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Onsite Evaluation of Manure Management Practices and Nutrient Composition of Stall Waste Produced by Florida Horse Operations

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0025118/00001

Material Information

Title: Onsite Evaluation of Manure Management Practices and Nutrient Composition of Stall Waste Produced by Florida Horse Operations
Physical Description: 1 online resource (152 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Cotton, Drew
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: animal, bedding, equine, feeding, horse, manure, operation, quality, stall, waste, water
Animal Sciences -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Animal Sciences thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Currently, a limited amount of data exists to describe the composition of stall waste produced by horse operations. Such information could serve as a useful reference for making nutrient management decisions. The aims of this study were to characterize the composition of stall waste generated by Florida horse operations and identify management factors that affect the nutrient content of stall waste. Samples of clean bedding and soiled stall waste were gathered from breeding farms (n=38), boarding and training facilities (n=56) and racetrack stables (n=45) distributed throughout the state of Florida. Soiled stall waste included bedding mixed with manure and was sampled from each facility s most recent stall cleaning. Samples were analyzed for dry matter (DM), total carbon (TC), nitrogen (TN), C:N ratio, total phosphorous (TP), potassium (TK) and organic matter (OM). Across facilities, the most widely used bedding was wood shavings (95%), with only a small number of facilities using hay or straw bedding. Clean hay or straw bedding had greater (P < 0.05) TN and TK than clean wood shavings. Stall waste was higher (P < 0.05) in TN, TP, and TK than clean bedding alone. The mean C:N ratio of stall waste was 72:1 compared to the mean C:N ratio of clean bedding 683:1. Stall waste from breeding facilities had higher (P < 0.05) levels of TN and TK compared boarding/training and racetrack facilities and higher (P < 0.05) TP than racetrack stables. Stall waste from north Florida was higher (P < 0.05) in TN and TK when compared to south Florida. Although bedding type contributed to the differences in stall waste composition, stall cleaning practices (e.g., cleaning frequency) likely plays a large role in the nutrient content of stall waste. Facility owners or managers were also questioned about their facility demographics, feeding programs, stall management, stall waste storage, stall waste utilization, and pasture and paddock management. Stall waste was generally removed off site on a regular basis or being land applied. It was not common (1.6%) for operations to compost stall waste prior to further use.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Drew Cotton.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Warren, Lori.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0025118:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0025118/00001

Material Information

Title: Onsite Evaluation of Manure Management Practices and Nutrient Composition of Stall Waste Produced by Florida Horse Operations
Physical Description: 1 online resource (152 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Cotton, Drew
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: animal, bedding, equine, feeding, horse, manure, operation, quality, stall, waste, water
Animal Sciences -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Animal Sciences thesis, M.S.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Currently, a limited amount of data exists to describe the composition of stall waste produced by horse operations. Such information could serve as a useful reference for making nutrient management decisions. The aims of this study were to characterize the composition of stall waste generated by Florida horse operations and identify management factors that affect the nutrient content of stall waste. Samples of clean bedding and soiled stall waste were gathered from breeding farms (n=38), boarding and training facilities (n=56) and racetrack stables (n=45) distributed throughout the state of Florida. Soiled stall waste included bedding mixed with manure and was sampled from each facility s most recent stall cleaning. Samples were analyzed for dry matter (DM), total carbon (TC), nitrogen (TN), C:N ratio, total phosphorous (TP), potassium (TK) and organic matter (OM). Across facilities, the most widely used bedding was wood shavings (95%), with only a small number of facilities using hay or straw bedding. Clean hay or straw bedding had greater (P < 0.05) TN and TK than clean wood shavings. Stall waste was higher (P < 0.05) in TN, TP, and TK than clean bedding alone. The mean C:N ratio of stall waste was 72:1 compared to the mean C:N ratio of clean bedding 683:1. Stall waste from breeding facilities had higher (P < 0.05) levels of TN and TK compared boarding/training and racetrack facilities and higher (P < 0.05) TP than racetrack stables. Stall waste from north Florida was higher (P < 0.05) in TN and TK when compared to south Florida. Although bedding type contributed to the differences in stall waste composition, stall cleaning practices (e.g., cleaning frequency) likely plays a large role in the nutrient content of stall waste. Facility owners or managers were also questioned about their facility demographics, feeding programs, stall management, stall waste storage, stall waste utilization, and pasture and paddock management. Stall waste was generally removed off site on a regular basis or being land applied. It was not common (1.6%) for operations to compost stall waste prior to further use.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Drew Cotton.
Thesis: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Warren, Lori.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0025118:00001


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ONSITE EVALUATION OF MANURE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND NUTRIENT
COMPOSITION OF STALL WASTE PRODUCED BY FLORIDA HORSE OPERATIONS




















By

DREW LEWIS COTTON


A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2009






































O 2009 Drew Lewis Cotton





































To the memory of B.H. Good









ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank Dr. Lori K. Warren, my supervisory committee chair and advisor

for her guidance and patience during the completion of my masters. Thanks also, to my other

committee members, Dr. Nordstedt and Dr. Johnson for serving on my committee and for

reviewing my thesis. I am extremely grateful for the helping hands and encouraging words of Jan

Kivipelto throughout my graduate program and specifically my time spent in the nutrition lab. I

would also like to thank my fellow graduate students including Sarah Dilling, Kelly Vineyard,

Jerome Vickers, Sarah White, Dusty Holley and many others for their friendship and

encouragement.

Special thanks to Joel McQuagge and Dr. Saundra TenBroeck for allowing me to have

leadership of the horse judging program for the last five years. You have welcomed me into your

family and made me feel at home and for that I am extremely grateful. Thanks for pushing me

and always encouraging me to do more. Thank you to all of my judging team members who have

pushed me and allowed me to make many mistakes as a teacher. Thank you for you hard work. It

is my hope that the UF horse judging team has given the Department, its faculty and students

something to be proud of and has touched a few lives along the way. I wish you much success in

the future.

Finally, I would like to thank my family for all of the love, support and encouragement

along the way. I could not have accomplished this thesis without your encouragement.












TABLE OF CONTENTS


page

ACKNOWLEDGMENT S .............. ...............4.....


LIST OF TABLES ............ ...... ._._ ...............7....


LIST OF FIGURES .............. ...............10....


AB S TRAC T ................. ................. 12.............


CHAPTER


1 INTRODUCTION ................. ...............14.......... ......


2 LITERATURE REVIEW ................. ...............16................


W aste Composition............... ............. .......1
Point Source vs Nonpoint Source Pollution .............. ...............18....
Maj or Concerns Related to Soil ................. ...............18...............
Maj or Concerns Related to Water ................. ...............18..............
Maj or Concerns Related to Air Pollution ................ ...............19........... ..
Uses of Organic Waste .............. ...............20....
Land Application ................ .......... ...............20.......
Limitations for use of stall waste............... ...............22.
Reducing Impacts of Animal Waste ................. ...............23........... ...
Com post............... .. ..... ..........2
Nutri ent Managem ent Planni ng ................. ...............23........... ..
Best M management Practices ................. ........... ..... .. ....... .. .. ............2
Animal Feeding Operation (AFO) and Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations
(CA FO ) .............. .. ............... ...............2
Manure Management in the Equine Industry .............. ...............26....

3 CHARACTERIZATION OF STALL WASTE COMPOSITION FROM FLORIDA
HORSE OPERATIONS .............. ...............27....


Introdu cti on .........._... .. ...............27...__........
Materials and Methods .............. ...............29....

Experimental Design ................... ...............29..
Sampling Protocol for Stall Waste .............. ...............30....
Sampling Protocol for Bedding ........._...... ...............30..__._. .....
Nutrient Analy si s ................. ...............3.. 1......... ....
Statistical Analy si s .............. ...............3 1....
Results ................. ...............32.................
Clean Bedding .............. ...............32....
Stall Waste............... ...............33.












Discussion............... ...............3
Conclusion ................. ...............41......._ .....


4 CHARACTERIZATION OF MANURE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON
FLORIDA HORSE OPERATIONS .............. ...............56....


Introdu cti on ................. ...............56........... ....
M materials and M ethods .............. ...............59....

Statistical Analysis .............. ...............60....
Results ................. ........... ...............60.......

Facility Demographics............... ..............6
Feeding Programs ................. ...............62.................
Stall Management ................. ...............63.................
Stall Waste Storage............... ...............66
W aste Disposal .............. ..... .. ..............6
Pasture and Paddock Management ................. ...............70................
D iscussion............... ... ............7
Facility Demographics............... ..............7
Feeding Programs ................. ...............72.................
Stall Management ................. ...............73.................
Stall Waste Storage............... ...............74
W aste Disposal .............. ..... .. ..............7
Pasture and Paddock Management ................. ...............76................
Conclusion ................ ...............76.................


5 IMPLICATIONS .............. ...............139....


APPENDIX: ONSITE SURVEY QUESTIONAIRE .....__.....___ .......... .............14


LIST OF REFERENCES ............. ...... ...............146..


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ............. ...... ...............152...










LIST OF TABLES


Table page

2-1 Regulatory definitions of large AFOs, medium AFOs and small AFOs ...........................25

3-1 Nutrient composition of clean bedding evaluated by bedding type............... .................43

3-2 Nutrient composition of clean bedding evaluated by facility type .............. ..................44

3-3 Nutrient Composition of clean bedding evaluated by region ................. ........_.__.......45

3-4 Nutrient Composition of clean bedding and horse stall waste............._._ ........._.__.....46

3-5 Nutrient composition of stall waste evaluated by bedding type .............. ...................47

3-6 Nutrient composition of stall waste evaluated by facility type ................. .........._._ ....48

3-7 Nutrient composition of stall waste evaluated by region ....._.____ ........._. ..............49

3-8 Nutrient composition of clean wood bedding and stall waste containing wood
bedding............... ...............50

3-9 Nutrient composition of stall waste containing wood bedding evaluated by facility
type ........._._ ..... .._ ._ ...............51....

3-10 Nutrient composition of stall waste containing wood bedding evaluated by region .........52

3-11 Frequency of stall cleaning ........._.__ ..... .___ ...............53...

3-12 Comparison of the nutrient composition of clean bedding and horse stall waste to
manures produced by horses and other livestock .............. ...............54....

3-13 Comparison of nutrients per metric ton between clean bedding, horse stall waste, and
manures produced by horses and other livestock on an as-removed basis ........._.............55

4-1 Categories of Information Included in the Evaluation of Waste Management
Practices on Florida Horse Operations. ............. ...............79.....

4-2 Number of facilities evaluated by type and region (n=1 16) ................ ......................80

4-3 Total acreage of facility evaluated by facility type (excluding racetracks) and region
(n=71) ........_................. ........_._ .........8

4-4 Total number of horses evaluated by facility type (excluding racetracks) and region
(n=71) ........_................. ........_._ .........8

4-5 Breeds of horses across all facilities surveyed (n=1 16)............_..._ .........................86










4-6 Type of hay fed to horses evaluated by facility type or region (n=80) .................. ............88

4-7 Percent crude protein in commercial feeds fed to horses evaluated by facility type
and region (n=80)............... ...............90.

4-8 Specific type of bedding used in stalls, evaluated by facility type (excluding
racetracks) and region (n=62) .............. ...............93....

4-9 Stall Base Material Evaluated by Facility Type (Excluding Racetracks) and Region
(n=62) ................. ...............96.................

4-10 Time horses spent in stalls, evaluated by facility type and region (n=108) ................... ....99

4-11 Frequency of stall cleaning evaluated by facility type (excluding racetracks) and
region (n=62) .............. ...............101....

4-12 Approximate volume of stall waste removed daily per stall, evaluated by facility type
(excluding racetracks) and region (n=62) ................. ...............103........... ...

4-13 Frequency of stripping stalls of all materials, evaluated by facility type (excluding
racetracks) and region (n=62) ................ ...............105...............

4-14 Method of stall waste storage, evaluated by facility type (excluding racetracks) and
region (n=57) .............. ...............107....

4-15 Time stall waste spent in storage before disposal, evaluated by facility type
(excluding racetracks) and region (n=61) ................. ...............109........... ..

4-16 Base material of stall waste storage area, evaluated by facility type (excluding
racetracks) and region (n=50) ................. ...............111..___ .....

4-17 Stall waste storage in a low lying area, evaluated by facility type (excluding
racetracks) and region (n=50) ................. ...............114..___ .....

4-18 Frequency of flooding in stall waste storage area, evaluated by facility type
(excluding racetracks) and region (n=51) ....._.__._ ... ........... ....__ ...........1

4-19 Distance of surface water from stall waste storage area, evaluated by facility type
(excluding racetracks) and region (n=51) ....._.__._ ... ........... ....__ ...........1

4-20 Distance of a residence from stall waste storage, evaluated by facility type
(excluding racetracks) and region (n=51) ....._.__._ ... ........... ....__ ...........2

4-21 Distance of a drinking water well from stall waste storage area, evaluated by facility
type (excluding racetracks) and region (n=51) ................. .....__. ............. .....2

4-22 Method of stall waste disposal, evaluated by facility type (excluding racetracks) and
region (n=62) .............. ...............124....










4-23 Type of waste removal service, evaluated by facility type (excluding racetracks) and
region (n=42) .............. ...............126....

4-24 Frequency stall waste is hauled off-site, evaluated by facility type (excluding
racetracks) and region (n=42) ................ ...............128...............

4-25 Location where stall waste is land applied, evaluated by facility type (excluding
racetracks) and region (n=17) ................ ...............130........... ...

4-26 Frequency pastures are harrowed, evaluated by facility type (excluding racetracks)
and region (n=59)................ ...............13

4-27 Pastures fertilized, evaluated by facility type (excluding racetracks) and region
(n=58)............... ...............136

4-28 Pasture quality (overgrazing), evaluated by facility type (excluding racetracks) and
region (n=59) .............. ...............138....










LIST OF FIGURES


FiMr page

4-1 Total acreage of all facilities surveyed (excluding racetracks) (n=71) ................... ...........81

4-2 Total number of horses at all facilities surveyed (excluding racetracks) (n=71) ...............83

4-3 Breeds of horses across all facilities surveyed (n=1 16) ........................... ...............85

4-4 Type of hay fed to horses across all facilities surveyed (n=80). ................ ............... ...87

4-5 Percent crude protein in commercial feeds fed to horses across all facilities surveyed
(n=80)............... ...............89.

4-6 General type of bedding used in stalls across all facilities (n=139) .............. .................91

4-7 Specific type of bedding used in stalls across all facilities (excluding racetracks)
(n=63)............... ...............92.

4-8 Reason given for using a particular type of bedding across all facilities surveyed
(excluding racetracks) (n=62) ................. ...............94................

4-9 Stall Base material across all facilities surveyed (excluding racetracks) (n=62) ...............95

4-10 Amount of bedding in stalls across all facilities (excluding racetracks) (n=62)................97

4-11 Time horses spent in stalls across all facilities (n=108) .............. ....................9

4-12 Frequency of stall cleaning across all facilities surveyed (excluding racetracks)
(n=62) ................. ...............100................

4-13 Approximate volume of stall waste removed daily per stall, evaluated across all
facilities surveyed (excluding racetracks) (n=62) ................. ............... ......... ...102

4-14 Frequency of stripping stalls of all materials evaluated across all facilities surveyed
(excluding racetracks) (n=62) ................. ...............104................

4-15 Method of stall waste storage, evaluated across all facilities surveyed (excluding
racetracks) (n=57) ................. ...............106................

4-16 Time stall waste spent in storage before disposal, evaluated across all facilities
surveyed (excluding racetracks) (n=61) ................. ...............108..............

4-17 Base material of stall waste storage area, evaluated across all facilities surveyed
(excluding racetracks) (n=50) ................. ...............110................

4-18 Roof over waste storage area, evaluated across facilities surveyed (excluding
racetracks) (n=51) ................. ...............112......... .....










4-19 Stall waste storage in a low lying area, evaluated across all facilities surveyed
(excluding racetracks) (n=50) ................. ...............113................

4-20 Frequency of flooding in stall waste storage area, evaluated across all facilities
surveyed (excluding racetracks) (n=51) ................. ...............115..............

4-21 Distance of surface water from stall waste storage area, evaluated across all facilities
surveys (excluding racetracks) (n=51) ................. ...............117..............

4-22 Distance of a residence from stall waste storage, evaluated across all facilities
surveyed (excluding racetracks) (n=51) ................. ...............119..............

4-23 Distance of a drinking water well from stall waste storage area, evaluated across all
facilities surveyed (excluding racetracks) (n=51) ................. ............... ......... ...121

4-24 Method of stall waste disposal, evaluated across all facilities surveyed (excluding
racetracks) (n=62) ................. ...............123......... ......

4-25 Type of waste removal service, evaluated across all facilities surveyed (excluding
racetracks) (n=42) ................. ...............125......... ......

4-26 Frequency stall waste is hauled off-site, evaluated across all facilities surveyed
(excluding racetracks) (n=42) ................. ...............127................

4-27 Location where stall waste is land applied, evaluated across all facilities surveyed
(excluding racetracks) (n=17) ................. ...............129........... ...

4-28 Frequency of land application of stall waste, evaluated across all facilities surveyed
(excluding racetracks) (n=17) ................. ...............131........... ...

4-29.Frequency of manure removal from pastures evaluated across all facilities surveyed
(excluding racetracks) (n=59) ................. ...............132................

4-30 Manure removal from paddocks or dry lots, evaluated across all facilities surveyed,
(excluding racetracks) (n=59) ................. ...............133................

4-31 Frequency pastures are harrowed, evaluated across all facilities surveyed (excluding
racetracks) (n=16) ................. ...............134......... .....

4-32 Pasture quality (overgrazing), evaluated across all facilities surveyed (excluding
racetracks) (n=59) ................. ...............137................









Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science

ONSITE EVALUATION OF MANURE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AND NUTRIENT
COMPOSITION OF STALL WASTE PRODUCED BY FLORIDA HORSE OPERATIONS

By

Drew Lewis Cotton

August 2009

Chair: Lori K. Warren
Major: Animal Sciences

Currently, a limited amount of data exists to describe the composition of stall waste

produced by horse operations. Such information could serve as a useful reference for making

nutrient management decisions. The aims of this study were to characterize the composition of

stall waste generated by Florida horse operations and identify management factors that affect the

nutrient content of stall waste. Samples of clean bedding and soiled stall waste were gathered

from breeding farms (n=3 8), boarding and training facilities (n=56) and racetrack stables (n=45)

distributed throughout the state of Florida. Soiled stall waste included bedding mixed with

manure and was sampled from each facility's most recent stall cleaning. Samples were analyzed

for dry matter (DM), total carbon (TC), nitrogen (TN), C:N ratio, total phosphorous (TP),

potassium (TK) and organic matter (OM).

