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1 REPLACING ATHLETICISM FOR SEXUALITY: A CONTENT ANALYSIS OF ATHLETE AND NON -ATHLETE MODELS IN SPORTS ILLUSTRATED SWIMSUIT ISSUES FRO M 1997 TO 2009 By KA YOUNG KIM A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2009
2 2009 Ka Young Kim
3 To my parent s
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This thesis benefited greatly from my committee members I am truly honored that I have learned from the best committee members. First of all, I would especially like to thank Dr. Michael Sagas for serving as my committee chair and mentor throughout my graduate experience at the University of Florida. I am truly indebted for his advice, encouragement, great support, and opportunities he provided for last one year I cannot find word to express my wholehearted appreciation for him. I rem ain in awe of Dr. Sagas. Next, I would like to acknowledge D r. Yong Jae Ko and Dr. May Kim for serving as committee members. They have been friendly, caring, supportive and helpful in numerous ways. I am also very grateful that I have worked with the best colleagues at the University of Florida and the College of Health and Human Performance. Most importantly, I deeply thank my special friends. They supported me in many ways for graduate within one year, and I would like to propose a final toast to parents. I could not have overcome all the hurdles I have encounte red throughout my thesis
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................................................................................... 4 LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................................................ 7 LIST OF FIGURES .............................................................................................................................. 9 ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................................................ 10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................... 12 Statement of Problem .................................................................................................................. 15 Significance of the Study ............................................................................................................ 16 Purpose of the Study ................................................................................................................... 19 Research Questions and Rationale ............................................................................................. 19 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ........................................................................................................... 22 Theoreti cal Framework ............................................................................................................... 22 Hegemony Theory and Hegemonic Masculinity ............................................................... 22 Hegemonic Masculinity, Sport and Media ......................................................................... 24 Gender Representation in Sport Media ...................................................................................... 25 Analysis of the Sports Illustrated Feature .......................................................................... 25 Ge nder Stereotyping in the Sports illustrated Swimsuit Issues ........................................ 29 Ideology of Photographic Images in Sport Media .................................................................... 33 Summary of Lite rature Review .................................................................................................. 34 3 METHODS .................................................................................................................................. 36 Data Collection ............................................................................................................................ 36 Data Coding ................................................................................................................................. 37 Data Analysis ............................................................................................................................... 40 Reliability ............................................................................................................................. 40 Statistical Analysis ............................................................................................................... 41 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ................................................................................................ 45 Research Question One ............................................................................................................... 45 Trends in the Sport s Illustrated Swimsuit Issues since 1997 ............................................ 45 The Features of Athletes Contents .................................................................................... 50 Summary of Research Question Two ................................................................................. 56 Discussion on Research Questions One and Two ..................................................................... 58 Research Question Three ............................................................................................................ 59
6 Research Question Four .............................................................................................................. 60 Discussion on Research Questions Three and Four .................................................................. 63 Research Question Five .............................................................................................................. 64 Research Question Six ................................................................................................................ 65 Discussion on Research Questions Five and Six ...................................................................... 67 5 CONCLUSION ........................................................................................................................... 88 Limitations of the Study and Future Research Recommendations .......................................... 88 Implications to the Sport Management Field ............................................................................ 89 Conceptual and Theoretical Implications ........................................................................... 89 Managerial Implications ...................................................................................................... 91 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................... 92 APPENDIX A THE CONTENT CODING BOOK ........................................................................................... 95 B EXTRA TABLES BY YEAR FROM 1997 TO 2009 .............................................................. 98 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................................................................................................. 138 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ........................................................................................................... 1 43
7 LIST OF TABLES Table page 4 1 Total frequency of gender, kind of models, clothing, and caption ( n =1049) ..................... 71 4 2 Gender Model Cross tabulation .......................................................................................... 72 4 3 Gender*Model cross tabulation (Combination of models groups) ..................................... 73 4 4 Athlete models Sports ranking by gender and frequency ................................................... 74 4 5 Frequency of photographic image categories ( N=1049) ...................................................... 75 4 6 Athlete models contents titles .............................................................................................. 76 4 7 Gender Caption M odel Cross tabulation ........................................................................ 82 4 8 Gender Photographic images Model Cross tabulation .................................................. 83 4 9 Model Caption Gender (female) Cros s tabulation ......................................................... 85 4 10 Model Photographic images Gender (female) Cross tabulation ................................... 86 B1 Frequency of gender, kind of models, clothing, and caption ( N=86) ................................. 98 B2 Frequency of photographic image categories ( N=86) .......................................................... 99 B3 Athlete models Gender*Sports Cros s tabulation .............................................................. 100 B4 Frequency of gender, kind of models, clothing, and caption (N=77) ............................... 101 B5 Frequency of photographic image c ategories ( N=77) ........................................................ 102 B6 Athlete models Gender*Sports Cross tabulation ( N=77) ................................................. 103 B7 Frequency of gender, kind of models, clot hing, and caption ( N=58) ............................... 104 B8 Frequency of photographic image categories (N=58) ....................................................... 105 B9 Athlete models Gender*Sports Cross t abulation ( N=58) ................................................. 106 B10 Frequency of gender, kind of models, clothing, and caption ( N=92) ............................... 107 B11 Frequency of photographic i mage categories ( N=92) ........................................................ 108 B12 Athlete models Gender*Sports Cross tabulation ( N=92) ................................................. 109 B13 Frequency of gender, kind of mode ls, clothing, and caption ( N=61) ............................... 110
8 B14 Frequency of photographic image categories ( N=61) ........................................................ 111 B15 Athlete models Gender*Spor ts Cross tabulation ( N=61) ................................................. 112 B16 Frequency of gender, kind of models, clothing, and caption ( N=96) ............................... 113 B17 Frequency of phot ographic image categories ( N=96) ........................................................ 114 B18 Athlete models Gender*Sports Cross tabulation ( N=96) ................................................. 115 B19 Athlete models Gender* Sports Cross tabulation ( N=96) ................................................. 116 B20 Frequency of gender, kind of models, clothing, and caption ( N=91) ............................... 117 B21 Frequency of photographic image categories ( N=91) ........................................................ 118 B22 Athlete models Gender*Sports Cross tabulation ( N=91) ................................................. 119 B23 Athlete models Gen der*Sports Cross tabulation ( N=91) ................................................. 120 B26 Athlete models Gender*Sports Cross tabulation ( N=68) ................................................. 123 B27 Frequency of gender, kind of models, clothing, and caption ( N=62) ............................... 124 B28 Frequency of photographic image categories ( N=62) ........................................................ 125 B29 Athlete models Gender*Sports Cross tabulation ( N=62) ................................................. 126 B30 Frequency of gender, kind of models, clothing, and caption ( N=74) ............................... 127 B31 Frequ ency of photographic image categories ( N=74) ........................................................ 128 B32 Athlete models Gender*Sports Cross tabulation ( N=74) ................................................. 129 B33 Frequency o f gender, kind of models, clothing, and caption ( N=88) ............................... 130 B34 Frequency of photographic image categories ( N=88) ........................................................ 131 B35 Frequ ency of gender, kind of models, clothing, and caption ( N=111) ............................. 132 B36 Frequency of photographic image categories ( N=111) ...................................................... 133 B37 Athlete models Gender*Sports Cross tabulation ( N=111) ............................................... 134 B39 Frequency of photographic image categories ( N=85) ........................................................ 136 B40 At hlete models Gender*Sports Cross tabulation ( N=85) ................................................. 137
9 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 4 1 Frequency of athlete models versus non athlete models ................................................... 70 4 2 Numbers of photograph within athlete models .................................................................. 70 4 3 Numbers of photograph of athlete models by gender ........................................................ 71 4 4 Summary of the features of athletes contents ..................................................................... 81
10 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science REPLACING ATHLETICISM FOR SEXUALITY: A CONTENT ANALYSIS OF ATHLETE AND NON -ATHLETE MODELS IN SPORTS ILLUSTRATED SWIMSUIT ISSUES FORM 1997 TO 2009 By Ka Young Kim December 2009 C hair: Michael Sagas Major: Sport Management The frequent appearance of athlete models in the Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues have steadily increased over the past 13 years. As the largest circulated sports magazine shed a light on athletes in North America, this magazin es swimsuit issues from 1997 to 2009 demonstrates both changes in gender conception and gender stereotyping in society. The first purpose of the current study was to update the trend of athletes portrayal in the Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues over th e past thirteen years, from 1997 to 2009. Second, by examining and comparing athlete models with fashion models, this study expand ed on previous analyses, especially that of Davis study in 1997 on female models portrayal in the Sports Illustrated swimsui t issues and their course through the outlets of mass media. A content analysis of athlete models photographic images ( N = 1049) and their accompanying written texts in the Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues was conducted in samples for the 13 year time period. The methodological framework for this study was based on Duncans (1990) sport photograph study framework. In addition, to better illustrate the results of the data, a crosstabs analysis was performed to provide a Chi Square score and frequencies w ithin the data.
11 Although Duncans results indicated that there was no considerable increase in the total amount of photographic images given to athletes in contrast to the period before 1997, there were remarkable changes in the depiction given to athlete s, highlighting them as sexually appealing which likely plays to the remarkable marketability of athletes.
12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Mass media has influenced consumers attitudes and their values as well as the world surrounding them (Bandura, 1986; Fink, 1998; Kane, Taub, & Hayes, 2000; Koivula, 1999). However, m edia does not merely reflect reality in a more or less truthful way ; as an alternative, media production takes an intricate process of negotiation, processing, and reconstruction (Koivula, 1999) Moreover, m edia messages are used and interpreted by audiences according to their own cultural, social, and individual circumstances (Koivula, 1999, p. 589). Although mass media may not enforce the way people think, they definitely direct individuals t o issues that are significant to think about (Coakley, 2004). In addition, media representations are believed to influence the perspectives of consumers in a complex, indirect manner in which consumers also influence the meanings of the texts. In other wor ds, t he popular media are a site of ideological struggle where consent for hegemony can be won or lost (Davis, 1993, p. 166). Mass media is especially importan t regarding sports because the majority of audience s observe sports events through media channel s such as newspaper s broadcasting systems, and sports magazines. Specifically, media still portray s gender differences of athletes in a stereotypical way Mass media is connected to how sport is presented as a socially constructed reality. The majority of media representation has not only shown the different and unequal ways in which male and female athletes have been portrayed, but also involves how sports media deals with the traditional portrayal of femininity and masculinity (Koivula, 1995; Matteo, 1986). To investigate the popularity and status of sports in America Sports Illustrated one of the most suited of published materials to examine It is among the most broadly read and known popular sports magazine in the United States. Upon the first of Sports Illustrated publi cation in 1954, this magazine soon dominated the sports magazine market. Not only is Sports Illustrated is
13 one of the most widely read magazines in the United States but it also receives one of the highest amounts of advertising reven ue (Erickson, 1987; Kang, 1988). Therefore, Sports Illustrated is not simp ly a general magazine, but is a ma jor cultural phenomenon of sports culture in the United Stated (Davis, 1993). Furthermore, this publication may help to form attitudes toward athlet es and sports through its interpretations on athletes private lives and athletic achievements. Since the dominant reader group is white male s it appropriate to primarily consider gender and race descriptors (Lumpkin & Williams, 1991). Since its birth in 1954, Sports Illustrated distinguished itself by illustrating many topics such as sportswear, travel and food. In its beginning years, the magazine started to place a greater emphasis on hard sports such as football, basketball, and baseball rather than sports such as sk iing, swimming, golf and tennis (Davis, 1997, p. 10). However, unlike the regular issues, during the winter s easons this magazine editors needed to do something to rouse the magazine, that was a reason for birth of swimsuit issue (Hagerman, 2001, p. 15). To this effect, t he early swimsuit issues put an emphasis on tourism and fashion. According to Davis (1997) findings, one important issue was the 1964 swimsuit issue. After 1964, its editors changed direction from focusing on bot h mens and womens swimwear topics to spotlighting only mostly on womens swimwear (Davis, 1997). This suggests that the ideal consumers of swimsuit issues were men rather than women (Davis, 1997). Thus, e ver since the swimsuit issue became an official annual issue of Sports Illustrated by the late 1970s, newsstand sales gradually increased (Hagerman, 2001). By the 1980s, Sports Illustrated swimsuit issue s dramatically raised the companys yearly revenues and popularity among many readers by portraying attractive fashion models (Hagerman, 2001). Despite this public interest, there have been numerous controversial reactions from subscribers over the
14 sexual photographic images. While some readers depicted this special issue as an America n tradition, othe rs felt offended by its sexually oriented images of the models (Hagerman, 2001). Sport Illustrated swimsuit issues needed something to rouse popularity of general audiences and to reduce complain t s that there are no athletes in this special issue as a spor t magazine. In order to compromise such reactions, athletes in swimsuit issues became the solution Currently, it can be argued that Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues are hotter than ever before by including athlete models since 1997. Swimsuit issue edi tors first turned their interest into athlete groups in that year ; U.S. womens beach volleyball team and the great tennis player Steffi Graf were the first targets. Sports Illustrated included an article about the debated the issue of beach volleyballs s ex appeal. That is, from that issue, Sports Illustrated has exploited the athlete body in swimsuits to sell copies. Thus, as a model of swimsuit instead of athletes, they sexually depicted in print media have at least a decade of history. It was, traditionally, the role of professional fashion models to undress and pose in sexually appealing postures in female fashion magazine s But now, several swimsuit issue models are professional athletes. They decorate this special issue of sports magazine like prof essional fashion models. Even in the 2009 Sports Illustrated swimsuit issue Bikinis or Nothing, four athletes modeled in swimsuits. It was Danica Patricks, an Indy Car racing star, second year to pose in swimwear. The other three were professional tenni s players Maria Kirilenko, Daniela Hantuchova, and Tatina Golovin. Under the title of Volley of the dolls they pose not on a tennis court where they would most likely be found but on a sunny beach as swimsuit models. Uniquely, the Sports Illustrated swi msuit models are not restricted to just sports stars; NFL cheer leaders, NBA dancers, even women in relationships with famous athletes expose their physical attributes in front of millions of readers.
15 Statement of Problem O ver forty years the Sport Illust rated has produced an annual swimsuit issue. The swimsuit issue has become a widely recognized part of United States popular culture and an icon for many (Davis, 1997) H owever, despite the obvious popularity of the swimsuit issue, there are many complain t s (Davis, 1997) First, the swimsuit issue has little to do with sports, and thus does not belong in a sports magazine. Second, a lthough the swimsuit issue may be a socially acceptable aspect of regular sport s magazine, they also create debate on the degr ee of sexual meaning depicted in a public magazine. The debate surrounding the swimsuit issue is primarily focused on the topics of gender and sexuality. The most i mportant point is that the Sports Illustrated swimsuit issue may create s an atmosphere of he gemonic masculinity over women, gays, lesbians and people of color by describing particular model groups (Davis, 1997). One criticism considers the representation of female athletes. While initially professional fashion models dominated swimsuit issues, ca mera shutters began to flash female athletes as sexually objectified Others. A female professional tennis player, Maria Sharapovas 2006 Sports Illustrated swimsuit cover discloses how female athletes are demoted to sexually depicted objects. No longer a re t hey represented for athleticism, full text essays are also abridged to short text captions. For example, on the bottom right corner of Sharapova posing flirtatiously in a swimsuit are the words: "Any tennis fan c an tell you that Maria Sharapova is a wi nner on grass, clay and hard court, but her best surface may be sand ( Sports Illustrated swimsuit issue, 2006, p.189). Maria Sharapova, has consistently ranked near the top of the world rankers and attained the singles title of Wimbledon in 2004 at age 17. However, this issues focus wasnt on her great athletic achievement; they featured her as a highly sexually appeali ng woman, similar to a Playboy model. According to Glenny, t he problem is not only essentially the sexualizing of Maria Sharapova, but al so that of alternating athleticism for sexuality (2006, p. 4 ). In addition,
16 beyond the appearance of athlete models in the swimsuit issue s there are no questions about how female athletes are represented and how media construct gender images in the magaz ine (Glenny, 2006). Significance of the Study The current lack of research on athletes sexuality within sport s media has increased the need to examine the swimsuit issue s of Sports Illustrated In portraying athletes, there are distinct difference s betwe en the regular issues of Sports Illustrated and the swimsuit issues. As such, to better understand the representation of gender and sexuality of athletes in swimsuit issues, it is important to compare both athletes and non athlete models in Sports Illustra ted swimsuit issues. In previous studies, many scholars have examined gender differences and stereotyping in sport media (e.g. Belknap & Leonard II, 1991 ; Duncan & Sayaovong, 1990; Duncan, Messner, Williams, & Jensen, 1990; Duncan, 1990; Daddario, 1992; Duncan, 1993; Hillard, 1984; Kane, 1988; Lumpkin & Williams, 1991). Duncan (1990) and Kane (1988) indicated that sport remains as a male preserve and further investigated the way sports media treat s female athletes particularly evidenced by Sports Illustra ted Female athlete s professionalism has only limited coverage in sports magazines and is becoming increasingly overshadowed in the sports pages through their postures as glamorous swimsuit models (Daddario, 1992) Sports Illustrated s emphasis on attract ive photographic subjects suggests a mutual relationship between physical beauty and athleticism (Daddario, 1992). Among the many studies on gender representation in sport media, some have analyzed the Sports Illustrated swimsuit issue coverage (Daddario, 1992; Davis, 1997; Duncan, 1993). Analyzing the 1992 Sports Illustrated swimsuit issue, Duncan (1993) conducted a study investigating mechanisms of gender stereotypes and sexism in a Sports Illustrated swimsuit
17 issue. She examined the medium itself and th e cultural and historical contexts surrounding the issue She also suggested methods of development on current sport media construction by analyzing an aspect of social structure and context of the popular sports magazine. Her discoveries revealed how patr iarchal ideology operates within particular media representation structures and how these structures produce and reproduce the mechanisms that oppress sporting women. Although Duncans 1993 study holds its significance in examining gender issues in popular media, her study failed to examine the magazine in full measure; it only investigated the 1992 swimsuit issue. In addition, Duncans study does not canvass the construction of athlete models images. Daddario (1992) and Davis (1997) also deal with gender issues, but u nlike Duncans (1993) study, they also discuss the marginalization of female athletes in this magazine. Daddario (1992) argues that the Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues objectify women and marginalize the achievements of female athletes. Th e author states that Sports Illustrated presents a distorted image of the role of women in sports and those womens roles as athletes are diminished. Based on Duncans (1990) argument, Daddario analyzes all photographs of women, athletes and nonathletes that appear in the 25th anniversary annual swimsuit issue and other Sports Illustrated issues. This study showed that there are more photographs of female nonathletes (i.e. professional fashion models) than of athletes, yet the swimsuit issue fosters the sexual objectification of females and female athletes. Although Daddario further investigates this issue, this study, like Duncan s (1993) study, does not discuss athlete models and how they are depicted in swimwear ; thus they were unable to reflect rece nt trends in the swimsuit issues by including athlete s as a fashion models
18 Along with Duncan and Daddarios studies, Davis (1997) also attempts to examine the phenomenon based on the theory of hegemonic masculinity in her book, The swimsuit issue and spo rt In order to understand the character istics of Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues, the author examines interactive relationships between editors and readers and conducts in -depth interviews in a social cont ext. Again, Davis study does not handle femal e representations of athlete models in swimsuit issues. During the last few decades, from the first athlete swimsuit model Steffi Graff in 1997 to the latest Danica Patrick issue in 2009, more and more athlete models have appeared in the Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues. However, in sport media studies, rarely do they examine athlete models and their representation in that magazine s special issue Only in a few articles are they occasionally mentioned; but in the pictures they are merely a part of other female fashion models or simply partners of posing male athlete models. With the increasing number of athlete models, it is worthwhile to look into the content and context in which they appear in the pages of Sports Illustrated and the problematic represen tations of the female body infiltrated into athletics. The focus of this study was media representations of athlete and non athlete models in Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues. By conducting a content analysis of the Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues bet ween 1997and 2009, I examined how athlete and nonathlete models were represented in these issues and discover the changing trend s. From this study, I analyze d the swimsuit issues construction based on the theory of hegemo nic masculinity. This study aimed to reveal and understand how media utilize gender differences and sexuality of models to sustain gender stereotypes in print media.
