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Hidden People, Hidden Identity

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024856/00001

Material Information

Title: Hidden People, Hidden Identity Socio-Cultural and Linguistic Change among Quechua Migrants in Lowland Bolivia
Physical Description: 1 online resource (180 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Martinez-A, Leo
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: andes, bolivia, culture, highlands, hybridity, identity, linguistics, lowlands, migration
Anthropology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Anthropology thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This research is about cultural and linguistic change among western Bolivian highland and valley peasants who have been migrating to the country?s eastern lowlands in the recent years, a very widespread phenomenon in developing economies of the Andean neo-tropics today. In particular, I want to know how Quechua-speaking people from the highlands and valleys adapt to lowland culture; which ethnic traits and linguistic resources they keep, and which ones they abandon; and which strategies they utilize to ease the process of adaptation. The results indicate that highland migrants who settled in the lowland community of Cuatro Can tildeadas (department of Santa Cruz) speak less Quechua among themselves, and especially with their children, although they assign great importance to the maintenance of this language. Four specific cultural practices that were selected as indicators of Quechua mode of life were measured and analyzed. The results indicate that there is a substantial reduction of these practices in the lowlands. Also, inter-ethnic marriage (highlanders seeking lowlanders), thought to be an important strategy of adaptation, was found to be a preference for a reduced proportion of both the single migrant population and the married population. Therefore, migrants in Cuatro Can tildeadas are reducing their traditional linguistic behavior and the practice of specific cultural traditions, but their alliance patterns are still somewhat conservative. In spite of this process of acculturation, the theoretical framework used in this research argues that highland migrants do not fully own Cuatro Can tildeadas: they are trapped between traditional, modern and globalizing codes, and just embrace the hybrid nature of their identities, which makes them speak and behave in certain ways depending on which ethnic identity they want to activate.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Leo Martinez-A.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Burns, Allan F.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024856:00001

Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024856/00001

Material Information

Title: Hidden People, Hidden Identity Socio-Cultural and Linguistic Change among Quechua Migrants in Lowland Bolivia
Physical Description: 1 online resource (180 p.)
Language: english
Creator: Martinez-A, Leo
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2009

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords: andes, bolivia, culture, highlands, hybridity, identity, linguistics, lowlands, migration
Anthropology -- Dissertations, Academic -- UF
Genre: Anthropology thesis, Ph.D.
bibliography   ( marcgt )
theses   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
born-digital   ( sobekcm )
Electronic Thesis or Dissertation

Notes

Abstract: This research is about cultural and linguistic change among western Bolivian highland and valley peasants who have been migrating to the country?s eastern lowlands in the recent years, a very widespread phenomenon in developing economies of the Andean neo-tropics today. In particular, I want to know how Quechua-speaking people from the highlands and valleys adapt to lowland culture; which ethnic traits and linguistic resources they keep, and which ones they abandon; and which strategies they utilize to ease the process of adaptation. The results indicate that highland migrants who settled in the lowland community of Cuatro Can tildeadas (department of Santa Cruz) speak less Quechua among themselves, and especially with their children, although they assign great importance to the maintenance of this language. Four specific cultural practices that were selected as indicators of Quechua mode of life were measured and analyzed. The results indicate that there is a substantial reduction of these practices in the lowlands. Also, inter-ethnic marriage (highlanders seeking lowlanders), thought to be an important strategy of adaptation, was found to be a preference for a reduced proportion of both the single migrant population and the married population. Therefore, migrants in Cuatro Can tildeadas are reducing their traditional linguistic behavior and the practice of specific cultural traditions, but their alliance patterns are still somewhat conservative. In spite of this process of acculturation, the theoretical framework used in this research argues that highland migrants do not fully own Cuatro Can tildeadas: they are trapped between traditional, modern and globalizing codes, and just embrace the hybrid nature of their identities, which makes them speak and behave in certain ways depending on which ethnic identity they want to activate.
General Note: In the series University of Florida Digital Collections.
General Note: Includes vita.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Source of Description: Description based on online resource; title from PDF title page.
Source of Description: This bibliographic record is available under the Creative Commons CC0 public domain dedication. The University of Florida Libraries, as creator of this bibliographic record, has waived all rights to it worldwide under copyright law, including all related and neighboring rights, to the extent allowed by law.
Statement of Responsibility: by Leo Martinez-A.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Florida, 2009.
Local: Adviser: Burns, Allan F.

Record Information

Source Institution: UFRGP
Rights Management: Applicable rights reserved.
Classification: lcc - LD1780 2009
System ID: UFE0024856:00001


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PAGE 7

Kharisiri Pachamama Utachtapi.

