to resume their careers.
97 subjected to social constraints directly related to their ge nder. working classes were at least permitted employment, even if it was not the ideal regarded as a family stigma only for women and girls of the upper classes. Women of the proletariat had to learn very early on to support themselves and to contribute to the 207 this id eological divide. Although the husband of Elisabet von Herzogenberg was a professor of music (part of the educated bourgeois class), she herself was of royal birth, being the daughter of Baron von Stockhausen of Hanover. She would never have even thought o f working, as it was her duty to run the household and support her husband. Her happiness in her marriage, at least as told in the Smyth memoirs, was due to the fact that she married a fellow musician, a man she admired and loved. Based on the case studies Elisabet 208 Smyth also discovered that more people in the educated class were musically inclined than in England, even if they were not professional musicians. A strong musical education was part of the expectations of the bourgeois class, as well as a part of the 207 208 The books on female German history referenced in this chapter provide these case studies. Those by Frevert, Boetcher Jores, and Maynes were especially hel pful.
98 German culture which produced generations of significant composers and performers. As a foreigner and new stude nt at the conservatory, Smyth was introduced to a variety of people of all classes. Naturally, her life seems to have revolved around those who were connected to music, but she also noticed that men without musical careers were quite musical themselves. Fo of Felix Mendelssohn Prussian lawyer, was notoriously musical. One of the most interesting men I have ever met, he was also, as I realized late 209 In another example of her surprise at the musical talent of German men, Smyth wrote that 210 ounter with German men who were musically talented was quite different from her experience in England where very few men were wealthy wool merchant [and] president of the Gew 211 According to Smyth: the Limburgers were typically German in that, with the exception of the mother and the one daughter, every member of the family was as much at home in music as ducks in the water. They danced, shot, rode, skated, besides being assiduous young men of business, but all played the piano or some other instrument, and a new work performed at the Gewandhaus was as much an event for them as for the Herzogenbergs. 212 209 Smyth, Impressions t hat r emain 168. 210 Ibid., 206. 211 Ibid., 175 212 Ibid.
99 These anecdotes demonstrate not only the prevalenc e of musical interest and talent among the German middle and upper class, but also the lack of musical talent among those English men with whom Smyth had been acquainted. clear; the s uccess of the husband was very much reflected in the actions and lifestyle of the wife. In letters between Smyth and Elisabet von Herzogenberg, the subject of amateur music making versus a professional music career demonstrates how difficult the position o f a trained and talented female musician could be. Herzogenberg wrote on husbanded my little talent [playing the piano and composing]. And now here I am for all my artis 213 By this statement, Herzogenberg is referring to a common situation for trained female musicians; they could perform and compose but never for a fee, and they were never treated in the same manner as the mal e composers. Later in this same letter, Herzogenberg warned Smyth not to squander her time on activities other than her composition studies. The difficulty women faced is clearly demonstrated. Elisabeth von Herzogenberg had married and her playing became a leisure pursuit, yet she regretted her choice and encouraged Smyth in many letters to pursue a professional career. This life of the dilettante is also found in the research of Frank Tipton and Ute Frevert, as well the musicological research of Nancy Reic h. According to Tipton, German social status after 213 Smyth, Impressions t hat r emain 270.
100 1875 was increasingly determined by possession of wealth rather than birth. 214 A description of a bourgeois wife is also offered by Frevert: and stability of changing and fashionable wardrobe and collection of tasteful jewelry, and her dilettantish interest in public cultural life were all standard trappings of bourgeois affluence. She was the living projection of the aristocratic leanings nurtured by large sections of the wealthy bourgeoisie. free of the necessity to pursue any particular end, she was to devote herself to the fine arts, and to develop her hospitality in such a way th at guests felt they were with cultivated and educated beings. 215 Smyth was fortunate, however, to have witnessed both types of female musicians, the professional and the amateur, for these models clearly demonstrated the expectations of women while also reve aling the possible exceptions. Knowing these two women only One factor in the slowly changing position of women in Germany that may have nineteenth centu ry. Whether the result of birthing trends, war and revolution, or the German practice of waiting for financial stability before marriage, more and more women were finding themselves reaching adulthood without immediate marriage prospects. Women were still prevented from entering most professions and were not allowed to attend university; teaching and the arts were the only respectable avenues open to them. 216 Smyth witnessed part of this trend at the conservatory. Most of the students attending the conservato 214 Tipton, A history of modern G ermany s ince 1815 146. 215 Frevert, Women in German h istory 109. 216
101 opposed to a degree in composition. 217 Smyth, on the other hand, had arrived at Leipzig wanting to be the next Wagner and to have her first opera performed by the age of forty. 218 A university education ( as opposed to conservatory training) was fortunately not necessary for achievement of such a goal. The pieces which allowed Smyth to matriculate at the conservatory had been put in motion several years before she arrived. The growing need for higher educat ion for women was aided by the spirit of the 1848 revolution. Women argued that they would not be able to properly educate their children and run the household in a manner that would better society unless the women themselves were better educated. 219 Private commercial schools for girls eventually appeared after 1860. These schools were created to teach unmarried young women basic skills to begin a career in the business world, perhaps as a shop assistant or clerk. 220 Teaching was still viewed as the better alt ernative to business despite these developments; it fulfilled a female role defined by child rearing and the safe 221 Despite the progress Thus, when Smyth arrived in Germany at age nineteen, properly escorted by her brother in l aw, it was not unheard of for women to seek some form of higher education, 217 Smyth, Impressions t hat r emain 146 218 Ibid., 99. 219 Frevert, Women in German h istory 76. 220 Ibid., 77. 221 Ibid., 78.
102 such as a teaching certificate at the Leipzig Conservatory, because many other women were also seeking employment while awaiting marriage. Smyth was, however, surprisingly fortunate to have made her way into the higher social circles of Leipzig, where she came to know the people who would have the most influence on her life: the Herzogenbergs, the Joachims, the Griegs, and eventually Clara Schumann and Johannes Brahms. Specifically, Smyth encountered extremely talented female musicians who either performed professionally or in the home; these women were a great source of inspiration for Smyth. 222 Although her new friends gradually became ame to realize that she would not 223 Her career choice and her lifestyle would not reflect the conflict that previous generations of women confronted. During the 1860s and 1870s, Smyth developed a passion for mu sic while also witnessing the realities of the institution of marriage in Victorian society. If she had married, she would not have had the time or independence to devote her life to music as she had desired since childhood. Fortunately, music teachers wer e needed and laws were becoming more progressive. It was much more possible for a woman to embark on a career in the arts than the distinctly male realm of business. However, it was antly, the which inspired her to break free from the chains of society and e mbark on the romantic, bohemian life of an artist. 222 Smyth, Impressions t hat r emain 170 171, 147 48. 223 Ibid., 270.
103 CHAPTER 4 THE EARLY CHAMBER WO RKS OF 1880: SONATA IN C MINOR FO R CELLO AND PIANO AND TRIO IN D MINOR FOR VIOLIN, CELLO AND PI ANO quartets, the Sonata in C minor for Cello and Piano (1880) and the Trio in D minor for Violin, Cello and Piano (1880). She was still learning the craft of composition, yet these expressing her own creative ideas. The two works discussed in this chapter were not publis hed in her lifetime, and no evidence exists that either piece received a public performance prior to 1980. The manuscripts appear to be final drafts, with few changes in the score. The manuscript of the Sonata in C minor in the Rare Books and Music Collect ions of the British Library does not have any performance markings, although it does reveal revisions to the work. 224 The manuscript of the Trio in D minor exists in autograph score and parts at the University Library, Durham University, United Kingdom. It w as published in 2003 by Roberton Publications. The editors, Margaret Lucia and Terry King, discovered hand written markings in the parts that suggest a private performance. 225 Both compositions have been recorded by independent record labels and have receive d performances in recent years, yet these works are still largely 224 In 2006 2007, and 2008 I traveled to London to examine the manuscripts within the Ethel Smyth Collection at the British Library, London. Over the course of three trips to England and several letters and emails to various estate and literary agents I received permission to reproduce several of Smyth Sonata in C minor for Cello and Piano The manuscript itself, Add MS 45949, includes a full score for cello and piano as well as a separate part for cello only. I also discovered a draft of the cello part, Add MS 46863, whic h differs from what appears to be the final manuscript. The details of this work, including revisions apparent in the score, have never before been discussed in a public forum, and the music itself has not been performed live since 1981. I intend to publis h a critical edition of this deserving work in the future 225 Smyth, Trio in D minor for violin, cello and piano (1880). I was able to verify this in July 2008 by examining the manuscript held at the University of Durham. The individual parts have added te mpo and dynamic markings, but the parts do not differ significantly from the piano score.
104 unknown to musicians. The analysis presented in this chapter will demonstrate that the Sonata in C minor and the Trio in D minor are well crafted, consciously conceived works composed with a thorough knowledge of Classical and Romantic music traditions The analysis will also demonstrate the early stage of her career, for the Trio in D minor has a surer voice and greater inventiveness in musical ideas than the Sonata in C minor Both compositions were completed manuscript score of the Sonata in C minor now housed at the British Library in London, is not dated but was probably composed in 1880. 226 The cello par t, by an unknown Untere Promenade 227 ) that appears to be in 228 The only piece of evidence that dates the sonata is a letter to Smyth from Eli sabet von Herzogenberg, who was visiting family in Florence during the spring of 1880. On 17 229 As Smyth only wrote two extant sonatas for ce llo and piano, one of which is the Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 for cello and piano published by C. F. Peters in 1887, it is highly probable that this letter refers to the earlier manuscript. Conversely, the autograph score for the Trio in D minor for Violin Cello and Piano 226 by Ronald Crichton, dates the work to 1880. For further information, see T he m emoirs of Ethel Smyth abridged and introduced by Ronald Crichton. 227 London, British Library, Add. MS 45949. 228 Smyth, Impressions that remain, Salmonstrasse in Leipzig during the period of 1878 1884 while the Herzogenbergs, with whom she was spending much of her time, resided on Hauptmannstrasse. Smyth traveled frequently to Berlin and Crostewitz in addition to her journeys to Leipzig. 229 Ibid., 283.
105 housed in the special collections of the University Library at the University of Durham, is dated twice. 230 According to the manuscript, the first movement was completed on 26 April 1880 and the final movement manuscript was completed on 25 August 1880. 231 This evidence places the two works in close proximity. The training Smyth received in Leipzig prior to the composition of the Sonata in C minor and the Trio in D minor influenced her developing style. Her brief study of music at the Leipzi g Conservatory was followed by private tutoring with Heinrich von Herzogenberg and included frequent private performances in the homes of the musical biographic al context for the analysis. A study of reception has proved difficult. Only one review exists of a recording of the Sonata in C minor for Cello and Piano ; there is none of the Trio in D minor In an online review of the sonata performed by Friedemann Kupsa and Anna Si lova, Rob its own right and receives a deeply passionate and sensitive performance [in this 232 Thus, Barnett described the Sonata in C minor as a well con structed, convincing composition. The emotional performance (at the center of this review) also biography from 1877 to 1880 reveals the extent of her training that prod uced such expressivity in addition to compositional craft. 230 The Trio in D minor was published in 2003 by Ro berton Publications. The editors were Margaret Lucia and Terry King. 231 Durham, UK, Durham University, D ame Ethel Smyth MSS ASC Ref Z S my 2a. 232
106 Biographical Context Smyth arrived in Leipzig in July of 1877, a full month prior to the start of classes. She was not the first female student at the Leipzig Conservatory, but she was the first f emale composition student of Carl Reinecke (1824 1910). She also studied theory with Salamon Jadassohn and piano with Joseph Maas. She soon discovered, however, that the celebrated days of the conservatory under Felix Mendelssohn had passed. What had once been an established, acclaimed conservatory appeared to Smyth to have become a teaching college. She writes in her memoir that the other students were only 233 She cites instructors showing up late and theory errors that were not corrected. The Leipzig Conservatory was not living up to her high expectations. Despite the apparent faults of the Leipzig Conservatory, Smyth was able to obtain musical training. The young composer had a letter of introduction to a Frau Dr. significant musical families, where both men and women participated in the creation and performance of h ausmusik 234 As well, her friendship with the baritone George Liebeslieder in England, sparked a letter to Brahms directly: Henschel to Brahms in Leipzig Barmen, 28 December 1877 The b earer of this [letter] is a jolly English girl, Miss Smyth, as talented as she is amusing. She wrote some quite charming little songs, even before she had had any lessons, and she is burning with longing to say just one word to you, or better still to hear 233 Smyth, Impressions that remain 145. 234 Ibid., 151.
107 Besides all this she jumps over chairs, back and all, rides, hunts, fishes, swims, etc., etc. The Hrtels, through whom she hoped to see you, are in Leipzig momentarily, and therefor e I have taken the liberty of sending these lines of introduction, whose purpose would be fulfilled, I am told, by one word from you. With devoted greetings, always your Henschel 235 Through her friendship with Henschel, the Frau Dr. Brock haus, and the contacts she made at the Leipzig Conservatory, Smyth formed an advantageous circle of musical friends. She developed a close friendship with the soprano Livia Frege (1818 1891) and with (Elisabeth) Lili Wach ( 1845 1910 ), the daughter of Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, shortly after her arrival in 1877. The following spring she met a prominent musical family, the Rntgens. Engelbert Rntgen (1829 1897) was concertmaster of the Gewandhaus Orchestra in Leipzig and the leader of a string quartet. His wife, Pauline, and one of his daughters, Johanna, were accomplished pianists. His son, Julius (1855 1932), was a successful violist and composer who later became music director of the Amsterdam Conservatory, and was life long friends with Edvard Grieg. 236 237 Furthermore, 1933), a talented cellist who became one of the foremost cello pedagogues in the early twentieth century. 238 Klengel 235 Henschel, letter to Johannes Brahms, 38 December 1877. 236 Smyth, Impressions that remain, 142. 237 Ibid. 238 by students today.
108 entertainment. Many evenings of music making in the Rntgen home involved playing through th e chamber works of the major Romantic composers such as Mendelssohn, Schumann, and Brahms. Typical of the period and society, the women played piano or sang and the men played the string instruments and also piano. One exception to this gendered division o 1894), who was an excellent violinist. 239 and she sought their approval on a personal and professional level. For examp le, on 2 240 This environment had a direct impact on her writing; in fact, the later Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 for cello and piano of 1887 was dedicated to Julius Klengel and presumably performed by him. 241 The memoirs contain numerous anecdotes attesting to the frequency of chamber music among these musicians and their families. Smyth wrote of finding these musical kindred spirits: sitting at tea with my new friends, Herr Concertmeister Rntgen, leader of the Gewandhaus orchestra, and his family, I had found an answer to the question: the concentrated essence of took me to their bosom. 242 239 Smyth, Impressions that remain 144. Information on Amanda Maier R ntg en as well as the more prominent R Brahms and his world: a biographical dictionary 261 263 and 367 370. 240 Smyth, Impressions that remain, 254. 241 Smyth, Sonata in A minor, Op. 5, for cello and piano 242 Sm yth, Impressions that remain 141 2.
109 In Germany, Smyth found the musical environment she had lacked in England. This musical culture enabled Smyth to grow as a composer. The style of playing and the preferred repertoire of these musicians influenced the types of pieces Smyth composed in these early years. She was soon spending less time at the conservatory and more time among professional and amateur musicians. This environment provided her with opportunities to hear her music almost immediately and it is likely that she received feedback from her friends. In the spring of 1878, she finally met the Herzogenbergs Heinrich von Herzogenberg (1843 1900) was a profes sor at the University of Leipzig and a successful composer. His wife, Elisabet (Lisl) von Herzogenberg (1847 1892) was an amateur pianist and composer who had briefly studied with Brahms. Heinrich decided quickly after meeting Smyth and seeing some of her compositions that she should study with him. During the winter of 1878 1879 Smyth pursued her lessons with Herzogenberg in counterpoint, harmony and composition. She also took violin lessons from Englebert Rntgen, even playing in the Bach Verein concerts. 243 Smyth continued to attend and participate in evenings of hausmusik She spent a considerable amount of time with the Rntgens plus new friends she made through the Herzogenbergs, most notably, Conrad and Mary Fiedler and Theodore and Emma Engelmann. 244 Co nrad Fiedler, a patron of the arts and aesthetic philosopher, took immediately to Smyth and her music. The following letter from Fiedler to Irene 243 Smyth, Impressions that remain 233 and 245. 244 Mary Fiedler ( 1854 1919 ), soprano, and Emma Engelmann ( 1854 1940 ) piano, were both highly skilled musicians who gave up professional careers after marriage (as did Livia Frege) For further information on Engelmann see Brahms: a biographical dictionary 127 129. For further information on Mary Fiedler, see Smyth, Impressions that remain 250 251, and Brewster, The cosmopolites: a nineteenth century family drama 98 and 1 33.
110 Hildebrand (wife of sculptor, Adolf Hildebrand) in 1880 describes the affect Smyth had on her new acquaintance s, musically and personally: We have spent Christmas quite happily; if not a herd of children we too had a child, and English girl of twenty one. She is studying music in Leipzig under Herzogenberg and is on close terms of friendship with his wife. As they had left for Christmas and New Year she came to stay with us for a fortnight and has become very dear to us. As regards her musical talent I cannot but trust the very favourable opinion of Joachim who is here. I have been much impressed by the ta she has composed, though I am no judge in such matters. But quite apart from this she is one of the cleverest and most remarkable persons I have come across for a long time, natural, lively and full of inner earnestness. I could write a good deal about her. You must get to know her some time. She has become very attached to my wife and our relationship has developed on a lasting basis. Sooner or later we shall no doubt all get together. 245 While the Fiedlers were a part of the Leipzig scene, the Engelmann s were friends of the Herzogenbergs and Brahms who lived in Utrecht and occasionally visited Leipzig. One such visit is detailed in a letter from Elisabet von Herzogenberg to Brahms, dated 28 December, 1880, and demonstrates the musical life in which Smyth found herself: My very dear friend What a very great pleasure to have your overture [The Academic Festival Overture, Op. 80] drop from the skies half an hour before we lit our Christmas tree. I carried the roll to Heinz [Heinrich] so as not to spoil my own fun, and he propped it up with due solemnity, where it outshone all the other nice things, and rejoiced my heart more than I can say. Next day we went to the dear overtur e, and four happy people put their heads together and said what they never can say to your face. possible. The Engelmanns are in correspondence with various friends in Amsterdam, w ho are coming for the overture, and are therefore entitled to an unfortunately, have to leave before it. We practice together most vigourously. There is a grand Brahms evening the day a fter tomorrow, when Emma [Engelmann] will play the A major quartet, Julius Rntgen the quintet, with a few 245 Brewster, The cosmopolites 28. son (also christened Harry) wrote this book using personal family letters and the Smyth memoirs. Unfortunately, he does not cite the letters written by Henry Brewster, and he provides no details regard ing the location of accessibility of these letters.
111 just by way of an encore, when the family has already been p laying for three hours! Oh yes, we all have tough digestions! preparing for your visit. Your Herzogenbergs. 246 As part of her composition studies, Smyth copied the scores of Brahms that were Schumann. Such exercises included studying a four hand piano reduction don e by Symphony No. 2 in D major 247 and copying the Op. 76 piano pieces 248 The following letter from Elisabet von Herzogenberg to Brahms supports example of the music making that was constantly ta king place: Leipzig, 13 December 1878 My Dear Friend I wonder if you set me down as the wretch I am conscious of being for keeping the longed for pianoforte pieces [Op. 76] without a word of ith the copyist our Leipzig copyists are such slowcoaches but I will really send them off tomorrow. The one in B minor [Op. 76, no. 2], which I kept back because it gave me such untold pleasure to practice it, is now being copied out for me by our litt le English friend [Ethel Smyth]. Please note, however, that I have only one very nice little English girl. you want to see something beautiful, look at the last eight bars. We play them over and over, and can never have enough of them. I am going to play them to the Utrecht Engelmanns shortly. What a triumph to forestall Emma for once! My favourite, now and forever, is the F sharp minor [Op. 76, no. 1]. I flatter myself that I really appreciate it, and should play it exquisitely if I were any sort of pianist. 246 Kalbeck, Johannes Brahms, 115 117. 247 St. John, Ethel Smyth: a biography 26. 248 Kalbeck, Johannes Brahms 70.
112 But good bye. I know I shall not get the Romanze now, for my sins, any more than the C sharp minor [ Op. 76, no. 5]. Heinrich sends messages ( he is working very hard), an d Ethel Smyth too. She does the prettiest gavottes and sarabandes. Write and tell us when you are coming, so that we can look forward to it. Your devoted, Herzogenberge. 249 The letter also shows the level of musical intellect of Elisabet and the po ssible value of this friendship for Smyth. As this letter also demonstrates, Smyth received daily tutorials in music and first hand contact with leading composers. This group of musicians saw nothing unusual about Smyth composing as noted by the reference and sarabandes; other female composers in the circle included Clara Schumann as well as Elisabet von Herzogenberg. Ironically, it was outside the conservatory that Smyth received a thorough music education. These friends were not the o style. Prior to her matriculation at the Leipzig Conservatory, she had enjoyed the music of Beethoven and Schubert, studied the orchestration of Berlioz, and had been introduced to the operas of Wagner. She also loved to sing and compose songs, and Carmen Unfortunately, her new Leipzig friends did not c are for the music of Berlioz, Bizet, or Wagner, but rather preferred the more instrumental, absolute style of Brahms, Bach, a nd Beethoven, as well as the occasional work by Mendelssohn or Schumann. 250 Smyth lament ed in her memoirs that her friends were not open to composers of the New German School of Wagner or Liszt, or other, non German composers of the time. Performances of Fre nch music were ignored; 249 Kalbeck, Johannes Brahms 69 70. 250 Smyth, Impressions that remain 243.
113 Wagner operas were rarely attended by this Leipzig circle. Most likely owing to her status as a student and nov ice, Smyth followed their lead, despite her own attraction to dramatic operas and less serious or German styles. She desc ribed the musical environment in her first memoir: My musical education was possibly being narrowed in that severely classical atmosphere, but I suppose every scheme of education is either too narrow or too diffuse. Certainly the impulse towards opera, of which I had been conscious in the had been orchestral and oratorical, and both musicians and concert public were suspicious of music favourite remark that Bizet was no doubt ein Geniechen (a little genius). But in that school Bizet, Chopin, and all the great who talk tragedy with a smile on their lips, who d art into the depths and come up again instantly like divers who, in fact, decline to wallow in the Immensities all these were habitually spoken of as small people. 251 And yet Smyth saw fit to ignore their slights against these musicians. So common were h to denote not only Brahms admirers but also those composers who descended upon Leipzig and the Herzogenberg home whenever Brahms came to visit. This group included suc h performers such as Joseph Joachim, George Henschel, and Clara Schumann. 252 Smyth was strongly influenced in these formative years by Johannes Brahms. She had been an admirer of his musi introduction, only met him through the Herzogenbergs in 1879. Indeed, it was fortuitous that she had won over the Herzogenbergs as she did, if only for the opportunity to study 251 Smyth, Impressi ons that remain 242 243. 252 Ibid., 241.
114 nd. 253 She and her new friends also attended the premiers of his works, often gathering after concerts for discussion. In one instance, Smyth attended a concert in January of 1878 where she heard his new Symphony N o. 2 in D major 254 She was such a mainstay in the Herzogenberg household that she was Herzogenberg correspondence and treated as the pet project of these Leipzig musicians. 255 Sonata in C minor and the Trio in D mino r are derivative, at times revealing her knowledge of other composers through similar melodies and harmonic movements. The historic connection between Smyth and Brahms has been so strong that critics often fail to mention the significance of other compose rs on Smyth, such as Schubert, in addition to Brahms. The music of Schubert is suggested in Sonata in C minor In the first move ment, a melodic similarity is apparent Arpeggione Sonata and those of Sonata in C minor ( Figure 4 1). Smyth did not mention the Arpeggione Sonata in her memoirs, but she does reference other Schubert works, suggesting a familiarity with his music. l ndler bears a resemblance to a passage Symphony No. 2 (Figure 4 2). The rhythmic character of the note and two eighth notes for two measures followed by two measures of quarter notes. The 253 Kalbeck, Johannes Brahms, 59 185. The Herzogenberg correspondence between 1878 and 1885 gives a glimpse of the culture and lifestyle of which Smyth was a part. 254 Smyth, Impressions that remain 158. 255 Kalbeck, Jo hannes Brahms, 83.
115 accompaniment is modified only slightly, with Smyth shifting the two quarter notes to beats two and three. A B Figure 4 1 Arpeggione S onata in A minor first movement, mm. 1 5 WI M, Inc. Sonata in C minor for Cello and Piano first movement, mm. 1 4 Transcribed by Amy Zigler and Steven Landis from the original manuscript, British Library, London. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. 256 m.82 m. 1 A B Figure 4 2 Symphony No. 2 in D first movement, mm. 82 88. Harcourt, Brace and Company, Inc., 1935. B) Sonata in C minor for Cello and Piano second movement, mm. 1 4. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. The musical output of this young composer was limited to chamber music because that was the preferred medium of th 256 All future examples for Sonata in C minor for Cello and Piano were transcribed and edited by Amy Zigler and Steven Landis from the original manuscript unless otherwise noted.
116 on counterpoint, formal analysis, and harmony. 257 The others looked down upon opera, 258 Between 1877 and 1887, she composed piano works, string quart ets, quintets and trios, two cello these years. In fact, a letter from Clara Schumann to Brahms in 1883 demonstrates the respect Smyth received from her colleagues: Schum morrow morning we are expecting Ethel Smythe [sic] for a day or two. I am surprised at the progress she has made and even if she has no originality as a composer, I cannot help feeling 259 After five years o talent were already commanding the respect of a discriminating musician. The following escribed above in her letter. Analysis Any analysis of music is dependent first on the observer and second on the available information (scores, recordings, memoirs, letters, etc.). The analysis presented in this chapter is based on primary source material memoirs and the reception of the work, a recording of the work, the published score (where available) and the autograph manuscript. In many respects, the analysis is based in part on the idea of interpretation as Peter H. Smith describe is one and only one correct interpretation, but that interpretation should be grounded in 257 Smyth, Impressions that remain 253. 258 Ibid., 253. 259 Litz mann, Letters of Clara Schumann and Johannes Brahms, 86.
117 260 He argues that interpretation of a piece may be derived from both musical analysis and biographical context, thereby o ffering a more thorough understanding of the work. However, Smith points out that no interpretation, no matter chamber works relies on the musical material first, with bi ography informing a possible interpretation. Feminist Aesthetics in Music She interrogates the traditional ideal of the Golden Mean as the model in mus ic wherein the climactic point of the structure of a piece occurs approximately two thirds of the way through the piece, or at a proportion of 0.618. 261 Her analysis argues that a composer might present a feminine (or feminist) method of musical structure by offering a different, yet equally effective, technique; with this technique, the climax occurs significantly sooner or later in the structure than the Golden Mean, or where more climaxes of varying intensity occur instead of the one main climactic point. Macarthur acknowledges that this Other approach is easily appropriated by men, just as women have appropriated male methods of composing music for centuries. 262 analysis in a more general manner as a consistent way to ana lyze and compare classify the music as feminine or masculine. 260 Smith Expressive f orms 187. 261 Macarthur, Feminist aesthetics in music 70. 262 Ibid., 71.
118 By adopting a multi movement, absolute genre, Smyth was aligning herself with her immediate German contempor aries, including Brahms, Reinecke and Herzogenberg. She also set herself apart from other composers known for their programmatic through composed or sectional works, such as Schumann, Liszt and Grieg. This creative decision seems unusual in hindsight, give opera and vocal works. However, her teachers and mentors were quite conservative musically, and this most likely accounts for her own musical preferences during the Tr io in D minor and the later String Quartet in E minor are sonatas for multiple instruments) also brings with it over a century of musical traditions, including expected forms, key relationships, and thematic tendencies. Her treatment of the genre is not as inspired as that of Brahms nor as experimental as the late works of Beethoven, and yet her compositions are well written and expressive, and are therefore worthy of study. The Sonata in C minor and the Trio in D minor may be her earliest chamber works wit h piano, but elements of her style and evidence of her ability to compose are already apparent. As the compositions are still relatively unknown, my analysis incorporates a linear approach in order to examine the musical elements as one might encounter the m in a rehearsal or performance. The analysis in this chapter has three goals. The first and most basic goal is to introduce her compositional style to those unfamiliar with the works. An overview of each movement will illustrate the forms Smyth uses and how she adopts or adapts these forms. Structural analysis, ro oted in functional harmony and C lassical ideas of form, will also provide a foundation for understanding these works and their place in the
119 ructures closely follows Classical models, such as sonata allegro form or minuet and trio, yet with each work she explores the forms with increasing structural and harmonic creativity. The second goal is to examine the ways in which Smyth creates her pers onal style by revealing the particular traits that exhibit unity within and among each of these compositions. A study of her melodies illustrates the development and improvement of ce: a voice that increasingly avoids Classical phrase structures unless she is purposefully portraying a Classical style. 263 In addition, principal themes begin with long durational values and accelerate, secondary themes frequently contain with triplet rhyt hms, and both themes incorporate dialogue between the instruments. Motivic, harmonic, and rhythmic analysis demonstrates the musical elements that mark her musical style. Specific pitch and rhythmic motives are found in both works, unifying the movements i n each work. The frequent use of enharmonic equivalents, mode mixture, and chromatic modulations often obscure the key center, and significant structural cadences are frequently evaded or undermined. In addition, the use of hemiolas, polyrhythms, and metri c shifts also reveals her study and absorption of nineteenth century musical style. that characterizes her themes and the characters of the pieces. This rhythmic propul over fifty years ago and will be addressed in the discussion of each movement. As later 263 Definitions of Classical phrase structures can be found in several music t heory textbooks. For the purposes of this study, I define a prototypical Classical phrase as a unit consisting of four measures Classical style, thes e phrases may also be set in a antecedent consequent pair.
120 works will show, the four movement format was preferred by Smyth tr ios) and the placement of the dance as the second movement is also common in her multi movement works. The third goal of this analysis is to demonstrate the value of the compositions as a contribution to the chamber music repertoire through the stylistic analysis of melody, a composer and also her creative uses of what had become an out dated genre. The ompositional techniques and stylistic traits of the late nineteenth century, yet the works are not predictable, nor are they pass. These early works are her interpretations of the traits of the Romantic period, but the idioms Smyth develops here stay with her compositional technique throughout her career. Sonata in C minor for Cello and Piano The Sonata in C minor is the first of several sonatas that Smyth composed for strings and piano I t establishes the style in which she was composing and the model on which she relied during her years in Leipzig. At the structural level, this sonata adheres to the models of formal and harmonic structure that Smyth would have learned in her first years as a composition student. She closely follows the accepted procedure s of sonata, theme and variations, and rondo forms by incorporating the requisite thematic areas and their prescribed tonal centers. Within this early work are the motivic devices and melodies, the unexpected harmonic choices, and the rhythmic drive that S myth
121 used in her chamber works throughout her career. More specifically, rhythmic and intervallic motives provide the work with an audible coherence and unity. 264 A four movement work, the Sonata in C minor is organized at the larger structural level by fou rths instead of the more common circle of fifths or even movement by thirds. The tonal centers of the movements proceed from i to iv to b VII and back to i, a harmonic relationship that Smyth did not repeat in later works. Her choice of forms, on the other hand, is quite standard. The first movement is in sonata allegro form, the second movement is a dance in minuet and trio form, the third movement is a slow theme and variations, and the final movement is a sonata rondo. Smyth created a composition that log ically progressed from one movement to the next. She achieved this through her melodic style, the cyclical use of motives, and key relationships at the period level that refer to the harmonic relationships at the movement level (specifically the relationsh ip of the keys of C, F, and B b ), in a manner similar to her predecessors. Her lyrical, melodic style is also directly influenced by her proclivity for vocal music (she had composed songs since her childhood and her first published works were a set of lied e r traditional hierarchy of first and second themes is not the guiding principle in her structures. Thematic equality is further explored in the development sections of the sonata form movem ents, where the main themes are superimposed, often leading to unexpected harmonic choices and rhythmic ideas. Smyth seems to have had a tendency for disregarding the rules of tonality, resulting in harmonies that resist 264 Numerous works by Beethoven and Haydn provide a precedent for motivic unity. One such Sonata Op. 31, No. 3
122 traditional tonal functions and res olutions. 265 The combination of these distinct qualities produces a unified work recognizable to the listener. Allegro appassionato knowledge of accepted formal practices, but it also reveals a navet in her craft. The form of the first movement has a clearly delineated exposition, development, and recapitulation with a coda. The sections are equally balanced; the themes of the recapitulation are repeated without modulation at the tonic. Consequently, assuming a repeat of the exposition, the work divides into two equal portions (plus a coda) to execute a model rounded binary form. Such a compositional technique might imply an immaturity in her writing, or it could imply an economy in her writing similar to some chamber works by Schubert. 266 Furthermore, the autograph score demonstrates a command of tools and techniques rather than experimentation with new ideas. In fact, the autograph score has only two revisions in the first movement although the autograph is possibly a final draft. 267 In keeping with the evolving techniques of sonata treatment, Smyth uses the first movement to set the harmonic parameters of the composition. The key relationships 265 Smyth, Impressions that remain 239. In 1879, Smy th had written a fugue, which was shown to y 266 recapitulations were often an exact replication of the exposition, with harmonic changes to keep the material in the required tonic key. 267 The analysis of this work was based entirely on the autograph score in the British Library in London. The top layer of manuscript (in some cases there are two or three layers of manuscript pasted over an original manuscript) was assumed to be the final version as the lower le vels were marked out. There is no published edition. The transcriptions used in this document are directly from the autograph. The discrepancies between the different layers of the autograph score will be discussed in more detail below.
123 between the various themes in this mov knowledge of traditional sonata allegro form. As shown in Table 4 1, the principal theme establishes the key of C minor followed by a modulation to the relative major at the second ary theme. The development then exp lores the two main themes while moving through various key areas. The recapitulation maintains the tonal center of C while works. The second theme returns in C major in the coda, and the movement closes in the parallel tonic major. 268 harmonies and unusual key relationships become evident as the themes modulate to distantly related keys, shown in the chart below These distan t keys, such as E minor and F major, however, serve as the significant tonal areas of subsequent movements, further uniting the entire composition. This movement follows standard formal procedure for sonata form and maintains a clear sense of the structur e. Admittedly, the Sonata in C minor is the most conservative of her chamber works, and much of the following discussion will only demonstrate how well Smyth knew the paradigms and traditions of the genre. Her themes are vocal in nature and similar in stru cture, often adhering to the Classical ideal of the Golden Mean ( see p. 117 ). She also relies on a minimum number of motives to create the themes and transitions, demonstrating an economy in her writing. nt is somewhat immature, with abrupt modulations to distant keys, such as E b major to E minor, despite a distinct effort 268 Smyth was not bre aking into new territory by beginning and ending in different modes. One String Quartet Op. 76, No. 1 where the last movement also opens in a minor key and closes in the parallel major. Other examples abound in 19 th cen tury music, as the motion from minor to major (especially C minor to C major) came to represent darkness giving way to light and the struggle between good and evil.