19 Purpose of the Study The purposes of this study were twofold: first, this study offer ed an update on the trend of athlete s portrayal s in Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues over the past thirteen years (19972009) and expand ed previous analys e s of the female body by supporting hegemonic masculinity on Davis (1997) findings, s econd, this study investigated gender difference s and sexuality by examining and comparing athlete models with nonathlete models. Research Questions and Rationale Previous research shows that heterosexual and male -centered media construction of reality as well as the historical marketability of femin inity still exists in the current media industry. The purpose of Sports Illustrated a subsidiary of TimeLife, Inc., is to create a profit; thus, its presentation is driven by the economics of the marketplace and, subsequently, the magazine may attempt to packa ge womens sports in gender appropriate ways that appeal to the seemingly widest a udience (Fink & Kensicki, 2002, p.324). Using hegemonic masculinity (Connell, 1987) as a the oretical framework, this study sought to answer the following questions: Research Question One Has there been a change in the portray al of athlete models in Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues since 1997? Although this question may seem elementary and the first step for analyzing and comparing athlete models to non athlete, it is still relevant and timely to the discussion on the growth of athlete models and their influence on sports magazines such as the annual special Sports Illustrated swimsuit issue s Specifica lly, th e swimsuit issue s have focused on the female s sexualized body within an objectified media construction As Krane (2001) indicated while physical beauty and a heterosexually attractive bodies are consequential, there also is a fine line female athletes must s traddle. Further, this research identified the athle tes marketability through
20 gaining athlete models photographs frequency and percentage in Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues, the largest circulated sports magazine in North America Research Question Two. How a re athlete models described in the conten ts of Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues? This question may be answered by discussing how Sports Illustrated swimsuit issue s described the athletes in their content titles. According to Glenny (2006), athlete models could be described as sexualized object s without their athletic achievement. In this magazine, athletes sexuality diminishes the significance of their athletic success. It is important to note how athletes are represented in this special issue. From this research question, this study examin ed the description s of the title s that deal with athlete models. Research Question Three What differences are there in the written text captions between female and male athlete models in Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues? This question may be useful to u nderstand how swimsuit issue s describe athlete models within their gendered and sexualized construction as swimwear models. Within the written text captions of the contents, the special issue s have expressed female model s as highly sexualized object s and f ocus ed on rearing an ideal body image in our society. Research Question Four What differences are there in the portrayal of photographic images between female and male athlete models in Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues? Female athlete s have been gradually depicted as sexually objectified object s in sports magazines As Daddario (1992) showed Sports Illustrated presents a much distorted image of the role of women in sports and those womens roles as athletes are diminished.
21 Research Question Five Wha t differences are there in the description of written text captions between female athletes and female fashion models in Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues? This question was answered by investigating how Sports Illustrated swimsuit issue s portrayed fema le models in compar ison to female fashion models based on textu al description s As mentioned by Daddario (1992), female athletes athleticism has only limited coverage in sports magazines and is becoming increasingly overshadowed in the sports pages throug h posing as glamorous swimsuit models. Research Question Six What differences are there in the portrayal of photographic images between female athletes and female fashion models in Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues? This question was answered by anal yzing the different photographic images of two comparing group s According to Koines (1995), we should consider the success of female athletes (e. g. Maria Sharapova, Anna Kournikova) who are fashion models too. Their success leads other females in sport t o believe that they too must look like a model (or as close to one as possible) to be successful. That is, physically beautiful appearance is as important as athletic talent for elite female athletes (Koines, 1995).
22 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW This revie w provides an overview of the background literature for this study. As a theoretical framework, hegemonic masculinity will be discussed in the context of sport media. In particular, photographs and written text s about athletes within the print media will b e described by using this theoretical perspective. This literature also include s gender representation in sport media, analysis of Sports Illustrated feature s gender stereotyping in Sports illustrated swimsuit issues, the ideology of photographic images i n sport media, and a summary of the surrounding literatures. Theoretical F ramework Theoretical framework is constituted with brief discussions on explanation s about hegemony theory and hegemonic ma sculinity. In addition, the reviewed literature proves t o have a connection between hegemonic masculinity and femininity apparent in the North America n sports magazine s coverage to female athletes. Hegemony Theory and Hegemonic Masculinity Hegemony t heory. The term hegemony depicts the dominance of one socia l class over other classes (Gramsci, 1971). Many feminist and Marxist scholars were influenced by Gramscis work about the notion of hegemony that explains social power by various groups in society (Bocock, 1986). The important point is that the power of hegemony is obtained through the consent from the dominant group as use of political, ideological and cultural terms (Hardin, Dodd, & Chance, 2005a). In addition, hegemonic culture exerts considerable influence in prescribing which behaviors and interests are normal (and socially acceptable) and which are considered at the fringe or external to the boundaries of acceptability (Pedersen, 2000, p 8).
23 It is essential to note that hegemony does not include supporting power by force (Gramsci, 1971). Therefore, only i n a free society could often discuss hegemony (Hardin, Lynn, & Walsdorf, 2005b). Gramsci (1971) argued that hegemony is a political power resulting from perceived moral and intellectual leadership, as well as having authority over the masses. A domi nant group control s its hegemonic power in a peacefully and socially accepted society fr o m a variety of means, including the use of political parties, as well as support from educational institutions, religious groups, and particularly the mass media (Gram sci, 1971; Lewis, 1992; Kian, 2006). Hegemonic masculinity Connells gender power relations theory is based on the notion that there is a structured power relation of a gendered hierarchy which is operated by multiple masculinities and femin inities (Conne ll, 1995; Vincent, Pedersen, Whisenant, & Massey, 2007). Having written extensively on hegemonic masculinity, Connell (1987, 1990, 1995) suggests that h egemonic masculinity is the most desired form in this gendered hierarchy (Connell, 1995), which reinforc es heterosexuality, aggression, and assertiveness (Connell, 1990, 1995; Donaldson, 1993). In other words, the definition of hegemonic masculinity is the acceptance of masculinity as the defining characteristic of western society that places women in the position they are. In a society of hegemonic masculinity, women are considered off limits in certain areas, sport being one of the most obvious (Pedersen, 2002, p. 305). Notions of hegemonic masculinity, though, are constantly challenged, but rarely changed without the consent of men (Connell, 1987, 1995; Hardin, Lynn, Walsdorf, & Hardin, 2002; Vincent, Pedersen, Whisenant, & Massey, 2007). Connell (1995) concludes that hegemonic masculinity guarantees (or is taken to guarantee) the dominant position of men and subordination of women (p. 77). Masculinity,
24 therefore, becomes the standard by which everything is measured, since masculine traits are those most desired in society (Duncan, 1990; Hardin, Lynn, & Walsdorf, 2005b; Hargreaves, 1994; Vincent, 2004). Hegemonic Masculinity, Sport and Media Sport has long been associated with men and masculinity in nearly every society in the world (Coakley, 2004; Kane, 1989). Numerous scholars have contended that sport serves as a hegemonic institution to preserv e the power of men over women (e.g., Bennett, Whitaker, & Smith, 1987; Hardin, Lynn, & Walsdorf, 2005b ; Hargreaves, 1994). In addition, numerous scholars have examined how mass media and sport are two of the forces that help preserve masculine hegemony in North America (e.g., Duncan & Messner, 1998; Harris & Clayton, 2002; Miloch, Pedersen, Smucker, & Whisenant, 2005; Prinen, 1997). Elueze and Jones (1998) wrote that mass media have reinforced the differences between the sexes by presenting a masculine sp orts hegemony. The sport media strengthens masculine hegemony in society by creating and reflecting societal attitudes that are negative of female athletes, particularly those of women who compete in what are deemed a s historically masculine sports (Peders en, 2002; Urquhart & Crossman, 1999; Vincent Imwold, Johnson, & Massey 2003). Pedersen (2002) argue s that mass media reproduce and reinforce the dominant ideology of gender order in society ( p. 305). In terms of sports coverage for female athletes, m edia portrays to the public a very limited and partial view because attention is given almost exclusively to top-level, competitive and feminine appropriate events, or to the sporting events or aspects of the lives of sportswomen that are deemed to be unusual, spectacular, controversial or newsworthy (Hargreaves, 1994, p. 193). Other scholars contend that by not providing coverage of female athletes or at least minimizing coverage of womens sports, the sport media have failed to take
25 into account the increasing number of American girls and women competing in organized sport (Creedon, 1994b; Hardin, 2005). Since media members are alleged to help uphold masculine hegemony in sport, it is important to examine female representation in the sport media prof ession, as well as sport media members attitudes and experiences. Gender Representation in Sport Media During the last few decades, studies in sport media have begun to gradually center their focus on gender stereotyping. Numerous studies (e.g. Hillard, 1984; Kane, 1988; Duncan, 1990, Belknap & Leonard II, 1991; Lumpkin & Williams, 1991; Duncan, 1993; Bishop, 2003) examined this issue represented in media forms such as newspapers, magazines, advertisements. From a sport media perspective, these studies i nvestigate a wide range of media portrayals from the coverage of feature articles, photographic images and covers of magazine issues. As these studies point out, gender in sport media, especially those of female athletes have been distorted representation s of sexualized and objectified women (Hillard, 1984). Not only were these female athletes confined in gender stereotypes, sport media was likely to trivialize female athletes sporting achievements as well (Lumpkin & Williams, 1991). Thus, many of these r esearchers have concluded their studies with a call for reinforcement of gender inequity by sport media. Analysis of the Sports Illustrated Feature Studies of media coverage of athletes have identified different media images of male and female athletes (H illiard, 1984). There are many articles about gender stereotyping in sport media (Kane, 1988; Duncan, 1990; Hagerman, 2001; Yecke, 2001; Lumpkin & William, 1991; Hilliard, 1984; Fink & Kensicki, 2002). These studies reveal how sport media constructed gende r differences in their depictions.
26 Hilliard (1984) studi es tennis players media coverage by examining the differences between female and male coverage in the magazines. An analysis of magazine articles on professional male and female tennis players indic ates that they are treated differently in many ways. This study was unique in comparing male and female athlete images of the same sport field. Investigating tennis players w as useful because the tennis industry is huge and highly commercialized due to man y successful tennis athletes of the world. He found that the female athletes are strongly connected with gender roles of feminine stereotype, while male athletes are associated with stereotypically masculine gender roles. Thus, the author conclude s that pr ofessional sport is also highly a male preserve, while the female athletes are traditionally trivialized. Lumpkin and Williams (1991) analyze Sports Illustrated feature articles published between 19541987 on gender and race and also investigate other aspe cts such as the length of the articles, who the authors are, the number of pictures displayed, the individuals who were pictured, and other descriptive characteristics. They extended the bounds of previous literatures, and illustrated the fact that Sports Illustrated did not give as much space for coverage for African American athletes. They found that only 8% of female figures were featured, and male athletes dominated 91.8% of the featured articles. It is apparent that there are gender and race differences in this magazines featured articles. Female athletes were portrayed more as visual images and the white athletes had longer articles than black athletes. They also indicate that female athletes were more often featured in sex appropriate sports, such as tennis, golf, swimming, and gymnastics than non -sex appropriate sports such as rugby, wrestling, track or basketball. They concluded that Sports Illustrated perpetuates and reinforces traditional images and stereotyp es of blacks and women in sport (Lumpkin and Williams, 1991, p. 30).
27 Fink and Kensicki (2002) also conclude in their work that female athletes are continuously underrepresented and depicted in sex appropriate sports, the so -called feminine sports. They conducted a content analysis of Sport s Illustrated and Sports Illustrated for Women issues published between 1997 1999. The authors mention that, after Title IX passed, more media focus was on female athletes and the athletes gradually became stronger, faster, and better prepared than ever. A lthough female athlete s fame and athletic ability rapidly grew their great achievement s were trivialized by many of mass media. They only featured female physical traits and trivialized their performance A s the results of this study, the authors found that female athletes are still underrepresented in Sports Illustrated That is, the powerful hegemonic groupwhite, conserva tive, male dominated structures preserve their society within the same context in media. In other words, according to the hegemoni c group female athletes are fundamentally different f ro m male athletes thus determined by a social stereotype. Kane (1988) conducted a content analysis of 1,228 issues of Sports Illustrated that were released between 19641987 and divided the years int o three periods: before, during and after Title IX passed. She critiques that those media representations of female athletes shape a part of American culture. Female athletes reflect social biases created and reinforced by sport media images. According to Kanes (1988) study, feminine or sexappropriate sports such as golf and tennis could bring social sanctions to general readers. In contrast, masculine or sex inappropriate sports are not suitable to females and cause negative effects on social sanctions. Kanes study argue s that throughout the three time periods, media was still focused on sex appropriate sports rather than other sports. She found that a proportion of articles were written about female athletes related with sex appropriated sports.
28 Kane (1988) discovered a significant increase of articles featuring athletic females versus non athlete females (e.g. the swimsuit issue) before, during, and after Title IX passed. She found that before Title IX was passed (1964 1971), feature articles that we re committed to females were 33.82%. 57.14% of the articles that featured females focused on athletes and 42.86% focused on nonathletes. During Title IX time period (19721979), the number of articles featuring females decreased to 30.92%, while articles written about female athletes took hold of 77.34% of all the articles, and 22.66% were written about nonathletes. During the post Title IX time period (19801987), the number of female featured articles increased again up to 35.27%. Articles focusing on a thletes were 82.19%, while 17.81% focused on nonathletes. According to her analysis based on this statistic result, Kane state s that this increase in female athlete featured articles during and after Title IX was not caused by the Title IX itself, but tha t the social environment surrounding female athletics, within which Title IX was activated, did contribute to a significant attitude move within the media, as reflected in Sports Illustrated (Kane, 1988, p.95). She state s that this move in attitude clea rly demonstrates a more encompassing and accepting view of women s sports experience (Kane, 1988). Kane (1988) also investigated the patterns of female athlete coverage that highly focused on sex appropriate sports. She states that if the amount and t ype of coverage is any indication of the kind of image a publication wants to project, then Sports Illustrated is sending a clear message as to which sports are considered acceptable or valued within womens athletics (Kane, 1988, p.96). Sports Illustrate d s coverage mirrors audiences interests and desires and allows the readers gaze to fall upon provocative images of female athletes. Accordingly, sex appropriate sports are becoming more popular than other sports thus, in return, professional sports opp ortunities for female athletes are becoming limited to sex appropriate sports as well. In
29 addition, Kane (1988) mentions that females athletic participation should be based on individual interests and their capacity, not on a determined social role of wha t is considered an appropriate sport behavior for female s Only then will the true purpose of Title IX and the females movement can become realized. Concerning the race and gender issues in Sports Illustrated many scholars suggest that unequal treatment of minority ethnic groups and female athletes is relevant Many authors (e.g. Hillard, 1984; Kane, 1988; Duncan, 1990; Lumpkin & Williams, 1991) analyzed Sports Illustrated as their research content because this magazine was the most widely read sports ma gazine in the United States (Lumpkin & Williams, 1991). Also, this magazine is the most powerful and influential medium of sport images in the United States that reflect s the popularity of American sport by representing athletes achievement in many differ ent ways (Lumpkin & Williams, 1991). The early issues of Sports Illustrated editors and writers highlighted popular sport events and athletes sporting performances. However, they gradually concentrated on specific popular sport events and w hite male athle tes, rather than focusing on female athletes and other ethnic groups. Since white males are the main readers of Sports Illustrated, it is suitable to initially consider race and gender descriptors in the issues (Lumpkin & Williams, 1991). Gender Stereotyp ing in the Sports illustrated Swimsuit Issues Few studies were conducted to analyze photographic images of Sports illustrated swimsuit issues (e.g. Daddario, 1992; Duncan, 1993; Davis, 1997). These studies focused on how photographic images generate social discourse of sexuality and what was being represented in the photographic images f ro m swimsuit issues. Daddario (1992) analyze s photographic images as well, but examine s the relationship between the swimsuit issue and Sports Illustrated coverage about fe male athletes and their sports activities. She indicated that the achievements of female athletes were trivialized and swimsuit
30 models were objectified as sexual objects by Sports Illustrated and its swimsuit issues. By representatively condensing them off of Sports Illustrated news and editorial pages, Daddario found that the swimsuit issue trivialized female athletes achievements. This imbalanced coverage reveals the relationship between athleticism and physical beauty. According to her discussion, sport media continually depicted female athletes as sexual objects and expressed their sport as sex appropriate sports. Daddario argues that sexual objectification of females and female athletes were fostered by Sports Illustrated s annual swimsuit issue s Dad dario (1992) found that sports are still a male dominated, male oriented preserve. This worsens further unequal treatment of female athletes by media representation. In particular, Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues not only reveal uneven treatment, but al so foster stereotyping of female athletes through sexual appeal. The swimsuit issues emphasize on the models physically gorgeous body and trivialize s their performances. This further overlaps the female athletes images with professional fashion models. D uncan (1993) discovered how patriarchal ideology operates in particular media and how its contexts are empowered. To investigate this, she analyze s three mechanisms of patriarchy: objectification; commodification; and voyeurism. Using the Sports Illustrate d swimsuit issue of March 1992 in particular, she examined how these mechanisms are manifested in the photographic images and its caption. By reading into the message Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues deliver, Duncan (1993) works to reveal gender stereot yping in sport media and how this media constructs patriarchal ideologies. She argues that patriarchal ideologies objectify women and create a social stereotype. Many women portrayed in media are represented as sexual objects whose main purpose is to pleas e the viewers eye through the media. Also, the depiction of women imposed less power
31 compared to men and seemed to accentuate that out of all other factors, appearance was the prioritized criteria for women. Specifically, the Sports Illustrated swimsuit i ssue has extremely objectified women as sexual objects (Duncan, 1993). In the Sports illustrated swimsuit issue, the swimsuit models were subjected to an attractive atmosphere, and their passivity was highlighted by facial expressions and their poses which manifest the photographic images. In addition, with the help of high quality photographic techniques, tactile pleasure to the eye became more conspicuous, turning the photographic images of Sports Illustrated models into accessible, virtually real -perso n objects (Duncan, 1993). Expanding this objectification mechanism, Duncan explains her argument on patriarchal commodification. Based on Fiskes (1989) study, she agrees that the characters are materially and symbolically commodified. The materialistic el ement is the object itself and the symbolic element conveys the meaning, identity, and pleasure of the object and what it offers to the consumers. In the swimsuit issue, the models are dressed in swimsuits advertising the sportswear but they themselves bec ome the very precious and valuable commodity. Lastly, Duncan suggests that Sports Illustrated swimsuit magazine photographs provide a powerful opportunity for voyeurism the last mechanism of patriarchal ideologies suggested by the author. The sexual attractiveness of the models is enunciated by posing on beaches in their wet swimsuits partially revealing the forbidden body (Duncan, 1993). In conclusion, Duncan (1993) suggested that the media identifies with institution technologies that produce and repro duce patriarchal ideology. Understanding how patriarchal ideology operates is the first step for interpreting social structures. In Davis s (1997) book The swimsuit issue and sport, she analyzed Sports Illustrated swimsuit issue as hegemonic masculinity and expanded on Daddarios (1992) and Duncans
32 (1993) study which was limited to a single swimsuit issue. She analyzed several swimsuit issues themselves and interviewed readers and editors o n this publication. To understand the nature of Sports Illustra ted swimsuit issues, the author examined interactive relationships between editors and readers through in -depth interviews in a social context. In her study, she interpret s the meaning of swimsuit issues as a concept of hegemonic masculinity. Davis state s that the basic factor of a swimsuit is ideally beautiful and sexy female, and the swimsuit models serve as the symbol of femininity. According to an interview with an editor and her intention for the swimsuit issue, this issue was highly targeted for mal e readers than female readers. This subsequently influenced swimsuit photographic images which accordingly highly expressed the models sexual pose and facial expressions. Davis argue s that the magazines differently depict masculinity and femininity, and c ompare s how women appear in the swimsuit issues and how men appear in Sports Illustrated In conclusion, Davis (1997) asserts that females were expressed to be weaker than males. The author indicate s that the swimsuit issue reinforce s gender stereotyping stressing femininity and projecting more focus on sexism rather than athleticism. The very construction of the swimsuit issue is concentrated on the defenseless female, an emotionally weak, nature oriented, childlike, and male dependent figure (Davis, 1997). Davis (1997) further depicts the relationship between heterosexual status and masculine status in her swimsuit analysis. Ever since its official publication in 1964, the swimsuit issues acceptable sexual representation highly intrigued male reade rs and influenced publication consumption in the American society. She further mentions that linking men with consumption of the swimsuit issue helps to create the perception that there is an association between the swimsuit issue and masculinity. She fu rther argue s that Sports Illustrated annual
33 swimsuit issues must be seen in the context of contemporary gender relations. Her work can challenge the current gender order and change the masculine preserve. Ideo logy of Photographic Images in S port Media Many studies were conducted about photographic images in the media (e.g. Goffman, 1979; Duncan, 1990; Belknap & Leonard II, 1991). These studies focus on how photographic images generate social discourse and what was being represented in the photograph s Duncan (1990) distinguishes sport photographs into two categories: the first category being content or discourse; and the second context surrounding photographic images. Photographs, as one of the mass media contents, are politically provoked. These phot ographs degenerate womens status through the interests of hegemonic groups in a social context. She focuse s on the features that are most relevant to sports photographs in several magazines in North America. She analyze s the texts surrounding the photogra ph and their contexts together. These contents include athletes physical appearances, pose and position in front of the camera, facial expressions, emotional displays, and the cameras angle which defines the first category. In addition, in her second cat egory, she analyzes the context included the photos captions, the surrounding written texts, and the title of the photographs. Duncan (1990) found that female athletes photographic poses in the media resembled women in soft -core pornography. She describ e s these photos to focus on body areas accentuating sexuality. She found that its content and context call an attention to reinforce patriarchal relations. Duncans study provides a framework for understanding how and what these images mean. Through her id eological framework of patriarchal influence, we can understand why some sport photographs continually create and conform to these male -oriented assumptions. Focusing on gender differences is a political strategy that places women in an oppressed position of
34 weakness. That is, sport photographs emphasize the otherness of female athletes, their physical beauty being the focal point. In Belknap & Leonard IIs (1991) study, several magazine advertizing strategies and their contents were analyzed, especially t he visual imagery of gender stereotyping and gender role in our society. Using Goffmans (1979) decoding behavior methodology, over 1, 000 advertisement contents were analyzed. Goffman (1979) discovered several illustrations of genderisms, the gender framin g in magazines that emphasize the more traditional gender stereotypes. Summary of Literature Review Many literatures discuss coverage features of Sports Illustrated confirming that gender representation in these issues marginaliz e female athletes and sexu ally objectify their bodies and through photographic images on sport media (e. g. Hilliard, 1984; Kane, 1988; Duncan, 1990; Lumpkin & William, 1991; Hagerman, 2001; Yecke, 2001; Fink & Kensicki, 2002). During the recent several decades, scholars began to f ocus on the largest circulated publication of North America, the Sports Illustrated s feature articles. These researchers examine how print media depict gender differences, gender stereotyping, and under representation of female athletes in sport media. Us ing hegemonic masculinity as a theoretical framework, several articles (e.g. Kane, 1988; Duncan, 1990; Hagerman, 2001; Yecke, 2001; Lumpkin & William, 1991; Hilliard, 1984; Fink & Kensicki, 2002) indicate that sport is a highly male -dominated environment a nd they revealed the degree of trivialization female athletes experience when appearing on the pages by analyzing the content s of Sports Illustrated In this study, I conducted content analysis of the Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues from 1997 to 2009. I examined these issues based on the hegemonic masculinity as a theoretical framework. According to previous research about this theory, many of scholars (Kane, 1988; Duncan, 1990; Daddrio, 1992; Duncan, 1993; Davis, 1997) found that female athletes were
35 tr ivialized and depicted as sexual symbols in this magazine. This study was also expanded on Duncans (1990, 1993) studies on sport photograph analysis and updated D a vis s (1997) study about Sports Illustrated swimsuit issue. Specifically, I would like to focus only on athlete models in swimsuit issues beginning with Steffi Grafs appearance as an athlete model whose professionalism converted into a general fashion model in 1997.
