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Agrarian Production and Intensification at a Postclassic Maya Community, Buena Vista, Cozumel, Mexico

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0041046/00001

Material Information

Title: Agrarian Production and Intensification at a Postclassic Maya Community, Buena Vista, Cozumel, Mexico
Physical Description: 1 online resource (360 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Batun-Alpuche, Adolfo
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: agrarian, agriculture, anthropology, archaeology, beekeeping, cozumel, demarcation, diversification, economics, intensification, maya, postclassic, specialization, trade, walls
Anthropology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Anthropology thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This study investigates the nature and intensity of ancient Maya agrarian production systems at the site of Buena Vista, Cozumel as an adaptive response to regional market demands occurring during the Late Postclassic period (A.D. 1200-1518). I argued that production systems are cultural adaptations resulting from the interplay between cultural selection of resource primacy, motivated by local and larger economic institutions in which the group participates, historically available technology and natural resource opportunities and limitations. Therefore, understanding the relationship between land resources, farming technology and cultural priorities is essential to understanding how agrarian production systems operate. My study focused on investigates ways in which settlement pattern data offer insights to understanding agrarian production systems in agrarian communities. A settlement agroecological approach that combines methods and theories of settlement ecology, landscape ecology and agroecology was selected as the best approach to investigate agrarian production in Buena Vista. Following this approach, I conducted survey and mapping at the site, based on field methods and models I designed specifically to recover information on ancient farming systems. Through survey and mapping of a study area of approximately 5.2 kmsuperscript two centered in the site core, I identified four distinct microenvironmental zones in the local landscape and assessed their agricultural capability. Subsequently, I identified the surface evidence of agrarian technologies, cultivable parcels, houselots, and residential organization in each zone and analyzed these data employing an idealized model of agrarian settlements known as the Orchard/Garden-Infield- Outfield Model (OGIFOF). The patterned relationship that emerged among settlement features and land resources allowed for the interpretation of land management strategies and agrarian production systems implemented in different zones of the site. Buena Vista?s local landscape is characterized by a complex distribution of land resources of varying agricultural potential, that were stratified and adapted for agricultural production employing various technologies including terraces on ridges and troughs, water-control dikes on wetlands, wind breaks near the coast line, and stone demarcation of special productive soils in rejolladas, huaya acutes and upland areas. Remarkably, large tracts of rich agricultural land were employed for extensive beekeeping activities indicating the importance of production of this commodity in Buena Vista. Results of this study demonstrate how a Late Postclassic farming community stratified land resources and built its local landscape into a complex diversified agrarian production center specialized in the production of marketable commodities. This demonstration contributes to a better understanding of regional Maya Late Postclassic economics and particularly adds information to understanding the economic system of Late Postclassic Cozumel. My study contributes to anthropological theory by presenting a case study of how regional commercial systems affect the structure and organization of local farming communities.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Adolfo Batun-Alpuche.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Gillespie, Susan D.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0041046:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0041046/00001

Material Information

Title: Agrarian Production and Intensification at a Postclassic Maya Community, Buena Vista, Cozumel, Mexico
Physical Description: 1 online resource (360 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Batun-Alpuche, Adolfo
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: agrarian, agriculture, anthropology, archaeology, beekeeping, cozumel, demarcation, diversification, economics, intensification, maya, postclassic, specialization, trade, walls
Anthropology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Anthropology thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This study investigates the nature and intensity of ancient Maya agrarian production systems at the site of Buena Vista, Cozumel as an adaptive response to regional market demands occurring during the Late Postclassic period (A.D. 1200-1518). I argued that production systems are cultural adaptations resulting from the interplay between cultural selection of resource primacy, motivated by local and larger economic institutions in which the group participates, historically available technology and natural resource opportunities and limitations. Therefore, understanding the relationship between land resources, farming technology and cultural priorities is essential to understanding how agrarian production systems operate. My study focused on investigates ways in which settlement pattern data offer insights to understanding agrarian production systems in agrarian communities. A settlement agroecological approach that combines methods and theories of settlement ecology, landscape ecology and agroecology was selected as the best approach to investigate agrarian production in Buena Vista. Following this approach, I conducted survey and mapping at the site, based on field methods and models I designed specifically to recover information on ancient farming systems. Through survey and mapping of a study area of approximately 5.2 kmsuperscript two centered in the site core, I identified four distinct microenvironmental zones in the local landscape and assessed their agricultural capability. Subsequently, I identified the surface evidence of agrarian technologies, cultivable parcels, houselots, and residential organization in each zone and analyzed these data employing an idealized model of agrarian settlements known as the Orchard/Garden-Infield- Outfield Model (OGIFOF). The patterned relationship that emerged among settlement features and land resources allowed for the interpretation of land management strategies and agrarian production systems implemented in different zones of the site. Buena Vista?s local landscape is characterized by a complex distribution of land resources of varying agricultural potential, that were stratified and adapted for agricultural production employing various technologies including terraces on ridges and troughs, water-control dikes on wetlands, wind breaks near the coast line, and stone demarcation of special productive soils in rejolladas, huaya acutes and upland areas. Remarkably, large tracts of rich agricultural land were employed for extensive beekeeping activities indicating the importance of production of this commodity in Buena Vista. Results of this study demonstrate how a Late Postclassic farming community stratified land resources and built its local landscape into a complex diversified agrarian production center specialized in the production of marketable commodities. This demonstration contributes to a better understanding of regional Maya Late Postclassic economics and particularly adds information to understanding the economic system of Late Postclassic Cozumel. My study contributes to anthropological theory by presenting a case study of how regional commercial systems affect the structure and organization of local farming communities.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Adolfo Batun-Alpuche.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Gillespie, Susan D.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0041046:00001


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Full Text

PAGE 6

Milpa

PAGE 7

Solar

PAGE 8

Rejolladas Huays Cenotes akalche tzekel Solares Akalche Tzekel akalche tzekel

PAGE 9

Akalche Tzeke

PAGE 10

akalche tzekel

PAGE 11

Albarradas

PAGE 12

rejollada huay Cenote Akalche tzekel Sacbe rejollada. Chultun

PAGE 13

sascab era akalche akalche tzekel Tzekel AkalcheBooxluum Ekluum sPusluum Chichluum

