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1 TRACKING TACIT KNOWLEDGE: A TOOLKIT FO R ARCHITECTURE PEDAGOGY AND PRAC TICE By JACQUIANN T LAWTON A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR TH E D EGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN ARCHITECTURAL STUDIES UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 2009
2 2009 Jacquiann T Lawton
3 To Emile
4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to acknowledge the Office of the Dean, Dean Christophe r Silver, Deans William Tilson and Paul Zwick for initiating the Memorandum of Understanding between the University of Florida, Gainesville, College of Design, Construction and Planning and the University of Technology, Jamaica, Faculty of the Built Envi ronment, through the research project entitled Pedagogical development and Curricula Integration of Digital Simulation Techniques for Solar and Wind Effect on Passive Design Strategies. I would like thank Professor Adeline (Nina) Hofer, for her friendsh ip, guidance, vote of confidence and a relentless commitme nt to possibilities, Professors Martin Gunderson, Charles Hailey, Mark Mc.Glothlin and Donna Cohen for the dialogue, advice encouragement and inspiration throughout the course of the academic year, Professor John Maze who made the journey through digital media enjoyable, and former Director Martha Kohen whose award of the Arthur Blenn Anderson Scholarship Endowment and a Graduate Teaching A ssistantship made the year feasible. I would also like to ac knowledge Graduate Program Assistant Becky Hudson, whose door was always open and Mary Kramer who made problem solving seem easy.
5 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................................................................................... 4 LIST OF FIGURES .............................................................................................................................. 7 ABSTRACT .......................................................................................................................................... 8 CHAPTER 1 TACIT KNOWLEDGE ................................................................................................................ 9 Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 9 What is the Relationship between Consciousness and Cognition? .......................................... 10 The Structure of Tacit Knowledge. ............................................................................................ 12 Functional Structure ............................................................................................................ 12 Functional Relation .............................................................................................................. 14 The Role of Intuition in Ta cit Knowledge ................................................................................. 15 Caveat: Skill of Educator vs. Skill of Student ........................................................................... 20 2 THE BODY: READING THE CITY ........................................................................................ 22 Identifying the Body ................................................................................................................... 22 Context: Language Acquisition of Urban Space ....................................................................... 23 The Spirit of Place ............................................................................................................... 27 Case Studies ......................................................................................................................... 28 1998 Kingston, Jamaica WI ......................................................................................... 28 2000 St. Georges, Grenada WI .................................................................................. 30 2006 The Valley, Anguilla BVI. ................................................................................. 31 2008 Gainesville, Florida USA ................................................................................... 33 3 TACIT MEDIA ........................................................................................................................... 39 Media and Medium ..................................................................................................................... 39 Structuring Fluidity: Speculative Inquiry ........................................................................... 40 Location: The Integration of Sentient Knowledge ............................................................ 45 Tacit Knowledge in Digital Media ............................................................................................. 46 Software Tools ..................................................................................................................... 48 Weather tool ................................................................................................................. 52 Solar geometry ............................................................................................................. 55 Thermal comfort ........................................................................................................... 56 Pedagogical Positioning ...................................................................................................... 56 4 DESK: THE TACIT CONTRACT ............................................................................................ 61 5 CONCLUSION ........................................................................................................................... 66
6 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................................................................................................... 72 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ............................................................................................................. 74
7 LIST OF FIGURES Figure page 1 1 Tacit knowledge system ......................................................................................................... 19 1 2 Knowledge diagram 01 .......................................................................................................... 21 2 1 Knowled ge diagram 02 .......................................................................................................... 37 2 2 UF D3 urban studies of Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago. ............................................. 38 3 1 UF D2 aural studies 01 .......................................................................................................... 43 3 2 UF D2 aural studies 02 .......................................................................................................... 44 3 3 UF D2 diaphragm ................................................................................................................... 44 4 1 Radiation, humidity an d wind charts. ................................................................................... 54 4 2 Solar positioning and general annual conditions charts. ...................................................... 54 4 3 Butterfly diagrams .................................................................................................................. 55 4 4 Knowledge diagram 04, Ecotect pedagogy positioning. ..................................................... 60 5 1 Monument to the Rt. Hon. Nanny of the Windward Maroons, Kingston Jamaica. ........... 65 6 1 Knowledge diagram 03, i ntuitive process. ........................................................................... 70 6 2 Knowledge diagram 02, epistemological system ................................................................. 71
8 Ab stract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Architectural Studies TRACKING TACIT KNOWLEDGE: A TOOLKIT FOR ARCHITECTURE PEDAGO GY AND PRACTICE By Jacquiann T Lawton August 2009 Chair: Charles Haile y. Cochair: Mark McGlothlin Major: Architecture Architectural education informs practice in an epistemic reciprocity between fabricating and the fabricated Signification of these pr axes is disseminated across conceptual, empirical and simulated fields. Michael Polanyis treatise on Tacit Knowledge sought to rejoin logic and psychology thereby recovering insight and discovery in stages of problem -finding so as to validate a theory of knowledge, as scientific method, having onto logical implications. This thesis is aimed at investigating how and where tacit knowledge inhabits the field of architectural praxis. It identifies tools that admit sentient knowing into the constructive domain a nd offers methodology for crafting intuition.
9 CHAPTER 1 TACIT KNOWLEDGE Introduction Tacit knowledge includes knowledge acquisition and experiences as acts of consciousness. These acts of consciousness become comprehensive entities through a spatial ope ration of the body and mind. Their interrelation internalizes the particulars of awareness and externalizes their joint focus. These acts are realized through integration. The bo dy assimilates experiences that manifest as skill, skill in doing, skill in t hinking. Understanding materializes through interrogative, speculative and intuitive processes of inquiry. Peter Northouse distinguishes between general cognitive ability as biological and crystallized cognitive ability as learned over time. General cogn itive ability includes perceptual and information processing, reasoning skills, creative and thinking capacities and memory skills. Crystallized cognitive ability grows continuously, increasing capacity in the life cycle of a human. Skills include problem solving, conceptual ability and social judgment. Cumulative experiences expand knowing. Knowledge is acquisition of the ideas and mental abilities people learn through experience. 1 In other words knowledge is competence in action. General cognitive abil ity directly affects crystallized cognitive ability with complexities of generative structures or strategies that yield understanding, problem solving and creative invention. Both realms of cognition defined by Northouse, expand tacit knowledge potentially as a system of external and internal (social and individual) attitudes or acquired skill affecting things we are applying it to. Terms like common knowledge or common sense relate to general cognition Common sense opens generative structures to permutati ons that are not explicitly 1 Peter G. Northouse, Leadership, theory and practice (Thousand Oaks, California :Sage Publ ications, 2007), pp. 4850.
10 manifested as behavioral performances. These nodes of consciousness are not always on the surface of imm ediate apprehension, as described by Michael Polanyi we can know more than we can tell .2 On that premise this paper is situated in personal experiences and observations from educational and architectural practice. It is positioned as an interrogative inquiry of tacit knowledge in architectural perception, conception and materialization. The case studies are vehicles for ref lecting on the functional relation of tacit knowledge, understanding tools particular to the craft of architecture and skills that manifest our bodys assimilation of experiences and the things around us. The first chapter will establish the conceptual and theoretical framework of tacit knowledge and act as an index for clarifying linguistic references within the chapters that follow. What is the Relationship between Consciousness and Cognition ? what we lack most of all is a kind of general insight into the essence of consciousness and more especially into the essence of consciousness insofar as in and through its essential being the nat ural -fact world becomes known. 3 Edmund Husserl in his work on Phenomenology explored consciousness in depth, in an effort to expose the empirical (scientific) method of knowledge as being arbitrary. He suggests the empirical method assumes a wandering by virtue of a stationary point. The stationary point is a n objective pole with precise objective laws, whereby each domai n of science oscillates as independent and singular objective poles. He argued that the natural attitude is perhaps not a concept or fixed principle (as in origin xyz=0.0) but more a field of primordial intuitive phenomenology. His philosophical method pr oposed a Reduction. Reduction is a process, 2 Michael Polanyi, The tacit d imension ( Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1966), p. 4. 3 Joseph J. Kockelmans, Edmund Husserls p henomenology ( West Lafayette, Indiana: Purdue University Press, 1923. Republished by Purdue University Research Foundation, 1994), p.126.
11 where by something that is not yet evident becomes so. Engaging Epoche derived from epechein ;.. meaning (a temporary) cessation4 correlates with a suspension in judgment. His Reduction entailed no pre -concei ved (scientific) method; an eidetic transcendental ideal embracing fact to essential form or edios -esse nces. This is the notion that beginnings have two forms, earthly ( material ) and spiritual ( the transcendence of material ). The reduction is a transitio n from what is about meaning to what is about things... the condition of its possibility5. This essence the spiritual transcendental subject I is I not as the individual but the immediacy of a given phenomen on In this reduction the I spiritual, no longer manifests itself as a real being in a real world but only as the centre of intentional activities that co relate to intentional objects. In Husserls words ideating abstraction the method of free variation. 6 His methodology explores consciousness a s intentional and constitution as static and dynamic, whereby the static finds real components in lived experience, distinguishing from their intentionality. The dynamic of consciousness inversely describes the genesis or evolution of intentionality. The reciprocity appears hermetic until it is considered in relation to the methodological principle every I think ( cogito ) is an I think what is thought ( cogito cogitatum ) .. each description includes the intentional object and the modes of cogito that are related to this object (Ideas, 1:199-216[167-83 ]). 7 Any position of perception as a manifested act, referentially and at the same time, in reciprocity constitutes the object of perception as the same thing: noematic system. 4 Ibid.,p.118. 5 Ibid.,p.120. 6 Ibid.,p.119. 7 Ibid.,p.18.
12 Husserls Phenomenology exp lores the constitution of objects in consciousness, its limits, through objects and aggregates and within an analytical framework of Reduction. This eidetic reduction is suggestive of the ways in which tacit knowledge moves between material and spiritual manifestations, as levels of essences: emerging cessations. The distinctive nature of all experiences and mental processes is what Husserl refers to as intentionality. Intentionality is a notion that the unique characteristic of every day experiences is co nsciousness of something. Intentionality may also include experiences that are measured in relation to the pure ego. The p ure ego being a center of reference for passing thought. The dispositional nature of many positions of perception may reveal a conting ent of tacit knowledge. Not explicitly relating to one act of perception tacit knowledge inclu des a cognitive consciousness and the immediacy of phenomena. The Structure of Tacit Knowledge Michael Pol anyis tacit method builds on Husserlian thought. In hi s paper on The Structure of Consciousness he qualifies the functional structure of tacit knowing as a materialized integration of the particul ars of a comprehensive entity. One important aspect of Polanyis work is the reoccurring articulation of hierarchy and differing from Husserls Reduction, a conceptual expansion of denotation through the relation of the body to mind. Functional Structure Along these denotative lines, t he hierarchical structure is a parts to whole relationship, parts as having a subsi diary function in the com prehension of the whole. The whole, being the higher principle(s) that relies on the action of laws that regula te or govern the lower levels. However it is not possible to represent the organizing principles of a higher level by the laws
13 governing its isolated particulars8. An example of this hierarchy would be how phonetic structures constitute phonemes in words but syntax, the structuring of words into meaningful sentences is not accounted for by phonetic laws. Not all langua ges are so linear in their structural reciprocity, yet although this structure is stratified, the interrelation of the parts to wh ole is dynamic in its becoming. Polanyi states, We attend from the subsidiary particulars to their joint focus. Acts of consci ousness are then not only conscious of something, but also conscious from certai n things which include our body. the way we know a comprehensive entity by relying on our awareness of its parts is the way we are aware of our body for attending to an external event by interiorizing its partsmaking ourselves dwell in them ,9 and the opposite to externalize them apprehended by our dwelling in the boundary conditions of a lower principle on whi ch a higher principle operates. 10 The body is the receptor and ins trument of receiving or attending the things around us. Polanyi notes that the utterances of people are ultimately based on demonstrations of tacit experiences. In our incapacity to experience the same neural processes of another person we achieve gradual variations of indwell ing. This means the experiences we attain through the body, our physiological knowledge of things, is at once unique and universal based on the independent nuances of each person. The tw o leveled entity interrelates. The higher princi ples are enveloping and will endow stability and power relative to the subsidiary lower aggregates which are controlled 8 Michael Polanyi, The tacit d imension ( Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1966), p.36. 9 Michael Polanyi, The Structure of Co nsciousness, in Marjorie Grene, ed., Knowing and b eing (Chicago Illinois : University of Chicago Press, 1969), p. 214. 10 Ibid.,p. 218.