Across facilities, the most widely used bedding was wood shavings (95%), with only a

small number of facilities using hay or straw bedding. Clean hay or straw bedding had greater

(P<0.05) TN and TK than clean wood shavings. Stall waste was higher (P<0.05) in TN, TP, and

TK than clean bedding alone. The mean C:N ratio of stall waste was 72: 1 compared to the mean

C:N ratio of clean bedding 683:1. Stall waste from breeding facilities had higher (P<0.05) levels

of TN and TK compared boarding/training and racetrack facilities and higher (P<0.05) TP than










racetrack stables. Stall waste from north Florida was higher (P<0.05) in TN and TK when

compared to south Florida. Although bedding type contributed to the differences in stall waste

composition, stall cleaning practices (e.g., cleaning frequency) likely plays a large role in the

nutrient content of stall waste.

Facility owners or managers were also questioned about their facility demographics,

feeding programs, stall management, stall waste storage, stall waste utilization, and pasture and

paddock management. Stall waste was generally removed off site on a regular basis or being land

applied. It was not common (1.6%) for operations to compost stall waste prior to further use.









CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

The Florida horse population numbers more than 500,000 head spread over more than 900

operations (AHC, 2005). The scope and size of this population makes it the second most

populous livestock segment in the state with an economic impact, of more than $5 billion (AHC,

2005). Like Florida's human population, the horse numbers are seasonal in nature. This creates

overcrowding during certain seasons of the year leading to complications related to waste

disposal and management. Compounding manure management concerns is the sensitive nature of

Florida' s environment. Thousands of miles of coastline, high leaching potential of sandy soils,

shallow aquifers, and migrating surface water all compound the difficulty of managing horse

waste.

When manure is land applied benefits are apparent, including decreased use of inorganic

fertilizers and increased carbon sequestration. However, inherent risks also exists, which include

potential water quality problems due to runoff, uncertainty of nutrient availability and public

perception issues (Risse et al., 2001). The specific nutrients that contribute the most to water

quality problems are nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). Agriculture is identified as the leading

source of pollution to rivers and streams and animal agriculture is currently under increasing

pressure to reduce these sources (USEPA, 2003b). N and P can both lead to increased

eutrophication and decreased dissolved oxygen levels in surface water. Groundwater can also be

contaminated from percolation and direct seepage of nutrients (Risse et al., 2001). Therefore, it is

important for Florida's horse industry to be proactive in addressing any problems that may

currently exist or eliminating conditions that pose a future threat to the environment.

Some of the other concerns relating to horse waste management include, lack of

knowledge about stall waste composition, high removal cost, limited land area for application,










overgrazing and poor pasture management, and high water table and porous soil types. Other

concerns relate to the role horse farms play in the nutrient management puzzle. Local, state and

federal government agencies are constantly implementing nutrient management regulations that

are general and specific in their scope. Each livestock species subgroup is deemed to have a

different environmental impact. The determinants of this impact include data suggesting an

average nutrient load, perceived and actual production practices, and past environmental

problems that have occurred. It is important to do research that determines if the regulations are

appropriate and applicable to the horse industry of Florida.

The obj ectives of this research were to address waste management concerns of the Florida

Horse Industry by: 1) characterizing nutrient content of stall waste; 2) identifying the types of

bedding commonly used and characterize the nutrient content of these beddings; 3) describe

current manure management practices; 4) identify potential risks to water quality by current

manure management practices; 5) use the information gathered to make recommendations on

future composting research and pinpoint manure management practices that need to be addressed

in the Best Management Practices Manual for Florida horse owners.









CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

Over the last 10 years, regulation of intensive livestock production across the world has

increased. This has been done in the form of nutrient management plans, best management

practices, and regulations for air and water quality. In the United States, environmental

regulations have progressed from surface water quality to ground water quality and finally to air

quality (Westerman and Bicudo, 2005). Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in manure are two

elements that contribute to many environmental problems such as eutrophication, pollution of

groundwater, and acidification.

Long term sustainability of animal agriculture as both a lifestyle and valuable commodity

are important issues. The swine and dairy industries have had the highest public profile relative

to the sustainability of animal agriculture. The swine industry has identified four levels of issues

that will determine their long term sustainability: 1) the farms; 2) the community; 3) society in

general; and 4) the environment (Honeyman, 1996).

Intense production practices, decreasing land mass available for production, and the advent

of commercial fertilizers have resulted in manure generated by animal production systems to

shift from a valuable resource to a waste product. However, when properly used, manure is a

resource and should be regulated accordingly (Risse et al., 2001).

Waste Composition

The nutrient composition of animal manure is highly variable and dependent on species,

stage of production and diet. Horses can be grouped into categories based on sex, weight and

performance. However, to date, only enough info exists to describe the composition of manure

for mature sedentary or mature horses undergoing intense exercise (Lawrence et al., 2003) Daily

nutrient excretion from a 500 kg sedentary horse has been estimated at 0.089 kg N, 0.013 kg P,









and 0.027 kg K on an as-excreted basis (Lawrence et al., 2003). By comparison, daily nutrient

excretion from a 500 kg horse involved in intense exercise has been estimated at 0. 125 kg N,

0.025 kg P, and 0.043 kg K on an as-excreted basis. Using a similar estimation model for other

livestock, it was found that a beef cow would have a similar nitrogen excretion at 0. 19 kg/day

but a much higher phosphorus excretion of 0.044 kg/day and a lactating dairy cow produces 0.45

kg N, 0.078 kg P and 0.103 kg K per day (ASAE, 2005).

The average horse can produce up to 50 lbs of feces and 7-11 liters of urine per day on an

as excreted basis (ASAE, 2005). The quantity of feces generated by the horse is less than a dairy

cow (83 lbs/day). However, the quantity of feces produced by a horse is greater than that

generated by a 423-lb, lactating sow (25 lbs/day) and a laying hen (0.19 lbs/day) (ASAE, 2005).

Phosphorus excreted in feces can be in a water-soluble or insoluble form. The insoluble

portion is presumed to be organic in origin and the water-soluble is the plant available P and is

largely inorganic in origin (Hainze et al., 2004). Horses differ from other farm animals by having

a greater proportion of insoluble P compared to cattle and poultry (Hainze et al., 2004). Less

inorganic P may be present as a proportion of total P concentration in horse feces due to more

extensive absorption in the large colon in horses compared to other animals (Schryver et al.,

1971).

One common method of horse waste storage is stockpiling until there is an opportunity to

land apply or to otherwise utilize. Several opportunities exist during this period of time for

nutrient loss including leaching, ammonia nitrogen volatilization and microbial degradation of

nutrients. Dry matter degradation may also be considerable. Petersen et al. (1998) stored swine

and cattle waste for a period of 9-14 weeks in an open air facility and found a dry matter loss of

15%-24%, leaching losses of N and ammonia volatilization. The composition of horse manure









and urine with clean bedding added may have a much higher dry matter percentage compared to

swine or cattle waste stored in a liquid form. This may lead lowered levels of environmental

concern for horse stall waste compared to other livestock manures.

Point Source vs Nonpoint Source Pollution

When considering the source of water quality contamination there are two possible types.

First, there is point source pollution, which originates from a discernable source. Large livestock

operations or concentrated animal feeding operations are considered point sources. This would

include manure lagoons, ditches and pipes used to transport manure, etc. (Morse, 1996). By

comparison, nonpoint source pollution includes potential sediment, nutrient and bacteria runoff

into surface water, as well as leaching of nutrients into ground water or nutrient runoff after land

application of manure or inorganic fertilizer (Morse, 1996).

Major Concerns Related to Soil

Current manure application guidelines for Florida forages are not based on soil test

results for N (Mylavarapu et al., 2009). This means recommendations are made based on the N

needs of the forage plants. Most forms of livestock manure have a higher P to N ratio than that

needed by plants. Therefore, if applications are based on N needs then P is applied at an excess

of the crop requirements (Intensive Livestock Operations Committee, 1995). Over application of

P can lead to P accumulation in the soil as only a small portion of the total P is readily available

to plants. Swine and poultry production have been labeled as causing excess P accumulation,

which increased potential for P loss due to runoff(Sims, 1993).

Major Concerns Related to Water

Nitrogen and P that are present in manure and animal feeds pose a risk to surface and

groundwater at low levels (Sharpley et al., 1994). When fertilizer is applied, N is generally

applied in the largest quantities since it is usually the greatest need for growth of high quality of










plants. Nitrogen can be found in the soil as nitrite (NO2-), nitrate (NO3 -), ammonia (NH3) Of

ammonium nitrogen (NH4 ). The most soluble ion of N is nitrate (Watschke et al., 2000). Nitrate

ions are generally not adsorbed within the soil and, as a result, move with the water as it passes

through the soil.

Surface water contamination with N causes algae populations to grow or "bloom"

(Lapointe and Bedford, 2007). When algae dies and decomposes, it consumes the dissolved

oxygen which is essential for the survivability of aquatic animal life. Eutrophication is the

enrichment of waters with excess mineral nutrients resulting in the over production of algae and

cynobacteria (Lapointe and Bedford, 2007).

Another nutrient that is a concern to water quality is P. It can be transported from areas

where it is highly concentrated to surface water via runoff(Sharpley et al., 1996). Phosphorus is

also a contributor to algae blooms in freshwater, even at extremely low levels (Bush and Austin,

2001). Leaching of P into the ground water is also a concern because it can lead to contamination

of lakes and streams. Studies have shown that sandy soils are susceptible to P leaching (Sims et

al., 1998) through to the ground water. High risk areas are those with long histories of livestock

waste application (Breeuwsma et al., 1995).

Major Concerns Related to Air Pollution

Air pollution includes odors that affect property values and quality of life in areas within

the proximity of large scale animal production (Schiffman et al., 1995). As a result, the animal

and food processing industries have been forced to control odor emissions. Toxic air pollutants

are also a concern that is relevant in animal agriculture. Nitrogen can damage the environment in

two forms; 1) nitrous oxide (N20) and 2) ammonia nitrogen. Ammonia can be returned to the

soil and water by rainfall, which can disrupt the ecosystem and increase eutrophication (Lapointe










and Bedford, 2007). In studies conducted in Europe, animal agriculture accounts for 15-75% of

total ammonia volatilization into the atmosphere (Hartung and Phillips, 1994).

Uses of Organic Waste

Possible uses of organic waste include fertilizer, energy recovery, and production of

chemicals. Utilization of organic waste has many benefits; however, there are also many factors

that limit its use as a byproduct. These include quality control, economics, logistics,

environmental regulations, and public acceptance (Westerman and Bicudo, 2005). Several of the

limitations specific to the horse industry in Florida include limited land area, high carbon and

low nutrient levels of stall waste, large particle size of wood chips and shavings, possible disease

transmission to grazing animals, and close proximity of horse facilities to residential and urban

areas.

Horse stall waste contains nutrients that could be used to fertilize pasture and other crops.

Its use as a fertilizer is dependent on several factors, including rate of application, available soil

nutrients and the fraction of nutrients that could be available to plants after mineralization

(Newton et al., 2003; Eghball et al., 1997). The availability of N in horse manure has been

reported to be 50% of the manure nitrogen in the first year, which is similar to dairy manure but

less than swine (90%) and poultry (75%) (Kidder, 2002; Eghball et al., 2000). Bedding material

makes up a large portion of materials removed from horse stalls as waste. Typically, this bedding

is high in organic matter, bulky in nature but with a low N content (Ott et al., 2000) The

inconsistency of nutrient concentration make the value of horse stall waste as a fertilizer source

questionable.

Land Application

There are an estimated 9.2 million horses populating the United States, and over 500,000

reside in the state of Florida (AHC, 2005). The average horse can produce 14 kg of feces and 7-









11 liters of urine per day (ASAE, 2005). When horses are confined in stalls bedding is often

added to absorb urine and feces. Soiled bedding is often removed daily and when stalls are

cleaned and the total volume removed can be 30-45 kg of feces, urine, discarded feed and hay,

and bedding. On an annual basis, the average horse can produce up to 13,000 kg of stall waste

(Swinker et al., 1998). Bedding makes up a large portion of the volume removed and can include

straw, wood shavings, sawdust, grass hay, peanut hulls, shredded paper or other products. Wood

shavings have a high carbon content and a low N content as well as being bulky in nature (Ott et

al., 2000). Nitrogen and P are excreted both in the feces and urine, and the amounts are

dependent on the amounts contained in the diet (Mathews et al., 1996).

Research has shown manure application can have a significant impact on the physical and

biological properties of the soil, as a result of increasing organic matter in the soil. Land

application can also positively affect soil erosion and surface water runoff. Several negative

factors include uncertainty of nutrient content and availability, runoff, transportation and

handling costs, and public perception or odor issues (Risse et al., 2001). Where animal

production is typically concentrated, the land available for manure application is often limited,

which can create a nutrient surplus in a particular area. The maj or factor in exporting manure

from an area of surplus to an area of deficit is the economics of transportation. Currently very

little research is being done to address the economics of producing more transportable products

or reducing the transportation costs (Risse et al., 2001).

Land application on the farm where the waste is generated is usually the most cost

effective way to utilize of waste. Most livestock farms do not have adequate land to apply

manure at agronomic rates (Gollehon et al., 2001). This is a nationwide figure for all livestock

species and production facilities. The maj ority of Florida' s horse population is located on small










acreages near large urban areas. A concern specific to horse stall waste is the bulk. The

concentration of N, P, and K are relatively low when compared to other types of livestock and

poultry litter. This means that a greater volume of waste must be applied to meet the agronomic

needs of the crop or grazing area.

When the quantity of waste to be applied is greater than the land available for application,

transportation becomes an economic concern. About two thirds of the counties in this country

have a farm that must remove animal manure from its site to avoid a nutrient excess (Gollehon et

al., 2001). The waste must be hauled off site to be utilized. If the added cost is prohibitive this

may result in less than desirable management practices. Public perception also limits the

potential for utilization of animal manure in environmentally safe ways. Ammonia volatilization,

odor drift and flies are all an air pollution concern that shrinks the acreage available for livestock

waste application.

Limitations for use of stall waste

Limitations for using horse stall waste as a fertilizer source include land availability,

season, spread of weed seeds and parasites, odor, suppression of forage growth and surface and

ground water contamination. The most likely concern for land application of all animal waste is

surface and ground water contamination. The mobile forms of nitrogen and phosphorus, organic

matter, microbes and other materials on top of the soil following application can negatively

affect the quality of runoff negatively. Runoff from areas treated with animal manure can contain

elevated concentrations of nutrients, solids, and organic matter when compared to untreated areas

(Westerman et al., 1983; Edwards and Daniel, 1993). Buffer strips, incorporating manure into the

soil and timely application can reduce potential risks from pastures treated will stall waste or any

form of livestock manure (Young et al., 1980).









Reducing Impacts of Animal Waste


Compost

Composting is the controlled acceleration of a natural process that converts organic

matter into a stable material (Ott et al, 2000). Composting reduces volume and odor, kills

unwanted microorganisms and weed seeds, creates a more stable nutrient source and adds value

to the end product (Higgins et al., 1982; Chaw, 2002). Therefore, land application of compost is

more environmentally friendly than stockpiling stall waste or land applying unprocessed manure

or stall waste. The utilization of compost as a source of fertilizer on pastures or cropland could

reduce the amount of commercial nitrogen fertilizer applied and decrease the potential for

inorganic nitrogen to contaminate water sources (Diepeningen et al., 2006). While composting is

a simple and efficient way to manage stall waste, smaller stables (30-40 horses) generally do not

generate appropriate volumes of manure to merit specialized composting equipment (Chaw,

2002).

Two types of composting systems exist: aerobic and anaerobic. Aerobic composting uses

oxygen in the decomposition process, whereas anaerobic composting is performed without

oxygen. The most common form of commercial composting system is aerobic (Ott et al., 2000).

Aerobic composting is more rapid and achieves the increase in temperature needed to kill weed

seeds and pathogens. Factors that affect the rate at which material breaks down in the

composting process are: 1) availability of air; 2) particle size; 3) moisture level; 4) temperature;

5) carbon:nitrogen ratio; and 6) pH (Ott et al., 2000).

Nutrient Management Planning

Nutrient management plans help to optimize the use of on-farm sources of nutrients

(manure and residual nutrients from previous crops) by matching nutrient applications to crop

needs, allowing a reduction in commercial fertilizer use while maintaining soil productivity and










crop yields (Beegle et al., 2000). Nutrient management plans can vary but most include: soil test

reports, assessment of on-farm nutrient resources, nutrient crediting, manure inventory and

manure spreading plan (University of Wisconsin Extension, 1995).

Implementing nutrient management plans can be quite costly due to the increased

compliance costs. It is possible for operations to realize a net reduction in operating costs as it

would require less inorganic fertilizer than was previously being used to achieve agronomic

levels (Weld et al., 2002). Under a comprehensive nutrient management plan operations can be

categorized as nutrient deficient, nutrient balanced or nutrient surplus (Beegle et al., 2000).

Nutrient deficient farms are usually low intensity, low animal density operations. Nutrient

balanced farms would be characterized by nutrient imports being equal to nutrient exports.

Nutrient surplus farms exist when nutrient imports significantly exceed the exports. It would be

unlikely that operations that operate with a nutrient surplus would be able to utilize all of the

manure produced on site. This would create a need to store nutrients onsite or find another

method of utilization for excess manure.

Best Management Practices

Best management practices (BMPs) are specifically designed to address farm practices

that may generate cause environmental problems. Focus is generally placed on the management

of N, P and pesticides (Logan, 1993). Best management practices are environmentally sound

practices that are, at a minimum, as profitable as existing management practices. There are

usually fixed start-up costs associated with the implementation of many BMPs, therefore

producers may see them as a detriment to farm profitability (Feather and Amacher, 1994). Two

methods are in use to aide farms in implementing BMPs: 1) cost sharing from the federal or state

government; and 2) producer education. Examples of BMPs for animal agriculture include

grassed waterways, livestock exclusion from high risk areas, streambank and shoreline









protection, rotational grazing, pesticide and nutrient management, and management of dead

livestock (Gillespie et al., 2007). The Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Sciences

is in the process of drafting a current best management practices manual for horse operations.