36 CHAPTER 3 METHODS To answer the research questions, a content analysis of athlete models photographic images and accompanying written text s in the Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues was conducted in samples from a 13 year time period, from 1997 to 2009. The methodological framework for this study was based on Duncans (1990) sport photograph framework. This theoretical framework was incorporated to understand what sports photographs signify in sports magazines Duncans photograph descriptions were divided into two cat egories; contents and contexts. However, i n this study, only the contents category for photographic images and written texts was applied The following sections describe the collection of data, data coding, and data analysis. Data C ollection A collection of photographic images and their accompanying wr itten texts of athlete models in the Sports illustrated swimsuit issues were read and analyzed. To examine the representations of athlete models in the swimsuit issues, a total of 13 Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues were selected for data collection All photographs ( n = 1049) and accompanying written text captions within each issue of Sports Illustrated were analyzed. In this study, the samples were limited within only print media (i.e. the magazine) Therefore, online contents were not considered as tar get data because the online digital medium is incomparable to the medium of printed magazines (Wade, 2008). The rationale for choosing the Sports Illustrated is that this magazine is the largest circulated sports magazine in North America (Lumpkin & Will iams, 1991). In addition, the annual special Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues provide highly sexualized photograp hic images of female models as a part of sports magazine.
37 Data Coding The Content Coding Book To ensure objectivity within the content analy sis of photographic materials, a coding method first established by Duncan (1990) was utilized. All research questions and analyses were conducted by using systematic methodolog ies. The first category related to contents as a conve yor of meaning and the se cond was written text which goes along with photographic images such as titles and captions. This photographic image coding frame has been long studied and has been investigated for active or passive pose and competitive or noncompetitive scenes (Duncan, 1 990; Rintala & Birrell, 1984; Salwen & Wood, 1994). The r eality of media construction is that it illustrates female athletes less er in athletic action but greater in sexual pose s in the photographs. It serves to maintain the status -quo ideology of female as different and inferior athlete in comparison to male (Fink & Kensicki, 2002, p. 320). Moreover, this coding method enables me to objectively analyze whether the photographic representations of female athletes serve to challenge the dominant masculine h egemonic theory or whether extremely sexualized female athletes participation into swimsuit issues are similar to other stereotypes of feminine coverage. This study conducted a content analysis using a modified version of Duncans (1990) sports photograp hs framework to examine gendered images in Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues. Basically, gender and models categories were prepared in the content coding book. According to gender and official position (e.g. athlete, fashion model, musician) and identifie d athlete as special models in swimsuit issues all models were divided into seven groups: athlete(s), athlete with their partners, sports related model(s), fashion model(s), fashion model (s) with athlete (s) fashion model (s) with other and others. A case of athlete models they were also coded by sports type. In addition, the clothing category was divided into four groups: swimsuit, sports uniform,
38 casual suits, formal suits and others. For the written text category, the different kind s of captions were ca tegorized into five groups: advertisement s (only about a product, e.g. swimsuit, jewelry), quotation s from the models (e. g. how athletes feels wearing the swimsuit athlete experience), quotation s from the author of the article, statement s about the story and model introductions, and other. Photographic image categories. To examine the athlete models photographic image in this magazine, the photographic images of models were divided into five categories. Two of five categories were based on the coding fr amework used by Duncan (1990). In the cont ent coding book (see Appendix A ), photographic image category summarize s the operationalization and coding categories of the five dimensions used in this study. Five forms of gender displays were measured size of p hotograph, photo shot location, facial expression, body display (poses and body position), and feminine touch. Two categories from Duncans were included : body position (pose) and facial expression. One category, the feminine touch category, was based on G offman s gender advertisement framework (1979). Two additional categories for coding were created from a sample coding test. These two categories include the size of the photos and the photos location. Conceptual definitions. The following conceptual def initions of photograph images will be utilized by the researcher in this study. Size of photograph: The term size of photograph is used in reference to the size of each photograph in the sports magazine. Size of photograph was used in determining the deg ree of editors intention of each photograph and model. Each photograph size reveals which photographs were highlighted in this magazine. Finally, for analyses the size of photograph
39 variable was categori zed and repre sented as follows: 1 = one full page or under one -page ; 2 = two -page spread ; 3 = three page spread ; and 4= four -page spread. Photo shot location: Photo shot location indicates the location of photo taken. Photo shot location was used in shaping the editors purpose of each photograph and model Each photo shot location indicate s which locations were used to spotlight models image s and their swimsuits. According to the photo shot locations type of models and their images were varied. For analyses the photo shot location variable was categoriz ed and repre sented as follows: 1 = Beach ; 2 = Studio ; 3 = Sport related facilities ; and 4= Other places Facial expression: Facial expression in the context of this study, is defined by the results from one or more motions or positions of the muscles of t he face in this sports magazine. This category was based on the coding framework used by Duncans (1990) contents category Facial expression strongly reveals different depictions according to gender (Duncan, 1990). Additionally, facial expressions were id entified within the context of this study as gendered models or sexualized models Final ly, for analyses the facial expression variable was categ ori zed and represented as follows: 1 = Smile ; 2 = Focused lens without smile ; 3 = Look at other sides ; 4= With drawing gaze ; and 5= Others Body display (poses and body position): Body display was operationalized as body pose s and position s of .the models in front of the camera within the sports magazine. This category was also based on Duncans (1990) contents cat egory. The body display has meanings such as feminine pose or masculine position of models in photographs as Duncan suggests: In some photographs, particular position may signify femininity and others may signify masculinity (Duncan, 1990, p.34). Accordi ng to Goffman (1979), male models were more often portrayed in an active position while female models were indicated submissiveness in advertising
40 photographs. Thus, body positions of athlete and non athlete models were compared F or analyses the body pos ition variable was categ orical ly represented as follows: 1 = Body erect ; 2 = Tilting body ; 3 = Reclining/sitting on the surfaces ; 4=Knee bend/ Crawling ; 5= Lying ; 6= Athletic action ; and 7= Others Feminine touch: The feminine touch category used within this study is specifically the hand positions in photographic images. This category was based on Goffmans (1979) gender advertisement framework. From this category, this study discovered how swimsuit models were sexualized in sports magazines photographs. For analyses the feminine touch variable was categ orical ly represented as follows: 1 = Touching self ; 2 = Body revealing clothing; and 3 = Others (e.g. no touching or touching others). Data Analysis Reliability To ensure greater objectivity, two gr aduate students helped in the coding procedure and then they were coded one sample issue to check for reliability. The graduate students helped in qualif ying the different coding schemes mentioned before. To practice the coding method, the graduate assist ants coded a sample of Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues which had also been coded by the researcher. Any disparities between the two coders analyses and the researcher were discussed to provide appropriate training for the graduate assistants before the actual coding began Photographic images and its captions that were unnoticed by one of coders, or that were coded differently be the cod ers, were discussed and we met an agreement in its content before further statistical analy ses were conducted. Inter -coder reliability coefficients for the coded magazines were calculated. When the training was completed the same sample issue was coded again. Cohen's Kappa coefficient was used for measur ing agreement, which determine d
41 statistical measure s of inter rater agreement for qualitative (categorical) items. It is generally thought to be a more robust account the agreement occurring by chance. Then three tests for determining the reliability of the coding scheme were conducted: 1) reliability between researcher and the first graduate student ; 2) reliability between researcher and the second graduate student ; and 3) reliability between the first and second graduate student. Inter reliability agreement among three coders ranged from 84% to 93% on the number of photographic image s and th eir captions. Cohens Kappa was calculated to be .84 for photographic images and its captions. This score was within the .84 to .93 range, which denotes a high level of reliability (Riffe, Lacy, & Fico, 1998; Fink, & Kensicki, 2002). This coding method enabled the researcher to objectively analyze whether the photographic representation of female athletes served to challenge the dominant masculine hegemonic theory or provoke the extremely sexualized female athletes participation into swimsuit issue s like other stereotyping in feminine coverage. Statistical Analysis To answer the proposed research questions, proper statistical analysis was used throughout this study. Furthermore, to examine the theoretical perspective of hegemonic masculinity and femininit y, each research question was answered to identify gender role relation s in the theoretical approach Thus, each research question was discussed within the hegemonic masculinity and femininity theoretical perspective s and the result s were derived from ana lyse s of photographic images, categories and written text captions Incorporating a statistical program, SPSS 17.0 version, helped analyze athlete and non athlete models in Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues In addition, to better illustrate the results o f the data, a crosstabs analysis was performed to provide a Chi Square score and frequencies within the data.
42 According to the research questions, specific statistical methodology was prepared. Research Question One Has there been a change in the portr ay al of athlete models in Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues since 1997? Research question one was answered by descriptive statistics : percentages and frequency. This descriptive statistic include s the frequency and percentage of the following: gender, t ype of models, clothing, kind of caption categories, sports, photographic image categories. In the case of athlete models, descriptive statistic showed the type of sport by gender. These descriptive statistic results were organized by the issue s date and these result s showed the trend of Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues. For trend analysis, Chi -square analysis was used. Research Q uestion Two. How are athlete models described in the contents of Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues? Research question two was answered by analyzing the title theme. In this research question, athletes name s and sport type s were arranged and athlete models content title was described by each year. The researcher classified the title content s by year and then described the fe ature s of the title s This research question only looked at the 36 contents titles of athlete models within the 13 issues and noted the features that hold possibility of introduc ing sexual appeal in the mind of the reader. There were many key sexual and feminine words found by the researcher. After looking at all 13 issues, the researcher categorized the titles by the year in which they appeared on the cover to see if the wording of titles became more sexual as the years progressed. Research Question Thr ee What differences are there in the written text captions between female and male athlete models in Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues?
43 To answer question three, Chi Square analyses was performed. The Chi -Square analysis made use of the following vari ables: m odels gender and written text caption s Models gender was operationalized as the independent variable (IV) while written text captions w ere considered as the dependent variable s (DV). The outcomes of this analysis identified the frequencies of how written text captions are described according to the models gender. Research Question four What differences are there in the portrayal of photographic images between female and male athlete models in Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues? To answer re search question four Chi -Square analyses was performed. The Chi -Square analysis made use of the following variables: m odels gender and photographic images categories. Models gender was operationalized as the IV while photographic images categories were considered as the DV The outcomes of this analysis identified the frequencies of how athletes photographic images categories were differentiated by gender Research Question Five What differences are there in the description of written text captions, between female athletes and female fashion models in Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues? To answer research question five, Chi -Square analyses was performed. The Chi -Square analysis made use of the following variables: m odels professional job (e.g. athl ete, fashion model) and written text captions. Models original job was operationalized as the IV while written text captions were considered as the DV The outcomes of this analysis identified the frequencies of how written text captions were described di fferently according to the models original job.