14 in dependently as isolated parts. T his endowment of stability, he calls the semantic aspect. The shape and motion of this interrelati on he calls the phenomenal aspect. 11 Functional Relation In Tacit Dimension Polanyi clarifies the functional, phenomenal and sema ntic aspects of Tacit Knowing. The structure is relational. Less about the composite nature of aggregates to a whole, structur e becomes a conversation about measured proximity of perception and space. The functional relation is the knowing of a first term (proximal) only by our awareness of it attending to the second term (distal), for example heat known from the bodily awarenes s of 96 degrees in the shade. W e are aware of the proximal term of an act of tacit knowing in appearance of its distal term; we are aware of that from which we are attending to another thing, the appearance of that thing. the phenomenal structure of tacit knowing.12 The appearance of heat may be the rapid movement of a ceiling fan. The dimensioning or measuring of proximal and distal is an oscillation. Implicit is the notion of measure. Negative space or figure ground interrelations yield a similar analysis visually, where the appearance of a thing; such as an object or city plan can be measured through reciprocity of its figure ground reading. For Christian Norberg Schulz, topology measures dwelling. The settlement of people in the identification of place i s a proximal term by its attending to the distal term, orientation or an existential gathering on earth. The measuring of proximal and distal terms operates at varied scales. Norberg -Schulz measures dwelling at the scale of human settlement whereas Polany i measures indwelling at the scale of our hands W e are attending to the meaning of its impact on our hands in terms of the effect on the things to which we are applying it. 13 The reciprocity of 11 Ibid.,p.218. 12 Michael Polanyi, The tacit d imension ( Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1966), p.11. 13 I bid., p.13.
15 our hands creating as well as receiving tacit knowledge conveys the ontological aspect that we comprehend the entity by relying on our awareness of its particulars for attending to their joint meaning14 Polanyi further defines the semantic aspect as a combining of the functional relation of tac it knowing and the phenomenal. In signification, the extension and intermediary role of our hands by the means of a tool or a probe displaces meaning. In medical science this tool maybe a scalpel, for architecture design education, a section cut, a plumb line, a pencil, or a persona l computer. Through tools, meaningless feelings can become meaningful in that they are se ntient extensions of the body. In this way a work of architecture as a vessel can operate as a tool, through our experience of it, knowledge of (in) habitati on is figured and at times pre -figured as archetype. The Role of Intuition in Tacit Knowledge INTUITION: A quick ready insight. The power or faculty of attaining to direct knowledge or cognition without rational thought.15 Definitions of i ntuition waive its immediacy and a presumption that intuition is irrational. Herein lies its problematic. This vague and mysterious assignment cha racterizes intuitive knowledge a s in part an inability to fix the multitude of sensory experiences that established the int uitive ground. The intuitive grain or comprehension of our perceptual experiences is anchored in tacit knowledge. Michael Polanyi tackles the problem by developing an idea about generative rules within subsidiary awareness. In Sense -Giving and Sense -Readin g the nomination of sense reading as tacit experience and sense -giving as tacit knowledge integrates experience with a conceptual 14 Ibid., p.19. 15 Merriam Webster new collegiate d i ctionary, s eventh e dition .( Springfield, Massachusetts: G&C Merriam Company, 1972)
16 subsumption of the experience becoming an intellectual readi ng or explanation. This process creates meaning. In its invers e relation, sense deprivation is a loss of bodily character of the external thing being attended to. Language acquisition in this process can be lengthy a strenuous search loosens possible bits of a solution and that discovery is achieved by an effortle ss integration of these bits.16 Polyani calls this process intuition. He also states that intuition is a skill. The dynamics of knowing with intuition reduce the explication of rules of memorization to inference by which memory can inform tacit knowing. A n important contribution of Maurice Merleau Ponty to tacit knowing is not only the location of the body as central to its thesis but the role of the senses in perception as a formidable integrator of the proximal and distal structure of tacit knowing. The senses organize our experiences seamlessly in the lived and objective space of the things in the world around us, so seamless that th e knowledge becomes invisible. By structuring and constituting the visible world in a way that it is our Reflection that slackens the intentional threads which attach us to the world and thus brings them to our notice; it alone is consciousness of the world because it reveals the world as strange and paradoxical 17 Merleau -Pontys work on perception and the body reinforces Husserls position in the relationship between perception and avenues of thought in the capacity to understand the things around us. He maintained that our embodiment admits perceptual experiences and presents itself to us in consciousness.18 This conscious ness is our experience, at once with us and independent of us. 16 Michael Polanyi, SenseGiving and Sense Reading, in Marjorie Grene, ed., Knowing and b eing (Chicago, Illinois : University of Chicago Press. 1969), p. 201. 17 Maurice Merleau Ponty, The world of perception (London, UK : Routledge Classics, 2008), p.11. 18 Ibid.,p.11
17 Richard Sennett uncovers the appearance of intuition within the act of arousal. He notes that intuition begins with a sense of possibility. In craftsmanship this sense is signaled by the frus tration of the limitations of a tool. The tool organizes the possibilities by the means of an intuitive leap He identifies a procedure of reformatting, adjacency, surprise and gravity for how intuitive leaps happen19. In reformatting, a fit -for purpose mol d is broken. This allows new possibilities for the imagination to intervene and repair. In adjacency, two unlike domains are paired, they stimulate each other towards the dynamic invention of a new tool. The intuitive leap happens across the adjacent domai ns, dredging tacit knowledge in its movement An unexpected surprise occurs and this initiates wonder at the discovery of an unforeseen potential. The fourth stage is gravity. Gravity comes with the understanding of what leaps cannot defy. The reckoning of gravity is the unresolved problems that remain in the transfer of skills in technology transfer. Sennett s suggestions are not listed as protocol but can be recursive or nonlinear in an operation of logic. This procedure aids Polanyis process of language acquisition. Intuition in tacit knowledge may register as an illuminated point. This is the immediacy of comprehension. Intuition in tacit knowledge may also be a transitive operation of discovery, unraveling, loosening or aligning the grain of experie nces. The grain of our bodys sentient understanding. In summary, the creation of meaning is a tacit contract20 endowed by perception. As extensions of our body tools objectify mediating between fields of proximal and distal terms. S kill expands the capa city to move between these fields, increasing the scope of knowledge. 19 Richard Sennett, The craftsman (New Haven Connecticut : Yale University Press, 2008), p.212. 20 Miche l Serre s The natural c ontract Elizabeth Mac Ar thur& William Paulson, tr an s (Ann Arbor Michigan: University Press of Michigan, 1998.), p.21. Serres discusses the tacit contract as a consensual or contrary agreement which is endlessly traversed by polemi cs and debates. It is the site of war or peace; the production of knowledge between a growing body of researchers checking on one another.
18 Tacit knowledge hinges on practice, on habitually becoming skillful, this hinge elicits ambiguity. Intuition occupies ambiguity in a state of flux and is indentified as: Language acquisi tion: In tacit knowing language acquisition is that length y process of searching that loosens that knot21 of the subsidiary particulars integrated with the whole. Insight: Sense -giving and sense -reading unravels as a generative operation between experience and the experience becoming an intellectual reading. Explanation in the manner of reproduction, the restating of the problem is also considered a form of insight. Reflection: slackens the intentional threads, this is the passage though the third place22 Skill: is an imbedded knowledge, the recurrence of trial and error. For Polanyi it is rooted in our natural sensibilities to hidden patterns and developed to effectiveness by a process of learning 23 These conditions as verbs, as acts of cognition, bec ome crystallized to achieve gradual levels of indwelling. In the knowledge of architecture they iterate and concretize exercises measuring the proximal and distal phenome nal aspects of in habitation. The semantic aspect achieved through signification of to ol in relation to medium. To expand Polanyis argument this study is posited where ambiguity resides, in the notion of the logical relation of subsidiary to focal (that is in nominating a hierarchical construct as an analogy of four aspects; function, phenomena, semantic, ontolo gical of the integrative act). The functional structure of tacit knowing elicits ambiguity in the signification of a higher principle 21 Michel Serres, The troubadour of k nowledge ( Ann Arbor, Michigan: The University of Michigan Press, 2000), p.20. The knot is an illusory condition. A complex of certainty and uncertainty that is woven or folded from numerical progression into a topological space. 22 Ibid.,p.45. The third place Serres assigns as inbetween, the middle of all others that imposes on intuiti on. In knowledge and instruction a third place also exists, a worthless position today between two others: on the one hand, the hard sciences, formal, objective, powerful; on the other, what one calls culture, dying. 23 Michael Polanyi, The Unaccountable Element in Science, in Marjorie Grene, ed., Knowing and b eing (Chicago Illinois : University of Chicago Press, 1969), p.118.
19 that is necessarily conceptual. However, this logical structure is contingent on the non concept ual; the body. My position is that Intuition as language acqui sition is relationally driven. Intuition together with a competence that necessitates agility in utilizing a probe, prod or tool, sig nifies this body as construct. In other words, the physical p roduct, architectural proposal, as real as it is to touch, is a scaled re -presentati on or simulation of actuality. The non-conceptual and conceptual bind the integr ative act as a concrete thing. These constructs are core components in the continuity of the education of architects. Works of architecture occupied at human scale inform educational praxis, most commonly as case studies. Both realms of fabrication relate not only to school culture but also to approximations of validating scholastic aims. Figu re 1 1. Tacit knowledge system
20 Caveat : Skill of E ducator vs. Skill of Student In the formulation, discovery and skill agility of probes, th e educators aim is exploration. As juror s the experienced seeing negotiators educators are seasoned at sense reading and sense -giving ; developing visual and motor muscle memory in perception and creation. T his is a practiced skill, provoking inversions or ambulatory stations and processes of inquiry including learn by doing through e xplanation as a form of insight reflection, listening and adjusting curricula levels in order to instill learning for the weakest link of the chain. Habitually becoming skillful In acquiring the skill of sense -giving there is doubt, error, failure and recov ery. A margin of tolerance and friction is necessary in the learning of a skill. It is an evaluative mechanism. The location of the students skill is in language acquisition a nd dexterity of performance. The agility of operation is throu gh the sentient attribution of a prod, arm prosthesis and instrument. This includes the ski ll in using designate d tools for drawing with various instruments for example, pens, pencils, ink, stones, scal e d rule r mouse, software and camera. Also, agility includes the skill of constructing within t he phys ical limitations of materiality for example building with bamboo, timber, mortar, steel, glass and light. What is the knowledge of sticky back? How these constructs reside as scaled particulars, as efficient construction s against gravitys pull tog ether with the mind body perceptual approximations of differing media and theoretical proximities (plaster to software) is that point of illumination of intuition. Where these constructs reside is in inquiry, the objectives of curricula. In the domain of tacit knowledge they are imbedded in the unraveling.
