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Phylogeny Reconstruction of Periplocoideae (Apocynaceae) based on Morphological and Molecular Characters and a Taxonomic...

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024956/00001

Material Information

Title: Phylogeny Reconstruction of Periplocoideae (Apocynaceae) based on Morphological and Molecular Characters and a Taxonomic Revision of Decalepis
Physical Description: 1 online resource (169 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Ionta, Gretchen
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: apocynaceae, decalepis, periplocoideae, phylogeny, pollinia, systematics
Botany -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Botany thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Periplocoideae, a small but distinctive subfamily of Apocynaceae comprise 33 genera and ca. 195 species of mostly lianas, centered in the Old World tropics and subtropics, but also occurring in Old World temperate regions. Most species are lianas occupying tropical and subtropical forests; other forms include erect or straggling shrubs from semi-arid and desert regions, suffrutescent forest climbers, herbaceous geophytes from open habitats, and epiphytes in tropical forests. The generally small yet extremely complex flowers of Periplocoideae species exhibit the high degree of synorganization between androecium and gynoecium typical for derived members of Apocynaceae s.l. Distinctive spoon-like translators which assist in pollen transfer are unique to the subfamily. Within Apocynaceae, Periplocoideae are unique in having both taxa which shed pollen as tetrads as well as taxa whose pollen is agglutinated into pollinia, making this an ideal group in which to investigate the evolution of pollinia. The goals of this study were to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships within the subfamily, investigate the evolution of vegetative and floral features (particularly the evolution of pollinia) in a phylogenetic framework, and conduct a taxonomic revision of the genus Decalepis. Phylogenetic relationships were investigated using sequence data from nuclear ribosomal DNA, three plastid regions (trnD-trnT, trnT-trnF and ycf1), and 65 morphological characters. One hundred and three ingroup taxa, representing all but one of the 33 currently recognized genera, were represented in the molecular analyses. In some analyses, Phyllanthera grayi is supported as sister to the rest of the subfamily. Several well-supported clades are identified, and 17 of 19 genera represented by more than one species are supported as monophyletic. Pollinial species appear in four distinct, well-defined clades, suggesting either three or four independent origins of pollinia within the subfamily, and indicate that pollinia evolved separately in Periplocoideae and in the common ancestor of Secamonoideae and Asclepiadoideae, a hypothesis that is supported by the structural differences of the pollinia in each clade. Finlaysonia khasiana is transferred to the Indian genus Decalepis, a clade of ethnomedicinally important plants with unique corona morphology, Finlaysonia lanuginosa and F. curtisii are transferred to Streptocaulon, and Atherolepis, Meladerma, and Stelmacrypton are resurrected.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Gretchen Ionta.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Judd, Walter S.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2011-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024956:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024956/00001

Material Information

Title: Phylogeny Reconstruction of Periplocoideae (Apocynaceae) based on Morphological and Molecular Characters and a Taxonomic Revision of Decalepis
Physical Description: 1 online resource (169 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Ionta, Gretchen
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: apocynaceae, decalepis, periplocoideae, phylogeny, pollinia, systematics
Botany -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Botany thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: Periplocoideae, a small but distinctive subfamily of Apocynaceae comprise 33 genera and ca. 195 species of mostly lianas, centered in the Old World tropics and subtropics, but also occurring in Old World temperate regions. Most species are lianas occupying tropical and subtropical forests; other forms include erect or straggling shrubs from semi-arid and desert regions, suffrutescent forest climbers, herbaceous geophytes from open habitats, and epiphytes in tropical forests. The generally small yet extremely complex flowers of Periplocoideae species exhibit the high degree of synorganization between androecium and gynoecium typical for derived members of Apocynaceae s.l. Distinctive spoon-like translators which assist in pollen transfer are unique to the subfamily. Within Apocynaceae, Periplocoideae are unique in having both taxa which shed pollen as tetrads as well as taxa whose pollen is agglutinated into pollinia, making this an ideal group in which to investigate the evolution of pollinia. The goals of this study were to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships within the subfamily, investigate the evolution of vegetative and floral features (particularly the evolution of pollinia) in a phylogenetic framework, and conduct a taxonomic revision of the genus Decalepis. Phylogenetic relationships were investigated using sequence data from nuclear ribosomal DNA, three plastid regions (trnD-trnT, trnT-trnF and ycf1), and 65 morphological characters. One hundred and three ingroup taxa, representing all but one of the 33 currently recognized genera, were represented in the molecular analyses. In some analyses, Phyllanthera grayi is supported as sister to the rest of the subfamily. Several well-supported clades are identified, and 17 of 19 genera represented by more than one species are supported as monophyletic. Pollinial species appear in four distinct, well-defined clades, suggesting either three or four independent origins of pollinia within the subfamily, and indicate that pollinia evolved separately in Periplocoideae and in the common ancestor of Secamonoideae and Asclepiadoideae, a hypothesis that is supported by the structural differences of the pollinia in each clade. Finlaysonia khasiana is transferred to the Indian genus Decalepis, a clade of ethnomedicinally important plants with unique corona morphology, Finlaysonia lanuginosa and F. curtisii are transferred to Streptocaulon, and Atherolepis, Meladerma, and Stelmacrypton are resurrected.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Gretchen Ionta.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Judd, Walter S.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2011-08-31

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024956:00001


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PAGE 1

Decalepis

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Phyllanthera Peri ploca Omphalogonus calophyllus -Periploca nigrescens Finlaysonia Raphionacme lobulata Raphionacme

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Phyllanthera Raphionacme Schlechterella Baseonema Kappia Stomatostemma Finlaysonia Decalepis Decalepis

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Decalepis Decalepis nervosa Decalepis hamiltonii Decalepis khasiana Decalepis arayalpathra Decalepis salicifolia

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Decalepis

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Decalepis Decalepi s

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trnD trnT trnT -trnF ycf1 Phyllanthera grayi Finlaysonia khasiana Decalepis Finlaysonia lanuginosa F curtisii Streptocaulon Atherolepis Meladerm a Stelmacrypton

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Decalepis Finlaysonia Raphionacme Cryptolepis Pentopetia

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Decalepis Decalepis khasiana Decalepis hamiltonii D khasiana D nervosa Decalepis D arayalpathra D arayalpathra D hamiltonii D hamiltonii Decalepis hamiltonii

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D hamiltonii D hamiltonii Finlaysonia Decalepis Decalepis trnT trnF ycf1 trnD -trnT De calepis

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Introduction

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Raphionacme Cryptolepis Pentopetia Petopentia natalensis Ischnolepis Decalepis Finlaysonia Gymnant hera Hemidesmus Streptocaulon Epistemma Schlechterella

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Schlechterella trnT trnF trnT -trnL trnL trnF trnL trnD -trnT trnT -trnF Materials and Methods Taxon Sampling Petopentia Forsteronia leptocarpa Rhabdadenia biflora

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Sarcorrhiza Telectadium Mac laudia PCR Amplification and DNA Sequencing trnD -trnT trnT -trnF trnT -trnL trnL -trnF trnL

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Phylogenetic Analyses

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trnT -trnF trnD -trnT Results ITS Phyllanthera grayi Finlaysonia F insularum F lanuginosa Finlaysonia lanuginosa Streptocaulon juventas F insularum Atherandra acuminata Gymnanthera oblonga Zygostelma bentham ii