44 Research Question Six. What differences are there in the portrayal of photographic images between female athletes and female fashion models in Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues? To answer research questi on six, Chi -Square analyses was performed. The Chi -Square analysis made use of the following variables: m odels professional job (e.g. athlete, fashion model) and photographic images categories. Models original job was operationalized as the IV while phot ographic images categories were considered as the DV The outcomes of this analysis identified the freque ncies of how photographic image categories were described for different m odels original job s
45 CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSI ON The con tent analysis of the Sports Illustrated swimsuit issue s found that female athletes are still underrepresented within the sports magazines coverage. Thirteen samples of Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues include 1049 photographic images. However, only 141( 13.5%) athletes were illustrated in those issues. Moreover, female athletes were more sexually depicted than male athletes Although male athletes pose d in an athletic display, most female athlete s posed like fashion models o n the beach. The following sect ions contain the results and discussion s on findings relative to each research question explored within the study. Research Question One Trends in the S ports Illustrated Swimsuit Issues since 1997 Has there been a change in the portray al of athlete models in Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues since 1997? Research question one was concerned with the changes Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues had gone through since 1997. The primary purpose of the question was to investigate the change s and suggest Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues future direction as a sport s magazine. Results in support of this question and the shifting trend of athlete models by issue years a re illustrated in F igure 4 1, 4 2, and 4 3. In addition, in order to reveal the detail tre nd of swimsuit issues, this research question describe s frequencies and percentages of all models photographic images within all of the Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues (13 issues). T able s 4 1, 4 2, 4 3, 44, and 4 5 describe the results The following are the detail content s of the tables : T able 4 1 indicates the frequencies and percentages of gender, kind of models, clothing, caption and photographic images ; g ender and model cross tabulatio n is described in Table 4 2 ; model s
46 comb ination in Table 4 3 ; T able 4 4 demonstrate s athletes sport type ; and Table 4 5 illustrate s the photographic images categories. Within the Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues between 1997 and 2009, a total of 1,049 photographs were coded and analyzed. In analyzing the trend of models in the Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues since 1997, F igure 4 1 demonstrates the visual trend of swimsuit issue s by frequency of models. Athlete models were portrayed in swimsuit i s sue s since 1997; they were continuousl y depicted as special model s but were introduced similar to fashion models without their athletic achievement s In the case s of b oth athlete s and non athlete models, this studys finding s indicate that there was not a significant difference over the year s That is, Chi -square anal ysis indicated that the frequency of models featured in photographs did not differ by year, (132) = 143, p >.05(athlete and nonathlete models). Interestingly though although not showing a steadily increase, the percentage of athlete models h as repeatedly fluctuated in each year. It should be noted that the frequency of models is somewhat misleading. Although this result is not significant, the athlete models appearance in Sports Illustrated swimsuit issue s holds importan ce for several reason s. It is also important to note that there were no athlete s portrayed prior to the 1997 issue according to the Sports Illustrated swimsuit issue s official history. F igure 4 2 demonstrates the number of photograph s of athlete models groups In this study, athlete models were divided into three groups which include d athlete s athlete s with their partner s, and fashion model s with athlete s In the early years between 1998 and 2003, athletes with their partner group appeared more frequently than athlete models alone. Thus, athlete s with their partner s group and fashion model s with athlete s group were more popularly depicted at that time. However, between 2003 and 2005 issue s the appearance of athlete s with their
47 partner s group and fashion model s with athlete s group gradually decreased, showing lesser appearance than athlete s group. After the 2006 issue s only the female athlete s group was portrayed in swimsuit issue s and gradually increase d their number of photographic images with the exception of the 2007 is sue. In that issue, as a music special issue, photographic images only depicted musician s and fashion models. However, in F igure 4 2, Chi -square analysis indicate s that the frequency of models featured in photographs did not differ by year, (1 20) = 130, p >.05 (total athlete models). Figure 4 3 demonstrates compari son of gender differen ces between female and male athlete models. In the 1997 issue, female models ( n = 16, 18.6%) took up most of the sectors and only 2 (2.3%) photographic imag es of males appeared in that issue (see Additional a ppendix 1 ). Between the 1998 and the 2002 issues, more male athlete models were portrayed than female athlete models. In contrast, between the 2003 and the 2005 issues, male athlete models decrease d while female athlete model s depict ion increased After the 2006 issue only female athletes were featured in swimsuit issue s without any male athletes However, there was no statistic al significan ce in the results by year, which are shown in F igure 4 3, (80) = 88, p >.05 (female), (50) = 55, p >.05 (male). For all photographic images from 1997 to 2009 issues, Table 4 1 indicate s the total frequency of gender, type of models, clothing and caption. In total 91.3% ( n =958) female models were portrayed and 8.7% ( n =91) male models appear ed in swimsuit issues. Fashion models ( n =826, 78.8%) took up most out of total models ; the next most frequent models were athlete models ( n =73, 7.0%). Table 4 2 o n gender and models cross ta bulation demonstrates model frequency according to gender. In the case of clothing, swimsuits (n = 876, 83.5%) w ere worn the most Casual suit s rated second with 73 (7.0%) and the next most popular were sport
48 uniform s (n =55, 5.2%). As for written text s c aptions were mostly advertisement s (n =846, 80.6%) on swimsuit models in Sports Illustrated As depicted in Table 4 2 most type of models was reveal gender differences in this table. T here were only female fashion models ( n =826, 100%) and female s port related models (n =25, 100%) while both gendered models were apparent in athlete models (female n =58, 79.5% and male n =15, 20.5%). In the case of fashion model s with athl ete s only male athlete models ( n =25, 100%) were de pict ed. There were big gend er differences in frequency of models. Thus, t here was a significant difference in the way different models were portrayed in Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues 1997 2009, (6 ) = 791.02, p <.0 0 1. In Table 4 3 the type of models categories wer e combined to create two larger categories : athlete models and nonathlete models. Of the athlete models categories that were combined were athlete s group, athlete s with their partner s group and fashion model s with athlete s group in photographic images. The non athlete models categories were made up of fashion models group, sport related model s group, fashion model s with other group and others. According to Table 4 3 Results showed that female non athlete models (n = 899, 99%) a re mo stly represent ed than male models in swimsuit issues targeting male readers between the years 19972009. S peci fic ally, unlike the issues before 1997, athlete models were depicted in the same manner as non athlete models. Among the athlete models, male athletes ( n =82; 58.2%) w ere featured more often than female athlete s (n =59; 41.8%). In contrast, in the case of non athlete models, there were 899 (99.0%) female n onathlete models but only 9 (1.0%) male non athlete models constituted the pages in the swimsuit issue s Male model s, specifically were dominantly athlete s In sum, although male athlete s were more frequently portrayed than
49 females a great er percentage of swimsuit issue models (91.3%) were female than male models (8.7%). There are highly significant difference in typ e of models (1 ) = 503.42, p <.0 0 1. Table 4 4 describes sports type in athlete models that appear in swimsuit issues. Kane suggested that a list of sports coded as either sexappropriate or sex -inappropriate for female sport participation (1 988, p. 92). In this study, several sports were fit for Kanes study, but some were inappropriate for her study. In particular, top ranked female athletes sports type was very similar to Kanes study. It includes tennis, beach volleyball, skate, car raci ng, softball, basketball, golf, and swimming. However, male sports type was totally different from female sport type. It includes football, basketball, boxing, baseball, soccer, golf, car racing, ice hockey, horse riding, running, skateboard, and tennis. T here are two unique features in sport type of athlete models that appear in swimsuit issues. The first one is gender differences. Like Kanes study, female and male sport type is different. For example, the top ranking sport for female athletes was tennis, while it ranked last for mens. The second feature is that male athletes have more of a variety in sport type compared to women. While as the highest ranked sport depicted for female athletes was tennis (50.8%), male athletes (1.2%) had a more diversifie d sport type. The results prove the significance as well, (1) = 503.42, p <.001. Lastly, Table 4 5 which depict the frequency of photographic image categories of all models. These photographic image categories are divided into five spe cific groups : size of photo, location, facial expression, body pose and feminine touch. For the size of photograph group one -page or under one page photographic images ( n =765, 72.9%) took up the largest percentage rather than the bigger size s of photogra phic images. Only 6 (0.6%) photographic images were four page spread size s For t he location of the photographs, two location groups, beach ( n =424, 40.4%) and other place ( n =429, 40.9%), held a great er percentage than the other locations. S port
50 facilitie s ( n =130, 12.4%) and studio ( n =66, 6.3%) took up small percentages as a photo shot location. Among the facial expression group s models focused on lens without smile ( n =480, 45.8%) had the largest percentage in this category followed by smile ( n =222, 21.2%), look at other sides ( n =184, 17.5%), and withdrawing gaze ( n =142, 13.5%). Interestingly, the body poses (body position) category frequencies and percentages were spread among every group. Three groups, body erect ( n =272, 21.2%), r eclining and sitt ing on the surface ( n =245, 23.4%), and lying ( n =226, 21.5%), were the largest of this category. O ther groups consisted of titling body ( n =133, 12.7%) and knee bend or crawling ( n =72, 6.9%). In the swimsuit issues, models body poses were very focused o n feminine images rather than active or athletic images ( n =96, 9.2%). Lastly, in the feminine touch category, other (e.g. no touch or touching others, n =607, 57.9%) group was large r than touching self ( n = 335, 31.9%) and b ody revealing clothing ( n =107, 10.2%). These findings within the data suggest that the growth in the number of athlete models portrayed in Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues since 1997. Research Question Two The Features of Athletes Contents How were athlete models described in the contents of Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues? Research question two w as answered by analyzing written text features in each year s issue In T able 4 6 athletes name s and sports type was arranged and athlete models content title and its captions we re described by the year A qualitative analysis was used to examine the titles of contents or phrases about the athletes contents which helped find ing whether the changes in the wording on Sports Illustrated titles moved from conservative to a more sexual approach in the swimsuit issues. In several ways, written text titles also revealed gender differences between female and male athletes just a like photographic images in the issues.
51 1997 issue As the first swimsuit issue including athletes, there are th ree articles featur ing athletes in this issue: Banks shot, Steffi, and Beauty and the beach. Bank shot i s an article about an interview of swimsuit cover models favorite sport team. This article describes a fashion model interview ing an athlete as a fan. Although the article dealt with an athlete in a sport setting it i s not truly focused on sport team or athlete but simply treated the model nothing other than a cover girl. On the other hand, this issue was also introduced two famous female athletes, Steffi Graf and U.S female beach volleyball team However, in the case of Steffi it i s simply an illustrating photo shot story without any of their great athletic achievement s in that issue. For example, the article deals with only whether the athlete s enjoy ed taking the photo or not, what happened, and which swimsuits were show n by athlete s In addition, Steffis article title does not de lineate athletes i dentities : Steffi Graf is as dazzling off the tennis court as she is on it. In contrast, Beauty and t he beach discuss ed serious debat es on womens sport To be more specific, it is concerned with what role sex appeal will play with the expanding popularity of their sport, especially focusing on beach volleyball. Moreover, several famous beach volleyball p layers debated on the sex appeal issue and expressed their opinion in this article. In sum, unlike other fashion models content s the first issue introducing athletes included articles which featured stor ies about the athlete and women s sport. 1998 issu e In this issue, athlete star couples were featured under the title Portfolio Couple photographs were taken and its captions describe feelings about each other Athlete spouses introduced their partners life styles or discussed their feelings when they dated. However, this content did not illustrate athleticism ; not only was it w ithout any information about the athletes, there were no female athletes featured.
52 1999 issue. Among the two sport related contents, o ne i s an article dealing with a fashion m odel learn ing sport sailing from athlete Followed by the previous year s issue, the other one portrays athletes couples in a similar way. However this issues couple story is different in two ways. First, the shot location was changed from a studio to the beach. Second, photograph captions were not about their love life but about how they felt about taking a swimsuit shot in this issue. The article was focused more on swimsuits rather than sport issues. 2000 issue T hree content s about athletes were s imilar to the previous issue They includ e constant couple series, male athlete sport story and someone learning sport from an athlete. T his issue in particular, covers a story on learning surfing. This article describe s that the best surfer Kelly Slate r of that year taught surfing to supermodel Michelle Behennah o n the beach. In the couple story article it also portray s an athlete couple without any information about the athlete ; however, the athlete s reveal their sport identities by wearing sport uni form. Interestingly, however, athletes were wearing their own uniform while their spouse s were dressed in swimsuit s in that photo shot. In addition, photograph caption also describe how they feel about the swimsuit issue. As the male athlete, surfer Hamilt on was featured in this swimsuit issue He introduc es his surfing life in detail. In this long article under the title Safety lost, several words describe surfing as a male appropriate sport and reveal his masculinity by mentioning that men love risk of th at kind of sport s 2001 issue. In this issue, fashion model, Heidi Klum take s a photo shot with NFL player under the title the Heidi Game NFL players a re wearing toga s instead of their sport uniform s
53 Written text s again describe the photo shot atm osphere and how the athletes feel about taking picture s with Heidi. 2002 issue. In several ways, this issue describes more athletes compared to previous issue s First, in Local hero series, many athletes describe their li v e s as athletes This article a ctually focuse s on athlete s and their athletic achievement s Photographic image s also portray athletes bodies in an athletic atmosphere in sporty clothing without featuring swimsuit s on the beach. Second, the article on the soccer hero M ar adona fully de pi ct ed sport and its fans passion about Argentina. Under the title Extreme football, the author thoroughly wr i te s about football and the great football love of Argentina fans. However there are still relevant gender differences in the Better Halves athlete couple series that follow the footsteps of previous issues. This issue also portray s male athlete s as great athlete s who are wearing their own sport uniform s posing with their spouse s who wear swimsuit. Moreover, this content titles caption depicts a mo re strengthen ed gender representation. Th e title s caption reads, b ehind every great athlete is a great swimsuit model Interestingly, there is no caption in contents photographs unlike previous couple story. Also an article match es a fashion model a nd an athlete describing them as a great combination couple. Under title A punch Judy show this content describ es fashion model Molly learn ing how to box from boxer Tito in the boxing gym. Interestingly, at the end of this issue, under the title Model Ath letes an editor s essay argues that supermodels in sports magazine and the athletes are identical in several ways. The author describe s supermodels and athletes life style in similar ways, and also gives supermodel athlete couple examples. 2003 issue. In this issue, the y feature four athlete model s The y are: two female athletes, an athlete couple, and fashion model with an athlete. First, there is a short introduc tion on the
54 female athletes w earing swimsuit s Serena Williams portray s the attractive fe male athlete focusing on her great athletic achievements, fashion on her competition and unique private life. Although the author briefly mentions her attractiveness with her swimsuit photographs, she is distinguished from other fashion models with the d escription on both her femininity and athleticism. In addition, in Frozen asset the author state s that Ekaterina Gordeeva is an attractive model but also a world famous skater. There is a brief introduc tion about her athletic achievement s and p ersonal lif e in this short article. Second, in the couple story, unfortunately, there is no explanation about the athletes but just a portrayal of the couple in various photo s shot in different backgrounds. Like the previous issue, male athletes were in their sport uniform and their spouses were wear ing swimsuits without any descriptive caption. The photographic image caption only feature s the names and prices of the swimsuit products. The last article covers fashion model Miller learn ing car racing from NASCAR racer Earnhardt. This article introduce s the experience of learning car racing by a super model. 2004 issue. There are two female athletes and a couple story featured in this issue. T wo female athletes were depicted as attractive swimsuit models. Anna Kournik ova i s portray ed much like a supermodel. H er photographic images a re very close to a supermodel in body pose and size of photographs ( such as the 4 page spread picture ). This reveal s how Anna was spotlighted in this swimsuit issue. Moreover, the author foc used more on her physical beauty than athletic achievement s unlike the previous issues Serena Williams. Interestingly, however, coverage of Serena Williams appeared in this issue which also portrayed her more sexually posed like fashion model rather than highlighting her athletic performance.
55 In the couple story, the photos became more flexible in that it wasnt limited to formal poses or shot locations but had various clothing and body pose and location. However, this content also simply describ es mode ls appearance without inclusion of athleticism of the athletes. 2005 issue. This issue also feature s several female athletes and a couple stories. Uniquely, though, this issue feature s female athletes athletic achievement s under the title Olympic Flame This content introduce s three female 2004 Olympic medalists o n the shinny beach. Although they were wearing swimsuit s as well as photograph s about their own sports, the images and their captions feature s a general episode or how they feel taking the swim suit photo sho o t o n the beach. In a case of Venus Williams she i s portrayed as an attractive female in many ways such as her career as an interior designer, tennis player and swimsuit model. It did not really focus on her athleticism which includes many tennis championship titles. Like previous couple stor ies this issues content style is also similar to former issues in that male athletes are wearing casual suit clothing and their attractive spouses a re wearing swimsuit s in different photo shot location s. 2006 issue. In this issue, under the title Maria, Full of Grace only one famous tennis player Maria Sharapova sexually posed in front of the camera lens on the beach. Although this issue briefly mention s her great athletic potential and several cha mpionship titles in her tennis career her photographic images a re highly represented like a supermodel rather than an athlete proven in the expanded 4 -page spread photograph. 2008 issue. Like other female athletes, with the title Traffic Stopper female car racing star, Danica Patrick, i s depicted wearing a swimsuit o n the beach. However, her clothing made
56 her look more like a sexualized object reveal ing her body in her racing uniform. Photograph caption s d iscuss only her popularity and experience shoot ing the swimsuit issue. Distinctively, this issue introduces players wives and NFL cheerleaders without athletes. As sports -related models in this magazine, they a re portrayed as sexy women related with athletes. Their Better Halves describe s their hus bands in the bottom corner with small photographs for identifying. It wa s not like previous couple coverag e because only players wives were featured. The NFL cheerleader s were depicted in their cheering action poses. 2009 issue. The first photograp h in this issue i s the Indy Car racer, Danica Patrick who is sexually lying on the car in a studio. She starts up this issue wh ich proves her popularity and then introduce s a variety of models in the written caption. This issue i s more diversified by more coverage on models such as athletes dancers and fashion models. T ennis stars a re portrayed as swimsuit models in a group o n the beach. Three tennis players depicted as sexy star s in th e s e photographs, but its captions include their tennis performance a t major competitions with small photographs. Moreover, they were interview ed about how they felt shooting the swimsuit issue As sport related models like the NFL cheerleaders in the previous issue, NBA dancers were portrayed in their athletic dancing po se s The ir sport team and names were identified. Summary of Research Question Two The purpose of research question two was to explore the features of athletes contents that how swimsuit issues described athlete models. From the results, athlete model con tents were divided into four categories : athletes, athlete couples, fashion models with athletes, and sport related models. This dividing standard of category was what type of models was described in issues contents. Figure 4 4 show s the summary of the fe atures of the athlete contents.
57 In the early issues (19972002), several female and male athletes were described. Although female athletes a re depicted as feminine models rather than masculine athletes, unlike female athletes posing as swimsuit models, m ale athlete coverage emphasized their masculinity. In addition, athlete couples were continuously portrayed in the 1998 to 2005 issue. They were described more flexibi l ity in their pose s with their partner s in a variety of location s. The contents revealed gender differen ce within the same photographs For example, females were wearing only swimsuits, but male athletes were wearing many different kinds of suit s from casual and formal suits to sport uniforms. That is, in this time period, three content categories were described; athletes, athlete couple and fashion model with athlete. In the middle issues (20032005), this time period features were that only female athlete models were depicted in athlete contents, while continuously portraying male athletes i n couple story and fashion models with athlete article. In addition, from those issues, this publications design were changed as more like current issues. S wimsuit issues were focused more on female and couple stor ies No male athletes were described as a single content ; only would they appear i n the couple coverage with their partner s or with fashion models. However, female athletes were portrayed like supermodel s more than previous issues. Several attractive female athletes were portrayed in big size pho tographs like fashion models and also appeal with more sexually attractive appearances than male athletes. In the lat est issues (20062009), this time period features were that only female athletes were described and also depicted sport -related models fr om those issues. T he swimsuit issues carried diversified models by including sport related models and players wives and more female athletes. However there are no male athletes from th ose issues, even though any other contents included male athletes Foc al point was centered only on the portray al of more attractive female
58 athletes. There was, however, a group of sport starts were portrayed in same contents such as Volley of the dolls that portrayed tennis players as gorgeous models. Discussion on Rese arch Question s One and Two For analyzing the trend of the Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues since the appearance of athlete models research question s one and two s findings were discussed. These question s include d total frequency and percentage of all mo dels and athlete models frequency. Research question two examined the athlete content by investigat ing the description of the written text contents. From these questions, this study found the trend of athletes representation in Sports Illustrated swimsui t issues. There are gender differences within the athlete models; it was intensified with more sexualized photographs and written texts in the issues. In the media representation, it could be conclude d that athletes marketability is their sexuality rather than their athleticism in sport media. The results from th is study indicate that the number of athlete models gradually increased in the swimsuit issues As mentioned above, gender stereotype still exist s when portraying athletes and non athlete models, in doing so; it also emphasizes sexuality rather than athleticism in describing athlete models in swimsuit issues. Although athlete models were special guest s of swimsuit issues, they were spotlighted more than fashion models in several photographs. Sport s Illustrated swimsuit issues diversified athlete models contents and included many different athletes in their annual special issues. In other words, almost every issue continuously included athlete contents since the 1997 issue. Thus, eventually, the po rtray al of athletes in swimsuit issues became unsurprising in Sports Illustrated. To sum up, m ale athletes are more likely to be shown in action shots than female athletes, while female athletes are more frequently photographed in portrait shots in non -sport settings (Duncan & Sayaovong, 1990; Rintala & Birrell, 1984). When female athletes do appear
59 in photographs, their athletic ability is often trivialized. The bodies of female athletes in the photographs are often displayed in an attempt to arouse he terosexual males, since it is common to see female athletes in sexy or even sexually suggestive poses (Duncan & Sayaovong, 1990). The findings within the data may suggest that the growth of the athlete models open ed other career path opportunit ies for the athletes by portraying additional talent other than th eir original career which titles success as winning in a competition. Through t he portray al of athletes as fashion models, many athletes showed their talent s other than athletics and stepped into th e entertainment industry through main stream media such as magazines, broadcasting, and advertisements. Research Question T hree Gender Difference of Athletes in Written Text Caption s What differences are there in the written text captions between female and male athlete models in Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues? The third research question was to ex amine the written text difference in the gender representation by the means of categorical data analysis (crosstabs). The dependent variable (DV) proces sed throughout the analyses were the captions category. The independent variable (IV) was gender of athletes. The main objective of research question t hree was to examine gender difference of athlete models within the written text that was limited to capti ons only accompanying photographic images. In particular, in a hegemonic masculinity perspective, sport was a male-dominated field in North America. Thus, as already mentioned in the research question, the primary purpose of research question three was to investigate what differen ces are prevalent in the descriptions with in the written text s
60 Table 4 7 illustrates the results of this analysis investigating gender difference in captions. G ender differen tiating when dealing with athlete models were apparent in two ways. First, female athletes were depicted in simple and less focused description s than male athletes To be specific, female athletes were described more often in advertisement s (n =26, 44.1%), while male athletes in advertisements were only half t his proportion 21 (25.6%). Second, m ale athletes were described in a variety of captions than were female athletes. In general, male athletes were evenly described in written text such as advertisement s (n =21, 25.6%), q u otation s fr o m models ( n = 22, 26.8%), and statement s made by models ( n =32, 39.0%). In contrast, female athletes were most l y focused on advertisements (44.1%) then on the statement s made by of models ( n =13, 22.0%), but that percentage was les s than male athletes ( n =32, 39.0%). Moreover, th e results indicate a significant difference by gender (4) = 26.02, p <.001. The results answer this research question of this study further evidence d that there still exist s gender differences in Sports Illustrated swimsuit issue s in portraying athlete s within the written text. Female athletes were more focused on their appearance s while their athletic achievement was trivialized. In contrast, male athletes captions were more descri ptive on elaborating their athletic achievement s rather than illustrating physical appearance. Research Question Four Gender Difference of Athletes in Photographic Images What differences are there in the portrayal of photographic images between female and male athlete models in Sports Illustrate d swimsuit issue s ? Research question four intended to further explore the representation of athlete model s photographic images in Sports Illustrated swimsuit issue s To identify the representation of athlete s according to gender, photographic image categ ories were analyzed. It include s the size of the photograph, location, facial expression, body pose (position), and feminine touch. The
61 dependent variable (DV) processed throughout the analyses were photographic image categor ies The independent variable ( IV) was gender of athletes. The main objective of research question four was to examine gender difference of athlete models within the photographic images categories The result of the a nalysis may be found in Table 4 8 This table include d five categories Firstly, T able 4 8 show s the result s of size of photograph ; small size photographs took up the largest percentage for both genders (female, n = 44, 74.6% and male, n =68, 82.9%). In general, m ore photographs depicted male athlete s (n =82, 58.2%) than fe male athlete s (n =59, 41.8%). On the other hand, female athletes were portrayed in big size photographs (three -page spread, n =1, 1.7%, four -page spread, n = 2, 3.4%). However, t here was no significant difference in size of photograph, (3) = 4 .67, p >.05. Secondly, Table 4 8 indicate s photo shot location. There were highly significant differences in th is category, (3) = 35.87, p <.001. The results intensif ied previous assumption s about gender difference s; female athletes were most ly portrayed on the beach (n =36, 61.0%) while male athlete were just 11 (13.4%) portrayed. Moreover, male athletes (n =37, 45.1%) were most portrayed on their sport s related facilities, while female athletes ( n =11, 18.6%) were only depicted in that locati ons. Thirdly, i n the facial expression s of the athletes, Table 4 8 show s that t he largest portion of this category for female athletes that portrayed was the smile ( n =18, 30.5%) and focused lens without a smile ( n =18, 30.5%), while male athletes were m ore portrayed on smile ( n =31, 37.8%) However, only male athletes ( n =17, 20.7%) portrayed on focused lens without a smile In addition, while only 3 (3.7%) male were portrayed on withdrawing gaze category, female
62 were portrayed 7 (11.9%). T here was a signi ficant differen ce in this category, (4) = 10.20, p <.05. Next, Table 4 8 portrayed athlete models body positions There was no significant difference, (6) = 5.59, p >.05. The largest percentage of female athletes in this c ategory posed in athletic action ( n =17 28.8%) and body erect ( n =17, 28.8%) while 33 males (40.2%) were posed body erect Interestingly, in comparison to female model images, male athletes were more often shown in athletic poses while female athletes had a higher percentage of feminine images. Moreover, in the body position category, female athlete percentages were spread out in several of groups: b ody erect ( n =17, 28.8%), t ilting body ( n =6, 10.2%) r eclining or sitting ( n =7, 11.9%), lying ( n =10, 16.9% ), and athletic action ( n =17, 28.8 %), w hile male athletes had only two major postures; body erect ( n =33, 40.2%) and athletic action ( n =20, 24.4%). Lastly, Table 4 8 illustrate s feminine touch category of athlete models. There was a significant differe n ce in this category, (2) = 30.54, p <.001. The most percentage of male athlete photographs were described as the other group ( n =114, 80.9%). Although female athletes were also depi cted in others group ( N =35, 59.3%), larger percentages were described in feminine g roups such as touching self ( n =21, 35.6%) and bo dy revealing clothing ( n =3, 5.1 %) They were also portrayed in this swimsuit issues like general fashion models. However, only three male athletes (3.7%) were reported to be portrayed in the touching self category and there was no representation of the body revealing clothing category (0%). These finding s suggest that photographic images may represent gender differences in athlete images in the Sports Illustrated swimsuit issue s like o ther sports magazine s.
