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The Role of Art in Political Communication

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024869/00001

Material Information

Title: The Role of Art in Political Communication
Physical Description: 1 online resource (65 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Del Castillo, Ernesto
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: archetypes, art, communication, dialectical, jungian, political, realism
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Mass Communication thesis, M.A.M.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The role art plays as a form of political communication is often overlooked despite the fact that it is extremely relevant. Throughout the history of the human race, art has been used as a form of historical archiving, documenting the existence of past civilizations. As a historical record, art has served as a marker of what has happened before, providing our civilization with an established structure on which to build upon It is logical to conclude, therefore, that art is an expression of human reality, and that socially created institutions, like government and politics, are composed of the same structural tenets as art. Art as a form of political communication is not limited to poetry, however. Picasso?s painting, Guernica, still stands as one of the most enduring protests against Franco?s Spain. Euge gravene Ionesco?s play, Rhinoce acuteros, was an absurdist piece often considered as a response to fascism, communism, and the Nazi uprising before WWII. Ernst Junger?s Die veranderte Welt, a book of photography, protested the glorification of German culture championed by the Nazis. According to Zald (1998), artists and celebrities have been used by social movements to attract popular support for their causes, enhancing their ability to raise awareness. The author?s main concern is to prove the viability of art as a form of political communication in contemporary American society. In order to do so he shows the link between established works of art and the content of modern political documentaries. He details concrete examples of art as political communication throughout history, from ancient through contemporary times. Once the context was established, he listed Jungian archetypes that are present throughout works of art and are present in modern political documentary and then performed a narrative analysis of two modern political documentaries, Fahrenheit 9/11 and An Inconvenient Truth, in order to see if the same themes that existed in the past works of art are present in these documentaries. The purpose of this study was to establish a link between political communication and artistic expression. The documentaries that were analyzed have been discussed as instruments for political lobbying, commercial successes, and artistic achievements in the field of documentary film making. It is through the use of artistic works like the political documentary that political ideas are now being expressed. The narrative tools used by art to distribute information are used by political documentaries to distribute information. The link between art and political messages is more clearly defined than ever before, highlighted by the amount of information distributed and the growing number of people that line up behind certain political causes.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Ernesto Del Castillo.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.M.C.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Leslie, Michael.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-02-28

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024869:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024869/00001

Material Information

Title: The Role of Art in Political Communication
Physical Description: 1 online resource (65 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Del Castillo, Ernesto
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: archetypes, art, communication, dialectical, jungian, political, realism
Journalism and Communications -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Mass Communication thesis, M.A.M.C.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: The role art plays as a form of political communication is often overlooked despite the fact that it is extremely relevant. Throughout the history of the human race, art has been used as a form of historical archiving, documenting the existence of past civilizations. As a historical record, art has served as a marker of what has happened before, providing our civilization with an established structure on which to build upon It is logical to conclude, therefore, that art is an expression of human reality, and that socially created institutions, like government and politics, are composed of the same structural tenets as art. Art as a form of political communication is not limited to poetry, however. Picasso?s painting, Guernica, still stands as one of the most enduring protests against Franco?s Spain. Euge gravene Ionesco?s play, Rhinoce acuteros, was an absurdist piece often considered as a response to fascism, communism, and the Nazi uprising before WWII. Ernst Junger?s Die veranderte Welt, a book of photography, protested the glorification of German culture championed by the Nazis. According to Zald (1998), artists and celebrities have been used by social movements to attract popular support for their causes, enhancing their ability to raise awareness. The author?s main concern is to prove the viability of art as a form of political communication in contemporary American society. In order to do so he shows the link between established works of art and the content of modern political documentaries. He details concrete examples of art as political communication throughout history, from ancient through contemporary times. Once the context was established, he listed Jungian archetypes that are present throughout works of art and are present in modern political documentary and then performed a narrative analysis of two modern political documentaries, Fahrenheit 9/11 and An Inconvenient Truth, in order to see if the same themes that existed in the past works of art are present in these documentaries. The purpose of this study was to establish a link between political communication and artistic expression. The documentaries that were analyzed have been discussed as instruments for political lobbying, commercial successes, and artistic achievements in the field of documentary film making. It is through the use of artistic works like the political documentary that political ideas are now being expressed. The narrative tools used by art to distribute information are used by political documentaries to distribute information. The link between art and political messages is more clearly defined than ever before, highlighted by the amount of information distributed and the growing number of people that line up behind certain political causes.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Ernesto Del Castillo.
Thesis: Thesis (M.A.M.C.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Leslie, Michael.
Electronic Access: RESTRICTED TO UF STUDENTS, STAFF, FACULTY, AND ON-CAMPUS USE UNTIL 2010-02-28

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024869:00001


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1 THE ROLE OF ART IN POLITICAL COMMUNICATION By ERNESTO DEL CASTILLO A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN MASS COMMUNICATIONS UNIV ERSITY OF FLORIDA 2009

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2 2009 Ernesto Del Castillo

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3 To my family for their love and support

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4 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Foremost, I would like to thank my mother for being a constant inspiration and support throu would like to thank my grandmother for always promoting the wonder and excitement of education. She taught me that it is only through knowledge that the path t o helping others is found. I would like to thank my father for his spiritual and financial support that has allowed me to pursue a graduate degree without the need to worry about having a roof over my head. I would also like to thank my best friend Gus Cas tro and my good friend Josue David Munoz for being my roommates and keeping me sane throughout this whole process. advanced my academic career. The resources provid ed by the college of Journalism and Communications are invaluable. I would like to thank Dr. Michael Leslie for believing in the viability of this thesis from its inception and throughout its many incarnations. He has proved to be an experienced mentor, a knowledgeable educator, and a good friend. I would like to thank Dr. Johanna Cleary, the first professor that I met at the College of Journalism, for always grounding my ideas of application in theory, for always taking the time to advise me when I had a d oubt or a question, and for fighting the good fight by keeping a class about art in the media in the curriculum. I would like to thank Dr. Linda Kaid for her much appreciated assistance in dealing with the problems that arose throughout the research proce ss and for teaching me that a subject that is considered to be on the fringe of academia today can be a respected research subject tomorrow. Without the meticulous research assistance of Patrick Reakes, no information would have found its way to the pages Hedge for helping me surmount the big problems by taking care of all the little ones.

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5 To my classmates, I would like to thank you for helping me shape my abstract ideas into a coherent form. Curtis an d Carol Franklin have provided me with endless amounts of wisdom as well as a second home. I would like to thank my friend Inigo de Amescua for sharing a passion for art in all its forms. I would like to thank Tommy Maple for always finding an article that relates to my work while conducting his own research and for his eternal optimism. Finally, I would like to thank my cousin Jimena Moreno for her patience throughout the analytical process and her incredible typing skills.

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6 TABLE OF CONTENTS page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 4 ABSTRACT ................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 7 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................ ................................ ................................ .................... 9 2 ART AND POLITCAL COMMUNICATION ................................ ................................ ...... 16 What is Art? ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................ 16 Examples of Art as Political Communication ................................ ................................ ........ 18 Histories ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 18 The American Constitution ................................ ................................ ............................. 19 Pablo Neruda ................................ ................................ ................................ ................... 21 Louise Bennett ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 25 Art in Documentary Film ................................ ................................ ................................ ........ 27 Contemporary Studies of th e Political Documentary ................................ ............................. 31 Cognitive Reasons for Documentary Influences on Audiences: The Role of Celebrity ........ 35 3 THEORETICAL GUI DES ................................ ................................ ................................ ..... 39 Cultivation Theory ................................ ................................ ................................ .................. 39 Dialectical Realism ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 39 Jungian Arch etypes ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 41 4 METHODOLOGY ................................ ................................ ................................ ................. 43 5 ANALYSIS ................................ ................................ ................................ ............................. 4 7 Fahrenheit 9/11 ................................ ................................ ................................ ....................... 47 An Inconvenient Truth ................................ ................................ ................................ ............ 50 6 DISCUSSION ................................ ................................ ................................ ......................... 54 LIST OF REFERENCES ................................ ................................ ................................ ............... 61 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ................................ ................................ ................................ ......... 65

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7 Abstract of Thesis Presented to the Graduate School of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requireme nts for the Degree of Master of Arts in Mass Communications THE ROLE OF ART IN POLITICAL COMMUNICATION By Ernesto Del Castillo August 2009 Chair: Michael Leslie Major: Mass Communication The role art plays as a form of political communication is often overlooked despite the fact that it is extremely relevant. Throughout the history of the human race, art has been used as a form of historical archiving, documenting the existence of past civilizations. As a historical record, art has served as a marker of what has happened befo re, providing our civilization with an established structure on which to build upon It is logical to conclude, therefore, that art is an expression of human reality, and that socially created institutions, like government and politics, are composed of the same structural tenets as art. painting, Guernica Rhinocros, was an abs urdist piece often considered as a response to Die veranderte Welt a book of photography, protested the glorification of German culture championed by the Nazis. According to Zald (1998) artists and celebrities have been used by social movements to attract popular support for their causes enhancing their ability to raise awareness communication in contemp orary American society. In order to do so he shows the link between

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8 established works of art and the content of modern political documentaries. He details concrete examples of art as political communication throughout history, from ancient through contempo rary times. Once the context was established, he listed Jungian archetypes that are present throughout works of art and are present i n modern political documentary and then perform ed a narrative analysis of two modern political documentaries, Fahrenheit 9 / 11 and An Inconvenient Truth in order to see if the same themes that existed in the past works of art are present in these documentaries. The purpose of this study was to establish a link between political communication and artistic expression. The docum entaries that were analyzed have been discussed as instruments for political lobbying, commercial successes, and artistic achievements in the field of documentary film making. It is through the use of artistic works like the political documentary that poli tical ideas are now being expressed. The narrative tools used by art to distribute information are used by political documentaries to distribute information. The link between art and political messages is more clearly defined than ever before, highlighted by the amount of information distributed and the growing number of people that line up behind certain political causes.