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Buckollia volubilis Epistemma rupestre Raphionacme Raphionacme lobulata Stomatostemma Periploca P n igrescens Omphalogonus calophyllus Cryptolepis Pentopetia Plastid Regions trnT -trnF trnD -trnT trnT -trnF trnD -trnT trnD -trnT trnT -trnF Camptocarpus mauritianus Cryptostegia madagascariensis Ischnolepis

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graminifolia Pen topetia grevei P longipetala Baroniella Cryptolepis Pentopetia Periploca P ni grescens Raphionacme R lobulata Ectadium latifolium Periploca Schlechterella abyss inica Raphionacme Finlaysonia Total Evidence trnD -trnT trnT -trnF Phyllanthera grayi Cryptolepis Omphalogonus calophyllus Peri ploca nigrescens Periploca laevigata P calophylla Finlaysonia F lanuginosa Streptocaulon juventas

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Camptocarpus Cryptostegia Morphology Periploca graeca Petopentia natalensis Epistemma rupestre Hemidesmus indicus Schlechterel la abyssinica

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Schlechterella abyssinica Epistemma rupestre Hemidesmus indicus Discussion Phyllanthera Sister to the R est of Periplocoideae? Phyllanthera grayi Phyllanthera Phyllanthera Cryptolepis Cryptolepis Cryptolepis Phyllanthera Phyllanthera Cryptolepis Phyllanthera Pentanura Phyllanthera grayi Cryptol epis Phyllanthera Gymnanthera

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Hemidesmus Phyllanthera Phyllanthera Phyllanthera Atherandra Phyllanthera Phyllanthera A Grooved Translator C lade

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Raphionacme Baseonema gregorii Sacleuxia newii Schlechterella abyssinica Ectadium latifolium Petopentia natalensis Decalepis Hemidesmus Cryptolepis buchananii Cryptostegia madagascariensis Cryptolepis An Asian Pollinial Clade

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Gymnanthera oblonga Zygostelma bentham ii Periploca graeca Petopentia natalensis Epistemma rupestre Hemidesmus indicus Schlechterella abyssinica

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Atherandra Atherandra acuminata A. acuminata A acuminata A Malagasy Clade? Baroniella Camptocarpus Cryp tostegia Ischnolepis Pentopetia Baroniella Camptocarpus Ischnolepis Pentopetia Monophyly of Genera and the Genus Periploca Stomatostemma Pentopetia Cryptolepis Stomatostemma Pentopetia Cryptolepis Periploca

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Periploca Periploca Monocoronata Periploca P calophylla P graeca P visciformis P. laevigata Periploca nigrescens Monocoronata Omphalogonus calophyllus Cryptolepis Periploca Periploca P. nigrescens Monocoronata Monocoronata Periploca P nigrescens Periploca Monocoronata Omphalogonus cal ophyllus -Periploca nigrescens Periploca nigrescens Omphalogonus calophyllus Periploca nigrescens Parquetina gabonica Omphalogonus calophyllus

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Parquetina nigrescens P nigrescens Omphalogonus Omphalogonus calophyllus Periploca nigrescens P nigrescens O. calophyllus A Polyphyletic Finlaysonia Finlaysonia Finlaysonia F insularum Gymnanthera insularum Meladerma insularum F. lanuginosa Gongylosperma lanuginosa F obovata Finlaysonia F insularum Atherandra acuminata Gymnanthera oblonga Zygostelma bentham ii F lanuginosa Streptocaulon juventas F lanuginosa S. juventas Finlaysonia lanuginosa Streptocaulon Finlaysonia Finlaysonia

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Raphionacme lobulata R enders Raphionacme N on -monophyletic Raphionacme R lobulata Raphionacme R lobulata Raphionacme Stomatostemma R lobulata Raphionacme Raphionacme lobulata Raphionacme Schlechterella Baseonema R. lobulata Stomatostemma Batesanthus Raphionacme R. lobulata Stomatostemma Evidence for Multiple Origins of Pollinia

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Epistemma Schlechterella Hemidesmus Epistemma Buckollia Schlechterella Hemidesmus Epistemma Buckollia Schlechterella Schlechterella Schlechterella

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Hemidesmus E pistemma Hemidesmus Hemidesmus Schlechterella Epistemma General Conclusions

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trn trn Forsteronia leptocarpa Simes & Singer 1037 Rhabdadenia biflora Zona 616 Atherandra acuminata Put. 4139 Baroniella camptocarpoides Phillipson et al. 3956 Baseonema gregorii Cox & Abdallah 2028 Batesanth us purpureus Hart 620 Buckollia volubilis Hangen 2041 Camptocarpus mauritianus Petignat s.n. Crypt olepis buchananii Sultan s.n. Cryptolepis capensis Abbott 7761 Cryptolepis delagoensis Bru yns 9357 Cryptolepis hypoglauca Bidgood et al 2086 Cryptolepis oblongifolia Bruyns 9367 Cryptoste gia madagascariensis Ionta 418 Cryptostegia madagascariensis Ionta 538 Decalepis arayalpathra Rajasekharan s.n. Ectadium latifolium Albers 2413 Epistemma rupestre deWilde 7462 Finlaysonia insularum Middleton 1164 Finlaysonia lanuginosa (Ridl.) Venter Livshultz 03 41 Gymnanthera oblonga Forster 6133

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trn trn Hemidesmus indicus Civeyrel 1008 Ischnolepis grami nifolia Rsli s.n. Mondia whitei ex hort. Ollerton s.n Myriopteron paniculatum Shunc heng 9801135 Omphalogonus calophyllus Mwangoka et a. Pentopetia grevei Mangelsdorff 516 Pentopetia longipetala Allorge 2422 Periploca calophylla Liu Zheng Yu 15548 Periploca graeca Endress s.n. Periploca laevigata Fernandez s.n. Periploca nigrescens Merello et al. 1354 Periploca visciformis Mies 1444 Petopentia natalensis ex hort. Kiel. Phyllanthera grayi Forster 24232 Raphionacme flanaganii Albers 1577 Raphionacme galpinii Abbott s.n. Raphionacme lobulata Dold 4461 Raphionacme madiensis Specks 682 Sacleuxia newii Bruyns 8653

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trn trn Schlechterella ab yssinica Newton 4555 (UBT) Stomatostemma monteiroae IPPS 1427 Stomatostemma pendulina Bruyns 7716 S treptocaulon juventas Middleton 276 Tacazzea apiculata Renvoize 5760 Zygostelma bentham i i Middleton 849 trnT F Sacleuxia newii trnL F trnT L

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Cryptostegia madagascariensis Gymnanthera oblonga Ectadium latifolium Mondia whitei Periploca graeca Cryptolepis buchananii Decalepis hamiltonii Finlaysonia insularum Stomatostemma monteiroae

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Introduction

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Raphionacme Cryptolepis Pentopetia Finlaysonia Phyllanthera Decalepi s Finlaysonia Gymnanthera Hemidesmus, Streptocaulon Epistemma Schlechterella

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Schlechterella ycf1 Finlaysonia Finlaysonia wallichii

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Atherolepis Atherolepis F. pierrei. Materials and Methods Taxon Sampling for Molecular Analyses Kappia Cryptolepis Raphionacme Finlaysonia Maclaudia Forsteronia leptocarpa, Rhabdadenia biflora Thyrsanthella difform e

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DNA Isolation, Amplification and Sequencing trnD -trnT trnT -trnF ycf1

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Morphological Taxon Sampling and Characters Maclaudia Decalepis nervosa Phyllanthera perakensis Streptocaulon kl einii Telectadium dongnaiense Sequence Alignment and Phylogenetic Analysis Alignment

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Data partitions trnT trnF trnD -trnT yfc1 Congruence