63 Discussion o n R esearch Question s Three and Four To examine the gender differences of athlete models, research question s three and four s findings on athletes photographic images and written texts were discussed. Sport as a mas culine domain area has been readily supported (e.g., Bryson, 1987; Lenskyj, 1990; Messner, 1988). Sports that require considerable physical strength, substantial body mass or muscularity, and those not traditionally open to females generally are socially c onstructed as masculine activities (Young, 1997). Engaging in active, powerful, assertive, and competitive movements (i.e., those necessary to be successful in sport) is considered masculine behavior (Kian, 2006). It is socially acceptable for males, but n ot for females. Because sport is defined by masculine standards, the cultural practices within sport conflict with hegemonic femininity (Hall, 1996). This study found that there are three major features of athletes gender differences in Sports Illustrat ed swimsuit issues from 1997 to 2009. Th e issues steadily featured athletes by intensifying gender differences in several ways in both photographs and written texts. First, the female and male athlete models were different in the kind of characteristic s th ey hold. That is, in the case of female athletes the most physically attractive athletes tend to be the ones most frequently chosen as subjects for photograph models in swimsuit issues. Most female athletes who were portrayed in swimsuit issues did not on ly have distinguished athletic achievement s but also were famous for their beautiful appearance s For example, one of the famous female tennis players, Maria Sharapova, w as also portrayed alone as a glamorous fashion model o n shinny beaches while male athl etes were with their attractive spouses in the other swimsuit issues. Second, there are also gender differences in the way of portraying photographic images of athlete models In clothing, all female athletes were wearing swimsuit s o n the beaches while
64 ma le athletes were wearing their own sport uniform or casual suits in the same swimsuit issues. In the body pose s female athletes posed in feminine styles, such as lying or sitting, rather than in athletic position s while male athletes posed in body erect positions or active positions Photograph locations were also different between females and male s Female athletes were mostly portrayed o n the beach; in contrast, male athletes were often depicted in sport related locations. Third, there are gender differences in the ways sport type s are featured The most featured female sport type included sexappropriate sports that Kane (1988) classified in her study. The vast of female sport still focused primarily on emphasizing the feminine and male sport also sti ll focused on masculinity (Kane, 1988). In this way, sexual difference may be highlighted and emphasized; the consequence of coupling comments on athletic prowess with allusions to sexuality may be the trivialization of the sporting accomplishments of t hese women (Duncan 1990, p. 29). Research Question F ive Comparison with Female Athlete s and Fashion Models in Written Text Caption What differences are there in the description of written text captions, between female athletes and female fashion models i n the Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues? Crosstabs analysis was utilized t o illustrate female models in swimsuit issues of Sports Illustrated for this research question. The main purpose of research question f ive within the same gender, is to reveal the differen ces in written text s Especially, this question examined the level of sexuality between athlete and non athlete female models. Table 4 9 show s the differences between athlete and non athlete models in written text caption. There are significant d ifferences in the descriptions of both groups. For both groups,
65 t he largest percentage of caption ing was in a dvertisement s Most advertisements portrayed female non athlete models ( n =799, 88.9%) while only 26 (44.1%) female athletes were portrayed in adv ertisement. A thlete 13 (22.0%) were portrayed in statement about models, while only 40 nonathlete were portrayed (4.4 %) In addition, quotation s from the author category also differences in portraying both groups (athlete, n =8, 13.6% and nonathlete, n =1 8, 2.0 %) Q uotatio n s fr o m models category were described 4 athletes (6.8%), while 18 non athletes (2.0 %) were described T here was a highly significant differen ce in this category, (4) = 95.28, p <.001. The result of this research question i ndicated that there are huge differences between athlete and non athlete models in written text. Unlike fashion model s (88.9%), a thletes (44.1%) described with more detail on their identities than selling products such as swimsuit s and jewelry. However, i t is important to note that female models feminine images were also portrayed in many advertisements regardless of their identities as an athlete Thus, a thlete models were described only as fashion models in the swimsuit issue s without their athletic achi evement. Research Question Six Comparison with Female Athlete s and Fashion Models in Photograph Images What differences are there in the portrayal of photographic images between female athletes and female fashion models in the Sports Illustrated swim suit issues? The intent of research question six was to examine the representation of female models in photographic images in the swimsuit issue s of the Sports Illustrated The result of this question described that athletes were described similar to fas hion models in the issue s The purpose of this research question was to investigate the level of sexuality between both athletes and non athletes. Results relating to these findings are depicted in Table 9
66 F irst ly T able 4 10 shows significant difference s in the size of the photo graph s, (3) = 8.74, p <.05. In this category, however, there are no big difference s in both groups and the small size of photographs was the largest percentage group. Athlete models were mostly p ortrayed in one page (n =44, 74.6%) while t he highest percentage of nonathlete models was also o ne page photographs ( n =645, 71.7%) However, in the big size of photographs, a total of 4 nonathlete models were portrayed in four page photographs (0.4%) while 2 athlete models (3.4%) were portrayed. Secondly, Table 4 10 show s the location of photo shot s in the swimsuit issues. The largest percentage of non athlete models was in the other places category (n =412, 45.8%) and on the beach ( n =377, 41.9%). In the case of athlete m od els, although beach ( n =36, 61.0%) w as the largest percentage in this category, they had higher percentages in spo rt -related facilities ( n =11, 18.6%) compar ed to the non athlete group (n =78, 8.7%) The results were highly significant, (3) = 49.50, p <.001. Thirdly, in Table 4 10, facial expression s are illustrated for comparing the degree of sexuality of athlete versus nonathlete models. There are also significant differen ces in this category, (4) = 12.66, p <.05. Athlete models were evenly spread in several gr oups. It include s smile ( n =18, 30.5%), focused on lens without smile ( n =18, 30.5%) an d look at other sides ( n =16, 27.1%). F or non athlete models t he largest group was focused lens without smile ( n =440, 48.9%). N on athlete models were similarly portrayed for other categories as well It include s smile ( n =172, 19.1%) look at other sides ( n =144, 16.0%), an d withdrawing gaze ( n =132, 14.7%). Nona thlete models w ere more frequently portrayed without emotional expressi on ; in contrast, athlete models had a higher smile category (30.5%) on the camera than nonathletes (19.1%).
67 Fourthly, in the body position category, Table 4 10 show s that athlete models a re posed more in active and independent position than nonathlete models. There was a highly significant differen ce in this category, (6) = 50.33, p <.001. The largest percentage of athlete models were pertain to body erect ( n =17, 28.8% ) and athletic action ( n =17, 28.8%) while non athlete models were depic ted in r eclining or sitting ( n =226, 25.1%), body erect ( n =219, 24.4%) and lying ( n = 204, 22.7%). According to these results, non athlete models posed more passive ly than athlete models. In T able 4 10, t he last category feminine touch, there was n o significant difference (2) = 2.40, p >.05 This table shows that a thlete ( n =35, 59.3%) and non at hlete female models (n =484, 53.8%) both had greater percentages in the others group However, nonathlete models had higher percentage in fem inine touch gr oups, such as touching self ( n =311, 34.6%) and body revealing clothing ( n =104, 11.6%) while athlete models were only 21 (35.6%) in touching self and 3 (5.1%) in body revealing clothing. The results of this study proved to evidence that s exuality difference in photographic images between athlete and non athlete female models still exist s in Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues. Although non athlete female models more often revealed their highly sexualized images in body pose and feminine tou ch, female athlete models also shared similar portrayals in several ways. The focus on a thlete models w as their physical appearance rather than their athletic characteristic in location and body pose. Discussion o n Research Question s Five and Six Res earch question s five and six compare d the degree of sexuality of female models in Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues. Accor d ing to Koines (1995) study, portraying a heterosexual, feminine appearance is a survival strategy for female athletes. This creates a paradox in that females are accepted in sport, but only as long as they preserve their heterosexual attractiveness.
68 Moreover, the success of female athletes (e. g. Maria Sharapova, Anna Kournikova) who have beautiful appearances often times become fashio n models M any fans, media, and promoters embrace these female athletes who typically have many endorsements that is, to draw media attention and make profit Moreover, their success leads other females in sport to believe that they too must look like a m odel (or as close to one as possible) to be successful (Koines, 1995). In this study, although athlete models were not highly sexualized compared to non athlete models most of their representation were similar to fashion models. That is, the results more strongly support this fact in swimsuit issue s When a heterosexual, feminine persona and body are cultivated, women are more likely to receive benefits such as media attention, endorsements, fan approval, and reduced heterosexist discrimination. Athletes w ho ignore the social n or m s to be feminine pay a price for it (Krane, 2001). Butler's (1990) innovative theorizing provides groundwork for research addressing the construction of femininity (Aalten, 1997). Her concept of gender as performance informs our un derstanding of the construction of femininity in sport though it is femininity that is the performative act. Females in sport know the social expectations of appearing feminine and the repercussions of not appearing feminine. Thus, they perform femininity, consistently reiterating or reproducing hegemonic femininity in sport (Butler, 1990). To be successful in sport, some traditionally masculine characteristics are essential (e.g., assertiveness, competitiveness, physical strength), yet females are denigrat ed for portraying these characteristics (Festle, 1996). Therefore, female athletes must be athletic yet also portray grace and beauty to be perceived as feminine. Females must present an acceptable body and appearance, conforming to the heterosexist norms of society. So while physical beauty and a heterosexually attractive body are consequential, there also is a fine line female athletes must
69 straddle (Krane, 2001). As Krane (2001) found, female athletes must contend with an athletic body that is necessary to meet their sport goals yet one that also is contrary to societal standards of the ideal female body. While these athletes may feel perfectly comfortable and be supported and successful in the athletic environment, they are not as comfortable in social s ettings where traditional femininity is expected. Thus, trivializing female athletes performances and reflecting them in more sexually posed photographs on the beach enables the media to construct a reality that serves to maintain sexualizing females as different and inferior athletes in comparison to male athletes.
70 Research Question One The trend of athlete models in the Sport Illustrated swimsuit issue since 1997 Figure 4 1. Frequency of athle te models versus nonathlete models Note ( df =132, N = 141)=143.00 p > .05 (Athlete). ( df =132, N = 908)=143.00 p > .05 (Non athlete) Figure 4 2. Numbers of p hotograph within athlete models N ote. ( df =120, N = 141)=130.00 p > .05 (only total athlete models number)
71 Figure 4 3. Numbers of p hotograph of athlete models by gender Note. (df =80, N=45)= 88.00 p > .05 (female) ( df =50, N =71)= 55.00 p > .05 (male) Frequency of all models in Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues since 1997 Table 4 1. Total frequency of gender, kind of models, clothing, and caption (n =1049) Gender Kind of models Clothing Captions F 958 (91.3%) A 73 (7.0%) S 876 (83.5%) AD 846 (80.6%) M 91 (8.7%) AP 43 (4.1%) U 55 (5.2%) QM 46 (4.4%) SRM 2 (2.4%) CS 73 (7.0%) QA 33 (3.1%) FM 826 (78.7%) FS 11 (1.0%) SM 88 (8.4%) FA 25 (2.4%) O 34 (3.2%) O 36 (3.4%) FO 36 (3.4%) O 21 (2.0%) Note. F=female; M=male; A=athlete; AP=athlete with their partner; SRM=sport related model; FM=fashion model; FA=fashion model with athlete; FO=fashion model with other; O=others; S=swimsuit; U=uniform; CS=casual suit; FS=formal suit; AD=advertisement; QM =quotation from model; QA=quotation from author; SM=statement about model
72 Table 4 2 Gender Model Cross tabulation Model Gender A AP SRM FM FA FO O Total F Count 58 1 25 826 0 31 17 958 % within Model 79.5% 2.3% 100.0% 100.0% .0% 86.1% 81.0% 91.3% M Count 15 42 0 0 25 5 4 91 % within Model 20.5% 97.7% .0% .0% 100.0% 13.9% 19.0% 8.7% Total Count 73 43 25 826 25 36 21 1049 % within Model 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Note. A=athlete; AP=athlete with their partner; SRM=sport related model; FM=fashion model; FA=fashion model with athlete; FO=fashion model with other; O=others ( df =12, N =1049)=791.02, p<.0 0 1 ) a. 5 cells (35.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.82.
73 Table 4 3 Gender*Model cross tabulation (Combination of models groups) Model Gender Athlete Non athlete Total F emale Count 59 899 958 % within Model 41.8% 99.0% 91.3% M ale Count 82 9 91 % within Model 58.2% 1.0% 8.7% Total Count 141 908 1049 % within Model 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Note. Athlete=Athlete, Athlete with their partner and Fashion model with athlete Nonathlete= Sport related model, Fashion model, Fashion model with others, and Others
74 Table 4 4 Athlete models Sports ranking by gender and frequency # Sports Female % # Sport Male % 1 Tennis 30 50.8 % 1 Others 16 19.5 % 2 Beach volleyball 9 15.3 % 2 Football 15 18.3 % 3 Skate 8 13.6 % 3 Basketball 9 11.0 % 3 Car racing 8 10.2 % 4 Boxing 8 9.8 % 5 Basketball 2 3.4 % 4 Baseball 8 9. 8% 5 Softball 2 3.4 % 6 Soccer 6 7.3 % 7 Others 1 1.7 % 7 Golf 5 6.1 % 7 Golf 1 1.7 % 7 Car racing 5 6.1 % 7 Swimming 1 1.7 % 9 Ice hokey 3 3.7 % 9 Horse riding 3 3.7 % 11 Running 1 1.2 % 11 Skateboard 1 1. 2 % 11 Tennis 1 1.2 % ( df =1, N =141)= 503.42, p<.001 ) a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 12.23.