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9 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The role art plays as a form of political communication is often overlooked despite the fact that it is extremely relevant. Throughout the history of the human race, art has been used as a form of historical archiving, documenting the existence and grandiosity of past civilizations. As a historical record, art has served as a marker of what has happened bef ore, providing our civilization with an established structure on which to build upon. According to Ge r bner (1999): in a world erected by the stories we hear and see and tell. Unlocking incredible riches through imagery and words, conjuring up the unseen through art, creating towering works of imagination and fact through science, poetry, song, tales, reports and laws that is the magic of human life. Through that magic w e live in a world much wider than the threats and gratifications of the immediate physical environment, which is the world of other It is logical to conclude, therefore, that art is an expression of human reality, and that socially create d institutions, like government and politics, are composed of the same structural tenets as art. Ge r bner (1999) went on to say: imagery are the basic building blocks of human understanding. They demonstrate complex causality by presenting imaginary action in total situations, coming to some conclusion that Red Riding Hood to gr little girls a lesson in gender roles, fear, and power. Stories of this kind build, from infancy on, the fantasy we call reality. I do not suggest that the revelations are false, which th ey may or may not be, but that they are synthetic, selective, often mythical, and always Our perception of reality is composed of the stories, or myths, that have been fed to our senses through the art produced by individuals who belonged to specific civilizations in the past. These stories were filled with universal narrative tools, like Jungian archetypes, that allow their messages to be disbursed to a wide audience Jungian archetypes can be considered foundations for our s tories. According to Izod (2001):

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10 but inherited modes of psychic functioning. Until activated, they are forms without content; when activated they control patterns of behavior. [They are] the centres of energy The stories presented to us in art shape our culture and our reality. Stories like Beowulf, The Iliad, and The Odyssey were considered news stor ies long before they were considered literary benchmarks for their respective civilizations and the wandering minstrels who spread these stories across the land could be considered an early version of newscasters. Though not conventional, art is undeniabl y a form of political output, and an influential one at that. In order to be published, art goes through the same or similar gatekeepers who decide what information is going to be put out for the public. According to Professor William Logan (personal commu nication, October 8, 2007) of the University of Florida English Department, despite the fact that poetry is seen now as an art form appreciated by a select few, it was once recognized as a forum for social change. It magnified the voice of the people and i ncited cultural revolutions. It appears that many take art for granted in contemporary times, especially in the U.S., and dismiss it as a hobby of the elite. While the U.S. has a poet laureate, the position is arguably mostly one of decorum. According to P rofessor Logan (personal communication, October 8, 2007), this was not the case 150 years ago. Poetry and the other arts were part of the curriculum and were inculcated in children growing up. Over the course of time as funds for education were cut in the that were cut first. A possible reason for this is that the effects of art on the public are hard to quantify. You ople because of the very nature of art, which is monolithic and structural. Art is a concept that has a uniform or inflexible quality or character. It creates an analytical relationship between the individual and the object. It

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11 is a cognitive device that e ventually helps to provide the individual with an understanding of their environment. What complicates things even further is that art analysis does not carry with it a sense of resolution. In the sports world, the winning team is right and the losing team is wrong. Art is not as easily packaged. A poem can be interpreted in a different way by any number of people despite having a singular text to be analyzed. Also, consumerism is more rampant than ever before in our society. In fact our society is based on consumerism. In this type of society, when the media are controlled by the existing power hierarchy, perhaps art is the only way that people can show dissent. However, this has proven difficult since art was not quelled but neutered, treated in news repor ts only as a consumption good, thus limiting its social impact on the public. Ideologies are maintained through normalization, and in contemporary society it is normal to think of art as a commodity reserved for a specific group of consumers. However, art as political communication is a real phenomenon. For example, the works of Pablo Neruda are considered among the best examples of political communication to come out winner Gabriel G ... (para. 2). However, Neruda laced much of his body of work with socialist ideals and served as a mouthpiece for the socialist movement that surfaced in South Americ a throughout the 20 th countercultural angst. According to American poetry (2007): American writers such as Pablo Neruda and Cesar Va llejo the [American] deep image poets were, in large part, responding to what they saw as the increasing objectivity in American poetry The U.S. social environment of the late 1950s and early 1960s helped foster such an attitude toward poetry and human con sciousness. Corporate culture was on the rise, and Americans were becoming increasingly materialistic Some Americans were becoming complacent, yet, at the same time, they more were disconnected from their emotional lives. A number of literary

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12 movements, in cluding the Beats and the Deep Imagists, responded to the phenomenon of 2). In contemporary times, a repackaged, non mensely popular in the United States ... Neruda is communication even more so due to the following incident. When the poet died, General Augusto Pinochet forbade mourners to make his funeral public: standing Communist Party supporter, Pablo Neruda died less than two weeks after backed coup. His funeral became the first public show of opposition to Chile's military rulers. His Despite the threat of possible repercussions, mourners came from all around Chile and he established regime. Neruda became beloved in his native Chile partly because of the political dimension of his poetry. It is this dimension of his art that gave Chileans the courage to defy a direct order prohibiting mass meetings. The political agenda poetry and mass attendance at his funeral. Another example of art helping to diffuse political ideology is found in the life and work of Louise Bennett, one of the main proponents of the Anglophon e Caribbean tradition of poetry in Caribbean mass media during the 20 th century. According to Professor Leah Rosenberg (personal communication, October 8, 2007) from the English department at the University of Florida, Louise Bennett wrote her poems in Jam aican Patois, or Creole, which was the language of the people of Jamaica. By publishing her work in the Daily Gleaner during Bennett did her part to give Jamaican Patois validity and helped to have it recognized as a language by the inte

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13 programming, and television broadcasts throughout the 20 th century. membered as the host of a weekly televised show called "Ring Ding". It was during the telecast of this show that she was instrumental in reviving the Anancy stories and giving her renditions of Jamaican life ... Her storytelling abilities has earned her the As a member of Pantomime the national theater of Jamaica, Bennett helped expound the influence of art in the political media of her country. The Daily Gleaner is one of two main newspaper s in Jamaica; it is the oldest and most respected established newspaper there. poetry was getting national attention on a daily basis and that helped establish the cultural legacy of Jamaican Patois as a language (African, 2005). She has influenc ed other poets who now use the media to expound the cultural and political legacy of their poetry to mass audiences. There is Linton Kwesi Johnson, for example. Professor Rosenberg (personal communication, October 8, 2007) said that Johnson is a Jamaican b orn poet who now resides in Britain who often uses BBC Radio as a forum for his work and the themes presented therein. Another poet who regularly uses mass media as a forum for political poetry, according to Professor Rosenberg (personal communication, Oct ober 8, 2007), is Mutabaruka, star of the 1993 film "Sankofa." He is a talk show host and usually promotes his poetry through radio shows. painting, Guernica still stan Rhinocros, was an absurdist piece often considered as a response to Die veranderte Welt a book of photography, protested the glorification of German culture championed by the Nazis. According to Zald (1998), artists and celebrities have also been used by social movements to attract popular support for their causes, enhancing their ability to raise awa reness:

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14 international campaigns to raise money, attract media attention, attract new supporters and attach them to the movement, and contribute to political transformation. His f our cases are (1) the Sun City album and the Artists United against Apartheid ; (2) the Breakthrough and Rainbow Warrior albums and Greenpeace; (3) the Nelson Mandela birthday celebration and the British Anti Apartheid Movement; and (4) the Human Rights Now world tour More and more we see celebrities taking up political causes, like human rights, and becoming the spokespeople for the transnational organizations that represent these causes. American actor Don Ch eadle took part in a documentary called Darfur Now in 2007. In it he stated that he and fellow actor George Clooney made up the highest ranking U.S. delegation to other countries that tried to raise awareness about the genocide in Darfur. He considered thi s to be an embarrassment because the government should be taking more of an interest in situations where human rights were being violated (Braun, 2007). Bono, from the rock group U2, started the Product Red brand, an organization that raises funds for the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and We have even seen celebrities founding their own transnational organizations. Colombian songstress Shakira runs the Pies Descalzos foundation, which is dedicated to providing assistance for children whose lives have been marked by violence. We can begin to see a link between the political communication and the impact of art and artists as standard bearers, mobilizing a larg e number of people behind a cause. Since art supersedes the traditional levels of analysis, we must use a mixture of mass communications theories to examine its impact. Standard theories seem unable to provide a clear picture because they are rooted in a singular level of analysis. For example, if one were to study a super national international organization, like the European Union for instance, one would probably best be served by a systemic approach. In that case, the theories of neo realism and neo lib eralism would best apply. If one were to study institutions like nation states, then theories

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15 that work at the state level, like realism and liberalism, would apply. Constructionist theory or the theory of dialectical realism would work best at the individ ual level. The trouble with art is that it supersedes the usual levels of analysis. It works at all levels and beyond. Specifically, in this age of globalization, art as a form of political communication is no longer bound by distances, the boundaries of n ation states, or systems. For the purposes of this study, I have chosen to frame my analysis within certain aspects of cultivation theory as well as the theory dialectical realism because of the personal nature of the cognitive and psychological effects a udiences experience when confronted with art. Dialectical realism is the process of getting to the truth of a matter by creating a thesis, developing an antithesis in opposition to the thesis, and then creating a new coherent synthesis from the conflict of the thesis and its antithesis ( Bahskar 1993 ). My main concern is to prove the viability of art as a form of political communication in contemporary American society. In order to do so I will show the link between established works of art and the content of modern political documentaries. I believe that political communications draw heavily on the content portrayed in art. In order to prove my thesis, I will invoke concrete examples of art as political communication throughout history, from ancient throug h contemporary times. Then I will demonstrate that the Jungian archetypes which are present in historical works of art are also present in modern political documentar ies To prove this, I will perform a narrative analysis of two modern political documenta ries, Fahrenheit 9 / 11 and An Inconvenient Truth in order to show that the same Jungian archetypes that existed in past works of art are also present in these documentaries. Hopefully, this will go a long way towards proving that art is a form of political communication, and that as such, it deserves more attention by scholars in mass communication.