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Parsimony Maximum l ikelihood

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Results Sequence Characteristics trnT -trnF ycf1 Decalepis nervosa, Macl audia felixii, Ph yllanthera perakensis, Streptocaulon kleinii and Telectadium dongnaiense ycf1 trnT F trnD T Parsimony Analyses ITS Phyllanthera

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Finlaysonia Decalepis Finlaysonia Finlaysonia Finlaysonia curtisii Finlaysonia lanuginosa Gongylosperma Finlaysonia Decalepis D. arayalpathra D salicifolia Finlaysonia khasiana D. hamiltonii Stomatostemma Kappia Gymnanthera Zygostelma Atherandra Finlaysonia pierrei F insularum Finlaysonia curtisii Finlaysonia lanuginosa Streptocaulon Epistemma Sarcorrhiza Epistemma Sarcorrhiza Buckollia Cryptolepis Parquetina Plastid regions trnT -trnF trnD -trnT ycf1 ycf1 trnD -trn T

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trnD trnT ycf1 Camptocarpus Cryptostegia Ischnoleis Pentopetia Baroniella trn T-trnF Ectadium Periploca Pentopetia Cryptolepis trnT -trnF Raphionacme Schlechterella Finlaysonia insularum F lanuginosum Streptocaulon juventas Zygostelma benthami i Finlaysonia Finlaysonia lanugino sa Streptocaulon DNA combined

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Phyllanthera grayi Schlechterella Raphionacme Kappia Stomatostemma Finlaysonia Finlaysonia Finlaysonia lanuginosa Streptocaulon Morphology Apocynum cannabinum

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Periploca Camptocarpus Ectadium Gymnanthera Epistemma Parquetina Telectadium Phyllanthera Decalepis Finlaysonia De c alepis arayalpathra D. salicifolia Finlaysonia curtisii F. lanuginosa Raphionacme Schlechterella Phyllanthera Cryptolepis Streptocaulon Finlaysonia curtisii F lanuginosa Decalepis D. nervosa D nervosa Finlaysonia khasiana Batesanthus purpureus Kappia lobulata, Myriopteronextensum Mondia whitei, Maclaudia felixii, Stomatostemma montieroae Tacazzea Stomatostemma R. flanaganii Molecular and morphological data combined

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Finlaysonia Decalep is Tacazzea Epistemma Sarcorrhiza Buckollia Baseonema gregor ii Raphionacme Schlechterella Cryptolpeis Parquetina Finlaysonia F. curtisii F lanuginosa, Streptocaulon Decalepis arayalpathra D salicifolia Finlaysonia khasiana Decalepis hamiltonii D nervosa Cryptolepis Ectadium Periploca Phyllanthera

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Maxiumum Likelihood Analyses Phyllanthera Telectadium Raphionacme Raphionacme Schlechterella Baseonema Sarcorrhiza Epistemma Buckollia Cryptolepis Parquetina Hemidesmus Sacleuxia Finlaysonia F lanuginosum F curtisii Streptocaulon Decalepis Decalepis D nervosa Decalepi s arayalpathra D salicifolia D hamiltonii F khasiana Ectadium Periploca Camptocarpus Cryptolepis

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Phyllanthera Discussion Effect of Missing D ata

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Position of Phyllanthera Phyllanthera Phyllanthera perakensis Phyllantera Telectadium Phyllanthera Phyllanthera Telectdium Clades of Interest G rooved translator clade

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Raphionacme procumbens Sacleuxia newii Ectadium latifolium Telectadium Phyllanthera grayi Periploca calophylla Ischnolepis graminifolia Raphionac me Raphionacme Hemidesmus Sacleuxia Hemidesmus Raphionacme Sacleuxia Raphionacme Hemidesmus

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Hemidesmus Sacleuxia Raphionacme Asian pollinial clade Atherandra Gymnanthera Zygostelma Finl aysonia Decalepis Streptocaulon Atherandra acuminata Zygostelma bentham ii Atherandra Zygostelma Zygostelma Epiphyte clade Epistemma Sarcorrhiza Epistemma Sarcorrhiza Epistemma rupestre, E. assianum Sarcorrhiza epiphytica

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Buckollia volubilis Commiphora Acacia Epistemma Sarcorrhiza Buckollia Raphionacme + Schlechterella + Baseonema Raphionacme Schlecht erella S africana Mondia whitei Periploca Gymnanthera Baseonema Raphionacme Schlechterella Raphionacme Schlec hterella Baseonema

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Midvein colleter clade Batesanthus Kappia Stomatos temma Tacazzea Mondia Myriopteron Stomatostemma pendulina Stomatostemma montieroae S pendulina Kappia Tacazzea venosa T pedicillata Stomatostemma pendulina Batesanthus Maclaudia Raphionacme Hemidesmus Sacleuxia Kappia + Stomatostemma Kappia Stomatostemma Stomatostemma Kappia Sacluexia Raphionacme grandiflora Ischnolepis Kappia Stomatostemma Malagasy clade Baroniella Camptocarpus Cryptostegia Ischnolepis Pentopetia

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Baroniella Baroniella Ischnolepis Generic C ircumscriptions Monophyletic genera Periplo ca Raphionacme Schlecterella Camptocarpus Hemidesmus indicus Baroniella Ectadium

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Gymn anthera Raphionacme Schlecht erella Epistemma Parquetina Camptocarpus mauritianus Phyllanthera Raphionacme Telectadium Ischnolepis graminifolia Stomatostemma pendulina Cryptolepis sinensis Camptocarpus Cryptolepis C decidua Phyllanthera Cryptostegia madagascariensis Pentopetia grevei

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Telectadium Phyllanthera Ectadium Raphionacme galpinii Baseonema gregor ii Baroniella Cryptolepis eburnea Phyllanthera Phyllanthera bifida P sumatrana P. perakensis P perakensis Finlaysonia obovata Parquetina A paraphyletic Finlaysonia Finlaysonia Finlaysonia F curtisii Gongylosperma curtisii F insularum Meladerma insularum F khasiana Stelmacrypton kha siana F lanuginosa Gongylosperma lanuginosa F pierrei Atherolepis pierrei F obovata F insularum F lanuginosa F khasiana F. obovata

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Finlaysonia Finlaysonia Finlaysonia Finlaysonia lanuginosa F curtisii Gongylogperma Streptocaulon Streptocaulon Finlaysonia lanuginosa F curtisii Tacazzea a piculata T venosa Pentopetia Atherandra Sarcorrhiza Finlaysonia F lanuginosa F curtisii Streptocaulon Finlaysonia lanuginosum F curtisii Streptocaulon Atherolepis Atherolepis w allichii A therolepis perrei Meladerma M eladerma insularum Streptocaulon lanuginosum comb. nov.Gongylospermalanuginosum

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Decalepis Decalepis D ecalepis nervosa D h amiltonii D arayalpathra D salicifolia Finlaysonia khasiana D arayalpathra D salicifolia D nervosa D arayapathra D salicifolia D khasiana Decalepis hamiltonii D nervosa D hamiltonii F khasiana D arayalpathra D salicifolia Decalepis D hamiltonii Streptocauloncurtisii comb. nov.Gongylospermacurtisii

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Parquetina calophyll a D nervosa Decalepis D nervosa D arayalpathra D salicifolia Finlaysonia khasiana D arayalpathra D salicifolia Dec alepis Decalepis F khasiana Decalepis General Conclusions