75 Table 4 5 Frequency of photographic image categories ( N=1049) Size of photo Location Facial expression Pose Feminine touch 1 765 (72.9%) B 424 (40.4%) S 222 (21.2%) BE 272 (25.9%) TS 335 (31.9%) 2 267 (25.5%) S 66 (6.3%) FLS 480 (45.8) TB 133 (12.7%) BR C 107 (10.2%) 3 11 (1.0%) SF 130 (12.4%) LOS 184 (17 .5%) R/S 245 (23.4%) O 607 (57.9%) 4 6 (0.6%) OP 429 (40.9%) WG 142 (13.5%) K/C 72 (6.9%) O 21 (2.0%) L 226 (21.5%) AA 96 (9.2%) O 5 (0.5%) Note. 1=1page spread; 2=2page spread; 3=3pagespread; 4=4page spread; B=beach; S=studio; SF= sports facilities; OP= other places; S= S mile; FLS=focused on lens without smile; LOS=look at other sides; WG=withdrawing gaze; O=others; BE=body erect; TB=tilting body; R/S=reclining/sitting; Lying=L; K/C=knee bend/crawling; AA=athletic action; TS=t ouching self; BRC=body revealing clothing
76 Research Question Two Table 4 6 Athlete models contents titles Issue Name of Athlete models Titles Distinctive mark/ type of contents 1997 Nick Van Exel (Basketball) Banks shot Lifelong Lakers fan Tyra Banks takes in a game at courtside Article Fashion model with athlete Steffi Graf (Tennis) Steffi: Steffi Graf is as dazzling off the tennis court as she is on it Article Female athlete Cabrielle Reece (Beach volleyball) Ka rri Poppinga (Beach volleyball) Beauty and the beach: What role should sex appeal play in womens volleyball? Article Female athlete 1998 Daryl & Diane Johnston (Football) Wayne Gretzky & Janet Jones (Ice hockey) Herschel & Cindy Warker (Football) Dan & Tina Majerle (Basketball) Reggie & Marita Miller (Basketball) Denny & Jennifer Neagle (Baseball) Phil & Amy Mickelson (Golf) Portfolio: Some of Americas favorite sports stars pose with their favorite stars Couple male athlete with star partners 1999 Co ver: Star Athletes And their sexy spouses Couple but, male athlete Coutts (Yacht) The ultimate Jim Bunny : Sailors in the Bitter end yacht clubs proam learned that inside the chest of Heidi Klum beats the heart of a fierce competitor Article fashion model with athlete Chuck Finley (Baseball) Julie Foudy (Soccer) Tom Gugliotta (Basketball) Suzy Hamilton (Running) Allan Houston (Basketball) Tom Lehman (Golf) Nikki McCray (Basketball) Joe Montana (Football) Annika Sorenstam (Golf) Love in a hot climate : Sports stars and their significant others reveal, among other things, why when Joe Montana talks about the Catch, hes probably not referring to his touchdown pass to Dwight Clark Couple athletes 2000 Kelly Slater (Surfing) Jubular Belle : Kelly Slater may be the best surfer in the world, but he suffered a few wipeouts teaching Michelle Behennah to stand on her own two Article
77 feet Heidi Klum & Evander Holyfield (Boxing) Ben & Julie Crenshaw (Golf) Junior & Cina Seau (Football) Ricky Williams & Kadr a Ahmed Omar (Football) Joumana & Jason Kidd (Basketball) Glen Rice (Basketball) Julie & Bill Romanowski (Football) Cabrielle Reece (Beach volleyball) & Laird Hamilton (Surfing) Model Behavior: When you ask pro athletes to model swimwear, you can expect to get an eyeful and an earful Couple, but male athlete Laird Hamilton (Surfer) Safety Last : For Laird Hamilton, a day without the possibility of a spectacular death is like a day without sunshine Athlete Article 2001 Eddie George (Football) Jason Taylor (Football) Terrell Owens (Football) Warrick Dunn (Football) Tony Gonzalez (Football) John Lynch (Football) Eric Moulds (Football) Rod Woodson (Football) The Heidi Game : mix NFL stars and model Heidi Klum, and youve got action nobody will cut away from Fashion model with athletes 2002 German Silva (Maraton) Local Hero : Sometimes running away from home is the best way to help yourself your family and your town Athlete Article Jaime Vinals (Mountain climbing) Local Hero : Its easy to look up t o someone whos standing Athlete Article Adriana Behar (Beach volleyball) Local Hero : Sure its nice to work every day at the beach if you can all those spikes Athlete Article Gauchos (Cowboy) Gauchos : The cowboys of Argentina have a really bad reputation~ which is why everyone loves them Fashion model with athlete Article Vanina Oneto (Field Hockey) Local Hero : A sharpshooting forward lit a fire just by rubbing a couple sticks together Article Maradona (Soccer) Extreme Football : Socce r is a religion in Argentina, Athlete Article
78 and the reigning deity is a capricious and dissipated bad boy named Maradona Adrian Robert (Motocross) Local Hero : Sometimes the road to fame is littered with boulders bogs and fallen competitors Athlete Ar ticle Tito(Boxer) & Molly A punch Judy show : having a three time champ teach a supermodel to box seemed like a good idea until she floored him with a wicked combination of beauty and brawn Fashion model with athlete Article Jeanine & Laffit pincay J R. (Hourse riding) Iwalani & Chi Chi Rodriguez (Golf) Analy & Javier Lopez (Baseball) Aliette Vazquez & Helio Castroneves (Car racing) Better Halves: the working premise: behind every great athlete is a great swimsuit model Couple but, male athlete Stev e Plerqui (Stickball) Local Hero : Going deep is never sweeter than when you do it on the street Article Tito(Boxer) & Molly Model Athletes : Supermodels and athletes both work odd hours, under bright lights, often wearing extra padding. Article (essay) 2003 Serena Williams (Tennis) A New Racket : Serena Williams proves she can serve heat off the court too. Anna who? Female athlete Shaun Alexander (Football) Roger Clemens ( Baseball) Tommy Haas (Tennis) Cobi Jones (Soccer) Vincent Lecavalier (Ice hockey) Brian McBride (Soccer) David Toms (Golf) Better Halves, Spouse Party : some famous athletes and their soonto be famous better halves suit up : this highly experimental version of couples therapy requires maximum exposure Couple but, male athlete Ekaterina Gordeeva (Pair skate) Frozen Asset : Skating star Ekaterina Gordeeva has the figure for more than just compulsories Female athlete Article Miller & Dale Earnhardt (Car racing) Lap Dance : Two experts on curves compare notes on livingand dr iving fast Fashion model with athlete Article 2004 Anna Kournikova (Tennis) Cover: Weve got Anna! Anna Kournikova may be retired, but shes still the hottest player in tennis Anna Kournikova : weve got Annas back and front, just trying to make sure that her many fans are Female athlete
79 well served Eddie George (Football) Tony Hawk (Skateboarder) Petr Nedved (Ice hockey) Alex Rodriguez (Baseball) Jose Santos (Horse racing) Better Halves : even famous athletes can benefit from couples therapy the kind that calls for both partners to strip down and suit up Couple but, male athlete Serena Williams (Tennis) Serena Williams : who needs a doubles partner? A sexy suit and a few diamonds are a girls best friends 2005 Amanda Beard (swimming) Jennie Fi nch (Softball) Lauren Jackson (Basketball) Olympic Flames : Amanda Beard, Jennie Finch and Lauren Jackson show their mettle Female athletes A.J. Feeley (Football) Richard Jefferson(Basketball) Keyshawn Johnson (Football) Mark McGwire (Baseball) Couple t herapy : Richard Jefferson & Teressa Lourenco, Mark & Stephanie McGwire, Keyshawn & Shikiri Johnson and Heather Mitts & A.J. Feeley give it their all Couple, but male athlete Venus Williams (Tennis) Venus : shes definitely ascending 2006 Maria Sharapov a (Tennis) Cover : Maria Sharapova: As youve never seen her Maria, Full of Grace : Tennis luminary Maria Sharapova would win every point if she always came to the net looking like this Female athlete 2007 The music issue 2008 Cover : :NFL cheerleader s make their swimsuit debut :Players wives show it off :Danica Patrick, reveals her racier side Danica Patrick (Indy Car Racing) Traffic stopper: you thought Danica Patrick made a splashy debut when she was named the indycar rookie of the year? Time f or the first time swimsuit model to join an faster crowd Dan meets Danica: one Patrick meets another to uncover the details of the drivers swimsuit debut Female athlete NFL Cheerleaders NFL Cheerleaders : are you ready for the swimsuit debut of pro foo tballs finest? Sport related models Players wives Players Wives : four famous athletes kindly get the hell out of the way of their better halves
80 2009 Danica Patrick (Indy Car Racing) Gentleman start your engines : Supermodels, rookie models, tennis models, dancing models: Its a fast crowd that IndyCar star Danica Patrick runs with these days, one thatll make your heart race Female athlete NBA Dancers Dancer Fever: On the eve of All Star weekend the women of the NBAs dance squads make their Sw imsuit debut. Talk about an all rookie team Sport related models Tatiana Golovin (Tennis) Daniela Hantuchova (Tennis) Maria Kirilenko (Tennis) Volley of the dolls: Three smashing tennis stars trade break points for the breaking waves of the Dominican Re public, and look to be as much at home on the beach as on the court Female athlete
81 A 2 1 7 2 2 2 1 1 2 AC 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 FA 1 1 1 1 2 1 SRM 2 1 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2008 2009 The Period The early issues The middle issues The late st issues Features Both genders athletes (photographs and articles) Couple story (photographs) Female fashion learned sports from male athletes (articles) Only female athletes Couple story Only female athletes Sport related models Figure 4 4. Summary of the features of athletes contents Note A=Athlete; AC=Athlete couple story; FA= Fashion model was learning sport; SRM= Sport related model.
82 Research Question Three Table 4 7 Gender Caption Model Cross tabulation Models Gender Total Female Male Athlete(s) Caption A Count 26 21 47 % within Gender 44.1% 25.6% 33.3% QM Co unt 4 22 26 % within Gender 6.8% 26.8% 18.4% QA Count 8 7 15 % within Gender 13.6% 8.5% 10.6% SM Count 13 32 45 % within Gender 22.0% 39.0% 31.9% O Count 8 0 8 % within Gender 13.6% .0% 5.7% Total Count 59 82 141 % within Ge nder 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Note. ( df =4, N =141)= 26.02, p<.001 ) Athlete a. 2 cells (20.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 3.35.
83 Research Question Four Table 4 8 Gender Photographic images Model Cross tabulation Models Gender Total Female Male Athlete(s) Size 1 Count 44 68 112 % within Gender 74.6% 82.9% 79.4% 2 Count 12 14 26 % within Gender 20.3% 17.1% 18.4% 3 Count 1 0 1 % within Gender 1.7% .0% .7% 4 Count 2 0 2 % within Gender 3.4% .0% 1.4% Total Count 59 82 141 % within Gender 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Location B Count 36 11 47 % within Gender 61.0% 13.4% 33.3% S Count 9 20 29 % within Gender 15.3% 24.4% 20.6% SF Count 11 37 48 % wi thin Gender 18.6% 45.1% 34.0% OP Count 3 14 17 % within Gender 5.1% 17.1% 12.1% Total Count 59 82 141 % within Gender 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Expression S Count 18 31 49 % within Gender 30.5% 37.8% 34.8% FLS Count 18 17 35 % within Gender 30.5% 20.7% 24.8% LOS Count 16 24 40 % within Gender 27.1% 29.3% 28.4% WG Count 7 3 10 % within Gender 11.9% 3.7% 7.1% O Count 0 7 7 % within Gender .0% 8.5% 5.0% Total Count 59 82 141 % within Gender 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Pose BE Count 17 33 50 % within Gender 28.8% 40.2% 35.5% TB Count 6 2 8 % within Gender 10.2% 2.4% 5.7% R/S Count 7 12 19 % within Gender 11.9% 14.6% 13.5% K/C Count 1 1 2 % within Gender 1.7% 1.2% 1.4% L Count 10 12 22 % within Gender 16.9% 14.6% 15.6% AA Count 17 20 37 % within Gender 28.8% 24.4% 26.2% O Count 1 2 3
84 % within Gender 1.7% 2.4% 2.1% Total Count 59 82 141 % within Gender 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Touch TS Count 21 3 24 % within Gender 3 5.6% 3.7% 17.0% BRC Count 3 0 3 % within Gender 5.1% .0% 2.1% O Count 35 79 114 % within Gender 59.3% 96.3% 80.9% Total Count 59 82 141 % within Gender 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Note. Size ( df =3, N =141)= 4.67, p>.05 ) a. 4 cells (50.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .42. Location: ( df =3, N =141)= 35.87, p<.001 ) a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 7.11. Facial Expression: ( df =4, N =141)= 10.20, p<.05 ) a. 3 cells (30.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 2.93. Pose: ( df =6, N =141)= 5.59, p>.05 ) a. 6 cells (42.9%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .84. Feminine touch: ( df =2, N =141)= 30.54, p<.001 ) a. 2 cells (33.3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.26.
85 Research Question Five Table 4 9 Model Caption Gender (female) Cross tabul ation Gender Model Total Athlete(s) Non athlete Female Caption A Count 26 799 825 % within Model 44.1% 88.9% 86.1% QM Count 4 15 19 % within Model 6.8% 1.7% 2.0% QA Count 8 18 26 % within Model 13.6% 2.0% 2.7% SM Count 13 40 53 % within Model 22.0% 4.4% 5.5% O Count 8 27 35 % within Model 13.6% 3.0% 3.7% Total Count 59 899 958 % within Model 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Note. ( df =4, N =958)= 95.28, p<.001 ) a. 4 cells (40.0%) have expected count le ss than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.17.
86 Research Question Six Table 4 10. Model Photographic images Gender (female) Cross tabulation Gender Model Total Athlete Non ath l e te Female Size 1 Count 44 645 689 % within Gend er 74.6% 71.7% 71.9% 2 Count 12 240 252 % within Gender 20.3% 26.7% 26.3% 3 Count 1 10 11 % within Gender 1.7% 1.1% 1.1% 4 Count 2 4 6 % within Gender 3.4% .4% .6% Total Count 59 899 958 % within Gender 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Lo cation B Count 36 377 413 % within Gender 61.0% 41.9% 43.1% S Count 9 32 41 % within Gender 15.3% 3.6% 4.3% SF Count 11 78 89 % within Gender 18.6% 8.7% 9.3% OP Count 3 412 415 % within Gender 5.1% 45.8% 43.3% Total Count 59 899 958 % within Gender 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Expression S Count 18 172 190 % within Gender 30.5% 19.1% 19.8% FLS Count 18 440 458 % within Gender 30.5% 48.9% 47.8% LOS Count 16 144 160 % within Gender 27.1% 16.0% 16.7% WG Count 7 13 2 139 % within Gender 11.9% 14.7% 14.5% O Count 0 11 11 % within Gender .0% 1.2% 1.1% Total Count 59 899 958 % within Gender 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Pose BE Count 17 219 236 % within Gender 28.8% 24.4% 24.6% TB Count 6 123 129 % within Gender 10.2% 13.7% 13.5% R/S Count 7 226 233 % within Gender 11.9% 25.1% 24.3% K/C Count 1 70 71 % within Gender 1.7% 7.8% 7.4% L Count 10 204 214 % within Gender 16.9% 22.7% 22.3% AA Count 17 55 72 % within Gender 28.8% 6.1% 7.5% O Count 1 2 3
87 % within Gender 1.7% .2% .3% Total Count 59 899 958 % within Gender 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Touch TS Count 21 311 332 % within Gender 35.6% 34.6% 34.7% BRC Count 3 104 107 % within Gender 5.1% 11.6% 11.2% O Count 35 484 519 % within Gender 59.3% 53.8% 54.2% Total Count 59 899 958 % within Gender 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Note. Size ( df =3, N =958)= 8.74, p<.05 ) a. 2 cells (25.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .37. Location: ( df =3, N =958)= 49.50, p<.001 ) a. 1 cells (12.5%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 2.53. Facial Expression: ( df =4, N =958)= 12.66, p<.05 ) a. 1 cells (10.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .68. Pose: ( df =6, N =958)= 50.33, p< .001 ) a. 4 cells (28.6%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .18. Feminine touch: ( df =2, N =958)= 2.40, p>.0 5 ) a. 0 cells (.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 6.59.
88 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION Athlete and non athlete models in Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues were analyzed in this study. This concluding chapter is divided into three primary sections. The first section focuse s on the limitations of the study and future research recommendations. The second section discusse s conceptual and managerial implications to sport management field. The final section provide s the conclusion of this study Li mitations of the Study and Future Research R ecommendations Although this study has provided valuable insight into understanding the construct ion of the Sports Illustrated swimsuit issue s there are some limitation s that should be considered for future research. The first limitation is related to the sample used in this study. Although data were collected entirely from the largest circulated sports magazine in North America, the Sports Illustrated annual swimsuit is sue s the content in this study could be biased as a male -dominated major sports magazine This might limit the generaliza tion of the findings from this study. In addition, especially in the context of this study, athlete models might also limit the genera lizability of the findings. Therefore, the generalizability of the findings could be improved by using broader and wider sampling frames in various sports magazine s for future studies. Because this study s sample s were restricted to Sports Illustrated swim suit issues from 1997 to 2009, future study needs to compare other swimsuit issue s of other magazines. To be more specific, it should include the following: 1) compare with other swimsuit issues of magazine s (expand the contents) or examine both gendered magazine (female centered and male -centered) ; and 2) o nline contents --new media and internet --could be new data for examining swimsuit issue s Future work should also examine Sports Illustrated in relation to other magazines within the genre of womens sp orts (e.g., Real Sports Sports Illustrated for
89 Women, Oxygen, Jump ). This research could help determine how women are represented within the combined pages of female sports magazines and not only strictly in relation to male representation. Further, these representations could be compared with traditional womens magazines (e.g., Good Housekeeping, Cosmopolitan, Glamour, McCalls, O ) to determine if the traditional female stereotype is found with much less frequency in womens sports magazines, or if stere otypical representations of women remain the sameonly with a sporty backdrop (Fink & Kensicki, 2002, p 336). Another possible limitation of this study i s the utilized content analysis. Although content analysis was conducted based on hegemonic masculini ty theory, it is not enough to thoroughly understand athlete representation in sport media. Therefore, future research should continue to examine how femininity of athlete s is constructed in Sports Illustrated over a more extended methodology. This future research could be examined further through qualitative interviews with media representatives of athlete s It should include the following: 1) a n in -depth interview o f focused group s (customers, athletes, media editors or managers, sport agency, sport assoc iations) ; and 2) D elphi method ( e xperts discussion about topic). This would allow for a more comprehensive understanding of shifts in representation or persistent trends over time. Implications to the S port Management F ield This study gives several impli cations to sport management and sport media studies and the present study has both academic and practical s ignificance In this section, conceptual and theoretical implications are discussed. Then managerial implications follow. Conceptual and Theoretica l Implications In this study, a hegemonic masculinity theoretical framework for analyzing athlete and non athlete models in sport media was proposed for a better understanding of their representation in the sports magazine. This study makes a contribution to the current literature in a number of
90 ways. First, this study identified the problem with commercialization of athletes sexuality in a sport media context. This study also investigated the nature of athlete models sexual representation in a sports mag azine The Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues depict athlete as sexually commercialized objects in the same way fashion models are portrayed. These representations of athlete models construct a new trend of athlete models sexuality in sport media. There a re few studies that incorporate hegemonic masculinity framework onto athletes sexuality in swimsuit issues. This study extended sport management literature by applying hegemonic masculinity theories to the sport media field. Moreover, both sport celebrit i es sexuality marketing and sport management research can benefit from the validation of the current knowledge and marketing strateg ies within sport media contexts by integratin g research findings from this study. Second this study advanced the current k nowledge on the hegemonic masculinity theory of athlete models sexuality within sport media by updating the new trend of a sports magazine that is a male -dominated, western sports magazine, Sport s Illustrated While the existing current studies on represe ntation of athlete s in the sport management area have advanced conceptual understandings, there are few studies empirically examining representation of athlete within the hegemonic masculinity theory and appl ying the theory in order to understand the relat ions between sport media and their audiences (Duncan, 1993; Davis, 1997). In addition, this study supported previous study concluded that hegemonic masculinity exist in the sport media context by adding analyses of Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues. This study conducted content analysis to examine the empirical evidences that s how how athlete s are depicted as sexual object s by media representation These empirical findings extend our understanding of representation of athlete s in sport media beyond hegemon ic masculinity theory.