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16 CHAPTER 2 ART AND POLITCAL COM MUNICATION What is Art? In order to establish art as a form of political communication for the purposes of this thesis, it is ne cessary to attempt to define art. Art is a concept, an imprecise and fuzzy abstract, and we must attach to it some operational definitions in order for this not to become some platonic debate about the nature of the artistic, perfect in conception but not existing within the borders of our reality. A ( Art 2008). The word art is derived fr poet nature and as such it is only through us that it comes into thi s world in any form. There is a creationist aspect to art that is undeniable. Art can be divided into two fundamental aspects: its creation by the artist and its consumption by the audience. Is the process in which an artist creates a piece also to be con sidered art? Or is art only what the audience who consumes it deems it to be? In her 1996 Nobel lecture, poet and Nobel Laureate Wislawa Szymborska (1998) gave us an understanding of what it means to produce art: s be a certain group of people whom inspiration

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17 We can debate all day long about how much skill is necessary to create something that can be considered art as opposed to something that is considered garbage, but that would be a value Guernica is a masterpiece of artistic merit and not a series of squiggles and lines?. We have been conditioned as a culture to believe and accept that certain symphonies. Yet this is a westernized view. Not everyone in the world will consider this to be art because different peo ples have different concepts of beauty and what is beautiful. As the old express himself, to record the react Art quotes, a rt is a collaboration between God and the artist, and the (Art quotes, 2007) Both of these views have their merits and can be seen as valid. However, they come from two differing schools of thought. One critic believed art to stem from the recesses of a very apparent humanity while the other saw art mostly as the product of divin e inspiration. What, then, falls under the umbrella of the term art? You can separate the arts into two groupings: the performing arts, which are active, and the fine arts which are passive. Architecture, literature, sculpture, painting, photography, and c omputer art are typically considered fine arts while dance, drama, music, film and radio television are typically considered performance arts. Art can be considered a marker of our humanity. In his Nobel acceptance speech Neruda said: try is an action, ephemeral or solemn, in which there enter as equal partners solitude and solidarity, emotion and action, the nearness to oneself, the nearness to

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18 mankind and to the secret manifestations of nature. And no less strongly I think that all th is is sustained ... by an ever wider sense of community, by an effort which will forever bring together the reality and the dreams in us because it is precisely in this way that poetry unites and mingles them ... He went on to say: through solitude and difficulty, isolation and silence in order to reach forth to the enchanted place where we can dance our clumsy dance and sing our sorrowful son g but in this dance or in this song there are fulfilled the most ancient rites of our conscience in 2007, para. 4). The argument has been made that art is a bio evolutio nary urge. As human beings, we choose to leave our mark because it cements our place in history. Why else would there be prehistoric drawings of Aurochs in the Lascaux caves in France? In fact, no one can name a civilization we know about whose art we have We know nothing of c ultures that did not leave records of their art. Immediately after 9/11, as a form of therapy for the shocked and devastated citizens of New York, museums were opened to the public. This is significant to note because art is proof of our survival, a reminder that we are still here. Examples of Art as Political Communication Histories Polybius was a Greek historian from the Hellenistic period who is most famous for his historical account of Rome, The Histories Whil e at first one might not consider this text a work of art, Polybius employed the Hellenistic style of writing to propose his ideas; Hellenism here meaning the fusion of Greek culture with other parts of the world. Polybius was a Greek living within the Rom an Empire and thus subjected to its cultural norms. He was criticized in his lifetime for writing in a Hellenistic style instead of a high Attic style, which was the norm for

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19 politically motivated, strategic uses of Hellenism as responses to a world under Roman 3). The Histories represents Greek cultural ideals, philosophies, and stylis tic narrative ideas juxtaposed against a Roman context. ethnic cultural division between Romans and Greeks and to reinforce the hyper ethnic force of governmental institut ingeniously manipulated the politico cultural language of Hellenism in response to his own use d Hellenism to push through his own political agenda, maintaining Greek cultural influence to According to Champion (2004) Hellenic barbarian continuum, we have found that the Romans do not occupy a fixed position; rather they slide This makes his book, The Histories a work of art. According to Champion (2004): affords a rich opportunity to study both the impact of political domination upon a subject and the ways in which accommodation to political subjection can also contain messages of resistance, encoded in ways that correspond to what James C. Scott calls The American Constitution New York University professor Mitchell Meltzer (2005) wrote a book, Secular Revelations where he detailed the influence the United States Constitution had in as a source and inspiration for the American literary movement. According to Meltzer (2005): Revolution had already depended upon a powerful sense of the revealed, suggesting that American literary culture has centra lly shared in an impulse to secular revelation. The

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20 158). In other words, when you analyze the United States Constitution, the one basi c thought you will find that serves as a basis for that document is that the Constitution wishes to encompass It is interesting to note that in the case of classic American literature, the Constitution helped you have a literary style defined by a political agenda. It differed greatly from the literature of Great Britain, which helped build a new cultural identity for a n ew nation. A comparison between American sea novelist Herman Melville and British sea novelist Joseph Conrad highlights these differences: time captain, the dramatization of life at sea provides a na central to the drama of men at sea is their facing the grandest philosophical and the logical questions, the very largest perspective on Nature, God, and the entire purpose of The classic American literature that was published following the publication of the Constitution dealt primarily with the fundamental concept of uni entitled Leaves of Grass, for example. Throughout the collection, Whitman places particular declaration of the Amer ican desire for independence from Great Britain. However, Whitman praises the human mind and spirit as well as the physical body of the individual, implying that whole, which depends on a balance of the physical and the spiritual to maximize its potential.

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21 ernment influenced the what we refer to by the Constitution provides a kind of procedura l faith for Americans, something like a covenant to be that come after it. Pablo Neruda Before the events of the Spanish Civil War, Neruda was considered to be a romantic poet who dabbled in surrealism. He then embarked on a diplomatic career which eventually led him to honoring poets with diplomatic assignments. Aft er serving as honorary consul in Burma, Neruda relationships he built while in Argentina would go on to impact the rest of his life: ship with the visiting Spanish poet Federico Garca Lorca After transferring to Madrid later that year, Neruda also met Spanish writer Manuel Altolaguirre. Together the two men founded a literary review called Caballo Verde P ara la P oes a in 1935. The out break of the Spanish Civil War in 1936 interrupted Neruda's poetic agenda ... in this case the advancement of the South American socialist movement ... one must be familiar with the events that crafted his significant shift from love struck surrealist to a highly politicized activist. According to Best, Hanhimaki, Maiolo, and Schulze (2004), the Spanish Civil War start ed on July 18, 1936: ... as an attempted right wing military coup led by General Francisco Franco. The coup was launched with elite troops from Spanish Morocco to topple the recently elected socialist and anti ationalists failed to take Madrid, and the Republican government of President Azana remained in control of much

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22 was shaped by many tensions, b oth those that were formerly political and those that were to do efield. Nazi Germany and fascist Italy intervened on the side of the Nationalists, while the Soviet Union sent aid to the Republicans. Britain and France tried to contain the war. The fighting dragged on for three terrible years, during which three quarter s of a million people perished. The civil war ended in April 1939. General Neruda, who was serving as Consul in the Chilean embassy at the time, was caught in the middle of th e Spanish Civil War. Garca Lorca was a dear friend to Neruda and his execution on the night they were supposed to attend a wrestling event had a profound impact. Neruda (1976) wrote: evening of July 19, 1936 ... We were going to h ave great fun watching the truculence of the Masked Troglodyte, the Abyssinian Strangler, and the Sinister Orangutan. Federico did not show up. He was at the hour already on his way to death. We never saw each other again: he had an appointment with anothe r strangler. And (p. 122). Neruda used his time in Madrid to chronicle the events of the war in his book Espaa en el C orazn which had a tremendous political impact be cause it was published in the middle of the Neruda associated a fascist re gime with the death of poetry and saw socialism as the only system To infused the presidential election of 1970, and caught the attention of the United States. Because of its concerns about the possible spread of socialism and communism to Latin America, the

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23 be defined as follows: annual increase of 2.5 percent in per capita income, the establishment of democratic governments, more equitable income distribution, land reform, and economic and social planning (Best et al., 2004, p. 484). Despite the Alliance for Progress, anti Americanism and revolutionary ideals took hold in Latin America, Chile included. Because of its growing involvement in Vietnam, the U.S. was reluctant was clear in the case of Chile where Salvado r Allende, the leader of the Unidad Popular (Best et al., 2004, p. 374). The Nixon administration had tried to prevent the Allende presidency t seems to have concerned [President Richard] Nixon ... was the prospect that a democratically elected socialist government would prove itself a viable political alternative allowed to survive it would have proved that a socialist country could thrive in the western hemisphere Allowing socialism to spread in the western hemisphere wa s not an option for the U.S. and they decided to take steps to prevent this. For three years, the American government ceased economic aid to the Chilean government and instead gave generous amounts of money to omic pressure, President Allende was assassinated and the Chilean military assumed command of the government in September 1973 (Best et al., 2004). killed or disappeared, scores of others were detained and tortured, socialist and communist