PAGE 16

rejolladas huays

PAGE 17

Introduction

PAGE 18

Regional Economics in Postclassic Yucatan

PAGE 21

albarradas,

PAGE 22

Albarradas

PAGE 23

albarradas solares albarradas albarradas albarradas

PAGE 24

agrarian production systems Postclassic Market Demands

PAGE 26

The Postclassic Context of Cozumel

PAGE 29

Maya Agrarian Production Systems

PAGE 33

Settlement Patterns and Agrarian Land Use

PAGE 35

Methodology cenotes

PAGE 36

akalche tzekel

PAGE 37

Organization of this Dissertation

PAGE 41

Introduction

PAGE 42

settlement agroecological

PAGE 43

Agriculture Intensification Theory The Conditions of Agricultural Growth,

PAGE 46

; Boserupian Intensification Reconsidered

PAGE 47

Diversity of Causes

PAGE 49

Forms of Intensification

PAGE 51

Defining the Scale of Study

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Intensification at the Local Landscape Scale

PAGE 53

settlement agroecological approach A Settlement Agroecological Approach

PAGE 55

Agrarian Land Use Strategies

PAGE 58

A Spatial Model of Settlements and Agriculture

PAGE 59

The Orchard/Garden-Infield-Outfield Model solar

PAGE 60

solares

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House Lot Structure and In field-Outfield Production solarSolares albarradas solares solares

PAGE 62

solares solar Limitations of the Model

PAGE 64

I suggest incorporati ng into the analysis local agroecological and microe nvironmental information to a ssess the conditions under which the model does or does not fit Summary settlement agroecological

PAGE 65

solares

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Introduction milpa solares

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Contemporary Maya Farming Practice in Northern Yucatan

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solares Zea mays Phaseolus vulgaris Cucurbita moschata Capsicum annuum Lagenaria siceraria Agave fourcroydes Gossypium hirsutum Persea americana Theobroma cacao Calocarpum mammosum Manilkara zapota Byrsonima crassifolia Spondias Psidium guajava copal Protium copal ramon Brosimum alicastrum coyol Acrocomia mexicana cohune Orbignya cohune coconoboy Bactris major Ipomoea batatas jicama Pachyrrhizus erosus macal

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Xanthosoma spp Manihot esculenta Long Fallow Swidden Agriculture

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roza y barbecho milpa mecates mecates

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Zea maysPhaseolus vulgaris Cucurbita spp.

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High Performance Sustainable Milpa milpa

PAGE 73

Milpa milpa

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macal Xanthosoma spp. Ipomoea batatas jicama Pachyrhizus erosus papaya Carica papaya chayote Sechium edule pet patch pet patch Manihot esculenta Capsicum spp. Lycopersicum esculentum Allium spp. milpa milpa

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milpa milpa milpa milpas milpa milpa Orchards

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milpas rejolladas copal balche ramon chich

PAGE 77

chich chich The Orchard-Garden Solar solares albarradas solar solares solares solares

PAGE 78

solaressolares solares solar solar solar ramonzapote guayaba

PAGE 79

solares kaanches, solares Beekeeping

PAGE 80

solares jobonesJobones milpa

PAGE 81

milpa tolche tolche kelenche kaanalkaax hubche

PAGE 82

. Cenotes

PAGE 83

cenotes Silviculture

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milpas ejidos milpa pet kotoob pet kotoob Pet kotoob Prehispanic Intensive Farming in the Maya Lowlands

PAGE 85

Terracing

PAGE 88

Wetland Cultivation

PAGE 89

bajos akalches bajos bajo,

PAGE 90

yucca Manihot esculenta) Zea mays) Gossypium bajos

PAGE 91

bajo

PAGE 92

Water Management Systems aguadas chultunes chultun aguada Aguadas Aguadas chultunes aguadas aguada aguadas Chultunes

PAGE 93

aguadas chultunes chultunes chultunes

PAGE 94

Field Demarcation

PAGE 95

albarradas albarradas albarrada albarrada

PAGE 96

albarradas albarradas

PAGE 97

solares solares solar predios chultun

PAGE 98

Summary milpas

PAGE 100

Introduction

PAGE 101

The Ecological Setting

PAGE 103

sascab Cozumel Karst Landforms cenotes rejollada

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cenotes cenote cenotes aguadas sartenejas Sartenejas aguadas aguadas aguadas aguadas rejolladas aguadas

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huays sascaberas Rejolladas huays altillos Altillos Soils and Vegetation booxluums pusluums Chichluums

PAGE 107

Ekluums

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tzekeles Tzekeles Akalches chicozapote Manilkara zapota ramon Brosimum alicastrum Kopo Ficus tecolutensis tsalam Lysiloma latisiliquum cedro Cedrella odorata jabin Piscidia piscipula yaaxnik Vitex gaumeri chaka Bursera simaruba chichibe Sida acuta

PAGE 109

piuelas Morinda yucatanensis kanam Hamelia patens makulam Piper yucatanensis Rhizophora mangle Avicennia germinans kanche Conocarpus erectus tsal kokom Laguncularia racemosa Manglar chaka Bursera simaruba chechen Metopium brownie koopte Cordia sebestena Acrostichum aureum chakte Caesalpinia crista saladillo Batis maritima chakmol Alternanthera ramosissima pakam Opuntia stricta

PAGE 110

pojpuj Typha angustifolia tasiste Acoelorrhapte wrightii chit Trinax radiate Rainfall, Climate and Fauna

PAGE 111

Tajacu nanus Urocyon cinereoargenteus Agouti paca Didelphis marsupialis Procyon pygmaeus Ctenosaura similis Iguana iguana Nasua nelsoni Cairina moschata Phoenicopterus ruber Crax rubra griscomi Crocodylus acutus Trichechus manatus manatus Historic Farming in Cozumel Early Spanish Contact Information

