<%BANNER%>

A Study of Belief

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0025000/00001

Material Information

Title: A Study of Belief
Physical Description: 1 online resource (174 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Shortsleeve, Elisabeth
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: belief, concepts, content, epistemology, gettier, knowledge, rationality
Philosophy -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Philosophy thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This study proposes that belief is a psychological state individuated by its aim, function and individuating cognitive content, and that the authority of the doxastic norms to which belief is subject is underwritten by the nature of belief. According to this account, belief aims at truth constitutively, in the sense that the norm of truth necessarily governs believing, understood as an event, in virtue of the proper cognitive function of believing, i.e., to generate and sustain belief, and in virtue of the proper cognitive function of belief, i.e., to sanction and preserve information as such in conceptualized form. The cognitive content of belief is wholly constituted by con-cepts in given modes of combination, where concepts are conceived as types of thought content wholly individuated by their possession conditions. Concepts can be categorized into distinct types?directly referring, predicative, and logical concepts?depending on the type of contribu-tion they make to the cognitive content of thoughts containing them. Since simple directly referring concepts do not contribute any information about their referent to the cognitive content of thought, they are typically tokened as constituents of complex directly referring concepts, together with predicative concepts tokened in an identifying role?i.e., identifying concepts?used to track the referent of one?s thought. What identifying concepts one uses to track the referent of one?s thought might change over time, while one?s thought about that referent might remain unchanged. Accordingly, identifying concepts do not belong to the cognitive content that individuates a belief over time (i.e., its individuating cognitive content), but only to the cognitive content this belief contributes at a time to the cognitive processes of which it is a part (i.e., its synchronic cognitive content). A belief is evaluable as rational or irrational only if the believer has the capacity to take a deliberative stance toward it, which minimally requires the capacity to entertain the deliberative question, ?Do I believe that p?? This requires the capacity to entertain a question and possession of the first-person concept and the concept of belief, in addition to the concepts that constitute the individuating and current synchronic cognitive contents of that belief.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Elisabeth Shortsleeve.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Ludwig, Kirk A.
Local: Co-adviser: Witmer, D Eugene.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0025000:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0025000/00001

Material Information

Title: A Study of Belief
Physical Description: 1 online resource (174 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Shortsleeve, Elisabeth
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: belief, concepts, content, epistemology, gettier, knowledge, rationality
Philosophy -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Philosophy thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This study proposes that belief is a psychological state individuated by its aim, function and individuating cognitive content, and that the authority of the doxastic norms to which belief is subject is underwritten by the nature of belief. According to this account, belief aims at truth constitutively, in the sense that the norm of truth necessarily governs believing, understood as an event, in virtue of the proper cognitive function of believing, i.e., to generate and sustain belief, and in virtue of the proper cognitive function of belief, i.e., to sanction and preserve information as such in conceptualized form. The cognitive content of belief is wholly constituted by con-cepts in given modes of combination, where concepts are conceived as types of thought content wholly individuated by their possession conditions. Concepts can be categorized into distinct types?directly referring, predicative, and logical concepts?depending on the type of contribu-tion they make to the cognitive content of thoughts containing them. Since simple directly referring concepts do not contribute any information about their referent to the cognitive content of thought, they are typically tokened as constituents of complex directly referring concepts, together with predicative concepts tokened in an identifying role?i.e., identifying concepts?used to track the referent of one?s thought. What identifying concepts one uses to track the referent of one?s thought might change over time, while one?s thought about that referent might remain unchanged. Accordingly, identifying concepts do not belong to the cognitive content that individuates a belief over time (i.e., its individuating cognitive content), but only to the cognitive content this belief contributes at a time to the cognitive processes of which it is a part (i.e., its synchronic cognitive content). A belief is evaluable as rational or irrational only if the believer has the capacity to take a deliberative stance toward it, which minimally requires the capacity to entertain the deliberative question, ?Do I believe that p?? This requires the capacity to entertain a question and possession of the first-person concept and the concept of belief, in addition to the concepts that constitute the individuating and current synchronic cognitive contents of that belief.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Elisabeth Shortsleeve.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Ludwig, Kirk A.
Local: Co-adviser: Witmer, D Eugene.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0025000:00001


This item has the following downloads:


Full Text

PAGE 1

1 A S T U D Y O F B E L I E F B y E L I S A B E T H K I S H O R T S L E E V E A D I S S E R T A T I O N P R E S E N T E D T O T H E G R A D U A T E S C H O O L O F T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F F L O R I D A I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F D O C T O R O F P H I L O S O P H Y U N I V E R S I T Y O F F L O R I D A 2009

PAGE 2

2 2009 E l i s a be t h K I S hor t s l e e ve

PAGE 3

3 F or K e vi n a nd f or O l ga

PAGE 4

4 A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S I w i s h t o t ha nk t he m e m be r s of m y c om m i t t e e D r s J ohn B i r o K i r k L udw i g a nd G e ne W i t m e r a s w e l l a s D r s R obe r t D A m i c o a nd G r e g R a y, f o r t he i r t e a c hi ng, pa t i e nt gui da nc e a nd f r i e nds hi p. T he y ha ve nur t u r e d m y l ove of phi l os o phy. I w i s h t o t ha nk a l s o t he m a ny g r a dua t e s t ude nt s i n phi l os ophy I m e t w hi l e a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of F l or i da a nd w i t h w hom I ha ve ha d m a ny a f a s c i na t i ng, e nl i ght e ni ng, a nd s om e t i m e s pl a i n s i l l y c onve r s a t i on, e s pe c i a l l y B i l l B ut c ha r d, C a t hy G a l ko, J on H e ndr i x a nd K e l l y T r ogdon P hi l os oph i z i ng i n t he i r c om pa ny w a s a de l i gh t I w i s h t o t ha nk t he P hi l os ophy D e pa r t m e nt a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of F l or i d a w he r e I ha ve l e a r ne d m uc h o f w ha t I know a bout a na l yt i c phi l os ophy, a nd m or e I de e pl y r e gr e t t ha t t he U ni ve r s i t y of F l or i da a dm i ni s t r a t i on ha s f a i l e d t o a ppr e c i a t e t he e xc e l l e n c e a nd i m por t a nc e of i t s P hi l os ophy D e pa r t m e nt I w i s h t o t ha nk V i r gi ni a D a m pi e r our de pa r t m e n t a l S e c r e t a r y, f o r he r ki ndne s s w a r m t h a nd he l p. F i na l l y I w i s h t o t ha nk m y hus ba nd, K e vi n, a nd m y m ot he r O l ga f or t he i r s uppor t dur i ng t he s e l ong d i s s e r t i ng ye a r s

PAGE 5

5 T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S pa ge A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 A B S T R A C T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 C H A P T E R 1 S Y N O P S I S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2 T H E A I M A N D F U N C T I O N O F B E L I E F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 C ons t i t ut i ve A i m s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 P r i m a F ac i e C a s e f or t he T he s i s t ha t B e l i e f C ons t i t ut i ve l y A i m s a t T r ut h . . . . . . 24 B e l i e f i s N e c e s s a r i l y G ove r ne d by t he N or m of T r ut h . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 P e r s ua di ng ot he r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 B e l i e f a t t r i b ut i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 T e s t i m ony . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 M e m or y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 D oxa s t i c E va l ua t i on a nd P r a c t i c a l I nt e r e s t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 T he T r a ns pa r e nc y of B e l i e f . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 B e l i e f a nd B e l i e ve r E va l ua bi l i t y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 T he or e t i c a l R e f i ne m e nt s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 S houl d t he T he s i s be U nde r s t ood L i t e r a l l y? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 C onc e r n t ha t be l i e f i s not i nt e nt i ona l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 C onc e r n t ha t be l i e f i s not a n e ve nt but a s t a t e . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 B e l i e vi ng a nd G ue s s i ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 T he N or m of T r ut h a nd t he C onc e pt of B e l i e f . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 3 T H E C O G N I T I V E C O N T E N T O F B E L I E F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 C onc e pt s a s T ype s of T hought C ont e nt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 C om pl e x C onc e pt s a nd S i m pl e C onc e pt s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 I nf or m a t i ona l C ont e nt L i ngui s t i c C ont e nt a nd C ogni t i ve C ont e nt . . . . . . . . . 68 D i r e c t l y R e f e r r i ng C onc e pt s P r e di c a t i ve C onc e pt s a nd L ogi c a l C onc e pt s . . . . . . 74 S ync hr oni c C ogni t i ve C ont e nt vs I ndi vi dua t i ng C ogni t i ve C ont e nt . . . . . . . 76 B e l i e f s A bout N on E xi s t e nt P a r t i c ul a r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 B e l i e f s a bout M i s i de nt i f i e d P a r t i c ul a r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 C onc e pt s a s I ndi vi dua t e d by t he i r P os s e s s i on C ond i t i ons . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 R e qui r e m e nt s on C onc e pt P os s e s s i on C ondi t i ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 V a gue ne s s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 B e l i e f P os s e s s i on C ondi t i ons vs B e l i e f A t t r i but i on C ondi t i ons . . . . . . . . 105 T he C onc e pt of B e l i e f . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

PAGE 6

6 4 R A T I O N A L B E L I E F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 R a t i ona l E va l ua bi l i t y a nd C ont r ol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 R e f l e c t i ve C ont r ol : M ot i va t i ng vs R e gul a t i ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 R e gul a t i ng C ont r ol : P r a c t i c a l vs D oxa s t i c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 R a t i ona l l y E v a l ua bl e B e l i e f : M i ni m a l R e qui r e m e nt s . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 T he D e l i be r a t i ve S t a nc e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 5 T W O A P P L I C A T I O N S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 D e R e D e D i c t o a nd D e Se A t t i t ude R e por t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 S om e D e f i ni t i ons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 D e s i de r a t a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 T he or e t i c a l T ool s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 A c c ount . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 D e R e a nd D e D i c t o be l i e f r e por t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 D e Se be l i e f r e por t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 A s s e s s m e nt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 G e t t i e r s C a s e s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 C onc l us i on . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 L I S T O F R E F E R E N C E S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 B I O G R A P H I C A L S K E T C H . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173

PAGE 7

7 A bs t r a c t of D i s s e r t a t i on P r e s e nt e d t o t he G r a dua t e S c hool of t he U ni ve r s i t y of F l or i da i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e nt o f t he R e qui r e m e nt s f or t he D e g r e e of D oc t o r of P hi l os o phy A S T U D Y O F B E L I E F B y E l i s a be t h K I S hor t s l e e ve A ugus t 2009 C ha i r : K i r k L udw i g C oc ha i r : D G e ne W i t m e r M a j or : P hi l os ophy T hi s s t udy pr opos e s t ha t be l i e f i s a ps yc hol ogi c a l s t a t e i ndi vi dua t e d by i t s a i m f unc t i on a nd i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt a nd t ha t t he a ut ho r i t y o f t he doxa s t i c no r m s t o w hi c h be l i e f i s s ubj e c t i s unde r w r i t t e n by t he na t u r e of be l i e f A c c or di ng t o t hi s a c c ount be l i e f a i m s a t t r ut h c ons t i t ut i ve l y, i n t he s e ns e t ha t t he nor m of t r ut h n e c e s s a r i l y gove r ns be l i e v i ng, unde r s t ood a s a n e ve nt i n vi r t ue o f t he pr ope r c ogni t i ve f unc t i on of be l i e vi ng, i e t o ge ne r a t e a nd s us t a i n be l i e f a nd i n vi r t ue of t he pr ope r c ogni t i ve f unc t i on o f be l i e f i e t o s a nc t i on a nd pr e s e r ve i n f o r m a t i on a s s uc h i n c onc e pt ua l i z e d f or m T he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of be l i e f i s w hol l y c ons t i t ut e d by c o n c e pt s i n gi ve n m ode s of c om bi na t i on, w he r e c onc e pt s a r e c onc e i ve d a s t ype s of t hought c ont e nt w hol l y i ndi vi dua t e d by t he i r pos s e s s i on c ondi t i ons C onc e pt s c a n be c a t e gor i z e d i nt o di s t i nc t t ype s di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng p r e di c a t i ve a nd l ogi c a l c onc e pt s de pe ndi ng on t he t ype of c ont r i b ut i on t he y m a ke t o t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt o f t hought s c ont a i ni ng t he m S i nc e s i m pl e di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt s do not c ont r i b ut e a ny i nf or m a t i on a bout t he i r r e f e r e nt t o t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of t hought t he y a r e t ypi c a l l y t oke ne d a s c ons t i t ue nt s of c om pl e x di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt s t oge t he r w i t h p r e di c a t i ve c onc e pt s t o ke ne d i n a n i d e nt i f yi ng r ol e i e i de nt i f yi ng c onc e pt s us e d t o t r a c k t he r e f e r e nt of one s t hought W ha t i de nt i f yi ng c onc e pt s one us e s t o t r a c k t he

PAGE 8

8 r e f e r e nt of one s t hought m i ght c ha nge ove r t i m e w hi l e one s t hought a bout t ha t r e f e r e nt m i ght r e m a i n unc ha nge d. A c c or di ngl y, i de nt i f yi ng c onc e pt s do not be l ong t o t he c ogn i t i ve c ont e nt t ha t i ndi vi dua t e s a be l i e f ove r t i m e ( i e i t s i ndi v i dua t i ng c ogn i t i ve c ont e nt ) but onl y t o t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt t hi s be l i e f c ont r i but e s a t a t i m e t o t he c ogn i t i ve pr oc e s s e s of w hi c h i t i s a pa r t ( i e i t s s y n c hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt ) A be l i e f i s e va l ua bl e a s r a t i ona l or i r r a t i ona l onl y i f t he be l i e ve r ha s t he c a pa c i t y t o t a ke a de l i be r a t i ve s t a nc e t ow a r d i t w hi c h m i ni m a l l y r e qui r e s t he c a pa c i t y t o e nt e r t a i n t he de l i be r a t i ve que s t i on, D o I be l i e ve t h a t p ? T hi s r e qui r e s t he c a pa c i t y t o e nt e r t a i n a que s t i on a nd pos s e s s i on of t he f i r s t pe r s on c onc e pt a nd t he c onc e pt o f be l i e f i n a ddi t i on t o t he c onc e pt s t ha t c ons t i t ut e t he i ndi vi dua t i ng a nd c ur r e nt s ync hr oni c c ogn i t i ve c ont e nt s of t ha t be l i e f

PAGE 9

9 C H A P T E R 1 S Y N O P S I S T he a i m o f t hi s s t udy i s t o a r t i c ul a t e a nd de f e nd t h e t he s i s t ha t be l i e f i s a ps yc h o l ogi c a l s t a t e i ndi vi dua t e d by i t s a i m f unc t i on a nd c ogni t i v e c ont e nt a nd t o a r gue t ha t t he a ut hor i t y of t he doxa s t i c nor m s t o w hi c h be l i e f i s s ubj e c t i s und e r w r i t t e n by t he ve r y na t ur e o f be l i e f C ha pt e r 2 a r t i c ul a t e s a nd de f e nds t he t he s i s t ha t be l i e f a i m s a t t r ut h c ons t i t ut i ve l y I s t a r t by e xpl i c a t i ng t he not i on of a c ons t i t u t i ve a i m i n r e l a t i on t o t he pr a c t i c a l r e a l m r e f l e c t i ng on t he pa r a di gm a t i c c a s e of s hoot i ng a t t he bul l s e ye T h i s r e f l e c t i on unc ove r s t he f ol l ow i ng f e a t ur e s a s c ha r a c t e r i s t i c of a ny a c t i on de s c r i pt i on f or m u l a t e d i n t e r m s o f a c ons t i t ut i ve a i m : L e t A be a n a ge nt d a de s c r i pt i on, a n a c t i on a nd a n a i m s uc h t ha t d de s c r i be s i n t e r m s of a nd de s c r i be s a s done by A T he n: ( i ) N e c e s s a r i l y d i s t r ue onl y i f A i nt e nde d t o ( t ho u gh A ne e d not ha ve i n t e nde d t o c o n s c i ous l y) ( i i ) de s c r i be d a s d i s s ubj e c t t o e va l ua t i on a l ong di m e ns i ons of s uc c e s s a nd pe r f or m a nc e i nde pe n d e nt l y of a ny o t he r a i m a nd de s i r e A m i ght ha ve ( i i i ) A i s s ubj e c t t o c or r e s pondi ng e va l ua t i on a nd t o p r a i s e or bl a m e a s a r e s ul t of t hi s e va l ua t i on, a t l e a s t pr i m a f ac i e I pr opos e t ha t t he c l a i m t ha t be l i e f c ons t i t ut i ve l y a i m s a t t r ut h s houl d be unde r s t ood a l ong s i m i l a r l i ne s T o s a y t ha t be l i e f a i m s a t t r ut h c ons t i t ut i ve l y i s t o s a y t ha t be l i e f i s ne c e s s a r i l y gove r ne d by t r ut h a s a r e gul a t i ng pr i nc i pl e ( w hi c h ne e d not b e c ons c i ous l y e ndor s e d) I n ot he r w or ds t o s a y t ha t be l i e f a i m s a t t r ut h c ons t i t u t i ve l y i s t o s a y t ha t be l i e f i s ne c e s s a r i l y gove r ne d by t he nor m of t r ut h F ur t he r t hi s c l a i m c a s t s be l i e f a s s u bj e c t t o e va l ua t i on r e l a t i ve t o t r ut h a l ong t he di m e ns i ons of s uc c e s s a nd pe r f or m a nc e i nd e pe nde nt l y of a ny ot he r a i m a nd de s i r e t he be l i e ve r m i ght ha ve F i na l l y t h i s c l a i m c a s t s t he be l i e ve r a s s ubj e c t t o c or r e s pondi ng e va l ua t i ons a nd a t t e nda nt pr a i s e or bl a m e a t l e a s t pr i m a f ac i e

PAGE 10

10 I t he n o f f e r a pr i m a f ac i e c a s e f or t he t he s i s t ha t be l i e f a i m s a t t r ut h c ons t i t ut i ve l y w hi c h u n de r s c or e s i t s e x pl a na t or y pow e r I a r gue t ha t t hi s t he s i s e xpl a i ns : ( i ) w hy be l i e f unde r no r m a l c ond i t i ons i s r e s pons i ve t o ( t he a ppe a r a nc e of ) t r ut h be l i e f i s s o r e s pons i ve be c a us e i t i s ne c e s s a r i l y gove r ne d by t he no r m o f t r ut h; i n t ur n t he t he s i s t ha t be l i e f unde r nor m a l c ondi t i ons i s r e s pons i ve t o ( t he a ppe a r a nc e of ) t r ut h e xpl a i ns : ( a ) our s uc c e s s a t s e c ur i ng i nt e r pe r s ona l a gr e e m e nt a s t o w ha t t o be l i e ve a nd do; ( b) our s uc c e s s a t a t t r i but i ng be l i e f s t o ot he r s w hi l e ha vi ng obt a i ne d f e w or no r e l e va nt ve r ba l r e po r t s f r o m t he m ; ( c ) w hy ut t e r a nc e s t ha t a r e p r ope r l y t a ke n t o e xpr e s s b e l i e f ( de f e a s i bl y) e nt i t l e t he i r a ud i e nc e s t o be l i e ve t ha t t he s e ut t e r a nc e s a r e t r ue a nd t o f o r m be l i e f s on t he i r b a s i s ; ( d) w hy i ndi vi dua l s c a n r e m a i n e nt i t l e d t o t he i r m e m o r y be l i e f s w hi l e ha vi ng f o r go t t e n t he i r r e a s ons f or t he s e be l i e f s ; ( i i ) w hy be l i e f s unl i ke s a y, i m a gi ni ngs a r e l i a bl e t o c r i t i c i s m a s s uc h f or f a i l i ng t o r e s pond t o ( t he a ppe a r a nc e o f ) t r ut h unde r nor m a l c o nd i t i ons ; ( i i i ) w hy t he de l i be r a t i ve que s t i ons D o I be l i e ve t ha t p ? a nd S ha l l / s houl d I be l i e ve t ha t p ? a r e t r a ns pa r e nt t o t he que s t i on, I s i t t he c a s e t h a t p ? i n t he s e ns e t ha t t he f i r s t t w o que s t i ons t ypi c a l l y a r e a nd s houl d be a ns w e r e d by w a y of a ns w e r i ng t he t hi r d que s t i on ; 1 ( i v) w hy a s s e r t i ons of t he f o r m s I be l i e ve t ha t p but p i s f a l s e a nd p but I don t b e l i e ve t ha t p s t r i ke us a s pa r a doxi c a l ( M oor e s pa r a dox) I t he n a r gue t ha t i nt e r p r e t e d l i t e r a l l y t h i s t he s i s c o m m i t s t w o c a t e gor y m i s t a ke s s i nc e no s t a t e a s s uc h, c a n pr ope r l y be s a i d t o ha ve o r be r e gul a t e d by, a ny a i m a nd s i nc e be l i e f a s s uc h, c a nnot be pur pos i ve I t he n p r opos e a n i n t e r pr e t a t i on of t he t he s i s t ha t i s f r e e of t he s e m i s t a ke s a nd a c c or di ng t o w hi c h t he nor m of t r ut h gove r ns be l i e v i ng, unde r s t ood a s a n e ve nt i n vi r t ue of t he pr ope r c ogni t i ve f unc t i on of be l i e vi ng, i e t o g e ne r a t e a nd s us t a i n be l i e f a nd i n vi r t ue o f t h e pr ope r c ogni t i ve f unc t i on o f be l i e f i e t o s a nc t i on a nd pr e s e r ve i nf o r m a t i on a s s uc h i n c onc e pt ua l i z e d f or m 1 R i c h a r d M o r a n i n t r o d u c e s a n d d i s c u s s e s t h e n o t i o n t h a t b e l i e f i s s o t r a n s p a r e n t i n M o r a n 2 0 0 1 : 6 0 f f

PAGE 11

11 C ha pt e r 3 a r gue s t ha t t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of be l i e f ( i e t he c ont e nt t ha t b e l i e f a s s uc h, c ont r i but e s t o t he c ogni t i ve pr oc e s s e s of w hi c h i t i s a pa r t ) i s w hol l y c ons t i t ut e d by c onc e pt s i n gi ve n m ode s of c om bi na t i on w he r e c onc e pt s a r e c onc e i ve d a s t ype s of t hought c ont e nt w hol l y i ndi vi dua t e d by t he i r pos s e s s i on c ondi t i ons w hi c h s pe c i f y t he c ond i t i ons unde r w hi c h a t hi nke r w ho pos s e s s e s t he r e l e va nt c onc e pt f i nds t r a ns i t i on s t o a nd f r om t hough t s c ont a i n i ng t hi s c onc e pt pr i m i t i ve l y c om pe l l i ng 2 C onc e pt s c a n be s i m pl e o r c om pl e x, a nd t he pos s e s s i on c ondi t i ons of c om pl e x c onc e pt s a r e a f unc t i on of t he pos s e s s i on c ondi t i ons of t he i r s i m pl e c o m pone nt c onc e pt s a nd t he i r m ode s o f c om bi na t i on F ur t he r c onc e pt s c a n be c a t e gor i z e d i nt o di s t i nc t t ype s de pe n di ng on t he t ype of c ont r i but i on t he y m a ke t o t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of t hought s c ont a i ni ng t he m T he c ogni t i ve r ol e of a di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c on c e pt i s t o c ont r i but e a r e f e r e nt f or pr e d i c a t i ve t hought T he c ogni t i ve r ol e of a pr e di c a t i ve c onc e pt i s t o c ont r i but e i n f or m a t i on c onc e r ni ng t he i ns t a nc i ng of a gi ve n pr o p e r t y T he c ogni t i ve r ol e of a l ogi c a l c onc e pt i s t o ope r a t e on e l e m e nt s of t hought T he di s t i nc t i on a m ong di r e c t l y r e f e r r i n g c onc e pt s pr e di c a t i ve c onc e pt s a nd l ogi c a l c onc e pt s pr ovi de s a n e xha us t i ve t a xonom y of t he s e t ype s S i m pl e di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt s a s s uc h, do not c ont r i b ut e a ny i n f or m a t i on a bout t he i r r e f e r e nt t o t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of t hought ( c ont r i but i ng i nf o r m a t i on t o t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of t hought i s t he r ol e of pr e di c a t i ve c onc e pt s ) F or t h i s r e a s on, t he y a r e t ypi c a l l y t oke ne d a s c o ns t i t ue nt s of c om pl e x di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt s t o ge t he r w i t h p r e di c a t i ve c onc e pt s t o ke ne d i n a n i de nt i f yi ng r o l e i e i de nt i f yi ng c onc e pt s us e d t o i de nt i f y a nd r e c ogni z e t he r e f e r e nt of one s t hought W ha t i de nt i f y i ng c onc e pt s one us e s t o i d e nt i f y a nd r e c ogni z e t he r e f e r e nt of one s 2 W i t h s o m e m o d i f i c a t i o n s I a m e n d o r s i n g t h e a c c o u n t o f c o n c e p t s C h r i s t o p h e r P e a c o c k e p r o p o s e s i n A S t u d y o f C o n c e p t s

PAGE 12

12 t hought m i ght c ha nge ove r t i m e w hi l e one s t hou g ht a bout t ha t r e f e r e nt m i ght ne ve r t he l e s s r e m a i n unc ha nge d. T hi s s ugge s t s t he f ol l ow i ng s e t of t he s e s : 3 L e t t he r e be t w o c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s w hos e c ons t i t ue nt s a r e : ( i ) a [ the X ] is F ( i i ) a [ the Y ] is F w he r e a s t a nds f o r a s i m pl e di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c o nc e pt F X a nd Y s t a nd f o r di s t i nc t pr e di c a t i ve c onc e pt s a nd X a nd Y a r e t oke ne d i n a n i de nt i f yi ng r ol e ; l e t ( i ) be t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt o f s om e be l i e f s t a t e b 1 a t s om e t i m e t i l e t ( i i ) be t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of s om e ot he r be l i e f s t a t e b 2 a t s om e t i m e t j T he n: ( a ) b 1 a nd b 2 ha ve t he s a m e i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c o nt e nt na m e l y, a is F w he r e i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s t a nds f or t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt t ha t i ndi vi d u a t e s a be l i e f ove r t i m e ; ( b) i f s om e be l i e ve r S ha s b 1 a t t i t he n a t t i t he c a non i c a l w a y f or S t o ve r i f y t ha t a i s F i s by w a y of ve r i f yi ng t ha t t he X i s F ( t he s a m e i s t r ue m ut at i s m ut andi s f o r b 2 ) ; ( c ) ha vi ng b 1 a nd b 2 ne e d not pl a c e S i n a pos i t i on t o j udge t ha t t he X = t he Y I pr opos e t ha t i de nt i f yi ng c onc e pt s do not be l ong t o t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt t ha t i nd i vi dua t e s a be l i e f ove r t i m e ( i e i t s i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c o nt e nt ) bu t onl y t o t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt t hi s be l i e f c ont r i but e s a t a gi ve n t i m e t o t he c ogni t i ve p r oc e s s e s of w hi c h i t i s a pa r t ( i e i t s s y nc hr o ni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt ) I n s e t t he or e t i c t e r m s t he di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he i ndi vi dua t i ng a nd s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s of be l i e f i s f ul l y c on s t i t ut e d by i de nt i f yi ng c onc e pt s i f t he s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of a be l i e f i nc l ude s n o i de nt i f yi ng c onc e pt s i t s s ync hr oni c a nd i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s c oi nc i de I de f i ne t he i ndi vi dua t i ng a nd s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s of be l i e f a s f o l l ow s : 3 H e n c e f o r t h I w i l l u s e a d i s t i n c t f o n t w h e n u s i n g s c h e m a t i c l e t t e r s t o s t a n d f o r c o n c e p t s U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e i n d i c a t e d c o r r e s p o n d i n g s c h e m a t i c l e t t e r s w r i t t e n i n n o r m a l f o n t s t a n d f o r t h e o b j e c t s t o w h i c h t h e s e c o n c e p t s r e f e r o r t h e p r o p e r t i e s o r r e l a t i o n s w h i c h t h e s e c o n c e p t s p r e d i c a t e ( a s a p p r o p r i a t e ) L i k e w i s e e x p r e s s i o n s w r i t t e n i n a d i s t i n c t f o n t s t a n d f o r t h e c o n c e p t s w h i c h t h e s e e x p r e s s i o n s e x p r e s s

PAGE 13

13 I ndi vi dua t i ng C ogni t i ve C ont e nt : L e t b be a pa r t i c ul a r be l i e f s t a t e s uc h t ha t be i ng i n b r e qui r e s t oke ni ng c onc e pt s c 1 c n a nd l e t k be t he know l e dge t ha t a nyone w ho pos s e s s e s c 1 c n ha s j us t by vi r t ue o f pos s e s s i ng t hos e c onc e pt s B e l i e f b i s i ndi vi dua t e d by t he c ont e nt t ha t p j us t i n c a s e f r om k a nd t he s uppos i t i on t ha t b i s t r ue i t i s a pr i or i de r i va bl e t ha t p A ny t w o pa r t i c ul a r be l i e f s t a t e s b 1 a nd b 2 t ha t m e e t t he a bove c ondi t i on c ount a s be i ng o f t he s a m e i ndi vi dua t i ng t ype ( i e a s be i ng t he s a m e be l i e f w he r e be l i e f i s us e d t o r e f e r t o a t ype of s t a t e r a t he r t ha n t o a pa r t i c ul a r s t a t e ) by v i r t u e of ha vi ng t he s a m e i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c o n t e nt S ync hr oni c C ogni t i ve C ont e nt : L e t b be a pa r t i c ul a r be l i e f s t a t e i ndi vi dua t e d by t h e c ont e nt t ha t p a nd l e t S ha ve b a t t I f t he i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt o f b c a n be r e pr e s e nt e d a s a is F t he n t he s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of b a t t c a n be r e pr e s e nt e d a s a [ the X ] is F j us t i n c a s e t he c a noni c a l w a y f o r S t o ve r i f y a t t t h a t a i s F i s f or S t o ve r i f y t ha t t he X i s F W he ne ve r t w o pa r t i c ul a r be l i e f s t a t e s b 1 a nd b 2 m e e t t he a bove c ondi t i on, b 1 a nd b 2 ha ve t he s a m e s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt ( i e b 1 a nd b 2 m a ke t he s a m e t ype of c ont r i but i on w hi l e t he y a r e unde r gone t o t he c ogni t i ve pr oc e s s e s of w hi c h t he y a r e a pa r t ) I s t a t e d a t t he out s e t t ha t I i nt e nde d t o a r t i c ul a t e a nd de f e nd t he t he s i s t ha t be l i e f i s a ps yc hol og i c a l s t a t e i ndi vi dua t e d by i t s a i m f unc t i on a nd c ogn i t i ve c ont e nt G i ve n t he f or e goi ng t hi s t he s i s s houl d now be r e vi s e d a s f ol l ow s : be l i e f i s a ps yc hol ogi c a l s t a t e i ndi vi dua t e d by i t s a i m f unc t i on a nd i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c o n t e nt O n t he a c c ount I a m p r opos i ng, t he n t he s ync hr oni c a nd i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s of be l i e f a r e c om pl e x c onc e pt s w hol l y i ndi vi dua t e d by t he i r pos s e s s i on c ondi t i ons w hi c h a r e a f unc t i on of t he pos s e s s i on c ondi t i ons of t he i r s i m pl e c om pone nt c onc e pt s a nd t he i r m ode of c om bi n a t i on. G i ve n t ha t m y a c c ount pos i t s t he e xi s t e nc e of di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt s i t f a c e s a c ha l l e nge a ki n t o t he c ha l l e nge f a c e d by s e m a nt i c t he or i e s t ha t pos i t t he e xi s t e nc e of di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng e xpr e s s i ons F ur t he r m y a c c ount m us t a l s o a ns w e r t he que s t i on, w ha t a r e t he t r ut h c o n di t i ons of be l i e f s w hos e s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt i nc l ude s a c om pl e x di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt i n c a s e s w he n t he r e f e r e nt o f t he i r c om pon e nt s i m pl e d i r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt doe s not

PAGE 14

14 f a l l unde r t he i r c om pone nt i de nt i f yi ng c onc e pt ? C ha pt e r 3 a ddr e s s e s bot h c ha l l e nge s a nd s how s t ha t ne i t he r i s f a t a l t o t he a c c ount I a m a dvoc a t i ng C onc e r ni ng t he na t ur e o f c onc e pt s ge ne r a l l y, I e ndor s e t he ge ne r a l a ppr oa c h P e a c oc ke pr opos e s i n A St udy o f C onc e pt s m odi f yi ng hi s a c c ou nt w he ne ve r doi ng s o i s ne c e s s a r y f or m y pur pos e s O n P e a c oc ke s vi e w c onc e pt s a r e w hol l y i ndi vi dua t e d by t he i r p os s e s s i on c ondi t i ons w hi c h s pe c i f y t he c ond i t i ons unde r w hi c h a t hi nke r w ho pos s e s s e s t he r e l e va nt c onc e pt f i nds t r a ns i t i ons t o a nd f r om t hought s c ont a i ni ng t hi s c o nc e pt pr i m i t i ve l y c om pe l l i ng. C onc e r ni ng t hi s a c c ount I r a i s e t he f ol l ow i ng t w o que s t i ons : ( i ) W ha t doe s i t t a ke f o r a s e t of pos s e s s i on c ondi t i ons t o be t he pos s e s s i on c ond i t i ons of a c onc e pt ? ( i i ) D oe s t he r e c or r e s pond a s i ngl e c onc e pt or a m ul t i pl i c i t y of c onc e pt s t o a va gue e x pr e s s i on, a nd i s ( a r e ) t he r e l e va nt c onc e pt ( s ) a l s o va gue ? P e a c oc ke of f e r s one r e qui r e m e nt on c onc e pt hood w hi c h he l e a ve s r a t he r unde r s pe c i f i e d. I i nt e r pr e t i t a s a r e qui r e m e nt t ha t t he pos s e s s i on c o ndi t i ons of a ny c onc e pt m us t de t e r m i ne c ons i s t e nt de pl oym e nt c ondi t i ons R e f l e c t i on on t hi s r e qui r e m e nt r e ve a l s t ha t P e a c oc ke i s c om m i t t e d t o t he vi e w t ha t t he r e i s no c onc e pt t r ut h. O n t hi s m a t t e r I e ndo r s e P e a c oc ke s c om m i t m e nt but c oi n t he t e r m not i on f or s e t s of pos s e s s i on c ondi t i ons t ha t f a i l t o de t e r m i ne c ons i s t e nt de pl oym e nt c ondi t i ons a nd a r gue t ha t n ot i ons c a n ne ve r t he l e s s pl a y a s i gni f i c a nt r ol e i n our c ogni t i ve l i ve s F u r t he r r e f l e c t i on r e ve a l s t ha t P e a c oc ke s r e qui r e m e nt i nt e r pr e t e d a s a r e qui r e m e nt on de pl o y m e nt c ondi t i ons s houl d be r e s t r i c t e d t o s i m pl e c onc e pt s P e a c oc ke s ow n f or m ul a t i on of hi s r e qui r e m e nt on c onc e pt hood i s a s f ol l ow s : T he de t e r m i na t i on t he or y f or a gi ve n c onc e pt ( t oge t he r w i t h t he w or l d i n e m pi r i c a l c a s e s ) a s s i gns s e m a nt i c va l ue s i n s uc h a w a y t ha t t he be l i e f f or m i ng pr a c t i c e s m e nt i one d i n t he c o n c e pt s pos s e s s i on c ondi t i on a r e c or r e c t T ha t i s i n t he c a s e of be l i e f f o r m a t i on, t he pr a c t i c e s r e s ul t i n t r ue be l i e f s a nd i n t he c a s e of pr i nc i pl e s of i nf e r e nc e t he y r e s ul t i n t r ut h pr e s e r vi ng i nf e r e nc e s w he n s e m a nt i c va l ue s a r e a s s i gne d i n a c c or da nc e w i t h t he d e t e r m i na t i on t he or y ( P e a c oc ke 1992: 19)

PAGE 15

15 R e f l e c t i on on va gue c onc e pt s r e ve a l s t ha t t hi s r e qui r e m e nt s houl d be r e f or m u l a t e d a s f ol l ow s : T he de t e r m i na t i on t he or y f or a gi ve n c onc e pt ( t oge t he r w i t h t he w or l d i n e m pi r i c a l c a s e s ) a s s i gns s e m a nt i c va l ue s i n s uc h a w a y t ha t t he be l i e f f or m i ng pr a c t i c e s m e nt i one d i n t he c onc e pt s pos s e s s i on c ondi t i on a r e c or r e c t T ha t i s i n t he c a s e of be l i e f f o r m a t i on, t he pr a c t i c e s r e s ul t i n i nf o r m a t i on c a r r yi ng be l i e f s a n d i n t he c a s e of pr i nc i pl e s o f i n f e r e nc e t he y r e s ul t i n i nf or m a t i on pr e s e r vi ng i n f e r e nc e s w he n s e m a nt i c va l ue s a r e a s s i gne d i n a c c or da nc e w i t h t he de t e r m i na t i on t he or y F i na l l y, C ha pt e r 3 of f e r s a c onc e pt ua l a r gu m e nt a g a i ns t t he vi e w t ha t t he c ont e nt of be l i e f i s i nde t e r m i na t e C ha pt e r 4 i s de vot e d t o t he que s t i on, w ha t i s r e qui r e d f or a be l i e f t o be s ubj e c t t o e va l u a t i on a s r a t i ona l o r i r r a t i ona l ? I pr opos e t ha t a be l i e f i s e va l ua bl e a s r a t i ona l or i r r a t i ona l onl y i f t he be l i e ve r ha s t he c a pa c i t y t o t a ke a de l i be r a t i ve s t a nc e t ow a r d i t T a ki ng a de l i be r a t i ve s t a nc e t ow a r d t he be l i e f t ha t p m i ni m a l l y r e qui r e s t he c a pa c i t y t o e nt e r t a i n t he de l i be r a t i ve que s t i on, D o I be l i e ve t ha t p ? 4 T hi s r e qui r e s t he c a pa c i t y t o e nt e r t a i n a que s t i on a nd pos s e s s i on of t he f i r s t pe r s on c onc e pt a nd t he c onc e pt of be l i e f i n a ddi t i on t o t he c onc e pt s t ha t c ons t i t ut e t he i ndi vi dua t i ng a nd c ur r e nt s ync hr oni c c ogn i t i ve c on t e nt s of t ha t be l i e f I nt ui t i ve l y, l i a bi l i t y t o no r m a t i ve p r a i s e a nd bl a m e w hi c h a t t e nds r a t i ona l e va l ua bi l i t y, r e qui r e s a dua l f o r m o f c o n t r o l i e i t r e qui r e s c a us a l r e s pons i bi l i t y a nd t he c a pa c i t y t o a bi de by t he nor m r e l a t i ve t o w hi c h one i s e va l ua t e d. I a r gu e t ha t t hi s i nt u i t i on i s c o r r e c t a nd t ha t t he t ype of c ont r ol e xe r c i s e d i n de l i be r a t i on ( bot h pr a c t i c a l a nd doxa s t i c ) i e r e gul a t i ve c ont r ol s uf f i c e s t o s e c ur e t he r e qui r e d c ont r ol D oxa s t i c de l i be r a t i on, I a r gue m i ni m a l l y r e qui r e s t he c a pa c i t y t o t a ke a de l i be r a t i ve s t a nc e t ow a r d one s be l i e f B y vi r t ue of pos s e s s i ng t he c onc e pt s t ha t c ons t i t ut e t he i ndi vi dua t i ng a nd c ur r e nt s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s of he r be l i e f by vi r t ue of be i ng 4 I a m b o r r o w i n g M o r a n s t e r m i n o l o g y h e r e A c c o r d i n g t o M o r a n t h e d e l i b e r a t i v e q u e s t i o n D o I b e l i e v e t h a t p ? i s e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e q u e s t i o n S h o u l d I b e l i e v e t h a t p ? a n d d o e s n o t a i m m e r e l y t o y i e l d a n a c c u r a t e a t t i t u d e r e p o r t ; i t a i m s t o y i e l d b e l i e f i e a n a t t i t u d e t h a t c o n f o r m s t o w h a t M o r a n c a l l s t h e c o n d i t i o n o f t r a n s p a r e n c y i e t h a t I c a n r e p o r t o n m y b e l i e f a b o u t X b y c o n s i d e r i n g ( n o t h i n g b u t ) X i t s e l f ( M o r a n 2 0 0 1 : 8 4 ; i t a l i c s i n t h e o r i g i n a l ; s e e a l s o 6 3 )

PAGE 16

16 c a pa bl e of c onc e pt ua l i z i ng i t a s he r ow n be l i e f a nd by vi r t ue of be i ng c a pa b l e of w onde r i ng w he t he r t o be l i e ve i t t he be l i e ve r ha s t he c a pa c i t y t o r e c ogni z e t ha t a gi ve n s e t of doxa s t i c nor m s gove r ns he r be l i e f i n t he s e ns e of ha vi ng t he c a pa c i t y t o r e c ogni z e w ha t i t w oul d t a ke f or he r be l i e f t o be t r ue a nd t o r e c ogni z e he r be l i e f a s b e h ol de n t o t he s e t r ut h c ondi t i ons B y vi r t ue o f be i ng a c ons c i ous pur pos i ve a c t i vi t y de l i be r a t i on a l s o s e c ur e s t he c a pa c i t y t o r e f r a i n f r om a bi di ng by t he s e nor m s by m a ki ng i t pos s i bl e t o s u bj e c t be l i e f t o i nt e nt i ona l gove r na nc e A c c or di ngl y, s a t i s f a c t i on o f t he m i ni m a l r e qui r e m e nt s f or t he c a pa c i t y f or doxa s t i c de l i be r a t i on s e c ur e s t he c ont r ol i nt ui t i ve l y r e qui r e d f or r a t i ona l e va l ua bi l i t y. C ha pt e r 5 a ppl i e s t he f o r e goi ng a c c ount t o t w o i s s ue s na m e l y, t he i s s ue r a i s e d f or s e m a nt i c s by de r e de di c t o a nd de s e a t t i t ude r e por t s a n d t he i s s ue r a i s e d f or e pi s t e m ol ogy by G e t t i e r s c a s e s I pr opos e t ha t a pur e l y de r e be l i e f r e por t s t a t e s t he i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt w hi l e a pur e l y de di c t o be l i e f r e por t s t a t e s t he s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of t he be l i e f i t r e por t s F ur t he r I pr opos e t ha t r e f l e xi ve be l i e f s a r e unus ua l i n t he f ol l ow i ng r e s pe c t : t he i r s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt m a y r e f e r t o t he be l i e ve r vi a s i m pl e di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt s t oke ne d i nd e pe nde nt l y of a ny i de nt i f yi ng c onc e pt s G e ne r a l l y ge nui ne l y de s e be l i e f s a r e r e f l e xi ve be l i e f s t ha t do not i de nt i f y t he be l i e ve r vi a a ny p r e di c a t i ve c onc e pt I p r opos e t ha t de s e be l i e f r e po r t s a r e of f e r e d de r e w i t h r e ga r d t o a ny r e f l e xi ve e xpr e s s i on i nc l ude d i n t he i r c om pl e m e nt c l a us e 5 M y a ns w e r t o G e t t i e r s c a s e s i s a s f ol l ow s : I pr opos e t ha t ha vi ng know l e dge r e qui r e s s a t i s f yi ng t he nor m of t r ut h a s i t a ppl i e s t o one s be l i e f N ow s a t i s f yi ng t he nor m of t r ut h a s i t a ppl i e s t o a ny be l i e f i s a m a t t e r of s a t i s f yi ng t he de pl oym e nt c on di t i ons of t he s i m pl e c onc e pt s i n t he r e l e va nt m ode s of c om bi na t i on, t ha t 5 F o r p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n s o f w h a t I m e a n b y d e r e a n d d e s e a t t i t u d e r e p o r t s s e e C h a p t e r 5

PAGE 17

17 c ons t i t ut e t he s ync hr oni c a nd i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s of t ha t be l i e f T he de pl oym e nt c ondi t i ons of a ny c onc e pt m e nt i on t he t ype s of c i r c um s t a nc e unde r w hi c h t hi s c onc e pt i s c o r r e c t l y de pl oye d. I t i s hi ghl y pl a us i bl e t ha t t he nor m of t r ut h s e t s a dua l r e qui r e m e nt on de pl o y m e nt of a ny c onc e pt : F i r s t i t s e t s a c or r e c t ne s s r e qui r e m e nt by r e qui r i ng t ha t c i r c um s t a nc e s of t he r e l e va nt t ype obt a i n a nd, s e c ond, i t s e t s a n e vi de n c e r e qui r e m e nt by r e qui r i ng t ha t one w ho de pl oys t hi s c onc e pt ha s e vi de nc e t ha t c i r c um s t a nc e s of t he r e l e va nt t ype obt a i n I p r opos e t ha t ha vi ng know l e dge r e qui r e s s a t i s f yi ng t he c or r e c t ne s s a nd e vi de nc e r e qui r e m e nt s f or t he s i m pl e c onc e pt s i n t he r e l e v a nt m ode s of c om b i na t i on, t h a t c ons t i t ut e t he s ync hr oni c a nd i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s of t ha t be l i e f I pr opos e t ha t G e t t i e r s f i r s t c a s e 6 i nvol ve s a m i s i de nt i f i e d be l i e f i e a be l i e f w hos e s y nc hr oni c c ognt i t i ve c ont e nt ha s t he f o r m a [ the X ] is F t hough a i s not t he X M i s i de nt i f i c a t i on a nd f a l s e hood a r e e pi s t e m i c de f e a t e r s f or a na l ogous r e a s ons T o e va l ua t e a be l i e f a s f a l s e i s t o e va l ua t e i t ne ga t i ve l y a l ong t he d i m e ns i on of c or r e c t ne s s be c a us e i t s i nd i vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt f a i l s t o s a t i s f y i t s c or r e c t ne s s r e qui r e m e nt by vi r t ue o f be i ng c ons t i t ut e d by s om e c onc e pt t ha t f a i l s t o s a t i s f y i t s c or r e c t ne s s r e qui r e m e nt T o e va l ua t e a be l i e f a s s ubj e c t t o a n e r r or of m i s i de nt i f i c a t i on i s t o e va l ua t e i t ne ga t i ve l y a l ong t he di m e ns i on of c o r r e c t ne s s be c a us e i t s s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt f a i l s t o s a t i s f y i t s c or r e c t ne s s r e qui r e m e nt by vi r t ue of be i ng c ons t i t ut e d by s om e pr e di c a t i ve c onc e pt t oke ne d i n a n i de nt i f yi ng r ol e t ha t f a i l s t o s a t i s f y i t s c or r e c t ne s s r e qui r e m e nt I pr opos e t ha t G e t t e r s s e c ond c a s e 7 i nvol ve s a be l i e f t ha t i s e pi s t e m i c a l l y f l a w e d be c a us e i t f a i l s t o s a t i s f y t he c o r r e c t ne s s a nd e vi de nc e r e qui r e m e nt s f or t he s i m pl e c onc e pt s i n t he r e l e va nt m ode s of c om b i na t i on, t ha t c ons t i t ut e i ndi vi dua t i n g c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s of t ha t be l i e f T he 6 F o r a d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t o f G e t t i e r s f i r s t c a s e s e e C h a p t e r 5 7 F o r a d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t o f G e t t i e r s s e c o n d c a s e s e e C h a p t e r 5

PAGE 18

18 r e l e va nt be l i e f i s a di s j unc t i ve be l i e f I n G e t t i e r s s e c ond c a s e t he be l i e ve r s a t i s f i e s t he c or r e c t ne s s r e qui r e m e nt r e l a t i ve t o one c om pone nt di s j un c t a nd t he e vi de nc e r e qui r e m e nt r e l a t i ve t o t he ot he r c om pone nt di s j unc t S a t i s f yi ng t he c o r r e c t ne s s a nd e vi de nc e r e qui r e m e nt s f or t he c om p one nt c onc e pt s i n t he r e l e va nt m ode of c om bi na t i o n, how e ve r r e qui r e s s a t i s f yi ng bot h t he c or r e c t ne s s a nd t he e v i de nc e r e qui r e m e nt f or a t l e a s t one of t he c onj unc t s 8 T he a c c ount t ha t f ol l ow s m e a ns t o be i nt u i t i ve a nd a s f i ne gr a i ne d a s our pr e t he or e t i c t hought s a bout our be l i e f s A l t hough s om e o f t he t e r m i nol ogy a nd a ppa r a t us i t i nt r oduc e s i s c om pl e x a nd a t t i m e s t e c hni c a l t he vi e w i t m e a ns t o c a pt ur e i s s i m pl e 8 T h i s a n s w e r d o e s n o t a p p l y t o t a u t o l o g i c a l t r u t h s s u c h a s p V ~ p

PAGE 19

19 C H A P T E R 2 T H E A I M A N D F U N C T I O N O F B E L I E F T ha t be l i e f a i m s a t t r ut h i s w e l l ni gh a phi l os ophi c a l pl a t i t ude I n D e c i di ng t o B e l i e ve B e r na r d W i l l i a m s i s o l a t e s f i ve f e a t ur e s t ha t he t a ke s t o be c ha r a c t e r i s t i c of be l i e f T he f i r s t o f t he s e i s t ha t be l i e f a i m s a t t r ut h W i l l i a m s e xpl i c a t e s t hi s c l a i m a s f ol l ow s : W he n I s a y t ha t be l i e f s a i m a t t r ut h I ha ve pa r t i c ul a r l y i n m i nd t h r e e t hi ngs F i r s t : t ha t t r ut h a nd f a l s e hood a r e a di m e ns i on of a n a s s e s s m e nt of be l i e f s a s oppos e d t o m a ny ot he r ps yc hol ogi c a l s t a t e s or di s pos i t i ons [ S e c ond] : t o be l i e ve t ha t p i s t o be l i e ve t ha t p i s t r ue [ T hi r d ] : t o s a y I be l i e ve t ha t p i t s e l f c a r r i e s i n ge ne r a l a c l a i m t ha t p i s t r ue ( W i l l i a m s 1973: 136 37 ) W i l l i a m s c l a i m t ha t be l i e f a i m s a t t r ut h i s f r e que nt l y e c hoe d i n t he phi l os ophi c a l l i t e r a t u r e us u a l l y i n a s t r e ngt he ne d f o r m t r ut h i t i s t hough t i s t he c ons t i t ut i ve a i m o f be l i e f I n t hi s c ha pt e r I e xpl i c a t e t he not i on of a c ons t i t ut i ve a i m a nd c a nva s s a pr i m a f ac i e c a s e f or e ndor s i ng t he s t r onge r t h e s i s I t he n a r gue t ha t i nt e r pr e t e d l i t e r a l l y, t hi s t he s i s c om m i t s t w o c a t e gor y m i s t a ke s s i nc e no s t a t e a s s uc h, c a n pr ope r l y be s a i d t o ha ve or be r e gul a t e d by a ny a i m a nd s i nc e be l i e f a s s uc h, c a nnot be pur pos i ve I t he n p r opos e a n i nt e r pr e t a t i on of t he t he s i s t ha t i s f r e e of t he s e m i s t a ke s a nd a c c or di ng t o w hi c h t he nor m of t r ut h gove r ns be l i e vi ng unde r s t ood a s a n e ve nt i n vi r t ue of t he pr ope r c ogni t i ve f unc t i on of be l i e vi ng, i e t o ge ne r a t e / s us t a i n be l i e f a nd i n vi r t ue of t he pr ope r c ogni t i ve f unc t i on o f be l i e f i e t o s a nc t i on a nd pr e s e r ve i n f o r m a t i on a s s uc h i n c onc e pt ua l i z e d f or m C on s t i t u t i ve A i m s T o s t a r t s om e t hi ng m us t be s a i d a bout w ha t t he e x pr e s s i on, c ons t i t ut i ve a dds t o t he t h e s i s t ha t be l i e f a i m s a t t r ut h. T he di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n c ons t i t ut i ve a nd non c ons t i t ut i ve a i m s i s m os t c ons pi c uous i n t he r e a l m o f a c t i on S o, c ons i de r m y s hoot i ng f or t he bul l s e ye w hi l e pl a yi ng a t da r t s M y a i m i n doi ng s o m a y be t o w i n t he ga m e T hi s a i m how e ve r i s not c ons t i t ut i ve of m y a c t i on de s c r i be d a s a s hot f or t he bul l s e ye i n t he s e ns e t ha t I c oul d ha ve pe r f o r m e d

PAGE 20

20 t hi s a c t i on w i t hout a i m i ng t o w i n t he ga m e ha vi ng s c or e d a bul l s e ye a l r e a dy a nd know i ng t ha t I w i l l ge t no f u r t he r poi nt s f or h i t t i ng a not he r I m a y ne ve r t he l e s s s hoot f or a not he r t o s how o f f m y s ki l l a nd l a c k of c onc e r n w i t h w i nni ng W ha t i s r e qui r e d f o r m y a c t i on t o c ount a s a s hot f or t he bul l s e ye i s t ha t I pe r f o r m e d i t i nt e r al i a w i t h t he pur pos e of hi t t i ng t he bul l s e ye H i t t i ng t he bul l s e ye t he n, i s a c ons t i t ut i ve a i m of s hoot i ng f or t he bul l s e ye i n t he s e ns e t ha t I c a nnot s hoot f or t he bul l s e ye w i t hout ha vi ng t hi s a i m M or e pr e c i s e l y, i n t he r e a l m of a c t i on c ons t i t ut i ve a i m s a r e s ubj e c t t o t he f ol l ow i ng c ondi t i on: F or a ny a ge nt A a c t i on t ype # a c t i on s u c h t h a t i s a t o k e n o f # a nd a i m $ $ i s c ons t i t ut i ve of # j us t i n c a s e ne c e s s a r i l y, i f A s t he n A s w i t h t he pu r pos e of $ i ng O n m os t a c c ount s w ha t di s t i ngui s he s a n a c t i on f r o m a m e r e bodi l y m ove m e nt i s t ha t t he r e i s a de s c r i pt i on of t he f o r m e r but not o f t he l a t t e r unde r w hi c h i t i s pe r f o r m e d i nt e nt i ona l l y A ny gi ve n a c t i on c a n be de s c r i be d i n m a ny di f f e r e nt w a ys B or r ow i ng D ona l d D a vi ds on s e x a m pl e ( D a vi ds on 1980: 4) f l i ppi ng t he s w i t c h c a n s om e t i m e s a l s o be de s c r i be d a s t ur ni ng on t he l i ght or a s a l e r t i ng a pr ow l e r t o one s p r e s e nc e D i f f e r e nt t ype s of a c t i on de s c r i pt i ons ha ve di f f e r e nt t ype s o f l ogi c a l pr of i l e s A de s c r i pt i on o f a n a c t i on f or m ul a t e d i n t e r m s o f a c ons e que nc e of t ha t a c t i on i s f a c t i ve r e l a t i ve t o t ha t c ons e que nc e S o, I c a nnot t r ul y be s a i d t o be t ur ni ng on t h e l i ght s un l e s s t he l i ght s a r e t he r e by t ur ne d on, nor c a n I t r ul y be s a i d t o be a l e r t i ng a pr ow l e r t o m y pr e s e nc e unl e s s a pr ow l e r i s t he r e by s o a l e r t e d. S uc h a de s c r i p t i on, how e ve r ha s no s p e c i f i c i m pl i c a t i ons c onc e r ni ng t he a ge nt s i nt e nt i on i n unde r t a ki ng t he a c t i on ( a l t hough gi ve n t ha t i t de s c r i be s t he e ve nt a s a n a c t i on, i t doe s i m pl y t ha t t he a ge nt unde r t ook i t w i t h s om e i nt e nt i on) F r om t he know l e dge t ha t A m y t ur ne d o n t he l i ght s I m a y not pr ope r l y i nf e r t ha t A m y i nt e nde d t o t ur n on t he l i ght s s h e m i ght ha v e m e a nt t o t u r n t he l i ght s on but s he m i ght a l s o ha ve m e a nt m e r e l y t o t e s t t he s w i t c h. T he c on ve r s e hol ds f or a c t i on de s c r i pt i ons f or m ul a t e d i n t e r m s of a c ons t i t ut i ve a i m S uc h a c t i on de s c r i pt i ons ne e d not be f a c t i ve r e l a t i ve t o w ha t t he

PAGE 21

21 a c t i on a c hi e ve s but t he y do e nt a i l t ha t t he a c t i on w a s i nt e nde d a s de s c r i be d. S o m y s hot c ount s a s a s hot f or t he bul l s e ye e ve n i f m y da r t m i s s e s t he boa r d by a w i de m a r g i n, but doe s not c ount a s s uc h i f I hi t t he bul l s e ye w hi l e i nt e ndi ng t o hi t a di f f e r e nt t a r ge t A l t hough a l l a c t i ons a r e i nt e nt i ona l unde r s om e de s c r i pt i on, t he e t i ol ogy of s om e a c t i ons m a y f a i l t o i nvol ve a ny c ons c i ous i nt e nt i on t o pe r f or m t he m S o, pa c i ng i s of t e n done s pont a n e ous l y w hi l e puz z l i ng ove r s om e pa r t i c ul a r l y a bs o r bi ng i s s ue I c a n be qui t e s ur pr i s e d t o f i nd m ys e l f m a r c hi ng a r ound m y r oom ha vi ng no m e m or y of ge t t i ng up f r om m y s e a t N e ve r t he l e s s unl i ke t w i t c hi ng a nd di ge s t i ng, pa c i ng i s s om e t hi ng t ha t t he a ge nt doe s r a t he r t ha n s om e t hi ng t ha t ha ppe ns t o hi m / he r I w i l l us e t he t e r m de l i b e r a t e a c t i on, t o r e f e r t o a c t i ons w hos e e t i o l ogy i nvol ve s a c ons c i ous i nt e nt i on t o pe r f o r m t he m ( unde r s om e de s c r i pt i on) a nd t he t e r m s pont a ne ous a c t i on, t o r e f e r t o a c t i ons t ha t i nvol v e no s uc h c ons c i ous i nt e nt i on. N ot e t ha t a c ha i n of a c t i ons m a y be de l i be r a t e e ve n t hough s om e of t he a c t s t ha t c ons t i t ut e i t a r e s pont a n e ous S o I m a y de l i be r a t e l y r i de m y bi c yc l e t o g r a ndm a s w hi l e be i ng i nc a pa bl e o f e n t e r t a i ni ng s e pa r a t e c ons c i ous i nt e nt i ons c onc e r ni ng t he m yr i a d m om e nt a r y a c t s i n w hi c h s uc h r i d i ng c ons i s t s ( m y t r yi ng t o f o r m s uc h c ons c i ous i nt e nt i o ns w oul d l i ke l y not bode w e l l f or m y r i di ng) A n a c t i on t ha t i s p r ope r l y de s c r i ba bl e i n t e r m s of a c ons t i t ut i ve a i m ne e d no t be de l i be r a t e J us t a s I c a n pa c e s pont a ne ous l y, s o t oo c a n I s pont a ne ous l y s hoot f or t he bul l s e ye I f s hoot i ng da r t s w e r e a be ha vi or i n w hi c h I t e nde d t o e nga ge w hi l e de e p i n t hought m y s hot s w oul d not be a i m l e s s f or be i ng unde r t a ke n a bs e nt m i nde dl y, no r w oul d i t be i nc or r e c t t o de s c r i be a s hot I ha d a bs e nt m i nde dl y a i m e d a t t he bul l s e ye a s a s hot f or t he bul l s e ye A n a c t i on de s c r i pt i on f o r m ul a t e d i n t e r m s o f a c ons t i t ut i ve a i m doe s not a s s uc h, a t t r i but e a c ons c i ous i nt e nt i on t o t he a ge nt R a t he r i t de s c r i be s t he a c t i on a s gove r ne d by t ha t a i m a s a r e gul a t i ng pr i nc i pl e w hi c h m a y, but ne e d not be c ons c i ous l y e ndor s e d.

PAGE 22

22 A n a c t i on de s c r i pt i on f o r m ul a t e d i n t e r m s o f a c on s t i t ut i ve a i m i ps o f ac t o c a s t s t he a c t i on i t de s c r i be s a s s ubj e c t t o e va l ua t i on a l ong t w o di m e ns i ons F i r s t t he a c t i on c a n be e v a l ua t e d a s c a r r yi ng out t hi s a i m e i t he r s uc c e s s f ul l y or uns uc c e s s f ul l y ( I w i l l c a l l t hi s di m e ns i on of e va l u a t i on t he s uc c e s s di m e ns i on ) S o m y s hot f o r t he bul l s e ye i s s uc c e s s f ul i f a nd onl y i f m y da r t hi t s t he bul l s e ye S e c ond, t he a c t i on c a n be e va l ua t e d a s c a r r yi ng out t hi s a i m e i t he r w e l l or poor l y ( I w i l l c a l l t hi s di m e ns i on of e va l ua t i on t he pe r f or m a nc e d i m e ns i on ) S o, e ve n i f m y da r t r e a c he s i t s t a r ge t m y s hot m i ght ne ve r t he l e s s be poor i f t he m a nne r i n w hi c h I t hr e w t he da r t l e nt m e but l i t t l e c ont r ol ove r i t s c our s e or i f t he s uc c e s s of m y s hot de pe nde d c r uc i a l l y on t he oc c ur r e nc e of s om e e ve nt ove r w hi c h I ha d no c ont r ol s uc h a s a t w i t c h or a nudge C onve r s e l y, m y s hot m i ght be good e ve n i f i t m i s s e s i t s t a r ge t S uc h w oul d be t he c a s e i f t he m a nne r i n w hi c h I t h r e w t he da r t l e nt m e good c ont r ol ove r i t s c our s e a nd I m i s s e d t he t a r ge t by a s hor t di s t a nc e onl y. F ur t he r s uc h a n a c t i on de s c r i pt i on c a s t s t he a c t i on i t de s c r i be s a s s ubj e c t t o e va l ua t i on a l ong t he s e t w o di m e n s i ons i nde pe nde nt l y of a ny ot he r a i m s a nd de s i r e s t he a ge nt m i ght ha ve I f I s hot f or t he bul l s e ye w hi l e know i ng t ha t m y doi ng s o w oul d r e s ul t i n t he f r u s t r a t i on o f a l l of m y ot he r a i m s a nd de s i r e s m y a c t i on w oul d be p r of oundl y i r r a t i ona l but i t w oul d not be a ny l e s s s uc c e s s f ul or a ny w or s e a s a s hot f or t he bul l s e ye f o r t ha t A ge nt s a r e r e s pons i bl e f or t he i r a c t i ons t hough o f c our s e t hi s r e s pons i bi l i t y c a n be m i t i ga t e d pr e s um a bl y be c a us e a ge nt s a r e i n a uni que pos i t i on t o e xe r t c ont r ol ove r t he i r a c t i ons vi a t he i r i nt e nt i ons a nd ove r t he i r i nt e nt i ons vi a t he i r pr a c t i c a l j udgm e nt s B e c a us e a n a c t i on de s c r i pt i on f or m ul a t e d i n t e r m s of a c ons t i t ut i ve a i m a t t r i but e s a n i nt e nt i on t o t he a ge nt i t c a s t s not onl y t he a c t i on i t de s c r i be s a s s ubj e c t t o e va l ua t i on a l ong t he di m e ns i ons of s uc c e s s a nd pe r f or m a nc e m e nt i one d a bove but a l s o t he a ge nt a s l i a bl e t o c or r e s pondi ng e va l ua t i on a nd a t t e nda nt pr a i s e or bl a m e A n e va l ua t i on o f a n a c t i on de s c r i be d a s a s hot f or t he bu l l s e ye

PAGE 23

23 r e f l e c t s on t he a ge nt a s uc c e s s f ul f l a w l e s s s hot f or t he bul l s e ye i s a s s uc h, a s uc c e s s f ul f l a w l e s s pe r f or m a nc e of t he a ge nt a nd, a s s uc h, e nt i t l e s he r t o p r a i s e a t l e a s t pr i m a f ac i e B y c ont r a s t a n a ge nt s a l e r t i ng of a p r ow l e r t o he r p r e s e nc e m a y be s a i d t o be e s pe c i a l l y e f f e c t i ve w i t hout t he a ge nt b e i ng t he r e by pa i nt e d a s e f f e c t i v e or p r a i s e w or t hy t he e f f e c t i ve ne s s of t he a ge nt s a c t i on r e f l e c t s on t he a ge nt onl y i f t he a ge n t i nt e nde d he r a c t i on unde r t hi s de s c r i pt i on. A l t hough t he f o r e goi ng r e f l e c t i on ha s f oc us e d on t he pe r ha ps r a t he r ove r l y t a i l o r e d e xa m pl e of s hoot i ng a t t he bu l l s e ye I be l i e ve t ha t i t ne ve r t he l e s s unc ove r e d f e a t ur e s c ha r a c t e r i s t i c of a ny a c t i on de s c r i pt i on f o r m ul a t e d i n t e r m s of a c o ns t i t ut i ve a i m A ny a c t i on de s c r i pt i on t ha t i s not f or m u l a t e d i n t e r m s of a c o ns t i t ut i ve a i m c a n b e t ur ne d i nt o one t ha t i s f o r m ul a t e d i n t e r m s of a c ons t i t ut i ve a i m by pr e f a c i ng i t w i t h t he phr a s e t r yi ng t o 1 2 C ons i de r t he a c t i on de s c r i pt i on, A m y t ur ne d on t he l i gh t A s I not e d e a r l i e r t hi s a c t i on de s c r i pt i on i s f o r m ul a t e d i n t e r m s o f a c ons e que nc e of t he a c t i on. N ow c ons i de r t he a c t i on de s c r i pt i on, A m y t r i e d t o t u r n on t he l i gh t s C l e a r l y, ne c e s s a r i l y, t hi s de s c r i pt i on i s t r ue onl y i f A m y i nt e nde d t o t ur n on t he l i ght s F ur t he r he r a c t i on i s s ubj e c t t o e va l ua t i on bot h i n t e r m s of s uc c e s s a nd pe r f or m a nc e i nde pe nde nt l y of a ny ot he r a i m s a nd de s i r e s A m y m i ght ha ve F ur t he r m or e how e ve r w e e va l ua t e A m y s a c t i on a l ong t he s e di m e ns i ons r e f l e c t s on A m y, a t l e a s t pr i m a f ac i e w ha t e ve r pr a i s e or bl a m e t he r e m i ght be f or s uc c e e di ng or f a i l i ng t o t u r n on t he l i ght s or f o r doi ng i t w e l l or p oor l y, a s t he c a s e m i ght be be l ongs by r i ght t o A m y 1 A l t h o u g h u s e s o f t h e p h r a s e t r y i n g t o o f t e n c a r r y i n E n g l i s h a c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t u r e o f f a i l u r e ( b y v i r t u e o f t h e m a x i m o f r e l e v a n c e I s u s p e c t ) t h e p h a s e d o e s n o t e n t a i l f a i l u r e a s i n d i c a t e d b y G r i c e s c a n c e l l a b i l i t y t e s t T o w i t t h e s e n t e n c e E l k a t r i e d t o f i n i s h h e r d i s s e r t a t i o n a n d s u c c e e d e d 2 A c t i o n d e s c r i p t i o n s u s i n g t h e p h r a s e t r y i n g t o m a y a t t i m e s p i c k o u t m e n t a l a c t s i n v o l v i n g n o b o d i l y c o m p o n e n t T r y i n g t o h o w e v e r i s n o t s y n o n y m o u s w i t h i n t e n d i n g t o o r w i t h a n y o t h e r m e n t a l a c t v e r b I f A m y t r i e d t o t u r n o n t h e l i g h t s a n d f a i l e d u p o n b e i n g s t r u c k b y c o m p l e t e p a r a l y s i s i t m i g h t v e r y w e l l b e t h a t h e r t r y i n g i n v o l v e d n o f u r t h e r e v e n t t h a n h e r i n t e n d i n g ( a n d p e r h a p s e x e r t i n g m e n t a l e f f o r t ) t o t u r n o n t h e l i g h t B y c o n t r a s t t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f A m y s a c t i o n a s A m y t r i e d t o t u r n o n t h e l i g h t s i n t h e c a s e w h e n A m y s u c c e e d e d a p p l i e s t o h e r e n t i r e a c t i o n b o d i l y m o v e m e n t s i n c l u d e d

PAGE 24

24 L e t us s e t a s i de f or l a t e r c ons i de r a t i on t he w or r i e s t ha t be l i e f i s not a n a c t i on but a s t a t e a nd t ha t t he e t i ol ogy of be l i e f of t e n f a i l s t o i nvol ve a ny c ons c i ous or unc ons c i ous i nt e nt i on t o be l i e ve t r ul y, a s w e l l a s t he r e l a t e d que s t i on of w he t he r t he c l a i m t ha t be l i e f c ons t i t ut i ve l y a i m s a t t r ut h s houl d be unde r s t ood m e t a phor i c a l l y or l i t e r a l l y. F or now t he f or e goi ng di s c us s i on s ugge s t s t ha t t hi s c l a i m s houl d be e xpl i c a t e d a s f ol l ow s : T o s a y t ha t be l i e f a i m s a t t r ut h c ons t i t u t i ve l y i s t o s a y t ha t be l i e f i s ne c e s s a r i l y gove r ne d by t r ut h a s a r e gul a t i ng p r i nc i pl e ( w hi c h m a y, but ne e d not be c ons c i ous l y e ndor s e d) I n ot he r w or ds t o s a y t ha t be l i e f a i m s a t t r ut h c ons t i t u t i ve l y i s t o s a y t ha t be l i e f i s ne c e s s a r i l y gove r ne d by t he nor m of t r ut h. 3 F ur t he r t hi s c l a i m c a s t s be l i e f a s s ubj e c t t o e va l ua t i on r e l a t i ve t o t r u t h a l ong t he di m e ns i ons of s uc c e s s a nd pe r f or m a nc e i nd e pe nde nt l y of a ny ot he r a i m s a nd de s i r e s t he be l i e v e r m i ght ha ve F i na l l y, t hi s c l a i m c a s t s t he be l i e ve r a s s ubj e c t t o c or r e s pondi ng e va l ua t i ons a n d a t t e nda nt pr a i s e or bl a m e P r i m a F ac i e C as e f or t h e T h e s i s t h at B e l i e f C on s t i t u t i ve l y A i m s at T r u t h M y c a s e f or t hi s t he s i s e xpl i c a t e d a l ong t he l i ne s d e l i ne a t e d a bove unde r s c or e s i t s e xpl a na t or y pow e r I n w ha t f ol l ow s I a r gue t ha t : T he t he s i s t ha t be l i e f a i m s a t t r ut h c ons t i t ut i ve l y e xpl a i ns : ( i ) w hy be l i e f unde r no r m a l c ond i t i ons i s r e s pons i ve t o ( t he a ppe a r a nc e of ) t r ut h be l i e f i s s o r e s pons i ve be c a us e i t i s ne c e s s a r i l y gove r ne d by t he nor m of t r ut h; i n t ur n t he t he s i s t ha t be l i e f unde r nor m a l c ondi t i ons i s r e s pons i ve t o ( t he a ppe a r a nc e of ) t r ut h e xpl a i ns : ( a ) our s uc c e s s a t s e c ur i ng i nt e r pe r s ona l a gr e e m e nt a s t o w ha t t o be l i e ve a nd do; ( b) our s uc c e s s a t a t t r i but i ng be l i e f s t o ot he r s w hi l e ha vi ng obt a i ne d f e w or no r e l e va nt ve r ba l r e po r t s f r o m t he m ; ( c ) w hy ut t e r a nc e s t ha t a r e p r ope r l y t a ke n t o e xpr e s s b e l i e f ( de f e a s i bl y) e nt i t l e t he i r a udi e nc e s t o be l i e ve t ha t t he s e ut t e r a nc e s a r e t r ue a nd t o f o r m be l i e f s on t he i r b a s i s ; ( d) w hy i ndi vi dua l s c a n r e m a i n e nt i t l e d t o t he i r m e m o r y be l i e f s w hi l e ha vi ng f o r go t t e n t he i r r e a s ons f or t he s e be l i e f s ; 3 H e n c e f o r t h I w i l l u s e i s g o v e r n e d b y t h e n o r m o f t r u t h a s i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e w i t h i s g o v e r n e d b y t r u t h a s a r e g u l a t i n g p r i n c i p l e

PAGE 25

25 ( i i ) w hy be l i e f s unl i ke s a y, i m a gi ni ngs a r e l i a bl e t o c r i t i c i s m a s s uc h f or f a i l i ng t o r e s pond t o ( t he a ppe a r a nc e o f ) t r ut h unde r nor m a l c o nd i t i ons ; ( i i i ) w hy t he de l i be r a t i ve que s t i ons D o I be l i e ve t ha t p ? a nd S ha l l / s houl d I be l i e ve t ha t p ? a r e t r a ns pa r e nt t o t he que s t i on, I s i t t he c a s e t h a t p ? i n t he s e ns e t ha t t he f i r s t t w o que s t i ons t ypi c a l l y a r e a nd s houl d be a ns w e r e d by w a y of a ns w e r i ng t he t hi r d que s t i on ; ( i v) w hy a s s e r t i ons of t he f o r m s I be l i e ve t ha t p but p i s f a l s e a nd p but I don t b e l i e ve t ha t p s t r i ke us a s pa r a doxi c a l ( M oor e s pa r a dox) N ot e how e ve r t ha t I a m not c l a i m i ng t ha t t r ut h i s t he e xc l us i ve a i m of be l i e f ; t he t he s i s t ha t be l i e f c ons t i t ut i ve l y a i m s a t t r ut h i s c om pa t i bl e w i t h be l i e ve r s ha vi ng ot he r a i m s i n a ddi t i on t o t r ut h w hi l e f or m i ng be l i e f s T he t he s i s t ha t be l i e f c ons t i t ut i ve l y a i m s a t t r ut h i s c om pa t i bl e a l s o w i t h be l i e f ha vi ng ot he r c ons t i t ut i ve a i m s i n a ddi t i on t o t r ut h. A r gum e nt s t ha t a ppe a l t o e xpl a na t or y pow e r a r e ge ne r a l l y t r i c ky s i nc e t he y do not ha ve c om pe l l i ng pe r s ua s i ve f or c e unl e s s t he y a r e s uppor t e d by a n a r gu m e nt t o t he e f f e c t t ha t t he pr of f e r e d e xpl a n a t i on i s be t t e r t ha n a ny pos s i bl e a l t e r na t i ve e xpl a na t i on of t he r e l e va nt dom a i n. I t i s t ypi c a l l y di f f i c ul t t o s how t ha t s om e e xpl a na t i on i s be t t e r t ha n a ny pos s i bl e a l t e r na t i ve a nd I a m not i n a pos i t i on t o s how t ha t t he r e c a n be no b e t t e r e xpl a na t i on of t he phe nom e na l i s t e d a bove t ha n t he e xpl a na t i on I a m pr opos i ng i n pa r t be c a us e I f i nd i t d i f f i c ul t t o e nvi s i on s ui t a bl e a l t e r na t i ve s A c c or di ngl y I a m n ot of f e r i ng t he f o l l ow i ng a s a bona f i de a r gum e nt t o t he be s t e xpl a na t i on. R a t he r I a m a r gu i ng t ha t t he t he s i s t h a t be l i e f c ons t i t ut i ve l y a i m s a t t r u t h f i gu r e s i n a good e xpl a na t i on of a w i de r a nge of phe nom e na I a m ne ve r t he l e s s hopi ng t ha t t he pe r s ua s i ve f or c e of t he a r gum e nt w i l l not be i ns i gni f i c a nt gi v e n t he w i de r a nge of t he phe nom e na i nvol ve d i n t he e xpl a na t i on. B e l i e f i s N e c e s s ar i l y G ove r n e d b y t h e N or m of T r u t h S uppos e B a s i l a s ke d A m y, A r e t he r e a ny be a r s i n t he ya r d? a nd A m y r e s ponde d, Y e s U nde r nor m a l c o n di t i ons t ha t A m y s o r e s ponde d w oul d l e a d a nd w a r r a nt B a s i l t o a t t r i but e t o A m y t he be l i e f t ha t t he r e a r e be a r s i n t he ya r d a nd t o be l i e ve t ha t t he r e a r e be a r s i n t he ya r d.

PAGE 26

26 N ow s uppos e B a s i l di s c ove r e d t ha t a l t hough A m y unde r s t ood hi s que s t i on a nd ga ve hi m a s i n c e r e r e s pons e s he ha d no i ndi c a t i on a t a l l t ha t i t w a s t r ue C l e a r l y, t hi s di s c ove r y w oul d r ob B a s i l of a ny w a r r a nt t o be l i e ve on t hi s ba s i s t ha t t h e r e a r e be a r s i n t he ya r d F ur t he r s uppos e B a s i l a l s o di s c o v e r e d t ha t A m y w oul d not c ha nge he r m i nd a bout t he m a t t e r i n t he f a c e o f a ny i ndi c a t i on t o t he c ont r a r y s he m i ght e nc ount e r I t i s not c l e a r t ha t ha vi ng m a de t he s e di s c ove r i e s B a s i l w oul d r e m a i n w a r r a nt e d i n a t t r i but i ng t o A m y t he be l i e f t ha t t he r e a r e be a r s i n t he ya r d. W ha t pr om p t e d A m y s Y e s i t s e e m s i s m or e a ki n t o i m a gi ni ng o r f e a r i ng t ha n be l i e vi ng t ha t t he r e be a r s i n t he ya r d 4 T ha t be l i e f a i m s a t t r ut h c ons t i t ut i ve l y e xpl a i ns w hy be l i e f s unde r nor m a l c ondi t i ons a r e r e s pons i ve t o ( t he a ppe a r a nc e of ) t r u t h. U nde r nor m a l c ondi t i ons m e r e a w a r e ne s s of m y s e e i ng a be a r be f or e m e s uf f i c e s f o r m e t o f or m i m m e di a t e l y a nd w i t hout a ny w i l l f ul e f f o r t t he be l i e f t ha t t he r e i s a be a r be f o r e m e ( no m a t t e r how s t r on g m y de s i r e t ha t t he r e be no be a r be f or e m e ) S i m i l a r l y, m e r e a w a r e ne s s of m y f a i l i ng t o s e e a b e a r be f or e m e s uf f i c e s f or m e t o r e l i n qui s h, 4 I n a n a r g u m e n t m e a n t t o c a s t d o u b t o n t h e c l a i m t h a t b e l i e v e r s a r e m o t i v a t e d b y t h e n o r m o f t r u t h a s a m a t t e r o f c o n c e p t u a l n e c e s s i t y E r i c F u n k h o u s e r a d d u c e s t h r e e c l i n i c a l c a s e s o f b e l i e f t h a t i s a l l e g e d l y i m p e r v i o u s t o e v i d e n c e ( F u n k h a u s e r 2 0 0 3 : 1 8 6 1 8 7 ) F u n k h a u s e r m e n t i o n s t h e s e c a s e s u n d e r t h e h e a d i n g B e l i e v i n g w i t h c o m p l e t e i n d i f f e r e n c e t o t h e e v i d e n c e I n d o i n g s o h o w e v e r F u n k h a u s e r m i s r e p r e s e n t s t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e a u t h o r s o f t h e s t u d y h e c i t e s w h o w r i t e : T o g e t h e r t h e s e t h r e e c a s e s F E T H a n d D B p r o v i d e c o n v i n c i n g e v i d e n c e t h a t a n a n o m a l o u s p e r c e p t u a l a n d / o r a f f e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h t h e p a t i e n t f e e l s c o m p e l l e d t o e x p l a i n u n d e r l i e s t h e f o r m a t i o n o f s o m e [ D e l u s i o n s o f M i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ( D M ) ] W e a r e n o t s u g g e s t i n g t h a t p e r c e p t u a l o r a f f e c t i v e d e f i c i t s o f t h e k i n d t h a t w e o b s e r v e d i n F E T H a n d D B a r e s u f f i c i e n t e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e i r d e l u s i o n s o f m i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n R a t h e r w e a r e p r o p o s i n g t h a t s u c h d e f i c i t s m a y p r o v i d e n e c e s s a r y a n t e c e d e n t s t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f D M i n s o m e p a t i e n t s ( B r e e n 2 0 0 0 : 1 0 2 ) T h e a u t h o r s d o n o t e a s F u n k h a u s e r r e p o r t s t h a t t h e s e b e l i e f s a r e p a t h o l o g i c a l l y r e s i s t a n t t o c o n t r a r y e v i d e n c e : [ O ] u r o b s e r v a t i o n s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e i s a l s o a f a i l u r e t o b e i n f l u e n c e d b y o r g i v e w e i g h t t o e v i d e n c e w h i c h f o r a n o r m a l p e r s o n w o u l d o v e r r i d e t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e a n o m a l o u s p e r c e p t o r a f f e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n a n d m a i n t e n a n c e o f b e l i e f I t i s t h i s f a i l u r e w h i c h e n a b l e s t h e D M t o b e a c c e p t e d A s a r e s u l t a l l t h r e e p a t i e n t s ( F E T H a n d D B ) w e r e a b l e t o g i v e u n t r o u b l e d e x p r e s s i o n i n a s i n g l e n a r r a t i v e o r c o n v e r s a t i o n t o i d e a s w h i c h w o u l d b e c o m p l e t e l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y a n d t h e r e f o r e t r o u b l i n g t o a n y c o g n i t i v e l y i n t a c t p e r s o n ( I b i d ) Y e t F u n k h a u s e r s c l a i m t h a t t h e s e a r e i n s t a n c e s o f b e l i e v i n g w i t h c o m p l e t e i n d i f f e r e n c e t o t h e e v i d e n c e i s a n o v e r s t a t e m e n t E v e n i n t h e s e p a t h o l o g i c a l c a s e s i t s e e m s t h e b e l i e v e r s a r e m o t i v a t e d b y t h e n o r m o f t r u t h a l b e i t v e r y i m p e r f e c t l y F u r t h e r i t s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t t h e s e b e l i e f s a r e v i e w e d a s p a t h o l o g i c a l p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e t h e y a r e i m p e r v i o u s t o t h e c o r r e c t i v e i n f l u e n c e o f c o n t r a r y e v i d e n c e I n t h i s r e s p e c t t h e s e b e l i e v e r s f a i l t o b e m o t i v a t e d a s t h e y s h o u l d b y t h e n o r m o f t r u t h I f b e l i e v i n g w e r e a s F u n k h a u s e r p r o p o s e s s i m p l y r e g a r d i n g a s t r u e ( F u n k h a u s e r 2 0 0 3 : 1 9 3 ) i t i s n o t c l e a r w h y t h e s e b e l i e f s s h o u l d b e v i e w e d a s p a t h o l o g i c a l

PAGE 27

27 i m m e di a t e l y a nd w i t hout a ny w i l l f ul e f f or t m y be l i e f t o t he c ont r a r y I f be l i e f s m e r e l y r e pr e s e nt e d t he i r c ont e nt a s t r ue but w e r e not gove r ne d by t he nor m of t r ut h t h i s w oul d be a m ys t e r y t ha t w a nt s e xpl a i ni ng. P e r s u ad i n g ot h e r s T he a s s um pt i on t ha t our i nt e r l oc ut o r s be l i e f s a r e r e s pons i ve t o ( t he a ppe a r a nc e of ) t r ut h unde r l i e s m a ny of our c om m un i c a t i ve pr a c t i c e s a nd i nt e r a c t i ons w i t h o t he r a ge nt s W he n w e s e e k t o c onvi nc e s om e one t ha t p i s t r ue w e a s s um e t ha t our t a s k c ons i s t s i n of f e r i ng he r s uf f i c i e nt doxa s t i c r e a s ons f or t hi nki ng t ha t p t r ue T he a s s um pt i on i s t ha t m e r e r e f l e c t i on on t he s e r e a s ons w i l l s uf f i c e t o e l i c i t he r be l i e f B a r r i ng m i s unde r s t a ndi ng, f a i l ur e t o be l i e ve on t he pa r t of our i nt e r l oc ut or i s r a t i ona l l y a c c e p t a bl e t o us on l y i f i t i s m ot i va t e d e i t he r by he r t hi nki ng t ha t t he r e a s ons w e ha ve of f e r e d a r e not t r ue ( i n w hi c h c a s e w e s e e k t o c onvi nc e he r t ha t t he y a r e t r ue by of f e r i ng he r r e a s ons f or t h i nki ng t ha t t he y a r e ) or by he r t hi nki ng t ha t t he s e a r e not r e a s ons or i ns uf f i c i e nt r e a s ons f o r t hi nki ng t ha t p i s t r ue ( i n w hi c h c a s e w e s e e k t o s how t o he r t ha t not p i s i nc ons i s t e nt w i t h, or unl i ke l y gi ve n t he r e a s ons w e ha ve of f e r e d) S i m i l a r l y, w he n w e s e e k t o m ot i va t e s om e one t o do s om e t hi ng w e a s s um e t ha t our t a s k c ons i s t s i n of f e r i ng he r r e a s ons f or t hi nki ng t ha t t he pr opos e d a c t i on i s a n e f f e c t i ve m e a ns t o s om e e nd t ha t i s a l l t h i ngs c ons i de r e d, t he m os t de s i r a bl e e nd f o r he r I n t hi s c a s e t he a s s um pt i on i s t ha t m e r e r e f l e c t i on on r e a s ons f or t hi nki ng t ha t t he e nd i s t he m os t de s i r a bl e e nd f or he r a nd t ha t t he pr opos e d a c t i on i s a n e f f e c t i ve m e a ns t o t hi s e nd w i l l s uf f i c e t o e l i c i t i n he r t he a p pr opr i a t e j udgm e nt s a nd i nt e nt i on. T he ge ne r a l a s s um pt i on t ha t unde r l i e s bot h s t r a t e gi e s i s t ha t a gr e e m e nt c o nc e r n i ng r e a s ons f or j udgi ng t ha t p s houl d, a nd t ypi c a l l y doe s s uf f i c e t o s e c ur e a gr e e m e nt i n j udgi ng t ha t p O ur r out i ne s uc c e s s a t s e c ur i ng i nt e r pe r s ona l a gr e e m e nt a s t o w ha t t o be l i e ve a nd do s pe a ks i n f a vor of t hi s a s s um pt i on.

