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Feasibility Analysis for the Development of Affordable Net-Zero Energy Housing in Gainesville, Florida.

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0025167/00001

Material Information

Title: Feasibility Analysis for the Development of Affordable Net-Zero Energy Housing in Gainesville, Florida.
Physical Description: 1 online resource (149 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Fleming, Brokc
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: affordable, efficient, energy, energystar, florida, gainesville, hers, housing, net, photovoltaic, solar, tariff, zero
Building Construction -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Building Construction thesis, M.S.B.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Creating affordable housing requires design professionals, contractors, developers, lenders, and homeowners to work together to create homes for the income categories that need them the most. The demand for affordable housing in Gainesville, Florida is extremely high with much of the existing stock in dire need of rehabilitation. (Florida Housing Data Clearinghouse 2007) The incorporation of energy efficient improvements into affordable housing is essential to lower the homeowner?s monthly utility costs. The challenge exists in implementing strategies that are cost-effective without drastically increasing initial costs. This thesis studied the feasibility of creating an affordable net-zero energy home (ZEH) in Gainesville, Florida. The Neighborhood Housing and Development Corporation, a non-profit organization in Gainesville, has recently begun building affordable ENERGY STAR Qualified homes. These homes are required to use 15% less energy than a standard home built to code and have a program outline for achieving this increase in energy efficiency. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy 2009) One of their recently finished ENERGY STAR Qualified homes was chosen to be our baseline model to be upgraded to a ZEH. An in depth analysis of a near zero energy home (NZEH) recently constructed in Gainesville was performed to help determine what strategies could be incorporated into upgrading the ENERGY STAR Qualified home to a ZEH. Energy consumption analyses were utilized to identify which strategies provided the most cost-effective improvements to energy efficiency. Government and local utility rebates, incentives, and feed-in tariff program were included in the analysis to help offset the increased initial investment necessary to promote energy efficiency. Once upgraded components were determined, a detailed life cycle cost analysis was performed using the energy savings as cash flows with the incremental costs of energy efficient upgrades as the investment. Energy, gas, and general inflation were incorporated into the analysis to provide an accurate forecast of savings. Savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) and payback periods were derived from the data to determine which upgrades demonstrated the greatest return on investment. Analyses of varying available financing tactics were performed to strengthen the goal of affordability. A final analysis of the ENERGY STAR Qualified home with all cost-effective upgrades was executed to determine the added first costs and long-term savings for achieving a ZEH. The results demonstrated that with only a 10% increase of initial costs (including rebates) a homebuyer could upgrade an ENERGY STAR Qualified home to a ZEH.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Brokc Fleming.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.B.C.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Kibert, Charles J.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0025167:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0025167/00001

Material Information

Title: Feasibility Analysis for the Development of Affordable Net-Zero Energy Housing in Gainesville, Florida.
Physical Description: 1 online resource (149 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Fleming, Brokc
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: affordable, efficient, energy, energystar, florida, gainesville, hers, housing, net, photovoltaic, solar, tariff, zero
Building Construction -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Building Construction thesis, M.S.B.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Creating affordable housing requires design professionals, contractors, developers, lenders, and homeowners to work together to create homes for the income categories that need them the most. The demand for affordable housing in Gainesville, Florida is extremely high with much of the existing stock in dire need of rehabilitation. (Florida Housing Data Clearinghouse 2007) The incorporation of energy efficient improvements into affordable housing is essential to lower the homeowner?s monthly utility costs. The challenge exists in implementing strategies that are cost-effective without drastically increasing initial costs. This thesis studied the feasibility of creating an affordable net-zero energy home (ZEH) in Gainesville, Florida. The Neighborhood Housing and Development Corporation, a non-profit organization in Gainesville, has recently begun building affordable ENERGY STAR Qualified homes. These homes are required to use 15% less energy than a standard home built to code and have a program outline for achieving this increase in energy efficiency. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy 2009) One of their recently finished ENERGY STAR Qualified homes was chosen to be our baseline model to be upgraded to a ZEH. An in depth analysis of a near zero energy home (NZEH) recently constructed in Gainesville was performed to help determine what strategies could be incorporated into upgrading the ENERGY STAR Qualified home to a ZEH. Energy consumption analyses were utilized to identify which strategies provided the most cost-effective improvements to energy efficiency. Government and local utility rebates, incentives, and feed-in tariff program were included in the analysis to help offset the increased initial investment necessary to promote energy efficiency. Once upgraded components were determined, a detailed life cycle cost analysis was performed using the energy savings as cash flows with the incremental costs of energy efficient upgrades as the investment. Energy, gas, and general inflation were incorporated into the analysis to provide an accurate forecast of savings. Savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) and payback periods were derived from the data to determine which upgrades demonstrated the greatest return on investment. Analyses of varying available financing tactics were performed to strengthen the goal of affordability. A final analysis of the ENERGY STAR Qualified home with all cost-effective upgrades was executed to determine the added first costs and long-term savings for achieving a ZEH. The results demonstrated that with only a 10% increase of initial costs (including rebates) a homebuyer could upgrade an ENERGY STAR Qualified home to a ZEH.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Brokc Fleming.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.B.C.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Kibert, Charles J.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0025167:00001


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1 FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR THE DEVEL OPMENT OF AFFORDABLE NET-ZERO ENERGY HOUSING IN GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA By BROCK A. FLEMING A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORID A IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTION UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2009

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2 2009 Brock A. Fleming

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3 To my family; Mom, Dad, and Tristan For your unwavering support and love through all of life

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my thesis committee, which consis ts of Drs. Charles Kibert, Robert Stroh, and James Sullivan. Without your guidance, input, and support I would have never been able to complete this work. Your expertise and professional approach were crucial in my development of this study I would like to thank Carol Barron of the Neighborhood Housing and Development Corpor ation and Ken Fonorow of the Florida Home Energy and Resource Organization for sharing your knowledge and providing me with the resources necessary to analyze a spec ific residence in Gainesville, Florida. Your responsiveness and interest in the s ubject matter made for great lines of communication and implementation of current strategies used in the Gainesville community. Additionally, I would like to thank my fam ily, Mom, Dad, and Tristan for all of your support and love throughout my life. Your be lief in me has given me the ability to achieve anything I can dream of and for that I am blessed. I would like to thank my girlfriend Jess for reminding me everyday to treasure the most important qualities of life and that no matter what challenges lay ahead there is nothing love cannot surmount. Finally, I would like to thank all of my friends and peers whom have been with me throughout my academic career. Without your intellectual support and committed friendship reaching this milestone in my life would not have been possible.

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5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDG MENTS .................................................................................................. 4LIST OF TABLES............................................................................................................ 8LIST OF FIGURES........................................................................................................ 10ABSTRACT................................................................................................................... 11 CHA PTER 1 INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................... 13Statement of Problem............................................................................................. 15Objective................................................................................................................. 162 LITERATURE REVIEW .......................................................................................... 17Affordable Housing................................................................................................. 17Net-Zero Ener gy Homes......................................................................................... 18ENERGY STAR Q ualified Homes........................................................................... 20Photovoltaic Systems.............................................................................................. 22Phantom Loads ....................................................................................................... 31Passive-Earth C ontact C ooling............................................................................... 33Building America..................................................................................................... 34Home Energy Rati ng System Index........................................................................ 36Resident Habits...................................................................................................... 37Rebates, Incentives, Subsidies, and Feed-In Tariff Available for Gainesville, Florida Re sidents................................................................................................. 403 METHODOLOGY................................................................................................... 444 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS .................................................................................... 45Near Zero E nergy Home......................................................................................... 45HVAC S ystem.................................................................................................. 46Lights................................................................................................................ 47Windows........................................................................................................... 47Ceiling In sulation.............................................................................................. 47Walls ................................................................................................................ 47Roofin g............................................................................................................. 48Doors................................................................................................................ 48Exterior Paint.................................................................................................... 48Floors............................................................................................................... 48Solar Water Heating......................................................................................... 48

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6 Photovoltaic System ......................................................................................... 49Appli ances........................................................................................................ 49Commissioning and Test ing............................................................................. 49Near Zero Energy Home Energy Summary...................................................... 50ENERGY STAR Q ualified Home............................................................................ 51HVAC S ystem.................................................................................................. 61Lights................................................................................................................ 61Windows........................................................................................................... 61Ceiling In sulation.............................................................................................. 61Walls ................................................................................................................ 62Roofin g............................................................................................................. 62Doors................................................................................................................ 62Exterior Paint.................................................................................................... 62Floors............................................................................................................... 63Appli ances........................................................................................................ 63Water H eating.................................................................................................. 63Commissioning and Test ing............................................................................. 63ENERGY STAR Qualified Home Energy Summary......................................... 64Upgraded Tec hnologies.......................................................................................... 64HVAC S ystem.................................................................................................. 65Windows........................................................................................................... 65Roofin g............................................................................................................. 65Doors................................................................................................................ 65Exterior Paint.................................................................................................... 65Floors............................................................................................................... 65Water H eating.................................................................................................. 72Option 1: Add-on heat pump wate r heating.............................................. 72Option 2: Sola r water heating.................................................................... 72Photovoltaic System......................................................................................... 72Upgraded ENERGY STAR Qualif ied Home Ener gy Summary......................... 72SIR and Payback Pe riod Anal ysis.......................................................................... 73Individual Componen t Upgrade A nalysis.......................................................... 73HVAC S ystem.................................................................................................. 73Windows........................................................................................................... 81Roofin g............................................................................................................. 82Doors................................................................................................................ 82Exterior Paint.................................................................................................... 82Floors............................................................................................................... 83Water H eating.................................................................................................. 83Photovoltaic System......................................................................................... 84Net-Zero Energy Home Re sults....................................................................... 86Incorporation of all upgraded tec hnologies................................................ 86Incorporation of cost-effe ctive upgraded te chnolog ies............................... 87Cost-Effective Upgraded ENERGY STAR Qualified Home Energy Summary.. 87Life Cycle Cost Anal ysis with Fi nancing.................................................................. 87Cost-effective upgrades life cycle cost analysis wit h financing.................. 88

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7 Cost-effective upgrades life cycle cost analysis without FIT with financing ................................................................................................. 88Financing ta ctics........................................................................................ 885 CONCLUSIONS, CONTRIBUTIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY ............................................................................................... 112Conclusi ons.......................................................................................................... 112Contribut ions......................................................................................................... 113Recommendations fo r Further Study.................................................................... 113APPENDIX: COMPONENT LIFE CYCL E COST AN ALYSIS ...................................... 115LIST OF RE FERENCES............................................................................................. 146BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.......................................................................................... 149

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8 LIST OF TABLES Table page 2-1 GRUs feed-in-tariff fix ed rate contra ct sche dule................................................ 434-1 Individual technology upgrade annual ener gy savings....................................... 814-2 Financing cost-effective upgraded tec hnologies FIT life cycle cost analysis... 984-3 Financing cost-effective upgraded technologies without FIT life cycle cost analys is............................................................................................................ 1004-4 Financing Base ENERGY STAR Qua lified home............................................. 1024-5 Financing ENERGY STAR Qualified home with cost-effective upgrades......... 1034-6 Re-financing ENERGY STAR Qualif ied home with cost-effective upgrades after rebates and deferred payment................................................................. 1054-7 Financing ENERGY STAR Qualified home with cost-effective upgrades......... 1074-8 Re-financing ENERGY STAR Qualif ied home with cost-effective upgrades after rebates and deferred payment................................................................. 1094-9 Base ENERGY STAR Q ualified home vs. ZEH................................................ 1114-10 Affordability: Base ENERGY STAR Qualifie d home vs. ZEH.......................... 1114-11 Gainesville, Florida in come category definition................................................. 111A-1 1.5 Ton SEER-15 HVAC syst em life cycle co st analysis.................................. 115A-2 2 Ton SEER-15 HVAC system life cycle co st analysis..................................... 116A-3 2.0 Ton SEER-16 HVAC syst em life cycle co st analysis.................................. 118A-4 Upgraded window life cycle cost analys is......................................................... 119A-5 Metal roof and RBS system life cycle co st anal ysis.......................................... 121A-6 Upgraded door life cycle cost analysis............................................................. 122A-7 Low solar absorbance pai nt life cycle co st anal ysis.......................................... 123A-8 Tile flooring lif e cycle cost analysi s................................................................... 125A-9 Add-on heat pump water heat er life cycle co st analysis................................... 126

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9 A-10 Solar water heating life cycle cost analys is ...................................................... 128A-11 PV system net meter life cycle cost analysis.................................................. 129A-12 PV system net meter w/ FIT life cycle co st analysis........................................ 131A-13 PV system FIT life cycle cost analysis............................................................ 132A-14 All upgraded technologies net meter life cycle cost analysis.......................... 134A-15 All cost-effective upgraded technologies net meter life cycle cost analysis... 136A-16 All upgraded technologies net meter w/FIT life cycl e cost analysis................ 138A-17 All cost effective upgraded technologi es net meter w/FIT life cycle cost analys is............................................................................................................ 140A-18 All upgraded technologies FIT life cycle cost anal ysis.................................... 142A-19 All cost-effective upgraded technolo gies FIT life cycl e cost analysis.............. 144

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10 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 2-1 National performanc e path require ments...........................................................242-2 Florida builder option pa ckage ............................................................................262-3 Thermal bybass inspecti on checklist guidance...................................................292-4 Solar potential map of the Unit ed Stat es............................................................322-5 Blower door depre ssurization test......................................................................384-1 NZEH building input su mmary............................................................................524-2 NZEH building annu al energy summary.............................................................564-3 NZEH building energy rati ng guide and HERS Index.........................................574-4 ENERGY STAR Qualified home floor plan.........................................................584-5 ENERGY STAR Qualified home elev ations........................................................594-6 ENERGY STAR Qualified home roof plan..........................................................604-7 ENERGY STAR Qualified home building input summary...................................664-8 ENERGY STAR Qualified home annual energ y summary.................................704-9 ENERGY STAR Qualified building energy rating guide and HERS Index..........714-10 ENERGY STAR Qualified home with all upgraded technologies building input summary.............................................................................................................754-11 ENERGY STAR Qualified home with all upgraded technologies annual energy su mmary.................................................................................................794-12 ENERGY STAR Qualified home wit h all upgraded technologies building energy rating guide a nd HERS Index.................................................................804-13 ENERGY STAR Qualified home with cost-effective upgrades building input summary.............................................................................................................894-14 ENERGY STAR Qualified home wit h cost-effective upgraded technologies annual energy summary.....................................................................................934-15 ENERGY STAR Qualified home wit h cost-effective upgraded technologies building energy rating gui de and HERS Index....................................................94

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11 Abstract of Thesis Pres ented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulf illment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Building Construction FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR THE DEVEL OPMENT OF AFFORDABLE NET-ZERO ENERGY HOUSING IN GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA By Brock A. Fleming December 2009 Chair: Charles J. Kibert Major: Building Construction Creating affordable housing requires design professionals, contractors, developers, lenders, a nd homeowners to work together to create homes for the income categories that need them the most. The dem and for affordable housing in Gainesville, Florida is extremely high with much of the ex isting stock in dire need of rehabilitation. (Florida Housing Data Clear inghouse 2007) The incorporation of energy efficient improvements into affordable housing is essential to lo wer the homeowners monthly utility costs. The challenge exists in impl ementing strategies t hat are cost-effective without drastically increasing initial costs. This thesis studied the feasibility of cr eating an affordable net -zero energy home (ZEH) in Gainesville, Florida. The Neighborhood Housing and Development Corporation, a non-profit or ganization in Gainesville, has recently begun building affordable ENERGY STAR Qualified homes. These homes are required to use 15% less energy than a standard home built to code and have a program outline for achieving this increase in energy efficiency. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy 2009) One of their re cently finished ENERGY STAR Qualified homes was chosen to be our baseline model to be upgraded to a ZEH.

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12 An in depth analysis of a near zero energy home (NZEH) recently constructed in Gainesville was performed to help determine w hat strategies could be incorporated into upgrading the ENERGY STAR Qualified home to a ZEH. Energy consumption analyses were utilized to identify which strategies provided the most cost -effective improvements to energy efficiency. Government and local utility rebates, incentives, and feed-in tariff program were included in the analysis to help offset the increased initial investment necessary to promote energy efficiency. Once upgraded components were determined, a detailed life cycle cost analysis was performed using the energy savings as ca sh flows with the incremental costs of energy efficient upgrades as the investment. Energy, gas, and general inflation were incorporated into the analysis to provide an a ccurate forecast of savings. Savings-toinvestment ratio (SIR) and payback periods were derived from the data to determine which upgrades demonstrated the greatest retu rn on investment. Analyses of varying available financing tactics were performed to strengthen the goal of affordability. A final analysis of the ENERGY STAR Qualified home with all cost-effective upgrades was executed to determine the added first costs and long-term savings for achieving a ZEH. The results demonstrated that with only a 10% increase of initial costs (including rebates) a homebuyer could upgrade an ENERGY STAR Qualified home to a ZEH.

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13 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The studys objective was to determine the affordability of creating a net zero energy home (ZEH) in Gainesville, Florida. The study located t he most energy efficient affordable housing currently available in Gainesville, Florida. Cost effective energy efficient technologies were researched to determine possible upgrades to energy efficiency for the home that would contribute to the creation of a net zero energy home. Photovoltaic sizing based upon the upgraded homes energy consumption was performed to determine the necessary array that would create a ZEH. A life cycle cost analysis of the entire home, including the mortgage and various financ ing strategies, was performed to determine if the ZEH could be considered affordable for the Gainesville area. The residential sector of the United States uses over 20% of the countrys total energy consumption. (Energy Information Administration 2008) Improving the energy efficiency of single family homes will greatly reduce the annual consumption that the residential sector uses, saving families hundreds to thousands of dollars a year. Achieving energy efficiency in homes requires a concerted effort b y design professionals, developers, builders, homeowners, energy providers, and local, state, and federal governments. Implementing programs that educate all segments of the homebuilding process will assist in creating homes that are better quality and mo re efficient. The problem is that many of these programs are not progressive enough, settling for minimal improvements to home energy efficiency. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy 2009)

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14 Creating net zero energy homes (ZE H) is a difficult process. It requires extreme coordination between all parties involved as well as a commitment from the homebuyer to conform to habits that promote energy conservation. Implementing cost effective, energy efficient technologies is the o ther challenge of creating a ZEH. Building an affordable home that produces all the energy it consumes is becoming more realistic everyday as renewable energy systems continue to become more competitive with fossil fuel energy production. (Madrigal 2009) The government and construction industry must strive for the goal of creating affordable ZEH. The challenges facing affordable housing today are due largely in part to the overwhelming housing boom that occurred through the late 1990s and early 2000s. During this time, housing demand for all income categories was thriving to the point where the construction industry had to fight to keep up. A vibrant economy with ample opportunity allowed for low income families to increase their income and net wealth to the point where they could afford to purchase a home. Government programs were also enacted that helped make purchasing a home possible for low income families. The demand for affordable housing was growing. Developers and contractors recognized thi s growing market and proceeded to build affordable housing as inexpensively as possible to yield higher profits. At the time, energy prices appeared stable to the general population, with oil prices hovering at around $25 a barrel and the economy riding a wave of success due largely in part to the technology boom. During this time in history, inexpensive construction meant building a home with the cheapest materials in the shortest amount of time while still abiding by the local building code. These prin ciples are the antithesis of how a home should be built. The

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15 final product may have been aesthetically pleasing, but what the homeowner did not see was the energy glutton hiding in the walls, ceilings, floors, fixtures, mechanical system, and appliances. To make matters worse, the majority of these homebuyers were about to be first time homeowners with no prior knowledge or experience of what to look for in a home. This trend of cheap home construction continued without intervention until only recently wh en the housing bubble burst, and energy prices soared. Today, the demand for affordable housing continues to outweigh the supply. (U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development 2009) The current economic recession has influenced consumers to spend and invest carefully. Even with all of the new construction during the late 1990s and early 2000s, there is still demand for new construction of affordable housing. However, the homebuyer is more wary about what is hiding behind the walls, ceilings, and f loors than they were when opportunities were blooming and spending was frequent. The consumers demand a home that does not waste energy, but conserves it. Statement of Problem Affordable housing in Gainesville, Florida is in high demand due to the dem ographics, current housing supply, and income category distribution of the community. The Neighborhood Housing and Development Corporation (NHDC) is a non profit organization that works with homebuyers to develop and build affordable housing. The NHDC ha s developed a new home program requiring all new home construction be built to receive ENERGY STAR Qualification. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy 2009) These homes will use at least 15% less energy than standard code bu ilt homes, which can provide annual savings in

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16 utility costs starting at $140 a year depending on the size of the home and household. These are minimal savings based upon minimal strategies to improve a homes energy performance. While the ENERGY STAR H ome Qualification program has many attributes that are heading in the right direction, there is still enormous room for improvement. The awareness and attention to energy efficiency that the program stimulates is by and large its best characteristic. Cre ating awareness and commitment by all parties is a huge step in achieving a highly energy efficient home. Settling for a 15% reduction in energy consumption is limiting the potential the awareness of this program evokes. Energy reductions of 50 70% shoul d be achieved just through schematic design and a whole building systems approach. These savings can be accomplished without large increases to initial costs through government rebates, incentives, and diligent selection of components, keeping the homes a ffordable. These reductions in energy consumption can save households hundreds to thousands of dollars a year. Objective The studys objective was to determine what energy efficient strategies, onsite renewable energy system, and available financing tacti cs could be integrated into the design, construction, and ownership of an affordable ENERGY STAR Qualified home in Gainesville, Florida to create an affordable net zero energy home. The objective of the research was to reduce the ENERGY STAR Qualified hom es energy consumption by 30 40% through improvements to building envelope, mechanical system, water heating, and solar absorbance. The remaining demanded energy would be provided through onsite renewable energy sources.

