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Variation in Aspectual Morphology

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0025145/00001

Material Information

Title: Variation in Aspectual Morphology Stative Verbs in the Spanish of Salamanca
Physical Description: 1 online resource (291 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Knouse, Stephanie
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: adverbials, aspectual, imperfective, morphology, native, perfective, priming, salamanca, sociolinguistic, spanish, stative, transitivity, variation
Romance Languages and Literatures -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Romance Languages thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Variation in Aspectual Morphology: Stative Verbs in the Spanish of Salamanca In Spanish, aspectual morphology is a critical element that speakers use to narrate and discuss past events. Previous qualitative accounts have shown that native Spanish-speakers apply past-tense aspectual morphology to verbs in order to distinguish between events viewed as perfective (bounded, discrete events) and imperfective (unbounded, durative events) (Comrie 1976, Dahl 1985, inter alia), as well as foregrounded and backgrounded actions (Hopper 1979b, 1982). Along with grammatical aspect, one must also consider how the inherent meaning of the verb plays a role in the use and understanding of past-tense narration. Yet, if the lexical aspect of a verb indicates an ongoing state (e.g. ser be , estar be ), how is the meaning of the verb interpreted when applied with perfective aspect? In other words, since verbs of state are more naturally applied with imperfective aspect (cf. Hopper 1982), what is the discourse function of the perfective-stative combination in natural face-to-face discourse and what are the contextual and extra-linguistic factors conditioning this use? The data considered in the present investigation were taken from a corpus of 25 sociolinguistic interviews in Salamanca, Spain, collected by the author in the summer of 2008. All tokens of past-tense aspectual morphology (Preterit, Imperfect, and Present Perfect) were extracted from the salmantino corpus (N=4511) and analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Variable rule analyses using GoldVarb X (D. Sankoff, Tagliamonte & Smith 2005) revealed that temporal adverbials and grammatical person conditioned the use of stative verbs in the perfective form. Other linguistic factors were found to influence aspectual choice, but these constraints were not uniform for the four most frequent stative verbs (i.e., ser, estar, tener have , haber be, exist ). The social and stylistic factors did not show a systematic influence on determining aspectual choice in past-tense morphology in salmantino Spanish. In addition, qualitative narrative analysis uncovered that speakers can use perfective aspect to convey subjective viewpoints.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Stephanie Knouse.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Aaron, Jessica.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0025145:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0025145/00001

Material Information

Title: Variation in Aspectual Morphology Stative Verbs in the Spanish of Salamanca
Physical Description: 1 online resource (291 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Knouse, Stephanie
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: adverbials, aspectual, imperfective, morphology, native, perfective, priming, salamanca, sociolinguistic, spanish, stative, transitivity, variation
Romance Languages and Literatures -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Romance Languages thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Variation in Aspectual Morphology: Stative Verbs in the Spanish of Salamanca In Spanish, aspectual morphology is a critical element that speakers use to narrate and discuss past events. Previous qualitative accounts have shown that native Spanish-speakers apply past-tense aspectual morphology to verbs in order to distinguish between events viewed as perfective (bounded, discrete events) and imperfective (unbounded, durative events) (Comrie 1976, Dahl 1985, inter alia), as well as foregrounded and backgrounded actions (Hopper 1979b, 1982). Along with grammatical aspect, one must also consider how the inherent meaning of the verb plays a role in the use and understanding of past-tense narration. Yet, if the lexical aspect of a verb indicates an ongoing state (e.g. ser be , estar be ), how is the meaning of the verb interpreted when applied with perfective aspect? In other words, since verbs of state are more naturally applied with imperfective aspect (cf. Hopper 1982), what is the discourse function of the perfective-stative combination in natural face-to-face discourse and what are the contextual and extra-linguistic factors conditioning this use? The data considered in the present investigation were taken from a corpus of 25 sociolinguistic interviews in Salamanca, Spain, collected by the author in the summer of 2008. All tokens of past-tense aspectual morphology (Preterit, Imperfect, and Present Perfect) were extracted from the salmantino corpus (N=4511) and analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Variable rule analyses using GoldVarb X (D. Sankoff, Tagliamonte & Smith 2005) revealed that temporal adverbials and grammatical person conditioned the use of stative verbs in the perfective form. Other linguistic factors were found to influence aspectual choice, but these constraints were not uniform for the four most frequent stative verbs (i.e., ser, estar, tener have , haber be, exist ). The social and stylistic factors did not show a systematic influence on determining aspectual choice in past-tense morphology in salmantino Spanish. In addition, qualitative narrative analysis uncovered that speakers can use perfective aspect to convey subjective viewpoints.