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Raphioncame Finlaysonia Decalepis Finlaysonia curtisii F lanuginosa Streptocaulon Finlaysonia Atherolepis Meladerma Decalepis arayalpathra D salicifolia D hamiltonii F khasiana D nervosa D nervosa Decalepis Decalepis Decalepis Finlaysonia khasiana Decalepis Decalepis

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Atherandra acuminata Put. 4139 Baroniella camptocarpoides Phillipson et al. 3956 Baroniella capillacea Gautier et al. 3545 Baroniella linearis Gautier & Be 2925 Baseonema gregorii Cox & A bdallah 2028 Batesanthus purpureus Hart 620 Buckollia volubilis Hangen 2041 Camptocarpus acuminatus Rakoto 254 Camptocarpus crassi folius Miller & Randranasolo 6051 Camptocarpus mauritianus Petignat s.n. Cryptolepis arbuscula Miller 1010 1 B Cryptolepis bucha nanii Sultan s.n. Cryptolepis capensis Abbott 7761 Cryptolepis cryptolepioides Joubert 27 Cryptolepis decidua Venter 10740 Cryptolepis delagoensis Bruyns 9357 Cryptolepis eburnea Leeuwenberg 8083 Cryptolepis hypoglauca Bidgood et al 2086 Cryptolepis intricata Miller 10166 Cryptolepis migurtina Bolly & Melville 15622 Cryptolepis oblongifolia Bruyns 9367 Cryptolepis obtusa Joubert 30 Cryptolepis producta Goyder et al. 3823 Cryptolepis sinensis Middleton 1 016 Cryptolepis sanguinolenta Berghe n 9785 Cryptoplepis socotrana Miller et al. 10289 Cryptostegia madagascariensis Ionta 418 Decalepis arayalpathra Rajasekharan s.n. Decalepis hamiltonii Ramamoorthy HFP 1810 Decalepis salicifolia Fieldman RHT 49764 Ectadium latifolium Albers 2413 Ectadium rotundifolium Giess et al. 6205 Ectadium virgatum Venter 10742 Epistemma assianum Leeuwenburg 5455

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Epistemma rupestre deWilde 7462 Finlaysonia curtisii Kerr 12471 Finlaysonia insularum Middleto n 1164 Finlaysonia khasiana Koelz 29763 Finlaysonia lanuginosa Livshultz 03 41 Finlaysonia obovata Schodde & Craven 4205 Finlaysoni a pierrei Maxwell 99 79 Gymnanthera cunninghamii Forster 6133 Gymnanthera oblonga Hyland 8052 Hemidesmus indicus Civeyrel 1008 Ischnolepis graminifolia Rsli s.n. Kappia lobulata D old 4461 Mondia ecornuta Luke & Robertson 2352 Mondia whitei ex hort. Ollerton s.n Myriopteron paniculatum Shuncheng 9801135 Pa rquetina calophyll a Mwangoka et a Parquetina nigrescens Merello et al. 1354 Pentopetia albicans Jongkind & An driantiana 3743 Pentopetia androsaemifolia Allorge 2422 Pentopetia cotoneaster Allorge 2688 Pentopetia grevei Mangelsdorff 516 Pentopetia ovalifol ia Miller & Randrianasolo 6163 Pentopetia reticulata Leeuwenburg 14691 Periploca angustifolia Reading Univ.BM Exped. 176 Periplo ca aphylla S. Huber s.n. Periploca calophylla Liu Zheng Yu 15548 Periploca gracilis Kennedy 1879 Periploca graeca Endress s.n. Periploca laevigata Fernandez s.n. Periploca linearifolia Kindeketa et al. 265

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Periploca sepium Smith 5562 Periploca somaliense Thulin et al. 8154 Periploca visciformis Mies 1444 Petopentia natalensis ex hort. Kiel. Phyllanthera bifida Talip 50561 Phyllanthera grayi Forster 24232 Phyllanthera nymanii Hartley 11926 Phyllanthera sumatran a Korthals s.n. Raphionacme welwitschii Specks 287 Raphionacme chimanimaniana Bruyns 7696 Raphionacme dyeri Nicholas 2862 Raphionacme elata Borchers 47 Raphionacme flanaganii Albers 1577 Raphionacme galpinii Abbott s.n. Raphionacme gra ndiflora Specks 770 Raphionacme hirsuta A. Venter 722 Raphionacme longituba Bingham 10274 Raphionacme lucens H JTV Venter 10751 Raphionacme madiensis Specks 682 Raphionacme montieroae Bruyns 5767 Raphionacme namibiana Bruyns5758 Raphionacm e palustris HJT Venter 10755 Raphionacme procumbens A. Venter 721 Raphionacme velutina Kolberg 792 Raphionacme zeyheri Lavranos & Bleck 22573 Sacleuxia newii Bruyns 8653 Sacleuxia tuberosa Kerfoot 3596 Sarcorrhiza epiphytica Eilu 205 Schlechterella abyssinica Newton & Liede 4555 Schlechterella africana Luke & Robertson 2232 Stomatostemma monteiroae IPPS 1427 Stomatostemma pendulina Bruyns 7716 Streptocaulon juventas Middleton 276 Streptocaulon wallichii Maxwell 84 174

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Tacazzea apiculata Renvoize 5760 Tacazzea pedicillata Breteler 7646 Tacazzea venosa Friis et al. 6898 Telect adium edule Maxwell 98 79 Zygostelma benthamii Middleton 849 Forsteronia leptocarpa Simes & Singer 1037 Rhabdadenia biflora Zona 616 Thyrsanthella difforme JR Abbott 22608

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Raphioncame flanaganii

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Apocynum cannabinum Brumbach 120 35 Bryson & Newton Demaree 62206 Hood 4683 Labisky 88 Thomas 97487 Thomas et al. 23419 Windler & Keenan 3126 Atherandra acuminata Backer 6835 ibid 11762 Put. 4139 Baroniella camptocarpoides Dumetz 617 Phillipson et al. 3956 Randrianasolo 348 Baroniella capillacea Gautier et al. 3545 Baseonema gregorii Cox & Abdallah 2028 Goyder et al. v an S omeren 184 Batesanthus purpureus Hart 620 Onochie 34873 Polhill & Kirkup 5190 Ujor 30024 Buckollia volubilis Beesley 48 Gilbert 420 Gillett 13711 Hangen 2041 Phillipson & Sitoni 4980 Richards 25306 d e Wilde 7279 Camptocarpus crassifolius Humbert Miller & Randranasolo 6051 OConnor 57 Camptocarpus mauritianus Grondin s.n Cryptolepis buchananii Dividse 7387 Forrest 19342 Grierson & Long 2060 Hub er 19 Iraui 2007 Jayasuriya 1419 Maxwell 75 1056 ibid 89 781 ibid 89 1559 Cryptolepis capensis Buitendag 1200 Hilliard & Burtt 7575 Joubert 31 Strey7310 Cryptolepis decidua Davidse 6200 Goldbl att & Manning 8782 Kolberg et al. 559 Miller et al. 10172 Seydel 3036 ibid 4330 Williamson 3678 Cryptolepis eburnea Amshoff 4235 Berhaut 5958 ibid 6550 Leeuwenberg 8083 Toilliez 358 Cryptol epis oblongifolia Amshoff 2316 ibid 7669 Joubert 26 Lowe 1647 Olorunfemi 55719 Pawek 6150 Phillips 3129 Reekmans 7212 ibid 10192 Smith 485 Werdermann & Oberdieck 1262 Cryptolepis sinensis Chand 5829 Chang 5822 Cheng 231 Henry s.n Koelz 30037 Levine 1129 Maxwell 76 480 ibid 87 10 Petelot 2211 Wang & Lin 02017 Cryptoplepis socotrana Miller et al. 10289 Smith & Lavranos Cryptostegi a madagascariensis Ionta 418 Jongkind 1584 Marulanda & Rodrguez 865 Decalepis arayalpathra Joseph 46503 Rajasekjaran et al. s.n Decalepis hamiltonii Arockiasamy RHT 7987 Barber 8454 Ellis 14274 Gamble 15085 Jarrett et al. HFP 605 Matthew RHT 41897 Matthew & Murugesan RHT 14819 Matthew & Venugopal RHT 13974 Nicolson et al. HFP 163 Ramamoorthy HFP 1810 Rao 46873 Saldanha 13840 Saldanha 14128 Saldanha 16823 Sreenath & Ramesh KFP 4275 Yeshoda 81