PAGE 28

28 B e l i e f at t r i b u t i on O ur i nt e r a c t i ons w i t h ot he r a ge nt s o f t e n r e qui r e t ha t w e a t t r i but e be l i e f s t o t he m w hi l e ha vi ng obt a i ne d f e w or no r e l e va nt ve r ba l r e po r t s f r o m t he m I n s uc h c a s e s our t a s k o f de c i phe r i ng t he i r be l i e f s i s not unl i ke t he t a s k f a c i ng D a vi ds on s R a di c a l I nt e r pr e t e r a l be i t w i t hout t he l uxur y of pl e nt i f ul t i m e a nd obs e r va t i ona l da t a a nd on a m uc h r e duc e d s c a l e I n s uc h c a s e s i t s e e m s w e de pl oy s om e t hi ng l i ke D a vi ds on s P r i nc i pl e o f C ha r i t y. T ha t i s w e t e nd t o m a xi m i z e a gr e e m e nt be t w e e n us a nd t hos e t o w hom w e a t t r i but e b e l i e f s I n c a s e s w he n w e t a ke our s e l ve s t o s ha r e t he c i r c um s t a nc e s of or e vi de nc e a va i l a bl e t o, t hos e t o w hom w e a r e t o a t t r i but e be l i e f s w e s i m pl y a s c r i be t o t he m t he be l i e f s w e hol d c onc e r ni ng t he r e l e va nt t opi c s unl e s s w e ha ve s om e r e a s on t o e xpe c t t ha t t he y do not a c c e pt t he s e be l i e f s W he n w e do not t a ke ou r s e l ve s t o s ha r e t he i r c i r c um s t a nc e s or e vi de nc e w e t r y t o i m a gi ne w ha t i t w oul d be l i ke t o be i n t he i r c i r c um s t a nc e s or w ha t e vi de nc e t he y a r e l i ke l y t o ha ve a nd a s c r i be t o t he m t he be l i e f s w e w oul d hol d, w e r e w e i n t he i r s i t ua t i on ( unl e s s onc e a ga i n w e ha ve r e a s on t o e xpe c t t he y do not a c c e pt t he s e be l i e f s ) C onc e r ni ng pe r c e pt ua l be l i e f s e s pe c i a l l y, w e t a ke i t t ha t c om m on e xpe r i e nc e o f gi ve n e nvi r onm e nt a l s t i m ul i w a r r a nt s a t t r i but i on o f be l i e f s t ha t t he s e s t i m ul i e l i c i t i n us I n doi ng s o, w e s e e m t o e ndor s e s om e t hi ng a ki n t o D a vi ds o n s P r i nc i pl e o f C or r e s po n de nc e F i na l l y w e s e e m t o t a ke c ohe r e nc e t o be a n e xc e pt i ona l l y s t r o ng r e qui r e m e nt on c or r e c t be l i e f a t t r i but i on 5 6 A l t hough our t r a c k r e c or d i n be l i e f a t t r i but i on i s f a r f r om pe r f e c t i t i s ne ve r t he l e s s qui t e r e 5 O f c o u r s e a l t h o u g h t h e R a d i c a l I n t e r p r e t e r s t r i a n g u l a t i o n p r o c e d u r e r e q u i r e s h e r t o a t t r i b u t e p s y c h o l o g i c a l a t t i t u d e s h e r p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t i s l i n g u i s t i c L a n g u a g e b y c o n t r a s t i s t y p i c a l l y n o t a t i s s u e i n m u n d a n e b e l i e f a t t r i b u t i o n s I s h o u l d n o t e t h a t m y e n d o r s e m e n t o f s o m e t h i n g l i k e D a v i d s o n s P r i n c i p l e s o f C h a r i t y C o r r e s p o n d e n c e a n d C o h e r e n c e a s g o v e r n i n g m u n d a n e b e l i e f a t t r i b u t i o n i s n o t a c c o m p a n i e d b y a n e n d o r s e m e n t o f D a v i d s o n s i n d e t e r m i n a c y t h e s i s c o n c e r n i n g b e l i e f c o n t e n t F o r m o r e o n D a v i d s o n s P r i n c i p l e o f C h a r i t y s e e R a d i c a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n ( 1 9 7 3 ; r e p r i n t e d i n 1 9 8 4 ) ; o n C h a r i t y i n t e r p r e t e d a s i n v o l v i n g C o r r e s p o n d e n c e a n d C o h e r e n c e s e e A C o h e r e n c e T h e o r y o f T r u t h a n d K n o w l e d g e ( 1 9 8 3 ; r e p r i n t e d i n 2 0 0 1 ) a n d T h r e e V a r i e t i e s o f K n o w l e d g e ( 1 9 9 1 ; r e p r i n t e d i n 2 0 0 1 ) S e e a l s o L u d w i g a n d L e p o r e ( 2 0 0 5 C h 1 2 ) 6 T h e b e l i e f a t t r i b u t i o n p r o c e d u r e s k e t c h e d a b o v e d o e s n o t m e a n t o f a v o r t h e S i m u l a t i o n T h e o r y o v e r t h e T h e o r y T h e o r y o f F o l k P s y c h o l o g y O n o n e r e a d i n g t h e p r o c e d u r e s k e t c h e d a b o v e i n v o l v e s t a k i n g m y s e l f a s a m o d e l i e a s s i g n i n g t h e b e l i e f s t h a t I w o u l d e n d o r s e w e r e I i n t h e o t h e r s s h o e s ; o n a n o t h e r e q u a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e r e a d i n g t h e p r o c e d u r e i n v o l v e s a r e f e r e n c e t o a n i n t e r n a l i z e d f o l k t h e o r y t h a t r e q u i r e s m e t o a s s i g n b e l i e f s t h a t a r e t r u e ( b y m y l i g h t s )

PAGE 29

29 m a r ka bl y good. O nc e a ga i n i f be l i e f s w e r e not go ve r ne d by t he no r m o f t r ut h, t hi s w oul d be a m ys t e r y t ha t w a nt s e xpl a i ni ng. F ur t he r t he ve r y p r i nc i pl e s t ha t s e e m t o gui de our be l i e f a t t r i but i on p r oc e dur e s i e w ha t D a vi ds on c a l l s C ha r i t y, C or r e s ponde nc e a nd C ohe r e nc e a s w e l l a s t he a s s um pt i ons t ha t unde r l i e t he c om m uni c a t i v e pr a c t i c e s di s c us s e d e a r l i e r s t r ongl y s ugge s t t ha t w e t a c i t l y e ndor s e t he vi e w t ha t be l i e f s a r e r e s pons i ve t o ( t he a ppe a r a nc e of ) t r ut h by vi r t ue of t he i r ve r y na t u r e i n ot he r w or ds t ha t be l i e f i s ne c e s s a r i l y gove r ne d by t he nor m of t r ut h T e s t i m on y T e s t i m ony i s a not he r i m por t a nt c om m uni c a t i ve a n d doxa s t i c / e pi s t e m i c pr a c t i c e t ha t s pe a ks i n f a vor of t he vi e w t ha t be l i e f i s ne c e s s a r i l y gove r ne d by t he no r m o f t r ut h. J e nni f e r L a c ke y o f f e r s t he f ol l ow i ng a s a ge ne r a l de f i ni t i on of t e s t i m ony: T : S t e s t i f i e s t ha t p by m a ki ng a n a c t o f c om m uni c a t i on a i f a nd onl y i f ( i n pa r t ) i n vi r t ue o f a s c om m uni c a bl e c ont e nt ( 1) S r e a s ona bl y i nt e nds t o c onve y t he i n f or m a t i on t ha t p or ( 2) a i s r e a s ona bl y t a ke n a s c onve yi ng t h e i nf or m a t i on t ha t p 7 ( L a c ke y 2006: 193 L a c ke y a nd S os a 2006: 3) T he pr a c t i c e of gi vi ng a nd t a ki ng t e s t i m ony pe r va d e s our l i ve s A m om e nt s i nt r os pe c t i on r e ve a l s t ha t a ve r y s i gni f i c a nt por t i on of our be l i e f s ha s a t e s t i m oni a l ba s i s O ur pr a c t i c a l l i ve s t oo, m a ni f e s t a pe r s i s t e nt t e nde nc y t ow a r d he a vy r e l i a nc e on t e s t i m ony. I a m dr i vi ng t h r ough a f or e i gn c i t y I ne e d t o f i nd a ga s s t a t i on. I s e e a s t r a nge r w a l ki ng by I s t op a nd a s k hi m f or di r e c t i ons H e obl i ge s I t a ke hi m f o r hi s w o r d a nd f ol l ow h i s gui da nc e T hi s i s a nor m a l s i t u a t i on. B ut w hy i s i t r e a s ona bl e f or m e t o t r us t hi s w or d? T hi s i s one o f t he c e nt r a l que s t i ons i n 7 I h a v e s o m e r e s e r v a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g L a c k e y s d e f i n i t i o n I t a k e i n f o r m a t i o n t o b e f a c t i v e ( a v i e w s h a r e d b y D r e t s k e f o r e x a m p l e ) T h a t i s i f a c o n v e y s t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t p t h e n p I n L a c k e y 2 0 0 6 : n 1 1 L a c k e y a r g u e s t h a t l y i n g t e s t i m o n y i s p o s s i b l e I f i n f o r m a t i o n i s f a c t i v e h o w e v e r i t i s n o t c l e a r t h a t l y i n g t e s t i m o n y i s p o s s i b l e o n L a c k e y s d e f i n i t i o n ( a t l e a s t i n c a s e s w h e n c l a u s e ( 2 ) i s n o t f u l f i l l e d ) I n d e e d i t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e w h e t h e r S c a n r e a s o n a b l y i n t e n d t o c o n v e y t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t p b y m a k i n g a n a c t o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n a w h e n S k n o w s t h a t p i s f a l s e ( a n d s o w h e n S k n o w s t h a t a f a i l s t o c o n v e y t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t p ) c a n S r e a s o n a b l y i n t e n d t o d o s o m e t h i n g s h e k n o w s s h e c a n n o t d o ? M y i n t u i t i o n t e n d s t o w a r d a n e g a t i v e a n s w e r F u r t h e r i t s e e m s t o m e t h a t c l a u s e ( 2 ) u n f a i r l y s l a n t s t h e t a b l e i n f a v o r o f n o n r e d u c t i v e a c c o u n t s o f t e s t i m o n y O n t h e v i e w t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n i s f a c t i v e i f i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o t a k e a a s c o n v e y i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t p i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o t r u s t S s t e s t i m o n y t h a t p ( t h e r e a s o n a b l e n e s s a t i s s u e h e r e i s q u i t e c l e a r l y d o x a s t i c / e p i s t e m i c r e a s o n a b l e n e s s ) N e v e r t h e l e s s I w i l l b r a c k e t t h e i s s u e o f t h e f a c t i c i t y o f i n f o r m a t i o n a n d t a k e ( T ) a s a w o r k i n g d e f i n i t i o n o f t e s t i m o n y f o r m y l i m i t e d p u r p o s e s h e r e

PAGE 30

30 t he e pi s t e m ol ogy of t e s t i m ony. T yl e r B ur ge o f f e r s hi s A c c e pt a nc e P r i nc i pl e a s a n a ns w e r t o t hi s que s t i on: A pe r s on i s apr i or i e nt i t l e d t o a c c e pt a pr opos i t i on t ha t i s pr e s e nt e d a s t r ue a nd t ha t i s i n t e l l i gi bl e t o hi m unl e s s t he r e a r e s t r ong e r r e a s ons not t o do s o, be c a us e i t i s pr i m a f ac i e pr e s e r ve d ( r e c e i ve d) f r om a r a t i ona l s our c e or r e s our c e f or r e a s on; r e l i a nc e on r a t i ona l s our c e s or r e s our c e s f or r e a s on i s ot he r t hi ngs e qua l ne c e s s a r y t o t he f unc t i on of r e a s on ( B ur ge 1993: 469) B ur g e t a ke s hi s A c c e pt a nc e P r i nc i pl e t o be unde r w r i t t e n by a c onne c t i on be t w e e n l i ngui s t i c c om pe t e nc e r a t i ona l i t y a nd t r ut h: A s e e m i ngl y unde r s t ood put a t i ve a s s e r t i on i s a pr i m a f ac i e s i gn of r a t i ona l ba c ki ng f o r t he a s s e r t i on a nd r a t i ona l c om m i t m e nt t o t r ut h ; a nd r a t i ona l ba c ki ng t oge t he r w i t h r a t i ona l c om m i t m e nt c ons t i t ut e a pr i m a f ac i e s i gn of t r ut h ( I bi d : 33 ) C l e a r l y, B ur ge r e c ogni z e s t ha t t he r e i s a n i m por t a n t c onne c t i on be t w e e n be l i e f ( a s e xpr e s s e d i n t e s t i m oni a l a s s e r t i on) a nd t r ut h W ha t I w a nt t o a s k he r e i s how s t r ong a c onne c t i on be t w e e n be l i e f a nd t r u t h doe s B ur ge s A c c e pt a nc e P r i nc i pl e r e qui r e ? I m a gi ne a popul a t i on of be i ngs j us t l i ke us e xc e pt t ha t t he y ha ve be l i e f s i ns t e a d of be l i e f s i e s t a t e s t ha t a r e j us t l i ke be l i e f s e xc e pt t ha t t he y a r e gove r ne d by t he nor m s o f p r a c t i c a l r a t i ona l i t y ( I w i l l c a l l s uc h be i ngs be l i e v e r s ) 8 T o a voi d i s s ue s c onc e r ni ng l a ngua ge l e a r ni ng, l e t us a s s um e t ha t t he i r l i ngui s t i c c om pe t e nc e i s i n na t e G i ve n t ha t t r ue be l i e f s a r e t ypi c a l l y r e qui r e d f o r s uc c e s s f ul a c t i on, i t i s unl i ke l y t ha t t h e i r be l i e f s w oul d e xhi bi t a f a r g r e a t e r t e n de nc y t ow a r d f a l s e hood t ha n be l i e f s do ( a s s um i ng t ha t be l i e f s a r e a s I c l a i m ne c e s s a r i l y go ve r ne d by t he no r m o f t r ut h) W oul d e nt i t l e m e nt t o t e s t i m oni a l be l i e f a s de f i ne d by t he A c c e pt a nc e P r i nc i pl e e x t e nd t o s uc h be i ngs ? I be l i e ve t ha t t he a ns w e r i s no f or t he f ol l ow i ng r e a s on. A l t hough a ny t e s t i m oni a l a s s e r t i on f r om a be l i e ve r c oul d pr ope r l y be t a ke n a s a pr i m a 8 T h a t i s a r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t p c a s t s b e l i e v i n g t h a t p a s d e s i r a b l e U n d e f e a t e d e v i d e n c e t h a t p i s t r u e m i g h t b e a r e a s o n f o r b e l i e v i n g t h a t p b u t i t n e e d n o t L i k e w i s e u n d e f e a t e d o v e r r i d i n g e v i d e n c e t h a t p i s t r u e m i g h t b e a d e c i s i v e a l l t h i n g s c o n s i d e r e d r e a s o n f o r b e l i e v i n g t h a t p b u t i t n e e d n o t G e n e r a l l y a l e t h i c r e a s o n s a r e r e a s o n s f o r t h e b e l i e f t h a t p o n l y i f h a v i n g a t r u e b e l i e f t h a t p i s d e s i r a b l e R e g a r d i n g m y u s e o f a l e t h i c s e e n 9 b e l o w

PAGE 31

31 f ac i e s i gn of r a t i ona l ba c ki ng f or t he a s s e r t i on a nd e v e n t hough t he be l i e f i t e xpr e s s e d w oul d f a i r l y l i ke l y be t r ue t he c onne c t i on be t w e e n t he r a t i ona l c om m i t m e nt t h i s be l i e f e xpr e s s e d a nd t r ut h w oul d r e m a i n a n ope n que s t i on t hi s r a t i ona l c om m i t m e nt c oul d be of a s or t t ha t di d not c ons t i t ut e a pr i m a f ac i e s i gn of t r ut h T o de t e r m i n e w he t he r t he r a t i ona l c om m i t m e nt e xpr e s s e d by t hi s be l i e f w a s o f a s or t t ha t d i d c ons t i t ut e a pr i m a f ac i e s i gn of t r ut h one w oul d ha ve t o c ons i de r w hy t he t e s t i f i e r a c qui r e d/ s us t a i ne d t hi s b e l i e f s pe c i f i c a l l y, he r r e l e va nt a i m s de s i r e s a nd c i r c um s t a nc e s I f t he i nve s t i ga t i on r e ve a l e d t h a t he r be l i e f w a s a c qui r e d/ s us t a i ne d i n l i ght of a l e t hi c 9 c ons i de r a t i ons t r us t i n he r t e s t i m ony m i ght be a ppr opr i a t e Q ui t e c l e a r l y e nt i t l e m e nt t o t e s t i m oni a l be l i e f a s de f i ne d by t he A c c e pt a nc e P r i nc i pl e doe s not e xt e nd t o s uc h be i ngs f or s uc h be i ngs e nt i t l e m e nt t o t e s t i m oni a l be l i e f i s c e r t a i nl y not a n a pr i or i m a t t e r 1 0 W ha t t hi s t hought e xpe r i m e nt s how s I t hi nk i s t ha t t he a pr i or i e nt i t l e m e nt t o t e s t i m oni a l be l i e f B ur ge a dvoc a t e s r e qui r e s a n a pr i or i e nt i t l e m e nt t o vi e w i ng be l i e f a s ne c e s s a r i l y gove r ne d by t he nor m of t r ut h 1 1 1 2 1 3 B ur ge s a c c ount of t e s t i m ony i s non r e duc t i ve i n t he s e ns e t ha t i t de ni e s t ha t e nt i t l e m e nt t o t e s t i m oni a l be l i e f r e duc e s t o o t he r s our c e s of e nt i t l e m e nt s uc h a s s e ns e pe r c e pt i on, m e m or y or i nf e r e nc e I f oc us e d on B ur ge s a c c ount but I be l i e ve t ha t t he a r gum e nt out l i ne d a bove ge ne r a l 9 H e r e a n d i n t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n I a m u s i n g a l e t h i c t o m e a n h a v i n g t o d o w i t h t r u t h r a t h e r t h a n d e s i g n a t i n g m o d a l i t i e s o f t r u t h A l t h o u g h m y u s a g e i s n o t s a n c t i o n e d b y d i c t i o n a r i e s i t i s s a n c t i o n e d b y e t y m o l o g y a n d v e r y c o n v e n i e n t f o r m y p u r p o s e s 1 0 I a m i g n o r i n g t h e c o m p l i c a t i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t s u c h b e i n g s m i g h t h a v e o t h e r i n t e r e s t s t h a n t r u t h i n s e e k i n g t e s t i m o n y a n d f o r m i n g t e s t i m o n i a l b e l i e f s W h a t a d d i n g t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o t h e a b o v e r e f l e c t i o n s u g g e s t s i s t h a t b e l i e v e r s m i g h t h a v e l i t t l e u s e a l t o g e t h e r f o r t h e p r a c t i c e o f t a k i n g a n d g i v i n g t e s t i m o n y a s w e k n o w i t I f s o t h e n t h e r e i s s o m e r e a s o n t o t h i n k t h a t t h e v e r y e x i s t e n c e o f o u r s o c i a l p r a c t i c e o f t e s t i m o n y r e q u i r e s a c o m m u n i t y o f b e i n g s w h o s e b e l i e f s a r e g o v e r n e d b y t h e n o r m o f t r u t h 1 1 F o r t h e s a k e o f r e a d a b i l i t y I a m u s i n g a s s e r t i o n i n s t e a d o f t h e p h r a s e s e e m i n g l y u n d e r s t o o d p u t a t i v e a s s e r t i o n t h a t f i g u r e s i n B u r g e s e x p l a n a t o r y p r i n c i p l e ( I b i d : 3 3 q u o t e d a b o v e ) C o r r e s p o n d i n g l y I a m u s i n g b e l i e f ( ) i n s t e a d o f p u t a t i v e b e l i e f ( ) a n d r a t i o n a l c o m m i t m e n t i n s t e a d o f p u t a t i v e r a t i o n a l c o m m i t m e n t 1 2 I e x p e c t t h a t B u r g e w o u l d a g r e e w i t h t h e c l a i m t h a t t h e a p r i o r i e n t i t l e m e n t t o t e s t i m o n i a l b e l i e f h e a d v o c a t e s r e q u i r e s a n a p r i o r i e n t i t l e m e n t t o v i e w i n g b e l i e f a s n e c e s s a r i l y g o v e r n e d b y t h e n o r m o f t r u t h M y a i m h e r e i s t o m a k e t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t o b v i o u s 1 3 O f c o u r s e i f I r e c e i v e d t e s t i m o n y f r o m a b e i n g w h o u n b e k n o w n s t t o m e h a p p e n e d t o b e a b e l i e v e r I w o u l d b e a p r i o r i e n t i t l e d t o b e l i e v e i t o n B u r g e s a c c o u n t ( p r o v i d e d I h a d n o o v e r r i d i n g r e a s o n s t o d o u b t i t )

PAGE 32

32 i z e s t o ot he r non r e duc t i ve a c c ount s of t e s t i m ony. S o, c ons i de r a c c ount s a c c or di ng t o w hi c h t e s t i m ony t r a ns m i t s r e a s ons f or be l i e f ( e g. O w e ns 2000) L e t us c a l l t he pr i nc i pl e a c c or di ng t o w hi c h one i s pr i m a f ac i e e nt i t l e d t o t e s t i m oni a l be l i e f i n vi r t ue o f t e s t i m ony s pow e r t o t r a ns m i t r e a s ons f or be l i e f t he T r a ns m i s s i on P r i nc i pl e 1 4 C l e a r l y, e nt i t l e m e nt t o t e s t i m oni a l be l i e f a s de f i ne d by t he T r a n s m i s s i on P r i nc i pl e doe s not e xt e nd t o our popul a t i on of be l i e ve r s *, s i nc e w ha t one be l i e ve r c ount s a s a p r a c t i c a l r e a s on f or a gi ve n be l i e f m i ght not be c ount e d a s s uc h by a not he r L e t us s uppos e t ha t t e s t i m ony t r a ns m i t s r e a s ons f or be l i e f ( ) T he n, i n o r de r t o de t e r m i ne w he t he r t o t r us t s om e i ns t a nc e of t e s t i m ony, a be l i e ve r w oul d ha ve t o l e a r n t he r e a s ons w hy t he t e s t i f i e r a c qui r e d/ s us t a i ne d t he be l i e f s he e xpr e s s e d i n he r t e s t i m ony O nl y w he n t he t e s t i f i e r s r e a s on s f or he r be l i e f a r e one s t ha t t he he a r e r w oul d a l s o c ount a s r e a s ons t o a c c e pt t hi s be l i e f i s i t a ppr opr i a t e f or t he he a r e r t o t r us t t hi s i ns t a nc e of t e s t i m ony. W ha t t he pr i m a f a c i e e pi s t e m i c e nt i t l e m e nt pos i t e d by t he T r a ns m i s s i on P r i nc i pl e r e qui r e s i s t ha t n ot hi ng but a l e t hi c r e a s ons c ount a s r e a s ons f or be l i e f A l t hough t hi s r e qui r e m e nt doe s not s t r a i ght f o r w a r dl y e nt a i l t ha t be l i e f i s ne c e s s a r i l y gove r ne d by t he nor m of t r ut h i t s t r ongl y s ugge s t s i t how e l s e w oul d one e xpl a i n t ha t not hi ng but a l e t h i c r e a s ons c ount a s r e a s ons f or be l i e f ? N ow l e t us s e e w he t he r a n a r gum e nt c a n be f or m ul a t e d a l ong s i m i l a r l i ne s t o s how t ha t r e duc t i ve a c c ount s of t e s t i m ony, t oo, pr e s uppos e ( or a t l e a s t s t r ongl y s ugge s t ) t ha t be l i e f i s go v e r ne d by t he no r m o f t r ut h. 1 5 R e duc t i ve a c c ount s of t e s t i m ony, uns ur pr i s i ngl y, do no t pr e s e nt a uni f or m a pp r oa c h t o t he t opi c F or t una t e l y, I w i l l not ne e d t o c a nva s s e ve r y t ype o f r e duc t i ve 1 4 F o r t h e s a k e o f c o n s i s t e n c y I a m c o n t i n u i n g t o u s e t h e t e r m e n t i t l e m e n t w h i c h B u r g e c a r e f u l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e s f r o m j u s t i f i c a t i o n : T h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n j u s t i f i c a t i o n a n d e n t i t l e m e n t i s t h i s : A l t h o u g h b o t h h a v e p o s i t i v e f o r c e i n r a t i o n a l l y s u p p o r t i n g a p r o p o s i t i o n a l a t t i t u d e o r c o g n i t i v e p r a c t i c e a n d i n c o n s t i t u t i n g a n e p i s t e m i c r i g h t t o i t e n t i t l e m e n t s a r e e p i s t e m i c r i g h t s o r w a r r a n t s t h a t n e e d n o t b e u n d e r s t o o d b y o r e v e n a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e s u b j e c t O t h e r a u t h o r s f o r m u l a t e t h e i r a c c o u n t s i n d i f f e r e n t n o r m a t i v e t e r m s j u s t i f i c a t i o n i n c l u d e d S i n c e e n t i t l e m e n t i s l o g i c a l l y w e a k e r t h a n j u s t i f i c a t i o n I b e l i e v e t h a t t h e u s e o f t h e f o r m e r i n p l a c e o f t h e l a t t e r i n t h i s c o n t e x t i s i n n o c u o u s 1 5 R e d u c t i o n i s t a c c o u n t s o f t e s t i m o n y c a n n o t b e s h o w n t o p r e s u p p o s e t h a t b e l i e f i s n e c e s s a r i l y g o v e r n e d b y t h e n o r m o f t r u t h s i n c e t h e e n t i t l e m e n t t h e y p o s i t i s a p o s t e r i o r i

PAGE 33

33 a ppr oa c h t o t e s t i m ony he r e O ne ve r y ge ne r a l di s t i nc t i on w i l l s uf f i c e t ha t be t w e e n gl oba l a nd l oc a l r e duc t i oni s m w hi c h L a c ke y de f i ne s a s f ol l o w s : T he f i r s t a ns w e r a nd t he s t r onge r ve r s i on of r e duc t i oni s m a vi e w s om e t i m e s c a l l e d gl oba l r e duc t i oni s m i s t ha t t he j us t i f i c a t i on o f t e s t i m ony a s a s our c e of be l i e f r e duc e s t o t he j us t i f i c a t i on of s e ns e p e r c e pt i on, m e m o r y, a nd i nduc t i ve i nf e r e nc e I n pa r t i c ul a r gl oba l r e duc t i oni s t s m a i nt a i n t ha t i n o r de r t o j us t i f i e dl y a c c e pt a s pe a ke r s r e por t a he a r e r m us t ha ve non t e s t i m oni a l l y ba s e d pos i t i ve r e a s on s f or be l i e vi ng t ha t t e s t i m ony i s ge ne r a l l y r e l i a bl e T he s e c ond, a nd w e a ke r ve r s i on o f r e duc t i oni s m of t e n c a l l e d l oc a l r e du c t i oni s m i s t ha t t he j us t i f i c a t i on of e a c h pa r t i c ul a r r e por t or i ns t a nc e of t e s t i m ony r e duc e s t o t he j us t i f i c a t i on of i ns t a nc e s of s e ns e pe r c e p t i on, m e m or y a nd i nduc t i ve i n f e r e nc e S pe c i f i c a l l y, l oc a l r e duc t i oni s t s c l a i m t ha t i n o r de r t o j us t i f i e dl y a c c e pt a s pe a ke r s t e s t i m ony, a he a r e r m us t ha ve n on t e s t i m oni a l l y ba s e d pos i t i ve r e a s ons f or a c c e pt i ng t he pa r t i c ul a r r e por t i n que s t i on. ( L a c ke y a nd S os a 2006: 13) L e t us s t a r t by c ons i de r i ng gl oba l r e duc t i oni s m A l t hough I not e d e a r l i e r t ha t be l i e f s w e r e unl i ke l y t o e xhi bi t a n e xt r a or di na r y t e nde nc y t ow a r d f a l s e hood, l e t us r e m e m be r t ha t t he e nt i t l e m e nt s t o t e s t i m oni a l be l i e f pos i t e d by t he A c c e pt a nc e a nd T r a ns m i s s i on P r i nc i pl e s w e r e s how n not t o e xt e nd t o be l i e ve r s be c a us e be l i e ve r s c oul d not a s s um e t ha t t he i r t e s t i f i e r s r e a s ons f or be l i e f w e r e a l e t hi c W i t h r e ga r d t o gl oba l r e duc t i oni s m t he poi nt c a n be b r ought t o be a r a s f ol l ow s : T he e vi de nc e c onc e r ni ng t he ge ne r a l r e l i a bi l i t y of t e s t i m ony a va i l a bl e t o a be l i e ve r i nc l ude s i nt r os pe c t i on, w hi c h r e ve a l s t o he r t ha t s h e oc c a s i ona l l y ha s be l i e f s t ha t a r e not gr ounde d i n a l e t hi c r e a s ons F u r t he r i nt r os pe c t i on r e ve a l s t o he r t ha t s he onl y gr ounds he r be l i e f s i n a l e t hi c r e a s ons w he n ha vi ng t r ue be l i e f s c onc e r ni ng s om e t opi c i s r e qui r e d by he r pr a c t i c a l i nt e r e s t s S i nc e s he ha s no e pi s t e m i c r e a s on t o t hi nk t ha t t e s t i f i e r s f or m t he i r be l i e f s a ny di f f e r e nt l y s he ha s no e pi s t e m i c r e a s on t o t r us t a ny pa r t i c ul a r i ns t a nc e of t e s t i m o ny unl e s s s he ha s s uf f i c i e nt e pi s t e m i c r e a s on t o t hi nk i t e x p r e s s e s a be l i e f w hos e t r ut h i s r e qui r e d by t he t e s t i f i e r s pr a c t i c a l i nt e r e s t s S o e ve n i f s he ha s f o r m e d t r ue t e s t i m oni a l be l i e f s on m a ny pa s t oc c a s i ons s he doe s not ha ve s uf f i c i e nt e pi s t e m i c r e a s on f or be l i e vi ng* t ha t t e s t i m ony i s ge ne r a l l y r e l i a bl e I f s he ha s s uf f i c i e nt e pi s t e m i c r e a s on f or be l i e vi ng* a c l a i m i n t hi s ne i ghbor hood a t

PAGE 34

34 a l l i t i s t ha t t e s t i m ony e xpr e s s i ng be l i e f s w hos e t r ut h i s r e qui r e d by t he t e s t i f i e r s pr a c t i c a l i nt e r e s t s i s ge ne r a l l y r e l i a bl e 1 6 B ut t hi s f a l l s s hor t o f gl oba l r e duc t i oni s m E nt i t l e m e nt t o t e s t i m oni a l be l i e f a s de f i ne d by g l oba l r e duc t i oni s m pr e s uppos e s t ha t be l i e f i s gove r ne d by t he nor m of t r ut h L e t us now t u r n t o l oc a l r e duc t i oni s m T he a r gum e nt p e r t a i ni ng t o gl oba l r e duc t i oni s m e nt a i l s t ha t i n o r de r t o be e nt i t l e d t o t r us t a ny pa r t i c ul a r i ns t a nc e of t e s t i m ony a be l i e ve r w oul d ne e d ha ve s uf f i c i e nt e pi s t e m i c r e a s on t o be l i e ve t ha t i t e xpr e s s e s a be l i e f w hos e t r ut h i s r e qui r e d by t he t e s t i f i e r s pr a c t i c a l i nt e r e s t s C l e a r l y, t hi s f a i l s t o s how t ha t on l oc a l r e duc t i oni s t a c c ount s be l i e ve r s a r e ne ve r e nt i t l e d t o t e s t i m oni a l be l i e f *. H ow e ve r t he a t t i t ude t ow a r d t e s t i m ony t ha t l oc a l r e duc t i oni s t a c c ount s w oul d a dvoc a t e a s e pi s t e m i c a l l y a ppr opr i a t e f or b e l i e ve r s i s qui t e di f f e r e nt f r om t he a t t i t ude t ha t w e i nt ui t i ve l y t hi nk i s a nd t ha t l oc a l r e duc t i oni s t a c c ount s pr e s um a bl y a dvoc a t e a s e p i s t e m i c a l l y a ppr opr i a t e f o r us T hi s di f f e r e nc e i n a t t i t ude i s s o s i gni f i c a nt t ha t i t c a s t s s om e doubt on t he i de nt i t y of t he be l i e ve r s s t e s t i m o ni a l pr a c t i c e w i t h our ow n p r a c t i c e C onc e r n w i t h w he t he r a be l i e f e xpr e s s e d i n t e s t i m ony w a s f or m e d/ s us t a i ne d i n l i ght of a l e t hi c c ons i de r a t i ons be l i e s a c t ua l t e s t i m oni a l pr a c t i c e W e s i m pl y t a ke t hi s f or gr a nt e d, a nd a r e pr e s um a bl y e pi s t e m i c a l l y c or r e c t i n doi ng s o. W ha t w or r i e s us i s t he pos s i bi l i t y t ha t t hi s be l i e f m i ght ne ve r t he l e s s be f a l s e I t i s t he a ppr op r i a t e ne s s of t hi s w or r y t ha t l oc a l r e duc t i oni s t a c c ount s m e a n t o c a pt ur e 1 7 r a t he r t ha n t he a ppr opr i a t e ne s s of t he a dd i t i ona l c onc e r n t ha t bu r de ns be l i e ve r s *. E nt i t l e m e nt t o t e s t i m oni a l be l i e f a s de f i ne d by l oc a l r e duc t i oni s m doe s not r e qui r e t ha t be l i e f be gove r ne d by t he no r m o f t r ut h. B ut a c t ua l t e s t i m oni a l pr a c t i c e doe s s e e m t o pr e s uppos e i t 1 6 I a m o n c e a g a i n i g n o r i n g t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t s h e m i g h t h a v e o t h e r i n t e r e s t s t h a n t r u t h i n s e e k i n g t e s t i m o n y 1 7 E l i z a b e t h F r i c k e r a l o c a l r e d u c t i o n i s t o f i n t e r n a l i s t s t r i p e f o r e x a m p l e a r g u e s t h a t a n y v i e w a c c o r d i n g t o w h i c h w e a r e p r i m a f a c i e e n t i t l e d t o t r u s t a n y i n s t a n c e o f t e s t i m o n y b y d e f a u l t o f f e r s a n e p i s t e m i c c h a r t e r f o r t h e g u l l i b l e a n d u n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g ( F r i c k e r 1 9 9 4 : 1 2 6 )

PAGE 35

35 S um m i ng up : M y di s c us s i on of t e s t i m ony ha s r e v e a l e d t ha t non r e duc t i ve a c c ount s of t e s t i m ony, w hi c h hol d t ha t e nt i t l e m e nt t o t e s t i m oni a l be l i e f i s a pr i or i pr e s uppos e or a t l e a s t s t r ongl y s ugge s t t ha t be l i e f i s ne c e s s a r i l y gove r ne d by t he no r m o f t r ut h. R e duc t i ve a c c ount s of t e s t i m ony, by c ont r a s t hol d t ha t e nt i t l e m e nt t o t e s t i m oni a l be l i e f i s a pos t e r i or i G l oba l r e duc t i oni s t a c c ount s w e r e s how n t o pr e s uppos e t h a t be l i e f i s a c t ua l l y gove r ne d by t he nor m of t r ut h. L oc a l r e duc t i oni s t a c c ount s w e r e not s how n t o pr e s uppos e t ha t be l i e f i s gove r ne d by t he nor m of t r ut h H ow e ve r t he y w e r e s how n t o a dvo c a t e a n a t t i t ude t ow a r d t e s t i m ony a s e pi s t e m i c a l l y a ppr opr i a t e f or be i ngs w hos e be l i e f s a r e not gove r ne d by t he no r m o f t r ut h t ha t i s va s t l y di f f e r e nt f r om t he a t t i t ude w e i nt ui t i ve l y t hi nk i s e pi s t e m i c a l l y a ppr opr i a t e f o r us M e m or y A n a r gum e nt c a n be f or m ul a t e d a l ong s i m i l a r ge ne r a l l i ne s t o s how t ha t t he e pi s t e m i c a ppr opr i a t e ne s s of t r us t i ng our m e m or y be l i e f s e ve n w hi l e ha vi ng f o r got t e n our r e a s ons f or t he s e be l i e f s pr e s uppos e s ( or a t l e a s t s t r ongl y s ugge s t s ) t ha t be l i e f i s gove r ne d by t he nor m of t r ut h M a ny of our be l i e f s be l ong i n t hi s c a t e gor y I be l i e ve t ha t t he S w i s s C onf e de r a t i on w a s f oun de d i n 1291, on t he l ove l y G r t l i pa s t ur e by r e pr e s e nt a t i ve s of t he C a nt ons of U r i S c hw yz a nd U n t e r w a l de n, m uc h t o t he c ha gr i n of t he H a bs bur g s I be l i e ve t ha t hydr oge n i s t he l i ght e s t c he m i c a l e l e m e nt a nd t ha t i t s nuc l e us ha s a s i ngl e pr ot on a nd i s o r bi t e d by a s i ngl e e l e c t r on I no l onge r r e m e m be r m y r e a s ons f or t he s e be l i e f s I a c qui r e d t he m dur i ng m y f or m a l e duc a t i on ( a m ong m a ny ot he r be l i e f s ) I c e r t a i nl y c ons i de r m ys e l f e nt i t l e d t o t r us t t he m A r gua bl y, our t e nde nc y t o r e t a i n ou r c onf i de nc e i n our m e m or y b e l i e f s w hi l e f or ge t t i ng our r e a s ons f or t he m ( unt i l w e e nc ount e r s om e r e a s on t o doub t t he m ) i s hi ghl y be ne f i c i a l by vi r t ue of be i ng e c onom i c a l of our c ogni t i ve r e s our c e s a f t e r a l l our c a pa c i t y t o s t or e i nf or m a t i on i n m e m or y i s l i m i t e d: [ T ] he r e i s a pr a c t i c a l r e a s on t o a voi d t oo m uc h c l ut t e r i n one s be l i e f s T he r e i s a l i m i t t o w ha t one c a n r e m e m be r a l i m i t t o t he num be r o f t hi ngs one c a n put i nt o l ong t e r m s t or a ge a nd a l i m i t t o w ha t one c a n r e t r i e ve I t i s i m po r t a n t t o s a ve r oom f o r i m po r t a nt t hi ngs a nd

PAGE 36

36 not c l ut t e r one s m i nd w i t h a l o t of uni m por t a nt m a t t e r s W he n one r e a c he s a s i gni f i c a nt c onc l us i on f r om one s o t he r be l i e f s one ne e ds t o r e m e m be r t he c onc l us i on but doe s not nor m a l l y ne e d t o r e m e m be r a l l t he i nt e r m e di a t e s t e ps i nvol ve d i n r e a c hi ng t ha t c onc l us i on. ( H a r m a n 1986: 41 42) O ur r e l a t i on t o ou r m e m or y be l i e f s f or w hi c h w e h a ve f or got t e n ou r r e a s ons i s t he i nt r a pe r s ona l c ount e r pa r t of our r e l a t i on t o t he be l i e f s of t h os e w ho t e s t i f y t o us O f c our s e t he r e a r e s om e s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n s uc h m e m or y be l i e f s a nd t e s t i m ony. W e a r e l i ke l y t o ha ve a f a r be t t e r i de a o f our ow n ge ne r a l r e l i a bi l i t y a s b e l i e ve r s t ha n w e do c onc e r ni ng t he r e l i a bi l i t y of t hos e w ho t e s t i f y t o us e s pe c i a l l y w he n t he y a r e s t r a nge r s F ur t he r i n t he c a s e of m e m or y be l i e f t he r e i s a s i ngl e r e t a i ne d be l i e f w hi l e i n t he c a s e of t e s t i m ony, onc e a t e s t i m oni a l be l i e f i s a c qui r e d, t he r e a r e t w o be l i e f s t he t e s t i f i e r s a nd t he he a r e r s w hi c h a r e t oke n di s t i nc t a l be i t ( r oughl y) t ype i de nt i c a l F i na l l y, i n t he c a s e of t e s t i m ony but not m e m or y be l i e f l a ngua ge ( o r a t l e a s t s om e f or m of c om m uni c a t i on) pl a ys a n e s s e nt i a l m e di a t i ng r ol e H ow e ve r none of t he s e di f f e r e nc e s i nva l i da t e t he a ppl i c a bi l i t y of m y e a r l i e r a r gum e nt a t i ve a pp r oa c h t o m e m o r y be l i e f s f or w hi c h one s r e a s ons a r e f or go t t e n. O n a l l a c c ount s e nt i t l e m e nt t o one s m e m or y be l i e f s ha s s om e t hi ng t o do w i t h t he nor m a t i ve hi s t or y o f t he s e be l i e f s 1 8 F u r t he r on a l l a c c ount s pr e s e r va t i ve m e m or y c a n pr e s e r ve but c a nnot a l t e r t he nor m a t i ve s t a t us of a be l i e f 1 9 N ow w e a r e s e l f gove r ni ng e pi s t e m i c be i ngs ; w e 1 8 T h i s i s s o e v e n a c c o r d i n g t o r e l i a b i l i s m S i n c e m e m o r y a s i t p e r t a i n s t o b e l i e f s i s a b e l i e f d e p e n d e n t p r o c e s s t h e r e l e v a n t c l a u s e i n A l v i n G o l d m a n s r e c u r s i v e d e f i n i t i o n o f j u s t i f i e d b e l i e f i s : ( 6 B ) I f S s b e l i e f i n p a t t r e s u l t s ( i m m e d i a t e l y ) f r o m a b e l i e f d e p e n d e n t p r o c e s s t h a t i s ( a t l e a s t ) c o n d i t i o n a l l y r e l i a b l e a n d i f t h e b e l i e f s ( i f a n y ) o n w h i c h t h i s p r o c e s s o p e r a t e s i n p r o d u c i n g S s b e l i e f i n p a t t a r e t h e m s e l v e s j u s t i f i e d t h e n S s b e l i e f i n p a t t i s j u s t i f i e d ( G o l d m a n 1 9 7 9 : 3 4 7 ) T h e n o t i o n o f c o n d i t i o n a l r e l i a b i l i t y i s e x p l i c i t l y i n t r o d u c e d t o a p p l y t o r e a s o n i n g a n d m e m o r y a n d d e f i n e d a s f o l l o w s : A p r o c e s s i s c o n d i t i o n a l l y r e l i a b l e w h e n a s u f f i c i e n t p r o p o r t i o n o f i t s o u t p u t b e l i e f s a r e t r u e g i v e n t h a t i t s i n p u t b e l i e f s a r e t r u e ( I b i d ; i t a l i c s i n t h e o r i g i n a l ) S e t t i n g a s i d e i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g h o w b e l i e f p r o d u c i n g / s u s t a i n i n g p r o c e s s e s a r e t o b e i n d i v i d u a t e d a n d a s s u m i n g t h a t m e m o r y i s a c o n d i t i o n a l l y r e l i a b l e p r o c e s s a m e m o r y b e l i e f i s j u s t i f i e d o n t h i s v i e w o n l y i f i t w a s j u s t i f i e d w h e n o r i g i n a l l y f o r m e d ( o r p e r h a p s r e a s s e s s e d ) 1 9 I a m a d o p t i n g B u r g e s d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n p r e s e r v a t i v e a n d s u b s t a n t i v e m e m o r y w h i c h h e c h a r a c t e r i z e s a s f o l l o w s :

PAGE 37

37 t e nd t o t r us t our m e m or y be l i e f s e ve n a f t e r w e ha v e f or got t e n our r e a s ons f or t he m unl e s s w e e nc ount e r s om e r e a s on t o doubt t he m ; t h i s t e nde nc y m i ght e ve n be hi ghl y be ne f i c i a l t o us ; but t hi s doe s not s e t t l e t he que s t i on, I s i t e pi s t e m i c a l l y a ppr opr i a t e f or u s t o do s o a nd, i f s o, w hy? O nc e a ga i n, r e f l e c t i on on t he e pi s t e m i c s i t ua t i on of be l i e ve r s s houl d pr ove e nl i gh t e ni ng. I m a gi ne a be l i e ve r w hos e c ur r e nt p r a c t i c a l i nt e r e s t s r e qui r e t ha t s he ha ve a t r ue be l i e f c onc e r n i ng p S he ha s a m e m or y be l i e f t ha t p but s he doe s not r e m e m be r he r r e a s ons f or be l i e vi ng* t ha t p C l e a r l y, s he i s i n no pos i t i on t o t r us t he r be l i e f t ha t p a f t e r a l l t he r e a s ons f or w hi c h s he b e l i e ve d* t ha t p or i n l i ght of w hi c h s he r e vi s e d he r be l i e f t ha t p a l ong t he w a y, m i ght no t ha ve be e n a l e t hi c G i ve n he r c ur r e nt a l e t hi c i nt e r e s t a nd gi ve n t ha t s he doe s not r e m e m be r he r r e a s ons f or be l i e vi ng* t ha t p he r r e m e m be r e d be l i e f t ha t p i s now us e l e s s t o he r B y c ont r a s t c o n s i de r m y r e l a t i on t o m y be l i e f t ha t q f o r w hi c h I ha ve f o r got t e n m y r e a s ons I c a n t r us t m y pa s t s e l f I c a n t r us t t ha t he r r e a s ons f or be l i e vi ng t ha t q w e r e a l e t hi c a nd t ha t s he di d he r e pi s t e m i c be s t t o a c qui r e / m a i nt a i n a t r ue be l i e f t ha t q i n l i ght o f t he s e r e a s ons ( gi ve n he r r e s our c e s t he t i m e a va i l a bl e t o he r a nd he r i nt e r e s t i n t he m a t t e r ) H a d s he c om e a c r os s ( und e f e a t e d) de f e a t i ng e v i de nc e s he w oul d ha ve r e vi s e d he r be l i e f t ha t q M y not r e m e m be r i ng m y r e a s ons f or be l i e vi ng t ha t q by i t s e l f i s no t a r e a s on t o r e l i nqui s h m y be l i e f t ha t q I t i s ho w e ve r f o r t he be l i e ve r I j us t c ons i de r e d, onc e he r i nt e r e s t i n ha vi ng a be l i e f c onc e r ni ng p be c om e s a l e t hi c S i nc e t he onl y di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t hi s be l i e ve r a nd m e i s t ha t I unl i ke t he be l i e ve r *, c a n a s s um e t ha t m y s t a t e w a s pr ope r l y f or m e d i n l i gh t o f a l e t hi c r e a s ons t hi s a r g um e nt s t r ongl y s u g ge s t s t ha t be l i e f i s gove r ne d by t he nor m o f t r ut h. 2 0 S u b s t a n t i v e m e m o r y i s a n e l e m e n t i n a j u s t i f i c a t i o n ; i t i m p o r t s s u b j e c t m a t t e r o r o b j e c t s i n t o r e a s o n i n g P u r e l y p r e s e r v a t i v e m e m o r y i n t r o d u c e s n o s u b j e c t m a t t e r c o n s t i t u t e s n o e l e m e n t i n a j u s t i f i c a t i o n a n d a d d s n o f o r c e t o a j u s t i f i c a t i o n o r e n t i t l e m e n t I t s i m p l y m a i n t a i n s i n j u s t i f i c a t i o n a l s p a c e a c o g n i t i v e c o n t e n t w i t h i t s j u d g m e n t a l f o r c e ( B u r g e 1 9 9 3 : 4 6 5 ) 2 0 F o r t h e s a k e o f b r e v i t y I a m c o n f i n i n g t h e a b o v e a r g u m e n t t o t h e i n t u i t i v e l e v e l S o m e a u t h o r s ( B u r g e 1 9 9 3 1 9 9 7 ) h o l d t h a t p r e s e r v a t i v e m e m o r y u n l i k e t e s t i m o n y d o e s n o t c o n f e r b u t m e r e l y p r e s e r v e s e p i s t e m i c e n t i t l e m e n t O n s u c h v i e w s e n t i t l e m e n t t o m e m o r y b e l i e f a s s u c h i s n e i t h e r a p r i o r i n o r a p o s t e r i o r i M y a r g u m e n t o n l y

PAGE 38

38 D oxas t i c E val u at i on a n d P r ac t i c al I n t e r e s t s O ne m i ght a c c e pt t he f or e goi ng a r gum e nt s i ns of a r a s t he y s how t ha t be l i e f i s a c t ua l l y go ve r ne d by t he no r m o f t r ut h, but de ny t ha t be l i e f i s s o gove r ne d ne c e s s a r i l y, or i n v i r t ue o f t he n a t ur e of be l i e f F unkhous e r f o r e xa m pl e w r i t e s : T he vi e w a dvoc a t e d he r e m i ni m i z e s t he r o l e t ha t t he nor m o f t r ut h pl a ys f or be l i e ve r s a s a m a t t e r of c onc e pt ua l ne c e s s i t y. W he n a n a ge nt be l i e ve s t ha t p s he be l i e ve s t ha t p i s t r ue B ut s he c a n t a ke p t o be t r ue a l l t he w hi l e know i n g t ha t s he doe s not ha ve a ny r e a s ons or e vi de nc e t ha t poi nt t o t he t r ut h o f p I w oul d f u r t h e r s ugge s t t ha t be l i e vi ng i s s i m pl y r e ga r di ng a s t r ue r e ga r dl e s s of w he t he r t he be l i e ve r i s m ot i va t e d t o ge t t he t r ut h va l ue r i ght O f c our s e a s a m a t t e r o f f a c t hum a n be l i e ve r s a r e ve r y m uc h c onc e r ne d w i t h pos s e s s i ng t r ut h c onduc i ve r e a s ons a nd t hi s m i gh t pa r t i a l l y e x pl a i n our ( c ont i nge nt ) i na bi l i t y t o b e l i e ve a t w i l l ( F unkhous e r 2003: 192 3) O ne m i ght c l a i m t ha t a l t hough be l i e f i s t ypi c a l l y r e s pons i ve t o t r ut h, i t i s s o r e s pons i ve not b e c a us e of a nyt hi ng pe c ul i a r t o t he na t u r e of be l i e f but be c a us e of s om e t hi ng pe c ul i a r t o t he na t ur e of a c t ua l hum a n a ge nt s O n t hi s v i e w a l t ho ugh be l i e f i s not ne c e s s a r i l y gove r ne d by t r ut h a nd i s not ne c e s s a r i l y r e s pons i ve t o t r ut h ( o r t he a ppe a r a nc e of t r ut h ) unde r nor m a l c ondi t i ons i t t ypi c a l l y r e s ponds t o t r u t h ( o r t he a ppe a r a nc e of t r ut h) be c a us e of i t s f unc t i on a s a s pr i ng f o r a c t i on. I t i s i n t he n a t ur e of a ge nt s t o s e e k t o s a t i s f y t he i r de s i r e s by f or m i n g s ui t a bl e i nt e nt i ons a nd c a r r yi ng t he m out s uc c e s s f ul l y. S i nc e a ge nc y r e qui r e s be l i e f a nd s uc c e s s f ul a c t i on t ypi c a l l y r e qui r e s t r ue be l i e f s a ge nt s t ypi c a l l y a c qui r e a nd r e vi s e t he i r be l i e f s i n t he l i ght of t r ut h ( or t he s h o w s t h a t s u c h v i e w s s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t t h a t b e l i e f i s a c t u a l l y g o v e r n e d b y t h e n o r m o f t r u t h O t h e r a u t h o r s v i e w t h e e p i s t e m i c r o l e o f p r e s e r v a t i v e m e m o r y a s a n a l o g o u s t o t e s t i m o n y ( O w e n s 2 0 0 0 ) O w e n s e n d o r s e s a m e m o r i a l a n a l o g u e o f t h e T r a n s m i s s i o n P r i n c i p l e w h i c h c a n b e s h o w n s t r o n g l y t o s u g g e s t t h a t b e l i e f i s n e c e s s a r i l y g o v e r n e d b y t h e n o r m o f t r u t h H i s v i e w i s a v e r s i o n o f e p i s t e m i c f o u n d a t i o n a l i s m S i n c e m e m o r y b e l i e f s f o r w h i c h o n e s r e a s o n s a r e f o r g o t t e n a r e t y p i c a l l y p r e s e n t e d a s a d i f f i c u l t y f o r c o h e r e n t i s t a c c o u n t s o f m e m o r y I a m i g n o r i n g t h e s e a c c o u n t s h e r e F i n a l l y m y a r g u m e n t d o e s n o t s p e a k t o r e l i a b i l i s t a c c o u n t s H o w e v e r r e l i a b i l i s t a c c o u n t s d o n o t s p e a k d i r e c t l y t o t h e q u e s t i o n I a m c o n s i d e r i n g h e r e n a m e l y S h o u l d w e t r u s t o u r m e m o r y b e l i e f s o n c e w e h a v e f o r g o t t e n o u r r e a s o n s f o r t h e m a n d i f s o w h y ? N o t e h o w e v e r t h a t a n a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e r e l i a b i l i s t c r i t e r i o n ( o f f e r e d i n n 1 9 a b o v e ) t o o u r m e m o r y b e l i e f s f o r w h i c h o u r r e a s o n s a r e f o r g o t t e n c o u l d y i e l d n o p o s i t i v e a n s w e r t o m y q u e s t i o n u n l e s s w e a r e a b l e t o a s s u m e t h a t t h e b e l i e f s o f o u r p a s t s e l v e s a r e g e n e r a l l y j u s t i f i e d F u r t h e r m y a r g u m e n t a t i v e a p p r o a c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h i s a n s w e r t h e t e r m j u s t i f i e d t h a t f i g u r e s i n t h i s c r i t e r i o n s h o u l d n o t b e c o n s t r u e d m e r e l y a s r e l i a b l e b u t a s p r o p e r l y f o r m e d i n t h e l i g h t o f a l e t h i c r e a s o n s A p o s i t i v e r e l i a b i l i s t a n s w e r t o m y q u e s t i o n t h e n w o u l d s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t t h a t b e l i e f i s a c t u a l l y g o v e r n e d b y t h e n o r m o f t r u t h

PAGE 39

39 a ppe a r a nc e of t r ut h) s o t ha t t he y m a y s a t i s f y t he i r de s i r e s 2 1 A l t hough t he c onc e pt of be l i e f i s c or r e c t l y c ha r a c t e r i z e d i n t e r m s o f t he f unc t i on of be l i e f a s a gui de t o i nt e n t i ona l be ha vi or t he a c c ount a dum br a t e d a bove i s m i s s i ng a n i m po r t a nt pa r t of t he s t or y. I t i s be c a us e be l i e f i s r e s po n s i ve t o t r ut h t ha t i t c a n pl a y t h i s a c t i on gui di ng f unc t i on. M or e i m por t a nt l y, how e ve r t hi s a c c ount f a i l s t o e xpl a i n w hy be l i e f s unl i ke i m a gi ni ngs f or e x a m pl e a r e l i a bl e t o c r i t i c i s m as s uc h f or f a i l i ng t o r e s pond t o t r ut h ( or t he a ppe a r a nc e of t r ut h ) unde r nor m a l c ondi t i ons A m y s de s i r e t o be c om e a be t t e r m us i c i a n m i ght ve r y w e l l be f u r t he r e d by he r be l i e vi ng t ha t s he i s a m o r e t a l e nt e d m us i c i a n t ha n he r e vi de nc e i ndi c a t e s a s i t m i ght s pur he r t o pr a c t i c e m or e of t e n a nd l e a r n ha r de r pi e c e s B a s i l s de s i r e t o r e c ove r f r om a s e r i ous i l l ne s s m i ght ve r y w e l l be f u r t he r e d by hi s be l i e vi ng t ha t hi s c ha nc e s of r e c ove r y a r e be t t e r t ha n hi s e vi de nc e i ndi c a t e s a s i t m i ght m ot i va t e hi m t o t a ke a c t i ons t ha t w i l l ul t i m a t e l y l e a d t o hi s r e c ove r i ng de s pi t e t he odds P e opl e of t e n s e e k t o i ns t i l l s uc h be l i e f s i n t he i r l ove d one s f or r e a s ons j us t l i ke t he s e Y e t r e ga r dl e s s of t he pr a c t i c a l a dva nt a ge s one m i ght r e a p f r o m ha vi ng s uc h be l i e f s t he y a r e ne ve r t he l e s s l i a bl e t o c r i t i c i s m a s s uc h f or ha vi ng i na de qua t e e v i de nt i a l s uppor t B e l i e f s i t s e e m s a r e s ubj e c t t o e va l ua t i on i n r e ga r d t o t he i r r e s pons i ve ne s s t o t r ut h ( o r t he a ppe a r a nc e of t r ut h) i nde pe nde nt l y of w h e t he r ha vi ng be l i e f s t ha t a r e s o r e s pons i ve s e r ve s t he pr a c t i c a l i nt e r e s t s of t he a ge nt w ho hol d s t he m I f be l i e f s di d not a i m a t t r ut h c ons t i t ut i ve l y, but m e r e l y i nhe r i t e d t he i r a l e t hi c a i m a s a b ypr oduc t of t he pr a c t i c a l a i m s of a ge nt s i t 2 1 S u c h a v i e w n e e d n o t t h e r e b y c l a i m t h a t w e a r e b e l i e v e r s B e l i e f s w e r e s u p p o s e d t o b e s u b j e c t t o t h e n o r m s o f p r a c t i c a l r a t i o n a l i t y d i r e c t l y m u c h a s o u r i n t e n t i o n s c a n b e s a i d t o b e s u b j e c t t o t h e n o r m s o f p r a c t i c a l r a t i o n a l i t y d i r e c t l y B y c o n t r a s t a p r o p o n e n t o f t h e v i e w I a m n o w c o n s i d e r i n g m i g h t c l a i m t h a t b e l i e f s a r e s u b j e c t t o t h e n o r m s o f p r a c t i c a l r a t i o n a l i t y b u t o n l y i n d i r e c t l y O n t h i s v i e w o u r b e l i e f s a r e n o r m a t i v e l y b e h o l d e n t o o u r s u c c e s s a s a g e n t s ( a n d s o t o t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f o u r d e s i r e s i n d i r e c t l y ) r a t h e r t h a n d i r e c t l y t o t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f o u r d e s i r e s O n s u c h a v i e w i t w o u l d b e r a t i o n a l f o r m e t o b e l i e v e t h a t I a m m o r e t a l e n t e d t h a n I h a v e e v i d e n c e t o b e l i e v e o n l y i f h a v i n g t h i s b e l i e f w a s l i k e l y t o r e s u l t i n m y b e i n g m o r e s u c c e s s f u l a s a n a g e n t F o r a b e l i e v e r s u c h a b e l i e f w o u l d b e r a t i o n a l i f i t w e r e o n e t h a t s h e d e s i r e d a l l t h i n g s c o n s i d e r e d F u n k h o u s e r h o w e v e r s e e m s t o h o l d t h a t w e a r e b e l i e v e r s w h o h a p p e n t o h a v e a k e e n i n t e r e s t i n h a v i n g t r u e b e l i e f s T h i s s t r i k e s m e a s h i g h l y i m p l a u s i b l e

PAGE 40

40 w oul d be di f f i c ul t t o a voi d t he c onc l us i on t ha t t he i nt ui t i on t ha t be l i e f s a r e s o e va l ua bl e i s m i s gui de d. C ons i de r l a ngua ge a nd e t i que t t e L a ngua ge us e a nd publ i c be ha vi or a r e s ubj e c t t o e va l u a t i on a s c or r e c t o r i nc or r e c t i nde pe nde nt l y o f t he e va l ua t e d a ge nt s pr a c t i c a l i nt e r e s t s C l e a r l y, I c a n be c ha r ge d w i t h s pe a ki ng ung r a m m a t i c a l l y, o r w i t h be ha vi ng r ude l y e ve n w he n a bi di ng by t he r ul e s of gr a m m a r or e t i que t t e r uns c ount e r t o m y be s t i nt e r e s t I n t he c a s e of l a ngua ge us e a nd publ i c be ha vi or t he e va l ua t i on i s c onduc t e d r e l a t i ve t o a c onve nt i on w hi c h s e t s t he r e l e va nt s t a nda r d of c or r e c t ne s s S i m i l a r l y w e e va l ua t e be l i e f s r e l a t i ve t o t r ut h r e ga r d l e s s of w he t he r ha vi ng t r ue be l i e f s s e r ve s t he i nt e r e s t s of t he be l i e ve r I n t he c a s e of be l i e f how e ve r t he r e i s no c onve nt i on t o unde r w r i t e our e va l ua t i on. F o r be l i e f t he s t a nda r d of c or r e c t ne s s t ha t unde r w r i t e s our e va l ua t i on s e e m s t o be s e t i n t e r na l l y, by t he ve r y na t ur e o f be l i e f O ur ve r y e va l ua t i ve pr a c t i c e s t he n, s e e m t o c om m i t us t o t he vi e w t ha t t he r e l e va nt s t a nda r d of c o r r e c t ne s s f or be l i e f e va l ua t i on na m e l y, t r ut h i s s e t i n t e r na l l y, by t h e c ont e nt of be l i e f T ha t be l i e f ought t o r e s pond t o t r ut h ( or t he a ppe a r a nc e of t r ut h ) i nde pe nde nt l y of p r a c t i c a l c ons i de r a t i ons i s a de e p s e a t e d, pr e t he or e t i c i n t ui t i on. I t m a ni f e s t s i t s e l f i n t he i ndi gna t i on c hi l dr e n t ypi c a l l y f e e l w he n, ha vi ng a s ke d f or r e a s ons t o be l i e ve t ha t s om e t hi ng i s t he c a s e t he y a r e gi ve n a t h r e a t e ni ng a ns w e r a l ong t he l i ne s of B e c a us e I t e l l you t o or e l s e I nt ui t i ve l y not h i ng bu t a n i ndi c a t i on t ha t a be l i e f i s t r ue c ount s a s a pr ope r r e a s on f or a c c e pt i ng t ha t be l i e f T he na t ur a l pr e t he or e t i c vi e w i t s e e m s i s t ha t be l i e f s a s s uc h, a r e be hol de n t o t r ut h not t o t he pr a c t i c a l i nt e r e s t s of a ge nt s I t i s a s t r ong m a r k i n f a vor of t he vi e w t ha t be l i e f s c ons t i t ut i ve l y a i m a t t r u t h t ha t i t c a n bo t h e xpl a i n w hy be l i e f s a r e r e s pons i ve t o t r ut h ( o r t he a ppe a r a nc e of t r ut h) a nd a c c ount f or t he i nt ui t i on t ha t t he y ough t t o be s o r e s pons i ve i r r e s pe c t i ve of a ny non a l e t hi c c o n s i de r a t i ons

PAGE 41

41 T hi s i s not t o s a y t ha t p r a c t i c a l c ons i de r a t i ons ha ve no i m po r t i n w ha t one be l i e ve s or ought t o be l i e ve P r a c t i c a l c ons i de r a t i ons t ypi c a l l y pl a y a s i gni f i c a nt r ol e i n s ha pi ng one s doxa s t i c i nt e r e s t s D a vi d O w e ns ( 2000: C h 2) a r g ue s c onvi nc i ngl y t ha t pr a gm a t i c c ons i de r a t i on s 2 2 pl a y a de c i s i ve r ol e i n de t e r m i ni ng w he t he r a gi ve n body o f e vi de nc e i s s uf f i c i e nt f o r r a t i ona l be l i e f : [ P ] ur e l y e vi de nt i a l c ons i de r a t i ons unde r de t e r m i ne w ha t w e ought t o be l i e ve un t i l t he y r e c e i ve pr a gm a t i c s u p pl e m e nt a t i on. T he e vi de nt i a l i s t m a y be r i ght t o i ns i s t t ha t w he t he r I be l i e ve p r a t he r t ha n not p i s s om e t hi ng t ha t s houl d be f i xe d pur e l y by t he ba l a nc e o f e v i de nc e f or a nd a ga i ns t p B ut w he r e a nd w he n I f o r m a vi e w a s t o w he t he r p i s t r ue w i l l be de t e r m i ne d by m y s e ns e of how i m po r t a nt t he i s s ue i s w ha t t he c ons e que nc e s of ha v i ng a c e r t a i n be l i e f on t he m a t t e r w oul d be a nd how m uc h of m y l i m i t e d c ogni t i ve r e s our c e s I ought t o de vot e t o i t be f or e r e a c hi ng a c onc l us i on. ( I bi d : 26 27) P r a c t i c a l c ons i de r a t i ons c a n a l s o gi v e r i s e t o doxa s t i c dut i e s I t i s pl a us i bl e t ha t a ge nt s ha ve t he doxa s t i c dut y t o a s c e r t a i n t hos e f a c t s t ha t a r e a c c e s s i bl e t o t he m a nd t ha t a r e r e l e va nt t o t he m o r a l s t a t us of t he a c t i ons t he y a r e c ont e m pl a t i ng t o und e r t a ke I f m y ba nk a c c ount s udde nl y r e gi s t e r e d a f a r l a r ge r ba l a nc e t ha n I ha d r e a s on t o a nt i c i pa t e i t s e e m s t ha t I w oul d ha ve t he dut y t o i nve s t i ga t e w he t he r t he une xpe c t e d bount y w a s r i g ht f ul l y m i ne be f or e I s pe nt i t on a n e xpe ns i ve va c a t i on. A ge nt s m i ght ha ve t he doxa s t i c dut y t o i de nt i f y t he r e s pons i bi l i t i e s t he y be a r e g. t ow a r d t hos e i n t he i r c a r e I gnor a nc e of t he r e s pons i bi l i t i e s pa r e nt s be a r t ow a r d t he i r c hi l d r e n pr ovi de s no e xc us e f or ne gl e c t i ng one s c hi l dr e n pa r e nt s ought t o know t he i r r e s pons i bi l i t i e s a s pa r e nt s I t w oul d s e e m t ha t pos i t i ve doxa s t i c dut i e s i e du t i e s t o be l i e ve r a t he r t ha n dut i e s t o r e f r a i n f r om be l i e vi ng a r e t ypi c a l l y g r ounde d i n t he pr a c t i c a l i nt e r e s t s a nd pr a c t i c a l dut i e s o f a ge nt s I nde pe nde nt l y o f s uc h pr a c t i c a l i nt e r e s t s a nd pr a c t i c a l dut i e s be l i e v e r s m i ght m e r e l y ha ve t he ne ga t i ve doxa s t i c dut y t o r e f r a i n f r om ho l di ng be l i e f s of w hos e t r ut h t he y ha ve i ns uf f i 2 2 O w e n s ( 2 0 0 0 : 2 4 ) d i s t i n g u i s h e s b e t w e e n p r a g m a t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ( n o n e v i d e n t i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t a r e r e l e v a n t t o b e l i e f ) a n d p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ( c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f t h e s o r t i n v o k e d b y p r a c t i c a l n o r m s ) I c a l l b o t h t y p e s o f c o n s i d e r a t i o n s p r a c t i c a l a s i t i s n o t e n t i r e l y c l e a r t o m e t h a t t h e r e i s a s h a r p l i n e t o b e d r a w n h e r e

PAGE 42

42 c i e nt i ndi c a t i on. T he c or r e s pondi ng pos i t i ve du t y, i e t he dut y t o be l i e ve e ve r yt hi ng o f w hos e t r ut h one ha s s uf f i c i e nt i ndi c a t i on s e e m s e x t r a va ga nt a nd di f f i c ul t i f not i m pos s i bl e t o m e e t by f i ni t e be i ngs a s i t r e qui r e s t he m t o ha ve f a r m or e b e l i e f s t ha n t he y c a n be e xpe c t e d t o hol d P os i t i ve doxa t i c dut i e s a r e t yp i c a l l y hypot he t i c a l i n t he s e ns e t ha t t he y a r e c ondi t i ona l on t he i nt e r e s t s of a ge nt s i f A m y i s a phys i c s s t ude nt s h e ought t o f or m be l i e f s a bout t he t he or y of r e l a t i vi t y; i f B a s i l i s n t a nd ha s no i nt e r e s t i n t he t opi c he ne e d no t W he n pos i t i ve doxa s t i c dut i e s a r e c a t e gor i c a l i n t he s e ns e t ha t t he y a r e not c ondi t i ona l on t he i nt e r e s t s of a ge nt s t he y s e e m t o be gr ounde d i n c a t e gor i c a l dut i e s t o a c t i n c e r t a i n w a ys S o pa r e nt s ought t o know t he i r dut i e s a s pa r e nt s i n vi r t ue of ha vi ng t he c a t e gor i c a l dut y t o a bi de by t he s e dut i e s i n t he i r a c t i ons I t i s not i m pl a us i bl e t ha t a ge nt s ha ve c a t e gor i c a l d oxa s t i c dut i e s t o hol d c e r t a i n m or a l be l i e f s I f a ge nt s ha ve s uc h c a t e gor i c a l pos i t i ve doxa s t i c dut i e s how e ve r i t i s pl a us i bl e t ha t t he y ha ve t he m i n vi r t ue of ha vi ng t he c a t e gor i c a l du t y t o e xpr e s s t he s e be l i e f s t hr ough t he i r a c t i ons P os i t i ve doxa t i c dut i e s w he t he r hypot he t i c a l o r c a t e gor i c a l m i ght c onf l i c t w i t h, a nd s om e t i m e s e ve n ove r r i de t he ne ga t i ve dut y a l l be l i e ve r s ha ve t o r e f r a i n f r om hol di ng be l i e f s of w hos e t r ut h t he y ha ve i ns uf f i c i e nt i ndi c a t i on. I n t he c a s e m e nt i one d a bove B a s i l m i ght ha ve t he pr u de nt i a l dut y t o be l i e ve t ha t he ha s de c e nt c ha nc e s of r e c ove r i ng f r om hi s i l l ne s s e ve n t hough he ha s e ve r y i ndi c a t i on t ha t hi s m e di c a l c a s e i s hop e l e s s S t i l l a s s t r e s s e d a bove B a s i l r e m a i ns s ubj e c t t o hi s ne ga t i ve doxa s t i c dut y a s a pr i m a f ac i e dut y, a nd hi s be l i e f r e m a i ns l i a bl e t o c r i t i c i s m a s s uc h f or ha vi ng i na de qua t e e vi de nt i a l s uppor t T ha t t hi s i s s o i s i ne xpl i c a bl e I c l a i m on t he vi e w t ha t be l i e f s i nhe r i t t he i r a l e t hi c a i m a s a bypr oduc t of t he pr a c t i c a l a i m s o f a ge nt s T ha t pos i t i ve doxa s i c dut i e s t ypi c a l l y ha ve a pr a c t i c a l g r oundi ng, how e ve r m i ght m i s l e a d one t o e n dor s e t hi s vi e w

PAGE 43

43 T h e T r an s p ar e n c y of B e l i e f T ha t t he que s t i on, D o I be l i e ve t ha t p ? nor m a l l y i s a nd ought t o be t r a ns pa r e nt t o t he que s t i on, I s i t t he c a s e t ha t p ? i n t he s e ns e t ha t t h e f or m e r nor m a l l y i s a nd ought t o be a ns w e r e d by w a y of a ns w e r i ng t he l a t t e r i s f ur t he r e vi de nc e t ha t be l i e f i s ne c e s s a r i l y gove r ne d by t he nor m o f t r ut h. I n A ut hor i t y and E s t r ange m e nt R i c ha r d M or a n a r gue s t ha t t he t r a ns pa r e nc y of f i r s t pe r s on, p r e s e nt t e ns e a t t i t ude r e por t s not i c e d by R oy E dg l e y a nd G a r e t h E va ns i s bot h a pr e s uppos i t i on of a nd a nor m a t i ve r e qui r e m e nt on r a t i ona l a ge nc y. G i ve n t he f or e goi ng di s c u s s i on, t hi s i s j us t w ha t s houl d be e xpe c t e d i n t he c a s e of a ge nt s w ho a r e c a pa bl e of r e f l e c t i ng on t he i r ow n a t t i t ude s M or a n w r i t e s : [ P ] a r t of w ha t i t i s t o be a r a t i ona l a ge nt i s t o be a b l e t o s ubj e c t one s a t t i t ude s t o r e vi e w i n a w a y t ha t m a ke s a di f f e r e nc e t o w ha t one s a t t i t ud e i s O ne i s a n a ge nt w i t h r e s pe c t t o one s a t t i t ude s i ns of a r a s one o r i e nt s one s e l f t ow a r d t he que s t i on of one s be l i e f s by r e f l e c t i ng on w ha t s t r ue or or i e nt s one s e l f t ow a r d t he que s t i on of one s de s i r e s by r e f l e c t i ng on w ha t s w or t hw hi l e or d i ve r t i ng o r s a t i s f yi ng. ( M or a n 2001: 64) A nd f ur t he r : [ A ] s I c onc e i ve of m ys e l f a s a r a t i ona l a ge nt m y a w a r e ne s s of m y be l i e f i s a w a r e ne s s of m y c om m i t m e nt t o i t s t r ut h, a c om m i t m e nt t o s om e t hi ng t ha t t r a ns c e nds a ny de s c r i pt i on of m y ps yc hol ogi c a l s t a t e A nd t he e xpr e s s i on of t hi s c om m i t m e nt l i e s i n t he f a c t t ha t m y r e por t s on m y be l i e f a r e obl i ge d t o c onf or m t o t he c o ndi t i on of t r a ns pa r e nc y: t ha t I c a n r e por t on m y be l i e f a bout X by c ons i de r i ng ( not hi ng but ) X i t s e l f ( I bi d : 84) M or a n di s t i ngui s he s t w o s t a nc e s a n a ge nt m a y t a ke t ow a r d he r ow n doxa s t i c a t t i t ude s na m e l y, t he t he or e t i c a l s t a nc e a nd t he de l i be r a t i ve s t a nc e W he n a s ki ng, D o I be l i e ve t ha t p ? a s a t he o r e t i c a l que s t i on, t he a ge nt s s t a nc e t ow a r d he r ow n be l i e f i s j us t l i ke t ha t of a ny out s i de obs e r ve r P r ope r e vi de nc e f or he r i nqu i r y i s e vi de nc e t ha t s he be l i e ve s t ha t p a nd m a y i nc l ude he r ow n b e ha vi or a nd t he a ns w e r Y e s but i t i s n ot t he c a s e t ha t p doe s not i nvol ve he r i n a ny out r i ght i nc ohe r e nc e s i nc e t he f a c t t ha t s he be l i e v e s t ha t p a nd t he f a c t t ha t p a r e di s t i nc t W he n a s ki ng, D o I be l i e ve t ha t p ? a s a de l i be r a t i ve que s t i on, by c ont r a s t t he a ge nt s s t a nc e t ow a r d

PAGE 44

44 he r ow n be l i e f i s unl i ke t ha t of a ny out s i de obs e r ve r T he de l i be r a t i ve que s t i on i s e qui va l e nt t o t he que s t i on, S ha l l I be l i e ve t ha t p ? a nd doe s not a i m m e r e l y t o yi e l d a n a c c ur a t e a t t i t ude r e por t ; i t a i m s t o yi e l d be l i e f i e a n a t t i t ude t ha t c onf or m s t o w ha t M or a n c a l l s t he c ondi t i on of t r a ns pa r e nc y i n t he quot e a bove 2 3 I n t he de l i be r a t i ve s t a nc e t he a ge nt s i nqui r y i s not pr ope r l y f oc us e d on e vi de nc e t ha t s he be l i e ve s t ha t p I t i s pr ope r l y f oc us e d on e vi de nc e t ha t p t ha t i s on a l e t hi c r e a s ons f or be l i e vi ng t ha t p M or a n a r gue s t ha t t he c a pa c i t y t o t a ke a de l i be r a t i ve s t a nc e t ow a r d one s ow n j udgm e nt s e ns i t i ve a t t i t ude s i s a pr e r e qui s i t e of r a t i ona l a ge n c y. A ge nt s a r e r e s pons i bl e f or t he i r a t t i t ude s i na s m uc h a s t he y ha ve t he c a pa c i t y t o a vow t he m w he r e a n a vow a l i s a s t a t e m e nt o f one s a t t i t ude t ha t c onf o r m s t o t he c ondi t i on o f t r a ns pa r e nc y ( I bi d : 101) A vow a bi l i t y a l s o s e t s a nor m a t i ve r e qui r e m e nt on r a t i ona l a ge nc y. I na s m u c h a s a ge nt s ha ve t he c a pa c i t y t o a vow t he i r j ud g m e nt s e ns i t i ve a t t i t ude s t he y a r e c om m i t t e d t o s a t i s f yi ng t he c ondi t i on of t r a ns pa r e nc y i n t he i r j ud g m e nt s e ns i t i ve a t t i t ude s I n t he c a s e o f b e l i e f t he c om m i t m e nt i s t o ha ve t he be l i e f t ha t p onl y i f one s r e por t I be l i e ve t ha t p w oul d be a pr ope r a ns w e r t o t he de l i be r a t i ve que s t i on, D o I be l i e ve t ha t p ? T he t he s i s t ha t be l i e f i s ne c e s s a r i l y gove r ne d by t h e nor m o f t r ut h e xpl a i ns w hy t h e de l i be r a t i ve que s t i on, D o I be l i e ve t ha t p ? nor m a l l y i s a nd ought t o be a ns w e r e d by w a y o f a ns w e r i ng t he que s t i on, I s i t t he c a s e t ha t p ? B e f or e I c a n pr e s e nt t he de t a i l s of t hi s e xpl a na t i on, I ne e d f or m ul a t e a n a c c ount of t he m a nne r i n w hi c h t he nor m o f t r ut h gove r ns be l i e f A c c or di ngl y, I w i l l pos t pone t hi s i s s ue unt i l t he e nd o f C h a pt e r 4, w he n I w i l l a dd r e s s i t i n t he s e c t i on e nt i t l e d T he D e l i be r a t i ve S t a nc e a nd l e a ve m a t t e r s a t t he i nt ui t i ve l e ve l f or now I s h oul d not e a l s o t ha t M or a n s ge ne r a l a c c ount of r a t i ona l i t y of f e r s a de e pe r e xpl a na t i on of t he t he s i s f o r 2 3 A l s o : A s t a t e m e n t o f o n e s b e l i e f a b o u t X i s s a i d t o o b e y t h e T r a n s p a r e n c y C o n d i t i o n w h e n t h e s t a t e m e n t i s m a d e b y c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e f a c t s a b o u t X i t s e l f a n d n o t b y e i t h e r a n i n w a r d g l a n c e o r b y o b s e r v a t i o n o f o n e s o w n b e h a v i o r ( I b i d : 1 0 1 )