Some proposed practices include, nutrient, manure, stormwater and grazing management

(FDACS, 2008).

Animal Feeding Operation (AFO) and Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFO)

An AFO is any animal feeding operation where animals are confined for at least 45 days

within a 12-month period and crops, forage growth and other vegetation are not grown in the

area where animals are confined. To be considered a CAFO a facility must first meet the

requirements of an AFO. The regulation sets thresholds for a certain number of animals an AFO

must have in confinement to meet the requirements of a CAFO. AFOs are categorized as small,

medium or large (USEPA, 2003a).

Table 2-1. Regulatory definitions of large AFOs, medium AFOs and small AFOs
Size Thresholds (Number of Animals)
Animal Sector Large AFOs Medium AFOs Small AFOs
Cattle or cow/calf pairs 1,000 or more 300-999 Less than 300
Mature dairy cattle 700 or more 200-699 Less than 200
Veal calves 1,000 or more 300-999 Less than 300
Swine (weighing over 55 2,500 or more 750-2,499 Less than 750
lb s)
Swine (weighing less than 10,000 or more 3,000-9,999 Less than 3,000
55 lbs)
Horses 500 or more 150-499 Less than 150
Sheep or lambs 10,000 or more 3,000-9,999 Less than 3,000
Turkeys 55,000 or more 16,500-54,999 Less than 16,500
Laying hens or broilers 30,000 or more 9,000-29,999 Less than 9,000
(Liquid manure systems)
USEPA, 2003a

It was reported by the EPA that according to the NAHMS nearly all of the large horse

CAFOs are racetracks (USEPA, 2003a). Looking at Table 2-1 it is to be noted that the lowest

threshold for any livestock species to be considered a small, medium or large AFO is for horses.









Presumably this is due to the large volume of bedding that is removed along with manure and

urine from horse confinement areas. No literature exists to indicate that horse manure and urine

has a higher concentration of nutrients relative to other livestock species.

Manure Management in the Equine Industry

Nationally, the highest percentage of horse operations disposed of manure and waste

bedding by either applying it to fields where no livestock graze, applying it to fields where

livestock graze and allowing it to accumulate and spread naturally (NAHMS, 2005). A very low

percentage disposed of manure by routine garbage pickup. Large operations were most likely to

do something with stall waste other than land apply such as sell it or have it hauled off site

(NAHMS, 2005; Peters et al., 2003; HIAA, 2003). In a survey done in the state of Kentucky,

70% of respondents spread waste on crop land or pastures (Coleman and Janicki, 2003). The

overwhelming maj ority of horse owners prefer to use wood shavings as clean bedding (Coleman

and Janicki, 2003, HIAA, 2003). Other types of bedding that were reportedly used were straw,

peat moss and shredded paper (HIAA, 2003).









CHAPTER 3
CHARACTERIZATION OF STALL WASTE COMPOSITION FROM FLORIDA HORSE
OPERATIONS

Introduction

Numbering approximately 500,100, horses are second only to cattle (1.75 million) as the

most established livestock commodity in the state of Florida (AHC, 2005; USDA-NASS, 2003).

Nationally, Florida ranks third behind Texas and Califomnia in total horse numbers (AHC, 2005).

Over 70% of Florida' s horse population is concentrated in two regions located in the central

(Alachua, Marion, and Levy counties) and southern (Broward, Dade and Palm Beach counties)

parts of the state. In addition to a large number of full time residents, Florida' s warm winter

climate results in a seasonal influx of horses for training and competition. Much of this influx

occurs in south Florida, where land availability is rapidly declining and concerns over water

quality continue to increase.

Over 58% of the horses in Florida have been classified as being used for racing and

showing (AHC, 2005). By extrapolation, this means a large number of horses spend a significant

amount of time confined to a stall in a bamn, where soiled bedding and manure must be regularly

removed. Horses used for breeding, as well as those owned for recreation, may also be housed in

stalls for some portion of the day, although this practice varies widely.

In developing their final rule on concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO), the

United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 2003b) rej ected data supplied by the

horse industry suggesting a 1000-lb horse generated a similar amount of manure as a 1000-lb

beef cow on the grounds that the data did not differentiate between manure produced by

racehorses and manure produced by other horses (USEPA, 2001, 2003b). The EPA suggested the

diets of racehorses differed such that manure composition would be significantly altered. At the

time of the ruling, the EPA' s statement was pure speculation and data to characterize differences









in manure composition between different types of horses was unavailable. Subsequently, a meta-

analysis of research that had been designed to assess nutritional requirements was used to

establish prediction equations to estimate nitrogen and phosphorus excretion from sedentary and

exercising horses based on dietary intake (Lawrence et al., 2003; ASAE, 2005). Although

differences in nutrient intake and excretion were found to exist between sedentary and exercising

horses, these values (and the equations) only reflected feces and urine, without the inclusion of

bedding.

Published values on the nutrient composition of horse stall waste are largely unavailable.

Stall waste could include clean and soiled bedding, feces, urine, discarded feed, and residue from

the stall floor (e.g., sand, clay). As a result, the composition of stall waste is likely not uniform.

Nonetheless, characterizing the composition of horse stall waste would be useful for making

local, regional and statewide nutrient management planning decisions. In addition, this

information is necessary in order to make more accurate cross-species comparisons and to

further clarify the risks to water quality posed by manure and/or stall waste generated from the

horse industry.

The obj ectives of this study were to: 1) characterize the nutrient composition of stall waste

produced by Florida horse operations; 2) determine if regional differences in the nutrient

composition of stall waste exist in Florida (i.e., north, central and south); 3) identify the

differences in nutrient composition of stall waste generated by different types of horse operations

(i.e., breeding, boarding/training, and racetrack stables); 4) determine the impact of bedding type

on stall waste composition; 5) characterize the nutrient composition of clean bedding used by

Florida horse operations to help assess the influence horse manure has over stall waste









composition; and 6) identify management trends specific to stall waste handling that may impact

stall waste composition.

Materials and Methods

Experimental Design

Samples of clean bedding and stall waste were obtained from 139 horse facilities located

throughout the state of Florida. Sampling was distributed between three types of horse facilities:

1) breeding farms (n = 38); 2) boarding/training facilities (n = 56); and 3) racetrack stables (n =

45). Breeding farms were defined as operations that participate in breeding, where horses are

typically housed in stalls part-time on a seasonal basis (e.g., during foaling season; during sales

preparation of young horses) or for short duration (e.g., during morning and evening feedings;

during evenings when foals are young). Boarding/training facilities comprised several different

riding/training disciplines and were defined as operations that board a minimum of 10 horses,

where horses spend a significant amount of time confined to stalls (minimum of 8 hr/d).

Racetrack stables were represented by horses managed under different trainers and housed at one

of three racetracks with pari-mutuel wagering on live racing, including Calder Racecourse,

Gulfstream Park and Tampa Bay Downs.

With the exception of racetrack stables, sampling of stall waste was also distributed in

three regions within the state of Florida: 1) North Florida (n = 30) including the panhandle and

near or north of Interstate-10; 2) Central Florida (n = 40) including Alachua and Marion

counties, Orlando and Tampa; and 3) South Florida (n = 69) defined as the area south of the

Interstate-4 corridor. Samples collected from racetrack stables were included in the analysis by

region, with two of the racetracks located in South Florida and one in Central Florida. No

racetracks were present in North Florida.









Sampling Protocol for Stall Waste

Stall waste was defined as the combination of feces, urine, bedding, and discarded feed

removed from stalls during a typical cleaning. Samples of stall waste were obtained from the

materials identified as being the most recently removed from horse stalls. When possible, stall

waste was collected and sampled as it was being cleaned out of the stalls. Materials were

thoroughly mixed with a stall fork or pitch fork prior to sampling. A representative sample was

obtained by grabbing handfuls of material at random locations within the manure storage pile or

wheelbarrow until enough material was obtained to fill a 7.5 L (2 gallon) plastic bag. Samples of

stall waste were immediately placed in an ice-chilled cooler for transport to the University of

Florida Animal Nutrition Laboratory for further processing and analysis.

Sampling Protocol for Bedding

To establish the impact bedding has on the composition of stall waste, samples of clean,

unused bedding were also obtained. At each facility, the clean bedding storage pile was

identified and thoroughly mixed with a stall fork or pitch fork prior to sampling. A representative

sample of clean bedding was obtained by grabbing handfuls of material at random locations

within the clean bedding storage area. For bulky beddings, such as straw, hay or wood chips,

enough clean bedding was collected to fill a 7.5 L (2-gallon) plastic bag. For other bedding

materials, such as shavings or sawdust, enough was collected to fill a 3.8 L (1-gallon) plastic

bag. With the exception of racetrack stables, clean bedding samples were obtained from each

facility. Each racetrack had contracted with a single bedding supplier; thus, the same type of

bedding was used in every stall, regardless of the stable. Therefore, only one clean sample from

each of the three racetracks was collected, analyzed and represented in the dataset. Clean

bedding samples were immediately placed in an ice-chilled cooler for transport to the University

of Florida Animal Nutrition Laboratory for further processing and analysis.









Nutrient Analysis

After transport to the Animal Nutrition Laboratory, ice-chilled samples of stall waste and

clean bedding were placed in a 60oC forced-air drying oven for 3 d or until the weight stabilized

to determine dry matter (DM). Dried samples were ground through a Wiley mill, first passing

through a 5 mm screen and then processed through a 1 mm screen. Throughout the grinding

process, samples were thoroughly mixed at each step to maintain a representative proportion of

manure to bedding.

Stall waste and clean bedding samples were analyzed for total nitrogen (TN) and total

carbon (TC) using the Dumas combustion method (VarioMax N analyzer, Elementar Americas;

TMECC methods 04.02-D and 04.01-A; (Thompson, 2001)). The Dumas type analyzer measures

all forms of nitrogen in the measurement of nitrogen gas. The ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C:N)

was calculated by dividing the %TC by the %TN in each sample. Total phosphorus (TP) was

determined on samples that had been ashed prior to sulfuric acid digestion and then quantified

colorimetrically (PowerWave XS spectrophotometer, Winooski, VT). Total potassium (TK)

concentration in samples was determined using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAnalyst 800,

PerkinElmer, Inc. Shelton, CT). Organic matter (OM) was determined after ashing samples for

12 h in a muffle furnace at 550oC and then subtracting the amount of ash from the DM

(TMMECC method 03.02-A; (Thompson, 2001)).

Statistical Analysis

Differences in TN, TC, C:N ratio, TP, TK, DM and OM were analyzed using the MIXED

procedure of SAS (Version 9. 1, SAS Inst., Cary, NC). The effects of facility type, sample type,

bedding type and region were evaluated as fixed effects. The PDIFF option of the LSMEANS

statement of PROC MIXED was used to compare means. Differences were considered

significant at P<0.05. Data are presented as means + SE.











Clean Bedding

Samples of clean bedding were obtained from 96 different facilities. By far, the vast

maj ority of horse operations sampled (91/96 facilities or 94.8%) used wood bedding products,

including wood shavings, chips, sawdust, or pellets. Only two facilities (2.1%) used grass hay as

bedding; one of these facilities was a boarding/training operation and the other was a breeding

farm. Only three facilities (3.1%) bedded their horses on straw; two of these facilities were

breeding farms and the other was a racetrack (n=15), which utilized a pelleted straw product.

The TN, TC, C:N ratio, and TK concentrations of clean bedding were different (P < 0.05)

between bedding types (Table 3-1). The TN concentration in grass hay and straw bedding was

greater (P < 0.05) compared to the TN content of wood bedding. The TC concentration of wood

bedding was greater (P < 0.05) than straw, with hay bedding intermediate between the two but

closer to wood. As a result, the C:N ratio in clean wood bedding was higher (P < 0.05) than the

ratio in hay or straw. Clean straw bedding was higher (P < 0.05) in TK than hay and wood

beddings. Although TP was numerically higher in clean hay bedding, the small sample size

yielded no statistical difference in TP concentration between bedding types (Table 3-1). Organic

matter was not different between clean bedding types.

With the exception of C:N ratio, the nutrient composition of clean bedding was not

affected by facility type (Table 3 -2) or region of the state (Table 3 -3). The C:N ratio of clean

bedding was higher in racetrack facilities (P < 0.05) compared to boarding/training operations

and breeding farms (Table 3 -2). This finding may be reflective of a lower, but not significantly

different TN concentration in clean bedding from racetracks. The C:N ratio of clean bedding was

also higher in operations located in South Florida (P < 0.05) compared to Central and North


Results









Florida (Table 3-3). This finding may reflect a greater proportion of racetrack stables located in

South Florida and the usage of the same bedding at each track.

Stall Waste

The nutrient composition of stall waste, across all bedding types, facility types and

regions, is compared to the composition of clean bedding in Table 3-4. Stall waste was higher (P

< 0.05) in TN, TP and TK and lower (P < 0.05) in C:N ratio and DM than clean bedding. The C

content and OM did not differ between stall waste and clean bedding.

Differences in the composition of stall waste were observed when evaluated by bedding

type (Table 3-5). The TN concentration of stall waste containing wood bedding was lower (P <

0.05) than stall waste containing hay or straw bedding. The TK concentration of stall waste

containing either wood or hay bedding was lower (P < 0.05) than observed for stall waste

containing straw. TP was higher (P < 0.05) in stall waste containing straw bedding compared to

that containing wood bedding. Despite some numerical differences, the TC, C:N ratio, DM and

OM concentrations in stall waste were not affected by the type of bedding used (Table 3-5). The

small number of stall waste samples containing hay or straw bedding likely precluded detection

of differences from stall waste containing wood bedding.

Facility type appeared to have a limited effect on TC, C:N ratio, DM and OM composition

of stall waste (Table 3-6). In contrast, differences in the TN, TP and TK concentrations of stall

waste were observed between facilities. Stall waste from breeding farms had the highest (P <

0.05) TN and TK concentration compared to boarding/training facilities and racetrack stables,

and stall waste from racetrack stables had higher TN and TK content than boarding/training

facilities (P<0.05). TP was higher (P < 0.05) for breeding operations compared to racetrack

stables.









The nutrient composition of stall waste also differed by geographical region (Table 3-7).

Stall waste obtained from North Florida had a greater TN (P < 0.05) and a lower TC (P < 0.05)

concentration compared to South Florida, with stall waste from Central Florida being

intermediate between the North and South regions. Despite these differences, region had no

effect on the C:N ratio of stall waste. Stall waste from North Florida also had the greatest TK

concentration (P < 0.05), followed by South Florida (P < 0.05), with stall waste from Central

Florida having the lowest TK concentration (P < 0.05). The TP, DM and OM concentrations in

stall waste were not different between North, Central or South Florida (Table 3-7).

Because wood bedding was the predominant bedding type used on Florida horse

operations, stall waste containing hay or straw bedding were removed from the dataset to

eliminate variation due to bedding type, and stall waste containing only wood bedding was

evaluated for differences within facility type and region. Similar to the differences observed

across all bedding types, stall waste containing wood bedding was higher (P < 0.05) in TN, TP

and TK and lower (P < 0.05) in C:N ratio, DM and OM than clean wood bedding (Table 3-8).

The TC content did not differ between stall waste containing wood and clean wood bedding.

The effect of facility type on the nutrient composition of stall waste containing wood

bedding is shown in Table 3-9. Stall waste containing wood bedding from breeding farms had

the highest (P < 0.05) TN and TK concentrations, followed by boarding/training operations (P <

0.05), with the lowest TN and TK found in stall waste containing wood bedding from racetracks

(P < 0.05). The TP concentration of stall waste containing wood bedding was higher (P < 0.05)

in breeding farms compared to racetrack stables or boarding/training facilities. The TC, C:N

ratio, DM and OM content of stall waste containing wood bedding was not affected by facility

type.









The effect of region on the nutrient composition of stall waste containing wood bedding is

presented in Table 3-10. The TN content of stall waste containing wood bedding was highest in

samples obtained from North Florida (P < 0.05), followed by Central Florida (P < 0.05), and was

the lowest in South Florida (P < 0.05). The TK content of stall waste containing wood bedding

was also the highest in North Florida (P < 0.05) compared to Central and South Florida. Stall

waste containing wood bedding from Central Florida had a lower TK concentration than

materials collected from South Florida (P < 0.05).The concentration of TP was higher (P < 0.05)

and the TC and OM lower (P < 0.05) in stall waste containing wood bedding from North Florida

compared to South Florida, with materials collected from Central Florida having intermediate

concentrations of TP, TC and OM.

The frequency of stall cleaning may alter the proportion of clean bedding to manure

generated as stall waste. Boarding/training facilities were most likely to clean stalls twice a day,

whereas breeding farms were more likely to clean stalls once per day (Table 3-11). Stall cleaning

frequency at racetrack stables was not evaluated. When evaluated by region, horse operations in

South Florida were more likely to clean stalls twice a day, whereas facilities in North Florida

were more likely to clean stalls once daily. Operations in Central Florida appeared to clean stalls

once per day, twice per day or continuously with similar frequency (Table 3-11).

Discussion

The key findings from this study were: 1) wood products are the predominant type of

bedding used on Florida horse operations; 2) the addition of manure (feces and urine) to bedding

in the form of stall waste significantly alters the nutrient composition of clean bedding; 3) the

concentration of TN and TK in stall waste, and to a lesser extent the TP content, were affected by

the type of bedding used in stalls, the type of horse facility, the regional location of the facility,

and perhaps the stall cleaning frequency.









In the current study, the predominant source of bedding used in horse stalls was wood

shavings, chips or sawdust (94.8%). This finding differs from a USDA survey conducted as part

of the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS, 2005), which found that maj ority

of horse operations utilized hay or straw bedding (57.7%) followed by wood shavings, chips or

sawdust (39.3%). Availability, cost, and ease of removing manure and soiled bedding were listed

as the three most important considerations for selecting clean bedding type (NAHMS, 2005).

The NAHMS study was a nationwide survey of all horse owners and types of facilities. The

current study targeted larger, commercial operations (2 10 horses) that generate larger volumes

of manure; smaller operations were not visited. The production of straw in the state of Florida

and in bordering states is minimal. Any straw used as bedding must therefore be imported via

truck or rail resulting in an increased cost and a greater difficulty to procure. In addition, much of

the horse hay in the state of Florida is imported making it a high priced commodity. As a result,

the use of hay as bedding is not economical unless it is grown onsite or purchased locally. At

least one operation evaluated in the current study that bedded horse stalls with hay utilized their

horse stall waste as an alternative feed for cattle, which were also reared on their property. The

availability of wood products for bedding in the state of Florida is high, due to the extensive pine

lumber industry within the state and in the southeastern U.S. Thus, the higher prevalence of

wood beddings on Florida horse operations is likely based on greater availability and lower cost

relative to other bedding sources.