124 unifying device and as a means of propulsion prese nts the best basis for an argument for a recognizable Smythian style. Thematic design : rhythm, or contour dictated by the principal theme. The principal theme in this movement is comprised of tw o phrases. The first is a straightforward four bar phrase a piece, the climax of the phrase falls on beat one of m. 3, or two thirds of the way through the phrase. The se extra measure plus one beat. However, the climactic moment occurs early in the phrase, on the third beat of m. 6, only one third of the way into the melody And yet if the two phrases are instead tre ated as one continuous idea, the stronger second climax does, in fact, occur two thirds of the way through the entire theme, creating a proportion of 0.622. 5 9 Figure 4 3. Sonata in C minor principal theme, first movement, mm. 1 9. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. Phrase a Phrase b
125 Table 4 1. Formal diagram of first movement Sonata in C minor sonata allegro form. PT = principal theme, ST = secondary theme. Exposition Developme nt Recapitulation Coda Theme PT transition ST trans. PT ST motivic devel. ST PT trans. ST trans. ST Key C m G to E b E b E b E b e Cm E b B b F B b Cm G to Cm Cm C/Cm C Mm. #s 1 10 11 20 21 36 37 44 45 51 52 63 64 71 72 85 86 95 96 105 106 21 122 31 132 142
126 practice: by pl acing climactic points at the expected proportions of the theme. Yet the second phrase also demonstrates an early ability to experiment with the model, while still achieving Classical proportions overall. organic nature, whereby the themes is that they provide contrast to the first themes through rhythmic and harmonic variety. In this case, t he second ary theme is first sugg ested as part of an accompaniment figure in the piano and distinguished by upward stems. It contrasts with the first theme through a narrower range, longer note values, and expressive markings, while retaining the lyrical quality of the principal theme ( Fi gure 4 4). Figure 4 4 Sonata in C minor introduction to secondary theme, first movement, mm. 21 24. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. In the relative key of E b major, the second theme is distinguished by the quart er notes in the upper voice of the piano part for the first four measures. The shape of the theme is not an arch but instead travels the distance of a diminished fourth demonstrated by the E b /B natural in mm. 21 23 (see Figure 4 4) and the A b /E natural in mm. 25 27 ( Figure 4 5). This theme is continued in the next eleven measures by the cello. The cello melody derives from the fragment presented in the first five notes, developing the leap of a diminished fourth and the half step neighbor note motion. The climactic moment is not reached until m. 34, or over four fifths of the way through the melody (a proportion dim. 4th dim. 4th Piano 21
127 of 0.84). This delay of the melodic climax creates tension and drama in an otherwise lyrical melody. Compared to the principal theme, the secondary theme avoids the model of a Classical theme. The entire secondary theme is also marked dolce and gebunden in the piano part (Figure 4 4) and compassionately in the cello part (Figure 4 5), suggesting a contrasting character with the principal theme. T he s yncopat ed rhythms and rising pitches in the second part of the theme, mm. 30 34, also create more tension than that heard in the principal theme. Figure 4 5 Sonata in C minor secondary theme, first movement, mm. 25 35. British Library Boar d. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. The themes are stated in the recapitulation at the tonic, following the standard procedure for sonata form. However, Smyth undermines the expected hierarchy of the principal and secondary themes by using the secondar y theme as material for the coda, in effect letting the secondary theme have the final say in this narrative ( Figure 4 6). In this example, marked Poco meno mosso and molto espressivo both aspects of the secondary theme, a fragment of the melody in the ce llo line and the running triplets in the piano part, are present. The meandering nature of the triplets creates an ending that is ambiguous rather than decisive, especially when coupled with the pianissimo dynamic marking and the sempre rallentando in m. 1 38. dim. 4th dim. 4th 30
128 Figure 4 6 Sonata in C minor use of secondary theme in the coda, first movement, mm. 132 139. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. Motivic design : A product of nineteenth century conservatory training, Smyth uses the mo tives in her themes to unify the movement, and as source material for the Figure 4 7 below, contains four of the five motives that serve as the primary material for the entire sonata. The first pitch motive (ma rked PM1) is comprised of the scale degrees The second motive (PM2) uses the same three pitches, but the primary difference is the direction of the three scale degrees to form PM2 does not always maintain exact intervallic relationships; the motive is instead better described as the combination of a step and a leap in the opposite direction. The rhythmic element i n both motives is a dotted quarter eighth note combination, labeled RM1. This material is followed by another rhythmic motive labeled RM2, characterized by the straightforward rhythmic figure of a quarter on these motives to create her 8 below, the second phrase of S T 132 136
129 the principal theme is a combination of the four motives stated in the first phrase, presenting the PM1 in inversion and a modified PM2. T he rhythmic motives also help preserve the unity of the theme. PM1 RM1 RM2 modified PM2 PM2 RM1 Figure 4 7. Sonata in C minor pitch and rhyt hmic motives, first movement, mm. 1 5. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. RM1 RM2 RM2 RM1 RM1 PM1 PM2 PM2 Fig ure 4 8. Sonata in C minor pitch and rhythmic motives, first movement, mm. 6 8. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. Finally, the third pitch motive, labeled PM3 and appearing at the end of the second phrase, is a lower neighbor n ote figure with the scale degrees ( Figure 4 9). The two bars in the example also represent the first cadence, in m. 10. The final beat of m. 9 is actually a truncated version of the ope ning three notes of the melody, using the beginning of the theme to subtly act as the ending of the theme. 6
130 Figure 4 9. Sonata in C minor pitch and rhythmic motives, first movement, mm. 9 10. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved Add. MS 45949. Motives from the principal theme are also found in the secondary theme. The use of PM2 and PM3, and not PM1, distinguish the secondary theme from the principal theme. The motive is first mentioned in the top voice in the piano part with t he pitches C B C and is immediately followed by a reminder of the earlier motive, PM2, with the pitches E b B C ( Figure 4 10). PM3 retrograde inversion of PM2 Figure 4 10. Sonata in C minor first movement mm. 21 24. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. The secondary theme continues in the cello line in m. 25 as a combination of PM3 and PM2. In the next four bars, the rhythm of the original PM3 has expanded from the eighth notes in m. 10 to quarter notes ( Figure 4 11). Smyth builds the tension of this theme by going back to the eighth notes in m. 29. Rhythmic diminution plus the leaps of an octave and a ninth create momentum in the music, leading to the climactic point in the theme. PM3 PM2 inverted PM1 RM1 9 21
131 PM3 PM2 PM2 Figure 4 11. Sonata in C minor pitch and rhythmic motives, first movement, mm. 25 35. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. As the fragments of the two themes are reworked in various ways in the development section, the motives also return as components of those distinct melodic t of the development explores combinations of the themes in their entirety, but in m. 60 Smyth develops the motivic components. This development is immediately heard in the accompaniment in the piano part and the triplet eighth note passage in the cello pa rt at m. 60 with a reprise of PM3, shown in Figure 4 12. Figure 4 12. Sonata in C minor pitch and rhythmic motives, revised first movement, mm. 60 63. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. Only two meas ures after this passage, the cello line hints at both PM1 and PM2 by outlining the interval of a third ( Figure 4 13). Use of these motives occurs less and less as Smyth incorporates transitional material from the exposition to lead into the PM 3 25 30 PM3 PM3 PM3 PM3 PM3 RM1 RM2 60
132 recapitulation. The motives examined above not only appear throughout the first movement but also in subsequent movements. Furthermore, the interval of a minor third that characterizes PM1 and PM2, as well as the dotted rhythm of RM1, play s a primary role in establishing Figure 4 13. Sonata in C minor revised first movement, mm. 64 68. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. Harmonic design: harmon ies and Romantic chromaticism in a fluid manner Diatonic harmonic progressions are soon embellished with added ninths, suspensions, and borrowed chords, and authentic cadences are elided or avoided. Her modulations are often abrupt or awkward, especially leading into the development section. Of all the movements in this work and the subsequent chamber works, however, the harmonic language in this early first movement is the most traditional. e work. The expressiveness of her melodies is illuminated by harmonic language. Chromatic harmonies and secondary dominants push the tonal barriers while mode mixture and enharmonic re spellings create a sense of ambiguity The climactic moment of phrase occurs on a ii harmony, while the climac arrives at the tritone between the cello and piano. The second phrase is supported by a V 6 /iv leading to iv, an underlying harmonic structure with the chromatic melodic lines emph asizing the harmonic movement. The added leading tones (B b and D b resolving to Use of thirds Use of thirds 64
133 C) create tension and imbue the theme with a yearning and apprehensive quality. These moment s of dissonance and harmonic tension within a largely diatonic passage fores hadow mov ement away from the tonic (Figure 4 14) Figure 4 14. Sonata in C minor first movement, mm. 1 8. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. are directly related to the construction of her themes In the second ph rase of the principal theme, after the climactic point the melody decreases in volume and descends in pitch toward the cadence but resolution is delayed by two measures (Figure 4 15) Even when the cadence is finally achieved the melodic line continues, p roceeding without pause to the next idea. The expected dominant tonic cadence, when it does occur, releases the tension but the feeling created is rarely one of resolution or pause. Further examples throughout this chapter and the entire study will demons trate the frequency of th is trait. ii 6/5 [V 6 /iv ] iv 5
134 Figure 4 15 Example Sonata in C minor first movement, mm. 1 11 British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. The secondary theme builds upon the suggested chro maticism of the principal theme. Although the secondary key area is eventually established in m. 30, t he second ary theme, initially tonicizes F minor (Figure 4 16). Frequent chromatic alterations instill a sense of urgency despite the four measures of a B b pedal point in the bass. Secondary diminished seventh chords unfold in the piano part, adding to the tension in this passage. In the cello line, leading tones and minor seconds combined with leaps of as large as the octave create an unpredictable quality and push the music forward. But as the cello line increases in chromaticism, the piano part becomes more stable, clear ly progressing to the tonic. In m. 34 of this example, the same extended Half cadence Subverted cadence Perfect authentic cadence c: ii 6/5 vii 7 /V V 7 iv V 6 iv 6 i 6/4 ii i 6/4 V 7 i G: I [ V 6 /i v] 5 9
135 harmony from the principal theme appears. In both cases, it is a dominant harmony with added 7 th s and 9 th progression in the relative major grants it particular significance and is an unusual harmonic device not often found in the music of her contemporari es. Further harmonic ambiguity occurs in t he transition to the development, the result of enharmonic spellings and mode mixture The iv chord (A b ) in the previous key of E b major becomes a G # minor chord in the new key and a iii chord in the key of E mino r, an unusual modulation to a distantly related key ( Figure 4 17 ). However, the key of E minor is abruptly abandoned through a deceptive cadence and a modulation to the tonal area of C C minor has returned to the key signature but the presence of E natur als in the piano and cello parts suggest the key of C major despite frequent iv and v chords (Figure 4 18) The use of harmonies from both C minor and C major demonstrates a k ey centers are not mode specific but in stead rely frequently on mode mixture. 269 It is not merely the shifting tonal centers that create allow for several possibilities of musi cal direction with each new harm ony. Rhy thmic design: rhythm unifies the four movements and places her among her contemporaries. Rhythmic ideas such as hemiolas metric shifts, and polyrhythms relate this piece to other composers of the lat e nineteenth century such as Schumann and Brahms, but Examples of hemiolas 269 Similar uses of chromatic harmonies created out of voice leading and half step motion ca n be order to effect a key change occurs in the first movement of the Valse Caprice, arr. of Op. 37
136 Figure 4 16. Sonata in C minor first movement, mm. 25 37. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. E b : I iv I 6 iv e: iii i Figure 4 17. Sonata in C minor first movement, mm. 45 46. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. E b 7 i 7 7 /V f V V 4/2 I 6 i 6 V 7 /V V 7 I 6 V/ii ii V V I 25 29 33 45
137 Figure 4 18. S onata in C minor first movement, mm. 45 56. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. e : ii i i V 7 /vi vi 6/4 i It 6+ V 7 IV V 7 I 6/4 V 7 i V 7 i vi 7 /V V 7 C: I 7 4/3 /iii I 6/5 I 4/2 I V iv 6 I 6 iv i 6 V 4/3 I 45 49 53
138 can be found in three of the four movements. In the second measure of Figure 4 19, Smyth interrupts the steady triplets with the illusion of q uicker duplets by placing emphasis on every other eighth note. Development of the two themes combines the differing rhythms and accompaniments unique to each theme, juxtaposing the duple rhythm of the principal theme with the triplet accompaniment of the s econd theme. In m. 50 (Figure 4 20), the cello continues the principal theme over the triplet accompaniment from the secondary theme. Rather than continuing to contrast the two themes, highlighting one and then the other, Smyth superimposes them, creating a symbiotic relationship In the fourth measure of Figure 4 20 the piano part contains both the triplet pattern and the neighbor note motive from the second theme while the cello continues the duple principle theme Thus, the two contrasting ideas occur s imultaneously, one supporting the other. The secondary theme immediately follows the reprise of the first theme at m. 56. Then the triplet pattern is traded between the cello and piano, furthering the impression of combining not only the two themes but now the two instruments, as well. Figure 4 19. Sonata in C minor first movement, mm. 57 60. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. 57
139 Figure 4 20. Sonata in C minor first movement, mm. 49 60. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. sense of propulsion is the consistent use of a connecting rhythm. In the principal theme, the connecting eighth note pushes th e melody from m. 1 to m. 2 and into m. 3, as shown by the arrows (Figure 4 21). A connecting rhythm is also the driving force behind the second theme, with the motive PM2 occurring across the bar and with three eighth notes leading into the following measu re, demonstrated by the arrows (Figure 4 22). This incessant forward motion creates tension and excitement in the music. PT S T S T S T PT S T PT 49 53 57
140 Figure 4 21. Sonata in C minor first movement, mm. 1 4. British Library Board. All Right s Reserved. Add. MS 45949. Figure 4 22. Sonata in C minor first movement, mm. 25 35 British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. syncopation is fo und in the autograph score of the first movement. The following passage is the largest revision to the manuscript, occurring in the development section of the first movement. The original score continued the cello line of eighth note triplets, with a simpl e syncopated accompaniment (Figure 4 23). Smyth altered this section in the revision, choosing to add rhythmic variety to a monotonous rhythmic texture. In the first four bars of the revision, the triplets are traded between the cello and piano while also maintaining the original melody and chords in the piano part (see Figures 4 24 and 4 25). Following this passage, the cello shifts to duple rhythms in m. 64. The shift is sudden and disjointed yet it also maintains the rhythmic drive of the first movement (Figure s 4 26 and 4 27). PM2 PM2 PM2 PM3 PM3 1 25 30
141 Figure 4 23. Sonata in C minor first draft of first movement, mm. 60 71. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. Figure 4 24. Sonata in C minor first draft of first movement, mm. 60 62. Britis h Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. Figure 4 25. Sonata in C minor revised draft of first movement, mm. 60 63. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. 60 63 66 69 60 60
142 Figure 4 26. Sonata in C minor original draft of first movement, mm. 60 68. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. Figure 4 27. Sonata in C minor revised first movement, mm. 60 68. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. The supporting harmonic progressions in the piano part, however, remain almost demonstrates that her changes to this section were for rhythmic and melodic variety rather than a change in the larger harmonic s tructure of the work. In this first look at 60 64 60 63 66
143 the course of her career. Examination of subsequent movements and compositions reveals an overarching Smythian style. Alle gretto (lndler tempo) placement of the dance movement in the second movement position became a standard format in her sonatas. In addition to changing the standard order of movements, Smyth also substitutes a l ndler for the minuet in the Sonata i n C minor while maintaining the same formal parameters of the minuet and trio, as demonstrated by the chart in Table 4 2. This substitution was not uncommon as composers replaced the out dated minuet and the scherzo with popular dances such as the waltz o r l ndler Schubert and later Mahler were both fond of this dance form. Traditionally, a lndler is distinguished by a slower triple meter than the minuet and a heavy emphasis on beat Table 4 2 Formal diag ram of second movement Sonata in C minor dance and trio form. Lndler Trio Coda Section A A 1 A B C B D A B 1 Key C D b Fm C F C F F F F Mm. #s 1 17 18 43 44 60 61 75 76 87 88 97 98 110 111 118 119 130 Following standard formal practice, Smyth creates a harmonic distinction between the l ndler section and the trio section. The l ndler is quite chromatic and shifts between C minor and both F major and minor, despite an F minor key signature from the beginning. Conversely, t he trio is highly diatonic and set in the key of F major. This dance movement, however, exhibits an unusual trait t hat Smyth also uses in later dance movements; the opening section is not in the tonic key but in the dominant key. By doing this, the composer has created harmonic ambiguity that becomes clear as the
144 movement progresses. It is only in the coda that this la rge scale V to I motion is declared and the tonic key of F is affirmed. The markings in this work are also tri lingual, occurring in Italian, German, and at the begi nning of the second theme. Then, at the beginning of the B section in the l ndler gebunden in the piano part, indicating that the melody within the triplet figure to be held to the full quarter note value; this marking also occurs in the re capitulation. Furthermore, the first ending of the l ndler is marked in the score with the following instructions: hier gleich au den Coda gehen! 270 These i nstructions are written in place of symbols or signs. At least in the autograph score, Smyth used English and German for the instructions in addition to the standard Italian, a growing trend in the late nineteenth century. Thematic design: Drawing upon he r study of her contemporaries, Smyth uses movement The first theme is clearly stated in the first twelve measures. Similar to the varies the idea ( Figure 4 28). Unlike the first movement, these two phrases are both four measures long and neither possesses a n arch like structure or a defining climac tic moment. Instead, the phrase continues to descend from the opening C down a sixth to E 270 Smyth, Sonata in C minor for Cello and Piano 9.
145 r which instrument has the melody; the cello plays a legato arch like line while the piano plays a countermelody. The melodic nature of established in the return of the A section in m. 44 (Figure 4 29). A modified version of the piano melody clearly has more significance than the repeated legato line. Through variation and a gradual declamation of ideas, Smyth created an organic movement that is only interrupted by the entrance of the trio section. The climactic moment of this theme actually occurs in m. 13, a proportion of 0.771 (see Figure 4 28). Figure 4 28. Sonata in C minor first theme, second movement, mm. 1 18. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. Repeat markings, such as those found in mm. 2 and 3, are original to the manuscript. Phrase a Phrase b Phrase c 7 13
146 Figure 4 29. Sonata in C minor second movement, mm. 44 51. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. In the trio, new melodic material is stil l based on the same ideas of the l ndler especially the interval of a third emphasized by the opening bars of both sections. Characterized by a running eighth note pattern in the piano part accompanied by a drone in the cello part, the melody of the trio is also more instrumental in nature than the vocal quality of the l ndler theme ( Figure 4 30). Figure 4 30. Sonata in C minor second movement, mm. 63 67. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. It is not until section D in the trio that a distinctly different melody appears, acting as a codetta before the return of the l ndler This section is characterized by an ostinato bass line and a syncopated descending (Figure 4 31) Despite the new elemen ts, this material, too, is based on the material from the opening phrase. Notice especially the figure of thirds in the second measure. This Phrase c 44
147 economy of material is a compositional technique that Smyth uses quite frequently and will become more apparent thr ough a motivic analysis of the themes. Figure 4 31. Sonata in C minor second movement, mm. 97 110. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. M otivic design : Two melodic motives from the first movement form the main t heme of the l ndler that of PM1 and PM2, as shown in Figure 4 32. Furthermore, the pitch motive PM2 plays a fundamental role in the structure of this movement, both as a three note motive and as a minor third. In the B section, the motive appears as part of the main t heme in its modified form (Figure 4 33). In the highly chromatic transition back to the A section, PM2 is the driving force that propels the music forward (Figure 4 34). This motive also acts as the basic building block for the theme of the trio section. I t not only begins the eighth note pattern in m. 63, but it appears as part of the melody in m. 71 (Figure 4 35). In this movement in particular, the motive PM2 is the primary unifying device, yet this motive is also borrowed directly from the principal the me of the first movement. Although Smyth incorporates the same motives throughout the work, t he significance that she places on each motive changes among the movements, allowing for the variety exhibi ted by her melodies and rhythms. 97 101
148 Figure 4 32. Sonata in C minor second movement, mm. 1 4. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. Figure 4 33. Sonata in C minor second movement, mm. 18 25. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. Figure 4 34. Sonata in C minor second movement, mm. 30 41. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. PM2 PM2 PM1 PM1 PM2 PM2 PM2 PM2 PM2 PM2 PM2 PM2 PM2 18 30 36
149 Figure 4 35. Sonata in C minor second movement, mm. 63 64, and m. 71. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. Harmonic design: The second movement provides further evidence of harmonic ambiguity I n this movement Smyth experimented with the definition of a tonic or key area as a stab ilizing harmonic center by adding sevenths and ninths, avoiding the dominant, or tonicizing distant keys and thus undermining the tonal center. At the larger harmonic level, various tonal centers and modulations create contrast between sections A and B Th e key signature is F minor, but the A section is set in C major ; yet the use of added sevenths create further harmonic ambiguity ( see mm. 1 4 of Figure 4 36) At a mor e de tail ed structural l e v e l, t he phrases and their cadences e nhan ce th e harmoni c uncertai nty The A section i s comprised of three four bar phrases. The antecedent phrase resolves to a B 7 chord; t he consequent phrase ends with a plagal cadence on C but the melodic idea continues immediately in the piano part, and the next four bars pr oceed to tonicize the D b major chord. This harmony later acts as a VI chord leading into the A 1 section. We finally hear an F major chord in F minor, demonstrating another example of mode mixture (see m. 18 of Ex. 4 36) The return of the A section is marked by the return to the C 7 chords. In th e first e ight ee n m e asur e s Smyth has y e t to e stablish a de finitiv e tonal ce nt e r. PM2 PM2 63 71
150 Figure 4 36. Sonata in C minor second movement, mm. 1 18 British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. This chromaticism continues in the l ndler as the music makes its way back to C major. Between the F major harmony at the beginning of the A 1 section and the return of the A section, brief tonicizations of B major and F # minor occur surrounded by chromatically derived chords that elude functional harmonic analysis. The enharmonic respelling of G b as F # at m. 26 in Figure 4 37 creates the opportunity for a new harmonic direction. This harmonic turn is further emphasized by the cello line which plays G b E b C followed by F # D # B natural. The half step adjustment on the third beat confirms the move to B major in m. 28. And yet, B major is quickly abandoned in this volatile C: I 7 I 7 -7 iv 6/4 iv 6/4 I I IV 6/4 IV/N 6 V/N 6 N 6 vii I F: I 1 7 13
151 Figure 4 37. Sonata in C minor second movement, mm. 24 44. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. transition section. As Figure 4 37 shows, mm. 31 35 hovers in a chromatic ambiguity between D # and G # motive PM2 is three pitches that circle a minor t hird, such as the scale degrees b in the first movement or in this movement. In this passage, however, Smyth 6/5 B b f # 7 B 7 B 7 f # # d # 4/2 [ G # 6/5 e # 4/3 f # 6 G # 7 ] C # 4/2 f 6/4 6/5 4/3 4/2 C Large scale use of PM2 G b =F # 24 30 36 42
152 applies the motive to her harmonic progression. In m. 34 37 the harmoni es progress as G # E # F # G # embodying the motive PM2. Since the progression returns to its original harmony, in this case the distantly related G #7 the effect is static and delays the expected forward motion set up by the original move to B major in m. 27 Only in m. 38 do the diminished harmonies finally lead to a cadence, now in the original tonal center of C. Conversely, the trio section is quite diatonic. Smyth maintains either F major or C major tonal centers and uses only tonic, dominant, and seconda ry dominant harmonies. This respite of diatonic harmonies reinforces the dramatic and chromatic nature of the surrounding l ndler Rhythmic design: Rhythm continues to play a pivotal role in this movement, as it did in the first movement. There are three r hythmic devices that draw the attention of the listener in the l ndler : the hemiola, the connecting rhythm, and the Scotch snap. admirer of Brahms. In this movement, one exam ple occurs in the A section at m. 80 where slurs across the bar lines turn a triple meter into a duple meter (Figure 4 38). In the very next measure, Smyth undermines the bar line further with descending arpeggios in a group of five eighth notes instead of six. Finally, in m. 8 3 groupings of six eighth notes return. This four measure passage presents a metric shift from 4/8 to 5/8 to 6/8, creating rhythmic tension before a restatement of the melodic material from the opening lndler The effect is that of fo rward motion, literally pushing the music ahead by ignoring the bar line.
153 Figure 4 38. Sonata in C minor second movement, mm.80 8 3 British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. g rhythm, already found in the first movement. The main theme does not begin with an anacrusis but instead uses the final beat of the measure to push the music across the downbeat, seen in Figure 4 39. Figure 4 39. Sonata in C minor second movement mm. 1 4. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. This means of propulsion is also the primary rhythmic trait in section D of the trio, marked by arrows in the example below (Figure 4 40). Smyth is effectively using the eighth notes o n the third beat throughout this movement to instill a restless character that is likewise found in the harmonic language. chamber works. Her string quartets of the 1870s conta in this rhythm, as does the slow movement of the Sonata Op. 7 discussed in chapter five. This unexpected rhythm, seen in m. 67 of Figure 4 41, stands out in her music because it reverses the prevailing rhythmic quality of the entire work. 80
154 Fig ure 4 40. Sonata in C minor second movement, mm. 97 110. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. Figure 4 41. Sonata in C minor second movement, mm. 63 67. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. As a final no te on this particular movement a lighter texture not usually found in In the above example, the cello plays a drone supporting the two voice counterpoint in the piano part. The texture is quite a bit thinner in this section compared to the rest of the work, and it presents one of the more unusual moments in S 41 ). The octaves and multi note chords are gone, and the harmonies are distinctly diatonic. Although it is consi dered typical for the trio to have a lighter texture and possibly a more playful mood, this particular passage does not bear the strength or seriousness often found i works of this period, even of other trio sections; it hints at her later pieces of the 1920s. 97 101 106 63
155 Andante The third movement is a theme and variations in the key of B b major. The two phrase theme is developed melodically, texturally, and rhythmically through four clearly labeled variations. Two large sections based on previous thematic ma terial act as an extended and thickly textured coda. Of all four movements, this movement adheres most closely to the traditional form, as demonstrated in the chart in Table 4 3. Thematic Design : The theme of the third movement comprises two repeated six m easure phrases (Figure 4 42). Unlike the first movement, the climactic points of the two phrases occur at the same respective beat, not quite halfway through each phrase (a proportion of 0.44). Smyth seems to be experimenting more with melodic structure in each successive movement by shifting the climactic point of the melody. On the other hand, the countermelody in the piano part does have an arch structure, although the climactic point is not significantly altered by this. The first phrase, solidly in the key of B b major, continues the overall cantabile character of the work with long tones in the cello. The more rhythmically active second phrase, however, travels briefly through C minor and E b major harmonies before moving back to the tonic. The first phr ase is structurally very similar to the first two movements; a half note in the first part of the measures followed by shorter note durations in the remaining beats. Each variation of the third movement maintains the basic structure and harmonic center of the theme while presenting an altered version of it, thus conforming to the standard model of variation form. Thirds and sixths are the most common sonorities and create a unified quality with the first two movements, although the texture in the piano part changes from variation to variation. Variation I presents a countermelody in the
156 Table 4 3 Formal diagram of third movement, Sonata in C minor theme and variation s form. Theme Var. I Var. II Var. III Var. IV A B Phrase a b a b a b a b a b a b a Key B b B b B b D G B b B b G B b b b D b C f D b B b B b B b e B b B b Mm. #s 1 6 7 12 13 18 19 24 25 31 32 37 38 44 45 51 52 58 59 64 65 78 79 96
157 accompaniment but maintains the overall character of the theme. A rhythmic crescendo increases the tension in Variation II as chromatically moving triplets appear in the accompaniment. Then in Variation III, Smyth briefly switches to the minor mode as the second theme motive is presented in an inverted form The most differing variation is the fourth, as the rhythm of the piano becomes an oscillating sixteenth note figure. The containing an ascending eighth note line in the first measure (Figure 4 43 ). The final part of the movement emerges out of Variation IV. The sixteenth note figures extend into two large sections of the movement which are not marked as continues the sixteenth notes in the upper register of the piano over an octave bass accompaniment. An eighth note cello line adds excitement and contrast from the earlier variations over the thick chords in the piano part. The B section presents a new twist to the nature of the work; octaves appear in the piano part and a final drawn out statement of the main theme in the cello part concludes the work (Figure 4 44). Motivic design: The melodic and rhythmic motives from the first and second movements are again present in this movement. The rhythmic motive RM1 appears in the third and seventh measures and in modified form in m. 5. PM1, a melodic motive comprised of three notes in conjunct motion, is heard in mm. 8 and 10; PM2 is found in mm. 5 and 8 (Figure 4 45). First theme motives are heard in Variation I V, despite the change in character. PM2 occurs at mm. 52 53 in the cello line, RM1 is found in m. 54, and PM1 occurs in m. 55 56 (Figure 4 46).
158 Figure 4 42. Sonata in C minor third movement, mm. 1 12. British Library Board. All Rights Rese rved. Add. MS 45949. Figure 4 43. Sonata in C minor third movement, mm. 52 57. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. Phrase b Phrase a 7 52 55
159 Figure 4 44. Sonata in C minor third movement, mm. 73 90 British Library Board. All Rights Reserved Add. MS 45949. 73 77 82 87
160 Figure 4 45. Sonata in C minor third movement, mm. 1 12. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. Figure 4 46. Sonata in C minor third movement, mm. 52 57. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. RM1 RM1 PM1 PM2 PM1 PM1 PM2 PM2 RM1 RM1 PM1 7 52 55
161 Harmonic design : H armonic ambiguity also plays a significant role in the third movement. Even in the original statement of the theme, the tonic area of the second phrase is not clear until the final cade nce in m. 12 ( Figure 4 47 ). This motion from ambiguity to clarity is also found in Variations I, III, and IV. For example, the first phrase of Variation I progresses from the key of B b (I) to the key of D major (III), which then serves as the dominant of G major (VI). The second phrase of Variation I begins in G major before modulating back to B b major (Figure 4 48). Thus, while the phrase may begin in a distant key or on a non diatonic harmony, the melody always returns to the tonal center. al style is frequently an avoidance of perfect authentic cadences enhancing the overall ambiguous nature The final section is the best example of this trait. The music builds through ascending pitches and a forte dynamic level to the climax in t he second system of Figure 4 49 Although tonic is reached in the measure immediately following the highest point in the melody, indicated by the arrow in the second system, the harmonic progression is only a plagal cadence, IV I 6 An authentic cadence occurs two m easures later at a piano dynamic level as the melody descends to The final measures are a prolongation of the tonic and a quiet resolution to the movement (see Figure 4 49) In this movement, Smyth adhered to the tradition of the theme and variation while also demonstrating her ability to develop her ideas and transcend the standard form. Compared to the surrounding movements, however, the third movement is relatively stable. Brief modulations to nearby keys and minor modes provide tension but do not stray far from the melodic and harmonic parameters of the opening theme.
162 Figure 4 4 7 Use of a perfect authentic cadence (PAC). Sonata in C minor third movement,mm. 7 12. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45 949. Figure 4 48 Example of imperfect authentic cadence (IAC). Sonata in C minor third movement, mm. 19 24 British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. B b 7 /ii ii V/IV IV V 7 vi IV 6 I 6/ 4 V I G: I 6 iv V (sus.) I vii 6/5 i 6 B b :vi 6 I 7 I PAC IAC 7 19 22
163 Figure 4 49 Sonata in C minor third movement, mm. 73 90 British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. Rhythmic design : The use of the connecting rhythm as a driving rhythmic element is as much of a factor in this slow movement as in the surrounding movements. In this case, the main theme and its ac com paniment are more regular than the other movements with fewer instances of dotted rhythms and a greater use of straight eighth notes. However, the eighth note at the end of m. 3 and the three eighth notes in m. 5 in Plagal cadence PAC 73 77 82 87
164 the cello part are an example of how rhythmic idea even in the most subtle ways. The second phrase of the theme is more rhythmically active in the cello part, and the piano part engages in greater dialogue with the cello rter notes ( Figure 4 50 ). Figure 4 50 Sonata in C minor third movement, mm. 1 12. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. The subtle use of rhythmic elements from the theme in all the variations and the final sections is c learly seen in the examples given above. Allegro con fuoco The final sonata rondo movement re establishes C minor as the overriding tonal area, as shown in Table 4 4. The principal theme is again set in C minor, while the second theme this time in G minor After a repeat of the A section, the C section (acting as the development) travels through various harmonies instead of maintaining a related tonal center such as the subdominant or submediant. The A and B sections return in the tonic C minor. A meter sh ift in the coda switches the time signature from 3/4 to 6/8, 7
165 launching the two players to an accelerated end. This clearly defined structure provides stability and closure to a work that has emphasized harmonic ambiguity. Table 4.4 Formal diagram of four th movement, Sonata in C minor sonata rondo form Period A B A C A B A/coda Theme PT trans. ST trans. PT Development PT trans. ST trans. PT Key Cm Gm G Cm Various Cm Cm Cm/C Mm. #s 1 16 17 30 31 48 49 54 55 70 71 133 134 49 150 63 164 81 181 91 192 207 Thematic design : The previous three movements have either treated themes equally, as in the first movement, or the themes were monothematic, as in the second and third movement s In some res pects, the equal treatment of themes was contrary to nineteenth century theory and compositional practices. At the end of the nineteenth century when Smyth was studying composition and theory, musicians and theorists considered the principal theme in sonat a form, often characterized as rhythmic, regularly accented, loud, and clearly articulated as masculine while the secondary theme, commonly a lyrical, legato, and soft was interpreted as feminine These theorists wrote treatises and taught courses that p rovided a model for musicians that used this gendered idea of themes. Smyth, however, seems to have avoided this stereotype until the fourth movement of this work, gra nting all her previous principal themes a static, lyrical quality and her second themes a n active, dramatic character. In fact, uncommon in the music of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, including in the music o f one of her favorite composers, Beethoven. Char les Rosen notes that in the
166 intense than the first subjects, 271 thereby undermining the 19 th century assumptions eemed to ignore the principle of nineteenth century theorists. The themes of the Finale however, clearly portray these thematic stereotypes. The principal theme in the final sonata rondo movement is quite distinct from its counterparts in earlier movemen ts both rhythmically and intervallically. It is comprised of two four bar antecedent and consequent phrases; the first phrase cadences on the dominant and the second phrase cadences on the tonic, both very typical harmonic progressions for a classically mo deled melody ( Figure 4 51 ). Figure 4 51 Sonata in C minor fourth movement, mm. 1 8. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. The melodic line is more angular than previous themes in this work, with an opening octave jum p followed soon after by several sixteenth notes. For the first time in this composition, the rhythms and leaps create a strong, accented melody that might have been perceived in the nineteenth century as masculine 272 Unlike the first and third 271 R osen, The c lassical s tyle 70. 272 Several articles have also discussed the genderizing of themes in sonata form. For further 399; Marcia Citron, Gender and the m usical c anon Rosen, The c lassical s tyle 81. Phrase a Phrase b 6
167 movements, but similar to the l ndler this theme has a descending melodic structure, and the climactic highpoint occurs at the end of the phrase (a proportion of 0.917). The secondary theme of the last movement, w h ile slower and more lyrical, maintains a similar ch aracter to the principal theme. Despite the markings of m eno mosso and gebunden the angular nature of the theme closely resembles the opening idea ( Figure 4 52 ). The secondary theme also maintains the propulsive quality of the movement. Finally, the struc ture of th is theme parallels the principal theme, with the climactic moment occurring on the final note of the phrase. Figure 4 52 Sonata in C minor fourth movement, mm. 31 38. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. Motivic design: The cyclical nature of this work is confirmed by a comparison of the motives in this movement to earlier movements. The theme and its accompaniment are clearly grounded in motives from the first movement. The rhythmic motive, RM2, is heard in the second measure of th e principal theme, only in a diminished form. Smyth has also combined motives in new ways, such as the combination of PM1 and RM2 from the first movement ( Figure 4 53 ). Motives from the first movement are also found in the second theme. PM1, PM2, and RM1 are both present in th e following example (Figure 4 54 ). In this movement, Smyth has also relied more exclusively on motives to serve as transitions. For example, the transition to the second theme concludes with a repea t of the combined PM1/RM2 motive, as shown in the Figure below (Figure 4 55 ). Phrase a Phrase b 31 36
168 Figure 4 53 Sonata in C minor fourth movement, mm. 1 5. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. Figure 4 54 Sonata in C m inor fourth movement, mm. 31 35. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. Figure 4 55 Sonata in C minor fourth movement, mm. 28 30. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. Harmonic design: S myth is more conservative harmonically in this final movement, maintaining the expectations of sonata rondo form. The opening A section is in C minor, and the transition suggests a move to the dominant for the second section. Instead, the music stays in C minor with only a brief move to G major just before the return of C minor in the A section. The other notable harmonic motion occurs at the end RM2 PM1 RM1 PM2 PM1 RM2 PM1 PM1 RM2 31 28
169 piece in a long tradition of works that begin in the minor mode and end in the major mode, especially when the key is C minor/major. In this example, though, the trajectory from minor to major was not a move that occurred over the course of the whole work but one that happened in e ach movement. The gradual modulation from minor to major is a diatonic quality. The principal theme i s diatonic; the two phrases clearly cadence in C minor. Secondary dominants color the music but do not direct it away from the tonic. After sixteen measures, the music is still in the tonic key, manifesting a stability and devotion to the tonal center that did not occur in the earlier movements. A key change in m. 31 continues the eventual move to G minor (Figure 4 5 6 ). The second theme is more harmonically unstable than the first theme. The eight measure phrase can be divided melodically into two parts, bu t the harmonic progression reveals the theme to be a single, extended idea. The V I cadence is not heard until mm. 38 39 (Figure 4 57). the harmonic relationship among the movements; the har monic progression moves by fourths in m m 33 dominant in m. 38, resolving only through the continuing piano line in m m 38 39. This ases are elided, cadences are elusive, and resolution to the tonic is delayed and undermined through harmonic the movement by fourths. This element is explored even fur ther in the development section.
170 Figure 4 56 Sonata in C minor fourth movement, mm. 1 16. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. c: i V/iv iv 6 V 7 /iv iv V i V i V i i V/iv iv V/III III i iv 6 ii 6 i 6/4 V i i 6/4 V i iv 6/4 V/V i V 6 G:[V/V V I I I 7 ] V 7 i iv 6 V/III III i iv ii 6 i 6/4 V 7 i 6 12
171 Figure 4 57 Sonata in C minor fourth movement, mm. 31 39. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. Section C of this sonata rondo form modulates through several keys, many more than the development in the first movement ( Figure 4 58 ). The first part continues the key of C minor for five measures with a brief tonicizat ion of F major before modulating by thirds from the D b minor to G major. The harmonies then quickly move chromatically to G major and A b major before settling on A major. In the very next passage, another example ws the harmonies to shift between E b and B major, which then proceed on to E minor and back to C major. This passage is made possible through the use of accidentals without regard to a tonal center; the constantly shifting harmonies render a Roman numeral analysis irrelevant. F requent chromatic alterations and enharmonic spellings music g: i ii 4/2 I IV V 7 /III III 6/4 vi 6/5 v 6/4 V 7 /V V 7 V 7 i 31 36
172 Figure 4 58 Sonata in C minor fourth movement, mm. 82 92. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. Rhythmic design: Supporting the melody and harmony of the work the as Dale termed it, 273 is one of the music obvious tr aits and best described as an en ergetic, driving rhythmic qualit y The rhythmic element that truly pushes the mus ic forward and creates relentlessness more than harmony or voice leading is the frequent use of the connecting rhythm. In this work it is most audible in the last movement as there is always a rhythmic move to the downbeat in the melody 273 d B b 6 e b B 6 e C 6 g 4/2 C 6 g 4/2 C 6/5 b b6 7 C 7 G 6 c A b 6 d b A 6 A 6 82 86 90
17 3 A strong, rhy thmic theme opens the sonata rondo form built out of smaller note values No quarter note or half note can be found in the entire theme. Designated Allegro con fuoco the four measure phrase contains two contrasting motives which unify the entire movemen t ( Figure 4 59 ) The first is an eighth note rhythm over the distance of an octave, and the second is an eighth note followed by two sixteenth notes. This rhythmic mot ion carries through the entire f inale. Even the slower second theme of the B section cont ains a rhythmic motive from the first theme while maintaining a vocal quality as discussed above (Figure 4 60). A presence of quarter notes and half notes, as well as the gebunden marking, distinguishes this melody from the principle theme. The developmen t (section C of the rondo), con energica invokes the rhythmic qualities of the earlier themes while traversing a variety of key areas. This rhythmic ambiguity intensifies as the movement progresses, as the musical is. For example, beginning in m. 93, a syncopated eighth note rhythm is slurred across the bar line, obfuscating the beat (Figure 4 61). Then, the 3/4 meter takes on the qualities of 2/4 and 6/8 at differing points. Specifically, two measures before rehear notes are beamed as triplets, anticipating the shift to a 6/8 meter in the coda. The coda then presents the initial motive of the original theme, but in 6/8 time while the eighth notes remain equal, transforming the theme into a s wirling dance (Figure 4 62). It is not until m. 194 that the time signature becomes apparent to the listener. This rhythmic shift drives the piece to its final cadence.