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Decalepis nervosa Beddome s.n. Clarke s.n. Cole 17254 Gamble s.n. Hooker & Thomson 25 Metz s.n. Schmid s.n. Sebastine s.n. Thomson 3264 Watt 756 Wight 36 Wight 22 Decalepis salicifolia Beddome 28 Beddo me 53 Beddome s.n. Fieldman RHT 49764 Fischer 3394 Fischer s.n. Ectadium latifolium Coetzee & Werger 6735 Dinter 1020 ibid 6290 Mannheimer & Mannheimer 293 Ectadium virgatum Giess 13801 Le Roux & Ramsey 222 Smook 8011 Epistemma assianum Hall 42397 Leeuwenburg 5455 Epistemma rupestre Bos 7462 Letouzey 9994 Finlaysonia curtisii Kerr 12471 Finlaysonia insularum Chin 1743 Finlaysonia khasian a Henry 12061A Koels 29763 Finlaysonia lanuginosa Henderson 29141 ibid 37836 Finlaysonia obovata Brass 21694 Canfield 625 Conklin 734 Kerr 17475 Maxwell 80 16 ibid 96 1608 Mendoza 97894 Schodde & Craven 4205 Sinclair 4966 Wenzel 1634 Finlaysonia pierrei Maxwell 92 436 ibid 99 79 Put 4111A Forsteronia leptocarpa Simes & Singer 1037 Gymnanthera cunningham i i Forster 6133 Gymnanthera oblonga Blake 14 908 Brass 21925 Byrnes 2399 Chan 1341 Craven 6472 Forster 3706 Fryxell & Craven 4178 Hu 5506 ibid 9081 ibid 6334 ibid 11206 ibid 11543 Hyland 8052 Lau 508 Li 158 McClure CCC7652 OReilly 670 Petelot 1413 Schomburg s.n Taam 1708 Hemidesmus indicus Bernardi 14312 Cooray 69121609R Gamble 16061 Iraui 1260 Iraui 1289 ibid 1316 Jarrett et al. HF P 612 Jaysuriya et al. 578 Mueller Dombois 67121008 ibid 67121009 Pierre 4376 Raghavan 103310 Ramamoorthy HFP 384 ibid 1282 Saldanha 9081 ibid 13998 ibid 14096 ibid 14117 ibid 14394 ibid 14410 ibid 14522 ibid 15604 ibid 15654 ibid 17867 ibid 17924 Savalia s.n. Sebastine 22831 Townsend 73/213 Wirawan 690 Ischnolepis graminifolia Allorge 2366 Leeuwenberg & Ra panarivo 14667 Malcomber & Leeuwenberg 1168 Messmer & Andriatsiferana NM 815 Phillipson et al. 4042 Rasoavimbahoaka 386 v an der Werff & McPherson 13561 Kappia lobulata Dold 4461 Maclaudia felixii Amshoff 866 Flix 1906

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Mondia whitei Bakari ATBP 592 Berhaut 6351 Bouquet 1266 Goyder & Paton 3665 Pawek 6417 v an Welzen 513 HJT Venter 9068 Myriopte ron paniculatum Belcher 118 Garrett 1264 Henry 13114 Koyama T 61371 Maxwell 89 146 ibid 89 1131 ibid 89 1154 ibid 89 1206 ibid 93 281 Shuncheng 9801135 Zhanhuo 91 197 Pachypodium lealii saundersii Davis 1279 Parquetina calophylla Audru 35065 Keay & Latile FHI Hiepko & Schultze Motel 223 Mwangoka et al. 1241 Schmidt et al. 3324 de Wilde 532 Parquetina nigr escens Adam 25523 Louis et al. 830 Merello et al. 1354 Stam 96 de Wilde 532 ibid 8114 Parsonsia straminea Endress 00 36 Forster 28693 Pentopetia androsaemifolia Allorge 2442 ibid 2452 Ba rnett et al. 395 Humbert & Bathie 2369 Jongkind & Andriantiana 3628 Malcomber et al., 2845 Randriamampionona 154 Wohlhauser 60078 Pentopetia cotoneaster Allorge 2688 Pentopetia grevei Eboroke 892 Phillipson 233 6 Turnour 29 ibid 61 Pentopetia ovalifolia Allorge 2607 Miller & Randrianasolo 6163 Phillipson 2418 ibid 3425 Rakotomalaza 584 Periploca aphylla Barkley 32 Ir 2439 Davis & Bokhari 55731 Boulos & Ali 1937 3 Dar et al. 19 Goodman s.n. 1985 Hussain & Akhtar 572 ibid 665 Samuelsson 1014 Periploca calophylla Cehong 755 Forrest 25318 Grierson & Long 4026 Guanghui 59085 Heng 8893 Maire s.n., 1921 Mengi s.n. Sino Amer Bot Exped 888 Tsai 58768 Zheng yu 15548 ibid 15454 Wang 93 Periploca graeca Barkley & Mohamed 3427 Daniel & Butterwick 2933 Dourley 52009 Lindsay 883 Skvortsov s.n. 1976 Periploca laevigata Bramwell 230 ibid 403 Grandvaux Barbosa 7286 Kunkel 12429 Mennema 3034 Muschler s.n. 1913 Rthlisberger s.n. Schuhwerk 90/391 Periploca visciformis Burger 1442 Gil lett 5456 Wieland 4740 de Wilde 4811 de Wilde 7277 Wood 3168 Petopentia natalensis HJT Venter 10756 Ward 5884 Phyllanthera bifida Forbes 2436 Pulle 318 Talip 50561 de Vogel & Vermeulen 7380 W inckel 128 Phyllanthera grayi Gray 1650