21 Figure 1 2. K nowledge diagram 01
22 CHAPTER 2 THE BODY: READING THE CITY Identifying the Body The body has been a continuous subject of discourse in architecture history and theory. Leon Battista Alb ertis Renaissance treatises on lineaments and structure separated the structural body from its surface reading of ornamentation, akin to the mannerism of facial expression. Andrea Palladios corollary of harmonic proportions created a classical ideal for human proportion and geometry and Le Corbusiers Modulor deposited a similar idealization of the human body, coalescing ratios with patterns in nature for example the golden section. In contemporary thought Diana Agrests subversion of these classical tene ts recovers rhetorically the body of the creator (architect) as feminine. The body as symbol occupies a condition of otherness. The otherness is a boundary production of inter textual spatiality. The role of the human body in practice is predominantly an e rgonomic device that generates occupation codes, circulation patterns, standards and guidelines for furnishing fittings and the building structure. The New Metric Handbook, Architectural Graphic Standards and Time Savers are a few ubiquitous field referenc es. By products of the machine age, these instruments interpret measurements of a human body and create symbols of a perceived standard body. The human bodys temperature and environmental comfort is a determinant in the practice of creating habitable buil t structures. Comfort values are dependent on global location. What becomes symbolic in designing for environmental comfort is the building s enclosure, a third skin. This third skin modifies or in some cases conditions our bodys sentient experience. Th e human body is receiver and transmitter of knowledge. The tools that we create in order to understand any particular medium are extensions of our receptors ; our ey es, hands, feet, and skin. The tools we create inform how awareness is communicated. Such t ools transcend
23 knowing. T hey are devices of ideating abstraction. How effective the tool becomes in its application, its use, is made apparent through social consensus. Whether the body becomes a generative proportional system, probes spatiality or is real ized as a metaphorical object, any of these displacements configure points of perception and making. Context: Language Acquisition of Urban Space If we are to consider s ense -reading to be ex perience and mental mapping and s ense -giving to be visual represen tation and intervention in urban space what would t he tools for that media be? From experience, The Caribbean School of Architecture (CSA) conducts an urban study program by way of regional travel called Study Tours. Visits are typically two weeks and sp an the language and cultural diversity of the Creole melting pot. These studies are not off the book programs but instead they are integrated into the core curriculum directly related to particular levels of architectural studio performance. There are thre e distinct fields that frame the discourse on the spheres of urbanism and architecture. (1) The climatic which extends laterally across the equator encompassing the domain of an architectural regionalism. (2) The Diaspora which relates to the migration of Caribbean people primarily in a south/north dimension and (3) T he new Caribbean Regionalism which includes Latin and Central America as well as the islands of the Caribbean. This third field relates implicitly to the diversity of Caribbean culture that is bound by global economic and consequents merging governmental policies1 The climat ic is an equatorial condition of c enturies of built responses to tropical storms, cyclones and hurricanes. The formal adaptations of buildings for hot, dry or humid conditions are 1 Norman Girvan. (2002) Globalization and Caribbean Cooperation. Association of Caribbean States Retrieved, 2003, from http://w ww.acs aec.org/sg.htm.
24 parameters included i n this field. Bruno Stagno nominates t ropical architectural production as a cultural condition of the climatic zone. Recalling the relevance of regional literature as a source of enriched thinking outside of Cartesian thought St agno promotes the condition of Tropicality as being overcome by sensuality of the climatic zone: I am here therefore I am. Further he suggests Tropical thought is diverse because in its occurrence across the tropical belt many cultures exist in contradistinction to the sameness of responses 2 The Diaspora is an anthropological history tied to economics evidenced by movement. Indigenous Indian people were predominantly extinguished by European colonialists, although few communities survive (Dominica WI). W ith the growth of plantocracy, island territories were populated with enslaved African people. The history of enslavement is more entrenched in some islands than others, as evidenced in differences between Trinidad and Tobago and Jamaica. Migration of Asia n people began during the period of Indentured labor er s, and Middle Eastern merchants thereafter. This composite of cultures crystallized into what is known as the identity of Caribbean people. The continued history of the movement of Caribbean people is e videnced by West India Regiment and the Windrush (pre and post Independence) with settlement in cities beyond the island territories. So, to speak of the Caribbean city without including a Caribbean Diaspora would deny London, Toronto, New York, and many e xtra territorial communities on a vertical north to south relation. This polyvalent space is the diasporic condition anchored in island territories with global satellites. The new Caribbean Regionalism had its conceptual birth at the ideological time of th e Federation of the West Indies. Now in a neoliberal global structure the Greater Caribbean leadership roles are dependent on non -governmental organization and the private sector. This 2Bruno Stagno, Tropicality, in Tzonis, Lefaivre, Stagno Tropical architectur e: critical regionalism in the age of globalization (Chichester,West Sussex, England: Wiley Academy, 2007), pp.78.
25 reduction of state dependence may forge new economic relations betwee n Caribbean Community (CARICOM), Central and Latin America, so as to increase the regions ability to compete in a free global market. Communication with territories beyond the traditional north to south relations anticipates expansion of cultural and langu age cognition. The dynamic of Caribbean cities, is their size in relation to the cultural diversity, as well as morphology in dialogue with geographical land features. Examples of this are evident in the urban space of Roseau and Castries. The French quar ters of Roseau activate the formality of British planning. This kind of disjuncture is also evident in its materiality: cast iron versus masonry or the kind of joinery in timber construction. Distinctions in treatment of the building envelope, the varied r oof types and profiles are as much cultural products as they are resultants of rainfall and wind forces. Verandah typologies as well as variations in the treatment of thresholds between street and building entry, articulate cultural diversities between is lands. Within this civic relation of buildings to urban form is a creolized spatiality. Pidgin is the linguistic term for a pro visional language that develops out of the need to communicate across different languages. As a bridge, Pidgin embodies adaptati on. Pidgin can develop into a fully structured Creole language: syntactically, semantically, and phonologically. This qualit y of urban form typically grows and at times ruptures or nests within terrain, landscape, geology. I see these forms as Husserlian cessations, an immediacy of phenomena which is often related to the economics of land tenure. At the inception of the School, the objectives for the first year of travel study were outlined as Observe and Record. The t heoretical positioning was not clearly delineated and therefore interpretation of syllabus was left to the lecturer (professor) conducting the study. The urban study parameters set in the first year would become foundational knowle dge. These parameters
26 needed to be strategic in anticipation of the projected levels of complexity that would develop in the subsequent years, strategic with the Commonwealth Association of Architects (CAA) validating criteria. There are numerous ways the e pistemological positioning of the study could be interpreted: Empirical: As an empirical study with criteria that cities within the Commonwealth, India, Africa, Australia, Canada would be an epistemological grounding; the logos of urbanity. Certainly, the visits of Charles Correa and Douglas Cardinal to CSA and part icipation in studio inquiry have advanced such a reading of the project. Deductive: As a descriptive analysis evidenced by the work of Bill Hillier in The Social Logic of Space. Hilli ers critique of architectural discourse is that it relies on represent ation: words and images which cannot go beyond surface to complex relations of social constructions. The U niversity C ollege L ondon Bartletts research on the social logic of space borrowed from anthropology a notion of descriptive autonomy. A position whic h assumes spatial configurations of social and menta l habitation is autonomous and unique. This accounts for variations and diversification in morphological type and space syntax. In order to understand variations of space systems in cultural dimension the oretical positions needed a descriptive basis. Inductive: the experience an individual faculty member offers in their interpretation of the syllabus, thereby writing curricula, pedagogy as an event as a verb. Given the history of the establishment of the school, the urgency in documenting and knowing the cities/ towns in the Anglophone territories was a priority. The faculty of the CSA would provide a foru m for discussion and analysis. There was no explicit nom ination of the program as research H owever i t was deemed essential scholarship or a logic of reasoning that connected practice and theory. I was assigned the responsibility of leading urban studies for Old San Juan Puerto Rico, Castries St. Lucia, Roseau Dominica, St. Georges Grenada, Georgetown G uyana, Santo Domingo Dominican Republic, Port of Spain Trinidad and Tobago, between the academic years of 1998 to 2006. Participating students were third and fourth year level of the pre professional degree; Bachelor of Arts in Architectural Studies. The A rchitectural Institutes and its members in partnership with the CSA through the Association of Commonwealth Society of Architects in the
27 Caribbean (ACSAC) often delivered insightful lectures and seminars depositing a rich knowledge of experience through pr actice. Urban theory texts of Aldo Rossi, Kevin Lynch, Spiro Kostof, Norberg-Schulz, and Diana Agrest for example have also guided these. The Spirit of Place Let us now consider what Aldo Rossi meant by locu s in the collective memory of citizenry. Aldo R ossi thinks about locus in two ways. The first is that l ocus acquires its full meaning in the urban context as the unity of a single artifact, its materials, and the events that unfolded around it. The artifact is the place that determines it and the mind that makes it. He also thinks of locus as the characteristic principle of urban artifacts.3 The synthesis of values, architecture, permanence and history helps to understand the urban artifact as event and form. For the A nglophone Caribbean city, i ndivi dual buildings monuments, and the artifacts of longevity have been recorded by historians David Buisseret Barry Higman and Edward Crain of the U niversity of F lorida However, should we attempt to measure totality, there are physical gaps of continuity in memory. The topological is surface -etched scored, torched, cracked, mended and wind-blown by virtue of location and social histo ry. The collective memory or consciousness of the city may as Rossi suggest s be a rational oper ation demonstrated with maximu m clarity, economy and harmony. But in a condition of flux and instability the body of architectural knowledge is not always anchored in type or a single artifact Its space finds more affinity in bricolage or montage and juxtapositions. For the Caribbean city we may need to consider locus as the synthesis of architecture and impermanence in relation to history, so as to expand event and form into urban elements -streets, quarters (districts) edge conditions. Polanyis functional relation is helpful in rela ting t he 3 Aldo Rossi, The architecture of the ci ty (Cambridge Massachusetts: MIT Press, and New Yor k, New York : Oppositions Books, 1982), p.130.
28 proximal term of urban analys is in relation to a distal term. U rban space can be brought into an understanding with the tools of topology, morphology and typology. These tools can qualify urban elements. I f we also consider built for m as a vessel, the props, prods and tools that negotiate perception can assist the collective memory through a notion of archetype. The archetype embodies human (in) habitation or dwelling. Dwelling manifests in singular and multiple configurations from object to urban form. Martin Heidegger in Building Dwelling Thinking analyzes iconic representation within human engagement of a four -fold: earth, sky, mortals and the divinities. The bridge, a human -made object is an extension of our selves. Through this object we understand a relationship of the river and sky it spans, both banks. Crossing it or standing within it, occupying this bridge yields an understanding of dwelling on earth. Mortals are. W e persist through spaces by virtue of our stay among things and locations Archetypes have aspects of the symbolic and materialize in techne4. Case Studies 1998 Kingston Jamaica WI Kingston is a fairly well -documented city; its s ocial history can be read in parallel with evolution of the city. Natural disasters have fueled in vention of this city in the recovery and resilience of citizenry over centuries There may have been a number of reasons why t he capital of Jamaica relocated to what we now know as Kingston. Certainly the earthquake of 1692 and the 1703 fire in Port Royal reinforced the need for a town to be situated with greater shelter and infrastructure Resettlement was a priority. Emancipation in 1838 had a direct impact on the 4 Martin Heidegger, Building Dwelling Thinking, in Neil Leach ,ed., Rethinking architecture (London,UK: Routledge, 1996), pp.99108. Heidegger discusses tech ne: In Greek, techne meant neither art nor handicraft but rather: to make something appear, seeing, becoming. This presence for Gottfried Semper is the primordial unit, knot and joint its kernform (core form) and kuntsform (art form) as constituents of building. These elements are at once poetic (the idea) and tectonic (the fabric) of structure. Kenneth Frampton emulates a similar discourse; the tectonic object as a dichotomy between the carpenter and the poet. The tectonic act is an engagement with mater iality, the exigency of economics and poetics.