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Stephanie Knouse.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Aaron, Jessica.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0025145:00001


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PAGE 19

! "= -1$+',%!"! &)'%(9.-'&()! 1.1 General Notions of Tense and Aspect 'B@!J?IO7!HP!?@DJ@\CJA@F?!p'$q!BCJ![@@D!C!O@@A G7!@WAGHM@O!?HAEF!HP! GEDSIEJ?EF!CDCG7JEJ!PHM! HQ@M!?RH!L EGG@DDECX !(D@!M@CJHD!RB7!?BEJ!CM@C!BCJ!@DZH7@ O!JIFB!C!GHDS!CDO!MEFB!BEJ?HM7!HP! GEDSIEJ?EF!J?IO7!FHIGO![@!OI@!?H !?B@!MEFBD@JJ!HP!L@CDEDSJ!?BC?!'$!PHMLJ!@L[HO7X!'B@J@! LHMABHJ7D?CF?EF!@G@L@D?J!@LAHR@M!JA@CV@MJ!HP! CD7!GCDSICS@!?H!FHDQ@7!DH?!HDG7!?@LAHMCGG7! M@G@QCD?!EDPHMLC?EHD!pEX@XN!?@DJ@qN![I?!CGJH!?H !@WAM@JJ!BEJnB@M!A@MF@A?E HD!HP!C!JE?IC?EHD!pEX@XN! CJA@F?ICG!QE@RAHED?qX!0CD7!GEDSIEJ?J!BCQ@!PH FIJ@O!HD!O@JFME[EDS!?B@!J7DFBMHDEF!DICDF@J!HP! GCDSICS@\ACM?EFIGCM!'$!J7J?@LJ!pEX@ XN!2IE?CM?!"=lmN!1HAA@M!"=l=CN!"=l=[N!"=m;N!*EGQC\ -HMQCGdD!"=mKN!5CFB@!"=mkN!5@M?ED@??H!"=mkN!'B @GED!"==
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PAGE 45

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PAGE 46

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! ml *ACDEJBN!E?!RCJ!CGJH!M@FHSDEa@O!?BC?!?B@!JI[J@`I@ D?!M@A@?E?EHD!HP!CJA@F?ICG!LCMVEDSJ!LC7!DH?![@! OI@!?H!AMELEDSN![I?!MC?B@M!E?!FHIGO! [@!M@GC?@O!?H!?B@!J?MI F?IM@!HP!?B@!DCMMC?EQ@! E?J@GPX!6HM!EDJ?CDF@N! JEDF@!A@MP@F?EQ@!CJA@F?!EJ!FHLLHDG7!IJ@O!?H!@ WAM@JJ!JIFF@JJEQ@!@Q@D?J! ED!FHLAGEFC?EDS!CF?EHD! FGCIJ@J!ED!DCMMC?EHD!p%@EO!"=lkN! 1HAA@M!"=l=[N!"=m;N!*EGQC\-HMQCGdD! "=mKqN!E?!FHIGO![@!AHJJE[G@! ?BC?!FHD?ESIHIJ!A@MP@F?EQ@!CJA@F?ICG!LCMV@MJ!HF FIM!ED!HMO@M!?H!LHQ@!?B@!J?HM7GED@!CGHDS!?B@! ?@LAHMCG!CWEJX!'B@M@PHM@N!CDH?B@M!O@JEM@O!HI?FHL@ !HP!EDFHMAHMC?EDS!?BEJ!PCF?HM!SMHIA!ED?H!?B@! CDCG7JEJ!RCJ!?H!O@?@MLED@!RB@?B@M!?B@!FHSDE?E Q@!L@FBCDEJLJ![@BEDO!AMELEDS!BCQ@!C!SM@C?@M! ELACF?!HD!?B@!FBHEF@!HP!ACJ?\?@D J@!CJA@F?ICG!LHMABHGHS7!HM!RB@?B@ M!E?!RCJ!C!OEJFHIMJ@!PIDF?EHD! HP!?B@!DCMMC?EQ@X! 2.5.1.4 Collocation 'B@!PHIM?B!GEDSIEJ?EF!PCF?HM!SMHIA!FHDJEO@M @ON!-HGGHFC?EHDN!RCJ!EDFGIO@O!ED!HMO@M!?H! OEJFHQ@M!EP!ACJ?\?@DJ@!CJA @F?ICG!L HMABHGHS7!RCJ!FHDOE?EHD@O! [7!?B@!AM@J@DF@!HP!CDH?B@M! SMCLLC?EFCG!J?MIF?IM@!GEDV@O!?H!?B@!Q@M[CG!PHML N!H?B@MREJ@!VDHRD!CJ!pSMCLLC?EFCGq!FHGGHFC?EHDJX! -HGGHFC?EHDJ!CM@!O@PED@O!CJ!jFBCMCF? @MEaC?EHDJ!HP!C!RHMO!ED!?@MLJ!HP!?B@!H?B@M!RHMOJ!?BC?!?7AEFCGG7! FH\HFFIMJ!RE?Bg!p5E[@M !;<<<4;m=qX!&?!RCJ!@WA@F?@O!?BC?!Q@M[!t! ,/'/ !p;XK"qN!Q@M[!t!EDPEDE?EQ@! p;XK;qN!CDO!Q@M[!t!S@MIDO!p;XKKq!?H!OEJPCQHM!?B@! A@MP@F?EQ@\J?C?EQ@!PHMLN! JEDF@!?B@J@!CM@!?7AEFCG! FHDJ?MIF?EHDJ!O@DH?EDS![CFVSMHIDO!O@JFMEA?EHDJ! ?H!JIAAHM?!DCMMC?EQ@!O@?CEG!pEX@XN!ELA@MP@F?EQ@! CJA@F?qX!! p;XK"q!3!7H!?@DiC!ID!AI@J?H! O@!?MC[CZHN!`I@!7H!@J?C[C como !@DFCMSCOC!@D!IDC!?E@DOCX!po#&N!PT
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! mm 'B@!PCF?HMJ!Q@M[!t! ;-1)" jR@GGgN!Q@M[!t! '$0" j[COgN!CDO!Q@M[!t!DH?BEDS!R@M@!CGJH!@WA@F?@O!?H! OEJPCQHM!?B@!A@MP@F?EQ@\J?C?EQ @!PHML!CGJH!OI@!?H!?B@EM!IJ@!ED![CFVSMHIDO@O!EDPHMLC?EHDX! 2.5.1.5 Clause type 'B@!PEP?B!GEDSIEJ?EF!PCF?HM!SMHIAN!-GCIJ@!'7A@ N!RCJ!EDFHMAHMC?@O!ED?H!?B@!CDCG7JEJ!?H! FHMMH[HMC?@!?B@!PEDOEDSJ!HP!8G@ED\ $DOM@I!p"=="qN!RBEFB!M@Q@CG@O!?B C?!?B@!?7A@!HP!FGCIJ@!pEX@XN! L CED!HM!JI[HMOEDC?@q!AGC7@O!C!MHG@!ED!O@?@MLEDED S!EP!?B@!J?C?@nCF?EHD!RCJ!FHDJEO@M@O!BESB\PHFIJ@O! pEX@XN!J?C?@JnCF?EHDJ!ED!LCED!FGCIJ@ Jq!HM!GHR\PHFIJ@O!pEX@XN!J?C?@JnCF? EHDJ!ED!JI[HMOEDC?@!FGCIJ@Jq!ED! DCMMC?EQ@JX!*B@!CGJH!OEJFHQ@M@O!?BC? !HP!CGG!HP!?B@!JI[HMOEDC?@!FGCI J@JN!FHLAG@L@D?!FGCIJ@J!R@M@! ?7AEFCGG7!jLHM@!PHM@SMHIDO@O!?BCD!H?B@M!JI[HM OEDC?@!AM@J@D?C?EHDJg!p8G@ED\$DOM@I!"=="4"lKqX! ,Q@D!RE?B!?BC?!JCEON!BHR@Q@MN! R@!@WA@F?@O!?BC?!ELA@MP@F?EQ@! CJA@F?!?H!PCQHM!JI[HMOEDC?@! FGCIJ@JbJA@FEPEFCGG7N!M@GC?EQ@ !FGCIJ@J!p;XKTqN!H[Z@F?!FHLAG@L@D?!FGCIJ@J!p;XKfqN!HM! COQ@M[ECGnFCIJCG!FGCIJ@J!p;XKkq bCDO!A@MP@F?EQ@!CJA@F?!RHIGO!PC QHM!LCED!FGCIJ@J!p;XKlqX!U@! ZIJ?EPE@O!?BEJ!B7AH?B@JEJ![@FCIJ@!CFFHMOEDS! ?H!%@EO!p"=lkqN!1HAA@M!p"=l=N!"=m;q!CDO!8G@ED\ $DOM@I!p"=="qN!?B@!LCED!FGCIJ@!RCJ!?B@!J@D? @DF@!RB@M@!?B@!BESB\PHFIJ@ O!pPHM@SMHIDO@Oq!FHD?@D?! HP!C!DCMMC?EQ@!RCJ!JE?IC?@ON!?BIJ N!PCQHMEDS!A@MP@F?EQ@!CJA@F?X!!! p;XKTq!$GGi!@DFHD?MCLHJ!C!GC!LCOM@!JIA@ MEHMC!7!GC!AMHP@JHMC!O@!SELDCJEC!! que era una monja X!po#&&N!PK"q! !j'B@M@!R@!PHIDO!?B@!LH?B@M!JIA@MEHM!CDO!?B@!S7L!?@CFB@M!! who was p&0+q a nun X! p;XKfq +@MH!FGCMHN!]G!7C!JC[iC!! que mi mam‡ ten’a ocho hijos. !j5I?!HP!FHIMJ@N!B@!CGM@CO7!VD@R!! that my mother had (IMP) eight children.' p;XKkq!,D?HDF@JN!B@!?@DEOH!IDC!EDPCDFEC!LI7![HDE?C!! porque Žramos una pi–a con mis hermanas X!po&&N!Pk;q! !j*HN!&!BCO!C!Q@M7![@CI?EPIG!FBEGOBHHO!! because we were p&0+q a clan with my sisters Xg!