PAGE 45

45 w hi c h I ha ve be e n a r gui ng. T he br oa de r or de r of e xpl a na t i on goe s a s f ol l ow s : T he c a pa c i t y t o t a ke a de l i be r a t i ve s t a nc e t ow a r d one s ow n j udgm e nt s e n s i t i ve a t t i t ude s i s a pr e r e q ui s i t e of r a t i ona l a ge nc y. T he be l i e f t ha t p i s s e ns i t i ve t o t h e j udgm e nt t ha t p T ha t t he be l i e f t ha t p i s s e ns i t i ve t o t he j udgm e nt t ha t p e xpl a i ns w hy be l i e f i s ne c e s s a r i l y gove r ne d by t he nor m of t r ut h T ha t be l i e f i s ne c e s s a r i l y gove r ne d by t he nor m of t r ut h e xpl a i ns w hy t he de l i be r a t i ve que s t i on, D o I be l i e ve t ha t p ? i s t r a ns pa r e nt t o t he que s t i on, I s i t t he c a s e t ha t p ? M oor e s p ar ad ox : M or a n s a c c ount of t he t r a ns pa r e nc y of be l i e f i n f i r s t pe r s on de l i be r a t i on e xpl a i ns w hy a s s e r t i ons of t he f or m s I be l i e v e t ha t p but p i s f a l s e a nd p but I don t be l i e ve t ha t p s t r i ke us a s pa r a doxi c a l T he i r t hi r d pe r s on c ount e r pa r t s i e S he be l i e ve s t ha t p but p i s f a l s e a nd p bu t s he doe s n t be l i e ve t ha t p a r e s e e n a s e nt i r e l y unpr obl e m a t i c M oor e s P a r a dox pr e s e nt s us w i t h a p r obl e m s i nc e e a c h a s s e r t i on s c he m a bot h i n t he f i r s t pe r s on a nd t he t hi r d pe r s on f o r m u l a t i ons c ons i s t s of t w o c onj unc t s t ha t ha ve di s t i nc t s ubj e c t m a t t e r s a nd t ha t c a n c onc om i t a nt l y be t r ue W ha t e ve r t he pr ob l e m i s w i t h t he f i r s t pe r s on s c he m a s i t i s n t f o r m a l c ont r a di c t i on ( p r e s um a bl y I t oo c a n ha ve f a l s e be l i e f s a nd f a i l t o be l i e ve s om e t r ut hs ) M or a n not e s t ha t w e vi e w a s pa r a doxi c a l no t onl y a s s e r t i ons but a l s o t hought s t ha t c o nf or m t o t he f i r s t pe r s on s c he m a s F or t hi s r e a s on, he r e j e c t s t he pr e va l e nt p r a gm a t i c e xpl a na t i on of M oor e s P a r a dox a c c or di ng t o w hi c h t he pr obl e m i n t he f i r s t pe r s on c a s e s r e s ul t s f r om a s e l f de f e a t of t he pur pos e of a s s e r t i on ( I bi d : 84) I ns t e a d, M or a n pr opos e s t ha t t he r e a s on w hy a s s e r t i ons ( a nd t hought s ) of t he f o r m s I be l i e ve t h a t p bu t p i s f a l s e a nd p but I don t be l i e ve t ha t p s t r i ke us a s pa r a doxi c a l i s t ha t t he y e xpr e s s a nor m a t i ve c ont r a di c t i on w i t hi n t he de l i be r a t i ve s t a nc e 2 4 I na s m uc h a s I a m c a pa bl e o f r e f l e c t i n g on m y be l i e f s I ha ve a c om m i t m e nt t o 2 4 A l t h o u g h M o r a n d o e s n o t u s e t h e e x p r e s s i o n n o r m a t i v e c o n t r a d i c t i o n i t s e e m s t o c a p t u r e h i s l i n e o f t h o u g h t

PAGE 46

46 s a t i s f y i ng t he c ondi t i on of t r a ns pa r e nc y w i t h r e ga r d t o m y be l i e f s T ha t i s I a m c om m i t t e d t o ha vi ng t he be l i e f t ha t p onl y i f m y r e por t I be l i e ve t ha t p w oul d be a pr ope r a ns w e r t o t he de l i be r a t i ve que s t i on, D o I be l i e ve t ha t p ? B ut I c oul d not pr ope r l y a ns w e r t he de l i be r a t i ve que s t i on w i t h I be l i e ve t ha t p w hi l e a l s o hol di ng t ha t p i s f a l s e s i nc e m y hol di ng t ha t p i s f a l s e w oul d c om m i t m e t o a ns w e r i ng t he de l i be r a t i ve qu e s t i o n w i t h, I don t be l i e ve t ha t p L i ke w i s e I c oul d not pr ope r l y a ns w e r t he de l i be r a t i ve que s t i on w i t h I don t be l i e ve t ha t p w hi l e hol d i ng t ha t p s i nc e m y hol di ng t ha t p w oul d c om m i t m e t o a ns w e r i ng t he que s t i on w i t h I be l i e ve t ha t p M or a n s a c c ou nt of t he p r ope r l y f i r s t pe r s on s t a nc e a s t he s t a nc e i n w hi c h one c a n a vow one s j udgm e nt s e ns i t i ve a t t i t ude s a s w e l l a s hi s a t t r a c t i ve a ns w e r t o M oor e s P a r a dox, t i e t oge t he r t he s t r a nds I ha ve be e n pur s ui ng a bove T ha t be l i e f s t ypi c a l l y a r e a nd a l w a ys ought r a t i ona l l y be a t l e a s t pr i m a f ac i e r e s pons i ve t o ( t he a ppe a r a nc e of ) t r ut h c l e a r l y ha s a c l os e r e l a t i on t o t he c ondi t i on of t r a ns pa r e nc y M or a n di s c us s e s T o r e qui r e t ha t t he be l i e f s of a n a ge nt c a pa bl e of r e f l e c t i ng on he r be l i e f s be a vow a bl e i s t o r e qui r e t ha t t he y be r e s pons i ve onl y t o w ha t i s pr ope r l y t a ke n by he r l i ght s a s i ndi c a t i ve o f t he i r t r ut h t ha t i s t o a l e t hi c r e a s ons T ha t be l i e f s a r e s ubj e c t t o, a nd t ypi c a l l y c om pl y w i t h s uc h a r e qui r e m e nt i s hi ghl y pl a us i bl e T hi s r e qui r e m e nt how e ve r doe s not m a ke s e ns e i f be l i e f i s not ne c e s s a r i l y gove r ne d by t he no r m o f t r ut h. I f be l i e f i s not ne c e s s a r i l y gove r ne d by t he no r m o f t r ut h, w hy s houl dn t t he a ge nt w ho s e e ks t o a ns w e r t he de l i be r a t i ve que s t i on, D o I be l i e ve t ha t p ? l e t c ons i de r a t i on of s a y, t he us e or a ppe a l of be l i e vi ng t ha t p gu i de he r i nqui r y? A f t e r a l l a s I not e d a bove be l i e vi ng t ha t p de s pi t e ove r w he l m i ng e vi de nc e t ha t not p c a n a t t i m e s be of f a r gr e a t e r va l ue t o t he a ge nt t ha n r e f r a i ni ng f r om b e l i e vi ng t ha t p or be l i e vi n g t ha t not p

PAGE 47

47 B e l i e f an d B e l i e ve r E val u ab i l i t y I a r gue d e a r l i e r t ha t t he c l a i m t ha t be l i e f a i m s a t t r ut h c ons t i t ut i ve l y s houl d be unde r s t ood ( i n pa r t ) a s c a s t i ng be l i e f a s s ubj e c t t o e va l ua t i on r e l a t i ve t o t r ut h a l ong t he di m e ns i ons of s u c c e s s a nd pe r f or m a nc e i nde pe nde nt l y of a ny ot h e r a i m s a nd de s i r e s t he be l i e ve r m i ght ha ve a nd a s c a s t i ng t he be l i e ve r a s s ubj e c t t o c o r r e s pondi ng e va l ua t i ons a nd a t t e nda nt pr a i s e o r bl a m e A l t hough I d oubt t ha t a nyone w oul d s e r i ous l y di s p ut e t he s e c l a i m s I w oul d f e e l r e m i s s i f I d i d not r e vi s i t t he m a t t hi s s t a ge C l e a r l y, t r ut h c ons t i t ut e s t he di m e ns i on o f s uc c e s s f or be l i e f I t i s qui t e c l e a r a l s o t ha t b e l i e f c a n i nde pe nde nt l y be e va l ua t e d a l ong a di m e ns i on of pe r f or m a nc e w hi c h ha s r e c e i ve d va r i ous c ha r a c t e r i z a t i ons a nd va r i ous na m e s e pi s t e m i c r a t i ona l i t y e nt i t l e m e nt w a r r a nt j us t i f i c a t i on. 2 5 I hope t he f o r e goi ng di s c us s i on ha s m a de i t e qua l l y c l e a r t ha t be l i e f c a n be e va l ua t e d a l ong t he s e t w o di m e ns i ons i nde pe nde nt l y of a ny ot he r a i m a nd de s i r e t he be l i e ve r m i ght ha ve F i na l l y, t he c l a i m t ha t be l i e ve r s a r e r e s pons i bl e f or t he i r be l i e f s i s f a i r l y unc ont r o ve r s i a l I t m i ght be t ha t e va l ua t i ons of be l i e ve r s a nd t he i r be l i e f s a l ong t he di m e ns i on o f pe r f or m a nc e m i ght oc c a s i ona l l y yi e l d di f f e r e nt ve r di c t s I c ons i de r e d e a r l i e r t he c a s e i n w hi c h B a s i l ha s a pr ude nt i a l dut y, by w hi c h he a bi de s t o be l i e ve t ha t he ha s de c e nt c ha nc e s of r e c ove r i ng f r om a n i l l ne s s e ve n t hough he ha s e ve r y i ndi c a t i on t ha t hi s m e di c a l c a s e i s hope l e s s I c l a i m e d, p l a us i bl y I t hi nk, t ha t B a s i l r e m a i ns s ubj e c t t o hi s doxa s t i c dut y t o r e f r a i n f r om hol di ng be l i e f s o f w hos e t r ut h he ha s i ns uf f i c i e nt i ndi c a t i on a s a pr i m a f ac i e dut y, a nd t ha t hi s be l i e f r e m a i ns l i a bl e t o c r i t i c i s m a s s uc h f o r ha vi ng i na de qua t e e vi de nt i a l s uppor t I n t hi s c a s e B a s i l s be l i e f i s f a l s e a nd e pi s t e m i c a l l y i r r a t i ona l H ow e ve r i t i s not qui t e c l e a r how B a s i l s houl d be e va l ua t e d f or hi s e pi s t e m i c pe r f or m a nc e B a s i l c e r t a i nl y doe s not s e e m bl a m e w o r t hy f o r ha vi ng t hi s be l i e f G i ve n t ha t e pi s t e m i c c ons i de r a t i ons a r e pr ope r l y ove r r i dd e n i n t hi s c a s e B a s i l s e e m s i r r e pr oa c ha bl e i n 2 5 T h e s e m i g h t b e d i s t i n c t t h o u g h r e l a t e d d i m e n s i o n s o f e v a l u a t i o n

PAGE 48

48 t e r m s of ove r a l l r a t i ona l i t y. A nd s i nc e e pi s t e m i c c ons i de r a t i ons a r e pr ope r l y ove r r i dde n i n t hi s c a s e B a s i l doe s not c l e a r l y s e e m t o de s e r ve r e pr oa c h i n t e r m s o f e pi s t e m i c r a t i ona l i t y e i t he r T hi s how e ve r i s c ons i s t e nt w i t h t he t he s i s t ha t be l i e f a i m s a t t r ut h c ons t i t ut i ve l y w hi c h c l a i m s onl y t ha t bot h be l i e ve r a nd be l i e f a r e l i a bl e t o e va l ua t i on a l ong t he d i m e ns i ons of s uc c e s s a nd pe r f or m a nc e I t doe s not c l a i m t ha t e va l ua t i ons o f be l i e ve r a nd be l i e f m us t yi e l d c oi nc i di ng ve r di c t s i n e ve r y c a s e T hi s c onc l ude s m y pr i m a f ac i e c a s e f or t he t he s i s t ha t be l i e f a i m s a t t r ut h c ons t i t ut i ve l y. T h e or e t i c al R e f i n e m e n t s S h ou l d t h e T h e s i s b e U n d e r s t ood L i t e r al l y? T he onl i ne O x f or d E ngl i s h D i c t i onar y l i s t s t he f ol l ow i ng s e ns e s of t he ve r b, t o a i m ( o bs o l e t e a nd c l e a r l y i r r e l e va nt s e ns e s om i t t e d) : 5. T o c a l c ul a t e one s c our s e w i t h a vi e w t o a r r i vi ng ( a t a poi nt ) ; t o di r e c t one s c ou r s e t o m a ke i t one s o b j e c t t o a t t a i n. H e nc e f i g T o ha ve i t a s a n obj e c t t o e nde a vour e a r ne s t l y. b. i nt r A l s o w i t h i nf i ni t i ve : t o i nt e nd; t o a t t e m pt 6. a i nt r T o c a l c ul a t e or e s t i m a t e t he di r e c t i on of a nyt hi ng a bout t o be l a unc he d ( a t a n obj e c t ) ; t o de l i ve r a b l ow o r di s c ha r ge a m i s s i l e ( a t a nyt hi ng) w i t h de s i gn or e nde a vour t o s t r i ke H e nc e f i g. T o t r y t o hi t ga i n, or br i ng i nt o one s p ow e r ; t o ha ve de s i gns upon, t o s e e k t o obt a i n. 7. t r ans T o di r e c t ( a m i s s i l e or bl ow ) ; e s pe c i a l l y, t o di r e c t i t w i t h t he e ye be f or e i t s di s c ha r ge ; t o poi nt o r l e ve l a gun, e t c ( a t ) H e nc e f i g. T o di r e c t a ny a c t o r p r oc e e di ng a ga i ns t A l s o t r ans f 8. abs ol I n bot h t he pr e c e di ng s e ns e s : T o t a ke a i m ; t o f or m de s i gns I n non f i gur a t i ve us e s t he a c t i ve voi c e of t he ve r b, t o a i m a t t r i but e s a n i nt e nt i on t o t he r e f e r e nt of i t s gr a m m a t i c a l s ubj e c t I n f i gur a t i ve us e s s uc h a s O ur t r a ns l a t i on, a i m i ng a t t he s e ns e r e n de r e t h i t e t c ( O E D quot a t i on, l i s t e d unde r 6a ) t he r e f e r e nt of t he gr a m m a t i c a l s ubj e c t o f t o a i m i s r e p r e s e nt e d a s gove r ne d by a n i n t e nt i on. I n s uc h c a s e s t he i nt e nt i on i s not a t t r i but e d di r e c t l y t o r e f e r e nt of t he gr a m m a t i c a l s ubj e c t o f t o a i m but i ndi r e c t l y t o t he a ge nt w hos e

PAGE 49

49 i nt e n t i on gove r ns t he r e f e r e nt of t h i s gr a m m a t i c a l s ubj e c t 2 6 A i m i ng, t he n, s e e m s t o be s ubj e c t t o t he f ol l ow i ng c ondi t i on: N e c e s s a r i l y, f or a n y x i f x i s a i m i ng, t he n x i s e i t h e r a n a ge nt or pur pos i ve w he r e t he r e l e va nt s e ns e of pu r pos i ve e nt a i l s t ha t ( i ) x i s a n e ve nt a nd ( i i ) x i s i nt e nt i ona l unde r s om e de s c r i pt i on. 2 7 S i nc e be l i e f s a r e obvi ous l y no t a ge nt s t he t he s i s t h a t be l i e f a i m s a t t r ut h c ons t i t ut i ve l y e nt a i l s t ha t be l i e f i s pu r pos i ve Y e t gi ve n t ha t be l i e f i s no t a n e ve nt but a s t a t e a nd gi ve n t ha t be l i e f doe s not s e e m t o be i nt e nt i ona l t he t he s i s s e e m s t he r e by t o c om m i t t w o c a t e gor y m i s t a ke s L e t us c ons i de r t he s e t w o i s s ue s i n r e ve r s e or de r C on c e r n t h at b e l i e f i s n ot i n t e n t i on al T he t he s i s t ha t be l i e f a i m s a t t r ut h c ons t i t ut i ve l y e nt a i l s t ha t be l i e f i s ne c e s s a r i l y i nt e nt i ona l T ha t i s i t e nt a i l s t ha t a s a m a t t e r of c onc e pt ua l ne c e s s i t y, e ve r y be l i e f i s ge ne r a t e d ( a nd pr e s um a bl y m a i nt a i ne d) by a n a l e t hi c i nt e nt i on M i ni m a l l y, t hi s i nt e nt i on w oul d be a doxa s t i c a na l ogue of w ha t J ohn S e a r l e c a l l s i nt e nt i ons i n a c t i on. 2 8 U s i ng S e a r l e s no t a t i on ( S e a r l e 2001: 44 45) t he c ont e nt of t hi s a l l e ge d a l e t hi c i nt e nt i on f or t he be l i e f t ha t p w oul d be r e pr e s e nt e d a s f ol l ow s : 2 6 M u t a t i s m u t a n d i s f o r p l u r a l u s e s 2 7 I n O u r t r a n s l a t i o n a i m i n g a t t h e s e n s e ( q u o t e d a b o v e ) t r a n s l a t i o n c a n b e i n t e r p r e t e d a s r e f e r r i n g e i t h e r t o a n a c t i o n o r t o a d o c u m e n t O n t h e l a t t e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a i m i n g s e e m s t o b e u s e d i n a t r a n s f e r r e d s e n s e w h e r e t h e a i m p r o p e r l y a s c r i b a b l e t o t h e a c t i o n i t g o v e r n s i s t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e d o c u m e n t t h a t t h i s a c t i o n p r o d u c e s 2 8 S e a r l e d i s t i n g u i s h e s i n t e n t i o n s i n a c t i o n f r o m p r i o r i n t e n t i o n s W h i l e p r i o r i n t e n t i o n s h a v e a p r o p o s i t i o n a l c o n t e n t t h e c o n t e n t o f a n i n t e n t i o n i n a c t i o n d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e s t h e e v e n t t y p e t h a t t h e i n t e n t i o n i s t o c a u s e S e a r l e o f f e r s t h e f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e d i s t i n c t i o n : [ S ] u p p o s e t h a t i n a m e e t i n g I w a n t t o v o t e f o r t h e m o t i o n b y r a i s i n g m y r i g h t a r m I t h u s f o r m t h e p r i o r i n t e n t i o n t h a t I r a i s e m y a r m T h e i n t e n t i o n a l c o n t e n t o f t h e p r i o r i n t e n t i o n t o r a i s e m y a r m c a n b e r e p r e s e n t e d a s f o l l o w s : p i ( t h a t I r a i s e m y a r m a n d t h a t t h i s p i c a u s e s t h a t I r a i s e m y a r m ) T h e p r i o r i n t e n t i o n h a s t o b e d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m w h a t I c a l l t h e i n t e n t i o n i n a c t i o n T h e i n t e n t i o n i n a c t i o n i s t h e i n t e n t i o n I h a v e w h i l e I a m a c t u a l l y p e r f o r m i n g a n a c t i o n T h u s i n t h i s c a s e w h e n t h e m o m e n t t o v o t e c o m e s a n d t h e c h a i r s a y s A l l t h o s e i n f a v o r r a i s e y o u r a r m I w i l l a c t o n m y p r i o r i n t e n t i o n a n d t h u s h a v e a n d i n t e n t i o n i n a c t i o n w h o s e c o n d i t i o n s o f s a t i s f a c t i o n a r e t h a t t h a t v e r y i n t e n t i o n i n a c t i o n s h o u l d c a u s e t h e b o d i l y m o v e m e n t s o f m y a r m g o i n g u p W e c a n r e p r e s e n t t h a t a s f o l l o w s : i a ( m y a r m g o e s u p a n d t h i s a i c a u s e s t h a t m y a r m g o e s u p ) O f c o u r s e n o t a l l a c t i o n s a r e p r e m e d i t a t e d M a n y o f t h e t h i n g s I d o I d o q u i t e s p o n t a n e o u s l y I n s u c h a c a s e I h a v e a n i n t e n t i o n i n a c t i o n b u t n o p r i o r i n t e n t i o n ( I b i d ; i t a l i c s i n t h e o r i g i n a l )

PAGE 50

50 ( 1) a i ( I be l i e ve t ha t p onl y i f p a nd t ha t t hi s a i c a us e s t ha t I be l i e ve t ha t p on l y i f p ) T hi s t he or e t i c a l c om m i t m e nt f l i e s i n t he f a c e s of i n t r os pe c t i on a nd of a f a i r l y w i de phi l os ophi c a l c ons e ns u s t ha t be l i e vi ng i s not vol unt a r y. 2 9 I nt r os pe c t i on of f e r s no e vi de nc e t ha t t he r e e xi s t a n y s uc h a l e t hi c i nt e nt i ons i n f a c t t he i m m e di a t e e t i ol ogy of m y be l i e f s doe s not t yp i c a l l y s e e m t o i nc l ude a ny i nt e nt i ons t o be l i e ve a t a l l I m a y a t t i m e s ha ve a n i nt e nt i on t o f or m a be l i e f c onc e r ni ng a gi ve n s ubj e c t m a t t e r s a y, w he t he r p N ot e how e ve r t ha t m y i nt e nt i on i n t hi s c a s e w oul d ha ve a c ont e nt of a di f f e r e nt f or m t ha n ( 1) a bove na m e l y, ( 2) p. i ( t ha t I f or m a be l i e f a s t o w he t he r p a nd t ha t t hi s p. i c a us e s t ha t I f o r m a be l i e f a s t o w he t he r p ) M y i nt e nt i on t o f or m a be l i e f a s t o w he t he r p m i gh t c a us e m e t o e nga ge i n a va r i e t y of a c t i vi t i e s s uc h a s ga t he r i ng e vi de nc e r e f l e c t i ng on i t e t c S houl d I e ve nt ua l l y f or m a be l i e f a s t o w he t he r p s a y, t he be l i e f t ha t p m y i nt e nt i on t o f o r m a be l i e f a s t o w he t he r p a nd r e s ul t a nt a c t i vi t i e s w oul d be l ong t o t he di s t a l e t i ol ogy of m y be l i e f t h a t p Y e t m y be l i e f t ha t p i t s e l f doe s not s e e m t o be c a us e d by a n a ddi t i ona l i nt e nt i on t o be l i e ve t ha t p onl y i f p O nc e I a m f a c e d w i t h t he r e l e va nt e vi de nc e m y be l i e f t ha t p s e e m s s i m pl y t o oc c ur a s a r e s pons e t o ove r w he l m i ng e v i de nc e t ha t p ( o r t o a pr e ponde r a nc e o f e vi de nc e t ha t p ) no a ddi t i ona l i nt e nt i on s e e m s i nvol ve d, a nd none s e e m s ne e de d. W i l l i a m s a r gue s t ha t a s a m a t t e r o f c onc e pt ua l ne c e s s i t y, be l i e f c a nnot be vol un t a r y. I nt e r e s t i ngl y, W i l l i a m s m a i n r e a s on f o r e ndor s i ng t h i s pos i t i on i s t ha t be l i e f a i m s a t t r ut h H e w r i t e s : O ne r e a s on [ I c a nnot a c qui r e a be l i e f a t w i l l ] i s c o nne c t e d w i t h t he c ha r a c t e r i s t i c o f be l i e f s t ha t t he y a i m a t t r u t h. I f I c oul d a c qui r e a be l i e f a t w i l l I c oul d a c qui r e i t w he t he r i t w a s t r ue or not W i t h r e ga r d t o no be l i e f c oul d I kno w or i f t hi s i s t o be done i n f ul l c o n2 9 T h i s v i e w i n n o t u n c h a l l e n g e d ; s e e e g F u n k h o u s e r 2 0 0 3 q u o t e d a b o v e

PAGE 51

51 s c i ous ne s s e ve n s us pe c t t ha t I ha d a c qui r e d i t a t w i l l B ut i f I c a n a c qui r e be l i e f s a t w i l l I m us t know I a m a bl e t o do t hi s ; a nd c oul d I know t ha t I w a s c a pa bl e of t h i s f e a t i f w i t h r e ga r d t o e ve r y f e a t of t h i s ki nd I ha d pe r f or m e d I ne c e s s a r i l y ha d t o be l i e ve t ha t i t ha d not t a ke n pl a c e ? ( W i l l i a m s 1973: 148 ) T he r e l e v a nt s e ns e of vol unt a r y i m pl i c i t i n W i l l i a m s a r gum e nt a nd e xpl i c i t i n J ona t ha n B e nne t t s c r i t i que of i t i s i m m e di a t e l y r e s pons i ve t o pr a c t i c a l r e a s ons ( B e nne t t 1990: 90 ) W hi l e f i ndi ng doxa s t i c i nvo l unt a r i s m i nt ui t i ve l y c om pe l l i ng, B e nne t t p r oduc e s a c ount e r e xa m pl e t o W i l l i a m s c l a i m t ha t one c oul d not know t ha t s he ha s t he c a pa c i t y t o a c qui r e be l i e f s a t w i l l a nd r e ga r d t he s t a t e s s he a c qui r e d by e xe r c i s i ng t hi s c a pa c i t y a s be l i e f s S o l ong a s s he doe s not know of a ny pa r t i c ul a r s t a t e t ha t s he a c qui r e d i t by e xe r c i s i ng t hi s c a pa c i t y, B e nne t t a r gue s i t i s pe r f e c t l y pos s i bl e f or he r t o know t ha t s he ha s t hi s c a pa c i t y a nd t o r e ga r d t he s t a t e s s he a c qui r e d by e xe r c i s i ng t hi s c a pa c i t y a s be l i e f s A l t hough B e nne t t ha d or i gi na l l y s e t out t o e s t a bl i s h t he t r ut h of doxa s t i c i nvol unt a r i s m i n W hy I s B e l i e f I nvol u n t a r y? t he e s s a y i s e xpl i c i t l y of f e r e d a s a n i ns t r uc t i ve c hr oni c l e o f hi s f a i l ur e L i ke W i l l i a m s P a m e l a H i e r onym i be l i e ve s t ha t do xa s t i c i nvol unt a r i s m i s a c ons e que nc e of t he c ons t i t ut i ve a l e t hi c a i m o f be l i e f a nd o f f e r s a c onvi nc i ng a r gum e nt f or W i l l i a m s c onc l us i on. H i e r onym i hol ds t ha t be l i e f i s pa r t l y c om m i t m e nt c ons t i t ut e d ; t ha t i s s he hol ds t ha t you be l i e ve p j us t i n c a s e you t a ke p t o be t r ue i n a w a y t ha t l e a ve s you a ns w e r a bl e t o c e r t a i n que s t i ons a nd c r i t i c i s m s na m e l y, t hos e t ha t c om e w i t h be l i e vi ng p ( H i e r onym i 2006: 50 ) S he i nvoke s a di s t i nc t i on be t w e e n c ont e nt r e l a t e d r e a s ons f or be l i e f s ( i e r e a s ons t ha t c ount i n f a vor of b e l i e vi ng t ha t p by s how i ng t ha t p i s t r ue ) a nd a t t i t u de r e l a t e d r e a s ons f or be l i e f ( i e r e a s ons t ha t c ount i n f a vo r of be l i e vi ng t ha t p by s how i ng t ha t t he be l i e f t ha t p i s a good a t t i t ude t o ha ve ) S i nc e c ont e nt r e l a t e d r e a s ons f or be l i e f s uppor t t he c om m i t m e nt c ons t i t ut i ve o f be l i e f s he c a l l s t he m c o ns t i t ut i ve r e a s ons f or be l i e f A ny non c ons t i t ut i ve r e a s ons f or be l i e f s he c a l l s

PAGE 52

52 e xt r i n s i c O n t h i s nom e nc l a t ur e t he que s t i on t h a t i nt e r e s t e d W i l l i a m s a nd B e nne t t i s C a n one b e l i e ve i m m e di a t e l y ( i e w i t hout a c t i ng on one s e l f ) f or e xt r i ns i c r e a s on s ? H i e r onym i di s t i ngui s he s t w o t ype s of c ont r ol w e m i ght e xe r c i s e ove r ou r be l i e f s na m e l y, m a na ge r i a l c ont r ol a nd e va l ua t i ve c ont r o l M a na ge r i a l c ont r ol ove r be l i e f i s a na l ogous t o t he c ont r ol w e ha ve ove r o r di na r y ob j e c t s a s w e m a ni pul a t e t he m s o t ha t t he y a c c or d w i t h our pur pos e s E va l ua t i ve c ont r ol ove r be l i e f by c ont r a s t i s e xe r c i s e d by e va l ua t i ng w ha t i s t r ue S he not e s t ha t unl i ke m a na ge r i a l c ont r ol e va l ua t i ve c ont r ol i s i m m e di a t e : E ve n i n c a s e s of ba s i c a c t i on, s uc h a s r a i s i ng your r i ght ha nd, t he r e r e m a i ns a c onc e pt ua l di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n de c i di ng t o a c t ( i nt e ndi ng) a nd a c t i ng I n c ont r a s t t he r e a r e no po s s i bl e c a s e s i n w hi c h you a ns w e r pos i t i ve l y t he que s t i on w he t he r p but a r e p r e ve nt e d f r o m be l i e vi ng p I n a ns w e r i ng t he que s t i on pos i t i ve l y one ha s a l r e a dy, t he r e i n be l i e ve d. T he i m m e di a c y of e va l ua t i ve c ont r ol i s t hus not t e m po r a l or c a us a l but r a t he r a c ons e que nc e of t he c ons t i t ut i ve r e l a t i on be t w e e n t he c om m i t m e nt t o p a s t r ue a nd t he be l i e f S i nc e w e b e l i e ve p i ns o f a r a s w e a r e c om m i t t e d t o p a s t r ue w he n w e t a ke p t o be t r ue i n t he r e l e va nt w a y, our be l i e f s t he r e i n c ha nge ( I bi d : 53 54) H i e r oni m y de ni e s on t he f ol l ow i ng gr ounds t ha t on e c a n be l i e ve t ha t p f or e xt r i ns i c r e a s ons by a n e xe r c i s e of e va l u a t i ve c ont r ol : S i nc e one e va l ua t i ve l y c ont r ol s a be l i e f t ha t p by a ns w e r i ng t he que s t i on of w he t he r p a nd s i nc e e xt r i ns i c r e a s ons a r e t hos e r e a s ons t ha t a r e n ot t a ke n t o be a r on t he que s t i on of w he t he r p one c a nnot e va l ua t i ve l y c ont r ol a be l i e f t ha t p i n r e s pons e t o e xt r i ns i c r e a s ons ( I bi d : 59 60) S i nc e a ny ot he r t ype of c ont r ol ove r one s be l i e f m us t be m e di a t e d by a n i nt e nt i on, H i e r onym i c onc l ude s t ha t one c a nnot be l i e ve i m m e di a t e l y f or e xt r i ns i c r e a s ons H i e r onym i hol ds t ha t l i ke be l i e f i nt e nt i on i s pa r t l y c om m i t m e nt c ons t i t ut e d a nd a c c or di ngl y, f i nds t ha t be l i e f a nd i nt e nt i on a r e a na l ogous i n t he f ol l ow i ng r e s pe c t s : [ N ] ot i c e t ha t w e c a n dr a w t he s a m e t w o di s t i nc t i on s i n r e a s ons f or i nt e ndi ng t ha t w e ha ve dr a w n i n r e a s ons f or be l i e vi ng. W e c a n di s t i ngui s h, f i r s t be t w e e n c o nt e nt r e l a t e d r e a s ons ( w hi c h be a r on t he que s t i on o f w he t he r t o ) a nd a t t i t ude r e l a t e d r e a s ons ( w hi c h be a r on t he que s t i on of w he t he r i t w oul d be good us e f ul d e s i r a bl e a p pr opr i a t e or i m por t a nt i n s om e w a y t o i nt e nd t o ) A s w i t h be l i e f t he c ont e nt r e l a t e d r e a s ons f or a n i nt e nt i on s u ppor t t he c om m i t m e nt t ha t c ons t i t ut e s i t W e c a n c a l l t he s e t he c ons t i t ut i ve r e a s ons f or i n

PAGE 53

53 t e ndi ng. B y t a ki n g t he m t o s e t t l e t he qu e s t i on of w he t he r t o y ou w i l l t he r e i n i n t e nd t o O ne e va l ua t i ve l y c ont r ol s a n i n t e nt i on t o by a ns w e r i ng f or one s e l f ( how e ve r i m p l i c i t l y) t he que s t i on of w he t he r t o ( I bi d : 56 57 ) H i e r onym i s pl a us i bl e c ha r a c t e r i z a t i on of be l i e f a nd i nt e nt i on s ugge s t s a n a r gum e nt s how i ng t ha t no a l e t hi c i nt e nt i on of t he s or t r e pr e s e nt e d i n ( 1 ) a bov e c oul d ge ne r a t e t he be l i e f t ha t p i n t he a bs e nc e t he be l i e f t ha t p A c c or di ng l y, a ny a c c ount t ha t a ppe a l s t o s uc h a l e t hi c i nt e nt i ons t o e x pl a i n t he a l e t hi c c ha r a c t e r o f be l i e f i s vi c i ous l y c i r c ul a r O n m os t a c c ount s a c ons t i t ut i ve r e a s on c a pa bl e of s e t t l i ng t he e va l ua t i ve que s t i on o f w he t he r t o i e a t ot a l c ons t i t ut i ve r e a s on 3 0 t o c ons i s t s of a de s i r e t o $ ( w he r e de s i r e i s unde r s t ood br oa dl y a s a p r o a t t i t ude t ow a r d $ i ng ) c oupl e d w i t h t he be l i e f t ha t i ng i s t he be s t m e a ns of s a t i s f yi ng $ F or t he i nt e nt i on i n a c t i on a l l e ge d t o ge ne r a t e / s us t a i n t he be l i e f t ha t p i e t he i n t e nt i on t o be l i e ve t ha t p onl y i f p a t ot a l c ons t i t ut i ve r e a s on t o be l i e ve t ha t p onl y i f p w oul d c ons i s t of s om e de s i r e c oupl e d w i t h t he b e l i e f t ha t be l i e vi ng t ha t p onl y i f p i s t he be s t m e a ns of s a t i s f yi ng t hi s de s i r e N ow w ha t c oul d be t he c ont e nt of t hi s de s i r e ? T he r e i s onl y one c a ndi da t e t ha t a c c or ds w i t h t he s pi r i t of t he t he s i s t ha t be l i e f a i m s a t t r ut h na m e l y t o ha ve a t r ue be l i e f a s t o w he t he r p A c c or di ngl y t he m e a ns e nd be l i e f i nvol ve d i s t he be l i e f t ha t be l i e vi ng t ha t p onl y i f p i s t he be s t m e a ns of s a t i s f yi ng t he de s i r e t o ha ve a t r ue be l i e f a s t o w he t he r p A l t hough t hi s r e s ul t m i ght s e e m i nnoc uous a t f i r s t bl us h, t he i l l us i on of ha r m l e s s ne s s i s di s pe l l e d onc e one r e a l i z e s t ha t t he a l l e ge d i nt e nt i o n i n a c t i on t o be l i e ve t ha t p onl y i f p i s m ot i va t i ona l l y i ne r t on i t s ow n I t c a n m ove one t o be l i e ve t ha t p w he n p on l y onc e t he que s t i on a s t o w he t he r p i s s e t t l e d. B ut t o s e t t l e t he que s t i o n a s t o w he t h e r p i t s e e m s i s a l r e a dy t o be l i e ve t ha t p ( a s H i e r onym y pl a us i bl y s t r e s s e s i n t he f i r s t i nde nt e d quot e a bove ) P ut a not he r w a y, t he pr o b l e m i s t ha t t he de s i r e t o ha ve a t r ue b e l i e f a s t o w he t he r p c oupl e d w i t h t he m e a ns 3 0 I a m b o r r o w i n g t h e t e r m t o t a l r e a s o n f r o m S e a r l e ( 2 0 0 1 : 1 1 5 f f ) R e a s o n i s u s e d i n a n i n t e r n a l s e n s e h e r e a s t h a t w h i c h n o t o n l y r a t i o n a l i z e s b u t a l s o c a u s a l l y e x p l a i n s i n t e n t i o n a n d a c t i o n

PAGE 54

54 e nd be l i e f t ha t be l i e vi ng t ha t p onl y i f p i s t he be s t m e a ns of s a t i s f yi ng t hi s de s i r e c a nnot m ove one t o be l i e ve t ha t p w he n p unl e s s i t i s c onj oi ne d w i t h t he be l i e f t ha t p ( a s s um i ng t he s t a nda r d a c c ount of i n t e nt i on/ a c t i on e xpl a na t i on) O ne m i g ht a ns w e r t ha t m ot i va t i ona l e f f i c a c y f o r t he i nt e nt i on t o be l i e ve t ha t p onl y i f p doe s not r e qui r e t he be l i e f t ha t p but m e r e l y, e g a pe r c e pt i on a s of p T h i s r e s pons e doe s s e e m a va i l a bl e t o t he pr opone nt o f a l e t hi c i n t e nt i ons t o be l i e ve H ow e ve r i t i s l i a bl e t o t w o obj e c t i ons F i r s t s i nc e t he a l l e ge d i nt e nt i on i s t o be l i e ve t ha t p onl y i f p not t o be l i e ve t ha t p on l y i f i t a ppe a r s t o one a s i f p m ot i va t i ona l e f f i c a c y f or t he a l l e ge d i nt e nt i on r e qui r e s t ha t e g. t he pe r c e pt i on a s of p be t a ke n a s ve r i di c a l M or e ge ne r a l l y i t r e qu i r e s t ha t t he que s t i on a s t o w he t he r p be s e t t l e d T ha t i s i t r e qui r e s be l i e f t ha t p ( t hough t he be l i e f t ha t p ne e d not be r e f l e c t e d o r e ve n c ons c i ou s ) I f be l i e vi ng t ha t p r e qui r e s t he i nt e nt i on i n a c t i on t o be l i e ve t ha t p onl y i f p t he n t he r e a r i s e s a vi c i ous ps yc ho c a us a l c i r c l e 3 1 3 2 A c c or d i ngl y, be l i e vi ng t ha t p c a n r e qui r e no s uc h i nt e nt i ons Y e t t he f i r s t obj e c t i on m i ght be t hought t o be g t he que s t i on a ga i ns t t he pr opone nt of a l e t hi c i nt e nt i ons t o be l i e ve w hy s houl dn t t he i nt e nt i on t o be l i e ve t ha t p onl y i f p be m ot i va t e d by t he de s i r e t o ha ve a t r ue be l i e f a s t o w he t he r p t oge t he r w i t h a pe r c e p t i on a s of p ? T he s e c ond obj e c t i on a ns w e r s t hi s que s t i on: be c a us e t hi s r e qui r e s r e j e c t i ng t he s t a nda r d a c c oun t of i n t e nt i on/ a c t i on e xpl a na t i on, w hi c h i s hi ghl y pl a us i bl e on i nde pe nde nt g r ounds 3 1 T h e v i e w t h a t b e l i e f i s n e c e s s a r i l y c a u s e d / s u s t a i n e d b y a n a l e t h i c i n t e n t i o n a l s o t h r e a t e n s t o g e n e r a t e a n i n f i n i t e r e g r e s s o n t h e s t a n d a r d a c c o u n t o f i n t e n t i o n / a c t i o n e x p l a n a t i o n s i n c e t h e m e a n s e n d b e l i e f u n d e r w r i t i n g t h e a l e t h i c i n t e n t i o n w o u l d r e q u i r e a f u r t h e r a l e t h i c i n t e n t i o n 3 2 T o t a l c o n s t i t u t i v e r e a s o n s f o r s o m e i n t e n t i o n s i n a c t i o n m i g h t n o t c o n s i s t o f a d e s i r e t o g e t h e r w i t h a m e a n s e n d b e l i e f b u t o f a d e s i r e w h i c h m i g h t b e n o n p r o p o s i t i o n a l t o g e t h e r w i t h a n o n p r o p o s i t i o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f h o w b e s t t o s a t i s f y t h i s d e s i r e i n o n e s c i r c u m s t a n c e s ( w h e r e t h e r e c o g n i t i o n i s m a d e p o s s i b l e b y a n o n p r o p o s i t i o n a l k n o w h o w t h a t t h e a g e n t p o s s e s s e s ) S u c h s e e m s t o b e t h e c a s e w h e n w e e n g a g e i n b e h a v i o r t h a t i s c l e a r l y i n t e n t i o n a l s u c h a s a r i d i n g b i c y c l e w h i l e n o t p o s s e s s i n g t h e c o n c e p t u a l a p p a r a t u s t h a t w o u l d b e r e q u i r e d t o f o r m u l a t e t h e r e l e v a n t m e a n s e n d b e l i e f s e v e n i m p l i c i t l y C o n c e i v i n g a l e t h i c i n t e n t i o n s i n a c t i o n a l o n g t h i s m o d e l i s u n l i k e l y t o p r o v i d e a n a v e n u e o f e s c a p e t o t h e a l t h i c i n t e n t i o n s t h e o r i s t I n d e e d g i v e n t h e t h e o r e t i c a l w o r k s u c h a l e t h i c i n t e n t i o n s a r e c a l l e d t o p l a y t h e o n l y d e s i r e t h a t c o u l d p l a u s i b l y b e i n v o l v e d i n a t o t a l c o n s t i t u t i v e r e a s o n f o r t h e i n t e n t i o n i n a c t i o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t p o n l y i f p i s t h e d e s i r e t o h a v e a t r u e b e l i e f a s t o w h e t h e r p E v e n i f t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e i n t e n t i o n i n a c t i o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t p o n l y i f p i n v o l v e d a n e x e r c i s e o f a b e l i e f f o r m i n g k n o w h o w t h e r e s u l t i n g i n t e n t i o n i n a c t i o n w o u l d b e p o w e r l e s s t o m o t i v a t e t h e b e l i e f t h a t p w h e n p u n l e s s i t w a s a c c o m p a n i e d b y a r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t p B u t a r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t p i t s e e m s i s a l r e a d y a b e l i e f t h a t p I s h o u l d n o t e h o w e v e r t h a t n o r e g r e s s t h r e a t e n s o n t h i s m o d e l o f a l e t h i c i n t e n t i o n s i n a c t i o n s

PAGE 55

55 F or t he s e r e a s ons t he t he s i s t ha t be l i e f a i m s a t t r ut h s houl d not be unde r s t ood l i t e r a l l y a s e nt a i l i ng t ha t be l i e f i s ne c e s s a r i l y pur pos i ve I ns t e a d, I pr opos e t o i nt e r pr e t t he t he s i s a s c l a i m i ng t ha t be l i e f i s ne c e s s a r i l y gove r ne d by t r ut h a s a r e g ul a t i ng pr i nc i pl e ( i e ne c e s s a r i l y go v e r ne d by t he nor m o f t r ut h) F ur t he r bor r ow i ng H i e r onym i s e xpr e s s i on, I pr opos e t o i nt e r p r e t t he t he s i s a s c l a i m i ng t ha t be l i e f i s c om m i t m e nt c ons t i t ut e d r e l a t i ve t o t he t r ut h o f i t s c ont e nt j us t a s a c t i on i s c om m i t m e nt c ons t i t ut e d r e l a t i ve t o t he i nt e nt i on t ha t gove r ns i t T ha t i s a s I a r gue d e a r l i e r t o de s c r i be a n a c t i on i n t e r m s of t he i nt e nt i on unde r w hi c h i t w a s unde r t a ke n i ps o f ac t o c a s t s t hi s a c t i on a nd t he a ge nt w ho unde r t ook i t a s e va l ua bl e a l ong t he di m e ns i ons of s uc c e s s a nd pe r f or m a nc e r e l a t i ve t o t ha t i nt e nt i on, a t l e a s t pr i m a f ac i e 3 3 L i ke w i s e t o de s c r i be s om e t hi ng a s a be l i e f t ha t p i ps o f ac t o c a s t s t hi s be l i e f a nd t he pe r s on w h o ha s t hi s be l i e f a s e va l ua bl e a l ong t he di m e n s i ons of s uc c e s s a nd pe r f or m a nc e r e l a t i ve t o p H ow e ve r a l t hough t he s t r uc t u r e s of be l i e f a nd a c t i on a r e a na l ogous i n t he s e r e s pe c t s t he y a r e r a di c a l l y di f f e r e nt i n t he f ol l ow i ng r e s pe c t : I nt e nt i on ha s a w or l d t o m i nd di r e c t i on of f i t A c c or di ngl y, t he c om m i t m e nt c ons t i t ut e d by i nt e n t i on f or a c t i on i s u l t i m a t e l y g r ounde d i n t he m i nd ( i e i n t he a ge nt s de s i r e s t oge t he r w i t h he r be l i e f s a s t o how t o s a t i s f y t he m ) H e nc e c ons t i t ut i ve r e a s ons f or i nt e nt i on ( a nd, s o, f o r a c t i on) a r e de s i r e s c oupl e d w i t h c or r e s pondi ng m e a ns e nd be l i e f s B y c ont r a s t t he pr i nc i pl e gove r ni ng be l i e f ha s a m i nd t o w or d d i r e c t i on o f f i t A s s uc h, t he n, t he p r i nc i pl e gove r ni ng be l i e f i s not a n i nt e nt i on a nd t he c om m i t m e nt i t c o ns t i t ut e s f or be l i e f i s not g r ou nde d i n t he m i nd, but i n t he w or l d H e nc e c ons t i t ut i ve r e a s ons f or be l i e f do no t i nvol ve de s i r e s but a r e r e a s ons f or t hi nki ng t ha t t he c ont e nt of t he be l i e f i s t r ue I n T he P os s i bi l i t y of P r ac t i c al R e as on J D a vi d V e l l e m a n pr opos e s t ha t t he c l a i m t ha t b e l i e f a i m s a t t r ut h s houl d be e xpl i c a t e d a s f ol l ow s : 3 3 T h i s o f c o u r s e d o e s n o t e n t a i l t h a t a n a c t i o n t h a t c a r r i e s o u t i t s i n t e n t i o n s u c c e s s f u l l y a n d w e l l i s t h e r e b y r a t i o n a l

PAGE 56

56 B e l i e f i s t he a t t i t ude o f a c c e pt i ng a pr opos i t i on w i t h t he a i m o f t he r e by a c c e pt i ng a t r ut h A n a c c e pt a nc e ha s t he a i m of be i ng t he a c c e pt a nc e of a t r ut h w he n i t i s r e gul a t e d, e i t he r by t he s ubj e c t s i nt e nt i ons or by s om e ot he r m e c ha ni s m s i n w a ys de s i gne d t o e ns ur e t ha t i t i s t r ue ( V e l l e m a n 2000: 252 54) V e l l e m a n s t he s i s s t r i ke s m e a s unhe l pf ul a t be s t a nd i m pl a us i bl e a t w or s t I ha ve a r gue d a l r e a dy t ha t a ny a t t e m pt t o e xpl i c a t e t he a l e t hi c c ha r a c t e r i s t i c s of be l i e f i n t e r m s of a n a l e t hi c i nt e nt i on l e a ds t o vi c i ous c i r c ul a r i t y F ur t he r I a m s us pi c i ous of V e l l e m a n s us e of t he not i ons o f a c c e p t i ng a pr opos i t i on a nd of de s i gn, a s t he y a r e no c l e a r e r t ha n t he not i on t he y a r e m e a nt t o e l u c i da t e na m e l y t he not i on t ha t be l i e f ( or be l i e vi ng ) a i m s a t t r ut h c ons t i t ut i ve l y, a nd a s t he y s e e m t o ha ve c onc e pt ua l c om m i t m e nt s t ha t be l i e f ( or be l i e vi ng) doe s n t ha ve A c c e pt i ng a pr opos i t i on s e e m s t o r e qui r e hi ghe r c o gni t i ve pow e r s t ha n be l i e vi ng T ha t i nf a nt s a nd s om e a ni m a l s a r e c a pa bl e of f or m i ng r ud i m e nt a r y be l i e f s i s pr i m a f ac i e pl a us i bl e B ut i t i s f a r l e s s pl a us i bl e t ha t t he y a r e c a pa bl e of a c c e pt i ng pr opos i t i ons U nl i ke be l i e vi ng, i t s e e m s a c c e pt i ng a pr opos i t i on i s s ubj e c t t o vol unt a r y c ont r ol F o r t hi s r e a s on, unl i ke be l i e vi ng a c c e p t i ng a pr opos i t i on s e e m s t o r e qui r e t he c a pa c i t y t o r e f l e c t on t he c ont e nt of one s pr os pe c t i ve a c c e pt a nc e O f c our s e V e l l e m a n m i ght be us i ng a c c e pt a nc e a s a t e r m of a r t t ha t i s de voi d o f t he c om m i t m e nt s t he t e r m ha s i n c om m on pa r l a nc e I f s o, unt i l a c l e a r de f i ni t i on i s of f e r e d, t he t e r m i s r a t he r unhe l pf ul I f V e l l e m a n ha s t he c om m on s e ns e not i on of a c c e pt a nc e i n m i nd h i s a c c ount i s i m pl a us i bl e T he not i on of de s i gn, t oo, i s t r oubl e s om e f or t he f o l l ow i ng r e a s on ( a l t hough t he di s a gr e e m e nt he r e m i ght not be e s pe c i a l l y de e p) S uppos e I un r e f l e c t i ve l y f o r m a n or di na r y pe r c e pt ua l be l i e f i n t he or di na r y w a y. N ow s uppos e t he r e i s a w or l d t ha t i s now a n e xa c t dupl i c a t e of t hi s w or l d but t ha t s pont a ne ous l y s pr a ng i nt o be i ng a f e w m i nut e s a go. I n t hi s c a s e t he m e c ha ni s m s t ha t r e gul a t e t he a c qui s i t i on of m y dupl i c a t e s pe r c e pt ua l be l i e f w e r e c l e a r l y not de s i gne d t o e n s ur e t ha t i t i s t r ue Y e t m y dupl i c a t e s s t a t e i s ne ve r t he l e s s pl a us i bl y a s t a t e of be l i e f O f

PAGE 57

57 c our s e s i nc e V e l l e m a n m e r e l y o f f e r s t he d i s j unc t i on a s a s uf f i c i e nt c ondi t i on f o r a n a c c e pt a nc e t o ha ve t he a i m of be i ng a n a c c e p t a nc e of a t r ut h t hi s c a s e doe s not pr ovi de a c ount e r e xa m pl e t o hi s a c c ount Y e t t hi s c a s e put s pr e s s ur e on V e l l e m a n s a c c ount by c a s t i ng doubt on t he c l a i m t ha t i n t he a c t ua l w or l d, m y a c c e pt a nc e ha s t he a i m of be i ng a n a c c e p t a nc e of a t r ut h i n vi r t ue o f be i ng r e gul a t e d by m e c h a ni s m s de s i gne d t o e ns ur e t ha t m y a c c e pt a nc e i s a n a c c e pt a nc e of a t r ut h. U nl i ke V e l l e m a n, t he n I do no t i de nt i f y be l i e vi ng w i t h a c c e pt i ng a pr opos i t i on o r t he a t t i t ude of be l i e f w i t h t he a t t i t ude of ha vi ng a c c e pt e d a pr opos i t i on, w i t h t he a i m of t he r e by a c c e p t i ng a t r u t h. I ns t e a d, I pr opos e t o unde r s t a nd be l i e vi ng a s a t ype o f m e nt a l e ve nt i ndi vi d u a t e d by i t s f unc t i on i n ge ne r a t i ng/ s us t a i ni ng be l i e f a nd be l i e f a s a t ype o f m e nt a l s t a t e i ndi vi d u a t e d by i t s f unc t i on i n s a nc t i oni ng a nd pr e s e r vi ng i n f or m a t i on a s s uc h i n c onc e pt ua l i z e d f or m 3 4 ( I w i l l c a l l t he s e f unc t i ons t he pr ope r c ogni t i ve f unc t i ons o f be l i e v i ng a nd be l i e f r e s pe c t i ve l y) 3 5 3 6 F u r t he r I pr opos e t ha t be l i e vi ng i s gove r ne d by t h e nor m o f t r ut h i n vi r t ue of i t s pr ope r f unc t i on a nd i n vi r t ue of t he pr ope r f unc t i on of be l i e f T he s e pr opos a l s w i l l be f l e s he d out i n t he ne xt t w o c ha pt e r s F i na l l y I c onf e s s t o ha vi ng no i de a how t o a ns w e r t he que s t i on, W ha t a r e t he ne c e s s a r y a nd s uf f i c i e nt c ondi t i ons f or a n e ve nt o r a s t a t e t o ha ve s uc h f unc t i ons ? B ut i t i s not e nt i r e l y c l e a r t o m e t ha t m uc h w oul d be ga i ne d f or m y pur pos e s he r e I w e r e a bl e t o o f f e r s uc h ne c e s s a r y a nd s uf f i c i e nt c ondi t i ons C on c e r n t h at b e l i e f i s n ot an e ve n t b u t a s t a t e I s t a t e d a bove t ha t t he t he s i s t ha t be l i e f a i m s a t t r ut h c ons t i t ut i ve l y s houl d be unde r s t ood a s c l a i m i ng t ha t t ha t b e l i e f i s ne c e s s a r i l y gove r ne d by t r ut h a s a r e gul a t i ng pr i nc i pl e Y e t i t c l e a r l y 3 4 W h a t i s m e a n t b y c o n c e p t u a l i z e d f o r m w i l l b e c l a r i f i e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r 3 5 B e l i e v i n g s / b e l i e f s w i t h p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e n t s a s t y p e s a n d a s t o k e n s i n v o l v e f u r t h e r i n d i v i d u a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s 3 6 A d i s p o s i t i o n a l b e l i e f w o u l d b e o n e t h a t t h e b e l i e v e r w o u l d b e d i s p o s e d t o b e l i e v e i m m e d i a t e l y w e r e t h e i s s u e t o a r i s e

PAGE 58

58 m a ke s ve r y l i t t l e s e ns e t o s a y t ha t a s t a t e e m bodi e s a pr i nc i pl e t ha t gove r ns i t s i nc e a s t a t e a s s uc h, i s not a m e na bl e t o c ha nge T he s pe c i f i c a t i on of be l i e f a s a s t a t e t he n, s e e m s i nc om pa t i bl e w i t h t he c l a i m t ha t be l i e f a i m s a t t r ut h. H ow s houl d w e r e s pond t o t hi s pr obl e m ? I n m y v i e w w e s houl d s a y t ha t w ha t a i m s a t t r ut h c ons t i t ut i ve l y ( i n t he non l i t e r a l s e ns e pr opos e d a bove ) i s not be l i e f i t s e l f but be l i e vi ng, i e t he e ve nt o f f or m i ng or m a i nt a i ni ng a be l i e f O n t hi s i n t e r pr e t a t i on be l i e f i t s e l f c a nnot a s a m a t t e r o f c onc e pt ua l ne c e s s i t y, a i m a t a n y t hi ng or be gove r ne d by a nyt hi ng. W he n w e s a y t ha t be l i e f a i m s a t t r ut h c ons t i t ut i ve l y w e s pe a k l oos e l y, a s w e do w he n w e s a y, poi nt i ng a t a da r t t ha t j us t hi t t he bul l s e ye N i c e s hot T he da r t pr ot r ud i ng f r om t he boa r d i s t he out c om e of a ni c e s hot not a ni c e s hot L i ke w i s e be l i e f a s s uc h, i s not gove r ne d by t he nor m of t r ut h; i t i s t he out c om e o f a n e ve nt go v e r ne d by t he nor m o f t r ut h. T he t he s i s r e q ui r e s a f ur t he r c l a r i f i c a t i on I a r gue d e a r l i e r t ha t t he e va l ua bi l i t y of be l i e f a l ong t he di m e ns i ons of pe r f or m a nc e a nd s uc c e s s i s gr ounde d i n t r ut h a s t he c om m i t m e nt c ons t i t ut i ng pr i nc i pl e gove r n i ng be l i e f N ow t ha t I ha ve c onc l ude d t ha t t hi s pr i nc i pl e gove r ns not be l i e f but be l i e vi ng I ha ve c om m i t t e d m ys e l f t o hol di ng t ha t e va l ua bi l i t y a l ong t he di m e n s i ons of bot h pe r f or m a nc e a nd s uc c e s s pr ope r l y be l ongs onl y t o be l i e vi ng T hi s m i ght s e e m t o c ont r a di c t t he r a t he r obvi ous t r ui s m t ha t i t i s be l i e f a s a r e pr e s e nt a t i ona l s t a t e a nd not be l i e vi ng a s a n e ve nt t ha t i s e va l ua bl e a s t r ue o r f a l s e T he c ont r a di c t i on, how e ve r i s m e r e l y a ppa r e nt A n e va l ua t i on of a t e l e ol ogi c a l e ve nt a l ong t he di m e ns i on of s uc c e s s e va l ua t e s t he out c om e of t hi s e ve nt B y c ont r a s t a n e va l ua t i on of a t e l e ol og i c a l e ve nt a l ong t he d i m e ns i on of pe r f or m a nc e e va l ua t e s t he e ve nt i t s e l f A c c or di ngl y, on t he vi e w I ha ve be e n pr opos i ng, e va l ua t i on a s t r ue / f a l s e pr ope r l y be l ongs t o be l i e f a s a r e p r e s e nt a t i ona l s t a t e w hi l e e va l ua t i on a s doxa s t i

PAGE 59

59 c a l l y/ e pi s t e m i c a l l y r a t i ona l / i r r a t i ona l j us t i f i e d/ unj us t i f i e d, w a r r a nt e d/ unw a r r a nt e d, e t c pr ope r l y be l ongs t o be l i e v i ng a s a n e ve nt T hi s i s a ha ppy r e s ul t a s i t i s i nde pe nde nt l y pl a us i bl e B e l i e vi n g an d G u e s s i n g I n D oe s B e l i e f H a ve a n A i m ? O w e ns a r gue s c or r e c t l y I t hi nk, t ha t gue s s i ng ( unde r s t ood a s a m e nt a l a c t ) a i m s a t t r ut h c ons t i t ut i ve l y, a nd c h a l l e nge s t he pr opone nt s of t he t r ut h a i m hypot he s i s of be l i e f t o e xpl a i n w hy t he r a t i ona l i t y of gue s s i ng di f f e r s f r om t he r a t i ona l i t y of be l i e v i ng. S i nc e t he e xpl a na t or y bur de n O w e ns pr of f e r s be l ongs pr ope r l y t o t he pr opone nt s o f a l i t e r a l i nt e r p r e t a t i on of t he hypo t he s i s w ho pos i t t ha t be l i e f i s pu r pos i ve a nd pur po r t t o e xpl a i n t he r a t i ona l i t y o f be l i e f i n t e r m s of a c ons t i t ut i ve a l e t hi c i nt e nt i on, hi s c ha l l e nge doe s not a f f e c t m y pos i t i on. N e ve r t he l e s s a b r i e f di s c us s i on of t h e di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n gue s s i ng a nd be l i e vi ng s houl d be us e f ul a t t hi s s t a ge O w e ns t hi nks t ha t a l t hough t r u t h s e t s t he s t a nda r d of c or r e c t ne s s f or gue s s i ng, t he r a t i ona l i t y of gue s s i ng doe s not di f f e r f r om t he r a t i ona l i t y of a ny ot he r t ype o f a c t W hi l e t r ut h i s t he c ons t i t ut i ve a i m of gue s s i ng, i t ope r a t e s i n c onj unc t i on w i t h t he a ge nt s ot he r a i m s a nd pur pos e s i n r a t i ona l i z i ng he r gue s s e s S o on O w e ns vi e w gue s s i ng t ha t p i s r e a s ona bl e w he n a i m i ng a t t he t r ut h by m e a ns of a gue s s t ha t p w oul d m a xi m i s e e xpe c t e d ut i l i t y. T ha t r e qui r e m e nt i nt e g r a t e s t he pur pos e c ons t i t ut i ve of gue s s i ng w i t h t he s ubj e c t s w i de r pur pos e s i n a f a m i l i a r a nd w e l l unde r s t ood f a s hi on. ( O w e n s 2003: 292) A l t hough a n a ge nt c a nnot be s a i d t o gue s s t ha t p u nl e s s s he i nt e nds t o gue s s t ha t p onl y i f p a r e a s on t o gue s s t ha t p c a n be e vi de nc e t ha t p but i t ne e d not : t he pr a c t i c a l c ons i de r a t i on t ha t e g. t i m e i s r unni ng out c a n a l s o be a r e a s on t o gu e s s t ha t p pr ovi de d t ha t t he a ge nt s e vi de nc e f a vor s p ove r not p T he a c c ount I ha ve be e n out l i ni ng i s not m e r e l y c o m pa t i bl e w i t h t he di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n gue s s i ng a nd be l i e vi ng O w e ns s t r e s s e s ; i t pr e di c t s a nd e xpl a i ns t he m T he nor m of t r ut h gove r ns

PAGE 60

60 bot h be l i e vi ng a nd gue s s i ng. H ow e ve r unl i ke be l i e vi ng, gue s s i ng i s gove r ne d by a n i nt e nt i on w hi c h m us t i nc l ude a n a l e t hi c c om pone nt B e c a us e gue s s i ng i s gove r ne d by a n i n t e nt i on, i e t he i nt e nt i on t o gue s s i t i s e va l ua bl e a l ong t he d i m e ns i ons of s uc c e s s a nd pe r f or m a nc e r e l a t i ve t o t hi s i nt e nt i on ( a t l e a s t pr i m a f ac i e ) A m e nt a l a c t i nt e nde d a s a gue s s m i ght f a i l i n vi r t ue of not be i ng a gue s s a t a l l I f i t s uc c e e ds i n be i ng a gue s s i t i s t he n a l s o e va l ua bl e a s a t r ue o r f a l s e gue s s F ur t he r a m e nt a l a c t i nt e nde d a s a gue s s c a n be e va l ua t e d a l ong t he di m e ns i on of pe r f or m a nc e r e l a t i ve t o t he a ge nt s pr a c t i c a l i nt e r e s t s ( i n t he m a nne r i n w hi c h a c t i ons a r e t yp i c a l l y e va l ua t e d a l ong t hi s di m e ns i on) a nd r e l a t i ve t o t he a ge nt s a l e t hi c i nt e r e s t ( i n t he m a nne r i n w hi c h be l i e f s a r e t ypi c a l l y e va l ua t e d a l ong t hi s di m e ns i on) T ha t t he nor m of t r ut h gove r ns gue s s i ng, but not be l i e vi ng vi a a n i nt e nt i on t ha t m us t i nc l ude a n a l e t hi c c om pone nt e xpl a i ns w hy r e a s ons f or gue s s i ng, unl i ke r e a s ons f or be l i e vi ng, c a n i nc l ude bot h p r a c t i c a l a nd a l e t hi c c ons i de r a t i ons R e f l e c t i on on a not he r di s t i nc t i ve f e a t ur e o f gue s s i ng s houl d pr ove i l l um i na t i ng f or m y a c c ount of t he m a nne r i n w hi c h t he nor m of t r ut h go ve r ns be l i e f C ons i de r t he f ol l ow i ng s i t ua t i on: I s e e t ha t t h e r e i s now a gl a s s on t he t a bl e t o t he r i g ht of m y c om put e r A l t hough gue s s i ng c o n s t i t ut i ve l y a i m s a t t r ut h I c a nnot gue s s t ha t t he r e i s now a gl a s s on t he t a bl e t o t he r i ght of m y c om put e r r e ga r dl e s s of how us e f ul s uc h a gue s s m i ght be t o m e I c oul d no t gue s s i t i f m y l i f e de pe nde d on i t I f I a m t o f or m a n a t t i t ude a bout t hi s pr opos i t i on, I m us t be l i e ve i t W hy i s t hi s ? A n a ns w e r t o t hi s que s t i on, I t hi nk, r e qui r e s a n a c c ount of how gue s s i ng a nd be l i e vi ng f i t i n t he w i de r c ont e xt of our c ogni t i ve l i ve s A c c or di ngl y I w i l l now o f f e r a ve r y br i e f s ke t c h of s uc h a n a c c ount S i nc e de f e ndi ng s uc h a n a c c ount w oul d e xc e e d t he s c ope of t hi s p r oj e c t by f a r I w i l l not a r gue f o r m y c l a i m s bu t I hope t ha t t he y ha ve e nough pr i m a f ac i e pl a us i bi l i t y t o be w or t h pr e s e nt i ng ne ve r t h e l e s s

PAGE 61

61 B e l i e vi ng a nd gue s s i ng a r e c ogni t i ve e ve nt s T ha t i s t he y a r e m e nt a l e ve nt s w hos e f un c t i on i s t o ge ne r a t e / s us t a i n c ogni t i ve s t a t e s C ogni t i ve s t a t e s a r e m e nt a l s t a t e s w hos e f unc t i on i s t o c a r r y i nf or m a t i on C ogni t i ve e ve nt s a r e i ndi vi d ua t e d i n pa r t i n t e r m s of t he c ogni t i ve s t a t e s t he y ge ne r a t e / s us t a i n. C ogni t i ve s t a t e s a r e i ndi vi d ua t e d i n pa r t i n t e r m s of t he m a nne r i n w hi c h t he y c a r r y t he i r i n f or m a t i ona l c ont e nt a nd i n t e r m s of t he i r i nf o r m a t i ona l c ont e nt O u r c om m on s e ns e ps yc hol ogi c a l c onc e pt s s e e m t o di s t i ngui s h di f f e r e nt t ype s o f c ogni t i ve s t a t e i n t e r m s t he m a nne r i n w hi c h s t a t e s of t he s e t ype s c a r r y i nf or m a t i on. S o, f or e xa m pl e w e s e e m t o di s t i ngui s h be l i e f f r om pe r c e p t i on a s t ype s of c ogni t i ve s t a t e i na s m uc h a s be l i e f c a r r i e s i nf or m a t i on i n f ul l y c onc e pt ua l i z e d f or m a nd c a r r i e s i t as i nf o r m a t i on, w hi l e pe r c e pt i on doe s not 3 7 A l l c ogni t i ve e ve nt s a r e gove r ne d by t he nor m of t r ut h i na s m uc h a s t he i r f unc t i on i s t o ge ne r a t e / s us t a i n s t a t e s w hos e f unc t i on i s t o c a r r y i n f or m a t i on ( i nf or m a t i on i s unde r s t ood f a c t i ve l y he r e ) T he m a nne r i n w hi c h t he no r m o f t r ut h gove r ns c ogni t i ve e ve nt s of a gi ve n t ype how e ve r de pe nds on t he m a nne r i n w hi c h t he s t a t e s t he y ge ne r a t e / s us t a i n c a r r y t he i r i n f or m a t i on F ur t he r t he m a nne r i n w hi c h t he nor m of t r ut h gove r ns a c ogni t i ve e ve nt of a gi ve n t ype de pe nds i n a ddi t i on, on t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of t he c ogni t i ve s t a t e i t ge ne r a t e s E ve n i m a gi ni ng s e e m s gove r ne d by t he nor m of t r ut h T r ut h doe s not s e t t he s t a nda r d o f c or r e c t ne s s f o r t he p r oduc t s of m y i m a gi n i ngs a f t e r a l l t he i nf o r m a t i ona l c ont e nt of t he s t a t e s m y i m a gi ni ngs ge ne r a t e i s not pos i t e d as i nf or m a t i on. N e ve r t he l e s s m y i m a gi ni ngs s e e m s ubj e c t e g t o a r e qui r e m e nt of c onc e pt ua l c ons i s t e nc y t r y a s I m i ght I c a nnot i m a gi ne t ha t a t r i a ngl e ha s f ou r s i de s a nd m y s ubj e c t i on t o t hi s r e qui r e m e nt s e e m s t o be di c t a t e d by t he i n f o r m a t i ona l c ont e nt o f t he s t a t e s m y i m a gi ni ngs pr oduc e 3 7 I s u s p e c t t h a t t h e s e c o n c e p t s e x p r e s s n a t u r a l k i n d s

PAGE 62

62 N ow c ogni t i ve e ve nt s a r e not i s ol a t e d e ve nt s M y be l i e vi ngs a nd gue s s i ngs a r e e ve nt s i n a w i de r c ogni t i ve p r oc e s s w hi c h e nc om pa s s e s m y c ogni t i ve l i f e T he f unc t i on o f t hi s p r oc e s s i s t o pr ovi de m e w i t h i nf o r m a t i on. A c c or di ngl y t hi s pr oc e s s t oo, i s gove r ne d b y t he no r m o f t r ut h. I s pe c ul a t e t ha t t he r e a s on w hy I c a nnot gue s s t ha t p i n t he f a c e of ove r w he l m i ng e vi de nc e t ha t p i s t ha t doi ng s o i s p r os c r i be d by t he nor m of t r ut h t o w hi c h I a m s ubj e c t a s a c ogni z e r I f I f o r m a n a t t i t ude a s t o p i n t he f a c e of ove r w he l m i ng e vi de n c e t ha t p m y a t t i t ude m us t s a nc t i on i t s c ont e nt as i nf or m a t i on T hi s i s a c c om pl i s he d by be l i e vi ng but not by gue s s i ng or c onj e c t ur i ng I n m or e ge ne r a l t e r m s t he nor m of t r ut h s e e m s t o gove r n m y c ogni t i ve l i f e bot h pr os pe c t i ve l y a nd r e t r os pe c t i ve l y. T he nor m of t r ut h gove r ns m y c ogni t i ve l i f e r e t r os pe c t i ve l y i na s m uc h a s i t de t e r m i ne s t he c om m i t m e nt s t ha t I do or w oul d un de r t a ke by unde r t a ki ng a gi ve n c ogni t i ve a t t i t ude S o, i f I be l i e ve t ha t p i t m us t be t he c a s e t ha t p a nd I m us t ha ve s ui t a bl e e vi de nc e t ha t p T he no r m o f t r ut h gove r ns m y c ogni t i ve l i f e p r o s p e c t i ve l y i na s m uc h a s i t de t e r m i ne s w ha t c ogni t i ve a t t i t ude i t i s a ppr opr i a t e f or m e t o t a ke i n r e s pons e t o m y e vi de nc e ( s houl d I ha ve a n i nt e r e s t i n ha vi ng a c ogni t i ve a t t i t ude c onc e r ni ng t hi s e vi de nc e ) S o, i f I ha ve ove r w he l m i ng e vi de nc e t ha t p a nd a n i nt e r e s t i n ha vi ng a c ogni t i v e a t t i t ude c onc e r ni ng t h i s e vi de nc e I c a nnot m e r e l y gue s s or c onj e c t ur e t ha t p ; I m us t be l i e ve t h a t p T h e N or m of T r u t h a n d t h e C on c e p t of B e l i e f T he ba r a ga i ns t gue s s i ng i n t he f a c e o f ove r w he l m i ng e vi de nc e t ha t p s e e m s t o be m e t a phys i c a l r a t he r t ha n c o n c e pt ua l ( i f s uc h a di s t i nc t i o n c a n l e gi t i m a t e l y be dr a w n) T ha t i s t he pr obl e m i s n t t ha t t ha t I c a nnot c onc e i ve of m ys e l f a s gue s s i ng i n t he f a c e of ove r w he l m i ng e v i de nc e t ha t p R a t he r t he pr ob l e m i s t ha t I c a nnot gue s s i n t he f a c e o f ove r w he l m i ng e vi de nc e t ha t p I n H ow T r ut h G ove r ns B e l i e f N i s hi S ha h a r gue s t ha t be l i e f i s s ubj e c t t o t he nor m of

PAGE 63

63 t r ut h a s a m a t t e r of c onc e pt ua l ne c e s s i t y. 3 8 M or e p r e c i s e l y, he c l a i m s t ha t t he n or m o f t r ut h i s pr ope r l y unde r s t ood a s gove r ni ng de pl oym e nt s o f t he c onc e pt of be l i e f r a t he r t ha n be l i e f i t s e l f : W ha t I s ugge s t i s t ha t by f r a m i ng hi s de l i be r a t i on a s a ns w e r i ng t o t he que s t i on w he t he r t o be l i e ve t ha t p a di s pos i t i on t o be m ove d by c ons i de r a t i ons t ha t he r e ga r ds a s r e l e va nt t o t h e t r ut h of p a nd a d i s pos i t i on bl oc ki ng c ons i de r a t i ons t ha t he r e ga r ds a s i r r e l e va nt t o t he t r ut h of p a r e a c t i va t e d. T ha t i s pa r t o f pos s e s s i ng t he c onc e pt of be l i e f i nvol ve s be i ng di s pos e d i n t hi s w a y w he n one a ppl i e s t he c onc e pt t o f r a m e one s r e a s oni ng. B ut on t hi s vi e w w he n one doe s n t e xe r c i s e t he c onc e pt of be l i e f a s i n c a s e s of non de l i be r a t i ve b e l i e f f or m a t i on, t he r e i s no gua r a nt e e t ha t one s c og ni t i ve a c t i vi t y w i l l be r e gul a t e d by t he s e di s pos i t i ons ( S ha h 2003: 467) S ha h s m a i n m ot i va t i on f o r e ndor s i ng t h i s vi e w i s t o a voi d a di l e m m a t ha t he t hi nks f a c e s a ny t e l e ol ogi c a l a c c ount of t he nor m a t i ve a ut ho r i t y o f t r ut h ove r be l i e f A c c or di ng t o S ha h, a ny s uc h a c c ount i s c a ught on t he ho r ns of t he f o l l ow i ng di l e m m a : O n one hor n t he t e l e ol ogi s t m us t a l l ow t he di s pos i t i on t ha t c ons t i t ut e s a i m i ng a t t r u t h t o be s o w e a k a s t o a l l ow pa r a di gm c a s e s i n w hi c h be l i e f s a r e c a us e d by s uc h non e vi de nt i a l pr oc e s s e s a s w i s hf ul t hi nki ng, i n w hi c h c a s e he c a nnot c a pt ur e t he e xc l us i ve r ol e of e v i de nc e i n one pa r t i c ul a r t ype o f be l i e f f or m i ng pr oc e s s r e a s oni ng. O n t he ot he r hor n i n or de r t o a c c ount f or t he e xc l us i ve r ol e of e vi de nc e i n r e a s oni ng a bout w ha t t o be l i e ve t he t e l e ol ogi s t m us t s t r e ngt he n t he di s pos i t i on t ha t c on s t i t ut e s a i m i ng a t t r u t h s o t ha t i t e xc l ude s t he i nf l ue nc e of non t r ut h r e ga r di ng c ons i de r a t i ons f r om s uc h r e a s oni ng. H ow e ve r by s t r e ngt he ni ng t he t r ut h a i m e d di s pos i t i on, t he t e l e ol ogi s t c a nnot a c c om m oda t e t he c a s e s of w i s hf ul t h i nki ng, i n w hi c h non e vi de nt i a l f a c t or s c l e a r l y e xe r c i s e i nf l ue nc e ove r be l i e f T hi s di l e m m a a r i s e s be c a us e t e l e ol ogi c a l a c c ount s t r y t o r e duc e t he e s s e nt i a l l y nor m a t i ve c onc e pt ua l r e l a t i on t ha t t r ut h ha s t o be l i e f t o a de s c r i pt i ve c a us a l r e l a t i on. ( I bi d : 461) A l t hough t he a c c ount of t he m a nne r i n w hi c h t he n or m o f t r ut h gove r ns be l i e f I ha ve be e n pr o pos i ng i s non pur pos i ve i t i s t e l e ol ogi c a l A c c or di ngl y, I ne e d t o a ddr e s s S ha h s obj e c t i on B e f or e I a ddr e s s i t I s houl d not e t ha t S ha h s ow n pos i t i on i s i m pl a us i bl e f or t he f ol l ow i ng t w o r e a s ons : F i r s t a be l i e f t ha t i s i m p r ope r l y r e s pons i ve t o e vi de nc e i s not i m m une t o e pi s t e m i c c r i t i c i s m by vi r t ue of not ha vi ng be e n c onc e i ve d a s a be l i e f or by vi r t ue o f not ha vi ng be e n 3 8 S h a h a l s o a r g u e s t h a t t h e p h e n o m e n o n o f t r a n s p a r e n c y d i s c u s s e d b y M o r a n o c c u r s o n l y w i t h i n f i r s t p e r s o n d o x a s t i c d e l i b e r a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g a n a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t o f b e l i e f T h i s s e e m s m i s t a k e n T r a n s p a r e n c y s e e m s t o b e a f e a t u r e o f f i r s t p e r s o n d o x a s t i c d e l i b e r a t i o n y e t s u c h d e l i b e r a t i o n n e e d n o t i n v o l v e a d e p l o y m e n t o f t h e c o n c e p t o f b e l i e f I n C h a p t e r 4 h o w e v e r I w i l l a r g u e t h a t t h e c a p a c i t y t a k e t h e d e l i b e r a t i v e s t a n c e t o w a r d o n e s b e l i e f s r e q u i r e s t h e c o n c e p t o f b e l i e f I w i l l a l s o a r g u e t h a t e v a l u a b i l i t y a s d o x a s t i c a l l y / e p i s t e m i c a l l y r a t i o n a l / i r r a t i o n a l r e q u i r e s t h e c a p a c i t y t o t a k e t h e d e l i b e r a t i v e s t a n c e t o w a r d o n e s b e l i e f s

PAGE 64

64 f or m e d i n t he c ont e xt of a s ui t a bl y f r a m e d de l i be r a t i on. T hi s i nd i c a t e s t ha t be l i e f i t s e l f r a t he r t ha n be l i e f a s f o r m e d/ r e vi s e d w i t hi n a de l i be r a t i ve c ont e xt i nvol vi ng a n e xe r c i s e of t he c onc e pt of be l i e f i s gove r ne d by t he nor m of t r ut h. S e c ond, i t i s qui t e c l e a r t ha t pac e S ha h w e a r e not s a ve d f r om t he t hr e a t of i r r a t i ona l i t y by a m e r e r e f l e xi ve de l i be r a t i ve de pl oym e nt o f t he c onc e pt of be l i e f A c c or di ngl y, S ha h s ow n pos i t i on i s c a u ght on t he hor ns of t he ve r y di l e m m a he ou t l i ne s a l be i t a t t he l e ve l o f f i r s t pe r s on doxa s t i c de l i be r a t i on de pl oyi ng t he c onc e pt of be l i e f I t s houl d be qu i t e c l e a r t ha t t he vi e w I ha ve be e n p r opos i ng ha s no di f f i c ul t y e xpl a i ni ng t he pos s i bi l i t y of w i s h f ul be l i e vi ng. A s H i e r onym i s t r e s s e s w e c a nnot be l i e ve t ha t p by a n e xe r c i s e of e va l ua t i ve c ont r ol f o r r e a s ons t ha t f a i l t o s how t ha t p i s t r ue a nd t hi s i s s o r e ga r dl e s s of w he t he r our e va l ua t i on i nvol ve s a de pl oym e nt of t he c onc e pt of be l i e f I n ot he r w or ds w e c a n not be l i e ve i m m e di a t e l y ( i e w i t hou t a c t i ng on our s e l ve s ) f or e xt r i ns i c r e a s ons B ut w e a r e pe r f e c t l y c a pa bl e of be l i e vi ng m e di a t e l y f or e xt r i n s i c r e a s ons O n t hi s vi e w w i s hf ul be l i e vi ng, unl i ke be l i e v i ng, i s pur pos i ve T h i s i s not t o s a y t h a t t he i nt e nt i on i nvol ve d i n w i s hf ul be l i e vi ng ne e ds t o be c ons c i ous I t c a n, how e ve r be c ons c i ous a nd i t c a n e ve n c ons c i ous l y gove r n a pr o c e s s of doxa s t i c de l i be r a t i on i nvol vi ng a n e xe r c i s e of t he c onc e pt o f be l i e f pac e S ha h. I do a g r e e w i t h S ha h i n one i m por t a nt r e s pe c t na m e l y, t ha t t he nor m a t i ve r e l a t i on t ha t t r ut h be a r s t o be l i e vi ng a nd be l i e f i s e s s e nt i a l l y c o nc e pt ua l T hi s how e ve r i s not be c a u s e t he c onc e pt of be l i e f r a t he r t ha n be l i e f i s pr ope r l y un de r s t ood a s a r e l a t um i n t he r e l a t i on t ha t unde r w r i t e s doxa s t i c nor m s R a t he r i t i s be c a us e t he nor m a t i ve r e l a t i on t ha t t r ut h be a r s t o be l i e vi ng a nd be l i e f i s unde r w r i t t e n by t he c ogni t i v e c ont e nt of be l i e f w hi c h i s w hol l y c ons t i t ut e d by c onc e pt s i n gi ve n m ode s of c om bi na t i on ( a s I w i l l a r gue i n t he ne xt c ha pt e r )

PAGE 65

65 C H A P T E R 3 T H E C O G N I T I V E C O N T E N T O F B E L I E F I n t he p r e vi ous c ha pt e r I p r opos e d t ha t be l i e f i s a c ogni t i ve s t a t e w hos e pr ope r f unc t i on i s t o s a nc t i on a nd pr e s e r ve i nf o r m a t i on a s s uc h i n c o nc e pt ua l i z e d f or m a nd a r gue d t ha t t he nor m a t i ve r e l a t i on t ha t t r ut h be a r s t o be l i e f i s p r ope r l y un de r s t ood a s unde r w r i t t e n by t he p r ope r f un c t i ons of be l i e vi ng unde r s t ood a s a n e ve nt a nd be l i e f I n t hi s c ha pt e r I a r gue t ha t t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of be l i e f ( i e t he c ont e nt t ha t b e l i e f a s s uc h, c ont r i but e s t o t he c ogni t i ve pr oc e s s e s of w hi c h i t i s a pa r t ) i s w hol l y c ons t i t ut e d by c onc e pt s a s c om bi ne d i n c e r t a i n w a ys w he r e c onc e pt s a r e c onc e i ve d a s a bs t r a c t obj e c t s of a c e r t a i n s or t A ny good a c c ount of t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of be l i e f m us t a c c om m oda t e t he f ol l o w i ng f a c t s : ( i ) be l i e f s t a t e s a r e c onc r e t e pa r t i c ul a r s a nd ( i i ) t w o di s t i nc t be l i e f s t a t e s c a n ha ve t he s a m e c ogni t i ve c ont e nt ( i i ) s e e m s t o r e qui r e one t o hol d t ha t t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt o f be l i e f i s not c ons t i t ut e d by c onc r e t e pa r t i c ul a r s Y e t ( i ) s e e m s t o r e qui r e one t o ho l d t ha t t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of be l i e f i s a m e na bl e t o r e a l i z a t i on i n c onc r e t e pa r t i c ul a r s T he r e i s of c our s e l i t t l e m ys t e r y a s t o how ( i ) a nd ( i i ) c a n j oi nt l y be t r ue a s s e r t i on pr ovi de s a s t r a i ght f or w a r d m ode l f or unde r s t a ndi ng how t he s e s e e m i ngl y i nc om pa t i bl e r e qui r e m e nt s c a n be m e t L i ke be l i e f s a s s e r t i ons a r e c ont e nt f ul c onc r e t e pa r t i c ul a r s t ha t c a n s h a r e t he s a m e c ont e nt de s pi t e be i ng nu m e r i c a l l y di s t i nc t T he y c a n do s o by vi r t ue of t oke ni n g s ui t a bl e t ype s of c ont e nt f ul pa r t i c ul a r s na m e l y, e xpr e s s i ons L i ke w i s e b e l i e f s a r e c ont e nt f ul c onc r e t e pa r t i c ul a r s t ha t c a n s ha r e t he s a m e c ogni t i ve c ont e nt de s pi t e be i ng num e r i c a l l y di s t i nc t by vi r t ue of t oke ni ng s ui t a bl e t ype s of c ont e nt f ul pa r t i c ul a r s na m e l y, c onc e pt s C on c e p t s as T yp e s of T h ou gh t C on t e n t T he m ode l o f a s s e r t i on s ugge s t s t ha t c onc e pt s a r e a bs t r a c t obj e c t s t ha t c a n be t oke ne d a s c o n c r e t e ps yc hol ogi c a l obj e c t s i e t ha t c onc e pt s a r e t ype s of t hough t c ont e nt N ot e t ha t t he