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17 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW This literature review examines the challenges, strategies, and advantages of creating affordable net zero energy housing (ZEH) in Gainesville, Florida. The review identifies the dilemma facing developers of affordable housing and presents the concept of creat ing a ZEH. The review proceeds to outline the necessary steps to achieve an ENERGY STAR Qualified home. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy 2009) Descriptions of obstacles and components essential to achieving energy effic iency are explained to help further establish the complexity of creating a ZEH. Finally, a list of rebates, incentives, and feed in tariff (FIT) opportunities for Gainesville, Florida residents are identified, which offer a glimmer of hope in lowering the elevated first costs associated with renewable energy systems and energy efficiency techniques. Affordable Housing Determining what defines affordable housing depends largely on average median income of the area of interest. Homeowners who spend greater than 30% of their pre tax income on housing are considered to have an excessive housing cost burden. (Schwartz 2006) Spending 30% or less of a homeowners pre tax income would constitute affordable housing. Housing costs include their mortgage payments maintenance on the home, and utilities. Low income households, between 50% and 80% of area median income, and moderate income household, between 80% and 120% of area median income must also be evaluated to determine what affordable housing should be in an area. What is affordable for a moderate income household may not be affordable for a low income

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18 household. In order to establish a regions affordable housing price range, considerations must be made regarding what income category does not qualify fo r unsubsidized homeownership. Very low income, between 30% and 50% of area median income and extremely low income, less than or equal to 30% of area median income are considered to be unsuitable for homeownership, thus will not be included into the range of affordable housing for ownership. Conversely, creating affordable housing strictly for low income households, ignoring the demand for moderate income affordable housing, will generate development of communities that may be affordable for moderate incom e households, but do not push their affordability threshold of 30% of pre tax income. Therefore a range of affordable housing prices for homeownership must be created to satisfy the varying income assortment. (Schwartz 2006) Net Zero Energy Homes A net zero energy home (ZEH) requires a unique harmonization of energy efficient design strategies, energy conservative appliances/systems and onsite energy generation. The result of this calculated engineering, design, and construction process is a home that i s able to produce all the energy that it consumes, thus net zero energy. Building a ZEH is advantageous to the homeowner and the community. The homeowner gains from having zero energy costs, minimized indoor temperature fluctuations due to an efficient b uilding envelope, and protection from changes in future energy prices. The community surrounding the ZEH owner benefit from reduced carbon emissions, decreased load on central utility plant, especially during peak hours, and increased promotion and awaren ess of renewable energy throughout the community. The initial challenge in achieving a ZEH is energy use not energy generation. Designing a home with the intention to use the least possible amount of energy must be

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19 the primary goal. Only after assessing how to improve the entire buildings energy efficiency can the process begin to determine what size solar system must be installed. The following seven step process for ZEH must be pursued to evaluate what strategies and technologies to implement. 1. Decreas e the energy requirements for space heating, cooling, and water heating: a) Orient the home with smaller walls facing west and include overhangs and porches b) Increase foundation, wall, and ceiling insulation. c) Use low U value, low E windows in all climates and low solar heat gain (low SHGC) windows in cooling climates d) Seal all holes, cracks, and penetrations through the floor, walls, and ceiling to unconditioned spaces e) Install adequate ventilation, especially from kitchens and baths. 2. Increase the efficiency of t he furnace (or heat pump), and the air conditioner: a) Buy as high efficiency equipment as affordable for the climate. b) Design the supply and return duct system appropriately and seal tightly using approved tapes or mastic. c) Consider ground source heat pump tec hnology where space and cost conditions permit. d) Where climate appropriate consider alternative cooling systems such as ventilation only or evaporative coolers. 3. Install a solar hot water pre heat system, an efficient backup water heater, and an efficient di stribution system: a) Consider a parallel, small diameter piping system for the hot water outlets. b) Install low flow fixtures. c) Choose water heating equipment with a high Energy Factor. d) Look for a knowledgeable solar hot water installation company. e) Evaluate sol ar systems using the Solar Rating and Certification Corporation (SRCC).

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20 4. Install efficient lighting fixtures: a) Consider permanent fluorescent fixtures in as many locations as possible. b) Look for the ENERGY STAR label. 5. Install efficient appliances: a) Include the refrigerator, dishwasher, and laundry appliances. b) Look for the ENERGY STAR label. c) Compare appliance efficiencies. 6. Install a properly sized photovoltaic (PV) system: a) Look for a knowledgeable solar PV installation company. b) Evaluate tax and other incenti ves. c) Use PVWATTS for a quick estimate of PV output. d) Find a Certified Solar PV Installer form the North American Board of Certified Energy Practitioners. 7. Turn off lights, computers, and appliances when not in use. (Toolbase Services 2008) Following the abo ve seven steps will act as an initial guideline for designing a ZEH. Understanding how the geographical location of the home impacts its energy efficient design is crucial in the design stages of a ZEH. Also, the behavior of the end user will typically d ictate whether or not the home will ultimately be a ZEH. A commitment from the occupants to reduce their energy use through conservation, diligence, and sacrifice is imperative to the success of the ZEH. ENERGY STAR Qualified Homes ENERGY STAR is a federa lly funded joint program of the U.S. Department of Energy and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The program helps support energy saving programs, products, appliances, references, research, and commissioning for all sectors of the construction industr y and business landscape. They are dedicated to identifying and promoting the most energy efficient products and techniques in the

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21 marketplace for the benefit of consumers and businesses to recognize the products that fill their needs. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy 2009) ENERGY STAR Qualified Homes are certified based on the ability of the home to meet strict criteria established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. These guidelines demand vast improvements ab ove code requirements to increase the overall energy efficiency of the home. The type of improvements, products, and techniques that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requires for ENERGY STAR Qualification include: Effective Insulation Properly ins talled and inspected insulation in floors, walls, and attics ensures even temperatures throughout the house, reduced energy use, and increased comfort. High Performance Windows Energy efficient windows employ advanced technologies, such as protective coat ings and improved frames, to help keep heat in during winter and out during summer. These windows also block damaging ultraviolet sunlight that can discolor carpets and furnishings. Tight Construction and Ducts Sealing holes and cracks in the home's "enve lope" and in heating and cooling duct systems helps reduce drafts, moisture, dust, pollen, and noise. A tightly sealed home improves comfort and indoor air quality while reducing utility and maintenance. Efficient Heating and Cooling Equipment In addition to using less energy to operate, energy efficient heating and cooling systems can be quieter, reduce indoor humidity, and improve the overall comfort of the home. When properly installed into a tightly sealed home, this equipment won't have to work so hard to heat and cool the home. Efficient Products ENERGY STAR qualified homes may also be equipped with ENERGY STAR qualified products lighting fixtures, compact fluorescent bulbs, ventilation fans, and appliances, such as refrigerators, dishwashers, and w ashing machines. Third Party Verification With the help of independent Home Energy Raters, ENERGY STAR builder partners choose the most appropriate energy saving features for their homes. Additionally,

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22 raters conduct onsite testing and inspections to veri fy the energy efficiency measures, as well as insulation, air tightness, and duct sealing details. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy 2009) There are two paths for achieving an ENERGY STAR Qualified Home. The first is the National Performance Path. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy 2009) This option requires that a specific home energy rating system (or HERS Index) be achieved by the home using energy calculation software. Figure 2 1 demo nstrates the required HERS Index based on region, the mandatory energy efficiency strategies, technologies, and products, and notes associated with proceeding with the performance path option. The other path for achieving an ENERGY STAR Qualified Home is the National Prescriptive Path Builder Option Package. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy 2009) This option requires the builder to construct the home using a prescribed set of construction specifications that follow the guidelines of the program. As of June 1, 2009, all homes constructed in Florida seeking ENERGY STAR Qualification must follow the regional Builder Option Package specifically designed for Florida. Figure 2 2 shows the Florida specific requirements for th e Builder Option Package. Both the Performance and Prescriptive Path require the submission of a thermal bypass checklist by a Home Energy Rater. The checklist can be found in Figure 2 3. Photovoltaic Systems Photovoltaic (PV), or often referred to as so lar panels, are solar cells that collect energy from the sun and turn it into electricity. Groups of solar cells are assembled to form a PV module. An assortment of PV modules then makes up a PV array, which is assembled and installed onto a house to pro duce electricity. PV modules produce

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23 electricity in the form of Direct Current (DC) power. Inverters may be utilized to convert the DC power into Alternating Current (AC) power, which is typically used by household appliances and electronics. The amoun t of electricity that a PV array produces depends largely on the type of panel, its geographical location, and orientation of the system. This is because every location has its own solar potential. The sunbelt region and southeastern United States provide the greatest solar potential in the country. Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, and West Texas have an annual average daily solar radiation per month of 7 to 8 kWh/m 2 /day. Florida has an annual average daily solar radiation per month of 5 to 6 kWh/m 2 /day. (Na tional Atlas of the United States 2009) See Figure 2 5 for a Solar Potential Map of the United States. Orienting the system to face due south with a tilt angle equal to the locations latitude will provide the most efficient power output by the PV system PV systems can be either grid tied or off grid. Grid tied systems are connected to the local utility provider and use net metering. Net metering is based on the concept that when sunlight is hitting the PV system the energy produced causes your electri city meter to spin backwards. In the early evening, when energy demand is typically at its highest, the home uses energy from the local utility provider spinning the meter forward, thus net metering. The advantages of this system are primarily found in e fficiency, lower first cost, and ability to take advantage of a feed in tariff contract. Off grid PV systems use a battery backup to store the energy produced during the high output of the sun during the day. This energy is then rationed back into the

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24 Figure 2 1. National performance path requirements (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy 2009)

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25 Figure 2 1. Continued

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26 Figure 2 2. Florida builder option package ( U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Departme nt of Energy 2009 )

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27 Figure 2 2. Continued

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28 Figure 2 2. Continued home as demanded. Many homes that utilize off grid systems tend to also be connected to the local utility provider in case problems arise with their PV system or if solar output does not meet their energy demands. The advantage of an off grid system is that in the event of a blackout the home will still have access to an energy source. The extra first costs and decrease in efficiency of using a battery backup tend to discourage homeow ners from pursuing this type of system. PV systems can be mounted directly onto the roof of a home at the optimum angle or use a mechanical system that positions the array at an angle to receive the optimal amount of solar output throughout the course of e ach day. While the stationary

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29 Figure 2 3. Thermal bybass inspection checklist guidance ( U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy 2009 )

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3 0 Figure 2 3. Continued

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31 roof mounted system is not as efficient as the mechanical tracking system, the installation is much less expensive and little to no maintenance is required once the system is installed. Mechanical trackers optimize the solar output received by the PV array. The installation and maintenance of the mechanical system incr eases first costs and may not be cost effective. When installing a PV system onto your home, a specialist should be contracted to perform the work. The specialist will ensure that the roof mounted system will be installed at the proper angle and directio nal orientation to optimize solar output at its fixed location. Trackers require a specialist because of their more intricate framework. Maintenance costs should also be included into the equation when determining which mounting system to employ. Phantom Loads Electronic devices and appliances that are plugged into an electrical outlet continue to consume energy even when they are turned off. This occurs because the device or appliance is not actually off but in a standby mode that is still drawing wat ts to remain in its idle state. TVs, DVD players, cable receivers, microwaves, alarm clocks, printers, computers, stereos, and phone chargers, along with all standard appliances, are examples of these devices that consume energy 24 hours a day. For exam ple, your TV is actually turned on all the time even though it looks like its off. It is constantly preheating the picture tube and powering the receiver for the remote, just waiting to be turned on. According to a Cornell University energy expert, th ese so called vampire appliances cost consumers an estimated $3 billion a year or about $200 per household. (Willfrid 2008) This added energy consumption is both costly and wasteful. Reducing these phantom loads requires first identifying them and then eliminating them.

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32 Figure 2 4. Solar potential map of the United States ( National Atlas of the United States 2009)

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33 Strategies for reducing or eliminating phantom loads are easy to administer, but require home occupants to be diligent in making th e process a habit. Connecting all electronic devices and appliances to a power strip with an on/off switch is the first step. When the device or appliance is not in use, flip the power strip switch off, which will disconnect the electricity from the powe r strip, eliminating the standby power required. Selecting ENERGY STAR appliances, which have much lower standby power requirement than conventional appliances, will also reduce total phantom loads. Passive Earth Contact Cooling Passive earth contact cool ing enhancements can be incorporated into a home to help reduce the required cooling load. This is achieved through indirect loss of heat through the floor into the ground. Indirect loss techniques incorporate an intermediate heat transfer process betwee n the occupied space and the heat sink. Earth contact cooling, where heat flows through building surfaces to the surrounding soil, is an example of indirect loss. (Boyer and Grondzik 1987) To achieve indirect heat loss the home must incorporate materia ls that are good thermal conductors. In Florida, slab on grade foundations are common, which are good thermal conductors for achieving heat transfer from the conditioned space to the heat sink. Exposed concrete floors would provide the greatest amount of heat transfer, but because of aesthetic preference many homeowners prefer a floor finish such as tile, vinyl, carpet, or wood. Appropriate surface treatments must be selected to promote the transfer of heat. Tile flooring provides the greatest allowance for heat transfer because of its high density and low R value. Carpet acts as an insulator, inhibiting heat transfer with its low density and high R value eliminating the effect of passive earth contact cooling.

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34 Building America Building America is a re search program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy whose purpose is to develop and implement advanced building energy technologies in new and existing homes. (Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy 2008) The program consists of industry leading rese arch teams who provide developers, design professionals, contractors, and homeowners with the strategies for producing homes that are energy efficient, energy secure, and affordable. The research goals for Building America include: Producing homes on a co mmunity scale that use on average 40% to 100% less source energy Integrating onsite power systems leading to zero energy homes, that produce as much energy as they use, by 2020 Improving indoor air quality and comfort Helping home builders reduce construct ion time and waste Implementing innovative energy and material saving technologies Improving builder profitability Providing new product opportunities to manufacturers and suppliers Dramatically increasing the energy efficiency of existing homes (Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy 2008) The Building America Team intends on achieving these goals by using a systems engineering approach. This method integrates a whole building, or integrated design approach. Whole building, or integrated, design consid ers site, energy, materials, indoor air quality, acoustics, and natural resources, as well as their interrelation with one another. In this process, a collaborative team of architects, engineers, building occupants, owners, and specialist in indoor air qu ality, materials, and energy and water

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35 efficiency utilizes systems thinking to consider the building structure and systems holistically, examining how they best work together to save energy and reduce the environmental impact. (Kibert 2008) Implementing the systems engineering approach will result in a higher quality and more efficient home through identifying the design impacts of one system and their effect on the other systems of the home. Building America has developed a series of Best Practices Hand books based upon climate regions. This is very intuitive because there is no formula for creating an energy efficient home for all locations. Humidity, yearly temperature variation, soil conditions, annual rainfall, solar potential, and other regional fac tors determine the construction techniques and systems of energy efficient homes. The Building America series of Best Practices Handbooks educates all sectors of the homebuilding industry. The Handbook informs homeowners about energy efficient features, savings, benefits, and security associated with buying a home that has been built following their Best Practices Guide. Sources for additional information and a homebuyers checklist are also provided in the homeowners section. Construction Mangers are educated on cost savings, reduced risk, increased productivity, fewer callbacks, greater profit margins, competitive advantage, customer satisfaction, and referrals based on making the transition to building highly efficient homes. Marketers are provided with results from energy efficient home research studies that will help them sell the product to potential buyers as well as information on using the ENERGY STAR Qualified Home Program as a powerful marketing tool. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy 2009) Site Planners receive information on the effects that lot orientation, landscape configuration, and water management have on creating a project site that

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36 compliments the energy efficient home, creating sustainable developm ents. Designers receive detailed best practice strategies for all elements of the home that can contribute to quality and energy efficiency. These elements include site drainage, pest control, landscaping, foundation measures, structural moisture control structural thermal performance, heating, venting, air conditioning, mechanicals management, and appliances. Site Supervisors are given strategies on how to oversee advanced construction techniques that trades and crafts may not be adept to installing. These strategies include improvements to pre construction meetings, training, scheduling, and quality control. Spot check inspection checklist, pre drywall inspection checklist, and pre occupancy inspection checklist are provided as a resource. Trades an d Crafts are provided with step by step, easy to follow illustrated instructions for implementing essential energy efficiency technologies like housewrap, window flashing, air sealing penetrations, masonry construction, radiant barriers, and duct sealing. (Baechler and Love 2004) Home Energy Rating System Index In order to quantify the implementation of energy efficient technologies and strategies, an energy rating system must be established. Energy ratings are based on an analysis of all of the homes co mponents that contribute to energy consumption in a given climate. These components include the buildings site, envelope, equipment, lighting, and appliances. A Home Energy Rater will evaluate the homes predicted energy consumption using energy modelin g software. Energy Gauge is an energy modeling program that uses building design inputs to determine expected energy consumption. Once required design specifications and project location are inputted, the program performs a pre construction home energy r ating system (HERS) calculation.

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37 The HERS index was established by the Residential Energy Services Network (RESNET) as a system to evaluate a homes energy consumption and assign a specific number for each homes level of energy efficiency. The HERS Ind ex is from 0 to 100. An index of 100 represents the HERS Reference Home, which is used as a baseline for what code requirements all newly constructed homes must adhere to. Each 1 point decrease in the HERS Index corresponds to a 1% reduction in energy c onsumption compared to the HERS Reference Home. Thus a home with a HERS Index of 85 is 15% more energy efficient than the HERS Reference Home and a home with a HERS Index of 80 is 20% more energy efficient. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy 2009) Therefore, a zero energy home would have a HERS Index of 0, while a negative energy home, a home that produces more energy that it consumes, would have a negative HERS Index. Not only is it important to establish a quantifiable index for rating a buildings energy efficiency, but also the commissioning that is involved with attaining these home energy ratings is extremely important. The Home Energy Rater will perform a blower door test to determine the leakiness of a homes enve lope. Figure 2 6 shows how a blower door test is performed. A duct blasting test will be performed to determine any voids or cracks in the duct system that may result in poor efficiency of the HVAC equipment. These tests are performed after the homes co nstruction and will be inputted into the Energy Gauge software to determine the homes HERS Index. Resident Habits No matter how energy efficient a home may be, what dictates the total energy consumption of the home is the energy consumed by the occupants Curtailing the energy demands of the residents is generally less obtrusive that one may first assume.

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38 The majority of ways to reduce resident consumption are primarily changing routines and habits. Modifying the occupants habits can result in substant ial energy savings over the course of a year. Modification examples of typical resident habits that use excessive energy are installing a programmable thermostat to regulate temperature settings, air drying dishes instead of using the dishwashers heat d ry cycle, plugging in TVs, DVDs, stereos, and other electronics into surge protectors that can be switched off when not in use to avoid phantom loads, lowering the temperature of the hot water heater to 120 degrees, wash clothes only using cold water, ai r dry clothes outside instead of using a clothes dryer, only run full loads in the dishwasher and clothes washer, and turn off lights whenever a room is unoccupied. Figure 2 5. Blower door depressurization test

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39 The bulk of these alterations to habits do not inconvenience the homes occupants, they are merely changes in routine. Maintenance of the homes systems and structure by the homes occupants is important for sustaining energy efficiency. The following is a checklist of items whose maintenance m ay have an effect on the homes energy consumption: Doors and Windows Check doors, windows, and trim for finish failure Check glazed openings for loose putty Check for broken glass and damaged screens Check weather stripping for damage and tightness of fit Check caulking at doors, windows, and all other openings and joints between dissimilar materials (i.e. wood masonry) Roof Check for damaged or loose shingles, blistered roofing, etc. Check underside of roof where accessible for water stains or dampness C heck for damaged flashing Check for damaged gutters, downspouts, hanger, strainers, and rust Clean gutters and downspouts Sweep debris from flat and low slope roofs Evaluate roof for future replacement Check vents, louvers, and chimney caps and housings fo r bird nests, etc. Heating and Cooling Clean or change any air filters Clean dirt and dust from evaporator coils Clean outside condensing unit Have heating and cooling system checked by a qualified serviceperson annually (Wanslow 1995) Maintenance and in spection of other elements of the home are important for the overall integrity and quality of the home, but for energy efficiency the aforementioned checklist covers all routine maintenance.

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40 Rebates, Incentives, Subsidies, and Feed In Tariff Available for Gainesville, Florida Residents The Federal Government, State Government, and local utility companies are providing citizens with financial support for employing renewable energy systems and energy efficient equipment in the form of rebates, incentives, sub sidies, and feed in tariff (FIT) programs. The justification for these incentives are based on the reality that currently there are no renewable energy systems that can compete with the price of fossil fuels. The nations growing demand on fossil fuels i s of great concern and the only way to avoid permanent dependence on these limited resources is to promote renewable energy implementation. By providing rebates, citizens are able to purchase renewable energy systems at a price more competitive with fossi l fuels. The long term energy savings of these systems can yield high returns on the initial investment while reducing harmful carbon emissions and sparking development of more affordable renewable energy systems. The Federal Government is providing a tax credit to citizens who purchase renewable energy systems and other highly energy efficient systems for the homes they reside in. The primary examples of these technologies include solar water heating systems, photovoltaic (PV) arrays, wind turbines, fuel cells, geothermal heat pumps, and other solar electric technologies. The credit is up to 30% of the cost for the technology once installed and the citizen will be eligible to claim the credit once the system is placed in service. If the federal tax cred it exceeds tax liability, the excess amount may be carried forward to the succeeding taxable year. (Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency 2009)

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41 The Federal Government is providing a tax credit to citizens who purchase qualified reside ntial energy efficient water heaters, furnaces, boilers, heat pumps, and air conditioners. The credit is up to 30% of the cost for the qualified residential energy efficient equipment once installed. Maximum tax credit is not to exceed $1,500.00. (Datab ase of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency 2009) The Florida State Government is providing a rebate to residents who purchase PV systems, solar water heating systems, and solar pool heating systems for the homes they reside in. The cash rebate for PV systems is $4/watt direct current (DC) up to $20,000.00 and must be installed by a licensed master electrician or state license electrical, solar contractor, or certified general contractor. The cash rebate for solar water heating systems is $500.0 0 and the system must provide at least 50% of the homes hot water consumption. The cash rebate for solar pool heating systems is $100.00. Both the solar water and pool heating systems must be installed by a state licensed plumbing contractor or a certif ied general contractor or a roofing contractor installing standing seam hybrid thermal roofs to receive the cash rebate. (Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency 2009) Gainesville Regional Utilities (GRU) is providing a cash rebate to it s customers who purchase high efficiency central air conditioners and heat pumps. The cash rebate for a 5 ton or smaller, seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) of 15 or greater air conditioner with variable speed compressor and heat pump with heating se asonal performance factor (HSPF) of 8.2 or greater is $550.00. GRU may require proof of purchase after installation before awarding the rebate. (Gainesville Regional Utilities 2004)

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42 GRU is providing a cash rebate to builders who construct new ENERGY STAR Qualified affordable housing. The cash rebate for a successful ENERGY STAR certification is $300.00. To receive an ENERGY STAR certification the home must receive independent verification of performance conducted by a Florida home energy rating system ( HERS) rater. The home must be a newly constructed single or multi family home built for a state certified Affordable Housing Program. (Gainesville Regional Utilities 2004) GRU is providing a cash rebate to its customers who purchase solar water heating s ystems for the homes they reside in. The cash rebate for solar water heating systems is $500.00. Systems must be installed by a contractor currently certified to install solar water heaters and all systems must be Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) certi fied and guaranteed against freeze damage to receive rebate. (Gainesville Regional Utilities 2004) GRU is providing a cash rebate to its customers who purchase PV systems for the homes they reside in. The cash rebate for PV systems is $1.50/watt DC up to $7,500.00 and must carry at least a five year warranty from the manufacturer and installer. The customer must net meter in order to receive the rebate and will be paid $0.062/kWh for excess electricity generated onsite. (Gainesville Regional Utility 200 4) GRU is offering its citizens a solar feed in tariff (FIT) for PV systems. The tariff amount will be $0.32/kWh for building or pavement mounted systems of any size. GRU purchases energy from qualified PV systems via a Standard Offer Contract at set ra tes for a period of 20 years plus the remaining balance of the calendar year in which the contract is executed. (Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency

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43 2009) PV systems that are less than 10 kW have the option to sell 100% of electri city produced to GRU. Customers may also elect to net meter, where they only sell the excess electricity to GRU. Customers who elect to net meter are also eligible to receive the PV system rebate. Table 2 1 shows the fixed rate for the life of the contr act based on calendar year the contract was entered. (Gainesville Regional Utility 2004) Table 2 1. GRUs feed in tariff fixed rate contract schedule Calendar year contract entered Fixed rate $/kwh over life of contract for building/pavement mounted o r ground mounted (<25 kw) systems Fixed rate $/kwh over life of contract for free standing systems 2009 $0.32 $0.26 2010 $0.32 $0.26 2011 $0.30 $0.25 2012 $0.28 $0.23 2013 $0.27 $0.22 2014 $0.26 $0.21 2015 $0.25 $0.20 2016 $0.23 $0.19

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44 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY The goal of this thesis is to determine what energy efficient strategies, onsite renewable energy system, and available financing tactics can be integrated into the design, construction, and ownership of the already established ENE RGY STAR Qualified affordable housing development program in Gainesville, Florida to create affordable net zero energy housing. For the analysis a 30 year period was selected based upon a standard home mortgage. The methodology included 5 steps. 1. Obtained plans and specifications for an ENERGY STAR Qualified home in Gainesville, Florida. Conducted an analysis of its HERS Index based upon implemented energy efficient technologies to determine where improvements to already existing strategies could be made. 2. Obtained plans and specifications for a Near Zero Energy Home (NZEH) in Gainesville, Florida. Conducted an analysis of the homes HERS Index based on energy efficient features and the onsite renewable energy system to determine how the home was able to achieve near zero energy. Energy efficient strategy gaps were identified between the NZEH and ENERGY STAR Qualified home to decipher areas of improvement in the ENERGY STAR Qualified home. 3. Performed energy modeling of the ENERGY STAR Qualified home with the upgraded energy efficient strategies and onsite renewable energy system to determine the new HERS index, decreased energy consumption levels and added initial costs of implementing the additional components. 4. Conducted payback period and savings to inv estment ratio (SIR) for each component upgrade. 5. Performed a life cycle cost (LCC) analysis to determine affordability of creating a net zero energy home (ZEH).