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! m= p;XKlq! Primero estuve un a–o !! 7!L@!QED@X!po#N!Pfmq! !j First I was p+%,'q! there a year !! CDO!&!FCL@![CFVXg! 2.5.1.6 Sentence type 'B@!JEW?B!GEDSIEJ?EF!PCF?HM! SMHIAN!*@D?@DF@!'7A@N!RCJ!IJ@O! ?H!@WAGHM@!8G@ED\$DOM@IgJ! p"=="q!FHDFGIJEHD!?BC?!?B@!AHGCME?7!HP !C!J@D?@DF@! FHIGO!AM@OEF?!RB@?B@M!HM!DH?!C!J@D?@DF@!EJ! FHDJEO@M@O!C!PHM@SMHIDO@O!@Q@D?!HM!C![CFVSMHIDO@ O!O@?CEG!ED!DCMMC?EHDX!'B @!FHMM@GC?EHD![@?R@@D! SMHIDOEDS!J?MC?@SE@J!CDO!?B@!QCMEC[ G@!HP!HIM!J?IO7!RCJ!@W?M@L@G7!M@ G@QCD?!@JA@FECGG7!JEDF@!?B@! GE?@MC?IM@!M@AHM?@O!?BC?!?B@!QCJ? !LCZHME?7!HP!PHM@SMHIDO@O!FGCIJ@ J!R@M@!CAAGE@O!RE?B!A@MP@F?EQ@! CJA@F?!CDON!ED!HAAHJE?EHDN![CFVSMHIDO@O!FGCIJ@ J!R@M@!FHLLHDG7!CAAGE@O!RE?B!ELA@MP@F?EQ@! CJA@F?X!&D!COOE?EHDN!JEDF@!*FBR@D?@M!r!'HMM@ J!-CFHIGGHJ!p;<
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! =< 2.5.1.7 Locative expression 'B@!J@Q@D?B!GEDSIEJ?EF!PCF?HM! SMHIAN!/HFC?EQ@!,WAM@JJEHDJN!RC J!EDFGIO@O!?H!FHMMH[HMC?@!?B@! M@JIG?J!HP!HIM!AM@GEL EDCM7!J?IO7!HP! 1.5$%" j[@g!ED! '$6%-01J/" *ACDEJBX $!GHFC?EQ@!COQ@M[!HM!ABMCJ@! SEQ@J!JA@FEPEF!M@P@M@DF@!?H!?B@!GHFC?EHD!HP!C!J?C?@!HM!CD!CF?EHDX!'BEJ!PCF?HM!SMHIA!RCJ!HDG7!?@J?@O! RE?B!?B@!Q@M[! 1.5$%" ED!HIM!J?IO7N!LCEDG7!JEDF@!?B@!AM@J@DF@!HP !C!GHFC?EQ@!COQ@M[!HM!ABMCJ@!EJ!LHJ?! CAAGEFC[G@!?H!?BEJ!Q@M[X!&D!8DHIJ@!p;<
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! =" 2.5.1.8 Prepositional phrase 'B@!@ESB?B!GEDSIEJ?EF!PCF?HM!SM HIAN!?B@!AM@J@DF@!HM!C[J@DF@!HP!C!AM@AHJE?EHD!ABMCJ@N!RCJ! EDFHMAHMC?@O!ED!M@JAHDJ@!?H!?B @!PEDOEDSJ!HP!5E[@M!p"==;qX!1@! AMHAHJ@O!?BC?!?B@!AM@J@DF@!HP! AM@AHJE?EHDCG!ABMCJ@J!pCLHDS!H?B@M!GEDSIEJ?EF!@G@L @D?J q!COO!?H!?B@!jED?@SMC?@O!J?MIF?IM@g!HP!C!?@W?! CDO!?BC?!?B@J@!ABMCJ@J!jM@PG@F?!C!BESBG7!EDPHMLC ?EHDCG!PHFIJ!CDO!C!M@GC?EQ@G 7!O@DJ@!ED?@SMC?EHD!HP! EDPHMLC?EHD!ED!C!?@W?g!p5E[@M!;<<<4K
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! =; Q@M[J!p@XSX! 61,-% !jJC7gN! #%1+3)5$% !jCJVgq!p;XTfqN!O7DCLEF!Q@M[J!p@XSX! 5%$;$2$% !jRHMVgN! <$,1% !jOHgq! p;XTkqN!CDO!FBCDS@\HP\J?C?@!Q@M[J!p@XSX! #/)1%.1 !j[@FHL@gN! '$5$% !jVEGGnOE@gN! 61,-6-% jO@FEO@gqp;XTlqX!! p;XT;q!'@DiC!`I@ estar !A@DOE@D?@N!]MCLHJ!LIFBHJN!7!DHJ!?@ DiC!?HOHJ!LI7![E@D !I[EFCOHJX!po&&N! Pk;q! !j*B@!BCO!?H p&0+q! be !Q@M7!QESEGCD?N!R@!R@M@!LCD7!zFBEGOM@D{N!CDO!JB@!BCO!IJ!Q@M7!R@GG! GHFC?@OXg! p;XTKq!3!AI@JN!?CLAHFH!AHOiC ver !@B!M@QEJ?CJ!JIFECJN!AI@J!GHJ!FI@MAHJN!@G!FI@MAHN!CG!DEQ@G!O@! FI@MAH!DH!AHOiCJ!?HFCM?@ N!DH!AHOiCJX!poN!PTmq! !j$DO!R@GGN!&!FHIGO !p&0+q!DH?! see !IB!OEM?7!LCSCaED@JN!R@GG!?B@![HOE@JN!?B@![H7N!HD!?B@! G@Q@G!HP!?B@![HO7!7HI!FHIGO!DH?!?H IFB!7HIMJ@GPN!7HI!FHIGO!DH?Xg! p;XTTq!,D?HDF@J!?IQELHJ!`I@ ir !CG!BHJAE?CG!C!`I@!G@!OE@MHD!ID!AID?HX!poo#N!L;=q! j*H!R@!BCO!?H !p+%,'q! go !?H!?B@!BHJAE?CG!z?H{!?BC?!?B@7!SCQ@!BEL!J?E?FB@JXg! p;XTfq!3!GI@SH!@J?IQH explicando !LE!B@MLCDH!LC7HM4!}+@MH!LIZ@MN!yFICDOH!?