PAGE 66

66 vi e w t ha t c onc e pt s a r e s uc h obj e c t s doe s not c om m i t one t o a ny s pe c i f i c vi e w c onc e r ni ng how c onc e pt s a r e t oke ne d i n phys i c a l s y s t e m s I n pa r t i c ul a r i t doe s not c om m i t one t o hol di ng t ha t t he t oke ni ng of c onc e pt ua l t hought i n phys i c a l s ys t e m s m us t be r e a l i z e d by w a y of m e nt a l r e pr e s e nt a t i on t oke ns t ha t ha ve a c om bi na t o r i a l s y nt a x a nd s e m a nt i c s s o t ha t i n a ny phys i c a l s ys t e m c a pa bl e of c onc e pt ua l t hought c om pl e x c o nc e pt t oke ns a r e w hol l y c ons t i t ut e d by c om b i na t i ons of s i m pl e c onc e pt t oke ns a s t he L a ngua ge of T hought H ypot he s i s w oul d ha ve i t Y e t r e f l e c t i on on t he m ode l o f a s s e r t i on doe s s ugge s t a t he s i s a t t he l e ve l of t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of c onc e pt ua l t hought t ha t be a r s a s t r o ng r e s e m bl a nc e t o t he L a ngua ge of T hought H ypot he s i s ( m i nus i t s c a us a l c l a i m s ) C om p l e x C on c e p t s an d S i m p l e C o n c e p t s S uppos e ( pe r i m pos s i bi l e pe r ha ps ) t ha t s om e c r e a t ur e not s ubj e c t t o our l i m i t a t i ons i s a c om pe t e nt us e r of a pur e l y s e m a nt i c l a ngua ge c o n s i s t i ng of a n i nf i ni t e num be r o f p r i m i t i ve s e a c h hom onym ous t o a di s t i nc t E ngl i s h num e r a l 1 a n d e a c h s ynonym ous t o e i t he r a n E ngl i s h pr i m i t i ve e xpr e s s i on or a n E ngl i s h c om pl e x e xpr e s s i on, a nd t ha t he r l a ngua ge ha s t he s a m e e xpr e s s i ve pow e r a s E ngl i s h. S i nc e i t i s doubt f u l t ha t s uc h a l a ngua ge c oul d be l e a r ne d, l e t us s u p pos e t ha t he r c a pa c i t y t o us e t hi s l a ngua ge i s i n na t e S uc h a l a ngua ge w oul d i n pr i nc i pl e be t r a ns l a t a bl e i nt o E ngl i s h not by a D a vi ds oni a n r a di c a l i nt e r pr e t e r t o be s ur e but w i t h t he h e l p of a s ui t a bl e m a nua l S uppos e t ha t t h i s c r e a t ur e ut t e r s a s e nt e nc e hom onym ous t o t he E ngl i s h, t hi r t y s e ve n, a nd, i n he r l a n gua ge s ynonym ous t o t he E ngl i s h, T he c a t i s on t he m a t A r m e d w i t h m y t r a ns l a t i on m a nua l I c a n r e c ove r t he i nf or m a t i on e n c ode d i n he r ut t e r a nc e na m e l y, t ha t t he r e f e r e nt of t he c a t be a r s t he r e l a t i on e xpr e s s e d by on t o t he r e f e r e nt o f t he m a t i n t he c or r e s pondi ng E ng l i s h s e nt e nc e ( a s s um i ng 1 S i n c e t h e s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t e a c h p r i m i t i v e i n m y f i c t i o n a l l a n g u a g e i s h o m o n y m o u s t o a d i s t i n c t E n g l i s h n u m e r a l i s m a d e f o r e a s e o f e x p o s i t i o n o n l y a n d d o e s n o t a f f e c t a n y o f m y c o n c l u s i o n s I a m t a k i n g t h e l i b e r t y t o i g n o r e t h e s y n t a c t i c c o m p l e x i t y o f m o s t E n g l i s h n u m e r a l s

PAGE 67

67 t ha t he r ut t e r a nc e i s t r ue ) F ur t he r m or e t hi s i n f or m a t i on i s s t r uc t ur e d, i n t he s e ns e t ha t i t i s i nf or m a t i on a bout a n e nt i t y of one t ype be a r i ng a s pa t i a l r e l a t i on t o a n e nt i t y of a not he r t ype a nd i t c e r t a i nl y doe s s e e m t o be bui l t s y s t e m a t i c a l l y out of s i m pl e e l e m e nt s w hos e c ont r i but i on i s i nva r i a nt r e l a t i ve t o t he c o m p l e xe s i n w hi c h t he y f i gur e S i nc e t hi s i n f or m a t i on i s r e c ove r a bl e f or m e us i ng not hi ng but m y t r a ns l a t i on m a nua l a nd m y unde r s t a ndi ng o f t he c or r e s pon d i ng E ngl i s h s e nt e nc e i t i s c ont a i ne d i n he r ut t e r a nc e T he m or a l of t hi s s t or y s o f a r i s t ha t e ve n i f w e c a n i m a gi ne a pur e l y s e m a n t i c l a ngua ge w hos e e xpr e s s i ve pow e r e qua l s t ha t of E ngl i s h, w e w oul d not t he r e by ha ve i m a gi ne d a l a ngua ge t ha t i s l i m i t e d t o c a r r yi ng a n uns t r uc t ur e d c ont e nt t he t he s i s t ha t l i ngui s t i c c ont e nt i s s ubj e c t t o a c om pos i t i ona l i t y a nd s y s t e m a t i c i t y c ons t r a i nt doe s not e nt a i l t ha t t he ve hi c l e w hi c h c a r r i e s t hi s c ont e n t i s s ubj e c t t o t h i s c ons t r a i nt a l s o. 2 B e i ng a c om pe t e nt us e r of a l a ngua ge pl a us i bl y r e qui r e s t he c a pa c i t y not onl y t o e m pl oy s e nt e nc e s of t ha t l a ngua ge unde r a ppr op r i a t e c i r c u m s t a nc e s but a l s o t o unde r s t a nd t he c ont e nt of t he s e s e nt e nc e s W ha t s uc h a c a pa c i t y r e qui r e s i s c ont r ove r s i a l M i ni m a l l y, how e ve r t he s upp o s i t i on t ha t our i m a gi ne d s pe a ke r i s a c om pe t e nt us e r of he r l a ngua ge p l a us i bl y e nt a i l s t ha t s he t oo, ha s t he c a pa c i t y t o r e c ove r t he i nf or m a t i o n e n c ode d i n he r ut t e r a nc e G i ve n t ha t I a m a c om pe t e nt s pe a ke r of E ng l i s h, know l e dge o f t he m e a ni ng a nd t r ut h of he r ut t e r a nc e a l one w oul d l i c e ns e m e t o i nf e r di r e c t l y t ha t a num be r o f ot he r E ngl i s h s e nt e nc e s e a c h of w hi c h c a r r i e s pa r t of t he i n f or m a t i on e nc ode d i n he r or i g i na l ut t e r a nc e m us t be t r ue a l s o, na m e l y, t he r e i s a c a t t he r e i s a m a t s om e t hi ng i s on s om e t hi ng e l s e s om e t hi ng i s on t he m a t t he c a t i s on s om e t hi ng ( a m ong ot he r s pe r ha ps ) F o r our i m a gi ne d s pe a ke r t o c ount a s ha vi ng t he c a pa c i t y t o r e c ove r t he i n f o r m a t i on e nc ode d i n he r ut t e r a nc e i t s e e m s s he t oo w oul d ha ve t o be c a pa bl e of 2 F o r c o n t e x t s e n s i t i v e s e n t e n c e s m y t r a n s l a t i o n m a n u a l w o u l d g i v e t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g E n g l i s h s e n t e n c e ; u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g E n g l i s h s e n t e n c e i n c o n t e x t w o u l d s u f f i c e f o r m e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e c r e a t u r e s s e n t e n c e i n c o n t e x t

PAGE 68

68 i nf e r r i ng t he c or r e s pondi ng s e nt e nc e s i n he r l a ngu a ge T hi s i s a c a pa c i t y s he c a n ha ve e g s i m pl y by vi r t ue of e m bodyi ng a s ui t a bl e s ys t e m of r ul e s of i nf e r e nc e F ur t he r s he w oul d ha ve t o pos s e s s t he r e l e va nt c onc e pt s i e t he c om pl e x c onc e pt s e xpr e s s e d by he r or i gi na l s e nt e nc e a nd t he c om pl e x c onc e pt s e xpr e s s e d by t he s e n t e nc e s s he c a n i nf e r on i t s ba s i s T hi s pl a us i bl y r e qui r e s t ha t s he ha ve t he c a pa c i t y t o t oke n t he s e c om pl e x c o n c e pt s Y e t j us t a s w e c a n i m a gi ne a l a ngua ge t ha t r e pr e s e nt s t he r e l e va nt i n f or m a t i on vi a l i ngui s t i c pr i m i t i ve s c a r r yi ng c om pl e x s t r uc t ur e d i nf or m a t i on, s o t oo c a n w e i m a gi ne a n a n a l ogous i nt e r na l s ys t e m of r e pr e s e nt a t i on. S o, not hi n g w e ha ve s a i d s o f a r c om m i t s us t o r e qui r i ng t ha t s he t oke n t he s e c om pl e x c onc e pt s i n s uc h a w a y t ha t t he s t r uc t u r e of he r c om pl e x c onc e pt t oke ns be i s om or phi c t o t he s t r uc t ur e of t he c om pl e x c onc e pt s of w hi c h t he y a r e t oke ns W ha t t hi s r e f l e c t i on s ugge s t s t he n, i s t ha t t he c onc l us i on w e r e a c he d a bove c onc e r ni ng l i ngui s t i c c ont e nt ge ne r a l i z e s t o c ogni t i ve c ont e nt ; t ha t i s t h e t he s i s t ha t c ogni t i ve c ont e nt i s s ubj e c t t o a c om pos i t i ona l i t y a nd s ys t e m a t i c i t y c ons t r a i nt doe s not e nt a i l t ha t t he ve hi c l e w hi c h c a r r i e s t hi s c ont e nt i s s ubj e c t t o t hi s c ons t r a i nt a l s o. C onc e r ni ng t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of t hought I do e ndor s e t he t he s i s t ha t t he c ogn i t i ve c ont e nt of a ny c om pl e x c onc e pt t oke n i s a f unc t i on of t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of t he s i m pl e c onc e pt s t ha t s o c o m bi ne d, c ons t i t ut e t he t oke ne d c o m pl e x c onc e pt Y e t s i nc e t hi s t he s i s doe s not e nt a i l t ha t t he ve hi c l e t ha t c a r r i e s t h i s c ogni t i ve c ont e nt i s i t s e l f s ubj e c t t o a c om pos i t i ona l i t y / s ys t e m a t i c i t y c ons t r a i nt i t i s c om pa t i bl e w i t h t he de ni a l of t he t he s i s t ha t c om pl e x c onc e pt t oke ns a r e f ul l y c ons t i t ut e d by c om bi na t i ons of s i m pl e c onc e pt t o ke ns I n f or m at i on al C on t e n t L i n g u i s t i c C on t e n t an d C ogn i t i ve C on t e n t I a m now i n a pos i t i on t o of f e r a m o r e pr e c i s e c ha r a c t e r i z a t i on of w ha t I m e a n by c ogn i t i ve c ont e nt a s i t a ppl i e s t o be l i e f O nc e a ga i n, l i n gui s t i c c om m uni c a t i on pr ovi de s a us e f ul

PAGE 69

69 r e f l e c t i ve s t a r t i ng poi n t A s H P a ul G r i c e f a m ous l y poi nt e d out m uc h of w ha t w e l e a r n i n ou r c onve r s a t i ons i s not m e n t i one d i n t he m S o i f I a s k you, w oul d you l i ke a c ooki e ? a nd you a n s w e r I m on a di e t a l t hough you ha ve not s a i d w he t he r you w oul d or w oul dn t l i ke one you ha ve s a i d e nough f or m e t o ga t he r t ha t you w oul d r a t he r pa s s A not he r w a y of put t i ng t he poi nt i s t ha t a s s e r t i ons t ypi c a l l y c onve y f a r m or e ( put a t i ve ) i nf or m a t i on t ha n t he y c ont a i n i n vi r t ue of t he i r m e a ni ng. E ve n s i l e nc e c a n c onve y i nf o r m a t i on i f I a s k you, W ha t do you ha ve t o s a y i n your de f e ns e ? a nd you c l e a r l y r e f r a i n f r om a ns w e r i ng m y que s t i on de s pi t e ha vi ng he a r d a nd u n de r s t ood i t I m a y t a ke t hi s t o i ndi c a t e t ha t t he r e i s not hi ng t ha t you ha ve t o s a y, or a r e w i l l i ng t o s a y, i n your de f e ns e a nd I m a y ve r y w e l l do s o r i ght l y. I n s uc h a c a s e a l t hough i t s e e m s odd t o s a y t ha t your s i l e nc e a s s uc h, c ont a i ns i n f or m a t i on, i t ne ve r t he l e s s s e e m s a ppr opr i a t e t o s a y t ha t your s i l e nc e c onve ys i nf o r m a t i on. I n K now l e dge and t he F l ow of I nf or m at i on D r e t s k e pr opos e s a t he or e t i c a l f r a m e w or k t ha t e na bl e s one t o e x pl a i n how e g s i l e nc e c a n m a na ge t o c onve y i n f or m a t i on a nd how a s s e r t i ons c a n c onve y m or e i nf o r m a t i on t ha n t he y c ont a i n i n vi r t ue of t he i r m e a ni ng. O n D r e t s ke s a c c ount i nf o r m a t i on c a r r yi ng doe s not r e qui r e m e a ni ngf ul ne s s a ny c ont i nge nt e ve nt or s t a t e of a f f a i r s c a n c a r r y i nf o r m a t i on. D r e t s ke de f i ne s i n f o r m a t i ona l c o n t e nt a s f o l l ow s ( D r e t s ke 1981: 65) : A s i gna l r c a r r i e s t he i n f or m a t i on t ha t s i s F = T he c ondi t i ona l pr oba bi l i t y of s s b e i ng F gi ve n r ( a nd k ) i s 1 ( but g i ve n k a l one l e s s t ha n 1 ) [ w he r e k s t a nds f or w ha t t he r e c e i ve r a l r e a dy know s ( i f a nyt hi ng ) a bout t he pos s i bi l i t i e s t ha t e xi s t a t t he s our c e 3 a nd r s t a nds f or a n e ve nt c ondi t i on or s t a t e of a f f a i r s t he e xi s t e nc e ( oc c ur r e nc e ) of w hi c h de pe nds on s s be i ng F ] 4 3 D r e t s k e s a y s r a t h e r t o o l i t t l e a b o u t w h a t k i s s u p p o s e d t o i n c l u d e I u n d e r s t a n d i t t o i n c l u d e e v e r y p i e c e o f k n o w l e d g e t h a t i s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n t o b e a v a i l a b l e t o t h e r e c e i v e r S o i n o r d e r f o r a t r e e t r u n k s h a v i n g s e v e n r i n g s t o c a r r y f o r m e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t t h e t r e e t o w h i c h i t b e l o n g s i s s e v e n y e a r s o l d I w o u l d r e q u i r e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e r e l e v a n t n o m i c c o r r e l a t i o n s I f I d i d n o t p o s s e s s t h i s k n o w l e d g e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n w o u l d n o t b e a v a i l a b l e t o m e

PAGE 70

70 P r ovi de d t ha t one gr a nt s t he pe r ha ps odd s oundi ng c l a i m t ha t f o r a ny pa r t i c ul a r o a nd a ny pr ope r t y, G t ha t o i ns t a nc e s o s be i ng G ( or t ha t o i s G ) de pe nds on o s be i ng G 5 D r e t s ke s de f i ni t i on e nt a i l s t ha t f o r a ny pr ope r t y H t ha t r i n s t a nc e s r c a r r i e s t he i nf o r m a t i on t ha t r i s H ( gi ve n t he r e l e va nt kn ow l e dge ) T he c l a i m i s f a r m or e i nnoc uous t ha n i t m i ght s e e m S o, c ons i de r t he f ol l ow i ng e x a m pl e : I w i t ne s s B a s i l be i ng a s s a ul t e d by be a r s G i ve n t h e know l e dge t ha t I do pos s e s s a nd t ha t e na bl e s m e t o di s c r i m i na t e B a s i l f r om o t he r i ndi v i dua l s be a r s f r om ot he r a n i m a l s be a r s f r om i ndi vi dua l s w e a r i ng be a r s ui t s ge nui ne a t t a c ks f r om s t a ge d m oc k a t t a c ks e t c t he e ve nt c a r r i e s f o r m e t he i nf or m a t i on t ha t B a s i l i s a s s a ul t e d by be a r s ( f o r s o m e one e l s e i t m i gh t m e r e l y c a r r y t he i n f or m a t i on t ha t e g s om e i ndi vi dua l i s a s s a ul t e d by l a r g e f ur r y c r e a t ur e s ) N ow a s s e r t i ons a r e e ve nt s a nd, a s s uc h, c a n c a r r y i nf o r m a t i on i n D r e t s ke s s e ns e S uppos e t ha t upon w i t ne s s i ng B a s i l be i ng a s s a ul t e d by be a r s you e xc l a i m B a s i l i s be i ng a s s a ul t e d by w ol ve r i ne s S i nc e your a s s e r t i on i s f a l s e i t doe s not c a r r y t he i nf o r m a t i on t ha t B a s i l i s be i ng a s s a ul t e d by w ol ve r i ne s N e ve r t he l e s s your a s s e r t i on m a y c a r r y pl e nt y o f i n f or m a t i on f or m e g i ve n t he r e l e va nt know l e dge e g. t ha t t he e ve nt s u r pr i s e s or f r i ght e ns o r pl e a s e s you, t ha t you a r e a bout t o t a ke f l i ght or ga w k, or r us h t o B a s i l s r e s c ue a nd m uc h e l s e b e s i de s W i t hi n t hi s i n f or m a t i ona l pr of us i on, t he r e i s one t ype of i n f or m a t i on t ha t i s o f s pe c i a l i n t e r e s t f or m y pu r pos e s he r e S o, gi ve n t ha t I 4 A s s t a t e d D r e t s k e s d e f i n i t i o n m i g h t s t r i k e o n e a s r a t h e r p u z z l i n g p r o b a b i l i t y r e l a t i o n s i t s e e m s h o l d b e t w e e n e v e n t t y p e s r a t h e r t h a n e v e n t s S i n c e D r e t s k e m a k e s i t c l e a r t h a t h e i n t e n d s t h e r e l e v a n t p r o b a b i l i t y t o h o l d b e t w e e n e v e n t t y p e s h e w r i t e s : I n s a y i n g t h a t t h e c o n d i t i o n a l p r o b a b i l i t y ( g i v e n r ) o f s s b e i n g F i s 1 I m e a n t o s a y t h a t t h e r e i s a n o m i c ( l a w f u l ) r e g u l a r i t y b e t w e e n t h e s e e v e n t t y p e s a r e g u l a r i t y w h i c h n o m i c a l l y p r e c l u d e s r s o c c u r r e n c e w h e n s i s n o t F ( I b i d : 6 5 n 1 ) w e m a y t a k e h i s d e f i n i t i o n a s s h o r t h a n d f o r a m o r e c o m p l e x d e f i n i t i o n i n c l u d i n g a p r o b a b i l i t y s t a t e m e n t h o l d i n g b e t w e e n e v e n t t y p e s a n d a s t a t e m e n t t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f r i s a n e v e n t o f a t y p e m e n t i o n e d i n t h e p r o b a b i l i t y s t a t e m e n t 5 T h e o d d n e s s o f t h e c l a i m m a y b e d u e t o n o t h i n g m o r e t h a n i t s t r i v i a l i t y S o i f s o m e e v e n t A r e q u i r e s t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f s o m e e v e n t B f o r i t s o c c u r r e n c e i t s e e m s a p p r o p r i a t e t o s a y t h a t t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f A d e p e n d s o n t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f B B y p a r i t y o f u s e s i n c e t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f A t r i v i a l l y r e q u i r e s t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f A i t s e e m s a p p r o p r i a t e ( t h o u g h u t t e r l y u n i n f o r m a t i v e ) t o s a y t h a t t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f A d e p e n d s o n t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f A O f c o u r s e i f t h e d e p e n d e n c e r e l a t i o n a t h a n d w e r e s a y c a u s a l i t c o u l d n o t b e b o r n r e f l e x i v e l y b y A Y e t w h a t h o l d s f o r c a u s a l d e p e n d e n c e r e l a t i o n s n e e d n o t h o l d f o r a l l d e p e n d e n c e r e l a t i o n s

PAGE 71

71 know t ha t your a s s e r t i on i s m a de i n E ngl i s h a nd gi ve n t ha t I a m a c om p e t e nt s pe a ke r of E ngl i s h, your ut t e r a nc e c a r r i e s f or m e t he i nf or m a t i on t ha t i t m e a ns t ha t B a s i l i s be i ng a s s a ul t e d by w ol ve r i ne s a nd t ha t i t i s t r ue j us t i n c a s e B a s i l i s be i ng a s s a ul t e d by w ol ve r i ne s I f t hi s r e f l e c t i on i s c or r e c t t he n, on D r e t s ke s a c c ount a ny m e a ni n gf ul ut t e r a nc e c a r r i e s i nf or m a t i on c onc e r ni ng i t s m e a ni ng a nd t r u t h c ondi t i ons gi ve n t he r e l e va n t know l e dge w he r e t he r e l e va nt know l e dge on D r e t s ke s a c c ount i s know l e dge o f t he i nf or m a t i on c a r r yi ng r ol e i n a gi ve n l a ngua ge of t he t ype of ut t e r a nc e of w hi c h t he ut t e r a nc e i s a t oke n ( by pa r i t y of r e a s oni ng, t he s a m e c a n be s a i d of a ny m e a ni ngf ul e xpr e s s i on t oke n, m ut at i s m ut a ndi s ) 6 T hi s i s a ha ppy c ons e que nc e ; i f D r e t s ke s a c c ount f a i l e d t o yi e l d t hi s r e s ul t i t w oul d l e a ve t he pos s i bi l i t y of l i ngui s t i c c om m un i c a t i on e s pe c i a l l y w he n i t i nvol ve s f a l s e s e nt e nc e s r a t he r m ys t e r i ous O n t hi s vi e w t he n a ny m e a n i ngf ul ut t e r a nc e ( a nd e xpr e s s i on) c a r r i e s i n f or m a t i on a bout i t s l i n gui s t i c c ont e nt w he r e l i ngui s t i c c ont e nt m a y be de f i ne d a s f o l l ow s : L e t s be a pa r t i c ul a r ut t e r a nc e i n l a ngua ge L a nd l e t k be t he know l e dge t ha t a ny c om pe t e nt s pe a ke r of l a ngua ge L ha s j us t by vi r t ue of be i ng a c om pe t e nt s pe a ke r U t t e r a nc e s c a r r i e s t he l i ngui s t i c c ont e nt t ha t p j us t i n c a s e f r om k a l one a nd t he s uppos i t i on t ha t s i s t r ue i t i s i m m e di a t e l y a pr i or i de r i va b l e t ha t p 7 T hi s a ppr oa c h i s t he or e t i c a l l y f r u i t f ul S o, by a ddi ng t o k a bove know l e dge of t he c o n ve r s a t i ona l c ont e xt i n w hi c h s i s ut t e r e d a nd know l e dge t ha t t h e s pe a ke r of s i s c onve r s a t i ona l l y c oope r a t i ve ( i n t he m a nne r s pe c i f i e d by G r i c e ) one m a y de r i ve t he pr a gm a t i c a l l y i m pl i e d c ont e nt of s f r om 6 I a m a d o p t i n g D r e t s k e s p h r a s e o l o g y h e r e A c c o r d i n g t o D r e t s k e T h e s y m b o l t o k e n i n h e r i t s i t s m e a n i n g f r o m t h e s y m b o l t y p e o f w h i c h i t i s a t o k e n ; a n d t h e s y m b o l t y p e h a s a n i n f o r m a t i o n c a r r y i n g r o l e i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e s u c c e s s ( i f a n y ) o f i t s t o k e n s i n c a r r y i n g t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n ( I b i d : 1 9 2 ) O n t h i s v i e w k n o w l e d g e o f t h e m e a n i n g o f a s y m b o l i s k n o w l e d g e o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c a r r y i n g r o l e o f t h e s y m b o l t y p e o f w h i c h i t i s a t o k e n A l t h o u g h I f i n d t h i s m a n n e r o f s p e a k i n g c o n g e n i a l I d o n o t t h i n k t h a t a n y t h i n g o f g r e a t c o n s e q u e n c e t o m y p r o j e c t h i n g e s o n e n d o r s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t h e o r e t i c s e m a n t i c s w i t h s u i t a b l e m o d i f i c a t i o n s I t h i n k a n y a c c o u n t o f m e a n i n g a n d l i n g u i s t i c c o m p e t e n c e w o u l d d o 7 T h e q u a l i f i e r s a l o n e a n d i m m e d i a t e l y m e a n t o a d d r e s s t h e u n i q u e n e s s p r o b l e m w h i c h a p r i o r i d e r i v a b i l i t y g e n e r a t e s ( s i n c e a n i n f i n i t y o f p r o p o s i t i o n s a r e a p r i o r i d e r i v a b l e f r o m a n y s e n t e n c e )

PAGE 72

72 i t s l i ngui s t i c c ont e nt A l ong s i m i l a r l i ne s i t i s pl a u s i bl e t ha t one m a y de r i ve t he c ont e nt pr a gm a t i c a l l y c onve ye d by s i l e nc e i n c e r t a i n c onve r s a t i ona l c ont e xt s I s ubm i t t ha t t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of be l i e f i e t h e c ont e nt t ha t be l i e f a s s uc h, c ont r i but e s t o t he c ogn i t i ve pr oc e s s e s of w hi c h i t i s a pa r t i s p r ope r l y unde r s t ood a l ong s i m i l a r l i ne s L i ke ut t e r a nc e s a nd e xpr e s s i on t oke ns be l i e f s t a t e s a r e c ont i nge nt pa r t i c u l a r s w hos e f unc t i on i s t o c a r r y i nf o r m a t i on. L i ke ut t e r a nc e a nd e xpr e s s i on t oke ns be l i e f s t a t e s pe r f or m t hi s f unc t i on by w a y of i ns t a nc i ng r e p r e s e nt a t i ona l pr o pe r t i e s W h a t r e pr e s e nt a t i ona l pr ope r t i e s a gi ve n be l i e f s t a t e i n s t a nc e s c a n be c ha r a c t e r i z e d i n t e r m s of t he know l e dge r e qui r e d f o r t he i nf o r m a t i on t ha t t hi s be l i e f ha s t he r e pr e s e nt a t i ona l pr ope r t i e s i t ha s t o be a va i l a bl e t o one W ha t t hi s i nf o r m a t i on i s a bout i s t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of be l i e f U s i ng t h e a bove de f i ni t i on of l i ngui s t i c c ont e nt a s a m ode l I pr opos e t ha t t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of be l i e f w i l l i nc l ude a t l e a s t t he f ol l ow i ng ( I w i l l a r gue l a t e r t ha t t he r e i s m or e t o t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt o f be l i e f t ha n w ha t t he f ol l ow i ng c a pt ur e s ) : L e t b be a pa r t i c ul a r be l i e f s t a t e s uc h t ha t be i ng i n b r e qui r e s t oke ni ng c onc e pt s c 1 c n a nd l e t k be t he know l e dge t ha t a nyone w ho pos s e s s e s c 1 c n ha s j us t by vi r t ue o f pos s e s s i ng t hos e c onc e pt s B e l i e f b c a r r i e s t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt t ha t p i f f r om k a l one a nd t he s uppos i t i on t ha t b i s t r ue i t i s i m m e di a t e l y a pr i or i d e r i va bl e t ha t p 8 I s houl d s t r e s s t ha t I t a ke t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt o f a be l i e f t o be di s t i nc t f r om i t s r e f e r e nt i a l c ont e nt T he di s t i n c t i on b e t w e e n r e f e r e nt i a l c ont e nt a nd c ogni t i ve c ont e nt m e a ns t o c a pt ur e t he i nt ui t i ve di s t i nc t i on be t w e e n w ha t a be l i e f r e pr e s e nt s a nd how i t r e pr e s e nt s w ha t e ve r i t r e pr e s e nt s T hi s di s t i nc t i on a ppl i e s t o bot h ut t e r a nc e s a nd be l i e f s S o, s uppos e I ut t e r e d s i nc e r e l y ( pr i or t o R ona l d R e ga n s de a t h) R ona l d i s a c l ow n. D e pe ndi ng on w hom I ha d i n m i nd a s I m a de t hi s ut t e r a nc e m y ut t e r a nc e c a n be r e por t e d t r ul y by t he s e nt e nc e E l ka s a i d t ha t t he c or por a t e m a s c ot of t he f a s t f ood gi a nt M c D o n a l d i s a c l ow n, or by t he s e nt e nc e E l ka s a i d t ha t 8 A s i t g o e s f o r l i n g u i s t i c c o n t e n t s o i t g o e s f o r c o g n i t i v e c o n t e n t ( s e e n 7 t h i s c h a p t e r )

PAGE 73

73 t he 40 t h pr e s i de nt o f t he U ni t e d S t a t e s i s a c l ow n, or by a ny ot he r i ndi r e c t di s c our s e s e nt e nc e t ha t a t t r i but e s a de c l a r a t i ve ut t e r a nc e t o m e a nd w h os e s ubor di na t e c l a us e c or r e c t l y di s c l os e s t he r e f e r e nt of m y or i gi na l a s s e r t i on a nd t he pr ope r t y t ha t I a t t r i but e d t o t ha t r e f e r e nt S uppos e I ha d t he pr e s i de nt i n m i nd. I f s o, m y u t t e r a nc e c a n be r e por t e d t r ul y by t he s e nt e nc e E l ka s a i d t ha t t he 40 t h pr e s i de nt o f t he U ni t e d S t a t e s i s a c l ow n. Y e t t ha t t he 40 t h pr e s i de nt of t he U ni t e d S t a t e s i s a c l ow n i s not i m m e di a t e l y de r i va bl e a pr i or i gi ve n know l e dge of E ngl i s h a l one a nd t he s uppos i t i on t ha t m y u t t e r a nc e i s t r ue T he ( put a t i v e ) i nf or m a t i on e nc ode d i n m y ut t e r a nc e i n vi r t ue of i t s m e a ni ng, t he n, i s m e r e l y t ha t t he i nd i v i dua l t o w hom t he na m e R ona l d, r e f e r s i n s t a nc e s t he pr ope r t y of be i ng a c l ow n ( t he c ont e xt i n w hi c h I m a de t hi s ut t e r a nc e m i gh t s uppl y a ddi t i ona l i nf or m a t i on a s t o w hom I r e f e r r e d t o by s o us i ng t he e xpr e s s i on, R ona l d ) 9 N or i s t he ( put a t i ve ) i nf or m a t i on t ha t t he 40 t h pr e s i de nt of t he U ni t e d S t a t e s i s a c l ow n e nc ode d i n t he be l i e f m y ut t e r a nc e e x pr e s s e d I c oul d ha ve ha d t hi s be l i e f w hi l e f a i l i ng t o ha ve t he c onc e pt president O f bot h be l i e f s a nd s t a t e m e nt s t he n, t he f ol l ow i ng s e e m s t r ue : T w o be l i e f s ( s t a t e m e nt s ) ha ve t he s a m e t r ut h c ondi t i ons i f t he y ha ve t he s a m e r e f e r e nt i a l c ont e nt ; how e ve r t w o be l i e f s ( s t a t e m e nt s ) m a y di f f e r i n c ogni t i ve ( l i ngui s t i c ) c ont e nt e ve n i f t he y ha ve t he s a m e r e f e r e nt i a l c ont e nt S o, i f c ont e nt i s i nvol ve d i n t h e i nd i vi dua t i on c ondi t i ons o f be l i e f s ( a nd s t a t e m e nt s ) i t w oul d ha ve be c ogni t i ve ( l i ngui s t i c ) c ont e nt T he a c c ount I a m out l i ni ng he r e m e a ns t o t a ke a s t a nc e on t he na t u r e of t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of be l i e f onl y; i t m e a ns t o r e m a i n ne ut r a l c onc e r ni ng t he na t ur e of t he r e f e r e n t i a l c ont e nt of be l i e f ( t hough I do ho l d t ha t t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of a be l i e f de t e r m i ne s i t s r e f e r e nt i a l c ont e nt w ha t e ve r i t i s ) T he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of be l i e f I c l a i m i s w hol l y c ons t i t ut e d by t he c onc e pt s t he be l i e f t o ke ns 9 O b v i o u s l y t h e c o g n i t i v e c o n t e n t o f a b e l i e f t h a t w o u l d c o r r e c t l y b e e x p r e s s e d b y t h e u t t e r a n c e R o n a l d i s a c l o w n n e e d n o t i n c l u d e a n y ( p u t a t i v e ) i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g R o n a l d s n a m e

PAGE 74

74 D i r e c t l y R e f e r r i n g C on c e p t s P r e d i c at i ve C on c e p t s an d L ogi c al C on c e p t s T he c l a i m t ha t t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of a be l i e f i s w hol l y c ons t i t ut e d by t he c onc e pt s i t t oke ns t oge t he r w i t h ( i ) t he c l a i m t ha t t he c ogni t i v e c ont e nt of a ny c o m pl e x c onc e pt t oke n i s a f u nc t i on o f t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt a nd m ode of c o m bi na t i on of t he s i m pl e c onc e pt s t ha t s o c om bi ne d, c ons t i t ut e t he t oke ne d c om pl e x c onc e pt ( i i ) t he vi e w t ha t a ny c ont e nt t ha t c a n be c a r r i e d l i ngui s t i c a l l y by a n ut t e r a nc e c a n a l s o be c a r r i e d c ogn i t i ve l y by a be l i e f a nd ( i i i ) t he vi e w t ha t l i ngui s t i c c ont e nt s c a n ha ve di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c om pone nt s c o m m i t s m e t o t he vi e w t ha t t he r e a r e di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt s D i r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt s how e ve r do not s i t w e l l w i t h c e r t a i n phr a s e s t ha t a r e c o m m onl y e m pl oye d i n di s c us s i ons of c onc e pt s T hi n gs a r e s a i d t o f a l l unde r c o n c e pt s A t hi ng f a l l s unde r a c onc e pt by vi r t ue o f i ns t a nc i ng t he pr ope r t y t ha t t he c onc e pt pi c ks out I n s uc h c a s e s i t s e e m s t he r e l a t i on be t w e e n c o n c e pt a nd w o r l d i s a na l ogous t o t h e r e l a t i on be t w e e n pr e di c a t e a nd w or l d. W ha t a p r e di c a t e c ont r i but e s t o t he l i ngui s t i c c ont e nt of a s e nt e nc e i s t he ( put a t i ve ) i nf or m a t i on t ha t t he p r ope r t y e x pr e s s e d by t he pr e di c a t e i s i ns t a nc e d. S i m i l a r l y, i t m i ght be t hought t ha t w ha t a c onc e pt c ont r i but e s t o t he c ogn i t i ve c ont e nt of a t hought i s t he ( put a t i ve ) i nf or m a t i on t ha t t he c o r r e s pondi ng pr ope r t y i s i ns t a nc e d. I f t he r e a r e di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt s how e ve r t he r e l a t i ons hi p be t w e e n s uc h c onc e pt s a nd t he t hi ngs t o w hi c h t he s e c o n c e pt s a ppl y i s m a r ke dl y di f f e r e nt a nd i s not a m e na bl e t o e xpl i c a t i on a l ong a p r e di c a t i ve m ode l C ons i de r t he be l i e f t ha t I e xp r e s s e d by ut t e r i ng t he s e nt e nc e R ona l d i s a c l ow n. T hi s b e l i e f i s a bout a pa r t i c u l a r i ndi vi dua l na m e l y, R ona l d. L e t us c a l l m y c onc e p t o f t h i s i ndi vi dua l Ronald E ve n i f t he R ona l d I ha ve i n m i nd ha s t he pr ope r t y o f be i ng na m e d R ona l d, i t doe s not s e e m t ha t t he c ont e nt t ha t t he c onc e pt Ronal d c ont r i bu t e s t o t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt o f m y be l i e f i s t ha t t he pr ope r t y of be i ng na m e d R o na l d i s i ns t a nc e d. I m a y ve r y w e l l know t w o

PAGE 75

75 i ndi vi d u a l s na m e d R ona l d, be l i e ve t ha t e a c h i s s o na m e d, a nd be l i e ve t ha t one i s a c l ow n a nd t ha t t he ot he r i s n t w i t hout t he r e be i ng a ny i nc o m pa t i bi l i t y i n c ogni t i ve c ont e nt a m ong t he s e be l i e f s F u r t he r a l t hough I w oul d ne e d t o be l i e ve t ha t R ona l d i s na m e d R ona l d i n o r de r t o e x pr e s s m y be l i e f a s I di d, I c a n c e r t a i nl y be l i e ve t ha t R ona l d i s a c l ow n w i t hou t ha vi ng a ny be l i e f c onc e r ni ng R ona l d s na m e N o r doe s t he c o nc e pt Ronald s e e m t o c ont r i but e ( put a t i ve ) i nf or m a t i on c onc e r ni ng t he i ns t a nc i ng o f s om e ot h e r c om pl e x pr ope r t y, s uc h a s b e i ng t he 40 t h pr e s i de nt of t he U ni t e d S t a t e s or b e i ng t he a c t or w ho pl a ye d t he pa r t of D r a ke M c H ugh i n K i ngs R ow f or a ny s uc h pr ope r t y i t s e e m s I m a y c om e t o be l i e ve t ha t R ona l d f a i l s t o i ns t a nc e i t w i t hout t he r e by c om i ng t o be l i e ve s om e t hi ng w ho s e c ogni t i ve c ont e nt i s i nc om pa t i bl e w i t h t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of m y be l i e f t ha t R ona l d i s a c l o w n. I m a y o f c our s e r e l y on s om e s uc h pr ope r t y t o r e c ogni z e R ona l d. N e ve r t he l e s s i t doe s not s e e m t ha t t he ( put a t i ve ) i n f or m a t i on t ha t Ronald c ont r i but e s t o t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of m y be l i e f t ha t R ona l d i s a c l ow n c onc e r ns t he i ns t a nc i ng of a ny s uc h pr ope r t y. R a t he r w ha t t he c onc e pt Ronald s e e m s t o c ont r i but e t o t he c ogni t i ve c o nt e nt of m y be l i e f i s a r e f e r e nt na m e l y R ona l d. I c a n s i m i l a r l y be s how n t o be c om m i t t e d t o t he e x i s t e nc e of l ogi c a l c onc e pt s w h os e c ont r i but i on t o t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of t hought c a n obvi ous l y not be unde r s t ood a l ong a p r e di c a t i ve m ode l bu t m us t i ns t e a d be s e e n a s a na l ogous t o t he c ont r i but i on m a de by l ogi c a l t e r m s t o t he l i ngui s t i c c ont e nt of ut t e r a nc e s T o m a r k t hi s di f f e r e nc e i n c ont r i but i on t o t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of t hought I i nt r o duc e a di s t i nc t i on be t w e e n d i r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt s pr e di c a t i ve c onc e pt s a nd l ogi c a l c onc e pt s A s j us t not e d, t he c ogni t i ve r o l e of a l ogi c a l c onc e pt i s pr ope r l y unde r s t ood a s a na l ogous t o t he l i n gui s t i c r ol e o f t he c o r r e s pondi ng l ogi c a l t e r m T he c ogni t i ve r ol e of a pr e di c a t i ve c onc e pt i s t o c ont r i but e i nf o r m a t i on c onc e r ni ng t he i ns t a nc i ng o f s om e pr o p e r t y w hi c h t he c onc e pt c a n be s a i d t o pr e di c a t e A n obj e c t f a l l s unde r a pr e di c a t i ve c onc e pt i n vi r t ue of i ns t a nc i ng t he p r ope r t y

PAGE 76

76 t ha t t he c onc e pt pr e di c a t e s F i na l l y t he c o g ni t i ve r ol e of a di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt i s t o c ont r i but e a r e f e r e nt f or p r e d i c a t i ve t hought ( or f or t hought t out c our t i f I c a n p r ope r l y be s a i d t o t hi nk, e g. of R ona l d, w i t hout a t t r i but i ng a ny di s t i nc t pr ope r t y t o hi m ) S yn c h r on i c C ogn i t i ve C on t e n t vs I n d i vi d u a t i n g C ogn i t i ve C o n t e n t N ow i t m a y ve r y w e l l be t ha t w e t ypi c a l l y t oke n b e l i e f s a bout pa r t i c ul a r s by w a y of t oke ni ng c om pl e x r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt s w hos e c ogni t i ve c ont e nt i s c ons t i t ut e d by a s i m pl e di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt a nd s om e pr e di c a t i ve c onc e pt ( e i t he r a s i m pl e p r e di c a t i v e c onc e pt s or a c o m pl e x pr e di c a t i ve c onc e pt c ons t i t ut e d by s i m pl e pr e di c a t i ve c o n c e pt s a nd l ogi c a l c onc e pt s ) us i ng t he pr e di c a t i ve c om pone nt t o ke e p t r a c k of t he r e f e r e nt ( s ) of our t hought N e ve r t he l e s s i t i s pl a us i bl e t ha t t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of our be l i e f s a bout pa r t i c ul a r s doe s i nvol ve s i m pl e di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt s a nd t ha t t he s e pl a y a c r uc i a l r ol e i n our c ogni t i ve e c onom y I nde e d, t hough t he pr e di c a t i ve c om pone nt s w e us e t o ke e p t r a c k of t he r e f e r e nt s of s uc h b e l i e f s of t e n c ha nge ove r t i m e t he c or e c om pone nt s of t he i r c ogni t i ve c ont e nt m a y r e m a i n unc ha nge d ( t ha t t he y c a n s o r e m a i n s e e m s t o be f o r c r e a t ur e s l i ke us a p r e r e qui s i t e f o r c ogn i t i ve s uc c e s s ) S o s uppos e t ha t s om e i ndi vi dua l w e a r i n g a be a r s ui t ( i n a r oom f ul l of or di na r i l y dr e s s e d pe opl e ) m a ke s a c l e ve r c om m e nt S i nc e hi s w e a r i ng a be a r s ui t i n s uc h a s e t t i ng i s r a t he r s t r i ki ng, I m a y r e l y on t hi s f e a t u r e t o ke e p t r a c k of hi m a nd c om e t o ha ve a be l i e f t ha t c a r r i e s c ogni t i ve l y t he c ont e nt c a r r i e d l i ngui s t i c a l l y by t he s e nt e nc e T he i ndi vi dua l w e a r i ng a be a r s ui t ha s m a de a c l e ve r c om m e nt S houl d I s e e hi m r e m ove hi s c os t um e t o r e ve a l S pi de r m a n pa j a m a s I m a y c om e t o ke e p t r a c k o f hi m a s t he i ndi v i dua l w e a r i ng S pi de r m a n pa j a m a s I n s uc h a c a s e i f a l l goe s a s i t s houl d, I w o ul d a l s o qui t e na t ur a l l y a dj us t t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt o f m y be l i e f by upda t i ng i t s t r a c ki ng c onc e pt s t o p r e s e r ve t he c or e c om pone nt s of i t s c ogn i t i ve c ont e nt

PAGE 77

77 na m e l y, t ha t [ he ] ha s m a de a c l e ve r c om m e nt ( w h e r e he s t a nds f or a s i m pl e di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c o nc e pt w hos e r e f e r e nt i s t he i ndi vi dua l w ho m a de t he c l e ve r c o m m e nt ) A l t hough t hi s e xa m pl e doubt l e s s l y f a i l s t o do j us t i c e t o t he i nt r i c a c y of t he pr e di c a t i ve c om pone nt s t ypi c a l l y i nvol ve d i n our c om pl e x r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt s t he b a s i c pi c t ur e i t s ugge s t s s e e m s c or r e c t T he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of our be l i e f s a bout pa r t i c ul a r s doe s s e e m t o i nvo l ve s i m pl e di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt s F u r t he r i t i s pl a us i bl e t ha t s i m pl e di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt s a r e s e l dom t oke ne d a s s uc h ( i e a s c om pone nt s of c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s w hos e l ogi c o s e m a nt i c f or m c a n be r e p r e s e nt e d a s e g. a is F w he r e a s t a nds f or a s i m pl e di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt a nd F s t a nds f or a pr e di c a t i ve c onc e pt ) but a r e t ypi c a l l y t oke ne d i ns t e a d a s c ons t i t ue nt s of c om pl e x r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt s i n vol vi ng a pr e di c a t i ve e l e m e nt w hos e c ogni t i ve r ol e s e e m s t o be t o t r a c k t he r e f e r e nt of t he c onc e pt ( i e a s c o ns t i t u e nt s of c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s w hos e l ogi c o s e m a nt i c f or m c a n be r e pr e s e nt e d a s e g a [ the X ] is F w he r e X s t a nds f or a p r e di c a t i ve c on c e pt a [ the X ] s t a nds f or a c om pl e x r e f e r r i n g c onc e pt a nd [ the X ] r e pr e s e nt s X a s pr e di c a t i ng X uni que l y of a ) N e ve r t he l e s s t he c o gni t i ve c ont e nt of be l i e f s i nvol vi ng c om pl e x r e f e r r i ng c o n c e pt s s e e m s t o be i ndi vi dua t e d ( ove r t i m e a t l e a s t ) i n t e r m s o f t he s i m pl e di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c om pone nt r a t he r t ha n t he p r e di c a t i ve c o m pone nt of t he i r c ons t i t ue nt c om pl e x r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt ( s ) S o i n t he e xa m pl e j us t c ons i d e r e d, i t doe s not s e e m t ha t I r e l i nqui s he d one be l i e f a nd a c qui r e d a not he r onc e t he i ndi vi d ua l w h o m a de a c l e ve r c om m e nt r e m ove d hi s be a r s ui t ; r a t he r w ha t i s e s s e nt i a l t o t he i de nt i t y o f m y be l i e f ove r t i m e s e e m s t o ha ve r e m a i ne d c ons t a nt de s pi t e m y us i ng di f f e r e nt pr e di c a t i ve c on c e pt s t o ke e p t r a c k of t he ob j e c t of m y be l i e f R e f l e c t i on on t hi s hum d r um ( i f s om e w ha t i de a l i z e d) c a s e s ugge s t s t he f ol l ow i ng t h e s e s : L e t t he r e be t w o c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s w hos e c ons t i t ue nt s a r e : ( i ) a [ the X ] is F ( i i ) a [ the Y ] is F

PAGE 78

78 w he r e a s t a nds f or a s i m pl e di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c o nc e pt a nd F X a nd Y s t a nd f or di s t i nc t p r e di c a t i ve c onc e pt s ; l e t ( i ) be t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt o f s om e be l i e f s t a t e b 1 a t s om e t i m e t i l e t ( i i ) be t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of s om e ot he r be l i e f s t a t e b 2 a t s om e t i m e t j T he n: ( d) b 1 a nd b 2 ha ve t he s a m e i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c o nt e nt na m e l y, a is F w he r e i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s t a nds f or t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt t ha t i ndi vi d u a t e s a be l i e f ove r t i m e ; ( e ) i f s om e be l i e ve r S ha s b 1 a t t i t he n a t t i t he c a non i c a l w a y f or S t o ve r i f y t ha t a i s F i s by w a y of ve r i f yi ng t ha t t he X i s F ( t he s a m e i s t r ue m ut at i s m ut andi s f o r b 2 ) ; ( f ) ha vi ng b 1 a nd b 2 ne e d not pl a c e S i n a pos i t i on t o j udge t ha t t he X = t he Y H e nc e f or t h, I w i l l us e s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt t o r e f e r t o t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt t ha t a be l i e f c ont r i but e s a t a gi ve n t i m e t o t he c ogni t i ve pr oc e s s e s of w hi c h i t i s a pa r t a nd i ndi v i dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt t o r e f e r t o t ha t pa r t of i t s c ogni t i ve c ont e nt t ha t i ndi v i dua t e s i t ove r t i m e N ot e ho w e ve r t ha t I a m not s ugge s t i ng t ha t e a c h be l i e f ha s t w o di s t i nc t c ont e nt s R a t he r I a m pr opos i ng t ha t i n t he c a s e of our be l i e f s a bout pa r t i c ul a r s a t l e a s t e a c h c o n c e pt t ha t i s i nc l ude d i n t he c ont e nt t ha t a be l i e f c ont r i but e s a t a t i m e t o t he c ogni t i ve pr oc e s s e s of w hi c h i t i s a pa r t ne e d not be i nc l ude d i n t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt t ha t i ndi vi d u a t e s t ha t be l i e f ove r t i m e T he i ndi vi dua t i ng a nd s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s of be l i e f m a y be de f i ne d a s f ol l ow s : I ndi vi dua t i ng C ogni t i ve C ont e nt : L e t b be a pa r t i c ul a r be l i e f s t a t e s uc h t ha t be i ng i n b r e qui r e s t oke ni ng c onc e pt s c 1 c n a nd l e t k be t he know l e dge t ha t a nyone w ho pos s e s s e s c 1 c n ha s j us t by vi r t ue o f pos s e s s i ng t hos e c onc e pt s B e l i e f b i s i ndi vi dua t e d by t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt t h a t p j us t i n c a s e f r om k a l one a nd t he s uppos i t i on t ha t b i s t r ue i t i s i m m e di a t e l y a pr i o r i de r i va bl e t ha t p A ny t w o pa r t i c ul a r be l i e f s t a t e s b 1 a nd b 2 t ha t m e e t t he a bove c ondi t i on c ount a s be i ng o f t he s a m e i ndi vi dua t i ng t ype ( i e a s be i ng t he s a m e be l i e f w he r e be l i e f i s us e d t o r e f e r t o a t ype of s t a t e r a t he r t ha n t o a pa r t i c ul a r s t a t e ) by v i r t ue of ha vi ng t he s a m e i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c o n t e nt

PAGE 79

79 S ync hr oni c C ogni t i ve C ont e nt : L e t b be a pa r t i c ul a r be l i e f s t a t e i ndi vi dua t e d by t h e c ont e nt t ha t p a nd l e t S ha ve b a t t I f t he i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt o f b c a n be r e pr e s e nt e d a s a is F t he n t he s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of b a t t c a n be r e pr e s e nt e d a s a [ the X ] is F j us t i n c a s e t he c a noni c a l w a y f o r S t o ve r i f y a t t t h a t a i s F i s f or S t o ve r i f y t ha t t he X i s F W he ne ve r t w o pa r t i c ul a r be l i e f s t a t e s b 1 a nd b 2 m e e t t h e a bove c ondi t i on, b 1 a nd b 2 ha ve t he s a m e s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt ( i e b 1 a nd b 2 m a ke t he s a m e t ype of c ont r i but i on w hi l e t he y a r e unde r gone t o t he c ogni t i ve pr oc e s s e s of w hi c h t he y a r e a pa r t ) I nt r os pe c t i on c or r obo r a t e s t he t he s e s out l i ne d a bov e i e t he s e s ( a ) ( b) a nd ( c ) O ur b e l i e f s c onc e r ni ng pa r t i c ul a r s s e e m t o be a bout pa r t i c ul a r s r a t he r t ha n a bout pa r t i c u l a r s a s pi c ke d ou t i n s pe c i f i c w a ys A l t hough t he w a ys i n w hi c h w e pi c k out pa r t i c ul a r s m a y c ha nge s i gni f i c a nt l y ove r t i m e s o s i gn i f i c a nt l y, i nde e d, t ha t none of t h e pr ope r t i e s i n l i ght o f w hi c h w e i de nt i f y a n obj e c t a t one t i m e ne e d be i nc l ude d a m ong t he p r o pe r t i e s i n l i ght of w hi c h w e i de n t i f y i t a t a l a t e r t i m e our be l i e f s a bout t he m m a y ne ve r t he l e s s r e m a i n c ons t a nt F u r t he r a l t hough our c ogn i t i ve m a ke up s e e m s t o be s uc h t ha t a t a ny gi ve n t i m e w e t ypi c a l l y i de nt i f y pa r t i c ul a r s i n l i ght of a s pe c i f i c s e t of pr ope r t i e s ( w e m a y e ve n b e s ubj e c t t o a nom ol ogi c a l c o m pul s i on t o do s o w he n t he pa r t i c ul a r s i nvol ve d a r e c onc r e t e pa r t i c u l a r s w i t h w hi c h w e a r e pe r c e pt ua l l y a c qua i nt e d) a nd, s o, t hi nk of t he m a t t ha t t i m e a s f a l l i ng unde r t he c onj un c t i ve pr e di c a t i ve c onc e pt t ha t c or r e s ponds t o t hi s s e t o f p r ope r t i e s t he r ol e t ha t s uc h pr e di c a t i ve c onc e pt s pl a y i n ou r c ogni t i ve l i ve s i s a nc i l l a r y ( a l be i t i m po r t a nt ) A l t h ough t he y a r e us e f ul ( i n s om e c a s e s pe r ha ps e ve n i ndi s pe ns a bl e ) i n i de nt i f yi ng t he pa r t i c ul a r ob j e c t of ou r be l i e f a t a t i m e ( o r pe r i od of t i m e ) a nd s e e m t o be pa r t of t he s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c o nt e nt of t ha t be l i e f a t t ha t t i m e ( or pe r i od o f t i m e ) t he y a r e no t pa r t i t s i nd i vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt P r e di c a t i ve c onc e pt s t he n, s e e m t o m a ke di f f e r e nt c ont r i but i ons t o t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of our be l i e f s a bout pa r t i c ul a r s de pe ndi ng on w he t he r t he i r c ogn i t i ve r ol e i s t o i de nt i f y t he obj e c t o f our be l i e f ( l e t us c a l l t hi s r o l e t he i de nt i f yi ng r ol e ; he nc e f or t h, I w i l l us e i de nt i f yi ng c onc e pt

PAGE 80

80 t o m e a n p r e di c a t i ve c onc e pt t oke ne d i n a n i de nt i f yi ng r ol e ) or t o a t t r i but e a pr ope r t y t o t ha t o b j e c t ( l e t us c a l l t hi s r ol e t he a t t r i but i ve r ol e ; he nc e f or t h, I w i l l us e a t t r i but i ve c onc e pt t o m e a n pr e di c a t i ve c onc e pt t oke ne d i n a n a t t r i but i v e r ol e ) W he n, r e l a t i ve t o a gi ve n be l i e f a pr e di c a t i ve c onc e pt pl a ys a n i de nt i f yi ng r ol e i t i s not pa r t o f t he i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of t ha t be l i e f t hough i t i s pa r t of i t s s ync hr oni c c o gn i t i ve c ont e nt w hi l e p l a yi ng t ha t r ol e B y c ont r a s t w he n a p r e di c a t i ve c onc e pt pl a ys a n a t t r i but i ve r ol e r e l a t i ve t o a gi ve n be l i e f i t i s i t i s pa r t bot h o f t he i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c o n t e nt o f t ha t be l i e f a nd of a ny s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt t ha t be l i e f m i ght ha ve a t a ny gi ve n t i m e T he s e c ons i de r a t i ons l e nd s u p por t t o T he s i s ( a ) a bove A l t hough i de nt i f yi ng c onc e pt s a r e not pa r t o f t he i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of ou r b e l i e f s a bo ut pa r t i c ul a r s t he y a r e ne ve r t he l e s s c r uc i a l t o ou r c ogni t i ve l i ve s I nde e d, a t a ny gi ve n m om e nt ou r c ogni t i ve a c c e s s t o pa r t i c ul a r obj e c t s of be l i e f i s t ypi c a l l y by w a y of i de nt i f yi ng c onc e pt s a t a ny gi ve n m om e nt w e a r e t ypi c a l l y a s i t w e r e be hi nd t he ve i l of t he i de nt i f yi ng c onc e pt s w e t oke n a t t ha t m om e nt 1 0 F or t hi s r e a s on, t he on l y w a y w e t ypi c a l l y ha ve o f a ns w e r i ng que s t i ons a s t o w ha t t o be l i e ve a bout a gi ve n o bj e c t of be l i e f i s by c ons i de r i ng t he obj e c t as w e c ur r e nt l y i de nt i f y i t F or t hi s r e a s on a l s o, i n c a s e s i n w hi c h w e hol d s e v e r a l be l i e f s a bout a s i ngl e obj e c t e i t he r s i m ul t a ne ous l y or ove r t i m e a nd i n w hi c h e a c h be l i e f i de nt i f i e s t hi s obj e c t i n a di s t i nc t w a y, w e m a y f a i l t o r e a l i z e ( a nd t o be i n a pos i t i on t o r e a l i z e ) t ha t t he y a r e be l i e f s a bout a s i ngl e obj e c t T hi s e xpl a i ns a n unf o r t una t e f e a t ur e o f our c ogni t i ve l i ve s A l t hough w e s e e m c ogn i t i ve l y i nc a pa bl e of c ons c i ous l y a c c e pt i ng be l i e f s t ha t i de nt i f y t he i r obj e c t i de nt i c a l l y 1 0 T h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n t y p i c a l l y m e a n s t o a l l o w f o r t h e e x i s t e n c e o f b e l i e f s w h o s e c o n t e n t s i n c l u d e s i m p l e d i r e c t l y r e f e r r i n g c o n c e p t s t o k e n e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f a n y i d e n t i f y i n g c o n c e p t s T h e o n l y b e l i e f s t h a t p l a u s i b l y a n s w e r t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n a r e f i r s t p e r s o n b e l i e f s F u r t h e r i t i s p l a u s i b l e t h a t w h e n a s i m p l e d i r e c t l y r e f e r r i n g c o n c e p t i s t o k e n e d b y i t s r e f e r e n t i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h a n i d e n t i f y i n g c o n c e p t t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e r e f e r e n t i d e n t i f i e s i t s e l f t h i s s i m p l e d i r e c t l y r e f e r r i n g c o n c e p t i s n o t t o k e n e d f i r s t p e r s o n a l l y O n t h e a c c o u n t I a m p r o p o s i n g t h e n p r o p e r l y d e s e b e l i e f s a r e b e l i e f s t h a t i n v o l v e a s i m p l e d i r e c t l y r e f e r r i n g c o n c e p t t o k e n e d b y i t s r e f e r e n t i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f a n y i d e n t i f y i n g c o n c e p t s I w i l l r e t u r n t o t h i s i s s u e i n C h a p t e r 5

PAGE 81

81 a nd a t t r i but e c ont r a di c t or y p r ope r t i e s t o i t e g t o be l i e f s w hos e s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c o n t e nt s ha ve t he f or m a [ the X ] is F and a [ the X ] is not F a t l e a s t i n c a s e s w he n t he c om pl e xi t y of t he a t t r i but i ve c onc e pt s i n vol ve d i s not t oo g r e a t w e c a n ( a nd, s a dl y, o f t e n do) f a l l pr e y t o be l i e f s w hos e i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt i s c ont r a di c t or y but t ha t i de nt i f y t he i r obj e c t i n di s t i nc t w a ys e g. t o be l i e f s w hos e s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s ha ve t he f or m a [ the X ] is F and a [ the Y ] is not F C ons i de r a t i on of t he phe nom e nol ogy of be l i e f t he n, l e nds s upp or t t o t he pr opos e d di s t i n c t i on be t w e e n s ync hr oni c a nd i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt a nd t o t he a t t e nda nt a c c ount of t he c ont r i but i on t ha t i de nt i f yi ng a nd a t t r i but i ve c onc e p t s m a ke t o t he s e c o n t e nt s ( i e t o t he s e s ( a ) ( c ) a bove ) S i nc e t he s e t he s e s c oul d not be f or m ul a t e d w i t hout pos i t i ng t he e xi s t e nc e of s i m pl e di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt s t he pl a us i bi l i t y of t he s e t he s e s s pe a ks i n f a vor of t he vi e w t ha t t he r e a r e s uc h c onc e pt s a nd t ha t t he y a r e r e qui r e d c om p one nt s of bot h t he s ync hr oni c a nd t he i nd i vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s of our be l i e f s a bout p a r t i c ul a r s ( a ny be l i e f t ha t doe s not i n c l ude s uc h a c om pone nt i s s i m pl y not be a be l i e f a bout a pa r t i c ul a r ) B e l i e f s A b ou t N on E xi s t e n t P ar t i c u l ar s Y e t t hi s vi e w f a c e s a c ha l l e nge w hi c h m i r r or s t he c ha l l e nge f a c e d by s e m a nt i c t he or i e s t ha t pos i t t he e xi s t e nc e of di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng e xpr e s s i ons W e c a n, i t s e e m s ha ve be l i e f s a bout non e xi s t e nt pa r t i c u l a r s L i t t l e B a s i l c a n be l i e ve t h a t R udol ph i s a f l yi ng r e i nde e r t ha t ha s a s hi ny r e d nos e a nd c r a z y J a ne c a n, i n a f i t of pa r a n oi d de l us i on, b e l i e ve t ha t t he m a n i n b l a c k w ho ha s be e n f ol l ow i ng he r a l l da y i s a s e c r e t a ge n t a nd s he c a n do s o e ve n i f no one ha s be e n f ol l ow i ng he r a t a l l W ha t i s a p r opone nt o f t he v i e w t ha t s i m pl e di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt s a r e r e qui r e d c om pone nt s of t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of ou r be l i e f s a bout pa r t i c ul a r s t o s a y a bout t he ( put a t i ve ) c ont e nt of ( put a t i ve ) be l i e f s a bout non e xi s t e nt pa r t i c ul a r s ?

PAGE 82

82 T he r e s e e m t o be t w o t he s e s t ha t a p r opone nt of di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt s m i gh t e ndor s e i n r e s pons e t o t hi s c ha l l e nge A c c or di ng t o t he f i r s t t he s i s t he r e c a n on l y e xi s t a d i r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt i f t he c o r r e s pondi ng obj e c t e xi s t s a l s o. O n t hi s vi e w w e c a nnot ha ve be l i e f s about non e xi s t e nt pa r t i c ul a r s W e c a n, how e ve r be u nd e r t he i l l u s i on of ha vi ng s uc h a be l i e f w he n w e t oke n a n i de nt i f y i ng c onc e pt a nd u t i l i z e i t i n t h ought a s i f i t w e r e a s s oc i a t e d w i t h a s i m pl e di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt S o, e g one m a y be un de r t he i l l us i on t ha t t he s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c o n t e nt of on e s be l i e f ha s t he f or m a [ the X ] is F a nd t ha t i t s i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt ha s t he f or m a is F w he n t he a c t ua l f or m of i t s s ync hr oni c a nd i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt i s the X is F O n t hi s vi e w t he n, s uc h b e l i e f s a r e no t a bout pa r t i c ul a r s a t a l l ( t hough o ne m a y be unde r t he i l l us i on t ha t t he y a r e ) I f one c ons t r ue s t he s a t i s f a c t i on c ond i t i ons of s uc h be l i e f s t o r e qui r e m e r e l y t ha t t he r e be a uni que obj e c t t ha t f a l l s unde r t he i de nt i f yi ng c onc e pt c or r e s pon d i ng t o X a nd t he a t t r i but i v e c onc e pt c or r e s pondi ng t o F i n t he s c he m a a bove s uc h be l i e f s a r e t r ut h e va l u a bl e ( w he n t he r e i s no s uc h obj e c t t he y a r e f a l s e ) O n t hi s vi e w t he f o r m o f t he e xi s t e nt i a l c om m i t m e nt ge ne r a t e d by be l i e f s w hos e c ogni t i ve c ont e nt i nvol ve s a s i m pl e di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c om po ne nt i s di s t i nc t f r om t ha t ge ne r a t e d by be l i e f s w hos e c ogni t i ve c ont e nt i nvol ve s no s uc h c om pon e nt I n t he f or m e r c a s e be l i e ve r s a r e c om m i t t e d t o t he e xi s t e nc e of t he r e f e r e nt o f a ny o f t he s i m pl e di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt s t he i r be l i e f s t oke n ( i n ot he r w or ds t he c om m i t m e nt i nvol ve s a r e f e r e nt i a l c om pone nt ) W he n t he s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of s uc h a be l i e f i nc l ude s i de nt i f y i ng c onc e pt s be l i e ve r s unde r t a ke t he a dd i t i ona l c o m m i t m e nt t ha t t he r e f e r e nt of t he i r s i m pl e di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt s f a l l unde r t he r e l e va nt i de nt i f yi ng c onc e pt s ( a t t he r e l e va nt t i m e ) I n t he l a t t e r c a s e by c ont r a s t t he c om m i t m e nt i nvol ve s no r e f e r e nt i a l c om pone nt ( s i nc e no s uc h c om pone nt i s i nvol ve d i n t he s ync hr oni c

PAGE 83

83 c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of t he r e l e va nt be l i e f ) S o, t he c om m i t m e nt i s m e r e l y t o t he e xi s t e nc e of s om e uni que obj e c t f a l l i ng unde r t he r e l e va nt i de nt i f yi ng c onc e pt s ( a t t he r e l e va nt t i m e ) A c c or di ng t o t he s e c ond t he s i s t he r e c a n e xi s t a d i r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt e ve n i f t he r e e xi s t s no c o r r e s pondi ng obj e c t O n t hi s vi e w s i m pl e di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt s a r e c onc e pt s t ha t ope r a t e i n t hought j us t a s i f t he y c ont r i but e d a r e f e r e nt a nd do s o i r r e s pe c t i ve of t he e xi s t e nc e of t he i r put a t i ve r e f e r e nt A c c or di ng t o t he s e c ond op t i on, t he c ogn i t i ve c ont e nt o f be l i e f s a bout non e xi s t e nt pa r t i c ul a r s c a n ha ve t he s a m e l ogi c o s e m a nt i c f or m a s t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of be l i e f s a bout e xi s t e nt pa r t i c ul a r s T he di f f e r e nc e b e t w e e n b e l i e f s a bout e xi s t e nt a nd non e xi s t e nt pa r t i c ul a r s i s t ha t t he f or m e r b ut not t he l a t t e r a r e t r ut h e va l ua bl e J us t a s t he l ogi c o s e m a nt i c f or m o f t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt o f be l i e f s a bout pa r t i c ul a r s i s i nde pe nde nt of t he e xi s t e nc e of t he i r put a t i ve obj e c t s o i s t he f o r m o f t he c om m i t m e nt t ha t s uc h be l i e f s ge ne r a t e B y vi r t u e of ha vi ng be l i e f s a bout pa r t i c ul a r s ( be t he y e xi s t e nt o r non e xi s t e nt ) be l i e ve r s a r e c om m i t t e d t o t he e xi s t e nc e of t he r e f e r e nt o f a ny of t he s i m pl e di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt s t he i r be l i e f s t oke n. W he n t he s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt o f s uc h a be l i e f i n c l ude s i de nt i f yi ng c onc e pt s be l i e ve r s unde r t a ke t he a dd i t i ona l c om m i t m e nt t ha t t he r e f e r e nt of t he i r s i m pl e di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt s f a l l unde r t he r e l e va nt i de nt i f yi ng c o n c e pt s ( a t t he r e l e va nt t i m e ) T he vi r t ue of t he s e c ond a ppr oa c h i s t ha t i t o f f e r s a uni f i e d a c c ount o f t he c ogni t i ve c o nt e nt s of be l i e f s w hos e c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s s e e m i nt r os pe c t i ve l y, t o be i de nt i c a l I t s d r a w ba c k i s t ha t i t pos i t s t he e xi s t e nc e of c onc e pt s w hi c h, t hou gh c a pa bl e of be i ng pos s e s s e d, a r e s e m a nt i c a l l y de f e c t i ve i n s uc h a w a y t ha t be l i e f s i nvol vi ng t he m a r e not t r ut h e va l ua bl e S uc h a vi e w w oul d be e s pe c i a l l y unc onge ni a l t o p r opone nt s of t he vi e w t ha t c o n c e pt s a r e c ons t i t ue nt s of pr opos i t i ons ( i f pr opos i t i ons a r e t a ke n t o be t r ut h e va l ua bl e e nt i t i e s ) T he f i r s t a pp r oa c h a voi ds t he di f f i c ul t i e s f a c e d by t he s e c ond a p pr oa c h. Y e t t he f i r s t a pp r oa c h c onf l i c t s w i t h i nt r os pe c t i on,

PAGE 84

84 a s i t a s s i gns di s t i nc t s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s t o b e l i e f s w hos e c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s s e e m i nt r os pe c t i ve l y, t o be i de nt i c a l S o t he f i r s t a ppr oa c h s e e m s c om m i t t e d t o de nyi ng t ha t be l i e ve r s ha ve pr i v i l e ge d a c c e s s t o t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of t he i r ow n be l i e f s S i nc e s e t t l i ng t hi s i s s ue i s not c r uc i a l t o t he r e m a i nde r of m y pr oj e c t I ne e d n ot c hoos e be t w e e n t he s e a ppr oa c he s T ha t s i m pl e di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt s a r e r e qui r e d t o a c c ount f or t he i de nt i t y of be l i e f s a bout pa r t i c ul a r s ove r t i m e I t a ke i t i s r e a s on e nough t o pos i t t he i r e xi s t e nc e de s pi t e t he s e t he or e t i c a l di f f i c ul t i e s B e l i e f s ab ou t M i s i d e n t i f i e d P ar t i c u l ar s A pr opone nt o f t he v i e w I ha ve be e n a dvoc a t i ng m us t a ns w e r a not he r que s t i on, na m e l y w ha t a r e t he t r ut h c o n di t i ons of be l i e f s w hos e s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt i nc l ude s a c om pl e x di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt i n c a s e s w he n t he r e f e r e nt of t he i r c om pone nt s i m pl e d i r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt doe s not f a l l unde r t he i r c om pone nt i de nt i f yi ng c onc e pt ? I n ot he r w or ds w ha t a r e t he t r ut h c ondi t i ons o f be l i e f s w hos e s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c o n t e nt i nc l ude s e g. a c onc e pt o f t he f or m a [ the X ] w he n a e i t he r doe s not f a l l o r i s not t he uni que obj e c t f a l l i ng unde r X ? O ne m i ght doubt t ha t s uc h a c a s e i s pos s i bl e I nde e d, f or a be l i e f t o be a bout a gi ve n pa r t i c ul a r i t s e e m s t ha t be l i e f m us t s om e how s uc c e e d i n i de nt i f yi ng t ha t pa r t i c ul a r O n t hi s vi e w a be l i e f c a nnot s u c c e e d i n r e f e r r i ng t o a n obj e c t w hi l e m i s i de nt i f yi ng i t be l i e f s e i t he r s uc c e e d i n i de nt i f yi ng t he i r obj e c t ( by i de nt i f yi ng i t c o r r e c t l y) or f a i l t o r e f e r a l t oge t he r I w i l l s how i n C ha pt e r 5 t ha t s uc h be l i e f s a r e pos s i bl e a s t he y m a y a r i s e i n t he c ont e xt of r e a s oni ng. A c c ount i ng f or t he pos s i bi l i t y t ha t a be l i e f m a y m i s i de nt i f y i t s obj e c t r e qui r e s one t o hol d t ha t t he t r u t h va l ue of a be l i e f i s de t e r m i ne d by i t s i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt L e t us s uppos e t ha t t he s ync hr oni c c ogni t i v e c ont e nt o f t h e be l i e f i n que s t i on ha s t he f o r m a [ the X ] is F O n t he vi e w t ha t i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt de t e r m i ne s t r ut h va l ue t h i s be l i e f i s

PAGE 85

85 t r ue j us t i n c a s e a f a l l s unde r F N e ve r t he l e s s a pr opone nt of t h i s a n s w e r m a y hol d t ha t a be l i e f t ha t i nc l ude s a c onc e pt of t he f o r m a [ the X ] t h ough t r ue i s doxa s t i c a l l y de f e c t i ve w he n a e i t he r doe s not f a l l or i s not t he uni que obj e c t f a l l i ng, unde r X i n t ha t i t f a i l s t o pl a c e t he be l i e ve r i n a s ui t a bl e pos i t i on t o ve r i f y t ha t he r be l i e f i s t r u e gi ve n t ha t pe r t he s i s ( b) a bove t he c a non i c a l w a y f or S t o ve r i f y t ha t a i s F i s by w a y of ve r i f yi ng t ha t t he X i s F w he n a doe s not f a l l or i s not t he uni que ob j e c t f a l l i ng unde r X S i s not i s a pos i t i on t o ve r i f y t ha t a i s F T he a l t e r na t i ve vi e w a c c or di ng t o w hi c h t he t r ut h va l ue of a be l i e f i s de t e r m i ne d by i t s s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt i s i m pl a us i bl e s i nc e i t i s c om m i t t e d t o t he unt o w a r d r e s ul t t ha t t he t r ut h va l ue of a be l i e f m a y c ha nge e ve n i f t he r e i s no c or r e s pondi ng c ha nge i n t he pa r t i c u l a r t ha t t hi s be l i e f r e pr e s e nt s ( t hi s i s s o r e ga r dl e s s of w he t h e r one t a ke s be l i e f s t ha t i n c l ude a c onc e pt o f t he f or m a [ the X ] t o be f a l s e o r non t r ut h e va l ua bl e w he n a doe s not f a l l o r i s not t he uni que obj e c t f a l l i ng unde r X ) S o s uppos e t h a t a i s F S uppos e f ur t he r t ha t a i s a l w a ys t he Y a nd ne ve r t he X N ow s uppos e I ha ve a be l i e f i nd i vi dua t e d by t he c ont e nt a is F a nd w hi c h ha s t he s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt a [ the X ] is F a t t 1 a nd t he s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt a [ the Y ] is F a t t 2 O n t he vi e w t ha t t he t r ut h va l ue of a be l i e f i s de t e r m i ne d by i t s s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt m y be l i e f w oul d ha v e be e n f a l s e ( or non t r u t h e va l ua bl e ) a t t 1 t he n t r ue a t t 2 e ve n t hough t he pa r t i c ul a r r e pr e s e nt e d by m y be l i e f unde r w e nt no r e l e va nt c ha nge ( a nd e ve n t hough m y be l i e f ha s ha d t he s a m e i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt t hr oug h out ) C on c e p t s as I n d i vi d u at e d b y t h e i r P os s e s s i on C on d i t i on s T he s e i s s ue s s e t a s i de t he ge ne r a l t he s i s t ha t t he f o r e goi ng r e f l e c t i on s ugge s t s i s t ha t t he r e a r e di f f e r e nt t ype s of c onc e pt w hi c h di f f e r by v i r t ue of t he t ype of c ont r i b u t i on t he y m a ke t o t he s ync hr oni c / i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of t hou ght T he di s t i n c t i on a m ong di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt s pr e di c a t i ve c onc e pt s a nd l ogi c a l c onc e pt s s e e m s t o pr ovi de a n e xha us t i ve t a xonom y o f

PAGE 86

86 t he s e t ype s ( c onc e r ni ng pr e di c a t i ve c onc e pt s a f ur t he r di s t i nc t i on m us t be m a de be t w e e n t he i r c ont r i but i on w he n t oke ne d i n a n i de nt i f yi ng r ol e a nd t he i r c ont r i b u t i on w he n t oke ne d i n a n a t t r i but i ve r o l e ) B ut t hi s s a ys l i t t l e a bout t he na t ur e of c onc e pt s C onc e r ni ng t he na t u r e of c onc e pt s ge ne r a l l y, I e ndo r s e t he ge ne r a l out l i ne s of t he a c c ount P e a c oc ke pr opos e s i n A S t udy of C o n c e pt s a c c or di ng t o w hi c h c onc e pt s a r e f ul l y i n di vi dua t e d by t he i r pos s e s s i ons c ondi t i ons w hi c h s pe c i f y t he c ondi t i ons unde r w hi c h a t hi nke r pos s e s s i ng t he r e l e va nt c onc e pt f i nds t r a ns i t i ons t o a nd f r om pr opos i t i ona l a t t i t ude s c ont a i ni n g t hi s c onc e pt pr i m i t i ve l y c om pe l l i ng N ot e t ha t t he t ype o f c ont r i but i on t ha t a gi ve n c onc e pt m a ke s t o t he c ogn i t i ve c ont e nt of t ho ught i s s pe c i f i e d by t he pos s e s s i on c ond i t i ons of t ha t c onc e pt O n P e a c oc ke s vi e w a s on t he vi e w I pr e s e nt e d a bove c onc e pt s a r e e i t he r s i m pl e or c om pl e x, a nd t he pos s e s s i on c ondi t i ons of c o m pl e x c onc e pt s a r e a f unc t i on of t he pos s e s s i on c on di t i ons of t he i r s i m pl e c om pone nt c onc e pt s a nd t he i r m ode s of c om bi n a t i on. O n t he vi e w I a m e nd or s i ng, t he n, a c c or di ng t o w hi c h t he c ont e nt of be l i e f i s f ul l y c ons t i t ut e d by c onc e pt s i n gi ve n m ode s of c om bi na t i on, t he s ync hr oni c a nd i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s o f be l i e f a r e c om p l e x c onc e pt s ; s o, t he s ync hr oni c a nd i ndi vi d u a t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s o f be l i e f a r e a l s o f ul l y i ndi vi dua t e d by t he i r pos s e s s i on c ondi t i ons S o m y e ndor s e m e nt of P e a c oc ke s a c c ount of c onc e pt s s e e m s t o c om m i t m e t o hol di ng t ha t one c a n onl y ha ve s om e be l i e f b i f o ne f ul l y s a t i s f i e s t he pos s e s s i on c ondi t i ons of i t s s i m pl e c om p o ne nt c onc e pt s 1 1 B e f or e I p r oc e e d t o di s c us s i ng P e a c oc ke s a c c ount of c onc e pt s I s houl d pa us e a nd t a ke s t oc k of w ha t I ha ve a c c om pl i s he d s o f a r I s t a t e d a t t he out s e t t ha t I i n t e nde d t o a r t i c ul a t e a nd de f e nd t he vi e w t ha t be l i e f i s a ps yc hol ogi c a l s t a t e i ndi vi dua t e d by i t s a i m f unc t i on a nd c ogn i t i ve c ont e nt I ha ve a r gue d t ha t t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of be l i e f i s w hol l y c ons t i t ut e d by c onc e pt s 1 1 P e a c o c k e i n v o k e s a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n b e l i e f p o s s e s s i o n c o n d i t i o n s a n d b e l i e f a t t r i b u t i o n c o n d i t i o n s t o d e n y t h i s c o m m i t m e n t ; I d i s c u s s t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n b e l o w

PAGE 87

87 R e f l e c t i on, how e ve r r e ve a l e d t he ne e d t o di s t i ngui s h be t w e e n t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt a be l i e f ha s a t a t i m e a nd t he c ogni t i ve c o n t e nt t ha t i ndi vi dua t e s t hi s be l i e f ove r t i m e I n t he c a s e of our be l i e f s a bout pa r t i c ul a r s i n di vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt m a y be a pr ope r pa r t o f s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt ( w he r e bot h t ype s of c ont e nt a r e c onc e i ve d a s s e t s of s i m pl e c onc e pt s r a t he r t ha n c om pl e x c onc e pt s ) w hi l e i n t he c a s e of our g e ne r a l be l i e f s i ndi vi dua t i ng a nd s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s pr e s um a bl y a l w a ys c oi nc i de I f s o, t he n be l i e f i s a ps yc hol ogi c a l s t a t e i nd i vi dua t e d by i t s a i m f un c t i on a nd i nd i vi dua t i ng c og ni t i ve c ont e nt I f t hi s r e f l e c t i on i s c or r e c t t he n i t m a y be us e f ul t o di s t i ngui s h be t w e e n be l i e f a nd t he c ogni t i ve s t a t e s t ha t r e a l i z e be l i e f O n t he pr o pos e d nom e nc l a t ur e t he c ogni t i ve s t a t e s t ha t r e a l i z e be l i e f di f f e r f r om be l i e f i n t ha t t he i r i nd i vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt a l w a ys c oi nc i de s w i t h t he i r s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt I f s o, t he n t he r e l a t i on b e t w e e n our ge ne r a l be l i e f s a n d t he c ogni t i ve s t a t e s t ha t r e a l i z e t he m i s i de nt i t y w hi l e t he r e l a t i on be t w e e n our be l i e f s a bout pa r t i c ul a r s a nd t he c ogni t i ve s t a t e s t ha t r e a l i z e t he m i s pr e s um a bl y, s upe r ve ni e nc e T h i s i s s o be c a us e i f t w o be l i e f s a bout pa r t i c ul a r s ha ve di s t i nc t i nd i vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s t he n t he c ogni t i v e s t a t e s t ha t r e a l i z e t he s e be l i e f s m us t a l s o ha ve di s t i nc t i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s w hi l e t w o c ogn i t i ve s t a t e s t ha t ha ve di s t i nc t i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s m a y ne ve r t he l e s s r e a l i z e t he s a m e b e l i e f L e t us now t u r n t o P e a c oke s a c c ount of c onc e pt s a c c or di ng t o w hi c h c o n c e pt s a r e f ul l y i ndi vi dua t e d by t he i r pos s e s s i ons c ondi t i ons w hi c h s pe c i f y t he c ond i t i ons unde r w hi c h a t hi nke r w ho pos s e s s e s t he r e l e va nt c onc e pt f i nds t r a ns i t i on s t o a nd f r om p r opos i t i ona l a t t i t ude s c ont a i ni ng t hi s c onc e pt pr i m i t i ve l y c om pe l l i ng T hi s a c c o unt m us t a ns w e r t he f ol l ow i ng que s t i ons : ( i ) W ha t doe s i t t a ke f o r a s e t of pos s e s s i on c ondi t i ons t o be t he pos s e s s i on c ond i t i ons of a c onc e pt ? ( i i ) D oe s t he r e c or r e s pond a s i ngl e c onc e pt or a m ul t i pl i c i t y of c onc e pt s t o a va gue e x pr e s s i on, a nd i s ( a r e ) t he r e l e va nt c onc e pt ( s ) a l s o va gue ?