29 plantocracy system which supported the governance of the count ry being based in Spanish Town. The Industrial Revolution made possible a Railway system that connected Spanish Town to Kingston and offered an ease of developing a new urban centre. It is ambiguous as to whom the layout of Kingston is attributed. Minutes of the Council of Jamaica indi cate it was John Goeff; however the Plan of Christian Lilly 1702 is the earliest piece of cartographic evidence available for speculation : The town plan was to provide the physical basis for a resettlement scheme and accommodation for the commercial econo my of the port." 5 Blocks were typically 320 ft. X 600 ft. divided by a central service a lley, lot sizes 50ft. x 150ft. The central figure, Kingston Parade was bisected by King Street running north to south and Queen Street running east -west. These streets were 16 feet wider than typical, accommodating major traffic. The water front, Port Royal and Harbour Streets were the areas for commercial activ ity with warehouses and a few of public buildings (a playhouse and a courthouse with treasury and a post offic e). The Town Plan was centrally ordered, symme trical, orthogonal and compact. After the 1907 earthquake, the Kingston Council mandated that all public buildings were to be removed from the water s edge and internalized on the north -south primary artery of Ki ng Street. Of significance was the general use of stone and cement instead of bricks as building material for public buildings. The civic presence of the square diminished as military functions relocated to Public lands northeast of the city, Up Park Cam p. The Parade was converted into a public park: (Queen) Victoria Park. The gridiron on the Ligu a ne a Plain w as not ideal; health conditions water collection and stagnation moved residential sectors north. Historical artifacts of Kingston (downtown) make possible reading of the collective memory o f the city. Social history, after I ndependence has dismantled the urban fabric of its 5 Colin G.Clarke, Kingston Jamaica, Urban growth and social c hange 16921962 (Berkeley California : University of California Press, 1975), pp.5060
30 core. The reformatting of locus of the Caribbean city can be the situated here. Interventions of a civic nature are typically sit ed along the harbors edge. The urban studies that are conducted in Kingston are sociologically concerned with housing and making space livable. Survey instruments are tacit tools in the understanding of how people live privately and commune publicly. Surveys can assist students in bridging the domain of academia with in field work. If the social complexities of the site do not allow administering surveys then the content equips students with a phatic framework. 2000 St. Georges Grenada WI I was once aske d during the Puerto Rico study (1999), if we had any pre -determined ideas of what the study tour was going to be. It was a wide open question that inferred other questions, for example, w hat would the outcome look like, a theoretical determinism or expectations of deliverables for evaluative purposes? It was a good question posed by a third year student from the Universidad de Puerto Rico at Rio Pedras. And for that first study the Image of the City in re trospect, proved too didactic. In Grenada, there were no pre -determined ideas or ideals. The study was about a disco very, a mental mapping of an if then6 proposition. Because most of these cities (with exception of San Juan Viejo and Santo Domingo) were in transition of archiving and identifying their Heri tage list buildings, the first tasks were always to assess where the oral history resided, with whom and to what extent material evidence such as documents, photographs, drawings of the city plan or specific buildings, books and essays would sub stantiate t he oral narratives. We would walk the length of the town to mark through our body (knowledge of distance) and correlate this with what documents we sourced, sometimes diagrams without scale. 6Richard Sennett, Arousal How Intuitive Leaps Happen, in T he c raftsman (New Haven Connecticut : Yale University Press, 2008), pp. 213.
31 The city plan was just beginning to be converted to a digital format. The city planning office offered the study of a preliminary plot, advising that the actual measurement of buildings were yet to be confirmed. Essentially, the scale and accuracy of the satellite image was in the process of becoming legitimate by virt ue of the in-situ, actual, real city. The agenda of the study was n ot to conduct a measured survey. H owever, in utilizing this provisional drawing, this tool, we could navigate the city while addressing the proportion of the drawings physicality; an adjace ncy. This position became the thesis of that visit w hereby the speculative artifact, in its imprecision allowed a readin g of urban space between the on -the -ground condition and its representation. Our experience concretized a tacit knowing of the urban body. Through human procession (physical), analytical representations of experience concretized the perception of urban space. Some of these findings exploited the notion of boundary in urban form. They investigated the unfolding of boundary as a construction of urban elements, historical artifacts and topography. Others adjusted aberrations of the figure ground drawing in relation to a proportional measure of body. The year following our visit, fire engulfed the historic quarter of St. Georges. Listed buildings were lost; locus erased. The students work of that quarter became an invaluable document for the Willie Redhead Foundation who had hosted our visit. The relevance of preparing complete visual reports of these studies and distributing them to host com munities is not always carried out as a b uilt criterion for Study Tour. However, the service that academia offers a community by doing so i s a complete act of scholarship, a kinetic pollination of the knowledge base of academia. 2006 The Valley, Anguill a BVI. By the fourth Study Tour, I discerned that it would be possible to integrate these investigations into a studio project, an intervention by allocating specific site and program In
32 Polanyi s words sense giving The proposal was accepted by internal and external examiners and expanded the investigation as an interrogation of perception. The years following deliberated adjustments on the size of the brief and level of engagement the program offered. This curriculum adjustment is on -going. It is that c onscious reckoning of technology transfer .7 The interventions that developed out of the town study 2006, in retrospect, had the right fit of student cognition level: scale of town, program or brief and building type. The Valley, Anguillas town center is r ural, there are two main arterial roads that intersect and constitute th e town. The built fabric is low -lying and sparse. Delineation of plot and property lines is seldom. Timber buildings in the Valley are crafted with shipbuilder details although more re silient material entered the island in the 1940s adapting the archetype. More than two thirds of the island is private property accounting for an inability of the local governing entity to develop a town centre, streetscapes including sidewalks or establi sh zoning regulation. Building regulations introduced in 1990 are subject to personal scrutiny and implementation. The citizenry are unwilling to transfer ownership of private lands. The program for intervention could not be decided until field notes were returned to CSA and we had an opportunity to discern the character of place and potential urban form, from imagery and diverse data. Unlike previous studies where the site and program for intervention were ear -marked before leaving the place of study, thi s distancing of experience encouraged reflection and insight in the restating of the project brief. The Valley is not urban. We had to program a series of sites with very legible urban elements: plaza (square), promenade and the spatial joint of an interse ction. Understanding the public domain of urban form became the main 7 Ibid
33 objective. Studies of ancient cities supplemented studio critiques as well as charrettes on urban form. This provided an opportunity for History curriculum to be directly applied in studi o. The programs for the sites were conceived around the maritime history and the real need for a civic center. This center was scheduled with areas for a campus plaza that would adjoin the existing administrative offices of the municipal government. The absence of urban form in Anguilla limited the complexity of the on the -ground study. As lecture r s we had to construct a tacit tool kit in structuring particulars from the field notes to legible public urban elements a more discursive reading of urban eleme nts. The intervention tool yielded meaning in its representation. They offered points of conjecture for the Anguilla planning authorizes when the project for a new Government plaza materialized in 2008. To confirm Polanyis observations that T he less tang ible the focus, the more purely mental is its ob ject: from a meaning that consists in an object we pass to meaning consisting in a conception 8 For CSA the more tangible the focus, the more physical is its object. The effectiveness of curricula as a tool crystallized through societal consensus, this is the act of scholarship when academic production directly affects the societal concerns in its place of anchor. 2008 Gainesville Florida USA The UF School of Architecture (UFSoA) is structured similar ly t o CSA in that the first four years are pre -professional with the Graduate studies completing the professional degree in architecture. Design Studio 3 (D3) is the first semester of the second year of architectural studies. It is a qualifying year as an int ernal assessment for acceptance into the upper division is made at the end of the second year. The 2008 D3 syllabus outlined proje ct 2 as a cultural construction: Structure of the City+ Myth of the City=the Idea of the Ci ty Faculty decided that the area of 8 Michael Polanyi, Knowing and b eing Marjorie Grene, ed.(Chicago, Illinois : University of Chicago Press., 1969), p.190.
34 study need not be a place the students would visit. In the unit I taught, the decision to study Caribbean cities had two big hurdles: the availability of data and the ability of students to understand the cultural context sufficiently to intervene in p roject 3. Project 3 was written as the making of an intersection between program and the idea of place. A specific schedule of areas was not required as part of the D3 syllabus thereby reducing creative constraints. The CSA urban study documents of St Ge orges for 2000 and 2008 and the study of Port of Spain Trinidad, 2007 were utilized as instructional material for teaching D3 at t he University of Florida (UF). Together the two cities offered a comparative analysis of Caribbean urban space. The UF Map L ibrary was useful in that we could have a general discussion about the region and how certain maps are constructed, for example how to read between topographic and statistical information on rainfall. We could also have conversations about heat exchange of island territories and how trade winds and other environmental factors create micro-climates within specific communities. This kind of knowledge CSA students who visited these islands would feel through their bodies. The tactile quality of these over -siz ed maps was more immediate than the Google earth search. St Georges was not clearly delineated in Google earth unlike other cities, for example Kingston, Jamaica. Planometrics from my personal library of Kingston and Port of Spain enabled instruction in t he understanding of scale in city plans. For St. Georges this data was gleaned from the CSA document. Other references, audio visual and literary, included: the Banyan Production documentary of Crossing Over in the music library, relating the presence of West Africa in the music of the Caribbean, specifically Trinidad and Tobago. The works of Nobel Laureate Derek Walcott, and the collaborative project of Derek Walcott and American Romare Bearden and Milla Cozart Riggios texts on Carnival were instrumenta l. These words and images as components of tacit knowledge were endowed with
35 experience of tone, color, texture, atmosphere of place. YouTube was a useful source in that it offered multiple visual perceptions or appearances of what could constitute phenom ena: shape and motion. The distance of place insisted on reconstructing a tool kit that coul d embody the identity of place By utilizing a territory that is provisional in normative discourse without pre -conceived images as published work or part of a sch ool culture, the rhetorical aspect of studio critique can be waived. For example students and educators alike become accustomed to their school culture. The e xpectations of image production and the language of making which are deposited from previous year s sets the benchmark of q uality for upcoming students. It also engrains school culture. By introducing different ways of seeing and thinking about the same discipline, preconceived images of wh at a project should look like are infused with dialogue which offsets rhetorical production. The more distanced the field of recognition the more enriched the probes become. T he fabrication of a whole (intervention) from in tangible parts (the virtual body) required the tooling of an interpretative mechanism. The me chanism located the intellectual reading of Polanyis sense giving in the domain of exploring architectural elements: floor, wall, roof, membra ne, armature, materiality. The intervention became a re -codification of techne in relation to its virtual conte xt The students worked in self assigned groups. The relevance of group work is a mechanism of Constructivist learning. The combinative aspect of knowing Caribbean shape, motion an d society was further probed program matically as e vent space. Within an intuit ive process of tacit knowing the surprise was the ability of students to grasp place without having been there.