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45 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS The results of this study are presented below in five sect ions. 1. The specifications and Energy Gauge Reports for the Near Zero Energy Home (NZEH) provided by Ken Fonorow of Florida Home Energy and Resource Organization (H.E.R.O.) and an analysis of all the components that contributed to achieving near zero energy. 2. The ENERGY STAR Qualified homes plans, specifications, and Energy Gauge Reports with an analysis of all components that contributed to creating an ENERGY STAR Qualified home. Individual costs provided for each component that will be upgraded to achieve a net zero energy home (ZEH). 3. An energy consumption analysis of the ENERGY STAR Qualified home with the upgraded energy efficient technologies and onsite renewable energy system was performed to determine the energy consumption needs and feasibility of cr eating an affordable ZEH. Quotes for individual upgraded components provided to determine cost effectiveness in Sections 4 and 5. 4. A 30 year life cycle cost analysis to determine payback period and savings to investment ratio (SIR) of both onsite renewabl e energy and upgraded technologies that were able to decrease energy consumption while utilizing government and local utility rebates, incentives, and feed in tariff (FIT) program. 5. Life cycle cost analysis for the most effective financing strategies to in crease affordability of ZEH. Energy savings incorporated into financing structure also examined Near Zero Energy Home Ken Fonorow of Florida Home Energy and Resource Organization (H.E.R.O.) provided plans and specifications for a Near Zero Energy Home (NZE H) in Gainesville, Florida. The NZEH was a 1,772 square foot, three bedroom, two bathroom single family home located at 1650 NW 34 th Ave Gainesville, Florida. The front of the house faced South, which was determined prior to designing the home for near z ero energy. This orientation meant the homes largest roof areas faced the East and West, which compromised some of the homes solar potential.

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46 The home was designed with the goal of reducing its energy consumption by 70% relative to a Benchmark home in t he same hot humid climate. The engineering strategies involved all parties and took a whole building systems approach. The following section will outline the components of the home that looked to achieve energy efficiency and onsite energy production. HV AC System Fully condensing natural gas furnace (AFUE=0.94); Carrier 58MVB060 SEER 19 two speed, 2 ton air conditioner (Carrier 24ANA124A300) All duct joints and connections required to be sealed with mastic All ducts and connections allowed duct leakage of Qn=0.022 All ducts in conditioned space framed out below ceiling Programmable thermostat HEPA filter with MERV rating of more than or equal to 8 ENERGY STAR ceiling exhaust fans rated 50 C.F.M. or greater Proper sizing of the HVAC system was crucial for achieving energy efficiency. Over sizing the system would result in unnecessary added first costs that could be utilized to purchase more energy efficient technologies, be put towards the monthly mortgage payment, or negated to make the home more affordab le. Under sizing the HVAC system can result in poor efficiency, insufficient heating or cooling of the home, and wasted energy. The integrity of the duct joints and connections was essential for efficiency. Any leakage would cause the system to overwork which wastes energy. Adequate testing of the duct tightness was necessary to insure that all connections and joints were sealed properly. The programmable thermostat allowed for the most energy conservative temperatures to be set while not compromising comfort. The HEPA filter with MERV rating of more than or equal to 8 helped the HVAC system run as efficiently as possible while still removing indoor allergens, dust, and pollen. The ENERGY STAR ceiling exhaust fan used 70% less energy than a standard exhaust fan.

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47 Lights Fluorescent lighting fixtures Compact fluorescent bulbs in all lighting fixtures The fluorescent lighting fixtures and compact fluorescent bulbs used 75% less energy than incandescent bulbs and had a much lower heat gain thus reducing the cooling load the HVAC system needed to provide. Windows 274 square feet of windows (15.5% glazing) Vinyl double paned insulated units low e with screens at a 0.28 SHGC and U value of 0.34 Ceiling Insulation Blown cellulose insulation with a minimum R 3 8 insulation rating was specified. The high R value for the ceiling insulation was integral in keeping the extremely warm air that bakes in the attic from penetrating into the house forcing the HVAC system to work harder than necessary. Walls 2 x 4 struct ural grade wood studs with maximum spacing of 16 o.c. with an air infiltration barrier over 7/16 O.S.B. Exterior frame wall insulation was blown cellulose insulation with a minimum R 13 insulation rating Spray Styrofoam or high density glue type insulati on caulking at all wire, plumbing, flue penetrations to unconditioned exterior areas, and, water and drain lines to prevent air and/or sound passage The wall system provided a strong thermal envelope. The 2 x 4 stud spaced at 16 o.c. was typical of singl e family residential construction. The R 13 cellulose insulation provided above average thermal resistance along with the air infiltration wrap. The spray styrofoam insulation caulking around all penetrations was important to prevent

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48 outside air from ent ering any of the gaps, voids, or compressions in the building envelope. Roofing Radiant barrier under roof deck with 1:300 attic ventilation IR reflective metal tile roof with Solar Absorbance = 0.65 The radiant barrier system under the roof provided resi stance to heat gain in the attic and ultimately into the conditioned space. The metal tile roof provided a moderate solar absorbance of 0.65 that helped to reduce the high heat gains associated with hot humid climates. Doors Exterior entrance doors were not specified, but according to the Building Energy Rating Guides Building Input Summary for the home performed by the homes rater, the two exterior doors were insulated with a U value of 0.29. Exterior Paint Medium/Light exterior paint with a solar abso rbance of 0.5 was specified This decrease in solar absorbance reduced the heat gains of the home through the exterior walls. Floors The flooring of the house was predominantly tile (around 80%). This allowed for passive earth contact cooling to be achie ved, reducing the homes cooling load. Solar Water Heating Drainback closed loop gycol solar system facing west 5/12 tilt 80 square ft. AET 40 collectors 120 gallon storage tank Auxiliary electric water heater for backup (EF=0.90)

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49 The solar water heating s ystem provided almost all of the homes water heating needs. Photovoltaic System Grid tied solar electric photovoltaic (PV) system Nominal 3.150 kW direct current (DC) photovoltaic system (Conergy S 175MU modules) 94% efficient SMA 3300 inverter West faci ng (azimuth = 270) Appliances Natural gas dryer and range ENERGY STAR dishwasher (DU850SWP) ENERGY STAR refrigerator (GR25HWXPB02) ENERGY STAR Whirlpool clothes washer (WFW 83005) ENERGY STAR appliances were the most energy efficient appliances on the mar ket and helped to reduce energy consumption. The ENERGY STAR dishwasher used 31% less energy than a conventional dishwasher. The ENERGY STAR refrigerator used 20% less energy than a standard refrigerator that does not carry the ENERGY STAR logo. Commissi oning and Testing Thermal bypass inspection prior to drywall, indicating envelope tightness and adhering to guidelines Blower door, duct blasting at project completion The thermal bypass inspection insured that the insulation, air infiltration barrier, sea ling of penetrations and building envelope system were installed correctly without gaps, voids, or compressions prior to installation of drywall. The blower door test verified that the building envelope was performing as desired at project completion. Th e duct blasting test confirmed that all joints and connections of the ductwork were tight

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50 with only a minimum of 10% cfm allowed to penetrate voids in the mastic. The performed blower door test ensured the tightness of the buildings envelope and allowed for any remediation to occur for gaps, voids, or compressions in the buildings shell. Near Zero Energy Home Energy Summary The NZEHs energy consumption analysis was performed by Ken Fonorow of Florida H.E.R.O. He utilized the Energy Gauge software to pe rform the energy consumption analysis. The analysis determined the homes energy consumption and associated home energy rating system (HERS) Index. Figures 4 1 through 4 3 showed the building input summary report, building energy rating guide, and site en ergy summary from rater Ken Fonorows Energy Gauge building analysis of the NZEH. The home received a HERS Index of 29 with annual electricity consumption of 6,111 kWh and gas consumption of 244 Therms. The homes solar water heating system drastically r educed its energy consumption compared to a natural gas or electric water heating system. The solar water heating system required only 420 kWh of annual energy or 3.9%, which was considerably lower than a natural gas water heater. The PV system produced 3,766 kWh on the year. This provided the home with 61.6% of its electricity consumption and 34.7% of its total energy consumption. While receiving a HERS Index of 29 was indeed progressive toward achieving a ZEH, there were still several areas that limite d the NZEHs ability to reach the goal of net zero energy. First, the home still relied on gas to produce energy. To achieve a ZEH all energy must be produced onsite, thus negating the use of natural gas. Next, the homes PV system produced 61.6% of the homes electricity needs and only 38.7% of the homes total energy, not even half of the total energy demand. Upgrading the PV

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51 array to a 5 kW system would produce enough energy to satisfy all electricity needs, but the home would still be dependent on n atural gas for its furnace, cooking range, and clothes dryer. ENERGY STAR Qualified Home Neighborhood Housing and Development Corporation (NHDC) provided plans and specifications for a single family home in Gainesville, Florida. The non profit organizatio n has established a scattered site new home program that requires the homes be built using a set of minimum specifications. The specifications are geared to provide homes that utilize cost effective energy efficient strategies. These specifications have b een carefully chosen to have as little an effect on first costs as possible while still providing a more efficient home. The challenge exists in implementing these specifications effectively with varying floor plans and building orientation. The single f amily home was a 1,526 square foot, four bedroom, two bathroom home located at 712 NE 12 th Street in Gainesville, Florida. This shotgun style floor plan utilized the relatively narrow lots of the development while still providing a nice flow through the home. The front of the house faced the East, with the majority of the roof area facing North and South, which maximized the solar capabilities of the home. The floor plan, roof plan and elevations of the home are shown in Figures 4 4 through 4 6. The fl oor plan followed the NHDC scattered site new home programs minimum construction specifications. Within the specifications are certain materials, equipment, and methods that look to create a home with efficiency in mind. The following section will outli ne the components of the home that helped achieve greater energy efficiency.

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52 Figure 4 1. NZEH building input summary (Parker et al. 2009)

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53 Figure 4 1. Continued

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54 Figure 4 1. Continued

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55 Figure 4 1. Continued

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56 Figure 4 2. NZEH building annual energy summary (Parker et al. 2009)

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57 Figure 4 3. NZEH building energy rating guide and HERS Index (Parker et al. 2009)

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58 Figure 4 4. ENERGY STAR Qualified home floor plan

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59 Figure 4 5. ENERGY STAR Qualified home elevations

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60 Figure 4 6. ENERGY STAR Qualifi ed home roof plan

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61 HVAC System Energy efficient heat pump with an air conditioning unit comparable to Goodman Combined SEER rating of 14 All duct joints and connections required to be sealed with mastic All ducts and connections not to allow more than 10% c fm total leakage All ducts and connections no more than 5% cfm leakage to the outside Duct blast test performed and passed ENERGY STAR testing standards Programmable thermostat HEPA filter with MERV rating of more than or equal to 8 ENERGY STAR ceiling exh aust fans rated 50 C.F.M. or greater Quoted at $4,000.00 from Flanagan Companies Inc. Lights Fluorescent lighting fixtures Compact fluorescent bulbs in all lighting fixtures Windows SHGC of 0.38 and U Factor value of 0.50 Aluminum double paned insulated units low e at a 0.5 solar heat gain (Better Built or approved equal), as indicated on approved energy forms, with screens. Quoted at $2,275.00 from Flanagan Companies Inc. The aluminum double paned insulated windows provided above average resistance to so lar heat gain with a .36 SHGC. With a U value of 0.50, their ability to keep the cool air from escaping was about average. Ceiling Insulation Cocoon cellulose insulation with a minimum R 38 insulation rating Attic Access Panel: scuttle board plywood with fiberglass batt insulation and rubber gasket for weatherization sealing hatch perimeter to obtain an R 38 insulation rating. The provided weatherization and insulation around the attic access panel was dually important because any penetration into th e attic presented the opportunity for that hot air to seep into the conditioned house.

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62 Walls 2 x 4 structural grade wood studs with maximum spacing of 16 o.c. with an air infiltration barrier over 7/16 O.S.B. Tyvek type barrier between O.S.B and Hardie Board Siding Exterior frame wall insulation was Cocoon cellulose insulation with a minimum R 13 insulation rating Spray Styrofoam or high density glue type insulation caulking at all wire, plumbing, flue penetrations to unconditioned exterior areas, and, water and drain Roofing End gable vents minimum (2) 48 off ridge galvanized steel roof vents, located on the backside. Architectural fiberglass shingles. Installed with roofing nails and not stapled. Solar absorbance of 0.96 Quoted at $3,560.00 from Fla nagan Companies Inc. Venting of the attic helped to reduce the extreme temperatures that occur in the space thus reducing the thermal impact on the conditioned space. The dark fiberglass shingles on the roof on the other hand had a high solar absorbance, which makes the attic space significantly warmer. Doors Exterior entrance doors shall be fiberglass insulated doors equal to those manufactured by Therma Tru, Smooth Star series, with latch and dead bolt, weather stripping, and aluminum threshold with weat her strip. Quoted at $800.00 from Flanagan Companies Inc. The insulated doors provided a slightly above average U value of 0.46. Exterior Paint The medium solar absorbance paint color provided an above average solar absorption factor of 0.8.

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63 Floors 90% o f floor area recycled nylon carpet flooring over rebond pad specified by carpet manufacturer. Vinyl flooring in foyer, kitchen, dining room, water heater closets, and laundry areas. Tile flooring in bathrooms The flooring of the house was predominantly car pet (around 90%). Carpet does not allow for passive earth contact cooling to be achieved the way tile does. Appliances Gas Range: Minimum thirty (30) inch, four burner, self cleaning, free standing type with electronic ignition, clock, timer, oven light and glass oven door. Whirlpool SF114PXSW1 or approved equal. Refrigerator: Double door eighteen (18.2) cubic foot frost free type. Whirlpool Top freezer SOS E Star Top Mount ET8WTEXMQ03 ENERGY STAR qualified; or approved equal. With Ice Maker. Dishwas her: Two cycle minimum. Whirlpool Large Capacity DU1055XTSQ2 ENERGY STAR qualified Clothes Washer and Dryer not furnished Water Heating 120 gallon, natural gas, energy miser type (.59 Energy Factor) as manufactured by RHEEM (22V4F1) Quoted at $400.00 fro m Flanagan Companies Inc. The natural gas water heater provided lower energy costs than an electric hot water heater. Commissioning and Testing Thermal bypass inspection prior to drywall, indicating envelope tightness and adhering to guidelines Blower doo r and duct blasting at project completion

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64 ENERGY STAR Qualified Home Energy Summary The ENERGY STAR Qualified homes energy consumption analysis was performed by Craig Miller. Because the researcher intended on manipulating the building components of the ENERGY STAR Qualified home, an energy consumption analysis was performed by the researcher using the Energy Gauge software. In performing the energy consumption analysis, the researcher realized several variances from the initial raters analysis. To rem ain consistent with the results of this thesis, both the ENERGY STAR Qualified home and Upgraded ENERGY STAR Qualified homes energy consumption analyses were performed by the researcher. Figures 4 7 through 4 9 showed the building input summary report, bu ilding energy rating guide, and annual energy summary report from the Energy Gauge building analysis of the ENERGY STAR Qualified home. The home received a HERS Index of 70 with annual electricity consumption of 6,841 kWh and gas consumption of 171 Therms The score was below the minimum HERS Index of 85 to receive ENERGY STAR Certification. There were a couple items in the analysis that drew immediate attention. First, the amount of energy consumed by the water heating system. 171 Therms accounted for 32.3% of the total energy consumed by the home. Second, the HVAC system consumed 1,577 kWh accounting for 15.6% of total energy consumed by the home. Upgraded Technologies The ENERGY STAR Qualified home underwent an in depth investigation to determine w here affordable, yet effective energy efficiency strategies could be improved or implemented. Utilizing the successful technologies that the NZEH implemented as well as exploring alternative techniques to improving energy efficiency were tested.

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65 Using th e Energy Gauge software, numerous energy model combinations were performed to determine what strategies would have the greatest effect on energy efficiency, while still maintaining cost effectiveness. HVAC System 1.5 Ton 15 SEER variable speed Air Conditio ning System with Heat Pump All duct joints and connections required to be sealed with mastic All ducts in conditioned space framed out below insulated ceiling All ducts and connections not to allow more than 10% cfm total leakage All ducts and connections no more than 5% cfm leakage to the outside Duct blast test performed and passed ENERGY STAR testing standards Programmable thermostat HEPA filter with MERV rating of more than or equal to 8 ENERGY STAR ceiling exhaust fans rated 50 C.F.M. or greater Quoted at $6,000 from Allstate Mechanical Inc. Windows Vinyl double paned insulated units low e with screens at a 0.21 SHGC and U value of 0.27 Quoted at $3,539.00 from Gainesville Windows & More Inc. Roofing Radiant barrier under roof deck with 1:300 attic ven tilation IR white reflective metal roof with Solar Absorbance = 0.30 Quoted at $9,335.00 from Perry Roofing Contractors Doors Polyurethane insulated fiberglass doors with U value = .07 Quoted at $900.00 from Gainesville Windows & More Inc. Exterior Paint White exterior paint with a solar absorbance of 0.25 was selected. Floors Tile flo ori ng throughout 80% of home was selected to achieve passive earth contact cooling.

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66 Figure 4 7. ENERGY STAR Qualified home building input summary

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67 Figure 4 7. Continued

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68 Figure 4 7. Continued

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69 Figure 4 7. Continued

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70 Figure 4 8. ENERGY STAR Qualified home annual energy summary

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71 Figure 4 9. ENERGY STAR Qualified building energy rating guide and HERS Index

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72 Water Heating Option 1: Add on heat pump water heating AirTa p add on dedicated heat pump COP = 3.2 120 gallon storage tank Auxiliary electric water heater for backup (EF=0.92) 70 gallon use per day Set temperature at 120 F R 13 Heat Trap Insulation around storage tank Located on interior of residence Quoted at $75 0.00 from Airgenerate Option 2: Solar water heating Drainback closed loop gycol solar system facing west 6/12 tilt 80 square ft. AET 40 collectors 120 gallon storage tank Auxiliary electric water heater for backup (EF=0.90) R 13 Heat Trap Insulation arou nd storage tank Located on interior of residence Quoted at $5,000.00 from solardirect.com Photovoltaic System Grid tied solar electric PV system Nominal 5.6 kW DC photovoltaic system (Evergreen 200 Watt Panels) 94% efficient SB6000US inverter South facing (azimuth = 180) Quoted at $50,000.00 from solardirect.com Upgraded ENERGY STAR Qualified Home Energy Summary Figures 4 10 through 4 12 showed the building input summary report, building energy rating guide, and annual energy summary report from the Energ y Gauge building analysis of the ENERGY STAR Qualified home with all upgraded technologies. The home received a HERS Index of 3 with annual electricity consumption of 6,716 kWh. The goal of achieving a ZEH was reached with a HERS Index of 3, and all en ergy consumption needs being produced by the onsite 5.6 kW photovoltaic system.