PAGE 88

88 R e q u i r e m e n t s on C on c e p t P os s e s s i on C on d i t i on s P e a c oc ke a r gue s t ha t e ve r y c onc e pt m us t ha ve a de t e r m i na t i on t he or y w hi c h he c ha r a c t e r i z e s a s f ol l ow s : T he de t e r m i na t i on t he or y f or a gi ve n c onc e pt ( t oge t he r w i t h t he w or l d i n e m pi r i c a l c a s e s ) a s s i gns s e m a nt i c va l ue s i n s uc h a w a y t ha t t he be l i e f f or m i ng pr a c t i c e s m e nt i one d i n t he c onc e pt s pos s e s s i on c ondi t i on a r e c or r e c t T ha t i s i n t he c a s e of be l i e f f o r m a t i on, t he pr a c t i c e s r e s ul t i n t r ue be l i e f s a nd i n t he c a s e of pr i nc i pl e s of i nf e r e nc e t he y r e s ul t i n t r ut h pr e s e r vi ng i nf e r e nc e s w he n s e m a nt i c va l ue s a r e a s s i gne d i n a c c or da nc e w i t h t he d e t e r m i na t i on t he or y ( P e a c oc ke 1992: 19) P e a c oc k e t a l ks of c onc e pt s ge ne r a l l y a s r e f e r r i ng, a nd of t he r e qui r e m e nt t ha t a c onc e pt ha ve a de t e r m i na t i on t he or y a s t he r e qui r e m e nt t ha t i t s po s s e s s i on c ondi t i on de t e r m i ne c ons i s t e nt r e f e r e nc e c ondi t i ons on hi s nom e nc l a t ur e t he s e m a nt i c va l ue of a c onc e pt i s t he r e f e r e nt of t ha t c onc e pt ( I bi d : 1 6 17) S i nc e I do not t hi nk t ha t p r e di c a t i ve or l ogi c a l c onc e pt s c a n pr ope r l y be s a i d t o r e f e r t o a nyt hi ng ( p r e di c a t i ve c o n c e pt s pr e di c a t e pr ope r t i e s but do no t r e f e r t o t he m w hi l e l ogi c a l c onc e pt s ope r a t e on c onc e p t s ) I pr e f e r t o t a l k of de pl oym e nt c ondi t i ons O n t hi s nom e nc l a t ur e t he de t e r m i na t i on t he o r y of a c onc e pt s pe l l s out c ons i s t e nt de pl oym e nt c ond i t i ons f or t ha t c onc e pt C ons i s t e nt de pl oym e nt c ondi t i on s f or r e f e r e nt i a l c onc e pt s s pe l l t he i r r e f e r e nc e c ond i t i ons ; c ons i s t e nt de pl oym e nt c ondi t i ons f or p r e di c a t i ve a nd l ogi c a l c onc e pt s s pe l l t he i r s a t i s f a c t i on c ondi t i ons P e oc oc ke s r e qui r e m e nt o n c onc e pt hood, a s I unde r s t a nd i t i s t ha t t he pos s e s s i on c ondi t i ons of a ny c onc e pt m us t de t e r m i ne a c ons i s t e nt s e t of de pl oym e nt c ond i t i ons F ur t he r P e a c oc ke i de nt i f i e s pos s e s s i ng a c onc e pt w i t h know i ng w ha t i t i s f or s om e t hi ng t o be i t s s e m a nt i c va l ue ( he c a l l s t hi s f e a t ur e o f hi s a c c ount T he I de nt i f i c a t i on ( I bi d : 23) ) F or P e a c oc ke gr a s pi ng a c onc e pt s i m pl y i s know i ng w ha t i t i s f or s om e t hi ng t o be i t s s e m a nt i c va l ue 1 2 w he r e t he r e l e va nt know l e dge e i t he r doe s n ot i nvol ve t hi n k i ng of t he c onc e pt unde r a 1 2 S i n c e I d o n o t t h i n k t h a t a l l c o n c e p t s r e f e r I w i l l u n d e r s t a n d P e a c o c k e s I d e n t i f i c a t i o n a s i n v o l v i n g k n o w i n g w h a t t h i n g s m u s t b e l i k e f o r t h e c o n c e p t t o a p p l y r a t h e r t h a n k n o w i n g w h a t i t i s f o r s o m e t h i n g t o b e t h e s e m a n t i c v a l u e o f t h a t c o n c e p t ( i e o n P e a c o c k e s n o m e n c l a t u r e t h e r e f e r e n t o f t h a t c o n c e p t )

PAGE 89

89 m ode of p r e s e nt a t i on a t a l l or i nvol ve s t hi nki ng of i t unde r a m ode of p r e s e nt a t i on a va i l a bl e onl y t o t hos e w ho a l r e a dy pos s e s s t he c onc e pt P e a c oc ke c l a i m s t ha t hi s de t e r m i na t i on t he or y r e qui r e m e nt unde r w r i t e s hi s I de nt i f i c a t i on S i nc e he s t a t e s t ha t hi s I de nt i f i c a t i on a ppl i e s t o a r b i t r a r i l y c om pl e x c onc e pt s i nc l udi ng c om p l e t e pr op os i t i ona l c onc e pt s ( I bi d : 22 ) t he que s t i on a r i s e s w he t he r hi s de t e r m i na t i on t he or y r e qui r e m e nt t oo a ppl i e s t o a r b i t r a r i l y c om pl e x c onc e pt s i nc l udi ng c om pl e t e pr opos i t i ona l c onc e pt s I w i l l a r gue l a t e r t ha t P e a c oc ke s de t e r m i na t i on t he or y r e qui r e m e nt ne e ds t o be r e s t r i c t e d t o s i m pl e c onc e pt s P e a c oc ke of f e r s tonk a s a n i ns t a nc e of a put a t i ve c onc e pt t ha t ha s no de t e r m i na t i on t h e or y. A r t hur P r i o r de f i ne s t onk by t he f ol l ow i ng t w o r ul e s : ( 1) F r om p i t c a n be i n f e r r e d t ha t p t onk q ( 2) F r om p t onk q i t c a n be i nf e r r e d t ha t p ( I b i d : 21 ) I f tonk w e r e a c onc e pt i t w oul d be t ha t c onc e pt C t o pos s e s s w hi c h a t hi nke r m us t f i nd t r a ns i t i ons t o a nd f r om p r opos i t i ona l a t t i t ude s t ha t a r e i ns t a nc e s of t he f o r m s ( 1) a nd ( 2 ) pr i m i t i ve l y c om pe l l i ng, a nd m us t do s o be c a us e t he y a r e of t he s e f o r m s P e a c oc ke s vi e w i s t ha t tonk i s a s pur i ous c onc e pt be c a us e ( 1) a nd ( 2 ) f a i l t o de t e r m i ne a c o n s i s t e nt s e t of s a t i s f a c t i on c ondi t i ons I n t he c a s e i n w hi c h p i s t r ue a nd q i s f a l s e ( 1) r e qui r e s p t onk q t o be t r ue w hi l e ( 2) r e qui r e s p t onk q t o be f a l s e A c c or di ngl y tonk ha s no de t e r m i na t i on t he o r y, a s t he be l i e f f or m i ng p r a c t i c e s m e nt i one d i n i t s pos s e s s i on c ond i t i on f a i l t o r e s ul t i n t r ut h p r e s e r vi ng i nf e r e nc e s Y e t t he e xpr e s s i on, t onk e nt e r s phi l os ophi c a l di s c us s i ons P e a c oc ke s i nc l ude d. I f bot h P e a c oc ke s vi e w t ha t tonk i s not a ge nui ne c o n c e pt a nd m y a c c ount of t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of be l i e f a nd i t s r e l a t i on t o l i ngui s t i c c ont e nt a r e c or r e c t w ha t a r e w e t o m a ke of hi s s t a t e m e nt t ha t tonk i s not a ge nui ne c onc e pt ? A r e w e t o hol d t h a t t hi s i s a s t a t e m e nt t ha t c a n ne i t he r be be l i e ve d nor di s be l i e ve d m or e p r e c i s e l y, t ha t t hi s s t a t e m e nt c a r r i e s a l i ngui s t i c c ont e nt t ha t

PAGE 90

90 c a nnot be c a r r i e d c ogni t i ve l y by a ny be l i e f c ont r a t he c l a i m I e ndor s e d e a r l i e r t ha t a ny c ont e nt t ha t c a n be c a r r i e d l i ngui s t i c a l l y by a n ut t e r a nc e c a n a l s o be c a r r i e d c ogni t i ve l y by a be l i e f a nd t ha t t he s t a t e m e nt P e a c oc ke be l i e ve s t ha t tonk i s not a ge nui ne c onc e pt i s e i t he r f a l s e or non t r ut h e va l ua bl e ? P e a c oc ke i s not w i t hout r e s our c e s f or a ns w e r i ng t hi s que s t i on. S o, he c oul d a ns w e r t ha t i n t he s t a t e m e nt tonk i s not a ge nui ne c onc e pt tonk e xp r e s s e s a s e t of pos s e s s i on c ondi t i ons r a t he r t ha n a c onc e pt T o t hi s s e t t he r e c or r e s ponds a c om pl e x c o n c e pt w hi c h c a n s ui t a bl y be c om bi ne d w i t h t he c onc e pt conc ept a nd s o c ons t i t ut e t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of t he be l i e f e xpr e s s i bl e by t he s e nt e nc e tonk i s no t a ge nui ne c o n c e pt A l t e r na t i ve l y, P e a c oc ke c oul d e l e c t t o de a l w i t h t hi s i s s ue m e t a l i ngui s t i c a l l y. S o, he c oul d c l a i m t ha t pr ope r l y c a s t hi s vi e w i s t ha t t he e xp r e s s i on, t onk doe s not e xp r e s s a ge nui ne c onc e pt O n e i t he r a ns w e r t he n, t he r e i s a s e nt e nc e ( e i t he r tonk i s not a ge nui ne c onc e pt w he r e tonk e xpr e s s e s a s e t of pos s e s s i on c o n di t i ons or t onk doe s not e xp r e s s a ge nui ne c onc e pt ) t ha t i s a m e na bl e t o be l i e f a nd be l i e f a t t r i b ut i ons i nvol vi ng t hi s s e n t e nc e a r e t r ut h e va l ua bl e T he s e t w o ( c om pa t i bl e ) l i ne s of a ns w e r a r e pl a us i b l e Y e t t he p r obl e m j us t r a i s e d w i t h r e ga r d t o t onk ge ne r a l i z e s t o e xpr e s s i ons c onc e r ni ng w hi c h a na l ogous a ns w e r s a r e l e s s pl a us i bl e S o, P e a c oc ke s a c c ount s e e m s c om m i t t e d t o hol di n g t ha t no ge nui ne c o n c e pt c or r e s ponds t o a ny e xpr e s s i on f or w hi c h s e m a nt i c pa r a doxe s c a n be g e ne r a t e d. S o e g. P e a c oc ke s e e m s c om m i t t e d t o t he vi e w t ha t t r ut h doe s not e xpr e s s a ge nui ne c o n c e pt D e s pi t e t he c e nt r a l r ol e t ha t t r ut h i s c a l l e d t o pl a y i n m y p r oj e c t t hi s i s bul l e t I ha ve t o bi t e t hough w i t hout ne e di ng t he r e f or e t o a ba ndon t he c l a i m t ha t t r ut h ( a nd truth ) pl a ys a c r uc i a l r ol e i n be l i e f e va l ua t i ons T he a l t e r n a t i ve a ba ndoni ng P e a c o c ke s r e qui r e m e nt of a de t e r m i na t i on t he or y i s f a r t oo i m pl a us i bl e a t l e a s t a s i t a ppl i e s t o s i m pl e c onc e pt s a s i t i s not c l e a r w ha t a put a t i ve c onc e pt w i t h i nc ons i s t e nt de pl oym e nt c ondi t i ons c oul d be a c onc e pt of A c c or di ngl y, I i nt r oduc e t he t e c hni c a l t e r m

PAGE 91

91 not i on, f o r s e t s of pos s e s s i on c ondi t i ons t ha t do n ot m e e t P e a c oc ke s r e qui r e m e nt f or c o nc e pt hood, a c c or di ng t o w hi c h s om e t hi ng i s a c onc e pt onl y i f i t s pos s e s s i on c ondi t i ons de t e r m i ne a c ons i s t e nt s e t of de pl oym e nt c ondi t i ons ; a not i on t he n, i s i ndi vi dua t e d by a s e t of pos s e s s i on 1 3 c ond i t i ons f or w hi c h no de t e r m i na t i on t he or y c a n be f o r m ul a t e d. S om e not i ons s uc h a s tonk w e a r t he i r f a i l ur e t o s a t i s f y P e a c oc ke s r e qu i r e m e nt f or c onc e pt hood on t he i r f a c e O t he r s s uc h a s truth do not a nd d i s c ove r i ng t h a t t he y a r e not ge nui ne c onc e pt s m a y r e qui r e a gr e a t de a l of c a r e f ul i nve s t i ga t i on. B e i ng a not i on I t h i nk, i s no ba r t o pl a yi ng a s i gni f i c a nt r ol e i nde e d, a n i nd i s pe ns a bl e r ol e i n t he c a s e of truth i n t he c ogni t i ve l i ve s of t he i r po s s e s s or s 1 4 A s I not e d e a r l i e r I ha ve c om m i t t e d m ys e l f t o t he vi e w t ha t t he s ync hr oni c a nd i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s of be l i e f a r e c om pl e x c onc e pt s w hi c h a r e f ul l y i ndi vi dua t e d by t he i r pos s e s s i on c ondi t i ons I ha ve a l s o c om m i t t e d m ys e l f t o t he vi e w t ha t t he c ogn i t i ve c ont e nt of a ny c om pl e x c onc e pt i s a f unc t i on of t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of i t s s i m pl e c ons t i t u e nt c onc e pt s a nd t he i r m ode o f c om bi na t i on T hi s a c c or ds w i t h P e a c oc ke s vi e w a c c or di ng t o w hi c h t he pos s e s s i on c ondi t i ons of a ny c om pl e x c onc e pt a r e r e duc i bl e t o t he pos s e s s i on c ondi t i ons of i t s s i m pl e c ons t i t ue nt c onc e pt s a nd t he i r m ode s of c om bi na t i on ( t he f or m e r c a n be de r i ve d f r o m t he l a t t e r vi a a pr oc e dur e he c a l l s m ul t i p l yi ng out ( I bi d : 11 1 112) ) N ow s i nc e I ha ve e ndor s e d P e a 1 3 I a m u s i n g s c a r e q u o t e s h e r e b e c a u s e i t i s n o t c l e a r t h a t t h e r e i s a n y t h i n g t h a t i s a m e n a b l e t o b e i n g p o s s e s s e d i n s u c h a c a s e 1 4 I t i s n o t c l e a r t h a t a p a r a d o x f r e e s u b s t i t u t e s u c h a s t r u t h i n E n g l i s h c o u l d p l a y t h e r o l e t h a t t r u t h p l a y s i n o u r c o g n i t i v e l i v e s W h e n I w o n d e r w h e t h e r s o m e b e l i e f o f m i n e i s t r u e I d o n o t w o n d e r w h e t h e r i t w o u l d b e t r u e i n E n g l i s h s h o u l d I e x p r e s s i t i n E n g l i s h t r u e i n F r e n c h s h o u l d I e x p r e s s i t i n F r e n c h e t c ; w h e n I s e t o u t t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r i t i s t r u e I d o n o t c o n s i d e r l a n g u a g e N o t e t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e l i a r p a r a d o x g e n e r a t e s d i f f i c u l t i e s a t t h e c o n c e p t u a l l e v e l i n s o f a r a s w e c a n h a v e b e l i e f s a b o u t t h e t r u t h o f s e n t e n c e s / u t t e r a n c e s i t i s n o t c l e a r t h a t t h e l i a r p a r a d o x c a n b e r u n d i r e c t l y o n n o n l i n g u i s t i c b e l i e f s ( t h e s e n t e n c e t h i s b e l i e f i s t r u e g r o s s l y u n d e r d e s c r i b e s t h e r e l e v a n t s e l f r e f e r e n t i a l b e l i e f ) T r u t h a s a p p l i e d t o n o n l i n g u i s t i c b e l i e f s m i g h t b e p a r a d o x f r e e b e c a u s e t h e g r a m m a r o f b e l i e f d i s t i n g u i s h e s b e t w e e n l e v e l s o f b e l i e f s ( i e o b j e c t l e v e l b e l i e f s a n d s u c c e s s i v e l e v e l s o f m e t a b e l i e f s ) S i n c e t h e p o s s e s s i o n c o n d i t i o n s o f t r u t h p e r m i t u s t o a p p l y i t t o l i a r s e n t e n c e s t r u t h i s a n o t i o n N e v e r t h e l e s s t r u t h m i g h t b e u n o b j e c t i o n a b l e a s a p p l i e d t o n o n l i n g u i s t i c b e l i e f s A c o n c e p t u a l f i x m i g h t i n v o l v e c i r c u m s c r i b i n g t r u t h t o n o n l i n g u i s t i c i t e m s a n d e m p l o y i n g l a n g u a g e r e l a t i v e a n a l o g u e s e g t r u t h i n E n g l i s h f o r l i n g u i s t i c i t e m s

PAGE 92

92 c oc ke s r e qui r e m e nt t ha t e ve r y c onc e pt ha ve a de t e r m i na t i on t he or y I ha ve c om m i t t e d m ys e l f t o t he vi e w t ha t no ge nui ne be l i e f c a n i nvol ve a not i o n. T hi s i s be c a us e a ny i nc ons i s t e nc y i n t he de pl oym e nt c ondi t i ons of a c ons t i t ue nt c onc e pt w o ul d r e s ul t i n a n i nc ons i s t e nc y i n t he de pl o y m e nt c ondi t i ons of a ny c om pl e x c onc e pt t ha t c om p r i s e d i t I n e ndor s i ng P e a c oc ke s r e qui r e m e nt t he n, I ha ve a l s o c o m m i t t e d m ys e l f t o t he m or e ge ne r a l vi e w t ha t t he r e c a n be no ge nui ne be l i e f t ha t de pl oys i nc ons i s t e nt c onc e pt s or t ha t de pl oy s c onc e pt s i nc ons i s t e nt l y. S o, I ha ve c om m i t t e d m y s e l f t o t he vi e w t ha t t he r e c a n be no ge nui ne be l i e f w i t h t he c ont e nt s e g. my account of belief is true man is c ondemned to be free 1 5 or I now have no belief I p r opos e t o us e t he t e r m b e l i e f l i ke a t t i t ude f o r pu r por t e d be l i e f s w hos e c ont e nt f a i l s t o m e e t P e a c oc ke s r e qui r e m e nt o f a de t e r m i na t i on t he or y i nt e r pr e t e d a s a r e qui r e m e nt on de pl oym e nt c ondi t i ons H ow e ve r t he r e i s a s i gni f i c a nt di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n, on t he one ha nd, t he be l i e f l i ke a t t i t ud e t ha t m y a c c ount o f be l i e f i s t r ue a nd, on t he o t he r h a nd, t he be l i e f l i ke a t t i t ude s t ha t m a n i s c o n de m ne d t o be f r e e or t ha t I now ha ve no be l i e f A l l t h r e e a t t i t ude s pur po r t t o r e pr e s e nt s om e c o n t e nt a s t r ue G i ve n t ha t t he f i r s t a t t i t u de i nvol v e s a n ot i on, t he r e i s a s e ns e i n w hi c h i t s i m pl y f a i l s t o r e p r e s e nt ; a l t hough t he c om pone nt c onc e pt my account of belief s uc c e e ds i n r e f e r r i ng t o m y a c c ount of be l i e f t he not i on, true f a i l s t o a t t r i but e a ny p r ope r t y t o m y a c c ount of be l i e f ( by vi r t ue o f f a i l i ng pr e di c a t e a ny pr ope r t y a t a l l ) A c c or di ngl y, t hi s be l i e f l i ke a t t i t ude i s not t r ut h e va l ua bl e s i nc e i t s c ont e nt doe s not f u l l y s pe c i f y w ha t t he w o r l d w oul d ne e d t o be l i ke f or t he a t t i t ude t o be t r ue B y c ont r a s t gi ve n t ha t t he a t t i t ude s t ha t m a n i s c onde m ne d t o be f r e e a nd t ha t I now ha ve no be l i e f do not e m pl oy n ot i ons t he y do f ul l y s pe c i f y w ha t t he w or l d 1 5 I t a k e i t t h a t c o n d e m n e d h e r e i s u s e d t o m e a n s o m e t h i n g a l o n g t h e l i n e s o f f o r c e d c o m p e l l e d o b l i g a t e d o r r e q u i r e d a l l o f w h i c h I t a k e t o b e i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h b e i n g f r e e ( e v e n o n a h y p o t h e t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f b e i n g f r e e ) O n e w h o d o e s n o t t h i n k t h a t t h e c o n t e n t m a n i s c o n d e m n e d t o b e f r e e i n v o l v e s i n c o m p a t i b l e c o n c e p t s m a y s u b s t i t u t e t h e l e s s t e n d e n t i o u s t h o u g h s o m e w h a t m o r e b o r i n g t h i s t r i a n g l e i s s q u a r e

PAGE 93

93 w oul d ne e d t o be l i ke f o r t he a t t i t ude t o be t r ue A c c or di ngl y, t he y a r e t r ut h e va l ua bl e gi ve n t he c onc e pt s i n vol ve d a nd t he i r m ode s of c om bi n a t i ons t he y a r e ne c e s s a r i l y f a l s e I t a ke t hi s t o i ndi c a t e t ha t P e a c oc ke s r e qui r e m e nt t ha t a l l c onc e pt s ha ve a de t e r m i na t i on t he or y, i nt e r p r e t e d a s t he r e qui r e m e nt t ha t t he pos s e s s i on c ondi t i ons of a ny c onc e pt s i m pl e o r c om pl e x, m us t de t e r m i ne a c ons i s t e nt s e t of de pl oym e nt c ondi t i ons i s t oo s t r ong, a nd s houl d be r e s t r i c t e d t o s i m pl e c o n c e pt s N ot e t ha t m y r e s t r i c t i on o f P e a c oc ke s r e qui r e m e nt of a de t e r m i na t i on t he or y, i nt e r p r e t e d a s a r e qui r e m e nt on de pl oym e nt c ondi t i ons a c c or d s w e l l w i t h hi s i de n t i f i c a t i on o f gr a s pi ng a c onc e pt w i t h know i ng w ha t i t i s f or s om e t hi ng t o b e i t s s e m a nt i c va l ue F or t he be l i e f c ont e nt s man is condemned to be free a nd I n ow have no belief a nyone w ho gr a s ps t he s e c om pl e x c onc e pt s know s j us t w ha t i t i s f o r s om e t hi ng t o be t he i r s e m a nt i c va l ue W i t h s om e r e f l e c t i on, a nyone w ho gr a s ps t he m m i ght e v e n know t ha t t he be l i e f t ha t m a n i s c o n de m ne d t o be f r e e i s ne c e s s a r i l y f a l s e a nd t ha t t he be l i e f t ha t I now ha ve no be l i e f i s ne c e s s a r i l y f a l s e w hi l e e nt e r t a i ne d r e f l e x i ve l y. A c c or di ngl y I pr opos e t o c a l l pu r por t e d be l i e f s i nvol vi ng not i ons be l i e f l i ke a t t i t ude s P u r por t e d be l i e f s t h a t a r e i nc ohe r e nt by vi r t ue of de pl oyi ng i nc ons i s t e nt c onc e pt s or by vi r t ue of de pl oyi ng c o nc e pt s i nc ons i s t e nt l y, a r e ge nui ne b e l i e f s a l be i t ne c e s s a r i l y f a l s e V agu e n e s s L e t us now t u r n t o t he s e c ond que s t i on I i nt r oduc e d e a r l i e r na m e l y: ( i i ) D oe s t he r e c or r e s pond a s i ngl e c onc e pt or a m ul t i pl i c i t y of c onc e pt s t o a va gue e x pr e s s i on, a nd i s ( a r e ) t he r e l e va nt c onc e pt ( s ) a l s o va gue ? A di f f e r e nt pr obl e m a r i s e s f or c onc e pt s e xpr e s s e d by va gue e xpr e s s i ons ( w hi c h pl a us i bl y c ons t i t ut e a s i gni f i c a nt po r t i on o f t he voc a bul a r i e s of na t ur a l l a ngua ge s ) C onc e r ni ng va gue e xpr e s s i ons one m a y a s k w he t he r on P e a c oc ke s a c c oun t t he r e c or r e s ponds t o t he m a s i ngl e c onc e pt

PAGE 94

94 or a m ul t i pl i c i t y o f c onc e pt s a nd w he t he r t he r e l e v a nt c onc e pt s a r e t he m s e l ve s va gue P e a c oc ke hol ds t ha t pos s e s s i ng a c onc e pt r e qui r e s know l e dge of w ha t i t i s f or s om e t hi ng t o be i t s s e m a nt i c va l ue a nd m a y r e qui r e t a c i t know l e dge of i t s pos s e s s i on c ondi t i ons w hi c h s pe c i f y t he c ond i t i ons unde r w hi c h a t h i nke r pos s e s s i ng t he r e l e va nt c onc e pt f i nds t r a ns i t i ons t o a nd f r om p r opos i t i ona l a t t i t ude s c ont a i ni ng t hi s c onc e pt pr i m i t i ve l y c om p e l l i ng ( I bi d : 149 150 ) A c c or di ngl y he s e e m s c o m m i t t e d t o t he vi e w t ha t w ha t e ve r c onc e pt s c or r e s pond t o va gue e xpr e s s i ons m us t t he m s e l ve s be va gue on pa i ns o f be i ng c om m i t t e d t o de nyi ng t ha t c om pe t e nt s pe a ke r s of na t ur a l l a ngua ge s pos s e s s t he c onc e pt s t ha t c or r e s pond t o t he va gue e xpr e s s i ons t he y e m pl oy a nd, s o, t o de nyi ng t ha t t he i r s t a t e m e nt s i nvol vi ng va gue e xpr e s s i ons e xpr e s s ge nui ne be l i e f s va gue e xpr e s s i ons a r e t hought t o be va gue p r e c i s e l y be c a us e c om pe t e nt s pe a ke r s a r e una bl e e ve n i m pl i c i t l y, t o dr a w pr e c i s e bounda r i e s f or t he i r a ppl i c a t i on S i n c e c om pe t e nt s pe a ke r s a l s o di f f e r w i t h r e ga r d t o w he n t he y a r e unc e r t a i n a s t o w he t he r a gi ve n v a gue e xpr e s s i on a ppl i e s or f a i l s t o a ppl y, t he vi e w t ha t a s i ngl e va gue c onc e pt c or r e s ponds t o e a c h va gue e xpr e s s i on i s i m pl a us i bl e A c c or d i ngl y, P e a c oc ke s e e m s t o be c om m i t t e d t o t he vi e w t ha t t he r e c or r e s ponds a m ul t i pl i c i t y of ove r l a ppi ng c onc e pt s t o e a c h va gue e xpr e s s i on. T hi s yi e l ds t he s e e m i ngl y unpa l a t a bl e r e s ul t t ha t t w o c om pe t e nt s pe a ke r s s a yi ng, of t he s a m e obj e c t a t t he s a m e t i m e t hi s i s r e d c a n t he r e by e xpr e s s be l i e f s w i t h di s t i nc t ( t hought ove r l a ppi ng) i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s N ot e how e ve r t ha t t he f o r e goi ng a r gum e nt a s s um e s a pr i nc i pl e I e ndor s e d e a r l i e r na m e l y, t ha t a ny c ont e nt t ha t c a n be c a r r i e d l i ngui s t i c a l l y by a n ut t e r a nc e c a n a l s o be c a r r i e d c ogni t i ve l y by a be l i e f I t a ke t hi s pr i nc i pl e t o be e m i ne nt l y pl a us i b l e but P e a c oc ke m i ght de ny i t T he c om m i t m e nt I ha ve j us t f oi s t e d on P e a c oc ke t he n, i s c ond i t i ona l on hi s e ndo r s e m e nt on t hi s p r i nc i pl e 1 6 1 6 T h e f o r e g o i n g s h o u l d n o t b e u n d e r s t o o d a s e x p r e s s i n g a n y e p i s t e m i c i s t t e n d e n c i e s t o w a r d v a g u e n e s s I n m y v i e w t h e r e a r e b o t h v a g u e c o n c e p t s a n d v a g u e e x p r e s s i o n s ( t h o u g h I f i n d i t t e r r i f i c a l l y h a r d t o i m a g i n e t h a t t h e r e a r e a n y s u c h t h i n g s a s v a g u e p r o p e r t i e s )

PAGE 95

95 P e a c oc ke s e e m s ot he r w i s e c om m i t t e d t o t hi s r e s ul t A c c or di ng t o P e a c oc ke t he pos s e s s i on c ondi t i ons f or t he c onc e pt red a r e : T he c onc e pt red i s t ha t c onc e pt C t o pos s e s s w hi c h a t hi nke r m us t m e e t t he s e c o n di t i ons : ( 1) H e m us t be di s pos e d t o be l i e ve a c ont e nt t ha t c ons i s t s of a s i ng ul a r pe r c e p t ua l de m ons t r a t i ve m ode of pr e s e nt a t i on m i n pr e di c a t i ona l c om bi na t i on w i t h C w he n t he pe r c e pt ua l e xpe r i e nc e t ha t m a ke s m a va i l a bl e p r e s e nt s i t s obj e c t i n a r e d r e gi on o f t he s ubj e c t s vi s ua l f i e l d [ w he r e t he p r i m e i ndi c a t e s a s e ns a t i ona l pr ope r t y] a nd doe s s o i n c ondi t i ons he t a ke s t o be nor m a l a nd w he n i n a ddi t i on he t a ke s hi s pe r c e pt ua l m e c ha ni s m s t o be w or ki ng p r ope r l y. T he t hi nke r m us t a l s o be di s pos e d t o f or m t he be l i e f f or t he r e a s on t ha t t he obj e c t i s s o pr e s e nt e d. ( 2) T he t hi nke r m us t be di s pos e d t o be l i e ve a c ont e nt c ons i s t i ng of a ny s i ngul a r m ode of pr e s e nt a t i on k not m e e t i ng a l l t he c ondi t i ons on m i n ( 1) w he n he t a ke s i t s obj e c t t o ha ve t he pr i m a r y qua l i t y g r ound ( i f a ny) o f t he di s pos i t i on of obj e c t s t o c a us e e xpe r i e nc e s of t he s or t m e nt i one d i n ( 1) 1 7 ( I bi d : 7 8) Y e t P e a c oc ke hol ds t ha t s om e one w ho s a t i s f i e s c ondi t i on ( 1 ) but not c ondi t i on ( 2 ) w oul d ne ve r t he l e s s pos s e s s a di s t i nc t t hought e qua l l y ge nui ne c onc e pt ( red* ) T hi s v i e w i s pl a us i bl e T he r e i s e vi de nc e t ha t c hi l dr e n do not m a ke t he a p pe a r a nc e / r e a l i t y di s t i nc t i on unt i l t he y a r e a bout t hr e e ye a r s ol d Y e t t he y c e r t a i nl y s e e m c a pa bl e of r e c ogni z i ng c ol or s a nd o f f o r m i ng c ol or be l i e f s w he n p r e s e nt e d w i t h c ol or e d obj e c t s Y e t t hi s vi e w t oge t he r w i t h t he a c c ount of t he i ndi vi d ua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of be l i e f s I ha v e be e n out l i ni ng, c om m i t s m e t o hol di ng t ha t a c hi l d of t w o a nd a t ypi c a l a dul t bot h of w ho m s a y, of t he s a m e obj e c t a t t he s a m e t i m e t hi s i s r e d, m a y t he r e by e xpr e s s be l i e f s w i t h di s t i nc t i nd i vi dua t i ng c ogni t i v e c ont e nt s ( i e di s t i nc t be l i e f s ) I n t hi s c a s e t he ove r l a p be t w e e n t he i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s of t he i r r e s pe c t i ve be l i e f s w oul d be f a r l e s s t ha n i n t he c a s e of c om pe t e nt s pe a ke r s w ho di f f e r w i t h r e ga r d t o w he n t he y a r e unc e r t a i n a s t o w he t he r a gi ve n va gue e xp r e s s i on a ppl i e s or f a i l s t o a ppl y T hi s c a s e how e ve r pos e s a l e s s e r t hr e a t t o our o r d i na r y pr a c t i c e s of be l i e f a t t r i but i on a nd e va l ua t i on s i nc e 1 7 F o r t h e s a k e o f c o n s i s t e n c y I h a v e a d d e d t h e f o n t I h a v e b e e n u s i n g t o m a r k c o n c e p t s t o P e a c o c k e s t e x t

PAGE 96

96 t he r e i s good r e a s on t o t hi nk t ha t a c hi l d w ho f a i l s t o di s t i ngui s h be t w e e n a ppe a r a nc e a nd r e a l i t y i s not a c om pe t e nt us e r of t he e xpr e s s i on, r e d. T hi s s e c ond bul l e t t oo, I w i l l bi t e t w o c om pe t e nt s pe a ke r s s a yi ng, of t he s a m e o b j e c t a t t he s a m e t i m e t hi s i s r e d c a n t he r e by e xpr e s s be l i e f s w i t h di s t i nc t i ndi v i dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s N e ve r t he l e s s I t hi nk t ha t t he ove r l a p be t w e e n t he i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt o f t he be l i e f s t ha t c om p e t e nt l a ngua ge s pe a ke r s w oul d e xpr e s s us i ng s ynonym ous s e nt e nc e s i s t ypi c a l l y s o s i gni f i c a nt t ha t t hi s r e s ul t doe s not t hr e a t e n our or d i na r y p r a c t i c e s of be l i e f a t t r i b ut i on a nd e va l ua t i on o r r e nde r t he s uc c e s s of t he s e p r a c t i c e s i ne xpl i c a bl e T h e S or i t e s P ar ad ox : M os t va gue pr e di c a t e s a r e s or i t i c a l T ha t i s t he i r a ppl i c a t i on c ond i t i ons a r e a l l e ge dl y s how n t o l e a d t o pa r a doxi c a l r e s ul t s by a r gum e nt s of t he f ol l ow i ng f o r m : 1 8 L e t P be s om e p r e di c a t e L e t F be t he pr ope r t y i s i n t he e xt e ns i on o f P L e t S = < a 1 a n > w he r e f or a ny a i a i i s i ndi s c r i m i na bl e w i t h r e s pe c t t o F f r om a i + 1 T he n: ( P 1) F a 1 ( P 2) F or a ny a i i f F a i t he n F a i + 1 ( C ) S o, F a n ( w he r e ( P 1 ) s e e m s c l e a r l y t r ue a nd ( C ) s e e m s c l e a r l y f a l s e ) W he r e S = < a m a n w i t h no ha i r on hi s he a d, a m a n w i t h 10 6 ha i r s on hi s he a d> ( one m a n pe r pos s i bl e num be r of ha i r ) a nd P i s t he p r e di c a t e i s ba l d, t he a r gum e nt i f s ound, s how s t ha t a m a n w i t h 10 6 ha i r s on hi s he a d i s i n t he e xt e ns i on of i s ba l d B y s e m a nt i c de s c e nt w e ge t t he r e s ul t t ha t a m a n w i t h 10 6 ha i r s on hi s he a d i s ba l d T h i s i s pa r a doxi c a l s i nc e a m a n w i t h 10 6 ha i r s on hi s he a d i s qui t e c l e a r l y hi r s ut e ( t he a ve r a ge num be r of ha i r on a hum a n he a d i s a bout 1 8 T y p i c a l l y s o r i t e s a r g u m e n t s a r e f o r m u l a t e d i n t h e m a t e r i a l m o d e

PAGE 97

97 10 5 ) S i nc e c or r e s pondi ng a r gum e nt s c a n be r un a t t he c onc e pt ua l l e ve l t he y w oul d s how i f s ound, t ha t on P e a c oc ke s vi e w put a t i ve s or i t i c a l c onc e pt s a r e not c onc e pt s a t a l l but not i ons P e a c oc ke i s not c om m i t t e d t o t hi s r e s ul t R M a r k S a i ns bur y ( 1990: 259 260) a nd K i r k L udw i g a nd G r e g R a y ( 2002: 432 434; n. 20) c onv i nc i ngl y a r gue t ha t t he pe r s ua s i ve f or c e o f t he s e c ond s t e p i n s or i t e s a r gum e nt s ( P 2 i n t he a r gum e nt s c he m a a bove ) or i gi na t e s i n a f a i l u r e t o di s t i ngui s h be t w e e n w ha t a r ul e doe s not c om m a nd a nd w ha t i t f o r bi ds ( S a i ns bur y) or pe r m i t s ( L udw i g a nd R a y) O n S a i ns bur y s vi e w a l t hough t he r ul e s gove r n i ng t he us e o f va gue p r e d i c a t e s do not c om m a nd us t o w i t hhol d a va gue pr e d i c a t e i n a c a s e t ha t di f f e r s onl y m a r gi n a l l y f r om a c a s e t o w hi c h one ha s p r e vi ous l y a ppl i e d t h a t pr e di c a t e t he s e r u l e s do not f or bi d us t o do s o e i t he r t he y pe r m i t us t o d r a w t he l i ne t ha t i s n e e de d t o bl oc k t he s e c ond s t e p i n s or i t e s a r g u m e nt s ( a l be i t w i t hout f i xi ng w he r e t he l i ne i s t o be dr a w n) 1 9 A c c or di ng t o L udw i g a nd R a y, t he pr a c t i c e s gove r ni ng t he us e of va gue p r e di c a t e s s i m pl y do no t of f e r a ny gui da nc e a s t o how t he s e pr e di c a t e s a r e t o be us e d i n bor de r l i ne c a s e s T he y w r i t e : O ur us e of va gue pr e di c a t e s i s t ol e r a nt w i t h r e s pe c t t o s m a l l va r i a t i ons a l ong r e l e va nt d i m e ns i ons T he ke y poi nt w e ur ge i s t ha t t hi s s houl d not be m i s unde r s t ood a s a l i c e ns e on t he pa r t o f our pr a c t i c e s t o a ppl y t he t e r m t o a ny c a s e t ha t di f f e r s onl y i nc r e m e nt a l l y a l ong a r e l e va nt di m e ns i on of va r i a t i on i f i t a ppl i e s t o t he gi ve n c a s e T hi s w oul d m a ke t he p r a c t i c e i nc ohe r e nt r a t he r t ha n s i m pl y i nc om pl e t e I t i s f a i l ur e t o di s t i ngui s h t he p r a c t i c e gi vi ng no gui da nc e f r om i t s pr ovi di ng a l i c e ns e t o m o ve f r om one c a s e t o a n i nc r e m e nt a l l y di f f e r e nt one w hi c h i s t he s our c e of m uc h of t he c o nf us i on a bout t he s or i t e s a r gum e nt s ( L udw i g a nd R a y 2002: n 20 ) N ot e t ha t t he t w o vi e w s a r e c ons i s t e nt A s s um i ng t ha t t he pr a c t i c e s gove r ni ng t he us e of va gue pr e di c a t e s gi ve us no gui da nc e a s t o how t o us e t he s e pr e di c a t e s i n bo r de r l i ne c a s e s i t m i ght be pe r m i s s i bl e f or us t o r e f r a i n f r om us i ng a va gue pr e di c a t e i n s om e bor de r l i ne c a s e e ve n t hough w e us e d i t pr e vi ous l y i n a m a r g i na l l y di f f e r e nt c a s e ( t he r e by d r a w i ng a l i ne by de f a ul t ) N e ve r t he l e s s i t m i ght not be pe r m i s s i bl e f or us t o a ppl y t hi s pr e di c a t e t o a l l m a r gi na l l y di f f e r e nt c a s e s 1 9 P r e s u m a b l y S a i n s b u r y s p o i n t a p p l i e s o n l y t o b o r d e r l i n e c a s e s N o t e t h a t S a i n s b u r y f o r m u l a t e s h i s v i e w i n t e r m s o f v a g u e c o n c e p t s F o r t h e s a k e o f e x p o s i t o r y c o n s i s t e n c y I r e f o r m u l a t e d i t i n t e r m s o f v a g u e p r e d i c a t e s

PAGE 98

98 a l ong t hi s di m e ns i on of va r i a t i on a s doi ng s o w oul d r e qui r e a pos i t i ve l i c e ns e t o di s r e ga r d t hi s di m e ns i on of va r i a t i on a s i r r e l e va nt 2 0 L udw i g a nd R a y a r gue t ha t va gue p r e di c a t e s a r e i n c om pl e t e T he y de f i ne s e m a nt i c i nc o m pl e t e ne s s a s a f a i l ur e of s e m a nt i c c om pl e t e ne s s w hi c h t he y de f i ne a s f ol l ow s : W e w i l l s a y t ha t p r e di c a t e s i n a l a ngua ge L a r e s e m ant i c al l y c om pl e t e pr ovi de d t ha t r e l a t i ve t o L ( i ) a r a nge of a ppl i c a t i on i s de t e r m i ne d a n d ( i i ) f o r a nyt hi ng w hi c h m a y f a l l i n t he r a nge of a ppl i c a t i on i t i s de t e r m i ne d w he t he r t h e pr e di c a t e e i t he r a ppl i e s o r f a i l s t o a ppl y t o i t W e w i l l s a y t ha t s uc h pr e di c a t e s ha ve a n e x t e ns i on i n L O t he r pr e di c a t e s i n L w e c a l l s e m ant i c al l y i nc om pl e t e a n d w e s a y t ha t t he y l ac k an e x t e ns i on i n L ( I bi d : 423 424) L udw i g a nd R a y p r opos e t ha t our us e of va gue t e r m s t ypi c a l l y i nvol ve s a p r e t e ns e t ha t t he y a r e pr e c i s e a nd, s o, s e m a nt i c a l l y c om pl e t e Sor i t e s a r g um e nt s a r e of t e n p r e s e nt e d i n t he m a t e r i a l m ode w hi c h t e m pt s us t o e nga ge i n our us ua l pr e t e ns e a nd e ndor s e t he i r f i r s t pr e m i s e W e t he n m a i nt a i n t hi s pr e t e ns e i n t he f a c e of t he i r s e c ond pr e m i s e a nd e ndor s e i t a l s o, t hus c om m i t t i ng our s e l ve s t o t he i r unt ow a r d c onc l us i on. O nc e w e a ba ndon t he pr e t e ns e a nd r e a l i z e t ha t g i ve n t ha t t he pr e di c a t e ha s no e xt e ns i on, ne i t he r of t he a r gum e nt s pr e m i s e s i s t r ut h e va l ua bl e t he pa r a dox di s s ol ve s A l t hough S a i ns bur y m i gh t ba ul k a t t he l e s s on L ud w i g a nd R a y dr a w f r om t he i nc om pl e t e ne s s of va gue pr e d i c a t e s na m e l y, t ha t no s e nt e nc e c ont a i ni ng a va gue pr e di c a t e i s t r ut h e va l ua bl e 2 1 he a gr e e s t ha t va gue p r e di c a t e s ( a nd va gue c onc e pt s ) l a c k e xt e ns i ons a l t oge t he r s i nc e e xt e ns i ons a s s e t s m us t ha ve s ha r p bounda r i e s w hi l e va gue pr e di c a t e s ( a nd va gue c o nc e pt s ) dr a w no bounda r i e s H e pr opos e s t ha t va gu e c onc e pt s ( a nd, pr e s um a bl y, va gue pr e d i c a t e s ) do c l a s s i f y, but t he y do not c l a s s i f y by di vi d i ng t he i t e m s i n t he i r r a nge o f a ppl i c a t i on i nt o 2 0 A p o s i t i v e l i c e n s e m i g h t b e a n e x p l i c i t l i c e n s e t o a p p l y s o m e p r e d i c a t e ( e g i s a m a m m a l ) t o t h e c a s e s a t h a n d b y v i r t u e o f t h e i r i n s t a n c i n g s o m e p r o p e r t y ( i e t h e i r b e i n g a n i m a l s p o s s e s s i n g m a m m a r y g l a n d s ) w h i c h m i g h t i m p l i c i t l y p e r m i t u s t o d i s r e g a r d i n c r e m e n t a l v a r i a t i o n s a l o n g v a r i o u s d i m e n s i o n s ( e g t h e n u m b e r o f h a i r s o n t h e i r h e a d ) a s i r r e l e v a n t A p o s i t i v e l i c e n s e t o d i s r e g a r d s o m e d i m e n s i o n o f v a r i a t i o n n e e d n o t b e e x p l i c i t 2 1 S a i n s b u r y p r o p o s e s t h a t t h e w a y f o r w a r d i n d e s c r i b i n g t h e l o g i c o f v a g u e n e s s i n v o l v e s t a k i n g v a g u e o b j e c t s a s b a s i c ( 1 9 9 0 : 2 6 2 ) p r e s u m a b l y t o f u n c t i o n a s t r u t h m a k e r s o f s o r t s f o r s e n t e n c e s c o n t a i n i n g v a g u e p r e d i c a t e s

PAGE 99

99 t w o s e t s t he s e t of i t e m s t o w hi c h t he c onc e pt ( or pr e di c a t e ) a ppl i e s a nd t he s e t o f i t e m s t o w hi c h t he c onc e pt f a i l s t o a ppl y H e w r i t e s : B ounda r yl e s s c onc e pt s t e nd t o c om e i n s ys t e m s of c ont r a r i e s : oppos e d pa i r s l i ke c hi l d/ a dul t hot / c ol d w e a k/ s t r ong t r ue / f a l s e a nd t he m or e c om pl e x s ys t e m s e xe m pl i f i e d by our c ol ou r t e r m s T hi s i s a na t ur a l ups hot of bo unda r yl e s s ne s s a s w e c a n s e e by r e f l e c t i ng on w ha t i s i nvol ve d i n gr a s pi ng a c onc e pt S uc h a gr a s p, i t m us t be a gr e e d on a l l s i de s i nvol v e s know i ng how s om e t hi ng w oul d ha ve t o be f o r t he c onc e pt t o a ppl y t o i t a nd how s om e t hi ng w oul d ha ve t o be f or t he c onc e pt not t o a ppl y H e nc e i t i s ve r y na t ur a l t o s e e t he di vi s i on be t w e e n w ha t a c onc e pt i n c l ude s a nd w ha t i t e xc l ude s i n t e r m s of a bounda r y C e r t a i nl y, pe r c e pt i on of a bounda r y w oul d be e nough; but t he p r opone nt of bounda r yl e s s ne s s w i l l i ns i s t t ha t i t i s not t he onl y w a y. O n t he a l t e r na t i ve pi c t u r e w ha t a c onc e pt e xc l ude s i s gr a s pa bl e i n a pos i t i ve w a y, m e d i a t e d by ot he r c ont r a r y c onc e pt s A g r a s p of r e d a t t a i ns gr a s p of w ha t i s not r e d a t a de r i v a t i ve l e ve l v i a a gr a s p o f ye l l ow gr e e n bl ue a nd s o on. A s ys t e m of s uc h c onc e pt s i s gr a s pe d a s a w hol e a s c a n be s e e n i n t he w a y pa r a di gm s a r e us e d i n l e a r ni ng T he r e a r e pa r a di gm s of r e d but not hi ng i s non de r i va t i ve l y c l a s s i f i a bl e a s a pa r a di gm of not r e d A ny pa r a di gm of a not he r c ol our w i l l s e r ve a s a pa r a di gm of how not t o be r e d, but onl y i n vi r t ue of i t s pos i t i ve c l a s s i f i c a t i on a s a not he r c ol ou r ( S a i ns bur y 1990: 258) O n t hi s vi e w va gue c onc e pt s be l ong t o w ha t P e a c oc ke c a l l s l oc a l hol i s m s i e s e t s of c onc e pt s w hos e pos s e s s i on c ondi t i ons c a nnot be gi ve n i nde pe nde nt l y of t he pos s e s s i on c ondi t i ons of t he ot he r s ( t he y a r e t he n s e t s of c onc e pt s t ha t c a nnot be pos s e s s e d i nde pe nde nt l y of t he ot he r s ) 2 2 O n t he pi c t ur e S a i ns bur y pr opos e s t he i t e m s i n t he r a nge of a ppl i c a t i on o f e g. child a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s not child not by vi r t ue of f a l l i ng out s i de a bounda r y of a ppl i c a bi l i t y de t e r m i ne d by t he de pl oym e nt c ondi t i ons of child bu t by vi r t ue of f a l l i ng unde r adult B ot h c onc e pt s pe r m i t t he d r a w i ng of a bounda r y of a ppl i c a b i l i t y be t w e e n t he m but ne i t he r m a nda t e s t he e xa c t l oc a t i on of t h i s bounda r y, or t ha t s uc h a bounda r y be dr a w n. 2 2 T h i s v i e w i s a t t r a c t i v e f o r s o m e v a g u e c o n c e p t s b u t n o t f o r o t h e r s S o I h a v e b e l i e f s a b o u t t h e E v e r e s t O n t h e v i e w I h a v e b e e n p r o p o s i n g s u c h b e l i e f s w o u l d i n v o l v e a d i r e c t l y r e f e r r i n g c o n c e p t ( c a l l i t E v e r e s t ) t o g e t h e r w i t h s o m e i d e n t i f y i n g c o n c e p t s O n o t h e r v i e w s s u c h b e l i e f s m i g h t i n v o l v e t h e p r e d i c a t i v e c o n c e p t i s E v e r e s t W h e t h e r d i r e c t l y r e f e r r i n g o r p r e d i c a t i v e t h i s c o n c e p t i s p l a u s i b l y v a g u e b u t i t d o e s n o t c l e a r l y b e l o n g t o a s y s t e m o f c o n t r a r y c o n c e p t s ( a l t h o u g h i s a m o u n t a i n m i g h t )

PAGE 100

100 S e t t i ng a s i de f or now t he i s s ue of t he t r ut h e va l ua b i l i t y of be l i e f s i nvol vi ng va gue c o nc e pt s l e t us a s k w he t he r s uc h ( pu t a t i ve ) c onc e pt s c a n s a t i s f y P e a c oc ke s r e qui r e m e nt s f or c o n c e pt hood. T he a ns w e r s of f e r e d by S a i ns bur y a nd by L udw i g a nd R a y t o t he s or i t e s pa r a dox s how t ha t t he pos s e s s i on c ondi t i ons of va gue c onc e pt s ne e d not be t hought t o ge ne r a t e i nc ons i s t e nt de pl oym e nt c ondi t i ons ( e ve n i f w e t a ke our s e l ve s t o pos s e s s c l a s s i c a l l ogi c a l c onc e pt s ) 2 3 N e ve r t he l e s s s uc h c onc e pt s s e e m t o ha ve i nc om pl e t e de t e r m i na t i on t he or i e s i n t he s e ns e t ha t t he i r de pl oym e nt c ondi t i ons f a i l t o s pe c i f y, f or s om e obj e c t s t ha t be l ong i n t he i r r a nge o f a ppl i c a t i on, w he t he r t he c onc e pt a ppl i e s or f a i l s t o a ppl y t o t he m N ot e t ha t t hi s i s s o e ve n on S a i n s bur y s vi e w i nt e r pr e t e d a s pr opos i ng t ha t va gue c onc e pt s f or m l oc a l ho l i s m s a nd a c c or d i ng t o w hi c h t he va gue ne s s of t he c onc e pt s i nvol ve d i n s uc h l oc a l hol i s m s i s no ba r t o a c om pl e t e c l a s s i f i c a t i on of t he obj e c t s t ha t be l ong i n t he i r r a n ge O n t hi s vi e w a l t hough t he de pl oym e nt c ond i t i ons of t he s e c onc e pt s pe r m i t one t o c l a s s i f y e ve n bor de r l i ne c a s e s t he y do not m a nda t e how bor de r l i ne c a s e s a r e t o be c l a s s i f i e d. T he i nc om pl e t e ne s s of t he de t e r m i na t i on t he or i e s of va gue c onc e pt s doe s not s i t c om f or t a bl y w i t h P e a c oc ke s i de nt i f i c a t i on of pos s e s s i ng a c onc e pt w i t h know i ng w ha t i t i s f or s om e t hi ng t o be i t s s e m a nt i c va l ue 2 4 I n vi r t ue of pos s e s s i ng a va gue c onc e p t w e know w ha t s om e t hi ngs 2 3 L u d w i g a n d R a y t h i n k t h a t o u r p r a c t i c e o f u s i n g v a g u e e x p r e s s i o n s s h o u l d n o t b e t a k e n t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e i s a c o r r e s p o n d i n g v a g u e n e s s i n t h e c o n c e p t s a n d b e l i e f s w e e x p r e s s u s i n g v a g u e e x p r e s s i o n s G i v e n t h e a c c o u n t o f b e l i e f c o n t e n t I h a v e b e e n o u t l i n i n g I c a n n o t a g r e e w i t h t h e m T h e i r c l a i m a l s o s t r i k e s m e a s h i g h l y c o u n t e r i n t u i t i v e W h e n I s t a t e A m y b o u g h t a g r e e n c a r t h e r e b y e x p r e s s i n g a b e l i e f b a s e d o n B a s i l s t e s t i m o n y r a t h e r t h a n f i r s t h a n d p e r c e p t u a l e x p e r i e n c e i s n t t h e c o n c e p t g r e e n i n v o l v e d i n m y b e l i e f j u s t a s v a g u e a s t h e e x p r e s s i o n I u s e t o e x p r e s s i t ? A f t e r a l l A m y s c a r c o u l d b e o f a n y o f t h e s h a d e s t o w h i c h I n o r m a l l y a p p l y m y c o n c e p t g r e e n i n c l u d i n g s o m e s h a d e s t o w h i c h I m i g h t a p p l y i t w i t h s o m e h e s i t a n c y b l u e i s h g r e e n ( o r w o u l d t h a t b e g r e e n i s h b l u e ? ) m u s t a r d g r e e n ( o r w o u l d t h a t b e m u s t a r d y e l l o w ? ) T h a t B a s i l m i g h t c o u n t s o m e t h i n g a s b l u e i s h g r e e n t h a t I w o u l d t e n d t o c o u n t a s g r e e n i s h b l u e d o e s n o t w o r r y m e T h e e x p r e s s i o n g r e e n t h a t I u s e t o e x p r e s s m y b e l i e f w i t h f u l l s i n c e r i t y a n d t h e c o n c e p t g r e e n t h a t I t h e r e b y e x p r e s s b o t h s e e m e q u a l l y t o l e r a n t o f s u c h b o r d e r l i n e d i f f e r e n c e s U p o n s e e i n g A m y s c a r a n d f i n d i n g i t t o b e g r e e n i s h b l u e b y m y l i g h t s I m i g h t r e v i s e m y b e l i e f a n d d e e m h e r c a r b l u e B u t i t i s n o t c l e a r t h a t I w o u l d j u d g e m y f o r m e r b e l i e f o r t h e b e l i e f B a s i l e x p r e s s e d i n h i s t e s t i m o n y a s s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g i n c o r r e c t i t w a s a b o r d e r l i n e c a s e 2 4 T h i s i s s o e s p e c i a l l y i f o n e e n d o r s e s a c o n c e p t u a l a n a l o g u e o f L u d w i g a n d R a y s l i n g u i s t i c t h e s i s a c c o r d i n g t o w h i c h v a g u e e x p r e s s i o n s n e i t h e r a p p l y n o r f a i l t o a p p l y t o a n y t h i n g I f k n o w i n g w h a t i t i s f o r s o m e t h i n g t o b e t h e s e m a n t i c v a l u e o f s o m e c o n c e p t i s t a k e n t o m e a n w h a t s o m e t h i n g m u s t b e l i k e f o r t h a t c o n c e p t t o a p p l y t o i t

PAGE 101

101 m us t be l i ke i n or de r f or t he c onc e pt t o a ppl y t o t h e m a nd s uc h know l e dge c e r t a i nl y s e e m s r e qui r e d f o r one t o c ount a s pos s e s s i ng t he c onc e pt B ut w ha t s e e m s e qua l l y c ha r a c t e r i s t i c of ( a nd r e qui r e d f or ) pos s e s s i ng a va gue c onc e pt i s a n unc e r t ai nt y a s t o w he t he r t o a ppl y t he c onc e pt i n bor de r l i ne c a s e s A s S a i ns bur y s t r e s s e s our va gue c onc e pt s a l l ow us t o r e s ol ve our unc e r t a i nt y a nd a ppl y/ w i t hhol d va gue c onc e pt s t o/ f r om bo r de r l i ne c a s e s I n s uc h c a s e s ho w e ve r t he r e s ol u t i on i s not unde r w r i t t e n by know l e d ge R a t he r i t i s unde r w r i t t e n by s om e t hi ng a ki n t o a de c i s i on. O ne w ho a l w a ys c l a s s i f i e d obj e c t s a s r e d j us t a s I do but c o n c e i ve d t he c ont i nuum of r e d s ha de s a s s ha r pl y de l i m i t e d on b ot h s i de s a nd, s o, w a s ne ve r uns ur e ( o n c o nc e pt ua l gr ounds ) a s t o w he t he r t o c ount a gi ve n s ha de a s r e d, w oul d not s e e m t o be de pl oyi ng t he s a m e c onc e pt a s I do, but a pr e c i s e a nd di s t i nc t a n a l ogue of m y c onc e pt P e a c oc ke s i de nt i f i c a t i on of pos s e s s i ng a c onc e pt w i t h know i ng w ha t i t i s f or s om e t hi ng t o be i t s s e m a nt i c va l ue t he n m i ght ne e d t o be r e vi s e d t o a l l ow f o r t he di s t i nc t i v e f r e e dom t ha t t he de pl oym e nt c ondi t i ons of va gue c onc e pt s a l l ow i n bor de r l i ne c a s e s 2 5 L e t us now r e t ur n t o t he i s s ue of t he t r ut h e va l ua bi l i t y of be l i e f s i nvol vi ng va gue c onc e pt s I ha ve be e n i nt e r pr e t i ng P e a c oc ke s r e qui r e m e nt t h a t e ve r y c onc e pt ha ve a de t e r m i na t i on t he o r y a s t he r e qui r e m e nt t ha t t he pos s e s s i ons c ondi t i ons of e ve r y c onc e pt de t e r m i ne c ons i s t e nt d e pl oym e nt c ondi t i ons f o r t ha t c onc e pt P e oc oc ke f o r m ul a t e s t hi s r e qui r e m e nt i n di f f e r e nt t e r m s na m e l y: T he de t e r m i na t i on t he or y f or a gi ve n c onc e pt ( t oge t he r w i t h t he w or l d i n e m pi r i c a l c a s e s ) a s s i gns s e m a nt i c va l ue s i n s uc h a w a y t ha t t he be l i e f f or m i ng pr a c t i c e s m e nt i one d i n t he c onc e pt s pos s e s s i on c o ndi t i on a r e c or r e c t T ha t i s i n t he c a s e of be l i e f f o r m a t i on, t he pr a c t i c e s r e s ul t i n t r ue be l i e f s a nd i n t he c a s e of pr i nc i pl e s of i nf e r e nc e t he y r e s ul t i n n o t h i n g i s a m e n a b l e t o t h e r e l e v a n t k n o w l e d g e i n t h e c a s e o f v a g u e c o n c e p t s S u c h a v i e w t o g e t h e r w i t h P e a c o c k e s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n e n t a i l s t h a t ( p u t a t i v e ) v a g u e c o n c e p t s c a n n o t b e g r a s p e d ( a n d s o c a n p r e s u m a b l y n o t b e p o s s e s s e d ) 2 5 I w i l l n o t a t t e m p t t h e r e v i s i o n h e r e a s I d o n o t t a k e t h e i s s u e j u s t d i s c u s s e d t o i n d i c a t e t h a t v a g u e c o n c e p t s a r e u n l i k e l y t o b e b o n a f i d e c o n c e p t s R a t h e r t h e i s s u e i n d i c a t e s t h a t a m o r e c a r e f u l a c c o u n t o f t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e p o s s e s s i o n c o n d i t i o n s o f a c o n c e p t a n d g r a s p o f t h i s c o n c e p t i s n e e d e d

PAGE 102

102 t r ut h pr e s e r vi ng i nf e r e nc e s w he n s e m a nt i c va l ue s a r e a s s i gne d i n a c c or da nc e w i t h t he d e t e r m i na t i on t he or y ( P e a c oc ke 1992: 19) I ha ve a r gue d t ha t s or i t e s a r gum e nt s ( r e f o r m ul a t e d t o a ppl y t o c onc e pt s ) ne e d not be t a ke n t o s how t ha t va gue c onc e pt s ha ve i nc ons i s t e nt de pl oym e nt c ondi t i ons P e a c oc ke s r e qui r e m e nt how e ve r a s ks f or m or e a nd va gue c onc e pt s f a i l t o m e e t i t C ons i de r t he c a s e I out l i ne d e a r l i e r ( n. 23 t h i s c ha pt e r ) I f or m e d, unobj e c t i ona bl y i t s e e m s t he be l i e f t ha t A m y s c a r i s gr e e n. S houl d I s e e a not he r c a r o f t he s a m e s ha de a s A m y s I w oul d be l i e ve t ha t i t i s bl ue S o m e t hi ng s e e m s a m i s s i n m y be l i e f f o r m a t i on, a nd i t s e e m s t r a c e a bl e t o t he ve r y f r e e dom one ha s i n de pl oyi ng green i n bor de r l i ne c a s e s t he be l i e f f or m i ng pr a c t i c e s m e nt i one d i n t he c onc e pt s po s s e s s i on c ondi t i ons m a y not r e s ul t i n t r ue be l i e f s w he n t he c onc e pt i s a ppl i e d t o bo r de r l i ne c a s e s ( t hi s i s s o e s pe c i a l l y i f one t hi nks t ha t va gue c onc e pt s a ppl i e d t o bor de r l i ne c a s e s or t o a ny c a s e w ha t s oe v e r c a nnot yi e l d t r ut h e va l ua bl e be l i e f s ) S houl d w e t he r e f o r e c onc l ude t ha t ( put a t i ve ) va gue c onc e pt s a r e no t ge nui ne c onc e pt s ? I t hi nk t ha t t hi s c onc l us i on w oul d a m ount t o t hr ow i ng our c onc e pt ua l ba by out w i t h i t s t he or e t i c a l ba t hw a t e r A r gua bl y m os t o f ou r c onc e pt s a r e va gue A r e qui r e m e nt t ha t e nt a i l s t ha t m os t of our put a t i ve c onc e pt s a r e n ot ge nui ne c onc e pt s i s pr oba bl y t oo s t r ong. P e a c oc ke i s r i gh t I t hi nk t o r e qui r e t ha t t he be l i e f f o r m i ng pr a c t i c e s m e nt i one d i n a c onc e pt s pos s e s s i on c ondi t i on be c or r e c t i n a ddi t i on t o r e qui r i ng t ha t i t s pos s e s s i on c ondi t i ons de t e r m i ne c ons i s t e nt de p l o ym e nt c ondi t i ons H i s r e qui r e m e nt i s t oo s t r ong, ho w e ve r be c a us e he i nt e r pr e t s c or r e c t ne s s i n t e r m s of t r ut h f or a l l c onc e pt s I pr opos e d ne a r t he e nd o f l a s t c ha pt e r t ha t t he pr o pe r f unc t i on of be l i e f i s t o s a nc t i on a nd pr e s e r ve i nf or m a t i on a s s uc h i n c onc e pt ua l i z e d f or m B e l i e f s pe r f or m t hi s f unc t i on by w a y of de pl oyi ng c onc e pt s i n gi ve n m ode s o f c om bi na t i on B e l i e f s de pl oyi ng va gue c onc e pt s do s a nc t i on a nd pr e s e r ve i nf or m a t i on a l be i t not p r e c i s e l y. L udw i g a nd R a y s t r e s s t ha t s e nt e nc e s

PAGE 103

103 c ont a i ni ng va gue pr e di c a t e s c a n be us e d t o c onve y i nf or m a t i on a bout t he w or l d T he y c a n do s o be c a us e a s c o m pe t e nt s pe a ke r s of t he r e l e va nt l a n gua ge w e ha ve a t our di s pos a l w ha t e ve r w e know o f w ha t t he r e i s t o know a bout t he pa r t i a l l y d e t e r m i ne d m e a ni ng o f a va gu e p r e di c a t e T hi s m a y a m ount t o s uc h t hi ngs a s ( i ) know i ng w ha t a r e s uppos e d t o be de t e r m i n i ng f a c t o r s f or t h e a ppl i c a t i on of t he pr e di c a t e ( qua nt i t y of ha i r on t he he a d, f or e xa m pl e ) a nd ( i i ) s om e r a n ge s of s uc h d e t e r m i ni ng f a c t or s w hi c h a r e i nt e nde d c a s e s f or t he p r e di c a t e ( L udw i g a nd R a y 2002: 442) S om e t hi ng s i m i l a r c a n be s a i d of be l i e f s w hos e c o nt e nt i nc l ude s va gue c onc e pt s M y be l i e f t ha t H om e r i s ba l d c a r r i e s f or m e t he ( put a t i ve ) i nf o r m a t i on t ha t t he num be r o f ha i r s on H om e r s he a d f a l l s w i t hi n t he de pl oym e nt r a nge of m y c onc e pt bald a nd t h i s ( put a t i ve ) i nf o r m a t i on i s a va i l a bl e t o m e by vi r t ue of m y pos s e s s i ng t hi s c onc e pt by vi r t ue of pos s e s s i ng a c onc e pt I ha ve i m pl i c i t know l e dge o f i t s pos s e s s i on c ondi t i ons a nd t he pos s e s s i on c ondi t i ons f or bald s pe c i f y t he de t e r m i ni ng f a c t or s f o r i t s de pl oym e nt i e t he num be r of ha i r on one s he a d, t oge t he r w i t h a r a nge of i t s de pl oym e nt M y be l i e f doe s not c a r r y a ny i n f or m a t i on c onc e r ni ng t he e xa c t num be r of ha i r s on H om e r s he a d, but f o r m y pur pos e s i t ne e d not T he a t t e m pt t o f or m a t r ue be l i e f c onc e r ni ng t he e xa c t num be r of ha i r s on H om e r s he a d w oul d r e q ui r e m uc h e f f or t w oul d ha ve a hi gh pr oba bi l i t y of r e s ul t i ng i n a f a l s e be l i e f de s pi t e m y be s t e f f or t s a nd t he ( put a t i ve ) i nf o r m a t i on s uc h a be l i e f w oul d c a r r y w oul d m os t l i ke l y be us e l e s s t o m e B e l i e f s de pl oyi ng va gue c o n c e pt s a r e of t e n e c onom i c a l i n t e r m s of t he doxa s t i c e f f or t r e qui r e d t o a c qui r e t he m l e s s pr one t o e r r o r t ha n t he i r pr e c i s e a na l ogue s a nd pe r f e c t l y s ui t e d t o our pur pos e s I t w oul d s e e m m i s gui de d, t he n, t o c ount a l l be l i e f s de pl oyi ng va gue c onc e pt s a s i nc or r e c t a nd s om e how f a i l e d by vi r t ue of de pl o yi ng va gue c onc e pt s I f c onc e pt ua l pr e c i s i on i s r e q ui r e d f or t he s uc c e s s of a be l i e f i n pe r f or m i ng i t s pr ope r f unc t i on t o be m e a s ur a bl e i n t e r m s of t r u t h a nd f a l s i t y, t he n t r ut h a nd f a l s i t y a r e not a n a ppr o pr i a t e m e a s ur e of t he s uc c e s s of a l l be l i e f s

PAGE 104

104 A c c or di ngl y, I pr opos e t o r e f o r m ul a t e P e a c oc ke s r e qui r e m e nt a s f ol l ow s : T he de t e r m i na t i on t he or y f or a gi ve n c onc e pt ( t oge t he r w i t h t he w or l d i n e m pi r i c a l c a s e s ) a s s i gns s e m a nt i c va l ue s i n s uc h a w a y t ha t t he be l i e f f or m i ng pr a c t i c e s m e nt i one d i n t he c onc e pt s pos s e s s i on c ondi t i on a r e c or r e c t T ha t i s i n t he c a s e of be l i e f f o r m a t i on, t he pr a c t i c e s r e s ul t i n i nf o r m a t i on c a r r yi ng be l i e f s a n d i n t he c a s e of pr i nc i pl e s o f i n f e r e nc e t he y r e s ul t i n i nf or m a t i on pr e s e r vi ng i n f e r e nc e s w he n s e m a nt i c va l ue s a r e a s s i gne d i n a c c or da nc e w i t h t he de t e r m i na t i on t he or y W i t h r e ga r d t o pr e c i s e c onc e pt s t he r e vi s e d r e qui r e m e nt i s c o e xt e ns i ve w i t h P e a c oc ke s r e qui r e m e nt N ot s o w i t h r e ga r d t o va gue c onc e pt s a s i t a l l ow s t ha t va gue c onc e pt s c a n be i n vol ve d i n t he f or m a t i on of c or r e c t be l i e f s T he r e v i s e d r e qui r e m e nt i s a l s o c o e xt e ns i ve w i t h t he r e qui r e m e nt t ha t c onc e pt pos s e s s i on c ondi t i ons de t e r m i ne c ons i s t e nt de pl oym e nt c ondi t i ons Tonk f o r i ns t a nc e f a i l s i t a nd doe s s o by vi r t ue o f ha vi ng i nc ons i s t e nt de pl oym e nt c ond i t i ons T he r e vi s e d r e qui r e m e nt c a n be unde r s t ood a s e xpl a i ni ng w hy c onc e pt s pos s e s s i on w oul d ne e d t o de t e r m i ne c ons i s t e nt de p l oym e nt c ondi t i ons f a i l ur e t o do s o w oul d r e nde r t he put a t i ve c onc e pt i nc a pa bl e of c ont r i but i ng c ont e nt t o i nf o r m a t i on c a r r yi ng s t a t e s I t a ke t he s e c ons i de r a t i ons t o i ndi c a t e t ha t t he pr op os e d r e f or m ul a t i on i s a ppr opr i a t e H ow e ve r us e f ul va gue c onc e pt s a r e e pi s t e m i c a l l y da nge r ous a nd s houl d be ha ndl e d w i t h c a r e J us t a s w e t e nd t o ope r a t e unde r t he pr e t e ns e t ha t va gue e xpr e s s i ons a r e pr e c i s e w e t e nd t o ope r a t e unde r t he pr e t e ns e t ha t va gue c onc e pt s a r e pr e c i s e A l t hough m os t of our c onc e pt s a r e va gue w e t e nd t o a s s um e t ha t our be l i e f s of f e r us a c l e a r w i ndow ont o t he w or l d a nd s om e t i m e s c om e t o e pi s t e m i c a nd pr a c t i c a l gr i e f a s a r e s ul t I n t he c a s e I c ons i de r e d e a r l i e r ( n. 23 t hi s c ha pt e r ) ha d I c om e upon A m y s c a r not kno w i ng t ha t i t w a s A m y s c a r I w oul d m os t l i ke l y not ha ve r e c ogni z e d i t a s A m y s c a r I w oul d ha ve be l i e ve d t ha t A m y s c a r w a s gr e e n but t hought t ha t t he c a r I be he l d w a s bl ue I n m os t c i r c um s t a n c e s m y f a i l u r e t o r e c ogni z e A m y s c a r on t he

PAGE 105

1 05 ba s i s of m y be l i e f w oul d be i nnoc uous ; i n s om e c i r c um s t a nc e s how e ve r i t c oul d be di s a s t r ous 2 6 I n m a t t e r s o f i m po r t ke e pi ng i n m i nd t ha t m os t of our c onc e pt s a r e va gue c a n be a s us e f ul I t hi nk, a s va gue c onc e pt s a r e i n m unda ne c i r c um s t a nc e s B e l i e f P os s e s s i on C on d i t i o n s vs B e l i e f A t t r i b u t i on C on d i t i on s P e a c oc ke e ndor s e s t he vi e w t ha t t he pos s e s s i on c o ndi t i ons f or a c onc e pt m a y di f f e r f r om i t s a t t r i but i on c ond i t i ons H i s vi e w i s t ha t one m a y t r ul y a t t r i but e a c onc e pt t o s om e one w ho f a i l s t o s a t i s f y i t s pos s e s s i on c ond i t i ons f ul l y be c a us e a t t r i but i on c ondi t i ons a r e w e a ke r t ha n pos s e s s i on c ondi t i ons ( P e a c oc ke 1992: 29) I f t he vi e w t ha t t he i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of be l i e f i s f ul l y c ons t i t ut e d by c onc e pt s i s c or r e c t t h e s a m e c a n be s a i d of be l i e f s A l t hough t hi s vi e w s e e m s i m pl a us i bl e t he r e a r e t he or e t i c a l r e a s o ns f or e ndor s i ng i t S o, c ons i de r t he t w o c onc e pt s m e nt i one d e a r l i e r red a nd red* S upp os e s om e one f i nds he r s e l f i n a c i r c um s t a nc e of t he t ype d e s c r i be d i n t he f i r s t pos s e s s i on c ondi t i on f or t he c on c e pt red a nd s i nc e r e l y ut t e r s t hi s i s r e d. D oe s t he b e l i e f s he t he r e by e xpr e s s e s de pl oy t he c onc e pt red or t he c onc e pt red* ? T he r e a s ons t ha t e g. W i l l a r d V O Q ui ne a nd D a vi ds on a dduc e i n s uppor t o f m e a ni ng hol i s m a nd S a ul K r i pke s vi e w s c onc e r n i ng r ul e f o l l ow i ng s pe a k i n f a vo r of t he vi e w t ha t t he r e i s no de t e r m i na t e a ns w e r t o t hi s que s t i on. Y e t i n t r o s pe c t i on s e e m s t o f a vor t he c ont r a r y vi e w I f upon s i nc e r e l y ut t e r i ng t he s e nt e nc e t h i s i s r e d, u nde r c i r c um s t a nc e s of t he t ype de s c r i be d i n t he f i r s t pos s e s s i on c o n di t i on f or t he c onc e pt red I w a s a s ke d w he t he r I m e a nt t o e xpr e s s a be l i e f de pl oyi ng t he c onc e pt red o r t he c onc e pt red* t he a ns w e r w oul d s e e m r e a di l y a va i l a bl e t o m e I nde e d, t he vi e w t ha t t he r e i s no de t e r m i na t e a ns w e r t o t hi s que s t i on s e e m s pr e po s t e r ous w he n t he be l i e f a t i s s ue i s m y ow n t he a ns w e r i t s e e m s i s know n t o m e i m m e di a t e l y; 2 6 T h i s c a s e i s e s p e c i a l l y f l a g r a n t b e c a u s e i t i n v o l v e s a v a g u e c o n c e p t d e p l o y e d i n a b o r d e r l i n e c a s e B u t v a g u e c o n c e p t s c a n l e a d u s a s t r a y e v e n w h e n d e p l o y e d i n c l e a r c a s e s w h e n w e t r e a t b e l i e f s i n v o l v i n g t h e m a s i f t h e y w e r e p r e c i s e w h i l e o u r p u r p o s e s r e q u i r e p r e c i s e b e l i e f s

PAGE 106

106 s i nc e I a m t he a ut ho r o f m y be l i e f m y a ns w e r t o t h e que s t i on ( or m y di s pos i t i on s o t o a ns w e r t he que s t i on) d e t e r m i ne s t he m a t t e r a nd e ns ur e s i t s ow n t r ut h T he i n t r os pe c t i ve s t a nc e on be l i e f c ont e nt t he n, s e e m s t o f a vor t he vi e w t ha t a be l i e f a t t r i but i on i s c o r r e c t j us t i n c a s e t he be l i e ve r s a t i s f i e s t he pos s e s s i on c ondi t i ons of t he c om pl e x c onc e pt a t t r i but e d t o he r a nd t oke ns i t a t t he r e l e va nt t i m e T he de f i ni t i on of t he i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of be l i e f I of f e r e d e a r l i e r na m e l y: L e t b be a pa r t i c ul a r be l i e f s t a t e s uc h t ha t be i ng i n b r e qui r e s t oke ni ng c onc e pt s c 1 c n a nd l e t k be t he know l e dge t ha t a nyone w ho pos s e s s e s c 1 c n h a s j us t by vi r t ue o f pos s e s s i ng t hos e c onc e pt s B e l i e f b i s i ndi vi dua t e d by t he c ont e nt t ha t p j us t i n c a s e f r om k a l one a nd t he s uppos i t i on t ha t b i s t r ue i t i s i m m e di a t e l y a pr i or i de r i va bl e t ha t p A ny t w o pa r t i c ul a r be l i e f s t a t e s b 1 a nd b 2 t ha t m e e t t he a bove c ondi t i on c ount a s be i ng o f t he s a m e i ndi vi dua t i ng t ype ( i e a s be i ng t he s a m e be l i e f w he r e be l i e f i s us e d t o r e f e r t o a t ype of s t a t e r a t he r t ha n t o a pa r t i c ul a r s t a t e ) by v i r t ue of ha vi ng t he s a m e i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt l e nds c r e de nc e t o t he s i de f a vor e d by t he i nt r os p e c t i ve s t a nc e on be l i e f c ont e nt O n t he a c c ount I ha ve out l i ne d ha v i ng b e nt a i l s t ha t one s a t i s f i e s t he pos s e s s i on c ondi t i ons f or c 1 c n T o one w ho ha s b a nd know s t ha t s he ha s b b c a r r i e s t he i nf or m a t i on t ha t p ( w he r e b c a r r i e s t he i nf or m a t i on t ha t p by vi r t ue of b e i ng c ons t i t ut e d b y c 1 c n i n a gi ve n m ode of c om bi na t i on) T o one w ho doe s not pos s e s s c 1 c n or doe s not know t ha t i t i s b t ha t i s be i ng t oke ne d ( a s a be l i e f a t t r i but or m i ght ) b m i ght f a i l t o c a r r y t hi s i n f or m a t i on a l t oge t he r I t hi nk t ha t t he r e a s ons t ha t Q ui ne a nd D a vi d s on a dduc e i n s uppor t of m e a ni ng hol i s m ne e d not l e a d one t o e ndor s e t he vi e w t ha t t he i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of be l i e f i s s ubj e c t t o r a di c a l i nde t e r m i na c y, s i nc e t he i r e v i de nc e c a n be a c c ount e d f or by t he t he s i s t ha t e n vi r onm e nt a l a nd be ha vi or a l e vi de nc e ( i nc l u di ng l i ngui s t i c e vi de nc e ) r a di c a l l y unde r de t e r m i ne s be l i e f a t t r i but i on T he pr obl e m r a i s e d by K r i pke i s t r i c ki e r s i nc e f r o m t he a t t r i but or s s t a nc e a t l e a s t i t i s ha r d t o s a y w ha t c oul d c ount a s a s ui t a bl e gr ound f or gi vi ng a de f i ni t e a ns w e r t o t he que s t i on,

PAGE 107

107 e g. D oe s l i t t l e A m y b e l i e ve t ha t t he ba l l s he be h ol ds i s r e d, o r doe s s he be l i e ve t ha t i t i s r e d*? I nt r os pe c t i on doe s s u g ge s t a n a ns w e r t o t hi s puz z l e T he na t u r a l r e a c t i on t o t hi s puz z l e w he n i t i s r a i s e d w i t h r e ga r d t o one s ow n be l i e f s e e m s t o be I de t e r m i ne t he c ont e nt of m y be l i e f I nt r os pe c t i on, t ha t i s s e e m s t o a dvoc a t e t he vi e w t ha t w ha t de t e r m i ne s t he i nd i vi dua t i ng c ogn i t i ve c ont e nt of be l i e f i s s om e t hi ng a ki n t o a c ogni t i ve i nt e nt i on of t he b e l i e ve r Y e t t hi s c l a i m s e e m s t o e nt a i l t ha t e ve r y be l i e f i s a c c om pa ni e d by a pr opos i t i ona l a t t i t ude c onc e r ni ng t he c ogn i t i ve c ont e nt of t ha t be l i e f I f s o, gi ve n t he v i e w e ndor s e d he r e t ha t t he i ndi v i dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of pr opos i t i ona l a t t i t ude s i s c ons t i t ut e d by c onc e pt s a nd t he i r m ode o f c om b i na t i on, t hi s c l a i m s e e m s t o e nt a i l t ha t be l i e v i ng r e qui r e s one t o ha ve t he c onc e pt of a c onc e pt c onc e pt s of w ha t e ve r c onc e pt s c ons t i t ut e t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of one s be l i e f a nd pe r ha ps a l s o a c o n c e pt of t he r e l e va nt m ode o f c onc e pt c om bi na t i on. T hi s r e s ul t i s w i l dl y i m pl a us i bl e s i nc e young c hi l dr e n a nd c ogni t i ve l y s ophi s t i c a t e d a ni m a l s s e e m t o ha ve be l i e f s but do not s e e m c a pa bl e of ha vi ng a ny s uc h c onc e pt s S e a r l e s a c c ount of t he f or m of t he i n t e nt i ona l c ont e nt of i nt e nt i ons i n a c t i on s u g ge s t s a w a y t o a voi d t hi s unt ow a r d c ons e que nc e ( S e a r l e 2 001: 44 5) 2 7 O n S e a r l e s a c c ount t he i nt e nt i ona l c ont e nt of a n i nt e nt i on i n a c t i on doe s not i n vol ve t he pr opos i t i on w hos e t r ut h t he i nt e nt i on i s t o br i ng a bout c a us a l l y; r a t he r i t di r e c t l y i nvol v e s t he e ve nt ( or t ype of e ve nt ) t ha t t he i nt e nt i on i s t o c a us e T h i s a c c ount i s pl a us i bl e s i nc e i t i s doubt f ul t ha t w e pos s e s s t he c onc e pt s t ha t w oul d be r e qui r e d t o ha ve pr opos i t i ona l i nt e nt i ons i n a c t i on t o pe r f or m m os t o f t he hu m dr um m ot i ons w e c a r r y ou t i nt e nt i ona l l y i t s e e m s a s w e go a bout ou r da i l y l i ve s I f c ogni t i ve i nt e nt i ons a r e i nvol ve d i n s e c ur i ng a de t e r m i na t e c ogni t i ve c ont e nt f or be l i e f i t s e e m s t he i r i nt e nt i ona l c ont e nt w oul d ha ve t o be a ki n t o t he i nt e nt i o na l c ont e nt of i nt e nt i ons i n a c t i on. 2 7 F o r a b r i e f e x p l a n a t i o n o f w h a t S e a r l e m e a n s i n t e n t i o n s i n a c t i o n ( a s o p p o s e d t o p r i o r i n t e n t i o n s ) b y s e e n 2 8 C h a p t e r 2

PAGE 108

108 H ow e ve r i t i s unc l e a r t ha t s uc h c ogni t i ve i nt e nt i on s a r e di s t i nc t m e nt a l s t a t e s t ha t i nc l ude a s do i nt e n t i ons i n a c t i on a c c or di ng t o S e a r l e a s e l f r e f e r e nt i a l c a us a l e l e m e nt de s i gna t i ng t he s ought e f f e c t of one s i nt e nt i on ( f o r c ogni t i ve i nt e n t i ons t he s ought e f f e c t w oul d be c onc e pt de pl oym e nt ) I nt r os pe c t i on, f o r one yi e l ds not hi n g t o s ugge s t t ha t be l i e vi ng i nvol ve s t w o di s t i nc t a nd c a us a l l y r e l a t e d s t a ge s i n c ogni t i ve p r o c e s s i ng, one t o s e c ur e t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of be l i e f a nd t he o t he r t o s e c ur e be l i e f i t s e l f R a t he r s e c ur i ng a s ync hr oni c / i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c o n t e nt s e e m s t o be a c hi e ve d by be l i e vi ng i t s e l f be l i e vi ng t ha t t he c a t i s on t he m a t i t s e e m s s i m pl y i s t o b e l i e ve t ha t a s pe c i f i c obj e c t [ a ] f a l l i n g unde r t he c onc e pt cat be a r s t he r e l a t i on c onc e pt ua l i z e d a s on t o a s pe c i f i c obj e c t [ b ] f a l l i n g unde r t he c onc e pt mat I nt r os pe c t i on, ho w e ve r doe s not yi e l d c l e a r e vi de nc e t ha t t he r e a r e i nt e nt i ons i n a c t i on of t he s or t de s c r i be d by S e a r l e T he r e a s oni ng t ha t l e a ds one t o e ndor s e t h e i r e xi s t e nc e s e e m s r a t he r t o be t ha t s i nc e t he bodi l y m ove m e nt s w e pe r f o r m w hi l e e xe c ut i ng t ho s e a c t i ons w hi c h w e i nt e nd t o pe r f or m a r e i nt r os pe c t e d a s i nt e n t i ona l e ve n w he n not c ons c i ous l y i nt e nde d, t he i r e t i ol ogy m us t i nvol ve i nt e nt i ons L i k e w i s e i f i t t ur ne d out t ha t f or c ogni t i ve s t a t e s t o ha ve a de t e r m i na t e c ont e nt t he i r e t i ol ogy w oul d ha ve t o i nvol ve c ogni t i ve i nt e nt i on s one m i ght a r gue t ha t s i nc e c ogni t i ve s t a t e s a r e i nt r os pe c t e d a s ha vi ng a d e t e r m i na t e c ont e nt t he i r e t i ol ogy doe s i nvo l ve s uc h i nt e nt i ons 2 8 M y pur pos e he r e i s not t o a r gue f or t he e xi s t e nc e o f c ogni t i ve i n t e nt i ons nor t o t a ke a s t a nc e c onc e r ni ng t he i r na t ur e a nd r e l a t i on t o c ogn i t i v e s t a t e s M y pu r pos e i s r a t he r t o s hi f t t he bur de n of pr oof unt i l c onc l us i ve e vi de nc e t o t he e f f e c t t ha t c ogni t i ve s t a t e s ha ve no de t e r m i na t e c ont e nt i s of f e r e d, t he vi e w f a vo r e d by t he i nt r os pe c t i ve s t a nc e on be l i e f na m e l y t ha t 2 8 O n e m i g h t w o r r y t h a t t h e p r o p o s a l t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a t i n g c o n t e n t o f b e l i e f i s s e c u r e d b y a c o g n i t i v e i n t e n t i o n i n a c t i o n i s l i a b l e t o a r e g r e s s o b j e c t i o n I n t e n t i o n s a r e j u d g m e n t s e n s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s T h a t i s t h e y a r e a t l e a s t c a p a b l e o f b e i n g m o t i v a t e d b y r e a s o n s T h e w o r r y i s t h a t s u c h r e a s o n s w o u l d t h e m s e l v e s n e e d t o h a v e a c o g n i t i v e c o n t e n t w h i c h w o u l d n e e d t o b e s e c u r e d b y a f u r t h e r c o g n i t i v e i n t e n t i o n A s I n o t e d i n n 3 2 C h a p t e r 2 t h i s n e e d n o t b e t h e c a s e A t o t a l r e a s o n f o r a n i n t e n t i o n i n a c t i o n m i g h t c o n s i s t o f a n o n p r o p o s i t i o n a l d e s i r e t o g e t h e r w i t h a n o n p r o p o s i t i o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f h o w b e s t t o s a t i s f y t h i s d e s i r e i n o n e s c i r c u m s t a n c e s ( w h e r e t h e r e c o g n i t i o n i s m a d e p o s s i b l e b y a n o n p r o p o s i t i o n a l k n o w h o w t h a t t h e a g e n t p o s s e s s e s ) C o n c e p t p o s s e s s i o n p r o v i d e s j u s t t h e r e q u i r e d k n o w h o w a n d o n e s v a r i o u s i n t e r e s t s m i g h t p r o v i d e t h e r e q u i r e d d e s i r e N o f u r t h e r i n t e n t i o n s a r e r e q u i r e d