@!GG@QC!C!GC!FCLC! DH!Q@J!`I@!?E@D@!GCJ!Jd[CDCJ![GCDFCJv!+I@J!@J@!@JX~!p#&&N!PTmq! !j$DO!?B@D!B@!RCJ !p+%,'q! explaining !?H!L@!L7!HGO@M![MH?B@M4!}5I?!RHLCDN!RB@D!JB@! ?CJVJ!7HI!?H![@O!OHDg?!7HI!J@@!?BC?!E?! BCJ!RBE?@!JB@@?Jv!U@GG!?BC?gJ!E?X~g! p;XTkq!,D?HDF@J!O@JO@!CGGi!DHJ!?MCJGCOCLHJ!C!OEJ? ED?HJ!JE?EHJ!ACMC!M@FHMOCM!*CD?ECSHN!GC!-HMIcCN! ?HOHJ!@J?IQELHJ haciendo !?HOHN!?HOC!IDC!CD]FOH?C!?HOH!@G!L@J!`I@!@J?IQELHJ!CGGiX!p&N! Pfmq! !j*H!PMHL!?B@M@!R@!LHQ@O!PMHL!OEPP@M@D?!AG CF@J!?H!M@L@L[@M!*CD?ECSHN!GC!-HMIcCN!R@!CGG! R@M@ !p+%,'q! doing !@Q@M7?BEDSN!CD!@D?EM@!CD@FOH?@!?B@!@D ?EM@!LHD?B!?BC?!R@!R@M@!?B@M@X! p;XTlq!$G!PEDCG!?IQH!`I@ decidir !@D?M@!JI!PCLEGEC!7!GC!AHGi?EFCX!pooN!Pk
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! =K 2.5.1.10 Adjective/past participle 'B@!?@D?B!GEDSIEJ?EF!PCF?HM!SMHIA!EDFGIO@O!ED!?B@! CDCG7JEJN!?B@!AM@J@DF@!HP!CD!$OZ@F?EQ@!HM! +CJ?!+CM?EF EAG@N!RCJ!EDFHMAHMC?@O!?H!Q@MEP7!EP!C!J? C?EQ@!t!COZ@F?EQ@nACJ?!ACM? EFEAG@!BCO!CD!EDPGI@DF@! HD!?B@!FBHEF@!HP!ACJ?\?@DJ@!CJA@F?ICG!LHMABHGHS7X! &?!RCJ!HMESEDCGG7!B7AH?B @JEa@O!?BC?!C!J?C?EQ@! Q@M[!t!COZ@F?EQ@nACJ?!ACM?EFEAG@ !RHIGO!OEJPCQHM!A@MP@F ?EQ@!CJA@F?N!JEDF@!?B@J @!FHDJ?MIF?EHDJ!RHIGO! [@!IJ@O!?H!O@JFME[@![CFVSMHIDO@O!FHDOE?EHDJN!CJ!ED!p;XTmqX!! p;XTmq!&4!y-hLH!?@!J@D?iCJv!! +4!-HLH!GC!LIZ@M!LdJ!P@GEa!O@G!LIDOHN!@MC N!@J?C[C !LI7! contenta N!FHD!LE![HOCN!FHD!LE! Q@J?EOHN!FHD!LEJ!CLESCJN!@J?C[C!LE!PCLEGECN! ?HOH!@G!LIDOH!CBiN!DH!PCG?C[C!DCOE@N!AI@JN! CO@LdJ!?HOH!JCGEh!LI7![E@DN!O@JAI]J!O@!?HOHN!CJi!`I@!LI7![E@DX! &4!j1HR!OEO!7HI!P@@Gv! +4!/EV@!?B@!BCAAE@J?!RHLCD!HD!@CM?BN!&!RCJ !p&0+qN!&!RCJ !p&0+q!Q@M7! happy N!RE?B!L7! R@OOEDSN!RE?B!L7!OM@JJN!RE?B!L7!PME@DOJN!L7 !PCLEG7!RCJ!?B@M@N!@Q@M7HD@!?B@M@N!DH[HO7! RCJ!LEJJEDSN!R@GGN!HD!?HA!HP!E?! CGG!@Q@M7?BEDS!R@D?!Q@M7!R@GG N!CP?@M!@Q@M7?BEDS!JH!Q@M7! R@GGXg! 3@?N!R@!M@FHDJEO@M@O!?BEJ!B7AH? B@JEJ!ED!GESB?!HP!5E[@M!p"==;q! RBEFB!PHIDO!?BC?!COZ@F?EQ@JN!GEV@! AM@AHJE?EHDCG!ABMCJ@JN!COO@O!?H!?B@!BESBG7!EDPHML C?EHDCG!FHD?@D?!HP!?B@! ?@W?N!RBEFB!FHIGO!ELAG7! ?B@!IJ@!HP!A@MP@F?EQ@!CJ A@F?N!CJ!ED!p;XT=qX! p;XT=q!!/I@SH!@J?IQ@!C`IiN!@J?IQ@ !ID!AHFH!O@!?E@LAH! rebajado !FHLH!CFFEO@D?COH!7!?CGN!7!GI@SH! 7C!L@!LCDOCMHD!GC!FCM ?EGGCN!7!BCJ?C!CBHMCX! j'B@D!&!RCJ!B@M@N!&!RCJ !p+%,'q!PHM!C![E?!HP!?EL@! under the weather ![7!CFFEO@D?!CDO! JIFBN!CDO!?B@D!?B@7!J@D?!L@! ?H!M@FHMOJN!CDO!ID?EG!DHRXg! 'B@M@PHM@N!R@!@WA@F?@O!A@MP@F?EQ@!CJA@F?!?H![@! PCQHM@O!RB@D!FH\HFFIMMEDS!RE?B!COZ@F?EQ@J!HM!ACJ?! ACM?EFEAG@J!CDO!?H!OEJP CQHM!A@MP@F?EQ@!CJA@F?!RE?BHI?!HD@! HP!?B@J@!@G@L@D?J!AM@J@D?!ED!?B@! GEDSIEJ?EF!FHD?@W?X!'BEJ!PCF?HM! SMHIA!RCJ!EDE?ECGG7!EDFGIO@O!CJ!C!P CF?HM!ED!?B@!-H GGHFC?EHD!PCF?HM! SMHIAN![I?!E?!BCO!?H![@!CDCG7a@O!J@ACMC?@G7!JEDF@! LCD7!?EL@J!COZ@F?EQ@JnACJ ?!ACM?EFEAG@!CGJH!FH\ HFFIMM@O!RE?B!?B@!FHGGHFC ?EHDJ!Q@M[!t!S@MIDON!Q@M[!t! ,/'/ !CDO!Q@M[!t!EDPEDE?EQ@X!)H?@!?BC?!RB@D! Q@M[!t! ;-1) !HM!Q@M[!t! '$0 !RCJ!AM@J@D?!ED!?B@!GEDSIEJ?EF!FHD?@W?N !RBEFB!CGJH!PIDF?EHD@O!?H!O@JFME[@!