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24 party headquarters were raided, labour unions were dissolved, and universities were placed un About the death of Allende, Neruda (1976) wrote: them conservative and mediocre. Many little Presidents and only two great ones: diminished by a mediocre oligarchy, the two were steered down the road to death. Balmaceda was driven to suicide for refusing to deliver nitrate riches to foreign companies. (p. 348). motion. In both cases, the milita ry played the bloodhounds. The English companies in These lines show Neruda to be, in part, a product of a lifetime under imperialism, criti cizing the forces of those that would make Chile a beggar sitting on a gold mine. The fact that he grew up with a feeling that his country was suffering unjustly at the hands of the world powers show a possible reason of why he embraced socialism and why h is contemporaries across Latin America were so receptive to his poetry and the messages that lay therein. next day turned into the first demonstration against the new mi litary regime ... About two thousand people turned out ... for a socialist Chile and, of course, the death of many f riends, including Salvador Allende. So these things became inseparable: Neruda's death and the death of democracy in Chile. It's significant that when Neruda died, his widow, Matilda, brought his body to lay in state at another one of his houses called 'La Chascona' in Santiago ... because the military had trashed the house and she wanted the world to see what was going on with ... the coup in

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25 Neruda obviously felt chafed by the influence of American imperialism i n his homeland, angered by the exploitation of Chilean workers and national resources by American companies, and used his poetry to incite the Chilean national pride: from the submarine coal mines, from the terrible heights where copper lies buried and is extracted with inhuman labor at the hands our people, a freedom movement of magnificent proportions sprang up. That movement raised a man named Allende to the preside ncy of Chile to carry out reforms and measures of justice that could not be postponed, and to ered from a sort and ultimately exploited the Western Hemisphere economically through investment and ownership that effectively made American companies and individuals the key pro prietors of Latin American for an alternative to the American political and economic models. The following lines show how Neruda went about crafting poetry int o an accessible, universal entity. (through the mediation of language), but also those social relations that are distorted and alienated under capitalism. Moreover, based o n actual socio historical experience, his poetry, beginning particularly with Espaa en el C orazn tries to capture collective and individual aspirations that portray more humane social relations that could lead to the para. 30). to the realm of mass media and also builds a strong case for poetry as a device to promote social change. Louise Bennett Louise Bennett has had gre at success in using mass communications to enhance the reach ...

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26 s ignificant English 106). She was born on September 7, 1919 in Jamaica (Jamaicans.com, 2001). According to Jamaicans.com (2001): Miss Lou, as she is affectionately known, received her education from Ebenezer and She has appeared in leading humorous roles in several J amaican Pantomimes and television shows ... Bennett Coverly was appointed as a Member of the Order of Merit (OM) for her invaluable and distinguished contribution to the development of the Arts an (para. 1). In the introduction to Jamaican Labrish that is the Jamaican dialect ... the language w hich most of the Jamaican people speak most of the time ... and has raised the sing song patter of the hills and of the towns to an art level Her usage of mass medi a to display her poetry, however, has put her role as a poet in comed y her to be a poet who used the tools at her disposal to exemplify the Anglophone Caribbean tradition she was born into: ed the fact that she lived in an oral tradition where people talked and listened, cross talked and reported and possess, almost to a fault, a high propensity for words ... p. 10). According to the African American Registry (2005): hit the truth about her society through its own language", and as an important contributor to her country

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27 The lite rature suggests that Bennett used language and mass media to a great extent, creating One must not forget how prolific Bennett was at using mass media to showcase her poetry. Ram azani (2001) wrote: Gleaner on a weekly basis Views (1965 Ring Di ng (1970 82). Building a mass audience in Jamaica for performance genres, Miss Lou regularly delivered dramatic 106). contemporary times. According to Ramazani (2001): ... flight folk channel, and she was the featured author books in Jamaica. On National Commercial Bank apostrophized her full same without you Bennett, while still mostly a secret to the rest of the world, enjoys icon ic status in Jamaica. This is in large part due to her usage of the mass media to promote her poetry and cultural heritage. Perhaps she would be more widely known in the world if Jamaican mass media had a broader reach. Still, as a controlled experiment, t prominence has waned in recent decades with the ascendancy of Bob Marley and other heroes of reggae and dance hall, her iconic significance has persisted ... Art in Documentary Film Documentary film has achieved legitimacy as a both a form of artistic expression and a form of political communication. he documentary has been

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28 history, the nonfiction film is most often remembered for its often notorious power of s an integral part in communication. In order to continue it is necessary to define the term documentary for the purposes of this paper. Barsam (1976) delineates the typical characteristics of a documentary film: rather than the fictional situation. The nonfiction film maker focuses his personal vision and his camera on actual situations ... persons, processes, events and attempts to render a creative interpretation of them. Traditionally, the nonfiction film origin ates in It is fidelity to the fact as the situation allows. The typical nonfiction film is structured in two or three parts, with an intro duction and a conclusion, and tends to follow a pattern from Barsam believed that the documentary need not be dull: tual life life as it is lived by real people, doing real things as exciting and as stimulating as the life portrayed in the countless fictional films that comprise the bulk of film history and that, because of their almost immeasurable creativity and impac t, are the 14). He thought it should be one of the most stimulating and entertaining contemporary art forms. The documentary is, nowadays, the closest type of film to be recognized as art as w ell as a form of political communication. It is not only commercial, but respected in society: most persuasive or the most useful, but because they are the most creat ive, effective, and (Barsam, 1976, p. 15). A reason for this might be the authority implied by term documentary. It is considered a source for truth while maintaining tha t it is in fact a representation of reality designed by a person or a group of people. According to Rosen (1993) thus to be claimed on the strength of inferences from critically authenticated source docume

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29 3). There are many different styles of documentary filmmaking; however, this does not exclude films that differ from the norm from being considered documentaries On one end of the spectrum you have a man like Ken Burns, a famous American filmmaker who sub scribes to the auteur school of filmmaking. He is the writer, director, editor, cameraman, music director, etc. on his multi episodic documentaries which are really epic in scale. He hires celebrities to provide the narration over images of stills on subje cts that range from the Civil War to the history of Jazz. Michael Moore is also a famous American filmmaker, but his style is completely different audience, atte mpting to maintain an attitude of objectivity about the subjects and issues he covers. Moore is his own primary subject. He is famous for his on camera antics using his movies as a forum for his own political ideology while instilling them with humor. Whi le both men have different filmmaking styles, they both produce politically powerful documentaries. Photographic images are also used by special interest groups to promote their own political agenda. During the rise of the Nazi party, Ernst Junger publish ed books of photography in which Werneburg and Phillips (1992) state: recognition that in using the nonliterary medium of the technical picture, aesthetic experience cannot be forced on its recipient but must be voluntarily accomplished. This unexpecte message. One is no longer in the realm of serious, high art, but can instead use the new media in entertaining, surprising, amusing ways to teach the masses about the mode rn 56).

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30 regime. According to Werneburg and Phillips (1992): Die verander te Welt proposed a utopian vision that was clearly not that of Nazis. It rejected any obvious glorification of German cultural roots and racial types, and instead looked forward to an e violent, urban, and technological. And in 1933, the total absence of any picture of Hitler or other NSDHP leaders, and the juxtaposition of pictures of Mussolini and Stalin, could only have been understood by the new regime as a political statement of di This same principle can be applied to modern documentary film, which is in itself a quick succession of photographs. Grierson (1946) stated: and fac tories, has given itself the job of making poetry where no poet has gone before it, and where no ends, sufficient for the purposes of art, are easily observed. It requires not only taste but also inspiration, which is to say a very laborious, deep seeing, deep The U.S. government is well aware of the ability the media and art have to help promote serving world public op inion was being accepted with extreme gradualism and great reluctance n n, 1973, p. 175). As I stated before, the U.S. government has used art and the media to pursue U.S. political and economic interests in Latin Amer ica for some time now. According to MacCann interactions at the unofficial level has its personal symbol in the rise of the American public h the press, radio, (USIA) to promote public diplomacy, though its critics said the USIA was a factory for propaganda. One of the primary ways the USIA promoted publ ic diplomacy was through the distribution of films to other countries. MacCann (1973) quoted George Stevens Jr., head of the motion picture arm of the USIA from a speech given at the American Film Festival in 1965:

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31 ds. The circumstances and complexities of the civil rights involvement in the United States are not going to be sold to the people of bigotry. This, reinforced by fron t page photographs from Selma, cannot be undone by selling of any kind. What is required is understanding. The over simplifications of what has been sold must be rounded out by a vigorous and unending communication with curious people of other lands. For t (p.195). Contemporary Studies of the Political Documentar y Political documentaries have been analyzed from a variety of perspectives James McEnteer (2006) examined the rise of documentary filmmaking an a failure to sustain a commitment to the public interest and to provide an unbiased viewpoint.. In 2003, John Parmel ee attempted to analyze the content of the 2000 presidential campaign videos. In his analysis, Parmelee (2003) stressed the importance of symbolism in political communication: reality that is favorable to the candidate; (2) reconstruct the past and predict the future; (3) interpret and and (5) stimulate action on the part of citizens to vot e and/or contribute time and money to The dependence of political communication on symbolism described by Parmelee lends itself to some of the ideas discussed in cultivation theory, which in turn suggest that our perception of reali ty is defined by the symbols, images, and narratives found in the works of art produced by both our own and prior civilizations. There have also been contemporary studies conducted on the effects of political documentaries. An article written for the Bro adcasting & Cable journal suggested that television networks should take advantage of the fact that political documentaries help the public choose the right presidential candidate by airing more political programs during election season (Play,

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32 2008). The s uggestion is that networks should air these political programs in order to increase their audience base. Young (2004) wrote about how presidential campaigns are being legitimately covered by guerilla style documentary filmmaking ever since Alexandra Pelos i gained critical and commercial success with a camcorder filmed video diary that deconstructed the 2000 presidential election. Palser (2006) stated that it was dangerous to not question the legitimacy people associate to documentaries: by the amount of inane video and commentary people post on the Web, consider that some of that digital detritus has been carefully crafted by advertisers to graze the grassroots Web for content and story ideas ... but also be aware that sometimes An Inconvenient Truth under the guise of a YouTube.com user. He said that special interest groups have released their ads and opinions under the guise of amateurs who blog about their opinions online. Christensen (2007) conducted a study that mixed interviews with data analysis, h oping to prove that grassroots disbursement and online organization help maximize the distribution of information advocated by political documentaries. The production company in question was Brave New Films and Brave New Theaters The author hoped to show that a coalition model helps documentaries bypass traditional media gatekeepers. According to Christensen (2007), the coalition model consists of 8 parts: impact is on the film producers; (3) being innovative in creating public spaces for viewing; (4) collaborating with other activist groups; (5) involving educational and cultural institutions; (6) being aware of opportunities to change public policy; (7) using the docum (p. 6).