PAGE 109

109 be l i e f s ha ve de t e r m i na t e c ont e nt s i s p r ope r l y t a ke n a s one s t he or e t i c a l s t a r t i ng poi nt R e f l e c t i on on t he c onc e pt of be l i e f p r ovi de s f ur t he r r e a s o n t o s i de w i t h i nt r os pe c t i on. T h e C on c e p t of B e l i e f I s a i d a bove t ha t be ha vi or a l e vi de nc e r a di c a l l y und e r de t e r m i ne s be l i e f a t t r i but i on. T hi s ha s be e n t a ke n t o i ndi c a t e t ha t t he i ndi v i dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of be l i e f i t s e l f i s s ubj e c t t o r a di c a l i nde t e r m i na c y. T hi s c onc l us i on, I t hi nk, f ol l ow s o nl y i f one t a ke s belief t o be a n e s s e n t i a l l y t hi r d pe r s ona l c onc e pt T he r e a r e good r e a s ons t o t hi nk t ha t belief i s a n e s s e nt i a l l y f i r s t pe r s ona l c onc e pt A c c or di ng t o P e a c oc ke t he pos s e s s i on c ondi t i ons of belief a r e : A r e l a t i ona l c onc e pt R i s t he c onc e pt of be l i e f onl y i f ( F ) t he t hi nke r f i nds t he f i r s t pe r s on c ont e nt t ha t he s t a nds i n R t o p pr i m i t i ve l y c om pe l l i ng w he ne ve r he ha s t he c ons c i ous be l i e f t ha t p a nd he f i nds i t c o m pe l l i ng be c a us e he ha s t ha t c ons c i ous be l i e f ; a nd ( T ) i n j udgi ng a t hought o f t he t hi r d pe r s on f o r m a R p t he t hi nke r t he r e by i nc ur s a c om m i t m e nt t o a s be i ng i n a s t a t e t ha t ha s t he s a m e c ont e nt de pe nde nt r ol e i n m a ki ng a i nt e l l i g i bl e a s t he r ol e of hi s ow n s t a t e of s t a n di ng i n R t o p i n m a ki ng hi m i nt e l l i g i bl e w e r e he t o be i n t ha t s t a t e ( P e a c oc ke 19 92: 163 64) A s f or m ul a t e d, ( T ) s t r i ke s m e a s i nc om pl e t e s i nc e i t doe s not s pe c i f y a t r a ns i t i on t o a t hought c ont e nt c ont a i ni ng R a nd, s o, doe s not de t e r m i ne a t hi r d pe r s on de pl oym e nt c ondi t i on f or b elief 2 9 ( T ) t he n, s houl d be r e f or m ul a t e d a l ong t he f ol l ow i ng l i ne s : ( T *) t he t hi nke r i s d i s pos e d 3 0 t o be l i e ve t he t hi r d pe r s on c ont e nt of t he f or m a R p w he n he t a ke s a t o a nd ( T ) 2 9 A l t h o u g h P e a c o c k e p r e s e n t s ( F ) a n d ( T ) a s m e r e l y n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f b e l i e f h e o f f e r s t h e m a s f u l l f l e d g e d p o s s e s s i o n c o n d i t i o n s 3 0 P e a c o c k e s e e m s t o w i s h t o r e s e r v e t h e p h r a s e p r i m i t i v e l y c o m p e l l i n g f o r v a l i d t r a n s i t i o n s ( e g t h e t r a n s i t i o n s m e n t i o n e d i n t h e p o s s e s s i o n s c o n d i t i o n s o f l o g i c a l c o n c e p t s a n d i n ( F ) a b o v e ) A l t h o u g h h e d o e s n o t e x p l i c i t l y r e s t r i c t t h e u s e o f t h i s p h r a s e t o s u c h t r a n s i t i o n s h i s o w n u s e s s e e m t o a b i d e b y s u c h a r e s t r i c t i o n T h i s s e e m s t o i n t r o d u c e a n u n n e c e s s a r y c o m p l i c a t i o n i n h i s l e x i c o n H o w e v e r i t s e e m s a p p r o p r i a t e n o t t o u s e t h i s p h r a s e i n ( T ) M o r e g e n e r a l l y f o r e x p e r i e n t i a l c o n c e p t s ( w h e r e e x p e r i e n c e i s u n d e r s t o o d b r o a d l y e n o u g h t o i n c l u d e i n t r o s p e c t i v e a w a r e n e s s ) i t s e e m s a p p r o p r i a t e t o f o r m u l a t e t h e c l a u s e t h a t m e n t i o n s e x p e r i e n c e i n t e r m s o f a t r a n s i t i o n t h a t t h e t h i n k e r f i n d s p r i m i t i v e l y c o m p e l l i n g a n d t o f o r m u l a t e t h e o t h e r c l a u s e ( s ) i n t e r m s o f t r a n s i t i o n s t h a t t h e t h i n k e r i s d i s p o s e d t o m a k e w h e n s / h e t a k e s t h e p r i m a r y g r o u n d f o r t h e e x p e r i e n c e t o o b t a i n T h e c l a u s e f o r m u l a t e d i n t e r m s o f a t r a n s i t i o n t h a t t h e t h i n k e r f i n d s p r i m i t i v e l y c o m p e l l i n g w o u l d t h e n b e p r i m a r y w h i l e t h e o t h e r ( s ) w o u l d b e d e r i v a t i v e o n t h e p r i m a r y c l a u s e B y v i r t u e o f u s i n g s u c h p r i m a r y a n d d e r i v a t i v e c l a u s e s s u c h a f o r m u l a t i o n w o u l d s e c u r e t h a t t h e s e p o s s e s s i o n c o n d i t i o n s a r e t h e p o s s e s s i o n c o n d i t i o n s o f a s i n g l e c o n c e p t ; b y v i r t u e o f f o r m u l a t i n g

PAGE 110

110 T he t a s k of c om pl e t i ng ( T *) i s r a t he r t a l l how e ve r s i nc e ( i ) be ha vi or a l e vi de nc e r a di c a l l y u n de r de t e r m i ne s be l i e f a t t r i but i on, ( i i ) ( T *) i nc l ud e s a va r i a bl e ( p ) r a ngi ng ove r a t t r i but e d be l i e f c ont e nt s ( i e c om pl e x c onc e pt s ) a nd ( i i i ) a c c or di ng t o P e a c oc ke s de t e r m i na t i on r e qui r e m e nt t he be l i e f f o r m i ng p r a c t i c e m e nt i one d ( T *) m us t b e c or r e c t G i ve n ( i ) ( i i ) a nd ( i i i ) t he e l l i ps i s m a r ks i n ( T *) c a nnot s i m pl y be r e pl a c e d by be i n a s t a t e t ha t ha s t he s a m e c ont e nt de pe nde nt r ol e i n m a ki ng a i nt e l l i gi bl e a s t he r ol e o f hi s ow n s t a t e of s t a ndi ng i n R t o p i n m a ki ng hi m i nt e l l i gi bl e w e r e he t o be i n t ha t s t a t e I a m not s ur e how t o r e c onc i l e ( i ) ( i i ) a nd ( i i i ) F o r t una t e l y, I ne e d not do s o f or m y pu r pos e s he r e I t i s e nough t o not e t ha t g i ve n ( F ) ( T ) w i l l ha ve t o be i nc l ude d i n a ny s ui t a bl e ve r s i on of ( T *) e i t he r e xpl i c i t l y or by vi r t ue of be i ng e nt a i l e d by i t s i nc e t hi s i s r e qui r e d t o e ns ur e t ha t ( F ) a nd ( T *) a r e t he pos s e s s i on c ondi t i ons of a s i ngl e c onc e pt w hi c h c onc e pt ua l i z e s a s i ngl e t ype of s t a t e I n ot he r w or ds t hi s i s r e qui r e d t o e ns ur e t ha t a s t a t e c onc e pt ua l i z e d a s belief ( T ) w he n a t t r i but e d t o a not he r on t he ba s i s of be ha vi or a l e vi de nc e i s t he s a m e t ype of s t a t e a s on e c onc e p t ua l i z e d a s belief ( F ) w he n a t t r i but e d di r e c t l y t o one s e l f S uppos e s om e t hi nke r s a t i s f i e s ( T # ) w he r e ( T # ) i s s om e pos s e s s i o n c ondi t i on s pe c i f yi ng w he n a t hi nke r i s di s pos e d t o de pl oy t he r e l a t i ona l c onc e pt R # t hi r d pe r s ona l l y. S uppos e t ha t de pl o yi ng R # i n a c c or da nc e w i t h ( T # ) doe s not i nc ur t he c om m i t m e nt m e nt i one d i n ( T ) S uppos e a l s o t ha t t hi s t hi nke r s a t i s f i e s ( F ) R e ga r d l e s s of w he t he r ( T # ) s u c c e e ds i n c a pt ur i ng s om e f e a t ur e s of belief a s de pl oye d t hi r d pe r s ona l l y, i t doe s not s e e m t ha t t he r e l a t i on be t w e e n R # a nd R w oul d be i de nt i t y. I n ot he r w o r ds i t doe s not s e e m t ha t by vi r t ue of s a t i s f yi ng ( F ) a nd ( T # ) t hi s t h i nke r w oul d be s a t i s f yi ng t he pos s e s s i on c ondi t i ons of a s i ngl e c onc e pt N ot e t ha t a put a t i ve c onc e pt t h e p r i m a r y c l a u s e i n t e r m s o f a t r a n s i t i o n t h a t t h e t h i n k e r f i n d s p r i m i t i v e l y c o m p e l l i n g a n d t h e d e r i v a t i v e c l a u s e ( s ) i n t e r m s o f w h a t t h e t h i n k e r i s d i s p o s e d t o b e l i e v e s u c h a f o r m u l a t i o n w o u l d c a p t u r e t h e p h e n o m e n a l d i f f e r e n c e i n v o l v e d i n d e p l o y i n g s u c h c o n c e p t s i n e x p e r i e n t i a l a n d n o n e x p e r i e n t i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s ; b y v i r t u e o f m e n t i o n i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e p r i m a r y c l a u s e s u c h a f o r m u l a t i o n w o u l d s e c u r e t h a t t h e s e p o s s e s s i o n c o n d i t i o n s a r e t h e p o s s e s s i o n c o n d i t i o n s o f a n e x p e r i e n t i a l c o n c e p t

PAGE 111

111 i ndi vi dua t e d by ( F ) a n d ( T # ) w oul d f a i l P e a c oc ke s de t e r m i na t i on r e qui r e m e nt T he de pl oym e nt c ondi t i ons f or a c onc e pt a r e not r e l a t i ve t o t he t hi n ke r w ho ha ppe ns t o de pl oy t hi s c onc e pt A c c or di ngl y, f o r t he pos s e s s i on c o n di t i ons m e nt i one d i n ( F ) a nd ( T # ) t o de t e r m i ne c ons i s t e nt de pl oym e nt c ondi t i ons t he y m us t be s uc h t ha t f o r a ny t w o t h i nke r s x a nd y a nd a ny c ont e nt p x i s i n a pos i t i on a ppr o pr i a t e l y t o de pl oy R # w i t h r e s pe c t t o y a nd p j us t i n c a s e y i s i n a pos i t i on a ppr opr i a t e l y t o de pl oy R w i t h r e s pe c t y a nd p ( F ) a nd a s ui t a bl e ve r s i on of ( T ) t ha t e i t he r i nc l ude d, or e nt a i l e d ( T ) w oul d s a t i s f y t hi s r e qui r e m e nt ( F ) a nd ( T # ) obvi ous l y f a i l i t T he f or e goi ng r e f l e c t i on m e r e l y s how s t ha t t he f i r s t pe r s on a nd t he t hi r d pe r s on c l a us e s of belief m us t be s pe c i f i e d a s po s s e s s i on c ondi t i ons of a r e l a t i ona l c onc e pt ( r e l a t i ng a n i ndi vi dua l t o a c ont e nt ) t ha t t he t hi nke r i s di s pos e d t o de pl oy onl y w he n s om e g r ound f or de pl oym e nt obt a i ns i e onl y w he n t he c or r e s pondi ng r e l a t i on i s i ns t a nc e d. T he f i r s t pe r s on a nd t he t hi r d pe r s on c l a us e s m i ght di f f e r i n t e r m s of t he t hi nke r s c ogni t i ve a c c e s s t o t hi s gr ound, i e i n t e r m s of how t he i ns t a nc i ng of t he c or r e s pondi ng r e l a t i on i s a va i l a bl e t o t he t hi nke r s a w a r e ne s s pr e s um a bl y, i nt r o s pe c t i ve a w a r e ne s s i n t he f i r s t pe r s on c l a us e a nd be ha vi or a l e vi de nc e i n t he t hi r d pe r s on c l a us e but t he y c a nnot di f f e r by vi r t ue of of f e r i ng di s t i nc t r e l a t i ons a s gr ounds f or de pl oym e nt Y e t t hi s doe s not s how t ha t t ha t t he p os s e s s i on c ondi t i ons of be l i e f m us t de s i gna t e t he f i r s t pe r s on c ogni t i ve a c c e s s t o t he i ns t a nc i ng o f t he r e l e va nt pr ope r t y a s pr i m a r y ( a nd s o t ha t t he f i r s t pe r s on c l a us e m us t be p r i m a r y a nd t h e t hi r d pe r s on c l a us e m us t be de r i va t i ve i n t he s e ns e s pe c i f i e d i n n. 30 t hi s c ha pt e r ) T ha t t he y m us t be s o s pe c i f i e d i s ove r w he l m i ngl y pl a us i bl e ho w e ve r gi ve n t he w e l l e s t a bl i s he d a s ym m e t r i e s i n f i r s t pe r s on a nd t hi r d pe r s on a ut hor i t y ove r pr e s e nt t e ns e a s c r i pt i ons of c ons c i ous be l i e f T he f or e goi ng r e f l e c t i on, t he n s how s t ha t i t i s ove r w he l m i ngl y pl a us i bl e t ha t be l i e f i s a n e s s e nt i a l l y f i r s t pe r s ona l c onc e pt

PAGE 112

112 T he phr a s e t he t hi nke r t he r e by i nc ur s a c om m i t m e nt t o a s be i ng i n a s t a t e t ha t ha s t he s a m e c ont e nt de pe nde nt r ol e i n m a ki ng a i nt e l l i gi b l e a s t he r ol e o f hi s ow n s t a t e of s t a ndi ng i n R t o p do e s not w a r r a nt P e a c oc ke s vi e w t ha t be l i e f a t t r i but i on c ondi t i ons a r e w e a ke r t ha n be l i e f pos s e s s i on c ondi t i ons T he t hi nke r s ow n be l i e f s t a t e s a r e i ndi vi dua t e d i n pa r t by t he i r i ndi vi d ua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt w hi c h i s c ons t i t ut e d by c o nc e pt s i n gi ve n m o de s of c om bi na t i on. I n t he c a s e of c ons c i ous be l i e f t hi s c ont e nt i s i m m e di a t e l y a c c e s s i bl e t o t he be l i e ve r a t l e a s t on P e a c oc ke s vi e w ( P e a c oc ke 1992: 158 159 ) T o a t t r i b ut e a s t a t e t ha t ha s t he s a m e c ont e nt de pe nde nt r ol e i n m a ki ng a i nt e l l i gi bl e t he n, i s t o a t t r i but e a s t a t e w i t h a de f i ni t e c ont e nt c ons t i t ut e d by c onc e pt s i n gi ve n m ode s o f c om bi n a t i on, w hos e pos s e s s i on c ondi t i ons a s a t i s f i e s a nd t ha t a t oke ns a nd i t i s t o a t t r i but e a s t a t e t o w h os e c ont e nt t he a t t r i but o r w oul d ha ve i m m e d i a t e a c c e s s w e r e i t hi s / he r ow n s t a t e a nd w e r e i t c o ns c i ous S o m uc h s e e m s t o be di c t a t e d by t he c onc e pt of be l i e f T he a ppe a r a nc e t ha t be l i e f a t t r i but i on c ondi t i ons a r e w e a ke r t ha n be l i e f pos s e s s i on c ond i t i ons i s ge ne r a t e d by t he ve r y di f f e r e nc e i n c ogni t i ve a c c e s s t ha t t he f i r s t pe r s on a nd t hi r d pe r s on c l a us e s of belief w oul d ha ve t o c a pt ur e t he s y nc hr oni c a nd i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s of c ons c i ous be l i e f a r e i m m e di a t e l y a c c e s s i bl e t o t he be l i e ve r but not t o t he a t t r i but o r B ut r e ga r dl e s s of w he t he r t he s t a t e c onc e pt u a l i z e d a s a be l i e f i s one s ow n o r a not he r s i t i s a s t a t e w i t h a de f i ni t e c onc e pt ua l c ont e nt t o w hi c h t he be l i e ve r ha s i m m e di a t e a c c e s s ( i f t he be l i e f i s c o n s c i ous ) I n t hi s r e s pe c t belief i s a na l ogous t o red i n t he s e ns e t ha t bot h c onc e pt s ha ve one c l a us e t ha t s pe c i f i e s t he c ond i t i ons unde r w hi c h one w ho pos s e s s e s t he c onc e pt i s di s pos e d t o de pl oy i t i n t he l i ght of e xpe r i e nc e ( w he r e e xpe r i e nc e i s unde r s t ood b r oa dl y e nough t o i nc l ude i nt r os pe c t i ve a w a r e ne s s ) w hi l e t he o t he r ( s ) s pe c i f i e s ( s pe c i f y) t he c ondi t i ons unde r w hi c h one w ho pos s e s s e s t he c onc e pt i s di s pos e d t o de pl oy i t w hi l e not ha vi ng t he e xpe r i e nc e

PAGE 113

113 m e nt i one d i n t he f i r s t c l a us e but t a ki ng t hi ngs t o b e s uc h t ha t s he w oul d ha ve t he r e l e va nt e x pe r i e nc e i f s he w e r e a ppr op r i a t e l y pl a c e d. S uc h c l a us e s t he n, di f f e r not i n t e r m s of t he pr ope r t y ( o r r a nge of pr ope r t i e s f or red ) o r r e l a t i on t ha t t he y s pe c i f y a s gr ound f or de pl oyi ng t he r e l e va nt c onc e pt but i n t e r m s of t he t hi nke r s c ogn i t i ve a c c e s s t o i t

PAGE 114

114 C H A P T E R 4 R A T I O N A L B E L I E F 1 R a t i ona l i s us e d he r e i n t he b r oa d s e ns e of m a ni f e s t i ng r a t i ona l i t y a s a c a pa c i t y, r a t he r t ha n t he na r r ow s e ns e of f ul f i l l i ng s om e r e l e va nt s e t of no r m s of r a t i ona l i t y T he s e t w o s e ns e s a r e r e l a t e d a s f ol l ow s : on l y be i ngs t ha t a r e r a t i ona l i n t he b r oa d s e ns e c a n ha ve s t a t e s t ha t a r e e i t he r r a t i ona l or i r r a t i ona l i n t he na r r ow s e ns e L i ke w i s e onl y s t a t e s t ha t a r e r a t i ona l i n t he br oa d s e ns e c a n be r a t i ona l o r i r r a t i ona l i n t he na r r ow s e ns e T hi s c ha pt e r f oc us e s on be l i e f a s r a t i ona l i n t he br oa d s e ns e M or e s pe c i f i c a l l y, i t s e e ks t o a ns w e r t he que s t i on, w ha t i s r e qui r e d f or a be l i e f t o be r a t i o na l i n t he br oa d s e ns e i e t o be s ubj e c t t o e va l ua t i on a s r a t i ona l o r i r r a t i ona l ? T he que s t i on i s m ot i va t e d by t he vi e w i m pl i c i t i n s om e o f t he c l a i m s I m a de e a r l i e r t ha t s om e be i ngs w hos e s t a t e s a r e not t ypi c a l l y t a ke n t o be e va l ua bl e a s r a t i ona l o r i r r a t i ona l t o w i t ve r y young c hi l d r e n a nd s om e c ogni t i ve l y s ophi s t i c a t e d a n i m a l s a r e ne ve r t he l e s s c a pa bl e of ha vi ng be l i e f s 2 I f s o, t he n ha vi ng t he c a pa c i t y t o f or m a r a t i ona l l y e va l ua bl e be l i e f r e qui r e s m or e t ha n t he m e r e c a pa c i t y t o f o r m a b e l i e f I n w ha t f ol l ow s I a r gue t ha t a be l i e f i s e va l ua bl e a s r a t i ona l or i r r a t i ona l onl y i f t he be l i e ve r ha s t he c a pa c i t y t o t a ke a de l i be r a t i ve s t a nc e t ow a r d i t T a ki ng a de l i be r a t i ve s t a nc e t ow a r d a be l i e f I a r gue m i n i m a l l y r e qui r e s t he c a pa c i t y t o e nt e r t a i n a que s t i on a nd pos s e s s i on of t he f i r s t pe r s on c onc e pt a nd t he c onc e pt o f be l i e f i n a ddi t i on t o t he c onc e pt s t ha t c ons t i t ut e t he i n di vi du a t i ng a nd c ur r e nt s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s of t ha t be l i e f 1 I a r g u e d i n C h a p t e r 2 t h a t s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g e v a l u a t i o n s a s t r u e o r f a l s e p r o p e r l y b e l o n g t o b e l i e f s a s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l s t a t e s w h i l e e v a l u a t i o n s a s e p i s t e m i c a l l y r a t i o n a l o r i r r a t i o n a l ( a n d j u s t i f i e d o r u n j u s t i f i e d w a r r a n t e d o r u n w a r r a n t e d e t c ) p r o p e r l y b e l o n g t o b e l i e v i n g s a s e v e n t s T h i s i s b e c a u s e e v a l u a t i o n s o f t e l e o l o g i c a l e v e n t s a l o n g t h e d i m e n s i o n o f s u c c e s s e v a l u a t e t h e o u t c o m e o f t h e s e e v e n t s w h i l e e v a l u a t i o n s o f t e l e o l o g i c a l e v e n t s a l o n g t h e d i m e n s i o n o f p e r f o r m a n c e e v a l u a t e t h e s e e v e n t s t h e m s e l v e s I n t h i s c h a p t e r I a m a d o p t i n g t h e w i d e s p r e a d u s e o f r a t i o n a l a s a p r e d i c a t e o f s t a t e s H o w e v e r I s h o u l d s t r e s s t h a t g i v e n m y v i e w t h a t r a t i o n a l e x p r e s s e s a t e l e o l o g i c a l p r o p e r t y I a m u s i n g r a t i o n a l i n a t r a n s f e r r e d s e n s e w h e n e v e r I u s e i t a s a p r e d i c a t e o f a s t a t e 2 T h i s v i e w h a s b e e n d e n i e d b y D a v i d s o n f o r e x a m p l e o n t h e g r o u n d t h a t b e l i e f r e q u i r e s r a t i o n a l i t y ( u n d e r s t o o d i n t h e b r o a d s e n s e s p e c i f i e d a b o v e ) O n e m i g h t b e t h e o r e t i c a l l y d r i v e n t o t h e v i e w t h a t c o g n i t i v e l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d b u t n o t f u l l y r a t i o n a l b e i n g s c a n n o t h a v e b e l i e f s S u c h a r e s t r i c t i v e v i e w o f b e l i e f s h o u l d n o t h o w e v e r b e e n d o r s e d a s a t h e o r e t i c a l s t a r t i n g p o i n t

PAGE 115

115 R at i on al E val u ab i l i t y an d C o n t r ol I nt ui t i ve l y, a n i ndi vi dua l o r a n e ve nt or s t a t e s he unde r goe s i s pr ope r l y e va l ua t e d a s i r r a t i ona l ( i n t he na r r ow s e ns e ) i na s m uc h a s s he or i t f a i l s t o s a t i s f y s om e nor m of r a t i ona l i t y t ha t s he or i t ought t o s a t i s f y, a nd a s r a t i ona l ( i n t he na r r ow s e ns e ) i na s m uc h a s s he or i t s a t i s f i e s e ve r y nor m of r a t i ona l i t y t ha t s he o r i t ought t o s a t i s f y, gi ve n t he r e l e va nt c i r c um s t a nc e s W he n t he e va l ua t i on i s c onc e r ne d w i t h a s pe c i f i c t ype of r a t i ona l i t y, e g doxa s t i c r a t i ona l i t y t he s ubs e t of r e l e va nt nor m s i s c or r e s pondi ngl y c i r c um s c r i be d. A n i ndi vi dua l or a n e ve nt or s t a t e s he unde r goe s t ha t i s e va l ua t e d a s i r r a t i ona l i s i ps o f ac t o e v a l ua t e d a s pr i m a f ac i e r a t i ona l l y bl a m e w or t h y, a nd a n i ndi vi d ua l or a n e ve nt o r s t a t e s he unde r go e s t ha t i s e va l ua t e d a s r a t i ona l i s i ps o f ac t o e va l ua t e d a s pr i m a f ac i e r a t i ona l l y p r a i s e w or t hy. W he n t he e va l ua t i on i s c onc e r ne d w i t h a s pe c i f i c t ype of r a t i ona l i t y, l i a bi l i t y t o pr i m a f ac i e r a t i ona l pr a i s e or bl a m e i s r e l a t i ve t o t hos e r e s pe c t s c onc e r ni ng w hi c h one i s e va l ua t e d. Y e t i t s e e m s unf a i r t o a s s i gn nor m a t i ve p r a i s e or b l a m e f or m a t t e r s ove r w hi c h one ha s no c ont r ol L i a bi l i t y t o nor m a t i ve pr a i s e a nd bl a m e s e e m s t o r e qui r e a dua l f or m of c ont r ol F i r s t one c a n not r i ght l y be pr a i s e d o r bl a m e d f or s om e t hi ng f or w hi c h s he i s not r e s pons i bl e I f one i s pr a i s e d or bl a m e d f or t he oc c ur r e nc e o f a n e ve nt t he n s he m us t be ( a t l e a s t pa r t l y) r e s pons i bl e f or c a u s i ng t ha t e ve nt o r s he m us t ha ve be e n i n a pos i t i on t o pr e ve nt i t I f one i s pr a i s e d or bl a m e d f or a pr ope r t y be i ng i ns t a nc e d, t he n s he m us t be ( a t l e a s t pa r t l y) r e s pons i bl e f or m a ki ng i t t he c a s e t ha t t hi s pr ope r t y i s i ns t a nc e d, o r s he m us t ha ve be e n i n a pos i t i on t o m a ke i t t he c a s e t ha t t hi s pr ope r t y i s not i n s t a nc e d. S o, I c a n be bl a m e d f or r e a s oni ng poor l y w i t hi n t he c onf i ne s of m y i nt e l l e c t ua l l i m i t a t i ons B ut unl e s s I c a n be s how n t o be r e s pons i bl e f or m y i nt e l l e c t ua l l i m i t a t i ons ( I m i ght ha ve done t oo l i t t l e t o ove r c o m e t he m ) I c a nnot pr ope r l y be bl a m e d f or

PAGE 116

116 t he m S e c ond, t he l i a bi l i t y t o p r a i s e a nd bl a m e t ha t a t t e nds nor m a t i v e 3 e va l ua bi l i t y s e e m s t o r e qui r e a n a ddi t i ona l f o r m of c ont r ol na m e l y t he c a pa c i t y t o a bi de by t he r e l e va nt no r m N ot e t ha t a bi di ng by a no r m i s not t a nt a m ount t o a c t i ng i n a c c or da nc e w i t h i t C ons i de r t he f ol l ow i ng c a s e s L i t t l e A m y know s t ha t s he m us t be hom e e ve r y e ve ni ng by 6 P M o r e l s e s he doe s n t ge t a ny de s s e r t S he ha s a w a t c h, kno w s how t o r e a d i t but s he doe s n t us ua l l y bot he r s he doe s n t r e a l l y c a r e a bout be i ng hom e on t i m e a nd nor m a l l y c a r e s m or e a bout pl a y i ng out s i de t ha n ge t t i ng de s s e r t T oni ght how e ve r t he a r om a of t he pe a c h c obbl e r t ha t ba ke s i n t he ove n i s s o de l i c i ous l y s t r ong t ha t i t i nt e r r upt s he r pl a y i n t he ga r de n a nd dr a w s he r i nt o t he ki t c he n a s l uc k w oul d ha ve i t by 6 P M A l t hough A m y ge t s bot h de s s e r t a nd pr a i s e I t e nd t o t hi nk t ha t s he doe s not de s e r ve t he l a t t e r s he di d not a bi de by he r r ul e but m e r e l y a c t e d i n a c c or da nc e w i t h i t N ow c ons i de r t he f o l l ow i n g c a s e : A m y know s t ha t pe a c h c obbl e r he r f a vo r i t e i s on t he m e nu t oni ght F or onc e s he ke e ps a n e ye on he r w a t c h a nd m a ke s s ur e t ha t s he ge t s hom e by 6 P M I n t hi s c a s e i t s e e m s A m y de s e r ve s not onl y de s s e r t but a l s o p r a i s e s he di d a bi de by he r r ul e ( a l t hough h e r m ot i va t i on m i ght ha ve be e n s om e w ha t m e r c e na r y) N ow i m a gi ne t ha t A m y s c u r f e w i s e xc e pt i ona l l y b r oug ht f or w a r d t o 5 : 30 P M but no one t e l l s A m y. O nc e a ga i n, hi ghl y m o t i va t e d by t he pr os pe c t o f pe a c h c obbl e r A m y m a ke s s ur e t ha t s he i s hom e by 6 P M I n t hi s c a s e A m y c e r t a i nl y doe s n t s e e m t o de s e r ve bl a m e f or unknow i ng l y br e a ki ng he r unus ua l c u r f e w ( a nd s e e m s t o de s e r ve s om e c obbl e r t oo) R e f l e c t i on on t he s e c a s e s i ndi c a t e s t ha t a bi di ng by a r ul e i n t he m a nne r r e qui r e d f or no r m a t i ve pr a i s e r e qui r e s t ha t t hi s r ul e be r e c ogni z e d a s r e l e va nt a nd a ppl i e d, r a t he r t ha n m e r e l y c om pl i e d w i t h. C onve r s e l y, f a i l ur e t o a bi de by a r ul e i n t he m a nne r r e qui r e d f or nor m a t i ve bl a m e r e qui r e s t ha t t hi s r ul e be r e c ogni z e d a s r e l e va nt a nd di s r e ga r de d. I n t ui t i ve l y, t he n, 3 I a m u n s u r e w h e t h e r a l l e v a l u a t i o n s t h a t p r o p e r l y i s s u e i n p r a i s e o r b l a m e a r e n o r m a t i v e I m a y b l a m e s o m e o n e f o r n o t f o l l o w i n g a s i n g u l a r o r d e r t o a c t i n a s p e c i f i c w a y a t a g i v e n t i m e I n s u c h a c a s e i t i s n o t c l e a r t h a t m y o r d e r c o n s t i t u t e s a n o r m w h i c h h i s a c t i o n f a i l s t o m e e t n o r m s a r e g e n e r a l w h i l e m y o r d e r i s n t

PAGE 117

117 l i a bi l i t y t o nor m a t i ve p r a i s e a nd bl a m e r e qui r e s r e s pons i bi l i t y a nd t he c a pa c i t y t o a bi de by t he nor m r e l a t i ve t o w hi c h one i s e va l ua t e d. M i ni m a l l y, t he c a pa c i t y t o a bi de by t he no r m r e l a t i ve t o w hi c h one i s e va l ua t e d r e qui r e s t he c a pa c i t i e s t o r e c o gni z e t hi s nor m a s gove r ni ng t he m a t t e r c onc e r n i ng w hi c h one i s e va l ua t e d, t o de t e r m i ne w he t he r or no t t o obe y t hi s no r m a nd e i t he r t o obe y, or not t o obe y, i t a s a r e s ul t of t hi s de t e r m i na t i on. I n R e as on w i t hout F r e e dom ( 2000) O w e ns a r gue s t ha t t he i nt u i t i ve r e qui r e m e nt s j us t ou t l i ne d, a l be i t c or r e c t w i t h r e ga r d t o p r a c t i c a l nor m a t i vi t y, a r e not pe r t i ne nt t o doxa s t i c nor m a t i v i t y. O w e ns c a l l s t he vi e w a c c or di ng t o w hi c h no r m a t i vi t y r e qui r e s r e s pons i bi l i t y, a nd r e s pons i bi l i t y r e qui r e s c ont r ol t he j u r i di c a l t he or y of r e s pons i bi l i t y ( he nc e f or t h J T R ) H e a r gue s t ha t pr opone nt s of J T R a r e not i nt e r e s t e d i n c ont r ol i n t he s e ns e of s ubj e c t i on t o t he w i l l a s s uc h, but r a t he r i n t he s e ns e of s ubj e c t i on t o t he w i l l a s c ont r ol l e d by hi ghe r or de r nor m a t i ve j udgm e nt s i e i n r e f l e c t i ve c ont r ol : W e a r e i nt e r e s t e d i n s ubj e c t i on t o t he w i l l onl y i n s o f a r a s s ubj e c t i on t o t he w i l l i s a f or m of c ont r ol i s s om e t hi ng w hi c h ( on t he j u r i di c a l t he or y) m i gh t unde r w r i t e t he a ge nt s r e s pons i bi l i t y f or hi s or he r ow n a ge nc y A nd t he a g e nt e xe r c i s e s c ont r ol by m e a ns of hi ghe r or de r nor m a t i ve j udge m e nt s a bout w ha t ought t o h a ppe n. T he s e j udge m e nt s a r e a r r i ve d a t pr e c i s e l y by a ppl yi ng t he r e l e va nt nor m s s o no r m s do c ons t r a i n w ha t c a n ha p pe n a t w i l l i n t he s e ns e of t ha t phr a s e w hi c h c onnot e s c ont r o l a n d t he r e f or e ( on t he j ur i d i c a l t he or y) r e s pons i bi l i t y. ( O w e ns 2000: 80 ) T hi s a gr e e s w i t h t he i nt ui t i ons out l i ne d a bove O n t hi s i nt ui t i ve vi e w t he l i a bi l i t y t o nor m a t i ve pr a i s e a nd bl a m e t ha t a t t e nds no r m a t i ve e va l ua bi l i t y r e qui r e s not onl y t he r a t he r t hi n r e s pons i bi l i t y of a ut hor s hi p ( a c c or di ng t o w hi c h one m i ght be t he a ut hor of a n e ve nt or s t a t e t ha t s a t i s f i e s or f a i l s a nor m e i t he r pos i t i ve l y by br i ngi ng t hi s e ve n t or s t a t e i n t o be i ng or ne ga t i ve l y, by f a i l i ng t o pr e ve nt i t s oc c ur r e nc e ) I n a ddi t i on s uc h l i a bi l i t y r e qui r e s t he c a pa c i t y t o de t e r m i ne w he t he r or not t o obe y t he r e l e va nt no r m a nd a s a r e s ul t e i t he r obe y i t o r not I n ot he r w o r ds i t r e qui r e s t he c a pa c i t y t o e xe r c i s e r e f l e c t i ve c ont r ol i n l i ght o f t he r e l e va nt nor m

PAGE 118

118 O w e n of f e r s t he f ol l ow i ng de f i ni t i on of r e f l e c t i ve c ont r ol a s i t a ppl i e s t o s t a t e s : A s t a t e i s unde r r e f l e c t i ve c ont r ol w he n i t c a n be m ot i va t e d by hi ghe r or de r j udge m e nt s a bout t he pr oba t i ve f or c e o f t he r e a s ons f or i t ( I bi d : 4) N ot e t ha t t hi s de f i n i t i on s e e m s t o s e t a n ove r l y s t r o ng r e qui r e m e nt f or r e f l e c t i ve c ont r ol a s i t i s pl a us i bl e t ha t a s t a t e t ha t i s r e gul a t e d, bu t not m ot i va t e d, by s uc h hi ghe r or de r j udgm e nt s i s ne v e r t he l e s s unde r r e f l e c t i ve c ont r ol I w i l l r e t ur n t o t hi s i s s ue l a t e r w he n I w i l l s how t ha t O w e ns a r gum e nt a ga i ns t J T R a s i t a ppl i e s t o doxa s t i c nor m a t i vi t y hi nge s on t he s t r e ngt h of t hi s r e qui r e m e nt I w i l l a r gue t ha t gi ve n a p r ope r unde r s t a ndi ng of r e f l e c t i ve c ont r ol J T R s e t s a hi ghl y pl a us i bl e ge ne r a l r e qui r e m e nt on no r m a t i vi t y. B ut be f or e I s ubj e c t O w e ns pos i t i on t o c r i t i c a l a s s e s s m e nt l e t us e xa m i ne hi s a r gum e nt s f or J T R a s i t a ppl i e s t o pr a c t i c a l nor m a t i vi t y a nd a ga i ns t J T R a s i t a ppl i e s t o doxa s t i c no r m a t i vi t y. O w e ns i s ol a t e s t he f ol l ow i ng pr i nc i pl e s a s hi s a r gu m e nt a t i ve t a r ge t : R e f l e c t i v e M ot i v at i on : i f R i s a pr i m a f ac i e r e a s on t o be l i e ve t ha t p r e f l e c t i on on R pr ovi de s t he r a t i ona l s ubj e c t w i t h a m ot i ve t o be l i e ve t ha t p [ w hi c h i s i m pl i e d by t he c onj unc t i on of : ] R at i onal M ot i v at i on : I f a r a t i ona l s ubj e c t i s a w a r e of s om e t hi ng R w hi c h p r ovi de s t he m w i t h a r e a s on f o r be l i e f i t a l s o pr ov i de s t he m w i t h a m ot i ve f o r be l i e f [ a nd] R e f l e c t i v e R at i onal i s at i on : I f R pr ovi de s t hi s s ubj e c t w i t h a r e a s on f or be l i e f t he j udg e m e nt t ha t t he y ha ve r e a s on R a l s o pr ovi de s t h e m w i t h a r e a s on f o r be l i e f ( I bi d : 20) O w e ns a r gue s t ha t R e f l e c t i ve M ot i va t i on f a i l s a nd t r a c e s t hi s f a i l ur e t o a f a i l ur e of R e f l e c t i ve R a t i ona l i z a t i on. O w e ns c a s e f or e ndor s i ng J T R w i t h r e ga r d t o p r a c t i c a l nor m a t i vi t y a nd f o r r e j e c t i ng i t w i t h r e ga r d t o doxa s t i c nor m a t i v i t y be gi ns w i t h a n a s ym m e t r y he not i c e s be t w e e n t he a ut hor i t i e s t ha t hi ghe r o r de r no r m a t i ve j udgm e nt s ha ve ove r a c t i ons on one ha nd a nd ove r be l i e f s on t he ot he r A j udgm e nt a bout w ha t I ough t t o do, he r i g ht l y c l a i m s ha s i nt r i ns i c a ut hor i t y ove r m y a c t i ons ( I bi d : 104 108) T hi s i s not t o s a y t ha t m y j udgm e nt s a bout w ha t I ought t o do c a nnot

PAGE 119

119 t he m s e l ve s be i r r a t i ona l I c a n be c onf us e d a bout w ha t I w a nt or w a nt m os t a nd I c a n m a ke poor j udgm e nt s a bout w ha t I ought t o do t o ge t w h a t I w a nt t he r e by m a ni f e s t i ng di f f e r e nt f or m s of i r r a t i ona l i t y. B ut i f I j u dge t ha t I ought t o do s o m e t hi ng a nd f a i l t o a c t i n a c c or da nc e w i t h t hi s j udgm e nt I a nd m y a c t i on t he r e by m a ni f e s t a f ur t he r f or m of i r r a t i ona l i t y, ak r as i a r e ga r dl e s s of w he t he r m y j udgm e nt w a s r a t i ona l o r i r r a t i ona l t o s t a r t w i t h O w e ns w r i t e s : M y vi e w s a bout w ha t I ought t o do ha ve a r i ght t o c ont r ol m y a c t i ons w hi c h i s i nde pe nde nt of t he c oge nc y o f t hos e vi e w s : m y pr a c t i c a l j udge m e nt s ha ve a n i nt r i ns i c a ut hor i t y ove r w ha t I do not m e r e l y a n a ut hor i t y w hi c h de r i ve s f r om t he be l i e f s a nd de s i r e s w hi c h s houl d m ot i va t e s uc h a c t i on. O f c our s e t he p r a c t i c a l j udg e m e nt m us t m a ke s om e s e ns e i n t e r m s of t he a ge nt s pe r c e i ve d ne e ds a nd i nt e r e s t s ot he r w i s e i t w oul d be ha r d t o s e e i t a s a j udge m e nt of t he a ge nt a t a l l B ut t he j udge m e nt s a ut hor i t y i t s a bi l i t y t o de t e r m i ne t he r a t i ona l i t y of bot h i n t e nt i on a nd a c t i on i s no t a p r od uc t of i t s c oge nc y. ( I bi d : 104 ) B y c ont r a s t a j udgm e nt a s t o w ha t I ought t o be l i e ve ha s no i nt r i ns i c a ut ho r i t y ove r m y be l i e f A j udgm e nt a s t o w ha t I ought t o be l i e ve ha s a ut hor i t y ove r m y be l i e f on l y i na s m uc h a s i t i s pr o p e r l y m ot i va t e d I n c a s e s of c onf l i c t be t w e e n b e l i e f a nd j udgm e nt a s t o w ha t t o be l i e ve t he j udgm e nt a s t o w ha t t o be l i e ve doe s not r e nde r t he c onf l i c t i ng be l i e f i r r a t i ona l T he c onf l i c t i s e vi de nc e of i r r a t i ona l i t y, but w he t he r t hi s i r r a t i ona l i t y a f f e c t s t he h i ghe r or de r nor m a t i ve j ud gm e nt or t he c onf l i c t i ng be l i e f i s unde t e r m i ne d. S h oul d t he c onf l i c t be di s c ove r e d, t he que s t i on a s t o how i t s houl d be r e s ol ve d e i t he r by r e vi s i ng t h e hi ghe r or de r nor m a t i ve j udgm e nt or by r e vi s i ng t he c onf l i c t i ng be l i e f i s ope n, a nd i s p r o pe r l y s e t t l e d onl y by c onc l us i ve gr ounds t o be l i e ve ( I bi d : 108 110) A c c or di ng t o O w e ns w ha t unde r w r i t e s t he di f f e r e nc e i n t he a ut hor i t i e s t ha t hi ghe r or de r nor m a t i ve j udgm e nt s ha ve ove r a c t i ons on one ha nd, a nd ove r be l i e f s on t he ot he r i s a d i f f e r e nc e i n m ot i va t i ona l pow e r ( H e nc e f or t h, I w i l l r e s e r ve t he t e r m s p r a c t i c a l j udgm e nt f or hi ghe r or de r nor m a t i ve j udgm e nt s pe r t a i ni ng t o a c t i on, i e j udgm e nt s o f t he f or m I ought t o a nd doxa s t i c j udgm e nt f or hi ghe r o r de r no r m a t i v e j udgm e nt s pe r t a i ni ng t o be l i e f i e j ud g

PAGE 120

120 m e nt s of t he f or m I ought t o be l i e ve t ha t p ) U nl i ke pr a c t i c a l j udgm e nt O w e ns c l a i m s doxa s t i c j udgm e nt i s m ot i va t i ona l l y i ne r t R a t i ona l m ot i va t i on f or t he be l i e f t ha t p r e qui r e s a c onc l us i ve gr ound t o t hi nk p t r ue O ur e vi de nc e how e ve r i s t ypi c a l l y i nc onc l us i ve ( i t a l w a ys i s f or pe r c e pt ua l be l i e f s ) W ha t de t e r m i ne w he t he r w e c ount o u r e vi de nc e a s a c onc l us i ve gr ound f or be l i e f a r e pr a gm a t i c f a c t o r s s uc h a s t he i m por t a nc e o f t he i s s ue t he t i m e a nd r e s our c e s a va i l a bl e e t c S i nc e s uc h c ons i de r a t i ons a r e ne c e s s a r y f or t he j us t i f i c a t i on of m os t of our be l i e f s but r e f l e c t i on on t he m c a nn ot r a t i ona l l y m ot i va t e be l i e f o r p r ovi d e a r e a s on f or be l i e f t he y m us t ope r a t e b e ne a t h t he l e ve l of r e f l e c t i on F ur t he r s i nc e ou r e vi de nc e f or m os t of ou r be l i e f s i s i nc onc l us i ve i nde pe nde nt l y of s uc h f a c t or s r e f l e c t i on on ou r e vi de nc e i nde pe nde nt l y of s uc h f a c t or s c a nnot r a t i ona l l y m ot i va t e be l i e f o r pr ov i de a r e a s on f or b e l i e f e i t he r A c c or di ngl y O w e ns c onc l ude s t ha t be l i e f i s r a t i ona l l y m o t i va t e d s ol e l y by a non r e f l e c t i ve a w a r e ne s s of c ons i de r a t i ons i n f a vor of t hi nki ng p t r ue a ga i ns t a ba c kgr ound of non r e f l e c t i ve pr a gm a t i c c ons i de r a t i ons D oxa s t i c j udgm e nt s a r e a n i dl e w he e l i n our m ot i va t i ona l e c onom y ( O w e ns 2000: 18) R e f l e c t i ve M ot i va t i on f a i l s by w a y o f a f a i l ur e of R e f l e c t i ve R a t i ona l i z a t i on. B y c ont r a s t ne i t he r a c t i on nor i nt e nt i on r e qui r e s c onc l us i ve gr ounds W hi l e r a t i o na l be l i e f t ha t p r e qui r e s t a ki ng a l l a ppa r e nt e vi de nc e t ha t not p a s m i s l e a di ng, r a t i ona l i nt e ndi n g t o i s c om pa t i bl e w i t h ha vi ng r e a s ons not t o ; a l l t ha t i s r e qui r e d i s t ha t i ng be on ba l a nc e m or e de s i r a bl e t h a n not i ng F u r t he r s i nc e pr a gm a t i c f a c t or s s uc h a s t he i m po r t a nc e of t he i s s ue t he t i m e a nd r e s our c e s a va i l a bl e e t c c a n pr ope r l y be t a ke n a s r e a s ons f or a c t i on a nd i nt e nt i o n, O w e ns vi e w s t he pr a c t i c a l r e a l m a s s ubj e c t t o r e f l e c t i ve c ont r ol by r e f l e c t i ng on our r e a s ons w e c a n c ont r ol w ha t w e do, but w e c a nnot c ont r ol w ha t w e be l i e ve O w e ns a r gum e nt a ga i ns t R e f l e c t i ve M ot i va t i on i s l i a bl e t o t he f ol l ow i ng obj e c t i on: O w e ns i s qui t e r i ght t ha t pr a gm a t i c f a c t or s de t e r m i ne w he t he r w e c ount ou r e vi de nc e a s c ons t i

PAGE 121

121 t ut i ng a c onc l us i ve ( o r s uf f i c i e nt ) gr ound f o r be l i e f B ut t he s e pr a gm a t i c f a c t or s a r e not pr ope r l y c ount e d a s r e a s ons f or our be l i e f s w e w oul d not i nc l ude t he m i n a n a ns w e r t o t he que s t i on, W hy do you be l i e ve t ha t ? A c c or di ngl y t he y a r e be yo nd t he pa l e of O w e ns R e f l e c t i ve M ot i va t i on, R a t i ona l M ot i va t i on a nd R e f l e c t i ve R a t i ona l i z a t i on, w hi c h s e t r e qui r e m e nt s on pr i m a f ac i e r e a s ons f or be l i e f T ha t t he s e pr a gm a t i c f a c t or s a r e not r e a s ons f or be l i e f how e ve r s houl d not l e a d one t o c onc l ude t h a t t he y m us t be m ot i va t i ona l l y i ne r t a t t he l e ve l of doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on. F i r s t a m om e nt s i nt r os pe c t i on w i l l r e v e a l t ha t doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on i s of t e n m ot i va t e d by pr a g m a t i c c ons i de r a t i ons e s pe c i a l l y c ons i de r a t i ons c onc e r ni ng t he s i gni f i c a nc e of t he i s s u e S e c ond, one c a n e ndor s e O w e ns hi gh l y pl a us i bl e vi e w c onc e r ni ng t he r ol e t ha t p r a gm a t i c c o n s i de r a t i ons pl a y i n be l i e f f or m a t i on but a voi d h i s c onc l us i on c onc e r ni ng t he i dl e ne s s of doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on by e ndo r s i ng t he e qua l l y p l a us i bl e vi e w t ha t p r a gm a t i c c ons i de r a t i ons pl a y t he s a m e r ol e i n doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on a nd s o, i n t he f or m a t i on of r e f l e c t e d be l i e f T hi r d a l t hough pr a gm a t i c c ons i de r a t i ons a r e not r e a s ons f or be l i e f t he y ne ve r t he l e s s s e e m s ubj e c t t o e va l ua t i on i n doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on ( w he r e dox a s t i c r e f l e c t i on i s us e d br oa dl y t o m e a n r e f l e c t i on a s t o w ha t t o b e l i e ve ) S o, how i m po r t a nt i t i s f o r m e t o ge t t hi ngs r i ght w he t he r I s houl d de vot e m or e t i m e a nd r e s our c e s t o s e e ki ng e vi de nc e e t c a r e a l l i s s ue s on w hi c h I m a y f or m a c ons i de r e d op i ni on, ul t i m a t e l y r e vi s i ng m y pr e r e f l e c t i ve be l i e f a s a r e s ul t I n f a c t t he c a pa c i t y t o s ubj e c t s uc h pr a g m a t i c c ons i de r a t i ons t o s c r ut i ny s e e m s t o a f f or d a s i gni f i c a nt a ve nue t hr ough w hi c h r a t i ona l b e i ngs gove r n t he i r c ogni t i ve e c onom y. O w e ns vi e w ha s a pr i c e O n hi s vi e w p r a c t i c a l j u dgm e nt i s ba s e d on i nc onc l us i ve r e a s ons C ons e que nt l y, unl i ke doxa s t i c j udgm e nt p r a c t i c a l j udgm e nt i s n t i dl e but ha s i nt r i ns i c a ut hor i t y ove r i nt e nt i on a nd a c t i on. A c c or di ng t o O w e ns how e ve r r a t i ona l be l i e f r e qui r e s c o n c l us i ve gr ounds F u r t he r he hol ds t ha t be i ng i n a pos i t i on t o be l i e ve s om e t hi ng r e qui r e s

PAGE 122

122 be i ng i n a pos i t i on t o c l a i m t o know i t S o, by hi s ow n a dm i s s i on, O w e ns m us t c onc l ude t ha t pr a c t i c a l j udgm e nt a l t hough t r ut h e va l ua bl e i s not a f or m of be l i e f a nd i s not a m e na bl e t o know l e dge ( O w e ns 2000: 111 112 ) T h i s i s a r a t h e r s t e e p pr i c e f o r t he vi e w t ha t be l i e f i s not a m e na bl e t o r e f l e c t i ve c ont r ol w hi c h s e e m s t o c ou nt e r or di na r y i nt r os pe c t i ve e xpe r i e nc e a s i t i s R e f l e c t i ve C on t r ol : M ot i vat i n g vs R e gu l at i n g O w e ns i s ope n t o a m o r e ge ne r a l obj e c t i on na m e l y, t ha t he s e t s t oo s t r ong a r e qui r e m e nt on r e f l e c t i ve c ont r ol C ons i de r t he f ol l ow i ng s i t ua t i on: I a m s i t t i ng i n m y c a r s t oppe d a t a n i nt e r s e c t i on w he r e a pol i c e m a n i s d i r e c t i ng t r a f f i c H i dde n f r om m y vi e w but not f r om t he p o l i c e m a n s a n e l de r l y pe de s t r i a n i s s l ow l y c r os s i ng t he w i de a ve nue T he pol i c e m a n s i gna l s t ha t I s houl d go, a nd s o I do. I r ound t he c o r ne r a n d, s udde nl y di s c ove r i ng t he pe de s t r i a n i n m y pa t h, I nudge hi m s l i ght l y be f o r e I m a na ge t o s t op. I n t hi s c a s e I c a n be s a i d t o ha ve m ot i ve c ont r ol ove r t he m ot i ons o f m y c a r i n t he s e ns e t ha t I c ont r ol w he t he r m y c a r s t a r t s or s t ops a nd w he r e i t goe s T he pol i c e m a n, by c ont r a s t m e r e l y ha s r e gul a t i ng c ont r ol ove r t he m ot i o ns o f m y c a r a nd ove r t r a f f i c ge ne r a l l y a t t ha t i nt e r s e c t i on, i n t he s e ns e t ha t he c ont r o l s w he t he r c a r s a r e a l l ow e d t o p r oc e e d i n a gi ve n di r e c t i on N e ve r t he l e s s i n t hi s c a s e i t i s t he pol i c e m a n, not I w ho i s r e s pons i bl e f or t he nudgi ng ( a s s um i ng t ha t I di d no t r ound t he c o r ne r t oo f a s t a nd t ha t t he r e w a s not hi ng I c oul d ha ve done t o s t op m y c a r s oone r onc e I be c a m e a w a r e of t he pe de s t r i a n) I n l i ne w i t h t hi s c a s e I p r opos e a ge ne r a l di s t i nc t i on be t w e e n m ot i va t i ng a nd r e gul a t i ng c ont r ol T he a na l o gy be t w e e n t hi s c a s e a nd de l i be r a t e a c t i o n i s i m pe r f e c t i n m a ny r e s pe c t s F o r one t hi ng, t he pol i c e m a n a nd d r i ve r s a r e a l l a ge nt s w ho a c t on r e a s ons e i t he r r e f l e c t i ve l y or unr e f l e c t i ve l y i n pa r t i c ul a r t he dr i ve r s a t t he i nt e r s e c t i on pr e s um a bl y a l l ha ve r e a s ons f or i nt e ndi ng t o dr i ve i n g i ve n di r e c t i ons F o r a not he r unl e s s t he p ol i c e m a n doe s a t e r r i bl e j ob, a l l d r i ve r s w i l l e ve nt ua l l y ge t a c ha nc e t o p r oc e e d i n t he i r c hos e n di r e c t i on, a nd w he t he r a pa r t i c ul a r d r i ve r i s

PAGE 123

123 a l l ow e d t o pr oc e e d de pe nds on t he r e l a t i ona l pr ope r t i e s t ha t t hi s d r i ve r be a r s t o t he o t he r d r i ve r s i e on t he pos i t i on of t hi s dr i ve r s c a r i n one que ue r e l a t i ve t o t he pos i t i ons of t he ot he r c a r s i n t he ot he r que ue s a t t he i n t e r s e c t i on a nd on t he pr i nc i pl e s t ha t t he pol i c e m a n f ol l ow s i n l e t t i ngs c a r s go, w hi c h s houl d be i m pa r t i a l t o dr i ve r s H ow e ve r i m pe r f e c t t hi s e xa m pl e ne ve r t he l e s s s he d s l i ght on t he di s t i nc t i on be t w e e n m ot i va t i ng a nd r e gul a t i ng c ont r ol M uc h l i ke a de s i r e I p r ovi de t he i m pe t us f o r t he m ot i on o f m y c a r i n a g i ve n di r e c t i on a nd, i n t hi s c a s e I a m bl i nd t o w ha t l i e s i n m y pa t h. M uc h l i ke pr a c t i c a l j udgm e nt t he pol i c e m a n c a n s e e w ha t l i e s i n m y pa t h a nd ha s t he pow e r t o s t op m e T hi s c a s e u nde r s c or e s I t hi nk t ha t r e gul a t i ng c ont r ol c a n be qui t e s uf f i c i e nt ( w hi l e m o t i va t i ng c ont r o l c a n b e i ns uf f i c i e nt ) f or r e s pons i bi l i t y. O w e ns hi m s e l f s e e m s t o t hi nk t ha t r e gul a t i ng c ont r ol i s s uf f i c i e nt f or r e s pons i bi l i t y. W i t h r e ga r d t o p r a c t i c a l r a t i ona l i t y t he c ont r ol l i ng pow e r he ul t i m a t e l y a s s i gns t o pr a c t i c a l j udgm e nt i s r e gul a t i ng r a t he r t ha n m o t i va t i ng: A n i m por t a nt poi nt o f c l a r i f i c a t i on: I a m not s a yi ng t ha t m y j udge m e nt t ha t I ought t o i n i t s e l f pr ovi de s m e w i t h a pos i t i ve r e a s on t o i n j us t t he w a y m y f i r s t or de r be l i e f s a nd d e s i r e s pr ovi de m e w i t h r e a s ons t o I f t hi s j udge m e nt di d p r ovi de a r e a s on f or i ng, i t w oul d be s e ns i bl e t o a s k w he t he r t hi s w a s a n ove r r i di ng r e a s on t o o r w he t he r i t m i ght be out w e i ghe d by m y f i r s t o r de r r e a s ons f or not i ng i n w hi c h c a s e i t m i ght ( on ba l a nc e ) be r a t i ona l f or m e no t t o e ve n t hough I j udge t ha t I ought t o B ut t hi s que s t i on i s b i z a r r e : w e ha ve obvi ous l y m i s c ons t r ue d t he i nt r i ns i c a ut h or i t y of pr a c t i c a l j udge m e nt I ns t e a d, w e m us t t r e a t m y p r a c t i c a l j udge m e nt a s h a vi ng a pow e r o f ve t o ove r m y a c t i ons M y a c t i on c a nnot be r a t i ona l unl e s s i t c onf o r m s t o m y pr a c t i c a l j udge m e nt no m a t t e r how s t r ong t he c ons i de r a t i ons i n t he a c t i on s f a vour W ha t f ul l y r a t i ona l a c t i on r e qui r e s i s c ongr ue nc e be t w e e n t he f i r s t o r de r r e a s ons ( of w hi c h I a m non r e f l e c t i ve l y a w a r e ) a nd m y hi ghe r or de r pr a c t i c a l j udge m e nt ( w he r e s uc h a j ud ge m e nt i s m a de ) ( I bi d : 106) O w e ns s e e m s t o be gui l t y of a ba i t a nd s w i t c h. H e a r gue s t ha t doxa s t i c nor m a t i v i t y i s not s ubj e c t t o r e f l e c t i ve c ont r ol be c a us e i t f a i l s R e f l e c t i ve M ot i va t i on, i e t he pr i nc i pl e a c c or di ng t o w hi c h a ny pr i m a f ac i e r e a s on, R pr ovi de s t he be l i e ve r w i t h a r e a s on f o r be l i e f onl y i f r e f l e c t i on on R pr ovi de s t he r a t i ona l s ubj e c t w i t h a m ot i ve f o r be l i e f D oxa s t i c nor m a t i vi t y f a i l s R e f l e c t i ve M ot i va t i on, he a r gue s be c a us e i t f a i l s R e f l e c t i ve R a t i ona l i z a t i on, i e t he p r i nc i pl e a c c or d i ng t o

PAGE 124

124 w hi c h a ny pr i m a f ac i e r e a s on, R pr ov i de s t he be l i e ve r w i t h a r e a s on f or be l i e f onl y i f t he j ud g m e nt t ha t s he ha s R a l s o pr ovi de s he r w i t h a r e a s on f or be l i e f E r go he c onc l ude s doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on i s m ot i v at i onal l y i dl e H ow e ve r a l t houg h he c l a i m s t ha t p r a c t i c a l nor m a t i vi t y i s s u b j e c t t o r e f l e c t i ve c ont r ol he ne ve r t he l e s s gr a nt s t ha t pr a c t i c a l no r m a t i vi t y f a i l s t he pr a c t i c a l a na l ogue of R e f l e c t i ve R a t i ona l i z a t i on. G i ve n O w e ns ow n a r gum e nt a t i ve s t r a t e gy, pa r i t y of r e a s oni ng s e e m s t o c om m i t hi m t he vi e w t ha t pr a c t i c a l nor m a t i vi t y f a i l s t he p r a c t i c a l a na l ogue of R e f l e c t i ve M ot i va t i on a nd, s o, t ha t p r a c t i c a l r e f l e c t i on i s m ot i v at i onal l y i dl e a l s o. Y e t w hi l e O w e ns hol ds be l i e f a c c ount a b l e t o t he d e f i ni t i on of r e f l e c t i ve c ont r ol I quo t e d e a r l i e r na m e l y: A s t a t e i s unde r r e f l e c t i ve c ont r ol w he n i t c a n be m ot i va t e d by hi ghe r or de r j udge m e nt s a bout t he pr oba t i ve f or c e o f t he r e a s ons f or i t ( I bi d : 4) he c l e a r l y hol ds t he s t a t e s a nd e ve nt s i nvol ve d i n pr a c t i c a l r a t i ona l i t y ( i e i nt e nt i ons a nd a c t i ons ) a c c ount a bl e t o a w e a ke r de f i n i t i on o f r e f l e c t i ve c ont r ol na m e l y: A s t a t e or e ve nt i s unde r r e f l e c t i ve c ont r ol w he n i t c a n be r e gul a t e d by h i ghe r or de r j ud g m e nt s a bout t he pr ob a t i ve f or c e o f t he r e a s ons f or i t T he r e a s on w hy O w e ns doe s not s e e m t o t hi nk t ha t f a i l ur e t o s a t i s f y t he pr a c t i c a l a na l ogue of R e f l e c t i ve R a t i ona l i z a t i on s houl d be t a ke n t o i ndi c a t e t ha t pr a c t i c a l r e f l e c t i on i s i d l e i s t ha t hi ghe r or de r nor m a t i ve j udgm e nt ha s i nt r i ns i c a ut h or i t y ove r i nt e nt i on a nd a c t i on. A l t hough O w e ns os t e ns i bl y f oc us e s hi s c a s e a ga i ns t J T R a s i t a ppl i e s t o doxa s t i c nor m a t i vi t y on R e f l e c t i ve M ot i va t i on, a ut hor i t y r a t he r t ha n m ot i va t i ona l pow e r s e e m s t o be t he he a r t of t he i s s ue I n or de r t o a ns w e r O w e ns s c l a i m t ha t doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on i s i dl e t he n, I ne e d t o s how t ha t t he di s pa r i t y i n a ut hor i t y be t w e e n hi ghe r or de r nor m a t i ve j udgm e nt s i n t he p r a c t i c a l a nd doxa s t i c r e a l m s c a n be e xpl a i ne d c ons i s t e nt l y w i t h doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i ve c on t r ol unde r s t ood a s r e gul a t i ng

PAGE 125

125 R e gu l at i n g C on t r ol : P r ac t i c al vs D oxas t i c A c c or di ng t o t he hi ghl y pl a us i bl e a c c ount o f p r a c t i c a l r a t i ona l i t y O w e ns pr opos e s r e f l e c t i ve c ont r ol ove r a c t i on i s e xe r c i s e d vi a r e f l e c t e d p r a c t i c a l j udgm e nt s of t he f o r m I ought t o w hi c h i s s ue i n c a us a l l y e f f i c a c i ous i nt e nt i ons t o A s I not e d a bove how e ve r t he j udgm e nt t ha t I ought t o s houl d not be unde r s t ood a s pr ovi di ng a r e a s on ( o r pr e s um a bl y, a m ot i ve ) f or i n t e ndi ng t o or f or i ng, ove r a nd a bove m y r e a s ons f or j udgi ng t ha t I ought t o J udgi ng t ha t one ought t o i nt e ndi ng t o a nd i ng a r e t h r e e di s t i nc t a nd pr e s um a bl y c a us a l l y l i nke d e ve nt s E a c h s t a ge i n t hi s p r oc e s s i s l i a bl e t o f a i l u r e a ge nt s c a n f a i l t o r e s pond t o t he i r r e a s ons a ppr opr i a t e l y i n t he i r j udg m e nt s t he i r i nt e nt i ons c a n f a i l t o a c c or d w i t h t he i r j udgm e nt s a nd t he i r a c t i ons c a n f a i l t o a c c or d w i t h t he i r j udg m e nt s a nd t he i r pr i o r i nt e nt i ons E a c h f a i l u r e i s a t t e nde d by a c or r e s pondi ng f a i l ur e o f r a t i ona l i t y. A l t houg h t he e t i ol ogy of s om e a c t i ons f a i l s t o i nc l ude a ny pr a c t i c a l j udgm e nt o r p r i or i nt e nt i on, a l l a c t i on s a r e s ubj e c t t o r a t i ona l e va l ua t i on by vi r t ue of be i ng s ubj e c t t o r e f l e c t i ve c ont r ol A n a c t i on i s r a t i ona l j us t i n c a s e i t e i t he r i s / w a s or c oul d be / ha ve be e n, unde r t a ke n by t he a ge nt a s a r e s ul t o f a f a i l ur e f r e e pr oc e s s of r e f l e c t i ve c ont r ol P r a c t i c a l j udgm e nt a nd i nt e nt i on e a c h pl a y c r uc i a l a l be i t di s t i nc t r ol e s i n t hi s pr oc e s s A s I not e d e a r l i e r O w e ns r i ght l y a r gue s t ha t pr a c t i c a l j udgm e nt ha s i nt r i ns i c a ut hor i t y ove r a c t i on, i n t he s e ns e t ha t no a c t i on c a n be r a t i o na l unl e s s i t c onf or m s t o t he a ge nt s pr a c t i c a l j udgm e nt r e ga r dl e s s of t he r a t i o na l s t a t us of t ha t pr a c t i c a l j u dgm e nt a nd of t he s t r e ngt h of t he r e a s ons f a vor i ng t ha t a c t i on. T h i s i s be c a us e t he r ol e o f pr a c t i c a l j udgm e nt i s t o e xe r t r e gul a t i ng c ont r ol ove r a c t i on ( vi a i nt e nt i on) E ve n w he n i r r a t i ona l pr a c t i c a l j udgm e nt r e t a i ns i t s r e gul a t i ng f unc t i on a nd, s o, i t s a ut hor i t y ove r i nt e nt i on a nd a c t i on. T he r ol e o f i nt e nt i on by c ont r a s t i s t o s e t t l e t he m ot i va t i ona l que s t i on :

PAGE 126

126 [ T ] o i nt e nd t o e nt e r t he hos pi t a l a t [ a ] t i m e i s t o be i n a s t a t e w hi c h, s o l ong a s I a m i n i t gua r a nt e e s t ha t I w i l l ( a t l e a s t t r y t o) g o. F a i l u r e t o ( t r y t o) w he n one i nt e nde d t o a nd now be l i e ve s t ha t t he t i m e f or i ng ha s a r r i ve d m e a ns t ha t one m us t ha ve a ba ndone d t he i nt e nt i on t o ; a t s om e poi n t one c e a s e d t o be s e t on i ng T he w i l l c om m i t s t he a ge nt i n a w a y t ha t hi s de s i r e s a nd j udge m e nt s do not : t h e w i l l i s a n e xe c ut i ve phe nom e non. ( I bi d : 78 79) C l e a r l y, t he c a s e of be l i e f i s d i f f e r e nt B e l i e f t ha t p i s not t yp i c a l l y or e ve r i f doxa s t i c i nvol u n t a r i s m i s t r ue ( a nd I be l i e ve t ha t i t i s ) di r e c t l y ge ne r a t e d by t he j udg m e nt t ha t one ought t o be l i e ve t ha t p a nd r e s ul t a nt i nt e nt i on t o be l i e ve t ha t p A l t hough be l i e ve r s c a n f o r m s uc h a do x a s t i c j udgm e nt a nd i nt e nt i on a nd c a n s e e k t o i m pl e m e nt t he m by unde r t a ki ng a c t i ons a i m e d a t c a u s i ng t he m s e l ve s t o be l i e ve t ha t p t he y c a nno t t ypi c a l l y 4 t he r e by s e c ur e a r a t i ona l be l i e f t ha t p F u r t he r O w e ns c a s e t o t he e f f e c t t ha t dox a s t i c j udgm e nt s do not ha ve i n t r i ns i c a ut hor i t y ove r be l i e f s t r i ke s m e a s uni m pe a c ha bl e A c c or di ngl y, i f w e ha ve r e f l e c t i ve c ont r o l ove r our be l i e f s t he p r oc e s s t hr ough w hi c h t hi s c ont r ol i s e xe r c i s e d w i l l ha ve t o d i f f e r s i gni f i c a nt l y f r om i t s pr a c t i c a l c ount e r pa r t M os t o f our a c t i ons a nd m os t o f ou r be l i e f s a r e u nr e f l e c t i ve T he y a r e s i m pl y r e s pons e s t o r e a s ons e i t he r f or a c t i on, o r f or be l i e f of w h i c h w e a r e unr e f l e c t i ve l y a w a r e a nd w hi c h w e pr oc e s s unr e f l e c t i ve l y a ga i ns t a ba c kgr ound o f non r e f l e c t i ve pr a gm a t i c c ons i de r a t i ons ( t o bor r ow O w e ns phr a s e ol ogy) R e f l e c t i on i s of t e n m ot i va t e d by pr a g m a t i c c ons i de r a t i ons e s pe c i a l l y a c ons i de r a t i on of t he s i gni f i c a nc e of t h e m a t t e r a nd i ni t i a t e d by t he que s t i ons W ha t s houl d I do/ be l i e ve ? or S houl d I / be l i e ve t ha t p ? a l t hough t he s e que s t i ons ne e d not be e nt e r 4 T h e q u a l i f y e r t y p i c a l l y i s m e a n t t o a l l o w f o r m y u n c e r t a i n t y w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e f o l l o w i n g t y p e o f c a s e : S u p p o s e I h a v e a f a l s e a n d s e e m i n g l y i r r a t i o n a l b e l i e f s a y t h a t m y f r i e n d i s a g o v e r n m e n t a l s p y w h o m e a n s m e h a r m w h i c h I b e l i e v e t o b e b o t h f a l s e a n d i r r a t i o n a l b u t c a n t s e e m t o r e l i n q u i s h I s e e k t h e h e l p o f a h y p n o t i s t t h a n k s t o w h o s e s e r v i c e s I r e v i s e m y b e l i e f s o t h a t i t b e c o m e s b o t h t r u e a n d n o l o n g e r i r r a t i o n a l i n i t s f o r m e r w a y I f m y r e v i s e d b e l i e f i s g r o u n d e d i n e v i d e n c e a t a l l h o w e v e r i t i s s o g r o u n d e d i n a n u n u s u a l m a n n e r m e d i a t e d b y h y p n o s i s S h o u l d m y f r i e n d b e c o m e a g o v e r n m e n t a l s p y w h o m e a n s m e h a r m I m i g h t b e i n c a p a b l e o f r e v i s i n g m y b e l i e f a c c o r d i n g l y F o r t h i s r e a s o n i t i s n o t c l e a r t o m e t h a t m y r e v i s e d b e l i e f s h o u l d b e c o u n t e d a s r a t i o n a l N e v e r t h e l e s s I a m d o i n g m y d o x a s t i c b e s t u n d e r t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s a n d h a r d l y s e e m t o d e s e r v e b l a m e f o r m y i m p e r f e c t b e l i e f S o i t i s n o t c l e a r t o m e t h a t m y r e v i s e d b e l i e f s h o u l d b e c o u n t e d a s i r r a t i o n a l e i t h e r P e r h a p s g i v e n t h a t m y o r i g i n a l b e l i e f a n d s u b s e q u e n t r e v i s e d b e l i e f s a r e n o t a m e n a b l e t o r e v i s i o n a s a r e s u l t o f r e f l e c t i o n a l o n e t h e y s h o u l d n o t b e c o u n t e d a s l i a b l e t o r a t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n a t a l l b u t a s p a t h o l o g i c a l

PAGE 127

127 t a i ne d c o n s c i ous l y. M or e ge ne r a l l y w ha t i s c ha r a c t e r i s t i c of r e f l e c t i on i s t ha t i t i nvol ve s a n i nqui r i ng f r a m e of m i nd R e f l e c t i on i s a c ons c i ous pur pos i ve a c t i vi t y t ha t i s a i m e d a t t he r a t i ona l r e s ol u t i on o f o ne s unc e r t a i nt y a s t o how t o a c t or w he t he r t o a c t i n a gi ve n m a nne r o r a s t o w ha t t o be l i e ve or w he t he r t o be l i e ve a gi ve n pr opos i t i on, a nd w hi c h i s c onc l ude d e i t he r onc e one s unc e r t a i nt y i s r e s ol ve d, or onc e one s pr e oc c upa t i on w i t h one s u n c e r t a i n t y va ni s he s I n t he p r a c t i c a l r e a l m t he que s t i on, W ha t s houl d I do [ i n s om e s e t of c i r c um s t a nc e s ] ? i s pr ope r l y a ns w e r e d by c ons i de r i ng one s r e l e va nt d e s i r e s va l ue s e t c ( i e t he va r i ous ps yc h ol ogi c a l s t a t e s t ha t a r e us ua l l y s ubs um e d unde r t he t e r m p r o a t t i t ude ) by r a nki ng t he m by o r de r of i m por t a nc e or p r e f e r e nc e i f ne c e s s a r y, t he n by d e t e r m i ni ng w ha t c our s e o f a c t i on ha s t he be s t c ha nc e of s a t i s f yi ng or opt i m i z i ng t he s e ( r a nke d) p r o a t t i t ude s gi ve n t he c i r c um s t a nc e s i n t he j udgm e nt s c he m a I ough t t o w oul d s t a nd f or t he c our s e o f a c t i on de e m e d t o ha ve t he be s t c ha nc e of s a t i s f yi ng or opt i m i z i ng one s ( r a nke d) p r o a t t i t ude s a t t he c l os e of a n i de a l i z e d pr o c e s s of pr a c t i c a l r e f l e c t i on T he l e s s ope n e nde d que s t i on, S houl d I ? i s pr ope r l y a ns w e r e d a l ong s i m i l a r l i ne s T he r ol e of i nt e nt i on, w hos e c ha r a c t e r i s t i c f or m i s I w i l l i s t o e ns ur e t ha t one s pr a c t i c a l j udgm e nt i s t r a ns l a t e d i nt o a c t i on I n t he doxa s t i c r e a l m by c ont r a s t t he que s t i on, W ha t s houl d I be l i e ve [ c onc e r ni ng s om e t opi c ] ? i s p r ope r l y a ns w e r e d by c ons i de r i ng e vi de nc e c onc e r ni ng t he t opi c i t s e l f N ot e ho w e ve r t ha t i n t hi s r e s pe c t doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on a nd pr a c t i c a l r e f l e c t i on a r e e xa c t l y a l i ke R e f l e c t i on i s c onc e r ne d w i t h one s r e a s ons I n t he pr a c t i c a l r e a l m one s r e a s ons a r e one s p r o a t t i t ude s a nd one s m e a ns e nd be l i e f s c onc e r ni ng how t o s a t i s f y or opt i m i z e t he s e pr o a t t i t ude s I n t he doxa s t i c r e a l m one s r e a s ons a r e one s e vi de nc e W ha t i s di s t i nc t i ve of r e f l e c t i on i n t he p r a c t i c a l r e a l m i s t ha t t he a ge nt doe s not m e r e l y r e s pond t o he r r e a s ons but a t t e nds t o t he m s he m i ght r a nk he r p r o a t t i t ude s s he s e e ks t o di s c ove r t he be s t w a y t o s a t i s f y or opt i m i z e t he m s he m i ght

PAGE 128

128 de t e r m i ne t ha t t he s a t i s f a c t i on of s om e o f he r pr o a t t i t ude s w i l l ha ve t o be f o r go ne f o r t he s a ke of s a t i s f yi ng ot he r s e t c E ve n i f pr a c t i c a l j udg m e nt c a nnot pr ope r l y be s a i d t o c ons t i t ut e a ne w r e a s on or m ot i va t i on t o a c t pr a c t i c a l r e f l e c t i on c e r t a i nl y c a n m a ke a va s t di f f e r e nc e t o w ha t one doe s L i ke w i s e w ha t i s di s t i nc t i ve o f r e f l e c t i on i n t he doxa s t i c r e a l m i s t ha t t he be l i e ve r doe s not m e r e l y r e s pond t o he r e vi de nc e but a t t e nds t o i t I n a pr oc e s s of doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on, a b e l i e ve r m i ght s ubj e c t e vi de nc e t ha t w oul d un r e f l e c t i ve l y ha ve m ove d he r t o be l i e f t o s c r ut i ny; s he m i gh t que r y he r gr ounds f or a c c e pt i ng i t a s e vi de nc e a nd di s c ount s om e of i t a s m i s l e a di ng or i r r e l e va nt s he m i gh t c om e t o vi e w di s t i nc t e vi de nc e a s r e l e va nt a nd ul t i m a t e l y de t e r m i ne t ha t s he ne e ds t o s e e k a ddi t i ona l e vi de nc e pr i or t o f or m i ng a be l i e f on t he m a t t e r R e f l e c t i on on he r e v i de nc e m i ght a l s o l e a d he r t o m a i nt a i n he r un r e f l e c t i ve be l i e f o r t o e ndor s e a be l i e f t ha t s he w oul d a l s o ha ve e ndor s e d unr e f l e c t i ve l y N e ve r t h e l e s s a s t he pr e vi ous c a s e i l l us t r a t e s doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on c a n m a ke a di f f e r e nc e a s t o w ha t or w he t he r one be l i e ve s E ve n w he n doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on i s s ue s i n a be l i e f t ha t w a s o r w oul d ha v e be e n e ndor s e d unr e f l e c t i ve l y, i t m a ke s a di f f e r e nc e t o how one be l i e ve s doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i o n i s s ue s i n r e f l e c t e d be l i e f T he c onc l us i on of pr a c t i c a l r e f l e c t i on i s a p r a c t i c a l j udgm e nt W he n t he j udgm e nt c ou n s e l s a c t i ng r a t he r t ha n r e f r a i ni ng f r om a c t i ng a nd w he n no br e a c h of r a t i ona l i t y e ns ue s t he pr a c t i c a l c o n t e nt of t hi s j udgm e nt pr ovi de s t he p r a c t i c a l c ont e nt of a n i nt e nt i on t o a c t ( i e of a c om m i t m e nt of t he w i l l t o unde r t a ki ng a ( t ype o f ) a c t i on) B y c ont r a s t t he c onc l us i on of doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on ne e d not be a doxa s t i c j udgm e nt R a t he r t he c o n c l us i on of doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on i s t ypi c a l l y be l i e f o r di s be l i e f w hi c h a r e t ype s of dox a s t i c c om m i t m e nt o r a bs t e nt i on f r om be l i e f a nd di s be l i e f D oxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on c a n but ne e d no t i s s ue i n a doxa s t i c j udgm e nt w hi c h c a n c onf l i c t w i t h t he c or r e s pondi ng f i r s t o r de r be l i e f T hus t he f i r s t a s ym m e t r y be t w e e n pr a c t i c a l a nd doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on t h a t r e qui r e s e xpl a i ni ng i s t ha t t he f o r m e r m us t c onc l ude i n a s e c ond

PAGE 129

129 or de r nor m a t i ve j udgm e nt w hi l e t he l a t t e r ne e d no t A s w e s ha l l s e e t he obv i ous e xpl a na t i on of t hi s a s y m m e t r y w i l l a l s o p r ovi de a n e xpl a na t i on c ons i s t e nt w i t h doxa s t i c r e gul a t i ng c ont r o l of t he a s ym m e t r y i n a ut ho r i t y be t w e e n p r a c t i c a l a nd doxa s t i c j udgm e nt t ha t m i s l e a ds O w e ns t o c onc l ude t ha t doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on i s i dl e I s a i d e a r l i e r t ha t r e f l e c t i on i s a c ons c i ous pur pos i ve a c t i vi t y a i m e d a t t he r a t i ona l r e s ol ut i on of one s unc e r t a i nt y a s t o w ha t t o do o r be l i e v e I nt ui t i ve l y r a t i ona l l y t o r e s ol ve one s u n c e r t a i nt y a s t o w ha t t o do i s t o be i n a pos i t i on r a t i ona l l y t o c om m i t t o a c our s e of a c t i on, i e t o f or m a n i nt e nt i o n t o a c t i n a c c or da nc e w i t h one s r e f l e c t e d pr a c t i c a l j udgm e nt R a t i ona l l y t o r e s ol ve one s unc e r t a i nt y a s t o w ha t t o be l i e ve i s t o be i n a pos i t i on r a t i ona l l y t o f or m a doxa s t i c c om m i t m e nt i e t o f o r m a r e f l e c t e d be l i e f F ur t h e r c e t e r i s par i bus t o f a i l t o i nt e nd i n a c c o r da nc e w i t h one s r e f l e c t e d p r a c t i c a l j u dgm e nt i s a f a i l ur e of r a t i ona l i t y i e ak r as i a L i ke w i s e c e t e r i s par i bu s t o f a i l t o be l i e ve w hi l e be i ng i n a p os i t i on t o be l i e ve a t t he c l os e of a pr oc e s s of r e f l e c t i on i s a f a i l ur e o f r a t i ona l i t y. G e ne r a l l y t he n, r a t i ona l r e f l e c t i on a i m s t o ge ne r a t e a r a t i ona l c om m i t m e nt I t doe s s o by f oc us i ng one s a t t e nt i on on one s r e a s ons a nd by p r oc e s s i ng t he m c ons c i ous l y i n a c c or da nc e w i t h t he no r m s of r a t i ona l i t y ( i n t he m a nne r a dum br a t e d e a r l i e r ) U n c e r t a i nt y, how e ve r i s a doxa s t i c i s s ue R a t i ona l l y t o r e s ol ve one s unc e r t a i nt y on a ny m a t t e r i s t o be i n a pos i t i on r a t i ona l l y t o f o r m a doxa s t i c c om m i t m e nt on t ha t m a t t e r i e r a t i ona l l y t o f or m a be l i e f A s I j us t not e d c e t e r i s par i bus t o f a i l t o be l i e ve w hi l e be i ng i n a pos i t i on t o b e l i e ve a t t he c l os e of a pr oc e s s of r e f l e c t i on i s a f a i l ur e of r a t i ona l i t y R a t i ona l r e f l e c t i on on a ny m a t t e r t he n a i m s t o ge ne r a t e a doxa s t i c c om m i t m e nt i e a be l i e f I n t he p r a c t i c a l r e a l m t he doxa s t i c c om m i t m e nt t h a t s e a l s t he r a t i ona l r e s ol ut i on of one s unc e r t a i nt y a s t o w ha t t o do i e t he be l i e f t ha t i n g i s be s t s ui t e d t o s a t i s f y o r opt i m i z e one s r e l e va nt pr o a t t i t ude s i n t he c i r c um s t a nc e s one f a c e s ( he nc e f or t h, t he be s t m e a ns ) a nd t he