91 Managerial I mplications Many sports magazines were analyzed by many media study scholars about the representation of athletes in a hegemonic masculinity perspective in the sport media field (Duncan, 1990; Fink & Kensicki, 2002; Kane 1988). However, athlete s representation is still rudimentary in the sport management field. Thus, i n many ways the results from this investigation have important implications to sport manag ers related to marketing and advertising ethics The first ma nagerial implication is provides opportunities for considering the perspective toward the athlete body. That is, this study could suggest marketing ethics for sports managers. Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues described athlete models as commercialized ob jects; it is not because of an original sport spirit, but because of the commercial attitude in sport med ia. According to Davis (1997) the problem with Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues is that it creates an atmosphere of hegemonic masculinity by a large audience of men. In addition, by reinfo rcing these prejudiced beliefs, Sports Illustrated encourages individual and institutional practices that produce and mai ntain these forms of inequality (Davis, 1997, p .121). From this conclusion of swimsuit issue s critique, sports magazine audiences should consider changing their attitudes toward the athlete body because athlete bodies are not entertained objects without sports itself. It is an important point that athlete bodies main purpose is sport, not for s exually commercialized products. Sport managers should remember the athletes sport spirit and give equal treatment to both gender s The second managerial implication is the re discovery of gender differences in athletes marketability as sexually commerci alized objects in sport media context. That is, sport media creates their own image s for selling athlete images by intensifying sexual appea l Female a thletes in sport media were more described as commercialized objects without acknowledging their
92 athletic achievement s than male athletes Within these areas, both advertising and marketing athletes play a c rucial role in developing athlete images through mass media b ecause many managers in sport marketing and media promotion have direct access to the public through selling athletes images via media instruments. They can have an enormous influence on determining attitudes toward athletes and sports. For sport managers, the findings from this study accentuates and annexes the widely held assumption in practic e that female athlete image s are trivialized to sexually objectified media representation. It is a critical factor for sport media. In sum, the findings from this study demonstrate the value of establishing good athlete images with equal treatment of both gender s in media which are crucial factors in managerial decision making There should be considerable efforts to build and maintain strong and long -term marketing strateg ies for dealing with gender equity in sport media. Managers managerial decisions should be based on this perspective to eliminate gender inequity in sport media representation Conclusion Since the first appearance of athlete models in Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues, numbers of a thlete models have been steadily featured within the past thirteen years from 1997 to 2009. The first purpose of the current study was to provide an update on the trend of athletes portrayal in the issues and expand on Davis (1997) previous analys e s of female models portrayal in Sports Illustrated swimsu it issues by supporting hegemonic masculinity theory in sport media context. Second, the study was to explore gender differences and sexuality within a sports magazine by examining and comparing athl ete models with fashion models. As such it was deemed ne cessary to examine the commercialization of athlete literature and the implications to the field of sport media by analyzing athlete models in swimsuit issue s
93 Although results indicate that there was no considerable increase in the total number of photogr aphic images given to athletes in contrast to the period prior to 1997, there were remarkable changes in the highlight s given to athletes sexuality and how sexuality became a source of remarkable marketability. Only 13.4% ( N=141) of all models photograph ic images (N=1049) after 1997 seriously focused on athletes involvement in the swimsuit issue of Sports Illustrated As mentioned above, t he purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues direction by involving athletes as models in a sports magazine. A s the largest circulated sports magazine given to athletes in the North America, these magazine issues contents ha ve both change d yet stereotyp ed gender. The inclusion of athletes in Sports Illustrated indicate s a n obscuring of the boundary between athlete and swimsuit models. For swimsuit issues, the distinction between swimsuit model s and elite athlete s seemed to be unimportant. This characteristic of the magazine would continue in upcoming swimsuit editions. S upermodels also trained and learned sports like athletes in swimsuit issues such as Heidi Klum and Michelle Behennah. This alteration in the roles of athletes and models is explained in Hagerman s study: In the world of Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues athlete had become models and swimsuit models had become athletes at least during these special issues (Hargerman, 2001, p. 467). To conclude, Sports Illustrated alternat es athleticism for sexuality by continuously revealing athlete models in their swimsuit issue s This study found that athletes were extremely sexualized and gender ed by media representation in Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues in both written texts and photographic images. Moreover, there we re little differences in sexual portrayals be tween female athletes and female non athlete models. With these results, this study
94 could be helpful in understanding current trend s of sexuality as athletes marketability in main stream media such as Sports Illustrated. Because media contents influence consumers interpretations, sport media researcher s should be criti cal about gender inequity and sexualized representation of athlete models as in the case of Sports Illustrated swimsuit issues. In addition, hegemonic masculinity which shape s consumers pe rception through media representation about gender and sexuality could be eliminated by sport media them selves. Findings from this study indicate that hegemonic masculinity is e mbedded in athletes representation in th ese special issues. That is, these fin dings intensified previous results of hegemonic masculinity in sport by adding case s of swimsuit issues of Sports Illustrated Reading this study, sport managers and m edia c orporation staffs should critically examine athletes body images in their industry. How do athletes work for our society related to sport and what can media do for athlete s and customer s in return? Obviously, the field of sports serves as one of the best example s of hegemonic masculinity (Pedersen, 2002). Sport manager s should practice marketing ethics in treating athletes in term s of sports and concentrate on bring ing gender equality in sport media.
95 APPENDIX A THE CONTENT CODING BOOK On top on designated lines put date of magazine issue: Total number of images involving male athlete models Total number of images involving female athlete models Total number of images involving others (Non athlete models) The Content Coding Categories # Coding categories Variables 1 Photo number # 2 Gender 1) Female 2) Male 3 Kind of model 1) Athlete(s) 2) Athlete with their partner 3) Sport related model(s) (e.g. NFL cheerleader, Players wives, NBA dancers) 4) Fashion model(s) 5) Fashion model with athlete(s) 6) Fashion models with other(s) 7) Others (e.g. musician) 4 Clothing 1) Swim suit 2) Uniform (sport) 3) Casual suit 4) Formal suit 5) Others 5 Kind of caption category 1) Advertisement (only about product, e.g. swimsuit, jewelry) 2) Quotation from models(s) (e. g. feeling into swimsuit, athlete experience) 3) Quotation from the author of the article 4) Statement about the story introduce models 5) Others 6 Kind of sport (by gender) (If not an athlete, code 0) 0) No sport 1) Tennis 2) Golf 3) Beach volleyball 4) Football 5) Basketball 6) Baseball 7) Soccer 8) Car racing
96 9) Vol leyball 10) Swimming 11) Softball 12) Ice hokey 13) Skateboard 14) Skate 15) Running 16) Horse riding 17) Boxing 18) Others 7 Photographic image s c ategories 1 ) The size of photo ( 1 ) One full page or under one page (2) Two -page spread (3) Three -page s pread (4) Four -page spread (5) Others 2 ) Photo shot location (1) Beach (2 ) Studio (3) Sport -related facility (e.g. playground, Stadium) (4) Other place 3 ) Facial expression (1) Expansive smile (2) Focused on camera lens without smile (3) Look at ot her sides (4) Withdrawing gaze (e.g. Closed eyes, look at down side) (5) Others 4 ) Body display (poses and body position) (1) Body erect (2) Tilting body or head (3) Reclining/sitting on the some surface (4) Knee bend/crawling on front (5) Lying (6) Athletic motion (e.g. dance, run) (7) Others 5 ) Feminine touch (1) Touching self touch hair/body (2) Body revealing clothing (covering breast with hands) (3) Others (e.g. touch others, no touch)
97 Content Coding Sheet Date issue: Total female a thlete images:_________ Total male athlete images:________ Total female fashion model images:______________ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Photo # Gender Kind of model Clothing Type of caption category Sport (by gender) Photographic image category Content of title c ategory 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
98 APPENDIX B EXTRA TABLES BY YEAR FROM 1997 TO 2009 Finding tables f r o m 1997 to 2009 1997 Issue Table B 1 Frequency of gender, kind of models, clothing, and caption (N=86) Gender Kind of models Clothing Captions F 84 (97.7%) A 16 (18.6%) S 74 (86.0%) AD 63 (73.3%) M 2 (2.3%) AP 0(0%) U 2 (2.3%) QM SRM 0 (0%) CS 6 (7.0%) QA FM 68 (79.1%) FS 0 (0%) SM 14 (16.3%) FA 2 (2.3%) O 4 (4.7%) O 9 (10.5%) FO 0 (0%) O 0 (0%) Note. F=female; M=male; A=athlete; AP=athlete wit h their partner; SRM=sport related model; FM=fashion model; FA=fashion model with athlete; FO=fashion model with other; O=others; S=swimsuit; U=uniform; CS=casual suit; FS=formal suit; AD=advertisement; QM=quotation from model; QA=quotation from author; SM =statement about model
99 Table B 2. Frequency of photographic image categories ( N=86) Size of photo Location Facial expression Pose Feminine touch 1 64 (74.4%) B 49 (57.0%) S 19 (22.1%) BE 24 (27.9%) TS 30 (34.9%) 2 22 (25.6%) S 0 (0%) FLS 20 (22.1%) TB 9 (10.5%) BR C 4 (4.7%) 3 0 (0%) SF 9 (10.5%) LOS 32 (37.2%) R/S 17 (19.8%) O 52 (60.5%) 4 0 (0%) OP 28 (32.6%) WG 13 (15.1%) K/C 9 (10.5%) O 2 (2.3%) L 12 (14.0%) AA 15 (17.4%) O 0 (0%) Note. 1=1pag e spread; 2=2page spread; 3=3pagespread; 4=4page spread; B=beach; S=studio; SF= sports facilities; OP= other places; S= S mile; FLS=focused on lens without smile; LOS=look at other sides; WG=withdrawing gaze; O=others; BE=body erect; TB=tilting body; R/S=re clining/sitting; Lying=L; K/C=knee bend/crawling; AA=athletic action; TS=touching self; BRC=body revealing clothing
100 Table B 3 Athlete models Gender*Sports Cross tabulation Gender Sport Total No sports Tennis Beach v olleyball Basketball Female Count 68 8 8 0 84 % of Total 79.1% 9.3% 9.3% .0% 97.7% Male Count 0 0 0 2 2 % of Total .0% .0% .0% 2.3% 2.3% Total Count 68 8 8 2 86 % of Total 79.1% 9.3% 9.3% 2.3% 100.0%
101 1998 Issue Table B 4 Frequency of gender, kind of models, clothing, and caption (N=77) Gender Kind of models Clothing Captions F 70 (90.9%) A 0 (0%) S 55 (71.4%) AD 53 (68.8%) M 7 (9.1%) AP 7 (9.1%) U 4 (5.2%) QM 8 (10.4%) SRM 0 (0%) CS 9 (11.7%) QA 5 (6.5%) FM 53 (68.8%) FS 8 (10.4%) SM 10 (13.0%) FA 0 (0%) O 1 (1.3%) O 1 (1.3%) FO 7 (9.1%) O 10 (13.0%) Note. F=female; M=male; A=athlete; AP=athlete with their partner; SRM=sport related model; FM=fashion model; FA=fashion model with athlete; FO=fashion model with other; O=others; S=swimsuit; U=uniform; CS=casual suit; FS=formal suit; AD=advertisement; QM=quotation from model; QA=quotation from author; SM=statement about model
102 Table B 5 Frequency o f photographic image categories ( N=77) Size of photo Location Facial expression Pose Feminine touch 1 51 (66.2%) B 26 (33.8%) S 20 (26.0%) BE 26 (33.8%) TS 22 (28.6%) 2 25 (32.5%) S 9 (11.7%) FLS 22 (28.6%) TB 11 (14.3%) BR C 3 (3.9%) 3 1 ( 1.3%) SF 2 (2.6%) LOS 17 (22.1%) R/S 18 (23.4%) O 52 (67.5%) 4 0 (0%) OP 40 (51.9%) WG 15 (19.5%) K/C 2 (2.6%) O 3 (3.9%) L 14 (18.2%) AA 6 (7.8%) O 0 (0%) Note. 1=1page spread; 2=2page spread; 3=3pagespread; 4=4page spread; B=beach; S=s tudio; SF= sports facilities; OP= other places; S= S mile; FLS=focused on lens without smile; LOS=look at other sides; WG=withdrawing gaze; O=others; BE=body erect; TB=tilting body; R/S=reclining/sitting; Lying=L; K/C=knee bend/crawling; AA=athletic action; TS=touching self; BRC=body revealing clothing
103 Table B 6 Athlete models Gender*Sports Cross tabulation ( N=77) Gender Sport Total No sports Golf Football Basketball B aseball Ice hokey Female Count 70 0 0 0 0 0 70 % of Total 90.9% .0% .0% .0% .0% .0% 90.9% Male Count 0 1 2 2 1 1 7 % of Total .0% 1.3% 2.6% 2.6% 1.3% 1.3% 9.1% Total Count 70 1 2 2 1 1 77 % of Total 90.9% 1.3% 2.6% 2.6% 1.3% 1.3% 100.0%
104 1999 Issue Table B 7 Frequency of gender, kind of models, clothing, and caption ( N=58) Gender Kind of models Clothing Captions F 49 (84.5%) A 1 (1.7%) S 43 (74.1%) AD 45 (77.6%) M 9 (15.5%) AP 8 (13.8%) U 0 (0%) QM 8 (13.8%) SRM 0 (0%) CS 13 (22.4%) QA 0 (0%) FM 48 (82.8%) FS 0 (0%) SM 4 (6.9%) FA 0 (0%) O 2 (3.4%) O 1 (1.7%) FO 1 (1.7%) O 0 (0%) Note. F=female; M=male; A=athlete; AP=athlete with their partner; SRM=sport related model; FM=fashion model; FA=fashion model with athlete; FO=fashion mode l with other; O=others; S=swimsuit; U=uniform; CS=casual suit; FS=formal suit; AD=advertisement; QM=quotation from model; QA=quotation from author; SM=statement about model
105 Table B 8 Frequency of photographic image cate gories (N=58) Size of photo Location Facial expression Pose Feminine touch 1 37 (63.8%) B 37 (63.8%) S 13 (22.4%) BE 16 (27.6%) TS 11 (19.0%) 2 20 (34.5%) S 0 (0%) FLS 16 (27.6%) TB 0 (0%) BRC 5 (8.6%) 3 1 (1.7%) SF 6 (10.3%) LOS 19 (32.8%) R/S 7 (1 2.1%) O 42 (72.4%) 4 0 (0%) OP 15 (25.9%) WG 8 (13.8%) K/C 5 (8.6%) O 2 (3.4%) L 21 (36.2%) AA 6 (10.3%) O 3 (5.2%) Note. 1=1page spread; 2=2page spread; 3=3pagespread; 4=4page spread; B=beach; S=studio; SF= sports facilities; OP= other places; S= S mile; FLS=focused on lens without smile; LOS=look at other sides; WG=withdrawing gaze; O=others; BE=body erect; TB=tilting body; R/S=reclining/sitting; Lying=L; K/C=knee bend/crawling; AA=athletic action; TS=touching self; BRC=body r evealing clothing
106 Table B 9 Athlete models Gender*Sports Cross tabulation ( N=58) Gender Sport Total No sports Golf Football Basketball baseball Others Female Count 48 1 0 0 0 0 49 % of Total 82.8% 1.7% .0% .0% 0% .0% 84.5% Male Count 1 1 1 3 2 1 9 % of Total 1.7% 1.7% 1.7% 5.2% 3.4% 1.7% 15.5% Total Count 49 2 1 3 2 1 58 % of Total 84.5% 3.4% 1.7% 5.2% 3.4% 1.7% 100.0%
107 2000 Issue Table B 10. Frequency of gender, kind of models, clothing, and caption ( N=92) Gender Kind of models Clothing Captions F 72 (78.3%) A 6 (6.5%) S 74 (80.4%) AD 61 (66.3%) M 20 (21.7%) AP 7 (7.6%) U 15 (16.3%) QM 8 (8.7%) SRM 0 (0%) CS 2 (2.2%) QA 2 (2.2%) FM 71 (77.2%) FS 0 (0%) SM 10 (10.9%) FA 7 (7.6 %) O 1 (1.1%) O 11 (12.0%) FO 1 (1.1%) O 0 (0%) Note. F=female; M=male; A=athlete; AP=athlete with their partner; SRM=sport related model; FM=fashion model; FA=fashion model with athlete; FO=fashion model with other; O=others; S=swimsuit; U= uniform; CS=casual suit; FS=formal suit; AD=advertisement; QM=quotation from model; QA=quotation from author; SM=statement about model
108 Table B 11. Frequency of photographic image categories ( N=92) Size of photo Location Facial expression Pose Feminine touch 1 66 (71.7%) B 37 (40.2%) S 18 (19.6%) BE 29 (31.5%) TS 18 (19.6%) 2 25 (27.2%) S 8 (8.7%) FLS 46 (50.0%) TB 3 (3.3%) BRC 6 (6.5%) 3 1 (1.1%) SF 15 (16.3%) LOS 22 (23.9%) R/S 12 (13.0%) O 68 (73.9%) 4 0 (0%) OP 32 (34.8%) WG 5 (5.4%) K/C 8 (8.7%) O 1 (1.1%) L 24 (26.1%) AA 16 (17.4%) O 0 (0%) Note. 1=1page spread; 2=2page spread; 3=3pagespread; 4=4page spread; B=beach; S=studio; SF= sports facilities; OP= other places; S= S mile; FLS= focused on lens without smile; LOS=look at other sides; WG=withdrawing gaze; O=others; BE=body erect; TB=tilting body; R/S=reclining/sitting; Lying=L; K/C=knee bend/crawling; AA=athletic action; TS=touching self; BRC=body revealing clothing
109 Table B 12. Athlete models Gender*Sports Cross tabulation ( N=92) Gender Sport Total No sports Golf Football Basketball Boxing Others Female Count 72 0 0 0 0 0 72 % of Total 78.3% .0% .0% .0% .0% .0% 78.3% Male Count 0 1 3 1 2 1 3 20 % of Total .0% 1.1% 3.3% 1.1% 2.2% 14.1% 21.7% Total Count 72 1 3 1 2 13 92 % of Total 78.3% 1.1% 3.3% 1.1% 2.2% 14.1% 100.0%