PAGE 113

halach winic encomienda encomienda encomienda encomendero fanegas fanega arroba arrobas fanegas arrobas mantas encomienda mantas

PAGE 114

oycib Xamancab encomienda encomienda residencia residencia Observations of 19th-Centur y Antiquarians and Travelers

PAGE 115

copal

PAGE 116

, 20th-Century Archaeological Investigations at Buena Vista Previous Research in the Site

PAGE 121

The Buena Vista Settlement

PAGE 122

sacbe sacbeoob

PAGE 124

Buena Vista in the Context of Cozumel Culture History

PAGE 126

Late Preclassic (300 B.C. A.D. 300)

PAGE 127

Early Classic (A.D. 300/400 600)

PAGE 128

. Late Classic (A.D. 600-1000)

PAGE 129

Terminal Classic (A.D 1000-1200)

PAGE 130

aguada talud-tablero talud sacbes Postclassic (A.D. 1200-1518)

PAGE 131

Postclassic Buena Vista

PAGE 132

Summary

PAGE 134

Introduction Previous Research in Buena Vista cenotes

PAGE 137

sacbe

PAGE 138

Preliminary Site Reconnaissance

PAGE 139

rejolladashuays rejolladas

PAGE 140

The Buena Vista Cozumel Arch aeological Project (BVCAP)

PAGE 141

Buena Vista, Cozumel 2 Km 2 Km N

PAGE 142

Sampling Design

PAGE 144

rejolladascenotes Survey and Mapping Strategies Establishing of transect control lines and quadrants

PAGE 145

brecha N

PAGE 148

Survey and mapping of transects rejolladashuays cenotes

PAGE 150

in situ Survey and mapping of selected areas within microenvironmental zones akalche tzekel,

PAGE 151

Survey of the site center

PAGE 152

rejolladas cenotes Map Elaboration, Representation and Nomenclature

PAGE 153

Preliminary Soil Testing

PAGE 154

Summary

PAGE 156

Introduction rejolladashuays cenotes

PAGE 157

The Natural Local Landscape AkalcheTzekel

PAGE 158

rejolladascenotes huays Karstic Features rejollada huays cenotes sartenejas aguadas aguadas Rejolladashuays cenotes Rejolladas Huays Cenotes rejolladashuays cenotes rejolladashuays

PAGE 159

Rejolladas rejolladas Rejolladas rejolladas rejolladas rejolladas rejollada

PAGE 160

Rejolladas rejolladas cenote rejolladas sascab sascaberas cenotes sascaberas rejolladas rejolladas Huays

PAGE 161

huays huays Huays huays Cenotes Cenotes cenotes rejolladas cenotes Rejolladas cenotes cenotes

PAGE 162

cenotes cenotes Microenvironmental Zones akalche tzekel

PAGE 163

Mapping of microenvironmental zones

PAGE 166

The akalche zone akalche aguadas huays rejolladas cenotes

PAGE 167

chechen Metopium brownei sakboob Coccoloba cozumelensis tsalam Lysiloma latisiliquum Gossypium hirsutum Acoellorraphe wrightii chitThrinax radiate guano Sabal yapa Crescentia cujete The broken ridges zone holums altillos

PAGE 168

huays cenotes rejolladas rejolladas rejolladas cenotes huays rejolladas huays Brosimum alicastrum kopo Ficus tecolutensis chicozapote Manilkara zapota palo de corcho Annona glabra rejolladas katzin Acacia gaumeri chaka Bursera simaruba sakyab (Gliricidia septium flor de mayo Plumeria jabin huays

PAGE 169

huays huays rejolladas rejolladas huay The tzekel zone akalche huays rejolladascenote

PAGE 170

chaka (Bursera simaruba katzin Acacia gaumeri tzizilche Gymnopodium floribundum guarumo Cecropia peltata jabin Piscidia piscipula kanche Conocarpus erectus Opuntia stricta nopals Nopalea cochenilifera tzekel The upland zone

PAGE 171

rejolladas huays cenotes chicozapote Manilkara zapota ramn Brosimum alicastrum Yaaxnik Vitex gaumeri guarumo Cecropia peltata katzin Acacia gaumeri jabin(Piscidia piscipula

PAGE 172

Assessment of Land Resources akalche tzekel rejolladas huays chichluum

PAGE 173

Tzekel Tzekel Akalche Akalche Booxluum Rejolladas Ekluum Huays Pusluum Chichluum

PAGE 176

booxluum rejolladas chichluum ekluum huays puusluum akalche Tzekel rejolladashuays akalche huays akalche tzekel huays

PAGE 177

rejolladashuays Tzekel Akalche rejolladas huays Settlement Features

PAGE 178

metates Archaeological Structures

PAGE 179

Sacbes Chultunes Sascaberas sacbes sascaberas chultunes

PAGE 180

Masonry structures

PAGE 181

sacbe rejollada sacbes rejolladas Platforms

PAGE 182

basamentos basamentos basamentos basamentos

PAGE 183

sacbe Semiperishable structures

PAGE 185

Perishable structures

PAGE 186

Special features sacbes sascaberas

PAGE 187

Apiaries

PAGE 189

Carved Wells

PAGE 190

Sacbes Sacbe rejollada. Sacbes

PAGE 191

sacbe Sacbe Sacbe Sacbe Sacbe Sacbe Sacbes sacbes rejollada Sacbe sacbe sacbe Sacbe rejollada rejollada sacbe rejollada Chultunes Chultunes chultunes

PAGE 192

Chultun chultun chultun chultun chultunes Wall-Ramps

PAGE 193

tzekel Sascaberas sascabera Sascaberas Sascaberas rejolladas rejolladas sascaberas sascaberas sascabera sascabera

PAGE 194

sascabera sascabera Demarcated Lots

PAGE 195

Forms

PAGE 197

Dimensions 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Intervals in Square Meters Number of Lots 7067462818 187.19-1378.90 1378.912685.60 2685.614207.80 4207.816250.79 6250.8011403.78