174 Figure 4 59 Sonata in C minor fourth movement, mm. 1 5. British Library Boar d. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. Figure 4 60 Sonata in C minor fourth movement, mm. 31 39. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. Figure 4 61 Sonata in C minor fourth movement, mm. 93 97. British Library Boar d. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. 31 36 93
175 Figure 4 62 Sonata in C minor fourth movement, mm. 19 2 195. British Library Board. All Rights Reserved. Add. MS 45949. Summary The above descriptive analysis has highlighted the significant aspects of this wo style, one in which expression is reserved and yet full of tension, is the result of her har monic language where chromatic harmonies lie next to diatonic harmonies in a manner often unexpected. This work also demonstrates her adoption and adaptation of 18 th and 19 th century musical forms and conventions, demonstrating her ability as a composer a nd the effectiveness of her studies with Reinecke and Herzogenberg. her next project, the Trio in D minor Trio in D minor for Violin, Cello and Piano In August of 1 880, just over three months after writing the Sonata in C minor Smyth finished the score and parts of the Trio in D minor 274 This work is similar to the previous sonata. There are four movements, each of which is written in a standard form. Motives also se rve to unify the piece, but in this work the significant interval is the 274 Smyth Trio in D minor for violin, cello and piano (1880), preface. 192
176 fourth rather than the interval of a third as in the Sonata in C minor The melodies are again lyrical, and the contrasting nature of the themes is the result of varying degrees of a rticulation, dynamics, and direction. to this work, however, is more linear and subtle than in the Sonata in C minor The introduction of expansive gestures combined with motives from the Sonata in C minor establishes the Trio in D minor individual identity while also revealing it to be related to the earlier work. There are also significant differences between this work and the Sonata in C minor Phrases have irregular lengths, rhythmic combinations are more complicated, and musical idea s exhibit greater variety and contrast, which the following analysis will were progressing. Overall, it is a better crafted work than the earlier Sonata in C minor Alleg ro The first movement of the Trio in D minor is clearly in so nata allegro form with principal and secondary themes stated in the tonic and dominant respectively, demonstrated by the chart in Table 4 5. One significant difference between this first movement and the first movement of the Sonata in C minor is the early turn to chromaticism in this work. T he first transition section in both the exposition and the recapitulation traverses three distant harmon ic areas in a parallel manner. Unlike the Sonata in C minor however, the development of this movement treats the themes and transitional material as whole entities instead of primarily exploring the motives. This in a textb ook fashion. In the Trio in D minor however, she experiments more with the ideas and harmonies within the confines of the form than in the earlier composition.
177 Table 4 5 Formal diagram of first movement, Trio in D minor s onata allegro form Expositi on Development Recapitulation Coda Theme PT trans. ST trans. trans. PT ST PT trans. ST trans. ST Key Dm E b /C # /E A ~ ~ Em ~Dm Dm A b /F # /A D D Dm Mm. #s 1 22 22 37 38 71 72 80 81 109 110 17 118 141 142 63 163 78 179 212 213 24 225 238
178 Thematic design: Smyth applies the same organic melodic style found in the earlier Sonata in C minor to this w ork. The principal theme of the first movement sounds like it grows from a single pitch in the cello line and eases into the melody. The cantabile quality is reinforced by the imitative entrance of the violin in m. 5 ( Figure 4 63 ). The two instruments then present a duet, swirling around each other, and already developing the principal theme. In particular, the counterpoint between the violin and cello explores the main motives and establishes the tonal setting of the piece. Unlike the slightly earlier work the theme of the Trio in D minor does not adhere to the model of a Classical melody. Instead of balanced phrases with a distinct melodic climax, this theme three measures The ascension to a higher pitch and a possible climax is undermined Even the highest note of the phrase in m. 9 does not fulfill its role as the pinnacle of the melody In fact, the entire opening section of the movement is a series of overlapping phrases and dovetailing entrances of all three instruments. Self contained balanced phrases do not appear until the secondary theme. As noted in the Sonata in C minor second variety while also incorporating the main musical ideas of the composition. In this work, the secondary theme of the first movement contr asts directly with the principal theme through distinct four measure phrases, as oppo sed to the overlapping phrases of the princip al theme (Figure 4 275 Here the second 275
179 theme is stronger and mor e declamatory than the princip al theme, with regular rhythms and a conjunct line. The secondary theme further challenges the Classical paradigm of melodic structure by undermining the climax of the phrase. Figure 4 63 Trio in D minor first movement, principal theme, mm. 1 9. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. Figure 4 64 Trio in D minor first movement, secondary theme, mm. 35 42. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. Phrase a Phrase b Phrase a Phrase b 35 40
180 Each phrase contains two possible climactic mome nts, although the second is more like an echo or an after shock than the true climax of the melody. In the first phrase, the highest and most important note is the D in m. 36; the higher E that sounds after this in m. 38 prevents the phrase from attaining a sense of resolution. This melodic idea repeats in a similar fashion in the second phrase, with the climax occurring on the E in m. 40, only to be surpassed by the F# in m. 42. In both the principal and secondary themes, Smyth is already demonstrating a c reative freedom that was not apparent in the earlier work. The sonata allegro form also contains a closing theme, again a trait found in the Sonata in C minor The closing theme adds a new rhythmic element to the movement, a followed by a syncopated acc ompaniment only on offbeats. This phrase also begins on beat two (m. 72) in the bass register of the piano, which is then repeated two octaves higher ( Figure 4 65 ). In the first ending, this idea is continued in the cello and then the violin. In the second ending, however, these two rhythmic ideas form the basis for the first section of the development (mm. 81 102). In both endings, the phrase cadences in the piano on the pitch A. This theme is the only theme in this movement that adheres to the Classical i deal of melodic structure, with the climactic point occurring just over two thirds of the way through the phrase. Figure 4 65 Trio in D minor first movement, closing theme, mm. 72 75. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. 72
181 Unlike the deve lopment sections in the Sonata in C minor the development sections of the outer movements in the Trio in D minor treat the main themes independently instead of combining them. In both the first and fourth movements, transitional material is d eveloped alon gside the principal and secondary themes. The closing theme of the first movement also serves as a transition into the development. After a lengthy imitative section, the principal theme is presented over a triplet eighth note pattern in the piano accompan iment. Fragments of the second theme lead into the recapitulation. Motivic design: Smyth continues to use motives to relate her themes, but the motives that unify this work are not as clearly delineated as in the previous work, nor are they as rhythmicall y oriented. One motive in particular from the Sonata in C minor also appears in this composition: the appoggiatura motive, in this case with a modified pitch framework of Rather than focus ing on the interval of a third the interval of a fourth rules over many of the motives, themes and harmonies found in the Trio in D minor In this movement, Smyth has combined and deconstructed the motives in a manner not explored in the earlier comp osition. Much of the work can be defined by the first seven notes in the cello line. Two smaller fragments of this idea reappear with enough consistency to be distinguished individually. These motives arise in all four movements. The first pitch motive ( PM1) represents a downward gesture, with the scale degrees ( Figure 4 66 ). With the scale degrees and a motion of a step in one direction followed by a leap in the opposite direction, PM2 becomes increasingly familiar. Similar to its predecessor in the Sonata in C minor PM2 is often modified and extended.
182 Figure 4 6 6 Trio in D minor first movement, mm. 1 4. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. Although PM2 first appears as part of PM1, the repeat of this idea in m. 4 establishes its individuality. The significance of this motive a ppears inverted and in retrograde form in the dialogue between the cello and violin in mm. 7 8 ( Figure 4 67 ). The second theme differs from the principal theme through its initial conjunct motion, but it also concludes with PM2, hinting at a possible monot hematic interpretation (Figure 4 68 ). Figure 4 67 Trio in D minor first movement, mm. 5 9. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. Figure 4 68 Trio in D minor first movement, mm. 39 42. Roberton Publications. Repr oduced by permission. PM1 PM2 PM2 PM2 PM2 PM2 PM2 5
183 Despite the differences in rhythm and chara cter between the principal and secondary themes, the two melodies are connected by the motion of PM2. Harmonic design: Smyth continues to develop her harmonic language in this movement. Mode mixture in particular becomes more than a colorful device; it is also a means by which Smyth creates ambiguity and opportunity in her music. The tonal area is established in the first five measures by a i vii i motion over a D pedal tone and the tonic dominant cadence discussed above (p. 178 179 ) Smyth, however, begins the development process in the fifth measure of the theme with the introduction of a C natural in the bass and the en trance of the violin ( Figure 4 69 ). Figure 4 69 Trio in D minor first movement, principal theme, mm. 1 9. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. i v ii D i V 6 i
184 The harmonies supporting the next several measures of thematic development are mostly secondary dominants, yet it is not until after the statement of the principal theme by the piano that a true modulation occurs. Hints of G minor (iv), E b major (N 6 ), and then C # major (#VII) are heard across twenty measures before a sudden appearance of E natural signals the E dominant harmony (V/ V) that prepares the secondary theme in A major (V). The use of strict sonata structure actually grants Smyth some freedom with regard to phrasing and cadential style. Her technique of avoiding cadences in the Tr io in D minor relies partially on chord progressions and partially on phrasing style. The first cadence on tonic is a weak one; it is a V 6 chord resolving to tonic with the cello moving from scale degree to a nd the bass moving from the scale degree to (see mm. 4 5 in Figure 4 69 ). Immediate motion away from the tonic harmony undermines any sense of resolution at the end of the first phrase, heard in the ascending cello melody and the descending motion in the piano line. This weak cadence with an addition of another instrument creates the impression of no cadence. The first real sense of resolution arrives in m. 14, after both instruments have stated the theme (Fig ure 4 70) The piano then takes the principal theme and accompanies it with arpeggios similar to the first measure of the movement. Also in this movement, Smyth incorporates a concerto technique for her treatment of themes and harmonic areas in this compo sition with multiple instruments. The two string instruments present the theme initially and do not modulate away from the tonic. However, when the piano states the theme, the modulation to the dominant begins, similar to the harmonic relationships and fun ctions of a double exposition in a
185 concerto ( Figure 4 70 ). This technique is unique to this piece, a compositional distinction she made between sonatas for a two instruments and sonatas for three. d: i VI 6 v 4/2 I VI V 6/5 V 4/2 /iv iv g: i 6 V 6/ 5 I V 4/ 3 iv Figure 4 70 Trio in D minor first movement, principal theme, mm. 14 20. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. The principal thematic section further avoids any sense of an authentic cadence by overlapping the phrases of the different instruments. For example, at m. 54 the cello and piano cadence in A major, but the violin plays the pitches E to B at this cadence, adding the interval of a second to what should be a tonic chord, and then continuing immediately on from that ( Figure 4 71 ). The cadence is undermined by motion in the string parts, preventing resolution and adding tension to the work. Figure 4 71 Trio in D minor first movement, mm. 51 54. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. With the secondary theme, the order of instruments is switched, but the harmonic convention stays the same. The statement of the secondary theme by the A: V I
186 piano part remains in the dominant key area. Not until a subse quent statement of the theme by the violin and cello do the harmonies suggest other key areas and a transition to a closing theme or the development. In the case of the secondary theme, the appearance of a C # 7 in m. 66 creates the possibility of a return t o the tonic, allowing the exposition to repeat or to move on to the development ( Figure 4 72 ). The example pre dominant chord, found in mm. 63, 65, and 68. The Neapolitan harmony p resents the harmonic option of maintaining the current tonal center or modulating to an alternate key area. In this case, she chooses to stay in A major, the dominant key area. Figure 4 72 Trio in D minor first movement, mm. 63 70. Roberton Publi cations. Reproduced by permission. As Table 4 5 shows on pg. 1 8 3 the recapitulation closely follows the harmonic structure of the exposition. Whereas in the exposition the harmonic movement in the A: V 7 N 6 V 7 I 7 I N 6 7 /iv 7 /iv iv N 6 V 7 IV V 4/2 I 6 IV
187 transition shifted from E b to C # to E, in the recapitulat ion, the harmonies in the transition shift from A b to F # to A, setting up the cadence to D minor at the second theme. The sonata allegro form and the sanctity of the model for her. Her treatment of this Classical form stays with her throughout her career. Rhythmic design: Smyth continues to incorporate nineteenth century rhythmic qualities in this work including 2 against 3 rhythms, hemiolas, and metric modulations Unlike the Sonata in C minor the first movement of the Trio in D minor does not use all of these elements in the first movement. In fact, the movement is rhythmically straightforward. Only during the second statement of the secondary theme and the transition to the closing theme is there clear rhythmic variety. Beginning in m. 54 in Figure 4 73 triplets are introduced in the piano part while duple eighth notes continue in the violin part. This 2 against 3 rhythm adds variety and tension to the movement just before the close of the exposition. Ironically, the development does not use this tension. Figure 4 7 3 Trio in D minor first movement, mm. 51 54. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. The rhythmic nature of the closing theme has greater force in the development than either of the previous themes. Characterized by a dotted rhythm on the fourth beat of the measure, the rhythm of the closing theme is the most active of all three themes.
188 This rhythmic element plays the greatest role in the developm ent. Not only does the theme begin the development proper, the offbeat syncopation in the accompaniment is the prevailing rhythmic idea for the first twenty one measures of a sixty measure development section ( Figure 4 74 ). The dotted rhythm of the closing theme highlights the rhythmic propulsion discussed in the previous section. The sixteenth notes in m. 82 84 and 89 90 create an obvious forward motion. Less obvious is the same technique used in an a ugmented manner in the principal theme. Figure 4 74 Trio in D minor first movement, development section, mm. 81 92. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. The rhythm stated in the principal theme as early as m. 3 has the same effect over a greater expanse of time and with the s ubtle c haracter of the principal theme. This
189 constant movement into the next musical idea also explains why the sudden appearance of half notes in m. 134 has such a dramatic affect: the rhythmic propulsion across the bar line has temporarily ceased (Figure 4 75). Another instance of half notes occurring on the strong beats does not occur until the end of the movement. The resulting perpetual motion effect creates a sense of urgency in the music. Figure 4 75 Trio in D minor first movement, mm. 132 141. Rob erton Publications. Reproduced by permission. The final section is marked Meno mosso a common designation for the codas of Sonata in C minor the first, second and third movements all end with a M eno mosso designation. By slowing do wn the tempo and drawing out the emotion, Smyth is able to lead one movement into the next without needing an attacca designation but also without allowing the tension of the music to be prematurely resolved, thus preserving the level of anxiety in the mus ic.
190 A ndante The second movement is an Andante theme and variations in D, the parallel major. 276 The opening theme and subsequent variations are each twenty four measures in length subdivided into phrases of six measures. The six variations are not specifica lly marked; double bar lines delineate the distinct variations. The middle variations shift between the dominant and the tonic minor, creating harmonic contrast and developmental middle section. Table 4 6. Formal diagram of second movement, Trio in D mino r theme and variations form Theme Variation I Variation II Variation III Variation IV Variation V Variation VI (Coda) Key D D A d A d D D Mm. #s 1 24 25 48 49 66 67 90 91 114 115 137 138 161 Smyth explores varying styles and treatments of the them e as well as different modes and characters, while retaining the structure and key area of the theme and first variation, as would be expected of a conventional treatment of the form. Following the initial statement of the theme, the subsequent measures p resent an extension of the theme with the same texture, instrumentation, and harmonic and rhythmic ideas. Variation I shifts the rhythmic nature to triple instead of duple and adds a trill to the theme. Variatio n II Scherzando is imitative in nature. Thi s particular variation has repeated sections instead of written out repetitions. An emphasis on the offbeat in the piano accompaniment adds to the jocular nature of this variation. Variation III (molto legato) is the first variation in D minor. The cello b egins with a similar melodic line to the 276 Smyth Trio in D minor for violin, cello and piano (1880), preface.
191 previous variation, but the staccato articulation has been replaced by a legato articulation and solemn character. The syncopation has also been replaced by regular rhythms. Of all the variations, Variation I V truly captures the listener: it is the most static and somber passage in the entire composition, with long tones and a gradually evolving melody ( Figure 4 76 ). The strings alternate with the piano, which is relegated to a supporting role here. Figure 4 76 T rio in D minor second movement, mm. 91 97. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. Variation V a return to tonic major, is an exercise in polyrhythms, specifically 2 against 3, as the piano presents a triplet pattern supporting eighth notes in the strings. The coda then begins with sixteenth note arpeggios in the piano part supporting the statement of the theme. The texture quickly simplifies, slowing down to repeated eighth note thirds in the accompaniment. The dotted rhythm motive is presente d several times as the movement softly and slowly draws to a close. Thematic design: Smyth has created greater variety in her principle themes in the Trio in D minor than the Sonata in C minor The theme of the second movement for example, opens with a do tted anacrusis and a leap of a fourth, the main motivic idea of the theme that will be developed throughout the movement. This theme is also an
192 example of phrasing similar to Brahms, with a 1+1+4 bar phrase grouping ( Figure 4 77 ). This melody also demonstr ates the ways in which Smyth was learning to compose beyond the classical models of form while adhering to its basic principles. The theme, shown above, is a excellent example of the Golden Mean in music (a proportion of 0.618). The climax of the melody, t he A in m. 4, occurs on beat 11 of an 18 beat phrase, or a proportion of 0.611. Of all her themes discussed thus far, this theme, in a decidedly Classical form and style, follows the ideal of a perfect Classical theme, with clearly defined antecedent and c onsequent phrases and melodic climax two thirds of the way through the theme. Figure 4 77 Trio in D minor second movement, mm. 1 6. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. Motivic design: Smyth treats the main motives in a more subtle fashion in this movement compared to the first movement. In m. 7 the downward arpeggiated motion recalls the opening figure of the first movement (PM1), but it is the gesture that is familiar more than scale degrees or intervals ( Figure 4 78 ). Figure 4 78 Trio in D minor second movement, mm. 7 12. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. PM1 7
193 PM1 also appears at the beginning of Variation I, in the anacrusis to measure twenty six ( Figure 4 79 ). The second pitch motive from th e first movement, PM2, is only heard at the cadence of the theme in m. 6 in a sli ghtly modified form (Figure 4 80 ). Variation II of the second movement also incorporates PM2 as part of its subtle treat ment of the theme (Figure 4 81 ). Similar uses of these two motives occur throughout the movement, but thematic treatment plays a greater role in the overall conception of the work than motivic treatment. Figure 4 79 Trio in D minor second movement, mm. 20 30. Roberton Publications. Reproduced b y permission. Figure 4 80 Trio in D minor second movement, mm. 1 6. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. PM1 PM1 PM2
194 Figure 4 81 Trio in D minor second movement, mm. 48 51. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. Harmonic d esign: This movement does not require as significant of a discussion in the area of harmonic language or function because it relies largely on diatonic harmonies and can be easily analyzed using Roman numeral analysis. This diatonic quality lends the movem ent a particularly Classical sound that may also be theme progresses seamlessly from tonic to dominant, with the first six measures resolving to the dominant key of A major ( Figure 4 82 ). D: V 4/ 2 I 6 V 6/5 I vi IV I 6 V 6/4 6/5 /vii V 6/4 V/V V Figure 4 82 Trio in D minor second movement, mm. 1 6. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. The remaining twelve measures gradually return the music to the tonic key with only a brief detour to C # major i n m. 14. That brief chromatic move to C # returns in the succeeding variations, adding color and variety. Similar chromatic embellishments PM 2 PM 2
195 prevent the movement from being predictable or static, but Smyth seems to have been experimenting with diatonicism in this particular movement. Rhythmic design: More so than the first movement, the use of the anacrusis (as opposed to simply a connecting rhythm in earlier movements) is vital to the rhythmic design of this movement, as the theme actually begins with an anac rusis unlike ea rlier themes. Furthermore, the anacrusis itself is divided into smaller units ( Figure 4 83 ). Figure 4 83 Trio in D minor second movement, mm. 1 6. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. The rhythm is the driving force of t he theme, but it also factors into each of the variations. In Variation I, the dotted rhythm is transformed into a triplet rhythm of as seen i n the example below (Figure 4 84 ). In Variation II, the anacrusis idea is simplified to two eighth notes (Fi gure 4 85 ). The anacrusis is then further simplified, appearing as a quarter note in t he fourth variation (Figure 4 86 ). In Variation V, however, Smyth reverses this trend and introduces a 2 against 3 cross rhythm between the piano and cello in the anacrus is to m. 115 (Figure 4 87 ). Variation VI is the only variation that is not preceeded by an anacrusis. In fact, the final measure of Variation V is elided by the first measure of Variation VI. However, the dotted rhythm from the initial theme has also retur ned, bringing the set full circle. Almost every measure in the coda has a dotted rhythm of some kind, providing the final evidence of the significance of this particular rhythmic idea.
196 Figure 4 8 4 Trio in D minor second movement, mm. 20 30. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. Figure 4 85 Trio in D minor second movement, mm. 48 51. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. Figure 4 86 Trio in D minor second movement, mm. 91 97. Roberton Publication s. Reproduced by permission.
197 Figure 4 87 Trio in D minor second movement, mm. 115 116. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. Scherzo The third movement is a scherzo and trio in G minor with irregu lar five bar phrases ( Table 4 7). The 3/8 time signature, along with the alternating sixteenth notes in the piano, create a wild dance like character. More than the others, this movement requires virtuosic technique of all the players. Similar to the l ndl er in the previous work, Smyth experiments with the idea of tonic in this movement. The scherzo is framed in the key of D minor (see sections A and B below) despite material in G major and E b major in the B section. The trio, on the other hand, is set in t he distant key (to D minor) of C major. It is not until the coda restates the A material in G minor that the actual tonic becomes apparent. Smyth has, in both this movement and the l ndler defined her tonic by its dominant harmony, reserving the tonic for brief appearances in the dance sections and the final trio and coda of the movement. Because of the stronger harmonic and rhythmic qualities over thematic or motivic ideas, the following discussion will first look at harmony by an intertwined discussion o f themes, motives and rhythms.
198 Table 4 7 Formal diagram of third movement, Trio in D minor s cherzo and trio form. Scherzo Trio Coda Period A B C D A Phrase a b a c d a e f e g Key Dm D Dm G E b Dm C Gm C Cm Gm Mm. #s 1 20 21 30 31 40 41 50 51 60 61 79 80 99 100 23 124 41 142 64 Harmonic design: In the Scherzo proper, Smyth reveals her tendency to move to the flat side of the circle of fifths. The entire A section is securely grounded in the key of D, with changes in mode only. In fact, in the first sixteen measures the music does not leave the tonal area of D (4 88). Figure 4 8 8 Trio in D minor third movement, mm. 1 16. Rober ton Publications. Reproduced by permission. As Table 4 7 illustrates the majority of key areas are directly related to the initial harmonic area of D minor, such as the parallel major or the move to G major in the B section. However, in m. 51 of the B sec tion, just after the modulation to G the music progresses further to E b major, the N 6 chord in D minor. This modulation to E b is d: i
199 reinforced by a change in key signature and an E b pedal point in the piano for the first four measures of the section ( Figure 4 89 ). E b (N) : I Figure 4 89 Trio in D minor third movement, mm. 51 54. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. Departing even further from the tonic, the first twenty measures of the trio present a light, op en melodic idea in C major, demonstrated by Figure 4 9 0 Figure 4 9 0 Trio in D minor third movement, mm. 80 90. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. Following this introduction, G minor chords announce the development of this idea. Smy th again moves the arpeggios around the circle of fifths to D major, B major, and then a V 7 built on G abruptly leads back to the C major of the opening of the trio. The trio actually serves to establish the significance of the key of G minor, as C major i s so far removed from D minor. Only at the end of the work does it become clear that the C: I 51 80
200 opening section of the scherzo acts as a large scale dominant harmony which eventually cadences on tonic in the coda. Thematic design: The themes of this movement are energetic and continuous, with an overall fortspinnung quality. Section A launches a dramatic and driving dance theme full of tension that is only released in Section B. In the first forty measures, the five bar phrases further create a sense of unease by beginning on D without clearly stating the tonic chord (G minor), denying an anticipated cadence at the end of the phrase ( Figure 4 91 ). The principal theme, a descending line that returns to D but does not have a linear direction, acts as a dramatic and pressure filled introduction rather than a distinct melody. Sudden shifts in dynamics add to the emotion of the passage. This tension is held for ten measures before the violin states the principal theme. Figure 4 91 Trio in D minor third movement, mm. 1 16. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. Continuing the trend of active, yet rhythmically regular, secondary themes, the secondary theme in the third movement is the first truly declamatory idea of this movement, stated at m. 40 in the key of G major. The shift to the secondary theme is Principal Theme
201 reinforced by a change in key signature, a regular duple rhythm and forceful, thick chords in the piano part ( Figure 4 92 ). Figure 4 92 Trio in D minor third movement, m m. 41 46. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. The effect is a dramatic, celebratory moment following the passionate introduction. The secondary theme is then passed between the instruments, granting a voice to each player. The theme of the trio section is introduced by a rising arpeggio in the cello part. In the fifth measure (continuing the idea of five measure phrases), the violin states the trio theme, which is also a five measure phrase ( Figure 4 93 ). Figure 4 93 Trio in D minor third movement, mm. 80 90. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. The legato arpeggios and distinctly thinner textures create the contrast expected of a trio. Unlike the l ndler the tension has not fully dissipated even with this calmer secti on. Secondary theme Trio Theme 41 80
202 Motivic design : Unlike the first two movements, this movement contains very few references to the motives of the first two movements. There is a five measure ( Figu re 4 94 ). The trio section hints at the opening motive from the first movement, PM1 with a truncated version of the original PM1, heard in m. 84 85. The motive PM2 can also be found in this Figure and throughout the trio (Figure 4 95). Even in the coda PM2 appears, driving the music to its close (Figure 4 96). Figure 4 94 Trio in D minor third movement, mm. 61 65. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. Figure 4 95 Trio in D minor third movement mm. 84 88. Roberto n Publications. Reproduced by permission. PM1 PM1 PM1 PM2 PM2 PM2 PM2 PM2 84
203 Figure 4 96 Trio in D minor third movement, mm. 173 188. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. Rhythmic design: The rhythmic character of this scherzo will become the model more moderate dance style of the Sonata in C minor The tempo alone, Presto con brio prescribes passion and vigor. The unrelenting sixteenth notes of the A section realize that marking ( Figure 4 9 7 ). There are few moments in the Scherzo that do not maintain the almost constant sixteenth notes, such as the opening measures of the B section, where triplet eighth notes announce a change in melody and character (Figure 4 98). PM2 PM2 PM2 PM2 PM2 PM2 PM2 173 180
204 Figure 4 97 Trio in D minor third movement, mm. 1 16. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. Figure 4 98 Trio in D minor third movement, mm. 41 46. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. In t he trio to the third movement, Smyth again adopts a lighter texture than the previous sections, as well as a slower rhythmic character. This theme takes on the style of Beethoven at the height of his classical style, such as the Scherzo and T rio from his Sonata Op. 2, No. 3 up to the violin and are then continued with the same arpeggiated pattern in the piano part ( Figure 4 99 ). The dance like nature of the movement is ma intained even while the 41
205 simplified nature of the single eighth note line releases some of the tension created by the Scherzo material. The slower trio section begins with an anacrusis, first on the third eighth note of m. 80, which is then reiterated on th e second eighth note of m. 85. Due to the triple meter of this movement, rhythmic propulsion is inherent in the style and thus not remarkable enough to warrant further discussion here. Figure 4 99 Trio in D minor third movement, mm. 80 90. Roberton P ublications. Reproduced by permission. The whole character of the trio is like a gigue, presenting a striking contrast to the driving rhythmic nature of the scherzo. Yet, the constant use of repeated rhythmic patterns creates a relentless quality that adds to the overall tension of the composition. The coda builds from a soft dynamic level to fortissimo and repetition of a musical idea that is motivically reminiscent of the first movement. Allegro vivace The final movement is also in sonata allegro form ( T able 4 8). Smyth defies tradition in this movement by placing the secondary theme not in the expected dominant or relative major, but in the unrelated key of C major. It is not until the closing theme that a modulation to the dominant occurs, which may acc ount for the longer exposition than previously discussed sonata allegro forms. In the recapitulation, the secondary theme is presented in the relative major of F, but then the closing theme is stated in the parallel
206 major rather than the tonic D minor. Thi s move to D major is not unusual, and is frequently found in the works of her classical predecessors. It is the move first to F major that makes the final move to D major unexpected. The f inale also contains one of the only major revisions to the entire w ork, which is revealed in the sketches. The manuscript includes a grand introduction marked Allegro Maestoso but this was crossed out entirely in the score This section is filled with double stops in the strings and octaves with thirds in the piano part followed by sweeping arpeggios and tremolo like sixteenth notes. The ideas presented appear again in the second transition area but only for a total of eight measures. The editors of the current edition included it, however, because it had not been complet ely removed from the score. 277 The one recording of the work does not perform the introduction but instead begins at the Allegro vivace as Smyth seems to have intended it Furthermore, e of it here is out of character for a composer who conformed to standard formal models. Thematic design: This movement, as seen before, presents examples of overlapping melodies, obscured cadences and a false return to the recapitulation. The principal th eme of the finale proper is similar to the first movements of other Smyth sonatas in terms of its character: a soft melodic line, organic in nature, accompanied by a tremolo or repetitive pattern. It is also constructed in a manner more like the Sonata in C minor rather than the principal themes of this work. Like the principal theme of the first movement of Sonata in C minor this theme can be thought of in terms of its smaller phrases or as one continuous idea. 277 Smyth, Trio in D minor for violin, cello and piano preface.
207 Table 4 8. Forma l diagram of fourth moveme nt, Trio in D minor s onata allegro form. Exposition Development Recapitulation Coda Theme PT tr ans. ST trans. CT trans. PT ST trans. PT trans. ST trans. CT trans. Key Dm C A ~ Bm~ Am~ Am Dm F D D M. #s 1 20 21 50 51 92 93 108 109 28 129 48 149 92 193 213 213 28 229 48 249 78 279 20 321 36 337 58 359 97
208 However, if the theme is treated as a single idea, t hen the climactic moment occurs at the Classical proportion of 0.611, or on beat 11 of an 18 beat phrase, just like the second movement theme ( Figure 4 100 ). Figure 4 100 Trio in D minor second movement, mm. 1 9. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. In this Classical sonata form, Smyth has created a Classically styled theme on which to base the rest of the work. Yet the chromatic nature of the melodic line prevents the music from sounding traditional or overly diatonic. The second ary theme of the fourth movement is one of the most expressive melodies in the work, a beautiful example of romantic writing with long lyrical lines in the s trings and arpeggios played by Figure 4 101 ). 278 The secondary theme also bears a resemblance to the principal theme of the first movement. The melody, instead of descending the distance of an octave, ascends a ninth before returning to the original register (Figure 4 102). Both themes a lso avoid strong downbeats by tying notes across the bar lines. Although the theme in Figure B is 278 Op. 76, No. 6 (mm. 26 59) contains a comparable passage with an arpeggiated Rhapsody Op. 79, No. 1 (mm. 124 129). Primary sources suggest that Smyth knew both works intimately. The Op. 76 Impressions That Remain and in the Herzogenberg correspondence with Brahms as one of her copying assignments for the Herzogenbergs. Op. 79 was composed in 1880 and dedicated to Elisabet von Herzogenberg; thus, it is highly likely that Smyth also knew this work. 7
209 shape is apparent. The melodic climax of the secondary theme is achieved on beat 10 of an 18 beat phrase. The moment of climax establishes a structural parallel with the principal theme of the fourth movement while also establishing a melodic parallel to the principal theme of the first movement. Figure 4 101 Trio in D minor fourth movement, mm. 51 64. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. A B Figure 4 102 Comparison of themes. A) Trio in D minor principal theme of first movement, mm. 1 4. B) Trio in D minor secondary theme of four th movement, mm. 51 57. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. Descending 8th Ascending 9th
210 The closing theme of the fourth movement clearly returns the piece to a simple duple meter while also presenting a theme contrasting to either of the previous themes ( Figure 4 103 ). It is marked con spirito with an added giocoso in the piano part. This section is also marked by oscillating sixteenth notes, a figure that allows for a smooth transition back to the beginning of the exposition. Figure 4 103 Trio in D minor fourth m ovement, mm. 108 112. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. Despite three individual themes, the primary musical idea which unifies the movement is actually part of a transitional passage. The dotted thirty second note figure at m. 21 is launc hed with an eighth note octave jump followed by ascending minor thirds ( Figure 4 104 ). This motive returns throughout the movement to connect the disparate sections. However, the transitional material is not a theme because it is constantly modulating inst ead of maintain a tonal center. The transitional passage is also longer than either of the main themes, expanding the form beyond traditional proportions, something not done in the Sonata in C minor The result is a movement that defies and fulfills listen Vln Cello piano
211 Figure 4 104 Trio in D minor fourth movement, mm. 17 28. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. Motivic design: Like the previous movements, the subtle use of motives is integrated into the thematic material. The trea tment of PM2 in this movement, however, relies much more on the idea of direction. In the example below, the motive appears almost immediately in the principal theme. PM1 is then presented in both conjunct and disjunct forms successively ( Figure 4 105 ). In both of these motives, the interval of a minor second has great significance. With the exception of the Scherzo, all the principal themes (and many of the secondary themes) in this work are based on these motives, creating a whole that is greater than the sum of its parts. The second theme of the fourth movement is another such exception. It does not contain any of these motives, exhibiting one of the rare occasions where Smyth creates a theme that is not directly related to the themes and movements around it (Figure 4 106). The closing theme also
212 includes PM1 from the principal theme. In mm. 111 and 112, as well as mm. 118 122, the four note descending motive is played by the cello and violin (Figure 4 107). Figure 4 105 Trio in D minor fourth movement, mm. 1 6. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. Figure 4 106 Trio in D minor secondary theme of fourth movement, mm. 51 57. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. == Figure 4 107 Trio in D minor fourth movement, mm. 111 121. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. PM2 PM2 PM1 PM1 PM1 PM1 PM1 PM1 Extended PM1 111 117
213 Harmonic design : stability of Classical diatonicism and the mutability of Romantic chromaticism. The principal theme of this movement is not even fully stated before it modulates to the dominant. The first four bars present a simple progression establishing the key of D natural in m. 6 and a secondary dominant harmony in m. 8 ( Figure 4 108 ). This theme then cadences on the dominant harmony. The cello takes on the theme, but instead of a simple restatement, the phrase is extended an additional four measures. A tonic chord is finally reached in m. 21 with the introduction of the transitional material. Figure 4 108 Trio in D minor fourth movement, mm. 1 11. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. d: i 7 i ii V7 v 6/4 A: i 6/4 V I I V/V I 7
214 The transition is a series of abrupt harmonic shifts, rather than a clearly delineated harmonic progression. As Figure 4 109 demonstrates, D minor is first reaffirmed only to be undermined by a III harmony (F major) follow ed by a sudden V chord in m. 27. This pattern continues for several measures finally leading to C maj or and the secondary theme area in m. 51 Figure 4 109 Trio in D minor fourth movement, mm. 17 28. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. Despite the diatonic quality of the secondary theme (Figure 4 110), the underlying arpeggios are somewhat unstable. The C major harmony is followed by an augmented triad that leads back to an acceptable harmonic progression. The harmonic implication of the G # is fulfilled by a modulation to E major later in the passage. The theme ends on the fifth of the C major chord in m. 59, but the cellist completely d: V V 4/2 i vii 6 /ii V/V V i ii i V i III V
215 undermines this cadence by playing F and D, which finally resolves to E in the next measure. What should have been a simple eight measure phrase is extended by two measures and loses the strong sen se of resolution. However, the dramatic move from F D E in the cello line appropriately prepares the shift to E major in the next measure. Figure 4 110 Trio in D minor fourth movement, mm. 51 64. Roberton Publications. Reproduc ed by permission. most evident in the coda (Figure 4 111) A shift in the recapitulation to the subdominant G major foreshadows an even greater move to the flat side i n m. 380 of the final movement As the emo tional tension builds, a brief move to D b major sets up the modulation to A b major This key area is equally brief 7 and back to G # 7 (the enharmonic of A b ) and a return to the key area of D. The last several measures also present a har monic C: I I + ii 4/2 4/2 6/5 I E: I 6/4 V 7 I
216 anomaly. The last A 7 chord occurred in m. 362, just prior to the above example. Another dominant chord is not heard for the rest of the piece. Once back in the tonic key in m. 384, Smyth uses augmented sixth chords and chromatic motion to create a se nse of cadential resolution. G: V 7 iv V b V/N 6 N 6/5 ii 4/2 vii 4/3 /ii V 6/5 /vi vii 6/5 /V V 6/5 I 6/4 I 6/4 D: Ger 6+ Figure 4 111 Trio in D minor fourth movement, mm. 379 390. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. In fact, the grand finale gesture at m. 389 proceeds from tonic to Gr 6 7 to D major (Figure 4 112). Thus, despite the absence of a perfect authentic cadence and the presence of chromatic harmonies, finality is still achieved through the diminished harmony and a rhythmic drive to the last three chords.