In some situations the type of bedding used is by choice and in others it is decided by some

other circumstance. Horses are commonly housed in facilities owned by another entity or

individual who is responsible for choosing the bedding. For example, racetracks and show

facilities often utilize a single supplier for clean bedding, thereby dictating what material horses









will be stalled on. The reason may be to take advantage of bulk purchase pricing or to create a

uniform stall waste product for ease of handling. If a uniform stall waste product can be achieved

it will be easier to manage and may have more value as a composted or recycled product.

In general, the composition of clean wood and hay beddings in the current study was

similar to that reported by others (Barringtion et al., 2002; Koon et al., 1992; Veverka et al.,

1993). Others have reported higher TN and TP concentrations in straw compared to that found in

the current study (Barringtion et al., 2002; Ward et al., 2000). These differences may be due to

general variation in straw products, as well as the fact that one of the three straw beddings

sampled in the current study was a pelleted product, which could have contained ingredients

other than straw (e.g., clay binders to facilitate pelleting).

Expected differences in nutrient composition of clean bedding between hay and straw

compared to wood products were detected in the current study, despite the small number of

samples from facilities that utilized the former types of bedding. The TN and TK concentrations

in hay and straw were higher than wood bedding, whereas the TC concentration and C:N ratio

were higher in wood bedding compared to straw and hay. Wood products, including chips,

shavings and sawdust are known to be low in TN and high in TC, yielding a very high C:N ratio

(Barringtion et al., 2002; Veverka et al., 1993).

The ratio of C:N in clean bedding, but not the TC or TN concentration, was affected by

facility type and region. The maj ority of facilities utilized wood products; thus, the differences

are likely due to variation in the source of wood bedding rather than bedding type. The TC

content in wood shavings, sawdust, chips or pellets may be affected by the processing technique,

type of wood or stage of maturity. The TN content of softwoods, such as pine, may vary from

0.03% to 0. 10% depending on the part of the tree sampled and its stage of growth at harvest









(Veverka, et al., 1993). Because the C:N ratio is determined by dividing the %TC by the %TN,

small variations in TN can yield big differences in the C:N ratio. Suppliers of wood bedding in

Florida are generally local lumber mills, which service many horse facilities in a given region.

Thus, the lumber and processing methods used by a given mill may have a large influence on the

bedding composition used by horse facilities in that region.

In the current study, stall waste was 2 to 10 times higher in TN, TP, TK and moisture than

bedding alone, highlighting the impact that horse manure and discarded feed have on the nutrient

composition of stall waste. The proportion of bedding to manure in stall waste was not estimated

at the time of sampling; however, based on the nutrient composition of clean bedding from the

current study and the composition of horse manure reported by ASAE (2005), proportions of

each material can be estimated. Using TN as an example, clean bedding contained 0.13% TN and

stall waste 0.71% TN in the current study. According to ASAE (2005), manure without bedding

was estimated to contain 2.4% TN in sedentary horses and 3.85% TN in intensely exercised

horses. Therefore, stall waste in the current study probably consisted of a 73-85% bedding and

15-27% manure mixture. Thus, although bedding likely made up a much greater proportion of

stall waste than manure, the more concentrated nutrients in horse manure significantly influence

the composition of stall waste. This is most apparent for TP, which was almost negligible in

clean bedding (0.02%) but readily quantifiable in stall waste (0. 19%); or almost 10 times greater

than clean bedding.

The TN, TP and TK concentrations in horse stall waste are much lower compared to

horse manure alone and manure from other livestock species (see Table 3-12). In fact, on a DM

basis, horse manure contains more than three times the concentration of TN and TK and two

times the concentration of TP compared to horse stall waste. Similar, but more dramatic









differences in nutrient concentrations exist between horse stall waste and manure from other

livestock species (Table 3-12). The bedding in stall waste increases the volume and DM of

material, but also effectively dilutes the nutrient concentrations in horse manure. To evaluate the

fertilizer value of horse stall waste, comparisons of TN, TP and TK per metric ton of material on

an as-removed basis between stall waste and reported values for manure from horses and other

livestock are presented in Table 3-13. Horse stall waste from the current study appears to contain

more TN, TP and TK per metric ton on an as-removed basis than that estimated for manure

generated by sedentary horses, but less TN and TP than manure from intensely exercised horses

(ASAE, 2005; Table 3-13). Almost two-thirds of the stall waste samples in the current study

were obtained from stalls housing horses that were undergoing some type of regular exercise

training (e.g., dressage, hunter/jumper, western pleasure, polo, racing). Thus, with the small

addition of nutrients from bedding, as well as some horse manure originating from horses in

training, one might expect the quantity of nutrients present per metric ton of stall waste to reflect

that which is intermediate between manure from sedentary and exercised horses. Compared to

other livestock manures, horse stall waste contains less TN and TP per metric ton of material on

an as-removed basis than manure from dairy, swine and poultry operations, but slightly more TN

and TP than manure from beef cattle in confinement (Table 3-13). Swinker et al. (1998)

estimated that a horse can produce around 13 tons per year of stall material. Using the mean stall

waste composition from the current study, this would result in a total annual nutrient load per

horse of 49.2 kg TN, 13.2 kg TN and 49.2 kg TK.

The type of bedding used in stalls for horses appeared to have a large impact on stall waste

composition. Stall waste containing hay or straw bedding had approximately twice the amount of

TN, as well as higher TK compared to stall waste containing wood bedding. As clean beddings,









hay and straw had higher levels of TN and TK than wood bedding, which likely contributed to

the higher concentrations of these nutrients when these beddings were a component of stall

waste. In addition, hay and straw beddings are bulkier materials and strategies used to clean

stalls bedded with these materials often differ from techniques used to clean stalls bedded with

wood products. Removal of a greater proportion of bedding per unit of manure during cleaning

could further alter the nutrient concentration of stall waste. Using similar calculations for

estimating the proportion of bedding to manure described above, stall waste containing hay or

straw bedding likely consisted of 60-75% bedding and 25-40% manure, whereas stall waste

containing wood bedding likely contained 75-85% bedding and 15-25% manure. Thus, the initial

composition of the bedding used in the stall, as well as stall cleaning practices inherent to that

type of bedding appear to impact the composition of stall waste.

The composition of stall waste was also affected by the type of facility. Stall waste

collected from breeding farms had higher TN and TK concentrations and slightly higher TP

concentrations than stall waste obtained from boarding/training facilities or racetrack stables.

Horses at these facilities are likely fed different diets, which would be expected to influence

nutrient excretion (Lawrence et al., 2003; ASAE, 2005). The dietary protein and mineral

requirements of pregnant and lactating mares and growing horses are higher compared to other

classes of horses (NRC, 2007). To meet these requirements, horses on breeding farms are

typically fed rations containing higher levels of TN (in the form of protein) and TP, which could

subsequently result in greater excretion of these nutrients. In addition, the cleaning of stalls on

breeding farms was found to be less frequent (1x/d) than that observed for boarding/training

operations (2x/d). A greater frequency of stall cleaning could result in the removal of more clean

bedding along with manure, which would dilute the nutrient concentrations in stall waste from










boarding/training operations. In contrast, less frequent stall cleaning could result in less bedding

per unit of manure removed, thereby concentrating the nutrients in stall waste from breeding

farms.

When only stall waste containing wood bedding was evaluated, waste from racetrack

stables had the lowest TN, TP and TK concentrations. In its final rule on CAFOs, the EPA

speculated that manure generated from racetracks would have a higher nutrient composition than

other horse facilities (USEPA, 2001, 2003b). While the manure itself (i.e., the feces and urine)

from intensively exercised horses may have higher TN and TP than that of more sedentary

horses (ASAE, 2005), the practice of housing racehorses in stalls where large amounts of

bedding are mixed with the manure appears to effectively reduce the concentrations of nutrients.

In addition to the type of bedding or facility, the regional location of the horse operation

within the state of Florida also influenced stall waste composition. Stall waste generated on horse

operations in North Florida had greater TN, TP and TK and lower TC concentrations than stall

waste from Central and South Florida. Because clean bedding did not differ in TC, TN, TP or TK

between regions, differences in the composition of stall waste may be due to regional differences

in the proportion of manure to shavings generated during cleaning. A greater number of horse

operations in North Florida cleaned stalls lx/d, whereas those in Central and South Florida were

more likely to clean stalls two or more times per day. As mentioned above, a greater frequency

of stall cleaning may result in the removal of more bedding, thereby diluting the nutrient

concentrations on operations in Central and South Florida.

Conclusion

Horse stall waste is not a uniform material; it consists of varying quantities of feces, urine,

bedding, and discarded feed, all of which can impact the nutrient content of stall waste.

Nonetheless, reference values for stall waste composition would be useful for making nutrient










management planning decisions in areas where large numbers of horses are housed. Across the

State of Florida, horse stall waste appears to be comprised of approximately 75% bedding

(predominantly a wood product) and 25% manure, with an average fertilizer N-P205-K20 value

of 0.41-0.25-0.49 on an as-removed basis. Relatively small differences in the TN, TP, and TK

concentrations in stall waste were observed between breeding farms, boarding/training facilities

and racetrack stables. In contrast, the type of bedding used in horse stalls, as well as cleaning

practices to remove manure and soiled bedding from stalls appeared to have a larger impact on

the nutrient composition of stall waste. Based on ASAE (2005) estimates, the composition of

horse manure is similar to that of a beef cow, but much less than that of dairy, swine and poultry

manure. With the addition of bedding, horse stall waste is even lower in TN and TP than other

livestock manures. Although the volume generated by some horse operations may be quite high,

the impact of stall waste on the environment and water quality is likely less than the risk posed

by other livestock manures.










Table 3-1. Nutrient composition of clean bedding evaluated by bedding type
Hay (n = 2) Straw (n = 3) Wood (n = 91)
Nutrients Mean SE Mean SE Mean SE
Nitrogen (%) 0.52a 10.31 0.32a f0.27 0.11b 10.12
Carbon (%) 44.3a~b f2.1 34.3a f8.3 45.8b 10.6
Carbon:Nitrogen Ratio 137:1a 185 421:1a f220 704:1b +61
Total Phosphorus (%) 0.08 +0.03 0.01 10.01 0.02 10.004
Potassium (%) 0.29a f0.26 1.12b f0.24 0.11a f0.02
Dry Matter (%) 94.7 12.3 75.6 110.1 80.0 1.
Organic Matter (%) 96.9 12.8 93.1 +4.7 98.0 1.
With the exception of dry matter, all values are presented on a 100% DM basis.
a'b Within a row, means followed by a different superscript differ at P < 0.05.









Table 3-2. Nutrient composition of clean bedding evaluated by facility type
Boarding/Training Breeding Racetrack
(n = 5 5) (n = 3 8) (n = 3)
Nutrients Mean SE Mean SE Mean SE
Nitrogen (%) 0.14 10.02 0.12 10.02 0.05 10.01
Carbon (%) 46.1 10. 8 45.0 10.8 38.5 19.9
Carbon:Nitrogen Ratio 546:1a 42 860:1b 126 952:1b 382
Total Phosphorus (%) 0.02 10.005 0.02 10.01 0.01 10.002
Potassium (%) 0.09 10.02 0.22 10.06 0.28 10.27
Dry Matter (%) 79.8 12180. 8 12.3 78.2 15.4
Organic Matter (%) 97.1 11798.8 10.5 99.3 10.3
iWith the exception of dry matter, all values are presented on a 100% DM basis.
a'b Within a row, means followed by a different superscript differ at P < 0.05.










Table 3-3. Nutrient Composition of clean bedding evaluated by region
North (n = 30) Central (n = 26) South (n = 40)
Nutrients Mean SE Mean SE Mean SE
Nitrogen (%) 0.09 10.01 0.16 10.04 0.14 10.02
Carbon (%) 44.1 11646.1 10.5 46.0 10.8
Carbon:Nitrogen Ratio 595:1a 51 634:1a f69 782:1b 127
Total Phosphorus (%) 0.02 10.01 0.03 10.01 0.02 10.01
Potassium (%) 0.12 10.05 0.17 10.07 0.15 10.03
Dry Matter (%) 80.9 12.9 79.7 13179.8 1.
Organic Matter (%) 96.6 +3.0 98.4 10.7 98.4 10.4
iWith the exception of dry matter, all values are presented on a 100% DM basis.
a'b Within a row, means followed by a different superscript differ at P < 0.05.










Table 3-4. Nutrient Composition of clean bedding and horse stall waste
Clean Bedding (n = 96) Stall Waste (n = 139)
Nutrients Mean SE Mean SE
Nitrogen (%) 0.13a 10.02 0.71b ~0.03
Carbon (%) 45.4 10.6 41.7 ~0.6
Carbon:Nitrogen Ratio 683:1a 59 72:1b ~3
Total Phosphorus (%) 0.02a 10.004 0.19b ~0.01
Potassium (%) 0.15a 10.03 0.71b ~0.04
Dry Matter (%) 80.1a 10.02 57.8b ~ .
Organic Matter (%) 97.8 11087.01.
iWith the exception of Dry Matter, all values are presented on a 100% DM basis.
a'b Within a row, means followed by a different superscript differ at P < 0.05.










Table 3-5. Nutrient composition of stall waste evaluated by bedding type
Hay (n = 2) Straw (n = 17) Wood (n = 120)
Nutrients Mean SE Mean SE Mean SE
Nitrogen (%) 1.29a f0.27 1.10a f0.05 0.64b 10.03
Carbon (%) 41.1 10.8 40.1 10.5 42.0 10.65
Carbon:Nitrogen Ratio 33:1 16 37:1 12 77:1 13
Total Phosphorus (%) 0. 19a~b 10.04 0.24a f0.02 0.19b 10.01
Potassium (%) 0.81a f0.02 1.42b f0.13 0.61a f0.03
Dry Matter (%) 68.4 118.4 51.4 12.2 58.5 1.
Organic Matter (%) 93.7 10183.6 11287.3 1.
iWith the exception of dry matter, all values are presented on a 100% DM basis.
a'b Within a row, means followed by a different superscript differ at P < 0.05.









Table 3-6. Nutrient composition of stall waste evaluated by facility type
Boarding/Training Breeding Racetrack
(n = 56) (n = 38) (n = 45)
Nutrients Mean SE Mean SE Mean SE
Nitrogen (%) 0.65a f0.03 0.79b 10.06 0.710 10.05
Carbon (%) 42.0 11041.4 11441.7 10.6
Carbon:Nitrogen Ratio 75:1 15 65:1 16 73:1 15
Total Phosphorus (%) 0. 18a~b 10.02 0.22a f0.03 0.19b 10.01
Potassium (%) 0.64a f0.05 0.85b 10.09 0.670 10.08
Dry Matter (%) 57.8 11860.7 12.5 55.2 1.
Organic Matter (%) 87.1 +2.0 88.9 11885.3 1.


'With the exception of dry matter, all values are presented on a 100% DM bas:
a,b,c Within a row, means followed by a different superscript differ at P < 0.05.


is.









Table 3-7. Nutrient composition of stall waste evaluated by region
North (n = 30) Central (n = 40) South (n = 69)
Nutrients Mean SE Mean SE Mean SE
Nitrogen (%) 0.82a f0.07 0.70a~b f0.05 0.67b 10.04
Carbon (%) 39.1a f1.7 41.7a"b f0.6 42.9b 10.8
Carbon:Nitrogen Ratio 59:1 16 70:1 16 78:1 +4
Total Phosphorus (%) 0.22 10.03 0.19 10.02 0.19 10.01
Potassium (%) 0.95a f0.08 0.52b 10.08 0.72C 10.05
Dry Matter (%) 61.5 13.3 56.7 11656.7 1.
Organic Matter (%) 84.6 +3.0 86.5 11588.3 1.
With the exception of dry matter, all values are presented on a 100% DM basis.
a,b,c Within a row, means followed by a different superscript differ at P < 0.05.










Table 3-8. Nutrient composition of clean wood bedding and stall waste containing wood bedding
Clean Wood Bedding Stall Waste with Wood Bedding
(n = 91) (n = 120)
Nutrients Mean SE Mean SE
Nitrogen (%) 0.11a 10.02 0.64b 10.03
Carbon (%) 45.8 10.6 42.0 10.7
Carbon Nitrogen Ratio 704:1a 59 77:1b 3
Total Phosphorus (%) 0.02a 10.004 0.19b 10.01
Potassium (%) 0.11a 10.03 0.61b 10.03
Dry Matter (%) 80.0a 10.02 58.5b .
Organic Matter (%) 98.0a 87.3b .
iWith the exception of dry matter, all values are presented on a 100% DM basis.
a'b Within a row, means followed by a different superscript differ at P < 0.05.









Table 3-9. Nutrient composition of stall waste containing wood bedding evaluated by facility
type
Boarding/Training Breeding Racetrack
(n = 55) (n = 35) (n = 30)
Nutrients Mean SE Mean SE Mean SE
Nitrogen (%) 0.65a f0.03 0.75b 10.06 0.52C 10.03
Carbon (%) 42.0 11041.5 11542.4 10.8
Carbon:Nitrogen Ratio 75:1 15 68:1 16 90:1 16
Total Phosphorus (%) 0.18a f0.02 0.23b f0.03 0.15a f0.01
Potassium (%) 0.64a f0.05 0.77b 10.07 0.360 10.02
Dry Matter (%) 57.9 11860.4 12.6 57.2 1.
Organic Matter (%) 87.0 12188.7 12.0 86.4 1.
iWith the exception of dry matter, all values are presented on a 100% DM basis.
a,b,c Within a row, means followed by a different superscript differ at P < 0.05.









Table 3-10. Nutrient composition of stall waste containing wood bedding evaluated by region
North (n = 30) Central (n = 36) South (n = 54)
Nutrients Mean SE Mean SE Mean SE
Nitrogen (%) 0.82a 10.07 0.64b 10.04 0.550 10.03
Carbon (%) 39.1a f1.7 41.9a"b f0.7 43.6b 10.9
Carbon:Nitrogen Ratio 59:1 17 75:1 16 88:1 15
Total Phosphorus (%) 0.22a 10.03 0. 19a~b f0.02 0.17b 10.01
Potassium (%) 0.95a f0.08 0.40b 10.03 0.560 10.04
Dry Matter (%) 61.5 13.3 56.3 11558.3 1.
Organic Matter (%) 84.6a f3.0 85.9a~b f1.6 89.8b .
With the exception of dry matter, all values are presented on a 100% DM basis.
a,b,c Within a row, means followed by a different superscript differ at P < 0.05.