110 2001 Issue Table B 13. Frequency of gender, kind of models, clothing, and caption ( N=61) Gender Kin d of models Clothing Captions F 56 (91.8%) A 0 (0%) S 47 (77.0%) AD 56 (91.8%) M 5 (8.2%) AP 0 (0%) U 0 (0%) QM 0 (0%) SRM 0 (0%) CS 7 (11.5%) QA 0 (0%) FM 56 (91.8%) FS 0 (0%) SM 5 (8.2%) FA 5 (8.2%) O 7 (11.5%) O 0 (0%) FO 0 (0%) O 0 (0%) Note. F=female; M=male; A=athlete; AP=athlete with their partner; SRM=sport related model; FM=fashion model; FA=fashion model with athlete; FO=fashion model with other; O=others; S=swimsuit; U=uniform; CS=casual suit; FS=formal suit; AD=adverti sement; QM=quotation from model; QA=quotation from author; SM=statement about model
111 Table B 14. Frequency of photographic image categories ( N=61) Size of photo Location Facial expression Pose Feminine touch 1 39 (63.9%) B 26 (42.6%) S 10 (16.4%) BE 15 (24.6%) TS 22 (36.1%) 2 22 (36.1%) S 0 (0%) FLS 34 (55.7%) TB 9 (14.8%) BRC 5 (8.2%) 3 0 (0%) SF 3 (4.9%) LOS 9 (14.8%) R/S 14 (23.0%) O 34 (55.7%) 4 0 OP 32 (52.5%) WG 8 (13.1%) K/C 3 (4.9%) O 0 (0%) L 17 (27.9 %) AA 3 (4.9%) O 0 (0%) Note. 1=1page spread; 2=2page spread; 3=3pagespread; 4=4page spread; B=beach; S=studio; SF= sports facilities; OP= other places; S= S mile; FLS=focused on lens without smile; LOS=look at other sides; WG=withdraw ing gaze; O=others; BE=body erect; TB=tilting body; R/S=reclining/sitting; Lying=L; K/C=knee bend/crawling; AA=athletic action; TS=touching self; BRC=body revealing clothing
112 Table B 15. Athlete models Gender*Sports Cross t abulation ( N=61) Gender Sport Total No sports Football Female Count 56 0 56 % of Total 91.8% .0% 91.8% Male Count 0 5 5 % of Total .0% 8.2% 8.2% Total Count 56 5 61 % of Total 91.8% 8.2% 100.0%
113 2002 Issue Table B 16. Freq uency of gender, kind of models, clothing, and caption ( N=96) Gender Kind of models Clothing Captions F 75 (78.1%) A 9 (9.4%) S 64 (66.7%) AD 70 (72.9%) M 21 (21.9%) AP 5 (5.2%) U 16 (16.7%) QM 0 (0%) SRM 0 (0%) CS 9 (9.4%) QA 9 (9.4%) FM 71 (74. 0%) FS 0 (0%) SM 17 (17.7%) FA 7 (7.3%) O 7 (7.3%) O 0 (0%) FO 2 (2.1%) O 2 (2.1%) Note. F=female; M=male; A=athlete; AP=athlete with their partner; SRM=sport related model; FM=fashion model; FA=fashion model with athlete; FO=fashi on model with other; O=others; S=swimsuit; U=uniform; CS=casual suit; FS=formal suit; AD=advertisement; QM=quotation from model; QA=quotation from author; SM=statement about model
114 Table B 17. Frequency of photographic im age categories ( N=96) Size of photo Location Facial expression Pose Feminine touch 1 71 (74.0%) B 18 (18.8%) S 20 (20.8%) BE 28 (29.2%) TS 28 (29.2%) 2 23 (24.0%) S 6 (6.3%) FLS 41 (42.7%) TB 7 (7.3%) BRC 4 (4.2%) 3 1 (1.0%) SF 15 (15.6%) LOS 20 (20. 8%) R/S 26 (27.1%) O 64 (66.7%) 4 1 (1.0%) OP 57 (59.4%) WG 8 (8.3%) K/C 4 (4.2%) O 7 (7.3%) L 18 (18.8%) AA 12 (12.5%) O 1 (1.0%) Note. 1=1page spread; 2=2page spread; 3=3pagespread; 4=4page spread; B=beach; S=studio; SF= sports facilities; OP= other places; S= S mile; FLS=focused on lens without smile; LOS=look at other sides; WG=withdrawing gaze; O=others; BE=body erect; TB=tilting body; R/S=reclining/sitting; Lying=L; K/C=knee bend/crawling; AA=athletic action; TS=touching self; BRC=body revealing clothing
115 Table B 18. Athlete models Gender*Sports Cross tabulation ( N=96) Gender Sport No sports Golf Beach volleyball B aseball Soccer Female Count 73 0 1 0 0 % of Total 76.0% .0% 1.0% .0% .0% Male Count 1 1 0 2 4 % of Total 1.0% 1.0% .0% 2.1% 4.2% Total Count 74 1 1 2 4 % of Total 77.1% 1.0% 1.0% 2.1% 4.2%
116 Table B 19. Athlete models Gender*Sports Cross tabulation ( N=96) Gender Sport Total C ar racing Running Horse riding Boxing Others Female Count 0 0 0 0 1 75 % of Total .0% .0% .0% .0% 1.0% 78.1% Male Count 2 1 2 6 2 21 % of Total 2.1% 1.0% 2.1% 6.3% 2.1% 21.9% Total Count 2 1 2 6 3 96 % of Total 2.1% 1.0% 2.1% 6.3% 3.1% 100.0%
117 2003 Issue Table B 20. Frequency of gender, kind of models, clothing, and caption ( N=91) Gender Kind of models Clothing Captions F 80 87.9% A 12 13.2% S 72 79.1% AD 76 83.5% M 11 12.1% AP 7 7.7% U 8 8.8% QM 0 0 % SRM 0 0 % CS 11 12.1% QA 6 6.6% FM 64 70.3% FS 0 0 % SM 1 1.1% FA 4 4.4% O 0 0 % O 8 8.8% FO 4 4.4% O 0 0 % Note. F=female; M=male; A=athlete; AP=athlete with their partner; SRM=sport related model; FM=fashion model; FA=fashion model with athlete; FO=fashion model with other; O=others; S=swimsuit; U=uniform; CS=casual suit; FS=formal suit; AD=advertisement; QM=quotation from model; QA=quotation from author; SM=statement about model
118 Table B 2 1 Frequency of photographic image categories ( N=91) Size of photo Location Facial expression Pose Feminine touch 1 71 (78.0%) B 28 (30.8%) S 30 (33.0%) BE 24 (26.4%) TS 22 (24.2%) 2 20 (22.0%) S 3 (3.3%) FLS 35 (38.5%) TB 7 (7.7%) BRC 10 (11.0%) 3 0 (0%) SF 34 (37.4%) LOS 13 (14.3%) R/S 22 (24.2%) O 59 (64.8%) 4 0 (0%) OP 26 (28.6%) WG 10 (11.0%) K/C 8 (8.8%) O 3 (3.3%) L 16 (17.6%) AA 14 (15.4%) O 0 (0%) Note. 1=1page spread; 2=2page spread; 3=3pagespread; 4=4page spread; B=beach; S=studio; SF= sports facilities; OP= other places; S= S mile; FLS=focused on lens without smile; LOS=look at other sides; WG=withdrawing gaze; O=others; BE=body erect; TB=tilting body; R/S=reclining/sitting; Lying=L; K/C=knee bend/crawling; AA=athletic action; TS=touchi ng self; BRC=body revealing clothing
119 Table B 22. Athlete models Gender*Sports Cross tabulation ( N=91) Gender Sport No sports Tennis Golf Football baseball Female Count 67 4 0 0 0 % of Total 73.6% 4.4% .0% .0% .0% Mal e Count 1 1 1 1 1 % of Total 1.1% 1.1% 1.1% 1.1% 1.1% Total Count 68 5 1 1 1 % of Total 74.7% 5.5% 1.1% 1.1% 1.1%
120 Table B 23. Athlete models Gender*Sports Cross tabulation ( N=91) Gender Sport Soccer Car racing Ice hokey Skate Total Female Count 0 1 0 8 80 % of Total .0% 1.1% .0% 8.8% 87.9% Male Count 2 3 1 0 11 % of Total 2.2% 3.3% 1.1% .0% 12.1% Total Count 2 4 1 8 91 % of Total 2.2% 4.4% 1.1% 8.8% 100.0%
121 2004 Issue Table B 24 Frequency of gender, kind of models, clothing, and caption ( N =68) Gender Kind of models Clothing Captions F 63 92.6% A 6 8.8% S 56 82.4% AD 68 100.0% M 5 7.4% AP 5 7.4% U 4 5.9% QM 0 0% SRM 0 0% CS 5 7.4% QA 0 0 % FM 55 80.9% FS 0 0% SM 0 0 % FA 0 0 % O 3 4.4% O 0 0 % FO 2 2.9% O 0 0% Note. F=female; M=male; A=athlete; AP=athlete with their partner; SRM=sport related model; FM=fashion model; FA=fashion model with athlete; FO=fashion model with other; O=others; S=swimsuit; U=uniform; CS=casual suit; FS=formal suit; AD=advertisement; QM=quotation from model; QA=quotation from author; SM=statement about model
122 Table B 25 Frequency of photographic image categories ( N =68 ) Size of photo Location Facial expression Pose Feminine touch 1 46 (67.6%) B 21 (30.9%) S 11 (16.2%) BE 10 (14.7%) TS 23 (33.8%) 2 20 (29.4%) S 3 (4.4%) FLS 45 (66.2%) TB 11 (16.2%) BRC 11 (16.2%) 3 1 (1.5%) SF 6 (8.8%) LOS 3 (4.4%) R/S 25 (36.8%) O 34 (50.0%) 4 1 (1.5%) OP 38 (55.9%) WG 9 (13.2%) K/C 5 (7.4%) O 0 (0%) L 16 (23.5%) AA 1 (1.5%) O Note. 1=1page spread; 2=2page spread; 3=3pagespread; 4=4page spread; B=beach; S=studio; SF= sports facilities; OP= other plac es; S= S mile; FLS=focused on lens without smile; LOS=look at other sides; WG=withdrawing gaze; O=others; BE=body erect; TB=tilting body; R/S=reclining/sitting; Lying=L; K/C=knee bend/crawling; AA=athletic action; TS=touching self; BRC=body revealing clothi ng
123 Table B 26. Athlete models Gender*Sports Cross tabulation ( N=68) Gender Sport Total No sports Tennis Football baseball Ice hokey Skate board Horse riding F Count 57 6 0 0 0 0 0 63 % of Total 83.8% 8.8% .0% .0% .0% .0% .0% 92.6% M Count 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 5 % of Total .0% .0% 1.5% 1.5% 1.5% 1.5% 1.5% 7.4% T Count 57 6 1 1 1 1 1 68 % of Total 83.8% 8.8% 1.5% 1.5% 1.5% 1.5% 1.5% 100.0%
124 2005 Issue Table B 27. Frequency of g ender, kind of models, clothing, and caption ( N=62) Gender Kind of models Clothing Captions F 58 93.5% A 8 12.9% S 53 85.5% AD 56 90.3% M 4 6.5% AP 4 6.5% U 6 9.7% QM 0 0% SRM 0 0% CS 2 3.2% QA 4 6.5% FM 50 80.6% FS 0 0% SM 0 0 % FA 0 0 % O 1 1.6% O 2 3.2% FO 0 0% O 0 0% Note. F=female; M=male; A=athlete; AP=athlete with their partner; SRM=sport related model; FM=fashion model; FA=fashion model with athlete; FO=fashion model with other; O=others; S=swimsuit; U=uniform; CS=c asual suit; FS=formal suit; AD=advertisement; QM=quotation from model; QA=quotation from author; SM=statement about model
125 Table B 2 8 Frequency of photographic image categories ( N=62) Size of photo Location Facial expres sion Pose Feminine touch 1 39 (62.9%) B 25 (40.3%) S 18 (29.0%) BE 13 (21.0%) TS 17 (27.4%) 2 21 (33.9%) S 3 (4.8%) FLS 30 (48.4%) TB 14 (22.6%) BRC 9 (14.5%) 3 1 (1.6%) SF 18 (29.0%) LOS 10 (16.1%) R/S 9 (14.5%) O 36 (58.1%) 4 1 (1.6%) OP 16 (25. 8%) WG 3 (4.8%) K/C 2 (3.2%) O 1 (1.6%) L 22 (35.5%) AA 2 (3.2%) O 0 (0%) Note. 1=1page spread; 2=2page spread; 3=3pagespread; 4=4page spread; B=beach; S=studio; SF= sports facilities; OP= other places; S= S mile; FLS=focused on lens without smile; LOS=look at other sides; WG=withdrawing gaze; O=others; BE=body erect; TB=tilting body; R/S=reclining/sitting; Lying=L; K/C=knee bend/crawling; AA=athletic action; TS=touching self; BRC=body revealing clothing
126 Table B 29. Athlete models Gender*Sports Cross tabulation ( N=62) Gender Sport Total No sports Tennis Football Basket ball Base ball Swim ming Soft ball F Count 50 3 0 2 0 1 2 58 % of Total 80.6% 4.8% .0% 3.2% .0% 1.6% 3.2% 93.5% M Count 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 4 % of Total .0% .0% 3.2% 1.6% 1.6% .0% .0% 6.5% T Count 50 3 2 3 1 1 2 62 % of Total 80.6% 4.8% 3.2% 4.8% 1.6% 1.6% 3.2% 100.0%
127 2006 Issue Table B 30. Frequency of gender, kind of models, clothing, and caption ( N=74) Gender Kind of models Clothing Captions F 74 100.0% A 3 4.1% S 65 87.8% AD 66 89.2% M 0 0% AP 0 0% U 0 0% QM 0 0% SRM 0 0% CS 4 5.4% QA 0 0% FM 70 94.6% FS 0 0% SM 6 8.1% FA 0 0% O 5 6.8% O 2 2.7% FO 1 1.4% O 0 0% Note. F=female; M=male; A=athlete; AP=athlete with their partner; SRM=sport related model; FM=fashion model; FA=fashion model with athlete; FO=fashion model with other; O=others; S=swimsuit; U=uniform; CS=casual suit; FS=formal suit; AD=advertisement; QM=quotati on from model; QA=quotation from author; SM=statement about model
128 Table B 31. Frequency of photographic image categories ( N=74) Size of photo Location Facial expression Pose Feminine touch 1 54 (73.0%) B 43 (58.1%) S 1 4 (18.9%) BE 10 (13.5%) TS 33 (44.6%) 2 17 (23.0%) S 2 (2.7%) FLS 44 (59.5%) TB 11 (14.9%) BRC 12 (16.2%) 3 0 (0%) SF 0 (0%) LOS 4 (5.4%) R/S 25 (33.8%) O 29 (39.2%) 4 3 (4.1%) OP 29 (39.2%) WG 12 (16.2%) K/C 12 (16.2%) O 0 L 16 (21.6%) AA 0 (0%) O 0 (0%) Note. 1=1page spread; 2=2page spread; 3=3pagespread; 4=4page spread; B=beach; S=studio; SF= sports facilities; OP= other places; S= S mile; FLS=focused on lens without smile; LOS=look at other sides; WG=withdrawing gaze; O=others; BE=body erect; TB=tilting body; R/S=reclining/sitting; Lying=L; K/C=knee bend/crawling; AA=athletic action; TS=touching self; BRC=body revealing clothing
1 29 Table B 3 2 Athlete models Gender*Sports Cross tabulation ( N=74) Gender Sport Total No sports Tennis F emale Count 71 3 74 % of Total 95.9% 4.1% 100.0% Total Count 71 3 74 % of Total 95.9% 4.1% 100.0%
130 2007 Issue Table B 33. Frequency of gender, kind of models, clothing, and caption ( N=88) Gender Kind of models Clothing Captions F 81 92.0% A 0 0% S 79 89.8% AD 73 83.0% M 7 8.0% AP 0 0% U 0 0% QM 5 5.7% SRM 0 0% CS 5 5.7% QA 0 0% FM 67 76.1% FS 3 3.4% SM 8 9.1% FA 0 0% O 1 1.1% O 2 2.3% FO 13 14.8% O 8 9.1 % Note. F=female; M=male; A=athlete; AP=athlete with their partner; SRM=sport related model; FM=fashion model; FA=fashion model with athlete; FO=fashion model with other; O=others; S=swimsuit; U=uniform; CS=casual suit; FS=formal suit; AD=advertisem ent; QM=quotation from model; QA=quotation from author; SM=statement about model
131 Table B 34. Frequency of photographic image categories ( N=88) Size of photo Location Facial expression Pose Feminine touch 1 70 (79.5%) B 35 (39.8%) S 16 (18.2%) BE 31 (35.2%) TS 28 (31.8%) 2 17 (19.3%) S 6 (6.8%) FLS 58 (65.9%) TB 9 (10.2%) BRC 5 (5.7%) 3 1 (1.1%) SF 18 (20.5%) LOS 8 (9.1%) R/S 26 (29.5%) O 55 (62.5%) 4 0 (0%) OP 29 (33.0%) WG 5 (5.7%) K/C 3 (3.4%) O 1 (1.1%) L 11 (12.5%) AA 8 (9.1%) O 0 (0%) Note. 1=1page spread; 2=2page spread; 3=3pagespread; 4=4page spread; B=beach; S=studio; SF= sports facilities; OP= other places; S= S mile; FLS=focused on lens without smile; LOS=look at other sides; WG =withdrawing gaze; O=others; BE=body erect; TB=tilting body; R/S=reclining/sitting; Lying=L; K/C=knee bend/crawling; AA=athletic action; TS=touching self; BRC=body revealing clothing
132 2008 Issue Table B 35. Frequency of gen der, kind of models, clothing, and caption ( N=111) Gender Kind of models Clothing Captions F 111 100.0% A 5 4.5% S 110 99.1% AD 95 85.6% M 0 0% AP 0 0% U 0 0% QM 11 9.9% SRM 15 13.5% CS 0 0% QA 0 0% FM 85 76.6% FS 0 0% SM 5 4.5% FA 0 0% O 1 9% O 0 0% FO 6 5.4% O 0 0% Note. F=female; M=male; A=athlete; AP=athlete with their partner; SRM=sport related model; FM=fashion model; FA=fashion model with athlete; FO=fashion model with other; O=others; S=swimsuit; U=uniform; CS=cas ual suit; FS=formal suit; AD=advertisement; QM=quotation from model; QA=quotation from author; SM=statement about model
133 Table B 36. Frequency of photographic image categories ( N=111) Size of photo Location Facial express ion Pose Feminine touch 1 91 (82.0%) B 47 (42.3%) S 17 (15.3%) BE 25 (22.5%) TS 38 (34.2%) 2 17 (15.3%) S 15 (13.5%) FLS 51 (45.9%) TB 24 (21.6%) BRC 21 (10.8%) 3 3 (2.7%) SF 4 (3.6%) LOS 15 (13.5%) R/S 24 (21.6%) O 52 (46.8%) 4 0 (0%) OP 45 (40.5% ) WG 27 (24.3%) K/C 8 (7.2%) O 1 (.9%) L 18 (16.2%) AA 12 (10.8%) O 0 (0%) Note. 1=1page spread; 2=2page spread; 3=3pagespread; 4=4page spread; B=beach; S=studio; SF= sports facilities; OP= other places; S= S mile; FLS=focused on lens without smile; LOS=look at other sides; WG=withdrawing gaze; O=others; BE=body erect; TB=tilting body; R/S=reclining/sitting; Lying=L; K/C=knee bend/crawling; AA=athletic action; TS=touching self; BRC=body revealing clothing
134 Table B 3 7 Athlete models Gender*Sports Cross tabulation ( N=111) Gender Sport Total No sports Tennis F emale Count 106 5 111 % of Total 95.5% 4.5% 100.0% T otal Count 106 5 111 % of Total 95.5% 4.5% 100.0%
135 2009 Issue Table B 38 Frequency of gender, kind of models, clothing, and caption ( N =85) Gender Kind of models Clothing Captions F 85 100.0% A 7 8.2% S 84 98.8% AD 64 75.3% M 0 0% AP 0 0% U 0 0% QM 6 7.1% SRM 10 11.8% CS 0 0% QA 7 8.2 % FM 68 80.0% FS 0 0% SM 8 9.4% FA 0 0% O 1 1.2% O 0 0% FO 0 0% O 0 0% Note. F=female; M=male; A=athlete; AP=athlete with their partner; SRM=sport related model; FM=fashion model; FA=fashion model with athlete; FO=fashion model with other; O=others; S=swimsuit; U=uniform; CS=casual suit; FS=formal suit; AD=advertisement; QM=quotation from model; QA=quotation from author; SM=statement about model
136 Table B 39. Frequency of photographic image cate gories ( N=85) Size of photo Location Facial expression Pose Feminine touch 1 66 (77.6%) B 32 (37.6%) S 16 (18.8%) BE 21 (24.7%) TS 43 (50.6%) 2 18 (21.2%) S 11 (12.9%) FLS 38 (44.7%) TB 18 (21.2%) BRC 12 (14.1%) 3 1 (1.2%) SF 0 (0%) LOS 12 (14.1%) R/ S 20 (23.5%) O 30 (35.3%) 4 0 (0%) OP 42 (49.4%) WG 19 (22.4%) K/C 3 (3.5%) O 0 (0%) L 21 (24.7%) AA 2 (2.4%) O 0 (0%) Note. 1=1page spread; 2=2page spread; 3=3pagespread; 4=4page spread; B=beach; S=studio; SF= sports facilities; OP= other places; S= S mile; FLS=focused on lens without smile; LOS=look at other sides; WG=withdrawing gaze; O=others; BE=body erect; TB=tilting body; R/S=reclining/sitting; Lying=L; K/C=knee bend/crawling; AA=athletic action; TS=touching self; BRC=bod y revealing clothing
137 Table B 40. Athlete models Gender*Sports Cross tabulation ( N=85) Gender Sport Total No sports Tennis Car racing Female Count 78 6 1 85 % of Total 91.8% 7.1% 1.2% 100.0% Total Count 78 6 1 85 % of Total 91.8% 7.1% 1.2% 100.0%
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143 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Ka Young Kim earned her second Master of Science degree in the College of Health and Human P erformance (sport management) from the University of Flor ida in December 2009. She r eceived her first Master of Science degree (sport sociology) from Korea National Sport University in August 2008. She received her Bachelor of Science in sport and leisure studies from Korea National Sport University in February 2006. The goal of her research is to investigate the gender differences of athletes within the media structure. Beyond her gender differences research agenda; she has been pursuing research projects on how media representation of athletes influences various media customer perspective in our society. In addition, she is interested in development and application of qualitative methods for sport organization research. Her accomplishments in the research areas above include 4 research presentations. The present ations have bee n presented at conferences for the North American Society for the Sociology of Sport (NASSS), International Sociology of Sport Association (ISSA), and Korean Society for the Sociology of Sport (KSSS). She has taught various undergraduate courses such as Sociology of Sport, Introduction to Sports and Leisure Studies, Introduction to Sociology as teaching assistance at the Korea National Sport University. Beg inning fall 2009, she will continuously study as doctoral student of Sport Management at the University of Florida