217 D: Ger +6 4/2 I Figure 4 112 Trio in D minor fourth movement, mm. 391 397. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. Rhythmic design: As in earlier movements, tension is created partly through disparate rhythms. The use of 2 against 3 as a developing tool, the sudden appearance of dotted rhythms, and the use of hem iolas create a dramatic final movement. The themes of this movement, however, contain regular rhythms and lyrical melodies. Anxiety is created in the transition sections and the development, a standard tactic for composers of sonata allegro form. Althou gh the principal theme is straightforward rhythmically, the first transition section interrupts the narrative with dotted rhythms and syncopated accents. The goal of the entire transition section is to undo the narrati ve established by the principal theme, bo th harmonically (as discussed above) and rhythmically ( Figure 4 11 3 ). In the second half of the exposition, Smyth relies on the inherent rhythmic contrast of duple versus triple meters. The second theme is a straightforward duple melody but over a triplet accompaniment, not only creating contrast within itself but also against the principle theme (Figure 4 114). The second transition section assumes greater intensity and uses elements of the discarded slow introduction (discussed
218 above) specifically through the use of contrary motion in the piano and octaves with added thirds. Figure 4 113 Trio in D minor fourth movement, mm. 17 28. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. Figure 4 114 Trio in D minor fourth movement, mm. 51 57. R oberton Publications. Reproduced by permission.
219 Both the texture and use of hemiolas in m. 85 and 86 are especially reminiscent of the Brahmsian style. The whole movement is in 2/4, but several measures of triplets are employed allowing for a shift to a 3/ 4 metric quality, despite no actual change of time signature ( Figure 4 115 Figure 4 115 Trio in D minor fourth movement, mm. 85 90. Roberton Publication s. Reproduced by permission. In the development section, rhythm is a factor only as it exists within the distinct themes and motives. The entire section is divided into smaller parts that focus on the first transition theme, the principal theme, and the se cond theme, respectively, and without combining melodic or rhythmic ideas. The transitional material from the exposition again serves to allow the music to modulate to a new key. After several exchanges of the opening motive, the violin turns the duple ges ture into a triplet rhythm played over the continued cello eighth note melody. This, however, does not last long and relents to the pervading eighth note idea. Rather than combining with the second theme, the principal theme dies away and allows the second theme to take over. Rather 85
220 than use the second transition to lead into the recapitulation, Smyth rounds out the development with one more statement of the first transition. The recapitulation primarily maintains the order and nature of ideas from the ex position, with one major exception: Smyth finally combines rhyth mic ideas, pairing the principal theme with the theme from the first transition ( Figure 4 116 ). The combination of these two ideas serves as a final reminder of the major events in the movemen t. In the coda, the duple, dotted rhythms triumph as the music crescendos to the final cadence. Figure 4 116. Trio in D minor fourth movement, mm. 229 233. Roberton Publications. Reproduced by permission. The use of syncopation is as much of a facto r in this final movement as the anacrusis. In the first theme, a tie to the downbeat of m. 2 establishes the syncopated nature of the melody. The repetition of this idea reinforces the forward momentum and carries through the first twenty measures. In the first transition section, an accent on the anacrusis in m. 34 launches a series of accented syncopated chords. The closing theme exhibits a strong emphasis on the anacrusis, as seen in Figure 4 117. The sixteenth wo sixteenth notes just before m. 111, 229
221 and the bass line in the piano part in mm. 110 112 all place an accent and greater dynamic level on the anacrusis. Not only does this create the rhythmic drive common to technique preferred by Smyth as well as her contemporaries. Thus while polyrhythms and hemiolas create tension, it is the Figure 4 117 Trio in D minor fourth movement, mm. 108 112. Robe rton Publications. Reproduced by permission. Summary Leipzig. Her adherence to classical forms shows the prominence of these forms in the late nineteenth century and the tradit ions that were still being taught, while also revealing a navet in her approach. Her skill at navigating forms such as sonata allegro and theme and variations after only two years of formal training reveals the extent of atural talent. The eclectic style of this young composer, influenced by the musicians of her day, is heard even in these works of juvenalia. Musical ideas and devices first developed in these two early works will reveal themselves to be significant in iden progresses. Phrasing of melodies, rhythmic treatment, and harmonic language of future Vln Cello piano
222 works build upon the foundation Smyth established with the two sonatas of 1880. Even motives found in the Sonata in C minor an d Trio in D minor will resurface in later works, granting Smyth a recognizable, if subtle, musical voice.
223 CHAPTER 5 THE PUBLISHED SONATA S OF 1887: SONATA IN A MINOR, O P. 5 FOR CELLO AND PIAN O ; SONATA IN A MINOR, O P. 7 FOR VIOLIN AND PIA NO 1887 was a y ear of triumph and despair for Ethel Smyth. She composed two of her best works, not just of chamber music, but of her entire oeuvre Written seven years after the Sonata in C minor and the Trio in D minor t he S onatas Op. 5 and Op. 7 represent a culminatio n of musical study and signify her transition from student to professional. Despite the high quality of these compositions and even a revival of the Op. 7 in the 1920s and 1930s, the works have not been incorporated into the cello and violin repertoire. In formation on the works is scarce. In writing her memoirs Smyth made a conscious effort to not discuss her music, wanting the books to be enjoyable to everyone rather than musicians and others focused. Consequently, there are no primary sources available fo r the Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 other than the published score. 279 The dedicatee of the work was the cellist Julius Klengel and it is extremely possible, Rntgen or her dau ghter Johanna or possibly Smyth herself premiered the work privately. 280 It was published by C. F. Peters in Leipzig in 1887, although their catalogue does not list the work today. The only edition currently available for study is located at the Library of Congress; the manuscript is lost. 279 There may have been reviews in the German papers of the time, but these have yet to be reviews and newspaper clippings located at the Yale University Library does not include any related to the chamber works. 280 Smyth, Impressions that remain 144. Biographical details about the Rntgens and Klengels can also be found in chapter four, pp. 101 103.
224 In relation to previous compositions, however, the Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 for violin and piano (her last composition to receive an opus designation) is supported by more extensive primary sources. According to the a utograph score, the work was completed on 22 March 1887, 281 during her last winter in Leipzig. The four movement work was dedicated to Lili Wach (1845 1910), a kind supporter of the arts who Smyth first befriended in 1877. Originally published in 1887 throug h J. Reiter Biedermann, the copyright for Op. 7 was renewed by Universal Edition in Vienna in 1923. 282 On 20 November 1887, Fanny Davies and Adolph Brodsky premiered the work at the Leipzig Gewandhaus Concert Hall. 283 Both of these works were published by repu table firms and premiered by highly successful musicians, demonstrating the esteem with which Smyth was held in the professional world. Biographical Context to navigate. 284 The private letters between the parties involved were unfortunately published in the un official biography of Henry Brewster. 285 Other collections of correspondence from the 1880s, such as the letters of Julius Rntgen, Joseph Joahcim, Clara Schumann, or Johannes Brahms, do not refer to the break between Smyth and 281 London, British Library, Add. MS 45950. 282 Smyth, The m emoirs of Ethel Smyth 375. 283 Smyth, Impressions that remain 396. 284 169. 285 Brewster, The cosmopolites x.
225 the Herzogenbergs. Little info rmation is known on the lesser known figures, such as Lili Wach or even Elisabet von Herzogenberg, leaving the story admittedly one sided. 286 A will provide a context for t he analysis of the two works in this chapter. The years immediately prior to the publications of these two sonatas were years of heartache and uncertainty for Smyth. Her success in Leipzig was in many respects due to the close relationships she had formed with members of the Leipzig musical elite (see chapter four). Although she had been a beloved friend of the Herzogenbergs since 1878, by 1887 Smyth was no longer under the tutelage of Heinrich von Herzogenberg, nor was she even a welcome guest. A series o f personal events and conflicts led to the her relationship with the Herzogenbergs. From the fall of 1878 to 1885, Smyth spent the majority of her time with the Herzo genbergs. She was considered, as she wrote in her memoirs: a semi detached member of the Herzogenberg family; wherever they were bidden I was bidden too; not a day passed but that one or other of my meals was taken with them; and though like horses I have always preferred getting Back for the night to my own stable, the little spare room, stocked for my needs, was always ready when required. 287 private student. Elisabet (Lisl) von Herzogenberg took on the role of best friend and mother, especially after Smyth fell ill and was under her care. Anecdotes and letters 286 In April of 2009, Dr. Antje Ruhbaum published the first biography of Elisabet von Herzogenberg, Elisabeth von Herzogenberg: Salon M zenatentum Musikf rderung However, the chapter discussing Ethel S memoirs and does not reveal any new sources or insight See pp. 235 260. 287 Smyth, Impressions that remain 231 2.
226 from Impressions That Remain convey the closeness that grew between them during bed Lisl would come, comb and brush in hand, her hair streaming over a white dressing gown to make sure I had everything I 288 Both ladies acknowledged that without the forced time together, they might letter to Smyth after her return to England for the summer reveals this: Schloss Wernsdorf, Bohemia: May 27, 1878 My dear, dear Ethel, on the last day; any good I may have done seems to me nullified by this last for you and underestimates the delight it was to me doing it. Surely one would res to be find oneself so important, so long for! ... confess I do not look upon it as a misfortune that you became so ill, that is to say that you had this acute attack; be now, secondly because I doubt if we should ever have got where we are now Lisl 289 absolutely eye to ey e, and it was a strange intoxicating thing to realize that in moments of musical ecstasy the heart of the being on earth you loved best was so absolutely at 290 288 Smyth, Impressions that remain 232. 289 Ibid., 221. 290 Ibid. 232.
227 Herzogenberg was one of admiration and friendship formed on the basis of their mutual in friendly rivalry, and used sometimes to wonder whether Brahms, given a cantus firmus to work in f our parts, would turn out anything so very much better than our 291 There is not enough evidence to measure the degree of friendship unusually strong connection, but thi s is frequently described as a mother daughter relationship. 292 Smyth had found a musical kindred spirit who, with the guidance of Heinrich von Herzogenberg, provided the environment in which her musical aspirations thrived. With the encouragement of the Her zogenbergs, Smyth became a well respected composer in Leipzig. The sketchbooks from her first years reveal a natural talent for composition despite a lack of training. Dozens of movements from unfinished works still exist, as well as several finished works from this period. Many of these unpublished String Quintet Op. 1 published in 1882, and the Balladen und Lieder, Opp. 3 and 4 for voice and piano, were also first heard in these settings. Prior to 1887, Smyth had yet to experience gender prejudice in Germany. The Herzogenbergs and their friends appeared to not consider an intelligent musical woman anything unusual or ab normal. Clara Schumann is an obvious example of this, but 291 Sm yth, Impressions that remain 232 233. 292 Vicinus, Intimate friends: women who loved women, 1778 1928 126 134.
228 Elisabeth von Herzogenberg was herself an accomplished pianist and amateur composer whose views and criticism were sought after by Brahms. Smyth described 293 a nd Clara Schumann was an admired visitor to Leipzig. Smyth was only an anomaly in that she was English and a great deal more outspoken and energetic than her German friends. That her social circle appeared areer is an unusual factor that cannot yet be explained. This idyllic world did not come crashing down all at once, but gradually eroded after winter visits to Florence, Italy in 1882 83 and 1884. There Smyth met Elisabet von y: her sister Julia Brewster (ne Stockhausen, 1839 1908). Within a few months, Brewster was infatuated with Smyth. No one could have predicted that Smyth would break up their marriage. In her memoirs the composer narrated this drama in multiple ways, each time returning to this affair, trying to explain as well as understand The Cosmopolites: A Nineteenth Centu ry Family Drama 294 Between 1882 and 1886, Smyth inadvertently forced her beloved musical family, the Herzogenbergs, to turn away from her forever. In order to understand not only how this happened but how the events were interpreted by Smyth, it is construc tive to examine who she was at this point in her life. Pictures of Smyth date from the 1890s onward, presenting a formidable, middle aged woman, set in her course in life. At the age of twenty four (in 1882), she was a 293 Smyth, Impressions that remain 170. 294 Brewster, The cosmopolites 108 189.
229 blonde, athletic, attractive, articu late young woman. She was educated in French, Italian, and German, and was just beginning a successful career as a composer, a daunting feat for any one, but especially so for a woman at this time. Yet she was never afraid to speak her mind or to form new friendships. She was also full of energy and lived an active lifestyle, frequently going hiking and riding. She was the exact opposite of the quiet and philosophical Julia Brewster, and Henry Brewster became infatuated with her. Henry Brewster was born t o English and American parents and raised in a privelged household in Paris. His parents had a close relationship with the Stockhausens and Julia and Henry were childhood friends. 295 He studied at Oxford, but was not interested in pursuing a career in law or went to Germany for several years to prepare for examinations at Oxford. When he failed the exams, he decided to travel across the United States of America with his brother. Upon his return to Europe, Brewster renew ed his friendship with Julia Stockhausen and they were married after a four 296 In 1873 they married and moved to Florence where their very small social circle included Adolf Hildebrand and his wife Irene. He continued to travel to France and Germany, and their letters reveal a strongly philosophical but not passionate relationship. 297 According to their grand with diffidence. Fully aware of the precariousness of the marital bond, they pledged 295 Brewster, The cosmopolites 55. 296 Ibid., 55 85. 297 Ibid., 103.
230 298 In theory, their agreement seemed reasonable and their love appeared unfaltering. Ten years later, Ethel Smyth came to visit this Florentine ivory tower and inadvertently disrupted their world. Smyth was initially attracted to Julia Brewster and disliked Henry, continuing a pattern of relationships from her girlhood. Furthermore, she believed that heterosexual love was impossible for her to ha ve. Her anecdotes of infatuation were usually directed believed that she was incapable of having, and more, was unwilling to pursue the kind of relationship that exists be tween a man and a woman. Writing in 1919 of letters she express a conviction [in the letters] that the most perfect relation of all must be the love between man and woman but this seemed to me, given my life and outlook, 299 This statement need not necessarily be interpreted as a reference to homosexual tendencies, as modern scholars argue, but as the realization of the impossibility of havin g a professional career and being a wife according to nineteenth century Victorian standards. She explains the conflict between the man whose existence could blend with m ine without loss of quality on either side? My work must, and would always, be the first consideration, and as I said elsewhere, 298 B rewster, The cosmopolites 108. 299 Smyth, Impressions that remain 258.
231 300 Throughout her first memoir, dating to 1894 she disregards any relationships with men, She even wrote to her mother early on about marriage: Every day I become more and more convinced of the truth of my old axiom, that why no women have become composers is because they have married, and then, very properly, made their husbands and children the first consideration. So even if I were to fall desperately in love with BRAHMS and he were to propose to me, I should say no So fear not that I shall marry in Germany! 301 In this humorous remark, Smyth reinforces her belief that marriage was incompatible with her pursuit of a career in music. During her early years in Germany, Smyth had no way of knowing that a deep friendship a nd love affair would later blossom between her and a male companion, Henry Brewster. Herzogenberg, whose relationship to her was that of a surrogate mother and a friend in the broad ma nner of nineteenth century female friendships. They loved, understood, and nurtured each other in ways that men and women in the 1880s could not. In fact, Smyth wrote decades later, in 1919, that she related better to women than to men: Let me say that all my life, even when after years had brought me the seemingly mothering quality that is a thing apart. And further it is a fact, as H. B. once remarked, that the people who have helped me most at difficult moments of my musical career, beginning with my own sister Mary, have been members of my 300 Smyth, Impressions that remain, 258. Italics are added to emphasize the idea that it was age. 301 Ibid., 190 1. Smyth did acknowledge that she did not have the attraction for boys she knew her sister possessed; nonetheless, she clearly stated that the conscious decision to not enter into marriage was a result of her professional and musical aspi rations.
232 own sex. Thus it comes to pass that my relations with certain women, all exceptional personalities I think, are shining threads in my life 302 Ironically, it was the love of a man (and not another woman) that caused the breach with Herzogenberg. Smyth traveled to Florence first in December of 1882. She was immediately attracted to the elusive Julia and gradually getting to know Henry. She had learned a soon found out that the real hermit was Julia, her husband being rather an embryonic lover of humanity, hitherto accustomed, owing to circumstances, to pay exclu sive 303 Specifically of Henry Brewster, she wrote: with a little aversion on my part, although his personality was delightful. Having for years had no real intercourse with anyone save his wife, he was very shy a shyness like that of a well brought up child, which took the form of extreme He seemed to have read all books, to have thought all thoughts; and last but not least was extremely good looking clean shaven but for a moustache, a perfect nose and brow, brown eyes set curiously far apart, and fair fluffy hair. It was the face of a dreamer and yet of an acute observer and his manner was the gentlest, kindest, most courteous manner imaginable. 304 with Smyth. Julia saw this affection developing, and only a few weeks after Smyth arrived in I taly, Brewster departed for a hunting trip in Africa. During that spring Smyth came to know the Hildebrands and Julia Brewster quite well, and was accepted into their social circle. She returned to Germany before he came back from Africa. 302 Smyth, Impressions that remain 259. 303 Ibid., 313. 304 Ibid., 312.
233 In January of 1 884 Smyth again returned to Florence, where she spent the next seven months in the company of the Brewsters and the Hildebrands. 305 In the chronological narrative of Impressions That Remain Smyth avoids a description of her time with the Brewsters, preferri ng instead to regale the reader with tales of her hiking trips through Italy. In the subsequent section of Impressions That Remain the Herzogenbergs. By t developing into a bond that not even she anticipated. The following passage from that chapter summarizes her view, from a distance of thirty years, of what transpired that spring: It may be remembe red that the Brewsters held unusual views concerning the bond between man and wife, views which up to the time of my arrival on the scene had not been put to the proof of the touch of reality. My second visit to Florence was fated to supply the test. Harry Brewster and I, two natures to all appearance diametrically opposed, had gradually come to realize that our roots were in the same soil that there was between us one of those links that are part of the Eternity which lies behind and before Time. A chance wind having fanned and revealed at the last moment, as so often happens, what had long been smouldering in either heart, unsuspected by the other, the situation had been frank ly faced and discussed by all three of us [Harry, Julia and Ethel]; and I then learned, to my astonishment, that his feeling for me was of long standing, and that the present eventuality had been not only foreseen by Julia from the first, but frequently di scussed between them. To sum up the position as baldly as possible, Julia, who believed the whole thing to be imaginary on both sides, maintained it was incumbent on us to establish, in the course of further intercourse, whether realities or illusions were in question. After that and surely there was no hurry the next step could be decided on. This view H. B. allowed was reasonable. My position, however, was that there could be no next step, inasmuch as it was my obvious duty to break of intercourse wit h him at once and for ever. And when I left Italy that chapter was closed as far as I was concerned. 306 305 Brewster, The cosmopolites 115. 306 Smyth, Impression that remain 366.
234 According to his biographer, though, Brewster proposed in a letter to Ethel that summer a three way relationship of love and admiration, but ultimately a relationship where Smyth would legally be nothing more than a mistress: My love I will never harm you. How can I marry you unless she joins us hand in hand how can I give you that outward sign of respect if it were at the same time an outrage to her? The excellent is not the reality I need, but general interests and the fight with men. I admit the second part but think that real ity presents itself in a complex shape and that as I loved when I entered into solitary thought and found my mate, so must it be when I begin to set my thought in contact with those of others and gather in hearted my swe et Ethel that you [sic] needs must be married before the altar or cry your eyes out? I can admit it if you were to jump out of all social connections into nothing but one feeling however strong; it is not your nature and I quite feel that. Do you think I would spoil the generous delicate machine? 307 Smyth letters trying to convince her to partak bigamous arrangement whereby Ethel and Julia would each play a complementary role reflecting two different 308 That summer Julia Brewster visited her sister in Leipzig, and Elisabet learned of danger posed to the marriage. Brewster continued to write to both Smyth and Julia, trying to convince each that he could not live without the other. 309 In October of 1884, Brewster secretly came to see Smyth in Leipzig and a ttend a performance of some chamber pieces. 310 Although the letters are unclear what 307 Brewster, The cosmopolites 117. 308 Ibid., 118. 309 Ibid., 118 125. 310 Ibid., 122.
235 demonstrates the extent to which the situation had progressed: Harry, it is all wron g anyone else, that though you may never claim me I belong to you and to no one else. But otherwise what have I to wait for since I know the world will go the other way round before I could be yours wit is drowned in longing for you for the sake of everything and because you love me, give me no further sign of your existence. 311 is also an complicated situation in which she found herself. How these feelings ma nifest themselves in the music will be discussed in the analysis below. Despite her feelings for Brewster, Smyth ceased correspondence with him by the fall of 1885. 312 During the previous winter of 1884 1885, Elisabet von Herzogenberg continued to believe S faith in my faith. I have a heavy heart and still I enjoy somehow the idea of having to fight for you, 313 Yet rumors against Smyth grew in Leipzig, and the pressure Stoc khausen) was too much to bear. 314 311 Brewster, The cosmopoli tes 123. 312 Ibid., 124. 313 Smyth, Impressions that remain 368 9. 314 Ibid
236 Brewster cease contact and that their friendship was not worth the dissolution of his marriage or her relationship to Frau Herzogenberg, Smyth could not in the end convince Herzogenber g that she had been innocent of the charge of adultery. Regardless of her own feelings for Smyth, Elisabet von Herzogenberg could no marriage. In the spring of 1885, Heinrich von Herzogenberg accepted a position in Berlin and Smyth went to England as she usually did. In a final letter sent in June, after 315 By September the sc andal had escalated to an extreme. By the fall of 1886 Lisl ceased all contact, 316 and Smyth was abandoned by her musical family in Germany. Lili Wach, a member of the Leipzig social and musical circle and one ing away from Germany, and convinced Smyth to spend the remainder of the year in England. She had difficulty composing there but did not think she would compose again, anyway. 317 As heartbreaking as the situation was for Smyth and as embarrassing as it was for Herzogenberg, the letters between the two women were never vicious on correspondence between two worn out people, disputing as to which particular wave had cast the vessel on the rocks and whether shipbuilder, chartmaker, or captain was to 315 Smyth, Impressions that remain 369. 316 Ibid., 384. 317 Ibid 373.
237 318 All correspondence stopped, and Smyth lost the most important friendship of her young life. May of 1885 was the last time Smyth actually saw the Herzogenbergs. A gulf between the m had slowly developed between 1882 and 1885, as Smyth found herself the object of the affections of Brewster. Accusations were hurled by Frau Smyth. Letters on the part of Herzogenberg in an effort to clarify the misunderstandings. Smyth believed she had not After a year in England, Smyth decided that she must go back to Germany. She had difficulty composing in England and believed she could only compose in a land that lived and breathed music; she also wanted to regain her good name and restore professional connections. 319 She wrote in her memoirs of her return to than a year had passed and Lisl had steadily refused to discuss the reasons of our now 320 Her first tasks then were to rebuild past friendships. Smyth visited some of her oldest Leipzig f riends, including Conrad Fiedler and his wife, showing him letters which could prove her innocence, or at least her ignorance of the ramifications of her actions. Having initially won him over, she then turned to the Wachs. Smyth was fortunate because, onc e she told her side of the 318 Smyth, Impressions that remain 369. 319 Ibid., 384. 320 Ibid.
238 321 To her surprise, she was not shunned or scorned by their mutu al friends. She then found her own lodgings in Leipzig and spent weekends with friends in the country. With renewed friendships and a new independence, Smyth slowly rebuilt her life in Germany. The narrative of her memoirs during this period between the fall of 1886 and the spring of 1887 quickly alternates between the bitterness and betrayal she felt as a result of the unwanted scandal, and her hopeful adventures in Germany and England with the reassurances of friends. Upon her return to Leipzig, her mot her sent a final letter to Frau implacable, it is mainly an entreaty to my mother to see, and help me to see, that not 322 She also described the feeling of betrayal when the Fiedlers attempted to talk to Elisabet von Herzogenberg on should have foreseen. 323 Conrad Fiedler wrote to Smyth in January of 1887, to explain his perspective: In our first interview [with Lisl] I at once gained a different picture of her attitude and state of mind to that based on impressions gathered from you, and I cannot deny that I was glad it was so; had it been otherwise it would have distressed me greatly But do not think that for that reason I have lost imagination for your position, or weakened in the sense of justice that has prompted me from the firs t to defend your attitude and actions against misconstruction, and resent the imputation to you of unworthy motives, or points of view which are not yours. 324 321 Smyth, Impressions that remain 384. 322 Ibid. 323 Ibid., 385. 324 Ibid., 405.
239 Despite the events in the winter of 1886 s shown to her by the Wachs and the Rntgens. Her indebtedness to Lili Wach especially, and perhaps the reason for the dedication of the violin sonata, is found in the following passage: My great trouble was mentioned to no one except Lili Wach, and I am t hankful to think that in after years I was able in some measure to make up for what must have been a painful spell of her life. If three people have been in closest alliance, and two of these are violently separated, each still clinging to the third, the s ituation of that third is not an enviable one more especially in the case of a 325 grip of a friendly hand do I recall trifles light as air but which made all the 326 In only a few pages she describes the lowest and highest emotional events of 1886, events that surely affected the composition of the two works. Not all was melancholy and despa ir. In January of 1887 she was a bridesmaid in sprawling, yellow and white puppy of the l ong haired kind. Half St. Bernard and the 327 Marco became the first of many four legged friends. After the winter of 1887, Smyth was able to piece together what she could of her former life. Although the Herzogenbergs no longer l ived in Leipzig, that winter was still a period of transition and, to a degree, mourning for Smyth. 325 Smyth, Impressions that remain 389. 326 Ibid. 327 Ibid., 387.
240 and hindsight of five years of emotional turmoil for Smyth, aptly demonstr ates the calculated to qualify you for light compositions 328 The sonatas represent many st rains 329 which would bring her success and fa me throughout the rest of her life, the constancy of friends such as Lili Wach, and her newly discovered love of large dogs. Reception No contemporary criticism or reception can be found from the 1880s of the Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 for cello and piano It is highly likely that the work was premiered by Julius Klengel in a private setting, but there is no evidence that a public performance occurred at that time. Many years later, the public premier was given in December of 1926, well after Smyth was est ablished as a successful composer. It was performed by May Fussell and Kathleen Long, and a review was published in The London Time s by a staff reporter. Of this performance forty years after its creation, the critic wrote: Dame Ethel Smyth has reached the stage in her career when her youthful works gain luster from her subsequent fame, but quite apart from the personal interest attention. The shapes of the themes of the first move ment may be rather 328 Smyth, Impressions that remain 411. [Italics are mine.] 329 Ibid., 408.
241 amusingly Brahms like, but there is individuality too. The true Brahms disciple of the eighties would have developed those themes laboriously; Miss Smyth (as she was then) did nothing of the kind, but treated them with a rather wayward i nconsequence which strikes the present day listener as characteristic of her. The slow movement, too, beginning with a sort of basso ostinato, soon left for something else, has considerable charm, and two out of three themes of the finale have a light hear Mate. 330 The perspective of The Times critic is quite optimistic and positive, with no allusion to gender as a stylistic factor. There is a distance from the music of Brahms which allows for greater k that would not have been observable earlier in her career. The premier performance of the Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 for violin and piano by Davies and Brodsky at the Gewandhaus Ka mmermusik concert hall was attended by event in the memoirs, a rare anecdote of a chamber work. According to her brother, a said it was devoid of feminine charm and 331 No other sources can corroborate or identify the critic, but this anecdote serves as an example of the gender bias and double standard that Smyth was beginning to experience and that female composers often faced in the late nineteenth century. During the following March of 1888, she also sent the work, along with her Trio in D minor to the violinist Joseph Joachim. Her friendship with him extended back to her early years in Leipzig but their acquaintance was not enough to get him to perform the 330 Quoted by Rolton, liner notes for The Chagall Trio. 331 Smyth, Impressions that remain 396.
242 facility, candour compels me to say that both works seem to me failures unnatural, farfetched, ove 332 In her typical, headstrong way, Smyth responded by accusing him of playing pieces that had no musical quality but instead might garner him patronage and monetary rewards. Smyth also met Tchaikovsky that winter, and h is opinion of the composer and her music counters the previously negative assessments. In his diary from 1888, Tchaikovsky wrote: Miss Smyth is one of the comparatively few women composers who may be seriously reckoned among the workers in this sphere of music. She had come to Leipzig a few years before and studied theory and composition very thoroughly; she had composed several interesting works ( the best of which, a violin sonata, I heard excellently played by the composer herself and Mr. Brodsky ), and g ave promise in the future of a serious and talented career. 333 of Brahms, speaks to her quality and originality as a musician. This letter also supports the prevailing thou ght that Smyth often performed her own works in the homes of her friends with other excellent musicians. Later critics agreed with Tchaikovsky, at least regarding the composition. Unfortunately, these did not come until almost fifty years later. A 1934 re view published in The Musical Times by its Brahmsian turns of expression, but by the already recognizable independent nature of Ethel Smyth in a time and scene where Brahms was all power 334 The similarity between this description and the critique of Op. 5 is undeniable, in particular 332 Smyth, Impressions that remain 407. 333 Quoted by Newmarch, Tchaikovsky: his life and works, with extracts from his writings, and the diary of his tour abroad in 1888 194 [emphasis is mine]. 334 174
243 works, the reviewer does not elaborate on this so called independen t musical voice. One scholar Dale, a British music critic and historian who was named the musical executor of contrap untal writing during the years in Leipzig, as well as her lack of tutoring in orchestration. 335 the picturesque presentation of her musical ideas that she gradually found her way in in 336 337 compared to previous works. She also discussed the failure of these early works to conform to the model of sonata form. However, she did not view this as a she had to force herself into following accepted traditions. The two sonatas are not free from structural uncertainty, but they atone for it by melodic and rhythmic expressiveness, by beautiful colour effects and interesting give and take between the 338 nonconformity that actually has its roo ts in the approach taken by such figures as 335 289. 336 Ibid. 337 Ibid., 292. 338 Ibid.
244 instrumental works into two separate categories: those with programmatic meaning and those without. ve a dramatic element in them, drawing upon events and emotions in her personal life which she then tried to communicate to the listener. Smyth rarely wrote about her music in the memoirs, but in one instance she described the Piano Sonata No. 2 as inspire d by one of her passions, the actress Marie these events are also found in the composition. 339 Her tendency toward the dramatic (in her life and her music) was not constrain ed simply because she was engaged in composing non programmatic music. It is therefore possible to believe that her works without text may be just as dramatic as her texted works. Analysis The prevalence of primary sources (examined above) presents the f irst opportunity to examine the extra the Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 As these sources have shown, several biographical out with th e Herzogenbergs, her exile from (and return to) Leipzig, her friendship with Lili Wach, and the budding relationship with Henry Brewster. The dedication of the work to Wach Inf erno suggest a direct connection between these personal events and the high level of expression in the work. By association, Op. 5 also acquires a level of musical meaning 339 Smyth, Impressions that remain 197 198.
245 not only because it was composed in the same year but because it also contains simil ar musical constructs and evokes similar emotions. The analysis presented in this chapter has similar goals and yielded similar results as the previous chapter. Just as similarities existed between the two works of 1880, so too do similarities appear in t hese two works from 1887. Principal and secondary themes are distinguished by the rhythmic contrast of duple versus triple in complexity in terms of phrase structure The phrasing is more elusive than that heard in the earlier works, with irregular phrase lengths and unexpected climactic moments. Pitch and rhythmic motives unify the movements and the works The pieces contain chromatic harmonies and Romantic harmonic techniques, such as Neapolitan harmonies, enharmonic respellings, and mode mixture. Finally, the rhythmic element of propulsion is more apparent than in the earlier works, especially because Smyth consciously avoids it in one of the slow movements. The lack of Sonata in A minor, Op. 5, for Cello and Piano missing the standard dance moveme nt, although the main theme of the finale has a dance like character. Because the work is never mentioned in letters, diaries, or the memoirs, there is no way of knowing why Smyth chose in this one instance to compose a three movement work instead of a fou r movement one. She may have been experimenting with the shorter form or she may have simply felt that a fourth movement was not necessary. Harmonically, the movements progress from A minor to E minor and back to A minor by the end of the third movement, t hus completing the most basic
246 movements also fit the fast slow fast construct of a prototypical multi movement composition. This condensed version also captures the same dram atic mood as Allegro moderato The most significant difference between this treatment of sonata allegro form and the earlier treatments is that the exposition does not repeat. The movement instead is a ternary structure that sti ll follows the parameters of exposition, development and recapitulation. Thematic key relationships are governed by the third as the principal theme moves from A minor to the re lative C major (see Table 5 1). Smyth relies on the fragments of themes to navi gate the development, modulating to closely related keys. Thus the two themes engage in a dialogue of equal partners, also akin to the earlier works. Similar to the Sonata in C minor the first movement, Allegro moderat o of the Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 is well balanced; the development is the same number of measures as the exposition and the recapitulation is a transposition of the exposition to the tonic with a slightly extended transition ( Table 5 1). The coda adds a mere twelve measures. Within this str ict adherence to structural parameters, Smyth begins to experiment with her themes, harmonies, and rhythms. Thematic design: a six measure phrase that begins without an introduction (Figure 5 1 ). It is characterized by an opening dotted quarter note that spins out into the melody, ascending to a minor 9 th above the original pitch. The F in m. 3 is the highest point in the melody and the climax of the theme. It is necessary to refer again to Maca
247 Table 5 1 Formal diagram of first movement, Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 s onata allegro form. Exposition Development Recapitulation Coda Theme PT trans. ST CT PT CT ST PT PT tra ns. ST CT PT CT Key Am ~G C C Am E F# Am A A A Mm. #s 1 10 16 25 26 40 41 48 49 72 73 74 75 86 87 96 97 107 108 23 124 38 39 46 147 50 151 58
248 does not happen at the Golden Mean but much earlier, only half way through the melody (or a proportion of 0.50). Half notes in the cello lin e delay the cadence and extend what could have been a four bar phrase to six measures, thus also altering the overall structure of the melody. Figure 5 1. Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 first movement, principal theme, mm. 1 6. C.F. Peters Edition, 1887. repetition within the melody. In the second, third, and fourth measures, the same groups of notes are repeated. This incessant repetition combined with the range of a tr itone between mm. 2 and 4 creates an urgency and anxiety in the music that Smyth may have been trying to express. The secondary theme is more resigned, stated in C major ( Figure 5 2). A suggestion of the theme, identified by an opening leap of a fifth, fi rst appears embedded measure idea that begins on the highest note and descends, thus avoiding the sense of a melodic climax. In m. 27, the melody also repeats itself as it did in the principal theme, delayi ng the forward motion of the line. The idea is incomplete, and the following three bars are merely elaborations of the harmony. Only when the cello enters in m. 31 is the full theme stated. The three bar ld be a consequent phrase of equal 4
249 measure idea, but it does not cadence. Instead, the melody is held on an E b in the cello for two measures over secondary harmonies that move farther from the tonal center. 1 straight forward answer, descending A b G b F E b D b and it should cadence in m. 39 on C b Instead, the melody descends to C over an augmented sixth chord and finally cadences back in C a full two bars later. If the theme is analyzed as a continuous idea from m. 31 to m. 41, then the climax clearly appears in m. 37 on an A b and at the Classical proportion of 0.625. The harmonic nature of this passage, explained on p age 238, supports a melody that is calm yet elusive, sliding around the pitch E b but never settling on a tonal center. This detailed analysis of the secondary theme demonstrates finesse with the interworking of melody and har mony that Smyth had not previously exhibited. Although the music finally cadences in the tonal center where it began, every note and harmony along the way suggests an alternate tonal center. It is this ambiguity in such a subtle manner that keeps the liste ner engaged, but the expression of ambiguity in the music may have been the influence of her personal life. A brief closing theme in a character similar to the secondary theme serves as a transition to the development. This melodic structure is only sligh tly closer to the Classical model. The climax occurs in the third measure, at a proportion of 0.563, and the entire phrase is four bars long (Figure 5 3). Unlike the secondary theme, however, this phrase has a distinct arch like shape, rising to the origin al tonic pitch, A, before a return to the primary tonal center..