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Phyllanthera nymanii Hartley 11926 Millar NGF 23017 Streimann & Kairo NGF 21183 Womersley NGF 19427 Phyllanthera perakensis Bnnemeyer 31102 de Wilde & de Wilde Duyfjes 12437 Phyllanthera sumatrana Beccari 640 Korthals s.n. Prestonia mollis Fennell 1382 Sagstegui 12482 Raphionacme flanaganii Giffen 1222 Strey 11359 Raphionacme galpinii Balsinhas 3144A Codd 1973 Hobson 2134 Kemp 1177 Mogg 34965 HJT Venter 10754 Raphionacme grandiflora Goyder et al. 3597 Nkhoma et al. 63 Richards 7397 Wiland & Mboya 46 Raphi onacme hirsuta Bayliss 3714 Meebold 12577 Paige 4 Phillipson & Dold 4212 Scheepers 1023 van Steenis 24173 A. Venter 722 Raphionacme procumbens Goyder 5030 Kemp 1150 A. Venter 721 HJT Venter Rhabdadenia biflora Carnavali et al. 5554 West & Arnold 793 Zona 616 Sacleuxia newii Abdallah & Kaj 95/64 Mwangoka & Nyangasa 621 Pcs & Temu 87228 Thulin & Mhoro 2978 Sarcorrhiza epiphytica Pcs 8641 Schlechterella abyssinica Gilbert & Jones 87 Newton & Liede 4555 Schlechterella africana Gillett & Glover 19625 Luke & Robertson 2232 Greenway 10816 Haugen 948 Stomatostemma monteiroae Chase, 1474 ibid 8096 Dav ies 1303 Guy 2467 Patel 1414 Pope et al 1440 Venter 2427 ibid 10750 Stomatostemma pendulina Bruyns 7716 Streptocaulon juventas Clemens 4016 Frake 522 ibid 656 Hansen & Smitinand 12185 Henry 12439 ibid 12861 Ko 55864 Kui 231 Lace 2756 Maxwell 75 1035 ibid 87 1654 ibid 90 662 ibid 90 808 ibid 92 551 ibid 97 1437 ibid 99 234 Murata et al T 16450 Phuakam 58 Roc k 2263 ibid 1006 Sulit 5602 Streptocaulon kleinii Kerr 19676 Pailane 28548 Schmid s.n. 1954 Streptocaulon wallichii Elmer 1332 ; ibid 5549 ; Geesink & Phengkhlai 6252 Maingay 1100 Maxwell 8 4 174 Merrill 168 ibid 890 ibid 3491 Ramos 8 Sinclair 39318 Tacazzea apiculata Brummitt et al 14214 Hepper 3846 Ngoni 525 Reekmans 9260 Renvoize 5760 Robynd 1876 Rodin 4380 de Wild e 480 Tacazzea pedicillata Breteler 7646 Everard 3467 Lebrun 1648 Letouzey 11618 ibid 11637 Louis 106 Tacazzea venosa Friis et al. 6885 ibid 689 8 Schweinfurth 192 Sermolli 1240

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Telectadium dongnaiense Pierre 3556 Schmidt s.n. 1954 Telectadium edule Thyrsanthella difform e J.R. Abbott 22608 Darwing & Sundell 1564 Easley 470 Garla nd 564 Short 32 Sundell & Darwin 2393 Tan 633 Zygostelma bentham i i Godefroy & Harmand 10 Maxwell 75 406 ibid 91 790 ibid 91 975 ibid 92 594 ibid 92 681 Parnell et al. 95 265 Sang khachand 1078

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1 2 3 4 5 6 1234567890123456789012345678901 2345678901234567890123456789012345 Atherandra acuminata 00000200000001000002000111?011011000000001100111111100100100???00 Baroniella camptocarpoides 00000020100000001002000001101101100001012100011100110000010100000 Baroniella capillacea 0000002010000000 ?012000001101101100001012100001100110000010100?00 Baseonema gregorii 000002310000010000120000110111011000002?2100011110110100010000100 Batesanthus purpureus 00000031001001000012000001101101A000000001000111111100000100???00 Buckollia volubilis 0001020000 0001000012000011001101100000000100001110110000110000100 Camptocarpus crassifolius 00000021100000001012001011001101100001010100011100110000011100000 Camptocarpus mauritianus 00C00021100000001002101011001101100001010100011100110000011100000 Cryptolepis bu chananii 00000000100000101012000100001101101000001100111100010000010010000 Cryptolepis capensis 00000100100000000002000110001301101000001100111100010000010100000 Cryptolepis decidua 10010000100001001010010000001101101000000100001100110000010000000 Cryp tolepis eburnea A0000100100000100012000100011101101000002100101100010000010000000 Cryptolepis oblongifolia A0000100100000001012000100001101101000001100001100010000010000000 Cryptolepis sinensis 00000A001000000000120001000011011010000011000011000100000 11000000 Cryptolepis socotrana 10000100100000000012000100001101101000001100001100010000010000000 Cryptostegia madagascariensis 00000010100000000012010000111101101000000100001100110000011011000 Decalepis arayalpathra 1050001000000001000200000100110110 30000111000111101210100100?0?00 Decalepis hamiltonii 00500011000000000002000001010101100000011100111110121010010010000 Decalepis nervosa 00000211000001000012000001011101103000011100011110121010010000100 Decalepis salicifolia 105000110000000110020000010 01101103000011100011110121010010000000 Ectadium latifolium 1000020200001100?010000000011101102000001110101100010001010000100 Ectadium virgatum 1000020200001100?010000000011101102000001110101100010001010000100 Epistemma assianum 010002020000010000120000 01101101100100000100011110121020010000000 Epistemma rupestre 01000202000001000012000001101101100100000100011110121020010000000 Finlaysonia curtisii 00000210000002001112000001101101100000000100011111121010010000100 Finlaysonia insularum 000002100000010 000120000011011011000000001000111101210100100???00 Finlaysonia khasiana 000002100000010000020000010001011030000111001011101210100100?0000 Finlaysonia lanuginosa 000002120000020011????00011??10?100000???1?0??11???21010010000100 Finlaysonia obovata 0000 0010000000001012000001000101100000000100001110121010010000011

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1 2 3 4 5 6 12345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345 Finlaysonia pierrei 00000 221000001000012000001000101100000010100011110121010010010000 Gymnanthera cunninghamii 10000011000000000002000001001200100000011100011110121010012000000 Gymnanthera oblonga 00000B11000000000002000001001200100000011100011110121010012000000 Hemidesmus ind icus 00000B21000000000012001001001101100000001100011110121010010000000 Ischnolepis graminifolia 10320010020000000002000001001101100000000100011110110000010100000 Kappia lobulata 00300031001000000012000001000101100000001100011110110000010010000 Maclau dia felixii 000002210010010000120000011011011020000011000111111100000100???00 Mondia whitei 00C00231001001000012000001201101100000100100011111110000010010000 Myriopteron paniculatum 00000031001001000002000001001101100000000100011111110000010013000 Parq uetina calophylla 000010111000001000021000011011111030100?1100A01100110000010010000 Parquetina nigrescens 00001011100000000002100011101111100010000100101100110000010010000 Pentopetia androsaemifolia 000000A010000000001200000000100110000000A1A0101100110 000010000000 Pentopetia cotoneaster 00000200100002000012000001101000100000001100001100110000010000100 Pentopetia grevei 00000010100000000012000000101101101000001100001100110000010002000 Pentopetia ovalifolia 000002001000020000120000010010011000000011 00001100110000110012100 Periploca aphylla 10000B0000000100?002000001200021100000110100101100110000010000A00 Periploca calophylla 00000010100000001002000001200001100200110100101110110000010000000 Periploca graeca 000000101000000010020000012000211000001 10100101100110000010000000 Periploca laevigata 0000021010000A00100200000120A021100200110100101100110000010000000 Periploca visciformis 10000B1010000000?012000001201021100000110100101100110000010000000 Petopentia natalensis 001000101000000010020000010 01101100000000100001110110020010010000 Phyllanthera bifida 000000101 0000000100200000110111100 ------111001100110000010000001 Phyllanthera grayi 000000101000000000020001011011011000002?2110001110110000010010000 Phyllanthera nymanii 0000001010000000000 20001011011011000002?2110001100110000010????0? Phyllanthera perakensis 000000101 0000000100200000110111100 ------11110110011000001000000? Phyllanthera sumatrana 00000010100000001002000001?011111000002?2111101100110000010000001 Raphionacme flanaganii 00 200231001001000012000001211100100010110100011110110100012000100 Raphionacme galpinii 10200221000001000012000001211100100010110110011110110100012000100 Raphionacme grandiflora 102 00211000001000012000001101100100000110100011110110100012000000 Raphionacm e hirsuta 102002D1000001000010000001111100100000011100011110110100012000000 Raphionacme procumbens 002002D1000001000012000001211100100010110100001100110100012000000 Sacleuxia newii 10300221000001001003000001001100100000001100011100110000110000100 Sar corrhiza epiphytica 0140021000000000001???00012011011000000001000?1111110000010000100