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! =T jBESBG7!EDPHMLC?EHDCGg!FHD?@D?N! R@!@WFGIO@O!?B@!AHJJE[EGE?7!HP!CD !COZ@F?EQ@!?H!HFFIM!OIMEDS!?B@! FHOEDS!AMHF@JJ!ED!HMO@M!?H!@GELEDC? @!C!FMHJJ\HQ@M!@PP@F?!ED!?B@!OC?CX "m 2.5.1.11 Transitivity 'B@!@G@Q@D?B!CDO!?R@GP?B!GEDSIEJ?EF!PCF?HM !SMHIAJ!FHDJEO@M@Ob)IL [@M!HP!+CM?EFEACD?J! CDO!&DOEQEOIC?EHD!HP!?B@!([Z@F? bN!R@M@!SMHIA@O!IDO@M!?B@!B@COE DS!HP!j'MCDJE?EQE?7g![CJ@O!HD! 1HAA@M!r!'BHLAJHDgJ!p"=m
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! =f 1HAA@M!r!'BHLAJHD!p"=m<4;fKq!?BC?!FHO@O!PHM!EDOE QEOIC?@O!pAMHA@MN!BILCDnCDELC?@N!FHDFM@?@N! JEDSIGCMN!FHID?N!M@P@M@D?ECGq!CDO!DHD\EDOEQEOIC?@O!pFHLLHDN!EDCDEL C?@N!C[J?MCF?N!AGIMCGN!LCJJN! DHD\M@P@M@D?ECGqX!!$GJHN!EP!?B@!J?C?EQ@!Q@M[!OEO! DH?!EDFGIO@!CD!H[Z@F?N!F HDJ@`I@D?G7!?B@!?R@GP?B! SMHIA!RCJ!DH?!CAAGEFC[G@!CDO!@WFGIO@O!PMHL!CDCG7JEJX! !'B@!M@G@QCDF@!HP!?B@!FHGG@F?EQ@!'MCDJE?EQE?7! PCF?HM!SMHIAJ!PHM!?B@!AM@J@D?!J?IO7!M@GC?@O!?H! SMHIDOEDS!J?MC?@SE@J!ED!OEJFHIMJ@ X!$FFHMOEDS!?H!1HAA@M!r!'BHL AJHD!p"=m
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! "f= $J!-GCDF7!H[J@MQ@O!ED!YCACD@J@!HMCG!DCMMC?EQ@JN!?B@! .$0'$)5-)/ !JA@CV@M!HP!'C[G@!T\";!DCMMC?@O! ?B@!JIFF@JJEQ@!@Q@D?J!HP!?BEJ!@WA@ME@DF@!pFHLA GEFC?EDS!CF?EHDq!RE?B!PEQ@ !JBHM?!LCED!FGCIJ@JN! @DOEDS!RE?B! .1"=316$%/)";0$),$. !j?B@7!R@M@!RBE?@g!pM@JHGI?EHDqX! $J!HAAHJ@O!?H!LCED!FGCIJ@JN!R@!! H[J@MQ@O!?BC?![CFVSMHIDO!O@?CEGJ!R@M@!AM@OHLEDC? @G7!PHIDO!ED!?B@!OEPP@M@D?!?7A@J!HP!JI[HMOEDC?@! FGCIJ@JX!'C[G@!T\"K![@GHR!O@LHDJ?MC?@J!C!BHR!AC J?\?@DJ@!ELA@MP@F?EQ@!J?C?EQ@!RCJ!IJ@O!ED!C! FHLAG@L@D?!FGCIJ@X "k !! 'C[G@!T\"KX!)CMMC?EQ@!@WF@MA?!PMHL!JA@CV@M !#&&N!JI[HMOEDC?@!FHLAG@L@D?!FGCIJ@! ,WF@MA?!PMHL!JA@CV@M!#&&!pPN!Tmq!-GCIJ@!?7A@! ,DSGEJB!'MCDJGC?EHD! pCq!,J?C!DEcC!@MC !LI7! AMH[G@Ld?EFCN! P$-)",0$3.1" j'BC?!SEMG!RCJ!Q@M7!AMH[G@LC?EFN! p[q!!@MC !LI7!AMH[G@Ld?EFCX! P$-)",0$3.1" JB@!RCJ!Q@M7!AMH[G@LC?EFX! pFq!!,BN!@D!FICD?H!C!GC!FHLEOCN!@D! FICD?H!7H!`I@!J]! P$-)",0$3.1" .BN!ED!M@SCMO!?H!PHHON!ED!M@SCMO!?H!&! OHDg?!VDHR! pOq!DH!J]N!! P$-)",0$3.1" &!OHDg?!VDHRN! p@q!!A@MH!FM@H!`I@!! P$-)",0$3.1" [I?!&!?BEDV!?BC?! pPq!! tampoco estaba integrada en el, en el grupo X! 73;/%6-)$51",/'#01'1)5" ,0$3.1" she was (IMP) not integrated into the, into the group either. 'B@!JA@CV@M!HP!?B@!DCMMC?EQ@!@WF@ MA?!BESBGESB?@O!ED!'C[G@!T\"K! RCJ!O@JFME[EDS!?B@![@BCQEHM!HP! HD@!HP!B@M!BHIJ@SI@J?J_!?B@!FHLAG@L@D?!FGCIJ@! ,%1/"=31 !j&!?BEDV!?BC?g!AMHQEO@O!PIM?B@M! [CFVSMHIDO!O@?CEGJ!HP!?BEJ!A@MJHDN!JI[J@`I@D? G7!JIAAHM?EDS!?B@!JA@CV@ MgJ!FGCEL!?BC?!B@M! BHIJ@SI@J?! 1%$"#%/;01'F5-,$ !jJB@!RCJ!AMH[G@LC?EFg![7!HPP@MEDS! ?B@!ED?@MGHFI?HM!LHM@!O@?CEGJ! p 5$'#/,/"1.5$;$"-)51+%$6$"1)"10"+%/3#" jJB@!RCJ!DH?!ED?@SMC?@O!ED!?B @!SMHIAgqX!'C[G@J!T\"T!CDO!T\ !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! "k !