250 Figure 5 2. Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 fi rst movement, secondary theme, mm. 23 41. C.F. Peters Edition, 1887. Figure 5 3. Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 first movem ent, closing theme, mm. 45 49. C.F. Peters Edition, 1887. Motivic design: Motives continue to play a role in the coherence and motivic treatment while also relying mor e on the themes as entire structural units, effectively comgining what she learned while writing the Sonata in C minor and the Trio in D minor Fewer motives are used in a given movement, but these motives also Phrase a Phrase b Phrase a 1 Phrase a incomplete 23 28 33 37 45
251 appear in almost every movement. The result i s a cyclical work identifiable as a complete unit. Four basic motives unify the Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 ; two are pitch related and two are rhythmic, and all four appear in the first movement ( Figure 5 4). The first motive of significance is the same motiv e from earlier works; PM2 is the group of scale degrees (see pgs. 187 and 217 ). This motive is found frequently throughout the first movement. The other pitch related motive was also f ound in earlier works: the use of scale degrees (PM1). The two pitch motives also contribute to the character of the secondary theme but in a more subtle fashion. For example, PM1 occu rs on the second and fourth beats of mm. 2 4, 26 and 29 (Figure 5 5). PM2 only 2 ). The same two rhythmic motives discussed in chapter four that of and influence the melodies a nd rhythms of the entire sonata. Figure 5 4. Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 first movement, mm. 1 3. C.F. Peters Edition, 1887. Figure 5 5. Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 first movement, secondary theme, mm. 23 32. C.F. Peters Edition, 1887. PM2 Inverted PM1 PM1 PM1 PM1 PM1 PM1 PM1 PM1 23 28
252 Harmonic design: Harmonic ambiguity has already been alluded to in the discussion of the two main themes. The harmonies Smyth employed in the first movement support the different characteristics of the two main themes and contr ibute to the particular moods evoked by the music. The principal theme does not venture away from its tonal center completely but Smyth begins the transition process immediately after the cadence in m. 7 ( Figure 5 6). The theme is restated in the piano pa rt but is shortened to only five measures, enhancing the feeling of anxiety through the unexpected early cadence. Smyth continues to express a sense of the unknown in the transition section. The passage beginning in m. 11 quickly moves to a N 6 harmony fo llowed by a typical progression back to I (this time in A major), shown in the Figure 5 7. The N 6 harmony then returns frequently over the following two bars, but so does a b ii; the constant alternation of the pitch D and D b /C # creates the harmonic ambigui ty that allows Smyth to G, and this new tonal center prepares the move to the related key of C major for the secondary theme, exhibiting s Trio for Violin, Horn and Piano 340 By contrast, the secondary theme appears quite diatonic and predictable and therefore initially serves as an antidote to the tension of the previous pas 8). The entrance of the cello 340 Keays, Tooting her o wn h orn 26 27.
253 vii/V in m. 35 followed by V 4/2 / N 6 in m. 36. Smyth then modulates to the N 6 chord with b major for the entire phrase. The V of D b is then reinterpreted as a German sixth chord in C and the progre ssion finally cadences in that key. Although the secondary theme remains in C major for a majority of the passage, the frequent seventh chords and secondary harmonies create harmonic confusion. Figure 5 6. Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 first movemen t, mm. 1 12. C.F. Peters Edition, 1887. [C:I 6/4 V I 6/4 V a: i V I I 6 ] V V V 7 i 6 iv i 6/4 V 7 /VI I 7 /V V i 6 V VI VI 4 7 10
254 Figure 5 7. Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 first movement, mm. 13 22. C.F. Peters Edition, 1887. The development section begins in the dominant but is harmonically unstable, allowing Smyth even more harmo nic opportunities. The music modulates by fourths around the sharp side of the circle of fifths to C # minor and F # minor, eventually leading back to the tonic A minor and the recapitulation. The statement of second theme material in F # major in the develop Romantic harmony and key relationships, but it also foreshadows the modulation to A major in the recapitulation. By changing key signatures in the development to E major, and then proceeding on to F # majo r, Smyth is preparing the listener for this modal shift. iv N 6 V 7 /vii VII V i N 6 I N 6 I 6 b ii VI b ii VI 6 III 6 V/iv iv 6 i 6/4 V III 6 VII G: 6 vi 4/2 V IV 6/4 I IV 6/4 13 16 20
255 Figure 5 8. Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 first movement, mm. 23 41. C.F. Peters Edition, 1887. Rhythmic design: Several rhythmic elements combine to create the characte r and propulsion of this movement. The rhythmic motives of and that influence the principal theme are naturally two major fo rces. Accompanying the principal theme is a sixteenth note pattern in the piano that sounds like a rumbling perpetual motion mach ine, adding another rhythmic element. The third rhythmic element is that of the triplet, which first appeared in the secondary theme as an embellishment of the melody. The triplet soon takes on greater significance, as it becomes the accompaniment rhythm Phrase a Phrase a Phrase b Phrase a 1 I vi V I vii vii/V V chr. C: I I I I 4/2 iv 6 I 6/4 vii /V V 4/2 /N 6 N 6 D b : I 6 V 4/2 I 6 ii 6/4 V c: Ger 6 + i 6/4 7 /V V I 23 28 33 37
256 f allegro form, the two characters might no t be thought of as the principal and secondary themes but as the duple and triple rhythms which drive the themes. The sense of p ropulsion that exists in this movement as it did in the previous works can be heard in the first measures. The dotted rhythms, the anacrusis to strong beats (though not always to first beats), and the driving accompaniment have the greatest effect. In addi tion, throughout the movement measures with only quarter or half notes are rare. This persistent activity adds to the harmonic sense that the music does not stop, or even pause, until the final measure. Adagio non troppo The second movement comprises thre e thematic sections ( Table 5 2). The sections are repeated in order but with more phys ically demanding accompaniments, departing from her previous method of repeating a section measure for measure. Instead, she expands or varies the sections, developing th e ideas within each. With this movement, Smyth has moved farther from the strict formal practices of variation form to more loosely defined ideas of variation. 341 In addition to formal experiments, a n unusual key relationship also exists in this work. The fi rst theme is stated in E minor. The second theme then begins in E minor, but modulates to the key of D major. The third theme is then set entirely in the key of D major. When the sections are repeated, the A and B sections are presented in E minor, but the third theme occurs in the dominant of B major. E minor is finally reaffirmed in the coda. 341 In the Sonata in C minor the slow movement was a clearly labeled theme and variations. The labels were then dropped in the slow movem ent of the Trio in D minor With Op. 5, Smyth has maintained the idea of variation while doing away completely with the formal nature of theme and variations.
257 Table 5 2 Formal diagram of second movement, Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 r epeated ternary form. A B C Codetta A B C Coda Key Em Em ~ D D Dm Em Em B Em Mm. #s 1 19 20 32 33 37 38 53 54 65 66 76 77 94 95 116 117 132
258 Thematic design : movements. Its dark, tragic character conveys despair and loss. A single voice introduction begins in the deep register of the piano, moving by fifths through an E minor tonal center( Figure 5 9). Figure 5 9. Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 second movement, mm. 1 4. C.F. Peters Edition, 1887. Over the ostinato, the first theme contains a descending antecedent consequent pair of phrases ( Figure 5 sixth beat, about half way through the phrase (a proportion of 0.462), followed by a 1 on the new tonic, C, but a leap of a seventh and a fragment of the ostinato extends the phrase to a stronger cadence in the original tonic of E minor in m. 20. As a result, 1 b ex actly half way through the phrase (beat 11 out of 22 beats or a proportion of 0.50). Without the extension in mm. 16 19, the climax would have happened at the Golden Mean, on the sixth beat of a 10 beat phrase. By extending the phrase, Smyth continues to a void the Classical ideal of phrase structure while exhibiting her own voice and delaying the emotional release of the theme. A second theme appears in m. 20, a modal idea with a lowered (Figure 5 11). This theme is more transitional in nature than the principal theme, with quicker rhythmic ideas and increasing chromaticism. The active rhythms combined with large leaps in the piano part evoke more passionate emotions than the first theme. The theme lands briefly on an E minor harmony in m. 23, but this is followed by a cadence in the relative
259 Figure 5 10. Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 second movement, principal theme, mm. 1 24. C.F. Peters Edition, 1887. Figure 5 11. Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 second movement, s econdary theme, mm. 18 30. C.F. Peters Edition, 1887. Phrase a Phrase a 1 2 nd Theme 2 nd Theme resumed 10 18 18 25
260 major in m. 27. Because of the brevity of the first cadence, this theme is heard as one eight bar phrase with a climax in the fifth measure. The proportion of this phrase is closer to the Golden Mean than previously examined phrases by Smyth, with a proportion of 0.591, but the modulation away from the tonal center prevents the theme from existing as a distinct unit. In fact, this passage continues to move away from E minor as this thematic idea develo ped, undermining the harmonic stab ility suggested in the A section and serving as a precursor to the third theme A third theme in the unrelated key and the brighter mode of D major is then passed between the pianist and the cellist ( Figure 5 12). Another continuous eight bar Mean for the first time in the movement occurring on an accented off beat in m. 43 at a proportion of 0.708. Thus with each theme in this movement, Smyth delays a little more the expected climax of the themes, creating an increasing sense of anticipation and unpredictability. The delayed cadence a lso prevents the relaxation of any emotional tension that has been building in the music. Figure 5 12. Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 second movement, mm. 36 46. C.F. Peters Edition, 1887. 3 rd Theme 3 rd Theme 36 42
261 Harmonic design: In order to support the tension created in the themes, Smyth leads the music to harmonically unexpected areas, modulating away from the tonal center of E minor. The first theme is stated in the tonic E minor, but the second phrase modulates by a third to C major ( Figure 5 13). Despite the strong push to C major, the expected cadence is obscured by a four measure extension that returns the music to E minor This passage is another example of Smyth The composer then continues to toy with the musical expectations of the listener in the second theme. This theme appears to also exist in E minor, but dominant tonic motion frequentl y occurs on weak beats, thus subverting the sense of a return to the tonic key area (Figure 5 14). The theme first cadences on G major, but the bass line in the piano part resumes the theme and passes it to the cello on the third beat of m. 28 over an E mi nor harmony. As the theme is developed further, the progression modulates to D major followed by the introduction of the third theme (Figure 5 15). The returns of each of the sections either generally stay in the tonic or move to the dominant. This harmon ic practice allows Smyth to create variety in the return by altering rhythm and texture in the accompaniment and by adding chromaticism to the prescribed diatonic tonal centers. Only the third theme is governed almost entirely by tonic to dominant movement Furthermore, Smyth reinforces the stability (and therefore the finality) of the theme through a regular length of eight bars and an imperfec t authentic cadence
262 Figure 5 13. Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 second movement, mm. 1 24. C.F. Pete rs Edition, 1887. Figure 5 14. Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 second movement, mm. 18 30. C.F. Peters Edition, 1887. E: i V i C: V I ii V 7 I IV I 6/4 V 6 VII E: V 7 i i i 7 7 /iv 7 /iv iv iv III V 4/3 i V 6 ii 4/2 VI 6 III 6 10 18 18 25
263 Figure 5 15. Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 second movement, mm. 31 41. C.F. Peters Edition, 1887. Rhythmic and harmonic vari ations: Despite an overall adherence to tonic and dominant tonal centers, each theme of the second movement returns with significantly more intricate accompaniments, often as the result of increasingly complex rhythms and unstable harmonies. The first them e is accompanied by chromatic octaves in a triplet rhythm beginning at m. 66, off setting the 3/4 pulse. This figure then increases to a sixteenth note figure that incorporates octaves and tenths ( Figure 5 16). Flourishes of arpeggios combined with an enh armonic modulation create excitement in the second theme. Both melody and accompaniment are embellished with sixteenth note passages, alternating between the two instruments. At m. 90, a sixteenth 7 chords. It is also at this point in 7 as an E # 7 to shift directly to a new key, in this case modulating from E minor to B minor (Figure 5 17). VI V i V 6/5 i II D: I V 6/5 /V V 4/2 I 6 V 6 I ii I 6/4 V 7 I 31 1 36 1
264 Figure 5 16. Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 second movement, mm 62 76. C.F. Peters Edition, 1887. Figure 5 17. Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 s econd movement, mm. 90 93. C.F. Peters Edition, 1887. Enharmonic equivalents also allow for brief tonicizations of distant or unrelated keys. The third theme appears in B major before modulating to E ( Figure 5 18). After a e: iv 6 7 /vi 7 /V i 6/4 V 6/5 iv 6 6 i 6/4 Enharmonic modulation Phrase a Phrase a 1 62 68 73 90
265 cadence in E minor in m. 101 the progression quickly continues to a dominant F major harmony and a brief tonicization of B b major. Figure 5 18. Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 second mov ement, mm. 95 101 C.F. Peters Edition, 1887. The move is only a brief diversion, though, for an enharmonic shift in m. 102 and 103 respells the pitch E b as D # ( Figure 5 19). The respelling of this pitch plus a chromatic step from the pitch G to G b in th e cello, respelled as the pitch F # facilitates the modulation back to the tonic key of E minor. 342 These unusual harmonic motions are followed by a release of tension through pizzicato arpeggios in the cello part and portato repeated chords in the piano par t (Examples 5 19 and 5 20). There is a gradual ritardando for the remainder of the movement, creating an emotional close that parallels the quiet, solemn introduction. 342 Album Leaf, O p. 28, no.4, for example, modulates from C # to D b by way of enharmonic spelling. B: I IV 6/4 I 7 E: V 7 I 4/3 /vi iv V 7 /iv N 7 B b : V 7 vi V 6 95 99
266 F igure 5 19. Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 second movement, mm. 102 106. C .F. Peters Edition, 1887. Figure 5 20. Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 second movement, mm. 102 110. C.F. Peters Edition, 1887. Allegro vivace e grazioso The final movement Allegro vivace e grazioso is a rondo presented in the style of a gigue, yet even this rhythmically brighter movement portrays the sense of anxiety that has overshadowed the entire work. Each section represents a new theme or theme group, as well as a contrasting character. The A section is stated in the key of E minor in every return e xcept the final one in the coda, where it is finally heard in the actual tonic of A ( Table 5 3). Yet traits also link this movement to sonata allegro form. The B I 6 IV E: V i VI 6 7 /V i 6/4 G b =F # E b =D # 102 102 107
267 section modulates to C major, a key related to both E minor and A minor. This section returns later in the tonal center of A. The C section, which would either present a new theme in a different key (rondo form) or develop the previous themes while modulating through various keys (sonata allegro form), actually does both. A new theme is presented, but it quickly modulates through various keys. In a true sonata allegro form, the return of the principal theme in m. 83 would stay in the relative key. In this case, the theme has returned to the tonic, a standard technique for rondo form. Even more unusu al, the true tonic is not E minor but A major; the final statement of the principal theme in the coda is in A major, whereas the E minor tonal center heard earlier functions as a large scale dominant that resolves to tonic in the recapitulation. The return of the B section is stated in A major in the recapitulation and finally in the coda the principal theme is stated in A major. Despite this unusual harmonic structure, it is similar to the l ndler from the Sonata in C minor and the Scherzo from the Trio in D minor In both of those works, the dance movements also began on the dominant and ended with a return of material on the tonic. This dance movement, although not specifically labeled as such, also follows this harmonic pattern. Thematic design: melodic style is again apparent in the opening theme Entering on the second beat, the principal theme of the A section is marked by octaves and staccato articulation (Figure 5 21). The theme is eleven measures long with the climactic highpoint occurring in m. 7 (a proportion of 0.619). This is the first phrase examined thus far that is almost the exact proport ion of the Golden Mean (0.618), yet the phrase is an irregular length, extended by two measures.
268 Table 5 3. Formal diagram of third movement, Sona ta in A minor, Op. 5 s onata rondo form. A B A C A B A Coda Theme PT ST PT Development PT ST PT PT Key Em C Em F ~ Em A Em A Mm. #s 1 48 49 82 83 112 113 70 171 218 219 64 265 84 285 311 Harmonic Motion v III V VI v I v I
269 Figure 5 21. Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 third movement, mm. 1 11. C.F. Peters Edition, 1887. It is also important to note that all of the final movements examined thus far have had themes that adhere more closely to the Classical ideal than the themes of the other mo vements and forms. This structure combined with clear cadences creates finality in works that avoid decisive endings. It is possible that in the final movements Smyth is attempting to clarify the ambiguity established in earlier movements by writing expect ed phrase structures and clear harmonic progressions. The B section, poco pi moderato is more songlike than the A section ( Figure 5 22). It is also set in 2/4 time instead of the original 6/8 time signature opening up the possibility for 2 against 3 po lyrhythms. The secondary theme contrasts with the first through its duple meter, legato articulation, and a range of almost three octaves (compared to less than two in the principal theme ). It is also rhythmically irregular, beginning on an offbeat and con tinuing with notes tied across the bar line. The structure of the phrase however, is similar to the principal theme. In the principal theme, the first four measures assert the tonic E and the following seven measures, while still diatonic, contain most of the melodic movement and the climax. In the same manner, the first five measures of this 14 bar idea reassert the tonal center of C. The remainder of the phrase is eight bars long, descending from the climax in m. 57 and moving away from the tonal center Thus, both themes are comprised of phrases of irregular and unequal lengths. Only the point of climax differentiates between these two theme structures. In 1 7
270 the secondary theme, the climax in m. 57 is at a proportion of 0.536, a significant and audible dif ference. Figure 5 22. Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 third movement, mm 49 63. C.F. Peters Edition, 1887. The classical theme of the C section and its harmonically simp l e opening phrase clearly demonstrate the juxtaposition of chromatic and music. This theme is quite different from the earlier themes in this work, as wel l as themes discussed in the Sonata in C minor and the Trio in D minor The theme is scalar in nature punctuated by leaps of a sixth and an octa ve ( Figure 5 23). The running sixteenth notes supported by diatonic harmonies help convey its classical character. Classical masters. Figure 5 23. Sonata in A min or, Op. 5 third movement, mm. 113 121. C.F. Peters Edition, 1887. The highest note of the theme is the last one in m. 121. However, if the theme is broken down into two smaller phrases, one that cadences on the tonic of F major and a second that modulat es to B b Phrase a Phrase b 49 57 113
271 however, has two climaxes (a possible feminist trait as described by Macarthur 343 ). The first h appens in m. 120 and the second is the highest note of the entire theme. Neither through delayed and multiple climactic moments. Harmonic design: The large scale harmon ic structure of this movement is always presented in the minor dominant, creating instability throughout the whole work. However, in the A section the smaller harmonic ev ents are diatonic with frequent subdominant, dominant and secondary harmonies that are easily analyzed with Roman numeral analysis. Thus, the overall harmonic character is elusive and unsure of itself as the details appear to make logical sense but the la rger tonal area is functioning The B section takes advantage of this harmonic ambiguity. It is first set in C major a harmony that exists in both E minor and in A minor allowing for the possibility to modulate in either direction The fla ts that appear after m. 70 represent a tonicization at the Neapolitan tonal level that prepares the dominant in m. 74 ( Figure 5 24). Again, the small scale harmonic events are clearly diatonic. Only the N 6 harmony stands apart from the surrounding tonic an d dominant harmonies. The sudden appearance of the D 6 major harmony foreshadows the harmonic events in the development. 343 Macarthur, Feminist aesthetics in music 70.
272 Figure 5 24. Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 third movement, mm. 70 75. C.F. Peters Edition, 1887. Quite separate from the surroundin g sections, the C section is set in F major. If E minor is the tonal center of the movement (as it would be to the listener), then the C section is large scale move to a Neapolitan harmony, an event foreshadowed in the B section. This section is a straight forward, diatonic respite from the harmonic instabilities of the A and B sections ( Figure 5 25). The eighth note remains constant, creating an immediate, quicker tempo change. Like the other sections, however, this part also becomes harmonically unstable, moving to other key areas, such as the tonal center of B b in m. 119. The stability of the C section is quickly undermined by frequent key changes through enharmonic respellings. Figure 5 25. Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 third movement, mm. 113 121. C.F Peters Edition, 1887. C: N 6 V i 6 F: I I V 4/2 I V 4/2 I V 7 B b : IV 6 IV V 7 I 70
273 Another enharmonic modulation treats the pitch D b as C # and B b as A # and the tonal area shifts briefly again to B major (see mm. 124 28) before modulating back to B b major with another enharmonic modulation where D # is respelled as E b (Figure 5 26). If the passage is thought of in terms of the B b tonal center, then the B major passage (respelled from C b ) is a large scale move to the Neapolitan harmony, acting as dominant preparation. Further chromatic alterations and a ritardando br ing about a return to the A section with the effect of a recapitulation. The coda, Presto combines the ideas of the A section and the C section as it surges toward the closing cadence in A major. Figure 5 26. Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 thi rd movement, mm. 120 132. C.F. Peters Edition, 1887. Rhythmic design: Propulsion is an obvious component in this dance movement, but the metric shifts and polyrhythms create the real excitement and drive. Each of the main themes is preceded by an anacrus is. In the principal theme, the anacrusis is tied across the bar line, but it is no less effective than an anacrusis to an articulated B b : IV I I B: V I 6/4 Enharmonic mo dulation Enharmonic modulation V 7 I 6/4 B b : V 7 I 6/4 I i i 120 127
274 downbeat. This theme in particular has rhythmic drive as a result of the triple meter and gigue like character. The trans ition following the A section shifts to a 3/4 time signature, notes stay the same, creating the effect of a 2 against 3 rhythm ( Figure 5 27 ). In this passage, the metric shift in m. 23 from 6/8 to 3/4 sounds more like triplet quarter notes in a duple meter than an actual change to triple meter. T his is partially the result of the constant eighth notes in the piano part, but it is also due to the overpowering rhythmic quality of the first theme. A shift back to 6/8 is skillfully execut ed through the descending triple t eighth note groupings at m. 31 Figure 5 27 Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 t hird movement, mm. 19 36. C.F. Peters Edition, 1887. A metric shift reinforces a complementary rhythmic ambiguity to the harmonic instabilit y. Following this transition the meter shifts again, this time to 2/4. A poco piu m. 23 19 25 31
275 moderato marking slows the tempo In addition, the piano plays a chord on the second beat that is tied across the bar line. The anacrusis to the theme thus has an arrhythmic quality that is not clarified until the fifth measure. Consequently, the B section not only contrasts with the A section in terms of melody and harmony, but also in terms of rhythm. This section also introduces the first actual 2 against 3 rhythms in the m ovement, witnessed in mm. 58 63 (Figure 5 28). Figure 5 28 Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 t hird movement, mm. 49 63 C.F. Peters Edition, 1887. The C section also shifts from 6/8 to 2/4, but the duple meter this time is strongly asserted through a fortissimo piano chord on the downbeat and a clearly articulated anacrusis in m. 113. The constant eighth and sixteenth notes have a persistent character punctuated by frequent accents on the offbeats ( Figure 5 29). These metric shifts, polyrhythms, and the use of the anacrusis contribute to the rhythmic vitality of the movement and create a dramatic finale to the work. This movement, in particular, also demonstrates the experiments in rhythm that Smyth was beginning to undertake. The next work provides f urther evidence of this turn in her creative development. 57 49
276 Figure 5 29 Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 t hird movement, mm. 113 119 C.F. Peters Edition, 1887. Sonata in A minor, Op. 7, for Violin and Piano Compared to the previous works, Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 demonstrates an increased knowledge of form and harmony, of the instruments themselves, and a continued development of a personal melodic style. It is unfortunate that she only composed one work for violin and piano. This work is overflowing with a passion and diversity of ideas not found in the works discussed in the previous chapter. Her compositional style has matured, and the writing for the instruments is more virtuosic and coloristic. The work, however, does not merely reveal the ways in which Smyth has evolved as a composer; it also embodies the experiences she endured between 1880 and 1887. Analysis of this composition illustrates the strictly musical elements of form, melody, harmony, and rhythm, but it also reveals how the music conveys ide as of mourning, loss, and fear of the unknown. The work may not have been a conscious expression of this analysis seeks to realize how the music is creating the possibi lity for this interpretation. More so than previous sonatas by Smyth, Sonata Op. 7 is ambiguous in several ways. Frequent modulations, mode mixture, and enharmonic spellings of chords create 113
277 harmonic instability. Thematic elusiveness in the sonata allegro movements, the unusual brevity of the Scherzo (with no trio), the sectional and fantasia like nature of the third movement, and the highly chromatic rondo finale lead to structural ambiguity. The endings of the first and third movements and the penultimat e section of the fourth movement present distinctly slower tempos, upsetting the rhythmic flow of the work and thwarting any sense of finality. Even some of the themes create a sense of uncertainty through deceptive cadences and overlapping or irregular ph rases. Personal upheaval at the same time that the work was composed opens up the possibility of an expressive interpretation. Allegro At a structural level, the Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 is the most experimental of the works discussed thus far. Although th e first movement is clearly in sonata allegro form, the number of themes is unclear until the end of the movement, when only the principal theme and the theme from m. 64 return in the tonic. The material presented in m. 44 63, while melodic in nature, is a lso extremely unstable harmonically, briefly tonicizing several different key areas, a nd assuming a transitional role ( Table 5 4). As in the Trio in D minor the proportions of this sonata form are not equal; the development is several measures shorter tha n the exposition. Smyth is able to balance the weight of the exposition with a significant coda, drawing on a tradition establi shed by Beethoven. Thematic design: Although previous chapters have avoided a discussion of extramusical connections, this work h memoirs, Impressions That Remain and As Time Went On ... The absence of the third in the opening harmony creates a sense of ambiguity under the pleading melody played by the violin. As well, the sparse, thin textu re conveys a lack of warmth in the music.
278 Table 5 4 Formal diagram of first movement, Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 s onata allegro form. Period Exposition Development Recapitulation Coda Theme PT tr ans. PT tr. ST ST tr.T PT PT trans. PT tr. ST ST Key Am E Am Em/Gm/Bm/Em E F#~A#~Eb~Am Am Cm A E(V) Am Mm. #s 1 17 17 32 33 43 44 63 64 81 82 145 146 62 163 77 178 87 188 207 208 22 234 268
279 In fact, she wrote that the weather in the winter of 1886 which evokes a harsh, bitter, or icy feeling. Although Smyth does not say that this is the cha racter of the Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 the possible parallel is apparent. More specifically, the principal theme itself is elusive. The first two bars establish the opening A minor harmony, but the melody, reinforced by bowings in the violin line, indica tes a continuous melody that does not cadence in m. 3. The next two bars emphasize A minor with the addition of a G # in the melody, but the line has once again returned to the opening pitch, A. This static melody uses a circular paradigm instead of the exp ected linear model, a stylistic feature that distinguishes her music from that of her contemporaries ( Figure 5 30). The legato line continues again, but there is no returning to A minor this time. Chromatic pitches push the melody higher and farther away f rom the tonic. If the first four measures, embodying a similar structure, constitute 5 31). The result is an exaggeration of the short long phrase structure witnessed in t he finale of Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 The climax of this entire thematic passage seems to occur on the first beat of m. 13, but this is undermined by a leap to E in m. 15, a similar tactic as in the second theme in the first movement of the Trio in D mino r The effect, again, is like an after shock or echo, reinforced by the diminuendo on the same beat. The original climax, however, is the farthest from the classical ideal of the Golden Mean of the music discussed thus far, occurring at the late proportion of 0.755. The secondary theme is reached after a long transitional passage and could not be more distinct from the principal theme. The dissimilarity between the themes is due largely to the accompaniment, which has relaxed to a lilting, triadic idea wit h a fifth
280 droning on the downbeat (Figure 5 32). The theme has a much narrower range than the principal theme, spanning only an octave and presenting a folksong like quality. An irregular seven bars in length, the climax occurs very early in the phrase at m. 67; a proportion of 0.476. More significantly, the phrase and its supporting harmonies are clear and distinct, an obvious contrast with the principal theme. Like the principal theme, the secondary theme does not cadence in its tonal center. In the first ending the cadence finally occurs in the original tonic of A minor, while in the second ending begins the modulation to the distant key of F # major. Figure 5 30. Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 first movement, mm. 1 5. J. Reiter Biedermann, 1887. Renewed by Universal Edition, 1923. Figure 5 31. Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 first movement, mm. 1 17. J. Reiter Biedermann, 1887. Renewed by Universal Edition, 1923. Phrase a Phrase b 4 4 8 12 16
281 Figure 5 32. Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 first movemen t, mm. 60 76. J. Reiter Biedermann, 1887. Renewed by Universal Edition, 1923. Motivic design : The motives used in Op. 7 reveal further evidence of a Smythian style. Two of the pitch motives from the previous works appear in almost all of the movements, w ith the scale degrees of and ( Figure 5 40 ). The rhythmic motives are not as prominent in this movement as in sub sequent movements. Unlike the earlier works, this movement relies less on motivic development than on thematic development. This trend continues in the later String Quartet in E minor to be discussed in chapter six. Consequently, any further motivic analy sis will occur within the context of thematic analysis rather than as a separate discussion ST 60 65 71
282 Figure 5 40 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 f irst movement, mm. 1 7. J. Reiter Biedermann, 1887. Renewed by Universal Edition, 1923. Harmonic design: Harmonic ambiguity allows the two themes to either evade or fulfill the expectations of the listener. The principal theme is a sustained linear melody in the violin, reaching from the low register of the instrument (E on the staff) up to two octav es above that ( Figure 5 33). A cadence on the tonic harmony is never achieved. Although the melody outlines an A minor triad, the expected authentic cadence is subverted by a deceptive cadence in m. 5. Then, a move to a N 6 chord creates an expectation of t he dominant in m. 9, but instead Smyth begins the modulation process to a new key. Instead of E major, though, we hear V 7 /IV, followed by a V/V. E major is the intended harmony in m. 11, but this is actually a C major chord. More chromaticism leads to anot her deceptive cadence, and the climactic height of the theme, in m. 13. The theme gradually shifts through these various harmonies, and it is only in the last four measures that the new key of E major/minor is established. PM1 PM2 4
283 Figure 5 33. So nata in A minor, Op. 7 first movement, mm. 1 17. J. Reiter Biedermann, 1887. Renewed by Universal Edition, 1923. Uncertainty in tonality, as well as in structure, is only heightened by the transition to the tonal center of the dominant. The transitional theme is characterized by an arpeggio that alternates between violin and piano; it is supported by quickly changing harmonies, shifting from E minor to G major to B minor and then back to E minor ( Figure 5 34). a: i i V VI iv 6 6 N 4/3 N 4/2 V/IV E/e: V 6 4/2 vi 6 V/III 6 7 VI 6/5 N V 6/4 VI 4/3 I 6 ii 6/5 V i 4 8 12 16
284 Figure 5 34. Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 fi rst movement, mm. 42 55. J. Reiter Biedermann, 1887. Renewed by Universal Edition, 1923. Despite its thematic nature, this section cannot be labeled as a secondary theme because the entire section is harmonically unstable; it begins so lidly in E minor, but a confirming harmonic progression (V to i in E) only occurs with the beginning of the third thematic section. Each new key in this transitional area avoids a confirming harmonic progression. In m. 48, a common tone modulation shifts t he music from B major to G major. The modulation plus the textural change to a solo chorale in the piano line highlights the shift to a new key area. Yet a sudden modulation back to B avoids the expected authentic cadence. In the next phrase, there are two dominant harmonies in the key area of B minor, but both are weakened tremendously. In the first instance, where the harmony should be E major, it is instead E minor in second inversion; in the E/e: V V/V V i i i iv i vii I V III G: I V IV I iii b: i V I iv I iv I V 6/4 7 42 46 51
285 second instance, the F # 7 chord proceeds to a Bm 6/4 chord. That chord then serves as the pivot chord back to E minor and an eventual cadence seven bars later. Thus, while this section has a melodic quality, the ever shifting harmonies distinguish it as an area of transition. The secondary theme is then stated in E maj or, further characterized by an abrupt transformation in mood. The combination of the song like melody, the waltz accompaniment, and the slower harmonic rhythm helps achieve this. It is also the only theme in the exposition to have clear dominant tonic pro gressions, although this occurs over a drone pedal point (see Figure 5 35). Figure 5 35. Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 first movement, mm. 60 76. J. Reiter Biedermann, 1887. Renewed by Universal Edition, 1923. Between these two themes, Smyth creates tension and excitement through active transitions, development of the principle theme, and harmonic ambiguity. The entire E: I vi V V I V vi I I 4/2 vi 7 I 4/2 I I 4/2 vi 7 I 4/2 A/a: V 4/2 6/5 /iv vii 4/2 60 65 71
286 transition from the A minor principle theme to the E major secondary theme is forty seven measures in length, almost 50% longe r than the two themes combined. The development draws upon all of the material from the exposition, combining thematic elements with tonally unstable structures. It is also the most chromatic section of the movement and is both difficult to analyze and to perform. The dramatic transitional theme appears in the key of F # minor only to modulate five measures later to F # major. In m. 104, the music suddenly appears in B b major ( Figure 5 36). Figure 5 36. Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 first movem ent, mm. 102 112. J. Reiter Biedermann, 1887. Renewed by Universal Edition, 1923. An enharmonic analysis of this passage and the immediately preceding measures clarifies the passage, for B b is simply the enharmonic equivalent of A # major. Modulation by t hirds was not uncommon in the late nineteenth century, and this passage similar obstacle is overcome only eight measures later. In m. 108, the music has F # : IV I I 7 IV iii A # /B b 7 7 vi 6 I 6/5 4/3 vi 6/4 I (f # =g b ) Eb: V 7 i 102 10 7
287 returned to F # minor (or G b minor), but Smyth has not left the flat side and a B b harmony reappears at the cadence. The new B b major harmony becomes V in the new key of E b minor. On the one hand Smyth is merely avoiding the use of double sharps and double flats by switchi ng to the enharmonic equivalent, but the enharmonic shifts have also led to a tonicization of the tritone, E b in m. 111. The recapitulation emerges out of the chromatic quagmire of the development ( Figure 5 37). Over a D 7 chord (IV 7 in tonic major) and then a D # 7 7 /V in tonic) chord, the violin plays a long A to D, then repeats A to D # and then finally, in m. 146, the opening them e of A to E returns over a i 6/4 chord in A minor. The accompaniment continues the arpeggiated triplets of the brief transition, further masking the onset of the recapitulation. This ambiguity of structure, obfuscating the return of the principal theme, only lasts for eight measures, at which point the sixteenth note accompaniment in the piano affirms the official return. The coda general (Figure 5 38). As she did in the Sonata in C minor the Trio in D minor and the Sonata Op. 5 Smyth creates a slower, ephemeral ending to a passionate movement by invoking the sec ondary theme and decelerating the tempo. Bar lines are ignored and an emphasis is placed on the half note as the main pulse despite the triple meter. The effect is a harmonically and rhythmically calm, yet uncertain, conclusion Even at the end, however, S my th avoids an authentic cadence There is a definite move from E major to A minor, but the modulation occurs several measures before the end, rather than at the final cadence. At m. 242, Smyth clearly writes an E 7 chord and sustains it for six measures un til the cadence to A minor in m. 248. T hree more instances of
288 dominant tonic resolutions occur further clarifying that this is the end of the movement. The last one occurs in m. 258. After this follows ten measures of embellishing the tonic; the end is a N 6 chord to i to ii 6 finally to tonic. Despite a clear resolution, this added harmonic area leaves the listener without the expected authentic cadence (Figure 5 39). Figure 5 37. Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 first movement, mm. 13 8 147. J. Reit er Biedermann, 1887. Renewed by Universal Edition, 1923. Figure 5 38. Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 first movement, mm. 242 248. J. Reite r Biedermann, 1887. Renewed by Universal Edition, 1923. a/A: V 6 /V V 6/5 /V ii 4/3 V 4/3 /V V 4/3 /V i 6/4 V 138 144 242
289 Figure 5 39. Sonata in A minor Op. 7 first movement, mm. 24 9 268. J. Reiter Biedermann, 1887. Renewed by Universal Edition, 1923. Rhythmic design: More so than earlier works, this first movement exhibits strikingly different characters or moods in the different sections. The princi pal theme, for example, is set in a triple meter with a constant sixteenth note accompaniment. The mood is one of anticipation and excitement, as well as longing. The transition continues the triple meter, but a triplet accompaniment is now paired with a d uple melody in a textbook example of 2 against 3 rhythms. This rhythmic tension creates excitement in the transition, akin to an emotional outburst, which is suddenly dissipated by the secondary theme. The duple division, heavy downbeats, and slower harmon ic rhythm create the feeling of a single pulse per measure and a calming emotion. Thus, Smyth manipulates the rhythms of each section to express different emotions. The various emotions that Smyth invokes through contrasting rhythms are works. In this movement, the treatment is more subtle. In the principal theme, the triple meter allows for a frequent push across the bar line, but Smyth also ignores the bar line VI 6 ii 6 V I IV VII V I V I iv V iv I IV 6 IV 7/6/4 N 6 i i 6/4 ii 6 i 249 258
290 throug h tied notes and note groupings. Conversely, t he transitional melody has a set of grace notes as an anacrusis ( Figure 5 41). In the chorale melody at m. 48, the anacrusis feels more like a downbeat in a duple meter, and this hemiola continues until the dot ted rhythms in m. 50 51 (Figure 5 42). In the secondary theme, the rhythm is the primary rhythm in the melody with the quarter note pushing the melody across the bar line. Although the principal and secondary themes do not begin with an anacrusis, the rhyt hmic idea of a pick up note is apparent within the melody itself (Figure 5 43). Figure 5 41. Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 first movement, m. 45. J. Reiter Biedermann, 1887. Renewed by Universal Edition, 1923. Figure 5 42. Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 fi rst movement, mm. 48 51. J. Reiter Biedermann, 1887. Renewed by Universal Edition, 1923.