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33 The study suggested that the power of the documentary lies in its ability to contribute to grass roots political action while reaching the maximum number of peopl e. 2004 campaign was the reemergence of the feature length documentary film as an outlet for mentaries were put to use as they seldom were before. Starting with Fahrenheit 9/11 which was released in June of 2004, a series of documentaries that focused on the issues and candidates of the 2004 election were mass produced and distributed to the publ ic well before Election Day in November (Benson & Snee, 2008, p. 2). Benson and Snee (2008), stated: at least ostensibly from political r defending the character of a candidate or engaged in historical expose. Issues of policy, when debated, usually were framed within the narrative of a person party, or administration rather than concentrated on prudential discussion of future decision m Presidential campaign documentaries that appeared during an election year and that were shown, typically, during the national nominating conventions were said to provide the most complete visual package available from one source during an election. This specific type of documentary tends to mix film footage and stock photography, employ voice over narration, provide over the top patriotic music, and focus on talking head interviews (Benson & Snee, 2008, p. 8). If we topic of hot debate to the point that it became an unofficial issue of the presidential campaign. This phenomenon sparked the creation of two documentaries that respectively attacked and party group called the Swift Boat Veterans for Truth released Stolen Honor: Wounds That Never Heal. The purpose of this documentary was to discredit Kerry, proposing that Kerry lied about his war reco rd and dishonored his country by opposing the Vietnam War after his honorable discharge from the United States Navy. This

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34 documentary came out in September of 2004. In October 2004, a few weeks later, supporters produced the documentary Going Upriv er: The Long War of John Kerry was disputed the claims made the previous documentary (Benson & Snee, 2008, p. 12). Though both of these films examine similar time frames and subject matters, they are very different stylistically. Stolen Honor borrows heavily from the stylistic conventions of television. According to Stahl (2008): opening credits but by a talking head, the central voice of the program, Carlton At other times he injects his own experience as a marine who served in Vietnam. The he interviewees In stark contrast we have Going Upriver Vietnam and the fallout of his congressional declaration. This makes it more cinematic than Stolen Honor For example, it ees, whose words tie together photos, archival Vietnam negative audio space in which no one is speaking. There are many quiet shots of the Vietnam countryside and wide sunsets. The camera hovers over photographs with a slow motion ride over a bed of sparse Vi etnamese bells or other minimalist music. The aesthetic Both of these documentaries succeed in cre ating two different yet vivid portraits of the same candidate in the mind of the audience through varying techniques and viewpoints.

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35 Cognitive Reasons for Documentary Influences on Audiences : The Role of Celebrity The universal appeal of art tends to make celebrities of the artists that produce it. This applies to documentary filmmakers as well as the celebrities they use in their films to spread their message. The concept of the celebrity endorsement is now a commonplace aspect of our consumer society. We ( 2006) article, The Differential Effects of Celebrity and Expert Endorsements on Consumer Risk Perceptions : The Role of Consumer Knowledge, Perceived Congruency, and Product Technology Orientation the authors examine the differential effects of celebrity and expert endorsements on consumer risk perceptions in three different studies. This article provides a good definition for a celebrity endorser and the effects of that endorsement on the public. According to Biswas, Biswas, and Das (2006): celebrity uses this recognition on behalf of a consumer good by appearing with it in an celebrity endorsements are more effec tive in dimensions such as trustworthiness, believability, persuasiveness, and They went on to say: The effectiveness of a celebrity endorser compared with an anonymous endorser lies in bringing a distinguishing feature in terms of pe rsonality and lifestyle meanings to an endorsement process. Consumers have a preconceived image about any celebrity endorser, Biswas et al., 2006, p. 18). The authors found that there are underly ing theoretical processes of identification versus internalization and that perceived risks of the endorsed products are lessened when there is a high congruency between the product and the celebrity endorsing it. A problem with this article is that they f ailed to link authority figures with celebrities. Authorities on subjects become

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36 Barack Obama is said to have fans. Why, then, is the general populace more likely to accept a political message if it is e ndorsed by a celebrity? (2007) article, Taking Celebrity Seriously he details celebrity endorsement. According to Duncombe (2007): culture. People is the most profitable magazine in the United States, and E! (the CNN of celebrity gossip) reaches more than 89 million homes. I f progressives want their politics to appeal to a majority of the population ... which they should in a democracy ... they ignore or Are there any physiological reasons the general populace is more likely to listen to a celebrity endorsement ? According to Biswas et al. (2006): celebrity endorsements have also been explained using associative learning theory (ALT). Associative learning principles are based on a conception of me mory as a network consisting of various nodes connected by associative links. At a conceptual level, celebrities and brands represent nodes in the memory, which become linked over time through the endorsement process. Hence, feelings toward a celebrity and /or meanings associated with the celebrity are expected to transfer to the endorsed brand through their recurring association. The repeated exposure to these two stimuli would result in simultaneous activation of memory nodes, representing those stimuli, b uilding an According to Duncombe (2007) there is a strong psychological effect as well : Celebrities have money and beauty, but they also possess something far more important: recognition. People see them, listen to them, know about them. In psychoanalytic cant, the (p. 24). The psychological fascination, perhaps to the point of being dangerous. An article in New Scientist d misleading

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37 informed before they make statements endorsing [products] In Jackson and Darrow's (2005) article The Influence of Celebrity Endorsements on Young Adults Political Opinions they establish a link between the endorsement of a celebrity and the acceptance of a particular point of view, and note that the perceived credibility does not re st on the likelihood that the celebrity is an expert in the issue they support. Rather, there appears to be a significant correlation between the "a ttractiveness" of the celebrity and the acceptance of the audience. In particular, the perception of similar ity between audience member and celebrity spokesperson seems to be extremely important in determining whether an audience member will find the endorsement persuasive (Jackson & Darrow, 2005). If you are promoting a political agenda, the use of celebrities as cognitive triggers for your intended audience is a sophisticated way to help increase the impact of the cause you are supporting. In conclusion, there is not much in the literature that explores art as a form of political communication explicitly Howev er, by piecing together different aspects of art as a form of political communication, we begin to communication. The literature shows that the political documentary is an art form that enjoys both legiti macy as a work of art and use as means of information distribution to the populace. It is imperative that we make these connections and study the impact of art as a form of political communication. For the purposes of this study, I have chosen to conduct a narrative analysis of two political documentaries, Fahrenheit 9 / 11 and An Inconvenient Truth I chose narrative analysis because it focuses on how stories help us find meaning in our lives and experiences. In this study I will establish that political doc umentaries use the same narrative tools, in this case Jungian

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38 archetypes, as works of art, therefore art is a viable form of political communication due to its ability to distribute large amounts of information in a compact way First, I will detail histor ical examples that establish works of art as forms of political communication establishing a context in which to conduct a narrative analysis based on how Jungian archetypes In this analysis, I will explore how the Jungian archetypes deployed in The Lord of the Rings book trilogy are redeployed characterized in the se two documentaries

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39 CHAPTER 3 THEORETICAL GUIDES Cultivation Theory Only certain aspects of cultivation theory are applicable to this work. George Gerbner s to place special emphasis on the cultural process of information. According to Morgan (2002): essions, and change their behavior as a result of learning. But only humans communicate by the manipulation of complex symbol systems...Most of what we know, or think we know, we have never s we hear and the Gerbner kinds of stories, organically related, constitute culture; they are expressed and enacted through my theology relig All of these stories are increasingly packaged and distributed through visual medi a. Throughout ory as whole from cultivation theory : that narratives shape our reality. This study is shaped with this assumption in mind. Dialectical Realism In order to understand the rol e of documentary film as a form of political communication one needs to understand the theory of dialectical realism. Dialectical realism, by definition, is the process of getting to the truth of a matter by creating a thesis, developing an antithesis in o pposition to the thesis, and the creation of a new coherent synthesis from the conflict of the thesis and its antithesis. (Bahskar, 1993). An example of this theory in application would be wed by a shot of a barking