Facility Type or lx/d 2x/d 3x/d Continuously
Region n % n % n % n %
Boarding/Training 13 27.7 26 55.3 3 6.4 5 10.6
Breeding 8 53.3 4 26.7 0 -3 20.0
North 11 61.1 5 27.8 0 -2 11.1
Central 9 39.1 7 30.4 1 4.4 6 26.1
South 1 4.8 18 85.7 2 9.5 0
ICumulative percentage by row is 100%.


Table 3-11. Frequency of stall cleaning









Table 3-12. Comparison of the nutrient composition of clean bedding and horse stall waste to
manures produced by horses and other livestock
Total
Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium Dry Matter
Materials (%) (%) (%) (%)
Clean Bedding" 0.13 0.02 0.15 80.1
Horse Stall Waste2 0.71 0.19 0.71 57.8
Horse Manure Sedentary3 2.34 0.34 0.71 15.0
Horse Manure Intensely Exercised3 3.85 0.85 2.44 15.0
Dairy Manure Dry Cow3 4.69 0.61 3.02 13.0
Dairy Manure Lactating Cow3 4.94 0.88 1.16 13.0
Beef Manure Cow Confinement3 2.88 0.67 2.12 12.0
Swine Manure Gestating Sow3 6.40 1.80 4.40 10.0
Poultry Manure Layer3 7.27 2.18 2.64 25.0
With the exception of dry matter, all values are presented on a 100% DM basis.
2Data from current study.
3Data adapted from ASAE, 2005.










Table 3-13. Comparison of nutrients per metric ton between clean bedding, horse stall waste, and
manures produced by horses and other livestock on an as-removed basis
Total
Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium
Materials (kg./MT) (kg./MT) (kg./MT)
Clean Bedding" 1.0 0.2 1.2
Horse Stall Waste2 4.1 1.1 4.1
Horse Manure Sedentary3 3.5 0.5 1.1
Horse Manure Intensely Exercised3 5.7 1.3 3.6
Dairy Manure Dry Cow3 5.9 0.8 3.9
Dairy Manure Lactating Cow3 6.4 1.1 1.6
Beef Manure Cow Confinement3 3.5 0.8 2.5
Swine Manure Gestating Sow3 6.4 1.8 4.4
Poultry Manure Layer3 18.3 5.5 6.5
IValues are presented on an as-removed basis per 1000 kg.
2Data from current study.
3Data adapted from ASAE, 2005









CHAPTER 4
CHARACTERIZATION OF MANURE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON FLORIDA
HORSE OPERATIONS

Introduction

In today' s animal production agriculture, large numbers of animals are often confined to

relatively small areas to increase the efficiency of production. According to the Environmental

Protection Agency, these operations are labeled Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs). AFOs

congregate animals for production purposes and, as a result, concentrate feed, manure and urine

and dead animals on a small area of land. It is estimated that there are 450,000 AFOs in the

United States. AFOs are considered to be concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) when

the number of animals crosses a particular threshold. AFOs can be classified as small, medium or

large depending on the number of animal units. Specific to horses, a small AFO is less than 150

head, medium AFO 150-499 head and a large-scale equine AFO is 500 or more horses (USEPA,

2003a). CAFOs merit special consideration because the large volume of waste generated by the

animals creates environmental concerns with regard to soil, water and air (Jongbloed and Lenis,

1998). The risk factors are dependent on many different variables, but in general, there is

concern for nutrient accumulation in soil and water and the effects of ammonia, hydrogen

sulfide, particulate matter and odor emissions and odor on air quality.

Horses have the lowest number of animal units required for each level of CAFO compared

to all other species of livestock. Presumably this is due to the large volume of waste generated

per animal unit when stall bedding becomes a factor. While many similarities exist between

horse production and CAFOs of other livestock species, there are key differences. One main

difference is the addition of some form of neutral bedding to the waste product usually in the

form of hay, straw or wood shavings. Horses are commonly housed in individual units and are

very seldom confined in a feedlot type setting. Therefore, manure management to reduce surface









or groundwater contamination from the area where horses are housed is not a maj or concern.

However, once the stall waste is removed these concerns come into play.

Manure storage on horse operations is different when compared to confinement swine or

dairy operations due to the high dry matter content of horse bedding. Swine or dairy operations

must contain waste in a lagoon, storage pond or tank due to the high liquid content. Horse or

poultry litter mixed with bedding can be stored in a static pile with little risk of the maj ority of

the solids traveling far from the pile.

It has been previously found that horse farms utilize two methods to dispose of stall waste:

1) stall waste hauled off site; or 2) stall waste is utilized on site (Peters et al., 2003). The 2005

NAHMS baseline reference of equine health and management survey found that nationally the

greatest percentage of horse operations disposed of waste bedding or manure by applying it to

non-grazing or grazing fields, allowing it to accumulate or leaving it to nature (NAHMS, 2005).

A low percentage of operations managed manure by having it removed by routine garbage

pickup or deposition in a landfill (NAHMS, 2005). The study also indicated differences by size

of operations. The larger the operation was, the more likely they were to sell or give away the

waste or apply it to the land where livestock grazed.

In 2002 an equine economic impact study was conducted in Pennsylvania (PDA, 2002a).

Manure sales were treated as a source of income for the horse population and were divided

between the racing industry and general population. Manure sales for the racing industry were

less than 0.3% of the gross income. The manure sales for the total horse population in

Pennsylvania were estimated to be 0.21% of the net income (PDA, 2002a). Interestingly, this

survey did not treat waste handling and management as an expenditure. Specific to the racehorse

industry in Pennsylvania, it was found that no large operations stockpiled manure on premises









and smaller operations were more likely to stockpile and leave manure on site unused. It was

also reported that commercial operations were more likely to have manure management plans

(PDA, 2002b).

The Horse Industry Association of Alberta performed an extensive economic impact

survey of the province' s horse industry in 2003. Part of this impact survey evaluated manure

management. Some of the most popular responses for manure disposal were spreading manure in

fields or pastures or composting. In Alberta over half of horse owners purchased straw bedding.

The second most common source of clean bedding was shavings/sawdust (HIAA, 2003).

In 2006, the United States Census Bureau reported that Florida' s human population was 18

million and growing (USCB, 2006). Agriculture encompasses half of the state' s 34.5 million

acres. The growing population will create many issues, one of them being land availability.

Urban sprawl will create many challenges for the horse industry. Finding space to land apply

stall waste will become increasingly difficult. The result will be the need to create other venues

to dispose of horse stall waste. Composting and incineration to generate electricity are two

examples of ways to add value to a current waste product.

The primary reason for the current study was to collect information about the manure

management practices on Florida equine operations. Very few assessments of manure

management have been conducted and manure management practices specific to the state of

Florida have not been quantified. The information gained in this study will be used to identify

frequent practices that may lead to better utilization of stall waste and ways to minimize or

eliminate their impact on the environment.

Equine operations can manage the stall waste in many ways. The hypothesis was that the

most common ways horse operations were disposing of stall waste were land application,










composting, hauling it off site or stockpiling waste on site. Each disposal or storage method

poses challenges to the environment.

Materials and Methods

During visits to horse facilities for manure sampling (See Chapter 3), an onsite manure

management evaluation was completed to characterize the manure management practices on

Florida horse operations. The intent was to identify management practices that may pose a risk to

water quality. The evaluation was composed of two segments: 1) verbal questioning, whereby

the facility manager or other representative was questioned to obtain background information,

(e.g. number of horses, total acres, percent protein of concentrate fed, etc.) as well as a

description of how manure was handled, stored and disposed; 2) an on-site evaluation, conducted

by the investigator to evaluate the effectiveness of the facility' s manure management practices

and potential risks to water quality (Table 4-1; Appendix A).

Survey data was obtained from 139 horse facilities located throughout the state of Florida.

Sampling was distributed between three types of horse facilities: 1) breeding farms (n = 15); 2)

boarding/training facilities (n = 56); and 3) racetrack stables (n = 45). Breeding farms were

defined as operations that participate in breeding, where horses are typically housed in stalls

part-time on a seasonal basis (e.g., during foaling season; during sales preparation of young

horses) or for short duration (e.g., during morning and evening feedings; during evenings when

foals are young). Boarding/training facilities comprised several different riding/training

disciplines and were defined as operations that board a minimum of 10 horses, where horses

spent a significant amount of time confined to stalls (minimum of 8 hr/d). Racetrack stables were

represented by horses managed under different trainers and housed at one of three racetracks

with pari-mutuel wagering on live racing, including Calder Racecourse, Gulfstream Park and

Tampa Bay Downs.









With the exception of racetracks, evaluation of waste management practices was also

distributed in three regions within the state of Florida: 1) North Florida (n = 18) including the

panhandle and near or north of Interstate-10; 2) Central Florida (n = 38) including Alachua and

Marion counties, Orlando and Tampa; and 3) South Florida (n = 60) defined as the area south of

the Interstate-4 corridor. Data collected from racetrack stables were included in the analysis by

region, with two of the racetracks located in South Florida and one in Central Florida. No

racetracks were present in North Florida.

All responses and observations to survey questions were reported. Not every operation was

able to provide enough information to fulfill each question. Most racetrack stables and several

breeding and boarding facilities were omitted from many of the survey questions. Some of the

reasons included no one present at time of collection, unwillingness to participate in the survey

and an inability to communicate due to language barrier. This led to different n values for each

question as well as by region and facility type.

Statistical Analysis

Survey responses were collected and a frequency of response was reported. Data was also

reported as a percentage of respondents by region and by facility type.

Results

Facility Demographics

The most frequently surveyed operation was boarding/training (Table 4-2).

Boarding/Training facilities may be more common throughout the state, although it was not the

intent of the survey to determine the distribution of operations, only to attempt to equally sample

all types of operations. A similar percentage of racetrack stables and breeding farms were

surveyed (Table 4-2). South Florida had a greater frequency of facilities surveyed at nearly fifty









percent (Table 4-2). The distribution was unequal due to the fact that two racetracks were located

in South Florida. The remaining racetrack was in Central Florida.

Over 47% of operations surveyed were less than 50 acres in size and slightly over 18%

were over 200 acres (Figure 4-1). Most horse operations surveyed were less than 200 acres.

Breeding operations were larger than boarding/training (Table 4-3). More than half of the

boarding/training facilities were on less than 50 acres. In contrast, the maj ority of breeding

operations were over 50 acres in size, with approximately one-third of breeding farms more than

200 acres (Table 4-3). Breeding operations house broodmares and foals and utilize pasture and

turnout more than most boarding/training facilities; therefore, it would be expected that the size

of breeding operations would be the largest. Nearly all of the operations in North and South

Florida were smaller than 200 acres (Table 4-3). Operations were largest in Central Florida, with

about one-third of operations greater than 500 acres (Table 4-3). Operations were also queried on

the acreage utilized by horses, which did not differ from the total acreage of the operation (data

not shown).

Almost 30% of the operations surveyed had less than 20 horses, and almost 20% housed

more than 200 horses (Figure 4-2). The number of horses housed at breeding facilities was

evenly distributed between less than 20 and greater than 200; no category had greater than 27%

of the distribution (Table 4-4). One-third of boarding/training operations housed less than 20

horses, which was the greatest frequency among any category (Table 4-4). Most Central Florida

operations had greater than 40 horses and more than 60% had more than 100 head (Table 4-4). In

both North and South Florida, most operations had less than forty horses (Table 4-4). North and

South Florida operations were smaller in comparison to Central Florida.









The breed of horses maintained by all operations was surveyed. Across facilities,

including racetrack stables, nearly 68% were Thoroughbreds. Other breeds of horses represented

by the survey were Missouri Foxtrotters, Warmbloods, Quarter Horses, Polo Ponies and

Arabians (Figure 4-3). Boarding/Training operations mostly had Polo Ponies, Quarter Horses,

Thoroughbreds and Warmbloods (Table 4-5). The maj ority (73%) of breeding operations housed

Thoroughbreds (Table 4-5). All data obtained from racetrack stables included Thoroughbreds

(Table 4-5). North Florida was different from the other regions as Quarter Horses were the most

prevalent breed on operations surveyed compared to Thoroughbreds (Table 4-5). Polo Ponies

only appeared in the survey data in South Florida (Table 4-5). Over 97% of the operations who

were surveyed in Central Florida had Thoroughbreds. North Florida had the most varied breed

profile of the operations surveyed, making the population surveyed in North Florida the most

diverse (Table 4-5).

Feeding Programs

Across all facilities, the type of hay utilized by over half of Florida horse operations

surveyed was a legume-grass mix, followed by grass hay and then legume hay (Figure 4-4).

When evaluated by facility type, the most prevalent type of hay fed at boarding/training facilities

and breeding farms were grass and grass-legume mix (Table 4-6). Nearly all of the racetrack

stables fed their horses a grass-legume mix hay. By region Central Florida fed the most legume

hay compared to North and South Florida. More grass hay was fed to horses in North and South

Florida than in Central Florida (Table 4-6). All regions fed a reasonably similar amount of grass-

legume mix hay.

The percentage of crude protein in the commercial grain mix concentrate fed to horses at

each operation was recorded. If multiple types of concentrate were used, the most prominent was

recorded as the percent protein fed. The crude protein in concentrate products offered to horses









ranged from 10-14% (Figure 4-5). Over half of all operations fed a 12% crude protein feed

(Figure 4-5). Eighty six percent of boarding/training facilities fed horses a feed with 10-12%

crude protein (Table 4-7). Breeding farms were more likely to feed horses a grain mix

concentrate with a greater than 12% crude protein than other types of facilities; however feeds

with 12% crude protein were still the predominant product offered on breeding farms. The crude

protein in concentrate feeds offered to horses in racetrack stables was about evenly split between

10%, 12% and 14% crude protein. In all regions, the majority of operations (over half) feed a

feed with 12% protein (Table 4-7).

Stall Management

Over 86% of the horse facilities surveyed used a wood product, such as wood chips,

shavings, sawdust or pellets as bedding (Figure 4-6). By comparison, only two of the 139

facilities surveyed bedded stalls with hay or sand and 17/139 bed stalls with straw. The majority

of all operations bed on pine shavings (Figure 4-7). Facilities surveyed in North Florida bed on

only pine shavings and wood pellets (Table 4-8). The only facilities that bed on hay and straw

were in Central Florida and sand bedding was used in South Florida (Table 4-8).

When asked a reason for using a particular type of bedding, farm managers and

employees mostly frequently cited convenience and price (Figure 4-8). Two of the other reasons

cited were tradition and environmental concerns (Figure 4-8).

Over half of all facilities surveyed used rubber mats as the base beneath the bedding in

stalls (Figure 4-9). Sand and clay were also used as stall base materials. Over half the

boarding/training facilities surveyed used rubber stall mats, followed by clay and sand at equal

frequency (Table 4-9). Breeding facilities utilized rubber mats and clay in stalls nearly

exclusively. By region, South Florida showed a clear preference for rubber stall mats, followed

by sand (Table 4-9). Facilities in North and Central Florida showed a greater frequency of clay









than South Florida, and facilities in North and South Florida utilized sand as a stall base, whereas

those surveyed in Central Florida did not. Use of rubber mats and clay as the stall base was

almost equally represented in Central Florida (Table 4-9).

The amount of clean bedding in stalls was a subj ective observation made by the

investigator and based on a visual ranking of light, moderate or heavy. A light amount of clean

bedding was considered to exist when the stall base could be seen in several spots. Moderate

bedding amount was observed when the entire stall base was covered and a horse standing in the

stall would have a portion of its hoof covered up to the cornet band (i.e., the top of the hoof).

Heaving bedding was noted when the bedding was deep enough to cover the horse's entire hoof

and extend up to the pastern of the leg. Over half of the facilities surveyed used a moderate

amount of bedding (Figure 4-10). Evaluation of bedding amount by facility type and region did

not differ from the overall average across facilities (data not shown).

Over 78% of all operations surveyed housed horses in stalls for the entire day (Figure 4-

11). When evaluated by facility type, breeding operations were less likely to house horses in

stalls for a full day and more likely to have them in stalls only at feeding time than

boarding/training and racetrack stables (Table 4-10). In contrast, on the racetrack horses were

housed in stalls for a full day (Table 4-10). By region, no operations in South Florida kept horses

in stalls only during feeding time, and over 92% kept them in stalls for half a day (Table 4-10).

In Central Florida, the maj ority of operations kept horses in stalls for a full day (Table 4-10).

The frequency of stall cleaning may lead to a difference in the nutrient levels of waste,

based on the proportions of bedding and manure removed. Almost half of all operations surveyed

reported that they cleaned stalls twice a day and one third of facilities reported cleaning stalls

once a day (Figure 4-12). The two other survey responses for frequency of stall cleaning were









three times a day and continuously. When evaluated based on facility type, most

boarding/training operations cleaned stalls twice a day and most breeding facilities cleaned stalls

once a day (Table 4-11). As reported above, horses at breeding operations generally spent less

time in stalls; therefore, less frequent cleaning may have been needed. By region nearly all

facilities in South Florida cleaned stalls twice a day (Table 4-11). In North Florida, almost two-

thirds of facilities cleaned stalls once a day, with the second most frequent response being twice

a day. Stall cleaning frequency in Central Florida was fairly evenly split between cleaning stalls

continuously, once a day and twice a day (Table 4-11).

The approximate volume of stall waste removed during cleaning was estimated by the

investigator based on the number of wheelbarrow loads (approximately 6 cu ft.) removed per

stall on a daily basis. Although this was an inexact measurement, it was an attempt to quantify

the thoroughness of the stall cleaning and the volume of material generated. Across all facilities,

most operations removed one wheelbarrow daily (Figure 4-13). Breeding operations removed a

larger volume of stall waste than boarding and training operations (Table 4-12). Considering that

a few breeding farms also reported bedding stalls on hay or straw, the greater volume might be a

result of these bulkier materials compared to stall waste containing wood bedding. Additionally,

when stalls are bedded with hay or straw they are typically stripped on a daily basis, resulting in

the removal of more material. By region, facilities in Central Florida appeared to remove more

stall waste per day than facilities in North and South Florida (Table 4-12).