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73 Table 4 1 shows each upgraded components individual effect on annual energy consumption relative to the baseline ENERGY STAR Qualified home. SIR and Payback Period Analysis I n performing the savings to investment ratio (SIR) and payback period analysis several assumptions were made: Electricity rate of $0.09/kWh Natural gas rate of $1.75/Therm Electricity inflation of 3.0% Natural gas inflation of 3.0% 30 year inflation rate o f 2.1% 30 year discount rate of 4.0% Feed In Tariff rate of $0.32/kWh Excess electricity rate of $0.062/kWh Gainesville Regional Utilities (GRU) forecasting department utilized the Energy Information Administrations projections for fuel prices, which de termined their expected escalation in electricity and natural gas rates. Todd Camhout, from GRUs forecasting department, advised that a 3% inflation rate for both electricity and natural gas prices was reasonable for a long term analysis based upon fuel inflation rates, transportation costs, and GRUs plans for future capital investments. The White House Office of Management and Budget provided the Administrations 2009 long term inflation and discount rate projections. All upgraded components underwent a 30 year life cycle cost analysis to determine SIR and payback period. Individual Component Upgrade Analysis HVAC System There were several options to consider when deciding upon an HVAC system Based upon the increased efficiency of the buildings envel ope, placement of ducts within the conditioned space, and decrease in the exterior walls solar absorbance the

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74 HVAC system could be reduced in size. The original ENERGY STAR Qualified home had a 2.5 Ton SEER 14 Heat Pump. Typically, when ducts are instal led within the conditioned space of a home, a 0.5 Ton drop is anticipated. Throughout the energy consumption analysis it was determined that the original system was oversized based upon sizing calculations performed in Energy Gauge and in comparison to th e NZEH. Option one was to install a 1.5 Ton SEER 15 variable speed Air Conditioning System with Heat Pump. This system reduced energy consumption by 380 kWh/year. The system had an incremental cost of $1,500.00. The unit was eligible for a GRU Super/SEE R rebate of $550.00 and a federal tax rebate of $1,000.00. The SIR for the system was 1.55 with a payback period of 1.9 years. Option two was to install a 2.0 Ton SEER 15 variable speed Air Conditioning System with Heat Pump. This system reduced energy consumption by 339 kWh/year. The system had an incremental cost of $1,800.00. The unit was eligible for a GRU Super/SEER rebate of $550.00 and a federal tax rebate of $1,000.00. The SIR for the system was favorable at 1.23 with a payback period of 7.2 y ears. Option three was to install a 2.0 Ton SEER 16 variable speed Air Conditioning System with Heat Pump. This system reduced energy consumption by 438 kWh/year. The system had an incremental cost of $2,546.00. The unit was eligible for a GRU Super/SEE R rebate of $550.00 and a federal tax rebate of $1,000.00. The SIR for the system was unfavorable at 0.96 with a payback period of 18.7 years. The analysis found that the 1.5 Ton SEER 15 system provided the most cost effective upgrade. The researcher was confident that a 1.5 Ton unit would provide adequate power to heat and cool the 1,526 square foot home.

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75 Figure 4 10. ENERGY STAR Qualified home with all upgraded technologies building input summary

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76 Figure 4 10. Continued

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77 Figure 4 10. Continued

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78 F igure 4 10. Continued

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79 Figure 4 11. ENERGY STAR Qualified home with all upgraded technologies annual energy summary

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80 Figure 4 12. ENERGY STAR Qualified home with all upgraded technologies building energy rating guide and HERS Index

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81 Table 4 1. Individu al technology upgrade annual energy savings Upgraded component ENERGY STAR Qualified home annual energy consumption Annual home energy consumption with isolated upgraded component Individual upgrade annual energy savings 6841 kWh 6461 kWh 380 kWh 1.5 Ton SEER 15 HVAC 171 Therms 171 Therms 0 Therms 6841 kWh 6502 kWh 339 kWh 2 Ton SEER 15 HVAC 171 Therms 171 Therms 0 Therms 6841 kWh 6403 kWh 438 kWh 2 Ton SEER 16 HVAC 171 Therms 171 Therms 0 Therms 6841 kWh 6628 kWh 213 kWh Windows 171 Therms 171 Therms 0 Therms 6841 kWh 6566 kWh 275 kWh Roof 171 Therms 171 Therms 0 Therms 6841 kWh 6763 kWh 78 kWh Doors 171 Therms 171 Therms 0 Therms 6841 kWh 6664 kWh 177 kWh Exterior paint 171 Therms 171 Therms 0 Therms 6841 kWh 6604 kW h 237 kWh 80% tile flooring 171 Therms 171 Therms 0 Therms 6841 kWh 7701 kWh (860.00) kWh Add on heat pump water heating 171 Therms 0 Therms 171 Therms 6841 kWh 7650 kWh (809.00) kWh Solar water heating 171 Therms 0 Therms 171 Therms Windows The vinyl double paned low e insulated windows reduced energy consumption by 213 kWh/year. The windows had an incremental cost of $1,264.00. The SIR for the windows was unfavorable at 0.39 with a payback period of 36.3 years. Based on the analysis, it was determined that upg rading the already ENERGY STAR rated windows was not cost effective.

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82 Roofing The white reflective metal roof with radiant barrier system reduced energy consumption by 275 kWh/year. The roofing system had an incremental cost of $5,775.00. In performing th is analysis, the increased durability of the metal roof was not neglected. Typically, a composition shingle roof must be replaced every 15 years. This amount was factored into the analysis as a reduction in incremental cost at year 15 and year 30. The c ost for the composition shingle roof was $3,560.00. This amount was adjusted for inflation at year 15 and year 30. The SIR for the roof was 0.933 with a payback period of 24.7 years. Further analysis was performed to determine the cost effectiveness of the roof when incorporated into the entire building system. As this analysis states, the roof is currently not cost effective with an SIR less than 1. Doors The polyurethane foam insulated doors reduced energy consumption by 78 kWh/year. The doors had a n incremental cost of $100.00. The SIR for the doors was 2.14 with a payback period of 11.1 years. The upgraded doors were cost effective and were implemented into the ZEHs specifications. Exterior Paint The low solar absorbance white exterior paint r educed energy consumption by 177 kWh/year. The paint had no incremental cost. Because there was no incremental cost, no SIR could be calculated and the payback period was immediate. By choosing the color white for the exterior of the house, savings of $ 780.61 were realized over 30 years with a net present value of $412.87.

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83 Floors Installing tile throughout 80% of the home reduced energy consumption by 237 kWh/year. The tile flooring had no incremental cost. Because there was no incremental cost, no SIR could be calculated and the payback period was immediate. By choosing to have tile flooring as opposed to carpet flooring, savings of $1,045.23 were realized over 30 years with a net present value of $552.83. Water Heating During the research it was dete rmined that there were two options to consider when deciding upon a water heating system. The two most common alternatives to heating water were an add on heat pump or solar water heating system. Both alternatives required a 120 gallon storage tank and b ack up system in case existing conditions jeopardized the required level of heating. For both alternatives a 120 gallon electric water heater was selected. Option one was to install an add on heat pump water heating system. This system reduced energy co nsumption by 171 Therms/year while consuming 933 kWh/year for a net financial savings of $216.45 in the first year adjusted for inflation. The system had an incremental cost of $1,300.00. The add on heat pump was eligible for a federal government rebate of $500.00. The SIR for the system was 4.54 with a payback period of 3.5 years. Option two was to install a solar water heating system. This system reduced energy consumption by 171 Therms/year while consuming 809 kWh/year for a net financial savings of $227.95 in the first year adjusted for inflation. The system had an incremental cost of $5,550.00. The solar water heating system was eligible for a

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84 federal, state, and GRU rebate totaling $2,500.00. The SIR for the system was 1.45 with a payback period of 11.4 years. The analysis found that the add on heat pump water heating system provided the most cost effective upgrade. Although both options had exceptional SIR and payback periods, the add on heat pump was more than twice as cost effective. The on ly concern was that add on heat pump systems are not frequently utilized. However, the researcher believed this was due to the fact that heat pumps are most effective in year round warm climates, which many regions of the country cannot claim. Although t he solar water heating system has been extremely successful over the tests of time, for the analysis the disparity in cost reduction was too great. The add on heat pump water heating system was chosen to be implemented into the ZEHs specificiations. Ph otovoltaic System During the analysis the researcher found that there were two rebate strategies available for PV systems through GRUs Feed In Tariff (FIT) program. With GRUs FIT program the homeowner enters into a 20 year contract with GRU, who pledges to pay a premium for solar generated power. The first option is to receive the premium rate on all energy produced by the homes PV system. The second option allows homeowners to net meter and only receive the premium rate on energy production in excess of your monthly consumption. With this option, homeowners become eligible for GRUs $7,500.00 upfront rebate. Customers who elect to receive the premium rate on all energy produced do not qualify for GRUs $7,500.00 upfront rebate. The analysis was for a 30 year period. After the 20 year FIT contract expired, the PV system would be net metered and energy production in excess of the homes monthly consumption would be purchased for a fixed rate of $0.062/kWh.

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85 Option one was to enter into the 20 year FIT contract with GRU and receive the premium rate for all energy produced by the homes PV system, refusing the $7,500.00 upfront rebate. The 5.6 kW PV system produced 7967 kWh/year. The system had an incremental cost of $50,000.00. The PV system was stil l eligible for federal and state rebates totaling $35,000.00. The SIR for the system was 1.22 with a payback period of 8.1 years. Option two was to elect to net meter and take the upfront rebate of $7,500.00 as well as enter into the 20 year FIT contract with GRU, receiving the premium rate on energy produced in excess of monthly consumption. The 5.6 kW PV system produced 7967 kWh/year. The system had an incremental cost of $50,000.00. The PV system was eligible for federal, state, and GRU rebates total ing $42,500.00. The SIR for the system was 1.21 with a payback period of 9.1 years. The analysis found that receiving the premium rate on all energy produced by the homes PV system option provided the researcher with a higher SIR and shorter payback pe riod. Both options had an SIR above 1 and payback periods of less than 10 years. Further examination of both FIT options was carried out to determine how it could be implemented into the varying financing strategies discussed in Section 5. For the remai nder of the analysis, the FIT option of selling all energy produced by the PV system back to GRU was selected for implementation into the ZEH. GRUs FIT program has exhausted all contracts available to its customers. The $7,500.00 upfront rebate is still available for customers purchasing a PV system. The analysis proceeded with the assumption that a FIT contract had been received for the ZEH, but analysis of only receiving the $7,500.00 upfront rebate was performed to

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86 determine the financial feasibility of that outcome in the event that GRU does not issue future contracts for their FIT program. This outcome received the rebate of $7,500.00 while being net metered receiving $0.062/kWh on all energy produced in excess of monthly consumption. The 5.6 kW P V system produced 7967 kWh/year. The system had an incremental cost of $50,000.00. The PV system was eligible for federal, state, and GRU rebates totaling $42,500.00. The SIR for the system was 1.141 with a payback period of 9.35 years. Net Zero Energy Home Results After performing a 30 year SIR and payback period analysis on the individual upgrades two selections were determined. First, it was determined which options within component categories were the most cost effective. Second, it was determined which cost effective technologies to incorporate into the ZEH. The first analysis will include all upgraded technologies regardless of SIR and payback period. The second analysis will include only those technologies with a favorable SIR. Incorporation o f all upgraded technologies The ZEH with all upgraded technologies reduced energy consumption by 171 Therms/year and 204 kWh/year. The PV system produced 7967 kWh/year for a net energy consumption of negative 1,330 kWh/year. The ZEH had an incremental co st of $59,939.00. The home was eligible for federal, state, and GRU rebates totaling $37,350. With the rebates included, the incremental cost of creating the ZEH was $22,589.00. The SIR for the home was 1.46 with a payback period of 7.8 years. Based on the results, it was determined that achieving a ZEH with the proposed upgrades was cost effective.

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87 Incorporation of cost effective upgraded technologies The ZEH incorporating only the cost effective upgrades reduced energy consumption by 171 Therms/year w hile increasing consumption by 114 kWh/year. The PV system did not need resizing and continued to produce 7418 kWh/year for a net energy consumption of negative 1,012 kWh/year. The ZEH had an incremental cost of $52,900.00. The home was eligible for fed eral, state, and GRU rebates totaling $37,350.00. With the rebates included, the incremental cost of creating the ZEH was $15,550.00. The SIR for the home was 1.55 with a payback period of 5.4 years. Based on the results, it was determined that achievin g a ZEH with only the most cost effective upgrades provided a large reduction in first costs making the construction of a ZEH more cost effective than integrating all of the energy efficient upgrades. Cost Effective Upgraded ENERGY STAR Qualified Home Ener gy Summary Figures 4 13 through 4 15 showed the building input summary report, building energy rating guide, and annual energy summary report from the Energy Gauge building analysis of the ENERGY STAR Qualified home with all cost effective upgrades. The h ome received a HERS Index of 1 with annual electricity consumption of 6,955 kWh. The goal of achieving a ZEH was reached with a HERS Index of 1, and all energy consumption needs being produced by the onsite 5.6 kW photovoltaic system. Life Cycle Cost A nalysis with Financing This section will analyze the effect financing has on the SIR of the cost effective upgrades to the ENERGY STAR Qualified home through life cycle costing. The effects of financing the cost effective upgrades without a FIT contract w ill also be analyzed. Financing tactics will be explored to determine if implementing these upgraded technologies are indeed feasible for low income families purchasing a new home.

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88 Cost effective upgrades life cycle cost analysis with financing The cost effective upgrades added an additional $52,900.00 to the cost of purchasing an ENERGY STAR Qualified home. These upgrades were incorporated into a 30 year mortgage loan structure. A Federal Housing Administration (FHA) mortgage loan was selected because prospective buyers of affordable housing typically cannot qualify or afford other loans. According to the Neighborhood Housing and Development Corporation (NHDC), average credit scores of prospective buyers are around 660, with a typical down payment of 3 .5% of the total loan, and an annual percentage rate (APR) of 5.8%. The rebates received at the beginning of year 2 were put towards paying off the additional principle associated with the cost effective upgrades. Table 4 2 shows the life cycle cost (LCC ) analysis for financing the cost effective upgrades. SIR equaled 1.24 for financing the cost effective upgrades. Cost effective upgrades life cycle cost analysis without FIT with financing Because of the unknown future of GRUs FIT program, a LCC analysi s was performed using the cost effective upgrades without the FIT. The cost effective upgrades added an additional $52,900.00 to the cost of purchasing the ENERGY STAR Qualified home. Down payment of 3.5% of the total loan and an APR of 5.8% were assumed. The rebates received in year 2 were put towards paying off the additional principle associated with the cost effective upgrades. Table 4 3 shows the LCC analysis for financing the cost effective upgrades without the FIT program. SIR equaled 1.09. Financ ing tactics Prospective homebuyers of affordable housing are limited as to what they can pay each month for a mortgage payment. The energy savings from the cost effective

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89 Figure 4 13. ENERGY STAR Qualified home with cost effective upgrades building inp ut summary

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90 Figure 4 13. Continued

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91 Figure 4 13. Continued

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92 Figure 4 13. Continued

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93 Figure 4 14. ENERGY STAR Qualified home with cost effective upgraded technologies annual energy summary

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94 Figure 4 15. ENERGY STAR Qualified home with cost effective upgraded technologies building energy rating guide and HERS Index

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95 upgrades will certainly contribute towards the monthly payments, but by using financial strategies to limit the amount of the monthly payment, these cost effective upgrades can become even more affordable. A life cycle cost analysis was performed on the ENERGY STAR Qualified home with cost effective upgrades including the cost of the original ENERGY STAR Qualified home. The ENERGY STAR Qualified home was listed for $140,000.00. The cost e ffective upgrades totaled $52,900.00. A 30 year FHA mortgage loan for $192,900.00 with 3.5% down payment and an APR of 5.8% generated an annual payment of $13,106.78. This annual payment did not include energy savings, but the net savings column in Table 4 5 identified what the annual payment was if energy savings were Incorporated. With an annual payment of $13,106.78, a cost burdened household spending 30% of pre tax income on housing must be earning over $43,600.00/year. Gainesville, Floridas median income is $56,600.00. ( Florida Housing Data Clearinghouse 2007) This annual payment qualifies as affordable, but not for the bottom half of low income families whose annual income is between 50 80% of area median income. To decrease annual payment amount s, both deferred payment and refinancing tactics were implemented into the homes financing strategy. The base ENERGY STAR Qualified home was listed at $140,000.00. A 30 year FHA mortgage loan for $140,000.00 with 3.5% down payment and an APR of 5.8% gen erated an annual payment of $9,512.44. This amount was used to determine what the deferred payment amount should be for the first two years as well as the amount to deduct from the rebates received at the beginning of year two. Table 4 4 showed the base ENERGY

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96 STAR Qualified homes loan structure. Because the rebates associated with the cost effective upgrades were not received until the start of year two, a deferred payment amount was determined. The deferred payment equaled the difference of the ZEHs annual payment ($13,106.78) and the base ENERGY STAR Qualified homes annual payment ($9,512.44) equaling $3,594.34. An APR of 5.8% on the deferred payment was assumed. By deferring this amount, the first and second years annual loan payments were $9,5 12. Table 4 5 showed the deferred payment loan structure. After receiving the rebates and paying the annual payment, the FHA mortgage loan was refinanced at the end of year two for the new amount of $149,677.62 with no down payment and an APR of 5.8%. T he annual payment was $10,538.86. Table 4 6 showed the refinancing loan structure. This annual payment did not include energy savings, but the net savings column identified what the annual payment was if energy savings were incorporated. With an annual payment of $10,538.86 a cost burdened household spending 30% of pre tax income on housing must be earning $35,130.00/year. This made the house affordable for low income families whose annual income is no more than $35,200.00. The final issue addressed was the substantially larger down payment associated with the ZEH and its effect on affordability. To counteract this larger down payment, the deferred payment financing tactic was implemented. A deferred payment equal to the difference of the ZEHs down pa yment ($6,751.50) and the base ENERGY STAR Qualified homes down payment ($4,900.00) was determined to be $1,851.50 plus a year of accrued interest for a total deferred payment of $1,958.89. This amount, like the deferred annual payments, was paid off onc e the rebates were received at the

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97 beginning of year two. Refinancing occurred at the end of year two after annual payments had been made and rebates were received. The amount refinanced was larger ($153,546.10) making the annual loan payments larger ($1 0,811.24), but decreasing the down payment was necessary to make purchasing the home affordable for certain low income households. Table 4 7 and 4 8 showed the deferred payment and refinancing loan structure. Table 4 9 showed the comparison between the ba se ENERGY STAR Qualified home, the ZEH with financing tactics, and the ZEH with financing tactics plus the deferred payment on the down payment. Average annual energy savings were also incorporated into the table. Table 4 10 showed the affordability of up grading the ENERGY STAR Qualified home to a ZEH. The table utilized the cost burden income factor of 30% of pre tax income on mortgage payments and utilities to determine the cost burden household minimum annual income for the home to be considered afford able. Table 4 10 showed that when financing tactics and energy savings are included in the analysis, the ZEHs annual housing payments are less than the base ENERGY STAR Qualified homes, thus making it more affordable. Table 4 11 showed the income range s for each income category based upon Gainesville, Floridas area median income of $56,600.

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98 Table 4-2. Financing cost-effective upgraded technologies FIT life cycle cost analysis Financial Info Energy Info Loan Info Gas Rate $1.72 $/Therm ENERGY STAR 6841 kWh/year Loan Am ount $52,900.00 Gas Inflation 3.00% 171 Therms/year Down Payment $1,851.50 Electricity Rate $0.09 $/kWh Excess Electricity Rate $0.062$/kWh Production Interest Rate 5.80% Electricity Inflation 3.00% ZEH Upgrade 7967 kWh/year Discount Rate 4.00% Consumption Yearly Payment $3,594.34 General Inflation 2.10% 6955 kWh/year Feed-In-Tariff $0.32 $/kWh Upgrades $50,000.00 PV Incremental Cost $1,500.00 SEER 15 $1,300.00 HP HWH $100.00 Doors Total $52,900.00 Rebates $35,000.00 PV $1,550.00 SEER 15 $500.00 HP HWH $300.00 E-Star Home Total $37,350.00 Analysis Period 30 Year Loan Incremental Interest Principal Principal Energy Net SavingsPV Net Payment Cost Balance Savings Savings 0 $1,851.50 $51,048.50 1 $3,594.34 $2,943.70$650.65 $50,397.85 $2,841.82 ($752.53) ($723.58) 2 $3,594.34 ($37,350.00) $870.47 $2,723.87 $10,323.98 $2,850.59 $36,606.24 $33,844.53 3 $3,594.34 $517.86 $3,076.48 $7,247.50 $2, 859.62 ($734.72) ($653.17) 4 $3,594.34 $334.61 $3,259.74 $3,987.76 $2, 868.93 ($725.42) ($620.09) 5 $3,594.34 $140.43 $3,453.91 $533.85 $2, 878.51 ($715.83) ($588.36) 6 $537.58 $3.73 $533.85 $0.00 $2,88 8.38 $2,350.80 $1,857.87

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99 Table 4-2 Continued Year Loan Incremental Interest Principal Principal Energy Net Savings PV Net Payment Cost Balance Savings Savings 7 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,89 8.55 $2,898.55 $2,202.66 8 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,90 9.03 $2,909.03 $2,125.60 9 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,91 9.81 $2,919.81 $2,051.42 10 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,93 0.92 $2,930.92 $1,980.03 11 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,94 2.37 $2,942.37 $1,911.31 12 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,95 4.16 $2,954.16 $1,845.16 13 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,96 6.30 $2,966.30 $1,781.48 14 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,97 8.80 $2,978.80 $1,720.18 15 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,99 1.68 $2,991.68 $1,661.18 16 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $3,00 4.95 $3,004.95 $1,604.37 17 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $3,01 8.62 $3,018.62 $1,549.68 18 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $3,03 2.69 $3,032.69 $1,497.02 19 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $3,04 7.19 $3,047.19 $1,446.33 20 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $3,06 2.12 $3,062.12 $1,397.51 21 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1,80 9.24 $1,809.24 $793.95 22 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1,86 3.51 $1,863.51 $786.32 23 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1,91 9.42 $1,919.42 $778.76 24 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1,97 7.00 $1,977.00 $771.27 25 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,03 6.31 $2,036.31 $763.85 26 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,09 7.40 $2,097.40 $756.51 27 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,16 0.32 $2,160.32 $749.24 28 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,22 5.13 $2,225.13 $742.03 29 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,29 1.89 $2,291.89 $734.90 30 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,36 0.64 $2,360.64 $727.83 Total $79,585.92 $98,426.62 $65,495.79 SIR 1.24

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100 Table 4-3. Financing cost-effective upgraded technologies without FIT life cycle cost analysis Year Loan Incremental Interest Principal Principal Energy Net Savings PV Net Payment Cost Balance Savings Savings 0 $1,851.50 $51,048.50 1 $3,594.34 $2,943.70 $650.65 $50, 397.85 $1,001.73 ($2, 592.61) ($2,492.90) 2 $3,594.34 ($44,850.00) $461.95 $3,132.40 $2,415.46 $1,031.7 8 $42,287.44 $39,097.11 3 $2,469.87 $54.42 $2,415.46 $0.00 $1,062 .74 ($1,407.14) ($1,250.94) 4 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1, 094.62 $1,094.62 $935.68 5 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1, 127.46 $1,127.46 $926.69 6 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1, 161.28 $1,161.28 $917.78 7 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1, 196.12 $1,196.12 $908.95 Financial Info Energy Info Loan Info Gas Rate $1.72 $/Therm ENERGY STAR 6841 kWh/year Loan Am ount $52,900.00 Gas Inflation 3.00% 171 Therms/year Down Payment $1,851.50 Electricity Rate $0.09 $/kWh Excess Electricity Rate $0.062$/kWh ZEH U pgrade -1012 kWh/year Interest Rate 5.80% Electricity Inflation 3.00% Discount Rate 4.00% Yearly Payment $3,594.34 General Inflation 2.10% Feed-In-Tariff $0.32 $/kWh Upgrades $50,000.00 PV Incremental Cost $1,500.00 SEER 15 $1,300.00 HP HWH $100.00 Doors Total $52,900.00 Rebates $42,000.00 PV $1,550.00 SEER 15 $500.00 HP HWH $300.00 E-Star Home Total $44,850.00 Analysis Period 30