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kharisiri minka Pachamama utachtapi rutucha

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own

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Internal Migration in Developing Countries

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Adaptive Strategies, Emerging Identities

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Dissertation Outline

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Introduction

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Guiding Research Questions Selecting My Research Topic and the Fieldwork Sites ingani

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Sending Community, Receiving Community proxy sending community

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Participant Observation o bserving while participating

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San Lucas Cuatro Caadas

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Federacin Sindical de Colonizadores de Cuatro Caadas, Fieldnotes Federacin Sindical de Colonizadores de Cuatro Caadas

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Open Interviews and the Main Questionnaire San Lucas Cuatro Caadas.

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Archival Research

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My Personal Migratory History and the Meaning of Doing Native Anthropology

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owning appropriating owned to own to own it

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belongs and home

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insiderness outsiderness

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native t eres un gringo enviado por la CIA Qu cosa sers pues, medio gringo pareces porque Boliviano no eres

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Cubano eres, qu vas a ser Boliviano vos!

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Migration, Colonies, Indigenous Languages and Identity The Construction of a National Project

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Language and Identity in Colonization Areas of Santa Cruz

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San Lucas: A Quechua Community in the Central Valleys of Chuquisaca General Information

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pers. comm. Consejo de Ayllus de San Lucas ayllus Consejo de Ayllus Political Organization ayllus

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, pers. comm. ayllus menores Consejo de Ayllus de San Lucas Consejo Federacin Sindical de Trabajadores Campesinos de San Lucas terratenientes ex-haciendas originarias, cargos

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Junta Escolar cargos Cacique Mayor Cacique Curaca Alcalde Mayor Curaca Alcalde Menor Alcalde Mayor Caminero Sindicato Junta Escolar cargos Sindicato Junta Escolar pasar cargo Pasar cargo Federacin Si ndical de Trabajadores Campesinos de Bolivia

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Migration per. comm

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La gente bien se ha ido y ahora el pueblo se est llenando de indios qu le vamos a hacer. Cuatro Caadas: A Frontier Settlement in the Lowlands of Santa Cruz Location, Natural Resources, Economics.

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campesino

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saneamiento cruceo

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Population Characteristics comunidades de colonos

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Comunidades de Colonos or Andean migrants. marcha hacia el Oriente comunidades de colonos Centrales de Productores Federacin Sindical de Comunidades de Productores de Cuatro Caadas

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Mennonite Colonies. pers. comm

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buggies buggy Ayoreo indigenous communities.

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Brazilians. colono

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Language, Cultural Change and Upper Mobility

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Language and Ethnicity in the Andean World

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only Quechua and Aymara and Their Linguistic Families: Linguistic and Political Contacts

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Quechuamarn

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Amazonian Languages and Cultures

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Central Indgena del Oriente Boliviano, The Politics of Language in a Multilingual Society. oppressed langu ages

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oppressed languages

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campesinizacin del indio

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Radio -Escuelas

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Radio -Escuelas El Cambio, Radio Escuelas The Andean World and Its Intrinsic Links to the Lowlands: Past and Present

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lo andino

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Andean Mode of Migration

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ayni minka compadrazgo

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Lowland Societies, Lowland Culture

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Internal Migration in Developing Countries

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Some Drivers Behind Internal Migration

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Different Actors, Different Strategies

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Migration As a Sign of Prestige

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Some Migration Theory Instruments: Assimilation, Acculturation, Ethnic Retention, Transnationalism, and Globalization acculturation assimilation

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ethnic retention

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global production of localities

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Transnational and Global Influences in the Study of Internal Migration in Bolivia and the Fallacy of Fixed Places and Fixed Identities Valle Alto Valle Alto

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huayno

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i deas Negotiating Ethnicity, Negotiating Identity

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decide lumped together

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Arriving in San Lucas: The First Stage of My Fieldwork camargueos Casa de Huspedes de doa Celedonia Observing and Documenting Bilingualism and Code -Switching in San Lucas Punto ENTEL, Punto ENTEL

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Puntos ENTEL, Punto ENTEL Punto ENTEL encargados Punto ENTEL Punto ENTEL

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Hospital de San Lucas Seguro Universal Materno Infantil or SUMI,

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Bolivia: Pas Libre de Analfabetismo

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How Quechua is P erceived by Speakers of the L anguage Quechuistas cerrados,

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Quechuaol Quechuaol Quechuaol

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Language Use Within the School System Mara gramtica quechuizada, Estados Unidos y los gringos

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Mi Patria Boliviana,

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pers. comm.