36 The structuring of syllabi in the case studies above is flexible in different ways. The CSA examples leave the distal term (urban space) open -en ded where as the UF S cho o l of A rchitecture examples build abstraction in the proximal term (intersection of program and place). The former suspends methodology whereas the latter scripts a method The difference may be a factor of variation in the level of student, third year (semester 2) versus second year (semester 1), or the proximities to the tangible aspects of perception and conception. The inverse positions of experience in the examples of CSA and UF students studying Caribbean cities are the differe nces between tangible and intangible foci. Both stations of tacit knowledge, the tangible and intangible induce memory. The CSA examples do so with tools formalized discursively or discovered in reading enunciatively. The UF School of Architecture example, with an invented cultural tool kit grounded in abstraction Within these case studies, a notion of archetype is also constructed between tangible and intangible foci. The actual place persists within and without simulated constructs of the represented and imagined place. Representation is the shell of imagination and imagination suspends its representational gravity. What remains is atmospheric. This gravity is the systemic order of topology, morphology and typology. Representation denotes the simulated dw elling space of the archetype. The position in-between fabrication and the fabricated is of otherness; an enigma. This position suspends the body as a known artifact. In becoming place, an indwelling occurs between the phenomenal and function aspects of ta cit logic. The suspended body moves between the parts to whole dialectic occupying the intangible unknown space of conjecture. Memory of the actual place becomes a montage field that resists, articulates and yields impressions of type or the single artifac t.
37 The fluid and intangible nature of the memory field is inhabited by wonder and illumination that expands its conceptual potential. In so doing the field may become an autonomous context, text or wrapped about other axioms and new points of departure. In probing further the enigmatic body, this paper will investigate ways of crafting the intangible, through a discussion of media and medium as well as the role simulation plays in architecture pedagogy. Figure 2 1. K nowledge diagram 02
38 Figure 2 2. UF D 3 urban studies of Port of Spain, T rinidad and T obago.
39 CHAPTER 3 TACIT MEDIA During my thesis year at The Cooper Union, John He jd uk walked into the studio and delivered the word aura My classmates and I had to discover what aura meant to us ind ividually. In that year, Hejduk wou ld visit the thesis rooms at random hours. Once while working in the evening, I felt a presence; qui et of large stature and looming like the vaults of Chartres. In the darkness of the room he delivered a desk critique. He said to me, sometimes you come back to the same thing for a life time. We spoke about practice and the importance of working in one place, knowing your desk, the space and things surrounding that define your acts of creation. We spoke about books and he thumbed through my copy of Gunnar Asplunds Rizzoli 1988 publication, which traveled with me everywhere. At the end of that conversation, he said take care of your books and your eyes. There are two issues I would like to discuss in recounting this memor y. The first is how tools can be invented or used as probes towards invention, and the second is the idea of location as the integration of sentient body knowledge: the distal and proximal structure in tacit knowing. Media and Medium During the New York years, the chimerical9 light of the Caribbean found its residual in tone. My bit of aura was a movement within Mozarts Requiem, the Sequentia: Lacrimosa that became the text of the thesis. The program of music and architecture has constantly resurfaced in my teaching of design studio and theory. 9 Michele Serres, The t roubadour of k nowledge (Ann Arbor Michigan : The University of Michigan Press, 2000), p. 17. Serres discussed this place as mysterious where the body is knotted to the soul.
40 The notion of Aura gravitates to Wal ter Benjamins work on the modern condi tion. Malcolm McCullough discussed Benjamin s aura in terms of an archaic condition, the fading of authenticity that occurs when an object i s reproduced, when its aura fades, an artifact loses its history, its cultural identity. 10 Richard Sennett suspends authenticity as program in reading Benjamin aura bathed in its own light, -to describe the wonder that a thing exists. 11 In my invest igations between music and architecture, the obj ective is transcendence. Transcendence in the transfer of sound media to a visual medium, from fluidity, sounds waves, echo and reflection of a temporal continuum to a visual one. In translation, the object i s not copied but interpreted. Its presence resonates. Structuring Fluidity : Speculative Inquiry Like water s space, colorless and transparent, it absorbs its context. Water is a medium and an instrument, it reflects, absorbs, transmits, diffracts and distorts matter causing visual interference. Drawing flow is contradictory, a drawn water scene can be static yet the waters energy can be represented. The calligraphic stroke of meditative flow, marks the transfer of dynamic energy into a restrained celebrat ion of form. The abstraction of an ink blotch induces the incidental nature of flow. Water embraces life and death. As mass, its weight and foreboding depth of color engages the void. Its movement demands respect as well as acknowledgement of the potential strength and fragility of the human body. Water as a material can be carved, water sport people understand the dynamic of water through the tool used: Vessel, fin, board, bodysuit. The bodys agility in water through the skill of operating a tool expands our knowledge of fluidity. 10 Malcolm McCollough, Abstracting craft: the practiced digital h and (Cambridge Massachusetts : The MIT Press, 1996), p.46. 11 Richard Sennett, The craftsman (New Haven, Connecticut : Yale University Press, 2008), p.211.
41 Materiality also carries its own knowledge; like water it carries its condition for making and its spatial language. The co -tangency of materiality and methodology in s tructuring knowledge is understood through a tool. In the connection between sound media and a visual medium the capacity of a medium to be fluid signals its potential to transcend the aural properties of the media. Concrete, like p laster changes states from powder to liquid; it casts movement. Wax also changes in s tates of fluidity relative to temperature. Wax can be luminous whereby it holds light waves. The aural conditions of fluidity, memory and residue can be materially bound. Material exploration of sentient perceptions of sound and vision can also be explored through touch. In The Eyes of The Skin Juhani Pallasmaas cont emplates the touch of vision, even the eye touches; the gaze implies as unconscious touch, bodily mimesis and identification 12 What is the feel of sound, is it smooth and cool or rough, brok en, dissonant? For the plenum project, a UFSoA Design Studio 2 (first year pre -professional degree level D2 ) syllabus assignment, our studio unit explored making visual sou nd. One of the graduate teaching assistants happened to be a violinist with a siblin g composer. A student in the class had just transferred from being a musi c major to study architecture. This musical awareness of the two students infused the studio forum with knowledge and expanded the exercise of diagramming perception to a structural r eading of the piece selected. We conversed about time, timing between measures, patterns and distinction of voices (instruments) in relation to chords. Great conversation for first year students. Three -dimensional diagrams followed with parallel investiga tions into qualities of light and qualities of sound, the latter restrained in dimension to cube forms. 12 Juhani Pallasmaa, The eyes of the s kin : architecture and the s enses (Chichester, West Sussex, England: Wiley Academy, 2005), p.42.
42 Translations of materiality fro m wax and plaster casts had mixed results some casts set while others collapsed or didnt cure. There may have been nume rous reasons, use of differing plasters, from different sources, the fall in atmospheric temperature at night, the preparation of the molds. This issue situated the material / dematerialized conceptual position of the project in the non-conceptual (physica l) domain of problem solving. We had to reconsider the medium without losing conceptual integrity in the materialization or embodiment of thought. This kind of on -site problematic is often encountered in practice particularly with refurbishments or renovat ions. Procedural decisions ensued. F ragmenting the cast diagram through section cuts was agreed after discussion w ith the wood shop manager And although we could no t discern why the plaster did not set, the plaster craftsperson from the Fine Arts departme nt was willing to give a talk on procedure with pointers the next time around. I assigned drawing the section cuts as a way of inducing memory of the diagram but now as physical objects, the tactile cavity, void, could be occupied by the imagination and in assigning scale. The diagrams then had to be reconstructed as a provisional construct: wire scaffold. A group decision was taken to create nested transitional volumes (structural or volumetric) and insert these with in the scaffold canopy. The day of crit ique was sunny, we looked at these translations outside in the atrium and what followed was unexpected and illuminating in the way Polanyi assigns intuition. An understanding of plenum for this unit evolved out of a conceptual exploration of the intangibl e becoming body through the resistance of materiality. This resistance is an immed iacy of phenomena, transferring from hand to hand, dexterity in thinking13 b etween representation 13 Michele Ser res, The troubadour of k nowledge (Ann Arbor Michigan : The University of Michigan Press, 2000), p. 12.
43 and medium -media The journey of discovery, investigation and transitions cr eated an aperture for adjusting pedagogy based on the level of material knowledge. Plenum was discerned from the proximal relation of the first term of overhead condition and the second term making sound visible or tangible. The intensity of sunlight proje cted shadow drawings which registered multiple variations of the embodied music. The constructs visually compressed becoming diaphragms14; models and drawings simultaneously Figure 3 1. UF D2 aural studies 01 14 Merriam Webster new collegiate dictionary, s eventh edition .( Springfield, Massachusetts: G&C Merriam Company. 1972) diaphragm: a device that limits the aperture of a lens or optical system.
44 Figure 3 2. UF D2 aural studies 02 Fig ure 3 3. UF D2 diaphragm
45 Location: The Integration of Sentient Knowledge Your seat, desk, drawing equipm ent, books, conditions of light and vie ws are tools and extensions of self. T he proportions of your body are all part of a personal ergo-meter and graph that transmits meaning into the things you make. If the studio (classroom) is a hot desk, this space tends to be more of an interior (private) domain with the capacity to operate in multiple sites. Although the laptop makes us transitory, within the publ ic domain, we still seem to find spots that carry the character of self. By sitting on the floor, on chairs, in a caf by the window, a qui et spot, a comfortable position at the conference table, under a tree, near a partic ular mark or stain on the floor, wall, ceiling, within the passage of shadow we carry the character of self By extension, positioning is metaphorical of the way you occupy a site. Where is the suns position of most intensity? Which direction is the prevailing wind and how intense does it get? What if all these grand trees were removed by a hurricane? Where is my neighbor? How do I encase my electrical power supply? How can I direct natural light, harness the wind? In the example above, the diaphragm as device displaces location. It co llapses the tangible and intangible poles of the object and its re -presentation. The device evokes wonder in the inbetween reading of its real and imagined self. It simulates the aural space of music in order to inhabit it. The simulated constructs are l ocations of the enigmatic body. They occupy the memory of a temporal continuum. That is its site. Inhabiting these constructs posits the idea of locus as dispositional within a conceptual terrain of location. In discussion of the location as the integrator of sentient knowledge I will now focus on the personal computer and software tools of digital media as well as an experience from private practice.
46 Tacit Knowledge in Digital Media With respect to tacit knowing as discussed in chapter one the utterance s of people are ultimately based on demonstrations, materialized entities as tacit experiences. In our capacity to experience the same neural processes of another person we achieve gradual variations of in dwelling. The independent nuances of this are a pe rsonal knowledge experienced through the body, a physiological knowledge. In digital media this knowing bridges interface with the instrument (digital s ystem), cognition of its tools ( various software ) and the self regulating extension of desk in the confi guration of a toolkit. Discussion of these will be centered on software. Software is used in studio as 2 d imensional and 3 -d imensional spatial projections from diagrams and highly constructed (modeled and rendered ) structures to design aids in geometric p arameterization (type and variation of type ). The advocates for software integration in studio inquiry embr ace the tool kit of operations, the mental modes and enactive relation to symbolic and iconic knowledge that this extension of our selves offers. The expanding ubiquity of software usage, its hermetic domain of activity, the point and click or roll tooled distancing of ambidexteri ty that a tactile knowledge of things offers I believe, are waves of resistance for design invention in the digital realm. Of the d rawing software I have utilized, orientation is structured by the Cartesian coordinates. Auguste Chois y s axon ometry was synthetic in that it implied precision of measurements in the x, y, and z axes. Its abstraction anticipated the digital drawi ng realm. Orbiting while constructing a three dimensional model has realized a virtual dynamic of axonometric projection. The option for a user to change views, isometric, perspective and input camera angles and focal lengths, inserts the creator or observ ers presence into a drawing system. The multiplicity of views orbited or constructed are cessations that approximate Husserls
47 noesis Each act of perception noesis constitutes an overall meaning or manifested act noema The one -sidedness of any par ticular experience o f an individual act is at the same time experienced through the noematic system. The phenomenological structures of particulars are nuances within tacit knowledge In the early versions of AutoC AD, the flexibility to create an object t ype as blocks for reproduction and / or exportation left authorship in the domain of the user. With real time transformations evident in Building Information Modeling (BIM) software like Revit, the capacity to create family types remains but is more imbedde d in the specific command route of grammar. The advantages of real time approximate the notion of orbiting in that one creates within a system of multiple versions By constructing in 3-dimensions the simultaneity of correlated drawings positively increas es thinking in 3 -di mensions. An objects sections and elevations are simultaneous with plans Parametric assignment of family types in Revit is limited. The user can develop a unique family type or eyedrop a component from a web library. The limit ed base pallet increases the necessity for a personal development of work space and tools. The participation of any user in configuring their work space integrates a personal profile of information with an electronic network community: a personal library with acc ess routes embodying an individual mental map. Mental mapping constructs the relative importance of information (a hierarchy) as a dimension system of interface with navigation operations. The aspects of software operability that affect the re -configuration of space include: Real time: real time has the potential of group collaborations on projects from authors in different physical locations. The potentia l for a virtual school exists as long as practicalities of compatible computer system profiles for pro cessing are consistent and the users agility in the software tool being utilized is somewhat equivalent.