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101 Table 4-3 Continued Year Loan Incremental Interest Principal Principal Energy Net Savings PV Net Payment Cost Balance Savings Savings 8 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1, 232.00 $1,232.00 $900.21 9 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1, 268.96 $1,268.96 $891.56 10 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1, 307.03 $1,307.03 $882.98 11 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1, 346.24 $1,346.24 $874.49 12 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1, 386.63 $1,386.63 $866.08 13 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1, 428.23 $1,428.23 $857.76 14 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1, 471.08 $1,471.08 $849.51 15 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1, 515.21 $1,515.21 $841.34 16 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1, 560.66 $1,560.66 $833.25 17 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1, 607.48 $1,607.48 $825.24 18 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1, 655.71 $1,655.71 $817.30 19 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1, 705.38 $1,705.38 $809.45 20 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1, 756.54 $1,756.54 $801.66 21 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1, 809.24 $1,809.24 $793.95 22 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1, 863.51 $1,863.51 $786.32 23 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1, 919.42 $1,919.42 $778.76 24 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1, 977.00 $1,977.00 $771.27 25 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2, 036.31 $2,036.31 $763.85 26 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2, 097.40 $2,097.40 $756.51 27 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2, 160.32 $2,160.32 $749.24 28 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2, 225.13 $2,225.13 $742.03 29 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2, 291.89 $2,291.89 $734.90 30 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2, 360.64 $2,360.64 $727.83 Total $47,657. 75 $82,849.19 $57,697.88 SIR 1.09

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102 Table 4-4. Financing Base EN ERGY STAR Qualified home Loan Info Loan Amount $140,000.00 Down Payment $4,900.00 Interest Rate 5.80% Yearly Payment $9,512.44 Analysis Period 30 Year Loan Payment Incremental Cost In terest Principal Principal Balance 0 $4,900.00 $130,200.00 1 $9,512.44 $7,790.50 $1,721.94 $133,378.06 2 $9,512.44 $7,687.93 $1,824.51 $131,553.56 3 $9,512.44 $7,579.25 $1,933.19 $129,620.37 4 $9,512.44 $7,464.10 $2,048.34 $127,572.03 5 $9,512.44 $7,342.08 $2,170.36 $125,401.67 6 $9,512.44 $7,212.80 $2,299.64 $123,102.03 7 $9,512.44 $7,075.82 $2,436.62 $120,665.41 8 $9,512.44 $6,930.68 $2,581.76 $118,083.65 9 $9,512.44 $6,776.89 $2,735.55 $115,348.11 10 $9,512.44 $6,613.94 $2,898.50 $112,449.61 11 $9,512.44 $6,441.29 $3,071.15 $109,378.46 12 $9,512.44 $6,258.35 $3,254.09 $106,124.37 13 $9,512.44 $6,064.51 $3,447.93 $102,676.44 14 $9,512.44 $5,859.13$3, 653.31 $99,023.13 15 $9,512.44 $5,641.51$3, 870.93 $95,152.20 16 $9,512.44 $5,410.94$4, 101.51 $91,050.70 17 $9,512.44 $5,166.62$4, 345.82 $86,704.88 18 $9,512.44 $4,907.75$4, 604.69 $82,100.19 19 $9,512.44 $4,633.47$4, 878.97 $77,221.22 20 $9,512.44 $4,342.84 $5,169.60 $72,051.62 21 $9,512.44 $4,034.90$5, 477.54 $66,574.08 22 $9,512.44 $3,680.57$5, 831.87 $60,770.27 23 $9,512.44 $3,333.19$6, 179.25 $54,620.74 24 $9,512.44 $2,996.60$6, 515.84 $48,104.89 25 $9,512.44 $2,608.47$6, 903.97 $41,200.93 26 $9,512.44 $2,197.22$7, 315.22 $33,885.71 27 $9,512.44 $1,761.48$7, 750.96 $26,134.74 28 $9,512.44 $1,299.78$8, 212.66 $17,922.08 29 $9,512.44 $810.57 $8,701.87 $9,220.21 30 $9,512.44 $292.23 $9,220.21 $0.00

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103 Table 4-5. Financing ENERGY STAR Qualified home with cost-effective upgrades Financial Info Energy Info Loan Info Gas Rate $1.72 $/Therm ENERGY STAR 6841kWh/year Base House $140,000.00 Gas Inflation 3.00% 171Therms/year Upgrades $52,900.00 Electricity Rate $0.09 $/kW h Total Loan $192,900.00 Excess Electricity Rate $0.062 $/kWh Production Electricity Inflation 3.00% ZEH Upgra de 7967kWh/year Down Payment $6,751.50 Discount Rate 4.00% Consumption Interest Rate 5.80% General Inflation 2.10% 6955kWh/year Feed-In-Tariff $0.32 $/kWh Yearly Payment $13,106.78 Upgrades $50,000.00 PV De ferred Payment ($3,594.34) Incremental Cost $1,500.00 SEER 15 $1,300.00 HP HWH Year 1 & 2 Payment $9,512.44 $100.00 Doors Total $52,900.00 Extr a Principle in year two Rebates $35,000.00 PV Rebate $37,350.00 $1,550.00 SEER 15 Year 1 Deferred Pay ($3,594.34) $500.00 HP HWH Plus interest ($208.47) $300.00 E-Star Home Year 2 Deferred Pay ($3,594.34) Total $37,350.00 Analysis Period 30 Total $29.952.85 Year Loan Incremental Interest Principa l Principal Energy Net Savings PV Net Payment Cost Balance Savings Savings 0 $6,751.50 $186,148.50 1 $13,106.78 $10,734.20 $2, 372.58 $183,775.92 $2,841.82 ( $10,264.97) ($9,870.16) 2 $13,106.78 $29,952.85 $8,961.33 $4,145.45 $149,677.62 $2,850.59 ($40,209.04) ($37,175.52) 3 $13,106.78 $8,561.74 $4, 545.04 $145,132.57 $2,859.62 ( $10,247.16) ($9,109.69) 4 $13,106.78 $8,291.01 $4, 815.78 $140,316.80 $2,868.93 ( $10,237.86) ($8,751.36) 5 $13,106.78 $8,004.15 $5, 102.64 $135,214.16 $2,878.51 ( $10,228.27) ($8,406.89) 6 $13,106.78 $7,700.20 $5, 406.59 $129,807.57 $2,888.38 ( $10,218.40) ($8,075.75) 7 $13,106.78 $7,378.14 $5, 728.64 $124,078.93 $2,898.55 ( $10,208.23) ($7,757.42)

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104 Table 4-5 Continued Year Loan Incremental Interest Principa l Principal Energy Net Savings PV Net Payment Cost Balance Savings Savings 8 $13,106.78 $7,036.91 $6, 069.88 $118,009.06 $2,909.03 ( $10,197.76) ($7,451.40) 9 $13,106.78 $6,675.34 $6, 431.44 $111,577.61 $2,919.81 ( $10,186.97) ($7,157.23) 10 $13,106.78 $6,292.24 $6, 814.54 $104,763.07 $2,930.92 ( $10,175.86) ($6,874.45) 11 $13,106.78 $5,886.32 $7, 220.46 $97,542.61 $2,942.37 ( $10,164.42) ($6,602.61) 12 $13,106.78 $5,456.22 $7, 650.57 $89,892.04 $2,954.16 ( $10,152.63) ($6,341.30) 13 $13,106.78 $5,000.50 $8, 106.29 $81,785.76 $2,966.30 ( $10,140.49) ($6,090.11) 14 $13,106.78 $4,517.63 $8, 589.15 $73,196.60 $2,978.80 ( $10,127.98) ($5,848.66) 15 $13,106.78 $4,006.00 $9, 100.78 $64,095.82 $2,991.68 ( $10,115.10) ($5,616.56) 16 $13,106.78 $3,463.90 $9, 642.89 $54,452.93 $3,004.95 ( $10,101.83) ($5,393.45) 17 $13,106.78 $2,889.50 $10,217. 29 $44,235.65 $3,018.62 ( $10,088.17) ($5,178.99) 18 $13,106.78 $2,280.89 $10,825. 90 $33,409.75 $3,032.69 ( $10,074.09) ($4,972.85) 19 $13,106.78 $1,636.02 $11,470. 76 $21,938.98 $3,047.19 ( $10,059.59) ($4,774.71) 20 $13,106.78 $952.74 $12,154. 04 $9,784.94 $3,062.12 ($10, 044.66) ($4,584.25) 21 $10,027.65 $242.71 $9, 784.94 $0.00 $1,809.24 ($8, 218.41) ($3,606.52) 22 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1,863.51 $1,863.51 $786.32 23 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1,919.42 $1,919.42 $778.76 24 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1,977.00 $1,977.00 $771.27 25 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,036.31 $2,036.31 $763.85 26 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,097.40 $2,097.40 $756.51 27 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,160.32 $2,160.32 $749.24 28 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,225.13 $2,225.13 $742.03 29 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,291.89 $2,291.89 $734.90 30 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,360.64 $2,360.64 $727.83 Total $79,585.92 ($222,530.25) ($162,829.18)

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105 Table 4-6. Re-financing ENERGY STAR Qu alified home with cost -effective upgrades after rebates and deferred payment Financial Info Energy Info Loan Info Gas Rate $1.72 $/Therm ENERGY STAR 6841kW h/year Principle After Year 2 $179,630.47 Gas Inflation 3.00% 171Therms/year Rebates Less Electricity Rate $0.09 $/kWh Deferred Payments ($29,952.85) Excess Electricity Rate $0.062 $/kWh Production Electricity Inflation 3.00% ZEH Upgr ade 7967kWh/year Total Loan $149,677.62 Discount Rate 4.00% Consumption General Inflation 2.10% 6955kWh/year Feed-In-Tariff $0.32 $/kWh Down Payment $0.00 Upgrades $50,000.00 PV Interest Rate 5.80% Incremental Cost $1,500.00 SEER 15 $1,300.00 HP HWH Y early Payment $10,538.86 $100.00 Doors Total $52,900.00 Rebates $35,000.00 PV $1,550.00 SEER 15 $500.00 HP HWH $300.00 E-Star Home Total $37,350.00 Analysis Period 30 Year Loan Incremental Interest Principal Principal Energy Net Savings PV Net Payment Cost Balance Savings Savings 0 $0.00 $149,677.62 1 $10,538.86 $8,631.12 $1,907. 74 $147,769.88 $2,841.82 ($7,697.04) ($7,401.00) 2 $10,538.86 $8,517.48 $2,021. 38 $145,748.50 $2,850.59 ($7,688.27) ($7,108.24) 3 $10,538.86 $8,397.07 $2,141. 78 $143,606.72 $2,859.62 ($7,679.23) ($6,826.81) 4 $10,538.86 $8,269.49 $2,269. 36 $141,337.36 $2,868.93 ($7,669.93) ($6,556.29) 5 $10,538.86 $8,134.31 $2,404. 54 $138,932.81 $2,878.51 ($7,660.34) ($6,296.24) 6 $10,538.86 $7,991.08 $2,547. 77 $136,385.04 $2,888.38 ($7,650.47) ($6,046.28)

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106 Table 4-6 Continued Year Loan Incremental Interest Principal Principal Energy Net Savings PV Net Payment Cost Balance Savings Savings 7 $10,538.86 $7,839.32 $2,699. 54 $133,685.50 $2,898.55 ($7,640.30) ($5,806.00) 8 $10,538.86 $7,678.52 $2,860. 34 $130,825.17 $2,909.03 ($7,629.83) ($5,575.04) 9 $10,538.86 $7,508.13 $3,030. 72 $127,794.44 $2,919.81 ($7,619.04) ($5,353.04) 10 $10,538.86 $7,327.60 $3,211. 25 $124,583.19 $2,930.92 ($7,607.93) ($5,139.65) 11 $10,538.86 $7,136.32 $3,402. 54 $121,180.66 $2,942.37 ($7,596.49) ($4,934.53) 12 $10,538.86 $6,933.64 $3,605. 21 $117,575.44 $2,954.16 ($7,584.70) ($4,737.38) 13 $10,538.86 $6,718.89 $3,819. 97 $113,755.47 $2,966.30 ($7,572.56) ($4,547.88) 14 $10,538.86 $6,491.35 $4,047. 51 $109,707.96 $2,978.80 ($7,560.05) ($4,365.74) 15 $10,538.86 $6,250.25 $4,288. 61 $105,419.36 $2,991.68 ($7,547.17) ($4,190.68) 16 $10,538.86 $5,994.79 $4,544. 07 $100,875.29 $3,004.95 ($7,533.90) ($4,022.41) 17 $10,538.86 $5,724.11 $4,814. 74 $96,060.55 $3,018.62 ($7,520.24) ($3,860.69) 18 $10,538.86 $5,437.31 $5,101. 54 $90,959.00 $3,032.69 ($7,506.16) ($3,705.25) 19 $10,538.86 $5,133.43 $5,405. 43 $85,553.58 $3,047.19 ($7,491.67) ($3,555.86) 20 $10,538.86 $4,811.44 $5,727. 41 $79,826.16 $3,062.12 ($7,476.73) ($3,412.28) 21 $10,538.86 $4,470.28 $6,068. 58 $73,757.59 $1,809.24 ($8,729.62) ($3,830.85) 22 $10,538.86 $4,077.71 $6,461. 14 $67,327.53 $1,863.51 ($8,675.34) ($3,660.61) 23 $10,538.86 $3,692.84 $6,846. 01 $60,514.44 $1,919.42 ($8,619.44) ($3,497.13) 24 $10,538.86 $3,319.94 $7,218. 92 $53,295.53 $1,977.00 ($8,561.85) ($3,340.16) 25 $10,538.86 $2,889.93 $7,648. 92 $45,646.60 $2,036.31 ($8,502.54) ($3,189.45) 26 $10,538.86 $2,434.31 $8,104. 55 $37,542.06 $2,097.40 ($8,441.45) ($3,044.74) 27 $10,538.86 $1,951.54 $8,587. 31 $28,954.75 $2,160.32 ($8,378.53) ($2,905.81) 28 $10,538.86 $1,440.02 $9,098. 83 $19,855.91 $2,225.13 ($8,313.72) ($2,772.44) 29 $10,538.86 $898.04 $9,640. 82 $10,215.09 $2,291.89 ($8,246.97) ($2,644.40) 30 $10,538.86 $323.76 $10,215. 09$0.00 $2,360.64 ( $8,178.21) ($2,521.50) Total $316,165.67 $79,585.92 ($236,579.74) ($134,848.39)

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107 Table 4-7. Financing ENERGY STAR Qualified home with cost-effective upgrades Financial Info Energy Info Loan Info Gas Rate $1.72 $/Therm ENERGY STAR 6841kWh/year Base House $140,000.00 Gas Inflation 3.00% 171Therms/year Upgrades $52,900.00 Electricity Rate $0.09 $/kW h Total Loan $192,900.00 Excess Electricity Rate $0.062 $/kWh Production Electricity Inflation 3.00% ZEH Upgra de 7967kWh/year Down Payment $6,751.50 Discount Rate 4.00% Consumpt ion Deferred Payment ($1,851.50) General Inflation 2.10% 6955kWh/year Actual Down Payment $4,900.00 Feed-In-Tariff $0.32 $/kWh Interest Rate 5.80% Upgrades $50,000.00 PV Incremental Cost $1,500.00 SEER 15 Yearly Payment $13,237.15 $1,300.00 HP HWH Deferred Payment ($3,594.34) $100.00 Doors Year 1 & 2 Payment $9,642.81 Total $52,900.00 Extra Principle in year two Rebates $35,000.00 PV $1,550.00 SEER 15 Rebate $37,350.00 $500.00 HP HWH DP Deferred Pay ($1,851.50) $300.00 E-Star Home Plus Interest ($107.39) Total $37,350.00 Year 1 Deferred Pay ($3,594.34) Plus Interest ($208.47) Year 2 Deferred Pay ($3,594.34) Analysis Period 30 Total $27,993.96 Year Loan Incremental Interest Principa l Principal Energy Net Savings PV Net Payment Cost Balance Savings Savings 0 $4,900.00 $188,000.00 1 $13,237.15 $10,840.97 $2, 396.18 $185,603.82 $2,841.82 ($10,395.33)($9,995.51) 2 $13,237.15 $27,993.96 $9,173.39 $4,063.76 $153,546.10 $2,850.59 ($38,380.52)($35,484.95) 3 $13,237.15 $8,788.65 $4, 448.50 $149,097.61 $2,859.62 ($10,377.53)($9,225.58) 4 $13,237.15 $8,523.67 $4, 713.48 $144,384.13 $2,868.93 ($10,368.22)($8,862.80)

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108 Table 4-7 Continued Year Loan Incremental Interest Principa l Principal Energy Net Savings PV Net Payment Cost Balance Savings Savings 5 $13,237.15 $8,242.90 $4, 994.25 $139,389.88 $2,878.51 ($10,358.64)($8,514.04) 6 $13,237.15 $7,945.41 $5, 291.74 $134,098.14 $2,888.38 ($10,348.76)($8,178.78) 7 $13,237.15 $7,630.20 $5, 606.95 $128,491.19 $2,898.55 ($10,338.60)($7,856.48) 8 $13,237.15 $7,296.21 $5, 940.94 $122,550.25 $2,909.03 ($10,328.12)($7,546.66) 9 $13,237.15 $6,942.33 $6, 294.82 $116,255.43 $2,919.81 ($10,317.34)($7,248.82) 10 $13,237.15 $6,567.36 $6, 669.79 $109,585.64 $2,930.92 ($10,306.22)($6,962.52) 11 $13,237.15 $6,170.06 $7, 067.09 $102,518.56 $2,942.37 ($10,294.78)($6,687.29) 12 $13,237.15 $5,749.10 $7, 488.05 $95,030.51 $2,954.16 ($10,282.99)($6,422.73) 13 $13,237.15 $5,303.06 $7, 934.09 $87,096.42 $2,966.30 ($10,270.85)($6,168.41) 14 $13,237.15 $4,830.45 $8, 406.70 $78,689.72 $2,978.80 ($10,258.34)($5,923.94) 15 $13,237.15 $4,329.69 $8, 907.46 $69,782.26 $2,991.68 ($10,245.46)($5,688.94) 16 $13,237.15 $3,799.10 $9, 438.05 $60,344.21 $3,004.95 ($10,232.20)($5,463.05) 17 $13,237.15 $3,236.90 $10,000. 25 $50,343.96 $3,018.62 ($10,218.53)($5,245.92) 18 $13,237.15 $2,641.22 $10,595. 93 $39,748.03 $3,032.69 ($10,204.46)($5,037.21) 19 $13,237.15 $2,010.05 $11,227. 10 $28,520.93 $3,047.19 ($10,189.96)($4,836.59) 20 $13,237.15 $1,341.29 $11,895. 86 $16,625.07 $3,062.12 ($10,175.03)($4,643.75) 21 $13,237.15 $632.69 $12,604. 46 $4,020.60 $1,809.24 ($11,427.91)($5,014.95) 22 $2,963.71 $26.77 $2,936.94 $0.00 $1,863.51 ($1,100.20)($464.23) 23 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1,919.42 $1,919.42 $778.76 24 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $1,977.00 $1,977.00 $771.27 25 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,036.31 $2,036.31 $763.85 26 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,097.40 $2,097.40 $756.51 27 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,160.32 $2,160.32 $749.24 28 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,225.13 $2,225.13 $742.03 29 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,291.89 $2,291.89 $734.90 30 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $2,360.64 $2,360.64 $727.83 Total $79,585.92 ($229,351.87)($165,448.77)

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109 Table 4-8. Re-financing ENERGY STAR Qu alified home with cost -effective upgrades after rebates and deferred payment Financial Info Energy Info Loan Info Gas Rate $1.72 $/Therm ENERGY STAR 6841kW h/year Principle After Year 2 $181,540.06 Gas Inflation 3.00% 171Therms/year Rebates Less Electricity Rate $0.09 $/kWh Deferred Payments ($27,993.96) Excess Electricity Rate $0.062 $/kWh Production Electricity Inflation 3.00% ZEH Upgr ade 7967kWh/year Total Loan $153,546.10 Discount Rate 4.00% Consumption General Inflation 2.10% 6955kWh/year Feed-In-Tariff $0.32 $/kWh Down Payment $0.00 Upgrades $50,000.00 PV Interest Rate 5.80% Incremental Cost $1,500.00 SEER 15 $1,300.00 HP HWH Y early Payment $10,811.24 $100.00 Doors Total $52,900.00 Rebates $35,000.00 PV $1,550.00 SEER 15 $500.00 HP HWH $300.00 E-Star Home Total $37,350.00 Analysis Period 30 Year Loan Incremental Interest Principal Principal Energy Net Savings PV Net Payment Cost Balance Savings Savings 0 $0.00 $153,546.10 1 $10,811.24 $8,854.19 $1, 957.04 $151,589.06 $2,841.82 ($7,969.42)($7,662.90) 2 $10,811.24 $8,737.62 $2, 073.62 $149,515.44 $2,850.59 ($7,960.65)($7,360.07) 3 $10,811.24 $8,614.10 $2, 197.14 $147,318.30 $2,859.62 ($7,951.62)($7,068.96) 4 $10,811.24 $8,483.22 $2, 328.02 $144,990.28 $2,868.93 ($7,942.31)($6,789.12) 5 $10,811.24 $8,344.55 $2, 466.69 $142,523.60 $2,878.51 ($7,932.73)($6,520.12)