Facilities were queried on their frequency of stall stripping to determine if operations had

a set schedule for removing the entire volume of bedding. Stall "stripping" was considered to be

the removal of the entire amount of bedding down to the stall base. By comparison, routine

cleaning was defined as the removal of feces, urine, soiled bedding, and discarded hay and feed.









Over two-thirds of all operations reported stripping stalls "as needed" (Figure 4-14). The second

most common response was stalls stripped weekly at just over eleven percent (Figure 4-14).

When evaluated by facility type, boarding/training operations most commonly stripped stalls "As

Needed" but more specific answers varied from daily to never (Table 4-13). Similarly, a greater

percentage of breeding facilities cleaned stalls as needed, the same trend continued by region. In

North and South Florida, the maj ority of operations stripped stalls as needed (Table 4-13). By

comparison, operations in Central Florida appeared to strip stalls on more of a defined schedule,

although the maj ority still stripped stalls as needed (Table 4-13).

Stall Waste Storage

When stall waste is removed, it is generally stored for a period of time before utilization.

The amount of time may vary from years to hours, and the method of storage may vary from a

concrete structure to no storage container. The method of storage was considered to be a

structure when it was placed in an area that was constructed specifically to hold waste for a

period of time. A common structure was a three sided bin with a concrete base. A free-standing

pile would differ from a structure, as a pile would have no constructed barriers to contain the

waste. A container was a dumpster which would be removed periodically by a waste

management company. Across all operations, over 45% percent stored stall waste in some form

of free-standing pile and one third stored the waste in a structure (Figure 4-15).

Boarding/training operations were most likely to store waste in a free-standing pile or a structure

(Table 4-14). Two thirds of breeding operations stored waste in a free standing pile (Table 4-14).

In addition to storage method, the length of time stall waste was stored before being

disposed of was recorded for each facility. Almost 30% of all operations stored all waste for one

week (Figure 4-16). No storage was reported by 18% of operations when waste was land applied,

suggesting that stall waste was land applied shortly after removal from stalls or that some other









form of disposal was used that required no storage (Figure 4-16). The maj ority of operations

reported storage of three months or less. Boarding/training facilities and breeding farms most

frequently stored waste for one week or less (Table 4-15). When evaluated by region Central

Florida had the most operations storing waste for a year or longer (Table 4-15). The South

Florida region typically had shorter periods of waste storage (Table 4-15).

Across all facilities surveyed, the material comprising the base of the storage area was

mostly unimproved soil or concrete (Figure 4-17). Other facilities reported a base of sand, metal,

limerock, or clay for manure storage; one facility reported storing their waste in a sinkhole

(Figure 4-17). A metal storage base was considered to be a manure spreader or dumpster. The

facilities that stored waste in areas with a concrete base were mostly boarding/training facilities

in South Florida (Table 4-16). This would have most likely been the operations that had

constructed a bin or three sided holding area for waste to be stored prior to being hauled off site.

The next most common storage base material for boarding/training facilities was on top of

unimproved soil. One boarding/training operation in Central Florida used a sinkhole as a waste

storage or disposal area (Table 4-16). Breeding farms were more likely than boarding/training

facilities to store stall waste on top of unimproved soil (Table 4-16). In North and Central Florida

the consensus storage base was unimproved soil. None of the operations evaluated had a roof

covering their waste storage area (Figure 4-18).

Ninety percent of all operations did not store stall waste in a low lying area (Figure 4-19).

The investigator determined if the storage was in a low lying area by looking at the location of

the waste storage in relation to other points on the same farm. No operations in North Florida

stored waste in a low lying area (Table 4-17). With about the same frequency Central and South

Florida had facilities with a waste storage area in a low lying area (Table 4-17). Two operations









reported an annual problem with flooding in the waste storage area (Figure 4-20). By facility

type, one of these operations was a breeding farm and one was a boarding/training operation. By

region, one operation was in North Florida and the other was in Central Florida (Table 4-18).

Across all facilities, most stored stall waste more than 500 ft from surface water (Figure

4-21). Only 3 of 5 1 facilities surveyed stored stall waste within 100 ft of a surface body of water.

All three respondents were boarding/training facilities, one in Central Florida and two in South

Florida (Table 4-19).

The maj ority of all operations surveyed placed the stall waste storage area more than 500

ft from a residence (Figure 4-22). Two operations, both boarding/training facilities in South

Florida stored stall waste closer than 100 ft to a residence, with another boarding/training facility

in North Florida storing stall waste within 200 ft of a residence. Still, the vast maj ority of

boarding/training facilities an all breeding operations situated their stall waste storage area

further than 500 ft from a residence (Table 4-20).

The maj ority of all facilities surveyed stored stall waste more than 500 ft from a drinking

water well, while only 10% stored manure within 200 ft of a well (Figure 4-23).

Boarding/training and South Florida operations had a well within 200 ft of the waste storage area

most frequently (Table 4-20). Ten percent of the respondents from boarding/training facilities

had a well closer than 200 ft (Table 4-21). Over 15% of operations in South Florida had a waste

storage facility within 200 ft of a well.

Waste Disposal

Over two-thirds of all operations surveyed had stall waste hauled off site as the primary

method of disposal (Figure 4-24). The second most frequently reported method of waste disposal

was land application. Composting and stockpiling were less frequently reported. Over 90% of

operations in South Florida had the stall waste hauled off site (Table 4-22). Central Florida also









had stall waste hauled off site at a response rate of over 65% (Table 4-22). North Florida' s

responses were split between those that hauled stall waste off site and those which land applied

stall waste as their primary means of disposal (Table 4-22).

Removal services for hauling away stall waste were provided by two entities, either

private contractor or commercial waste management service. It was expected that a commercial

waste management service would be taking the stall waste to a landfill whereas a private

contractor may be treating the product as a potential value added commodity. Across all

operations, over 88% of waste that was hauled off site was done so by a private contractor

(Figure 4-25). A private company performing waste removal was contracted by each individual

farm to remove the waste, the end result of this waste was unknown. A commercial service was

responsible for removing almost 12% of the waste hauled off site (Figure 4-25). No North

Florida facilities used commercial waste management services to haul stall waste off site (Table

4-23). Boarding/training operations were most likely to use a commercial service to remove stall

waste (Table 4-23). When evaluated by both facility type and region the overwhelming maj ority

hired a private contractor to remove stall waste (Table 4-23).

If waste was hauled off site, the frequency of removal was categorized into daily, weekly,

monthly, quarterly and yearly intervals. Thirty five percent of removal took place weekly, almost

17% took place yearly and almost 12% of waste was removed daily (Figure 4-26).

Boarding/Training operations removed waste more frequently when compared to breeding

facilities (Table 4-24). North Florida' s distribution of waste removal frequency was highly

variable and Central Florida had over 46% removed at least weekly and one-third removed

yearly (Table 4-24). South Florida had two common responses weekly or monthly (Table 4-24).









When stall waste was land applied, the location of land application was recorded. The

three areas where stall waste was spread were horse pastures, other pastures or un-harvested

areas. Un-harvested areas would include any area not being used as a pasture or for harvesting

any other crop. Some examples may include wooded areas, arenas or trails/roads. Across all

facilities who dispose of stall waste via land application, most spread stall waste on horse

pastures (Figure 4-27).The number of operations who land applied stall waste to un-harvested

areas or other types of pastures was similar and accounted for the remaining locations. When

evaluated by facility, boarding/training operations were more likely to spread manure on horse

pastures than other locations, whereas breeding farms spread a significant amount of stall waste

on other pastures not used by horses (Table 4-25).

The second consideration if waste was land applied was the frequency of land

application. Over two-thirds of all operations surveyed spread stall waste as it was removed from

stalls (Figure 4-28). Almost 30% of operations that land applied waste did so as it was needed

(Figure 4-28). This was likely not as it was needed for a fertilizer but as the storage area became

full or time was allocated for land application. The only other response for frequency of land

application was monthly (Figure 4-28).

Pasture and Paddock Management

Management of pastures and paddocks was evaluated based on each facility's practice of

removing manure, harrowing and fertilizing. A paddock or dry lot was considered to be an area

with minimal grass that horses were turned out into for exercise purposes as opposed to grazing.

Only 2 of 59 removed manure from pastures (Figure 4-29). More (8 of 59) operations removed

manure from paddocks or dry lots (Figure 4-30).

A total of 16 facilities out of 59 responses harrowed their pastures. Of the facilities who

did harrow pastures one-quarter of them were boarding/training facilities and one-third of them









were breeding facilities harrowed their pastures (Table 4-26). By region, South Florida was less

likely to harrow pastures (Table 4-26). Of those facilities that harrowed pastures, most performed

this practice weekly or monthly (Figure 4-31).

By region, pastures were fertilized less frequently in South Florida (Table 4-27).

Breeding operations were most likely to fertilize pastures (Table 4-27). A visual evaluation was

made of the facilities that had pasture ranging from 100% (healthy) to 0% (no ground cover).

This estimate was made by the same investigator for all evaluations. One-third of all operations

surveyed with pastures that had scores of "healthy" (Figure 4-32). An equivalent number of

facilities had pasture that scored less than healthy. One quarter of all operations surveyed had no

pasture to evaluate (Figure 4-32). Facilities least likely to have pasture space available were

located in South Florida, and Central Florida pastures were most likely to be healthy (Table 4-

28). Breeding facilities were more likely to have healthy pastures when compared to

boarding/training operations (Table 4-28). Boarding/training facilities more frequently had no

pasture compared to breeding farms (Table 4-28).

Discussion

Facility Demographics

The American Horse Council reported roughly 500,000 horses in Florida. When these

numbers are broken down approximately 27% are active in the racing industry, 32% in showing

with the remainder involved in recreation and other activities (AHC, 2005). The purpose of the

current study was not to quantify and categorize the use of horses in the state of Florida, but

rather to give equal representation between breeding farms, boarding/training facilities and

racetrack stables (Table 4-2).

The most frequent response for total acres of all facilities surveyed was less than 50 acres

(Figure 4-1). This is very similar to previous studies in Alberta that reported the maj ority of










responses between 11 to 80 acres (HIAA, 2003) and in Pennsylvania with over two thirds located

on less than 50 acres (PDA, 2002). The larger acreage of horse facilities in Central Florida likely

reflects a greater number of breeding farms in this region of the state and the land available for

production agriculture, especially when compared to South Florida.

The number of horses per operation was very similar to previous studies. In Marin County,

California it was reported that the average number of horses per stable was 33 (Murphy and

Nicholson, 2002). A national estimate of 92.2% of operations had 19 or fewer horses (NAHMS,

2005). Horse operations in Central Florida may be larger in total horse numbers due to the fact

that they are larger in total acreage.

The facility demographics of this survey were not intended to reflect the exact makeup and

distribution of the horse population in Florida. The responses to the survey questions are the

demographics of the facilities sampled and show us some trends that would most likely be found

if the entire Florida horse population were surveyed.

Feeding Programs

Overall, the maj ority of operations surveyed fed a commercial grain mix concentrate with

12% crude protein along with a grass-legume mix hay. By region, more Central Florida

operations fed a concentrate with a higher percent crude protein and legume hay. Selection of

commercial feeds and hay with a higher level of protein may be due to the higher percentage of

breeding operations in this region and the higher nutrient requirements of broodmares and

growing horses. No breeding facilities reported feeding a grain mix concentrate containing

higher than 14% crude protein, which was unexpected. A second unexpected response was that

horses on the racetracks were mostly fed a blend of legume and grass hay and not a straight

legume. A nationwide estimate was that over 90% of horse operations fed an energy source

beyond hay or pasture (NAHMS, 2005).









Stall Management

The type of bedding used in stalls was similar to that reported in Alberta that reported

mostly pine shavings (HIAA, 2003) but different than a national estimate which was

predominately straw (NAHMS, 2005). In the survey done in Canada the operations had the

opportunity to give multiple responses to type of bedding used. It was found more than half of

operations surveyed used straw and wood shavings for various reasons throughout the year

(HIAA, 2003). Surveys of Kentucky horse owners found that like Florida almost two thirds used

some form of wood product as bedding (Coleman and Janicki, 2003). One other consideration

may be that on the racetracks the bedding is supplied by singular vendors and is limited to only a

few choices. Trainers would not be able to choose their ideal bedding type but would be forced

to use what is required by track management.

The onsite survey in this study addressed stall management issues such as reason for using

bedding type, stall base material, amount of bedding used, length of time horses were in stalls,

frequency of stall stripping and volume removed that have not been addressed in any previous

surveys. The volume of stall waste removed would likely be affected mostly by the person

cleaning the stall and the bulk of the bedding, which differs between types. For example, a larger

volume of stall waste might be generated with straw bedding vs. wood shavings. Three

components would have an impact on the final nutrient makeup of stall waste, initial bedding

type, amount of time horses spend in stalls and the proportion of manure to clean bedding

removed. While the individual impact each of these practices has on the composition of stall

waste is not known, it is likely that stall cleaning practices (e.g., frequency, proportion of clean

to soiled bedding) may be the most important.









Stall Waste Storage

The amount of time stall waste spent in storage and the frequency of stall waste removal

may be directly proportional to the size of the storage area and the amount of stall waste

generated. Shorter waste storage period in South Florida may be due to the smaller sizes of

operations or a greater amount of stall waste produced in this region. Therefore, the smaller the

operation or the greater amount of waste generated would lead to a more frequent stall waste

removal or land application schedule.

The base of the manure storage area is an important consideration as it is a barrier to

prevent leaching of nutrients from stall waste into ground water. The larger the waste storage

area, the more difficult and costly it is to improve the area beneath the waste pile. As a result, the

operations that generate and/or store large amounts of stall waste typically did not improve or

modify the base of the storage area (i.e., unimproved or native soil). Operations that generated

smaller amounts of stall waste, or those that disposed of manure more frequently (shorter

storage time) would require a smaller footprint for waste storage.

The operations in South Florida that diverted water away from the waste storage area did

so by building concrete or cinderblock walls around three sides. This would still leave one open

side for runoff. The covering of stall waste storage areas was not a common practice. This would

lead to potential leaching and water runoff issues that could be a potential concern.

In an effort to identify any common practices that may lead to a greater than necessary

risk to groundwater or surface water contamination several survey questions were asked. No

overwhelming trend was observed for storage locations being close to surface water, wells or

residences. In a study of the manure management of horse ranches in Marin County, California it

was found that nearly half of the paddocks/stalls where horses were housed came within close

proximity of surface water (Murphy and Nicholson, 2002).









Waste Disposal

Nationwide, the most frequent method of waste disposal was land application (NAHMS,

2005). This was the predominant method regardless of region or size of operation. Land

application as the primary means of disposal of horse manure was also observed in several state

surveys, including 52% in Pennsylvania (Peters et al., 2003), 70% in Kentucky (Coleman and

Janicki, 2003) and over 50% in Alberta, Canada (HIAA, 2003). In the Pennsylvania study, the

larger operations were more likely to remove the waste from the farm and smaller operations

were more likely to stockpile waste (Peters et al., 2003). Florida horse operations that were

surveyed differed greatly from other surveys because they more frequently had stall waste hauled

off site. One reason that horse operations in Florida may have waste hauled off site more

frequently is a greater availability of commercial service. Large concentrations of horses

generate large volumes of stall waste that could be turned into a value added resource. The

maj ority of stall waste that was hauled off site was done so by private companies. The high

concentration of horse operations in several geographic regions around the state has created a

demand for commercial services that haul waste offsite. Such services may not be available to all

horse owners nationwide and land application may be the only alternative.

Two other responses for horse manure disposal in Florida were stockpiling indefinitely

and composting. These responses were much less frequent than found nationally or by other state

surveys. The waste management survey of Marin, County, California, reported that the

operations who did not compost on site had little interest in doing so for several reasons

including lack of knowledge or proper equipment (Murphy and Nicholson, 2002). It was also

reported that on the ranches who composted, the management was minimal (i.e., letting waste

breakdown through natural decomposition, rather than actively managed composting).










Pasture and Paddock Management

Pastures in Florida could be managed by harrowing, fertilizing and collecting manure,

however, a very small percentage of operations performed these practices. In an Alberta, Canada,

survey a very small percentage of respondents collected manure, fertilized or harrowed pastures.

One other consideration for pasture management that was not looked at in the Florida survey is

the location where hay is fed. The Kentucky survey took this into consideration and found that

nearly 60% fed hay loose on the ground (Coleman and Janicki, 2003). This could be of concern

as it encourages bare ground and increased erosion as well as wasted hay and spoilage.

Conclusion

The data collected in this survey would suggest that the vast maj ority of Florida horse

operations are responsibly managing their waste. The main form of bedding used in stalls was

some form of wood based product. Stall waste was either being removed off site in a timely

fashion or being land applied. It was not common for operations to compost stall waste as a form

of disposal. It was evident that considerations were being made regarding the environmental

impact of stall waste storage and disposal. No overwhelming trend existed by region or facility

type that would suggest that any single sector was being more or less responsible with stall waste

management.

Although horse operations appear to be giving considerations to how they responsibly

manage stall waste, improvements can still be made. One of the objectives of this study was to

identify areas that a horse best management practices manual could target to help educate horse

owners so they can make improvements upon current management practices. Pasture

management along with land application considerations is one of these areas. Even if stall waste

was land applied it was done so as an afterthought, as a way to reduce the storage pile or as a

convenient way to get the waste out of sight. A best management practices manual could









encourage soil and waste testing and education of how horse stall waste in combination with

inorganic fertilizer could meet the nutrient requirements of pastures. Horse owners and managers

could be further educated about potential risks related to waste storage. No operations attempted

to cover the area of waste storage. The concern about this is that during periods of high rainfall

and flooding waste storage areas are at an increased risk. Education about taking proactive steps,

even as simple as covering the pile with a tarp would be beneficial.

Educating the horse operations about what the intent of best management practices are is

another important consideration. They are not to be an additional cost to producers, however, an

improvement on current management practices. While an initial cost may be involved in

complying with BMPs a cost savings may realized over time. For example, if an operation can

utilize harrowing, soil testing, controlled stocking rates, pasture rotation and land application of

stall waste at agronomic rates, the end result may be healthier pastures. This could mean

purchasing less hay each year. One other important consideration is the alternative to voluntary

compliance, mandatory permitting. If horse operations refuse to be educated and make

improvements voluntarily they could be perceived as a potential environmental risk and be

forced to make management changes regardless of cost.

Continuing education could be provided about less wasteful stall cleaning practices.