PAGE 130

130 pr a c t i c a l c om m i t m e nt t ha t pr a c t i c a l r e f l e c t i on i s ul t i m a t e l y m e a nt t o ge ne r a t e i e t he i nt e nt i on t o a r e di s t i nc t G i ve n t ha t p r a c t i c a l r e f l e c t i on i s c onc e r ne d w i t h r e s ol vi ng one s unc e r t a i n t y a s t o w ha t t o do, t he r e a s ons w i t h w hi c h i t i s p r i m a r i l y c onc e r ne d a r e one s r e l e va nt pr o a t t i t ude s w hi c h ha ve a w or l d t o m i n d di r e c t i on of f i t I t i s c onc e r ne d de r i va t i ve l y w i t h de t e r m i ni ng t he m e a ns t o s a t i s f y or opt i m i z e t he s e pr o a t t i t ude s i n t he c i r c um s t a nc e s one f a c e s i e w i t h m e a ns e nd be l i e f s w hi c h ha ve a m i nd t o w or l d di r e c t i on of f i t O ne s unc e r t a i nt y a s t o w ha t t o do i s r a t i ona l l y r e s ol ve d onc e one di s c ove r s t he be s t m e a ns T he be l i e f t ha t i ng i s t he be s t m e a ns e xpr e s s e s one s doxa s t i c c om m i t m e nt t o t he r e s ul t of one s r e f l e c t i on. B ut t o be r a t i ona l l y c om m i t t e d t o t he vi e w t ha t s om e c our s e of a c t i on i s s upe r i or t o a l l a l t e r n a t i ve s i s not ye t t o be c om m i t t e d t o t he vi e w t ha t pur s u i ng t hi s c ou r s e of a c t i on i s r a t i ona l l y r e qui r e d. F or t hi s r e a s on, pr a c t i c a l r e f l e c t i on r e qui r e s pr a c t i c a l j udg m e nt t he m e a ns be l i e ve d t o be t he be s t a t t he c l os e of t he r e f l e c t i ve pr oc e s s pr ov i de s t he pr a c t i c a l c on t e nt of t he j ud g m e nt I ought t o w hi c h ha s a m i nd t o w or d di r e c t i on of f i t a nd e xpr e s s e s one s doxa s t i c c om m i t m e nt t o t he vi e w t ha t i ng i s r a t i o n a l l y r e qui r e d. i n t u r n, pr ovi de s t he pr a c t i c a l c ont e nt of t he i nt e nt i on I w i l l w hi c h ha s a w or l d t o m i nd di r e c t i on of f i t a nd e xpr e s s e s one s pr a c t i c a l c om m i t m e nt t o i m pl e m e nt i ng i n a c t i on. T he r ol e of p r a c t i c a l r e f l e c t i on t he n i s t o t a ke us f r om pr o a t t i t ude s w hi c h ha ve a w or l d t o m i nd di r e c t i on of f i t v i a a m e a ns e nd be l i e f a nd a pr a c t i c a l j udgm e nt w hi c h ha ve a m i nd t o w or l d di r e c t i on of f i t a nd e xpr e s s doxa s t i c c om m i t m e nt s t o t he pr a c t i c a l c om m i t m e nt e m bodi e d i n i nt e nt i on, w hi c h ha s a w o r l d t o m i nd di r e c t i on o f f i t P r a c t i c a l r e f l e c t i on r e qui r e s pr a c t i c a l j udgm e nt by vi r t ue of r e qui r i ng a b r i dge be t w e e n t he doxa s t i c c om m i t m e nt e xpr e s s e d by t he b e l i e f t ha t i s t he be s t m e a ns w hi c h e va l ua t e s b ut doe s not c ouns e l t ha t be unde r t a ke n a nd t he i nt e nt i on t o P r a c t i c a l j udgm e nt ha s i n t r i ns i c a ut hor i t y o ve r i nt e nt i on a nd a c t i on be c a us e i t

PAGE 131

131 e x pr e s s e s t he m i nd s r e f l e c t e d vi e w c onc e r ni ng w h a t a c t i on ought t o be unde r t a ke n s o t ha t t he w or l d a c c or ds w i t h one s pr o a t t i t ude s ( a s c l os e l y a s pos s i bl e ) F a i l ur e t o c om m i t i n one s i nt e nt i on t o t he c our s e of a c t i on r e c o m m e nde d by s uc h a j udgm e nt i s i r r a t i ona l be c a us e one w oul d t he r e by be v i ol a t i ng one s doxa s t i c c om m i t m e nt s ( t o t hi s c our s e o f a c t i on be i ng t he be s t a nd t o i t be i ng r a t i ona l l y r e qui r e d) T hi s i s s o e ve n i f t he s e doxa s t i c c om m i t m e nt s w e r e unde r t a ke n i r r a t i ona l l y i e i f t he y w e r e unde r t a ke n i n t he c our s e of a p r o c e s s of pr a c t i c a l r e f l e c t i on t ha t w a s r a t i ona l l y f l a w e d. I n t he doxa s t i c r e a l m by c ont r a s t t he c om m i t m e nt t ha t s e a l s t he r a t i ona l r e s ol ut i on of one s unc e r t a i nt y a s t o w ha t t o be l i e ve a nd t h e c o m m i t m e nt t ha t doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on i s ul t i m a t e l y m e a nt t o ge ne r a t e a r e one a nd t he s a m e A c c or di n gl y, doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on doe s not r e qui r e a hi ghe r or de r nor m a t i ve j udgm e nt t o f unc t i on a s a b r i dge be t w e e n di s t i nc t t ype s of c om m i t m e nt G i ve n t ha t doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on i s c onc e r ne d w i t h r e s ol vi ng one s unc e r t a i nt y a s t o w ha t t o b e l i e ve t he r e a s ons w i t h w hi c h i t i s c onc e r ne d a r e on e s r e a s ons t o be l i e ve T he s e a r e r e a s ons t o t hi nk t r ue t ha t a c c or di ngl y, ha ve a m i nd t o w or l d di r e c t i on of f i t I n t he c our s e of doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on, r e a s ons f or one s r e a s ons m i ght be s oug ht put a t i ve r e a s ons m i ght be di s m i s s e d, a l t e r n a t i ve r e a s ons m i ght be di s c ove r e d, e t c P r a gm a t i c c ons i de r a t i ons s uc h a s t he s i gni f i c a nc e of t he i s s ue t he t i m e a nd r e s our c e s a va i l a bl e e t c m i ght ope r a t e i n t he ba c kgr ound of one s r e f l e c t i on. P ac e O w e ns how e ve r t he y c a n be s ub j e c t e d t o r e f l e c t i ve e va l ua t i on. S o e g i n t he pr oc e s s of one s r e f l e c t i on on m i ght c om e t o s e e t he i s s ue a s doxa s t i c a l l y f unda m e nt a l a nd, c ons e que nt l y, r e e va l ua t e one s vi e w of i t s s i gni f i c a nc e a nd de t e r m i ne t o de vot e m or e t i m e a nd r e s our c e s t o r e f l e c t i ng on t he m a t t e r W ha t e ve r c o ur s e doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on t a ke s i t s r ol e i s t o t a ke one f r om r e a s ons t o be l i e ve w hi c h ha ve a m i nd t o w or l d di r e c t i on of f i t t o a doxa s t i c c om m i t m e nt t ha t ha s a m i nd t o w o r l d di r e c t i on of f i t ( p r o vi de d t ha t r e f l e c t i on di s c ove r s t ha t one s

PAGE 132

132 r e a s ons w a r r a nt s uc h a c om m i t m e nt 5 ) A l l out 6 dox a s t i c c om m i t m e nt i s e m bodi e d i n be l i e f B ut doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on ha s a l s o a c hi e ve d i t s pur pos e of r a t i ona l l y r e s ol vi ng one s unc e r t a i nt y a s t o w ha t t o be l i e ve onc e one i s i n a pos i t i on r a t i ona l l y t o f or m a be l i e f a nd t he c or r e s pondi ng be l i e f e xpr e s s e s one s doxa s t i c c om m i t m e nt t o t he r e s ul t of one s r e f l e c t i on. J us t a s m y f or m i ng t he r e f l e c t e d be l i e f t ha t i ng i s t he be s t m e a ns doe s no t r e qui r e i n p r a c t i c a l r e f l e c t i on t he j udgm e nt t ha t I ough t t o be l i e ve t ha t i ng i s t he be s t m e a ns s o m y f or m i ng t he r e f l e c t e d be l i e f t ha t p doe s not r e qui r e i n do x a s t i c r e f l e c t i on t he j udgm e nt t ha t I ought t o be l i e ve t ha t p I n t hi s r e s pe c t a l s o, doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on a nd p r a c t i c a l r e f l e c t i on a r e e xa c t l y a l i ke N e ve r t he l e s s doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on c a n i s s ue i n a dox a s t i c j udgm e nt of t he f or m I ough t t o be l i e ve t ha t p H ow e ve r a l t hough s uc h a j udgm e n t e xpr e s s e s a doxa s t i c c om m i t m e nt t o t he b e l i e f t ha t p be i ng doxa s t i c a l l y r e qui r e d, i t doe s no t e xpr e s s a doxa s t i c c om m i t m e nt t o p be i ng t r ue C e t e r i s par i bus r e f l e c t i on t ha t doe s not i s s ue i n t he doxa s t i c c om m i t m e nt e m bodi e d i n a r e f l e c t e d be l i e f ( w he n r e f l e c t i on di s c ove r s t ha t one s r e a s ons w a r r a nt s uc h a c om m i t m e nt ) i s t he r e by i nc om pl e t e a nd t he r e by m a ni f e s t s i r r a t i on a l i t y ( r e ga r dl e s s of w he t he r t he r e f l e c t i on i s s ue s i n a hi ghe r or de r doxa s t i c j udgm e nt ) D oxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on t ha t doe s not i s s ue i n r e f l e c t e d be l i e f ( w he n r e f l e c t i on di s c ove r s t ha t one s r e a s ons w a r r a nt s uc h a c om m i t m e nt ) i s i nc om p l e t e a nd i r r a t i ona l i n p r e c i s e l y t he s a m e r e s pe c t i n w hi c h pr a c t i c a l r e f l e c t i on t ha t doe s not i s s ue i n t he r e f l e c t e d be l i e f t ha t i s t he be s t m e a ns ( w he n r e f l e c t i on di s c ove r s t ha t one s r e a s ons w a r r a nt s uc h a c om m i t m e nt ) i s i nc om pl e t e a nd i r r a t i ona l i n bot h c a s e s t he unc e r t a i nt y t ha t r e f l e c t i on s e t out t o r e s ol ve i s not pr ope r l y r e s ol ve d ( i nt ui t i ve l y, pr ope r r e s ol ut i on of unc e r t a i nt y r e qui r e s 5 P r a c t i c a l r e f l e c t i o n d o e s n o t r e q u i r e a n a n a l o g o u s q u a l i f i c a t i o n R e f l e c t i o n c a n i s s u e i n t h e j u d g m e n t t h a t o n e o u g h t n o t t o a c t f o l l o w e d b y t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n t e n t i o n ( i e t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g p r a c t i c a l c o m m i t m e n t ) n o t t o a c t B y c o n t r a s t r e f r a i n i n g f r o m b e l i e v i n g a n d d i s b e l i e v i n g a s a r e s u l t o f r e f l e c t i o n d o e s n o t c o n s t i t u t e a d o x a s t i c c o m m i t m e n t 6 T h e q u a l i f i e r a l l o u t m e a n s t o a l l o w f o r o t h e r t y p e s o f s t a t e s u c h a s c o n j e c t u r e w h i c h e m b o d y l e s s t h a n c o m p l e t e c o m m i t m e n t s w i t h a m i n d t o w o r l d d i r e c t i o n o f f i t

PAGE 133

133 be l i e f ) T y pi c a l l y, j ud g m e nt s of t he f o r m I ought t o be l i e ve t ha t p a r e f or m e d i n t he f a c e o f a n i na bi l i t y t o be l i e ve t ha t p o r i n t he f a c e o f a r e c a l c i t r a nt be l i e f t ha t not p O w e ns i s r i ght t ha t i n s uc h a c a s e t he f a i l ur e t o be l i e ve t ha t p or t he be l i e f t ha t not p i s not i r r a t i ona l b y vi r t ue of f a i l i ng t o a c c or d w i t h t he hi ghe r or de r j udgm e nt T he r a t i ona l s t a t us of not be l i e vi ng t ha t p a nd of be l i e vi ng t ha t not p i s de t e r m i ne d by t he r e l e va nt r e a s ons D oxa s t i c j udgm e nt s o f t he f or m I ought t o be l i e ve t ha t p ha ve no i nt r i ns i c a ut ho r i t y o ve r be l i e f r e f l e c t e d or un r e f l e c t i ve or ove r f a i l ur e t o be l i e ve a nd t hi s i s be c a us e s uc h j udgm e nt s a r e not r e qui r e d t o ge ne r a t e t he r a t i ona l c om m i t m e nt t ha t doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on i s m e a nt t o ge ne r a t e 7 I f di s pe ns a bi l i t y i n r e f l e c t i on i s t he m a r k o f a n i dl e w he e l i n our m ot i va t i ona l e c onom y ( O w e ns 2000: 18) t he n O w e ns i s r i ght doxa s t i c j udgm e nt s a r e i dl e w he e l s i n ou r m o t i va t i ona l e c onom y. H ow e ve r w e ne e d t o di s t i n gui s h t he c l a i m t ha t doxa s t i c j udgm e nt s a r e m ot i va t i ona l l y i dl e f r om t he c l a i m t h a t doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on i s i d l e t out c our t O w e ns of f e r s a n a r gum e nt t o t he e f f e c t t ha t doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on i s m ot i va t i ona l l y i m pot e nt W e s a w t ha t pa r i t y of r e a s oni ng c o m m i t s hi m t o t he c onc l us i on t ha t pr a c t i c a l r e f l e c t i on i s s i m i l a r l y m ot i va t i ona l l y i m p ot e nt W e s a w t ha t he gr a nt s pr a c t i c a l r e f l e c t i on r e gul a t i ng p ow e r W e de t e r m i ne d t ha t doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on ha s s i m i l a r r e gul a t i ng pow e r W e not i c e d, how e ve r t ha t gi ve n t he na t ur e o f t he s t a t e s a nd r e a s ons i nvol ve d, pr a c t i c a l a nd doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on a r e r a d i c a l l y di f f e r e nt p r oc e s s e s I n p r a c t i c a l r e f l e c t i on, p r a c t i c a l j udgm e nt pl a ys a n i ndi s pe ns a bl e br i dgi ng f unc t i on be t w e e n t he doxa s t i c c om m i t m e nt e xpr e s s e d by t he be l i e f t ha t s om e ( t yp e of ) a c t i on i s t he be s t m e a ns a nd t he pr a c t i c a l c o m m i t m e nt e xpr e s s e d by t he i nt e nt i on s o t o a c t I n doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on, by c ont r a s t no s uc h 7 F a i l u r e t o j u d g e i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h o n e s c o n s i d e r e d p r a c t i c a l b e l i e f t h a t i s t h e b e s t m e a n s s e e m s a k r a t i c i n t h e s a m e w a y t h a t f a i l u r e t o i n t e n d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h o n e s c o n s i d e r e d p r a c t i c a l j u d g m e n t i s a k r a t i c S o i f I f a i l t o j u d g e t h a t I o u g h t t o d e s p i t e m y c o n s i d e r e d b e l i e f t h a t i n g i s t h e b e s t m e a n s t o o p t i m i z e m y d e s i r e s a n d v a l u e s s a y b e c a u s e o f g u i l t o r s o m e i r r a t i o n a l f e a r m y f a i l u r e s e e m s t o m a n i f e s t w e a k n e s s o f w i l l j u s t a s i t w o u l d i f I h a d f a i l e d t o i n t e n d t o u p o n j u d g i n g t h a t I o u g h t t o b e c a u s e o f g u i l t o r s o m e i r r a t i o n a l f e a r I n o n e c a s e I l a c k t h e s t r e n g t h t o j u d g e w h i l e i n t h e o t h e r I l a c k t h e s t r e n g t h t o i n t e n d T h e d i f f e r e n c e s e e m s i m m a t e r i a l T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n t r i n s i c a u t h o r i t y i s a m a t t e r o f b e i n g r e q u i r e d t o g e n e r a t e r e f l e c t e d r a t i o n a l c o m m i t m e n t

PAGE 134

134 br i dge i s r e qui r e d. T hi s pr ovi de d us w i t h a n e xpl a na t i on of t he a s ym m e t r y O w e ns not i c e s be t w e e n t he a ut hor i t i e s t ha t h i ghe r or de r nor m a t i v e j udgm e nt s ha ve ove r a c t i ons on one ha n d, a nd ove r be l i e f s on t he ot he r N ot h i ng i n t hi s e xpl a na t i on i ndi c a t e s a ny di f f e r e nc e i n t he r e gul a t i ng pow e r t ha t pr a c t i c a l a nd doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on e xe r t ove r t he s t a t e s a nd e ve nt s t he y r e gul a t e R a t he r c l os e e xa m i na t i on of pr a c t i c a l a nd doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on r e ve a l s t ha t t he i r r e gul a t i ng pow e r i s e xe r c i s e d di f f e r e nt l y by vi r t ue of be i ng e xe r c i s e d ove r di f f e r e nt t ype s of e ve nt s a nd s t a t e s R e gul a t i ng r e f l e c t i ve c ont r ol ove r a c t i on i s e xe r c i s e d i ndi r e c t l y, vi a r e f l e c t e d m e a ns e nd be l i e f s a nd pr a c t i c a l j udgm e nt s w hi c h i s s ue i n c or r e s pond i ng c a us a l l y e f f i c a c i ous i nt e nt i ons ( a l t hough i t i s e xe r c i s e d di r e c t l y ove r r e f l e c t e d m e a ns e nd be l i e f s a nd pr a c t i c a l j udgm e nt s ) B y c ont r a s t r e gul a t i ng r e f l e c t i ve c ont r ol ove r r e f l e c t e d be l i e f i s e xe r c i s e d di r e c t l y. R a t i on al l y E val u ab l e B e l i e f : M i n i m al R e q u i r e m e n t s O w e ns br i e f l y c ons i de r s r e gul a t i ng c ont r ol a s s e c ur i ng t he c ont r ol r e qui r e d f or doxa s t i c r e s pons i bi l i t y a c c or d i ng t o J T R a nd r e j e c t s i t on t h e f ol l ow i ng g r ounds : S ur e l y r a t i ona l i t y doe s not r e qui r e c ont i n uo us r e f l e c t i ve i nt e r ve nt i on; r a t he r i t i m pl i e s t he c a pa c i t y t o c ont r ol w ha t ha ppe ns by m e a ns of r e f l e c t i on. B ut w ha t e xa c t l y doe s t hi s c o n t r ol w he n e xe r c i s e d, i nvol ve ? S om e t i m e s w e e xe r c i s e c ont r ol by e ndor s i ng ( or r e j e c t i ng) be l i e f s w e ha ve a l r e a dy f o r m e d, or de c i s i ons w e ha ve a l r e a dy t a ke n. K or s ga a r d c a l l s be l i e f or a c t i on r a t i ona l w he n r e f l e c t i on w oul d ha ve e ndor s e d i t B ut s uc h r e t r os pe c t i ve e ndor s e m e nt c a n t be t he onl y f or m r e f l e c t i ve c ont r ol t a ke s F o r r e t r os pe c t i ve j udge m e nt t o be a f or m of c ont r ol a t a l l i t m us t ha ve s om e e f f e c t on w he t he r w e hol d t he be l i e f ( or i m pl e m e nt t he de c i s i on) i n que s t i on. A nd i f w e c a n i nf l ue nc e our be l i e f s i n t hi s w a y s ur e l y t hi s i s be c a us e w e ha ve a ge ne r a l c a pa c i t y f or e pi s t e m i c c ont r ol one w hi c h a l s o e na bl e s us t o de t e r m i ne ou r be l i e f s i n pr os pe c t : c ont r o l c a n t be pur e l y r e t r os pe c t i ve ( I bi d : 11 ) T he f or e goi ng di s c us s i on ha s s how n t ha t t he r e gul a t i ng c ont r ol e xe r c i s e d i n doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on ne e d not be pur e l y r e t r os pe c t i ve w e c a n f o r m a r e f l e c t e d be l i e f pr os pe c t i ve l y, a s a r e s ul t o f r e f l e c t i ng on w ha t t o be l i e ve c onc e r ni ng a gi ve n t o pi c j us t a s w e c a n e ndo r s e a r e f l e c t e d be l i e f r e t r os pe c t i ve l y, a s a r e s ul t of r e f l e c t i ng on w he t he r t o m a i nt a i n a be l i e f ( i n t hi s r e s pe c t doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on f unc t i ons j us t l i ke p r a c t i c a l r e f l e c t i on w e c a n f or m a r e f l e c t e d i nt e nt i on p r os pe c

PAGE 135

135 t i ve l y, a s a r e s ul t of r e f l e c t i ng on w ha t t o do i n a g i ve n c i r c um s t a nc e j us t a s w e c a n f o r m a r e f l e c t e d i nt e nt i on r e t r os pe c t i ve l y, a s a r e s ul t of r e f l e c t i ng on w he t he r t o pe r f or m s om e a c t i on w hi c h w e unr e f l e c t i ve l y i nt e nde d t o pe r f or m ) B e l i e f s I c l a i m a r e l i a bl e t o e va l ua t i on a s r a t i ona l or i r r a t i ona l by v i r t ue o f be i ng s u b j e c t t o r e f l e c t i ve c ont r ol by t he be l i e ve r i e by vi r t ue of be i ng s ubj e c t t o r e gul a t i ng c ont r ol by t he be l i e v e r i n d oxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on i n t he m a nne r a du m br a t e d e a r l i e r ( j us t a s a c t i ons a r e l i a bl e t o e va l ua t i o n a s r a t i ona l o r i r r a t i ona l by vi r t ue of be i ng s ubj e c t t o r e f l e c t i ve c ont r ol by t he a ge nt i e by vi r t ue of be i ng s ubj e c t t o r e g u l a t i ng c ont r ol by t he a ge nt i n p r a c t i c a l r e f l e c t i on i n t he m a nne r a du m br a t e d e a r l i e r ) A be l i e f f o r m e d by a be i ng i nc a pa bl e of doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on i s not r a t i ona l i n t h e br oa d s e ns e i e i s not e va l ua bl e a s r a t i ona l or i r r a t i ona l I not e d e a r l i e r how e ve r t ha t m os t o f ou r be l i e f s ( l i k e m os t of ou r a c t i ons ) a r e unr e f l e c t i ve W he n w e e va l ua t e t he r a t i ona l i t y of a r e f l e c t e d be l i e f w e e va l ua t e t he r a t i ona l i t y of t he r e f l e c t i ve pr oc e s s t ha t ge ne r a t e d or m a i nt a i ne d i t ( w he n w e a r e pr i vy t hi s pr oc e s s ) W he n w e e va l ua t e t he r a t i ona l i t y of a n un r e f l e c t i ve be l i e f or w he n w e e v a l ua t e t he r a t i ona l i t y of a r e f l e c t e d be l i e f w hos e r a t i ona l e t i ol ogy w e i gnor e w e a s k w he t he r t he be l i e ve r c oul d ha ve be e n m a i nt a i ne d t hi s be l i e f i n t he c our s e of a f l a w l e s s pr oc e s s of r a t i ona l r e f l e c t i on S o pos e d, t h e que s t i on i s r e t r os pe c t i ve ; but t he c a pa c i t y f o r doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on t h i s que s t i on pr e s uppos e s c e r t a i nl y i s n t pur e l y r e t r os pe c t i ve N e ve r t he l e s s t he r e t r os pe c t i ve que s t i on i s a good s t a r t i ng poi nt f or de t e r m i ni ng w ha t t he c a pa c i t y f or doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on m i ni m a l l y r e qui r e s ( a nd, s o, f or de t e r m i ni ng w ha t r a t i ona l be l i e f i n t he br oa d s e ns e m i ni m a l l y r e qui r e s ) S uppos e I a m de pl oyi ng m y c a pa c i t y t o r e f l e c t on m y be l i e f s r e t r os pe c t i ve l y, w onde r i ng w he t he r I a m r i ght t o be l i e ve t ha t B a s i l w a s a s s a ul t e d by b e a r s T o do s o, of c our s e I ne e d t o pos s e s s t he c onc e pt s t ha t c ons t i t ut e t he i ndi vi dua t i ng

PAGE 136

136 c ogni t i ve c o n t e nt of m y be l i e f t ha t B a s i l w a s a s s a ul t e d by be a r s a s w e l l a s a ny i de nt i f yi ng c onc e pt s c ur r e nt l y c om pr i s e d i n i t s s ync hr oni c c og ni t i ve c ont e nt a nd I ne e d t o be c a pa bl e of t oke ni ng t hi s be l i e f T he s e how e ve r a r e c ondi t i o ns on be l i e f pos s e s s i on r a t he r t ha n c ondi t i ons on doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on a s s uc h. I n or de r t o r e f l e c t o n t hi s be l i e f I ne e d t o be a bl e t o r e pr e s e nt i t a s m y be l i e f i n t hought A c c or di ngl y, I ne e d t o po s s e s s t he f i r s t pe r s on c onc e pt 8 F u r t he r I ne e d t o be a bl e t o r e pr e s e nt t hi s be l i e f a s a be l i e f i n t hou ght A c c or d i ngl y, I ne e d t o pos s e s s t he c onc e pt of be l i e f F i na l l y, i t s e e m s t ha t I w oul d ne e d t o be a bl e t o r e p r e s e nt t hi s be l i e f a s r i ght c or r e c t o r t r ue i n t hought A c c or di ngl y, i t s e e m s t ha t I w oul d I ne e d t o pos s e s s t he not i on of t r ut h. I w i l l pr ov i s i ona l l y a s s um e t ha t pos s e s s i on of t he not i on of t r ut h i s m i ni m a l l y r e qui r e d f o r doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on. I w i l l r e t ur n t o t hi s i s s ue a t t he e nd of t he ne xt s e c t i on. W he t he r doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on a l s o m i n i m a l l y r e qui r e s pos s e s s i on of t he c onc e pt of a r e a s on ( a nd, s o, of t he c o n c e pt of t he s uppor t r e l a t i on) i s n ot c l e a r R e f l e c t i on doe s not s e e m t o r e qui r e one t o r e pr e s e nt one s r e a s o ns a s r e a s ons i n t hought i n a l l c a s e s S uppos e I ha ve r e c e nt l y s u f f e r e d s om e e pi s ode s of pe r c e pt ua l de l us i on, w hi c h ha ve c ha r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y be e n l e s s vi vi d t ha n ge nui ne pe r c e pt i on. A s I be hol d B a s i l be i ng a s s a ul t e d by be a r s I w onde r w he t he r I a m r i ght t o be l i e ve t ha t B a s i l i s a s s a ul t e d by be a r s I n s uc h a c a s e I m i ght s i m pl y t a ke m y pe r c e pt i on a s a s u f f i c i e nt r e a s on f or m y be l i e f gi ve n i t s vi vi dne s s w i t hout c onc e pt ua l i z i ng i t a s a s uf f i c i e nt r e a s on f or m y be l i e f ( or a s a vi vi d pe r c e pt i on) A r gua bl y, t he n, pos s e s s i ng t he c onc e pt s of a r e a s on a nd of t he s uppor t r e l a t i on m i ght not be l on g t o t he m i ni m a l r e qui r e m e nt s f o r doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on. N e ve r t he l e s s f a i l ur e t o pos s e s s t he s e c onc e pt s w oul d s e ve r e l y r e s t r i c t one s c a pa c i t y f or doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on. P l a us i bl y, t he n, pos s e s s i ng t he c onc e pt s of a r e a s on a nd of t he s uppor t r e l a t i on i s m i ni m a l l y r e qui r e d f o r a f ul l bl ow n c a pa c i t y f or doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on, t hough not f o r a 8 I t m i g h t b e t h o u g h t t h a t I w o u l d n e e d i n a d d i t i o n t o p o s s e s s t h e c o n c e p t o f o w n e r s h i p s o a s t o r e p r e s e n t t h i s b e l i e f a s m i n e I t w i l l b e c o m e c l e a r l a t e r t h a t t h e c a p a c i t y f o r d o x a s t i c r e f l e c t i o n d o e s n o t m i n i m a l l y r e q u i r e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t o f o w n e r s h i p

PAGE 137

137 m i ni m a l c a pa c i t y f o r doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on. 9 A c c or di n gl y, t he c a pa c i t y f or doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on a nd, s o, t he c a pa c i t y t o f or m a r a t i ona l l y e va l ua bl e be l i e f m i ni m a l l y r e qui r e pos s e s s i on of t he f i r s t pe r s on c onc e pt a nd t he c onc e pt of be l i e f a nd, p r ovi s i ona l l y, t he not i on of t r ut h I n a ddi t i on, t he c a pa c i t y f or r e f l e c t i on ge ne r a l l y r e qui r e s t h e c a pa c i t y t o e nt e r t a i n a que s t i on. I s t a t e d e a r l i e r t ha t t he l i a bi l i t y t o pr i m a f ac i e nor m a t i ve pr a i s e a nd bl a m e t ha t a t t e nds t he l i a bi l i t y t o e va l ua t i on a s r a t i ona l or i r r a t i ona l r e qui r e s t he c a pa c i t y t o a bi de by a ny no r m r e l a t i ve t o w hi c h one i s e va l u a t e d. T hi s I a r gue d, m i ni m a l l y r e qui r e s t he c a pa c i t i e s t o r e c ogni z e a ny s uc h nor m a s gove r ni ng t he m a t t e r c onc e r ni ng w hi c h one i s e va l u a t e d, t o de t e r m i ne w he t he r or not t o obe y t hi s nor m a nd e i t he r t o obe y, or not t o obe y, i t a s a r e s ul t of t hi s de t e r m i n a t i on. T o s how t ha t t ha t t he m i ni m a l r e qui r e m e nt s f o r doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on s e t out a bove a r e s uf f i c i e nt t o s e c ur e t he c ont r ol i nt u i t i ve l y r e qui r e d f o r r a t i ona l e va l ua bi l i t y, I ne e d t o s how t ha t s a t i s f a c t i on of t he s e m i ni m a l r e qui r e m e nt s s uf f i c e s t o s e c ur e t he r e l e va nt c a pa c i t i e s B y vi r t ue of pos s e s s i ng t he c onc e pt s t ha t c ons t i t ut e t he i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of he r be l i e f ( a s w e l l a s a ny i de nt i f yi ng c onc e pt s c ur r e nt l y c om pr i s e d i n i t s s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt w he n a ppl i c a bl e ) a nd by vi r t ue of pos s e s s i ng t he c o n c e pt s m i ni m a l l y r e qui r e d by t he c a pa c i t y f or doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on i e t he f i r s t pe r s on c onc e pt a nd t he c onc e pt o f be l i e f a nd, pr ovi s i ona l l y, t he n o t i on o f t r ut h t he be l i e ve r ha s t he c a pa c i t y t o r e c ogni z e t he r e l e va nt s e t of doxa s t i c nor m s a s gove r ni ng he r be l i e f O n P e a c oc ke s a c c ount of c onc e pt s w hi c h I e ndor s e d w i t h s om e m odi f i c a t i ons i n C ha pt e r 3 gr a s p o f a c onc e pt e nt a i l s i m pl i c i t know l e dge o f i t s de pl oym e nt c ondi t i ons ( or a s P e a c oc ke w oul d put i t o f w h a t i t i s f or s om e t hi ng t o be i t s s e m a nt i c va l ue ) O n t he vi e w I ha ve out l i ne d, t he i ndi vi d ua t i ng a nd s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s o f a 9 W h e n a s s e s s i n g t h e r a t i o n a l s t a t u s o f a g i v e n b e l i e f w e m a k e a l l o w a n c e s f o r s u c h c o n c e p t u a l d e f i c i e n c i e s S o w e e m p l o y l e s s d e m a n d i n g s t a n d a r d s w h e n e v a l u a t i n g t h e b e l i e f s o f c h i l d r e n t h a n w e d o w h e n e v a l u a t i n g t h e b e l i e f s o f f u l l y d o x a s t i c a l l y p r o f i c i e n t a d u l t s p r e s u m a b l y b e c a u s e c h i l d r e n a r e l i k e l y t o l a c k c e r t a i n c o n c e p t s t h a t a r e r e q u i r e d f o r a f u l l b l o w n c a p a c i t y f o r d o x a s t i c r e f l e c t i o n

PAGE 138

138 be l i e f a r e c om pl e x c o n c e pt s B y vi r t ue o f pos s e s s i ng t he r e l e va nt be l i e f by vi r t ue of be i ng c a pa bl e of c onc e pt ua l i z i n g i t a s he r be l i e f a nd by vi r t ue of be i ng c a pa bl e of w onde r i ng w he t he r i t i s t r ue t he n a be l i e ve r ha s t he c a pa c i t y t o r e c og ni z e t ha t a gi ve n s e t of doxa s t i c no r m gove r ns he r be l i e f i n t he s e ns e of ha vi ng t he c a pa c i t y t o r e c ogni z e w ha t i t w oul d t a ke f o r he r be l i e f t o be t r ue a nd t o r e c ogni z e he r be l i e f a s be hol de n t o t he s e t r ut h c ondi t i ons I s t a t e d e a r l i e r t ha t r e f l e c t i on i s a c ons c i ous pur po s i ve a c t i vi t y. T he c a pa c i t y f or do xa s t i c r e f l e c t i on, t he n, s e c ur e s not on l y t he c a pa c i t y t o r e c ogni z e t he nor m s t ha t gove r n one s b e l i e f s a s gove r ni ng i t but a l s o t he c a pa c i t i e s t o de t e r m i ne w he t he r or no t t o obe y t he s e nor m s a nd e i t he r t o obe y, o r not t o obe y, t he m a s a r e s ul t T hi s i s n ot t o s a y t ha t r e f l e c t e d be l i e f r e qui r e s a n i nt e nt i on t o be l i e ve I a r gue d e a r l i e r t ha t doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on pl a ys a r e gul a t i ng, r a t he r t ha n a m ot i va t i ng, r ol e i n be l i e f f or m a t i on a nd t ha t doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on doe s not t ypi c a l l y i s s ue i n doxa s t i c j udgm e nt s a nd c or r e s pondi ng doxa s t i c i nt e nt i ons W he n a l l goe s w e l l doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on r e s ul t s i n r a t i ona l r e f l e c t e d be l i e f f or m e d w i t hout a ny i nt e nt i ona l i nt e r ve nt i on on t he pa r t o f t he be l i e ve r a t t he c l os e of a f l a w l e s s pr oc e s s of r e f l e c t i ng on he r r e a s ons t o be l i e ve N e ve r t h e l e s s doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on i s t ypi c a l l y e nga ge d i nt e nt i ona l l y, a nd t yp i c a l l y i nvol ve s m a ny i nt e nt i ona l s t e ps ( i n a ddi t i on t o m a ny pur e l y doxa s t i c s t e ps ) S o m e t i m e s de s i r e a nd i nt e nt i on c a n pe r ve r t t he r e f l e c t i ve pr oc e s s r e s ul t i ng, e g. i n w i s hf ul be l i e f S o, a be l i e ve r m i ght r e f l e c t on he r be l i e f w i t h t he pur pos e of c om f or t i ng i t r a t he r t ha n de t e r m i ni ng w he t he r s he s houl d m a i nt a i n i t I n s uc h a c a s e a l t hough ( i m pl i c i t l y) r e c ogni z i ng t h e nor m s t ha t gove r n he r be l i e f a s gove r n i ng i t s he m i ght a c t i ve l y s e e k r e a s ons t o m a i n t a i n he r be l i e f w hi l e r e f us i ng t o s e e k, c ons i de r or a dm i t a ny r e a s on t o a ba ndon i t I n s uc h a c a s e t he be l i e ve r c a n be s a i d t o ha ve ( i m p l i c i t l y) de t e r m i ne d not t o obe y t he nor m s t ha t gove r n he r b e l i e f a nd t o f a i l t o obe y t he m a s a r e s ul t a l t hough ( i m pl i c i t l y) r e c ogni z i ng w ha t i t w oul d t a ke f o r he r be l i e f t o be t r ue a nd ( i m pl i c i t l y) r e c ogni z i ng

PAGE 139

139 he r be l i e f a s be hol de n t o t he s e t r ut h c ondi t i ons s he ha s ( i m pl i c i t l y) de t e r m i ne d t ha t he r be l i e f w oul d not a bi de by t he s e t r ut h c ond i t i ons s houl d t he y f a i l t o be s a t i s f i e d. S i nc e be l i e f r e p r e s e n t s i t s c ont e nt a s t r ue w i s hf ul be l i e f of t e n i n vol ve s a f a i r a m ount o f s e l f de c e pt i on t he de c i s i on t o f l out t he no r m s t ha t gove r n he r be l i e f i s n t t ypi c a l l y c ons c i ous a nd t he be l i e ve r us ua l l y t r i e s t o c onvi nc e he r s e l f t ha t t he w o r l d a c c or ds w i t h he r d oxa s t i c de s i r e s S t i l l t he c a pa c i t y f or doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on s e c ur e s t he ( i r r a t i ona l ) opt i on t o r e f r a i n f r om a bi di ng by t he no r m s gove r ni ng one s be l i e f s by m a ki ng i t pos s i bl e t o s ubj e c t t he s e be l i e f s t o i nt e nt i ona l go v e r na nc e a n opt i on s e e m i ngl y una va i l a bl e t o be i ngs not bl e s s e d w i t h t he c a pa c i t y t o f o r m be l i e f s t ha t a r e r a t i ona l i n t he br oa d s e ns e 1 0 S um m i ng up: I ha ve a r gue d t ha t r a t i ona l be l i e f i n t he br oa d s e ns e m i ni m a l l y r e qui r e s t he c a pa c i t y f or doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on, i e pos s e s s i on of t he f i r s t pe r s o n c onc e pt a nd t he c onc e pt o f be l i e f a nd, pr ovi s i ona l l y, t he not i on of t r ut h a s w e l l a s t he c a pa c i t y t o e nt e r t a i n a que s t i on. B y vi r t ue of pos s e s s i ng t he c onc e pt s t ha t c ons t i t ut e t he i ndi vi dua t i ng a nd c ur r e nt s ync hr oni c c ogn i t i ve c ont e nt s of he r be l i e f b y vi r t ue of be i ng c a pa bl e of c onc e pt ua l i z i ng i t a s he r ow n be l i e f a nd by vi r t ue o f be i ng c a pa bl e of w onde r i ng w he t he r i t i s t r ue a be l i e ve r ha s t he c a pa c i t y t o r e c o gni z e t ha t a gi ve n s e t of doxa s t i c no r m s gove r ns he r be l i e f i n t he s e ns e of ha vi ng t he c a pa c i t y t o r e c ogni z e w ha t i t w oul d t a ke f o r he r be l i e f t o be t r ue a nd t o r e c ogni z e he r be l i e f a s be hol de n t o t he s e t r ut h c ondi t i ons B y vi r t ue of be i ng a c ons c i ous pur pos i ve a c t i vi t y, doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on a l s o s e c ur e s t he c a pa c i t y t o r e f r a i n f r om a bi di ng b y t he s e nor m s by m a ki ng i t pos s i bl e t o s ubj e c t be l i e f t o i n t e nt i ona l gove r na nc e A c c or di ngl y s a t i s f a c t i on of t he m i ni m a l r e qui r e m e nt s f o r t he c a pa c i t y f or doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on s e c ur e s t he c ont r ol i nt ui t i ve l y r e qui r e d f o r r a t i ona l e va l ua bi l i t y. 1 0 N o t e t h a t t h e c l a i m i s n t t h a t w i s h f u l b e l i e f c a n o n l y b e f o r m e d i n a f l a w e d p r o c e s s o f r e f l e c t i o n W i s h f u l b e l i e f l i k e a n y o t h e r t y p e o f i r r a t i o n a l b e l i e f c a n b e f o r m e d u n r e f l e c t i v e l y S t i l l I s u s p e c t t h a t w i s h f u l b e l i e f r e q u i r e s t h e s a m e c a p a c i t y t o d i s t a n c e o n e s e l f f r o m o n e s b e l i e f b y w a y o f t a k i n g a s e c o n d o r d e r s t a n c e o n o n e s b e l i e f s t h a t r e f l e c t i o n r e q u i r e s o n t h e a c c o u n t o f b e l i e f c o n t e n t I h a v e b e e n p r o p o s i n g a b e i n g c a p a b l e m e r e l y o f f i r s t o r d e r b e l i e f m i g h t b e c a p a b l e o f e r r o r a n d i l l u s i o n b u t n o t o f w i s h f u l b e l i e f

PAGE 140

140 T h e D e l i b e r at i ve S t an c e I n C ha pt e r 2 I br i e f l y di s c us s e d t he a c c ount of t r a ns pa r e nc y M or a n pr opos e s a s a ge ne r a l r e qui r e m e nt f o r r a t i ona l a ge nc y. 1 1 M or a n e ndor s e s E dgl e y s a nd E va ns vi e w t ha t one s ow n t hi nki ng i s t r a ns pa r e nt t o one s e l f W i t h r e ga r d t o b e l i e f M or a n c ha r a c t e r i z e s t he r e l a t i on o f t r a n s pa r e nc y a s f ol l ow s : [ R ] a t he r t ha n r e duc i bi l i t y o r i nd i s t i ngui s ha bi l i t y, t he r e l a t i on of t r a ns pa r e nc y [ E dgl e y a nd E va ns ] a r e poi nt i ng t ow a r d c onc e r ns a c l a i m a bout how a s e t of que s t i ons i s t o be a n s w e r e d, w ha t s or t s of r e a s ons a r e t o be t a ke n a s r e l e va nt T he c l a i m t he n i s t ha t a f i r s t pe r s on p r e s e nt t e ns e que s t i on a bout one s be l i e f i s a ns w e r e d by r e f e r e nc e t o ( or c ons i de r a t i on of ) t he s a m e r e a s ons t ha t w oul d j us t i f y a n a ns w e r t o t he c or r e s pondi ng que s t i on a bout t he w or l d ( M or a n 2001: 62; i t a l i c s i n t he or i g i na l ) T ha t i s t he que s t i on, D o I be l i e ve t ha t p ? ( a nd t he que s t i on, S houl d I be l i e ve t ha t p ? ) nor m a l l y i s a nd s houl d be a n s w e r e d by c ons i de r i ng ( or a s i f a ns w e r i ng) t he que s t i on, I s i t t he c a s e t ha t p ? M or a n no t e s t ha t t he que s t i on, D o I be l i e ve t h a t p ? c a nnot a t t i m e s be a ns w e r e d i n t hi s m a nne r a nd m us t i ns t e a d be a ns w e r e d by a ns w e r i ng ( or a s i f a ns w e r i ng) t he c o r r e s pondi ng, t hi r d pe r s on que s t i on, i e i n l i ght of be ha vi or a l e v i de nc e t e s t i m ony, e t c Y e t he s t r e s s e s t ha t s uc h c a s e s a r e pa t hol ogi c a l T r a ns pa r e nc y, t he n, i s a r e l a t i on one be a r s t o one s ow n, non pa t hol ogi c a l be l i e f s ( a nd ot he r j udgm e nt s e ns i t i ve a t t i t ude s 1 2 ) T o di s t i ngui s h be t w e e n t he f or m e r a nd t he l a t t e r w a y of a ns w e r i ng ( a nd of pos i ng) t he que s t i on, M or a n i nt r oduc e s t he t e r m s de l i be r a t i ve a nd t he or e t i c a l : I n c ha r a c t e r i z i ng t w o s or t s of que s t i ons one m a y di r e c t t ow a r d one s ow n s t a t e of m i nd, t he t e r m de l i be r a t i ve i s be s t s e e n a t t h i s poi nt i n c ont r a s t t o t he o r e t i c a l t he pr i m a r y poi n t be i ng t o m a r k t he di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t ha t i nqui r y w hi c h t e r m i na t e s i n a t r ue de s c r i pt i on of 1 1 S o m e o f t h e o u t l i n e o f M o r a n s v i e w t h a t f o l l o w s m o r e o r l e s s r e p e a t s w h a t w a s s a i d i n C h a p t e r 2 1 2 T h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t b e l i e f i s a j u d g m e n t s e n s i t i v e a t t i t u d e d o e s n o t c o n t r a d i c t m y e a r l i e r a g r e e m e n t w i t h O w e n s t h a t t h e d o x a s t i c j u d g m e n t I o u g h t t o b e l i e v e t h a t p h a s n o i n t r i n s i c a u t h o r i t y o v e r t h e b e l i e f t h a t p B e l i e f i s a j u d g m e n t s e n s i t i v e a t t i t u d e b y v i r t u e o f b e i n g s e n s i t i v e t o j u d g m e n t s o f t h e f o r m ( i t i s t h e c a s e t h a t ) p D e s i r e i s a j u d g m e n t s e n s i t i v e a t t i t u d e b y v i r t u e o f b e i n g s e n s i t i v e t o j u d g m e n t s o f t h e f o r m ( i t i s t h e c a s e t h a t ) F n e s s o r i n g o r w h a t n o t i s d e s i r a b l e A r g u a b l y i n t e n t i o n i s a j u d g m e n t s e n s i t i v e a t t i t u d e b y v i r t u e o f b e i n g s e n s i t i v e t o j u d g m e n t s o f t h e f o r m I o u g h t t o D i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f a t t i t u d e s a r e j u d g m e n t s e n s i t i v e b y v i r t u e o f b e i n g s e n s i t i v e t o d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f j u d g m e n t B e l i e f i s n o t j u d g m e n t s e n s i t i v e b y v i r t u e o f b e i n g s e n s i t i v e t o j u d g m e n t s o f t h e f o r m I o u g h t t o b e l i e v e t h a t p

PAGE 141

141 m y s t a t e a nd one w hi c h t e r m i na t e s i n t he f or m a t i o n or e n do r s e m e nt of a n a t t i t ude ( I bi d : 63 ) W he n a s ki ng, D o I be l i e ve t ha t p ? a s a t he o r e t i c a l que s t i on, t he be l i e ve r s s t a nc e t ow a r d he r ow n be l i e f i s j us t l i ke t ha t of a ny out s i de obs e r ve r P r ope r e vi de nc e f or he r a ns w e r i s e vi de nc e t ha t s he be l i e ve s t ha t p a nd t he a ns w e r I be l i e ve t ha t p bu t p i s f a l s e doe s not i nvo l ve he r i n a ny i nc ohe r e nc e W he n a s ki ng, D o I be l i e ve t ha t p ? a s a de l i be r a t i ve que s t i on by c ont r a s t t he a ge nt s s t a nc e t ow a r d he r ow n b e l i e f i s unl i ke t ha t of a ny out s i de obs e r ve r T he de l i be r a t i ve que s t i on i s e qui va l e nt t o t he que s t i on, S houl d I b e l i e ve t ha t p ? a nd doe s not a i m m e r e l y t o yi e l d a n a c c ur a t e a t t i t ude r e por t ; i t a i m s t o yi e l d be l i e f i e a n a t t i t ude t ha t c on f or m s t o w ha t M or a n c a l l s t he c ondi t i on o f t r a ns pa r e nc y, i e f o r be l i e f t he c ondi t i on i s t ha t I c a n r e por t on m y be l i e f a b out X by c ons i de r i ng ( no t hi ng but ) X i t s e l f ( I bi d : 84; i t a l i c s i n t he or i gi na l ) I n t he de l i b e r a t i ve s t a nc e t he a ge nt s i nqui r y i s no t pr ope r l y f oc us e d on e vi de nc e t ha t s he be l i e ve s t ha t p ; i t i s pr ope r l y f oc us e d on e vi de nc e t ha t p t ha t i s on r e a s ons t o be l i e ve t ha t p M or a n a r gue s t ha t t he c a pa c i t y t o t a ke a de l i be r a t i ve s t a nc e t ow a r d one s ow n be l i e f s a nd ot he r j udgm e nt s e ns i t i ve a t t i t ude s i s a p r e r e qui s i t e of r a t i ona l a ge nc y. A ge nt s a r e r e s pons i bl e f or t he i r a t t i t ude s i na s m uc h a s t he y ha ve t he c a pa c i t y t o a vow t he m w he r e a n a vow a l i s a s t a t e m e nt of one s a t t i t ude t ha t c onf o r m s t o t he c ondi t i on of t r a ns pa r e nc y ( I bi d : 101 ) A vow a bi l i t y a l s o s e t s a nor m a t i ve r e qui r e m e nt on r a t i ona l a ge nc y. I na s m uc h a s t he y ha ve t he c a pa c i t y t o a vow t he i r be l i e f s a nd o t he r j udgm e nt s e ns i t i ve a t t i t ude s r a t i ona l a ge nt s a r e c om m i t t e d t o s a t i s f y i ng t he c ondi t i on of t r a ns pa r e nc y i n t he i r be l i e f s a nd ot he r j udgm e nt s e ns i t i ve a t t i t ude s F or be l i e f t he c om m i t m e nt i s t o ha ve t he be l i e f t ha t p onl y i f one s r e por t I be l i e v e t ha t p w oul d be a pr ope r a ns w e r t o t he de l i be r a t i ve que s t i on, D o I b e l i e ve t ha t p ? T he a c c ount of r a t i ona l be l i e f ( i n t he br oa d s e ns e ) I ha ve pr opos e d s uppor t s a nd e xpl a i ns M or a n s vi e w a s i t pe r t a i ns t o be l i e f T ha t i s i t s uppor t s a nd e xpl a i ns M or a n s c l a i m s t ha t i n

PAGE 142

142 non pa t hol ogi c a l c a s e s r a t i ona l be l i e ve r s s houl d a ns w e r t he que s t i on D o I be l i e ve t ha t p ? a s i f a ns w e r i ng t he que s t i on, S houl d I be l i e ve t ha t p ? L e t us a s s um e t ha t t he f ol l ow i ng c a s e s a r e non pa t hol ogi c a l S uppos e t ha t a n i ndi vi du a l ( l e t us c a l l he r S ) w ho s a t i s f i e s t he m i ni m a l r e qui r e m e nt s f or r a t i ona l be l i e f ha s t he c ons c i ous be l i e f t ha t p S u p pos e S a s ks he r s e l f D o I be l i e ve t ha t p ? I n a s ki ng t hi s que s t i on, s he i s de pl oyi ng he r c onc e pt o f be l i e f ( b e li e f ) a nd he r f i r s t pe r s on c onc e pt ( i ) t o p t he s ync hr oni c c ogn i t i ve c ont e nt of he r be l i e f t ha t p i n a n i nqui r i n g m ode N ow w e s a w t ha t t he f i r s t pe r s on c l a us e of belief i s s om e t hi ng a l ong t he l i ne s o f : ( F ) t he t hi nke r f i nds t he f i r s t pe r s on c ont e nt t ha t he s t a nds i n R t o p pr i m i t i ve l y c om pe l l i ng w he ne ve r he ha s t he c ons c i ous be l i e f t ha t p a nd he f i nds i t c o m pe l l i ng be c a us e he ha s t ha t c ons c i ous be l i e f ( P e a c oc ke 1992: 163 164) W e a l s o s a w t ha t t he t hi r d pe r s on c l a us e of beli ef i s s om e t hi ng a l ong t he l i ne s of : ( T *) t he t hi n ke r i s d i s pos e d t o be l i e ve t he t hi r d pe r s on c ont e nt of t he f or m a R p w he n he t a ke s a t o a nd ( T ) i n j udgi ng a t hought o f t he t hi r d pe r s on f o r m a R p t he t hi nke r t he r e by i nc ur s a c om m i t m e nt t o a s be i ng i n a s t a t e t ha t ha s t he s a m e c ont e nt de pe nde nt r ol e i n m a ki ng a i nt e l l i g i bl e a s t he r ol e of hi s ow n s t a t e of s t a n di ng i n R t o p i n m a ki ng hi m i nt e l l i g i bl e w e r e he t o be i n t ha t s t a t e ( I bi d : 164) W e s houl d a l s o not e t he f i r s t pe r s on a na l ogue o f ( T ) i e ( F *) i n j udgi ng a t hought o f t he f i r s t pe r s on f o r m i R p t he t hi nke r t he r e by i nc ur s a c o m m i t m e nt t o be i ng i n a s t a t e t ha t ha s t he s a m e c ont e nt de pe nde nt r ol e i n m a ki ng h i m i nt e l l i gi bl e a s t he r ol e of a s s t a t e of s t a ndi ng i n R t o p i n m a ki ng a i nt e l l i g i bl e w e r e a t o be i n t ha t s t a t e 1 3 A s I s t r e s s e d i n m y di s c us s i on of belief i n C ha p t e r 3 a l t hough ( F ) a nd ( T *) di f f e r by vi r t ue of s pe c i f yi ng a di s t i nc t c ogni t i ve a c c e s s t o t he r e l a t i o n t ha t c ons t i t ut e s t he gr o und f o r de pl oyi ng belief t he y c a nnot di f f e r w i t h r e ga r d t o t he i de nt i t y of t hi s gr ound A c c or di ngl y, a ny f i r s t 1 3 ( T ) a n d ( F ) a r e n o t p a r t o f P e a c o c k e s o r i g i n a l f o r m u l a t i o n N o t e t h a t I d o n o t t a k e t h e s e p o s s e s s i o n c o n d i t i o n s t o f o r m u l a t e i n d i v i d u a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s f o r b e l i e f R a t h e r I t a k e t h e m t o a d u m b r a t e s u c h i n d i v i d u a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s n o t o n l y b e c a u s e ( T ) i n c l u d e s e l l i p s i s m a r k s b u t a l s o b e c a u s e ( F ) ( T ) a n d ( F ) a r e l i k e l y t o r e q u i r e r e f i n e m e n t ; a c c u r a t e p o s s e s s i o n a n d i n d i v i d u a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s f o r c o n c e p t s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o f o r m u l a t e

PAGE 143

143 pe r s ona l de pl oym e nt of belief t o a gi ve n s t a t e i ps o f ac t o i nc ur s t he c om m i t m e nt t ha t t hi s s t a t e i s l i a bl e t o t hi r d pe r s ona l de pl oym e nt s o f belief ( gi ve n s ui t a bl e a c c e s s ) a nd a ny t hi r d pe r s ona l d e pl oym e nt of belief t o a gi ve n s t a t e i ps o f ac t o i nc ur s t he c om m i t m e nt t ha t t hi s s t a t e i s l i a bl e t o f i r s t pe r s ona l de pl oym e nt s of belief ( gi ve n s ui t a bl e a c c e s s ) S o i f t he c ondi t i ons f or t he pos s e s s i on of belief s houl d m e nt i on ( T ) a s a c om m i t m e nt i nc ur r e d i n de pl oyi ng belief t hi r d pe r s ona l l y, t he n t he s e c ondi t i ons s houl d a l s o m e nt i on ( F *) a s a c om m i t m e nt i nc ur r e d i n de pl oyi ng belief f i r s t pe r s ona l l y. I not e d i n C ha pt e r 3 t ha t ( T ) m i ght e i t he r be i nc l ude d a s a n e x pl i c i t s ub c ondi t i on of ( T ) or m e r e l y be e nt a i l e d by i t I t e nd t o f a vor t he l a t t e r opt i on a s i t i s m or e i n ke e pi ng w i t h t he ge ne r a l s pi r i t of P e a c oc ke s a ppr oa c h. D i t t o f o r ( F *) H ow e ve r t hi s i s s ue i s s e t t l e d i t i s ove r w he l m i ngl y pl a us i bl e t ha t s om e t hi ng l i ke ( T ) a nd ( F *) s t a t e c om m i t m e nt s i nc ur r e d i n de pl oyi ng bel ief i n a c c or da nc e w i t h i t s de pl oym e nt c ondi t i ons 1 4 G i ve n t ha t t he c a s e i s non pa t hol ogi c a l a nd gi ve n ( F ) S i s i n a pos i t i on t o de pl oy belief t o he r c ons c i ous be l i e f t ha t p i m m e di a t e l y. G i ve n ( F *) how e ve r w e r e S t o de pl oy b e lief t o he r ow n be l i e f t ha t p s he w oul d t he r e by i nc u r a c o m m i t m e nt t o be i ng i n a s t a t e t ha t ha s t he s a m e c ont e nt de pe nde nt r ol e i n m a ki ng he r i nt e l l i gi bl e a s t he r ol e o f a s s t a t e o f s t a ndi ng i n R t o p i n m a ki ng a i nt e l l i g i bl e w e r e a t o be i n t ha t s t a t e T h a t i s w e r e S t o de pl oy b e lief t o he r ow n be l i e f t ha t p s he w oul d t he r e by i nc ur t he c o m m i t m e nt t ha t he r ow n be l i e f t ha t p ha s t he s a m e c ont e nt de pe nde nt r ol e i n m a ki ng he r i nt e l l i gi bl e a s t he r ol e a be l i e f t ha t p s he w oul d a t t r i b ut e t o a not he r pe r s on w oul d ha ve i n m a ki ng t hi s pe r s on i nt e l l i gi bl e i f t hi s pe r s on be l i e ve d t ha t p G i ve n t ha t i t i s hi ghl y p l a us i bl e t ha t be l i e f a t t r i but i on i s gove r ne d by t he P r i nc i pl e of C or r e s po n1 4 T h a t ( F ) i n a d d i t i o n t o ( T ) s t a t e s a c o m m i t m e n t i n c u r r e d i n d e p l o y i n g b e l i e f i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h i t s d e p l o y m e n t c o n d i t i o n s d o e s n o t c o n t r a d i c t m y e a r l i e r c l a i m t h a t b e l i e f i s a n e s s e n t i a l l y f i r s t p e r s o n a l c o n c e p t B e l i e f i s e s s e n t i a l l y f i r s t p e r s o n a l b e c a u s e t h e c o g n i t i v e a c c e s s t o i t s g r o u n d o f d e p l o y m e n t m e n t i o n e d i n i t s f i r s t p e r s o n c l a u s e i s p r i m a r y w h i l e t h e c o g n i t i v e a c c e s s t o i t s g r o u n d o f d e p l o y m e n t m e n t i o n e d i n i t s t h i r d p e r s o n c l a u s e i s d e r i v a t i v e S e e a l s o n 3 0 C h a p t e r 3

PAGE 144

144 de nc e not m e r e l y de f ac t o but a s a m a t t e r o f ne c e s s i t y, 1 5 i t i s hi ghl y p l a us i bl e t ha t t he c om m i t m e nt m e n t i one d i n ( F ) e nt a i l s a c om m i t m e nt t o j u dge t hought s of t he f i r s t pe r s on f o r m i R p onl y i f p A c c or di ngl y a ny f i r s t pe r s ona l de pl oym e nt of belie f c ons t i t ut e s a ( r e ne w e d) c om m i t m e nt t o t he t r ut h of t he be l i e f c onc e pt ua l i z e d a s a be l i e f F o r t hi s r e a s on, r a t i ona l be l i e ve r s a r e r e qui r e d t o a ns w e r t he que s t i on, D o I be l i e ve t ha t p ? a s i f t he y w e r e a ns w e r i ng t he que s t i on, S houl d I be l i e ve t ha t p ? N ow s uppos e t ha t S doe s not be l i e ve t ha t p a nd a s ks he r s e l f D o I be l i e ve t ha t p ? I n a s ki ng t hi s que s t i on, S i s de pl oyi ng b el ie f a nd i t o t he c ont e nt p w hi c h s he doe s not be l i e ve i n a n i nqui r i ng m ode I n t hi s c a s e S i s not i n a pos i t i on t o de t e r m i ne w he t he r t o de pl oy belief unt i l s he ha s de t e r m i ne d w he t he r t o de pl oy p S o w e ge t our r e s ul t di r e c t l y i n t hi s c a s e s he s houl d a ns w e r t he que s t i on, D o I be l i e ve t ha t p ? a s i f a ns w e r i ng t he que s t i on, S hou l d I be l i e ve t ha t p ? t hi s uns ur pr i s i ng r e s ul t i s a s i t s houl d be s i nc e w e a l r e a dy obt a i ne d i t f o r r a t i ona l be l i e ve r s ge ne r a l l y w hi l e r e f l e c t i ng on t he pr e vi ou s c a s e 1 6 1 5 F o r a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f b e l i e f a t t r i b u t i o n s e e C h a p t e r 2 B e l i e f A t t r i b u t i o n 1 6 I f I a m r i g h t t h a t b e l i e f c o n s t i t u t i v e l y a i m s a t t r u t h t h e f i r s t p e r s o n c l a u s e o f b e l i e f s h o u l d b e r e f o r m u l a t e d a c c o r d i n g l y a l o n g t h e f o l l o w i n g l i n e s : ( F # ) t h e t h i n k e r f i n d s t h e f i r s t p e r s o n c o n t e n t t h a t h e s t a n d s i n R t o p p r i m i t i v e l y c o m p e l l i n g w h e n e v e r h e f i n d s p p r i m i t i v e l y c o m p e l l i n g a s a c o n t e n t o f c o n s c i o u s b e l i e f a n d h e f i n d s t h e f i r s t p e r s o n c o n t e n t t h a t h e s t a n d s i n R t o p p r i m i t i v e l y c o m p e l l i n g b e c a u s e h e f i n d s p p r i m i t i v e l y c o m p e l l i n g a s a c o n t e n t o f c o n s c i o u s b e l i e f T h e r e i s g o o d r e a s o n f o r r e p l a c i n g P e a c o c k e s ( F ) w i t h ( F # ) C l e a r l y b e l i e f i s n t m e r e l y t h e c o n c e p t o f a s t a t e o n e t e n d s t o a t t r i b u t e t o h e r s e l f w h i l e u n d e r g o i n g i t c o n s c i o u s l y d e s i r e f e a r i n t e n t i o n c o n j e c t u r e i m a g i n a t i o n e t c a r e a l l s t a t e s o n e t e n d s t o a t t r i b u t e t o o n e s e l f w h i l e u n d e r g o i n g t h e m c o n s c i o u s l y R a t h e r b e l i e f i s t h e c o n c e p t o f a s t a t e o n e t e n d s t o a t t r i b u t e t o o n e s e l f w h i l e u n d e r g o i n g i t c o n s c i o u s l y a n d e n d o r s i n g i t s c o n t e n t a s t r u e R e p l a c i n g P e a c o c k e s ( F ) w i t h ( F # ) g r e a t l y s i m p l i f i e s t h e f o r e g o i n g a r g u m e n t a s i t w o u l d n o l o n g e r n e e d t o a p p e a l t o ( F ) t o r e a c h i t s c o n c l u s i o n G i v e n ( F # ) t h e q u e s t i o n D o I b e l i e v e t h a t p ? c a n o n l y b e a n s w e r e d i n t h e a f f i r m a t i v e i f t h e q u e s t i o n I s i t t h e c a s e t h a t p ? c a n b e a n s w e r e d i n t h e a f f i r m a t i v e C o n s e q u e n t l y w h e n e v e r a b e l i e v e r a n s w e r s t h e q u e s t i o n D o I b e l i e v e t h a t p ? i n t h e a f f i r m a t i v e s h e i n c u r s a ( r e n e w e d ) c o m m i t m e n t t o p A c c o r d i n g l y r a t i o n a l b e l i e v e r s s h o u l d a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n D o I b e l i e v e t h a t p ? a s i f a n s w e r i n g t h e q u e s t i o n S h o u l d I b e l i e v e t h a t p ? R e p l a c i n g P e a c o c k e s ( F ) w i t h ( F # ) h a s f u r t h e r a d v a n t a g e s T h e r e p l a c e m e n t w o u l d e n a b l e o n e t o e x p l a i n t h e P r i n c i p l e o f C o r r e s p o n d e n c e a s a c o n c e p t u a l r e q u i r e m e n t a s i t i s e n t a i l e d b y t h e c o n j u n c t i o n o f ( F # ) a n d ( T ) S i n c e t h e P r i n c i p l e o f C o h e r e n c e c a n c l e a r l y b e e x p l a i n e d a s a c o n c e p t u a l r e q u i r e m e n t i n t e r m s o f ( T ) t h e s w i t c h t o ( F # ) w o u l d e n a b l e o n e t o e x p l a i n t h e P r i n c i p l e o f C h a r i t y a s u n d e r w r i t t e n b y b e l i e f W i t h ( F ) t h e o r d e r o f e x p l a n a t i o n s e e m s b a c k w a r d o n e h a s t o a p p e a l t o t h e c o n j u n c t i o n o f ( F ) a n d t h e P r i n c i p l e o f C o r r e s p o n d e n c e t o e x p l a i n t h e a l e t h i c c o m m i t m e n t i n c u r r e d b y f i r s t p e r s o n d e p l o y m e n t s o f b e l i e f

PAGE 145

145 T hi s c om pl e t e s m y c a s e f or m y c l a i m t ha t m y a c c ount of r a t i ona l be l i e f ( i n t he b r oa d s e ns e ) s uppor t s a nd e xpl a i ns M or a n s vi e w a s i t pe r t a i ns t o be l i e f N ot e how e ve r t ha t m y r e a s oni ng di d not r e qui r e m e t o i nv oke t he not i on of t r ut h ( w hi c h I p r ovi s i ona l l y i nc l ude d a m ong t he m i ni m a l r e qui r e m e nt s f o r doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on) S i nc e I c ons i de r t he de l i be r a t i ve s t a nc e M or a n c ha r a c t e r i z e s t o be a r e f l e c t i ve s t a nc e par e x c e l l e nc e I t a ke t hi s a s c onc l us i ve e vi de nc e t ha t po s s e s s i ng t he not i on of t r ut h i s not m i ni m a l l y r e q ui r e d f or doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on E xa m i na t i on of M or a n s de l i be r a t i ve s t a nc e r e ve a l s t ha t i n a ddi t i o n t o t he c onc e pt s c ons t i t ut i ng t he i ndi vi dua t i ng a nd c ur r e nt s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s of o ne s be l i e f t he c a pa c i t y f or doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on a nd, s o, r a t i ona l be l i e f ( i n t he b r oa d s e ns e ) m i ni m a l l y r e qui r e pos s e s s i on of t he c onc e pt of be l i e f a nd of t he f i r s t pe r s on c onc e pt a nd t he c a pa c i t y t o e nt e r t a i n a que s t i on m o r e pr e c i s e l y, t he c a pa c i t y t o e nt e r t a i n t he de l i be r a t i ve que s t i on, D o I be l i e ve t ha t ( w hi c h i s p r ope r l y a ns w e r e d a s i f a ns w e r i ng t he que s t i on, S hou l d I be l i e ve t ha t ? ) I n T he N o r m o f T r ut h a nd T he C onc e pt of B e l i e f ( C ha pt e r 2) I di s c us s e d S ha h s vi e w a c c or di ng t o w hi c h t he s ubj e c t i on of be l i e f t o t he n or m of t r ut h i s a m a t t e r o f c onc e pt ua l ne c e s s i t y. B y t hi s he m e a ns t ha t t he no r m o f t r ut h gove r ns de pl oym e nt s of t he c onc e pt be l i e f r a t he r t ha n be l i e f i t s e l f I a m now i n a pos i t i on t o s a y a l i t t l e m or e i n r e s pons e t o S ha h O n m y vi e w t he s ubj e c t i on of be l i e f t o t he nor m of t r ut h i s a m a t t e r of m e t a phys i c a l ne c e s s i t y ( i e i t ha s t o do w i t h be l i e f r a t he r t ha n t he c onc e pt of be l i e f a l t h ough, of c our s e a c onc e pt w oul dn t be t he c onc e pt of be l i e f i f i t di d not r e f l e c t t he s ubj e c t i on of be l i e f t o t he nor m of t r ut h 1 7 ) A be l i e f i s i ndi vi dua t e d i n pa r t by i t s i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt w hi c h i s a c om pl e x c onc e pt C o nc e pt s a r e i ndi vi dua t e d by t he i r pos s e s s i on c ondi t i ons w hi c h de t e r m i ne c ons i s t e nt de pl oym e nt H o w e v e r p l a u s i b l e i t i s t h a t ( F ) s h o u l d b e r e p l a c e d w i t h ( F # ) I p r e f e r t o s h o w t h a t t h e a r g u m e n t g o e s t h r o u g h w i t h o u t b u i l d i n g t h e t h e s i s t h a t b e l i e f a i m s a t t r u t h c o n s t i t u t i v e l y i n t o t h e c o n c e p t o f b e l i e f T h e a r g u m e n t I o f f e r m a k e s a c r u c i a l a p p e a l t o t h e P r i n c i p l e o f C o r r e s p o n d e n c e a s g u i d i n g b e l i e f a t t r i b u t i o n I t h i n k t h a t t h e r e i s s u f f i c i e n t p h i l o s o p h i c a l a g r e e m e n t c o n c e r n i n g t h i s m a t t e r t o w a r r a n t t h e a p p e a l 1 7 T h i s i s a f u r t h e r r e a s o n t o a m e n d t h e f i r s t p o s s e s s i o n c o n d i t i o n o f b e l i e f a s s u g g e s t e d i n n 1 6 t h i s c h a p t e r

PAGE 146

146 c o ndi t i ons F o r be l i e f s de pl oym e nt c ondi t i ons de t e r m i ne t r ut h c ondi t i ons ( m o r e pr e c i s e l y, t he de pl oym e nt c ondi t i ons of t he i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of a be l i e f de t e r m i ne i t s t r ut h c ondi t i ons ) 1 8 H e nc e be l i e f s a r e gove r ne d by t he no r m of t r ut h a s a m a t t e r of m e t a phys i c a l ne c e s s i t y. T he c a pa c i t y t o f or m t he be l i e f t ha t p w hos e i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt i s a c om pl e x c onc e pt I w i l l de s i gna t e by p how e ve r doe s not s u f f i c e f o r t he c a pa c i t y t o a bi de by t he nor m o f t r ut h a s i t gove r ns p T he c a pa c i t y t o a bi de by t he nor m of t r ut h a s i t gove r ns p r e qui r e s i n a ddi t i on t o pos s e s s i ng p ( a nd pe r ha ps s om e a ddi t i ona l i de nt i f y i ng c onc e pt s ) pos s e s s i on of t he c onc e pt o f be l i e f a nd o f t he f i r s t pe r s on c onc e pt a nd t he c a pa c i t y t o e nt e r t a i n t he de l i be r a t i ve que s t i on, D o I be l i e ve t ha t ? T he c a pa c i t y t o a bi de by t he nor m of t r ut h t he n i s l a r ge l y a c onc e pt ua l m a t t e r P ac e S ha h, how e ve r t he nor m o f t r ut h go v e r ns de pl oym e nt s of bo t h be l i e f a nd t he c onc e pt o f be l i e f ( i t gove r ns be l i e f b y w a y of gove r ni ng t he de pl oym e nt o f t he c onc e pt s t ha t c ons t i t ut e t he s ync hr oni c a nd i ndi v i d ua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s of be l i e f ) 1 8 I g n o r i n g v a g u e n e s s

PAGE 147

147 C H A P T E R 5 T W O A P P L I C A T I O N S T hi s l a s t c ha pt e r i s de vot e d t o a ppl yi ng t he f o r e goi ng a c c ount t o s pe c i f i c i s s ue s f i r s t t he i s s ue r a i s e d f or s e m a n t i c s by de r e de di c t o a nd de s e a t t i t ude r e por t s a nd, s e c ond, t he i s s ue r a i s e d f or e pi s t e m ol ogy by G e t t i e r s c a s e s i n or de r t o s how t ha t t he t he or e t i c a l a ppr oa c h I ha ve be e n pur s ui ng hol ds s om e pr om i s e o f be i ng e xpl a na t or i l y f r ui t f ul D e R e D e D i c t o a n d D e S e A t t i t u d e R e p or t s I n w ha t f ol l ow s I s how t ha t t he a c c ount of be l i e f c ont e nt I p r opos e d i n C ha pt e r 3 yi e l ds a na t ur a l a nd pl a us i bl e e xpl a na t i on o f t he c ha r a c t e r i s t i c di f f e r e nc e s be t w e e n de r e de di c t o a nd de s e be l i e f r e por t s w hi c h c a n be ge ne r a l i z e d t o e xpl a i n t he c or r e s pondi ng di f f e r e nc e s a m ong r e por t s c onc e r ni ng ot he r t ype s of pr opos i t i ona l a t t i t ude S om e D e f i n i t i on s I a m a dopt i ng S t e ve n B o r s de f i ni t i ons of s ubs t i t ut i ona l a nd qua nt i f i c a t i ona l t r a ns pa r e nc y: W he r e a a nd b a r e de not i ng t e r m s v i s a va r i a bl e a nd a oc c upi e s t he t e r m pos i t i on p E i n t he e xpr e s s i on E l e t E ( b / a [ p E ] ) be t he r e s ul t of s ubs t i t ut i ng b f or a a t t he pos i t i on p E a nd l e t E ( v / a [ p E ] ) be t he r e s ul t of s ubs t i t ut i ng v f o r a a t t he pos i t i on p E T h e n, r e l a t i ve t o a gi ve n r e a di ng of a s e nt e nc e S : T he t e r m pos i t i on p E i n S i s s a i d t o be s ubs t i t ut i ona l l y t r a ns pa r e nt o r opa que a c c or di ng a s t he i nf e r e nc e f r om S a nd b = a t o S ( b / a [ p S ] ) i s va l i d or no t on t ha t r e a d i ng of S T he t e r m pos i t i on p E i n S i s s a i d t o be qua nt i f i c a t i o na l l y t r a ns pa r e nt or opa que a c c or d i ng a s t he i nf e r e nc e f r om S t o S om e e xi s t i ng t hi ng v i s s uc h t ha t S ( v / a [ p S ] [ v b e i ng f o r e i gn t o E ] i s va l i d or not on t ha t r e a di ng of S ( B o r 2007: 32 33) I a m a l s o a dopt i ng B o r s de f i ni t i ons of pur e l y de r e a nd de di c t o a t t i t ude r e por t s : W he r e V i s a n a t t i t udi na l ve r b, a r e por t o f t he f or m A V s t ha t P i s pur e l y de di c t o / pur e l y de r e i f f e ve r y t e r m pos i t i on i n t he e m be dde d s e nt e nc e P i s [ a s ubs t i t ut i o n a l l y] opa que / t r a ns pa r e nt pos i t i on i n A V s t ha t P ( I bi d : 35)

PAGE 148

148 I w i l l di ve r ge f r om B o r s c onve nt i on c onc e r ni ng a t t i t ude r e por t s i n w hos e c om pl e m e nt c l a us e s om e but not a l l t e r m pos i t i ons a r e s ubs t i t ut i ona l l y t r a ns pa r e nt W hi l e B o r c ount s t he s e a s de r e r e por t s t ha t a r e de r e w i t h r e s pe c t t o a ny i t e m de no t e d by a n e xpr e s s i on oc c upyi ng a s ubs t i t ut i o na l l y t r a ns pa r e nt pos i t i on i n t he r e por t s c om pl e m e n t c l a us e I w i l l c a l l t he m s ubs t i t ut i ona l l y m i xe d r e por t s O n m y nom e nc l a t ur e s ubs t i t ut i ona l l y m i xe d r e po r t a r e de di c t o / de r e w i t h r e s pe c t t o a ny e xpr e s s i on oc c upyi ng a s ubs t i t ut i on a l l y opa que / t r a ns pa r e nt pos i t i on i n t he i r c om pl e m e nt c l a us e but a r e ne i t he r de di c t o nor de r e a s s uc h. A ny e xp r e s s i on oc c upyi ng a s ubs t i t ut i ona l l y opa que / t r a ns pa r e nt pos i t i on i n t he c om pl e m e nt c l a us e of a n a t t i t ude r e por t m a y be s a i d t o be e m be dde d de di c t o / de r e i n t ha t r e po r t D e s i d e r at a I w i l l t a ke t he f ol l ow i ng on boa r d a s pr i m a f ac i e d a t a t ha t a ny a de qua t e a c c ount of de r e de di c t o a nd de s e a t t i t ude r e por t s m us t e i t he r e l uc i da t e or e xpl a i n a w a y: P r i m a F ac i e S e m a nt i c da t a : ( i ) E xpr e s s i ons m a y be e m be dde d de r e de di c t o o r d e s e i n a t t i t ude r e por t s ( i i ) A ny e xpr e s s i on t ha t i s e m be dde d de di c t o i n s om e a t t i t ude r e por t oc c upi e s a pos i t i on t ha t i s qua nt i f i c a t i ona l l y opa que i n t ha t r e por t ( i i i ) C ont r ove r s i a l t hough pl a us i bl e by m y l i ght s : a ny e xpr e s s i on t ha t i s e m be dde d de r e i n s om e a t t i t ude r e por t oc c upi e s a qua nt i f i c a t i ona l l y t r a ns pa r e nt pos i t i on i n t ha t r e por t ( i v) A ny r e f l e xi ve e xpr e s s i on e m be dde d i n a de s e a t t i t ude r e por t oc c upi e s a qua nt i f i c a t i ona l l y t r a ns pa r e nt p o s i t i on i n t ha t r e por t ( v) L ogi c a l r e l a t i ons be t w e e n de s e de r e a nd de di c t o a t t i t ude r e po r t s : C ons i de r : ( 1) J ohn be l i e ve s t ha t he hi m s e l f i s i n da nge r ( 2) J ohn be l i e ve s t ha t J ohn i s i n da nge r 1 B o r ( I bi d : 41) not e s t ha t ( 1 ) s e e m s l ogi c a l l y s t r on ge r t ha n ( 2 ) w he n ( 2) i s t a ke n de r e w i t h r e s pe c t t o t he e m be dde d na m e J ohn, but l ogi c a l l y i nde pe nde nt f r om ( 2 ) w he n ( 2) i s t a ke n pur e l y de di c t o 1 T h e e x a m p l e i s b o r r o w e d f r o m B o r ( s e n t e n c e s a r e r e l a b e l e d )

PAGE 149

149 N ot e how e ve r t ha t de s e be l i e f r e po r t s onl y s e e m l ogi c a l l y s t r onge r t ha n t hos e be l i e f r e por t s t ha t a r e obt a i na bl e f r om t he m by w a y of r e pl a c i ng a n e m be dde d r e f l e xi ve e xpr e s s i on w i t h a non r e f l e xi ve but c o r e f e r r i ng/ de no t i ng e xpr e s s i on, t a ke n de r e C ons i de r by c ont r a s t t o ( 1 ) a nd ( 2) : ( 3) A r i s t ot l e be l i e ve s t ha t he hi m s e l f i s t he t e a c he r o f A l e xa nde r ( 4) A r i s t ot l e be l i e ve s t ha t A r i s t ot l e i s t he t e a c he r of t h e ki ng of ki ngs I n t hi s c a s e ( 3 ) onl y s e e m s t o e nt a i l s ( 4 ) w he n ( 4) i s t a ke n de r e w i t h r e s pe c t t o t he e m be dde d na m e A r i s t ot l e w he n w e a l s o s t i pul a t e t ha t ( 3 ) a nd ( 4) a r e t o be t a ke n de r e w i t h r e s pe c t t o t he c om p l e m e nt of t he t e a c he r W he n no s uc h s t i pul a t i on i s m a de ( 3) a nd ( 4) s e e m t o be l ogi c a l l y i nde pe nde nt W i t h r e s pe c t t o t he i r e m be dde d non r e f l e xi ve e xpr e s s i ons t he n, de s e a t t i t ude r e po r t s a ppe a r t o ha ve une x c e pt i ona l l og i c a l pr of i l e s P r i m a F ac i e P s yc hol ogi c a l da t a : ( vi ) A be l i e ve r w hos e c ur r e nt c ons c i ous be l i e f i s r e por t e d de di c t o i s i n a be t t e r pos i t i on t o de t e r m i ne w he t he r t hi s r e po r t i s t r ue t ha n a be l i e ve r w hos e c ur r e nt c ons c i ous b e l i e f i s r e po r t e d de r e ( vi i ) T he a t t i t ude s e xpr e s s e d by t r ue a nd s i nc e r e f i r s t pe r s ona l de s e a t t i t ude r e po r t s pl a y a s pe c i a l r ol e i n t he i r s pe a ke r s ps yc hol ogi c a l a nd be ha vi or a l e c onom y. T h e or e t i c al T ool s I pr opos e d i n C ha pt e r 3 t ha t be l i e f i s i ndi vi dua t e d i n pa r t by i t s i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt w hi c h I di s t i ngui s he d f r om i t s s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt i e t he c ont e nt t ha t be l i e f c ont r i but e s a t a t i m e t o t he c ogni t i ve p r oc e s s e s of w hi c h i t i s a pa r t W ha t m ot i va t e d t he di s t i n c t i on be t w e e n s ync hr oni c a nd i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c o nt e nt s i s t he f ol l ow i ng s e t of t he s e s 2 : L e t t he r e be t w o c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s w hos e c ons t i t ue nt s a r e : ( i ) a [ the X ] is F ( i i ) a [ the Y ] is F w he r e a s t a nds f o r a s i m pl e di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c o n c e pt X Y a nd F s t a nd f o r di s t i nc t pr e di c a t i ve c onc e pt s X a nd Y a r e t oke ne d i n a n i de nt i f yi ng r ol e a nd F i s t oke ne d i n a n a t t r i but i ve r ol e 2 T h e f o l l o w i n g d i f f e r s s l i g h t l y f r o m w h a t I o f f e r e d i n C h a p t e r 3 a s t h e c u r r e n t f o r m u l a t i o n i n c o r p o r a t e s t e r m i n o l o g y I i n t r o d u c e d a f t e r I o r i g i n a l l y p r e s e n t e d t h e s e t h e s e s