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110 Table 4-8 Continued Year Loan Incremental Interest Principal Principal Energy Net Savings PV Net Payment Cost Balance Savings Savings 6 $10,811.24 $8,197.62 $2, 613.62 $139,909.97 $2,888.38 ($7,922.85)($6,261.55) 7 $10,811.24 $8,041.93 $2, 769.31 $137,140.67 $2,898.55 ($7,912.69)($6,012.99) 8 $10,811.24 $7,876.97 $2, 934.27 $134,206.40 $2,909.03 ($7,902.21)($5,774.07) 9 $10,811.24 $7,702.19 $3, 109.05 $131,097.35 $2,919.81 ($7,891.42)($5,544.41) 10 $10,811.24 $7,516.99 $3, 294.25 $127,803.10 $2,930.92 ($7,880.31)($5,323.66) 11 $10,811.24 $7,320.76 $3, 490.48 $124,312.63 $2,942.37 ($7,868.87)($5,111.47) 12 $10,811.24 $7,112.84 $3, 698.39 $120,614.23 $2,954.16 ($7,857.08)($4,907.51) 13 $10,811.24 $6,892.54 $3, 918.70 $116,695.54 $2,966.30 ($7,844.94)($4,711.47) 14 $10,811.24 $6,659.12 $4, 152.12 $112,543.42 $2,978.80 ($7,832.43)($4,523.04) 15 $10,811.24 $6,411.79 $4, 399.45 $108,143.97 $2,991.68 ($7,819.55)($4,341.92) 16 $10,811.24 $6,149.73 $4, 661.51 $103,482.46 $3,004.95 ($7,806.29)($4,167.84) 17 $10,811.24 $5,872.05 $4, 939.18 $98,543.27 $3,018.62 ($7,792.62)($4,000.52) 18 $10,811.24 $5,577.84 $5, 233.39 $93,309.88 $3,032.69 ($7,778.54)($3,839.71) 19 $10,811.24 $5,266.10 $5, 545.13 $87,764.75 $3,047.19 ($7,764.05)($3,685.15) 20 $10,811.24 $4,935.80 $5, 875.44 $81,889.31 $3,062.12 ($7,749.11)($3,536.59) 21 $10,811.24 $4,585.82 $6, 225.42 $75,663.89 $1,809.24 ($9,002.00)($3,950.38) 22 $10,811.24 $4,183.11 $6, 628.13 $69,067.64 $1,863.51 ($8,947.72)($3,775.54) 23 $10,811.24 $3,788.29 $7, 022.95 $62,078.47 $1,919.42 ($8,891.82)($3,607.64) 24 $10,811.24 $3,405.74 $7, 405.49 $54,672.98 $1,977.00 ($8,834.23)($3,446.42) 25 $10,811.24 $2,964.62 $7, 846.61 $46,826.36 $2,036.31 ($8,774.92)($3,291.62) 26 $10,811.24 $2,497.22 $8, 314.01 $38,512.35 $2,097.40 ($8,713.84)($3,142.99) 27 $10,811.24 $2,001.98 $8, 809.25 $29,703.09 $2,160.32 ($8,650.91)($3,000.28) 28 $10,811.24 $1,477.24 $9, 333.99 $20,369.10 $2,225.13 ($8,586.10)($2,863.27) 29 $10,811.24 $921.25 $9,889. 99 $10,479.11 $2,291.89 ($ 8,519.35)($2,731.74) 30 $10,811.24 $332.13 $10,479. 11 $0.00 $2,360.64 ($8,450.59)($2,605.48) Total $324,337.11 $79,585. 92 ($244,751.19)($139,558.42)

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111 Table 4-9 Base ENERGY STAR Qualified home vs. ZEH Home Deferred payment Refinancing Down payment Annual payment Average annual energy savings ENERGY STAR Qualified Base No No$4,900$9,512$0.00 Net-zero energy home Yes Yes$6,751$10,539$2,653 Net-zero energy home w/DP loan Yes Yes$4,900$10,811$2,653 Table 4-10. Affordability: Base ENERGY STAR Qualified home vs. ZEH Home Annual payment Average annual energy costs Cost-burdened income factor Cost-burdened household minimum income ENERGYSTAR Qualified base home $9,512 $1,486 $10,998 .30 $36,660 Net-zero energy home $10,539 ($1,140) $9,399 .30 $31,330 Net-zero energy home w/DP loan $10,811 ($1,140) $9,671 .30 $32,237 Table 4-11. Gainesville, Florida income category definition Income category Annual income range Extremely low income $0.00 $16,980 Very low income $16,980 $28,300 Low income $28,300 $45,280 Moderate income $45,280 $67,920 Above moderate income $67,920 and up

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112 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS, CONTRIBUTIONS, A ND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY The strategies of this thesis have s hown that creating an affordable net-zero energy home in a hot humid climate like Gaine sville, Florida is feasible. Dedication to schematic design, a whole building systems appr oach, and implementation of costeffective components is crucial for achievin g the difficult goal of net-zero energy. Conclusions The ENERGY STAR Qualified home was built according to the E NERGY STAR programs outline. It achieved minimal energy savings through a tight building envelope, ENERGY STAR appliances, and com pact fluorescent lighting. Utilizing the homes tight thermal envelope, the researcher was able to implement energy efficient strategies in harmony with onsite renewable energy gener ation to create a net-zero energy home (ZEH) in one of the most energy demanding climates. The most significant discoveries were the add-on heat pump water heater, passive-earth contact cooling achieved throu gh tile flooring, and the effects of solar absorbance. These components played a crucial role in achieving an affordable ZEH. With no added upfront cost, 414 kWh/year were eliminated by painting the exterior of the house white and switching from carpet to tile flooring. The cost-effectiveness of the add-on heat pump water heating system was trem endous. With a minimal after rebate, upfront cost of $800.00 and annual energy use of 933/year, the system reduced energy consumption by 171 Therms/year, eliminatin g the homes dependence on natural gas. The largest factor in the entire analysis was the incorporati on of the rebates. Without receiving all of the rebates the project would ha ve become unfeasible. The rebates exist because there is hope and prom ise in the renewable energy sector,

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113 specifically in photovoltaic systems. Companies like Nanosolar and First Solar are on the verge of creating affordable solar systems through mass-producing thin film semiconductor, efficient, durable solar cells that can compete with fossil fuels. Contributions Contributions to the research and developm ent of energy efficient homes and ZEH have been identified for developer s, designers, builders, and homeowners. Strategies for future affordable ZEH sca ttered site development and affordable ZEH communities have been outlined providing information for professionals and homebuyers who are interested in the development of ZEH. The results of this study will help developers, contractors, and homebuyers understand the long-term ener gy savings and payback periods associated with affordable ZEH upgraded te chnologies. Lastly, strategies were identified that utilize government and local utility rebates as well as financing tactics to keep first costs down while total monthly mortgage payments and energy bills remain less than an ENERGY STAR Qualified hom e. Organizations like the Neighborhood Housing and Development Corporation as well as developers interested in pursuing affordable housing projects c an use these strategies to maximize profits and create affordable ZEH communities. Recommendations for Further Study Recommendations for future research have been recognized. The pump for the solar water heating system could be reduced c onsiderably. This represented the only power draw from that system an d considering the size of the home, reduced pumping and lifts would make this component mo re cost-effective. The miscellaneous consumption levels for the hom e were high. The effects of occupant habits through new owner education programs could be im plemented into the analysis, reducing

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114 miscellaneous costs. The cost of photovoltaic (PV) systems is continuing to decline. Less expensive PV systems with the same go vernment rebates would increase costeffectiveness of the PV system, which increased initial costs by the most of all upgraded technologies in the ZEH. Lastly, incl usion of maintenance costs with the annual housing costs to determine the affordabilit y of the home could be pursued. The increased maintenance costs as sociated with some of the energy efficient technologies could have an effect on the over all affordability of the home.

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115 APPENDIX COMPONENT LIFE CYCLE COST ANALYSIS Table A-1. 1.5 Ton SEER-15 H VAC system life cycle cost analysis Financ ial Info Consumption kWh/year Electricity Rate $0.09 $/kWh Electricity Inflation 3.00% ENERGY STAR 6841 Discount Rate 4.00% General Inflation 2.10% ZEH Upgrade 6461 1.5 Ton SEER-15 with Interior Ducts Incremental Cost $1,500.00 ENERGY STAR 2 Ton SEER-14 with Ducts in Attic Cost $4,500.00 Rebate $550.00 State $1,000.00 Federal Total $1,550.00 Analysis Period 30 Year Energy Savings Incremental Net Savings NCF Savings PV Net Cost Savings 0 $1,500.00 ($1,500.00) ($1,500.00) 1 $35.23 $35.23 ($1,464.77) $33.87 2 $36.28 ($1,550.00) $1,586.28 $121.51 $1,466.61 3 $37.37 $37.37 $158.88 $33.22 4 $38.49 $38.49 $197.37 $32.90 5 $39.65 $39.65 $237.02 $32.59 6 $40.84 $40.84 $277.86 $32.27 7 $42.06 $42.06 $319.92 $31.96 8 $43.32 $43.32 $363.24 $31.66 9 $44.62 $44.62 $407.86 $31.35 10 $45.96 $45.96 $453.83 $31.05 11 $47.34 $47.34 $501.17 $30.75 12 $48.76 $48.76 $549.93 $30.46 13 $50.22 $50.22 $600.15 $30.16 14 $51.73 $51.73 $651.88 $29.87 15 $53.28 $53.28 $705.17 $29.59 16 $54.88 $54.88 $760.05 $29.30 17 $56.53 $56.53 $816.57 $29.02 18 $58.22 $58.22 $874.80 $28.74

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116 Table A-1 Continued Year Energy Savings Incremental Net Savings NCF Savings PV Net Cost Savings 19 $59.97 $59.97 $934.77 $28.46 20 $61.77 $61.77 $996.54 $28.19 21 $63.62 $63.62 $1,060.16 $27.92 22 $65.53 $65.53 $1,125.69 $27.65 23 $67.50 $67.50 $1,193.19 $27.39 24 $69.52 $69.52 $1,262.71 $27.12 25 $71.61 $71.61 $1,334.31 $26.86 26 $73.76 $73.76 $1,408.07 $26.60 27 $75.97 $75.97 $1,484.04 $26.35 28 $78.25 $78.25 $1,562.28 $26.09 29 $80.59 $80.59 $1,642.88 $25.84 30 $83.01 $83.01 $1,725.89 $25.59 Total $1,675.89 $1,725.89 $2,319.45 Payback Period 1.9 years SIR 1.55 Table A-2. 2 Ton SEER-15 HVAC system life cycle cost analysis Financial Info Consumption kWh/year Electricity Rate $0.09 $/kWh Electricity Inflation 3.00% ENERGY STAR 6841 Discount Rate 4.00% General Inflation 2.10% ZEH Upgrade 6502 2.0 Ton SEER-15 with Interior Ducts Incremental Cost $1,800.00 ENERGY STAR 2.5 Ton SEER-14 with Ducts in Attic Cost $4,500.00 Rebate $550.00 State $1,000.00 Federal Total $1,550.00 Analysis Period 30

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117 Table A-2 Continued Year Energy Savings Incremental Net Savings NCF Savings PV Net Cost Savings 0 $1,800.00 ($1,800.00) ($1,800.00) 1 $31.43 $31.43 ($1,768.57) $30.22 2 $32.37 ($1,550.00) $1,582.37 ($186.21) $1,462.99 3 $33.34 $33.34 ($152.87) $29.64 4 $34.34 $34.34 ($118.53) $29.35 5 $35.37 $35.37 ($83.16) $29.07 6 $36.43 $36.43 ($46.73) $28.79 7 $37.52 $37.52 ($9.20) $28.51 8 $38.65 $38.65 $29.44 $28.24 9 $39.81 $39.81 $69.25 $27.97 10 $41.00 $41.00 $110.26 $27.70 11 $42.23 $42.23 $152.49 $27.43 12 $43.50 $43.50 $195.99 $27.17 13 $44.80 $44.80 $240.79 $26.91 14 $46.15 $46.15 $286.94 $26.65 15 $47.53 $47.53 $334.48 $26.39 16 $48.96 $48.96 $383.44 $26.14 17 $50.43 $50.43 $433.86 $25.89 18 $51.94 $51.94 $485.81 $25.64 19 $53.50 $53.50 $539.31 $25.39 20 $55.10 $55.10 $594.41 $25.15 21 $56.76 $56.76 $651.17 $24.91 22 $58.46 $58.46 $709.63 $24.67 23 $60.21 $60.21 $769.84 $24.43 24 $62.02 $62.02 $831.86 $24.20 25 $63.88 $63.88 $895.74 $23.96 26 $65.80 $65.80 $961.54 $23.73 27 $67.77 $67.77 $1,029.31 $23.50 28 $69.80 $69.80 $1,099.12 $23.28 29 $71.90 $71.90 $1,171.02 $23.05 30 $74.06 $74.06 $1,245.07 $22.83 Total $1,495.07 $1,245.07 $2,223.82 Payback Period 7.2 years SIR 1.23

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118 Table A-3. 2.0 Ton SEER-16 H VAC system life cycle cost analysis Financial Info Consumption kWh/year Electricity Rate $0.09 $/kWh Electricity Inflation 3.00% ENERGY STAR 6841 Discount Rate 4.00% General Inflation 2.10% ZEH Upgrade 6403 2 Ton SEER-16 $2,546.00 with Interior Ducts Incremental Cost $2,546.00 ENERGY STAR 2.5 Ton SEER-14 with Ducts in Attic Cost $4,500.00 Rebate $550.00 State $1,000.00 Federal Total $1,550.00 Analysis Period 30 Year Energy Savings Incremental Net Savings NCF Savings PV Net Cost Savings 0 $2,546.00 ($2,546.00) ($2,546.00) 1 $40.60 $40.60 ($2,505.40) $39.04 2 $41.82 ($1,550.00) $1,591.82 ($913.58) $1,471.73 3 $43.08 $43.08 ($870.50) $38.29 4 $44.37 $44.37 ($826.13) $37.93 5 $45.70 $45.70 ($780.44) $37.56 6 $47.07 $47.07 ($733.37) $37.20 7 $48.48 $48.48 ($684.88) $36.84 8 $49.94 $49.94 ($634.95) $36.49 9 $51.43 $51.43 ($583.51) $36.14 10 $52.98 $52.98 ($530.54) $35.79 11 $54.57 $54.57 ($475.97) $35.45 12 $56.20 $56.20 ($419.77) $35.10 13 $57.89 $57.89 ($361.88) $34.77 14 $59.63 $59.63 ($302.25) $34.43 15 $61.42 $61.42 ($240.84) $34.10 16 $63.26 $63.26 ($177.58) $33.77 17 $65.16 $65.16 ($112.42) $33.45 18 $67.11 $67.11 ($45.31) $33.13 19 $69.12 $69.12 $23.81 $32.81 20 $71.20 $71.20 $95.01 $32.49

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119 Table A-3 Continued Year Energy Savings Incremental Net Savings NCF Savings PV Net Cost Savings 21 $73.33 $73.33 $168.34 $32.18 22 $75.53 $75.53 $243.87 $31.87 23 $77.80 $77.80 $321.67 $31.57 24 $80.13 $80.13 $401.80 $31.26 25 $82.54 $82.54 $484.34 $30.96 26 $85.01 $85.01 $569.35 $30.66 27 $87.56 $87.56 $656.92 $30.37 28 $90.19 $90.19 $747.11 $30.08 29 $92.90 $92.90 $840.00 $29.79 30 $95.68 $95.68 $935.69 $29.50 Total $1,931.69 $935.69 $2,454.74 Payback Period 18.7 years SIR 0.96 Table A-4. Upgraded window life cycle cost analysis Financial Info Consumption kWh/year Electricity Rate $0.09 $/kWh Electricity Inflation 3.00% ENERGY STAR 6841 Discount Rate 4.00% General Inflation 2.10% ZEH Upgrade 6628 Vinyl Pane Window Upgrade Incremental Cost $1,264.00 ENERGY STAR Metal Pane $2,275.00 Analysis Period 30 Year Energy Savings Incremental Net Savings NCF Savings PV Net Cost Savings 0 $1,264.00 ($1,264.00) ($1,264.00) 1 $19.75 $19.75 ($1,244.25) $18.99 2 $20.34 $20.34 ($1,223.92) $18.80 3 $20.95 $20.95 ($1,202.97) $18.62 4 $21.58 $21.58 ($1,181.39) $18.44 5 $22.22 $22.22 ($1,159.17) $18.27 6 $22.89 $22.89 ($1,136.28) $18.09

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120 Table A-4 Continued Year Energy Savings Incremental Net Savings NCF Savings PV Net Cost Savings 7 $23.58 $23.58 ($1,112.70) $17.92 8 $24.28 $24.28 ($1,088.42) $17.74 9 $25.01 $25.01 ($1,063.41) $17.57 10 $25.76 $25.76 ($1,037.64) $17.40 11 $26.54 $26.54 ($1,011.11) $17.24 12 $27.33 $27.33 ($983.78) $17.07 13 $28.15 $28.15 ($955.63) $16.91 14 $29.00 $29.00 ($926.63) $16.74 15 $29.87 $29.87 ($896.76) $16.58 16 $30.76 $30.76 ($866.00) $16.42 17 $31.69 $31.69 ($834.32) $16.27 18 $32.64 $32.64 ($801.68) $16.11 19 $33.61 $33.61 ($768.06) $15.95 20 $34.62 $34.62 ($733.44) $15.80 21 $35.66 $35.66 ($697.78) $15.65 22 $36.73 $36.73 ($661.05) $15.50 23 $37.83 $37.83 ($623.21) $15.35 24 $38.97 $38.97 ($584.25) $15.20 25 $40.14 $40.14 ($544.11) $15.06 26 $41.34 $41.34 ($502.77) $14.91 27 $42.58 $42.58 ($460.18) $14.77 28 $43.86 $43.86 ($416.32) $14.63 29 $45.18 $45.18 ($371.15) $14.49 30 $46.53 $46.53 ($324.62) $14.35 31 $47.93 $47.93 ($276.69) $14.21 32 $49.36 $49.36 ($227.33) $14.07 33 $50.85 $50.85 ($176.48) $13.94 34 $52.37 $52.37 ($124.11) $13.27 35 $53.94 $53.94 ($70.17) $13.14 36 $55.56 $55.56 ($14.61) $13.02 37 $57.23 $57.23 $42.62 $21.47 Total $939.38 $42.62 $496.85 Payback Period 36.3 years SIR 0.39

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121 Table A-5. Metal roof and RBS system life cycle cost analysis Financial Info Consumption kWh/year Electricity Rate $0.09 $/kWh ENERGY STAR 6841 Electricity Inflation 3.00% ZEH Upgrade 6566 Discount Rate 4.00% General Inflation 2.10% White Metal Roof Incremental Cost $5,775.00 Shingle Roof Cost $3,560.00 Analysis Period 30 Year Energy Savings Incremental Net Savings NCF Savings PV Net Cost Savings 0 $5,775.00 ($5,775.00) ($5,775.00) 1 $25.49 $25.49 ($5,749.51) $24.51 2 $26.26 $26.26 ($5,723.25) $24.28 3 $27.04 $27.04 ($5,696.21) $24.04 4 $27.86 $27.86 ($5,668.35) $23.81 5 $28.69 $28.69 ($5,639.66) $23.58 6 $29.55 $29.55 ($5,610.10) $23.36 7 $30.44 $30.44 ($5,579.66) $23.13 8 $31.35 $31.35 ($5,548.31) $22.91 9 $32.29 $32.29 ($5,516.02) $22.69 10 $33.26 $33.26 ($5,482.76) $22.47 11 $34.26 $34.26 ($5,448.50) $22.25 12 $35.29 $35.29 ($5,413.21) $22.04 13 $36.35 $36.35 ($5,376.86) $21.83 14 $37.44 $37.44 ($5,339.43) $21.62 15 $38.56 ($4,862.24) $4,900.80 ($438.63) $2,721.24 16 $39.72 $39.72 ($398.91) $21.20 17 $40.91 $40.91 ($358.01) $21.00 18 $42.14 $42.14 ($315.87) $20.80 19 $43.40 $43.40 ($272.47) $20.60 20 $44.70 $44.70 ($227.77) $20.40 21 $46.04 $46.04 ($181.73) $20.20 22 $47.42 $47.42 ($134.30) $20.01 23 $48.85 $48.85 ($85.46) $19.82 24 $50.31 $50.31 ($35.15) $19.63 25 $51.82 $51.82 $16.67 $19.44 26 $53.38 $53.38 $70.05 $19.25

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122 Table A-5 Continued Year Energy Savings Incremental Net Savings NCF Savings PV Net Cost Savings 27 $54.98 $54.98 $125.03 $19.07 28 $56.63 $56.63 $181.65 $18.88 29 $58.32 $58.32 $239.98 $18.70 30 $60.07 ($6,640.83) $6,700.90 $6,940.88 $2,066.01 Total $1,212.82 $6,940.88 $5,388.79 Payback Period 24.7 years SIR 0.93 Table A-6. Upgraded door life cycle cost analysis Financial Info Consumption kWh/year Electricity Rate $0.09 $/kWh Electricity Inflation 3.00% ENERGY STAR 6841 Discount Rate 4.00% General Inflation 2.10% ZEH Upgrade 6763 Upgraded Doors Incremental Cost $100.00 Component Doors Cost $600.00 Analysis Period 30 Year Energy Savings Incremental Net Savings NCF Savings PV Net Cost Savings 0 $100.00 ($100.00) ($100.00) 1 $7.23 $7.23 ($92.77) $6.95 2 $7.45 $7.45 ($85.32) $6.89 3 $7.67 $7.67 ($77.65) $6.82 4 $7.90 $7.90 ($69.75) $6.75 5 $8.14 $8.14 ($61.61) $6.69 6 $8.38 $8.38 ($53.23) $6.62 7 $8.63 $8.63 ($44.60) $6.56 8 $8.89 $8.89 ($35.70) $6.50 9 $9.16 $9.16 ($26.54) $6.44 10 $9.43 $9.43 ($17.11) $6.37 11 $9.72 $9.72 ($7.39) $6.31 12 $10.01 $10.01 $2.62 $6.25

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123 Table A-6 Continued Year Energy Savings Incremental Net Savings NCF Savings PV Net Cost Savings 13 $10.31 $10.31 $12.93 $6.19 14 $10.62 $10.62 $23.54 $6.13 15 $10.94 $10.94 $34.48 $6.07 16 $11.27 $11.27 $45.75 $6.01 17 $11.60 $11.60 $57.35 $5.96 18 $11.95 $11.95 $69.30 $5.90 19 $12.31 $12.31 $81.61 $5.84 20 $12.68 $12.68 $94.29 $5.79 21 $13.06 $13.06 $107.35 $5.73 22 $13.45 $13.45 $120.80 $5.68 23 $13.85 $13.85 $134.65 $5.62 24 $14.27 $14.27 $148.92 $5.57 25 $14.70 $14.70 $163.62 $5.51 26 $15.14 $15.14 $178.76 $5.46 27 $15.59 $15.59 $194.36 $5.41 28 $16.06 $16.06 $210.42 $5.36 29 $16.54 $16.54 $226.96 $5.30 30 $17.04 $17.04 $244.00 $5.25 Total $344.00 $244.00 $181.94 Payback Period 11.7 years SIR 1.82 Table A-7. Low solar absorbance paint life cycle cost analysis Financial Info Consumption kWh/year Electricity Rate $0.09 $/kWh Electricity Inflation 3.00% ENERGY STAR 6841 Discount Rate 4.00% General Inflation 2.10% ZEH Upgrade 6664 Low Solar Absorbance Paint Incremental Cost $0.00 Analysis Period 30