291 Figure 5 43. Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 first movement, mm. 60 76. J. Reiter Biedermann, 1887. Renewed by Universal Edition, 1923. Scherzo The second mov ement, a Scherzo with no trio in C major, is a repeated binary form ( Table 5 5). The basic s tructure of this movement is A B A B 1 codetta. Section A is significantly longer and more harmonically stable than section B treatment of pri ncipal and secondary themes At each return, themes retain their original practice of economical writing The brief relationships; the f irst time through sections A and B it appears as though Smyth trying to reach the dominant, G major, but by way of the distantly related key of B b Smyth then reinterprets that minor third relationship to emphasize the tonic by moving between E b and C in t
292 expectations of certain harmonies while also ensuring that the work closes on the tonic without additional musical material. The Scherzo heard possibly as an interruption in the un related key of G, is a needed respite from the heavy emotion of the first movement. Similar to the lndler in the Sonata in C minor the Scherzo from the Trio in D minor and the finale from Op. 5, this dance movement opens on the dominant harmony. The mov ement finishes in C major, and the key signature is C major, but the piece begins wi th open G octaves in both parts; t he key of C is affirmed when tonic is reached in m. 3, much earlier than in her previous works. Thematic design: T he two main themes in th e scherzo continue to support a Smythian style. The first theme is comprised of two phrases of four bars plus seven bars, revealing further evidence of a consistent approach to phrasing that involves instr umental melody with numerous leaps and arpeggio s (Figure 5 44). This diatonic melody is also closest to the model of the classical ideal or the Golden Mean (0.618). The highest note in the melody occurs on the fifth beat in an 8 beat phrase, a proportion o classically styled melodies also came closest to this proportion. This further demonstrates is invoking, whether that is the Classical stereotype or her o wn Romantic voice. Figure 5 44. Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 second movement, mm. 1 4. J. Reiter Biedermann, 1887. Renewed by Universal Edition, 1923. Phrase a
293 Table 5 5. Formal diagram of second movement, Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 r ep eated binary form. Period A B trans. A B trans. codetta Key C B b G B b G ~ C E b C E b C C C Mm. #s 1 29 30 34 35 38 39 43 44 47 48 70 71 99 100 04 105 08 109 13 114 17 117 28 128 143
294 Figure 5 45). This phrase is seven measures in length. It has triplet embellishments and numerous double stops, the first example first note of the phrase in m. 11, a structure found previously in the third movement of the Sonata Op. 5 the sch erzo of the Trio in D minor and the final movement of the Sonata in C minor Thus in this overtly Classical movement, the melodies present new musical techniques for Smyth while also demonstrating a style that has remained consistent through the years. Figure 5 45. Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 second movement, mm. 5 11. J. Reiter Biedermann, 1887. Renewed by Universal Edition, 1923. The second theme is one of the few to actually incorporate the anacrusis. Like the second movement of the Trio in D minor this anacrusis is also a dotted rhythm. Smyth, however, also adds in a triplet rhythm in the penultimate bar of each phrase, as shown in Figure 5 46. This theme is also unusual in its phrase lengths. In previous themes, the first phrase was the sho rter of the two. beat phrase (not counting the anacrusis). Thus Smyth somewhat continues the Classical ideal with th e second theme of this movement while altering the second half of the theme Phrase b 5
295 Figure 5 46. Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 second m ovement, mm. 30 38. J. Reiter Biedermann, 1887. Renewed by Universal Edition, 1923. Harmonic design: Many of the harmonic progressions in this movement are diatonic, as seen in the first eight bars ( Figure 5 47). At m. 9, the broken C major chord becomes a IV 7 by half step motion from E to F. In the next measure, the F moves up to F # and then G # while the pitches C and E in the figure remain. To call these chords F # or C + serves no purpose in the analysis. 344 They are chromatic steps which create tension in the music but do not have a harmonic function. Even in m. 10, the G sharp, while indicating a C + chord, is acting as a leading tone to the A major harmony (V/ii), which leads directly to the returning progression, ii V in C major and a restatement of the theme. In fact, mm. 8 10 are harmonically static, but the chromaticism in the bass line gives the illusion of a harmonic progression. The second theme, a quick trip let melody to contrast the first theme, actually occurs in two key areas (Figure 5 48). The antecedent phrase is in the unrelated key of B flat major over an F octave pedal in the piano part; the harmonies vacillate between dominant and tonic. The conseque nt phrase drops down a third to G major, repeating the same progression. The third relationship of this passage is reaffirmed when the piano states the same two phrases in the same key areas, B b and G major. A transition leading back to the principle theme follows, again starting on the dominant G major but existing in C major. The return of the B section largely remains in the tonic key area, 344 Once again, precedent for chromatic chords based on voice leading can be found in the music of Grieg, as in the Norwegian Dan ces, No. 2 Phrase a Phrase b 30
296 moving to E b major to satisfy the third relationship between the antecedent and consequent phrases. The codetta of this movement flirts briefly with C minor before pressing on to C major. The movement ends with a plagal cadence, further defying convention. There is no trio, and, in fact, the movement is the shortest of all her works, lasting only three minutes. Why sh e chose to not include a trio is a mystery that may never be solved. The effect is that of an idea interrupted, or that the movement itself was an interruption of the work as a whole. According to the sketches, Smyth composed this movement as the third mov ement but decided to switch the order with the Romanze The energetic nature of the scherzo also provides contrasting material between the first movement and the Romanze a change of mood that would not have been as profound had the Romanze been placed as the second movement. Figure 5 47. Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 second movement, mm. 1 11. J. Reiter Biedermann, 1 887. Renewed by Universal Edition, 1923. C: V I I V I IV I V I V I IV I IV [I ] V/ ii ii V 6
297 Figure 5 48. Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 second movement, mm. 30 45. J. Reiter Biedermann, 1887. Renewed by Universal Edition, 1923. Rhythmic design: metric shifts are evident in the second movement. The unique feature about the rhythmic design of the Scherzo is th e interjection of bars of 3/4 time in an overall 2/4 meter. This meter change only occurs three times in the entire movement and the shift ushers in the transition to the second theme. The first metric shift arrives at the end of the second statement of th e theme. The added beat is a continuation of the musical idea on the first and second beats, and the second beat of the next measure is emphasized so that the metric shift is not noticed by the listener until at least m. 24. The same metric shift occurs at the corresponding moment in the restatement of the theme. In the final example, Smyth interjects two bars of a 3/4 meter in the codetta at m. 133 ( Figure 5 49). Although the time signature is 3/4, the rhythmic groupings and the accent on every third eight h note creates the effect of a 6/8 time signature. As a result, the B b : V 7 I V 7 I V 7 I V 7 iii G:v I IV V 7 I vi III 6/4 B b : I 6/4 V 7 I IV I V 7 G: I I V 30 38
298 music pushes forward at a seemingly accelerated pace. When the 2/4 time signature returns with accented offbeats in the accompaniment, it creates a thrust to the final bar. Figure 5 49. Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 second movement, mm. 133 143. J. Reiter Biedermann, 1887. Renewed by Universal Edition, 1923. that has appeared in several of the works discussed thus far: propulsion in her works. In this work, constant sixteenth notes paired with accented offbeats help create the energy and drive in the first theme. The second theme marked piano and molto dolce is, however, characterized by quarte r and half notes in the accompaniment, a dramatic shift from the quick pace of the first theme. Smyth is able to maintain the sense of forward motion in the melody through the use of an anacrusis that is itself a dotted so syncopated, as seen in Figure 5 50 below. The result of the incorporation of metric shifts and accented offbeats is a work that changes character but never loses the drive and energy expected of a scherzo. 133 137
299 Figure 5 50. Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 second movement, mm. 30 45. J. Reiter Biedermann, 1887. Renewed by Universal Edition, 1923. Andante grazioso Designated a Romanze by Smyth, this movement offers a great deal of extramusical material. The published score and the manuscript provide evid ence for the at the top right side of the third movement only Inferno In the manuscript, Smyth wrote her paraphrase of this particularl y poignant and relevant 345 The actual verse is thus: Nessun maggior dolore / No sadness/ che ricordarsi del tempo felice / is greater than in misery to rehearse/ ne la miseria... / memories of joy.../ 346 345 London, British Library, Add. MS 45950. 346 The i nferno of Dante 43. 30 38
300 The fifth Inferno tells the story of Francesca da Rimini (1255 1285) as Dante interpreted it. Francesca was married by proxy to a hunchback Italian nobleman and fell in love with her brother in law. The two were a llegedly reading of the fateful kiss between Guinevere and Lancelot when her husband saw them and murdered them. As Dante tells it s or purpos efully malicious act 347 Like Francesca Smyth argues that she did not realize the consequences of her actions until it was too late and the composer may have found a kinship with her story. 348 With this small piece of evidence, it becomes very clear that thi s movement, and perhaps this was a dark winter for her, and it is possible that she was remembering happier times in Leipzig while she was composing this work. Th e third movement is sectional but in the quasi una fantasia style that harkens back to Beethoven ( Table 5 6). 349 The first section, Andante grazioso is a melancholic idea set in E minor. The B section, an Allegro dance in triple meter, alternates with a cad enza like passage. The material in the cadenza becomes the main focus of the developmental C section. A brief reminder of the Allegro occurs before the return of the A section. 347 The i nferno of Dante 31 4, n. 65 348 The story of Francesca da Rimini has been set to music by several composers, including Tchaikovsky, Rachmaninov and Arthur Foote. The p Inferno in the late 19 th century is a topic that has been explored by numerous authors, most recently Allison Milbanks, whose text Dante and the Victorians tale may be the first by a female author in the nineteenth century. 349 quasi una fantasia style characterized by modified formal structures.
301 Table 5 6. Formal diagram of third movement of Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 sec tional form. Period A B cadenza B cad. C (B) A Coda Key e G e C e E E B E E G e e Mm. #s 1 17 18 25 26 32 33 46 47 64 65 78 78 89 90 102 102 13 114 38 139 62 163 179 180 188 189 228 228 55
302 Thematic design: The two themes reflect the emotional concepts expressed in again constitute the first theme ( Figure 5 is no climax. The melody beings on a high B and descends, expressing the melancholy bar phrase that has been extended two bars. It, too descends from the highest pitch, which also happens to be the seventh, D # a pitch that normally wants to ascend to E. The conflict inherent in this moment, an upward leading tone that is forced down, parallels the conflict Smyth felt. She still cared de eply for Lisl and valued their friendship, yet the situation was wrenched # which is a lso forced down to the pitch B. Figure 5 51. Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 third movement, mm. 8 16. J. Reiter Biedermann, 1887. Renewed by Universal Edition, 1923. The second theme suggests a joyful but fleeting memory from the past. It is set in the parallel major and is diatonic in nature. Only six measures long, this them e feels cut short ( Figure 5 52). The first four bars are a complete idea over a I V I progression. The structure of this portion of the melody also fits the classical idea with the climax occurring at a proportion of 0.625. However, the melody is extended by two bars of an ascending B major arpgeggio that is interrupted by the violin and a return of the theme. Phrase a Phrase b 8
303 Figure 5 52. Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 third movement, mm. 65 70. J. Reiter Biedermann, 1887. Renewed by Universal Edition, 1923. The the minor mode, marked piu mosso, quasi fantasia This interchange of a major diatonic theme and a minor chromatic cadenza occurs once more before the cadenza, and the feel ings associated with it overpower the happier second theme. Brief echoes of the second theme return but with lowered sixth and seventh scale degrees just before the reprise of the A section in E minor. Harmonic design: At the beginning of this simple, tra gic song, Smyth does not complicate the setting with overly chromatic harmonies. Rather, it is unusually diatonic, modulating by thirds to other tonal areas. The opening section in E minor moves briefly to G major, the median, before sliding back into the minor key. Another venture into major tonalities takes the music to the submediant C major, but augmented harmonies and chromatic voice leading create the first sense of ambiguity. After two movements of harmonic uncertainty, this brief respite in diatonic ism, even with its ventures to related keys, conveys solemnity and a sense of quiet misery ( Figure 5 53). The simple harmonies continue for twenty measures, an exceptionally long period compared to the earlier works. Still, Smyth alters the harmonic color of the passage by tonicizing the dominant tonal area in m. 12. Secondary The me Extension 65
304 Figure 5 53. Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 third movement, mm. 1 19. J. Reiter Biedermann, 1887. Renewed by Universal Edition, 1923. Growing chromaticism eventually undermines the stability of the opening section, transforming quiet sadness into passionate despair ( Figure 5 54). The passage begins subtly in m. 35 with a definite cadence in C major. A C + chord at the end of m. 38 signifies the change in harmony and emotion. In the n ext four measures, the C chord continues to be augmented with the G # acting as a leading tone to A minor. This is similar to the treatment and resolution of the harmonies C + to A major seen in the Scherzo movement (p. 296 ). A cadence on A minor in m. 42 is denied closure by the C + chord that accompanies the final note of the phrase. This harmony, however, also prepares the next section. The next six measures increase the tension felt in the music by combining repeating pitches with chromatic motion. In m. 4 4, a Ger 6+ chord hints at a B b harmony that is then realized in m. 45. The next two measures make the actual shift 7 /V I V IV V I V 7 /iv e: i V 7 7 14
305 up to B b major, with a brief move to N 6 (B major). This hint at B major is then affirmed and finally transformed into a dominant chord in E m inor. After twelve measures of harmonic ambiguity, the music reaches a climax in the tonic key and the emotion is released. Figure 5 54. Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 third movement, mm. 39 51. J. Reiter Biedermann, 1887. Renewed by Universal Edit ion, 1923. The elements described above reflect the quoted verse from Inferno The minor Andante grazioso section is analogous to the present state of misery Smyth felt. The ascending violin line is embellished by chromatic turns leading to a sustained hig h B over the opening theme in the piano part by m. 49. The chromatic motion is paired with a crescendo to forte creating an emotional climax. A gradual decrescendo and descending melodic line release the tension one note at a time. The descending line in thirds that follow in the piano part is punctuated by pizzicato harmonies and concludes C: vi I + IV I + ii vii/vi vi I + VI 6 VI 4/2 Ger 6+ VI 6/5 Bb: I I 4/2 IV N 6 I e: V i i V i 39 46
306 The experience of emotional pain portrayed in the A section is interrupted by 350 displayed in the Allegro dance section, set in the parallel major. The triplet rhythm that conveyed longing in the first section takes on a jovial quality through tempo and the shift to the parallel major ( Figure 5 55). Figure 5 55. Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 thi rd movement, mm. 64 70. J. Reiter Biedermann, 1887. Renewed by Universal Edition, 1923. Another way that Smyth may have portrayed these conflicting emotions is through frequent and prominent mode mixture. At the C section in m. 113, a development based in B major/minor takes the Allegro melodic idea and alters it. The chromatic and emotional tension of the A section is combined with the fast tempo of the B section. Measures 113 121 are set in B major with a brief interlude in G major, the lowered submed iant, or a borrowed chord from B minor. The alternation between B major and the tonal area of G major continues until the plagal cadence to B major at m. 131 ( Figure 5 56). Although Smyth has set the material in B major, she sees no need to stay in that ex act key area, drawing upon the submediant from the B minor chord bank as an alternating key area. The modulation is easily accomplished, as the F # (dominant) of B major also serves as the leading tone to G major. This section, in particular, seems to conve y the emotional variances Smyth was experiencing. 350 The i nferno of Dante 43. 64
307 Figure 5 56. Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 third movement, mm. 107 127 J. Reiter Biedermann, 1887. Renewed by Universal Edition, 1923. The movement concludes with a return of the Andante grazioso section and a music where coloristic qualities are the focus of the music ( Figure 5 57). The lilting rhythm of the Andante grazioso relaxes and the syncopated bass l ine gives way to a held octave E as the violin plays a low B b B: I V 6/4 G: I vi I vii/V I 6 B: V 6 I V I 6 I 6/4 V V/VI VI I 6/4 iv I D:[V 7 I 6 V I 6 V ] iv V 6 iv V 6 I 7 iv I 107 115 122
308 Figure 5 57. Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 third movement, mm. 226 232. J. Reiter Biedermann, 1887. Renewed by Universal Edition, 1923. As the violin melody reaches up into its high regist er, the piano part slowly comes down to an Am 6 chord over an E octave pedal point ( Figure 5 58). Figure 5 58. Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 third movement, mm. 233 238. J. Reiter Biedermann, 1887. Renewed by Universal Edition, 1923. At m. 239, the v iolin has reached a high C3 at a pianissimo dynamic level. In the next measure, the piano sounds the most ethereal chord in the whole movement: a D # 9 chord with the E as the root and quietly rolled across the keys ( Figure 5 59). A trilled D # finally resolves to E in m. 243 while the piano part falls calmly through harmonies leading to the tonic E minor. The final measures, a simple E minor harmony s panning six octaves, are soft, delicate, and tragic. I iv I iv 6 226 233
309 Figure 5 59. Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 third movement, mm. 239 255. J. Reiter Biedermann, 1887. Renewed by Universal Edition, 1923. Rhythmic design: A dance like quality permeates this moveme nt, even in its slowest and most tragic moments. The 6/8 meter creates a lilting rhythmic character that is enhanced by the rhythm This syncopated rhythm with an emphasis on the dotted eighth note is a prominent feature that prevents this lament from pl odding along. The second theme, with its Allegro tempo and contrasting 2/4 time signature, transforms the movement, if only momentarily. The use of triplets, trills, and a scotch snap rhythm (discussed in detail below) imitate the stereotypical traits of a jig. Smyth knew this dance style from her travels to Scotland and Ireland and also through the musical stylizations of her contemporaries. The brevity of this passage supports the interpretation that it is a memory surfacing during a darker time, here re presented by the surrounding Andante sections. There is a rhythmic connection between the two middle 9 i 239 247
310 sections that distinguishes them from the surrounding A sections. In both sections B and C, a triplet on the second beat propels the music forward. Yet sec tion C, while still in the Allegro tempo of the jig, is marred by minor keys and chromaticism. Thus, while the rhythmic nature of the B and C sections are consistent, the emotive qualities could not be more different. The Scotch snap first heard in the S onata in C minor also reappears in this section B. As before, it is a dotted rhythm that functions as a cadential pattern, adding two measures to a four measure phrase ( Figure 5 60). Each time the Allegro dance melody appears it is concluded with this rhyt hmic figure. Figure 5 60. Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 third movement, mm. 64 70. J. Reiter Biedermann, 1887. Renewed by Universal Edition, 1923. As in the Sonata in C minor this is the only appearance of this rhythm in the entire work, which in turn d raws attention to it. One might suggest that the dance like quality of the Allegro section combined with this Scotch snap rhythm is a musical memory of Allegro vivace The final movement, A llegro vivace is in rondo form, but even in that genre it expands the standard model into A B A C A B A(C A). The A section appears in some form five times throughout the movement, truly serving as the unifying device ( Table 5 64
311 7 ). The B section serves as a large dominant preparation, as well as a secondary thematic section. In both statements of the B section, the harmonies are either iv/IV or VI/ # VI. The second B section might even be thought of as preparing the B major tonal area that announces the retur n of the C section. By using v as the goal of the C section, Smyth is able to lead the music back to tonic with the return of section A without creating a sense of finality that E major would create. Then, when the C section returns, the modulation to E ma jor through its dominant has an ever greater effect as a resolution to tonic. Thematic design: As in the Trio in D minor and the Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 the Finale begins quickly and softly (Figure 5 61). The themes of th is final movement continue to dem triple secondary theme (Figure 5 62). The principal theme is made up of two phrases. bar idea that ends on a half cadence. Similar to many of the phrase structures already discussed, the high point appears early, in this case at the end of the first measure and at the same point in m. 5. The effect is very similar to the first theme of the third movement of the Trio in D minor and the finale of the Sonata in C minor Figure 5 61. Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 fourth movement, mm. 1 8. J. Reiter Biedermann, 1887. Renewed by Universal Edition, 1923. 7
312 Table 5 7 Formal diagram of fourth movement, Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 s onata rondo form. A B A C A B A C A(coda ) Theme PT trans. ST chorale ST PT trans. PT trans. ST chorale trans. PT PT Key Am D F Dm Am Cm ~ Em Am F# Am B E Am Mm. #s 1 30 31 37 38 50 51 67 68 81 82 115 116 20 121 69 170 99 2 00 202 203 14 214 30 231 245 245 253 254 290 291 311
313 this phrase, the melodic climax occurs on a high F # at a proportion of only 0.392. Figure 5 62. Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 fourth movement, mm. 9 23. J. Reiter Biedermann, 1887. Renewed by Universal Edition, 1923. The theme of the B section also has an early climactic point in the melody. Opening with an octave leap, this theme circles up to F twice before landing on F # in m. 41 (a proportion of 0.304). The theme itself never cadences. Instead, the melody descends, the rhythms slow down, and the music eventually pauses on G ( Figure 5 63). Consequently, the music creates a mixed message of forw ard motion through the triplet rhythm and yet has no linear direction because the melody and the harmony do not reach a climax or a cadence. Figure 5 63. Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 fourth movement, mm. 38 49. J. Reiter Biedermann, 1887. Renewed by Universal Edition, 1923. The phrase does not resolve; it instead segues into a chorale melody at m. 51 ( Figure 5 64). Smyth continues to place climaxes early even in the chorale melody. As the example below shows, the melody ascends to C by the third measu re and then 9 13 20 38 44
314 descends. This climax is only a proportion of 0.304, partially because the phrase is extended an extra two bars. Figure 5 64. Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 fourth movement, mm. 50 59. J. Reiter Biedermann, 1887. Renewed by Universal Edition, 1923. In the C section, the B theme is developed rather than a new theme presented. Because of the fragmentary nature of this section, it is difficult to analyze the phrase structure within it. Even the distinct melodic lines are circular in nature, beginn ing and ending on the same (and highest) note of the phrase or descending to an octave below that, as in mm. 125 128 ( Figure 5 65). The nature of this idea avoids a climax. Figure 5 65. Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 fourth movement, mm. 121 132. J Reiter Biedermann, 1887. Renewed by Universal Edition, 1923. m. 125 50 121 127
315 In fact, the entire development avoids a climax or resolution up to the point of the return of the A section. The themes return without significant alterations in the recapitulation of this son ata rondo form. Similar to the other final movements, the principal theme closes the work. Harmonic design: This two theme system, combined with a developmental C section, implies a sonata rondo structure, but harmonically and structurally the movement con forms more to the model of a rondo than sonata allegro form. The exposition is centered in the tonic area of A minor with both A sections in the tonic key and the B section modulating to the subdominant rather than the expected mediant or dominant. The B s ection is set in the key areas of D major, G major, and then an ambiguous passage that vacillates between F major and C major. The C section travels through various related and unrelated harmonies, presenting the earlier themes in assorted combinations. Th e return of A B A would seem to signal a recapitulation, but the three sections are not all in the tonic key: the B section has this time modulated to the submediant of F major. After the return of the A section, the C section comes back, again in various keys, followed by another, abbreviated version of the A section to finish the movement. The key area of the C section follows the theoretical model, moving to the submediant F major, but Smyth is unable to stay in one mode and harmonies of F minor also add to the color of the passage. Harmonically, this is one of the few passages that is a strict tonic dominant motions, moving quickly from F major to C 7 clearly establishing the key area of this section. A chromatic motion in the piano bass line to F # and G # (indicated by
316 the arrow in Figure 5 66) anticipates the modulation back to an a/A tonal center a nd the return of the A section The movement continues with a complete return of the A and B sections. The B section is presented this time not in D major bu t in F # major with no secondary tonal area, and the chorale passage is restated in the key of A major, the parallel tonic of the movement. The B section is followed by a nine measure transition based on the A theme and a shorter restatement of the C sectio n, also maintaining a basic sense of A major. In fact, the entire last half of the rondo after the first C section behaves like a recapitulation, staying in the tonic key. It is one of the few last movements that does not end in the parallel major. Figure 5 66 Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 fourth movement, mm. 158 169. J. Reiter Biedermann, 1887. Renewed by Universal Edition, 1923. Rhythmic design: One of the driving forces of this movement is the use of syncopated rhythm. As in the Sonata in C minor hemiolas and metric shifts are prominent, creating a rhythmic complexity not found in the other movements. Sixteenth note runs and an eighth note figure punctuated by trills characterizes the main theme of 158 164
317 the A section, set in 2/4 time. The triplet rhyth m introduced in the B theme foreshadows a metric shift to 6/8 in m. 116 (discussed further below). The introduction of this triplet figure alters the mood from anxious and agitated to dance like and somewhat relaxed. A respite from the dance like nature of the B section is introduced in m. 50. A chorale melody (an ambiguous passage in the tonal center of C) returns the music back to a duple meter, but the mood is not like either the A or B themes ( Figure 5 67), yet the passage is too brief to qualify as the C section. Instead, it is like a supporting role in a play: the mediator between the two opposing themes. At m. 68 Smyth continues this chorale melody, but only as the piano accompaniment supporting a slight variation on the B theme. After a return of the A section in the tonic, the meter finally shifts to 6/8. Figure 5 67. Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 fourth movement, mm. 44 59. J. Reiter Biedermann, 1887. Renewed by Universal Edition, 1923. 44 50
318 The first return of the A section is a tumultuous and rhy thmically diverse passage. In the transition, a three creates the illusion of 3/4 meter in a 6/8 time signature through an emphasis on every other eighth note in the bass line. The triplet nature of the 6/8 meter returns for the theme in m. 119 ( Figure 5 68). Figure 5 68. Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 fourth movement, mm. 112 120. J. Reiter Biedermann, 1887. Renewed by Universal Edition, 1923. The C section also has a short passage with unusual rhythmic notation. Still in 6/8 time, Smyth creates a duple sixteenth note figure while maintaining the triplet pulse through groupings of eighth 69). This notation is normally reserved for the use of triplet eighth n otes in a duple meter, but here it creates the sixteenth notes in a triple meter. After four bars the standard triple meter resumes. This unusual passage does not reappear even in the return of the C section at m. 261. 112 116
319 Figure 5 69. Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 fourth movement, mm. 139 150. J. Reiter Biedermann, 1887. Renewed by Universal Edition, 1923. Summary These two works demonstrate the creative and personal growth which Smyth experienced between 1880 and 1887. She continued to experiment with harm ony and form while also staying within her own musical parameters. Uncertainty and ambiguity in Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 and the Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 Through modifications of form, chromatic harmony, and irregular phrasing, Smyth expressed an overwhelming apprehension of the unknown in her personal life. Autograph scores and published editions revealed this strong connection musical style continued into the twentieth century, and her treatment of form, harmony, and melody maintained a traditional element while exploring the new musical language of the early twentieth century. Furthermore superficial traits such as her freque nt use of minor keys or M eno mosso endings that have been shown to exist in her four romantic works will also be significant characteristics in the String Quartet in E minor and her final 139 145
320 understanding of her as a person becomes more apparent. The Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 stands apart from its predecessors through its greater emotional content and expressivity; yet Smyth is able to evoke striking affects without focusing on a program. It is this aspect that grants the work a universal quality and places the composition alongside her
321 CHAPTER 6 STRING QUARTET IN E MINOR (1912) A discussion of the String Quartet in E minor plays a unique role in th is pertained to the chamber works, and it has explored the biographical connections to this music. Detailed analyses of the previous four works have never before been publish ed. The String Quartet on the other hand, has received considerable scholarly attention. This article, as well as a later article by Wood that discussed lesbian ways of listening, served as the basis for a thesis by Jennifer Gwynn Hughes, Sapphonic Listening: Ethel String Quartet in E minor She argued that the String Quartet in E minor String Quartet also served as an example collection, Women Composers: Music through the Ages The analysis presented in this c hapter counters some of the previous analytical and interpretive arguments and establishes a connection between this work and its predecessors. Contextually, the String Quartet in E minor than to her sexuality. Several p rimary sources have influenced this interpretation, including the Smyth memoirs from 1902 to 1908 (when the memoirs end), personal letters directly related to the piece, and the reception the work received. The String Quartet lief that women were just as capable as men in their endeavors, even if women were different, and that this capability applied as much to politics as to music composition. This chapter also offers an expansion of (or
322 alternative perspectives on) the analys es presented by Mercier and Pickett and by Hughes. Contrary to the arguments for a lesbian inspiration, Smyth was more concerned with expressing the rights of all women than her personal sexual orientation. Biographical Context : 1887 1912 After 1887, Smyt h concentrated on generating interest for her music in her native England. She premiered her two orchestral works, the Serenade for orchestra and the concert overture Anthony and Cleopatra A sudden interest in Catholicism inspired her to write the Mass in D one of her most famous and most performed works. The Mass in D and he encouraged her to compose an opera. Between 1893 and 1902 she wrote two operas, both of which were performed at major houses to mixed receptions. By 1902, musicians and conductors from London to Prague knew Ethel Smyth as a formidable composer of operas and orchestral works and as a businesswoman. By the mid 1890s, Smyth had also renewed her relationsh ip with Henry Brewster. For reasons that will become clear as this chapter progresses, Smyth and Brewster formed a relationship that was both personal and professional; he became her librettist and confidante. She was the exuberant and indomitable woman hi s wife never was. The letters between them reveal a love that was able to accommodate their unconventional Brewster was perhaps her soulmate. 351 351 Smyth included several personal letters in her memoirs. See Smyth, 41 43, 72 82, 126 128, 147 165, and What happened next pp. 135 145, 151 153, 177 184, and 250 253 to read letters between Henry Brewster and Ethel Smyth. For an alternative vi ew of the Brewster Smyth The cosmopolites: a nineteenth century family drama
323 Although there is no mention of the String Quartet in E m inor in her memoirs and biography until 1914, she wrote the first two movements in 1902 and finished the work in 1912. Smyth began composing the quartet at the same time that she was securing performances of her second opera and writing her third opera. Th is unusual return to the genre of chamber music while in the midst of operatic activities was an attempt to place herself among the great male composers of the eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries, and to show other female composers that it coul d be done. In 1902 Smyth was actively seeking performances of her opera Der Wald. She and Brewster argued over the merits of a production in the New York City. In a letter to Brewster dated from 1902, the same year that she wrote the first two movements of the String Quartet in E minor Smyth argued that: I felt I must fight for Der Wald and difficult jobs, not just to go on a hugging the shore, afraid to put out to sea. Now I am neither afraid nor a pauper, and in my way, I am an explorer who believes supremely in the advantages of this bit of pioneering. 352 Smyth even admits that this was one of the few moments where she wrote of her desire to help other composers such as herself, and it may have also been pa rt of the inspiration behind her return to the genre of the string quartet. The memoirs do not specifically mention the String Quartet in E minor Unlike her operas, which were collaborative projects with Brewster and involved numerous other persons, the string quartet seems to have been a private affair, a means of exploring her craft and her musical expression alone. In a letter to Emmeline Pankhurst, Smyth described the sparseness of the quartet as a composition, and her difficulty composing the work. S he wrote in 1913: 352 Smyth, What happened next 210.
324 always think a string quartett [sic] sound is almost an abstraction or perhaps like an outline no, more like a scaffolding. For me the most exqui site form of because there are so many ingredients that a rotten egg can pass undetected. A string quartett is an exquisite omelette. 353 Performances may have been private, as well. In 1908 she gave a concert of her chamber music in Paris, which included the first two movements the String Quartet in E minor The first public performance of the whole quartet was in Vienna by the Ros Quartet, and the first London performance too k place on December 3, 1914, by the London Quartet. 354 As this was a smaller ensemble, these performances were less costly and required fewer negotiations than an opera production. The String Quartet was largely an endeavor of and for musicians, and Smyth ma y not have considered it interesting enough to share with her readers. This fact alone may account for the lack of storytelling related to the String Quartet as the memoirs are often a recounting of the hurdles and bitter negotiations associated with her operas. Reception String Quartet was published and premiered at the height of her career and just prior to World War I. Although the compositional process of this work is undocumented, the life of the work after its premiere is noted in reviews, h er first biography, anecdotes from her diaries, and the liner notes of recent recordings. Because of its relevance to her Suffragette period, this work has also been the focus of feminist musicological research. 353 4. Quoted in a letter dated 13 December 1913. 354 Ibid., 641.
325 des many details about the quartet. The String Quartet A glib surface rendering. They do t heir best, but have not the remotest 355 This last statement is tauntingly ambiguous, possibly implying that there is an underlying extramusical meaning, but she could also have meant that they did not interpret the music i tself in a satisfactory manner. Two Investiture at Buckingham Palace in February, there was a concert by the Bohemian String Quartet who played my quartet divinely. It was played again last month at a party at the Czecho 356 357 she wrote without additional commentary. These diary entries demonstrate the high number of performances for a work by a living composer of a genre that was not of the popular style. St. John also proposed a theory for why Smyth did not continue to write in the genre, stating that she chose to promote the works she because of her increasing deafness and age: It is unfortunate that the success of her songs with chamber music accompaniment, both in Paris and Vienna, did not inspire her to write more chamber music, for her String Quartet in E minor supplies a good deal of evidence that with more practice she could have done beautiful and original work in this branch of her art. But as she became aware through her increasing deafness that her time for any sort of musical composition was limited, it is not surprising she did not strike out a new line, but concentrated her energies on a fight for recognition of 355 St John, Ethel Smyth: a b iography 175. 356 Ibid., 178. 357 Ibid., 181.
326 that up as hopeless. Now I mean to fight for my place in my own country, a place whi 358 means deterred her from securing performances of her works. ffered an overview of The most important item among her chamber music, the String Quartet in E minor, composed in two instalments [sic] between 1902 and 1912, is strikingly original in conception and workmanship. A great er contrast between two pieces of chamber music from the same pen can hardly be imagined than that between the facile abstract music. The contrapuntal element predominates thr oughout the first and last movements, the intricacy of the texture being thrown into strong relief either by occasional passages more purely harmonic in interest or by short stretches of expressive recitative. All four movements are notable for rhythmic vi tality and distinctive form. In the Finale, an interesting blend of sonata form and fugue which the composer considered one of her best movements, she maintained an even balance between form and content such as she had not succeeded in achieving in the loo sely constructed quasi rondo finales of the Sonatas for violin and cello. 359 The above description summarizes the work as well as any articles and essays written since then. These elements which Dale highlights the counterpoint, harmonic interest, rhythmic vitality, and vocal quality are not unique to this one work but can be found in The reviews of the work are not as numerous as one would hope. The most detailed published account appeared in the Musical Times after a chamber concer t at the Broadcasting House in honor of Smyth on 6 January 1934. The program included the Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 the String Quartet in E minor and two trios for flute, oboe, and piano The String Quartet 358 St. John, Ethel Smyth: a b iography 133 34. 359 293.
327 the earlier Op. 7. 360 The dates of composition are clear but the motivation for finishing the work may not be. According to this article, which may be the earliest proof of the compositional dates it is unclear for whom she completed the work : th e opening Allegro lirico and the Scherzo were written in 1902 and then laid aside as the announcer told the audience in the hall and on the ether to be resuscitated in 1912 and the Quartet finished on the instigation of Prof. Ros, of Vienna. Everyone is only too happy that such a result was achieved, for the new slow movement and final fugue complete a work which is one of the most beautiful things by its distinguished composer; but if any members of the Society of Women Musicians were listening that n ight, they must have gasped at finding what they fondly hoped was one of their own services to music thus reft from them by Prof. Ros. Will they darkly suspect him of male jealousy? Will it be a case of pistols for two and coffee for one? For in the archi ves of the Society is a programme of their the two movements of this Quartet in E minor by Ethel Smyth were produced by the London String Quartet iscovered in the winter of 1911, when the composer was asked for a chamber work for the first public concert of the newly The great thing, however, is that the Quartet exists not in part, but in whole. It was well played by the Kutcher organization, who understand its lyric style. None the less one rather sighed for the big tone of the London String Quartet, or the burly strength and marked rhythms of the Bohemia n Quartet. 361 performed her composition. Although the critic appears to be instigating an argument, his account shows that the Society of Women Musicians revived the two movement ve rsion in 1911 1912. The work was then finished after prompting by Professor Ros of the Ros Quartet, sometime in early 1912, presumably after January of that year. As a result of the efforts of both female and male musicians, Smyth completed her greatest chamber work. 360 361 Ibid., 173 174.
328 More recently, liner notes to several recordings have offered another perspective on the work. While Smyth has been criticized for a style that is not as innovative as other composers of the period, authors recognize an individual voice. Smy harmonic ideas still draw the most attention. Eckhardt van den Hoogen wrote: Ethel Smyth wrote a string quartet that almost seemed like a historical study of old masters of the genre. Despite its obvious retrospective orientation, the co mposition is not at all something that one would place under the rubric of denied as having in older encyclopedia entries. the extraordinarily compelling section of the first movement. the work ranges far and wide over the tonal gamut. 362 what that is othe r than unusual tonalities. the String Quartet in E minor According to Barnett: Brahms axis and strikes out in a more severe d irection. The romantic era is still there but this is disrupted or lent savour by an expressionistic element which reminded me of early Weill, of Reger and of Pfitzner. It reaches outwards towards the haunted world of Karl Weigl. The last movement seems to step into unknown regions occasionally pointing towards Bartk in its brusque, gusty and jerky dance quality. 363 assessment that the last movement hints of knowledge String Quartet between the second and third pe riods, 1892 1908 and 1908 1920s. She 362 V an den Hoogen, liner notes for CPO Digit al recording (999 352 2), 12 13. 363 < www.musicweb international.com/classrev/2002/May02/Smyth.htm >.
329 String Quartet Martinez writes: The first movement is The independence and interweaving of the voices creates a myriad of dialogues and conversations amongst the strings. The writing is at times like filigree, but accompanied by a deep understandi second movement is light hearted, playful and very much like a scherzo in character. It finishes with a sudden quickening of the tempo and a flourish. The slow movement is unashamedly heartfelt. It begins gently and quietly, with a melody that seems to grow from the opening harmonies. It is as beautiful a slow The initial idea is transformed and modified. In this instance she gives birth to a joyful second theme one that covers a wide emotional range to include playfulness, delight and a triumphant finish. 364 instruments is a trait that is addressed by scholars e xamining the relationship of this this work, but how does the music convey these ideas? Motivation and Inspiration for the String Quartet in E minor : An Examination o f Secondary Sources Elizabeth Wood was the first scholar to draw attention to this composition. She Smyth returned to complete the string quartet after her Suffragette experie nce in order prejudice and exclusion, [by demonstrating] mastery of the supremely mainst ream 364 De la Martinez, liner notes for Lorelt CD LNT114.
