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Participatory Land Use Planning In The Brazilian Amazon

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024925/00001

Material Information

Title: Participatory Land Use Planning In The Brazilian Amazon Creating Learning Networks Among Farmers, Non-Governmental Organizations, and Government Institutions
Physical Description: 1 online resource (167 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Bartels, Wendylin
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: agroforestry, amazon, brazil, communities, deforestation, environmental, governance, incentive, learning, networks, organizations, participatory, payments, pes, pesacre, proambiente, services, social, stakeholders, valuation
Interdisciplinary Ecology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Interdisciplinary Ecology thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This study examines participatory land use planning in the Brazilian Amazon to assess the value of planning tools and social networks as platforms for social learning among stakeholders. Social learning is understood as a process of exchanging perspectives, creating common visions, and establishing interdependent working relationships. The study explores social learning among stakeholders in Proambiente, a federal government Payments for Environmental Services (PES) program that incorporates land use planning to foster ecosystem stewardship in the Brazilian Amazon. The study responds to the need for a refined understanding of the conditions that affect how stakeholders respond to PES programs, how they collectively learn within PES programs, and the extent to which they can adapt these instruments to meet changing needs. Data were collected through a qualitative case study of Proambiente in the state of Acre and analyzed through a framing analysis and social network software. Findings show that the advantages of Proambiente are framed differently according to the interests of the particular stakeholder groups involved. Designers of PES initiatives may need to consider customizing incentive structures depending on family, community, and social system priorities. Currently, Proambiente?s land use planning tools and emerging social networks do not provide effective platforms for social learning among stakeholders. This study demonstrates that a social learning process requires more than simply guaranteeing enabling conditions at the property level, because stakeholders are nested within a broader social context. Certain stakeholders may strategically limit their level of participation in program implementation because of the political risks involved. Therefore, one cannot assume that social learning will be an emergent property of stakeholder interaction within networks using ?participatory? planning tools. This study suggests that in order to reverse our reliance on technocratic solutions to managing natural resources and foster democratic environmental governance, social learning must be an intentional practice that is valued by stakeholders. PES practitioners should consider the broader socio-political context into which these schemes are inserted and prioritize learning, negotiation and reflection as explicit program goals.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Wendylin Bartels.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Schmink, Marianne C.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024925:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024925/00001

Material Information

Title: Participatory Land Use Planning In The Brazilian Amazon Creating Learning Networks Among Farmers, Non-Governmental Organizations, and Government Institutions
Physical Description: 1 online resource (167 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Bartels, Wendylin
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: agroforestry, amazon, brazil, communities, deforestation, environmental, governance, incentive, learning, networks, organizations, participatory, payments, pes, pesacre, proambiente, services, social, stakeholders, valuation
Interdisciplinary Ecology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Interdisciplinary Ecology thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This study examines participatory land use planning in the Brazilian Amazon to assess the value of planning tools and social networks as platforms for social learning among stakeholders. Social learning is understood as a process of exchanging perspectives, creating common visions, and establishing interdependent working relationships. The study explores social learning among stakeholders in Proambiente, a federal government Payments for Environmental Services (PES) program that incorporates land use planning to foster ecosystem stewardship in the Brazilian Amazon. The study responds to the need for a refined understanding of the conditions that affect how stakeholders respond to PES programs, how they collectively learn within PES programs, and the extent to which they can adapt these instruments to meet changing needs. Data were collected through a qualitative case study of Proambiente in the state of Acre and analyzed through a framing analysis and social network software. Findings show that the advantages of Proambiente are framed differently according to the interests of the particular stakeholder groups involved. Designers of PES initiatives may need to consider customizing incentive structures depending on family, community, and social system priorities. Currently, Proambiente?s land use planning tools and emerging social networks do not provide effective platforms for social learning among stakeholders. This study demonstrates that a social learning process requires more than simply guaranteeing enabling conditions at the property level, because stakeholders are nested within a broader social context. Certain stakeholders may strategically limit their level of participation in program implementation because of the political risks involved. Therefore, one cannot assume that social learning will be an emergent property of stakeholder interaction within networks using ?participatory? planning tools. This study suggests that in order to reverse our reliance on technocratic solutions to managing natural resources and foster democratic environmental governance, social learning must be an intentional practice that is valued by stakeholders. PES practitioners should consider the broader socio-political context into which these schemes are inserted and prioritize learning, negotiation and reflection as explicit program goals.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Wendylin Bartels.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Schmink, Marianne C.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024925:00001


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PAGE 7

Seringal

PAGE 14

et al et al. et al.

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et al. et al et al Research G oals

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Structure of t his D issertation Literature Review of P ayments for Environmental S ervices (PES)

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Underlying Assumptions, C oncepts and De finition of PES et al.

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Elements of PES D esign Types of a ctivities being compensated et al et al et al et al Stakeholders involved

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et al et al et al.

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Type s of financing and benefit schemes et al et al. et al et al et al. et al.

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et al. Enrollment, targeting and constraints to participation et al et al.