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124 Table A-7 Continued Year Energy Savings Incremental Net Savings NCF Savings PV Net Cost Savings 0 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 1 $16.41 $16.41 $16.41 $15.78 2 $16.90 $16.90 $33.31 $15.63 3 $17.41 $17.41 $50.72 $15.47 4 $17.93 $17.93 $68.64 $15.33 5 $18.47 $18.47 $87.11 $15.18 6 $19.02 $19.02 $106.13 $15.03 7 $19.59 $19.59 $125.72 $14.89 8 $20.18 $20.18 $145.90 $14.75 9 $20.79 $20.79 $166.69 $14.60 10 $21.41 $21.41 $188.10 $14.46 11 $22.05 $22.05 $210.15 $14.32 12 $22.71 $22.71 $232.86 $14.19 13 $23.39 $23.39 $256.26 $14.05 14 $24.10 $24.10 $280.35 $13.91 15 $24.82 $24.82 $305.17 $13.78 16 $25.56 $25.56 $330.73 $13.65 17 $26.33 $26.33 $357.06 $13.52 18 $27.12 $27.12 $384.18 $13.39 19 $27.93 $27.93 $412.12 $13.26 20 $28.77 $28.77 $440.89 $13.13 21 $29.63 $29.63 $470.52 $13.00 22 $30.52 $30.52 $501.04 $12.88 23 $31.44 $31.44 $532.48 $12.76 24 $32.38 $32.38 $564.87 $12.63 25 $33.35 $33.35 $598.22 $12.51 26 $34.35 $34.35 $632.57 $12.39 27 $35.39 $35.39 $667.96 $12.27 28 $36.45 $36.45 $704.41 $12.15 29 $37.54 $37.54 $741.95 $12.04 30 $38.67 $38.67 $780.61 $11.92 Total $780.61 $780.61 $412.87 Immediate Payback Save 177 kWh/year

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125 Table A-8. Tile flooring life cycle cost analysis Financial Info Consumption kWh/year Electricity Rate $0.09 $/kWh Electricity Inflation 3.00% ENERGY STAR 6841 Discount Rate 4.00% General Inflation 2.10% ZEH Upgrade 6604 80% Tile Floor Incremental Cost $0.00 90% Carpet $8,591.00 Analysis Period 30 Year Energy Incremental Net Savings NCF Savings PV Net Savings Cost Savings 0 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 1 $21.97 $21.97 $21.97 $21.12 2 $22.63 $22.63 $44.60 $20.92 3 $23.31 $23.31 $67.91 $20.72 4 $24.01 $24.01 $91.91 $20.52 5 $24.73 $24.73 $116.64 $20.32 6 $25.47 $25.47 $142.11 $20.13 7 $26.23 $26.23 $168.34 $19.94 8 $27.02 $27.02 $195.36 $19.74 9 $27.83 $27.83 $223.19 $19.55 10 $28.67 $28.67 $251.86 $19.37 11 $29.53 $29.53 $281.39 $19.18 12 $30.41 $30.41 $311.80 $18.99 13 $31.32 $31.32 $343.12 $18.81 14 $32.26 $32.26 $375.38 $18.63 15 $33.23 $33.23 $408.62 $18.45 16 $34.23 $34.23 $442.84 $18.27 17 $35.26 $35.26 $478.10 $18.10 18 $36.31 $36.31 $514.41 $17.93 19 $37.40 $37.40 $551.82 $17.75 20 $38.52 $38.52 $590.34 $17.58 21 $39.68 $39.68 $630.02 $17.41 22 $40.87 $40.87 $670.89 $17.25 23 $42.10 $42.10 $712.99 $17.08 24 $43.36 $43.36 $756.35 $16.92 25 $44.66 $44.66 $801.01 $16.75 26 $46.00 $46.00 $847.01 $16.59 27 $47.38 $47.38 $894.39 $16.43 28 $48.80 $48.80 $943.19 $16.27 29 $50.27 $50.27 $993.45 $16.12

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126 Table A-8 Continued Year Energy Incremental Net Savings NCF Savings PV Net Savings Cost Savings 30 $51.77 $51.77 $1,045.23 $15.96 Total $1,045.23 $1,045.23 $552.83 Payback is immediate Save 237 kWh/year Table A-9. Add-on heat pump wa ter heater life cycle cost analysis Financial Info Consumption Gas Rate $1.72 $/Therm Gas Inflation 3.00% ENERGY STAR 171 Therms/year Electricity Rate $0.09 $/kWh Electricity Inflation 3.00% ZEH Upgrade 933 kWh/year Discount Rate 4.00% General Inflation 2.10% Heat Pump HWH Incremental Cost $1,300.00 HWH Cost $750.00 Rebate $500.00 Federal Analysis Period 30 Year Energy Incremental Net Savings NCF Savings PV Net Savings Cost Savings 0 $1,300.00 ($1,300.00) ($1,300.00) 1 $216.45 $216.45 ($1,083.55) $208.13 2 $222.95 ($500.00) $722.95 ($360.60) $668.41 3 $229.64 $229.64 ($130.96) $204.15 4 $236.53 $236.53 $105.56 $202.18 5 $243.62 $243.62 $349.19 $200.24 6 $250.93 $250.93 $600.12 $198.31 7 $258.46 $258.46 $858.57 $196.41 8 $266.21 $266.21 $1,124.79 $194.52 9 $274.20 $274.20 $1,398.98 $192.65 10 $282.42 $282.42 $1,681.41 $190.80 11 $290.90 $290.90 $1,972.31 $188.96 12 $299.62 $299.62 $2,271.93 $187.14 13 $308.61 $308.61 $2,580.54 $185.34

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127 Table A-9 Continued Year Energy Incremental Net Savings NCF Savings PV Net Savings Cost Savings 14 $317.87 $317.87 $2,898.41 $183.56 15 $327.41 $327.41 $3,225.82 $181.80 16 $337.23 $337.23 $3,563.05 $180.05 17 $347.35 $347.35 $3,910.39 $178.32 18 $357.77 $357.77 $4,268.16 $176.60 19 $368.50 $368.50 $4,636.66 $174.91 20 $379.55 $379.55 $5,016.21 $173.22 21 $390.94 $390.94 $5,407.15 $171.56 22 $402.67 $402.67 $5,809.82 $169.91 23 $414.75 $414.75 $6,224.57 $168.27 24 $427.19 $427.19 $6,651.76 $166.66 25 $440.01 $440.01 $7,091.77 $165.05 26 $453.21 $453.21 $7,544.98 $163.47 27 $466.80 $466.80 $8,011.78 $161.90 28 $480.81 $480.81 $8,492.59 $160.34 29 $495.23 $495.23 $8,987.82 $158.80 30 $510.09 $510.09 $9,497.91 $157.27 Total $10,297.91 $9,497.91 $5,908.92 Payback Period 3.5 years SIR 4.54

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128 Table A-10. Solar water heating life cycle cost analysis Financial Info Consumption Gas Rate $1.72 $/Therm Gas Inflation 3.00% ENERGY STAR 171 Therms/year Electricity Rate $0.09 $/kWh Electricity Inflation 3.00% ZEH Upgrade 809 kWh/year Discount Rate 4.00% General Inflation 2.10% Solar HWH Incremental Cost $5,550.00 HWH Cost $750.00 Rebate $1,500.00 Federal $500.00 State $500.00 GRU Total $2,500.00 Analysis Period 30 Year Energy Incremental Net Savings NCF Savings PV Net Savings Cost Savings 0 $5,550.00 ($5,550.00) ($5,550.00) 1 $227.95 $227.95 ($5,322.05) $219.18 2 $234.79 ($2,500.00) $2,734.79 ($2,587.26) $2,528.47 3 $241.83 $241.83 ($2,345.43) $214.99 4 $249.09 $249.09 ($2,096.35) $212.92 5 $256.56 $256.56 ($1,839.79) $210.87 6 $264.26 $264.26 ($1,575.53) $208.85 7 $272.18 $272.18 ($1,303.35) $206.84 8 $280.35 $280.35 ($1,023.00) $204.85 9 $288.76 $288.76 ($734.24) $202.88 10 $297.42 $297.42 ($436.82) $200.93 11 $306.34 $306.34 ($130.47) $199.00 12 $315.54 $315.54 $185.06 $197.08 13 $325.00 $325.00 $510.06 $195.19 14 $334.75 $334.75 $844.82 $193.31 15 $344.79 $344.79 $1,189.61 $191.45 16 $355.14 $355.14 $1,544.75 $189.61 17 $365.79 $365.79 $1,910.54 $187.79 18 $376.77 $376.77 $2,287.30 $185.98 19 $388.07 $388.07 $2,675.37 $184.19 20 $399.71 $399.71 $3,075.08 $182.42 21 $411.70 $411.70 $3,486.78 $180.67

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129 Table A-10 Continued Year Energy Incremental Net Savings NCF Savings PV Net Savings Cost Savings 22 $424.05 $424.05 $3,910.84 $178.93 23 $436.77 $436.77 $4,347.61 $177.21 24 $449.88 $449.88 $4,797.49 $175.51 25 $463.37 $463.37 $5,260.86 $173.82 26 $477.28 $477.28 $5,738.14 $172.15 27 $491.59 $491.59 $6,229.73 $170.49 28 $506.34 $506.34 $6,736.07 $168.85 29 $521.53 $521.53 $7,257.61 $167.23 30 $537.18 $537.18 $7,794.78 $165.62 Total $10,844.78 $7,794.78 $8,047.27 Payback Period 11.4 years SIR 1.45 Table A-11. PV system net meter life cycle cost analysis Financial Info Production kWh/year Electricity Rate $0.09 $/kWh Electricity Inflation 3.00% PV System 7967 Discount Rate 4.00% General Inflation 2.10% Consumption PV system Incremental Cost $50,000.00 ENERGY STAR 6841 Rebates $15,000.00 Federal $20,000.00 State $7,500.00 GRU Total $42,500.00 Excess Electricity Rate $0.062 $/kWh Analysis Period 30 Year Energy Incremental Net Savings NCF Savings PV Net Savings Cost Savings 0 $50,000.00 ($50,000.00) ($50,000.00) 1 $706.07 $706.07 ($49,293.93) $678.91 2 $727.25 ($42,500.00) $43,227.25 ($6,066.68) $39,966.02 3 $749.07 $749.07 ($5,317.62) $665.92 4 $771.54 $771.54 ($4,546.08) $659.51 5 $794.68 $794.68 ($3,751.39) $653.17 6 $818.53 $818.53 ($2,932.87) $646.89

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130 Table A-11 Continued Year Energy Incremental Net Savings NCF Savings PV Net Savings Cost Savings 7 $843.08 $843.08 ($2,089.79) $640.67 8 $868.37 $868.37 ($1,221.41) $634.51 9 $894.42 $894.42 ($326.99) $628.41 10 $921.26 $921.26 $594.27 $622.37 11 $948.90 $948.90 $1,543.16 $616.38 12 $977.36 $977.36 $2,520.52 $610.46 13 $1,006.68 $1,006.68 $3,527.21 $604.59 14 $1,036.88 $1,036.88 $4,564.09 $598.77 15 $1,067.99 $1,067.99 $5,632.08 $593.02 16 $1,100.03 $1,100.03 $6,732.11 $587.31 17 $1,133.03 $1,133.03 $7,865.14 $581.67 18 $1,167.02 $1,167.02 $9,032.16 $576.07 19 $1,202.03 $1,202.03 $10,234.19 $570.54 20 $1,238.09 $1,238.09 $11,472.29 $565.05 21 $1,275.24 $1,275.24 $12,747.52 $559.62 22 $1,313.49 $1,313.49 $14,061.01 $554.24 23 $1,352.90 $1,352.90 $15,413.91 $548.91 24 $1,393.48 $1,393.48 $16,807.40 $543.63 25 $1,435.29 $1,435.29 $18,242.69 $538.40 26 $1,478.35 $1,478.35 $19,721.03 $533.22 27 $1,522.70 $1,522.70 $21,243.73 $528.10 28 $1,568.38 $1,568.38 $22,812.11 $523.02 29 $1,615.43 $1,615.43 $24,427.54 $517.99 30 $1,663.89 $1,663.89 $26,091.43 $513.01 Total $33,591.43 $26,091.43 $57,060.38 Payback Period 9.3 years SIR 1.14

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131 Table A-12. PV system net me ter w/FIT life cycle cost analysis Financial Info Production kWh/year Electricity Rate $0.09 $/kWh Electricity Inflation 3.00% PV System 7967 Discount Rate 4.00% General Inflation 2.10% Consumption PV system $50,000.00 Incremental Cost ENERGY STAR 6841 Rebates $15,000.00 Federal $20,000.00 State $7,500.00 GRU Total $42,500.00 Feed In-Tariff Rate $0.32 $/kWh Excess Electricity Rate $0.062 $/kWh Analysis Period 30 Year Energy Savings Incremental Net Savings NCF Savings PV Net Cost Savings 0 $50,000.00 ($50,000.00) ($50,000.00) 1 $994.48 $994.48 ($49,005.52) $956.23 2 $1,013.51 ($42,500.00) $43,513.51 ($5,492.01) $40,230.68 3 $1,033.10 $1,033.10 ($4,458.91) $918.42 4 $1,053.28 $1,053.28 ($3,405.63) $900.35 5 $1,074.07 $1,074.07 ($2,331.55) $882.81 6 $1,095.49 $1,095.49 ($1,236.07) $865.78 7 $1,117.54 $1,117.54 ($118.53) $849.24 8 $1,140.26 $1,140.26 $1,021.73 $833.18 9 $1,163.66 $1,163.66 $2,185.39 $817.57 10 $1,187.76 $1,187.76 $3,373.14 $802.41 11 $1,212.58 $1,212.58 $4,585.72 $787.67 12 $1,238.15 $1,238.15 $5,823.87 $773.34 13 $1,264.48 $1,264.48 $7,088.35 $759.41 14 $1,291.61 $1,291.61 $8,379.96 $745.87 15 $1,319.54 $1,319.54 $9,699.50 $732.70 16 $1,348.32 $1,348.32 $11,047.82 $719.88 17 $1,377.96 $1,377.96 $12,425.78 $707.41 18 $1,408.49 $1,408.49 $13,834.27 $695.27 19 $1,439.94 $1,439.94 $15,274.21 $683.45 20 $1,472.32 $1,472.32 $16,746.54 $671.95 21 $1,275.24 $1,275.24 $18,021.77 $559.62 22 $1,313.49 $1,313.49 $19,335.26 $554.24 23 $1,352.90 $1,352.90 $20,688.16 $548.91

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132 Table A-12 Continued Year Energy Savings Incremental Net Savings NCF Savings PV Net Cost Savings 24 $1,393.48 $1,393.48 $22,081.65 $543.63 25 $1,435.29 $1,435.29 $23,516.93 $538.40 26 $1,478.35 $1,478.35 $24,995.28 $533.22 27 $1,522.70 $1,522.70 $26,517.98 $528.10 28 $1,568.38 $1,568.38 $28,086.36 $523.02 29 $1,615.43 $1,615.43 $29,701.79 $517.99 30 $1,663.89 $1,663.89 $31,365.68 $513.01 Total $1,713.81 $31,365.68 $60,693.75 Payback Period 7.1 years SIR 1.21 Table A-13. PV system FIT life cycle cost analysis Financial Info Production kWh/year Electricity Rate $0.09 $/kWh Electricity Inflation 3.00% PV System 7967 Discount Rate 4.00% General Inflation 2.10% Consumption Solar PV Incremental Cost $50,000.00 ENERGY STAR 6841 Rebates $15,000.00 Federal $20,000.00 State Total $35,000.00 Feed-In Tariff Rate $0.32 $/kWh Excess Electricity Rate $0.062 $/kWh Analysis Period 30 Year Energy Incremental Net Savings NCF Savings PV Net Savings Cost Savings 0 $50,000.00 ($50,000.00) ($50,000.00) 1 $1,915.28 $1,915.28 ($48,084.72) $1,841.61 2 $1,896.25 ($35,000.00) $36,896.25 ($11,188.47) $34,112.66 3 $1,876.66 $1,876.66 ($9,311.81) $1,668.34 4 $1,856.48 $1,856.48 ($7,455.33) $1,586.92 5 $1,835.69 $1,835.69 ($5,619.65) $1,508.80 6 $1,814.27 $1,814.27 ($3,805.37) $1,433.85 7 $1,792.22 $1,792.22 ($2,013.15) $1,361.94

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133 Table A-13 Continued Year Energy Incremental Net Savings NCF Savings PV Net Savings Cost Savings 8 $1,769.50 $1,769.50 ($243.65) $1,292.96 9 $1,746.10 $1,746.10 $1,502.45 $1,226.79 10 $1,722.00 $1,722.00 $3,224.46 $1,163.32 11 $1,697.18 $1,697.18 $4,921.64 $1,102.46 12 $1,671.61 $1,671.61 $6,593.25 $1,044.08 13 $1,645.28 $1,645.28 $8,238.53 $988.11 14 $1,618.15 $1,618.15 $9,856.68 $934.44 15 $1,590.22 $1,590.22 $11,446.90 $882.99 16 $1,561.44 $1,561.44 $13,008.34 $833.66 17 $1,531.80 $1,531.80 $14,540.14 $786.38 18 $1,501.27 $1,501.27 $16,041.41 $741.07 19 $1,469.82 $1,469.82 $17,511.23 $697.64 20 $1,437.44 $1,437.44 $18,948.66 $656.03 21 $1,275.24 $1,275.24 $20,223.90 $559.62 22 $1,313.49 $1,313.49 $21,537.39 $554.24 23 $1,352.90 $1,352.90 $22,890.29 $548.91 24 $1,393.48 $1,393.48 $24,283.77 $543.63 25 $1,435.29 $1,435.29 $25,719.06 $538.40 26 $1,478.35 $1,478.35 $27,197.41 $533.22 27 $1,522.70 $1,522.70 $28,720.11 $528.10 28 $1,568.38 $1,568.38 $30,288.49 $523.02 29 $1,615.43 $1,615.43 $31,903.92 $517.99 30 $1,663.89 $1,663.89 $33,567.81 $513.01 Total $48,567.81 $33,567.81 $61,224.20 Payback Period 8.1 years SIR 1.22

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134 Table A-14. All upgraded technologies net meter life cycle cost analysis Financial Info Consumption Gas Rate $1.72 $/Therm Gas Inflation 3.00% ENERGY STAR 6841 kWh/year Electricity Rate $0.09 $/kWh Excess Electricity Rate $0.062 $/kWh 171 Therms/year Electricity Inflation 3.00% Discount Rate 4.00% ZEH Upgrade -1330 kWh/year General Inflation 2.10% Upgrades Incremental Cost $50,000.00 PV $5,775.00 Metal Roof $1,500.00 SEER 15 $1,300.00 HP HWH $1,264.00 Windows $100.00 Doors Total $59,939.00 Rebates $42,500.00 PV $1,550.00 SEER 15 $500.00 HP HWH $300.00 E-Star Home Total $44,850.00 Composite Roof Cost $3,560.00 Analysis Period 30 Year Energy Savings Incremental Net Savings NCF Savings PV Net Cost Savings 0 $59,939.00 ($59,939.00) ($59,939.00) 1 $1,022.04 $1,022.04 ($58,916.96) $982.73 2 $1,052.70 ($44,850.00) $45,902.70 ($13,014.26) $42,439.63 3 $1,084.28 $1,084.28 ($11,929.98) $963.92 4 $1,116.81 $1,116.81 ($10,813.17) $954.65 5 $1,150.31 $1,150.31 ($9,662.86) $945.47 6 $1,184.82 $1,184.82 ($8,478.04) $936.38 7 $1,220.37 $1,220.37 ($7,257.67) $927.38 8 $1,256.98 $1,256.98 ($6,000.69) $918.46 9 $1,294.69 $1,294.69 ($4,706.01) $909.63 10 $1,333.53 $1,333.53 ($3,372.48) $900.88

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135 Table A-14 Continued Year Energy Savings Incremental Net Savings NCF Savings PV Net Cost Savings 11 $1,373.53 $1,373.53 ($1,998.94) $892.22 12 $1,414.74 $1,414.74 ($584.21) $883.64 13 $1,457.18 $1,457.18 $872.98 $875.15 14 $1,500.90 $1,500.90 $2,373.87 $866.73 15 $1,545.92 ($4,862.24) $6,408.16 $8,782.04 $3,558.22 16 $1,592.30 $1,592.30 $10,374.34 $850.14 17 $1,640.07 $1,640.07 $12,014.41 $841.97 18 $1,689.27 $1,689.27 $13,703.68 $833.87 19 $1,739.95 $1,739.95 $15,443.63 $825.85 20 $1,792.15 $1,792.15 $17,235.78 $817.91 21 $1,845.91 $1,845.91 $19,081.70 $810.05 22 $1,901.29 $1,901.29 $20,982.99 $802.26 23 $1,958.33 $1,958.33 $22,941.32 $794.55 24 $2,017.08 $2,017.08 $24,958.40 $786.91 25 $2,077.59 $2,077.59 $27,035.99 $779.34 26 $2,139.92 $2,139.92 $29,175.92 $771.85 27 $2,204.12 $2,204.12 $31,380.03 $764.42 28 $2,270.24 $2,270.24 $33,650.28 $757.07 29 $2,338.35 $2,338.35 $35,988.62 $749.79 30 $2,408.50 ($6,640.83) $9,049.33 $45,037.95 $2,790.08 Total $48,623.89 $45,037.95 $71,931.18 Payback Period 12.4 years SIR 1.20

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136 Table A-15. All cost-effective upgraded technologies net meter life cycle cost analysis Financial Info Consumption Gas Rate $1.72 $/Therm Gas Inflation 3.00% ENERGY STAR 6841 kWh/year Electricity Rate $0.09 $/kWh Excess Electricty Rate $0.062 $/kWh 171 Therms/year Electricity Inflation 3.00% Discount Rate 4.00% ZEH Upgrade -1012 kWh/year General Inflation 2.10% Upgrades Incremental Cost $50,000.00 PV $1,500.00 SEER 15 $1,300.00 HP HWH $100.00 Doors Total $52,900.00 Rebates $42,500.00 PV $1,550.00 SEER 15 $500.00 HP HWH $300.00 E-Star Home Total $44,850.00 Analysis Period 30 Year Energy Incremental Net Savings NCF Savings PV Net Savings Cost Savings 0 $52,900.00 ($52,900.00) ($52,900.00) 1 $1,001.73 $1,001.73 ($51,898.27) $963.20 2 $1,031.78 ($44,850.00) $45,881.78 ($6,016.49) $42,420.29 3 $1,062.74 $1,062.74 ($4,953.75) $944.77 4 $1,094.62 $1,094.62 ($3,859.13) $935.68 5 $1,127.46 $1,127.46 ($2,731.68) $926.69 6 $1,161.28 $1,161.28 ($1,570.40) $917.78 7 $1,196.12 $1,196.12 ($374.28) $908.95 8 $1,232.00 $1,232.00 $857.73 $900.21 9 $1,268.96 $1,268.96 $2,126.69 $891.56 10 $1,307.03 $1,307.03 $3,433.72 $882.98 11 $1,346.24 $1,346.24 $4,779.96 $874.49