Clean shavings make up the maj ority of stall waste. If a lower proportion of what is removed

from the stall is clean bedding this would increase the nutrient content of stall waste and lead to a

more desirable product for land application as a fertilizer. In addition, this would reduce the

amount of clean bedding utilized which is a cost to the horse owner or operation.

Horse stall waste disposal is currently perceived as cost of doing business. It is just that, a

waste product. Can we evolve this thought process and change the waste stream into a










commodity that has value? Education about how to set up a simple composting unit, pooling

waste with other small operations for further processing or recycling the large portion of clean

bedding in stall waste are changes in management practices that just begin to scratch the surface.

The large percentage of horse stall waste that is stockpiled could be creatively managed and

become an additional source of income.









Table 4-1. Categories of Information Included in the Evaluation of Waste Management Practices
on Florida Horse Operations.
Category and brief description of survey questions
Facility Demographics
Total acres; acres utilized by horses
Number and breed(s) of horses
Region and Type of operation
Feeding Program
Percentage of crude protein in grain mix concentrate fed
Type of hay
Stall Management
Bedding type
Amount of time horses spend in stalls, on average
Method of stall cleaning
Frequency of routine stall cleaning and stall stripping
Estimation of volume of waste removed per stall daily
Type of stall flooring material
Amount of bedding in stalls
Stall Waste Storage
Method used to store stall waste (if stored)
Length of time stall waste is stored before disposal
Flooring and roofing material used in storage area
Location of stall waste storage and propensity for flooding
Distance of stall waste storage area from drinking water well, surface water, and residence
Diversion of clean storm water away from storage area or use of containment ponds
Slope of land away from storage area
Soil depth and type where stall waste is stored
Disposal of Stall Waste
Method of disposal
If land applied, where; is nutrient analysis performed on waste, are soil tests performed;
frequency of application; time of year; distance from where stall waste is applied to drinking
water wells, surface water, residence.
If hauled off site, who performs service; frequency of removal; annual cost
If composted on site, what type of system is used and how is it managed
Management of Pastures
Is manure removed regularly from pastures or exercise paddocks and how often
Are pastures harrowed or fertilized
Subj ective evaluation of pasture quality, based on proportion of desirable grass cover









Table 4-2. Number of facilities evaluated by type and region (n=1 16)
Facility Type or Regionf n %
Boarding/Training 56 40.3
Breeding 15 27.3
Racetrack 45 32.4
North 18 28.8
Central 38 21.6
South 60 49.6
Jf See text for definitions of facility type and region











>500


8 (11-3%)


200-500


5 (7.0%)


50-200


24 (33.8%)


34 (47.9%)


<50


Figure 4-1. Total acreage of all facilities surveyed (excluding racetracks) (n=71)









Table 4-3. Total acreage of facility evaluated by facility type (excluding racetracks) and region (n=71)
Facility Type or Region <50 Acres 50-200 Acres 200-500 Acres >500 Acres
n %n %n %n %
Boarding/Training 31 55.4 17 30.4 4 7.1 4 7.1
Breeding 3 20.0 7 46.7 1 6.7 4 26.6
North 9 50.0 8 44.4 1 5.6
Central 1 4.4 10 43.5 4 17.4 8 34.7
South 24 80.0 6 20.0
Jf See text for definitions of facility type and region









>200


14 (19.7%)


1 00-200


40-c100


20-40


9 (1 2.7%)






1 6 (22.5%)


<20 2 2.%

Figure 4-2. Total number of horses at all facilities surveyed (excluding racetracks) (n=71)




















Jf See text for definitions of facility type and region


._ ._ ._


Table 4-4. Total number of horses evaluated by facility type (excluding racetracks) and region (n=71)
Facility Type or Region <20 20-40 40-100 100-200 >200
n % N % n % n % n %
Boarding/Training 19 33.9 12 21.4 9 16.1 6 10.7 10 17.9
Breeding 2 13.3 4 26.7 2 13.3 3 20.0 4 26.7
North 8 44.4 5 27.8 3 16.7 2 11.1 0
Central 2 8.7 1 4.4 5 21.7 7 30.4 8 34.8
South 11 367 10 33 3 3 100 0- 6 200










Other | 1 (0.9%)

Foxtrotters 2 (1.7%)

Warmblood 10(.%

Thoroughbreds

Quarter Horses 10 (8.6%)

Polo Ponies M 1 1.%

Arabians g 3 (2.6%)
Figure 4-3. Breeds of horses across all facilities surveyed (n=1 16)


78 (67.3%)










Table 4-5. Breeds of horses across all facilities surveyed (n=1 16)
Facility Type or Region' Arabians Polo Ponies Quarter Horses Thoroughbreds Warmblood Foxtrotters Other
n % n % n % n % n % n % n %
Boarding/Training 2 3.6 12 21.4 8 14.2 22 39.3 10 17.9 1 1.8 1 1.8
Breeding 1 6.7 0 2 13.3 11 73.3 0 1 6.7 0
Racetrack 0 0 45 100 0 0
North 1 5.6 0 -8 44.4 4 22.1 3 16.7 1 5.6 1 5.6
Central 0 0 37 97.4 0 1 2.6 0
South 2 3.3 12 20.0 2 3.3 37 61.7 7 11.7 0 -
Jf See text for definitions of facility type and region












Grass/Legume Mix
41 (51.3%)




Leg um e
1 6 (20.0%)




Grass
23 (28.7%)


Figure 4-4. Type of hay fed to horses across all facilities surveyed (n=80)










Table 4-6. Type of hay fed to horses evaluated by facility type or region (n=80)
Facility Type or Region' Grass Legume Grass/Legume Mix
N % n % n %
Boarding/Training 20 40.0 10 20.0 20 40.0
Breeding 2 13.3 5 33.3 8 53.4
Racetrack 1 6.7 1 6.7 13 86.6
North 7 38.9 2 11.1 9 50.0
Central 1 4.4 11 47.8 11 47.8
South 15 38.5 3 7.7 21 53.8
Jf See text for definitions of facility type and region





'1 3%


1l 2%


111%


12(15.0%)


44 (55.0%)


1 1(1.3%)


10% 15 (18.7%)

Figure 4-5. Percent crude protein in commercial feeds fed to horses across all facilities surveyed
(n= 8 0


8 (10.0%)












n % n % n % n % n %
Boarding/Training 10 20.0 1 2.0 32 64.0 4 8.0 3 6.0
Breeding 0 0 8 53.4 2 13.3 5 33.3
Racetrack 5 33.3 0 -4 26.7 2 13.3 4 26.7
North 6 33.3 0 -9 50.0 1 5.6 2 11.1
Central 0 -1 4.4 15 65.2 3 13.0 4 17.4
South 9 23.0 0 -20 51.3 4 10.3 6 15.4
Jf See text for definitions of facility type and region


Table 4-7. Percent crude protein in commercial feeds fed to horses evaluated by facility type and region (n=80)
Facility Type or Region 10% 11% 12% 13% 14%





Sand


S2 (1.4%)


Wood



Straw


118 (84.9%)


Hay [ (.%

Figure 4-6. General type of bedding used in stalls across all facilities (n=139)


17 (12.3%)











Sand
g2 (3.2%)

Straw
S2 (3.2%)


Hay 2 (3.2%)


Wood Pellets
S3 (4.8%)

Pine Shavings
47 (74.5%)

Sawd ust
S5 (7.9%)

Wood Chips
S2 (3.2%)

Figure 4-7. Specific type of bedding used in stalls across all facilities (excluding racetracks)
(n=63)










Table 4-8. Specific type of bedding used in stalls, evaluated by facility type (excluding racetracks) and region (n=62)
Facility Type or Region' Wood Sawdust Pine Wood Hay Straw Sand
Chips Shavings Pellets
n%n% n%n%n%n%n%
Boarding/Training 1 2.3 4 8.4 38 80.8 3 6.4 1 2.1 0 -
Breeding 1 6.7 1 6.7 9 59.9 0 -1 6.7 2 13.3 1 6.7
North 0 15 83.3 3 16.7 0 0
Central 1 4.4 3 13.0 15 65.2 0 2 8.7 2 8.7 0
South 1 4.7 2 9.5 17 81.1 0 0 0 1 4.7
Jf See text for definitions of facility type and region





Trad ition


2 (3.2%)


Price




Environmental




Convenience


24 (38.8%)


5 (8.0%)


31 (50.0%)


Figure 4-8. Reason given for using a particular type of bedding across all facilities surveyed
(excluding racetracks) (n=62)










Rub ber
Mats
as (56.5%)



Sand
10 (6.1%)



Clay
17 (27.4%)

Figure 4-9. Stall Base material across all facilities surveyed (excluding racetracks) (n=62)










Table 4-9. Stall Base Material Evaluated by Facility Type (Excluding Racetracks) and Region
(n=62)
Facility Type or Region' Clay Sand Rubber Mats
N %n %n %
Boarding/Training 11 23.4 9 19.2 27 57.4
Breeding 6 40.0 1 6.7 8 53.3
North 5 27.8 5 27.8 8 44.4
Central 11 47.8 0 -12 52.2
South 1 4.8 5 23.8 15 71.4
Jf See text for definitions of facility type and region










Light




Moed rate


113 (21.0 %)


36 (58.0 %)


Heavy


13 (21.0 %)


Figure 4-10. Amount of bedding in stalls across all facilities (excluding racetracks) (n=62)










Full Day





Half Day


85 (78.7%)


1 8(1 6.7% )




5 (4.6% )


Feed ing
Time Only


Figure 4-11. Time horses spent in stalls across all facilities (n=108)










Table 4-10. Time horses spent in stalls, evaluated by facility type and region (n=108)
Facility Type and Region Feeding Time Only Half Day Full Day
n % n % n %
Boarding/Training 2 4.2 12 25.0 34 70.8
Breeding 3 20.0 6 40.0 6 40.0
Racetrack 0 -0 -45 100.0
North 1 5.6 9 50.0 8 44.4
Central 4 10.5 5 13.2 29 76.3
South 0 -48 92.3 4 7.7
Jf See text for definitions of facility type and region









Three Times a
Day



Twice a Day



Once ADay



Continuously


3 (4.8%)


30 (48.4%)



21 (33.9%)



S8 (12.9%)


Figure 4-12. Frequency of stall cleaning across all facilities surveyed (excluding racetracks)
(n=62)









Table 4-11. Frequency of stall cleaning evaluated by facility type (excluding racetracks) and
region (n=62)
Facility Type or Continuously Once a Day Twice a Day Three Times a Day
Region'
n % n % n %n %
Boarding/Training 5 10.6 13 27.7 26 55.3 3 6.4
Breeding 3 20.0 8 53.3 4 26.7 0
North 2 11.1 11 61.1 5 27.8 0
Central 6 26.1 9 39.1 7 30.4 1 4.4
South 0 -1 4.8 18 85.7 2 9.5
Jf See text for definitions of facility type and region





















23 (37.1%)


One Wheelbarrow


39 (62.9%)


Figure 4-13. Approximate volume of stall waste removed daily per stall, evaluated across all
facilities surveyed (excluding racetracks) (n=62)


Two Wheelbarrows










Table 4-12. Approximate volume of stall waste removed daily per stall, evaluated by facility type
(excluding. racetracks) and region (n=62)
Facility Type or Region' One Wheelbarrow Two Wheelbarrows
n % n %
Boarding/Training 33 70.2 14 29.8
Breeding 6 40.0 9 60.0
North 15 83.3 3 16.7
Central 8 34.8 15 65.2
South 16 76.2 5 23.8
Jf See text for definitions of facility type and region










As Needed
42 (67.7%)

Never
S4 (6.5%)

Seldom
S2 (3.2%)

Monthly
I 1 (1.6%)

Weekley
7 (11.3%)

Bi-Weekley g 2(.%


Daily m 4 (6.5%)
Figure 4-14. Frequency of stripping stalls of all materials evaluated across all facilities surveyed
(excluding racetracks) (n=62)













n % n % n % n % n % n % N %
Boarding/Training 2 4.2 1 2.1 7 15.0 1 2.1 2 4.3 3 6.3 31 66.0
Breeding 2 13.3 1 6.7 0 -0 0 1 6.7 11 73.3
North 1 5.6 1 5.6 1 5.6 1 5.6 0 -1 5.6 13 72.0
Central 3 13.0 1 4.4 5 21.7 0 -2 8.7 3 13.0 9 39.2
South 0 0 -1 4.8 0 0 0 20 95.2
Jf See text for definitions of facility type and region


Table 4-13. Frequency of stripping stalls of all materials, evaluated by facility type (excluding racetracks) and region (n=62)
Facility Type or Daily Bi-Weekly Weekly Monthly Seldom Never
Region


As Needed





Structure


19 (33.3%)


Free-Standing Pile


26 (45.6%)


Man ure Spreader


9 (15.8%)


Contai ner


S3 (5.3%)


Figure 4-15. Method of stall waste storage, evaluated across all facilities surveyed (excluding
racetracks) (n=57)









Table 4-14. Method of stall waste storage, evaluated by facility type (excluding racetracks) and
region (n=57)
Facility Type or Container Manure Spreader Free- Standing Structure
Region' Pile
n % n % n %n %
Boarding/Training 2 4.4 7 15.6 18 40.0 18 40.0
Breeding 1 8.3 2 16.7 8 66.7 1 8.3
North 0 -6 33.3 11 61.1 1 5.6
Central 3 16.7 1 5.6 14 77.7 0
South 0 -2 9.6 1 4.7 18 85.7
Jf See text for definitions of facility type and region









Never Removed

Year

6 Months

3 Months

Month

2 Weeks


S2 (3.3%)


M~8 (13.1%)

S3 (4.9%)

M 9 (14.8%)

n 9 (14.8%)

1 1 gg6%


1 Week
18 (29.5%)

No Storage 11 (18.0%)

Figure 4-16. Time stall waste spent in storage before disposal, evaluated across all facilities
surveyed (excluding racetracks) (n=61)









Table 4-15. Time stall waste spent in storage before disposal, evaluated by facility type (excluding racetracks) and region (n=61)
Facility Type or No Storage 1 Week 2 Weeks Month 3 Months 6 Months Year Never
Region
n%N %n %n %n % n % n %n%
Boarding/Training 3 13.0 15 32.6 1 2.2 8 17.4 8 17.4 1 2.2 6 13.0 1 2.2
Breeding 5 33.3 3 20.0 0 -1 6.7 1 6.7 2 13.3 2 13.3 1 6.7
North 3 17.7 5 29.4 0 3 17.7 3 17.7 0 2 11.7 1 5.8
Central 6 26.1 4 17.4 1 4.4 0 -2 8.6 3 13.0 6 26.1 1 4.4
South 2 9.5 9 42.8 0 6 28.6 4 19.1 0 0
Jf See text for definitions of facility type and region





Unimp roved


21 (42.0%)


Sink Hole
g (2.0%)

Sand
g 1 (2.0%)

M etal
S6 (12.0%)

L ime roc k
S2 (4.0%)

Concrete
1 8 (36.0%)

Clay 1 (2.0%)

Figure 4-17. Base material of stall waste storage area, evaluated across all facilities surveyed
(excluding racetracks) (n=50)













n% n% n % n % n % N %n %
Boarding/Training 1 2.5 17 42.5 1 2.5 5 12.5 1 2.5 1 2.5 14 35.0
Breeding 0 1 10.0 1 10.0 1 10.0 0 -0 7 70.0
North 0 1 7.1 0 -2 14.4 1 7.1 0 10 71.4
Central 1 5.9 0 2 11.8 3 17.7 0 -1 5.9 10 58.7
South 0 17 89.4 0 -1 5.3 0 -0 1 5.3
Jf See text for definitions of facility type and region


Table 4-16. Base material of stall waste storage area, evaluated by facility type (excluding racetracks) and region (n=50)
Facility Type of Clay Concrete Limerock Metal Sand Sink Hole
Region


Unimproved















NO I


51 (100.0%)


Yes


I 0 (0.0%~)



Figure 4-18. Roof over waste storage area, evaluated across facilities surveyed (excluding
racetracks) (n=51)












NO I


45 (90.0%)


Yes


m~ s~ (0.o%)

Figure 4-19. Stall waste storage in a low lying area, evaluated across all facilities surveyed
(excluding racetracks) (n=50)










Table 4-17. Stall waste storage in a low lying area, evaluated by facility type (excluding
racetracks) and region (n=50)
Facility Type or Region' Yes No
n % n %
Boarding/Training 3 7.5 37 92.5
Breeding 2 20.0 8 80.0
North 0 -14 100.0
Central 3 17.7 14 82.3
South 2 10.5 17 89.5
Jf See text for definitions of facility type and region













Never


49 (96.1 %)


Annually


2 (3.9%)


Figure 4-20. Frequency of flooding in stall waste storage area, evaluated across all facilities
surveyed (excluding racetracks) (n=51)










Table 4-18. Frequency of flooding in stall waste storage area, evaluated by facility type
(excluding. racetracks) and region (n=51)
Facility Type or Region' Annually Never
n % n %
Boarding/Training 1 2.5 39 97.5
Breeding 1 9.1 10 90.9
North 1 7.1 13 92.9
Central 1 5.6 17 94.4
South 0 -19 100
Jf See Text for Definitions of facility Type and Region












48 (94.1 %)


3 (5.9%)


Figure 4-21. Distance of surface water from stall waste storage area, evaluated across all
facilities surveys (excluding racetracks) (n=51)


>500 ft


< 1 00 ft










Table 4-19. Distance of surface water from stall waste storage area, evaluated by facility type
(excluding. racetracks) and region (n=51)
Facility Type and Region' <100 ft >500 ft
n % n %
Boarding/Training 3 7.5 37 92.5
Breeding 0 -11 100.0
North 0 -14 100.0
Central 1 5.6 17 94.4
South 2 10.5 17 89.5
Jf See text for definitions of facility type and region











>500 ft


48 (94.2%)


1 (1.9%)


Figure 4-22. Distance of a residence from stall waste storage, evaluated across all facilities
surveyed (excluding racetracks) (n=51)


1100-200 ft





<1 00 ft


1 2 (3.9%)










Table 4-20. Distance of a residence from stall waste storage, evaluated by facility type
(excluding. racetracks) and region (n=51)
Facility Type and Region' <100 ft 100-200 ft >500 Feet
n %n %n%
Boarding/Training 2 5.0 1 2.5 37 92.5
Breeding 0 -0 -11 100.00
North 0 -1 7.1 13 92.9
Central 0 -0 -18 100.0
South 2 10.5 0 -17 89.5
Jf See text for definitions of facility type and region