PAGE 198

Construction Techniques

PAGE 200

Summary

PAGE 202

Introduction

PAGE 203

Solares and Cultivable Fields solares

PAGE 204

solares solares solares solares solares akalche solares tzekel solar

PAGE 205

solares solar Solares Solares Tzekel Akalche Demarcated Lots and other Agrarian Facilities akalche tzekel

PAGE 206

akalche tzekel tzekel tzekel akalche Akalche Tzekel akalche tzekel akalche tzekel

PAGE 207

akalche tzekel Tzekel Akalche

PAGE 208

Lots in the Akalche Zon e akalche huays solares akalche solares akalche akalche akalche solares solares

PAGE 209

solares solares akalche solares akalche akalche

PAGE 210

akalche

PAGE 211

solares akalche Lots in the Tzekel Zon e tzekel tzekelakalche tzekelsolares huays tzekel

PAGE 212

tzekel solares tzekel tzekel Solares tzekel akalche solares solares akalche tzekel tzekel

PAGE 213

huays huays solares tzekel solares huays Lots in the Uplands Zone solares

PAGE 214

solares solares solar,

PAGE 215

Solares solares cenotes solares solares

PAGE 216

solares solares solares tolche

PAGE 217

solares solares solares solares Lots in the Broken Ridges Zone rejolladas solares

PAGE 218

solares Solares solares solares solares solares solares solares

PAGE 219

solares solares

PAGE 220

rejolladas huays solares huays rejolladas rejolladas

PAGE 222

rejolladas, solares rejolladas rejolladas solares

PAGE 223

solares solares tzekel huays rejolladas

PAGE 224

solares Distribution of Archaeological Structures sacbessascaberas

PAGE 225

chich

PAGE 226

tzekel akalche sacbessascaberas chultunes akalche tzekel

PAGE 227

Distribution and Grouping of Residential Structures tzekel akalche tzekel akalche tzekel akalche

PAGE 230

Residential groups in the akalche zone akalche akalche solares solar solar akalche solares solares akalche Residential groups in the tzekel zone tzekel solares solares

PAGE 231

solares solares Residential groups in the uplands zone sola res solares Residential groups in the broken ridges zone solares solares

PAGE 232

solares rejolladas rejolladas sacbes rejollada solares solares solares solares Summary

PAGE 233

rejolladas solares solares solares solares solares tzekel solares solares

PAGE 234

Introduction

PAGE 235

The OGIFOF Model and the Local Landscape

PAGE 238

aguadas cenotes rejolladas, huays

PAGE 239

The Akalche Zon e Agricultural Techniques and Residential Patterns akalche

PAGE 240

aguadas akalche huays akalche akalche

PAGE 241

Gossipyum hisutum solares akalche akalche akalche solares

PAGE 242

akalche solares solares akalches Comparison with the OGIFOF Model akalche akalche

PAGE 243

akalche solares akalche solares huayas

PAGE 244

akalche akalche Gossypium hirsutum encomenderosmantas mantas akalche

PAGE 245

The Tzekel Zo ne Agricultural Techniques and Residential Patterns tzekel akalche tzekel huays huays tzekel akalche tzekel

PAGE 246

tzekel tzekelsolares

PAGE 247

Comparison with the OGIFOF Model tzekel huayas akalche huayas akalche tzekel tzekel

PAGE 248

tzekel tzekel tzekel huays huays Opuntia ficus-indica Dactylopius coccu s

PAGE 249

tzekel The Uplands Zone Agricultural Techniques and Residential Patterns rejolladas huays cenotes huays rejolladas cenotes

PAGE 250

tzekel tzekel solares solar cenotes

PAGE 251

solares milpas

PAGE 252

olares milpas milpas solares Comparison with the OGIFOF Model

PAGE 253

The Broken Ridges Zone Agricultural Techniques and Residential Patterns

PAGE 254

huays cenotes, rejolladas Rejolladas rejolladas huays rejolladas huays akalche akalche tzekel

PAGE 255

akalche tzekel solares

PAGE 256

solares akalche

PAGE 257

rejolladas rejolladas rejolladas rejolladas rejolladas rejolladas rejolladas rejolladas solares rejolladas

PAGE 258

akalche rejolladas rejolladas rejollada sacbe Comparison with the OGIFOF Model

PAGE 259

akalche solares

PAGE 260

milpas rejolladas, rejolladas rejolladas metates The Agrarian Community of Buena Vista

PAGE 261

Akalche solares tzeke tzekel rejolladas,

PAGE 262

rejolladas

PAGE 265

rejolladas, huays, cenotes

PAGE 266

Agrarian Responses to Market Demands

PAGE 267

akalche tzekel rejolladas, huays solares milpas

PAGE 268

milpas solares tzekel akalche rejolladas huays

PAGE 269

General Contributions

PAGE 271

milpas

PAGE 272

Future Research

PAGE 315

Antiquity Lowland Maya Settlement Patterns Archaeology Rio Azul Reports No 2, The 1984 Season, Rio Azul: An Ancient Maya City. Science The Archaeology of Household Activities, Mesoamerica The Postclassic to Spanish-E ra Transition in Mesoamerica, The Lowland Maya Area: Three Millenia at the Human-Wildland Interface,

PAGE 316

Agroecoly. The Scientific Basis of Alternative Agriculture. Memorias del Tercer C ongreso Internacional de Mayistas Ancient Maya Salt Production and Trade, Journal of Anthropological Research Latin American Antiquity Journal of World Prehistory Journal of Field Archaeology Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society Progress Report on the 1960-1964 Field Se asons, National Geographic SocietyTulane University Dzibilchaltn Program Handbook of Middle American Indians A Preliminary Study of the Ruins of Xc aret, Quintana Roo, Mexico: with Notes on other Archaeological Remains on the Ce ntral East Coast of the Yucatan Peninsula Cozumel Padrones y Poblamiento. Historia de Cozumel.