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40 dog would end with a shot of the same baby crying. Meaning would then be created and one would assume that the barking dog caused the baby to cry ( Montage 2007). Dialectical realism can also be applied to written text. The Chi lean poet Pablo Neruda used it in his poetry. According to Dawes (2003): ... Neruda benefited from the ideological flexibility in the [Chilean Communist] Party and carved out his own niche in its midst. And in that situation he developed what we might call his "dialectical realism": a dynamic method for understanding social and natural forces as well as human nature and the possibilities of human emancipation; a method grounded in human labor as its foundation and the Party as an imperfect yet effective veh icle for refusal to completely associate himself with surrealism or realism. lity and intelligibility of his poetry, and because of his ties to the political left. So it would not be an exaggeration to say that Neruda appears to be a "dialectical realist" poet who employs accessible vocabulary and narrations in an oral form with su rprising metaphors produced by his "guided spontaneity." I say "dialectical realist" because Neruda's work attempts to express the thoughts and feelings involved in the class struggle of society as a whole while granting an exceptional vantage point to the Setting up his poetry in this context allowed Neruda a feasible way to reach as many people as possible on a basic level. It also served to promote the creation of a practical socialist state unlike th that exists, must break and overcome literary models. On the other hand, how could one not follow the steps of a deep and spacious revolution? How could one distance oneself from the main issues, the victories, conflicts, human problems, growth, movement, germination of an immense people who confronts a radical change in the social, economic and political regime? How could one not commit oneself with this people attacked by ferocious invasions, fenced in by implacable colonialists, obscurantists from all c limates and backgrounds? Could

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41 (Dawes, 2004, para. 34). Jungian Archetypes As I stated in the introduction, Jungian archetypes can be considered foundations for our stories. According to Izod (2001): but inherited modes of psychic functioning. Until activated, they are forms without content; when activated they control patterns of behavior. [They are] the centres of energy These archetypes have been recreated in fiction, news, and commercial stories throughout history. An example that comes to mind in which some a cademic research has been conducted is The Lord of the Rings of the same strand of human psychology. The common denominator of all such expression is to be found in the theoretical framework of analytical psychology in the concepts of the collective Throughou The Individual Hobbit: Jung, Tolkien and the Archetypes of Middle Earth we find a collection of archetypes discussed. It is from this book that I gathered the list of archetypes used in the narrative analysis of Fahrenheit 9 / 11 and An I nconvenient Truth These theories helped create the foundation for the methodology followed in this study. The question may be posed, however, as to how one can reconcile the application of archetypes found in fiction to stories taken from reality. I prop ose that everything we know in our perceived realities has its fictional equivalent and by that token our fictional myths are grounded in our perceived reality. Even if one were to dream up a flying spaghetti monster, they would be familiar with the concep ts of spaghetti, flying and monsters from their perceived reality. I contend that these obviously political films tell

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42 their story and set up their narrative in the same manner that the previously discussed works of art do. Jungian archetypes are commonly depicted in most works of art because of their universal qualities. It seems logical that if Jungian archetypes are present in prominent literary works, such as The Lord of the Rings, and those same Jungian archetypes can be found in contemporary works o f art that possess political messages, then the viability of art as a form of political communication w ill be apparent.

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43 CHAPTER 4 METHODOLOGY For the purposes of this study, I have chosen to conduct a narrative analysis of two political documentaries Fahrenheit 9 / 11 and An Inconvenient Truth These documentaries have been chosen because of their level of commercial success and their inclusion in the mainstream of American pop culture. Fahrenheit 9 / 11 helped bring the Bush administration under a high level of scrutiny in the public eye while also becoming a critical and commercial success, gathering a variety of nominations and awards which cemented its status as a work of art as well as becoming the highest grossing general release political film. Whi le President Bush was elected for a second term, the film brought to the mainstream many issues regarding the Bush An Inconvenient Truth won the Academy Award for Best Documentary in 2006 and became the fourt h highest grossing documentary in the United States. The film focuses on the politics and economics of global warming, lobbying for the political agenda for environmental groups and others with similar ideas. because of the emphasis on act, scene, agent, agency, and purpose, the five elements of the dramatic pentad, I prefer a narrative analysis framed by dialectical realism theory (Burke, 1969, pp. xv xxiii). In my vie w, drama is created by narrative. A subject (thesis) met by opposition (antithesis) creates dramatic tension (synthesis). S ince my concern is establishing that art and political communication transfer information using the same narrative tools (Jungian arc hetypes), I believe that a narrative analysis would be the most effective way to prove my point. I chose narrative analysis because it focuses on how stories help us find meaning in our lives and experiences. According to Creswell (2007):

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44 rch has many forms, uses a variety of analytic practices, and is rooted in different social and humanities disciplines. might be the term assigned to any text or discourse, or, it might be text used within the context of a mode of inquiry in qu it begins with the experiences as expressed in lived and told stories of individuals. Writers have provided ways of analyzing and understanding the stories lived and 54). Fisher (1999) define d narratives as symbols or symbolic actions that have an order and a meaning for the people who create or process them. Dialectical realism theory provides the narrative with order. I have compiled a list of Jungian (1979) book, The Individual Hobbit: Jung, Tolkien and the Archetypes of Middle Earth While there are is no end to the number of archetypes that can be found, I have concentrated on the eight most common ones in Jungian literature I believe that coding these archetypes will provide a framework in which to conduct this narrative analysis. I hope to establish that, through the use of narrative tools like Jungian archetypes, art forms like political documentaries distribute political information to the public and should thus be consider a form of political communication. The list of Jungian archetypes is as follows: The Self : Jungians, like the founder of the mo vement himself, reckon it to be analogous to the monastic imago Dei, the central archetype in the human psyche; the image of totality achieved through the balancing out of opposites; and both the source and goal of our psychic life. Archetypical analysts l ike Hillman think it preferable to attend to all the voices and images that emerge from the psyche, integrating each in its own right. The resultant picture favors a multi centered (or, where the archetypes are represented by types of god, polytheistic) im age where the self is de emphasized and the analyst seeks better 2007, pp. 219 220). An example of this would be the Ying Yang symbol, or the mandala. The Shadow : elements of the personality which the individual does not recognize in him or herself. Hannibal Lec ter are some examples of the shadow. The Person a:

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45 The Wise Old Man: flection, insight, wisdom, cleverness and intuition, as well as positive moral qualities. May constellate spontaneously when all the (Creswell, 2007, p. 221). An example of this archetype would be Merlin the magician or Gandalf from The Lord of the Rings The Great Mother : benign fertility and nurture, and the devourer who pulls her children down to the abys s. For Jung the profound ambivalence of the imago signified the need for the young to break the world from the cave of the Earth Mother marks an early step on the way to 217). An example of this would be Mother Nature. The Trickster : (like Mercurius ) of the nature of both devil and savior, yet prima facie is an anti type to the hero. His fondness for jokes and his ability to transform himself make him a symbol of god Loki. The Hero or Heroine : human at times appears to be ego, at times the that exemplify this archetype are: Theseus, Hercules, Jesus Christ, King Arthur, Robin Hood, Superman, Wonder Woman, etc. The Child : before it occurs, it represents to the adult instincts experienced in childhood and subsequently split off (Creswell, 2007, p. 215). For example, the character of Flora from the Academy Award winning film, The Piano represents this archetype. First, I w ill detail historical examples that establish works of art as forms of political communication. By this I hope to establish a context from which to conduct a narrative analysis based on how Jungian archetypes, already established as being narrative tools u sed in works of art, in this instance in The Lord of the Rings trilogy of books, are characterized in the two types are present in the narrative structure of these documentaries, this suggests that both art and traditional means of political communication use the same narrative tools and therefore art not only is used to distribute

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46 political information to the mas ses, it is still used today for the same purposes and must be investigated further to determine its true impact as a form of mass communication.

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47 CHAPTER 5 ANALYSIS Fahrenheit 9/11 For the documentary Fahrenheit 9 / 11 the Jungian archetype of the Self is represented by field of opposing personas. He provides us with an image of totality, the entire narrative of the documentary, by balancing out opposing viewpoint s. Moore presents us with the Bush with new reality. The archetype of the Shadow is represented by President George W. Bush. Bush is clearly shown as th presidential election of 2000 against Al Gore vacationing for most of the first eight months of his presidency, the implication being that he did little to prevent the events of Septe mber 11, 2001. While the events of 9/11 took place, the President was shown even after being informed of the attack on the twin towers, to have proceeded with a photo op at an elementary school in Florida. It is also implied in the documentary that Presid ent Bush used the 9/11 terrorist attacks as an excuse to promote his own unrelated political agenda, i.e., the war with Iraq. The narrative of the Shadow is created by the depiction of a lame duck presidency being confronted by the harsh realities of Septe mber 11 t h w hich provided Bush with the means to consolidate power. The Jungian archetype of the Persona is represented by the Bush administration using the 9/11 crisis as a means to attack Iraq under the false pretense of weapons of mass destruction when the real reason is suggested to be economic interest, i.e., oil. Al Qaeda could also be considered to represent the persona because within the context of the documentary they were blamed for the war with Iraq. The narrative of the Persona is created when those in power (i.e.,

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48 oil industry, the Bush administration, the Saudi elite, etc.) use d the events of September 11 th to disguise their own economic interests in pursuing a war in the Middle East. An example of this would be the proposed oil pipeline in Af ghanistan and the contracts provided to American Corporations due to a war and the restructuring process afterwards. Moore presents himself as the Jungian archetype of the Wise Old Man providing the audience with knowledge, reflection, insight, wisdom, cl everness and intuition about the real reasons for the Iraq war. I want to point out that this is separate from his role as narrator. He himself appears in segments of the documentary challenging members of the U.S. Congress to enlist their own children in the American armed forces to fight in Iraq in order to bring to light the alleged moral hypocrisy of the proponents of this war. His narration is infused with witty and sarcastic remarks in order to highlight the discrepancies of the Bush administration st ance on the war in Iraq. By actively participating in his documentary, Moore inhabits the archetype of the Wise Old Man due to his apparent knowledge of the alleged deceptions of the Bush administration. He dug up information on the tactics employed by the Bush administration to consolidate power for the special interests of its members and thus became a moral guide to the people of America by presenting them with this information. The Jungian archetype of the Great Mother is represented by Lila Lipscom b, mother of Sgt. Michael Pedersen. At first, she is presented as a nurturing figure; she is a patriotic supporter of the war, encouraging her children to serve in the armed forces. Later on, it is revealed that one of her children, her son, has died in Ka rbala, Iraq, and she takes on the role of the devourer who pulled her children into the abyss because of her enthusiastic support for war she later admits to not truly have understood. Her transformation from war supporter to war protestor is caused by the death of her child.