46 (90.2%)


5 (9.8%)


Figure 4-23. Distance of a drinking water well from stall waste storage area, evaluated across all
facilities surveyed (excluding racetracks) (n=51)


> 500 ft |


<200 ft









Table 4-21. Distance of a drinking water well from stall waste storage area, evaluated by facility
tp(excluding. racetracks) and region (n=51)
Facility Type and Region' <200 ft >500 ft
N % n %
Boarding/Training 4 10.0 36 90.0
Breeding 1 9.1 10 90.9
North 1 7.1 13 92.9
Central 1 5.6 17 94.4
South 3 15.8 16 84.2
Jf See text for definitions of facility type and region





Stockpile


2 (3.2%)


Land Application



Hauled Off Site




Compost


1 7 (27.5%)


42 (67.7%)


g 11 (11.6%)


Figure 4-24. Method of stall waste disposal, evaluated across all facilities surveyed (excluding
racetracks) (n=62)












n % n % n % n %
Boarding/Training 1 2.1 33 70.2 11 23.4 2 4.3
Breeding 0 9 60.0 6 40.0 0
North 1 5.6 8 44.4 8 44.4 1 5.6
Central 0 -15 65.2 7 30.4 1 4.4
South 0 19 90.5 2 9.5 0
Jf See text for definitions of facility type and region


Table 4-22. Method of stall waste disposal, evaluated by facility type (excluding racetracks) and region (n=62)
Facility Type and Region Compost Hauled Off Site Land Application Stockpile












37 (88.~ %)


Private


Com mercial


a (11.9%)


Figure 4-25. Type of waste removal service, evaluated across all facilities surveyed (excluding
racetracks) (n=42)










Table 4-23. Type of waste removal service, evaluated by facility type (excluding racetracks) and
region (n=42)
Facility Type or Region' Commercial Private
n % n %
Boarding/Training 4 12.1 29 87.9
Breeding 1 11.1 8 88.9
North 0 -8 100.0
Central 3 20.0 12 80.0
South 2 10.5 17 89.6
Jf See text for definitions of facility type and region


















111 (26.2%)


Yearly


M~7 (16.7%)


M 4 (9.5%)


Quarterly


Monthly


Weekly



Daily


5 (11.9%)


Figure 4-26. Frequency stall waste is hauled off-site, evaluated across all facilities surveyed
(excluding racetracks) (n=42)



















Jf See text for definitions of facility type and region


Table 4-24. Frequency stall waste is hauled off-site, evaluated by facility type (excluding racetracks) and region (n=42)
Facility Type of Region Daily Weekly Monthly Quarterly Yearly
n % n % n % n % N %
Boarding/Training 3 9.1 13 39.4 10 30.3 3 9.1 4 12.1
Breeding 2 22.2 2 22.2 1 11.1 1 11.1 3 33.4
North 1 12.5 2 25.0 2 25.0 1 12.5 2 25.0
Central 3 20.0 4 26.7 1 6.7 2 13.3 5 33.3
South 1 5.3 9 47.4 8 42.0 1 5.3 0





Un-
H harvested
Areas



Other
Pastu res




Horse
Pastu res


3 (1 7.7%)





3 (1 7.7%)


11 (64Q.6%)


Figure 4-27. Location where stall waste is land applied, evaluated across all facilities surveyed
(excluding racetracks) (n=17)










Table 4-25. Location where stall waste is land applied, evaluated by facility type (excluding
racetracks) and region (n=17)
Facility Type and Region' Horse Pastures Other Pastures Un-Harvested Areas
N % n % n %
Boarding/Training 8 72.7 1 9.1 2 18.2
Breeding 3 50.0 2 33.3 1 16.7
North 5 62.5 1 12.5 2 25.
Central 5 71.4 2 28.6 0
South 1 50.0 0 -1 50.0
Jf See text for definitions of facility type and region





As Needed


5 (29.4%)


1 (5.9%~)


11 (64.7%)


Figure 4-28. Frequency of land application of stall waste, evaluated across all facilities surveyed
(excluding racetracks) (n=17)


Monthly




As
Re moved












No I


57 (96.6%)


Yes


2 (3.4%)


Figure 4-29.Frequency of manure removal from pastures evaluated across all facilities surveyed
(excluding racetracks) (n=59)












NO I


51 (86.4%)


Yes


8 (1 3.6%)


Figure 4-30. Manure removal from paddocks or dry lots, evaluated across all facilities surveyed,
(excluding racetracks) (n=59)





Yea rly


M 2 (12.5%)


aI 1 (e.25%)


g 1 (6.25%)


M 4 (25.0%)


6 Months


3 Months


Month ly


W~eekly


8 (50.0%)


Figure 4-31. Frequency pastures are harrowed, evaluated across all facilities surveyed (excluding
racetracks) (n=16)










Table 4-26. Frequency pastures are harrowed, evaluated by facility type (excluding racetracks)
and region (n=59)
Facility Type or Region' Yes No
n % n %
Boarding/Training 11 25.0 33 75.0
Breeding 5 33.3 10 66.7
North 6 35.3 11 64.7
Central 9 39.1 14 60.9
South 1 5.3 18 94.7
Jf See text for definitions of facility type and region









Table 4-27. Pastures fertilized, evaluated by facility type (excluding racetracks) and region
(n=58)
Facility Type and Region' Yes No
N % n %
Boarding/Training 10 22.7 34 77.3
Breeding 5 35.7 9 64.3
North 6 35.3 11 64.7
Central 8 36.4 14 63.6
South 1 5.3 18 94.7
Jf See text for definitions of facility type and region










No Pasture
115 (25.5%)


<25%
5 (8.5%)


25-50%
8 (13.6%)


50-75%
10 (17.00%)


HealIthy
21 (35i.6%)

Figure 4-32. Pasture quality (overgrazing), evaluated across all facilities surveyed (excluding
racetracks) (n=59)



















Jf See text for definitions of facility type and region


Table 4-28. Pasture quality (overgrazing), evaluated by facility type (excluding racetracks) and region (n=59)
Facility Type of Region Healthy 50-75% 25-50% <25% No Pasture
n % n% n % n % n %
Boarding/Training 11 25.0 8 18.2 6 13.6 5 11.4 14 31.8
Breeding 10 66.7 2 13.3 2 13.3 0 -1 6.7
North 3 17.7 3 17.7 3 17.7 3 17.7 5 29.2
Central 15 65.2 3 13.0 3 13.0 0 -2 8.8
South 3 15.8 4 21.1 2 10.5 2 10.5 8 42.1








CHAPTER 5
IMPLICATIONS

The studies in this thesis characterized the nutrient profile of horse stall waste and

identified common manure management practices of the Florida horse industry. Some form of

wood based bedding is the predominate type of bedding used by Florida horse operations. The

addition of manure, urine, wasted feed and hay significantly alters the nutrient content of stall

waste. The typical make-up of horse stall waste is 75% clean bedding and 25% other (manure,

urine, etc.). Clean bedding type and stall cleaning practices likely lead to differences in nutrient

content of stall waste. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are lower in horse stall waste

compared to other livestock manures. The maj ority of Florida horse operations either haul off

site or land apply their stall waste. The maj ority of operations responsibly manage their stall

waste.

New knowledge about the relatively low nutrient content of stall waste could lead to better

recommendations about the lack of risk the horse industry poses to water quality. Due to the

conclusion that stall cleaning practices affect the nutrient composition of stall waste, best

management practices pertaining to less wasteful stall cleaning practices could be created. More

consideration should be paid to the proportion of manure compared to clean bedding removed.

This would reduce wasted clean bedding as well as create a more desirable product for

composting or land application as fertilizer.








APPENDIX A
ONSITE SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE

On-Site Evaluation of Waste Management Practices


Total Acres:


Acres Utilized by Horses:


Number of Horses:


Breed of Horses:


City: County:

Region:
A. North

B. Central

C. South

Sampling:
Descrip~tion ofGrain M~ix: %CP

Sample Obtained:
Bedding: Stall Waste:

Hours Between Stall Cleaning and Sample Collectic

Housing of Horses:
Hours in Stall:

A. Feeding Time Only

B. HalfDay

C. Full Day

Bedding

Describe the M~ethod of Cleaning Stalls:

A. By Hand
B. Mechanical

C. Other:




Volume of Wa~ste Removed From Stall (Dailv):
A. < 1 Wheelbarrow Load


Typze of Operation:
A. Breeding

B. Boarding/Training
C. Racetrack



Typze ofHay: A. Legume B. Grass C. Mix

















How Often are Stalls Cleaned (Per day)

A. Continuously
B. Two

C. One

D.



B. 1 Wheelbarrow Load


How Often are Stalls Strioned:











































Waste Storage

Length ofStorage:
A. < 1Week D. 3-6 Months

B. < 1Month E. 6 Month

C. 1-3 Months F. Other:

Frequency ofFlooding in area where waste is stored:
A. Annually C. Every 20Years

B. Every 5 years D. Never

Distance from Storage area to Nearest Drinking Water Well:

A. Less than 100 Feet C. 200-500Feet

B. 100-199 Feet D. More than 500 Feet

Is their a Sink Hole on the Propzertv: YE S NO


Distance fr~om Storaae area to Nearest Surface Waste. Sink Hole or Drainaae Way:


A. Daily

B. Weekly

C. Bi-Weekly

Do thev Use:

A. Stall Mats

B. Concrete

Reason:

A. Price

B. Environmental

Amount ofBedding Used:

A. Light
B. Moderate

C. Heavy

Bedding Typze:

A. Grass Hay
B. Straw

C. Shavings
D. Sawdust


As Needed

Never

Other:



Asphalt Sand/Clay

Nothing


Convenience

Tradition


Number of Bales/Stall:

( 1 B al e=2 5Ib s= 1wheelb arrow)




E. Peanut Hulls

F. Rice Hulls

G. Other:








A. Less than 100 Feet

B. 100-199 Feet


C. 200-500 Feet

D. More than 500 Feet


Distance from Storage area to Nearest Residence:

A. Less than 100 Feet C. 200-500 Feet

B. 100-199 Feet D. More than 500 Fec

Method of Storage:
A. Pile D. Container

B. Structure(Pit/Bin) E. Other:

C. Manure Spreader

Below the Waste Storage Area:

A. Unimproved Soil D. Wood

B. Clay E. Other:
C. Concrete

RoofAbove the Waste Storage Area:

A. No Roof C. Tarp

B. Permanent D. Other:

Is the Clean Water Diverted from the Pile: YES NO

Are there Containment Ponds to Collect Run Off From the Pile: YES NO

Is the Storage Area in a Low Lying area: YE S NO

Slopze of Land from Storage area to Surface Water or Drainage Way:
A. 10%+ C. 1-5%

B. 6-10% D. Flat or Upslope

Soil Depth Where Waste is Stored:

A. < 20inches C. 30-40 inches

B. 20-30 inches D. 40 inches

Soil Typze Where waste is stored:
A. Coarse textured C. Fine Textured

B. Well Drained Coarse textured D. Medium or Fine te

Method of Waste Disposal:

Land Applied Hauled off Site Composted Onsite
Other:

IfLand Applied:


et


:xture








Location ofApp~zlication (Circle All That Appzlv):
A. Un-harvested Areas F. On Farm

B. Crop Land G. Off Farm

C. Horse Pastures H. Landscape/Mulch
D. Other Pastures I. Other:

E. Riding Arena

Number of Acres Applied to:

Is Nutrient Analysis Done on Waste Before App~zlication: YE S NO

Are Soil Tests Prefornzed on the Land Before App~zlication: YE S NO

Frequency ofApp~zlication:
A. As Removed C. Yearly

B. Yearly D. Other:


Time of Year App~zlied (Circle All That Appzlv):

A. Spring C. Fall
B. Summer D. Winter

Distance From Waste App~zlication Area to the Nearest Drinking Water Well:
A. Less than 100 Feet C. 200-500Feet

B. 100-199 Feet D. More than 500 Feet

Slopze ofApp~zlication Area to Surface Water or Drainage Way:
A. 10%+ C. 1-5%

B. 6-10% D. Flat or Upslope

Frequency ofFlooding for Areas Where Waste is Land App~lies:
A. Annually C. Every 20Years

B. Every 5 years D. Never

Distance From Waste App~zlication Area to nearest Surface Water, Sink Hole or Drainage Way:
A. Less than 100 Feet C. 200-500 Feet

B. 100-199 Feet D. More than 500 Feet

IfHauled offSite:
What Typze of Operation performs the Removal:

A. Private C. Municipal

B. Commercial (WasteManagment) D. Don't Know








E. Other

Is a Container Provided: YES NO

Frequency of Removal:
A. Daily

B. Weekly

C. Monthly
Annual Cost:

If Composted On Site:
What typ~e of Composting4:
A. Windrow

B. Bin

Is the Compzost Actively Aerated/Turned:
Is Water Content Monitored: YES NO

Is Nitrogen Added: YES NO

Length ofProcess: < 4 Months


D. Yearly
E. Other:








C. Static Pile

D. Other:

YES NO




>4 Months


End Use of Compzosted Ma'~terial:
A. Pasture

B. Landscaping
C. Arena

Other Methods of Disposal:

A. Do Nothing

B. Burning

Managing Pastures/ Exercise Paddocks:
Is Manure removed from Pa~stures: YES NO

How often:

A. Daily

B. Weekly

C. Monthly
Is Manure removed from Exercise Pad~docks:

How often:


D. Sold $

E. Other:




C. Feed to Cattle

D. Other:


D. >Monthly
E. Other:


YES NO








A. Daily

B. Weekly

C. Monthly

Are Pa~stures Harrowed/Dragged:

How Often:

A. Monthly

B. 3 Months

Are Pa~stures Fertilized: YES NO

When:


D. >Monthly

E. Other:


YES NO


C. 6 Months

D. Other:


A. Spring
B. Fall

Evaluation of Pasture Ouality (Overgqrazing):

A. <25%

B. 25-50%

C. 50-75%

D. Healthy


C. Summer

D. Winter










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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Drew Cotton is a native of St. Joseph, Missouri. He grew up involved in the purebred beef

business. His father, Terry works for the American Angus Association and his mother Sarah is a

homemaker. Drew and his brother, Adam raised registered Herefords as their FFA and 4-H

Proj ects. Drew attended Kansas State University where he was on the Intercollegiate Horse and

Livestock Judging Teams. He received his bachelors in agricultural economics and moved to

Gainesville, Florida where he served as a graduate student in the Animal Science Department at

the University of Florida from 2004-2009. His responsibilities included coaching the

Intercollegiate Horse Judging team.





PAGE 16

Waste Composition

PAGE 18

Point Source vs Nonpoint Source Pollution Major Concerns R elated to Soil Major Concerns R elated to Water

PAGE 19

Major Concerns Related to Air Pollution

PAGE 20

Uses of Organic Waste Land Application

PAGE 22

Limitations for use of stall waste

PAGE 23

Reducing Impacts of Animal Waste Compos t Nutrient Management Planning

PAGE 24

Best Management Practices

PAGE 25

Animal Feeding Ope ration (AFO) and Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation s (CAFO)

PAGE 26

Manure Management in the Equine Industry

PAGE 27

Introduction

PAGE 29

Materials and Methods Experimental Design

PAGE 30

Sampling Protocol for Stall Waste Sampling Protocol for Bedding

PAGE 31

Nutrient Analysis Statistical Analysis

PAGE 32

Results Clean Bedding

PAGE 33

Stall Waste

PAGE 35

Discussion

PAGE 41

Conclusion

PAGE 56

Introduction

PAGE 59

Materials and Methods

PAGE 60

Statistical Analysis Results Facility Demographics

PAGE 62

Feeding Programs

PAGE 63

Stall Management

PAGE 66

Stall Waste Storage

PAGE 68

Waste Disposal

PAGE 70

Pasture and P addock Management

PAGE 71

Discussion Facility Demographics

PAGE 72

Feeding Programs

PAGE 73

Stall Management

PAGE 74

Stall Waste Storage

PAGE 75

Waste Disposal

PAGE 76

Pasture and Paddock Management Conclusion

PAGE 140

On -Site Evaluation of Waste Management Practices Region: Type of Operation: Sampling: Description of Grain Mix: Type of Hay: Sample Obtained: Housing of Horses: Hours in Stall: Bedding Describe the Method of Cleaning Stalls: How Often are Stalls Cleaned (Per day) Volume of Waste Removed From Stall (Daily): How Often are Stalls Stripped:

PAGE 141

Do they Use: Reason: Amount of Bedding Used: Bedding Type: Waste Sto rage Length of Storage: Frequency of Flooding in area where waste is stored: Distance from Storage area to Nearest D rinking Water Well: Is their a Sink Hole on the Property: Distance from Storage area to Nearest Surface Waste, Sink Hole or Drainage Way:

PAGE 142

Distance from Storage area to Nearest Residence: Method of Storage: Below the Waste Storage Area: Roof Above the Waste Storage Area: Is the Clean Water Diverted from the Pile: Are there Containment Ponds to Collect Run Off From the Pile: Is the Storage Area in a Low Lying area: Slope of Land from Storage area to Surface Water or Drainage Way: Soil Depth Where Waste is Stored: Soil Type Where waste is stored Method of Waste Disposal: If Land Applied:

PAGE 143

Location of Application (Circle All That Apply): Is Nutrient Analysis Done on Waste Before Application: Are Soil Tests Preformed on the Land Before Application: Frequency of Application: Time of Year Applied (Circle All That Apply): D. Distance From Waste Application Area to the Nearest Drinking Water Well: Slope of Application Area to Surface Water or Drainage Way: Frequency of Flooding for Areas Where Waste is Land Applies: Distance From Waste Application Area to nearest Surface Water, Sink Hole or Drainage Way: If Hauled off Site: What Type of Operation performs the Removal:

PAGE 144

Is a Container Provided: Frequency of Removal: If Composted On Site: What type of Composting: Is the Compost Actively Aerated/Turned: Is Water Content Monitored: Is Nitrogen Added: Length of Process: End Use of Composted Material: Other Methods of Disposal: Managing Pastures/ Exercise Paddocks: Is Manure removed from Pastures: How often: Is Manure removed from Exercise Paddocks: How often:

PAGE 145

Are Pastures Harrowed/Dragged: How Often: Are Pastures Fertilized: When: Evaluation of Pasture Quality (Overgrazing):


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