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137 Table A-15 Continued Year Energy Incremental Net Savings NCF Savings PV Net Savings Cost Savings 12 $1,386.63 $1,386.63 $6,166.59 $866.08 13 $1,428.23 $1,428.23 $7,594.82 $857.76 14 $1,471.08 $1,471.08 $9,065.89 $849.51 15 $1,515.21 $1,515.21 $10,581.10 $841.34 16 $1,560.66 $1,560.66 $12,141.77 $833.25 17 $1,607.48 $1,607.48 $13,749.25 $825.24 18 $1,655.71 $1,655.71 $15,404.96 $817.30 19 $1,705.38 $1,705.38 $17,110.34 $809.45 20 $1,756.54 $1,756.54 $18,866.88 $801.66 21 $1,809.24 $1,809.24 $20,676.11 $793.95 22 $1,863.51 $1,863.51 $22,539.63 $786.32 23 $1,919.42 $1,919.42 $24,459.05 $778.76 24 $1,977.00 $1,977.00 $26,436.05 $771.27 25 $2,036.31 $2,036.31 $28,472.36 $763.85 26 $2,097.40 $2,097.40 $30,569.76 $756.51 27 $2,160.32 $2,160.32 $32,730.09 $749.24 28 $2,225.13 $2,225.13 $34,955.22 $742.03 29 $2,291.89 $2,291.89 $37,247.11 $734.90 30 $2,360.64 $2,360.64 $39,607.75 $727.83 Total $47,657.75 $39,607.75 $66,672.86 Payback Period 7.3 years SIR 1.26

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138 Table A-16. All upgraded technologies net meter w/FIT life cycle cost analysis Financial Info Consumption Gas Rate $1.72 $/Therm Gas Inflation 3.00% ENERGY STAR 6841 kWh/year Electricity Rate $0.09 $/kWh Excess Electricity Rate $0.062 $/kWh 171 Therms/year Electricity Inflation 3.00% Discount Rate 4.00% ZEH Upgrade -1330 kWh/year General Inflation 2.10% Feed-In-Tariff Rate $0.32 $/kWh Upgrades Incremental Cost $50,000.00 PV $5,775.00 Metal Roof $1,500.00 SEER 15 $1,300.00 HP HWH $1,264.00 Window $100.00 Doors Total $59,939.00 Rebates $42,500.00 PV $1,550.00 SEER 15 $500.00 HP HWH $300.00 E-Star Home Total $44,850.00 Composite Roof Cost $3,560.00 Analysis Period 30 Year Energy Incremental Net Savings NCF Savings PV Net Savings Cost Savings 0 $59,939.00 ($59,939.00) ($59,939.00) 1 $1,362.70 $1,362.70 ($58,576.30) $1,310.29 2 $1,390.82 ($44,850.00) $46,240.82 ($12,335.48) $42,752.24 3 $1,419.77 $1,419.77 ($10,915.70) $1,262.17 4 $1,449.60 $1,449.60 ($9,466.11) $1,239.12 5 $1,480.32 $1,480.32 ($7,985.79) $1,216.71 6 $1,511.96 $1,511.96 ($6,473.83) $1,194.92 7 $1,544.55 $1,544.55 ($4,929.27) $1,173.73 8 $1,578.12 $1,578.12 ($3,351.15) $1,153.12 9 $1,612.70 $1,612.70 ($1,738.46) $1,133.06 Table A-16 Continued

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139 Year Energy Incremental Net Savings NCF Savings PV Net Savings Cost Savings 10 $1,648.31 $1,648.31 ($90.15) $1,113.54 11 $1,684.99 $1,684.99 $1,594.84 $1,094.54 12 $1,722.77 $1,722.77 $3,317.61 $1,076.04 13 $1,761.69 $1,761.69 $5,079.30 $1,058.02 14 $1,801.77 $1,801.77 $6,881.07 $1,040.48 15 $1,843.05 ($4,862.24) $6,705.29 $13,586.36 $3,723.21 16 $1,885.58 $1,885.58 $15,471.94 $1,006.73 17 $1,929.38 $1,929.38 $17,401.31 $990.49 18 $1,974.49 $1,974.49 $19,375.81 $974.66 19 $2,020.96 $2,020.96 $21,396.76 $959.23 20 $2,068.82 $2,068.82 $23,465.58 $944.18 21 $1,845.91 $1,845.91 $25,311.50 $810.05 22 $1,901.29 $1,901.29 $27,212.79 $802.26 23 $1,958.33 $1,958.33 $29,171.12 $794.55 24 $2,017.08 $2,017.08 $31,188.20 $786.91 25 $2,077.59 $2,077.59 $33,265.79 $779.34 26 $2,139.92 $2,139.92 $35,405.71 $771.85 27 $2,204.12 $2,204.12 $37,609.83 $764.42 28 $2,270.24 $2,270.24 $39,880.07 $757.07 29 $2,338.35 $2,338.35 $42,218.42 $749.79 30 $2,408.50 ($6,640.83) $9,049.33 $51,267.75 $2,790.08 Total $54,853.68 $51,267.75 $76,222.81 Payback Period 10.0 years SIR 1.27

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140 Table A-17. All cost effective upgraded technologies net meter w/FIT life cycle cost analysis Financial Info Consumption Gas Rate $1.72 $/Therm Gas Inflation 3.00% ENERGY STAR 6841 kWh/year Electricity Rate $0.09 $/kWh Excess Electricity Rate $0.062 $/kWh 171 Therms/year Electricity Inflation 3.00% Discount Rate 4.00% ZEH Upgrade -1012 kWh/year General Inflation 2.10% Feed-In Tariff Rate $0.32 $/kWh Upgrades Incremental Cost $50,000.00 PV $1,500.00 SEER 15 $1,300.00 HP HWH $100.00 Doors Total $52,900.00 Rebates $42,500.00 PV $1,550.00 SEER 15 $500.00 HP HWH $300.00 E-Star Home Total $44,850.00 Analysis Period 30 Year Energy Incremental Net Savings NCF Savings PV Net Savings Cost Savings 0 $52,900.00 ($52,900.00) ($52,900.00) 1 $1,260.94 $1,260.94 ($51,639.06) $1,212.45 2 $1,289.06 ($44,850.00) $46,139.06 ($5,500.00) $42,658.15 3 $1,318.01 $1,318.01 ($4,181.98) $1,171.71 4 $1,347.84 $1,347.84 ($2,834.15) $1,152.14 5 $1,378.56 $1,378.56 ($1,455.59) $1,133.08 6 $1,410.20 $1,410.20 ($45.39) $1,114.50 7 $1,442.79 $1,442.79 $1,397.41 $1,096.40 8 $1,476.36 $1,476.36 $2,873.77 $1,078.76 9 $1,510.94 $1,510.94 $4,384.70 $1,061.56 10 $1,546.55 $1,546.55 $5,931.25 $1,044.79 11 $1,583.23 $1,583.23 $7,514.48 $1,028.44 12 $1,621.01 $1,621.01 $9,135.49 $1,012.48

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141 Table A-17 Continued Year Energy Incremental Net Savings NCF Savings PV Net Savings Cost Savings 13 $1,659.93 $1,659.93 $10,795.42 $996.91 14 $1,700.01 $1,700.01 $12,495.43 $981.71 15 $1,741.29 $1,741.29 $14,236.72 $966.88 16 $1,783.82 $1,783.82 $16,020.54 $952.39 17 $1,827.62 $1,827.62 $17,848.16 $938.25 18 $1,872.73 $1,872.73 $19,720.89 $924.43 19 $1,919.20 $1,919.20 $21,640.09 $910.93 20 $1,967.06 $1,967.06 $23,607.14 $897.74 21 $1,809.24 $1,809.24 $25,416.38 $793.95 22 $1,863.51 $1,863.51 $27,279.89 $786.32 23 $1,919.42 $1,919.42 $29,199.31 $778.76 24 $1,977.00 $1,977.00 $31,176.32 $771.27 25 $2,036.31 $2,036.31 $33,212.63 $763.85 26 $2,097.40 $2,097.40 $35,310.03 $756.51 27 $2,160.32 $2,160.32 $37,470.35 $749.24 28 $2,225.13 $2,225.13 $39,695.49 $742.03 29 $2,291.89 $2,291.89 $41,987.37 $734.90 30 $2,360.64 $2,360.64 $44,348.02 $727.83 Total $52,398.02 $44,348.02 $69,938.37 Payback Period 6.0 years SIR 1.32

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142 Table A-18. All upgraded technologi es FIT life cycle cost analysis Financial Info Consumption Gas Rate $1.72 $/Therm Gas Inflation 3.00% ENERGY STAR 6841 kWh/year Electricity Rate $0.09 $/kWh 171 Therms/year Excess Electricity Rate $0.062 $/kWh Electricity Inflation 3.00% Production Discount Rate 4.00% ZEH Upgrade 7967 kWh/year General Inflation 2.10% Feed-In Tariff Rate $0.32 $/kWh Consumption Upgrades ZEH Upgrade 6637 kWh/year Incremental Cost $50,000.00 PV $5,775.00 Metal Roof $1,500.00 SEER 15 $1,300.00 HP HWH $1,264.00 Windows $100.00 Doors Total $59,939.00 Rebates $35,000.00 PV $1,550.00 SEER 15 $500.00 HP HWH $300.00 E-Star Home Total $37,350.00 Composite Roof Cost $3,560.00 Analysis Period 30 Year Energy Savings Incremental Net Savings NCF Savings PV Net Cost Savings 0 $59,939.00 ($59,939.00) ($59,939.00) 1 $2,871.29 $2,871.29 ($57,067.71) $2,760.86 2 $2,880.95 ($37,350.00) $40,230.95 ($16,836.76) $37,195.77 3 $2,890.90 $2,890.90 ($13,945.86) $2,570.00 4 $2,901.14 $2,901.14 ($11,044.72) $2,479.91 5 $2,911.69 $2,911.69 ($8,133.03) $2,393.20 6 $2,922.56 $2,922.56 ($5,210.47) $2,309.74 7 $2,933.75 $2,933.75 ($2,276.72) $2,229.41 8 $2,945.28 $2,945.28 $668.56 $2,152.09 9 $2,957.16 $2,957.16 $3,625.71 $2,077.66

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143 Table A-18 Continued Year Energy Savings Incremental Net Savings NCF Savings PV Net Cost Savings 10 $2,969.39 $2,969.39 $6,595.10 $2,006.01 11 $2,981.99 $2,981.99 $9,577.09 $1,937.04 12 $2,994.96 $2,994.96 $12,572.05 $1,870.64 13 $3,008.33 $3,008.33 $15,580.37 $1,806.72 14 $3,022.09 $3,022.09 $18,602.47 $1,745.18 15 $3,036.27 ($4,862.24) $7,898.51 $26,500.98 $4,385.76 16 $3,050.88 $3,050.88 $29,551.86 $1,628.89 17 $3,065.92 $3,065.92 $32,617.78 $1,573.96 18 $3,081.42 $3,081.42 $35,699.20 $1,521.07 19 $3,097.38 $3,097.38 $38,796.57 $1,470.15 20 $3,113.81 $3,113.81 $41,910.39 $1,421.10 21 $1,845.91 $1,845.91 $43,756.30 $810.05 22 $1,901.29 $1,901.29 $45,657.59 $802.26 23 $1,958.33 $1,958.33 $47,615.92 $794.55 24 $2,017.08 $2,017.08 $49,633.00 $786.91 25 $2,077.59 $2,077.59 $51,710.60 $779.34 26 $2,139.92 $2,139.92 $53,850.52 $771.85 27 $2,204.12 $2,204.12 $56,054.64 $764.42 28 $2,270.24 $2,270.24 $58,324.88 $757.07 29 $2,338.35 $2,338.35 $60,663.23 $749.79 30 $2,408.50 ($6,640.83) $9,049.33 $69,712.55 $2,790.08 Total $80,798.49 $69,712.55 $87,341.49 Payback Period 7.8 years SIR 1.46

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144 Table A-19. All cost-effective upgraded te chnologies FIT life cycle cost analysis Financial Info Consumption Gas Rate $1.72 $/Therm Gas Inflation 3.00% ENERGY STAR 6841 kWh/year Electricity Rate $0.09 $/kWh 171 Therms/year Excess Electricity Rate $0.062 $/kWh Electricity Inflation 3.00% Production Discount Rate 4.00% ZEH Upgrade 7967 kWh/year General Inflation 2.10% Feed-In Tariff Rate $0.32 $/kWh Consumption Upgrades 6955 kWh/year Incremental Cost $50,000.00 PV $1,500.00 SEER 15 $1,300.00 HP HWH $100.00 Doors Total $52,900.00 Rebates $35,000.00 PV $1,550.00 SEER 15 $500.00 HP HWH $300.00 E-Star Home Total $37,350.00 Analysis Period 30 Year Energy Savings Incremental Net Savings NCF Savings PV Net Cost Savings 0 $52,900.00 ($52,900.00) ($52,900.00) 1 $2,841.82 $2,841.82 ($50,058.18) $2,732.52 2 $2,850.59 ($37,350.00) $40,200.59 ($9,857.60) $37,167.70 3 $2,859.62 $2,859.62 ($6,997.98) $2,542.19 4 $2,868.93 $2,868.93 ($4,129.05) $2,452.37 5 $2,878.51 $2,878.51 ($1,250.54) $2,365.93 6 $2,888.38 $2,888.38 $1,637.85 $2,282.73 7 $2,898.55 $2,898.55 $4,536.40 $2,202.66 8 $2,909.03 $2,909.03 $7,445.42 $2,125.60 9 $2,919.81 $2,919.81 $10,365.24 $2,051.42 10 $2,930.92 $2,930.92 $13,296.16 $1,980.03 11 $2,942.37 $2,942.37 $16,238.53 $1,911.31 12 $2,954.16 $2,954.16 $19,192.69 $1,845.16 13 $2,966.30 $2,966.30 $22,158.98 $1,781.48 14 $2,978.80 $2,978.80 $25,137.79 $1,720.18

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145 Table A-19 Continued Year Energy Savings Incremental Net Savings NCF Savings PV Net Cost Savings 15 $2,991.68 $2,991.68 $28,129.47 $1,661.18 16 $3,004.95 $3,004.95 $31,134.42 $1,604.37 17 $3,018.62 $3,018.62 $34,153.04 $1,549.68 18 $3,032.69 $3,032.69 $37,185.73 $1,497.02 19 $3,047.19 $3,047.19 $40,232.92 $1,446.33 20 $3,062.12 $3,062.12 $43,295.05 $1,397.51 21 $1,809.24 $1,809.24 $45,104.28 $793.95 22 $1,863.51 $1,863.51 $46,967.80 $786.32 23 $1,919.42 $1,919.42 $48,887.22 $778.76 24 $1,977.00 $1,977.00 $50,864.22 $771.27 25 $2,036.31 $2,036.31 $52,900.53 $763.85 26 $2,097.40 $2,097.40 $54,997.93 $756.51 27 $2,160.32 $2,160.32 $57,158.26 $749.24 28 $2,225.13 $2,225.13 $59,383.39 $742.03 29 $2,291.89 $2,291.89 $61,675.28 $734.90 30 $2,360.64 $2,360.64 $64,035.92 $727.83 Total $79,585.92 $64,035.92 $81,922.02 Payback Period 5.4 years SIR 1.55

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146 LIST OF REFERENCES Anderson, R., Christensen, C., and Horowit z, S. (2006). "Analysis of Residential System Strategies Targeting Least-Cost Solutions Leading to Net Zero Energy Homes." ASHRAE Trans, 112(2), 330-341. Baechler, M., and Love, P. (2004). "Building Am erica Best Practices Series: Volume 1." National Renewable Energy Lab oratory, Wash ington, D.C. Boyer, L., and Grondzik, W. (1987). "Passive Cooling Enhancements." Earth Shelter Technology, Texas A&M University Press, 101-105. Database of State Incentives for Renewab les and Efficiency. (2009). "Florida Solar Energy System Incentives Program." http://www.dsireusa.org/incentives/incentive.cfm?Incentive_Cod e=FL33F&re=1&ee =1 (August 18, 2009). Database of State Incentives for Renew ables and Efficiency. (2009). "Gainesville Regional Utilities Solar Feed-In-Tariff." http://www.dsireusa.org/incentives/inc entive.cfm?Incentive_Cod e=FL77F&re=1&ee =1 (August 18, 2009). Database of State Incentives for Renew ables and Efficiency. (2009). "Residential Energy Efficiency Tax Credit." http://www.dsireusa.org/incentives/inc entive.cfm?Incentive_Cod e=US43F&re=1&e e=1 (August 18, 2009). Database of State Incentives for Renew ables and Efficiency. (2009). "Residential Renewable Energy Tax Credit." http://www.dsireusa.org/incentives/inc entive.cfm?Incentive_Cod e=US37F&re=1&e e=1 (August 18, 2009). Energy Efficiency and Renewable E nergy. (2008). "Building America." http://www1.eere.energy.gov/build ings/building_americ a/about.html (September 3, 2009). Energy Information Administration. (2008) "Energy Consumption by Sector, 19492008." http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/pdf/pages/sec2_4.pdf (August 23, 2009). Florida Housing Data Cleari nghouse. (2007). "Housing Profile Gainesville, Florida." http://flhousingdata.shimberg. ufl.edu/a/profiles?action= results&nid =112&image2.x =20&image2.y=8#housing_market (September 22, 2009). Gainesville Regional Utilities. (2004). "E NERGY STAR Certific ation of Affordable Housing Construction." http://www.gru.com/YourHome/Conservation/Energy/Re bates/eStarAffordableHou sing.jsp (August 18, 2009).

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147 Gainesville Regional Utilities. (2004). "GRU's Solar Water Heating Rebate." http://www.gru.com/YourHome/Conservat ion/Energy/Re bates/solarRebates.jsp (August 18, 2009). Gainesville Regional Utilities. (2004). "High-efficiency Central A/C Rebate." http://www.gru.com/YourHome/Conservat ion/Energy/Re bates/hec_conditioner.jsp (August 18, 2009). Gainesville Regional Utilities. (2004). "Residential Solar Elec tric (PV) System Rebate." http://www.gru.com/YourHome/Conservat ion/Energy/Re bates/solarElectric.jsp (August 18, 2008). Kibert, J. (2008). Sustainable Construction: Green Building Design and Delivery. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ. Little, A. G. (2004). "Super Solar Homes Everyone can Afford. (Cover story)." Mother Earth News, (207), 34-42. Lyon-Collis, L. (2009). "Energizing the Affordable Housing Market." Housing & Community Development, 6-13. Madrigal, A. (2009). "Thin-Fi lm Solar Startup Debuts With $4 Billion in Contracts." http://www.wired.com/wired scien ce/2009/09/nanosolar/ (September 22, 2009). Moyer, N. (2005). "Air Distribution Systems in Conditioned Spaces i.e. "Ducts in Unvented Attics"." Florida Solar Energy Center, Orlando, FL. National Atlas of the United States. (2009). "Renewable Energy Sources in the United States." http://www.nationalatlas.gov/artic les/people/a_ energy.html#three (September 1, 2009). Norton, P., and Christensen, C. (2008). "Performance Results from a Cold Climate Case Study for Affordable Zero Energy Homes." ASHRAE Trans, 114(1), 218-229. Parker, D., Sherwin, J., H oak, D., Chandra, S., and Mart in, E. (2009). "Preliminary Performance Evaluation of a Near Zero E nergy Home in Gainesville, Florida." Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL. Parker, D. S. (2009). "Very low energy homes in the United States: Perspectives on performance from measured data." Energy & Buildings, 41(5), 512-520. Schwartz, A. (2006). "Trends, Patterns, Problems." Housing Policy in the United States: An Introduction, Routledge Taylor & Francis Group, New York, NY, 23-32. Toolbase Services. (2008). "Seven Steps to a ZEH." http://www.toolbase.org/HomeBuilding-Topics/zero-energy-homes/seven-steps-zeh (August 22, 2009).

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148 U.S. Department of Housing and Urban De velopment. (2009). "Affordable Housing." http://www.hud.gov/offices/cpd/ affordableh ousing/index.cfm (September 19, 2009). U.S. Environmental Protecti on Agency & U.S. Department of Energy. (2009). "ENERGY STAR Qualified Homes Florida Builder Option Package." http://www.energystar.gov/ia/partners/bldrs_lenders_rat ers/downloads/BOP_Florid a.pdf (July 21, 2009). U.S. Environmental Protecti on Agency & U.S. Department of Energy. (2009). "ENERGY STAR Qualified Homes National Performance Path Requirements." http://www.energystar.gov/ia/ partners/bldrs_lenders_rat ers/downloads/PerfPathTR K.pdf (July 21, 2009). U.S. Environmental Protecti on Agency & U.S. Department of Energy. (2009). "ENERGY STAR Qualified Homes Thermal Bypass Inspection Checklist." http://www.energystar.gov/i a/partners/bldrs_lenders_rat ers/downloads/Thermal_By pass_Inspection_Checklist.pdf (July 21, 2009). U.S. Environmental Protecti on Agency & U.S. Department of Energy. (2009). "Features of ENERGY STAR Qualified New Homes." http://www.energystar.gov/index.c fm?c=new_homes.nh_features (July 21, 2009). Wang, N., Esram, T., Martinez, L. A., and Mc Culley, M. T. (2009). "A marketable allelectric solar house: A report of a Solar Decathlon project." Renewable Energy: An International Journal, 34(12), 2860-2871. Wanslow, R., and Spies, H. (1995). "Maintai ning Your Home." School of Architecture Building Research Council, (BRC), University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, Illinois. Willfrid. (2008). "Standby Mode Turns Appliances Into Money Suckers." http://moneyning.com/frugality/standby-m ode-turns-appliances-into-moneysuckers/ (August 22, 2009).

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149 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Brock A. Fleming graduated from Pine Crest School in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida in 2003, where he was actively involved in academi cs, athletics, and music. He attended the University of Florida where he purs ued his undergraduate degree in economics. The degree taught him about t he production, consumption, and distribution of goods and the maximization of profits. He rece ived his bachelors degree in 2007, graduating cum laude. Midway through the completion of his economics degree, he realized that real-estate development and construction m anagement were the areas of business that he wanted to engage in for his career. Du ring his last term of his undergraduate degree, he was accepted into the M.E. Rinker, Sr. School of Building Construction at the University of Florida. There he woul d pursue his Master of Science in Building Construction. During his graduate studies, he enrolled in courses that focused on sustainable construction. These classes taught him about the strategies and technologies utilized for implementation of sustai nable principles, and also taught the ecological and economical importance of why these techni ques must become the standard in the construction industry. In 2009, he becam e a Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design Accredited Professional (LEED AP) and anticipates being a contributive member on a project seeking LEED Certification. He received his Master of Science in Building Construction in December 2009. He intends on working with a company that develops high-performance green buildings in various market categories and looks forward to making his contribution towards the advanc ement of sustainable construction.