PAGE 317

American Egypt: a Record of Travel in Yucatan Lowland Maya Settlement Patterns American Antiquity Precolumbian Population History in the Maya Lowlands Archaeologies of Landscape Contemporary Perspectives Lowland Maya Settlement Patterns, The Terminal Classic in the Maya Lowlands Collapse, Transition and Transformation, Household and Community in the Mesoamerican Past Archaeology Current Anthropology Actualidades Arqueolgicas

PAGE 318

Maya Wetlands: Ecology and Prehispani c Utilization of Wetlands in Northwestern Belize Seeking a Richer Harvest: The Archaeology of Subsistence Intensification, Innovation and Change, Gardens of Prehistory The Archaeology of Settlement Agriculture in Greater Mesoamerica Coba, Quintana Roo Analisis de Dos Unidades Habitacionales Mayas del Horizonte Clasico Boletn de la Escuela de Ciencias antropolgicas de la Universidad de Yucatn Memoria del Congreso Interno 1979: Boletn de la Escuela de Ciencias Antropolgicas del a Universidad de Yucatn Geoarchaeology Latin American Antiquity, Carnegie Institution of Washington Contributions to American Archaeology 465

PAGE 319

The Postclassic Mesoamerican World The Postclassic Mesoamerican World Land Degradation and Society. American Anthropologists Middle American Papers Irrigacion en Mexico Nature The Lowland Maya Area Three Mi llennia at the Human Wildland Interface, The Conditions of Agricultural Grow th: The Economics of Agrarian Change under Population Pressure Social Process in Maya Prehistory. Studies in H onor of Sir Eric Thompson Elements of the Nature and Properties of Soils

PAGE 320

Southwestern Journal of Anthropology Pacific Viewpoint Pacific Viewpoint Asia Pacific Viewpoint Exploring Agrodiversity. Acta Americana Comparative Farming Systems, Residential Property Walls at Mayapan. Boundary Walls and House Lots at Mayapan American Antiquity XXXV Congreso Internacional de Americanistas Archaeology as Human Ecology

PAGE 321

Informe de las Excavaciones de Varias Estr ucturas en la Costa Oriental del a Isla de Cozumel Introduction to remote sensing El Cultivo del Algodn. Prehistoric Lowland Maya Environments and Subsistence Economy, Faunal Utilization in a Late Preclass ic Maya Community at Cerros Belize Cronicas de la Nueva Espana. The Conquest and Colonization of Yucatan 1517-1550 The American Egypt A Record of Travel in Yucatan. Culture and Agriculture, The Lowland Maya Postclassic. Agroforesty Systems Rural Settlement and Land Use: an Essay in Location Die Zentralen Orte in Suddeutschland

PAGE 322

Tratado Curioso y Docto de la Grandeza de la Nueva Espaa, Models in Archaeology Spatial Archaeology, Ambivalent Conquest Maya and Spaniard in Yucatan 1517-1570. The Maya, Historia de Yucatan. Transactions of New York Academic of Science Proceedings of the Ninth Pa cific Scientific Congress Current Anthropology A Study of Changing Pre-Columbian Commercial Systems, The Ceramics of Cozumel Quintana Roo, Mexico Archaeological Method and Theory Vol 3, Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, American Anthropologist,

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Interpreting Space: GIS and Archaeology, Precolumbian Population History in the Maya Lowlands. Vision and Revision in Maya studies, Archaeology Historia de la Agricultura. poca Prehispnica-Siglo XVI, Latin American Antiquity, Ancient Mesoamerica A Study of Settlement Patterns, Cozumel Island, Quintana Roo, Mexico A study of Changing Pre-Columbian Commercial Systems, the 1972-1973 Season at Cozumel, Mexico Journal of Anthropological Archaeology Ancient Maya the Rise and Fall of a Rainforest Civilization

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Earth Patterns Essays in Landscape Archaeology Transactions of the American Philosophical Society Agricultural Terracing in the Aboriginal New World. Household and Community in the Mesoamerican Past La Conformacin Territorial del Estado De Yucatn. Archaeological Investigations at Sa yil, Yucatan, Mexico: Intersite Reconnaissance and Soil Studies during the 1987 Season The Ancient Maya City of Sayil: th e Mapping of a Puuc Region Center Lords of the Hills: Ancient Maya Settlement in the Puuc Region, Yucatan, Mexico. The Managed Mosaic Ancient Maya Agriculture and Resource Use Ancient Mesoamerica

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American Antiquity, Ancient Mesoamerica Culture and Agriculture, Contributions of the University of California Archaeological Research Facility The Maya Collapse a Zoorchaeological Investigation. World Archaeology Boletn de la Sociedad Mexicana de Geografa y Estadstica Geografa General del Estado de Quintana Roo. Agricultural Strategies, Comparative Farming Systems,

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Soil Map of the World. The Garden City Hypothesis in the Maya Lowlands Prehistoric Intensive Agriculture in the Tropics Maya Society Under Colonial Rule Th e Collective Enterprise Of Survival. Mexican Rural Development and the Plumed Serpent, Technology and Maya Cosmology in the Tropical Forest of Campeche Mexico. Prehistoric Maya Settlement and Land Us e Patterns in the Upper Belize River Area, Central America Ancient Mesoamerica, Hidden dimensions the Cultural Significance of Wetland Archaeology, The Lowland Maya Area Three Millennia at th e Human-Wildland Interface, The Managed Mosaic Ancient Maya Agriculture and Resource Use Agriculture and Human Values

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Journal of Field Archaeology, Historia General y Natural de las Indias, Islas y Ti erra Firme del Mar Oceano. Anales del Instituto Nacional de antropologa e Historia, The Early Mesoamerican Village Maya Subsistence: Studies in Memory of Dennis Puleston Science Sociocultural Implications of the Li near Features at Coba, Quintana Roo, Mexico. Coba a Classic Maya Metropolis, Los Investigadores de la Cultura Maya 10 Ethnoflora Yucatanense, Cuadernos de divulgacin INIREB