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1 2 3 4 5 6 12345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345 Schlechterella abyssinica 0020022100000100001 00000011011001000001101000111101 201000120???00 Schlechterella africana 00210021000000000010000001001101100000110100011 1?01 20100012000000 Stomatostemma monteiroae 00300B2100000A0000120000002011011020000011 00011111110000011010000 Stomatostemma pendulina 1030002002000000?0????00000?11011020000001000?11???1000001?000000 Streptocaulon juventas 000002210000020001A20000011001011000000001000 1111112101 0010000100 Streptocaulon kleinii 00000221000002000102000 001 ?1110110000000010001111112101 0010000100 Streptocaulon wallichii 00000221000002000102000 00110110110000000010001111112101 0010000100 Tacazzea apiculata 0000022100100D000A12000001201101100000000100011111110000010010100 Tacazzea pedicillata 000002210010000 01012000001211101100000000100011110110000010010000 Tacazzea venosa 100002BA00100D000A12000001201101100000000100011110110000010010000 Telectadium dongnaiense 10000000120000001012000000?01101101000001100011110110000011000000 Telectadium edule 10000200120 001001012000000?11101101000001100011110110000011000000 Zygostelma bentham i i 00000021000000000012000001101101100000210100011110110020010????00 Apocynum cannabinum 10000BD00 0000AA0000000 00000A100101 ------0000002 --1000000 000000 Forsteronia leptocarpa 000002??? 02100000011100001?0000100 ------0000010 --000 010 000000 Pachypodium lealii .saundersii 100100000 1000A00000000000000100000 ------0000010 --000 000 000000 Parsonsia straminea 000000??? 0000000001100000101010100 ------0000000 --000 000 000000 Prestonia mollis 0000022100000100001 11001000110001010000000001000 --000 000 000100 Rhabdadenia biflora 000000220 0000010000000000000100000 ------0001010 --000 000 000000 Thyrsanthella difforme 00000B210 0000100001200000000100000 ------0001000 --000 000 0 00000

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trnT trnF trnD trnT ycf1

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trnT trnF trnD trnT ycf1

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Decalepis Finlaysonia

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Decalepis Finlaysonia Streptocaulon

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Decalepis Finlaysonia Streptocaulon

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Decalepis Finlaysonia Streptocaulon

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Decalepis Finlaysonia a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q

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Mondia whitei Cryptolepis oblongifolia Cryptolepis capensis Raphionacme procumbens Tacazzea apiculata Stomatostemma montieroae

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Decal epis Introduction Decalepis Decalepis khasiana Decalepis hamiltonii D khasiana Decalepis D nervosa Decalepis arayalpathra Decalepis salicifolia D. nervosa Raphionacme Sacluexia Stomatosemma

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Decalepis D. nervosa Mondia whitei Periploca laevigata Hemidesmus indicu s Rhus vulgaris Sclerocarya caffra Decalepis Decalepis Decalepis D nervosa D khasiana Decalepis D salicifolia Decalepis

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Taxonomic History Decalepis Decalepis hamiltonii Contributions to the Botany of India Decalepis hamiltonii Decalepis Baeolepis Janakia Decalepis Utleria D nervosa Decalepis khasiana Stelmacrypton Finlaysonia

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Finlaysonia Ethnobotany and Conservation Decalepis D. nervosa D khasiana Decalepis hamiltonii D hamiltonii Hemidesmus indicus De calepis arayalpathra Janakia arayalpathra D araylpathra

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Decaepi s salicifolia Decalepis khasiana D nervosa Decalepis Mondia whitei Mondia whitei

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Periploca laevigata Hemidesmus indicus Rhus vulgaris Sclerocarya caffra Decalepis Decalepis D arayalpathra D arayalpathra D hamiltonii D hamiltonii D hamiltonii D khansiana D hamiltonii Cryptolepis buchananii Ichnocarpus

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frutescens H indicus Decalepis hamiltonii D. hamiltonii D hamiltonii Sitophilus oryzae Rhyzopertha dominica Tribolium castaneum Decalepis D. hamiltonii D arayalpathra D salicifolia

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D arayalpathra D salicifolia D hamiltonii Hemidesmus indicus D hamiltonii D arayalpathra D salicifolia Materials and Methods General Morphology

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Scanning Electron Microscopy Morphology Habit Decalepis D hamiltonii D nervosa D khasiana D salicifolia D arayalpathra D salicifolia D. arayalpathra Decalepis D nervosa

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Roots Decalepis arayalpathra D. hamiltonii D. s alicifolia D. arayalpathra D. salicifolia D. hamiltonii D khasiana D nervosa Stems Decalepis salicifolia D nervosa D hamiltonii D. khasiana D arayalpathra D salicifolia Le aves D. salicifolia

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D arayalpathra D salicifolia D salicifolia D hamiltonii D nervosa D. hamiltonii D nervosa D. arayalpathra D salicifolia D nervosa D salicifolia D salicifolia D s alicifolia D. hamiltonii

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D nervosa Indumentum Decalepis Decalepis arayalpathra D salicifolia D hamiltonii D khasiana Decalepis nervosa D. hamiltonii D k hasisa D ecalepis khasiana D nervosa Inflorescence Decalepis khasiana D arayalpathra D hamiltonii D salicifolia D nervosa D hamiltonii D.

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arayalpathra D. salicifolia D nervosa D khasisana D khasiana D nervosa D salicifolia D khasiana D salicifolia Flower Structure and Te rminology Decalepis Decalepis arayalpathra D khasiana Calyx D ecalepis hamiltonii D salicifolia D khasiana D salicifolia

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D hamiltonii Corolla D ecalepis khasiana D khasiana D arayalpathra D nervosa D khasiana D nervosa Corona D ecalepis hamiltonii D nervosa D salicifolia D arayalpathra Decalepis khasiana D. hamiltonii D. nervosa

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Androecium Decalepis khasiana D nervosa D khasiana D. khasiana D nervosa D khasiana D arayalpathraD. salicifolia D hamiltonii D khasiana Pollen and Translators Decalepis nervosa Decalepis hamiltonii

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Decalepis khasiana D hamiltonii Nectaries Decalepis D nervosa D khasiana D nervosa D. hamiltoniiD salicifolia D arayalpathra D khasiana Gynoecium D ecalepis hamiltonii Decalepis D khasiana

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Decalepis D hamiltonii D nervosa D salicifolia D arayalpathra Fruits Decalepis Decalepis D hamiltonii D hamiltonii D hamiltonii D salicifolia D khasiana Seeds D ecalepis nervosa D. hamiltonii D nervosa D khasiana Su m mary Decalepis D arayalpathra D salicifolia

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D hamiltonii D khasiana D nervosa D nervosa Phylogeny Decalepis D arayalpathra D ecalepis D hamiltonii D arayalpathra D salicifolia D nervosa Finlaysonia khasiana Decalepis D nervosa Decalepis Decalepis Decalepis D arayalpathra D salicifolia Decalepis