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49 The Jungian archetype of the Trickster is represented by the Bush administration, notably Condoleezza Rice, Donald Rumsfeld, and Dick Cheney, among others. It is alleged in the documentary that the Bush administration created an atmo sphere of fear for the American people through the manipulation of the mass media. An example of this would be their claim that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction or that the U.S. was under a constant threat of terrorist attacks. Some of the policies ins tituted by the Bush administration to combat terrorism in the film were the government infiltration of pacifist groups and the expansion of government powers provided by the passing of the Patriot Act. The Bush administration allegedly used the 9/11 attack and the fear it caused to effectively create a climate of more fear where its special interests could be pursued without scrutiny. The Jungian archetype of the Hero starts off being represented by Al Gore, yet he is a failed hero. Despite being portrayed as a true winner of the 2000 presidential election, he conforms to a flawed system of bureaucracy. This act sets up the ascension to power of the Bush administration. It is revealed that the real heroes of this narrative are those enlisted in the U.S. mil itary, fighting in the war. Moore states that the American poor are always the first to enlist in that because of their sacrifice the least we as a country o we these people is a real reason to risk their lives. One of the people representing the hero would be Corporal Henderson, a soldier who has returned from the war in order to oppose it. The Jungian archetype of the Child is represented by the American pe ople Moore feels that Americans as a people need to grow up since they accepted without question unfounded allegations by the Bush administration that led to the war in Iraq. The film ends with the clear

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50 hope that Americans will mature to the point where they will never allow themselves to be deceived again. An Inconvenient Truth For the documentary An Inconvenient Truth the archetype of the Self is represented by the narrator in this case Al Gore. He guides us through the discussion of global warming and climate change throughout the film. Gore presents us with what he calls the status quo s version of reality and then contrasts it with the rebuttal of the scientific community. This, in effect, provides us with a new reality we must face when it comes to reducing carbon emissions to prevent global warming. The Jungian archetype of the Shadow is represented by global warming pollution and the established American political status quo that does not wish to acknowledge global warming as a problem. When cr itics of global warming theory are presented with the reality of climate change they discuss it as an unproven theory, as speculation. The Jungian archetype for the Persona is represented by the misconception that global warming is unproven. In the film, w hen the political status quo is presented by empirical scientific evidence in scientific journals that proves global warming to be a reality, its members use popular media outlets to dispute the facts. Gore told of a study that took a random sample of sci entific journal publications to find any that disagreed with global warming theory and found zero. When the same sample was taken for popular publication around 50 percent were found to disagree with global warming theory. In this way the status quo is sho wn to have maintained doubt about the validity of global warming theory. Roger Revelle. Professor Revelle a climate expert, was the first person to propose measuring carbon that the levels of carbon dioxide were rising

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51 almost exponentially and that global warming was a serious problem. He set Gore on a path that would culminate with his presentation of this issue in a slideshow ac ross the globe. The Great Mother archetype is obviously represented by the planet Earth. She provides for us but, as shown by events like Hurricane Katrina, she could also pull us down into the abyss w more natural disasters are occurring due to the changes we created. Like the archetype of Shadow, the archetype of the Trickster is represented by the established political status quo. The oil industry, automakers, and energy providers among others in p olitical and legislative positions are shown as responsible for trying to reposition global warming as a theory instead of a fact concerned with feeding the public doubt. An example of this would be Philip Cooney, who was formerly in charge of environment al policy for the White House under the Bush administration. When the Environmental Protection Agency published a report expounding on the dangers of global warming, Cooney shown as possessing no scientific authority, edited out passages that proclaimed gl obal warming a reality. When this came to light he was let go from his post at the White House and immediately began to work for the oil company Exxon Mobil. The Hero archetype is personified by Al Gore and his quest to spread the truth about global warm ing through a power point presentation one city at a time. Gore follows a heroic path, maturing when confronted by being exposed to the reality of global warming by his professor Roger Revelle, the death of his sister through lung cancer, and the near fata l car accident suffered by his son in the 19 view. According to the documentary he is denied his rightful place as President of the United States through circumstantial technicalities. This defeat strengthened his sense of purpose and

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52 thus he finally entered his role as the hero spreading his message of the realities of global warming across the world. Those who recognize the threat of global warming are also depicted as heroes. Among these are the countries who signed the Kyoto Protocol and the U.S. cities that support the Kyoto Protocol. The Jungian archetype of the Child is represented by the American people, the significance being that Americans as a people need to mature. Because of the amount o f the are said to have a greater responsibility to reduce carbon emissions in the atmosphere and thus reduce global warming. Gore states all that Americans need is the political will to stop legislation that p ermits global warming. He says that while the task might seem insurmountable, Americans have faced insurmountable problems before, from the founding of this country to helping fix the hole in the ozone layer. According to Gore it is up to Americans to use their political clout to solve this issue. This analysis has shown that both of these political documentaries have used, in one manner or another, all the Jungian archetypes discussed in the methodology section in order to establish a narrative platform f rom which to distribute information. Fahrenheit 9/11 attempted to persuade the American people not to re elect President Bush in the 2004 elections. An Inconvenient Truth follows former Vice President Al Gore while he presents his PowerPoint on the effect s of global warming on a city by city tour throughout the world. Both of these films have a political purpose. They aim to institute a change in the status quo. Both of these films are also considered works of art, winning several awards for achievement in documentary filmmaking. It must be explicitly stated that works of art, i.e., documentaries, are being used by special interest groups to promote agendas, and because they are being distributed as a

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53 commercial product these messages are not being dissecte d the way a political speech would or should be.

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54 CHAPTER 6 DISCUSSION The purpose of this study was to establish a link between political communication and artistic expression. The documentaries that were analyzed have been discussed as instruments for political lobbying, commercial successes, and artistic achievements in the field of documentary film making. It is through the use of artistic works like the political documentary that political ideas are now being expressed. The truth of the matter is th at I have found very little literature regarding the impact of art as a form of political communication. In my opinion this is a grave oversight by media scholars It will become obvious in the following discussion that we in the academic community can no longer overlook art as a form of mass media because art is how we as human beings keep records of our civilizations. Stories are how we educate our young; how we pass on the lessons we have learned from our parents and their parents before them and their p arents before them, etc. Stories are how information is distributed to us. Art has the ability to make messages understandable. It has the ability to make information easily distributed to the masses. One of the reasons for this is that it employs narrati ve tools such as Jungian archetypes that are common to the psyche of every person on the Guernica is a protest against suffering and needless loss of life regardless of your prior knowled ge of the context in make accessible to the elite as well as the members of the lowest social class, thereby promoting political statu s quo.

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55 For example, in order to air, a news story must have a hook, something to draw the husband murdered the wife because she was having an affair. As a people, w e humans can relate more to a murder with passion as a reason than just another unexplained killing. While most of us might have not experienced the narrative of that crime of passion first hand, it is through the stories we have learned since childhood th at we understand jealousy, that we understand anger, that we understand rage, and thus are more able to assimilate that story into the narrative framework of our everyday lives. Even the unexplained murder is more palatable if we look at it as evidence of a possible serial killer, thus assimilating the archetype of the Shadow and making it easier to understand. One thing that helps the efficient distribution of information through art is the fact that art is a consumption item. A painted mural may be photo graphed and the prints sold to those who can afford it; plays may be performed in community theatres across the globe with a good translation; music may be downloaded anywhere in the world due to the increasing availability of the Internet; novels and book s of poetry may be sold at your local bookstore conglomerate, which now means everywhere due to globalization. Art can be made available for mass consumption and thus the number of people who interpret the messages lying within is innumerable. For this s tudy I have established and detailed concrete documented examples of art as a form of political communication. I have done this in order to set up a context. It seems to be common knowledge that art is infused with political messages, however, again I must stress that there is very little academic research that has been conducted on this subject. I suppose I can

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56 the effects produced by art on individual people. H ow does one measure emotion, or artistic relationship between the individual and the object and since every individual is different there can be no universal val meter, exact in assonance, and efficient in its syntax may be forgettable, lacking the p assion, the cleverness, or the flavor, for lack of a better word, that gives it universal appeal. The age old This is why I had to turn to qualitative methods of analysis in order to attempt to gauge the level of impact that art has as a form of political communication. My greatest problem was that I could not find the text I needed to validate any further quantitative study. Perhaps it exists, but I was not able to find it. Therefore I face d the challenge of trying to establish a link between art and political communication. This is why I felt that establishing a documented historical context for this study was of paramount importance. In order to defend any further study I needed cert ifiable published evidence of art as political communication, and I feel that I found some worthy examples. Once these examples were established, I needed to show that what was true then is true now. In my research I found that since art is a way for human s to tell their story the messages within art must employ certain narrative tools in order to get their point across. Remember, Gerbner (1999) believed that storytelling was how we as human s learn. According to Morgan (2002): change information, store impressions, and change their behavior as a result of learning. But only humans communicate by the manipulation of complex symbol systems...Most of what we know, or think we know, we have never out things based on the stories we hear and the

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57 I compiled a list of common Jungian archetypes found in works of art throughout history and endeavored to establish that they were present in contemporary forms of art, in this case two recent and notably successful political documentaries, Fahrenheit 9/11 and An Inconvenient Truth Fahrenheit 9/11 attempted to persuade the American people not to reelect President Bush in the 2004 elections. This was helped by the fact that the docum entary was released before the 2004 elections. Bush and his administration were set up as the bad guys, or the Shadow archetype if you will, pursuing the special interests of the select few, sacrificing the general well being of the American people in a co stly war that was entered into without a valid reason. An Inconvenient Truth follows former Vice President Al Gore the Hero archetype, while he presents his PowerPoint on the effects of global warming on a city by city tour throughout the world. The movi e is designed to incite its primary audience, the American people, to use their political will to influence legislation that affects the amount of carbon emissions sent into the atmosphere. Both of these films have a political purpose. They aim to instit ute a change in the status quo. Both of these films are also considered works of art, winning several awards for achievement in documentary filmmaking. The importance of this cannot be ignored. As the world becomes more globalized and technology develops f urther, politicians and special interest groups are using political documentaries and the like in order to get their message across. For example, Fox News and CNN both produced separate documentaries on Vice Presidential candidate Sarah Palin that detailed the same information, yet produced two very different points of view. The truth is that the people who have the power to make the decisions in society have recognized the value of art as a form of political communication and are already employing it in or der to sway public opinion to their cause, whatever it may be.