330 365 rticles and theses, scholars shifted from the idea that Smyth was inspired by her experience as a woman to the idea that Smyth was inspired by her experience as a lesbian. One example too easy t conclusion of her essay, Wood writes: If that knowledge was largely hidden, shared only by a few singers, writers, and musical friends, Smyth could still be true to lesbian experi ence, yet use musical tradition and operatic convention as a way publicly to express her theme of the social and cultural oppression of homosexual desire and difference, and her of the 366 The statement would be as true if lesbian and ho mosexual were replaced simply with female or woman listener/reader. Furthermore, the passage which Wood quotes has been taken out of context. In Female Pipings in Eden published in 1933, S incipient girl writes: But perhaps what women are called upon to pass on, that quality I spoke of, cannot be found on the road up and down which every one is tearing; perhaps it lies at the bottom of the sea, where we are at home; and perhaps our fate, not an 365 366
331 ignoble one, is to bring it up to the surface. A great woman writer of to day has said of her books that they are all experiments. That is what I mean only put in another form; I have always felt it must be, for women, a question of something yet unvoiced, unless in flashes of Shakespeare or Donne. 367 This passage is clearly referring to all women artists, writers, and musicians and calling to them to b e creative in their own way, and with their own voices. Three years later, in As Time Went On Smyth continues the argument, writing musical compositions, novels, paintin gs, and other forms of art. The composer argued that women, not necessarily lesbians, have something unique to say that other women 368 the argument is the hegemony of men ove r women, not the oppression of homosexual not homosexuality. Unfortunately, Smyth does not demonstrate what can be identified in 369 Wood also presents evidence that supports the argument that the String Quartet in E minor is politically based. In her brief discussion of the String Quartet Wood quotes 367 Smyth, Female pipings i n Eden 55. 368 Smyth, As t ime w ent o n 298 299. 369 antagonizing more important than any other has yet to be mentioned one of which the majority of gifted women must be aw are, though perhaps classing it among truths it is wisest not to drag out in to the open. There is a and it come out in their work. On certain fields a man of ordinary caliber will at times be cons cious of something that antagonises him, and leave it at that. But if it is a question of a feminine work in music remembering that so far women have done nothing great in that art he will decide a parti pris that his discomfort cannot possibly be due to his own limitations, nor be caused by anything as creditable to the woman as originality! Now if anybody thinks that herewith a reproach is levelled at men, that person (forgive me) is being rather stupid. On the contrary it is a tribute to male fineness o f skin as well as a bouquet offered, left handed, to the peculiar quality the originality As t ime w ent o n 298 299. [Italics are
332 two letters from Smyth to Emmeline Pankhurst, the leader of the Militant Suffragette movement i n which Smyth was a participant. In a letter dated 19 December 1913, 370 This statement clearly indicates that Smyth was inspired by not only the movement and its activities but b y the women involved. The dialogue and democratic nature of the musical work, noted by scholars and musicians, is clearly expressed by the fugal nature of the expression or subversion of her lesbian tendencies as described by either Wood or Hughes but instead demonstrates that the music may represent all women. Rather than further exploring how the String Quartet may represent the Suffragette experience, Hughes narrows her in terpretati on to a specifically personal 371 The goal of her paper is to apply Elizabeth Sapphonics String Quartet in E minor as a way to understand the work and as an example of a lesbian mode of listening. She draws upon the lesbian theory of Adrienne Rich and Sue Ellen 372 373 both of which promote the lesbian perspective as a means of creating political and social change in society. She attempts to create a paradigm shift in the way we listen to and analyze music by a pplying these ideas to an absolute 370 371 Hughes, Sapphonic l istening 4. 372 Ibid. 373 Ibid., 5.
333 instrumental work. In order to be used as a mode of interpreting and listening to music, valid perspective, it is also a highly subjective one, offering a narrow interpretation of a piece of music. As I am not a lesbian, it would be difficult for me to apply this mode of listening in my own research. its tendency for cadences that do not fully resolve or melodies that build and die away without reaching a successful climax Kyrie Mass a sense of climax when all the parts are present. But the music keeps going. The bass does not allow the music to rest at this crest, but begins an other wave and continues. I n the Mas s, the wave like, circular motion can be heard as leading to the climactic plateau at the beginning of the Christe 374 climactic This representation of music and its cadential motion as multi climactic waves can also be applied to the musical motion in the earlier chamber works. The previous two chapters showed that Smyth avoided or undermined authentic cadences. Phrases would approach a climactic point only t o back away before reaching a sense of finality; or, the climax would be undermined a few beats later by a higher pitch. Applying Sonata in C minor the Trio in D minor and the Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 reveals such 374 Hughes, Sapphonic l istening 18.
334 375 material. I propose that what Hughes has described is perhaps not a means of interpreting music through lesbian experience but instead through female sion of this on p. 32 ). and works. As part of her argument that Smyth wrote the string quartet specifically as 376 student years in Leipzig, however, she completed (yet never published) at least two full string quartets and several movements of unfinished strin g quartets. Thus, it cannot be empowered butch personality or lesbianism. It merely demonstrates her desire to write a string quartet, which is a traditionally masculine genre. S imply wanting to do something masculine, however, does not make Smyth a lesbian. Later in her analysis of the String Quartet Hughes attempts to correlate the reacts to the b 377 Hughes does not support this statement with evidence from diaries, memoirs or letters because there is none. This statement is speculation about what Smyth was specifically thinking, based upon assumptions of 375 Hughes, Sapphonic l istening 19. 376 Ibid., 32. 377 Ibid., 36.
335 reveals that Smyth was rare ly self conscious about anything, including her music or her own personality. String Quartet in E minor is better understood from the viewpoint of a lesbian because Smyth may have had lesbian tendencies. 378 Ar guing that the use of a fugato in the last movement is an indication of 379 writing. 380 The fugue d oes not demonstrate her lesbian tendencies, but merely her contrapuntal tendencies and her knowledge of the compositional procedures. No less e, thus negating her conclusions. String Quartet but on her, as well. It is the highly subjective element that detracts from her 381 The remainder of the essay argues in music. Unfortunately for the analysis, hearing lesbian desire in the music depends 378 Hughes, Sapphonic l isteni ng 39. 379 Ibid., 38. 380 There is a strong precedent for the use of fugues in the string quartet genre. Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, and Bartok all incorporated fugal elements into their string quartets. 381 Hughes, Sapphonic listening 11.
336 conceivable that another person who is not homosexual might experience the same musical elements with as much passion but with a different interpretation. understanding, her res Harry Brewster. As described in previous chapters, Smyth and Brewster had a long and unusual friendship. Their relationship, which began in 1882, rose and fell with the events in their lives, most n otably the deaths of Lisl in 1892 and of Julia in 1894. After 382 agreeing to meet with Brewster in London, Paris, and various cities in Germany. 383 After Julia died, Brewster was no longer legally bound 384 time and again she refused, citing their respective independent lives and her lack of talent for marriage. predetermined roles and res ponsibilities. Each was allowed to pursue affairs provided that it was not someone they knew or who was of their social stature. Smyth does not indicate in her memoirs if either one consummated such an affair. Although the relationship was an unconventiona l one, it was still the most meaningful relationship in While beginning composition of the String Quartet in E minor in 1902, Brewster and Smyth were not only friends but collaborators, working together on her opera, The Wre ckers It is unfortunate that there is no mention, in the letters or memoirs, of the 382 Smyth, As time w ent o n 44. See also Smyth, What h appened n ext 3. 383 Smyth, As time w ent o n 56 and following. 384 Smyth, What h appened n ext 18 22.
337 String Quartet at this time. She seems to have put the work aside to focus on The Wreckers the composition and subsequent performance of which required her full attention Smyth was at the time also traveling extensively while Brewster resided in Rome. Yet the depth of their mutual feelings is evident in the letters Smyth published. In 1908, almost immediately after a performance of The Wreckers in London, Brewster died o f cancer. Smyth was heart broken, composed very little, and took a long sabbatical from music. She wrote: I felt then like a rudderless ship aimlessly drifting hither and thither. In 1908 I drifted to Venice. There I was quite content to idle away my time as the guest of my sister Mary Hunter. My recollections of that idle time are extremely hazy, but I seem to remember that there was a fine string quartet in Venice just then and that they were engaged by Mary to play at a musical party she gave at th e Palazzo. Some of my own compositions, among them my String Quartet in E minor, were included in the programme, and had an enthusiastic reception. Suddenly I realized how wrong I had been to abandon my musical career when Harry died. I resolved to go back to London at once and resume it. I knew that in this lay my sole hope of being ultimately healed. 385 Neither Hughes nor Wood acknowledged this relationship and the watershed event of his death in their discussions of the quartet. Smyth finished the work bec ause she wanted to prove to herself and the world that she could compose in such a masculine medium, but as the above quotation demonstrates, she also finished it as a tribute to Brewster. I do not doubt that Wood and Hughes experience the String Quartet in the respective ways that they have each described. When I read their interpretations, however, and after having listened to the pieces multiple times, I cannot help but prose can be interpreted in a different way. I hear the String Quartet as a masterwork by a 385 St. John Ethel Smyth: a b iography 131 132.
338 seasoned composer. The movements flow seamlessly despite the ten year lapse du ring those ten years, I believe that the Quartet does not represent the repression and lesbianism I offer, instead, an additional interpretation. I believe the Quartet struggles as a woman and the power she recognized within herself, first as a composer and later as a member of the Suffragette community. The emphasis in the previou s sentence is specifically on the term and idea of woman designating and embodying the entire spectrum of female experiences, both hetero and homosexually. Summary of Analysis by Mercier and Pickett An analysis based upon melodic, harmonic, and rhythmic ideas within the music Quartet with an interpretation. Mercier and the String Quartet in E minor A brief review of the ir findings will serve as a starting point for a detailed analysis of the work I intend to address those elements that will further that connect this work to the earlier works and thus afford a greate Mercier and Pickett credit the major differences between the first two movements and the last two movements with the passage of time and the death of Brewster. Unlike the articles by Wood and Hughes, Mercier and P ickett acknowledge the significance of overcome a paralyzing depression after the death of her beloved friend and collaborator
339 Har 386 The authors quote Smy th as having said that the inspiration to finish the Quartet had more to do with the grieving process than it had to do with finding her lesbian voice. assured while remaining ro 387 Yet, the analysis focuses on motivic developments as well as the ways Smyth interweaves her various themes rather than on harmonic analysis. Each movement is i n sonata form or harmonically resembles the sonata principle (the second movement is, in fact, a scherzo ). For purposes of clarity, a summary of the structure of the work will be presented, largely based on the analysis by Mercier and Pickett. I will clari fy elements that I have found in addition to their research. Several statements in the analysis by Mercier and Pickett demonstrate the characteristics which I have established as part of the Smythian style. In the first movement, the authors note that the Furthermore, the C theme is accompanied by syncopated rhythms in violin 2, viola, and cello. The aural effect is striking: the listener loses the strong 388 Similar examples exist in earlier wor the most compelling element for the authors. The focus of the analysis is on structure 386 387 Ibid. 388 Ibid. Smyth was not, of course, the first composer to avoid a key signature. One Figure of this String Quartet, Op. 76, no. 6 The second movement opens with no key signature, but the music is, in effect, set in the key of B major. Upon the repeat of the first half, the key signature of B major is added, thus eliminating the many accidentals in the opening of the movement.
340 theme, Smyth changes key signa tures instead of using accidentals. She also does this 389 In the second movement, the secon 390 These seemingly arbitrary key changes were also found in the earlier chamber pieces. The motives that Mercier and Pickett identify in the first movement, as well as other melodic and rhythmic ideas throughout the quartet, are similar to motives from the earlier sonatas. The openi ng bars of the first movement contain the two primary motives of the work, a dotted motive labeled RM1 with the rhythm demonstrated in Figure 6 1. A descending motive with the scale degrees is also a significant motive, labeled below as PM1. 391 Immediately following the pitch motive are two pitches that finish the first brief phrase. The reader may recognize that the direction of the las t three pitches exhibits a small leap followed by a larger leap in the opposite direction. It is not an exact replica of PM2, found in the Sonata in C minor or even its modified form, found in the Trio in D minor Nonetheless, the directional nature of the motive, its early appearance, and its frequency throughout the work confirm its significance to the compositi 389 390 Ibid 391 This motive is remarkably similar to PM1 in the first movement of the Trio in D minor. In that example, the motive was comprised of the scale degrees (see p. 188). Twenty years later Smyth used the s ame group of scale degrees but reverses the last two pitches.
341 Figure 6 1. String Quartet in E minor first movement, mm. 1 5. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006. Just as the opening of the l ndler in the Sonata in C minor had a confusing harmonic presence ( C minor but with a F minor key signature) the authors state that flat major due to 392 This initial A b tonal center, however, only lasts for two measures, as Figure 6 2 shows. Furt all of which appeared in the string sonatas. The third movement also contains an example in m. 163, in the sur prising (and transitory) key center of B major (enharmonic [to C b 393 This particular example is discussed in further detail on p. 367 Figure 6 2. String Quartet in E minor third movement, mm. 1 6. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006. 392 393 Ibid. RM1 PM1 PM2
342 ost radical harmonic experiment occurs in the fourth movement. naturals in m. 50 gives the passage a fleeting bi Figure 6 3. Horizontal arrows mark the F nat urals in mm. 49 50. However, the example also shows that the F naturals are a continuation from the previous accompanimental figure in mm. 47 49. A close examination of the vertical writing in this passage, however, reveals that the passage is not bi tonal Instead, Smyth uses augmented intervals and tritones to unsettle the diatonic melody in the first violin part. Figure 6 3. String Quartet in E minor fourth movement, mm. 47 52. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006. In all the movements, Smyt h makes the key centers ambiguous, and she frequently changes key signatures and employs a significant amount of chromaticism. This ambiguity occurs more frequently in the third and fourth movements. In the development of the fourth movement, a lack of key
343 394 The harmonic language described by course of her career and culminates with this work The authors also note moments of both major and minor tonality, describing the recapitulation of the last movement with 395 Such tonal freedom is also found at significant points in the first movements (in the closing sectio n before the development) and the second movement (at the end of the B section before the return of the A section). My discussion of the String Quartet below will supplement that of Mercier and Pickett, Wood, and Hughes, and place the work in the context o writing. My analysis will also explore how the music conveys the emotions described by earlier critics and scholars. Analysis Allegro lirico The first movement is in sonata allegro form with a clearly constructed exposition, deve lopment and recapitulation. Similar to the Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 the exposition is comprised of a principal theme, a transitional theme, and a secondary theme. However, this work also adds a closing theme to the exposition, expanding the structure slig htly. The development section then works through the thematic material in varying ways, as Table 6 1 illustrates. The recapitulation follows the exposition measure for measure until the coda is reached in m. 213, whereby both the principal and closing them 394 395 Ibid.
3 44 end of the movement is marked Poco meno mosso one of the most easily recognizable The first movement retains the German Romanticism of the ear ly chamber works while also exploring the new compositional ideas that were developing in fin de sicle Europe It must be remembered that Smyth composed these two movements around of an increasingly chromatic yet still tonal language demonstrates an evolution of her style that may have been influenced by the musical developments of the time. Thematic design: The themes of this work and this movement fit into the models Smyth used i n works from the 1880s. The principal theme is twelve measures in length with the climactic moment (on a high E) occurring in m. 9, a proportion of 0.739 (Figure 6 4). The ensuing measures extend this climax to a pseudo cadence on the same pitch in m. 12. This event resembles a cadence through quicker rhythms, higher pitches, a V chord, and a crescendo to the sforzando chord in m. 12 followed by the first full rest. The final chord in m. 12, however, is not the expected I or VI chord; the sforzando chord is 6/5 in the key of B with no subsequent resolution. The chord in m. 12 is actually the chord farthest from a harmonic resolution, yet the music stops and begins again with an anacrusis into the next bar. In fact, this cadence demonstrates tha t years before.
345 Table 6 1. Forma l diagram of first movement, String Quartet in E mi nor s onata allegro form Exposition Development Recapitulation Coda PT Trans. ST CT PT Trans. PT+tr CT ST Trans. PT Trans. ST CT PT CT PT 1 14 15 36 37 53 54 66 64 71 72 79 80 102 103 115 116 136 137 153 154 167 16 8 185 186 202 203 212 213 221 221 227 227 234 e B B B B C C C B~ e E E E B B E
346 Figure 6 4. String Quartet in E minor first movement, mm. 1 14. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006. The secondary theme, as in the Trio in D minor and other works, is quite active and relies on very different rhythms than the principal theme, the result of which creates an angular and disjunct melody. Similar to previous secondary themes, it is three measure s plus four measures in length ( Figure 6 5). Once again, climaxes are elusive and occur early in the phrase. The melodic highpoints appear in mm. 38 and 41, but this has continued her style of a short plus long phrase structure with early climaxes, as in the earlier works. Smyth adds a closing theme to this sonata structure, completing her compositional evolution from the earliest works. It has already been shown th at the Sonata in C minor and the Trio in D minor used only the required principal and B: V 6/5
347 Figure 6 5. String Quartet in E minor first movement, mm. 34 44. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006. secondary themes, while the Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 and the Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 included transitions that were almost thematic themselves. Finally, in this work Smyth composes three complete themes plus transitional themes, thus expanding the structure to its full melodic potential. The closing theme itself is the most regular, straightforward, and melodic of the themes in this movement. Its range is just over an octave, but large leaps are less frequent than the previous two themes. While the accompaniment maintains the 6/8 time signature, the m elody has switched to a duple meter by the third measure of the phrase ( Figure 6 6). The melody is eleven bars long with the climax falling on the downbeat of m. 60. Of all the themes, only this one has a structure that comes closest to the Golden Mean wit h a proportion of 0.619. Phrase a Phrase b
348 Figure 6 6. String Quartet in E minor first movement, mm. 51 66. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006. In this first movement, Smyth has presented her three styles of thematic treatment. The principal theme is orga nic and motivic, and has a late climax. The secondary theme was a combination of two phrases, a short phrase followed by a larger phrase, both of which contained early climaxes. The closing theme demonstrates her knowledge of the Classical style with a cli mactic proportion that achieved the Golden Mean. Each theme also contains widely different rhythmic structures and harmonic characteristics, which will now be discussed in further detail. Harmonic design: From the earlier chamber works to the String Quart et Smyth moved from highly chromatic, but still functional, harmony to chromatic harmony that cannot be described in terms of traditional functional harmony. The two published Closing Theme
349 analyses of this work do not label chords using terms such as tonic, dominant, String Quartet often cannot be labeled in traditional terms because she does not always adhere to the rules of functional harmony. Roman numeral analysis can be applied, but t he progressions and cadences are unconventional. The harmonies in her music are the result of linear writing and her contrapuntal training. This voice leading frequently results in harmonies that evade traditional key areas. In this movement, harmonies are highly chromatic but often still tonal with some resemblance to functional harmony. compositional style that relies almost entirely on voice leading rather than harmonic function. For example, the opening theme is ambiguous from the very beginning with a modal effect that is the result of a lack of half step motion. The first three measures are framed by a move from the pitch B to the pitch E, implying a dominant tonic move which r einforces the prescribed key of the piece. Like her treatment of earlier chamber works, the suggested key area is not maintained but quickly moves to the dominant, suggesting the key area of B major by m. 7 but withholding a dominant tonic cadence. The mov e to the dominant is then strongly heard in mm. 10 and 11, but the music halts on an A # 7 chord in m. 12 ( Figure 6 7). The transition to the second theme is just as elusive, suggesting C major, D major, and finally returning to B major without ever settlin g on a distinct key area. just as single chords, but as tonal centers themselves. In mm. 54 66, the music quickly traverses several harmonies and such distant key areas as C maj or and B major without
350 ever establishing a tonal center until the cadence in B major at the end of the passage (Figure 6 8). Smyth has again used the Neopolitan harmony and applied it to several measures of music (mm. 58 60), similar to the third movement of Sonata Op. 5 The result is a large scale harmonic motion from the tonic (B major) to the Neapolitan harmony (C major) that prepares the dominant tonic motion in mm. 62 64. Figure 6 7. String Quartet in E minor first movement mm. 1 14. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006. 7 IV 4/3 V V 6/4 B: I 6/ 4 ii 6/5 I 4/3 ii 7 7 /V V 6 /V V 6/5 6/5 ii I (sus 6)
351 Figure 6 8. String Quartet in E minor first movement, mm. 51 66. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006. Rhythmic design: The element that continues to propel the music forward is the rhythm, strongly embedded in the individual motives of the various themes. More than intervals or harmonies, the rhythms embody the sense of the work. There are four major rhythmic elements in this movement, demonstrated in the example below ( Figure 6 9). The first rhythm (A) is heard in the opening measure. The second rhythm (B) is an accompaniment figure in the transition to the secondary theme. The third (C) is an important element in the secondary theme. The fourth rhythm (D) is not so much a B: I V 6 /vi vi I 6/4 V 7 vi C (N):V 7 /V V 7 /V I 6/4 V 7 7 /V ii 7 I
352 rhy thmic motive as a recognizable shift to a duple rhythm in the closing theme while the accompaniment continues the 6/8 time signature, again demonstrating the use of 2 against 3 rhythms. Each rhythm is distinct from the others, creating an interesting contr ast. Smyth also combined the rhythmic ideas and tied together disparate sections in the development. Also, the dotted rhythm in Figure 6 9A and the polyrhythm in Figure 6 9D will reappear in later movements. A B C D Figure 6 9. Important rhythmic ideas in the String Quartet in E minor first movement. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006. Allegretto molto leggiero The second movement was also composed in 1902. It is the dance movement of the work, although Smyth has co mbined the principles of scherzo, sonata, and rondo forms. The work comes across as an intermezzo or an interlude, distracting the audience from the serious nature of the previous movement, yet preparing the audience for the very somber character of the mo vement to come. This scherzo jumps and skips, jolting the listener and continually presenting the unexpected. It never settles on an idea, but turns the many ideas upside down and inside out. It draws back in tempo at the end, even marked Andante at the co da, rather than accelerating to the final cadence. According to Mercier and Pickett, the thematic development in the second movement is similar to sonata form while the sectional nature of the structure relates the
353 work to a rondo. 396 This quasi rondo struc ture is not unlike the finales of Op. 5 and Op. precedent occurred for that in the scherzo movement of the Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 Structurally, the movement depends on the development and symbiotic nature of the intervallic and rhythmic motives. This piece is not built in themes so much as short melodic or rhythmic devices. These vary depending on the basic overall melody as well as the time signature. The tempo, or the basic pulse, of the movement is constant even when the meter shifts from 2/4 to 6/8. Rather than maintaining the eighth note value, Smyth evokes a greater change in the rhythmic vitality by keeping the large pulse consistent. Thematic design: The two basic themes in this second movement appear in varied form or in different modes throughout the movement. Section A, or the principal theme, is comprised of two phrases (Figure 6 and is an irregular length of five measu res. The climax has a low intensity and occurs more melodic and classical in nature with four bars and a climax on the first beat of m. 8 beginning or on to the next section. The succeeding passage then develops the principal theme. This theme also contains suggestions of PM2 from earlier works, shown in the example below (Figure 6 10). This music in general. 396
354 Table 6 2. Formal diagram of second movement String Quartet in E minor r ondo form. A B C A B A Coda PT trans. ST t rans. PT tr. PT trans. ST trans. PT+ST PT PT 1 14 15 39 40 53 54 73 74 112 113 126 127 151 152 165 166 189 190 208 209 229 230 238 a F F, various a a a a
355 Figure 6 10. String Quartet in E minor second movement, mm. 1 15 Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006. Section B presents the secondary theme, a series of melodic fragments set in the key of F major. Consequently, there are no phrases or melodic structures to analyze. If the entire fourteen bar section is analyz ed as a complete theme for a climax, the proportion of the section is revealed to be exactly 0.5, creating a balanced structure for a fragmentary theme (Figure 6 11). The motives PM1 and PM2 from earlier works are especially apparent in this theme. Sectio n C presents the same material from Section A but in the key of F major. The theme is treated in various tonal centers, but no new material is presented here or Phrase a Phrase b Phrase a PM2 PM2
356 in the remainder of the movement. Thus, this section acts as a development in this rondo form. The thematic material from this entire movement is extremely disjunct. Melodies are interrupted and passages are built on fragments. The texture is focused on the dialogue between the various instruments. Figure 6 11. String Quartet in E minor second movement, mm. 40 54. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006. Harmonic design : Possibly because of its fragmented melodic nature, this movement was written within a diatonic framework. The diatonic language places it i n Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 and the Trio in D minor The Scherzo begins with immediately analyzable harmonies. Clearly set in A minor, the melody does not cadence in tonic, but fi nally reaches a dominant tonic cadence in the relative major of C. However, the PM2 PM2 PM1 PM2
357 harmonies used here are straightforward tonics, subdominants, dominants, etc. Modulations are also clearly indicated through pivot chords ( Figure 6 12). This harmonic language is different from the first movement, where modulations largely occurred by half step motion in the individual lines. In fact, in this movement it is not the harmonies but the melodic fragments and the rhythms that create the overall structure. Figure 6 12. String Quartet in E minor second movement, mm. 1 20. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006. Rhyt hmic design and instrumentation : Throughout this movement, one can also observe the manner in which Smyth trades motive s, themes, and rhythms among the instruments. In the first fourteen bars, the two phrases are traded between the viola, the first violin, and the cello ( Figure 6 13). The B section, mm. 40 53, truly demonstrates a: I vi ii III V 7 /VI VI V i 6/4 V i 6/4 VI C: IV I IV I 6/4 V I ii vi vi V 7 /V a; IV 7 V/V V I
358 the dialogue in this piece, as well as the d ifficulty of rehearsing the work as instruments play on different parts of the beat (Figure 6 14). The almost hocket like quality creates a sparse, minimal texture that showcases the timbre of each instrument as fragments of the melody are passed between i nstruments. The austere quality of the movement, partially due to the individuality of the parts, is maintained from the first measure to the last. Figure 6 13. String Quartet in E minor second movement, mm. 1 15. Farmington Hills, MI: T homson Gale, 2006.
359 Figure 6 14. String Quartet in E minor second movement, mm. 40 54. Farmington Hills, M I: Thomson Gale, 2006. Andante It is unclear when Smyth turned back to the string quartet. Shortly after her return to composition, someti me between 1908 and 1909, she joined Emmeline Pankhurst in the Suffragette movement. Her two years of service had a profound impact on her life, as described in her memoirs and diaries. Around 1912 she resumed work on the string quartet, producing the fina l two movements. Ten years had passed, yet the movements are not as disparate as one might expect. The slow third movement is a necessary antidote to the frivolity and disjointedness of the second movement. The solemn nature of this movement is initially conveyed through the chorale like opening, begun in the first violin part. The stoic effect is created through slow rhythmic
360 and harmonic movement and by the relatively stable harmonic language, especially in comparison to the first two movements. It is a reflective work that Hughes argued is a Pankhurst. It may also be a reflection on her love with Brewster, who had died four years prior to the composition of this movement. The passage could also be a more generic reflection of a solemn nature, for Smyth does not specifically discuss the movement and its meanings ( Figure 6 15). Figure 6 15. String Quartet in E minor third movement, mm. 1 6. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gal e, 2006. String Quartet K. 465 Figure 6 16). The slow addition of instruments, suggesting harmonies rather than stating them, occurs in both Figure 6 16. String Quartet K. 465, third movement, mm. 1 8.
361 The structure of the third movement is sonata allegro form without a repeat of the exposition. The key of A b major suggested in the opening becomes the tonal area of the this work, for the movement is set in C major, yet frequent E b pitches and A b pitches in the opening passa ge suggest the key of C minor. It is only in the recapitulation that the key of C major is affirmed. Thematic design: works discussed in this study. In both of the works from 1880, the slow movemen ts were classically oriented and emotionally restrained, reflecting a compositional style that was not yet developed and a life not yet lived. After the events of 1885 and 1886, Smyth used the slow movements as vehicles for expressing the still raw emotion s that she was experiencing. If it is true that Smyth finished this slow movement almost f our years after the death of Hen ry Brewster, then it is possible to interpret the languid opening as an elegy for him. The principal thematic area of this movement is not defined by phrase structures or harmonic progressions. Of the twenty one opening measures, only one eight bar phrase emerges beginning in m. 7 (Figure 6 17). This idea occurs entirely in the key of A minor, further undermining any sense of a tonal center for this movement. It is also the only distinct melodic line, with a climactic moment in m. 10 at a proportion of 0.478. Figure 6 17. String Quartet in E minor third movement, mm. 7 14. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006.
362 Table 6 3. F ormal diagram of third movement String Quartet in E minor s onata allegro form. Exposition Development Recapitulation Coda PT trans. ST CT Transitional PT trans. ST CT trans. ST 1 21 22 38 39 56 57 64 66 97 98 118 119 135 136 153 154 162 16 3 171 172 180 c/ C c F A b A b Various keys C C C C b C
363 The secondary theme is eleven measures long with two smaller phrases and climactic highpoint in m. 42 and beat and concludes in m. 46; its climax occurred in m. 45 with a proportion of 0.667. Despite the frequent harmonic modulations, the phrases of the second ary theme closely resemble the C lassical stereo type providing further evidence for a Smythian thematic style ( Figure 6 18). Figure 6 18. String Quartet in E minor third movement, mm. 39 46. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006. Although Mercier and Pickett label only two theme s, a final melodic section can be labeled as the closing theme, even as it runs counter to a fragment of the secondary theme. In keeping with the sonata principle, this closing theme stated by the first violinist returns in the original key of C in the rec apitulation although it is first presented in the key of A b ( Figure 6 19). A distinct climax in occurs early in the melody at m. 59, a proportion of only 0.25. Phrase a Phrase b 39 43
364 Figure 6 19. String Quartet in E minor third movement, mm. 57 66. Farmington Hi lls, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006. Harmonic design: Of the three themes in this movement, only the principal theme begins and ends in the same tonal center. Both the secondary and closing themes modulate to another key, creating instability and reinforcing the o verall trope of from A b to F minor to C minor and only returns to A b at the beginning of another statement of the secondary theme ( Figure 6 20 ). Even greater chromaticism is e xhibited in the closing theme (Figure 6 21 ) as the pitch A b is respelled as G # Her use of chromaticism allows Smyth to compose two measures in the distant key of A major, which is also the enharmonic equivalent of B double flat, the Neapolitan harmony in the Closing Theme IAC
365 key of A b The F # minor chord can be thought of instead as G b minor, which is a borrowed vii from A b minor. The move is not a modulation but is followed instead by a plagal cadence in A b This brief harmonic shift to a sharp key signature allows Smyth to emphasize a chromatic melodic line in the violin part. Figure 6 20 String Quartet in E minor third movement, mm. 39 46. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006. A b : V I V I IV vi f: i V I i 6/4 7 V/V V i c: iv v v i i i
366 Figure 6 21 String Quartet in E mino r third movement, mm. 57 66. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006. The recapitulation follows the model of sonata form, with the themes all returning in the tonic key. In the coda, however, there is an unusual shift to C b /B major. As Figure 6 22 sho ws, Smyth sets three of the four parts in C b but places the second violin part in B major in m. 165 After two measures, the second violin joins the others in C b major. This passage eventually returns to the tonal center of C just before the Poco meno moss o ending. The most plausible explanation for this entire harmonic shift is that these A b =G # A b : I 6 IV I 6 b vii N 6/4 N 6/4 V 4/3 /V I 6/4 V iv I I I c: i
367 seven measures serve as a large scale diminished seventh harmony before the final return to the t onal center of C major in m. 172 Figure 6 22 String Quartet in E minor third movement, mm. 163 172 Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006. Cadences in this movement are determined as much by the rhythmic ending of a phrase as they are by the harmonic motion to a tonic. For example, during the first c: b vii iv iv 6 VII 6 VII 6 V 6/5 /VI VI V 6/5 /VI VI 4/2 I 6/4 V VI 4/2 I 6/4 4/2 /VI VI 6/4 V I N 6 I 163 166 169
368 tr ansition the harmonic progression briefly hints at F minor (the given key signature) before moving on to B flat major/minor. The cadence to this phrase, however, rests on C major, premeditated by two B naturals, one very briefly in the violin part and one in the viola part in mm. 34 35 ( Figure 6 23 ). This same idea recurs in the recapitulation. Figure 6 23 String Quartet in E minor third movement, mm. 31 38. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006. Rhythmic design: Even in this work with its more traditional harmony, the rhythm still serves as the driving force of the phrases. Similar to other works by Smyth, the figures and motives found in the transitions serve a greater place in the development than the principal and secondary themes. F or example, the dotted eighth sixteenth note pattern first heard in m. 28 in the above example (6 23 ) is emphasized throughout the entire development section. This rhythm continues into the recapitulation as an accompaniment to the principle theme. In this way, Smyth is able to unify the f: i IV vii 6 Bb: iv 6 I 6/4 I 6/4 iv 6 i 6/4 i 6 C: I C : I b VII 6/4 I I I
369 movement without relying on the obvious use of the two major themes. The transitional material becomes the thread that ties the section together. The melodies alone are not strong enough or distinct enough to dictate the st ructure of this movement. Instead, Smyth relies on rhythm and melodic fragments to create a unified structure, combining separate ideas in the recapitulation. The resulting movement is an expression of the disparate emotions that can be experienced success mourning. Allegro energico movement is extremely balanced. The exposition and recapitulation are almost id en tical. There is a principal theme, a transitional theme, a secondary theme, development and recapitulation. As Table 6 4 shows, the harmonic choices are, on the surface, typical of sonata form. Except for brief changes between the major and minor modes, th e movement begins and ends in E minor. This is the first example of the close of a work maintaining the original mode. With this modal balance, the overall structural balance is further reinforced. This movement follows a different sonata tradition than h er previous works by also treating the fourth movement as a fugue. In 1912, Smyth may have known Max String Quartet No. 2 from 1908, all of which employ fugal techniques. She wou ld, of course, have been familiar with the quartets of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. Her use of fugal techniques was not unusual to the genre or in her previous compositions.
370 Table 6 4. Formal diagram of fourth movement String Quartet in E minor s onata allegro form. Exposition Development Recapitulation Coda PT tr. 1 tr. 2 ST C T ST PT trans. ST+PT PT tr.1 tr.2 ST CT PT+ST PT 1 25 26 37 38 49 50 73 74 81 82 93 94 115 116 122 123 152 153 175 176 187 188 199 200 223 224 232 233 255 256 268 e A A a e e E/e E e e
371 The principal theme in this movement is not just one or two phrases but twenty five measures of fugal counterpoint. The subject is rhythmic and angular, what Mercier and Pic 397 All the basic rules of counterpoint are observed, such as the answers occurring on the dominant and tonics below the original subject. Episodes intersect the answers with material based on the subject. The counters ubject is closely tied to the subject, as well, but Smyth does not maintain the countersubject with each answer. In fact, the countermelody to each answer is different other sonata forms, the recapitulation is an exact transposition of the exposition. After the secondary theme, Smyth adds a coda. Rather than slowing down as in the first movements, this section actually gets faster, marked Poco pi mosso and charges to the fin al cadence. Thematic design : The idea that this finale S uffrage tte experience is entirely plausible especially since she claimed it was such Both themes are strong, assertive, and treated equally. The principal theme is an angular, rhy thmic melody that acts as a fugue subject ( Figure 6 24 ). Figure 6 24 String Quartet in E minor first movement, principal theme, mm. 1 4. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006. 397 306.
372 The climax of the subject occurs in m. 3 at a proportion of 0.75 an d therefore does not styled fugue, then her subject would not need a Classical structure. avoid C lassical structures and the Golden Mean, and the secondary themes frequently exhibit a proportion approximating that of the Classical ideal (0.618). The secondary theme in this movement follows this technique ( Figure 6 2 5 ). Figure 6 25 String Quartet i n E minor first movement, secondary theme, mm. 50 52. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006. The climax occurs across the barline between mm. 51 and 52 with a proportion of 0.636. The second ary theme too, does not fit the expected feminine character of a lyrical, legato and soft theme; it is instead an energetic and light hearted theme, with a different type of power than the principal theme: that of optimism. The active, regular nature of the secondary theme is similar to previous secondary themes. In this movement, Smyth chooses to not compose a closing theme, but the final eight measures of the exposition clearly present a codetta. The rhythmic nature has quickened and accents are shifted to the second and fourth beats ( Figure 6 26 ). This syncopa tion, plus a dramatic crescendo and a rise in pitch, creates an exciting rush to the development without ever needing a separate theme.
373 Figure 6 26 String Quartet in E minor third movement, mm. 75 77. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006. All of these sections demonstrate strength and power from beginning to end that have not been demonstrated in previous works. But the equality with which Smyth treats analysis of the music itself. Harmonic design: tch subject who has energy Because the harmony is fairly stable in E minor, the 398 In fact, t he subject and its supporting harmony become increasingly unstable; the music becomes more chromatic with each answer ( see Figure 6 27 ). Augmented triads add dissonance, as well as ambiguity. Subsequent answers do not remain in the key of E minor. In fact, the answer on tonic E in the viola is supported by A b and C in the violins, which could be reinterpreted as G # but the augmented 5 th would remain. There is no spelling of this chord that does not render it a chromatically altered triad. Although Hughes i s correct in 398 Hughes, Sapphonic l istening 38.