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hamiltonii D khasiana D nervosa Habitats and Distribution Decalepis D khasiana Decalepis hamiltonii

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De calepis arayalpathraD salicifolia D nervosa Decalepis nervosa Decalepis Decalepis nervosa Decalepis salicifolia D. arayalpathra Decalepis salicifolia

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Decalepis arayalpathra Decalepis khasiana Generic Description Decalepis Decalepis hamiltonii Baeolepis Brachylepis Brachylepis Cornacchinia Cornacchinia Bae olepis nervosa Brachylepis nervosa Utleria Utleria salicifolia Hanghomia Hanghomia marseillii Stelmacrypton Stelmacrypton khasianum

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Janakia Janakia arayalpathra Roots D nervosa Stems Leaves Inflorescences Flowers Sepals

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Corolla Corona Gynostegium Stamens Pollen Nectaries Ovary Translators

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Follicles Se eds Key to the Species of Decalepis D. salicifolia D. arayalpathra D. nervosa D. hamiltonii D. khasiana

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Species Descriptions 1 Decalepis nervosa (Wight & Arn.) Venter Decalepis nervosa Brachylepis nervosa Baeolepis nervosa R. Wight, WC 1565 Roots Ste ms Leaves Inflorescences

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Flowers Sepals Corolla Corona Stamens Pollen Nectaries Ovaries

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Translator Follicles Seeds Additional specimens examined Beddome s.n Clarke s.n Cole 17254 Gamble s.n Hooker & Thomso n 25 Metz s.n Schmid s.n. Sebastine s.n Thomson s.n Thomson 3264 Watt 756 Wight s.n Wight s.n Wight 36 Wight 22 unknown collector unknown collector unknown collector unknown collector unknown collector unknown collector unknown collector unknown collector

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Comparison to other species Decalepis ner vosa Decalepis D. hamiltonii D. khasianaD. arayalpathra D. salicifolia Decalepis D. khasiana D. khasiana Nomenclatural details Brachyl epis brachys lepis Brachylepis Brachyl epis Cornacchinia Cornacchinia Baeolepis B nervosa

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baeo lepis ner vosa Decalepis Decalepis 2. D ecalepis hamiltonii Wight & Arn. Decalepis hamiltonii R. Wight Roots Stems Leaves Inflorescences

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Flowers Sepals Corolla Corona Stamens Pollen Nectaries Ovaries Translator

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Follicles Seeds Additional specimens examined Ellis 14274 Gamble 15085 Matthew & Venugopal RHT 13974 Rao 46873 unknown collector Jarrett, Saldanha & Ramamoorthy HFP 605 Nicolson, Saldanha & Ramamoorthy HFP 163 Ramamoorthy HFP 1810 Saldanha 13840 Saldanha 14128 Saldanha 16823 Sreenath & Ramesh KFP 4275 Barber 8454 Arockiasamy RHT 7987 Matthew RHT 41897 Matthew & Murugesan RHT 14819 Yeshoda 81 Wight s.n Com parison to other species Decalepis hamiltonii D. nervosa D. khasiana Decalepis

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Decalepis D. khasiana D. nervosa 3. Decalepis khasiana (Kurz) Ionta Decalepis khasiana comb. nov. Pentanura khasiana Stelmacrypton khasianum Finlaysonia khasiana W.S. Kurz Hanghomia marseillii M. Andr s.n Periploca acuminata Rahman & Hossain 56 Roots Stems Leaves

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Inflorescences Flowers Sepals Corolla Corona Stamens

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Pollen Nectaries Ovaries Translator Follicles Additional specimens examined Henry 12061A Koels 29763 Comparison to other species Decalepis khasiana D. nervosa D. hamiltonii D. khasiana Decalepis D. hamiltonii Nomenclatural details Pen tanura khasiana Stelmacrypton Stelmacrypton Stelmocrypton Stelmatocrypton

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4. Decalepis arayalpathra (J. Joseph & V. Chandras.) Venter Decalepis arayalpathra Janakia arayalpathra Roots Stems Leaves Inflorescences Flowers Sepals

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Corolla Corona Stamens Pollen Nectaries Ovaries Translator Follicles Seeds Additional specimens examined Jose ph 46503 Rajasekharan & party s.n. Comparison to other species Decalepis arayalpathra D. salicifolia Decalepis D. hamiltonii

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D. hamiltonii D. salicifolia D. salicifolia D. salicifolia Nomenclatural details Janakia Ficus religiosa Arayal Ficus religiosa pathra 5. Decalepis salicifolia (Bedd. ex. Hook. f.) Ven ter Decalepis salicifolia Utleria salicifolia R.H. Beddome 53 Roots Stems Leaves

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Inflorescences Flowers Corolla Corona Stamens

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Pollen Nectaries Ovaries Translator Follicles Seeds Additional specimens examined Fischer s.n. Beddome s.n Beddome s.n. Fischer 3394 Beddome 53 Beddome 28 Comparison to other species Decalepis salicifolia D. arayalpathra

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Decalepis

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Phyllanthera Telectadium Atherandra Decalepis FinlaysoniaGymnanthera Streptocaulon Zygostelma Buckollia Epistemma Sarcorrhiza Buckollia Raphionacme Schlechterella Baseonema Raphionacme Schlechterella

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Batesanthus Kappia Stomatostemma Tacazzea Mondia Myriopteron Stomatostemma Raphionacme Camptocarpus Cryptostegia Ischnolepis Pentopetia Baroniella Periploca Camptocarpus Ectadium Gymn anthera Epistemma Parquetina

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Telectadium Cryptolepis Phyllanthera Phyllanthera Phyllanthera bifida P sumatrana P. perakensis Phyllanthera perakensis Periploca graeca Petopentia natalensis

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Epistemma Schlechterella Hemidesmus Finlaysonia Finlaysonia F wallichii Finlaysonia F lanuginosa Streptocaulon Finlaysonia Streptocaulon F. lanuginosum F curtisii F lanuginosum F curtisii Streptocaulon Finlaysonia f Atherolepis Meladerma Decalepis D nervosa Finlaysonia khasiana Decalepis

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D nervosa D. khasiana Decalepis arayalpathra D salicifolia D nervosa D nervosa Decalepi s Decalepis

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In vi tro Decalepis hamiltonii in Periploca In In Parquetina nigrescens Sarcorrhiza epiphytica Janakia arayalpathra

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Epistemma Gymnanthera

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Cryptolepis Utleria salicifolia Decalepis hamiltonii D ecalepis hamiltonii In vitro Decalepis hamiltonii Decalepis hamiltonii Brachylepis Janakia arayalpathra

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Baroniella Camptocarpus Pentopetia Ischnolepis Pentanura Lavrania Larryleachia Notechidnopsis

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Periploca laevigata Mondia whitei Decalepis hamiltonii Hemidesmus indicus Decalepis hamiltonii ycf1 matK in

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Menabea venenata Seca monopsis madagascariensis Decalepis hamiltonii trn trn Janakia arayalpathra Utleria salicifolia Utleria salicifolia Utleria salicifolia In vitro Decalepis hamiltonii Secamone

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Periploca in In rbc in Hemidesmus indicus Decalepis hamiltonii Janakia arayalpathra In vitro Decalepis arayalpathra

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Decalepis arayalpathra Sorghum Decalepis hamiltonii Decalepis hamiltonii Periploca Raphionacme lobulata Buckollia Parquetina nigrescens

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Raphionacme Petopentia Tacazzea Periploca Raphionacme Schlechterella Epistemma Petopentia Tacazzea Stelmatocrypton khasianum