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. Ethnoflora Yucatanense, Coba A Classic Maya Metropolis. Science Land Mosaics The Ecology of Landscapes and Regions. Landscape Ecology. Informe Anual del Proyecto Arqueolgico Cozumel: Temporada 1980 Journal of Field Archaeology American Antiquity Lowland Maya Settlement Patterns Spanish and Indians in Southeastern Mesoamerica, Essays on the History of Ethnic Relations, Cozumel Late Maya Settlement Patterns

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A study of Changing Pre-Columbian Commercial systems, the 1972-1973 Season at Cozumel, Mexico Maya Subsistence Studies in Memory of Dennis E. Puleston, The Postclassic Mesoamerican World Material Culture and Patterns of Artifact Consumption and Disposal at the Maya Site of Cerros in Northern Belize The Discovery and Conquest of Mexico 1517-1521 by Bernal Diaz del Castillo Coleccin de Documentos para la Historia de Mxico Relaciones Histrico Geogrficas de la Gobernacin de Yucatn (1581). Yucatan Before and After the Conquest by Friar Diego de Landa with other Related Documents, Maps and Illustrations The archaeology of Garden and Field

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Rain Forest Regeneration and Management, Latin American Antiquity Interciencia, Alternatives to Deforestation: Steps toward Sustainab le Use of the Amazon Rain Forest, The Lowland Maya Area Three Millenni a at the Human-Wildlife Interface Los Mayas, Xamanha: Un Sitio Arqueolgico de la Costa Central de Quintana Roo Journal of Field Archaeology A Study of Changing Pre-Columbian Commercial Systems

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The Dynamics of Agricultural Change: The Historical Experience Revista Mexicana del Caribe Ancient Mesoamerica Mexicon Animal Use by the Cozumel Maya. Lubaantun, a Classic Maya Realm. Maya Settlement Hierarchy in Northern Belize PreHispanic Maya Agriculture Journal of Field Archaeology Lowland Maya Settlement Patterns, Natural History Ancient Mesoamerica

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PreHispanic Maya Agriculture Confronting Scale in Archaeology: Issues of Theory and Practice, Social Process in Maya Prehistory, Studies in h onour of Sir Eric Thompson, Hispanic Maya Agriculture Maya Archaeology and Lowland Maya Settlement Pattern, Maya Subsistence Studies in Memory of Dennis E. Puleston Boletn de la Escuela de Cienci as Antropolgicas de la Universidad de Yucatn Economics Aspects of Water Management in the Prehispanic New World, Pre-Hispanic Maya Agriculture

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Excavations of Small Structures in the Northeast Quadrant of Tikal, Guatemala Expedition Maya Settlement Patterns: A Critical Review. Ancient Lowland Maya Social Organization American Antiquity World archaeology American Antiquity Cultural Anthropology Journal of Anthropological Archaeology Journal of Field Archaeology Journal of Field Archaeology Agroecology The Scientific Basis of Alternative Agriculture Social Process in Maya Prehistory: Studies in Honour of Sir Eric Thompson

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Quaternary Research Archaeological Studies among the Anci ent Cities of Mexico, Part I Monuments of Yucatan. Culture and Agriculture Lifeways in the Northern Maya Lowlands New Approaches to Archaeology in the Yucatan Peninsula Ancient Mesoamerica Programa de Manejo Parque Marino Na cional Arrecifes de Cozumel, Quintana Roo, Mxico Carta Edafolgica de Cozumel F16-11 Cuaderno Estadstico Municipal de Cozumel Quintana Roo Journal of Anthropological Archaeology Function and Meaning in Classic Maya architecture,

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Maya Subsistence: Studies in Me mory of Dennis Puleston Anales del Centro de Cienci as del Mar y Limnologa Earth Patterns Essay in Landscape Archaeology. The Postclassic Mesoamerican World The Postclassic Mesoamerican World, The Managed Mosaic, Ancient Maya Agriculture and Resource Use, Gardens of Prehistory, The archaeology of Settlement Agriculture in Greater Mesoamerica Agriculture and Residential Site Stru cture among Campesinos in Southern Mexico: A Foundation for Archaeological Inference Journal of field Archaeology

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The Evolution of Polynesian Chiefdoms. Prehistoric Intensive Agriculture in the Tropics The Wet and the Dry Irrigation and Agricu ltural Intensification in Polynesia The Use of Land and Water Resources in the Past and Present Valley of Oaxaca, Mexico World Archaeology Mirror for Humanity, a Concise In troduction to Cultural Anthropology Journal of Field Archaeology, Ancient Maya Life in the Far West Bajo Social and Environm ental Change in the Wetlands of Belize. Prehistoric Lowland Maya Community and Social Organization. A Case Study at Dzibilchaltn, Yucatan, Mexico Lowland Maya Settlement Patterns Relacin De Las Cosas de Yucatn.

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Precolumbian Jade: New Geologica l and Cultural Interpretations. Current Anthropology Latin American Antiquity Reconstructing Ancient Maya Diet, The Managed Mosaic: Ancient Maya Agriculture and Resource Use Journal of Anthropological Archaeology Mexicon The Organization of Agricultural Pro duction at a Classic Maya Center. Arqueologa 2 poca The Social Organization of a Late Classic Maya Community: Dos Hombres, Northwestern, Belize.

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Ancient Maya Commoners, La Conquista de Mxico. Tulum, an Archaeological Study of the East Coast of Yucatan. Essentials of Geology. Coastal Maya Trade. Ancient Mesoamerica Maya Subsistence Studies in Memory of Dennis Puleston, Ancient Maya Political Economies, Economic Foundations of Mayapan, Pr oject Results of the 2001 Season Silver Cities of Yucatn South of Yesterday Science,

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Maya Agriculture El Mirador, Peten, Guatem ala: An Interim Report Maya Subsistence studies in Memory of Dennis E. Precolumbian Population History in the Maya Lowlands, Gardens of Prehistory The Archaeology of Settlement Agriculture In Greater Mesoamerica, Living with the Ancestors, Kinship a nd Kingship in Ancient Maya Society Prehistoric Maya Economies of Belize. Ancient Mesoamerica The Managed Mosaic Ancient Maya Agriculture and Resource Use In Search of Maya Sea Traders. Coastal Maya Trade. Coastal Maya Trade.