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Conditionality and m onitor ing et al. et al et al.

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et al et al. et al. leakage permanence. et al. et al.

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et al et al. Transaction c osts et al. et al.

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et al. El Programa Face De Forestacion et al. et al. et al. Meeting C onservation and Poverty -R eduction G oals : Challenged for PES et al et al Ecological Economics

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et al socially inefficient financially inefficient additionality et al. et al. et al. et al et al.

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et al. Environment and Development Economics et al et al. et al et al.

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et al et al et al should et al Conclusions

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et a l et al et al et al et al. et al

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et al F indings and Importance of this R esearch

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Limitations of t his R esearch

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Introduction et al

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Market -Based Incentives, Amazon S mallholders, and Environmental Stewardship et al et al. et al et al et al et al et al

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Proambiente, Participatory Land U se Planning, and PES

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et al. et al

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Transformation of S mall -S cale Rural P roducers in the Brazilian Amazon Programa Nacional de Fortalecimento da Agricultura Familiar

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Grito da Amaznia A Case Study in the State of Acre Governo da Floresta Florestania

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et al. et al.

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The Design of Proambiente Geographical C overage

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Instituto do Home me Meio Ambiente da Amaznia Dinmica do Desma tamento no Estado do Acre (1988-2004) Dinmica do Desmatamento no Estado do Acre (1988-2004) Planejando Futuros Sustentveis para os Pequenos Produtores: Programa Proambiente Plo Alto Acre O Manejo da Paisagem e a Paisagem do Manejo Instituto Internacional de Edu o do Brasil

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Participants: S ocio -Economic Characteristics and Family S election

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Stakeholder Roles and R esponsibilities

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agent e comunitrio

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Conselho Gestor

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Conselho Gestor Nacional

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Proambientes Implementation P rocess

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Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalizao e Qualidade Industria Instituto de Manejo e Certificao Florestal e Agrcola

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Definition and M onitoring of the Environmental S ervices

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PES: The Nature of R ewards

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ajuda de cust o

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Transaction C osts Fundo Constitucional de Financiamento do Norte Anlise da Viabilidade Econmica do PROAMBIENTE na Amaznia.

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Ministrio do Desenvolvimento Agrario Sistema Agro -Florestal Ministerio de Meio Ambiente Agro -Extratavista Fundo Nacional do Meio Ambiente

PAGE 59

Conclusion

PAGE 62

I ntroduction

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et al

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Framing : A Theoretical Framework and a Method for Data A nalysis

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Research Questions Study Site

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Seringal Porto Carlos seringal Projeto de Desenvolvimento Sustentvel

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seringals seringal seringal Reserva Legal seringal fazendeiro Vila Nari Bela Flor vila

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reserva legal Data Collection Methods

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et al

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Data Analysis Techniques

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et al Issues of R eliability

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R esults Framing Proambiente Frame 1a Conservation: S ustainable practices

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must do not allowed preservac o Frame 1b Conservation: R esource s carcity

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Frame 1c Cons ervation: P lanned production through e ducation

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plano de uso how

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Frame 2a Compensation: An e xchange for s ervices

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Fram e 2b Compensation: Supporting rural s tewards

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Frame 3 Bottom-up governance and alternative dev elopment

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Stakeholder Priorities in Proambiente

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Stakeholder Understand ing of E nvironmental S ervices

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people Frame 1 Conservation: S ustainable practices

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capoeira Frame 2 Compensation: Supporting rural stewards

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.

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habituated to wait for the money each month. dinheiro vivo D iscussion

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Variation in Interpretations of C onservation within Proambiente

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have to

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must in exchange

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The I mport ance of the P in PES

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C onclusions

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et al et al.

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Introduction et al et al

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et al. et al.

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Learning as P articipation et al.

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et al et al.

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mutiro

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R esearch Goals and Questions Research Goal 1: Understanding Community Network Structure and Brokerag e. Research Goal 2: Understanding Stakeholder Participation on Proambientes St ate Management C ouncil Research Goal 3: Understanding Planning Tool Utility

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Research Methods Research Go al 1 : Understanding Community Network Structure and Brokerage

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Density (c ohesion)

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Network centralization Degree c entrality Betweenness Recoding d ata.

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Creating one mode from two mode matrices and comparing network structures

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Research Goal 2: Understanding Participation among Stake holders on Proambientes State Management C ouncil Research Goal 3: Understanding Planning T ool Utility

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Results Community N etworks I nternal Brokers and External A lliances seringal.