48 Interoperability : the interoperability of software via the translation of file types also offers image construction and transferability of points of v iew in montage construction E xamples of 3 d imensional renderings, superimposed with vector drawings and imported into pixilated layered images explore the simultaneous aspect of sentient perception. Varied points of view that are realized in the assembly of your interface are an extension of your desk. The d ocking of tools, opening the pallets you use, ergonomically scores an individual itinerary, the path of least re sistance, logic for creating and making with the software. The selection of your softwa re and portals for communication via your navigating system creates identity. This is a personalized tool, like the fountain pen whose nib is an impression of the weight your hands dexterity as it distributes strokes of ink. Software Tools During this aca demic year I have been working on a research project with the UF School of Architecture. The project is entitled, Pedagogical development and Curricula integration of Digital Simulation techniques for Solar and Wind Effect s on Passive Design Strategies. The stages of the research included software evaluation, selection and testing, with the aim of identifying a pedagogical strategy for implementation. T he preliminary criteria for software selection included the following: the type of climatic or environm ental analysis simulated, the date of the software release or update, availab ility of academic licenses and/ or student downloads, interoperability and the availability of literature for example, white papers and resource centers that supported learning an d communicat ion between tool and user and/ or product and user. It was found that Ecotect for environmental analysis and Ansys Inc Software Product for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) were the choice of software utilized in architecture schools by three of five academic institutions. Ecotect was procured by Autodesk during this study and although the program operates only with the Windows operating system, the range of
49 Autodesk 3D drawing products including Re vi t Architecture, Maya and AutoCAD 3D as well as its availability to the Academic community with free student downloads were determining selection factors of interoperability and portability. Climate Consultant 4 and Psychrometric Chart Tutorial (2008) are also probable support pre -modeling programs for site specific conditions. A survey questionnaire was administered by non random assignment for practical reasons within a particular studio or digital media course to i ndividuals who were using one or any of the above -m entioned pre -selected software Respondents were students with experience ranging from undergraduate to professional. Learning domains varied across Lab, Lecture, St udio and Home situations and were interdisciplinary inferring portability outside of software quality (design and p erforma nce) measures. All students were first time users of the software with fifty percent at the novice level. Time spent interfacing ranged from 24 h ours to 36 h ours to other, per week. Prior and fluent digital media knowledge of one responde nt did not seem to vary the results of the surveys significantly. The software utilized by respondents included Autodesk Revit and Autodesk Ecotect and Energy 10, which is the result of a collaborative project of the N ational R enewable E nergy L aboratory, Center for Buildin g and Thermal Systems, the Sustainable Buildings Industry Council (SBIC), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and the Berkeley Solar Group.1 The Revit and Ecotect software ranked high on its communicative variables. T hese included system performance, e ase of software use for quick as well as complex studies, legibility of data feedback and pattern of use and a recognizable range of commands. Interface 1 National Renewable Energy Laboratory (2008, July 25). Buildings Research Energy 10. Retrieved January 23, 2009, from http://www.nrel.gov/buildings/energy10.html
50 and language comparisons were marked with AutoCAD Civil 3D and Desi gn Builder for Ecotect and Auto CAD Architecture for Revit. Energy 10 s communicative variables ranged in results, yielding high efficiency of system resources and software, medium ease of use for preliminary or quick studies and very difficult use for complex analysis and simulation, sugges ting complexity of language recognition. Although data feedback was easy to interpret, the respondent consistently marked no guidance in problem solving by the software providers. No guidance by way of workbook s, online tutorials, website or online forum support. A primary obstacle was noted as Energy 10 cannot build a model only input numbers. The Revit and Ecotect respondents ranked the reliability of software interface support accessible by way of online forums, peer groups and electronic workbooks however, not through books or j ournals. These results suggested a high Usability under ISO 9000 standards inferring Portability. Interoperability with both Windows and Mac Operating systems is limited although plug -ins across th e Auto desk suite of softwa re are possible. Once the software had been selected we focused on its direct application to a specific building analysis. Again, the general skill range of the users varied from the advanced digital practitioner to the novice. Each student had differing a pproaches to the learning process between the Auto desk Revit and Ecotect All four students undertook different cases studies and with differing degrees of documentation. Information or data varied from measured sketches to measured drawings, design develo pment drawings and construction drawings. Climatic analysis, with the Ecotect software required a simple model. This meant minimizing these drawings to diagrammatic data. The drawings are approximations of the actual artifact. The importing format was one of the first obstacles we encountered. Online tutorials
51 were very useful. One student with a background in engineering spear head ed the journey, sourcing two valuable tutorials and e -mailed these web site s to the rest of the group. We figured out by error t hat model units (imperial vs. metric) when importing the DXF file need to be in metric, otherwise there would be no accuracy of building scale. The model had to be imported without triangulation, and nonessential element l ayers edited out. Once imported, we had to figure out how to generate zones. Assigning material properties to elements of each zone would become critical for thermal analysis. Very early we realized that although we had varied experience in software knowledge, it was best to work together in the same location/room so we could communally try to untangle interface problems, issues of language acquisition and forging mental maps In the functional relation of tacit knowledge, we are aware of that from which we are attending: mental mapping to another thing and thus construing virtual space. These navigation and cognition factors are elements of skill acquisition. Skill acquisition of software also occurs on multiple tiers between the programmer and the general user. Generally, the Graphic Use r Interface, the modeless2 operation of command prompting and the systemic development of mental model patterning, increase perception and cognition at universal and individual scales. Recognition of icons and recognition of similar functions of icons betw een varied drawing a nd imaging software internalize action patterns reciprocating skill and practice. The internalization of these parts as Polanyi notes in th e structure of tacit knowledge makes ourselves dwell in them and the inverse to externalize them is apprehended by our dwelling in the boundary conditions of a lower principle on which a higher 2 Malcolm McCullough, Abstracting craft: the practic ed digital h and (Cambridge Massachusetts : The MIT Press, 1996), pp. 158162. McCullough explains modeless as where you decide what the system does next without its prompting.
52 principle operates 3 T he higher principle in this instance would be intent. A hands -on day workshop conducted but an Autodesk representative accelerated this process. The all day Autodesk workshop clarified many issues with interface and interoperability between 2010 Revit 2010 Ecotect and Green Building studio introducing the html file and their reporting potentials. We worked with 2009 Revit and 2009 Ecote ct. The tendencie s of Ecotect were described as effectiveness in preliminary design development with many variables testing multiple assumptions. As we started from the position of a known object the climatic analysis with Ecotect would be most effective if a specific hypothesis could be identified and tested across the field of analyses Weather tool There are numerous charts of detailed climatic information that can be generated with the Ecotect weather tool. This information is location specific and dow n loadable from the United S tates Department of Energy and Square One websites. The tabulation of climatic data is typically available in different formats:TRY ( test reference year) TMY (typical meteorological year) and WYEC (weather year for energy calcula tions) the US Energy site offers EPW, Energy Plus STAT and Zip files of both. TMYs range from 1960s to the most recent: TMY3. Not all global positions are available on these sites. In loading the climatic data for the Caribbean, I found that most of th e islands a re hosted on the Square One web site; this information is in a DAT format, numerical and requires manual translation and assignment of values. As the weather tool fixed format starts its values at 0 instead of 1, the FixedFormatdat.file is not ea sily correlated 1:1. I found this translation problematic for assuring accuracy, the format tab of the 3 Michael Polanyi, The Structure of Consciousness, in Marjorie Grene, ed.. Kno wing and b eing (Chicago Illinois : University of Chicago Press, 1969), p.214.
53 import dialogue box has a TMY value but when this item was selected for two locations in the Caribbean, the weather data did not appear in the weather to ol grafts. I had to locate an available TMY file with the nearest longitude and latitude relation to Grenada WI the location of my case study I found files for Martinique on the US Department of Energy website For the purposes of this study the variatio n in solar radiation would not be as problematic as opposed to a computational fluid dynamic analysis of wind in the differences between Fort -de France and Westerhall Point. In addition, climatic da ta for particular locations, for example rainfall data may require manual input. Charts generated from the weather tool allow for highly visual readings of general annual conditi ons and specific time of year or day (Figure 4 1) and (Figure 4 2) From these, cross references between radia tion, humidity and wind for example, interpolate the specificities of what season of year and what time the highs, lows and means occur into a generalized understanding of evaporative cooling of an island territory. I isolated March, June, August and December as strategic weather stations for the solar and thermal analysis in Ecotect. Another very useful chart in the weather tool is the Solar position optimum orientation and solar radiation charts. These allow composite reading of an ideal on earth location for reduction of solar gain as opposed to an existing condition. The heat losses and gains in the differences between these two conditions alone can generate multiple exercises for climatic design students as a tacit learning tool T he gleaning between particular analyses in relation to the comprehension of a whole macroclimate context navigates dwelling.
54 Figure 4 1. Radiation, humidity and wind charts. Figure 4 2.Solar positioning and general annual conditions charts. The workshop allowed us to also focus the scope o f the research. An aspect of Ecotect is its inability to detail air flow such as convection loops or single zone vertical stratification. However with this limitation it is able to: Simulate the sun path and contextual impact so as to map sun and shade patterns throughout the day. Calculate or approximate indoor and outdoor temperatures, and influences on the building envelope.