&D!CD!CDCG7JEJ!HP!FHLAG@L@D?!FGCIJ@!ED!,DSGEJBN!'BHLAJHD !p;<<;q!OEO!DH?!FHDJEO@M!?BC?!J?MIF?IM@J!JIFB!CJ!j&!?BEDV! ?BC?!ogb@`IEQCG@D?!?H!?B@!*ACDEJB! ,%1/"=31" pJI[HMOEDC?@!FHLAG@L@D?!FGCIJ@qbJBHI GO![@!CDCG7a@O!CJ!?RH!J@ACMC?@! FGCIJ@J_!EDJ?@CON!?B@J@!J?MIF?IM@!HDG7!E DQHGQ@!HD@!LCED!FGCIJ@X!$J!'HMM@J!-CF HIGGHJ!r!UCGV@M!p;<<=4=q!JILLCMEa@O4!! j'BHLAJHD!p;<<;q!CMSI@J!PIM?B@M!?BC?!JIFB!J?MIF?IM@J!EDQH GQ@!DH?!?RH!FGCIJ@J![I?!MC?B@M!FHL[EDC?EHDJ!HP!PMCSL@D?J! RBEFB!J@MQ@!CJ!PMCL@J!HP!JA@CV@M!J?CDF@!R E?B!PEDE?@!EDOEFC?EQ@!FGCIJ@J4!?BC?!EJN!F@M?CED!FHLAG@L@D?\?CVEDS!AM@OEFC?@J! CM@!M@CGG7!LHOCGJ!CDO!@AEJ?@LEFn@QEO@D?EC G!COQ@M[JN!RBEG@!?B@EM!AI?C?EQ@!JI[HMOEDC?@!FGCIJ@J!FCMM7!HI?!jj?B@!RHMV!?BC?! ?B@!I??@MCDF@!EJ!OHEDSgg!p'BHLAJHD!;<<;4"ffqX!&D!B@M!QE@RN!JIFB!jjFHLAG@L@D?!FHDJ?MIF?EHDJgg!CM@!ED!PCF?!JEDSG@! FGCIJ@J!?BC?!EDFGIO@!C!JA@CV@M\J?CDF@!PMCL@!p'BHLAJHD!;<<;4"T; qXg!&D!?BEJ!CDCG7JEJN!R@!?CV@!?B@!?MCOE?EHDCG!QE@R!?BC?! Q@M[J!GEV@! ,%1/"=31 !j&!?BEDV!?BC?g!pJI[HMOEDC?@!FHLAG@L@D?!FGCIJ@q! CM@!?RH!J@ACMC?@!FGCIJ@!pLCED!CDO!JI[HMOEDC?@N! M@JA@F?EQ@G7qN![I?N!M@FHSDEa@!?BC?!?B@7!FHIGO! [@!CDCG7a@O!ED!C!OEPP@M@D?!PCJBEHDX!!

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! "k< "f!CGJH!O@LHDJ?MC?@!BHR!J?C?EQ@!Q@M[J!RE?B!ELA@ MP@F?EQ@!CJA@F?!R@M@!IJ@O!?H!AMHQEO@![CFVSMHIDO! O@JFMEA?EHD!ED!JI[HMOEDC?@!FCIJCG!CD O!COQ@M[ECG!FGCIJ@JN!M@JA@F?EQ@G7X! 'C[G@!T\"TX!)CMMC?EQ@!@WF@M A?!PMHL!JA@CV@M!o#&&&! ,WF@MA?!PMHL!JA@CV@M!o#&&&!!pPNfmq!-GCIJ@!?7A@! ,DSGEJB!'MCDJGC?EHD! pCq!,BN!GH!ACJ]!LCGN! P$-)",0$3.1" j.BN!&!BCO!C![CO!?EL@N! p[q!!GH!ACJ]!LCGN!LCGN! P$-)",0$3.1" &!BCO!C![CON![CO!?EL@N! pFq!! porque eran unos nervios horrorosos N!! 73;/%6-)$51",$3.$0",0$3.1" because my nerves were (IMP) horrendous N! pOq!CO@GSCF]!LIFBiJELHX! P$-)",0$3.1" &!GHJ?!C!GH?!HP!R@ESB?X! 'C[G@!T\"fX!)CMMC?EQ@!@WF@M A?!PMHL!JA@CV@M!&&&! ,WF@MA?!PMHL!JA@CV@M!&&&!pPN!TTq!-GCIJ@!?7A@! ,DSGEJB!'MCDJGC?EHD! pCq!/I@SH!GC!D@SME?C!B@!QEJ?H! P$-)",0$3.1" j'B@D!&!JCR!?B@![GCFV!HD@!zOHS{!! p[q!! cuando estaba abandonada y embarazada N! 73;/%6-)$51"$621,5-H1",0$3.1" when it was (IMP) abandoned and pregnant N! pFq!!7!L@!QED@!ACMC!EM!C!FCJCX! P$-)",0$3.1" CDO!&!FCL@!?H![MEDS!zB@M{!BHL@Xg!! 'B@!EDPHMLC?EHD!HP![H?B!'C[G@J!T\"T!CDO!T\"f!O@AE F?@O!?B@!FHDOE?EHDJ!C?!?B@!?EL@!pHME@D?C?EHDq! RB@D!H?B@M!LCED!@Q@D?J!HFFIMM@OX!&D!'C[G@! T\"TN!?B@!LCED!@Q@D?J!pCN![N!Oq!R@M@!HMO@M@O! ?@LAHMCGG7N!?@GGEDS!IJ!?BC?!JEDF@!JB@!BCO!C! [CO!?EL@N!JB@!JI[J@`I@D ?G7!GHJ?!R@ESB?X!'B@! JI[HMOEDC?@!M@GC?EQ@!FGCIJ@!pFq!RC J!DH?!?@LAHMCGG7!HMO@M@ON!CJ!R@M@ !?B@!LCED!FGCIJ@J!pCN![N!OqN!JH! ?BC?!EP!?B@!HMO@M!HP!?B@!GC??@M!FGCIJ@J!R@M@! FBCDS@ON!?B@D!?B@!J?HM7!RHIGO!?CV@!HD!C!OEPP@M@D?! ED?@MAM@?C?EHD_!?B@!M@GC?EQ@!FGCIJ@!pFq!OEO!DH?!BC Q@!?B@J@!J@`I@DFEDS!M@J?MEF?EHDJX!/EV@REJ@N!ED! 'C[G@!T\"fN!?B@!ACM?EFEACD?!PEMJ?!JCR!?B@!OHS!pCqN!?B @D!O@FEO@O!?H![MEDS!B@ M!BHL@!pFq_!CSCEDN!?B@! JI[HMOEDC?