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American Anthropologists American Anthropologists Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics Pulltrouser Swamp: Ancient Maya H abitat, Agriculture and Settlement On the Edge of the Sea. Mural Painting in Tancah-Tulum, Quintana Roo Mxico The Island of Cozumel. The Archaeology of Garden and Field. When Money Grew on Trees A Study of Cacao in ancient Mesoamerica. Prehistoric Lowland Maya Environments and Subsistence Economy, The Ancient Maya. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory Current Anthropology

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Journal of archaeological science Arqueologa Mexicana Journal of Anthropological Research Archaeological Investigations in at Dzibilnocac, Campeche, Mexico Scanning Electron Microscopy Africa: Journal of the Internat ional African Institute Hill Farmers of Nigeria: Cultural Ecology of the Kofyar of the Jos Plateau. Annual Review of Anthropology The Origins of Maya Civilization, Cultural Ecology Smallholders, Householders, Farm Families and the Ecology of Intensive Sustainable Agriculture Human Ecology Maya Subsistence: Studies in Memory of Dennis Puleston

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El Mxico Antiguo Memorias del Primer Congreso Internacional de Mayistas, La Agricultura y e l Desarrollo de la Civilizacin en Mesoamerica Sacerdotes y Comerciantes: El Poder de los Mayas Itzaes de Yucatan en los Siglos VII a XVI. Mexicon, vol XVIII, Arqueologa Mexicana. Los Investigadores de la Cultura Maya Boletn de la Facultad de Ciencias Antropolgicas de la Universidad Autnoma de Yucatn

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Mesoamerican Communication Routes and Cultural Contacts Prehistoric Lowland Maya Environment and Subsistence Economy. Ancient Maya Wetland Agriculture, E xcavation on Albion Island, Northern, Belize Prehistoric Lowland Maya environment and Subsistence Economy, Latin American Antiquity, Maya Subsistence: Studies in Memory of Dennis Puleston Investigating the Socio-Economic and Socio-P olitical Organization of Intensive Agricultural Production at the Ancien t Maya Community of Minalha, Belize. Boletin de la Escuela de Ciencias Antropologicas de la Universidad de Yucatan Landscape Ecology of Apiculture in th e Maya Area of La Montana Campeche, Mexico. Prehistoric Maya Settlement Patterns at Becan, Campeche, Mexico

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Current Anthropology Scientific American Mayapan Yucatan Mexico Mesoamerican Archaeology: New Approaches, Social Process in Maya Prehistory, Studi es in Memory of Sir Eric Thompson Prehispanic Maya Agriculture, Maya Subsistence. The Settlement survey of Tikal. The Managed Mosaic: Ancient Maya Agriculture and Resource Use Human Ecology

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Prehistoric Maya Community and Se ttlement at Nohmul, Belize. Journal of Field Archaeology Pueblos y Caciques Yucatecos 1550-1580 Actualidades Arqueolgicas Arqueologa Mexicana, Contemporary Archaeology, Ancient Civilization and Trade, A Study of Changing Pre-Columbian Commercial Systems, World Archaeology A Study of Changing Pre-Columbian Commercial Systems, Estudios de Cultura Maya National Geographical Society Research Reports

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Chan Kom A Maya Village. The Caste War of Yucatan. American Anthropologist Agroforestry Systems The Maya World Yucatec Culture and Society 1550-1850 Lowland Maya civilization in the eight Century A.D., Uaxactun Guatemala, Group E, 1926-1931. Part 1: The Excavation. Economic Botany Household and Community in the Mesoamerican Past, Landscape and Culture Geographical and Archaeological Perspectives, Boletn de la Escuela de Ciencias Antropolgicas de la Universidad de Yucatn

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Memorias del congreso Interno Informe Anual del Proyecto Arqueolgico Cozumel: Temporada 1980 Informe Anual del Proyecto Arqueolgico Cozumel: Temporada 1981 Excavaciones Arqueolgicas en El Meco, Quintana Roo, La Secuencia Cermica de la Regin de Coba, Quintana Roo. Late Lowland Maya Civilization, Classic to Postclassic, Ancient Maya Community Patterns in Northwestern Belize: Peripheral Zone Survey at La Milpa and Dos Hombres Mayapan Yucatan Mexico. The Indian Background of Colonial Yucatan. The Political Geography of the Yucatn Maya Report and Census of the Indians of Cozumel 1570

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Archaeological Reconnaissance in Campeche, Quintana Roo and Peten. The Sea in the Pre-Columbian World, The New Archaeology and the Ancient Maya, Late Lowland Maya Civilization, Classic to Postclassic. Ancient Civilization and Trade, The Ancient Maya City of Sayil: The Mapping of a Pucc Region Center A Study of Changing Pre-Columbian Co mmercial Systems, the 1972-1973 Season at Cozumel, Mexico Mesoamerican Archaeology, New Approaches, A Study of Changing Pre-Columbian Commercial Systems: The 1972-1973 Seasons at Cozumel, Mexico, Tactics of Persistence: How Cozumels Middle Sector has preserved his locally Controlled Land Transfer Pattern Over 116 Years

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The Mayas. The Sources of Their Hist ory. Dr. Le Plongeon in Yucatn. His Account of Discoveries. Ethnoflora Yucatanense. El Uso y Manejo forestall de la Comunidad de Xul en el Sur de Yucatan. Informe Contra Idolorum Culto res del Obispado de Yucatan. An Archaeological Reconnaissan ce of Northern Quintana Roo Prehistoric Ceramics and Settlement Patterns in Quintana Roo, Mexico Estudios de Cultura Maya Estudios de Cultura Maya The Classic Maya Collapse, The Origins of Maya Civilization, Lowland Maya Settlement Patterns, La Agricultura Chinampera Compilacin Histrica, Excavaciones en el rea Urbana de Copan.