55 Determine approximate thermal values of building materials. This data is assigned through material selection of the floor, wall ceiling, roof and other building elements. The materials pallet is limited ; however U values can be input manually. C olor assignment may also alter these variables. Composite material cross sections of construction elements can also be assigned. This is an important factor for non temperate climatic zones. Like Revit the materials pallet for these kinds of automated or parametrically controlled programs need expansion for a personalized kit of parts. Determine the consistency and effectiveness of shading and cooling strategies. The determining of immediate and regional contextual conditions (e.g. coastal, hillside and valley) would be possible if integrated into the zone as abutting zones and or reconstructed elements. The following analyses were car ried out in order to address the above mentioned scope of the research. S olar geometry The sun path an d contextual patterns generated from solar geometry were more comprehensive than the Revit modeling of the annual and daily sun path. The Ecotect model may als o be viewed in section so one may ascertain where the combined azimuth and altitude angles occur within the volume. These sectional views read in conjunction with the solar range butterfly diagrams (Figure 4 3 ) assist in a 3 -d imensional visualization of th e temporal aspect of light and shadow, inversely radiation and or cooling of the building. Figure 4 3 Butterfly diagrams
56 Thermal comfort The objective of my analysis was to assess thermal comfort in relation to solar radiation. I isolate d the open volu me of the case study, assigned material s and discern ed the thermal properties of this zone. I intended to measure assumptions on how this open zone modified the comfort of the entire building section. Fo r the thermal analysis output, the cor relation of dayli ght analysis with the sun path studies appea red to be accurate for the open volume H owe ver, there was a discrepancy in the daylight analysis chart for the entire building. The issue may have be en how the software read the voids. Voids in the zones were modeled as complete open ings in the building envelope The daylight analysis for the entire building may have been accurate by indicating that the south west volume would receive the most amount of daylight. I f so the Mean Radiant Temperature of that zone should have be en higher in centigrade degrees than the north facing side of the building. In assessing the overall thermal comfort the data indicates a required air velocity of 2.3m/s to mitigate radiation. The ambiguities in the clarity of output would require a more in -depth focus on thermal analysis. Unlike other imaging software Ecotect is an ana lytical tool. One advantage is that the output is not limited to nume rical data, the data is visual. A disadvantage is its ability to generate form primarily in the horizontal, analyzing through the plan. A strong asset is its importation of 3 -d imensional building files in its designated orientation relative to the compass north point. Pedagogical Positioning As student and researcher actively engage d in the th ing being studied, I have been immersed in acquiring agility in digital media. By l earning various software tools I have been able to hone an approach about the potential relationships between these tools and studio inquiry. This point of view has been informed by doing. The digital modeling of a series of Caribbean modern objects served two functions. It documented works of architecture relevant to the body
57 of pedagogical reference in history, theory and climatic design. The document as artifact is at onc e conserved and malleable. It can be altered, thus becoming a tangible an d intangible work for probing questions about passive design. As a digital entity, it can be communicated across tropical and subtropical territories and inserted in any location. T he adaptation of a universal building and aesthetic system was one on the mandates of the modern movement. Regional strategies imbedded in built entities offer a comprehensive body of empirical knowledge in the adaptation of machined works of architecture. The knowledge is integral with systemic ways of making or crafting architecture as is evidenced in recent publications that document modern object in the Caribbean. Th rough this symbiotic condition of a formal adaptation to the tropical zone, a regionalis m is rooted historically. Few example of civic structures of the early 19th century that were modeled from European pattern books still exist. These models were adapted or creolized to suit climatic needs. The shed or piazza, is a fenestrated envelope, an indoor/ outdoor space. The piazza is an identifiable element of Jamaican Georgian architecture. Th e modern movements brise -solei l is also varied in its reinvention in the tropics. The creolized element results from a sense reading and sense giving operatio n. The adaptation is an intellectual reading of lived experiences in that climatic zone. Tangentially, t he digital artifact as a malleable real time construction implicitly offers sense reading and sense giving relations that materialize in the formal var iations of parametric climatic elements. Moreover empirical knowledge as models can be correlated with digital analysis as a means of understanding the effectiveness of both. The pedagogical intent resides in the boundary conditions of specific probes. The personal computer a nd its software tools transform tacit knowing in the way that we perceive sentient experiences through mental mapping, representation and navigation within an
58 objects spatial field. The electronic device and its media4 extend the ran ge of tacit knowing. In the understanding of intent we transfer knowing to knowledge. This transfer is movement that oscillates across thresholds of intent, instilling insight or communication in its virtual orbit. Knowledge is the medium5 imbued with skil l. By skill I mean a combined relation of skill as abil ity with the software tool and intuition. Skill can be intuition in Polanyis words rooted in our natural sensibilities to hidden patterns and developed to effectiveness by a process of learning6. T he combined relation integrates sentient experiences of the natural environment with the digital realm. Whether or not a sentient knowledge of location on earth (a macro -climate condition) is understood as the intuitive grain in the tacit knowing of place through the use of climatic software is conjectural. Knowing micro-climate is understood by the lived, felt experience of place. The humidity of Gainesville in the summer is unbearable. Although the weather tool infers a North East and North West wind that cools in the evening between the range of 2030km/h, the density of trees seems to deflect that cooling of my skin; the buildings envelope. However, lived experience of varied climates allows one to tacitly know what 14 knts of wind or its above noted equivalent, feels like. This skill of intuition intervenes in knowledge acquisition and offers ways of sensing micro -climate associatively across the various weather tool data. Inversely, kinematics the study of constant motion in serial mechanism and the analytical mapping of this abstracted structure can inform our tacit knowledge of place. This can be achieved with digitally 4 Media : pl of medium, a substance regarded as the means of transmission of a force or effect. Merriam Webster new collegiate dictionary, s eventh e dition .( Springfield, Massachu setts: G&C Merriam Company. 1972) 5 Medium: a channel of communication. Merriam Webster new c olleg iate dictionary, s eventh e dition .( Springfield, Massachusetts: G&C Merriam Company. 1972) 6 Michael Polanyi, The Unaccountable Element in Science, in Marjori e Grene, ed., Knowing and b eing (Chicago Illinois : University of Chicago Press, 1969), p.118.
59 simulated solar geometry. R esolution of these variables is deposited in the intervention, the climatic archetype and its adapta tion. The pedagogical positioning of Ecotect can take two points of departure. The software tool may be imbedded in the matrix of curricula in a way that sequentially fits the competencies of environmental studies. The software tool may also be independent of sequencing competencies and act as a catalyst. With such specificity there is a potential for expansion which could engage curricula at multiple levels. If skill acquisition of the tool is imbedded, two pre requisite courses combined with less mediated experiences of the environment would be necessary. The student would then utilize the software and experience the micro -climate of place. These courses would be preliminary knowledge in environmental technology so as to understand units of measure and com posite thermal graft and knowledge of drawi ng digitally, preferably with interoperable tools The interdisciplinary nature of the project in conjunction with scale and site of project would be factors that influence the tools effectiveness in learning. Com plex 3 dimensional modeling and material assignments of element may not allow the comparative analysis of temperature, humidity, radiation and air movement variables. If the tool becomes a catalyst, its speculative capacity in technology transfer would ge nerate a broader operative field. Points of departure could include: aspects of mental mapping and interoperability which have been discussed previously in this chapter as translations between drawing file types. These translations in juxtaposed relations or diagrammed modes of analyses could be considered abstractions or armatures for further perceptual studies between the actual, simulated and virtual. For example, if we utilize the butterfly diagrams (Figure 4 3) as a point of departure, we can generate a specific solar geometry range from the object body, the artifact. By
60 suspending the body, making it transparent or creating a void in its place, the temporal field becomes autonomous. The field of resonance defers assignment of a fixed place succumbing t o the ea rths solar rotational path. This field as text is mnemonic and fluid As context it expands the conceptual potential for pedagogical intervention. Both the discursive and speculative points of departure for Ecotect, bridge the tangible and intangi ble aspects of tools skill range, (Figure 4 4 ). Figure 4 4 Knowledge diagram 04, Ecotect pedagogy positioning.
61 CHAPTER 4 DESK: THE TACIT CONTRACT In 1993, I embarked on private architectural p ractice with two other partners and w e established a limi ted liability company. In 1994 we received a national award for the design of two monuments. These are enshrined in the nations Heroes Park in Kingston, Jamaica WI. I would like to discuss the locus of these objects as part of the collective memory of citizenry. As artifacts they are somewhere in between sculpture, and an architectural object. As wor ks of architecture they shelter. They are inhabited mentally and physically. Identifying an essential quality of the national figures these object s would ens hrine meant identifying an essence that would resonate symbolically with citizens. We had to create artifacts that would embody a shared history and future aspirations, artifacts that would be made well, to weather climate and perpetual use. In Alan Colq uhoun s discussion of figures or tropes, he suggests their effectiveness resides in their synthetic power; they crystallize a series of complex experiences which are diffuse and imperceptible.1 Colquhoun discusses gestural figures as a means of arousal, facilitating memorizations of ideals. The two abstract monuments activate a symbolic memory. In the example of the monument to Nanny of the Windward Maroons ,2 w e described the project like this: Central to the theme of the memorial is the sound produced by the conical element that crowns the main vertical structure. The sound of the Abeng, so crucial to the Maroons tactics against the English soldiers, echoes metaphorically through the involutes spiral 1 Alan Colquhoun, Ess ays in architectural c riticism modern a r c hitecture and historical c hange ( Cambridge Massachusetts : MIT Press and New York New York : Oppos ition s Books 1989) pp. 191. 2 Jamaica National Heritage Trust Competition Brief, Marguerite Curtin, ed. (Kingston: Jamaica National Heritage Trust, 1993) She rises out of the ground, evoking the spirit of a female warrior, Queen Mother, a respectful f igure of power and authority It is specula ted that Nanny may have been of West African, Akan (Ashanti / Fante) origins, a free woman who never allowed herself to experience enslavement. A leader of the Windward Maroons during the first half of the eighte enth century, her history resounds as a tactical and unrelenting fighter against the English soldiers during the Fi rst Maroon War of 1734 1739. Nannys first tactical outpost was located within the Blue Mountains and as such, her memorial, located to the east of the park, with the Blue Mountains as a back drop.
62 formatio n at the base of the memorial. The seconda ry vertical structures with their pivoting arms and Cacoon heads are kinetic. They represent Nannys Maroon guerilla warriors sensitive to the slightest stir of the wind. Compass Workshop Ltd. 1994 The Abeng and Cacoon symbols are recognized by the collec tive citizenry and act as mnemonic devices, they aid in denotation. What we also aimed at was creating acts of beauty: tectonically meaningful work. We induce d a new formal language of the gestural body whereby expanding cognition of the collective memory from metaphor to metonym; from simile to association. In translating or transferring an abstraction of anthropomorphism through the symb olic, the collective memory is bathed in its own light ; the misnomer of monuments or memorial was deemed superficial. Th e focus here will now be on what design decisions became factors in constructing these objects. The bodys agility in practice through the skill of operating a tool expands our knowledge of craft from concept to concrete entity. The body is the extension of my desk; the position of architectural practice and its signifier the knowledge of contractors, subcontractors and artisans in the manifestation of a project. There is a material history of cement on the island since the 1907 earthquake. Its realization attained resolute crafting in concrete shell structures from the desk of Wilson Chong. The plasticity and formal accuracy, linear and curvilinear that we could achieve with concrete informed a primary material choice a s did the tangible consciousness of its crafting, of its presence. Concrete was more econom ical than travertine or marble, an imported material. The continuity of the involutes sections of the Nanny monument would have required the milling of travertine or marble which meant employing im ported products. The cement factory in Kingston produces from the land. The tensile material, the metals had to be imported. In the nomination of metals, we selected stainless and corten steels for their resilience to coastal erosion. These were the two ma in materials utilized.