PAGE 150

150 l e t ( i ) be t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt o f s om e be l i e f s t a t e b 1 a t s om e t i m e t i l e t ( i i ) be t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of s om e ot he r be l i e f s t a t e b 2 s om e t i m e a t t j T he n : ( a ) b 1 a nd b 2 ha ve t he s a m e i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c o nt e nt na m e l y, a is F ; ( b) i f s om e be l i e ve r S ha s b 1 a t t i t he n a t t i t he c a non i c a l w a y f or S t o ve r i f y t ha t a i s F i s by w a y of ve r i f yi ng t ha t t he X i s F ( t he s a m e i s t r ue m ut at i s m ut andi s f o r b 2 ) ; ( c ) h a vi ng b 1 a nd b 2 ne e d not pl a c e S i n a pos i t i on t o j udge t ha t t he X = t he Y I a r gue d t ha t t he i nd i vi dua t i ng a nd s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s of be l i e f a r e c om pl e x c onc e pt s w hi c h a r e f ul l y c ons t i t ut e d by s i m pl e c onc e pt s i n g i ve n m ode s of c om bi na t i on I n our ge ne r a l be l i e f s i ndi vi dua t i ng a nd s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s a l w a ys c oi nc i de I n our be l i e f s a bout pa r t i c ul a r s i ndi vi d u a t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt i s a p r o pe r pa r t o f s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt I pr opos e d t ha t t he r e a r e di f f e r e nt t ype s of s i m pl e c onc e pt w hi c h di f f e r by vi r t ue of t he t ype of c ont r i but i on t he y m a ke t o t he c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of t hou ght T he c o g ni t i ve r ol e of a di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt i s t o c ont r i but e a r e f e r e nt f or pr e d i c a t i ve t hought T he c ogni t i ve r o l e of a p r e di c a t i ve c onc e p t i s t o c ont r i but e i n f or m a t i o n c onc e r ni ng t he i ns t a nc i ng o f s om e p r o p e r t y. T he c ogni t i ve r ol e of a l ogi c a l c onc e pt i s t o ope r a t e on e l e m e nt s of t hought S i m pl e di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt s a s s uc h, do no t c ont r i bu t e a ny i nf or m a t i on a bout t he i r r e f e r e nt t o t he c ogn i t i ve c ont e nt of t hought A c c or di ng l y, t he y a r e t yp i c a l l y t oke ne d a s c ons t i t ue nt s of c om pl e x di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt s t oge t he r w i t h pr e di c a t i ve c onc e pt s t o ke ne d i n a n i de nt i f yi ng r ol e i e i de nt i f y i ng c onc e pt s us e d t o i de nt i f y a nd r e c ogni z e t he r e f e r e nt of one s t hought W ha t i de nt i f yi ng c onc e pt s one us e s t o i de nt i f y a nd r e c ogni z e t he r e f e r e nt of one s t hought m i ght c ha nge ove r t i m e w hi l e one s t hought a bout t ha t r e f e r e nt m i ght ne ve r t he l e s s r e m a i n unc ha nge d. F or t hi s r e a s on, i de nt i f yi ng c onc e pt s do not be l ong t o t he i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt o f be l i e f but onl y t o t he s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of be l i e f I n s e t t he or e t i c t e r m s t he di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n t he s ync hr oni c a nd t he i ndi v i dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s of be l i e f i s f ul l y c ons t i

PAGE 151

151 t ut e d by i de nt i f yi ng c onc e pt s i f t he s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of a be l i e f i nc l ude s no i de nt i f yi ng c onc e pt s i t s i nd i vi dua t i ng a nd s ync hr oni c c o gni t i ve c ont e nt s c oi nc i de F or e a c h of us how e ve r t he r e i s one pa r t i c ul a r t o w hom w e c a n r e f e r i n t hough t w i t h out ne e di ng t o de pl oy a ny i de nt i f y i ng c onc e pt s na m e l y, our s e l ve s C ons i de r pr a c t i c a l de l i be r a t i on w hi c h I e xa m i ne d i n C ha pt e r 4 W hi l e de l i be r a t i n g a bout w ha t t o do i n a gi ve n s e t of c i r c u m s t a nc e s t he obj e c t of m y i nq ui r y i s t o de t e r m i ne w ha t t o do w hi l e i t s s ubj e c t 3 i s m y s e l f I a m w onde r i ng w ha t I a m t o do. I n s uc h a n i nqui r y I a m not i de nt i f yi ng m ys e l f vi a a ny gi ve n c onc e pt R a t he r I a m t hi nki ng of m ys e l f di r e c t l y. I n t he c our s e of m y i nqu i r y, I l l c o n s i de r m y de s i r e va l ue s e t c r e f l e c t i ng on t hought s s uc h a s I w a nt I va l ue e t c a nd s e e k t o f or m u l a t e a ppr opr i a t e m e a ns e nd be l i e f s O nc e I ha ve d e t e r m i ne d t he be s t c our s e of a c t i on a va i l a bl e t o m e i n t he c i r c um s t a nc e s I l l f or m ul a t e a j udgm e nt I ought t o t he n a n i nt e n t i on I w i l l I n a l l t he s e t ype s of t hought r e f l e c t i on on pr o a t t i t ude s s e c ond or de r pr a c t i c a l j udgm e nt i nt e nt i on t he f i r s t pe r s on c onc e pt i s de pl oye d w i t hout a ny a c c om pa n y i ng i de nt i f y i ng c onc e pt s I t i s hi ghl y pl a us i bl e t ha t t he c a us a l e f f i c a c y a nd r e gul a t i ng pow e r o f pr a c t i c a l r e f l e c t i on r e qui r e s t he c a pa c i t y t o r e f e r t o one s e l f i n t hought di r e c t l y. I nde e d, a s I a r gue d i n C ha pt e r 4 r e f l e c t i on ha s r e gul a t i ng r a t he r t ha n m ot i va t i ng po w e r M y pr a c t i c a l j udgm e nt s houl d not be unde r s t ood a s pr ovi di ng a r e a s on or a m ot i ve f or i n t e ndi ng or f or a c t i ng ove r a nd a bove m y r e a s ons f or j ud g i ng pr a c t i c a l j udgm e nt s a nc t i ons m y r e a s ons w hi c h m ot i va t e m y i nt e nt i on I f I c onc e i ve d of m ys e l f i n one w a y w hi l e pond e r i ng m y r e a s ons i n a not he r w hi l e f o r m ul a t i ng m y pr a c t i c a l j udgm e nt a nd i n a not he r ye t w hi l e f o r m ul a t i ng m y i nt e nt i on i t i s not c l e a r t ha t m y r e a s ons c oul d f unc t i on a s r e a s ons f or m y r e f l e c t e d pr a c t i c a l j ud g m e nt a nd r e f l e c t e d i nt e nt i on w i t hout m y f or m ul a t i ng j udgm e nt s t o t he e f f e c t t ha t t he s a m e i ndi vi dua l i s i nvol ve d t h r oughout 3 I a m b o r r o w i n g t h e t e r m f r o m g r a m m a r a n d i t s m e a n i n g i n t h i s c o n t e x t s h o u l d b e u n d e r s t o o d a l o n g t h e g r a m m a t i c a l m o d e l

PAGE 152

152 ( gi ve n t he s i s ( c ) a bove ) I t m i ght be a r gue d t ha t m y r e a s ons c oul d r e t a i n t he i r m ot i va t i ng pow e r e ve n i n t he a bs e nc e of a ny j udgm e nt t o t he e f f e c t t ha t t he s a m e i ndi vi dua l i s i n vol ve d t h r oug hout gi ve n t ha t e a c h r e f l e xi ve t hought i nvol ve s a de pl oym e nt of m y f i r s t pe r s on c onc e pt ( a l be i t c om bi ne d w i t h di s t i nc t i de nt i f yi ng c onc e pt s ) O n t hi s pr opos a l how e ve r t he r e gul a t i ng pow e r of r e f l e c t i on w oul d be i ne xpl i c a bl e r e a s ons c oul d m ot i va t e a c t i on v i a a r e f l e c t e d j ud g m e nt a nd a r e f l e c t e d i nt e nt i on t ha t c oul d not be vi e w e d a s r e a s ons f or t hi s r e f l e c t e d j udgm e nt o r f o r t hi s r e f l e c t e d i nt e nt i on. N ot e t ha t I c a n, a t t i m e s r e f l e c t on w ha t t o do a s a pe r s on of a c e r t a i n t ype W he n I do s o how e ve r I a m not i de nt i f yi ng m ys e l f v i a a gi ve n c onc e pt R a t he r I a m t hi nki ng of m ys e l f di r e c t l y, but pl a c i ng c e r t a i n c ons t r a i nt s o n m y r e f l e c t i on onl y r e a s ons t ha t a r e r e a s ons f or a pe r s on of t ha t t ype w i l l c ount a s r e a s ons f or m e i n m y r e f l e c t i on T he c a us a l e f f i c a c y a nd r e gul a t i ve pow e r o f doxa s t i c r e f l e c t i on c a n s i m i l a r l y be s how n t o r e qui r e t he c a pa c i t y t o r e f e r t o one s e l f i n t hought d i r e c t l y. T he c a pa c i t y f o r r e f l e c t i on ge ne r a l l y, t he n, r e qui r e s t he c a pa c i t y t o r e f e r t o one s e l f i n t hought di r e c t l y. I f t he a r gum e n t I o f f e r e d i n C ha pt e r 4 i s c or r e c t r a t i ona l be l i e f ( i n t he br oa d s e ns e ) t oo, r e qui r e s t he c a pa c i t y t o r e f e r t o one s e l f i n t hought di r e c t l y. T hi s s e r ve s a s a n e l uc i da t i on of ps yc hol og i c a l da t um ( vi i ) a bov e A c c ou n t D e R e an d D e D i c t o b e l i e f r e p or t s O n m y nom e nc l a t ur e a pu r e l y de r e be l i e f r e por t s t a t e s t he i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt w hi l e a pur e l y de di c t o be l i e f r e po r t s t a t e s t he s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of t he be l i e f i t r e por t s T hi s m a ke s g ood on t w o of t he t hr e e s e m a nt i c da t a i nc l ude d i n ( i ) a bove i nde e d, I c ons i de r i t a vi r t ue of t he a c c ount o f be l i e f c ont e nt I pr opos e t ha t i t p r ovi de s a m ot i va t e d e xpl a na t i on of t he pos s i bi l i t y of r e por t i ng be l i e f s e i t he r de r e or de di c t o

PAGE 153

153 L e t us s t a r t by a ppl yi ng m y a c c ount t o a f e w s pe c i f i c r e por t s be f or e b r i e f l y e xa m i ni ng how i t t r e a t s di f f e r e nt t ype s of be l i e f r e por t C ons i de r t he e xa m pl e Q ui ne of f e r s i n Q ua nt i f i e r s a nd pr opos i t i ona l a t t i t ude s : T he r e i s a c e r t a i n m a n i n a b r ow n ha t w hom R a l ph ha s gl i m ps e d s e ve r a l t i m e s unde r que s t i ona bl e c i r c um s t a nc e s on w hi c h w e ne e d not e nt e r he r e ; s uf f i c e i t t o s a y t ha t R a l ph s u s pe c t s he i s a s py. A l s o t he r e i s a gr a y ha i r e d m a n, va gue l y know n t o R a l ph a s r a t he r a p i l l a r of t he c o m m uni t y w hom R a l ph i s not a w a r e of ha vi ng s e e n e xc e pt onc e a t t he be a c h. N ow R a l ph doe s not know i t but t he m e n a r e one a nd t he s a m e C a n w e s a y of t hi s m an ( B e r na r d J O r t c ut t t o g i ve hi m a na m e ) t ha t R a l ph be l i e ve s hi m t o be a s py? ( Q ui ne 1956: 179 ) C ons i de r t he f ol l ow i ng be l i e f r e por t s ( I bi d : 179 18 1, s e nt e nc e s r e num be r e d) : ( 5) R a l ph be l i e ve s t ha t t he m a n i n t he b r ow n ha t i s a s py. ( 6) R a l ph doe s not be l i e ve t ha t t he m a n s e e n a t t he be a c h i s a s py. ( 7) R a l ph be l i e ve s t ha t t he m a n s e e n a t t he be a c h i s no t a s py. ( 8) R a l ph be l i e ve s t ha t O r t c ut t i s a s py. P r e s um a bl y, ( 7 ) r e por t s a non oc c ur r e nt be l i e f of R a l ph, i e a be l i e f R a l ph ha s not e nt e r t a i ne d but w hi c h he w oul d a c c e pt s houl d he e nt e r t a i n i t N ow l e t : o be a s i m pl e di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt r e f e r r i ng t o O r t c ut t ; H be a c om pl e x p r e di c a t i ve c onc e pt pr e di c a t i ng t h e pr ope r t y, be i ng a m a n i n a br ow n ha t ; B be a c om pl e x p r e di c a t i ve c onc e pt pr e di c a t i ng t h e pr ope r t y, be i ng a m a n s e e n a t t he be a c h; S be a ( s i m pl e ) 4 pr e di c a t i ve c onc e pt p r e di c a t i ng t he pr ope r t y be i ng a s py; a nd B e l ( A [ ] ) s ym bol i z e t he r e l a t i on be t w e e n s om e i ndi vi dua l A a nd a c ont e nt of be l i e f T he n, t he t r ut h c ondi t i ons f o r be l i e f r e por t s ( 5) ( 8) c ons i de r e d f i r s t a s of f e r e d i n a de r e m ood, t he n a s of f e r e d i n a de di c t o m ood c a n be r e pr e s e nt e d a s f ol l ow s 5 : 4 T h e p a r e n t h e s e s m a r k m y u n c e r t a i n t y a s t o w h e t h e r t h e r e l e v a n t c o n c e p t i s s i m p l e o r c o m p l e x t h a t a g i v e n c o n c e p t i s e x p r e s s i b l e u s i n g a s i m p l e e x p r e s s i o n d o e s n o t e s t a b l i s h t h a t t h i s c o n c e p t i s s i m p l e 5 I a m n o t i n c l u d i n g t r u t h c o n d i t i o n s f o r ( 8 ) o f f e r e d i n a d e d i c t o m o o d s i n c e ( 8 ) w o u l d n o t p l a u s i b l y b e o f f e r e d a s a d e d i c t o r e p o r t g i v e n R a l p h s p o o r a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h O r t c u t t s e e m y d i s c u s s i o n b e l o w o f p r o p e r n a m e s e m b e d d e d d e d i c t o i n t h e c o m p l e m e n t c l a u s e s o f b e l i e f r e p o r t s

PAGE 154

154 D e R e D e D i c t o ( 5 R ) B e l ( R a l ph, [ o is S ] ) ( 6 R ) ~ B e l ( R a l ph, [ o is S ] ) ( 7 R ) B e l ( R a l ph, [ o is ~ S ] ) ( 8 R ) B e l ( R a l ph, [ o is S ] ) ( 5 D ) B e l ( R a l ph, [ o [ the H ] is S ] ) ( 6 D ) ~ B e l ( R a l ph, [ o [ the B ] is S ] ) ( 7 D ) B e l ( R a l ph, [ o [ the B ] is ~ S ] ) I nt ui t i ve l y, R a l ph ha s i nc ons i s t e nt be l i e f s ye t uno bj e c t i ona bl y s o, s i nc e he ha s no w a y of t e l l i ng t ha t t he i nd i vi dua l he i de nt i f i e s a s t he m a n i n a br ow n ha t i s a l s o t he m a n he i de nt i f i e s a s t he m a n s e e n a t t he be a c h. T he di s t i nc t i on be t w e e n t he i ndi vi dua t i ng a nd t he s ync hr oni c c ogn i t i ve c ont e nt s of be l i e f vi ndi c a t e s a nd e xpl a i ns t hi s i nt ui t i on ( g i ve n t he s e s ( a ) ( c ) a bove ) F ur t he r t he r e i s obvi ous ut i l i t y i n be i ng a bl e t o r e p or t on p r e c i s e l y t he s e t w o t ype s of be l i e f c ont e nt not l e a s t i n or de r t o e xpl a i n w hy, e g R a l ph i s not l i a bl e t o b l a m e f o r ha vi ng i nc ons i s t e nt be l i e f s a bout O r t c ut t W e o f f e r de di c t o be l i e f r e por t s w he n w e a r e i nt e r e s t e d i n pr e s e nt i ng m a t t e r s f r om t he poi nt of vi e w of t he be l i e ve r a nd de r e be l i e f r e por t s w he n w e a r e i nt e r e s t e d i n pr e s e nt i ng m a t t e r s f r om a n e xt e r na l poi nt o f vi e w T he di s t i nc t i on be t w e e n t he s ync hr oni c a nd t he i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s of be l i e f s uppl i e s t r ut h c ondi t i ons f or s uc h r e por t s t ha t a r e t a i l or e d t o t he s e i nt e r e s t s L e t us now e xa m i ne va r i ous t ype s of de r e a nd de di c t o b e l i e f r e por t i n s om e gr e a t e r de t a i l T o s t a r t w e s houl d not e t ha t t o be us e d s uc c e s s f ul l y, l a ngua ge l i ke t hought m us t i de nt i f y t he pa r t i c ul a r s t o w hi c h i t m e a ns t o r e f e r T hought do e s s o t hr ough t he de pl oym e nt of i de nt i f yi ng c onc e pt s ( e xc e pt i n t he c a s e of s om e r e f l e xi ve t hou gh t ) L a ngua ge doe s s o t h r ough t he us e of r e f e r r i ng e xpr e s s i ons i e p r ope r na m e s i nde xi c a l s de f i ni t e de s c r i p t i ons A l t hou gh a pu r e l y de r e be l i e f r e por t m e a ns t o s t a t e t he i ndi vi dua t i ng c o gni t i ve c ont e nt of t he be l i e f i t r e p or t s i t m us t ne ve r t h e l e s s i de nt i f y t he pa r t i c ul a r ( s ) t o w hi c h t he be l i e f r e f e r s I t m a y do s o i n a ny o f t he

PAGE 155

155 c us t om a r y w a ys W he n a pu r e l y de r e be l i e f r e po r t i de nt i f i e s e ve r y pa r t i c u l a r i n i t s c om pl e m e nt c l a us e vi a a de f i ni t e de s c r i pt i on, t he l i ngui s t i c c ont e nt of i t s c om pl e m e nt c l a us e m a y be s a i d t o be t he l i ngui s t i c e qui va l e nt o f a pos s i bl e s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of a be l i e f i ndi vi dua t e d i n pa r t by t he r e por t e d i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e n t W he n r e por t i ng be l i e f s a bout pa r t i c ul a r s bot h de r e a nd de di c t o w e f r e que nt l y us e pr ope r na m e s I n t he c o m pl e m e nt c l a us e of a de r e be l i e f r e por t a pr ope r na m e s houl d be t r e a t e d a s r e f e r r i ng t o i t s r e f e r e nt di r e c t l y. M a t t e r s a r e di f f e r e nt i n de di c t o be l i e f r e por t s A l t hough pr ope r na m e s ha ve no c o n c e pt ua l e qui va l e nt s i t i s pl a us i bl e t ha t i n t he c om pl e m e nt c l a us e of a de di c t o be l i e f r e por t a pr ope r na m e s houl d be t r e a t e d a s r e f e r r i ng t o i t s r e f e r e nt a s i de nt i f i e d vi a a r e c ogni t i ona l c onc e pt t ha t i s a s e t t l e d i de nt i f yi ng c onc e pt w hi c h i s s e t t l e d i n t he s e ns e t ha t t he be l i e ve r ha s a t e nde nc y t o de pl oy i t r a t he r t ha n o t he r a va i l a bl e c onc e pt s t o i de nt i f y a nd r e c o gni z e t he r e l e va nt pa r t i c ul a r A c c or d i ngl y t he t r ut h c ondi t i ons of de di c t o be l i e f r e por t s i nvol vi ng pr ope r na m e s i nc l ude a c om p l e x di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt c ons i s t i ng of a s i m pl e r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt c om bi ne d w i t h a p r e di c a t i ve c onc e pt t oke ne d i n a r e c ogni t i ona l r ol e i e a s e t t l e d i de nt i f yi ng r o l e T he c a s e of i nde xi c a l s ( s pe c i f i c a l l y, de m ons t r a t i ve s a nd pe r s ona l pr onouns ) i s s i m i l a r P l a us i bl y, i f t he c om pl e m e nt c l a us e of a s e nt e nc e e xpr e s s i ng a be l i e f r e por t c ont a i ns a de m o n s t r a t i ve or a pr onoun a nd i s ut t e r e d de r e i n a c ont e xt t ha t f i xe s t he r e f e r e nc e of t h i s de m ons t r a t i ve or p r onoun on s om e pa r t i c ul a r t hi s pr onoun o r de m ons t r a t i ve s houl d be t r e a t e d a s r e f e r r i ng t o t hi s r e f e r e nt di r e c t l y i n t he ut t e r e d de r e be l i e f r e por t H ow e ve r de m ons t r a t i ve s a nd pe r s ona l pr o nouns a r e a l s o oc c a s i ona l l y us e d i n t he c om pl e m e nt c l a us e s of be l i e f r e por t s t ha t s e e m of f e r e d i n a pur e l y de di c t o s pi r i t a t l e a s t i na s m uc h a s t he y i nt e nd t o pr e s e nt m a t t e r s f r om t he poi nt of vi e w of t he be l i e ve r S uc h us e s t e nd t o oc c ur w he n t he be l i e ve r i s w e l l a c qua i nt e d w i t h

PAGE 156

156 t he pa r t i c ul a r t o w hi c h/ w hom t he de m ons t r a t i ve s a nd pr o nouns r e f e r T he be l i e f r e por t J ohn m i s s e d hi s t r a i n be c a us e he be l i e ve d t ha t s he [ poi n t i ng a t J ohn s m ot he r ] m e a nt t o gi ve hi m a r i de t o t he s t a t i on. l e nds i t s e l f t o s uc h a r e a di ng. I f s uc h r e por t s a r e i nde e d t o be t r e a t e d a s pur e l y de di c t o t he n a ny de m ons t r a t i ve s or pr onou ns i n t he i r c om pl e m e nt c l a us e s houl d be t r e a t e d, I t hi nk a s f unc t i oni ng a s pr ope r na m e s i e a s r e f e r r i ng t o t he i r r e f e r e nt a s i de nt i f i e d vi a a r e c o g ni t i ona l c onc e pt 6 W e a l s o r e por t t he be l i e f s pe opl e ha ve c onc e r ni ng non e xi s t e nt pa r t i c ul a r s I n C ha pt e r 3 I c ons i de r e d t w o a l t e r na t i ve w a ys i n w hi c h m y a c c o unt m i ght a c c om m oda t e t he pos s i bi l i t y of s uc h be l i e f s O n t he f i r s t a l t e r na t i ve t he r e l e va nt c om p one nt of t he s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of be l i e f s c onc e r ni ng non e xi s t e nt pa r t i c ul a r s i nc l ude s i de nt i f yi ng c onc e pt s but no s i m pl e di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt s A c c or di ngl y s uc h be l i e f s a r e n ot about non e xi s t e nt pa r t i c ul a r s a t a l l a nd c a nnot be r e por t e d pur e l y de r e O n t hi s a l t e r na t i v e a t r ue de di c t o r e por t of a be l i e f c onc e r ni ng a non e xi s t e nt pa r t i c ul a r r e por t s t he s ync hr oni c c o gni t i ve c ont e nt of a f a l s e be l i e f O n t he s e c ond a l t e r n a t i ve be l i e f s c onc e r ni ng e xi s t e nt a nd non e xi s t e nt pa r t i c ul a r s ha ve t he s a m e l ogi c o s e m a nt i c f or m t he di f f e r e nc e be t w e e n s uc h be l i e f s be i ng t ha t t h e f o r m e r but no t t he l a t t e r a r e t r ut h e va l ua bl e O n t hi s a l t e r na t i ve a t r ue r e por t o f a be l i e f c onc e r ni ng a non e xi s t e nt pa r t i c ul a r of f e r e d de d i c t o r e por t s t he s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of a non t r u t h e va l ua bl e be l i e f ; of f e r e d de r e i t r e por t s t he i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of a non t r u t h e va l ua bl e be l i e f D e S e b e l i e f r e p or t s L e t us now t u r n t o de s e be l i e f r e por t s O n t he a c c ount I ha ve e ndor s e d, c o n c e pt s a r e f ul l y i ndi vi dua t e d by t he i r pos s e s s i ons c ondi t i ons w hi c h s pe c i f y t he c ondi t i ons unde r w hi c h a t hi nke r 6 I f t h e r e a r e s u c h c a s e s t h e y a r e d i s t i n c t f r o m c a s e s i n v o l v i n g m i x e d r e p o r t s i n w h i c h t h e p r o n o u n s o r d e m o n s t r a t i v e s a r e e m b e d d e d d e r e ( p e r h a p s b e c a u s e o f l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n o f f e r i n g a n e x a c t a c c o u n t o f t h e e n t i r e s y n c h r o n i c c o g n i t i v e c o n t e n t o f t h e r e p o r t e d b e l i e f ) P u r e l y d e d i c t o u t t e r a n c e s o f b e l i e f r e p o r t s i n v o l v i n g a p r o n o u n f u n c t i o n i n g a s a p r o p e r n a m e s h o u l d b e d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m c a s e s i n v o l v i n g t h e u s e o f a p r o n o u n w h o s e a n t e c e d e n t i s a l s o i n c l u d e d w i t h i n t h e c o m p l e m e n t c l a u s e o f t h e p u r e l y d e d i c t o r e p o r t I n s u c h c a s e s b o t h p r o n o u n a n d a n t e c e d e n t s h o u l d b e t r e a t e d a s r e f e r r i n g t o t h e s a m e p a r t i c u l a r a s i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e s a m e w a y

PAGE 157

157 pos s e s s i ng t he r e l e va nt c onc e pt f i nds t r a ns i t i ons t o a nd f r om pr opos i t i ona l a t t i t ude s c ont a i ni ng t hi s c onc e pt pr i m i t i ve l y c om pe l l i ng. W e de pl oy o ur f i r s t pe r s on c onc e pt unde r t w o t ype s of c i r c um s t a nc e T he f i r s t t ype c a n be c ha r a c t e r i z e d ge ne r a l l y a s i nvol vi ng a c o n s c i ous a t t i t ude or a c t i on on t he pa r t of t he t h i nke r w he n t he t h i nke r f i nds t he f i r s t pe r s on t hought t ha t s he i s ha vi ng t ha t a t t i t ude or pe r f o r m i ng t ha t a c t i on p r i m i t i ve l y c om pe l l i ng. S o, w he n I ha ve t he c ons c i ous be l i e f t ha t p I f i nd a t hough t of t he f or m e beli eves p ( w he r e e s t a nds f o r m y f i r s t pe r s on c onc e pt w hi c h i s di s t i nc t f r om a nyone e l s e s f i r s t pe r s on c onc e pt ) p r i m i t i ve l y c om pe l l i ng. L i ke w i s e w he n I a m pe r c e i vi ng F c o n s c i ous l y, a nd w he n I a m i ng c ons c i ous l y, I f i nd t hought s of t he f or m e perceives F a nd e s pr i m i t i ve l y c om pe l l i ng T he s a m e c a n be s a i d f or a ny o t he r t ype of a t t i t ude t ha t c a n be e nt e r t a i ne d c ons c i ous l y. F or now l e t us c ha r a c t e r i z e c i r c um s t a nc e s of t he s e c ond t ype ne ga t i ve l y, a s c i r c um s t a nc e s t ha t a r e di s t i nc t f r om c i r c u m s t a nc e s of t he f i r s t t ype C i r c um s t a nc e s of t he s e c ond t ype m i ght i nc l ude e g. de pl oy i ng m y f i r s t pe r s on c onc e pt t o t he i ndi vi dua l w hos e r e f l e c t i on f r i gh t e ne d m e a s I c a ught i t i n a m i r r or upon r e c ogni z i ng t hi s r e f l e c t i on a s m i ne C onc e pt s how e ve r a r e not t hi nke r s pe c i f i c a s t he y a r e t ype s of t hought c ont e nt M y f i r s t pe r s on c onc e pt i s a s i m pl e di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt w hos e c ogni t i ve f unc t i on i s t o r e f e r t o m e G i ve n t ha t m y f i r s t pe r s on c onc e pt i s a s i m pl e di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt t oke ni ng i t c ont r i bu t e s no i nf or m a t i on a bout m e t o m y c ogni t i ve pr oc e s s e s t he f unc t i on of c ont r i but i ng s uc h i nf or m a t i on be l ongs t o p r e di c a t i ve c onc e pt s A c c or di ngl y t he r e doe s not s e e m t o be a nyt hi ng t o d i s t i ngui s h m y f i r s t p e r s on c onc e pt f r om t he s i m pl e di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt ot he r t hi nke r s us e w he n t he y ha ve t hought s a bout m e W ha t I ha ve be e n c a l l i ng m y f i r s t pe r s on c onc e pt t he n, i s t he s i m pl e di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt t ha t r e f e r s t o m e

PAGE 158

158 T he f or e goi ng r e f l e c t i on i n di c a t e s t ha t f or be i ngs c a pa bl e of c ons c i ous r e f l e x i ve t hought a nd a c t i on, s i m pl e di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt s a r e i ndi vi dua t e d by a t l e a s t t w o pos s e s s i on c ond i t i ons T he f i r s t pos s e s s i on c ondi t i on pe r t a i ns t o f i r s t pe r s ona l de pl oym e nt s of t he c onc e pt w h e n t he t hi nke r ha s a c ons c i ous a t t i t ude or c ons c i ous l y pe r f or m s a n a c t i on a nd f i nds t he f i r s t pe r s on t hought t ha t s he i s ha vi ng t ha t a t t i t ude or pe r f o r m i ng t ha t a c t i on p r i m i t i ve l y c om pe l l i ng. T he s e c ond pos s e s s i on c ondi t i on pe r t a i ns t o ot he r de pl oym e nt s o f t he c onc e pt w hi c h m a y but ne e d not be f i r s t pe r s ona l w he n t he i ndi v i d ua l i s r e c ogn i z e d a s t he s a m e i ndi vi dua l t o w hom t he c onc e pt a ppl i e s i n t he c i r c um s t a nc e s m e nt i one d i n t he f i r s t pos s e s s i on c ondi t i on. 7 F or t he s a ke of s i m pl i c i t y, I w i l l c ont i n ue us i ng t he ph r a s e f i r s t pe r s on c onc e pt H e nc e f or t h t he phr a s e s houl d be unde r s t ood a s m e a n i ng s i m pl e di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt a s pos s e s s e d by i t s r e f e r e nt A c c or di ngl y, t he t w o t ype s of c i r c um s t a nc e unde r w hi c h I c a n de pl oy m y f i r s t pe r s on c o nc e p t c a n now be c ha r a c t e r i z e d a s f o l l ow s : I c a n de pl oy t hi s c onc e pt unde r c i r c u m s t a nc e s t ha t f a l l unde r t he de pl oym e nt c ondi t i on de t e r m i ne d by i t s f i r s t pos s e s s i on c ondi t i on, a nd I c a n de pl oy i t unde r c i r c um s t a nc e s t ha t f a l l unde r t he de pl oym e nt c ondi t i on de t e r m i ne d by i t s s e c ond pos s e s s i on c ondi t i on. C l e a r l y, t he r e i s no ne e d f o r m e t o de pl oy a ny i de nt i f yi ng c onc e pt w he n I de pl oy m y f i r s t pe r s on c onc e pt unde r c i r c um s t a nc e s t ha t f a l l unde r i t s f i r s t de pl oym e nt c ond i t i on B y c ont r a s t unde r c i r c um s t a nc e s t ha t f a l l unde r i t s s e c ond de pl oym e nt c ondi t i on m y f i r s t pe r s on 7 T h i s i s n o t t o s a y t h a t t o k e n i n g a s i m p l e c o n c e p t t h a t r e f e r s t o a b e i n g c a p a b l e o f c o n s c i o u s a t t i t u d e s a n d a c t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t t h i s b e i n g i s c a p a b l e o f c o n s c i o u s a t t i t u d e s a n d a c t i o n s t o o n e s c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s e s T h e p o i n t i s m e r e l y t h e f o l l o w i n g : P o s s e s s i n g t h e c o n c e p t e l k a r e q u i r e s f i n d i n g f i r s t p e r s o n t h o u g h t s o f t h e f o r m e l k a A s ( t h a t ) p ( w h e r e A s t a n d s f o r a n a t t i t u d e c o n c e p t a n d p s t a n d s f o r s o m e c o n t e n t ) p r i m i t i v e l y c o m p e l l i n g w h i l e h a v i n g a n d b e c a u s e o f h a v i n g t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g a t t i t u d e ( t h e s a m e c a n b e s a i d f o r c o n s c i o u s a c t i o n s m u t a t i s m u t a n d i s ) I t a l s o r e q u i r e s b e i n g d i s p o s e d t o d e p l o y e l k a i n o t h e r t h i r d p e r s o n a l l y d e f i n e d c i r c u m s t a n c e s T h e s e c o n d i t i o n s h o l d f o r a n y o n e w h o p o s s e s s e s e l k a I j u s t h a p p e n t o b e t h e o n l y p e r s o n w h o i s e v e r i n a p o s i t i o n t o d e p l o y e l k a i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e d e p l o y m e n t c o n d i t i o n s d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e f i r s t p o s s e s s i o n c o n d i t i o n T h e r e i s n o c o r r e s p o n d i n g f i r s t p e r s o n c l a u s e f o r s i m p l e c o n c e p t s r e f e r r i n g t o p a r t i c u l a r s t h a t i n c a p a b l e o f c o n s c i o u s a t t i t u d e s o r a c t i o n s I n t e r e s t i n g l y a l t h o u g h I c o m e t o t h e i s s u e f r o m a d i f f e r e n t t r a d i t i o n t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e p o s s e s s i o n c o n d i t i o n s o f s i m p l e c o n c e p t s t h a t r e f e r t o p a r t i c u l a r s t h a t a r e c a p a b l e o f c o n s c i o u s a t t i t u d e s a n d a c t i o n s v s t h o s e t h a t a r e i n c a p a b l e o f c o n s c i o u s a t t i t u d e s a n d a c t i o n s i s c l e a r l y r e m i n i s c e n t o f J e a n P a u l S a r t r e s d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h i n g s t h a t a r e f o r t h e m s e l v e s a n d t h i n g s t h a t a r e i n t h e m s e l v e s

PAGE 159

159 c onc e pt i s de pl oye d a s a r e s ul t of r e c ogni t i on T he c a us a l a nc e s t r y of be l i e f s i nvol vi ng a d e pl oym e nt of t he f i r s t pe r s on c onc e pt i n c i r c u m s t a nc e s of t he s e c ond t ype i nc l ude s a de pl oym e nt of a n i d e nt i f yi ng c onc e pt ( t ypi c a l l y, a r e c ogni t i ona l c onc e pt ) a l t hough t he s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of t he r e s ul t i ng de s e be l i e f ne e d not i nc l ud e t hi s i de nt i f yi ng c o n c e pt T he r e a r e t he n, t w o t ype s o f be l i e f s one m a y ha ve a bout one s e l f F i r s t t he r e a r e b e l i e f s i n w hi c h t he f i r s t pe r s on c onc e pt i s d e pl oye d unde r c i r c um s t a nc e s of t he f i r s t t ype S e c ond, t he r e a r e be l i e f s w hos e c a us a l a nc e s t r y i nvol ve s a d e pl oym e nt of a n i de nt i f yi ng c onc e pt C a nd a j udgm e nt of t he f o r m I a m t he C T he f i r s t pe r s on a l c om pone nt of t he s ync hr oni c c ogn i t i ve c ont e nt of bot h t ype s of be l i e f i nc l ude s t he f i r s t pe r s on c onc e pt T he f i r s t pe r s ona l c om p o ne nt o f t he s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt o f bot h t ype s of b e l i e f m a y, but ne e d not i nc l ude a n i de nt i f yi ng c onc e pt S o I m a y t hi nk t ha t I t he Q ue e n of S he ba de s e r ve s pe c i a l t r e a t m e nt a nd I m a y t hi nk t ha t I t he pe r s on w hos e r e f l e c t i on j us t c a us e d m e s uc h a f r i gh t a m qui t e ha n d s om e a f t e r a l l B e l i e f s i n w hi c h t he f i r s t pe r s on c onc e pt i s de pl oy e d unde r c i r c um s t a nc e s of t he f i r s t t ype a r e ge nui ne de s e be l i e f s I f t he f i r s t pe r s ona l c om p o n e nt of t he s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of a ge nui ne de s e be l i e f i nc l ude s a n i de nt i f yi ng c onc e p t t he s e l f i s not i de nt i f i e d v i a t hi s c onc e pt D e s e be l i e f r e por t s a r e of f e r e d de r e w i t h r e ga r d t o a ny r e f l e xi ve e xpr e s s i on i nc l ude d i n t he i r c om pl e m e nt c l a us e A c c or di ngl y, de s e be l i e f r e por t s m a y be s ubs i t ut i ona l l y m i xe d, a s ot he r e xpr e s s i ons m a y be e m be dde d de di c t o i n t he i r c om pl e m e nt c l a us e T h i s a c c ount i s i nt ui t i ve l y pl a us i bl e de s e b e l i e f r e por t s a r e of f e r e d a s be l i e f s t he be l i e ve r ha s a bout he r s e l f not a s be l i e f s t he be l i e ve r ha s a bout he r s e l f a s i de nt i f i e d i n a g i ve n w a y. N e ve r t he l e s s w he n r e po r t i ng t he be l i e f s s om e one ha s a bout he r s e l f one m a y be i nt e r e s t e d i n pr e s e nt i ng t he no n r e f l e xi ve e l e m e nt s of he r be l i e f f r om he r poi nt of vi e w i e de di c t o o r f r om a n e xt e r na l poi n t of vi e w i e de r e O n t he a c c ount I a m p r opos i ng, t he t r ut h c ondi t i ons of de s e be l i e f r e por t s m e nt i on

PAGE 160

160 t he f i r s t pe r s on c onc e pt w i t hout a ny i de nt i f y i n g c onc e pt s f or a ny i n s t a nc e i n w hi c h a r e f l e xi ve e xpr e s s i on a ppe a r s i n t he c om pl e m e nt c l a us e I n a ny ot he r r e s pe c t de s e be l i e f r e por t s a r e t r e a t e d a s a ny ot he r be l i e f r e por t A s s e s s m e n t L e t us a s s e s s how w e l l t he a c c ount I ha ve pr opos e d f a r e s w i t h t he pr i m a f ac i e s e m a nt i c a nd ps yc hol og i c a l da t a I l i s t e d a bove C l e a r l y m y a c c ount e xpl a i ns ( i ) i e t ha t e xpr e s s i ons c a n be e m be d de d de r e de di c t o a nd de s e i n a t t i t ude r e por t s O n t he f i r s t a l t e r na t i ve a c c ount of t he c ont e nt of be l i e f s c onc e r ni ng non e xi s t e nt pa r t i c ul a r s I c ons i d e r e d a bove ( i i ) i e t ha t a ny e xpr e s s i on t ha t i s e m be dde d de di c t o i n s om e a t t i t u de r e por t oc c upi e s a pos i t i on t ha t i s qua nt i f i c a t i ona l l y opa que i n t ha t r e por t a nd ( i i i ) i e t ha t a ny e xpr e s s i on t ha t i s e m be dde d de r e i n s om e a t t i t ude r e por t oc c upi e s a qua nt i f i c a t i ona l l y t r a ns pa r e nt pos i t i on i n t ha t r e po r t a r e a l s o s e c ur e d. O n t he s e c ond a l t e r n a t i ve ( i i ) i s s e c ur e d but ( i i i ) i s n t ( unl e s s one t hi nks t ha t non e xi s t e nt pa r t i c ul a r s e xi s t 8 ) 9 M y a c c ount a l s o c l e a r l y s upp or t s ( i v) t ha t a ny r e f l e xi ve e xpr e s s i on e m be dde d i n a de s e a t t i t ude r e po r t oc c upi e s a qua nt i f i c a t i o n a l l y t r a ns pa r e nt pos i t i on i n t ha t r e por t F i na l l y, l e t us c ons i de r ( v ) F i r s t i t i s c l e a r f r om w ha t I ha ve s a i d a bove t ha t on m y a c c ount de s e r e por t s ha ve une x c e pt i ona l l ogi c a l p r of i l e s w i t h r e s pe c t t o t he i r e m be dde d non r e f l e xi ve e xpr e s s i ons L e t us now c ons i de r B o r s t w o s e nt e nc e s ( 1) J ohn be l i e ve s t ha t he hi m s e l f i s i n da nge r ( 2) J ohn be l i e ve s t ha t J ohn i s i n da nge r N ow l e t : j be t he s i m pl e di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt t ha t r e f e r s t o J ohn; D be a s i m pl e p r e di c a t i ve c onc e pt pr e di c a t i ng t he p r ope r t y, be i ng i n da nge r ; 8 S t e v e n S c h i f f e r ( 2 0 0 3 ) h a s r e c e n t l y e n d o r s e d a t h e s i s a l o n g t h e s e l i n e s 9 I t e n d t o f a v o r t h e f i r s t a l t e r n a t i v e b e c a u s e i t s e c u r e s ( i i i )

PAGE 161

161 J be a c om pl e x p r e di c a t i ve c onc e pt t oke ne d i n a n i de nt i f yi ng r o l e t ha t pr e di c a t e s s om e s e t of pr ope r t i e s J ohn i ns t a nc e s T he n, on t h e a c c ount I a m pr opos i ng, t he t r u t h c on di t i ons f or ( 1) a nd f or ( 2 ) of f e r e d f i r s t i n a de r e m ood, t he n i n a de di c t o m ood w oul d be : ( 1 S ) B e l ( J ohn, [ j is D ] ) ( 2 R ) B e l ( J ohn, [ j is D ] ) ( 2 D ) B e l ( J ohn, [ j [ the J ] is D ] ) ( 1 S ) e nt a i l s ( 2 R ) by vi r t ue of be i ng i d e nt i c a l w i t h i t but doe s not e nt a i l ( 2 D ) ( 2 D ) e nt a i l s ( 1 S ) but J ohn ne e d not be i n a pos i t i on t o know t hi s ( i n or de r t o be i n a pos i t i on t o know t h i s he m us t be i n a pos i t i on t o j udge t ha t he i s t he J ) O n m y a c c ount ( 1) a nd ( 2) of f e r e d i n a de di c t o m ood a r e not l ogi c a l l y i nde pe nde nt t he l a t t e r i s l ogi c a l l y s t r onge r t ha n t he f o r m e r T he a ppe a r a nc e of l ogi c a l i nde pe nde nc e how e ve r i s e xpl a i ne d by J o hn s doxa s t i c s i t ua t i on, w hi c h doe s not e na bl e hi m i nf e r ( 1 ) f r om ( 2) di r e c t l y. A c c or d i ngl y m y a c c ount m a ke s good on ( v ) a l s o. C l e a r l y, m y a c c ount a l s o m a ke s good on ps yc hol o g i c a l da t a ( vi ) a nd ( vi i ) O n m y vi e w a be l i e ve r w hos e c ur r e nt c o n s c i ous be l i e f i s r e por t e d de di c t o i s i de a l l y pl a c e d t o de t e r m i ne w he t he r t hi s r e por t i s t r ue w hi l e a be l i e v e r w hos e c ur r e nt c ons c i ous be l i e f i s r e por t e d de r e ne e d not be F i na l l y m y a c c ount e xpl a i ns w hy t he a t t i t ude s e x pr e s s e d by t r ue a nd s i nc e r e f i r s t pe r s ona l de s e a t t i t ude r e por t s c a n pl a y a s pe c i a l r o l e i n t he i r s pe a ke r s ps yc hol ogi c a l a nd be ha vi or a l e c onom y. U nde r c i r c um s t a nc e s t ha t f a l l unde r t he f i r s t de pl oym e nt c ondi t i on o f t he f i r s t pe r s on c onc e pt s uc h a t t i t ude s i nvol ve a di r e c t de pl o y m e nt of a di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt t o t he s e l f w hi c h i s not i de nt i f i e d v i a a ny i de nt i f yi ng c onc e pt e ve n w he n t h e s e l f i s c onc e i ve d a s be a r i ng gi ve n pr ope r t i e s I t i s t hi s c a pa c i t y of be i n gs c a pa bl e of c ons c i ous r e f l e x i ve t hought a nd a c t i on t o r e f e r di r e c t l y t o t he m s e l ve s i n r e f l e xi ve t hought w hi c h, I t h i nk, s e c ur e s t he i r c ont i nui t y a s pe r s ons t hr ough r e a s ons t hou ght r e f l e c t i on, i nt e n t i on a nd a c t i on. T r ue a nd s i nc e r e de s e

PAGE 162

162 a t t i t ude r e por t s i n w hi c h non r e f l e xi ve e xp r e s s i ons a r e e m be dde d de di c t o of f e r us a s i nt i m a t e a n a c c e s s a s i s a va i l a bl e t o us i nt o t he m i nd of a not he r pe r s on. G e t t i e r s C as e s I n w ha t f ol l ow s I s how t ha t m y a c c ount o f be l i e f c ont e nt a l s o yi e l ds a na t ur a l a nd pl a us i bl e e xpl a na t i on of w ha t goe s e pi s t e m i c a l l y a w r y i n t he c a s e s G e t t i e r pr e s e nt s i n I s J us t i f i e d T r ue B e l i e f K now l e dge ? T he r e i s a t e nde nc y a m ong e pi s t e m ol ogi s t s t o c a l l a ny c a s e t ha t c a s t s doubt on t he t r ue a nd j us t i f i e d be l i e f a na l ys i s of know l e dge ( he nc e f or t h, t he c l a s s i c a l a na l ys i s ) a G e t t i e r s t yl e c a s e S o e pi s t e m ol ogi s t s of t e n r e f e r t o G ol dm a n s B a r n C ount y c a s e ( G ol dm a n 1976) a s a G e t t i e r s t yl e c a s e T he f ol l ow i ng doe s n ot s pe a k t o G ol dm a n s c a s e ge ne r a l l y, i t doe s not s pe a k t o a ny c a s e t ha t s how s t ha t know l e dge m i ght be de f e a t e d by e vi de nc e una va i l a bl e t o t he be l i e ve r S i nc e m y a i m he r e i s ne i t he r t o r e s c ue t h e c l a s s i c a l a na l ys i s nor t o of f e r a n a l t e r na t i ve a na l ys i s I ne e d not a ns w e r e ve r y G e t t i e r s t yl e c a s e be i t on be ha l f of t he c l a s s i c a l a na l ys i s or of m y a l t e r na t i ve I t i s o f t e n a s s um e d t ha t t ha t t he G e t t i e r pr o b l e m r e qui r e s a s i ngl e s ol ut i on S i nc e t he t e r m G e t t i e r s t yl e c a s e i s now a ppl i e d t o a f a i r l y di s pa r a t e f a m i l y o f c a s e s w hos e c om m on c ha r a c t e r i s t i c i s t ha t t he y c a s t doubt on t h e c l a s s i c a l a na l ys i s i t m i ght ve r y w e l l be t ha t s ol vi ng t he G e t t i e r p r obl e m w i l l i nvol ve a f a m i l y of s ol u t i ons e a c h t a i l or e d t o t he t ype of c a s e i t s e e ks t o a ns w e r M y i n t e r e s t he r e i s w i t h t he or i gi na l m e m be r s of t hi s f a m i l y of G e t t i e r s t yl e c a s e s i e t he c a s e s of f e r e d by G e t t i e r I n I s J us t i f i e d T r ue B e l i e f K now l e dge ? G e t t i e r s ubm i t s t w o c a s e s i nt e nde d t o s how t ha t t r ue a nd j us t i f i e d be l i e f i s not s uf f i c i e nt f o r kno w l e dge S o f a r I ha ve a voi de d unde r t a ki ng a ny c om m i t m e nt c onc e r ni ng t he na t ur e o f know l e dge T he f ol l ow i ng m i ni m a l r e qui r e m e nt w i l l s uf f i c e t o di s c us s G e t t i e r s c a s e s I ha ve s a i d t ha t t he s ync hr oni c a nd i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s of be l i e f a r e c o m pl e x c onc e pt s a nd t ha t c om pl e x c onc e pt s a r e f ul l y c ons t i t ut e d by

PAGE 163

163 s i m pl e c onc e pt s i n gi ve n m ode s of c om bi na t i on. I ha ve a l s o s a i d t ha t c onc e pt s a r e i ndi vi dua t e d by t he i r pos s e s s i on c ondi t i ons w hi c h de t e r m i ne c o ns i s t e nt de pl oym e nt c ondi t i ons T he de pl o y m e nt c ondi t i ons of t he i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c on t e nt of a be l i e f de t e r m i ne t he t r ut h c ondi t i ons of t ha t be l i e f 1 0 F u r t he r i n m y vi e w t he no r m o f t r u t h gove r ns be l i e f by vi r t ue of gove r ni ng t he de pl oym e nt of i t s s ync hr oni c a nd i ndi vi dua t i ng c o gni t i ve c ont e nt s I p r opos e t ha t ha vi ng know l e dge r e qui r e s s a t i s f yi ng t he nor m of t r u t h a s i t a ppl i e s t o one s be l i e f N ow s a t i s f yi ng t he nor m of t r ut h a s i t a ppl i e s t o a ny be l i e f i s a m a t t e r o f s a t i s f yi ng t he de pl oym e nt c ondi t i ons of t he s i m pl e c onc e pt s i n t he r e l e va nt m ode s of c om bi na t i on, t ha t c ons t i t ut e t he s ync hr oni c a nd i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s o f t ha t be l i e f T h e de pl oym e nt c ondi t i ons of a ny c onc e pt m e nt i on t he t ype s of c i r c u m s t a nc e unde r w hi c h t hi s c onc e pt i s c or r e c t l y de pl oye d. I t i s hi ghl y pl a us i bl e t ha t t he nor m of t r ut h s e t s a dua l r e qui r e m e nt on de pl oym e nt of a ny c onc e pt : F i r s t i t s e t s a c or r e c t ne s s r e qui r e m e nt by r e qui r i ng t ha t c i r c um s t a nc e s of t he r e l e va nt t ype obt a i n a nd, s e c ond, i t s e t s a n e vi de nc e r e qui r e m e nt by r e qui r i ng t ha t one w ho de pl oys t hi s c onc e pt ha s e vi de nc e t ha t c i r c um s t a nc e s of t he r e l e va nt t ype ob t a i n. I a m pr opos i ng, t he n, t ha t ha vi ng know l e dge r e qui r e s s a t i s f yi ng t he c or r e c t ne s s a nd e vi de nc e r e qui r e m e nt s f or t he s i m pl e c onc e pt s i n t he r e l e va nt m ode s of c om b i na t i on t ha t c ons t i t u t e t he s ync hr oni c a nd i nd i vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s of t ha t be l i e f W e a r e now i n a pos i t i on t o e xa m i ne G e t t i e r s f i r s t c a s e : C as e I : S uppos e t ha t S m i t h a nd J one s ha ve a ppl i e d f o r a c e r t a i n j ob. A nd s uppos e t ha t S m i t h ha s s t r ong e vi de nc e f or t he f ol l ow i ng c onj unc t i ve p r op os i t i on: d. J one s i s t he m a n w ho w i l l ge t t he j ob, a nd J one s ha s t e n c oi ns i n hi s poc ke t P r opos i t i on ( d) e nt a i l s : e T he m a n w ho w i l l ge t t he j ob ha s t e n c oi ns i n hi s poc ke t 1 0 O n c e a g a i n i g n o r i n g v a g u e n e s s

PAGE 164

164 L e t us s uppos e t ha t S m i t h s e e s t he e nt a i l m e nt f r om ( d) t o ( e ) a nd a c c e pt s ( e ) on t he gr ounds of ( d) f o r w hi c h he ha s s t r ong e vi de nc e I n t hi s c a s e S m i t h i s c l e a r l y j us t i f i e d i n be l i e vi ng t ha t ( e ) i s t r ue B ut i m a gi ne f ur t he r t ha t unknow n t o S m i t h he hi m s e l f not J one s w i l l ge t t he j ob A nd, a l s o, unknow n t o S m i t h he hi m s e l f ha s t e n c oi ns i n hi s poc ke t ( G e t t i e r 1963 : 122) L e t us e xa m i ne ( d ) a nd ( e ) unde r s t ood a s t he s ync hr oni c a nd i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s o f be l i e f s e ndor s e d by S m i t h L e t : j be t he s i m pl e di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c on c e pt t ha t r e f e r s t o J one s ; J be a c om pl e x be a c om pl e x p r e di c a t i ve c onc e pt t oke ne d i n a n i de nt i f yi ng r ol e t ha t pr e di c a t e s s om e s e t of pr ope r t i e s J one s i ns t a nc e s ; M be a c om pl e x pr e di c a t i ve c onc e pt p r e di c a t i ng t h e pr ope r t y, be i ng t he m a n w ho w i l l ge t t he j ob; T be a c om pl e x p r e di c a t i ve c onc e pt pr e di c a t i ng t h e pr ope r t y, ha vi ng t e n c oi ns i n one s poc ke t T he n ( d) a nd ( e ) unde r s t ood a s t he s ync hr oni c a nd i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s of S m i t h s be l i e f s c a n be r e pr e s e nt e d a s f ol l ow s : S ync hr oni c C ogni t i ve C ont e nt I ndi vi dua t i ng C ogni t i ve C ont e nt d. j [ the J ] is M j [ the J ] is T e j [ the M ] is T d. j is M j is T e j is T N ot i c e t ha t I di f f e r f r om G e t t i e r a s t o w ha t r e f e r e nt i s pr ope r l y a s s i gne d t he e xpr e s s i on, t he m a n w ho w i l l ge t t he j ob a s i t f i gu r e s i n ( e ) unde r s t oo d a s r e por t i ng t he c ont e nt o f S m i t h s be l i e f I n m y vi e w G e t t i e r m i s i nt e r p r e t s ( e ) a s a de s c r i pt i ve s t a t e m e nt O ne t e nds t o ove r l ook t hi s m i s i nt e r pr e t a t i on be c a us e ( e ) i s f i r s t i nt r oduc e d a s a de s c r i pt i ve s t a t e m e nt I n t he c ont e xt o f ou r i nqui r y c onc e r ni ng t he j us t i f i c a t i on of S m i t h s be l i e f how e ve r ( e ) r e po r t s t he c ont e nt of S m i t h s be l i e f A c c or d i ngl y, t he m a n w ho w i l l ge t t he j ob doe s not r e f e r t o t he m a n w ho w i l l ge t t he j ob, i e t o S m i t h but t o t he m a n S m i t h be l i e ve s w i l l ge t t he j ob, i e t o J one s r e m e m be r S m i t h r e a s ons f r om ( d ) t o ( e ) ; i n t hi s c a s e t he r e f e r e nt t he s i m pl e di r e c t l y r e f e r r i ng c onc e pt i n

PAGE 165

165 j [ the M ] is T i s e s t a bl i s he d by t he c ogni t i ve hi s t or y of t ha t be l i e f a s J one s i s not t he m a n w ho w i l l ge t t he j ob 1 1 F ur t he r i n t he c ont e xt of t hi s i nqui r y ( e ) i s c l e a r l y of f e r e d de di c t o S o, on m y a c c ount ( e ) r e por t s t he s ync hr oni c c ogni t i v e c ont e nt of S m i t h s be l i e f N ow t hi s be l i e f i s i ndi vi dua t e d i n pa r t by t he i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt j is T a nd c a n a l s o be r e por t e d de r e a s t he be l i e f t ha t J one s ha s t e n c oi ns i n hi s poc k e t B y hypot he s i s t hi s be l i e f i s t r ue a nd S m i t h ha s s t r ong e v i de nc e f or i t ( pr e s um a bl y, one c a n t h a ve s t r ong e vi de nc e f or a c onj unc t i ve be l i e f unl e s s one a l s o ha s s t r ong e vi de nc e f or be l i e vi ng e a c h c onj unc t ) I n m y v i e w t he n t he pr obl e m w i t h ( e ) i s not t ha t ( e ) i s t r ue i n vi r t ue of t he num be r of c oi ns i n S m i t h s poc ke t i t i s t r ue i n vi r t ue o f t he num be r of c oi ns i n J one s poc ke t c onc e r ni ng w hi c h S m i t h ha s a be l i e f ba s e d on s t r ong e v i de nc e T he pr obl e m r a t he r i s t ha t S m i t h m i s i de nt i f i e s J one s a s t he m a n w ho w i l l ge t t he j ob. M i s i de nt i f i c a t i on of pa r t i c ul a r s I t hi nk, i s a s i gni f i c a nt e pi s t e m i c i s s ue a l t hough t o m y know l e dge i t ha s be e n e nt i r e l y i gnor e d 1 2 A s I no t e d e a r l i e r a l t h ough i de nt i f yi ng c onc e pt s a r e not pa r t of t he i n di vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of ou r b e l i e f s a bout pa r t i c ul a r s t he y a r e c r uc i a l t o our c ogni t i ve l i ve s s i nc e our c ogni t i ve a c c e s s t o pa r t i c ul a r s ot he r t ha n t he s e l f i s by w a y of i de nt i f yi ng c onc e pt s A t a n y gi ve n m o m e nt w e a r e a s i t w e r e be hi nd t he ve i l o f t he i de nt i f yi ng c onc e pt s w e t oke n a t t ha t m om e nt a nd, s o, pr one t o e r r o r s of m i s i de nt i f i c a t i on by ou r ve r y doxa s t i c c ondi t i on, w hi c h I a r t i c ul a t e i n t he s e s ( a ) ( c ) i n C ha pt e r 3 a nd r e i t e r a t e t he f o r e goi ng s e c t i on. M i s i de nt i f i c a t i on i s a n e pi s t e m i c de f e a t e r ; t ha t i s m i s i de nt i f i c a t i on de f e a t s know l e dge T hi s i s be c a us e a be l i e f a f f e c t e d by m i s i de nt i f i c a t i on, e ve n w he n t r ue a nd w e l l gr ounde d i n 1 1 M a t t e r s w o u l d h a v e b e e n d i f f e r e n t i f S m i t h h a d n o t r e a s o n e d f r o m ( d ) t o ( e ) a n d t h e c o n t e n t o f ( e ) h a d b e e n W h o e v e r w i l l g e t t h e j o b h a s t e n c o i n s i n h i s p o c k e t T h e n S m i t h s b e l i e f w o u l d h a v e b e e n t r u e t h o u g h n o t b a s e d o n e v i d e n c e 1 2 T h e r e a s o n w h y m i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f p a r t i c u l a r s h a s b e e n i g n o r e d i s t h a t e p i s t e m o l o g y t e n d s t o f o c u s o n p r o p o s i t i o n s b e l i e v e d r a t h e r t h a n c o n c e p t s d e p l o y e d O n m y n o m e n c l a t u r e t h i s i s t a n t a m o u n t t o f o c u s i n g o n i n d i v i d u a t i n g c o n t e n t w h i c h l e a v e s i d e n t i f y i n g c o n c e p t s o u t

PAGE 166

166 e vi de nc e i s a l e t hi c a l l y de f e c t i ve i na s m uc h a s i t i n vol ve s a n i m pr ope r de pl oym e nt of a n i de nt i f yi ng c onc e pt a l t hough s uc h a be l i e f a bi de s by t he nor m of t r ut h w i t h r e ga r d t o i t s i ndi v i dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt i t f a i l s t o a bi de by t he no r m o f t r ut h w i t h r e ga r d t o i t s s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt M i s i de nt i f i c a t i on a nd f a l s e hood a r e e pi s t e m i c de f e a t e r s f or a na l ogous r e a s ons T o e va l ua t e a be l i e f a s f a l s e i s t o e va l ua t e i t ne ga t i ve l y a l ong t he di m e ns i on of c o r r e c t ne s s b e c a us e i t s i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt f a i l s t o s a t i s f y i t s c or r e c t ne s s r e qui r e m e nt by vi r t ue of be i ng c ons t i t ut e d by s om e c onc e pt t ha t f a i l s t o s a t i s f y i t s c or r e c t ne s s r e qui r e m e nt B e l i e f s a bout e xi s t i ng pa r t i c ul a r s a r e o f t e n e va l ua bl e a s f a l s e be c a us e t he i r s ync hr oni c a nd i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt i s c ons t i t u t e d by s om e pr e di c a t i v e c onc e pt t oke ne d i n a n a t t r i b u t i ve r o l e t ha t f a i l s t o s a t i s f y i t s c or r e c t ne s s r e qui r e m e nt T o e va l ua t e a be l i e f a s s ubj e c t t o a n e r r o r o f m i s i de nt i f i c a t i on i s t o e va l ua t e i t ne ga t i ve l y a l ong t he di m e ns i on of c or r e c t ne s s be c a us e i t s s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt f a i l s t o s a t i s f y i t s c or r e c t ne s s r e qui r e m e nt by vi r t ue o f be i ng c ons t i t ut e d by s om e pr e di c a t i ve c onc e pt t oke ne d i n a n i de nt i f yi n g r ol e t ha t f a i l s t o s a t i s f y i t s c or r e c t ne s s r e qui r e m e nt J us t a s one m a y, but ne e d not be r a t i ona l l y c ul pa bl e f or ha vi ng a f a l s e be l i e f s o one m a y, but ne e d not be r a t i ona l l y c ul pa bl e f or h a vi ng a be l i e f s ubj e c t t o a n e r r or of m i s i de nt i f i c a t i on. W he t he r one i s r a t i ona l l y c ul pa bl e f or de pl oyi ng a ny c onc e pt de pe nds on w he t he r one s a t i s f i e s t he e vi de nc e r e qui r e m e nt f or t ha t c onc e pt S i nc e S m i t h ha s s t r ong e v i de nc e f or hi s be l i e f t ha t J one s i s t he m a n w ho w i l l ge t t he j ob, S m i t h s m i s i de nt i f i c a t i on, t oo i s non c ul pa bl e L e t us now t u r n t o G e t t i e r s s e c ond c a s e : C as e I I : L e t us s uppos e t ha t S m i t h ha s s t r ong e vi de nc e f or t he f ol l ow i ng p r opos i t i on: f J one s ow ns a F o r d. L e t us i m a gi ne now t ha t S m i t h ha s a not he r f r i e nd, B r ow n, of w hos e w he r e a bout s he i s t ot a l l y i gnor a nt S m i t h s e l e c t s t hr e e pl a c e na m e s qui t e a t r a ndom a nd c ons t r uc t s t h r e e pr op os i t i ons [ i nc l udi ng ( h) ] : h. E i t he r J one s ow ns a F o r d, or B r ow n i s i n B a r c e l ona

PAGE 167

167 I m a gi ne t ha t S m i t h r e a l i z e s t he e nt a i l m e nt of e a c h of t he s e pr opos i t i ons he ha s c o ns t r uc t e d by ( f ) a nd pr o c e e ds t o a c c e pt [ t he m ] on t h e ba s i s of ( f ) B ut i m a gi ne now t ha t t w o f ur t he r c ondi t i ons hol d. F i r s t J one s doe s not ow n a F or d, but i s a t pr e s e nt dr i vi ng a r e nt e d c a r A nd s e c ondl y, by t he s he e r e s t c oi nc i de nc e a nd e nt i r e l y unknow n t o S m i t h, t he pl a c e m e nt i one d i n p r opos i t i on ( h) ha ppe ns r e a l l y t o be t he pl a c e w he r e B r o w n i s ( G e t t i e r 1963: 122 123) L e t us now c ons i de r ( h) i e E i t he r J one s ow ns a F or d, or B r ow n i s i n B a r c e l ona F or t una t e l y, w e ne e d not e xa m i ne t he de t a i l e d s ync hr oni c a nd i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c om pone nt s of S m i t h s be l i e f i n t hi s c a s e a s s uc h e xa m i na t i ons a r e s om e w ha t t e di ous F o r t he s a ke of s i m pl i c i t y, l e t us a s s um e t ha t ( h) s t a t e s t he i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of S m i t h s be l i e f N ot e t ha t on t he a c c ount I a m p r opos i ng, ( h) i s t r ue ( a s i t s ho ul d be on a ny a c c ount ) F u r t he r S m i t h i s de pl oyi ng hi s di s j un c t i ve c onc e pt a ppr opr i a t e l y, gi ve n t ha t he ha s e ve r y r e a s on t o be l i e ve t ha t J one s ow ns a F or d. N ow w e s houl d not i c e t he f ol l ow i ng a bout t he n or m o f t r ut h a s i t gove r ns ( h) a s w e l l a s i t s t w o c ons t i t ue nt s ( h 1 ) t ha t J one s ow ns a f or d, a nd ( h 2 ) t ha t B r ow n i s i n B a r c e l ona : ( T ) ( h) i s gove r ne d by t he nor m of t r ut h by w a y o f i t s c ons t i t ue nt s i e ( h 1 ) t he c onc e pt o f di s j unc t i on a nd ( h 2 ) A l t hough t he c onc e pt of di s j unc t i on i s t he gove r ni ng c onc e pt i n ( h) i n t he s e ns e t ha t i t de t e r m i n e s t he t r ut h c ondi t i ons of ( h) r e l a t i ve t o ( h 1 ) a nd ( h 2 ) r e l a t i ve t o t he s e t r ut h c ondi t i ons ( h 1 ) a nd ( h 2 ) a r e ne ve r t he l e s s be hol de n t o t he nor m of t r ut h i nde pe nde nt l y o f e a c h ot he r N ow I pr opos e d a bove t ha t know l e dge r e qui r e s s a t i s f yi ng t he c or r e c t ne s s a nd e vi de nc e r e qui r e m e nt s f or t he s i m pl e c onc e pt s i n t he r e l e va nt m ode s o f c om bi na t i on, t ha t c ons t i t ut e t he s ync hr oni c a nd i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s o f one s be l i e f G i ve n t ha t ( h 1 ) a nd ( h 2 ) a r e c om bi ne d i n ( h ) vi a t he c o n c e pt of di s j unc t i on s a t i s f yi ng t he c or r e c t ne s s a nd e vi de nc e r e qui r e m e nt s f or ( h) r e qui r e s

PAGE 168

168 s a t i s f yi ng t he c or r e c t ne s s a nd e vi de nc e r e qui r e m e n t s f or ( h 1 ) or f or ( h 2 ) 1 3 ( h 1 ) ho w e ve r f a i l s t he c or r e c t ne s s r e qui r e m e nt w hi l e S m i t h f a i l s t he e vi de nc e r e qui r e m e nt r e l a t i ve t o ( h 2 ) S o, ne i t he r ( h 1 ) no r ( h 2 ) i s s uc h t ha t S m i t h s a t i s f i e s bot h t he c or r e c t ne s s a nd t he e vi de nc e r e qui r e m e nt s r e l a t i ve t o i t S o S m i t h f a i l s t he nor m of t r u t h r e l a t i ve t o ( h ) S o S m i t h doe s not know ( h) I n t hi s c a s e a l s o, S m i t h s de pl oym e nt of ( h) i s non c ul pa bl e s i nc e r a t i ona l c ul pa bi l i t y i s a m a t t e r of f a i l i ng t o s a t i s f y t he e vi de nc e r e qui r e m e n t S a t i s f yi ng t he e vi de nc e r e qui r e m e nt f or ( h ) r e qui r e s s a t i s f yi ng t he e v i de nc e r e qui r e m e nt s f or ( h 1 ) o r f o r ( h 2 ) a nd S m i t h s a t i s f i e s i t f or ( h 1 ) N ot e t ha t t h e know l e dge r e qui r e m e nt I p r opos e a bove na m e l y, t ha t know l e dge r e qui r e s s a t i s f yi ng t he c or r e c t ne s s a nd e vi de nc e r e qui r e m e n t s f or t he s i m pl e c onc e pt s i n t he r e l e va nt m ode s of c om bi na t i on, t ha t c ons t i t ut e t he s ync hr on i c a nd i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt s of one s be l i e f a c c or ds w i t h t he s pi r i t i f no t t he l e t t e r of t he c l a s s i c a l a na l ys i s I ha ve f o r m ul a t e d t he r e qui r e m e nt a s a ne c e s s a r y, but not s uf f i c i e nt f or know l e dge i n or de r t o a l l ow t ha t e v i de nc e one doe s not pos s e s s m i ght f unc t i on a s a n e pi s t e m i c de f e a t e r ( a s t he G e t t i e r s t yl e c a s e s I a m no t a ddr e s s i ng he r e m i ght s how ) M y r e qui r e m e nt ho w e ve r s uf f i c e s t o o f f e r a pl a us i bl e e xpl a n a t i on of w ha t goe s a m i s s i n G e t t i e r s c a s e s bot h c a n pl a us i bl y be e xpl a i ne d i n t e r m s of a n i nc or r e c t a l be i t non c ul p a bl e de pl oy m e nt of c onc e pt s A s I not e d i n n 12 t hi s c ha pt e r e pi s t e m ol ogy ha s t e nde d t o f oc us on pr opos i t i ons r a t he r t ha n c onc e pt s a s t he ba s i c c ons t i t ue nt s of be l i e f c ont e nt E pi s t e m i c pr ope r t i e s s uc h a s r a t i ona l a nd i r r a t i ona l j us t i f i e d a nd unj us t i f i e d o r c or r e c t a nd i nc or r e c t ha ve c ons e que nt l y be e n t hought t o be ba s i c pr ope r t i e s of be l i e f r a t he r t ha n pr ope r t i e s i ns t a nc e d by be l i e f by v i r t ue o f be i ng i ns t a nc e d by t he c ons t i t ue nt s of t he c ont e nt of be l i e f S uc h a c c ount s a r e l i m i t e d t o a s s e s s i ng t he r a t i ona l i t y, j u s t i f i c a t i on, or c or r e c t ne s s of be l i e f a s a w hol e a s t he y do not ha ve t he t he or e t i c a l t ool s t o s ubm i t t he c om pone nt s of be l i e f t o c o r r e s pondi ng 1 3 C l e a r l y t h e p r o p o s e d r e q u i r e m e n t d o e s n o t e x t e n d t o b e l i e f s w h o s e i n d i v i d u a t i n g c o n t e n t h a s t h e f o r m [ C % C ] E x c e p t f o r v a g u e c o n c e p t s p o s s e s s i o n o f a c o n c e p t p l a u s i b l y r e q u i r e s i m p l i c i t k n o w l e d g e t h a t t h i s c o n c e p t e i t h e r a p p l i e s o r f a i l s t o a p p l y t o t h e i t e m s i n i t s d o m a i n o f a p p l i c a t i o n

PAGE 169

169 a s s e s s m e nt I n m y vi e w s uc h a c c ount s a r e t oo c oa r s e gr a i ne d a nd f a l l pr e y t o G e t t i e r s c a s e s a s a r e s ul t K now l e dge doe s r e qui r e be l i e f t ha t i s c or r e c t a nd a de qua t e l y s uppor t e d by e vi de nc e G e t t i e r s c a s e s i nvol ve be l i e f t ha t i s i nc or r e c t a l be i t t r ue a nd a de qua t e l y s uppor t e d by e vi de nc e C on c l u s i on T he f or e go i ng s t udy ha s s ought t o de ve l op a f i ne g r a i ne d a c c ount of be l i e f c ont e nt O n t hi s a c c ount t he c ont e nt of be l i e f i s a c om pl e x c on c e pt f ul l y c ons t i t ut e d by s i m pl e c onc e pt s i n gi ve n m ode s of c om bi na t i on T hi s a c c ount di s t i ngui s he s t he i ndi vi dua t i ng c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of a be l i e f i e t he c ont e nt t ha t e nt e r s i nt o t he i ndi vi du a t i on c ondi t i ons of t hi s be l i e f f r om t he s ync hr oni c c ogni t i ve c ont e nt of t hi s be l i e f i e t he c ont e nt i t c ont r i but e s a t a t i m e t o t he c ogn i t i ve pr oc e s s e s of w hi c h i t i s a pa r t T hi s a c c ount w a s s how n t o yi e l d pl a us i bl e t r u t h c ondi t i ons f or de r e de di c t o a nd de s e be l i e f r e por t s a nd a pl a us i bl e e xpl a na t i on of w ha t i s e pi s t e m i c a l l y a m i s s i n G e t t i e r s c a s e s T hi s of f e r s s om e i nd i c a t i on t ha t t he a pp r oa c h i s f r ui t f ul I de ve l ope d t hi s a c c ount a s a t ool t o a ns w e r a que s t i on I di d not a ddr e s s i n t hi s s t udy, na m e l y, W ha t a r e t he f i r s t pe r s on a nd t hi r d pe r s on c ondi t i ons f or t he de pl oym e nt of t he c onc e pt of e pi s t e m i c j us t i f i c a t i on? T hi s que s t i on w a s m ot i va t e d by t he s us pi c i on t ha t m a ny di s a gr e e m e nt s i n e s pi s t e m ol ogy, e s pe c i a l l y t he i nt e r na l i s m / e xt e r na l i s m de ba t e c onc e r ni ng j us t i f i c a t i on a nd know l e dge a r i s e be c a us e t he oppos i ng s i de s p r i vi l e ge one de pl oym e nt c ondi t i on a t t he e xpe ns e of t he ot he r T he ne xt s t a ge i n t hi s p r oj e c t t he n, w i l l be t o a ppl y t he f or e goi ng a c c ount t o t hi s que s t i on. T h i s how e ve r w i l l ha ve t o be do ne i n a not he r c ont e xt

PAGE 170

170 L I S T O F R E F E R E N C E S A ndr e w s K r i s t i n ( 2003) : K now i ng m e nt a l s t a t e s : T he a s ym m e t r y of ps yc hol ogi c a l pr e di c t i on a nd e xpl a na t i on, i n C ons c i ous ne s s : N e w P hi l os op hi c al P e r s pe c t i v e s S m i t h, Q a nd J oki c A e ds O xf or d: O xf o r d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s 201 219 B e nne t t J ( 1990 ) : W hy I s B e l i e f I nvol unt a r y? A nal y s i s 50/ 2, 87 107. B o r S E ( 2007 ) : T hought C ont e nt s : O n t he O nt o l ogy of B e l i e f and t he Se m ant i c s of B e l i e f A t t r i but i on P hi l os oph i c al St ud i e s Se r i e s 104, N e w Y or k: S pr i nge r B r a t m a n, M ( 1999) : F ac e s of i nt e nt i on C a m br i dg e : C a m br i dge U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s B r e e n, N C a i ne D C ol t he a r t M H e ndy, J a nd R obe r t s C ( 2000) : T ow a r ds a n U nde r s t a n di ng of D e l us i ons of M i s i de nt i f i c a t i on: F ou r C a s e S t udi e s M i nd & L anguage 15/ 1, 74 110. B ur ge T ( 1993) : C ont e nt P r e s e r va t i on T he P hi l os ophi c al R e v i e w 102/ 4, 457 488. ( 1997) : I nt e r l oc ut i on, P e r c e pt i on, a nd M e m or y P hi l os ophi c al St udi e s 86/ 1 21 47. C o he n, L J ( 1989) : B e l i e f a nd a c c e pt a nc e M i nd 98, 367 389. ( 1992) : A n e s s ay on be l i e f and ac c e pt anc e O x f or d: O x f or d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s D a vi ds on, D ( 1980) : E s s ay s on A c t i ons and E v e nt s O xf or d: O xf or d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s ( 1984) : I nqui r i e s i nt o T r ut h and I n t e r pr e t at i on O xf o r d: O xf o r d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s ( 1901) : Sub j e c t i v e I n t e r s ubj e c t i v e O bj e c t i v e O xf or d: C l a r e ndon P r e s s D r e t s ke F I ( 1981 ) : K now l e dge and t he F l ow of I nf or m at i on C a m br i dge M A : M a s s a c hu s e t t s I ns t i t ut e of T e c hnol ogy ( M I T ) P r e s s E dgl e y, R ( 1969 ) : R e as ons i n t he or y and pr ac t i c e L ondon: H ut c hi ns on. E va ns G ( 1982) : T he v ar i e t i e s of r e f e r e nc e O xf or d: O xf o r d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s F r a nki s h, K ( 2004 ) : M i nd and Supe r m i nd C a m br i dge : C a m br i dge U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s F r i c ke r E ( 1994 ) : A ga i ns t G ul l i bi l i t y i n K now i ng f r om W or ds M a t i l a l B K a nd C ha kr a ba r t i A e ds N e w Y or k: S pr i nge r 125 161 F unkhous e r E ( 2003 ) : W i l l i ng B e l i e f a nd t he N o r m of T r ut h P hi l os ophi c al St ud i e s 115 179 195. G e t t i e r E ( 1963) : I s J us t i f i e d T r ue B e l i e f K now l e dge ? A nal y s i s 23/ 6, 121 123 G ol dm a n, A I ( 1976) : D i s c r i m i na t i on a nd P e r c e pt ua l K now l e dge T he J our nal o f P hi l os ophy 73, 771 791.

PAGE 171

171 ( 1979) : W ha t i s J us t i f i e d B e l i e f ? i n J us t i f i c at i on and K now l e dge : N e w St udi e s i n E pi s t e m ol ogy P a ppa s G S e d. D or t r e c ht : D R e i de l 1 23; r e pr i nt e d i n ( 2000) : E pi s t e m ol ogy : A n A n t hol ogy S os a E a nd K i m J e ds O xf or d : B l a c kw e l l P u b l i s he r s 340 53. G r i c e H P ( 1989 ) : S t udi e s i n t he W ay of W or ds C a m br i dge M A : H a r va r d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s H a r m a n, G ( 1986 ) : C hang e i n v i e w C a m br i dge : C a m br i dge U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s H i e r onym i P ( 2006) : C ont r o l l i ng A t t i t ude s P ac i f i c P hi l os ophi c al Q uar t e r l y 87/ 1 45 74. K a vka G ( 1983) : T he T oxi n P uz z l e A nal y s i s 43, 33 6. L a c ke y, J ( 2006) : T he N a t ur e o f T e s t i m ony P ac i f i c P hi l os ophi c al Q uar t e r l y 87/ 2 177 197. a nd S os a E e ds ( 2006) : T he E pi s t e m ol ogy of T e s t i m ony O xf o r d: O xf o r d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s L udw i g, K a nd R a y, G ( 2002 ) : V a gue ne s s a nd t he S or i t e s P a r a dox P h i l os ophi c al P e r s pe c t i v e s 16, 419 461. L udw i g, K a nd L e por t E ( 2005 ) : D onal d D av i ds on: M e ani ng T r ut h L anguage and R e al i t y O xf or d: O xf o r d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s M a c hi na K F ( 1976) : T r ut h, B e l i e f a nd V a gue ne s s r e pr i nt e d i n K e e f e R a nd S m i t h P ( e ds ) ( 1996) : V ague ne s s : A R e ade r C a m br i dge M A : M I T P r e s s 174 203. M or a n, R ( 1994) : I n t e r pr e t a t i on T he or y a nd t he F i r s t P e r s on T he P hi l os ophi c al Q uar t e r l y 44/ 175, 154 173 ( 2001) : A ut hor i t y and E s t r ange m e nt : A n E s s ay on Se l f K now l e dge P r i nc e t on: P r i nc e t on U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s O w e ns D ( 2000 ) : R e as on w i t hout F r e e dom : T he P r obl e m of E p i s t e m i c N or m at i v i t y L ondon; N e w Y or k: R ou t l e dge ( 2003) : D oe s B e l i e f ha ve a n A i m ? P hi l os ophi c al St udi e s 115, 283 305. P e a c oc ke C ( 1992) : A St udy of C onc e pt s C a m br i d ge M A : M I T P r e s s Q ui ne W V O ( 1956) : Q ua nt i f i e r s a nd P r opos i t i ona l A t t i t ude s J our nal of P hi l os ophy 53 177 186. S a i ns bur y, R M ( 1990) : C onc e pt s W i t hout B oun da r i e s r e pr i nt e d i n K e e f e R a nd S m i t h P ( e ds ) ( 1996 ) : V agu e ne s s : A R e ade r C a m br i dge M A : M I T P r e s s 251 264 S c hi f f e r S ( 2003 ) : T he T hi ngs W e M e an O xf o r d: O xf or d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s S e a r l e J R ( 2001) : R at i onal i t y i n A c t i on C a m br i dge M A : M I T P r e s s S ha h, N ( 2003 ) : H ow T r ut h G ove r ns B e l i e f T he P hi l os ophi c al R e v i e w 112/ 4 447 482

PAGE 172

172 V a hi d, H ( 2006) : A i m i ng a t T r u t h: D oxa s t i c vs E pi s t e m i c G o a l s P hi l os ophi c al St udi e s 131, 303 335. V e l l e m a n, J D ( 2000 ) : T he P os s i bi l i t y o f P r ac t i c a l R e as on O x f or d: O xf or d U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s W e dgw ood, R ( 2002) : T he A i m of B e l i e f P hi l os ophi c al P e r s pe c t i v e s : L anguage and M i nd 16, 267 297. W i l l i a m s B ( 1973) : P r obl e m s of t he Se l f C a m br i dge : C a m br i dge U ni ve r s i t y P r e s s W i l l i a m s on T ( 1992) : V a gue ne s s a nd I gnor a nc e P r oc e e di ngs of t he A r i s t ot e l i an Soc i e t y Supp. 66, 145 162 ( 1997a ) : I m a gi na t i on S t i pul a t i on a nd V a gue ne s s P hi l os ophi c al I s s ue s 15, 215 228 ( 1997b) : P r c i s of V ague ne s s P hi l os ophy an d P he nom e nol ogi c al R e s e ar c h 57/ 4, 921 928.

PAGE 173

173 B I O G R A P H I C A L S K E T C H E l i s a be t h K I S hor t s l e e ve obt a i ne d a B a c h e l or of A r t s w i t h a m a j or i n phi l os ophy, t he n M a s t e r of A r t s i n phi l os ophy, f r om B os t on C ol l e ge S he t he n pur s ue d he r doc t or a l s t udi e s i n phi l os o phy a t t he U ni ve r s i t y of F l or i da

PAGE 174

174 A S T U D Y O F B E L I E F C a ndi da t e 's na m e : E l i s a be t h K I S hor t s l e e ve P hone num be r : 352 392 2084 D e pa r t m e nt : P hi l os ophy S upe r vi s or y c ha i r : K i r k L udw i g D e gr e e : P h. D M ont h a nd ye a r of gr a dua t i on: A ugus t 2009 T hi s s t udy i nve s t i ga t e s t he na t ur e o f be l i e f a nd a r g ue s t ha t t he a ut hor i t y of t he nor m s t o w hi c h be l i e f i s s ubj e c t i s unde r w r i t t e n by t he ve r y na t ur e of be l i e f P hi l os ophy s t udi e s que s t i ons t ha t m i ght a r i s e f or a ny r e f l e c t i ve i ndi vi dua l but d oe s s o c a r e f ul l y a nd r i gor ous l y. I n t hi s c a s e t he que s t i on i s W hy s houl d a l l m y be l i e f s be be h ol de n t o t r ut h w he n ha vi ng a f a l s e be l i e f c a n s om e t i m e s be of gr e a t e r be ne f i t t o m e t ha n ha vi ng a t r ue be l i e f ? T hi s s t udy of f e r s a c a r e f ul m ot i va t e d a ns w e r t o t hi s que s t i on. T hough t e c hni c a l i t i s of i nt e r e s t t o a nyone f or w hom t hi s que s t i on a r i s e s