@!FGCIJ@!p[q!FHIGO!FBCDS@!AHJE?EHDJ!ED !?B@!DCMMC?EQ@!CDO!?B@!J?HM7gJ!L@CDEDS!RHIGO!DH?! [@!CPP@F?@OX!5H?B!JI[HMOEDC?@! FGCIJ@J!ED!'C[G@J!T\"T!CDO!T\"f! O@LHDJ?MC?@!?BC?!JI[HMOEDC?@! FGCIJ@J!HP?@D!?EL@J!PIDF?EHD@O!?H! AMHQEO@![CFVSMHIDO!O@?CEGJ!ED!?B@! .$0'$)5-)/ !DCMMC?EQ@JX! !'C[G@!T\"k!PIM?B@MLHM@!O@LHDJ?MC?@J!BHR!C! J?C?EQ@!Q@M[!RCJ!IJ@O!?H!ED!C!M@GC?EQ@! JI[HMOEDC?@!FGCIJ@!?H!O@JFME[@ !?B@!BESB!JFBHHG!?BC?!?B@!ACM ?EFEACD?!C??@DO@O! CJ!C!?@@DCS@MX!

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! "k" U@!J@@!B@M@!?BC?!?B@!JA@CV@M!O@JFME[@O!?B@!O@?C EGJ!HP!B@M!BESB!JFBHHG!CDO!BHR!B@M!COLEJJEHD!RCJ! CD!@WF@A?EHDCG!FCJ@X!$J!?B@J@!@WCLAG@J!BCQ@!JBHRDN! .$0'$)5-)/ !JA@CV@MJ!HP?@D!IJ@O!J?C?EQ@! Q@M[J!RE?B!ELA@MP@F?EQ@!CJA@F?! ED!JI[HMOEDC?@!FGCIJ@J!?H!AMHQ EO@!JIAAHM?EQ@!O@?CEGJ!?H!?B@! DCMMC?EQ@!AGH?X!(IM!CMSIL@D?!EJ!DH?!?BC?!?B@! EDPHMLC?EHD!AMHQEO@O!RCJ!CGM@CO7!SEQ@D!?H!?B@! GEJ?@D@MN![I?!MC?B@M!?BC?!?B@! [CFVSMHIDO!O@JFMEA?EHD!ED!JI[HMOE DC?@!FGCIJ@J!PIM?B@M!JIAAHM?! JA@CV@MJg!O@JFMEA?EHDJ!ED!?B@!DC MMC?EQ@!CDO!SEQ@!LHM@!@WAGEFE?! O@?CEGJ!?H!RB7!F@M?CED!@Q@D?J! ?MCDJAEM@OX!0HM@HQ@MN!?B@!PCF?!?BC?!J?C?EQ@!Q@ M[JN![7!O@PEDE?EHDN!DC?IMCGG7!G@DO!?B@LJ@GQ@J!?H! O@JFME[EDS![CFVSMHIDO!O@?CEG!LHM@!JH!?BCD!H? B@M!G@WEFCG!FGCJJEPEFC? EHDJ!HP!Q@M[J!pEX@XN! CFBE@Q@L@D?JN!CFFHLAGEJBL@D?JN!CF?EQE?E@JqN!E?!J@@LJ! GHSEFCG!?BC?!J?C?EQ@J!RHIGO!?@DO!?H!FCMM7!HI?! ?BEJ!PIDF?EHD!ED!JI[HMOEDC?@!FGCIJ@JX! 'C[G@!T\"kX!)CMMC?EQ@!@W F@MA?!PMHL!JA@CV@M!&! ,WF@MA?!PMHL!JA@CV@M!&!pPN!fmq! -GCIJ@!?7A@!,DSGEJB!'MCDJGC?EHD! pCq!,D?M]!@D!@J@!FHG@SEHN! P$-)",0$3.1" &!SH?!ED!?H!?BC?!BESB!JFBHHG! p[q!!DH!AHOiC !@D?MCM!AHM!GC!@OCO! P$-)",0$3.1" &!FHIGODg? !p&0+q!S@?!ED?H![@FCIJ@!HP! L7!CS@! pFq!!AHM`I@!@MC !ID! FHG@SEH! P$-)",0$3.1" [@FCIJ@!E?!RCJ !p&0+q!C!BESB!JFBHHG! pOq que estaba patrocinado por el Ministerio de. .de Obras Pœblicas X! 73;/%6-)$51" %10$5-H1",0$3.1" that was (IMP) sponsored by the Department of. .of Public Works. p@q!3!JHGCL@D?@!AHOiCD !@D?MCM!A@MJHDCJ! LC7HM@J!O@!O@!OE@FEHFBH!CcHJX! P$-)",0$3.1" $DO!HDG7!HGO@M!A@HAG@!CMHIDO!"m! 7@CMJ!HGO!FHIGO !p&0+q!S@?!EDX! pPq!+@MH!LE!ACOM@!FHDHFiC !C!GC!OEM@F?HMC! O@!@J@!FHG@SEHN!@D?HDF@JN!FGCMHN! P$-)",0$3.1" 5I?N!L7!PC?B@M!VD@R !p&0+q!?B@! AMEDFEACG!HP!?BC?!BESB!JFBHHGN!JHN!HP! FHIMJ@N! pSq!7H!FHD!FC?HMF@!CcHJ!y`I]!E[C!C!BCF@Mv! P$-)",0$3.1" [@EDS!"T!7@CMJ!HGON!RBC?!RCJ!&!SHEDS! ?H!OHv! 4.3.5 Sentence Type 'B@!PEP?B!PCF?HM!SMHIA!J@G@F?@O!CJ !JESDEPEFCD?!ED!?B@!CDCG7JEJ! HP!CGG!J?C?EQ@!Q@M[J!?HS@?B@M! RCJ!*@D?@DF@!'7A@!pMCDS@w=qX!&D!HMESEDCG!FH OEDS!JFB@L CN!R@!LCO@!?B@!OEJ?EDF?EHD!DH?!HDG7! [@?R@@D!CPPEMLC?EQ@!CDO!D@SC?EQ@!J@D?@DF@JN![I ?!CGJH![@?R@@D!O@FGCMC?EQ@!CDO!ED?@MMHSC?EQ@! J@D?@DF@JX!*EDF@!?B@M@!R@M@!Q@M7!P@R!H FFIMM@DF@J!HP!CPPEMLC?EQ@!ED?@MMHSC?EQ@!p ?m "kq!CDO! D@SC?EQ@!ED?@MMHSC?EQ@!J@D?@DF@J!p ?m "q!ED!?B@!OC?C!J@?!p ?m "lqX!9I@!?H!?BEJ!JFCMFE?7N!R@!FHL[ED@O!