63 The social complexities of constructing in Jamaica affect security of the site (labor and materials). Some locations are more vo latile than others. The scale and visibility of the project are determining factors. The strategy for construction was to create several tender packages, differing phases with differing contracts and subcontractors f or example, packages for the foundation, super structure, secondary structure, artisans for fine detailing. Both monuments at either end of the National Heroes Park grew incremental ly. One one cocoa full basket is a miserly Jamaican proverb which in this instance meant securing the site. Off site fabrication of pre cast components, metal kinetic and iconic elements limited on the ground time to foundational work, erection, electrical installation (minimal) and landscaping. Shop and site meetings were more efficiently managed and more importantly, quality of craft assured. The dialogue between our studio -w orkshop and the concrete and steel work shops fused design skill and making skill. The empirical discourse is detailed in every aspect of making, from casting yard to review molds; plywood and stainless steel, to confirming and adjusting dimensions of the location of seams/ joints, to agreement on the kind of pour, of aggregate, of reinforcement, finish, plugging methods for transportation, and verifying samples. There was repetition in the pre -cast forms; however the moulds were never reused. Each component had its own mother mold. We had numero us visits to the steel yard to confirm the welding beads, the conical section of the Abeng, the exposed connection to its precast base and the insertion of its sound-making device. These workshops had not produced such forms before so there was reciprocity of knowledge that occurred. We also sought to resolve problems by finding the right fit, the appropriate knowledge base that resided in the skill of the community. The knowledge can be imbedded in academia or the history of a place. An example of this is the visit with Professor P. Lodenquai, physicist at
64 The University of the West Indies. The department had exploratory sound models and this informed the sound instrument for the Abeng. Mr. Bruders ( an emigrant to Jamaica from North America du ring the Se cond World War ), foundry knowledge and skills which once infused the Edna Manley School for the Visual and Performing Arts, was treasure hunted. He hand -crafted the let tering for the signage emblems and forged them in aluminum. The tacit contract engages a social collective. The contract binds craft with community in order for the act of making, of practice, become an intellectual reading. Malcolm Mc Cullough in Abstracting Craft discusses an instrument as a form giving tool that demands refined practices. L ike a musical instrument that requires practice to play thoughtfully, the tacit contract of mind and hand operating as instruments of practice measure extension of self in pla ce-making. The actualization of a project relies on bridging skill terrains of t his tacit contract in order to make space intelligible. Communication, with words written and spoken, with drawings at varying scales, (in our case 1:1 ), with models, with the accuracy of geometry, with material mock ups, with material research and the exi genc ies of locale, within this meta -language makes imagery resolute. The cyclical connection s between the signifier and its object establishes meaning. The tacit contract builds insight. For Octavio Paz the bri dge spans use and contemplation: In the wor k of hand -craftsmen there is a constant shifting back and forth between usefulness and beauty. This continual interchange has a name: pleasure. Things are pleasing because they are useful and beautiful; this copulative conjunction defines craftwork, just a s the disjunctive conjunction defines art and technology 3 3 Malcolm McCollough, Abstracting craft: the practiced digital h and ( Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press, 1996), p.9.
65 Figure 5 1. Monument to the Rt. Hon. Nanny of the Wind ward Maroons, Kingston Jamaica.
66 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION Cultural complexities are like school cultures, how one crafts social, instructional and administrative criteria is an extension of your desk: practice. Interaction with people in the micro culture of context negotiates imbedded histories and meta languages of the particular and universal Tacit knowledge is grounded here in the micro -cul ture of context. Architectural education informs practice. Architectural practice relies on academia, as critic, a position of its theoretical other. Practice mirrors education with differing constraints. Academia is a speculative and interrogative forum o n current and histo rical paradigms in architectures materialization. Practice is the empirical field of production, where the tacit contract is evident not only in communication between team members but also within the limits of building codes, statutory regulations and professional indemnity. The engagement of the practitioner in education creates a vital con duit of knowledge transfer as does the educator in architectural practice. Negotiating the relational boundary of education and practice (beyond inte rnships and fulfillment of other academic criteria) touches on ethical complexities of student participation in design competitions and building projects. Other interfaces, for example faculty consultancies that offer solutions to problems at the community level, are beneficial to the visibility of academia. How purposeful such proposals become depend on the participatory level of the faculty and the service offered to the community. The practitioner however enters the design studio more seamlessly. Donal d Sch ns reflection in a ction exploits thi s relationship. Inquiry for Sch n is a conversation between student and practitioner with drawing and model iterations that develop in the resolution of a design. His complete context is a way of teaching within s tudio that is imbedded in school cultures. It is not a universal proposition, the context s of practice and of the studio are changing rapidly.
67 There are numerous factors affecting practice and education. In this neoliberal global economy practices have ventured beyond traditional locations. Increasingly, large, medium and small architectural practices leave national borders to procure engagements. Territories like CARICOM have increased scrutiny and regulations in the awards of tenders through the national contracts committees in an effort to protect the regional market. Practice demands global partnerships. This tacit exchange of building knowledge and craft expands methods of construction dissolving the idea of a complete context into polyvalence. Digital media and its technology, bridge communicative gaps across language and identity thresholds, increasing efficiency in the construction process across territories. In education, as universities rely less on governmental funding and fees to meet budgetary c onstraints, departments become more like independent architectural practices. The demand on faculty to maintain academic standards with less human resource reclaims the imbedded knowledge of faculty members. This reduces a capacity for independent scholars hip in lieu of team work and group research projects. Teams may not be limited to the scope of the faculty but extensions of each member bridging territories. In the domain of studio culture, learning theories and speculative inquiry of pedagogical tools can inform both the education and practice of architecture. Constructivist theories of learning are open and adaptable structures which yield meaning and applicatio n through specific disciplines1. These theories generally assume that individuals construc t their own cognitive structures as they interpret their experiences in particular situations (Palincsar 1988).2 The elements of Piaget and Vygotsky align with the socially constructed knowledge of 1 Anita Woolfolk Hoy & Wayne K. Hoy, Instructional l eadership : A learningc entered guide (Boston, Massachusetts : Allyn & Bacon, 2003), p 105. 2 Ibid
68 architecture as generative production. This approach to e ducation which centers on team building and the independent natures of individual members, harnesses the structure of tacit knowledge. Some pedagogical parameters have been investigated in this thesis They traverse scholarship and research. They embrace t he fluidity of less tangible mediums an d identify tools that displace meaning. The body, the assimilator of tacit knowledge, has been utilized as an instrument for tracking tangible and intangible domains of its materiality. The body as subject transgresse s urban space. The body is studied within several frameworks, phatic, enunciative, discursive and speculative. These frameworks are extensions of empirical, conceptual and simulated knowledge systems. Intuition in the urban case studies is marked by adjace ncy, reformatting, gravity of technology transfer and the surprise. Re -presentations of the actual place recondition the body into a suspended state. The suspended body is then probed as fluid media, the intangible and aural. Its inter textual translation s negotiate transcendence. This movement opens pedagogy to the illusive capacity of materials and method. This opening provides opportunities for revealing the embodiment of perceptual experiences. The body is revealed within a new conceptual terrain. As d igital media, the body retains an intangible state, becoming less tactile. I t is now media, medium and tool; an integrated software tool and digital system. Re-presentation of place recurs and the body recalls its actual self as subject. Transgressing the phenomenal aspect of tacit knowledge, interrogations of self -representation are configured through varied software tools. In reformatting and adjacency, an intuitive leap occurs. Skill is uncovered through mental mapping. Possibility is revealed. It connec ts the configuring of the tool with a path of least resistance. In this gap, the crafting of intuition is denoted. Intuition as a process registers the operation of tacit knowledge within an analytical method. Together, a skillfully considered and applied method
69 that is inclusive of an intuitive process, constitute thi s pedagogical tool kit. (Figure 6 1 and Figure 6 2). At the macro level tracking tacit knowledge is the practiced acquisition of skill. Skill at this level is the logic of tacit knowledge. This Skill is necessarily supported by Reflection. The logic of tacit knowledge can be utilized as device or filter in understanding the symbolic function of a tool, prod or prosthesis. A symbols mnemonic capacity can bridge school culture and community ideal s. Tacit knowledge does not deny intuition but validates it so as to bring into being the full capacity of perceptual knowing we have accumulated. Richard Sennett states intuition can be crafted, tools used help to organize in our imaginative experience, l imited and all purpose instruments enable us to take leaps of imaginative repair, repair of that retinal, and obscured image of sensations experienced. The educators role in studio and practice is to guide but also to listen, grasp and nurture the cumulat ive process of Sennetts intuitive leap. Some skills in making may require consultancy in agility, but if we are perceptive we can locate the right tools and instill cognition bridging procedures in the studio within the faculty and in practice.
70 F igure 6 1 Knowledge diagram 03, i ntuitive process.
71 Figure 6 2. Knowledge diagram 02, epistemological system
72 LIST OF REFERENCES Alan Colquhoun, Essays in architectural criticism modern architecture and historical change (Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Pres s and New York New York: Opposition s Books, 1989), pp. 191. Aldo Rossi, The a rchitecture of the city (Cambridge Massachusetts : MIT Press, and New York, New York: Opposition s Books, 1982), p. 130. Anita Woolfolk Hoy & Wayne K. Hoy, Constructivist Theorie s of Learning in Instructional leadership: a learning-centered guide (Boston Massachusetts : Allyn & Bacon 2003) pp.102 108. Bruno Stagno, Tropicality, in Tzonis, Lefaivre, Stagno, Tropical architecture : critical regionalism in the age of globalizati on (Chichester, West Sussex, England : Wiley Academy, 2007), pp. 65 92. Colin G.Clarke, Kingston Jamaica, Urban growth and social change 1692-1962 (Berkeley California : Univer sity of California Press, 1975), pp. 50 60. Jamaica National Heritage Trust, Com petition Brief Marguerite Curtin, ed. (Kingston Jamaica,WI : Jamaica National Heritage Trust, 1993) p.1. Joseph J. Kockelmans, Edmund Husserls phenomenology (West Lafayette, Indiana: Purdue University Press, 1923. Republished by Purdue University Resear ch Foundation, 1994), p. 126. Juhani Pallasmaa, The eyes of the skin : a rchitecture and the senses (Chichester West Sussex, England : Wiley -Academy, 2005), p. 42. Malco l m McCollough, Abstracting c raft: the practiced digital hand (Cambridge Massachusetts : T he MIT Press, 1996), pp. 9 46. Martin Heidegger, Building Dwelling Thinking in Neil Leach, ed. Rethinking a rchitecture (L ondon UK : Routledge, 1996), pp. 94 119. Maurice Merleau -Ponty, The world of perception (London ,UK : Routledge Classics, 2008), p.11. Merriam Webster new collegiate dictionary seventh edition ( Springfield, Massachusetts: G&C Merriam Company, 1972) Michael Polanyi, The tacit dimension (Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1966), pp. 4 36. Michael Polanyi, The S tructure of Consciousness, in Marjorie Grene, ed. Knowing and being (Chicago, Illinois : University of Chicago Press, 1969), pp 211 224 Michael Polanyi, The U naccountable Element in Science, in Marjorie Grene, ed. Knowing and being (Chicago Illinois : Univers ity of Chicago Press, 1969), pp. 105 120
73 Michael Polanyi, SenseGiving and Sense Reading, in Marjorie Grene, ed. Knowing and being (Chicago Illinois : University of Chicago Press, 1969), pp 181 207. Michel Serres, The natural contract Elizabeth Mac Art hur& William Paulson, tran s (Ann Arbor Michigan: University Press of Michigan, 1998.), p.21. Michel Serres, The troubadour of knowledge (Ann Arbor, Michigan: The University of Michigan Press, 20 00), pp. 12 45. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (2008, July 25). Buildings Research Energy 10. Retrieved January 23, 2009, from http://www.nrel.gov/buildings/energy10.html Norman Girvan. (2002). Globalization and Caribbean Cooperation. Association of Caribbean States. Retrieved 2003, from http://www.acs aec.org/sg.htm Peter G. Northouse, Leadership, theory and practice (Thousand Oaks California : S age Publications, 2007), pp. 48 50. Richard Sennett, Arousal How Intuitiv e Leaps Happen, in The c raftsm an (New Haven Connecticut : Yale University Press, 2008), pp. 209 213.
74 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Jacquiann T. Lawton is a lecturer of architectural design, history and theory at the Caribbean School of Architecture (CSA), University of Technology, Jamaica WI a nd is the editor of AXIS, the CSA peer reviewed journal on regionalism. She is a scholar of the Irwin S Chanin School of Architecture at The Cooper Union (1990) and as architect has authored several built works in Jamaica.