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Social n etworks in Nari Bela Flor s oldad o de borracha seringal

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Social networks in seringal Porto Carlos

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seringal

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Th e importance of external affiliations for connecting community members

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Levels of Participation among S tak eholders on Proambientes State Ma nagement C ouncil

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Constraints to participation on the council

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Stakeholder U tilization of P rogram Planning T ools and P rogram Impacts at the Community and Institutional L evel Household and community level utilization of property-level management plans, community agreements, and collectiv e action for sustainable land management

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o lote dos sonhos

PAGE 131

dano

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M utira mutira mutira seringal pat r a. mutira mutira mutira

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mutira fazendeiros mutira

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mutira Council level utilization of regional development plan

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diagnosticos conselhos diagnosticos

PAGE 138

Discussion and Conclusions Brokers Within and Beyond N etworks

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Management Pl ans as Platforms for Learning

PAGE 142

Democratic Environmental G overnance

PAGE 144

Limitations of the S tudy Issues of Reliability and Instrument Validity

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The Importance of Non Participating F amilies

PAGE 149

seringal

PAGE 152

et al

PAGE 153

et al

PAGE 154

outcome process

PAGE 155

Government Institutions N on -governmental organizations (NGOs)

PAGE 157

NRM Changelinks. Env. and Dev. Econ. Alternative Visions: The Rural Social Movements in Latin America Movimentos sociais e politicas publicas na Amaznia A participao dos agricultores na construo do Proambiente. Uma reflexo a partir do Plo Transamaznica. Global Env. Change Talking Politics Am. J. of Soci ol. Ecol. Eco n.

PAGE 158

Int. Forestry Rev Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods J. of Community & Applied Soc. Psych Eos Trans. AGU Env. and Dev. Eco n. Am. J. of Sociol Ec ol. Eco n. J. Int. Dev Communi cation of Innovations: A journey with Ev Rogers Estatsticas do meio rural 2008: Departamento Intersindical de Estatstica e Estudos Socioeconmicos; Ncleo de Estudos Agrrios e Desenvolvimento Rural Ministrio do Desenvolvimento Agrario Ecol. Econ. The social organization of innovation

PAGE 159

Peoples participation: Challenges ahead Anais da Academia Brasileira de Cincias Soc. Res. Online The discovery of grounded theory Planejando Futuros Sustentveis para os Pequenos Produtores: Programa Proambiente Plo Alto Acre O Manejo da Paisagem e a Paisagem do Manejo Instituto Internacional de Edu o do Brasil World Dev Am. J. of Sociol. Am. J. of Sociol Academy of Management Review PIB da Agricultura familiar: Brasil-Estados

PAGE 160

Ag. Systems Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Amazonia at the crossroads J. Ag. Ed. and Ex t. Environment Int. J. of Agric., Gov., and Ecol. Int. For. Rev. Soc. and Nat. Res. Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology Ecol. Econ. Situated Learning: Legitimate peripheral participation

PAGE 161

Roads, Governance and Land Use in the Brazilian State of Acre. Ecosystems and Human Well -being: Synthesis Am. J.of Sociol. Ministerio de Meio Ambiente Proambiente: Certificao de Servios Ambientais do Proam biente Knowledge Representation Efetividade do Mecanismo de Desenvolvimento Limpo (MDL) no Contexto das Atividades Agroflorestais no Brasil: uma anlise crtica A Alternativa Agroflorestal na Amazn ia em Transformao Sistemas Agroflorestais: Bases Cientficas para o Desenvolvimento Sustentvel. Superando a Dicotomia entre Produo Rural e Conservao Ambiental: relato de uma iniciativa dos movimentos sociais rurais da Amaznia. Florestas, Gesto e Desenvolvimento: Opes para a Amaznia. Anlise da Viabilidade Econmica do PROAMBIENTE na Amaznia. Communication of Innovations: A journey with Ev Rogers Framing Public Life: Perspectives on Media and our Understanding for the Social World,

PAGE 162

Forest ecosystem services: Can they pay our way out of deforestation. The costs and benefits of reducing carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in the Brazilian Amazon. Philos T rans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. Servios Ambientais da agricultura familiar: Contribuies para o desenvolvimento sustentvel da Amaznia. Ecol. Econ. J. of Community and Applied Soc. Psych. Payments for Environmental Services: From Theory to Practice. World Development Selling Environmental Services Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. Developing markets for the ecosystem services of forests. World Development

PAGE 163

Advocacy group and news media framing of public policy issues: Frame mapping the wetlands debates. Diffusion of innovations. Wheelbarrows full of Frogs:Social Learning in Natural Resource Management J. Ag. Ed. and Ext Anthropolgy and Climate Change: From encounters to action Techniques to identify themes. Field Methods When Social Movement Proposal s Become Policy: Experiments in Sustainable De velopment in Brazilian Amazonia Contested Frontiers in Amazonia Am Soc. Rev. International Social Movement Research

PAGE 164

Grounded Theory in Practice Nat ure Dinmica do Desmatamento no Estado do Acre (1988-2004) J. Ecol. and Soc. Ag., Ecosys. and Env Javnost/The Public Communication of Innovations: A journey with Ev Rogers Sc. Comm.: An Interdisc. Soc. Sc. J. Family tree of theories, methodologies and strategies in development communication An. Rev. of Sociol Cultivating communities of practice

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Ecol. Econ Env. a nd Dev. Econ. Ecol. Econ Payments for environmental services: Some nuts and bolts Ecol. Econ

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Bartels Communication a