374 undermines her argument. The fugue subject and its subsequent chromatic treatment and new ways of looking at a situation. While the secondary theme (Figure 6 28 ) itself is clearly in A major (the subdominant rather than the dominant or relative major), it is supported by unusual and chromatic harmonies, again drawing upon augmented int ervals (see the D b+ triad). The D b from the preceding section is reinterpreted as a C # in the violin part. It would be tempting to merely reinterpret this enharmonic spelling as C # to maintain the basic key idea. 399 As Smyth later spells the harmony using C # exclusively, it would appear that the D b in the cello part is a continuation from the previous section and simply a courtesy to the performer. Here, the harmony functions as a chromatically altered VI chord moving to I and acting as a dominant preparation ; the end of the phrase is actually marked by V to vi, deceptive but theoretically correct. A restatement of this theme at m. 67 maintains the basic tonal idea of A major and prepares the listener for the expected development. The F A C # idea returns in th e coda. In this case, it is best interpreted as an augmented N 6 chord serving as a d ominant preparation (Figure 6 29 ). In m. 265 there is finally a solid authentic cadence, one of the most decisive cadences Smyth ever composed, possibly because of the shee r amount of chromaticism which preceded it but also because of the rhythmic determinedness of the passage. A more resolute finale is not found in her chamber music. 399 The D b /C # relationship and its multiple interpretations is not new to the sonata tradition. Rosen, String Quartet Op. 130 in which the pitch is treated in a similar manner. See Rosen The c las s ical s tyle, 27.
375 Figure 6 2 7 String Quartet in E minor fourth movement, mm. 1 12. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006. e: i V V V/V V/V B: V I V V V ii i I I I E: V I +5 vi 6
376 Figure 6 28 String Quartet in E minor fourth movement, mm. 47 55. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006. Figure 6 29 String Quartet in E minor fourth movement, mm. 262 268 Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006. F + a/A: VI + I VI + I I V 7 vi 6 IV 6/4 i V 6/4 e: V/VI VI 6/4 VI 7 i V/VI VI 6/4 VI 7 i I vi ii II 6 + II + VI V i i i i i i
377 Instrumentation: The development draws upon several elements, including both phrases of the secondary theme, the fugue subject and its motives, and the transitional theme, in that order. Unlike other movements that Smyth has written, frequent silences o r thinning textures and fermata exploit the various techniques of the string chamber works and demonstrates the development of her compositional style. These techniques include pizzicato notes and chords and tremolos marked with sforzandos heard in mm. 95 96 and 120 124 (as seen in Figure 6 3 0 and in Figure 6 31 ). These added effects, along with the chromaticism, create a great a mount of tension that is finally resolved with the return of the fugue subject in E minor. Figure 6 30 String Quartet in E minor fourth movement, mm. 84 99 Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006.
378 Figure 6 31 String Quartet in E minor fourt h movement, mm. 119 126 Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006. Summary This work presents a culmination of ideas and compositional techniques that Smyth had only begun to explore in 1880. Several traits can be found with increasing frequency in Smyt accepted ideas of tonality while strictly adhering to the principles of traditional form. She also frequently exchanges the dance movement with the slow movement (found in six out of nine multi m ovement works by Smyth). A pervading lyricism, even in rhythmically s sense of lyricism, however, is often disturbed by irregular phrase lengths or unexpected climactic points, which allowed the musi c to defy or at least delay expectations. Finally, the duality of duple and
379 triple rhythms and the manners in which they can be combined has been established in each composition. A common character or affect is expressed in the works thus far examined. Nat urally, this emotion is somewhat elusive of description. Her works are framed in a melancholic atmosphere, but within that atmosphere, elements of dance, song, and elegy abound. From the Sonata in C minor to the String Quartet in E minor her works improve d in craft, inspiration, and artistry. Although this trend took a
380 CHAPTER 7 CODA AND CONLCUSIONS s at the end of her life and the choices she made regarding her compositions. After World War I, Smyth shifted from traditional genres to more popular genres intended for a broader audience, just as her prose writings were meant for the lay reader 400 The wo rks from this period include the two light operas F te Galante (1921) and Ent nte Cordiale (1925); the for flute, oboe, and piano (1928); the Concerto for Violin, Horn and Orchestra (1928); and her last la rge work, The Prison (1930), a cantata for soloists, chorus, and orchestra based on the metaphysical writings of Hen ry Brewster. 401 At the same time, Smyth was also arranging many other large orchestral works for smaller ensembles in an effort to secure more performances and achi eve broader success and appeal. Two Interlinked French Folk Melodies and the Concerto for Violin, Horn, and Orchestra both became piano trios with the possibility for alternate instrumentation. It was also during the aftermath of the war that These changes in compositional style and physical health directly influenced the creation of her last original published chamber work, Song) for flute, oboe (or violin, or viola) and piano (1928). 400 Smyth, The m emoirs of Ethel Smyth 13. 401 The published works are The t heories of a narchy and of l aw: a m idnight d ebate (London: Williams and Norgate, 1887); The s tatuette and the b ackground (London: Williams and Norgate, 1896); (Napoli: F. Perrella, 1908); and the posthumous, The p rison: a d ialogue (London: W. Heinemann, 1931), which Smyth set the same year. Smyth also wrote that she hoped his letters and dia ries would one day be published, and this is a large reason for the inclusion of many of his letters in her memoirs.
381 The is unlike those that came before it, and yet it is significant to an understanding of Smyth as a composer in her last fruitful years. Similar to the earlier chamber pieces primary sources related to the Variations are limited, especially in the writings by Smyth. Two primary sources (in addition to reviews) inform the context and significance of the work. catalogue, which she compiled in 1936, lists many but not all of her compositions and clearly indicates the significance of her late r works by their inclusion 402 Several of the early chamber works and all of the unpublished works are missing from the list. Smyth does include what might be thoug ht of as her most import ant or successful chamber works, including the String Quartet in E minor the Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 the Trio for Violin, Horn and Piano [arranged from the concerto], and two trios for flute, oboe and piano: the Two Interlinked F rench Folk Melodies and Second, Smyth also kept several diaries over the course of twenty five years, beginning in the midst of World War I. 403 The diaries relate many of her experiences and thoughts during the war as well as the interwar years but provide little information on her composition s History of the Elisabet von Herzogenberg twenty fi ve years earlier and the death of Henry Brewster in 1908. The tragedies of war made it difficult to compose, and like so many of her female 402 London, British Library, Add. MS 49196. 403 Ann Arbor, MI, University of Michigan, Hatcher Graduate Library, Ethel Smyth Collection, 1910 1 962 Six diaries were written from 1917 to 1942. These diaries chronicle both world wars as well as events in her personal life, ranging from the trauma of war to complications with the architect building hem.
382 companions Smyth joined in the war effort, serving as a radiographer in a hospital near Vichy. 404 Immediately followin g the war and the publication of her first memoir, Impressions That Remain she turned to works either intended for specifically British audiences or works with highly personal agendas. She was intent on reviving the English ballad opera tradition and gain ing what she believed to be her rightful place in music history as an English composer. Sh e continued tirelessly to promot e her works. In the late 1920s Smyth also accepted the proposition put forth by Aubrey Brain, the greatest British French horn player of the time: that there was not enough demanding horn music. 405 As a result, Smyth composed her Concerto for Horn, Violin and Piano her only concerto and the only composition written after the String Quartet to incorporate multi movement classical forms. A mong these last works, all originally intended for orchestral performance, is a violin, or viola), and piano. In the published writings on and by Smyth, the work is practi cally ignored. There is no mention of it in the St. John biography except in the index of published works, and it appears too late to be mentioned in the memoirs. Other volumes, such as A Final Burning of Boats (1928) or Female Pipings in Eden (1933) did not include the work presumably because those writings focused on the issues that challenged a woman musician in the early twentieth century Reviews published in Music & Letters and The Musical Times provide information on the facts of the work. The Vari ations received its premier at Wigmore Hall, 11 404 discussed here. The effect of war on Smyth is one of the many segments of her life that deserve greater study. 405 Keays, Tooting h er o wn h orn 1.
383 February 1928, paired with the premier of the trio, Two Interlinked French Folk Melodies 406 The performers at this concert were Albert Fransella, flute (to whom the variations is dedicated) 407 ; Helen Gaskell, ob oe; and Bertram Harrison, piano. According to the reviews, critics and audiences admired Smyth and enjoyed her compositions. In October of 1928, Music & Letters published a highly favorable review on the and the Two Interl inked French Folk Melodies : Ethel Smyth knows more about display [than Arthur Somervell, also the subject of (or violin, or viola) and pianoforte (O.U.P.) there is more ease and grace than generally is the case. These works have sounded well on the concert platform. They should be attacked only by experienced players who can allow the delicat e writing to have its full effect. Both scores are well written, and their admirable balance of parts ought certainly to be given full expression if the works are to sound adequate. 408 These pieces were also revived during her seventy fifth year, 1934, as we re several of her other works including the Mass in D and her Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 performed by May Fussel, violin and Kathleen Long, piano. 409 The Musical Times published an article, also by an unidentified critic, after the concert given at the Broadc asting House on 6 January 1934: 406 Smyth, T he m emoirs of Ethel Smyth 380. 407 Albert Fransella (1866 1935) played with the Royal Philharmonic Society from 1900 1925 and the Royal Opera Company from 1924 1929. 408 98. 409 Smyth, The m emoirs of Ethel Smyth 375, 380 1. Kathleen Long also played piano at the performance of Sonata Op. 5 for cello and piano in 1926.
384 Two Trios for flute, oboe and pianoforte, which ended the programme displayed combinations, and they were delightfully played by Robert Mur chie, Terence MacDonagh, and Kathleen Long. 410 These two critiques demonstrate the prominence that Smyth had achieved among critics and audiences alike by the close of her career. The situations of these performances also reveal the methods Smyth (and her i nfluential friends) used in order to secure performances of her works. The Variations on was dedicated to the flutist who first performed it along with the close friends raised money to put on a Jubilee performance of her works. 411 Both situations involved people who were directly connected to Smyth and were personally interested in the composer and her music. But why did Smyth compose the Variations at all? At first glance, the composition appears to be another example nherent entrepreneurial streak. Even the Hamlet and a musical history dating back to the Fitzwilliam Virginal Book from the first British musical renaissance in the sixteenth and reveal her true motivation for its inception. By April of 1924, her hearing loss was 412 Unlike 410 Robert Murchie had played with the BBC Symphony from 1930 1938 and was one of the most prominent flute players in London in the 1930 s. 411 Smyth, 284. 412 St. John, Ethel Smyth: a b iography 89.
385 other known composers who continued to work aft er the onset of deafn ess, such as Beethoven and Smeta na, Smyth needed to hear her music in order to enjoy it and to work on it. Once she lost her hearing, Smyth felt she could no longer compose, as demonstrated in the above diary entry. The Variations c omposed between 1925 and 1926, were, in fact, composed as an experiment to test if she could still write for a small instrumental setting, one that was following entry in her diary: Three days ago I began Variations on Bonny Sweet Robin just to see if I can master the ear disturbances. I compose at the piano so as to not hear them. Today I have actually got as far as end of first variation [sic]! Worked about 1 hours ea ch day and purposely chose a nakedly musical job like variations for piano, flute and oboe as the sternest discipline. It is a very beautiful tune am not sure if my composing days are, or are not over. It is desperate work but beginning again alway s is torture. 413 The manuscript was completed over a year later, on 8 February 1926, the date underlined in the autograph score. Each page of the score has a revision or a crossed out passage, demonstrating how difficult the work was for her to compose. 414 She revisited the Variations in her diary in March of 1926, admitting further trouble composing: All the same with sizzling ears and no inspiration I determined at all costs to compose again. It seemed too absurd that in eight months all this began. So I bega n writing Bonny Sweet Robin (Variations on) [sic] for Piano, Flute, and Oboe. Ludicrous! Sometimes one line produced in one day. The odd thing is that the Variations which I have twice heard are rather good. 415 413 Ann Arbor, MI, University of Michigan Diary II, 105 106. 414 London British Library, Add. MS 45946. 415 Ann Arbor, MI, University of M ichigan Diary II, 108.
386 The experiment turned out to be a positiv e one, yet it was also last venture into chamber music. The Variations demonstrate s a continuation of her instrumental style. The work is vi rtuosic, full of thick textures and intricate rhythms. The presence of a pre determined melody, however, neg ated any tendency toward the motives of her past wo rks. Kathleen Dale addresses this composition 416 Of the and the Two Interlinked French Folk Melodies she wrote the following: The [Bonny] Trio is a model of discreet and artistic elaboration. The whole piece is developed on a more intellectual plane than the Interlinked French Folk Melodies, in which the robust Burgundian vintage song and the wistful Breton folk tune, once recognizable, whole or in sections, throughout the openwork instrumental texture. 417 immediately places the work among her earlier chamber works, all compositions that exhibit high artistry and craftsmanship. This work, despite several early performances, was recorded only once and exists as part of the sound archives at the British Library, London; it was never released commercially. It has not been performed since the 1930s, and Oxford Uni versity Press no longer lists the piece in its catalogue. The composition can now only be acquired through lending libraries. Consequently, this fascinating set of variations, full of virtuosity 416 Dale, Ethel Smyth 293. 417 Ibid.
387 and charm, may never have the chance to be assessed by presen t day listeners and performers Conclusion As the review of literature has shown, the majority of Smyth research has focused on her music with text: her operas, her mass, and her choral works. This particular type of music has allowed scholars to investi was simultaneously at the forefront of her personality and yet hidden in her own writing: her sexuality. Yet, I believe the scholarship has now gone too far in this latter direction, and it has become all too common to proj autobiographical tales in the music. Her biography and the question of gender in music are extremely compelling, but I also found myself simply wanting to hear the music, and music, I found myself asking two specific questions: what was her musical style, and does her instrumental music also expres s or represent autobiographical elements? To answer these questions, I chose select chamber compositions from four distinct periods in her life in order to compare her musical style over time. The two early works, the Sonata in C minor and the Trio in D m inor from 1880, were not published in works, the Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 for cello and piano and the Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 for violin and piano from 1887, were publ ished by major firms and frequently Romantic style. The String Quartet in E minor was composed over a ten year time frame at the height of her professional success; this work was also pub lished by a major firm, performed by
388 century musical developments. The written during her waning years, represents her late style, a combination o f her love of melody and an unusual amalgamation of Classical, Romantic, and twentieth century techniques. The analysis of the music alone and within its historical context relied on two methodologies. The first method was tonal formal analysis, the type of analytical tool with which most musicians today and in the late nineteenth century would be familiar. This analysis identified significant musical factors, in particular the structure and organization of the pieces, including form, melodic style, harmon ic language, and motivic development. The second method of analysis was influenced by Peter H. structural analysis coalesce to discern the expressive content of the wor k and to portrays a sense of ambiguity mixed with intense emotion by constantly changing the harmonies and key centers while avoiding resolution of harmonic and melodic tensio n. In support of the two primary methodologies, The analysis revealed that Smyth approached the chamber music genre in a consistent and somewhat con servative manner for most of her career. Her lessons in form, counterpoint, a nd harmony from Reinecke and Herzogenberg, and her study of Brahms established the conservative foundation for her work. Only the last piece, a set of variations, was no t a multi movement composition. In the other works, the first movements were all in sonata form, although the structure within them was
389 sometimes slightly modified. The second movements in a majority of the works surveyed reversed the usual order of the sl ow movement and the dance movement a trait that can be found in the music of Mendelssohn and Schumann Although one is a lndler and the other a scherzo the early dance movements of 1880 had a dance and trio form with a da capo coda repeat. In the Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 and the String Quartet however, Smyth omitted the trio from both dance movements (one is labeled a scherzo the other is simply given a tempo indication). The slow movements vary considerably, although an observable development in crea tivity with the form is also apparent. Smyth began in 1880 with a defined variation form; she then experimented with the concept of variation in subsequent works. In the Sonata in C minor the third movement is a clearly identified theme and variations for m. The second movement of the Trio in D minor is also a theme and variations, but the variations are not labeled. Seven years later, the slow movement of the Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 is a ternary form, wherein the three themes are repeated successively bu t the accompaniments are increasingly chromatic (ABCA 1 B 1 C 1 ). The Romanze of Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 is also sectional, but the order is circular rather than linear (ABCBA as opposed to the ABCABC of the Op. 5), and brings the listener back to the main t heme. Almost twenty five years later, Smyth abandoned the variation form for sonata form in the String Quartet in E minor only a set of variations, revealing her life long interest in the form. The last m ovements vary among rondo, sonata rondo, and a modified sonata form. The Sonata in C minor is the only finale that is actually in a textbook sonata rondo form. The sonata form finale of the Trio in D minor not only has principal and secondary
390 themes but al so transitional and closing themes, all of which are developed and reiterated. In both Opp. 5 and 7 the rondos could be classified as a quasi rondo for the basic sectional idea of a rondo applies, but Smyth does not always adhere to harmonic or thematic p rinciples. The final movement of the String Quartet however, is the most inventive ; it opens with a fu ll fugue acting as the principal theme of a sonata form. Even in the recapitulation, the fugue subject is granted the same four statements as in the expo sition. All of the chamber works examined in this study (including the Variations on are in a minor key. A minor and E minor are the most common followed by C and D minor. Several of the movements, however, close in the parallel major such as the first movement of the Sonata in C minor and the Variations after a minimum number of listenings. The princi pal themes of each of the first movements are chara cterized by a rhythmic emphasis on the opening note. In four of the five sonatas, this is a note with the longest duration of the measure and even the phrase. In the String Quartet the first measure is one repeated pitch, creating a similar aural effect. From this opening pitch, the theme spins out until it ends with an appoggiatura cadence. This unfolding quality is one of the elements that Smyth uses to express ambiguity and a nervous tension in her works. The secondary themes balance against the princip al themes, either through a triplet rhythm or lighter character, and often serve as an antidote to the chromatic, dark nature of the opening melodies. However, the secondary themes often cannot be described as subservient to the principal theme because the y are more balanced, structured, and more rhythmically
391 active. Only eight of the twenty individual movements contained a closing theme. These were often short and rhythmically active, serving as a transitional passage to the development. The placement of climaxes of the themes, however, was quite different from piece to piece, ranging from a proportion of 0.88 in the Sonata in C minor to 0.25 in the String Quartet in E minor Yet in each of these themes, the climaxes were often difficult to determine as li nes overlapped or phrases competed for importance. More importantly, of the forty two distinct themes in these five works, only seventeen themes exhibited a phrase structure similar to the Golden Mean. The remaining themes evenly fall above or below that p structure between early climaxes, a Classical proportion, and late climaxes. Furthermore, more themes had a phrase structure that did not achieve the ideal proportion, a total of twenty five out of f orty the music built on those themes, exhibit a Romantic aesthetic. frequently borrowed chords from parallel keys but then did not main mode of major or minor. To put it succinctly, C major contains seven possible diatonic harmonies, each one built on a scale degree using only the pitches in C major. If harmonies are borrowed from the parallel mode of C minor, twelve tot al harmonies are available to the composer (one of which might be E b major, for example). Smyth, conversely, borrowed harmonies but did not maintain the mode, allowing for nineteen possible harmonies, including such far reaching chords as E b minor. Rather than reaching these harmonic decisions deliberately, Smyth instead created many of her
392 chromatic harmonies through her penchant for counterpoint and linear writing. Several of the unusual harmonic areas in the pieces discussed in this study were often the result of chromatic motion, especially by half steps leading to a harmonic destination or a necessary modulation. In at least three instances Smyth recontextualized the same chord in a new key area, as in the Sonata in C minor or the String Quartet in E mi nor or in a new movement as in the Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 an unusual technique not harmonic language treats small scale movements at the large scale level as well, such as modu lating to a Neapolitan harmonic area in addition to pro gressing to a Neapolitan chord. She relies on enharmonic spellings, both as a courtesy to the performers and as a means of modulating to unusual key areas. Her music is highly chromatic on the surface but a reliance on basic diatonic functions such as leading tones and movement by 5 th s and 3 rd s prevails. Although the Sonata in C minor only hints at these practices, the String Quartet used them fully. Four significant motives and rhythmic devices complet e her recognizable style. In all the works an appoggiatura motive occurs whereby a step (or small leap in the case of the String Quartet ) in one direction is followed by a leap in the opposite direction. A scalar motive of three conjunct pitches in one dir ection, spanning a minor or major third, is also frequently heard. The dotted rhythm and all its permutations is a primary of rhythmic drive, yet no less significant the Scotch snap is an unusual rhythmic device simply because it is the opposite of the other primary rhythmic ideas, and because it only appears in two movements of these six compositions. The character of each of
393 these movements (or sections within), ho wever, conveyed a rustic peasant dance quality rather than the refinement of a minuet or the velocity of a scherzo. Of the six works surveyed, the Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 and the String Quartet in E minor are distinguishable from the other works as exc eptional compositions Instrumentation is the obvious trait that makes them stand out, as the other works involve either cello or the use of the piano. Through manipulation of form, harmony, and melody, in addition to instrumentation, Smyth created works t hat are particularly captivating. These works were also either the subject of letters or specific mention in the memoirs: where the Sonata in C minor gets a passing mention, but the Trio in D minor and the Sonata in A minor, Op. 5 receive no mention whats oever in the primary source material. The Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 for v iolin and p iano offers the same opportunity for speculation, debate, and interest as the String Quartet in E minor This work, as the analysis here has shown, directly expresses the tragic and catastrophic events that the inscription on the third movement, point toward an interpretation of loss and grief cdotes from the memoirs, provide further uncertainty, and mercurial mode mixture. More signif icant, however, is the addition of this piece to the nineteenth century repertoire. In the late nineteenth century few composers were writing violin sonatas, and those who did were not writing many of them. Grieg composed three violin sonatas (1865, 1867, and 1887), Brahms composed
394 three sonata s between 1880 and 1889, and Saint Sans com posed two between 1878 and 1896. Faur, Franck and Dvrk each produced single violin sonatas between 1877 and 1886. With this limited representation of repertory from this Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 not only adds to the breadth of music from this period, it also serves as a representative of British chamber music in the late Romantic style and should be included in any survey or comparison of Romantic works for violin and piano. In recent years, the String Quartet has received more scholarly attention than any of the other chamber works because it was performed frequently during her lif etime, it was composed during a well known period in her biography, and the last movement regard to the interpretation of the work, I applaud their efforts in bringing this work to the attention of the greater musical world. The String Quartet even more than the other musical world, especially prior to World War I. Performed at the same time as String Quartet perhaps represents a British musical style in comparison to the avant garde composers on the continent, one that is chromatic and modal b ut that also incorporates Classical forms and the dance like qualities associated with British folk music. According to this basic definition, it might be instructive to view the work as an example of Neo classicism. ntributions and popularity in her own lifetime, recent studies on the composer have focused more on the life she lived and
395 less on the music she composed. Many of the articles published on Smyth focus disproportionately on her involvement with the suffrage movement and her possible lesbianism In an article published in the lesbian magazine Curve Liane Curtis The Wreckers was an expression of the 418 Yet Smyth alludes to no such connection, a nd conceivable that the heroine in The Wreckers represents the emerging archetype in the twentieth century of the independent woman. The movement to label Smyth as a les bian is so prevalent that even the recent publication of MGG changed its label of Smyth from that of a minor British composer with nothing new to say in 1965 419 to that 420 focus whi ch has now lasted for thirty years, detracts from a study and appreciation of orientation has not yet been found, while evi dence of a relationship with Hen ry Brewster cannot b e denied. The point is that her sexuality has no bearing on the quality of her music. This study has only begun to explore the unique style of her instrumental works and the role of these works in her career. Most significantly, the findings presented her e the broad spectrum of events in her life The details of her life and the tragedies and triumphs she experienced directly impacted the music she created. Ironi cally, the loss of her two strong relationships He rzogenberg 418 The Wreckers 419 420
396 and Brewster, first prevented her from composing and then inspired her two greatest chamber works this study with works as yet unexplored, specifically the unpublished string q uartets from the Leipzig years. Likewise, the deaths of her father and her mother may have also affected her creativity ; thus, a study of the works composed before and after these years is needed. It will also be productive to compare the findings of my analysis with works that have already been studied, such as the Mass in D and the Concerto for Violin, Horn and Orchestra and to compare the findings with works that have yet to receive analytical study, such as the four movement Serenade for Orchestra (1 892), Serenade for Strings In addition, thorough quality of her art and offer new perspectives on British music The methodolog ies incorporated in this dissertation, which included a focus on biographical and cultural context and style analysis may serve as a useful approach for future examinations of orie ntation will be seen as interesting but peripheral aspects of a fascinating musical personality. By focusing on analysis and interpretation, the intrinsic merits of the compositions will be more clearly defined and, therefore, allow for a more solid basis on which to establish her place in the history of western music
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398 Citron, Marcia European Composers: 1880 Women & m usic: a h istory ed. by Karin Pendle ( Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001) 193 226. Clapp Itnyre, Alisa. Angelic a irs, s ubversive s ongs: m usic as d iscourse in the Victorian n ovel ( Athens: Ohio University Pre ss 2002 ) Clive, Peter. Brahms and his world: a biographical dictionary (Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press, Inc., 2006). Collis, Louise. Impetuous h eart: t he s tory of Ethel Smyt h ( London: William Kimber & Co. Limited, 1984 ) omissory n ote: an exercise in musical h Nineteenth c entury m usic 5/3 (1982) 233 241. Music theory spectrum 23/2 (2001) 170 195. Cooper, Suzanne Fagence. The Victorian w oman (London: V&A Publication s, 2001 ) C Clarke and s onata f orm : questions of gender and genre The m usical quarterly 81/3 (1997) 393 429. The Wreckers Curve Magazine 17/2 (2008). [accessed on line 4/9/2009] Dale, Kathleen. Dame Ethel Sm yth Music & l etters 25/4 (1944) 191 194. prentice works Music & l etters 30/4 ( 1949) 329 336. de la Martinez, Odaline. Liner notes for Smyth, Beach and Spain Dunk: Archaeus String Q uartet (Lontano Records LNT114, 2003). E hrlich, C yril. The m usic p rofession in Britain s ince the e ighteenth century: a social h istory (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1985 ) Franca, The s trad 9 1/1090 (1981) 718 19. Fraser, Hilary, Stephanie Green and Judith Johnston. Gender and the Victorian periodical ( Cambri dge: Cambridge University Press, 2003 ) Frevert, Ute. Women in G erman h istory T ran s. by Stuart McKinnon Evans ( Oxford: Be rg Publishers Limited, 1988 ) The n ew G rove d ictionary o f m usic and m usicians 23 (2001) 591 594. _____. Women c omposers during the British m usical r enaissance, 1880 1918 (Ph. D. 1998).
399 Fuller Maitland, J.A. Masters of G erman m usic (Scribner, 1984. Reprint by Boston: Longwood Press 1977 ) _____ The n ew G rove d ictionary of m usic and m usicians 7 (1954) 860 863. i f you do and damned i f y ou esthetics and the music of Dame Ethel Smyth Journal of a esthe tic e ducation 31/ 1 ( University of Illinois Spring 1997 ) _____ The w oman c omposer q uestion: f our c ase studies f rom the r omantic e ra (Ed. D. diss., University of Toronto, 1992). Gillett, Paula. Musical w omen in England, 1870 e ncroaching o n a ll m an privileges 2000). Gisbrecht, Nancy. An e xamination of the o peratic e nvironment in w hich Ethel Smyth composed and i ts e ffect o n h er c areer (M.A. Thesis, University of South Carolina 1980 ) Gunn, Simon. The pu blic c ulture of the Victorian m iddle c lass: r itual and a uthority and the E nglish i ndustrial c ity, 1840 1914 ( New Yo rk: Manchester University Press, 2000 ) Hardy, Lisa. The British piano s onata, 1870 1945 ( Woodbridge, Suffolk; Rochester, NY: Boydell Press, 2001 ) Harri s, Jose. Private l ives, p ublic s pirit: Britain, 1870 1914 The P enguin S ocial History of Britain (London: Penguin Books, Ltd, 1993 ) Hall, Lesley A. Sex, g ender and social c hange in Britain s ince 1880 ( London: Macmillan Press Ltd. 2000 ) Halstead, Jill. T he w oman c omposer: c reativity and the g endered p olitics of m usical c ompositions ( Aldershot, Engl and: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 1997 ) Henschel, George. Letter to Johannes Brahms, 38 December 1877, Johannes Brahms & George Henschel: an eduring friendship ed. by George S. Bozarth (Sterling Heights, Michigan: Harmonie Park Press, 2008) 123. H erminghouse Patricia. l iterary e nterprise in n ineteenth c entury Germany German w omen in the ei ghteenth and n ineteenth c enturies: a social and li terary h istory ed. by Ruth Ellen Boetc her Joeres and Mary Jo Maynes ( Bloomington: Indiana University Press 1986) Hughes, Jennifer Gwynn. Sapphonic l String Quartet in E minor (M.A. thesis, University of Virginia, 1995 )
400 Hurd Michael. The new G rove d ictionary of m usic and m usicians 17 (1980) 425 26. _____. Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart 12 (1965) 813 814. Hyde, Derek. New found v oic es: women in nineteenth century English m usi c ( Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Company 1998 ) Jallard, Pat. Women, m arriage and p olitics: 1860 1914 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986 ) Jezic, Diane Peacock. Women c omposers: t he l ost tr adition fo und foreword by Elizabeth Wood (New York: The Feminist Pre ss, 1988). American m usic t eacher 31 (1981) 14 17. Kalbeck Max ed. Johannes Brahms: t he Herzogenberg c orrespondence ( New York: E. P. Dutton & Company, 1909 ) Keays Mary L ee. Tooting h er o wn h t rio for h orn, v iolin and p iano (D.M.A. diss., University of California Los Angeles, 2001 ). Kerman, Joseph. Contemplating m usic: c hallenges to m usicology (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985). Kram The m usical t imes 144/1883 (2003) 6 12. Litzmann, Berthold, ed. Letters of Clara Schumann and Johannes Brahms, 1853 1896, Vol. 2 (New York: Vienna House, 1973). Lowgren, Andrea. If creative w omen h ad a w ife: t he e ffe cts of the i nstitution of m arriage o n t wo B ritish w omen composers (M.A. thesis, University of Oregon, 2001 ) Macarthur, Sally. Feminist a esthetics in m usic ( Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press 2002 ) Mackerness, E. D. A s ocial h istory of English m usic ( Londo n: Routledge and Kegan Paul 1964 ) McClary, Susan. Feminine e ndings : music g ender, and s exuality (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1991). a m usic: i dentity and d t hird s Mus icology and d ifference: g ender and s exuality in m usic s cholarship ed. by Ruth A. Solie ( Berkeley: University of California Press 1993 )
401 Women c omposers: music t hrough the a ges, Vol. 8: l arge and s mall e nsembles ed. by Sylvia Glickman and Martha F. Schleifer (Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006) 303 307. Meyer, Leonard. Emotion and m eaning in m usic (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956). Mohrmann Renate Women w ork a s p ort German w omen in the e ighteenth and n ineteenth centuries: a s ocial and li terary h istory ed. by Rut h Ellen Boetc her Joeres and Mary Jo Maynes ( Bloomington: Indiana University Press 1986) 63 75. Neules Bates, Car ol, ed. Women in m usic: a n a nthology of s ource r eadings f rom the m iddle a ges to the p resent (New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1982). Newmarch, Rosa. Tchaikovsky: his life and works, with extracts from his writings and the diary of his tour abroad in 188 8 (Reprint; New York: Greenwood Press, Publishers, 1969). Musicology and d ifference: g ender and s exuality in m usic s cholarship ed. by Ruth A. Solie ( Berkeley: University of California Press 1993 ) _____. Clara Schumann: t he a rtist and the w oman revised edition (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2001). Rolton, Julian. Liner notes for Ethel Smyth: i mpressions t hat r emain : t he Chagall t rio (Meridian Records CDE84286, 1995). Rose, Sonya O. Limited l i velihoods: g ender and cl ass in n ineteenth century Englan d ( Berkeley: University of Califor nia Press, 1991 ) Rosen, Charles. The c lassical s tyle Expanded edition (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1997). Ruhbaum, Antje. Elisabeth von Herzogenberg: Salon Mzenatentum Musikfrderung (Kenzingen: Centaurus Verlag, 2009). Sagarra, Eda. Germany in the n ineteenth c entury: h istory and l iterature ( New York: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc. 2001 ) St. John, Christopher. Ethel Smyth: a b iography (London: Longmans, 195 9) With appendices by Edward Sackville West, Vita Sackville West, and Kathleen Dale. Smith, Peter H. Expressive for i nstrumental m usic: s tructures and m eaning in h q uartet (Bloomington: Indiana Press, 2005).
402 Smyth, Ethel. As time w ent o n London: Longmans, Green and Co ., 1936 ) _____ Impressions t hat remain ( Reprint ; New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1946 ) _____. The m emoirs of Ethel Smyth Abridged and introduced by Ronald Crichton with a chronological listing of works compiled by Jo ry Bennett ( New York: Viking Press 1987 ) _____. What h appened n ext (London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1940). S olie, Ruth A., ed. Musicology and d ifference: g ender and s exuality in m usic s cholarship ( Berkeley: University of California Press 1993 ) Music & l etters 19/4 Schubert Number (1928) 397 398. Tipton, Frank B. A history of modern G ermany s ince 1815 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003). Tovey, Donald Francis. Essays in m usical a nalysis: vo l. V, v ocal m u sic ( London: Oxford University Press, 1937 ) Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart 15 (2006) 984 986. van den Hoogen, Eckhardt. Liner notes for Ethel Smyth: String Q uartet, S tring Quintet (Troubadisc CPO 999 352 2 1 996). Vicinus, Martha. Intimate friends: women who loved women, 1778 1928 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004). Weber, William. Music and the m iddle class (New York: Holmes and Meier Publishers, Inc, 1975 ) Weliver, Phyllis. Women m usicians in Vic torian f iction, 1860 1900: r epresentations of m usic, sc ience and g ender in the l eisured h ome ( Ald ershot, UK: Ashgate Publishing Company 2000 ) Women c omposers: g uide to the m icrofilm c ollection ( Woodbridge, CT: Research Publicati ons/Primary Source Media, 1998) r eels 14, 21, and 27. Wood, Elizabeth. The m usical woman, v ol. 3 ed. by Zaimont, Ov erhauser, and Gottlieb ( Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press 1991 ) ______. f c ontrapuntal a Musicology and d ifference: ge nder and s exuality in m usic scholarship, ed by Ruth A. Solie ( Los Angeles: University of California Press 1993 )
403 onography of The m usical q uarterly 79 /4 (1995) 6 06 643. Queering the p itch: t he n ew ga y and l esbian m usicolog y, ed. by Philip Brett, Elizabeth Wood, and Gary Thomas ( New York: Routledge Press 1994 ) Manuscripts and collections Ann Arbor, MI, University of Michigan Smyth, Ethel [E thel Smyth Collection, 1910 1962] Durham, UK, Durham University D ame Ethel Smyth MSS ASC Ref Z S my 2a 2d [ Autograph score of Trio in D minor for Violin, Cello and Piano 1880; parts; cassette tape of premier recording] London, British Library Add. MS 45 946 [Autograph score of Variations on Bonny Sweet Robin Song), 1926] London British Library Add MS 45949 [Autograph score of Sonata in C minor for Cello and Piano 1880] London British Library Add. MS 45950 [Autograph score of Sonata in A minor for violin and piano, 1887] London, British Library Published scores Smyth, Ethel Complete p iano w orks. Vol. 1 and 2 e d. by Liana Serbescu ( Breitkopf and Hartel, 2002 ) _____. Sonata in A m inor, Op. 5 for violoncello and piano (Leipzig: C. F. Peters, 1887 ) _____. Sonata in A minor, Op. 7 for v iolin and p iano (Vienna: Universal Edition, 1923. Originally publ ished by J. Reiter Biedermann, 1887 ) _____. String Quartet in E minor (1912). Wi th preface by Anita Mercier and Susan Pickett. Published in Women c omposers: m usic t hrough the a ges, Vol. 8: l arge and s mall e nsembles e d by Sylvia Glickman and Martha F. Schleifer (Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006. Originally published by Univer sal Edition, 1914) 303 307. _____ Trio in D minor for Violin, Cello and Piano (1880) e d by Margaret Lucia and Terry King (Tewkesbury, UK: Roberton Publications, 2003).
404 Smyth, Ethel s ong) for flute, oboe (or violin, or viola) and piano (London: Oxford Universty Press, 1928). Discography Smyth, Ethel Complete p iano w orks Liana Serbescu, piano. 2 CDs ( Coproduction Sudwe stfunk Baden Baden CPO 999 327 2, 1995). _____. Ethel Smyth: i mpressions t hat r emain. the Chagall t rio CD; liner notes by Julian Rolton (Meridian Records CDE84286, 1995). _____. Ethel Smyth: k ammermusick & l ieder, Vol. 4 CD ( Troubadisc TRO CD 01417, 1997 ) _____. Ethel Smyth: String Q uartet, S tring Q uintet. CD; l iner notes by Eckhardt van d en Hoogen (Troubadisc CPO 999 352 2 1996). _____. Great women composers. Mannheim String Quartet. CD (CPO 999914, 2002). _____. Smyth, Beach and Spain Dunk Archaeus String Quartet. CD; liner notes by Odaline de la Martinez (Lontano Records LNT114, 2003).
405 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Amy Elizabeth Zigler received her Ph.D. in music from the University of Florida in the fall of 2009 She r eceived a Bachelor of Music in piano p erformance from the University of Alabama and a Master of Music in p iano p erformance from Be lmont University. Since 2003, Dr Zigler has presented research papers and lecture recitals at international, national, and regional conferences, including Performing Romantic Music: Theory and Practice in 2008 and the College Music Society National Conf erence in published in the Journal for the International Alliance of Women in Music In ad dition to the music of Smyth, Dr d twentieth century styles, piano and music history pedagogy, and the study of cultural influences on composition and performance. Ms. Zigler maintains an active performing and teaching career as pianist for the Gainesville Chamber Orchestra and as a priva te instructor.