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! "k; @CFB!M@JA@F?EQ@!ED?@MMHSC?EQ@!?7A@!CFF HMOEDS!?H!?B@!AHGCME?7!HP!?B@!J@D?@DF@X!$J!C!JEO@!DH?@N!E?!RCJ! DH?!JIMAMEJEDS!?H!H[J@MQ@!C!GHR!?HV@D!FHID?!HP! J?C?EQ@!Q@M[J!ED!ED?@MM HSC?EQ@!J@D?@DF@J!ED!?B@! .$0'$)5-)/ !FHMAIJN!JEDF@!C!JHFEHGEDSIEJ?EF!ED?@MQE@R!JE?I C?EHD!EJ!J?MIF?IM@O!JH!?BC?!?B@!ED?@MQE@R@M! EJ!?B@!HD@!AMHAHJEDS!?B@!`I@J?EHDJ !CDO!?B@!ACM?EFEACD?!EJ!?B@!HD @!M@JAHDOEDSX!U@!RHIGO!@WA@F?!?H! PEDO!C!SM@C?@M!PM@`I@DF7!HP!ED?@MMHSC?EQ@J!ED!J AHD?CD@HIJ!FHDQ@MJC?EHDN!JE DF@!?B@!ED?@MGHFI?HMJ! RHIGO!BCQ@!LHM@!FHD?MHG!HQ@M!AMHAHJEDS!D@R!?HAEFJ !HP!FHDQ@MJC?EHD!CDO!@ WA@MEL@D?CG!ED?@MQE@R\ OEM@F?@O!FHDOE?EHDJ!RHIGO![@!G@JJ!AM@QCG@D?X! *EDF@!AM@QEHIJ!M@J@CMFB!BCJ! JIAAHM?@O!?B@!FGCEL!?BC?!PHM@SM HIDO@O!CF?EHDJ!HFFIMM@O!LHM@! PM@`I@D?G7!RE?B!CPPEMLC?EQ@!Q@M[!CJ!H AAHJ@O!?H!D@SC?@O!HD@J!p%@EO!"=lkN!1HAA@M!"=l=[4;;"N! 8G@ED\$DOM@I!"=="qN!R@!@WA@F?@O!PHM!J?C?EQ@!Q@ M[J!CAAGE@O!RE?B!A@MP@F ?EQ@!CJA@F?!?H!PCQHM! CPPEMLC?EQ@!J@D?@DF@JX!'B@!M@JIG?J!HP!?B@!2HGO#CM[ !CDCG7JEJ!p'C[G@!T\Tq! R@M@!ED!GED@!RE?B!?B@! FHDFGIJEHDJ!HP!?B@J@!EDQ@J?ESC ?EHDJ4!J?C?EQ@!Q@M[J!CAAGE@O!RE ?B!A@MP@F?EQ@!CJ A@F?!PCQHM@O! CPPEMLC?EQ@!J@D?@DF@J!pXf"q!CDO!OEJPCQHM@O!D@SC ?@O!J@D?@DF@J!pXT;qX!'C[G@!T\"l!M@AHM?J!?B@!HQ@MCGG! PM@`I@DFE@J!HP!J@D?@DF@!?7A@!PHM!CGG!J?C?EQ@J!p =<!CPPEMLC?EQ@N!"<!D@SC ?EQ@qX!'H!FGCMEP7N!R@! GC[@G@O!D@SC?EQ@!J@D?@DF@J!CJ !?BHJ@!RE?B!C!AM@\Q@M[CG! )/ !jDHgN! 5$'#/,/" jD@E?B@MgN! )3),$" jD@Q@MgN! 2$'F." jD@Q@MgN!CDO! )-" jDHMgX!)H?C[G7N!ED!'C[G@!T\"lN!R@!J@@!C! O@FM@CJ@!ED!PM@`I@DF7!HP!CPPEMLC?EQ@! J@D?@DF@J!RE?B!ELA@MP@F?EQ@!CJA@F?!pl;!CPPE MLC?EQ@N!m<!D@SC?EQ@q!CDO!CD!EDFM@CJ@!HP! PM@`I@DF7!HP!CPPEMLC?EQ@!J@D?@DF@J!RE?B!A@MP@F?EQ @!CJA@F?!p;m!CPPEMLC ?EQ@N!;<!D@SC?EQ@qX!!! 'C[G@!T\"lX!%@GC?EQ@!PM@`I@DFE@J!HP !ACJ?\?@DJ@!CJA@F?ICG!LHMABHG HS7!CFFHMOEDS!?H!*@D?@DF@!'7A@! *@D?@DF@!?7A@!+@MP@F?EQ@! &LA@MP@F?EQ@! '('$/! )!!)!!)!! $PPEMLC?EQ@!!! ""K
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