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58 It is our responsibility to study the effects of art as a form of political communication. We cannot fool ourselves and say that art as a form of political communication has no effect simply b ecause said effects are not easily quantified. For example, global warming has become part of our contemporary political lexicon due in no small part to the attention garnered by the documentary An Inconvenient Truth This documentary helped spread the wor d, so to speak, to to consumers of mass media and not just specialized media. In terms of distribution of information, the same goes for Fahrenheit 9/11. T his documentary, while not effectively barring Bush from a second presidential term, had a part in turning public opinion against him. His approval ratings were the lowest of any president on record and the election between President Bush and Senator Kerry was one of the closest contested elections in U.S. history. While I am not establishing causation between this documentary and the negative public opinion of Bush, Fahrenheit 9/11 was a widely distributed show of political dissent against the established regime at a time of a divisive political climate in this country. We must remember the Parmalee described political communication as dependent on symbols. This suggests that our perception of reality is defined by the images, narratives, and symbols found in the art left behind by the civilizations of this world, those in the past as well as those that exist now. As I stated in the introduction, more and more artist s have become celebrities and have taken up political causes and have become spokespeople fo r the special interests groups that support these causes. People are becoming more involved with these causes; we have seen both a swell in the ranks of those who protest the war in Iraq as well as those who champion the reality of global warming. The link between art and political messages is more clearly defined than ever

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59 before, highlighted by the amount of information distributed and the growing number of people that line up behind certain political causes. The implications of this in the field of edu cation are important. Those who teach mass communications training need to be aware that information distributed through art is more easily assimilated by an audience. I have already stated that arts are overlooked in U.S. schools, being among the first su bjects removed from the curriculum when budget cuts become an issue, while they are integral parts of the curriculums of other countries. How are we to interact with other ng the communicative power of art is a mistake. Art creates an analytical relationship between the individual and the object, enabling the development of cognitive processes. Traditionally, in most cultures, children are taught about life, ethics, and mora lity among other things through stories in the form of fairy tales, fables, parables, you name it. We as a people are assimilated into culture through the acceptance of narrative techniques, such as Jungian archetypes, into our perception of reality. In c onclusion, there should be no stigma on art as a form of political communication. There is no unspoken rule that prevents messages found in art from being political. Politics shape our present experience. Therefore, it is important to see what political me ssages are being distributed, how they are being distributed, by whom they are being distributed, to whom they are being distributed, and what effects come from this, if any. It would be irresponsible for us in the field of mass communications to ignore th e communicative power of art. Art is shaped by the realities of the time in which it is created. It is an accurate record of what has transpired through the eyes of the individual. It is a perspective, a viewpoint; it is a message from those who create the work to their audience. Art exists because we as a people have something to say, a message

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60 to communicate to others. Also, art exists because we as a people wish to hear that message, a testament to our universal experience as human beings on this planet. It is a symbiotic relationship. It is the purest form of communication.

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61 LIST OF REFERENCES African American Registry. (2005 September 7 ). Louise Bennett, Miss Lou is a Jamaican icon Retrieved November 13, 2007, from http://www.aaregistry.com/african_american_history/1938/Louise_Bennett_Miss_Lou_is _a_Jamaican_Icon American poetry (2007). Retrieved November 13, 2007, from http://www.answers.com/topic/american poetry poem 5 Art (2008). Retrieved March 14, 2008, from http://dictionary.referenc e.com/ search?db=dictionary&q=art Art quotes. (2007) Retrieved March 14, 2008, from http://www.quotationspage.com/subjects/art/ Bahskar, R. ( 1993 ). Dialectic: The pulse of freedom New York: Ve rso. Coverly. Retrieved November 13, 2007, from http://www.jamaicans.com/culture/hallfame /jhofmisslou.shtml Barsam, R. M. (1976). The nonfiction film idea. In R. M. Barsam (Ed.), Nonfiction film theory and criticism (pp.13 18). New York: Dutton. Bennett, L. (1966). Jamaica labrish Best, A., Hanhimaki, J. M., Maiolo, J.A., & Schulze, K.E. (2004). International h istory of the twentieth c entury New York: Routledge. Biswas, D., Biswas, A., & Das, N. (2006). The differential effects of celebrity and expert endorsements on consumer risk perceptions: T he role of consumer knowledge, perceived congruency, and product technology orientation. Journal of Advertising, 35.2, 17 29. Benson, T. W. & Snee, B. J. (2008). New political documentary: rhetoric, propaganda, and the civic prospect. In T. W. Benson & B. J. Sn ee (Eds.), The rhetoric of the new political documentary (pp. 1 23). Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press. Books and Writers. (2007). Pablo Neruda. Retrieved on November 15, 2007, from http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/neruda.htm Braun, T. (Director) (2007). Darfur n ow [Motion picture ]. United States: Mandalay Independent Pictures. Burk e K. (1969). A grammar of motives Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. Champion, C.B. (2004). Cultural p London: Universi ty of California Press.

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62 Christensen, C. (2007, 2007 Annual Meeting). Political Documentaries, Grassroots Distribution and Online Organization: The Case of Brave New Films. Conference Papers : International Communication Association 1 22. Retrieved April 15, 2009, from Communication & Mass Media Complete database. Creswell, J.W. (2007). Qualitative i nquiry & r esearch d esign: Choosing among five approaches (Second Edition) Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage Publications Inc. Dawes G. (2003). Realism, surrealism, Cultural logic. Retrieved November 13, 2007, from http://clogic.eserver.org/2003/dawes.html Democracy Now. (2004, July 16 ). "The greatest poe t of the 20th century in any language" celebrating Chilean poet Pablo Neruda Retrieved November 13, 2007, from http://www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=04/07/16/1442233 Dun combe, S. (2007, October 29). Taking celebrity seriously. The Nation, 285.13, 22 24 Ealham, C. & Richards, M. (Eds.). (2005). The splintering of Spain: C ultural history and the Spanish civil war (1936 1939). New York: Cambridge University Press. Fame in the frame. (2007, January 6). New Scientist, 193.2585, 5. Fisher, W. (1999). Narrative as a human communication paradigm. In J. L. Lucaites, C. M. Condit, & S. Caudill (Eds.), Contemporary rhetorical theory: A reader (pp. 265 287). New York: Guilford Press. Gerbner, G. (1999). What do we know? In J. Shanahan & M. Morgan (Eds.), Television and its viewers: Cultivation theory and research (pp. ix xiii). New York: Cambridge University Press. Grierson, J. (1946). First principles of documentary (1932 1934). In R. M. Barsam (Ed.), Nonfiction film theory and criticism (pp.19 30). New York: Dutton. Guggenheim, D. (Director). (2006). An inconvenient truth [Motion picture]. United States: Lawrence Bender Productions Holman, B. & Snyder, M. (2007). Pabl o Neruda Retrieved November 13, 2007, from http://poetry.about.com/cs/20thcenturypoets/p/neruda.htm Izod, J. (2001) Myth, m ind and the s creen: Understanding the h eroes of our time. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

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64 Rosen, P. (1993). Document and documentary: On the persistence of historical c oncepts. In M. Renov (Ed.), Theorizing documentary (pp. 58 89). New York: Routledge. Spooner, M.H. (1994). Soldiers in a narrow land. Berkeley: University of California Press. Stahl, R. (2008). Vietnam flashbacks: Dueling memories of dissent in the 200 4 presidential election. In T. W. Benson & B. J. Snee (Eds.), The rhetoric of the new political documentary (pp. 78 104). Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press. Szymborska, W. (1998). Wislawa Szymborska: Poems new and collected. San Diego: Harcour t, Inc. Werneburg, B. & Phillips C. (Autumn, 1992). Ernest Junger and the transformed world. October, 62, 42 64. Young, B. (2004, March). The Campaign & The Handicam. News Photographer 59 (3), 20 22. Retrieved April 15, 2009, from Communication & Mass Media Complete database. Zald, M. N. (1998). The rhetoric of m oral protest: Public campaigns, celebrity endorsement, and political mobilization (review). The American Journal of Sociology, 103.4, 1096 1097.

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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH Ernesto Del Castillo was born in Lima, Peru. Around the time he was 3 years old, his family moved to the United States. As an undergraduate, Ernesto studied English Literature, specifically poetry. Ernesto graduated cum laude with a B achelor of Arts in E nglish from the University of Florida. He is also a member of both the Golden Key and Sigma Tau Delta English honor societies. He has maintained his academic performance in graduate school and is en route n with an M aster of Arts in Mass Communications specializing in International/Intercultural Communication.