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Gardens of Prehistory, the Archaeology of Settlement Agriculture in Greater Mesoamerica, Prehispanic Domestic Units in Western Mesoamerica Studies of the Household, Compound, and Residence American Antiquity, Drained Field Agriculture in Central and South America. Archaeology at Cerros, Belize, Central America: Volume 1, an Interim Report, Economic Aspects of Wate r Management in the Prehispanic New World, Ancient Mesoamerica Science, New series, Latin American Antiquity, Ancient Mesoamerica, Cuadernos de Arquitectura Mesoamericana

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Memoria del Congreso Interno 1979. The Maya Chontals Indians of Acalan-Ti xchel: A Contribution to the History and Ethnography of the Yucatan Peninsula. Cultural Anthropology, a Perspective on the Human Condition The Ancient Maya. Maya Subsistence Studies in Memory of Dennis Puleston, The Ceren Site: A Prehistoric Village Buried by Volcanic Ash in Central America. Manual Para la Descripcin y Evaluaci n Ecolgica de Suelos en el Campo Prehispanic Maya Agriculture American Antiquity La Isla de Cozumel en la Republic a Mexicana Datos Generales Sobre su Situacin Geogrfica, Topogrfica, exten sin, Clima, Poblacin y Productos.

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Estudios de Patrn de Asentamiento en Playa del Carmen, Quintana Roo Maya Indians of Yucatan. Incidents of Travel in Yucatan, Theory of Culture Change the Me thodology of Multilinear Evolution Mayapan, Yucatan, Mexico The Postclassic Mesoamerican world. Ancient Mesoamerica Modern Maya Storage Behavior, ethnoarc haeological Case Examples from the Puuc Region of Yucatan Ancient Mesoamerica Settlement Ecology, the Social and S patial Organization of the Kofyar Agriculture Asia Pacific Viewpoint

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American Anthropologists Karst Landforms. Archaeological Excavations in Northern Belize, Central America. Imgenes de la Flora Quintanarroense. Las plantas de Cozumel. Gua botnico-t urstica de la isla de Cozumel, Quintana Roo. La Milpa de los Mayas, La Agricu ltura de los Mayas Prehispnicos y Actuales en el Noreste de Yucatn. Mexicon Apiarios Prehispnicos 20 (117): 43-57, Mrida, Yucatn. The Chultunes of Labna. The Rise and fall of Maya Civilization. Maya History and Religion.

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The Peripheries of Seibal: An Interim Report Excavations at Seibal: Peripheral Survey and Excavation, Settlement and Community Patterns Excavations at Seibal: Burials: A Cultural Analysis Lowland Maya Civilization in the Eighth Century A.D. Diego de Landa. Relacion de las Cosas de Yucatan. Science, Geographical Review Pre-Hispanic Maya Agriculture, Pre-Hispanic Maya Agriculture, Once Beneath the Forest: Prehistoric Te rracing in the Rio Bec Region of the Maya Lowlands Culture, Form and Place: Essays in Cultural and Historical Geography,

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Pre-Hispanic Maya Agriculture, Science, Pulltrouser Swamp, Ancient Maya Habita t, Agriculture and Settlement in Northern Belize American Antiquity, Professional Geographer Gardens of Prehistory: The archaeology of Settlement Agriculture in Ancient Mesoamerica Comparative Farming Systems Landscape Ecology in Theory and Practice Patterns and Process. Soil Taxonomy: A Basic System for Soil Classification Tulum, Organizacin Poltico y Territo rial de la Costa Oriental de Quintana Roo, Estudios de Cultura Maya

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Zonas Arqueologicas, Yucatan. Cuadernos de los Centros Centro Regional del Sureste Boletin de la Escuela de Ciencias Antropologicas de la Universidad de Yucatan The Maya of East Central Quintana Roo. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society Travesa Por La Historia De Cozumel. Boletn de la Escuela De Ciencias antropolgicas de la Universidad de Yucatn Prehispanic Maya Agriculture, Der Isolierte Staat in Bezielhung auf Landwirtschaft und Nationalokonomie Estudios de Cultura Maya XXXV Congreso Internacional de Americanista.

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Prehistoric Settlement Patterns Es says in Honor of Gordon Willey The Discovery of New Spain in 1518 by Juan de Grijalva The Discovery of Yucatan by Francisco Hernandez de Cordoba House Mounds of Uaxactun Guatemala. Modern Maya Houses: A Study of their archaeological Significance. Bee World Theory of the Location of Industries, Cuca, Chacchob, Dzonot Ake, Three Walled Northern Maya Centers The Persisting Ecological Constr aints of Tropical Agriculture.

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The Maya Area Three Millennia at the Human Wildland Interface, Journal of Archaeological Science Cultivated Landscapes of Middle America on the Eve of Conquest Prehistoric Settlement Patterns in the Viru Valley, Peru Prehistoric in the New World, Lowland Maya Settlement Patterns, Late Maya Civilization Classic to Postclassic, Prehistoric Lowland Maya Environment and Subsistence Economy, Household and Community in the Mesoamerican Past Household Economy Reconsidering th e Domestic Mode of Production Household Ecology, Economic Change and Domestic Life among the Kekchi Maya in Belize American Antiquity,

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Good Farmers: Traditional Agricultural Resource Management in Mexico and Central America Prehistoric Settlement Patterns in the Viru Valley, Peru Prehistoric Maya Settlements in the Belize Valley. Yucatan a world apart Pre-Hispanic Maya Agriculture, The Archaeology of Muyil Quintana Roo, Mexico, a Maya Site on the East Coast of the Yucatan Peninsula Quintana Roo Archaeology Sons of the Shaking Earth Peasants. Europe and the People without History Los Chultunes Sistemas de Captacin y Almacenamiento de agua Pluvial