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Visiting Some Communities in San Lucas

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Quechuistas cerrados

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corregidoras

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Arriving in Cuatro Ca adas

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Altiplano Collas in the Land of Cambas: Several Dimensions of this Peculiar Encounter

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Co llasuyo Tahuantinsuyo Some Historical and Current Events to Understand the Differences

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Plaza de Armas Plaza de Armas

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a la Plaza no entran collas

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Understanding the Differences whites, also Cambas are also us, those with political and economic power, not only rural lowlanders; therefore we have nothing to do with collas, especially if they come from the countryside.

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Maintenance or Abandonment of Ethnic Traits: So, Are You Colla or Camba?

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Linguistic Change in Cuatro Caadas Some Fundamental Indicators of Language Use

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qu burro el colla ste

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Defining Identity Through Language cruceo

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tierra camba hablar como camba Cultural Change in Cuatro Caadas Kharisiri, Minka, Pachamama, Utachtapi kharisiri minka Kharisiri, Minka, Pachamama, Utachtapi

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Pachamama Kharisiri kharisiri akaq pishtaco kharisiri kha risiri.

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kharisiri kharisiri kharisiri kharisiri kharisiri Minka. ayni faena mink a

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minka minka minka kharisiri minka minka minka minka minka

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minka minka pasar cargo, minka minka Pachamama Madre Tierra, Pachamama challar Pachamama Para que la Pachamama produzca bien, Pachamama

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para que la Pachamama nos protega, Pachamama challa Pachamama challar Pachamama Pachamama Pachamama in Pachamama Pachamama

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Pachamama Pachamama Utachtapi. utachtapi Min ka utachtapi

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utachtapi utachtapi minka Index of Cultural Practices

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Highlands Sum Lowlands Sum Additional Ethnic Indicators rutucha

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rutucha Type of roof in the sending community and in Cuatro Caadas utachtapi motac motac Motac Motac

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Rutucha to children Rutucha rutucha rutucha rutucha rutucha

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Inter -Ethnic Marriages: Acculturation, Upper Mobility or Just Love?

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colla, because I like their way of being colla, because we are the same colla, because we have the same customs I dont want to be judgmental, but not camba for sure camba, because they are sexier and kinder widower: I would like to marry a camba this time

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Self -Identification Labels, Rejection, and the Process of Identity Construction campesino/a, colla, indio, agricultor, Quechua, camba, colono/colonizador, mestizo, other

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cholo/a Uses and Meanings of the Word Mestizo/a white white

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cholo criollos Uses and Meanings of the Word Indio/a indio campesino indgenas indios

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De indio a campesino campesinizacin Partido Indio de Bolivia Sindicatos campesinos Reunin Anual de Etnografa (RAE)

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Indio Nosotros los indios de Bolivia deberamos Indios El Manifiesto Indio Indianindigenous indigenous

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Movimiento Al Socialismo, MAS Uses and Meanings of the Word Cholo/a cholification

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cholo intelectual cholos Cholo Indio Indio holo India chola Indio cholo Indio/a cholo/a

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mestiza mestizo mestizarse las mujeres son ms indias Indianness

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chola esa chola vende fl ores yo soy una chola que trabaja en el mercado Las cholas del mercado Camacho venden todo caro Gustavo tiene su chola

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Yo no soy chola de nadie cholita Cholita Pacea

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Labels of Self -Identification

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comerciante guaraya vecino Insulting Wor ds

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guarayos

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The Impact of Migration on Language Use, Cultural Prac tices and Marriage P atterns

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Linguistic B ehavior colla O, no ses colla, pu! colla Y vos no seas guarayo pu! guarayo

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Maintenance of Ethnic Traits kharisiri, minka, Pachamama, utachtapi.

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Pachamama Pachamama kharisiri utachtapi minka Pachamama kharisiri, utachtapi, minka kharisiri

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kharisiri kharisiri kharisiri maleantes kharisiri utachtapi minka minka minka utachtapi cargos

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Inter -Ethnic M arriages

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Redefining Ethnic Identity in Areas of Rapid Growth and Cultural C ontact

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hybridity Contributions to the D iscipline of A nthropology to own it

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own

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Contributions to Andean Studies pasar cargo minka p asar cargo

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Contributions to Migrant Communities and Development Practitioners

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cruceo Some Recommended Paths for Future Academic W ork

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mitmaqkuna mitmaqkuna

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Main Questionnaire For Quechua Colonizers Who Live in the Municipality of Cuatro Caadas, Department of Santa Cruz 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. watanaki sirvan akuy

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12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

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22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. kharisiri 31. minka faena 32. Pachamama 33. utachtapi 34.

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35. 36. rutucha 37.

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In In : In In

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